Haiti

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Haiti country environmental profile : a field study
Physical Description:
xii, 120 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ehrlich, Marko
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean. -- Office of Development Resources
USAID/Haiti
Publisher:
USAID
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental policy -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Environmental protection -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 110-114).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marko Ehrlich ... et al..
General Note:
"Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), Office of Development Resources (DR), and the USAID Mission to Haiti."--p.iii.
General Note:
"USAID contract, USAID--Ehrlich no. 521-0122-C-00-4090-00."
General Note:
"Cooperative agreement, USAID--IIED No. DAN-5517-A-00-2066-00."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 144684303
System ID:
AA00001399:00001

Full Text
HAITI
Country Environmental Profile
A Field Study
BY
Marko Ehrlich Fred Conway Nicolas Adrien Francis LeBeau Lawrence Lewis Herman Lauwerysen Ira Lowenthal Yaro Mayda Paul Paryski Glenn Smucker James Talbot Evelyn Wilcox
USAID CONTRACT USAID Ehrlich No. 521-0122-C-00-4090-00
Cooperative Agreement USAID IIED No. DAN-5517-A-00-2066-00


Preface
This Country Environmental Profile (CEP) of Haiti is one of a series of environmental profiles funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), Office of Development Resources (DR), and the USAID Mission to Haiti. The scope of work for this in-country field study was developed jointly by James Talbot, USAID Regional Environmental Management Specialist (REMS/CAR) and Robert Wilson, Assistant Agricultural Development Officer, USAID Mission to Haiti.
Marko Ehrlich was contracted as the team leader and specialists were contracted through the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) to prepare sector reports during January 1985. Marko Ehrlich prepared the first draft of this synthesis and analysis of status of environment and natural resources in Haiti. James Talbot and Evelyn Wilcox prepared the final draft.
Paul Paryski Evelyn Wilcox
Wildlands and Wildlife, ISPAN, Port-au-Prince Marine and Coastal Resources, Washington, D.C.
CEP TEAM Marko Ehrlich
Frederick Conway Nicolas Adrien Francis LeBeau Lawrence Lewis
Herman Lauwerysen Yaro Mayda
Team Leader, Natural Resources, B.P. 557, Port-au-Prince Coordinator for IIED, Washington, D.C. Engineer,
Maplewood, New Jersey Agriculture,
Crystal Springs, Mississippi Geology and Hydrology, Clark University, Worcester Massachusetts Socio-cultural Resources, Bruxelles, Belgium Institutions and Legislation, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This CEP was made possible by the contributions of numerous people in addition to the core field team. Throughout the editing process many individuals reviewed and contributed significant components to improve this study. James Talbot (Geology, Marine/ Coastal), Glenn Smucker (Chapter VII), and Ira Lo-wenthal (Chapter VII) deserve special acknowledgement because their input was essential in strengthening specific sections of this report. Within the USAID Mission to Haiti, Ira Lowenthal, Richard Byess, Abdul Wahab and Barry Burnett provided constructive cri-tisme to the Executive Summary.
Special thanks is extended to the numerious Haitian government officials who have contributed information and valuaKe data and materials for the preparation of this report, especially M.R. Pierre-Louis, M. E. Magny, M. Severin, M.G. Lafontant of the Ministry of Agriculture, M.G. Georges of the Ministry of Mines/Energy Resources, M. Pamphile of the Ministry of Health, and M. St. Albin and Mme. Pompilus of the Ministry of Plan. Representatives of the many international organisations such as FAO, UNICEF, PAHO, UNESCO, BID, FAC and PADF also contributed information and data and their contributions are hereby acknowledged.
Finally, this study could not have been made possible without the effort of a cadre of typists during the various drafts, including Carole Metayer, Michelle Cleophat, and Sophia St. Remy. Franz Kalil and Larry Fahey prepared the maps and figures contained in the report.
Ill


This Profile Is Dedicated To The Haitian People
Nou nan yon ti bouk pa trd Iwen Pdtoprens. Bouk sa-a rele Fonrouj. Li gen yon problem ki gro anpil: pa gen dlo. Pa gen dlo menm menm. Plant ap mouri, bet ap mouri. Yon jou se moun ki ka mouri tou. Depi lontan lontan lapli pa tonbe. Tout bagay sek, tout bagay tris.
Petet se paske yo te koupe tout piebwa yo, men sa ou vie? Yo te bezwen bwa-a pou fe chabon, pou fe kay, lantiray, meb. Epi yo te bezwen te-a tou pou plante mayi, pou plante pwa, pou yo jwenn manje. Si yo pa travay te-a, yo pap manje.
"Mdt Latouz6", Jacques Roumain (1907 1944)
TRANSLATION FROM THE CREOLE:
We are in a smal'. iown not too far from Port-au-Prince. This town is called Fond-Rouge. It has a very big problem: There's no water, none at all. Plants and animals are dying: some day, people will die too. It hasn't rained for a long time. Everything is dry, everything is sad.
Maybe it's because they cut all the trees; but what do you want? They needed the wood to make charcoal, to build houses and fences, to make furniture. And then, they needed the land to plant corn and beans, so they can have food. If they don't work the land, they won't eat. "MastersoftheDew", Jacques Roumain (1907-1944).
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface.....................................................HI
Table of Contents................................................V
List of figures.............................................VIII
List of tables...............................................IX
List of acronyms and abbreviations...................................XI
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.......................................... 1
II. INTRODUCTION..............................................13
A. Geology and Physiography .....................................13
B. Climate................................................16
C. Economy / Economic Development.................................17
III. LAND, WATER, AND FOREST RESOURCES
A. Introduction.............................................19
B. The land resource..........................................19
C. The water resource..........................................20
Surface water...........................................20
Ground water ..........................................21
Availability of water for agriculture...............................22
Irrigation.............................................23
Watersheds............................................24
Watershed management.....................................26
D. The forest resource .........................................27
Life zones ............................................28
Trends .............................................. 28
Prospects.............................................30
E. Conclusions and recommendations .................................31
1. Initiate land conservation strategies..............................31
2. Focus on Cayes Basin region.................................32
3. Incorporate local participation in land-use projects ....................32
IV. AGRICULTURE
A. Introduction.............................................35
B. Agricultural uses of the land.....................................35
V


C. Climate................................................39
D. The structure of the agricultural sector...............................41
E. Agricultural perspective on land tenure...............................44
F. Production..............................................45
Technology and productivity...................................49
Research.............................................51
Use of agriculture inputs............. .......................53
G. Conclusions and recommendations .................................55
V. COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES
A. Introduction.............................................57
B. Coastal resources................... .......................57
Seagrass beds........................................... 57
Coral reefs............................................ 57
Mangroves............................................ 60
Coastal waters.......................................... 60
C. Summary description of coastal areas................................ 61
Fort-Libert6 to Mdle Saint-Nicolas ...............................61
Mdle Saint-Nicolas to Gonaives.................................61
Gonaives to Baie de Saint-Marc.................................62
Baie de Saint-Marc to He a Cabri................................62
He a Cabri to Leogane......................................62
Leogane to Jerimie .......................................62
Baraderes to Les Cayemites...................................63
Jermie to Cap Tiburon.....................................63
Cap Tiburon to Port-Salut....................................63
Port-Salut to Baie d'Aquin....................................63
Baie d'Aquin to Anse-a-Pitre..................................63
La Gonave............................................63
D. Uses of coastal areas.........................................64
Marine and coastal fisheries...................................64
Demersal species.........................................64
Shellfish species .........................................64
Pelagic species..........................................65
Ornamental reef fish.......................................65
Characteristics of fishing industry................................65
Mariculture............................................68
Conch cultivation.........................................68
Shrimp farming..........................................69
Brine shrimp harvesting.....................................69
Oyster culture ..........................................69
Seaweed culture.........................................69
King crab culture.........................................69
Fresh water fisheries.......................................69
Aquaculture ...........................................70
Exotic species introduction....................................71
Seaports and coastal trade....................................71
E. Endangered species and critical habitat...............................72
F. Conclusions and recommendations..................................73
'I. WILDLANDS CONSERVATION
A. Introduction.............................................77
B. Flora of Haiti.............................................78
C. Fauna of Haiti........................................." r 79
Birds...............................................79
Mammals.............................................81
Reptiles..............................................81
D. Threats to wildlife.........................................82
E. Wildlife trade.............................................84
VI


F. National parks........................................... 84
La Visite National Park.................................... 84
Pic Macaya National Park................................... 85
National historic park La Citadelle .............................. 85
G. GOH protection of wildlife.................................... 85
H. Conclusions and recommendations ................................ 86
VII. THE PEASANTRY AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
A. Introduction............................................ 89
B. From slave to peasant....................................... 89
C. Characteristics of the peasant farming system........................... 90
Heterogeneity of the peasantry ................................ 90
Complex land tenure pattern.................................. 91
Diversity of farming strategies................................. 91
Peasant access to land, labor and capital ........................... 91
1 Market/Cash Orientation............................. 92
^ Increasing importance of annual crops............................. 93
Avoidance of risk ....................................... 93
Charcoal production and fuelwood consumption ....................... 93
Peasants, trees and agroforestry................................ 83
D. Relevant literature......................................... 96
VIII. WATER RESOURCES/SANITATION/AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
A. Introduction............................................ 97
B. Urban and Rural population trends................................ 98
C. Water resources.......................................... 100
Water supply.......................................... 100
Water quality.......................................... 100
Existing water supply system.................................. 101
Water supply trends and prospects............................... 103
D. Sanitation ............................................. 105
Human waste and the division of public hygiene....................... 105
E. Solid waste disposal........................................ 106
F. Stormwater drainage........................................ 107
G. Pollution.............................................. 108
H. Conclusion and recommendation ................................. 109
IX. REFERENCES......................................... HO
X. APPENDICES
A. Crop suitability zoning....................................... 115
B. Environmental legislation for Haiti ................................ 117
C. Partial list of maps, aerial photographs, and Landsat imagery for Haiti............. 120
VII


LIST OF FIGURES
I- l Geopolitical map............................................. 2
II- l General physiographic regions...................................... 14
H-2 Generalized geologic map from OAS, 1972................................ 15
III- l General rainfall pattern based on four selected localities......................... 22
HI-2 Water availability as a function of vegetative cover and river discharge.................. 24
III-3 Aerial photograph taken in 1978 showing terrigenous sediment input to the marine environment
from Riviere Roseau near Jgremie.................................... 25
III-4 River flow regime in relation to infiltration and through-flow....................... 26
III-5 Remaining forest of Haiti: pine and broadleaf formations aggregated................... 29
III-6 Deforestation trends in major watersheds................................. 30
III- 7 Building contour dry-walls to control erosion and retain moisture on hillsides............... 33
IV- 1 MapofagriculturalIygoodlands.................................... 38
IV-2 Size distribution of cultivated holdings.................................. 42
IV-3 Trend in contribution to GDP and export value by agriculture...................... 45
IV-4 Agricultural production: total versus per capita............................. 46
IV-5 Trends in total production of food.................................... 46
IV-6 Trends in production of major commodities............................... 47
IV-7 Trend in yield of principal crops..................................... 47
IV- 8 Trends in livestock production...................................... 50
V- l Coastal resources map with key..................................... 58
V- 2 Small sailboats carry much of the intercoastal freight such as charcoal................... 72
VI- 1 Line drawing of Solenodon paradoxus (nez long), an endangered mammal in Haiti........... 78
VI-2 Line drawing of Plagiodontia aedium (zagouti), an endangered mammal in Haiti............. 82
VI- 3 A rare photograph of the black-capped petrel, an endangered bird in Haiti that nests on cliff faces in
the two national parks.......................................... 81
VIM Peasants going to town......................................... 92
VII- 2 Peasants gathering firewood in the northwest.............................. 94
VII- 3 Peasant families are self-reliant units................................... 95
VIIM Population trends............................................ 99
VIII- 2 Water supply plan............................................ 99
VIII-3 Refuse disposal and sanitation are problematic in poor urban neighborhoods..............101
VIII


LIST OF TABLES
III-l Principal catchment areas of Haiti.....................................20
III-2 Hydroelectric potential of Haiti......................................21
III-3 Groundwater potentials for 22 selected areas...............................22
III-4 Monthly moisture availability index for selected stations..........................23
III-5 Irrigation needs based on MAI index...................................23
III-6 River discharges.............................................27
III-7 Forest cover by major watersheds.....................................28
III- 8 Estimated number-year dense and open forest is totally removed for each river basin...........31
IV- 1 Distribution of land by use potential....................................36
IV-2 Agricultural land use in Haiti.......................................37
IV-3 Distribution of good agricultural lands...................................37
IV-4 Criteria used to determine good agricultural lands............................39
IV-5 Occupation of land by use categories...................................40
IV-6 Occupation of land in relation to topography................................41
IV-7 Number of plots per farm and size of plots.................................42
IV-8 Summary statistics on agricultural holdings. 1971..............................43
IV-9 Haiti: Total area, cultivated area and population density, 1982 ...................... 43
IV-10 Land tenure in 1950............................................ 44
IV-11 Land tenure in 1970............................................ 44
IV-12 Production, area and yields of principal crops by regions in 1979 ...................... 48
IV-13 The value of production of certain agricultural commodities for 1979................... 49
IV-14 Distribution of Agricultural tools by farm size .............................50
IV-15 Constraints to agricultural development in Haiti: a tentative ranking..................51
IV-16 Actual crop yields with traditional practices and expected crop yields with irrigation......51
and appropriate technology (Dubreuil).................................52
IV- 17 Adoption of improved technology by farmers...............................53
V- l List of major mangrove swamps in Haiti.................................59
V-2 Extracts of the November 27,1978 fishing law of Haiti..........................60
V-3 Estimate of total fish consumption in Haiti...............................64
V-4 Estimate of fisheries productivity.....................................64
V-5 Haiti's trade in marine fisheries.....................................64
V-6 Export in kilograms, in % of shell fish...................................65
V-7 Haiti Fisheries exports to the United States................................66
V-8 Anse d'Hainault: Results of fishing by 7 boats..............................67
V-9 Fish prices in June 1983 .......................................... 68
V-10 Native fish fauna of Etang Saumatre....................................70


V-11 Dist ribution of fish; construction of ponds; stocking of ponds; lakes and rivers...............70
V- 12 Exotic fish................................................71
VI- 1 List of plant species in danger of disappearance and in need of protection.................79
VI-2 Endemic land birds found in Haiti.....................................80
VI-3 List of animals in danger of disappearance and in need of protection....................83
VIII-1 Population estimates and projections....................................98
VIII-2 Some reported cases of water-related diseases in 1980.......................... 100
VIII-3 Summary of existing and proposed water supply systems........................102
X


List of Acronyms and Abreviations
AOP Agroforestry Outreach Project (USAID).
ASSA Agricultural Services, S. A.
BCA Bureau de Credit Agricole
BID Banque Interamericainc dc Devcloppcmcnt
CAMEP Centrale Autonome Metropolitaine d'Eau Potable.
CARE Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere.
CEP Country Environmental Profile (Haiti).
CEPAL Comision Economica para America Latina.
cm Centimeters
cm/hr Centimeters per hour.
CIDA Canadian Agency for Inernational Development
CONADE Conseil National del'Eau.
CONADEP Conseil National de Developpement et de Planification.
CONAELE Conseil National de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre I'Erosion.
CRDA Center for Research and Agricultural Documentation
CIMMYT Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maize y de Trigo.
DATPE Direction d'AmenagementduTerritoireet Protection de l'Environnement (Ministry of Plan).
DEP Ddpartement d'Education Publique (Ministry of Education)
DHP Direction de I'Hygiene Publique.
DRI Ddveloppement Rural Integre"
DRN Direction des Ressources Naturelles (M ARNDR)
DSPP Departement de la Sant6 Publique et de la Population
EDH Electricite d'Haiti
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
ENAOL Entreprise Nationale des Oleagineux.
FAC Fonds d'Aide et de Cooperation (France)
FAMV Faculty d'Agronomic et de Mddecine Vet6rinaire.
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
FSR Farming Systems Research
FY Fiscal Year
PIB Produit Intgrieur Brut
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GJW G.J. White (Engineering Firm)
GOH Government of Haiti
ha Hectares (2.47 acres)
HACHO Haitian American Community Help Organization
HaMPCO Haitian American Meat and Produce Company.
HASCO Haitian American Sugar Company
HA VITAS Swiss International Cooperation Agency
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Bank
IDB Interamerican Development Bank
IICA Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura
IHS InstitutHaitien deStatistiques &d'Informatique.
IMF International Monetary Fund.
INAHCA Institut National Haitien de la Culture et des Arts.
INAREM Institut National des Ressources Energdtiques et des Mines
ISPAN Institut de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National.
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Nautural Resources
KFW Agency for International Cooperation (Federal Republic of Germany)
km Kilometers
km2 Square kilometers
XI


LGL Lalonde, Girouard, Letendre & Associates (Montreal)
l/sec Liters per second
MARNDR Ministere de 1'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles, et du Developpement Rural.
masl Meters above sea level
mc Cubic mete: >
mc/sec Cubic meters per second
mm Millimeters
m/min Meters per minute
MEN Ministere de l'Education Nationale.
MMRE Ministere des Mines et des Ressources Energtiques
MSL Marine Systems Laboratory (Smithsonian)
MSPP Ministere de la Santi Publique et de la Population (formerly DSPP)
MT Metric ton
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.A.)
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.A.)
NRC National Research Council (U.S.A.)
OAS Organization of American States
ODBFA Organisme de Developpement du Bassin versant du Fleuve de l'Artibonite
ODH Operation Double Harvest
ODNO Organisme de Developpement de la Plainede Gonaives
ODNO Organisme de Developpement du Nord-Ouest.
ODVA Organisme de Developpement de la Valine de l'Artibonite
ONL Office National du Logement
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
PADF Pan American Development Foundation
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PAP Port-au-Prince
PDAI Projet de Developpement Agricole Integre' (USAID)
PEN Section de Protection de l'Environnement (part of DRN)
PLAN Ministere du Plan
POCHEP Postes Communitaires d'Hygiene et d'Eau Potable
PROTOS Project Technische Ontribtilelings Somerverling Development (Belgium)
PVO Private Voluntary Organization
SEP Service de Protection de l'Environnement (MARNDR)
SERA Service d'Etude et de Recherche Agronomique (MARNDR)
SHADA Societg Haitiano-Am^ricaine de Developpement Agricole
SMCRS Service Mtropo!itain de Collecte des Residus Solides
SNEM Service National des Enddmies Majeures
SNEP Service National d'Eau Potable
SPV Service de Protection Veg&ale (MARNDR)
TPTC Ministere des Travaux Publics, Transport, et Communications
UEH Universited'Etatd'Haiti
UMO University of Maine-Orono
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNICEF United Nations Children's Educational Fund
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USOM United States Overseas Mission (former U.S. Development Assistance Organization
VPI Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
WFP World Food Program
WHO World Health Organization
WWF World Wildlife Fund
YR Year
* Since the change in government in February l'J86. several reorganizations of OOH agencies liavc taken place. It is not possible to mention all of these changes because many are in progress at the moment. Once the provisional government is replaced by an elected one, a more comprehensive listing of GOH reorganization can be accomplished.
XII


I
Executive Summary
INTRODUCTION
Few countries in the world face a more serious threat to their own survival from environmental catastrophe than Haiti. Ovcrpopulatcd, its resources are overex-ploited and trends towards further environmental deterioration are apparent everywhere. The chance for reversing these trends, thereby preventing human suffering, destabilization of the country, and the further loss of development potential is diminishing daily. Much needs to be done, and quickly.
The field study for the country environmental profile of Haiti (HCEP), financed by USAID/Haiti was carried out during the first three weeks of 1985 by a team of six specialists. The purpose of the Haiti Profile is to present in one document information, data and analyses on the country's natural resource base, and highlight environmental problems and trends. Included in the report are syntheses of the relative state of (he country's natural resource base, the institutional and legal aspects of environmental issues, and the so-cio-cultural background of the country as it affects the present state of its physical environment. Not all aspects relating to the state of the environment, such as public health, demography and energy were covered in detail due to time restrictions. A comprehensive institutional and legal sector analysis was also not possible. These may be covered in future additions to this document.
GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE
The country of Haiti is located in the mountainous western third of the island of Hispaniola, bordered on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Caribbean Sea and to the east by the Dominican
Republic (DR). Its closest neighbors are Cuba and Jamaica, the United States and the DR. (Figure 1-1).
Haiti's position in the tropics and its mountainous terrain have created extreme weather conditions and temperature regimes which vary greatly with altitude. Rainfall patterns range from less than 300 mm in the northwest to more than 3,000 mm in the mountains of the southwest. Tropical storms, hurricanes, droughts and floods are not infrequent.
One of the larger of the Caribbean nations, Haiti has 27,000 km2 of land area including four large offshore islands: La Gonave (680 km2), La Tortue (180 r km2); He a Vache (52 km2) and Grand Cayemite (45 km2): as well as numerous smaller islands and cays.
Haiti is a mountainous country with very few plains. Two ranges, the Massif de la Hotte and the Massif de la Selle, including Pic la Selle, the country's highest peak at 2,684 meters above sea level, run in a west to east direction along the southern part of Haiti. The Massif Central gives rise to the Central Plateau with smaller mountains ("mornes") extending towards the north, south of Cap Haitien and west, along the northwestern peninsula. Approximately 63% of all lands have slopes greater than 20%, and only 29% have slopes of less than 10%.
GEOLOGY
It has been suggested that the island of Hispaniola was created by the uplifting of three major land masses and their subsequent collision over geologic time. These land masses were formed from oceanic crust, uplifted and influenced by sea level changes. Most marine terraces were exposed during the Pleistocene era. There have been no major sea level changes in
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MOLE ST.-NICOLA
PREPARED BY WILCOX ASSOCIATES


the last 1(),(K)() years. In Haiti exposed rock formations are of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary origin. The latter formations are the n >st abundant (80%) and are represented by limestone deposits from the middle and upper Eocene era. Where limestone formations occur, soils are relatively more fertile than those derived from rock of igneous origin which, like the soils found in the northern part of the country, are heavily weathered. Alluvial soils deposited by rivers are the most fertile and are found on the major coastal plains of Haiti and in pockets along mountain valleys.
The geologic history of Hispaniola, characterized by repeated changes in sea level, has given rise to significant local endemism (speciation unique to the area) of plant and animal species. Although species extinctions from habitat destruction have been numerous, a great number of endemic plants and a few endemic animals still remain.
HYDROLOGY
Dissected by numerous mountain ridges and flowing across two relatively narrow peninsulas, Haiti's rivers are mostly short and swift flowing. The notable exception is the Artibonite River which originates along the border with the Dominican Republic and flows for approximately 290 km. It is not surprising, therefore, to find along this river the country's major hydroelectric power generating facility (Peligre) and, on its delta, the country's major rice producing area.
Surface water is used for domestk purposes by the great majority of the people in Haiti. It also flows directly into a great number of small and large irrigation systems. In fact, four large irrigated plains constitute the country's most important agricultural areas: the Plaine du Nord, Fort-Liberte area, in the North, the lower Artibonite and Estere valleys in the center, the Cul de Sac plain in the south and the Les Cayes plain in the southwest.
Yet, the evidence is mounting that the quantity of surface waters available for irrigation is decreasing each year due to the relationship between vegetation cover and river discharge. Baseflows, which represent the water available for irrigation when storage is limited, are diminishing significantly due to continuous deforestration and loss of' ater retention capacity in the rivers' upper watershe s.
Tiv,e second most irr^ortant source of water is groundwater which aire Jy contributes significantly to the irrig^.i^.i sj-*"^ the Cul de Sac region. Since limestone substrate underlies nearly 80% of the nation, groundwater reserves could become the principal source of fresh water in the country in the future. This important source of water has not been mapped nor is being utilised to complement surface water and increase agriculture production through irrigation.
Both groundwater and usable surface water depend upon the capacity of watershed areas to store water and ib.p.n to gradually release it into the river system and recharge the water table. The significant development potential of irrigated plains in Haiti calls for immediate action to be taken in an effort to protect and to restore the vegetative cover, and, thus, the water retention capacity of the country's major watershed areas.
LAND USE
In Haiti, not only is the most arable land already being utilized, but the total area under some form of agricultural production (more than 1,300,000 ha) is six times greater then the estimated area of good agricultural land.
About one third of all lands are either extremely eroded, abandoned for farming, or saline and practically sterile, due to inappropriate land use practices including farming, grazing and tree cutting. The country's marginal lands are mostly found on mountain slopes. Every year cultivation of annual food crops forces other crops and grazing lands higher up the mountain and every year the steepness of the cultivated plots increases. The end result of indiscriminate tree cutting and intensification of cultivation is tremendous soil erosion. Each year the equivalent of 6,000 ha of valuable arable land are lost to erosion. Over the past forty years, estimates of remaining "good" arable land in Haiti show a consistent decline of as much as 3% per year.
Only 11.3% of the total land area of the country consists of good soils with possibilities for irrigation, mechanized cultivation and high yield potential. Much of the 31.7% of the land having good soil, but no potential irrigation is found on steep slopes subject to severe erosion. These lands are best suited for permanent tree crops such as coffee and managed pasture-land. The extensive reduction of forest cover and widespread cultivation of lands unsuited for annual crop production, without even minimal attention to soil conservation practices, has led to the catastrophic state of erosion throughout the country and to the subsequent serious damage to the agricultural potential of the lowlands, both in terms of irrigation and infrastructure.
It is evident that a high percentage of all cultivated lands are being farmed beyond their carrying capacity, resulting in an escalating and potentially irreversible land degradation process. If the strategy of maintaining existing land resources, let alone improving them, is a high priority, clearly a very significant portion of Haiti's cultivated lands needs to be removed from current land use and returned to forest. In practical terms however, only the upper watershed areas of the agriculturally and economically most important plains could become the object of such a drastic resource restoration strategy.
3


AGRICULTURE
The production of agricultural commodities directly provides a livelihood to 72% of the Haitian population. The export of agricultural commodities accounted for 48.7% of total exports in 1983, though the contribution of agriculture to GDP in 1981 was only 31%. During the period 1970-1980, the annual growth rate of the sector averaged 1.1%. Since 1980, growth has been negative, falling by about 1%, 4.7% and 0.6% for 1980, 1981 and 1982 respectively.
Although food crops cover approximately 80% of the cultivated area, their value of production is only about one-half that of export crops, excluding sugar. The great majority of all food crops are grown by small farmers on hillside plots. The annual production cycle, coupled with the lack of any soil conservation practice, exposes most of these lands to severe erosion, decreases yields and forces the peasants to clear a new plot, burn the vegetation and start a new cycle. Demographic pressure upon a limited supply of arable land and horticultural practices which haven't changed significantly since the nineteenth century, explain the decreasing trend in per capita food production (-2% year) and the accelerating rate of land degradation in the mountains.
Only root crops and other starchy foods have followed slightly rising trends; at a slower rate however, than population growth. Rice production has also shown improvements in total yields; yet maize and sorghum production, accounting for 37% of all cropped area, has been decreasing since 1970. At the same time, per capita daily calorie supply has been reduced in the past twenty years and food imports have increased steadily over the past decade. Wheat imports, alone, account for one fourth of the negative trade balance with the USA.
Haiti's agricultural sector suffers from physical, socio-political, institutional, and economic constraints. The arable land area is very small, limited by topography and high erosion risk. Rainfall is scattered and periodically unpredictable. Natural disasters, floods, droughts, tropical storms wipe out essential income from permanent crops.
Only about half of the land situated on plains in Haiti is presently being utilized. Approximately 400,000 ha of mostly flat lands are not cultivated due to severe erosion, salinization, urbanization or lack of appropriate technology and investment. Just half the land that could be potentially irrigated is presently under irrigation. At the same time, increasing amounts of this precious land are being lost to agriculture, due to salinity caused by inadequate irrigation practices and technology.
Land holdings are small and fragmented. Seventy-one percent of all production units (generally multiple-
plot family farms) occupy less than 1.3 ha, consisting of an average of three plots, and account for only 32.5% of all cultivated land. The remaining land is cultivated in larger plots including a few large holdings (Le_. HASCO) of more than 10,000 ha. Thus, although Haiti's distribution of agricultural lands appears less unequal than in most countries of Latin America, it's scattered distribution prevents the development of efficient production systems.
Production technology is very primitive, lacking essential inputs such as organic and/or chemical fertilization, soil conservation practices, crop rotation and tree cover, which might serve to increase production capacity. Government taxes and pricing policies and oligop-sonistic market structures, as well as limited credit availability, weak institutional support and lack of rural infrastructure contribute to the continued decline in agricultural productivity (0.6% in 1982).
It is evident that in order to address and, ultimately, solve the multiple and complex problems affecting the agricultural sector in Haiti, a number of organizational and institutional reforms need to be implemented. Tree crops such as coffee, cocoa and fruit trees that protect slopes from erosion, increase water retention, and whose products give the country a clear comparative advantage must be promoted with production and export incentives.
Yields of traditional food crops could be improved to reduce, but not eliminate, reliance upon food imports. Hillside farming and grazing needs to be reduced by at least 30% to allow for natural recovery of water retention capacity, increased base flows and, thereby, more reliable irrigation of the plains. Large scale soil conservation/reforestation projects based on community participation in the uplands should accompany any effort and cash crops can be produced with greater efficiency and improved yields, if fertilizers and appropriate technology are applied.
To restore the agricultural sector to a point at which it can contribute substantially to the nation's self-reliance in food production and significantly add to foreign earnings, it must receive priority attention by both the public and private sectors. A coordinated agricultural sector investment policy complemented by adequate credit and tax incentives could produce tangible results over a relatively short time and in the process, become the back-bone of the country's economic growth in the near future.
FOREST RESOURCES
The forests of Haiti have long ago lost their economic significance as renewable resources, and are quickly losing their ecological function as well. However, while the economic loss could conceivably be offset, the loss of the forest ecosystem has enormous, and potentially irreversible, repercussions which affect the livelihood of millions of people.


At the beginning of the XVI Century, Haiti was mostly covered by lush forests with ecological variation defined in terms of different forest types. Since then, forested land area has been reduced drastically, and today covers only 6.7% of the total land area of the nation (approximately 185,000 ha). Almost 38% of the total forested area is represented by pine formations, which in a number of cases has been severely degraded by unmanaged exploitation, repeated forest fires and overgrazing. The single largest parcel of forest land (26,400 ha) remaining is the pine forest in the southeastern portion of the country. While the highest percent of tree cover is found in this area (Fond Verrettes), all its rivers drain into the Dominican Republic.
Of the thirty major watersheds within country, twelve were completely deforested by 1978. Thirty-six percent of the remaining forest (66,000 ha) falls within the dense forest category (more than 80% canopy cover) and sixty-four percent in the open forest category of less than 80% canopy cover. The high amount of open forest and its very fragmented distribution suggest that clearing and burning at the fringes of these parcels continues. In fact, if we assume a decrease in forest cover of only half of what has been estimated from aerial photography of two sample areas in Haiti, a 6.7% annual reduction will remove half of the remaining forest cover by 1995, and completely deforest all but five major watersheds in the nation. If the present trend continues, only the pine forest and its corresponding watershed will remain forested by the year 2008.
Reforestation programs past and present, even when successful, have proven inadequate to reverse the trend in deforestation rates. In fact, successful small-scale projects implemented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have only replaced less than 20% of the tree biomass cut every year for lumber, charcoal and clearing for small-scale agriculture. Yet these projects, by appealing to individual self-interest and by relying upon a decentralized and efficient tree production and distribution system, have tested and proven a successful implementation strategy by planting nearly 14 million trees in four years with about 50% survival. Key elements of this strategy can be extrapolated to make future tree planting efforts successful in Haiti.
It his highly unlikely that forest resources in Haiti will ever again be a significant economic resource. Yet if one considers that more than 70% of all energy consumed in the country comes from either firewood or charcoal; that sustained agricultural production of the plains and continuous hydroelectric output depend upon an adequate forest cover in the upper watersheds, it is evident that remaining forests in Haiti must be protected, restored and adequately managed in order to perform their ecologically critical role.
THE PEASANTRY AND THE LAND
Following a successful slave uprising against the French in 1804, Haiti emerged as a nation where 80% of its citizenry was and remains today rural freeholding and directy dependent upon agriculture for its livelihood. History shows, that during those painful years of enslavement, the descendants of today's Haiti, forced to work in their off-time to defray the costs of their own upkeep, successfully developed techniques of intensive food cultivation, operated a country-wide internal market system and passed rights to certain parcels of land to their children. Rights to the land and control over one's own labor, far from the centers of government, became symbols of freedom which still exist today.
Currently the Haitian peasantry is facing serious challenges to its way of life. Although the productivity of peasant agriculture has long been the mainstay of the nation's economy, a corresponding investment in the agricultural sector has yet to be made and, in fact, is declining. The combined pressures of population growth, shrinking farm sizes, soil erosion, and soil exhaustion, have led to the present situation where the majority of small farmers cannot count on even one profitable season to help them save or reinvest. Planning ahead, today's peasant is hoping to ensure the future of his children, by necessity, outside of the agricultural sector through education or emigration from the degraded hillsides.
Today, the peasant farming system is a complex pattern of land ownership, investment, and crop strategies, which vary with the economic status of each farmer. While the majority of the peasantry are landowners, the majority of them are also land poor. Some wealthy peasants can afford to invest in perennial and export crops and livestock. Most are too poor to forego even a portion of their annual crop production or income to utilize soil conservation measures or begin to establish perennial multi-year crops.
Peasant tenure is of mixed character where farmers generally work several plots simultaneously, under different arrangements e.g. renting, sharecropping, owning, or leasing their own land to others. The security of tenure significantly affects their attitude towards the land. Overexploitation and poor management of the resource result in land farmed by sharecroppers and others with no permanent stake in the outcome. Although a national cadastral survey is desirable in principle, under present social and political arrangements it is unlikely to lead to a more equitable distribution of lands and to tenure security.
Diverse farm strategies resulting from the great variation in climate and the highly dispersed pattern of multi-plot farm units complicate any national effort to improve farming practices. Capital shortages are the
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most significant constraint on farm production and often foster destructive land use practices. Natural disasters, occuring all too frequently, force the peasant farmer to select annual crops rather than more ecologically desirable perennials such as coffee.
Land scarcity has caused the widespread destruction of Haiti's forests even though these mountainous and fragile lands are unsuitable for sustained agriculture. Although the peasants' need for new agricultural lands and their preference for fruit trees have prevailed in the past, new projects such as USAID's Agroforestry Outreach Project demonstrate that peasants will plant non-fruit bearing trees on a large scale if there is public participation and an understanding of the goals of such a project.
COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES
In contrast to the declining resource value of its lands and forests, the country's coastal and marine habitats appear to be in a relatively pristine state. The magnitude and ecological significance of its resources; mangrove wetlands, seagrass meadows, coral reefs and protected bays and estuaries are considerable. The mangrove forests alone cover more than 180 km2. Well developed coral reefs fringe large stretches of coastline and offshore barrier, and atoll-like reefs and "walls" directly offshore and largely unexplored, are prized by recreational users and fishermen. Underwater landscapes are considered among the most spectacular in the world.
Fisheries export in 1982 earned 3.5 million US$, yet a similar amount is spent importing salted and dried fish each year. It has been estimated, however, that the fishery yield potential could greatly increase with the introduction of appropriate technology and adequate infrastructure. The fishing industry is predominantly artisanal in both scale and technology. Mari-culture projects involving conch, shrimp and King crab have recently been proposed on a small-scale basis by Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs). Aquacul-ture projects involving tilapia and carp are widely scattered around the countryside, but not fully assessed for their ecologic and economic impact.
The major constraints to improved fisheries production in Haiti are: the lack of fish in areas where artisanal fisherman have access to more productive areas, the lack of skills and proper training and a general lack of efficient fish preservation, distribution and marketing infrastructure and organization.
In general, coastal and marine resources of Haiti remain relatively unknown and underexploited. Notable exceptions are: widespread nearshore overfishing; a large export trade in coral, sea turtles, aquarium fish, shells; some clearing of mangroves for charcoal
making; and the pollution of coastal waters from human and industrial wastes near the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince.
Breeding and nesting sites of rare and endangered species in the coastal zone are almost totally unknown. Laws exist which protect these species, yet pressure upon rare sea turtles for eggs, meat and shells, as well as the hunting of shorebirds, continue unabated. At least thirteen threatened or endangered species have been identified as utilizing the mangrove wetlands and lagoons of Haiti; among them the West Indian Manatee (Trichecus manatus) and the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus).
Site specific species and habitat studies, as part of a coastal resources plan, could result in better management of coastal areas for the protection of rare and endangered species, as well as the enhancement of fisheries.
Marine reserves and parks, once designated within the framework of such a plan could be effectively used for both public education and research, and as fish reserves to replenish depleted fish stocks. Legal precedents in Haiti exist now for protecting and managing coastal resources. Haitian laws, especially those regulating the taking of fish and shellfish are rarely enforced, however.
Candidate marine areas worthy of protection include: the Arcadins and the Barraderes-Cayemites areas in the Golfe de la Gonave; the He a Vache, on the south coast; and baies de Labadie and Cadrasse on the north coast, west of Ft. Liberty.
WILD FLORA AND FAUNA
The insular nature of Hispaniola and the island's ecological diversity have resulted in a particulary rich and varied flora. More than five thousand different plants are known to exist at the present time. About two thirds of these are woody plants, trees and shrubs. They have adapted to a wide range of different environments from dry desert conditions to the permanently moist conditions of the mountainous rainforest. There are about 600 fern species and over 160 different kinds of orchids. Thirty-six percent of all plants are endemic to the island and it is probable that many plant species are still undiscovered.
Haiti is characterized by nine life zones as defined by OAS (1972). They include arid zone biomes such as cacti formations and xerophitic forest typical of the Subtropical Thorn Woodland and the Subtropical Dry Forest life zones. The most commonly represented zone is the Subtropical Moist Forest characterized by mahogany and tropical oak forests. Few representative samples of this life zone remain, however, due to its extensive use for subsistence farming. Typical of the
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lower elevation mountains and ridges is the Subtropical Wet Forest best suited for the cultivation of coffee, cocoa and fruit trees. Found at higher elevations and primarily atop the Massif de la Hotte (Pic Macaya) are two characteristic high-humidity zones, the Subtropical Rain Forest, and the Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest. Remains of these zones can still be found within the Macaya National Park in the southwestern portion of the country. The pine forest of Haiti are included in the Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest and in the Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest characteristic of the mountains in the south (Massif de la Selle) and portions of the Plateau Central. Finally, the Subtropical Montane Wet Forest is a life zone which covers only a limited area at the highest altitudes of the Massif de la Selle located on the southern peninsula.
Vertebrate fauna are well-known compared to invertebrates. A recent survey of two mountainous areas by a team from the University of Florida has found that 23 of 46 species of molluscs collected were new to science.
The island's wildlife is represented by few mammals, but a diverse population (220 species) of birds. A number of these birds are endemic to the island, such as the Laselle Thrusli (Turdusswalesi), the Ground Warbler (Microligea palustris) and the Hispaniola Parrrot (Amazona ventralis). Along the Haitian coast in marshes and mangrove wetlands, the American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), as well as the Frigate birds (Frigatidae) and other shorebirds abound. Most notable, however, is the presence of the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) primarily in Etang Saumatre and of two endemic and endangered rodents: the hutia (Plagiodontia aedium) and the solenodonte (Soleno-don paradoxus) in the remaining remote forests of the southwest.
A number of forces, not at all unique to Haiti, contribute to mount incredible pressures upon the island's rare and sometimes unique wildland resources and, thus, upon the nation's natural heritage. The most serious threat is represented by rampant habitat destruction within all life zones of Haiti, some of which have already lost their plant and animal representatives. The second most important factor is the introduction, over the years, of many exotic species which have replaced native and often endemic species in their ecological niches. The third threat to wildlands in the country is of a structural and institutional nature. Protective legislation, although enacted, is rarely enforced, and the priority given to environmental protection has generally been very low. This lack of concern is often linked to the lack of adequate information on the interdependencies between the natural and human components of the biosphere. Finally, commercial exploitation of wild plam: and animal species, whose full impact has not yet been addressed, also contributes to the loss of the country's natural heritage.
Basic information on populations, distributions and food habits of threatened and endangered wildlife in Haiti is generally very scarce. As population pressure further encroaches on the last remains of wildlife habitat in Haiti, the protection of wild fauna and flora within adequately managed reserves becomes increasingly urgent. Recent development in this direction, such as the establishment of two national parks, are encouraging signs that the preservation of the country's natural heritage is being seriously considered.
POLLUTION
The two most pressing pollution related issues in Haiti are the increasing population's need for (1) a safe water supply; (2) sanitary methods of disposing of human wastes. The Centrale Autonome Metro-politaine d'Eau Potable (CAMEP) now supplies only 60% of the Port-au-Prince area. Beyond the metropolitan area only 10% of the population have access to a safe water supply. Water-related diseases are prevalent particulary in the countryside. Children are especially affected. In 1979, diarrhea alone caused the death of 9% of the babies under one year of age (UNI-CEF 1984).
The vast majority of Haitians do not have access to sanitary means of human waste disposal. UNICEF reported in 1984, that 40% of the population were using latrines or septic tanks, mostly in urban areas. Operation and maintenance of these disposal methods are often deficient. Contamination of surface and groundwater from human waste and other solid and liquid wastes is increasing without sufficient means or a plan to control it. The air in Port-au-Prince contains dust and emissions from poorly inspected vehicles. Smoke from burning garbage and industrial plants add to the air pollution problem.
Haiti's population is projected to increase from an estimated 5,200,000 in 1985 to 6,500,000 in 2006, the long range planning horizon selected by the Ministry of Plan. During that period, the rural to urban areas are predicted to experience a population shift which will swell the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, alone, to 2,200,000 persons.
A planning process has begun which holds the promise of future improvements. The Port-au-Prince drainage program will help alleviate pollution problems emanating from stormwater. Reforestation of the upper watershed is continuing to reduce sediment loads to the city's sewers. Water resources, though not precisely known are believed adequate to meet domestic needs. Groundwater is abundant underlying the many limestone formations and easily accessible in some areas, particularly the coastal plains. Existing water supply systems are the results of investment largely by bilateral and multilateral banks and other international organizations. Progress has been made and efforts
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continue to expand water supply services, but the population is growing faster than water supply development. The management of stofmwater and solid waste disposal is expected to improve considerably in Port-au-Prince and other urban centers as a result of current or planned efforts, but other population problems, including air pollution from automobiles and industry in Port-au-Prince will become worse if no action is taken.
INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Despite early and comprehensive legislation designed to protect and manage the country's natural resources, Haiti's environment, lands, forests, drinking water, wildlands, and wildlife, are in serious trouble. Environmental laws, although well drawn, have not been applied and enforced. There are many repetitive laws and administrative orders which confuse and complicate their administration.
Numerous agencies, private voluntary organizations, non-governmental organizations, and international donors are involved with the environment and natural resources in Haiti. Problems caused by lack of coordination are due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned to each public agency as to the absence of a coherent natural resource policy.
Virtually every natural resource sector has more than one primary government agency, hence there is considerable duplication of efforts and programs, as well as a kind of territorial jealousy. Even worse, some institutions with similar programs have little substantive interchange of information.
International donors are becoming increasingly involved in environmental conservation and management programs. In order to achieve the best results most efficiently, all efforts in the environmental arena should be placed within a coherent and unified framework, with priorities established, objectives and strategies defined, and programs coordinated and evaluated accordingly. Preparation of a National Conservation Strategy by DATPE may be a focal point for this unification of programs and policies.
STRATEGIES FOR PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF THE RENEWABLE RESOURCES OF HAITI
Deterioration of the countryside as evidenced by sharply declining food production, internal migration into Port-au-Prince, the high unemployment of rural emigrants, the continuing attempts at illegal international migration have all been thoroughly documented. To have any stabilizing effect at all, land conservation strategies are urgently needed now.
Approach land conservation on a regional watershed management basis considering both environmental and socio-economic issues.
Conceptualize projects for longer periods than the normal two to five year framework.
Manage the upper watersheds such as the Macaya and La Visite National Parks and the Upper Artibonite Watershed.
Encourage large-scale conservation and reforestation projects to prevent further soil erosion, particularly in the watersheds directly above significant agricultural and economically important lands.
Incorporate local participation in land use projects.
Consider the removal of certain hillslope cultivated lands from production, return of these lands to forest and also a relocation of inhabitants where other living arrangements can be found.
Promote tree crops such as coffee, cocoa and fruit trees that protect slopes from erosion and give the country an economic advantage.
Employ vegetative cover in a strip pattern alternating with cultivated crops to reduce soil erosion.
FORESTRY
Elimate tax on imported wood products to encourage tree conservation.
Establish price controls on lumber.
Implement a fruit tree and fuelwood reforestation program in the mountains as well as the lowlands.
Expand existing seedling production and outreach capabilities, to cover a wider range of land types across Haiti.
Coordinate the efforts of donor agencies to enable the financing of a large-scale reforestration effort on private as well as state lands.
Support the expansion of teaching and training facilities in forest resource management, with special emphasis on the development of appropriate technological packages for reforestation and soil erosion control.
Amend legislation to protect forest resources by
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exempting trees planted for harvest from current prohibitions and taxations and by prohibiting planting in zones set aside for soil erosion protection.
Subsidize kerosene, perhaps by taxing gasoline and support higher taxes and licence fees for commercial charcoal production.
WATER CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Improve the water retention capacity of the country's major watershed areas by reducing hillside farming and grazing.
Consider groundwater as a valuable resource to provide fresh water for irrigation and map its extent.
Evaluate the groundwater resource in the lowlands. Development should not begin until proper environmental safeguards are in place to avoid salinization.
AGRICULTURE
The best strategy for maintaining agricultural production on the short to medium term, is by the more efficient use of presently irrigated lowlands and by developing additional irrigation potential. Without immediate action to manage the upper watersheds, however, soil erosion and declining soil fertility continues to minimize the benefits of irrigation projects and lowiand agricultural efforts.
Study the costs involved in developing irrigation capital, system maintenance and operation, on-farm distribution and drainage, structure maintenance and operation and land preparation. Special attention should be paid to sprinkler irrigation from wells.
Increase agricultural production by improving farming practices to help to offset losses to small farms by removing their lands from cultivation.
Encourage better land-use practices by making title registration papers less expensive, easier and faster to obtain. Title teams could be established and financing these initiatives within the context of a national cadastral survey should greatly benefit a long-term environmental restoration process.
Concentrate on high valued crops to the extent that these can be consumed, processed and/or marketed. Reconsider using a significant portion of irrigated area, now in sugar cane currently being produced at a loss in terms of world sugar prices, for other crops.
Initiate guarantees to farmers that once land improvements are made, lands will not be taken
away or taxes increased.
Develop a program to help rural communities conserve their natural resources.
THE PEASANTRY AND THE LAND
The Haitian peasantry is facing serious challenges to its way of life. Although the productivity of peasant agriculture has long been the mainstay of the nation's economy, there has yet to be a reciprocal investment in the agricultural sector.
Consider the unique and basic characteristics of the Haitian peasant farming system in projects by external sources as well as the government.
Continue and initiate projects which invite the peasantry to fully participate in land conservation strategies.
COASTAL MARINE RESOURCES, PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT
Coastal and marine resources of Haiti remain relatively unknown and underexploited. Notable exceptions are widespread overfishing of nearshore reef areas and a large trade in aquarium fish, sea turtles and shells. A coastal resources plan could result in better management of coastal habitat for the enhancement of fisheries, tourism and rare and endangered species.
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
Prepare a coastal resources plan for Haiti which would include:
- inventories of breeding, nesting areas of threatened and endangered species; inventory and designation of critical coastal areas, e.g. habitat for commercially important fish and shellfish species, areas of unusual scenic value for present or future tourism and proposed sites for mariculture;
- the conceptual, scientific, administrative and legal framework for decisions affecting coastal marine resources;
- the assessment of mariculture and fisheries development schemes and recommendations as to their suitability for Haiti.
Evaluate and designate marine reserves and parks as part of a coastal resources plan. These parks and reserves would provide:
- areas for the replenishment of depleted breeding stocks of valuable but vulnerable fish and shellfish species that quickly disappear from heavily fished areas;
- interpretive education for the public and private recreational users of the coastal, marine areas;
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- small cooperative fisheries programs to benefit the nearby fishing villages;
- management plans for the longer range protection of the renewable resources;
- research programs to identify more precisely the ecological systems which determine continued productivity and value for recreation.
Implement the recent (Nov. 17, 1983) amendment to Section 119 of the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act authorizing Federal executive agencies to provide assistance to countries in need of protecting and maintaining critical habitat.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Improve fisheries with a strong commitment from the government of Haiti to increase funding, staffing and extension training programs.
Prepare fish stock assessments of potentially productive areas such as Anse d'Hainaultand M61eSt-Nicolas.
Locate and organize communities and groups as production and marketing cooperatives in order to provide assistance and coordinate fish catch and distribution.
Extend credit to such groups for the purchase of needed equipment.
Stimulate small-scale industries related to fishing (e.g. gear manufacturing and maintenance, boat construction, fish salting and drying operations).
Strengthen and expand marketing capabilities to ensure reasonable profits.
Extend fish distribution networks to rural populations to increase protein consumption.
Provide training and appropriate equipment for fishing the nearshore areas in order to avoid depletion of these resources.
Encourage the private sector to stimulate the expansion of artisanal fishing operations through investment and more effective distribution.
Investigate mariculture proposals carefully as part of a coastal marine resource strategy to relieve fishing pressure on natural fish stocks, especially those from nearshore coral reefs.
Investigate the feasibility of installing artificial reefs in nearshore areas where fish stocks are declining.
Enforce existing fishing regulations which regulate the takingof fish and shellfish.
Assess the ecological and economic impacts
of aquaculture, particularly in estuarine and coastal waters.
WILDLANDS CONSERVATION
There are incredible pressures on Haiti's rare and often unique wildland resources and thus the nation's natural heritage. The most serious threats are rampant habitat destruction, the introduction of exotic species and the lack of law enforcement.
Establish objectives for the protection and manage-management of natural areas by adopting the IUCN World Conservation Strategy objectives.
- maintain essential ecological process and life-support systems on which human survival and development depend;
- preserve genetic diversity on which depends the the functioning of many of the above processes and live-support systems;
- ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems; notably fish and other wildlife, forest and grazing lands, which support rural communities as well as major industries.
Establish a National Park Service with the technical support of the Ministere d'Agriculture des Ressources Naturelles et du Developpement Rural (MARNDR) and direct access to the Presidency.
Establish a Natural History Museum and Botanical Gardens to become centers for research and education about Haiti's endemic flora and fauna.
Develop a long range plan for a program of scientific research on Haiti's flora and fauna with participation of qualified scientific institutions abroad.
Institute a program for public education concerning environmental protection and resource conservation.
Identify and protect, within a system of National Parks and other protected natural areas, significant remains of different forest types (from mangrove to rainforest) and other major biomcs, in an effort to preserve Haiti's diverse natural heritage.
Strictly enforce those existing laws which prohibit the takingof certain endangered and threatened species.
Assess the impacts and control the wildlife trade in Haiti.
Stop the trade in wild orchids and tree ferns.
Stop the trade taking place in Haiti, either illegal or legal, which is rapidly depleting populations of endangered and threatened
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species such as sea turtles, certain coral, aquarium fish species, birds and reptiles.
POLLUTION ABATEMENT
The two most pressing pollution related issues in Haiti are an ever expanding population's need for (1) a safe water supply and (2) a sanitary waste disposal system. With a population projected to increase from 5,200,000 in 1985 to 6,500,000 in 2006, existing efforts to supply potable water and manage stormwater drainage and human and solid waste disposal are grossly inadequate.
Expand significantly the water supply network to meet increasing demand, reduce losses and chances for contamination and upgrade and motivate personnel at the intermediate and lower levels through training and incentives.
Establish a realistic code for drinking water sources and treatment guidelines which consider rural and urban socioeconomic conditions and financial means.
Consolidate the solid and liquid waste disposal facilities at Truitier, including the construction of a primary sewage treatment facility. Move the existing and underutilized composting plant to this site.
Improve water quality controls as well as vehicle emission inspection. Consider changes in transit pattern to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution.
Expand solid waste collection and human waste disposal systems throughout the metropolitan area. Continue drainage improvement and the recovery of the Morne Hopital watershed, near Port-au-Prince.
INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL CHANGES
Almost every natural resource sector has more than one primary government agency, hence there is considerable duplication of effort. International donors, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and private voluntary organizations (PVO's) are becoming increasingly involved with environmental programs. These public and private institutions, with similar goals and objectives, have very little substantive interchange of information and coordination and are not guided by a coherent set of priorities for natural resource management.
Consolidate government agency authority over specific natural resource sectors, within a framework of a focused natural resource policy, to avoid duplication and policy contradictions.
Improve communication and promote a more integrated approach to natural resource management, by establishing and Inter-Ministerial Environmental Committee with direct access to the Presidency.
Develop priorities for future economic development based on environmental as well as economic goals.
Perform environmental impact assessments (EIA's) for all significant development projects funded by the GOH and external sources.
Consider an environmental management component (e.g. conservation and restoration) in the development of projects for rural development.
Reorganize MARNDR along functional lines.
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II
Introduction
The purpose of a country environmental profile (CEP) is to aggregate in one definitive document information, data and analyses on the country's resource base, focusing on the significant environmental issues and trends and to identify possible solutions to environmental problems. Specifically, the Haiti CEP objectives were to identify major areas of concern for management of Haiti's natural resources; to survey existing institutions, policies, and activities; to assess the effects of any identified problems on the environment, society and the economy; and to provide conclusions and recommendations for actions to ameliorate problematic situations.
Haiti is located on the island of Hispaniola, which is between Cuba and Puerto Rico in the West Indes, occupying the western third of the second largest island in the Caribbean (18"-20"N, 71"45'-74"-30'W). Haiti is still isolated by language and culture from most of its Spanish and English speaking neighbors.
Although materially the poorest nation is the western hemisphere, Haiti is perhaps the most distinctive and intriguing. Born of the only successful slave revolution in modern history, Haiti is the New World's second oldest Republic and has been dubbed "the most African of Afro-American countries." The Haitians are above all, a warm and gregarious people. The outsider, willing to speak to them on their own terms, in their own language of Creole or French, is richly rewarded with the opportunity to learn and appreciate the Haitian culture.
A.- GEOLOGY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
According to a recent study of the geological development and tectonics of the Caribbean islands (Mau-rasse, 1983), Hispaniola was formed by the collision of one small and one larger land mass during the late Miocene and early Pleistocene periods. The theory states that the smaller land mass broke off from Central America, drifted east and eventually collided with a larger land mass now comprising northern Haiti and
most of the Dominican Republic. Following the impact the Plain of Cul-de-Sac and the three large saline lakes, Bois Caiman, Etang Saumatre and Lac Enriquillo were uplifted. Throughout southern Haiti the uplift of the Eocene limestone seabed created towering and rugged mountains cut occasionally by plains and steep valleys. The mountains of the north were formed by local volcanic activity.
Other authors claim that three land masses collided to form the present island of Hispaniola. Much research needs to be done to verify the geologic history. Most geologists agree that these land masses were formed from oceanic crust, uplifted and influenced by sea level changes. Marine terraces for the most part were exposed during the Pleistocene era. There have been no major sea levels changes in the last 50,000 years. Exposed in Haiti are rock formations of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary origin. The latter formations are the most abundant (80%) and are represented by limestone deposits from the middle and upper Eocene era. Where limestone formations occur, soils are relatively more fertile than those derived from rock of igneous origin which, like the soils found in the northern part of the country, are heavily weathered. Alluvial soils deposited by rivers are the most fertile and are to be found on the major coastal plains of Haiti and in pockets along mountain valleys.
The geologic history of Hispaniola, characterized by repeated changes in sea level, has given rise to significant local endemism (speciation unique to the area) of plant and animal species. Although extinctions due to habitat destruction have been numerous, a great number of endemic plants and a few endemic animals still remain.
The major mountain ranges of Haiti are: 1) Massif du Nord, the northwestern prolongation of the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, composed primarily of metamorphic volcanic rocks, metamorphic detrital rocks and quartz diorite sometimes covered by Limestone (max. altitude 1,200 m).
13




3
30
3 n a e
O >
S K5
HAITI
GEOLOGY
\\.~.J Alluvium
m Igneous and metamorphic ~1 Limestone
PREPARED BY WILCOX ASSOCIATES


2) Montagnes dc Tcrre-Neuve extending northwest from Gonaives, composed primarily of limestone and volcanic rock (max. altitude 700m)
3) Montagnes du Nord-Ouest along the northwestern peninsula, is composed of a thick cap of limestone above a mass of igneous rocks (max. altitude 850m);
4) Montagnes Noircs, the rugged range between the central Plain and the Artibonite Valley, composed primarily of limestone (max. altitude 1,400 m);
5) Montagnes du Trou d'Eau, north of the Plaine du Cul de Sac, primarily composed of limestone and some exposed basaltic rock (max. altitude 1,520 m);
6) Chainc des Matheux, extending from St Marc to the Plaine du Cul de Sac, composed of limestone (max. altitude 1,575 m);
7) Massif de la Selle, the highest and largest mountain range in Haiti, extending west from the Dominican border about 100 km, dominates the southern peninsula. The range is about 30 km wide and composed mainly of limestone with some younger detrital rocks. It is very rugged with a maximum altitude of 2684 m at Pic la Selle;
8) Massif de la Hotte covers the southwestern part of the southern peninsula. It is rugged, steep and almost inaccessible. Composed of Eocene limestone and basaltic volcanic rocks, it features Pic Macaya, towering at 2347 meters above sea level (masl).
Pic la Selle, in the southeast, has the highest elevation in Haiti. The highest peaks in the north are much lower, with Mornc Brigand near Le Borgne reaching 1147 masl. In the south central region Morne Baptist in the Chaine des Matheux and Morne Nan Puits in the Montagnes Trou d'Eau attain elevations of 1575 and 1520 m.
Exposed in Haiti are ignous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Both plutonic and volcanic rocks are found, ranging in composition from ultramafics to leu-cratic tonalities. The metamorphic rocks originate primarily from volcanic flows, tuffs, and limestones. The metamorphism appears to be primarily regional, with contact metamorphic effects found only locally around some intrusions. Sedimentary rocks are mainly of later Cretaceous and younger ages.
Some important facts about the geology of Haiti can be summarized as follows:
1) The origin of the land mass of Haiti is oceanic crust;
2) Volcanic activity practically ceased in Hispaniola in the late Eocene;
3) Some Upper Tertiary volcanic deposits have been reported in Haiti, and several outpourings of late Cenozoic limburgite, hornblend-augite, andesitic porphyry, and nephelinc basalt occurcd in the southern part of the island, the ages of which are approximately the Pleistocene;
4) The high percentage of sedimentary rocks, about 80 percent, are mostly middle and upper Eocene limestones;
5) Rocks of igneous origin, about 20 percent are found where the overlying strata of sedimentary rocks have been worn away;
6) As a general rule areas of igneous rocks, or soils derived from them, coincide with areas of high rainfall where erosion has been rapid, as in the mountains of the north;
7) Mountain soils derived from limestones are more fertile then those derived from old igneous rocks;
8) Alluvial plains and pockets of alluvium in mountains arc most productive since they receive yearly inputs of new materials, such as silts and gravels from natural erosion;
9) Repeated changes in sea level in the Caribbean over geologic time have provided a sufficient number of land bridges for the dispersal of plant and animal species found on the island today;
10) The subsequent permanent rise in the sea level has given rise to much local endemism of plant species, yet the basic common relationships among plant species exist throughout this biogeo-graphic province.
B.- CLIMATE
The highly varied topography with elevations ranging from sea level to over 2680 m results in a large variability of rainfall and temperatures. These variations over relatively short distances resulting in numerous micro-climates make characterization of rainfall patterns by areas of significant size and mapping for agricultural purposes problematic.
Haiti lies in the Low Subtropical Region (18-20 de- grees North latitude), not truly tropical but rather that portion of the Tropical and Warm Temperate Regions which is free of frost at low elevations above sea level and in which the temperature range is significantly wider than in the deep tropics.
An extensive chain of meteorological stations was set up in the 1920s and more have been added since that time with the result that many places have at least 40 years of precipitation data. Many other areas, however, do not resulting in the need to extrapolate frequently for planning purposes. The wettest areas for which records are available include: Bel Air (4180 mm); Sources Chaude (3410 mm); Choiseul (3418 mm); and Baptiste (3322 mm). Unfortunately, the period of record for these sites is less than six years, hence they may have been unduly influenced by anomalous precipitation events such as tropical cyclones. Holdridge's Life Zone Map of Haiti prepared for and modified by the OAS in the 1960's indicates the wettest region to lie in the Southwest in the Pic Macaya region, which could receive as much as 5000-6000 mm of rainfall, but for which no precipitation records exist.
16


Most precipitation is brought by the Northeast Trade Winds and to a lesser extent by winds from the cast. Site specific rainfall patterns arc influenced mostly by orographic (related to topography) factors. For example, high land masses such as mountains intercept this precipitation so that the highest rainfall areas arc in the mountains of the north coast (near Cap Haitian) and in the southwest peninsula. In the latter case, the Gulf of Gonavc serves as an additional source of moisture which feeds the hydrologic cycle.
The Central Plateau, an area of relatively high rainfall, exhibits an anomalous pattern derived from turbulence of air masses flowing in laterally to fill the vacuum in the wake of the high mountain areas. This pattern probably applies to other areas of Haiti such as in the western end of the southwest peninsula.
Convectional rainfall, e.g. thundertorms, and hurricanes, also may bring heavy local rain from any direction, depending on the relation of a given place to the path of the storm.
Although one fourth of Haiti consists of areas with annual precipitation of less than 1200 mm (Moral, 1961), most of the country receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation annually, and a subtantial portion receives at least 1500 mm. The higher elevations of the southern peninsula, northern plains and central plateau receive over 2000 mm with some areas in the southern peninsula receiving over 3000 mm. Most of the northern peninsula, the coastal plains reaching from the western tip of the northern peninsula to the Cul-de-Sac region, the lower elevations of La Gonave Island, and small areas in the extreme northeast and eastern ends of the Cul-de-Sac receive less than 1000 mm of precipitation, with some areas receiving less than 500 mm. A rough characterization of the rainfall of seven principal areas, differentiated on the basis of rainfall, follows: (Library of Congress, 1979).
Northern plain and mountains: More than 1270 mm, with as much as 2540 mm on the higher mountains;
Northwest: Semi-arid conditions prevail throughout the region, especially around Mole St-Nicolas (508 mm) on the extreme western end of the northern peninsula; Port-de-Paix has about 1524 mm in the mountainous areas; Western coast from Mole St-Nicolas to the Cul-de-Sac Plain at Port-au-Prince: Very dry with 500 to 1000 mm of rain; a semi-arid area extending back from the coast over the plain to the mountains covered with xerophytic vegetation such as mesquite, thorny shrubs, and cacti; The island of La Gonave off the coast has similar cover and a rainfall of about 508 to 762 mm; Artibonite Valley: Lower portion of the valley is a semi-arid area, but rainfall increases rapidly up the valley until it reaches a mean annual level of about 3000 mm; however, about 40 km away in
the Cul-de-Sac plain, at about the same altitude, the driest area with annual rainfall of about 500 to 750 mm is found;
Eastern part of the mainland between the tw > peninsulas: The Central Plateau receives about l()16to 1524 mm of rainfall; Southern peninsula: Well-watered, with 1524 mm of rain or more in all parts, except the southern slope of the western end and a small area near Anse-a-Pitre in the Southeast.
C- ECONOMY / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Haiti has potential to compete more successfully in the world economy, contrary to common belief outside the country. Its physical and human resources are not negligible. The country is well within the range of the vast North American market. It has built a basic infrastructure where 15 years ago there was hardly a paved road. Almost 50 percent more children are attending school than 20 years ago.
Yet the pace of economic growth is slow compared to its potential. Haiti's economy has shifted significantly in recent decades away from traditional agriculture and towards urban dependency and its growing industrial sector. Sectors other than agriculture have grown but not sufficiently to absorb all those leaving rural Haiti. As a result, some 25,000 Haitians (0.5 percent of the population) leave their native land each year to seek employment in North America and the Dominican Republic.
Exports, imports and investments have risen markedly in the last 15 years but consumption has not increased in real terms. There is now a greater reliance on imported goods, especially food and public goods and services.
Present economic conditions are so critical that there are few peasants with surplus cash or agricultural commodities. Government policies, such as subjecting coffee, their primary cash crop, to an export tax which represents half the producer price, have made the situation far worse.
Economic problems in industry are more recent. Manufacturing output grew throughout the 70's, at a very rapid 10 percent per year but has since declined sharply, partially due to the global recession of FY 81-83 but more fundamentally, because of the consequence of protectionist polices. While there was some improvement in FY 84, which protected import substitution industries, Haitian industry is still considered stagnant. Only a fast growing export assembly subsec-tor contributed to growth in FY 84.
Public investment, and, thus, economic growth have suffered both from less public savings and from the government's recent acquisition of five uneconomic
17


but major industrial enterprises. The tax base has grown slowly and unevenly, largely because of increasing exemptions. Many tax rates are too high, encouraging evasion. Meanwhile public expenditures have steadily expanded, outstripping current revenues and making the financing of the public investment program difficult, as evidenced by the government's frequent inability to meet its counterpart funding obligations for projects financed by external aid agencies.
Haiti relies heavily on external donors to finance development activities. The United States provides more assistance than any other donor; over $45 million in development assistance, food and disaster relief and Economic Support Funds in FY 84. Over 300 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) annually contribute an estimated $65 million in resources and services to Haiti's development (FAO, 1985) representing a powerful influence on the economy and the environment. Unfortunately, individual projects are not the end product of a clearly defined set of priorities based on integrated economic and environmental goals. Moreover, their composition has changed from an initial concentration on providing economic infrastructure to in-
clude social sectors, and, more recently, several major public industrial enterprises. To correct the stagnation and disequilibrium of recent years, it has been suggested that the short term priority for public policy be financial and economic stabilization, using a variety of methods; among them, tighter control of public expenditures, new tax objectives and the development of long-term financial institutions and instruments (World Bank, 1985).
In agriculture, the consensus seems to point to a concentration on farm enterprises in irrigated and rain-fed zones of high production potential achieved through changes in price, trade and fiscal policy; the continued reform of the Ministry of Agriculture and its investment program and the establishment of a strong credit institution. In industry, elimination of the anti-export bias principally through a reduction of protection and actual export promotion, a restructuring of public industrial enterprises and a more realistic look at industry's infrastructure and training needs. With all these changes, however, Haiti will still have to look to substantial external financial assistance for its economic recovery.
18


Ill
Land, Water And Forest Resources
A. INTRODUCTION
Conceptually, the problem of environment and development is how to maintain and increase resource exploitation without foreclosing future resource use options. This makes it essential to achieve compatibility between immediate, short-term needs for population support and long-term needs for a viable resource base and flexible resource use systems. The fact that physical system boundaries and the boundaries of human systems that exploit the resources seldom coincide, complicates effective resource management. Thus, there is a critical need to protect renewable resources through long-range ecological planning, including socio-economic considerations.
Development of an ecological approach to resource management must integrate physical, social, political and economic systems. To maintain the vegetation, soil, and water resources, it is crucial that human use of the environment does not sress the resource base to such an extent that degradation is either irreversible or so large as to require excessive economic inputs that exceed the potential returns (for many places in Haiti, this condition has already been reached).
Vegetation, soil and water interact in defining the natural resource base. This, in turn, determines the carrying capacity of the land for agriculture, including livestock use, and forestry.
B. THE LAND RESOURCE
The land/soil resource base in terms of erosional/de-positional dynamics is determined by precipitation (type, amount, intensity and seasonal patterns); wind (velocity, duration and direction); soil erodibility (structure and texture); topography (slope and length, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, and spatial location within the hillslope system); groundcover (vegetation density and type); and conservation practices (mulching, pasture rotation, etc.). Other factors, such as the location of the water supply (type and
seasonal availability) protection against fire, livestock type and numbers, land ownership, and service infrastructure, are significant in determining an area's ero-sional/depositional patterns.
The texture of the soil is important. Finer soils can be set into motion and transported at lower velocities than coarse ones. While coarser soils are more resistant to erosion and have higher infiltration rates, finer soils usually have higher agricultural potential. Finer soils generally have a higher porosity (soil moisture storage) increasing their plant potential during drier periods, and producing a higher seed germination rate in most cases. Where areas are drier, bare soil surfaces exist and the texture is sand size or finer, wind potentially becomes an erosional agent as well.
Erosion rates for specific areas are determined by the interaction and magnitude of these variables. Removal of groundcover by stock overgazing, fires and farming, substantially reduces its effectiveness. In Haiti, as rural population pressures increase, and damaging agriculture practices continue, the ecological system of the soil, water and forest will continue to decline. Clearly, vegetation cover and soil properties are crucial management issues for most areas where hydrology, forestry, and agriculture are primary concerns.
Erosion
While Eckholm (1976) clearly overestimates the proportion of exposed bedrock in Haiti (50 percent), the very existence of widespread rocky outcrops in a tropical setting indicates the severity of the Haitian erosion problem. Tropical areas, under natural conditions, normally have a thick veneer of weathered material. Almost always, bedrock exposures reflect accelerated man-induced soil erosion in humid tropical areas. Generally, 90 percent of total nutrient supply is found in the upper 10 cm of tropical soils (Ewel, 1977). Almost everywhere in Haiti, this rich topsoil is gone. Additionally with the coarser subsoils commonly found in upland areas, the decreased moisture-storage
19


capacity of these soils produce pseudo-droughts that stress vegetation growth whenever rain docs not occur frequently. Thus, with the ever declining Haitian soil resource, more and more water and nutrient supplies are required to maintain the status-quo. Unfortunately, almost no actual soil erosion data exist on a national scale. Perceptions and qualitative studies comprise the literature.
Haiti's overwhelming environmental problem is soil erosion. Despite research, legislation, erosion control and reforestation projects, indicators clearly point to an acceleration in the processes contributing to land degradation from soil erosion. Food production is declining, river regimes are becoming more extreme (Lo-wenstein, 1984), bedrock exposures on hillslopes are growing in arcal extent (Coffey, ct al. 1984), and rural to urban migration pressures are increasing (DATPE, 1984). None of these trends is surprising, since the rural population density per hectare (ha) of arable land is close to 700 (USAID, No. 1, 1984). On steep slopes (15-100 percent), as much as possible annual crop agriculture is practiced. For example, on the southern peninsula population densities over 125 per km2 (Coffey, ct al., 1984) exist on steep slopes of the upland areas. Even in the most remote mountain areas where no permanent settlements exist, land clearing occurs (Cohen, 1984).
This alteration in the land use, from forest to shifting cultivation to abandonment, sets into motion an array of dynamic socio-economic and physical events that exacerbate the trend toward a declining land, water, torcst resource base. This affects not only the uplands, but also many of the high potential lowlands. With the passing of each year, the strategies that could salvage the Haitian countryside arc becoming less viable.
Three direct results of soil loss need to be considered within the Haitian context: the adverse effects of soil erosion on agricultural productivity; the impact of transported sediments via rills, gullies, streams, and rivers on major engineering works (e.g. reservoirs,
irrigation canals); and the impact on coastal habitats (e.g. mangrove, coral, seagras beds, fish spawning and nursery grounds).
Considering the generally degraded nature of most Haitian soils with shallow root zones, target figures for erosion control of 2 MT/ha/yr are realistic (Young, 1980) to mitigate the enormous impacts of erosion on agricultural productivity. To prevent negative impacts of soil loss on engineering works, even lower sediment delivery values than those affecting agricultural productivity are generally required. Coastal resources such as mangroves, coral reef and seagrass beds, found in areas where significantly increased turbidity is adversely affecting the resource, will benefit from the erosion control initiated for conservation of agricultural soils and protection of engineering works.
C- THE WATER RESOURCE
Surface Water
The broken and steep landscape which characterizes most of Haiti's surfaces give rise to numerous streams and rivers. During periods of rair.fall the flow of most streams is torrential and of short duration. Few rivers have permanent flow. The principal catchment areas and river systems arc shown in Table III-1 There have been only limited measurements of water flows, and those generally date prior to 1940. The flow data cited usually refer to average flows. From the standpoint of agricultural use, average flows have only limited relevance to water potential because of the high irregularity of flow. This is illustrated by flow data for 31 rivers in 26 catchment basins, as provided by Harza (1979). The average annual flow for the 31 rivers is given as 274.031 me/sec, 90 percent of which is provided by four rivers. The ten year, one month low flow, is given as 48.770 mc/sec, of which 73 percent is provided by the same four rivers. In the absence of impounding structures (the dam is the only significant one, since the physiography of most river basins does not lend itself to impoundment), much of the water goes out to sea.
Table III-l
PRINCIPAL CATCHMENT AREAS OF HAITI
The main river Average Length Catchment
Runoff mc/s Km Area/Km2
Artibonite 34.0 280 6,862
Riviere de la Grande-Anse 27.0 90 556
Riviere del'Esterc 19.0 834
LesTrois Rivieres 12.0 102 897
Riviere de Cavaillon 9.0 43 380
Grande Riviere du Nord 7.0 70 312
Riviere du Limbc 6.4 70 312
Riviere Momance 6.4 53 330
Grande Ravine du Sud 3.9 34 330
Grande Riviere du Cul-de-Sac 3.3 ? 290
Riviere l'Acul 7 36 7
Source: Data from Library of Congress, Draft Environmental Report on Haiti, 1979.
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Table III-2
HYDROELECTRIC POTENTIAL OF HAITI
Region River Site Location Avail. Power
Grde Riviere du Nord GN-47.7 18.5 km/N 85" W.Vallieres 600
Limbd L-34.6 11.0Km/S15"W.Limbe 279
Nord Caracol Caracol 24 Km/S 24" Cap-Haitien 282
Pte Riviere Pte. Riviere 8Km/WTrouduNord 130
Trans versale 3 Rivieres Artibonite Guayanouc TR-28 TR-76 A-108.1 A-139.9 A-166.0 A-176.7 GU-3.5 GU-25.7 13.5 Km/59" E Port-de-Paix 10.5 Km/ N 88" E Gros-Morne 2.5 Km/N 60 E Verrettes 2 Km/N 12" E Lachapelle 5 Km/N 45" W Mirebalais 3 Km/N 24" E Mirebalais 10.5 KM/S 76" E Thomonde 8 Km/N 85" Thomassique 1,778 726 20,936 25,265 11,850 16,982 3,408 2,134
La Theme Fer-a-Cheval Gobe Samana Roche Plate La-1.6 FC-35.8 Saut d'Eau Deluge Gobe Samana Roche Plate Mirebalais 9km/S 15" E Lascahobas 12 Km/S 83" W. Mirebalais 13 Km/S 5 E St. Marc 13 Km/S 69" St. Marc 8.5 Km/N 15" E Hinche 14 Km/S 33"o E Lascahobas 1,349 220 670 1,160 190 776 2,570
Ouest Grisc Momance Pichon Gosseline P. Riv. Jacmcl G-31.0 G-41.7 Momance Pichon Gosseline Bassin Bleu 16 Km/S 70" E P.au.P 19 km/S 60" E P.au.P. 20 km/S 72" W P.au.P. 6 Km/N 45" E Belle Anse 11 Km/N 32" E Jacmel 6 km/W Jacmel 720 379 1,120 1,234 13 129
Sud Cavaillon G.R. de Nippes Grande Ansc C-42.3 GNIP-29.5 S. du Baril GA-4.1 GA-35.4 BD-8.6 BG-15.4 Voldrogue 5 km/N 47" E Camp-Perrin 13 Km/S 360" W Anse-a-Veau 10 Kms/S 45" E Anse-a-Veau 4 Km/S 5" W. Jeremie 20 Km/S 53" W. Jeremie 24 km/S 49" W. Je>emie 26 km/S 59" W. Jeremie 18 km/S 4" W Je^mie 240 382 129 1,210 970 1,060 2,460 230
Source: Inventory of Hydrologic Resources (Synthesis of Hydro-electric Potential of Haiti-CIDA, April 1977.
Water potential for agricultural purposes depends on the proximity of suitable land. Estimates of this potential is variously reported, with perhaps 180,000 ha as the upper limit. Actual irrigated lands cover less than 70,000 ha in Haiti.
The water resources of Haiti have also been inventoried and characterized in accordance with hydroelectric potential (See Table I1I-2).
Groundwater
The foregoing refers only to surface water and does not take into account groundwater resources. There is little information on the potential availability of groundwater. Harza (1979) estimated the potential groundwater resources in 22 areas selected to be used for possible irrigation. Table III-3 summarizes these data.
21


Table III 3
GROUNDWATER POTENTIALS FOR 22 SELECTED AREAS
Region Number of Project Number of Project Potential Water
Areas Acquifers No. of Acquifers Flow
for which flow t/sec
was estimated
North & North Western Region 7 13 7 500-685
Artibonite Region 2 2 _
Southeast Coast Region 3 5 2 399-1114
South Coast Region 5 3 2 530+
Central Plains Region 5 6 1 15-45
Total 22 29 12 1444-1844
Source Harza 1979 Final Reports: Water Resources Study for Haiti. Area" springs arc lumped and counted as one potential acquifer.
Groundwater is used for irrigation in significant amounts in only two regions. Currently water is pumped for irrigation in the Cul-de-Sac area, with some 50 wells for irrigation of about 3500 ha by HASCO. An additional 19 wells are used by several cooperatives for irrigation within the region, producing a wide variety of crops. The wells were initially expected to provide water to irrigate approximately 200 ha each. In practice, however, only about 100 ha are irrigated from each well (Hauge, 1984). Groundwater for irrigation has also been developed in the Plaine des Gonaives. Pumped wells supply about 75 percent of the water for irrigation of 3000 ha, the remaining 25 percent is supplied by pumping water from seasonal flows of nearby streams.
Groundwater capital is widely used for domestic purposes in the larger towns, including the city of Port-au-Prince. Some of the principal areas in which groundwater is domestically used include the Cul-de-Sac, Leogane, Carrefour, St-Marc, Cabaret, Grande-Riviere Du Nord (Grande Riviere du Nord), Limona-de, Ouanaminthe and Aquin (Library of Congress, 1979).
Availability of Rainfall for Agriculture
Figure III-1 illustrates the general pattern of rainfall throughout Haiti. Most locations have a dry period during the winter months, while the high rainfall values in October and November partially reflect the impact of hurricanes on the mean monthly values. In most years, rainfall is less than the values given on this figure for these two months. When hurricanes strike, the rainfall values are far greater than the 300 mm values. Table 111-4 presents mean monthly moisture availability index values (MAI) for some selected stations.
Rainfall (mm)
S O N 0
Fig. IIl-l: General rainfall patterns based on four selected localities.
The MAI is a useful agro-climatological index for planning purposes because it indexes relative rainfall adequacy. It is defined as PD/ETP, where PD is the 75 percent probability of monthly precipitation, and ETP is the monthly evapo-transpiration potential. An MAI value of less than 0.50 signals that dry fertilizers should not be used, as not enough moisture exists to
22


Table III-4
MONTHLY MOISTURE AVAILABILITY INDEX FOR SELECTED STATIONS
Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual
Camp
Perrin 0.30 0.28 0.39 0.74 1.17 0.66 0.45 0.64 1.11 1.65 0.86 0.18 1.15
Cerca la
Source 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.80 0.43 0.49 0.57 0.66 0.78 0.05 0.00 0.60
Cap-HaitO.45 0.33 0.12 0.12 0.32 0.27 0.05 0.10 0.32 0.89 1.44 0.85 0.87
Ennery 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.09 0.92 0.69 0.17 0.23 0.48 0.43 0.13 0.012 0.58
Furcy 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.15 0.55 0.64 0.67 0.93 1.48 1.62 0.45 0.00 1.11
Desdun. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.15 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.23
Saut Mat 0.94 1.12 0.85 1.59 2.00 1.09 1.20 1.96 2.38 2.19 1.37 1.60 2.10
Soubois 0.44 0.52 0.58 1.03 1.80 0.94 0.76 0.99 1.83 1.64 0.86 0.35 1.44
Source: MAI values from: Coffey, Lewis, Hauge (1984) / Hargreaves and Samani (1983)
allow the fertilizer to become soluble and then be absorbed for plant growth. Since it detects moisture deficiencies, the MAI values are useful for first approximation determination of irrigations needs. Only when MAI values are at least 0.75 will the better soils have high enough moisture storage to prevent moisture stress. As soils degrade through erosion, a higher MAI value is likely needed. Finally, a high MAI value (> 120), generally indicates a need for drainage to prevent water logging on flat or gentle slopes.
Irrigation
Table II1-5 lists the number of months that irrigation is needed, by geographical location, according to MAI values. For values between 0.50 and 0.74, supplemental irrigation would increase agricultural yields by removing moisture stress during the growing season. Because the moisture deficit in these regions is not large, a small amount of irrigation should greatly increase yields. In areas where slight moisture needs (0.50-0.75) are only during brief dry periods falling within the humid season, supplemental irrigation has proven very effective elsewhere and would be useful in Haiti. MAI values between 0.33 and 0.49 indicate greater water demands. Without irrigation under these conditions,
yields are exceedingly low. Annual crops ideally should not be grown when the MAI values are in this range; not only because of low yields, but also with the poor ground cover, high erosion would likely occur. Finally, when MAI values are less than 0.33, not only is irrigation needed, but fields generally require large quantites of water when riverflows are low.
According to the information provided in Table III-5, the existing irrigation schemes that require the greatest quantites of water per area of irrigated land, are found in the Cul-de-Sac, lower Artibonite and northwest, while the irrigated areas with the lowest water demands are on the north and south coasts. Unfortunately, from an environmental management perspective, the prognosis is not favorable for irrigation expansion, anywhere, even in those areas of relatively low water demand, unless major environmental interventions are immediately initiated in the uplands of the various watersheds.
To maximize surface waters for irrigation, impoundment of water is required; yet, reservoirs can rarely be justified economically, solely for irrigation. Multipurpose use, including combinations of flood control,
Table III-5
IRRIGATION NEEDS BASED ON MAI INDEX
Location No. of Months having MAI Values Months of Example of
0.50-0.74 0.33-0.49 <0.33 Irrigation Irrigation Project
So. Coast of the So. Peninsula 3 2 3 8 Moreau-Funfrede
South East 3 2 6 11 Orangers
Culde Sac 2 3 7 12 Varreux
Lower Artibonite 1 2 9 12 Artibonite dist. I-IV
Upper Artibonite 1 2 6 9 Nan Paul
North Coast 1 4 2 7 Limbe
North West 0 3 9 12 Jean-Rabel
23


recreation and energy production, more often than not, must be included to make irrigation feasible, using impoundment strategies. Even then, costs can only be justified if the reservoir's costs can be pro-rated over a long period of time (e.g. 100 years). In the context of Haiti's existing environment, reservoir construction is a reckless strategy. First, due to the lack of tree cover and poor land management in the upper portions of almost all Haitian river basins, sedimentation would be rapid in any reservoir. For example, Lake Peligrc has lost over 30 percent of its storage capacity in less than 25 years (LGL, Vol. 2, 1981). Second, good agricultural lands along the valley bottoms in the uplands would be removed from production, reducing food-growing capacity for thousands of small fanners.
f 10
1 I
1 1,81
Pith Odchirg* i / dtmrnRunoll Rlv*f dlKtUfQt

Tim* 1
Hypothetical Mydrojraph In riiponae to rain avant under natural condition
easa
My poMwtlcal Hydrpgraph In raaponn to Idantlcal rain aenl undar claarad ground
covar
Pig. HI-2: Water availability as a function of vegetative cover and river discharge
Evidence exists that the quantity of surface waters available for irrigation is decreasing each year due to the relationship between vegetative cover and river discharge (Figure HI-2). Baseflows, which represent the water available for irrigation when storage is limited, are diminishing (Lowenstein, 1984). Thus, it would appear that groundwater utilization needs now to be considered, although a recent evaluation dismisses this strategy a priori, without any data analysis
(LeBaron et al. 1984). Potential groundwater use, however, is being threatened by the continuing degradation of the uplands;. With an ever lower percentage of rainfall infiltrating into the groundwater, recharge of groundwater must be decreasing.
Unlike other renewable resources, the groundwater resource still exists within the lowlands due to rapid runoff caused by deforestation and steep slopes. Groundwater utilization, particularly in these areas, needs to be evaluated. Development of this potential resource, however, should not begin until proper environmental safeguards arc implemented. If pumping rates exceed inflow into the groundwater, the saliniza-tion of fresh water will occur. To be able to maximize pumping, interventions throughout the pertinent watersheds need to be undertaken. The linkages affecting the environmental status of water, soil and forests both in-situ and spatially, need to be considered at the onset of any proposed activity that intends to utilize groundwater resources.
Watersheds
Haiti's watersheds (river basins) include all the lands above the river-discharges to sea. All flows of energy and matter move solely in a downstream direction. The flow conditions are determined by the elevation and slope of the basin and the climate (precipitation), as well as the resistance of the soil and its infiltration characteristics (vegetative cover). Crop selection, farming practices and tree cutting also significantly affect the magnitude and stability of the river basin system, or watershed. From an ecological perspective, the uplands and lowlands within a watershed are completely inter-related, just as the physical characteristics and the socio-economic systems throughout each watershed impact one another.
The effects of soil erosion on river flow arc experienced both on-site and downstream. Accelerated soil erosion upstream degrades both upland and downstream areas, such as reservoirs and engineering works (e.g. irrigation canals and sewage systems), resulting in ever higher costs for maintenance and reconstruction (Figure III-3). In addition, with lower infiltration rates resulting from existing soil loss, the flow regime and total river discharge are often permanently altered. Changes in the flow, both rate and volume, and in sediment load, complicate the management considerations of forestry, agriculture, and downstream impacts of all activities affecting the watershed. On-site and downstream impacts of all activities affecting the watersheds should be considered in both economic and environmental planning.
The amount of water (discharge) flowing through the river basin system, and the seasonal variations, are important factors in watershed management. When precipitation strikes the ground, the route that
24


Fig. III-3: Aerial photograph (Scale 1:40,000) flown in 1978 showing terrigenous sediment input to the marine environment from Riviere Roseaux, near Jerlmie (Courtesy: Service Geodesic et Cartographic)
the water takes (Figure III-4) in reaching the river channel influences the river's flow regime. Overland or surface water flows travel at the highest velocity (m/min) and reaches the channel first. Surface water, however, stops flowing shortly after the rain ends. Conversely, the rain that infiltrates through the soil and becomes groundwater, moves more slowly (cm/hr) and may take weeks or months before entering the river channel. Overland flow contributes mainly to the stormflow of a river (Figure 111-2). Groundwater flow is the major contributor to the baseflow of the stream. It is the baseflow that permits rivers to continue to flow during the dry season in Haiti. Throughflow's contribution to river discharge is closer to that of the groundwater flow; however, in a humid tropical river basin, a very large proportion of the throughflow would be captured by evapo-transpiration. To a large degree, this water source represents rainfall that never enters the river system, but provides a very important source of moisture for deep-rooted plants.
When a river basin's groundcover is altered from broadleaf forest to an annual row crop such as maize, a larger proportion of the rainfall becomes overland flow; while the groundwater, and, accordingly, the baseflow, decreases. With less water reaching groundwater levels and greater volumes of water entering the river, water levels in the channel rise faster and the river system has larger peak discharges but lower recharge and baseflows. River flows also drop faster since surface water flows only continue for a short period after the rain ceases. In Haiti, with its soils and altered vegetation cover, the hydrograph illustrated for cleared lands in Figure 111-2 is the typical case. It is predicted that as conditions for erosion increase, river regimes will become ever more peaked due to an ever greater proportion of the rainfall becoming overland flow.
In Haiti this trend towards more extreme flow regimes is further strenghtcned by the steep slope charac-
25


teristics of most of the river basins. Generally speaking, those parameters that affect the hydrologic balance between overland flow and infiltration into the groundwater are more sensitive on steeper slopes than on flat lands. Thus, the destruction of the forests on fragile uplands has severely altered river hydrographs in the lowlands, the very areas in Haiti where a stable stream regime is needed most to maximize the utility of the water resource.
B = Infiltrated water that becomes ground water flow C = throughflow a shallow (subsurface) flow that moves within vegetal debris or the upper portions of the soil
Fig. IIM: River flow regime in relation to Infiltration and through flow.
A paucity of river discharge data exists throughout the country. No systematic data collection is in operation. Almost all discharge values quoted for Haitian rivers are based on measurements dating from the 1930-1940 period. A few recent discharge values are available, based on short-term observations connected with specific projects. Since dramatic environmental changes to vegetation cover and soils have occurred during the last forty years, the often quoted values are out of date. Mean discharge values in almost all cases are probably larger since evapo-transpiration losses must be less, with the seriously degraded vegetation cover decreasing the moisture storage potential of the soils found on most slope lands (Coffey, ct al., 1984).
These two changes, alone, imply that a larger percentage of rainfall enters the river system today than in years past. Unfortunately, this larger total discharge, reflected in higher mean flows, is a water resource largely lost to the surrounding seas due to the trend of more extreme flow regimes. With each passing year, the rivers and streams throughout Haiti flow more and more like torrents than stable permanent rivers. As a result, the river's use as a water supply for ever increasing population is continuously decreasing. When water is needed during the dry seasons, less is available.
Table III-6 presents the published discharge data for all of Haiti. This lack of current data represents a critical shortcoming for sensible project design of hydroelectric and irrigation schemes. The numerous fea-
sibility studies that have been prepared for irrigation, hydroelectric and other water-related projects, unfortunately, have had to extrapolate from this no longer relevant data base. For example, the Etude de Faisa-bilitg-Projet GU-l-Riv. Guayamouc (HQI-LGL-LMBDS, 1982) which examines the proposed dam sites to protect the Peligre lake from sedimentation, as well as to generate electrical power, is based on the 1925-1931 discharge data. The attempt to update this inadequate data base through correlation with precipitation has had to introduce error into the assessment, since the vegetation and soil attributes of the catchment basin clearly have changed between 1931 and 1982.
Watershed Management
One of the basic tenets of watershed management dictates that the soil surface be maintained in a condition that maximizes the infiltration of rainfall. Trees are crucial components in this strategy. By intercepting precipitation, a dense forest canopy reduces rainfall intensity; dead leaf matter iiot only protects soils from the direct impact of raindrops, but also increases the infiltration of the ground surface; the root structures of trees increase the resistance of the soil to erosion; and, the vegetation matter on the forest floor increases friction which reduces the erosional potential of surface water runoff. Overland flow of water results whenever precipitation is greater than the sum of infiltration and interception. Removal of vegetative cover from an area increases the erosional potential of an area by lowering infiltration and interception rates which increase overland flow, the major cause of erosion in Haiti. To minimize erosional potential and create a stable hydrologic regime in an area, vegetation is a crucial variable. On steep lands, permanent vegetative cover is absolutely essential to retain vital soils and contribute to a stable hydrologic regime.
The problems of bringing ecological land use planning to tropical river basins before erosion destroys too large a proportion of their soil and water resources, remain one of the major environmental challenges in the developing world (Pereira, 1973). Nowhere is this objective more critical than in Haiti. Improving land use in this country's watersheds must be one of the critical, if not the most crucial, environmental concern of the nation. All available data and surrogates, albeit very limited, indicate that despite widespread recognition of land degradation and destruction, land use practices and trends continue to lower the short-term potential productivity of Haiti's forest land and water resources, and threaten the long-term viability of the nation's natural resource base and its economy. This is not a rural or an urban problem, it is a national problem. A whole array of urban and rural needs, including water, food, building materials, energy and economic development are threatened by existing patterns of land use. More foreboding, recent evidence (Cohen, 1984; Lowenstein, 1984) points to an accele-
26


Table III-6 RIVER DISCHARGES
River Site of Cleared Lands Year MeanDis. Max. Dig. Min.Disc.
mc/sec mc/sec mc/sec
Trois Rivieres Paulin Lacorne 1965-67 13.13 527.0 2.65
Pont Gros Morne 23-40;62-67 6.95 1,500.0 0.3
Plaisance 25-40;62-67 0.87 193.0 0.01
Riviere Limbe* Rocheal'Inde 22-40 4.29 458.0 0.3
Gde Riviere du Nord Pont Parois 22-40 3.41 9.41
Riv. Massacre Ouanaminthe 22-40 5.34 450.0 0.05
Riv. Boyaha St-Raphael 22-40 3.41 9.41
Riv. Guayamouc Riv. Artibonite Hinche 26-31 25.52 900.0 0.9
Mirebalais 22-40 86.9 2,500.0 8.4
Riv. Artibonite Pont Sonde 22-40 101.4 850.0 11.1
Riv. Estere Pont Estere 65-67 18.76 95.3 1.85
Riv. Fer-a-Cheval* Pont Potion 23-31 11.85 700.0 0.73
Riv. Blanche* La Gorge 22-40 1.97 200.0 0.65
Riv. Grise Amt. Bassin G6n. 19-40 3.97 475.0 0.31
Riv. Pedernales Anse-a-Pitre 29-30 0.46 0.81 0.06
Riv. Marigot Peredot 28-30 2.42 79.0 0.07
Riv. de Jacmel Jacmel 26-31 4.67 800.0 0.12
Riv. Momance Amont Barrage 20-40 5.88 420.0 0.60
Riv.CdtesdeFer* C6tesdeFer 28-30 0.27 7.5 0.0
Riv. Cavaillon Cavaillon 22-41 9.42 1,035.0 0.70
Riv. Islet Charpentier 23-31 2.52 500.0 0.66
Riv. Torbec Torbec 23-31 2.66 188.0 0.39
Riv. Ravine duSud* Camp Perrin 23-35 4.88 350.0 0.28
Riv. Gde. Anse* Passe Ranja 25-31 26.85 850.0 0.70
Riv. Voldrogue Passe Laraque 28-30 6.07 60.0 0.52
Riv. Limb # Pont Christophe 22-30 7.1 0.3
Riv. Gallois # Grison Garde 22-31 0.44 -0.07
Riv. Estere # Pont Benoit 22-31 3.95 0.0
Riv. Bois# Verrettes 24-31; 33,35-40 2.58 0.8
Riv. La Theme # Passe Fine 23-31 4.76 0.64
Riv. Montrouis # PontToussaint 24-30 1.84 0.15
Riv. Torcelle # Messaye 22-41 1.15 0.0
Riv.Courjol# Bassin Proby 22-39 1.23 0.3
Riv. Matheux # Arcahaie 22-36 1.50 0.4
Riv. Islet # Cayes 23-31 2.68 0.64
Riv. Acul Carr. Valere 83 est. 3.7
Sources of data
* OAS, Haiti-Mission d'Assistance Technique Integree, 1972
# HARZA, Water Ressources Study for Haiti, 1979
SHELADIA Ass., Integrated Agricultural Development Project-Dubreuil, 1983.
ration in the processes of environmental destruction. Given the long history of abusive environmental activities, for all practical purposes, the undermining of the country's renewable resources has become an integral part of the nation's fabric. In practice, almost every conventional conservation strategy in the agricultural, hydrologic and forestry realms is ignored throughout the country. Ecosystems everywhere must be experiencing decreasing capacities for sustained production; yet this statement is impossible to prove at the national level, as too little data exists. Only in
very limited areas, such as on the bare slopes in the uplands of l'Acul river basin (Coffey, et al., 1984), is there proof of ecosystem decline and collapse. Given the apparent poor status of Haiti's forest land and water resources, immediate action must be taken without the waiting for a complete data base.
D.- THE FOREST RESOURCE
With temperature being relatively uniform throughout the year, it is the amount and seasonal
27


patterns of rainfall that largely determine vegetative patterns under natural conditions in the tropics. With annual precipitation almost everywhere greater than 1000 mm broadleaf or pine forests should exist throughout 75 percent of Haiti (NRC, 1982). Only in the drier areas along the southern coast, the northwest, the northeast, the lower Artibonite, and the Cul-de-Sac Plain, should dry forest be found (OAS, 1972 -Chapter 5). This was the vegetative pattern of Haiti prior to the European colonization.
Life Zones
According to the Holdridge Life Zone Classification System, there are nine different life zones in Haiti. It is interesting to note that Holdridge devised his classification system while working in Haiti in the 1940's.
Subtropical Thorn Woodland; represented by semi-desert conditions of only 550 mm of rainfall a year, and a xerophytic forest dominated by Cercidium praexcox, Prosopis juliflora (bayahonde) and cacti from the genera Opuntia and Cereus. This life zone is typical of the cacti formations of the northwestern peninsula.
Subtropical Dry Forest; characterized by Phyllos-tylon brasiliensis, Prosopis juliflora and Guaiacum officinalis. Found at altitudes below 400 masl, this second largest life zone is highly productive where soils are deep and irrigation is available (Cul-de-Sac). On shallow soils and without water, it has typically supported sisal plantations.
Subtropical Moist Forest; constitute the most extensive life zone in Haiti. Characteristic plants have included the mahogany tree (Swietenia mahogani), the tropical oak tree (Catalpa longissima) and the royal palm (Roystonea regia). It prevails on the Central Plateau and on the alluvial plains in the north, center and south. This zone supports the majority of subsistence farming and the cultivation of mangoes and avocados.
Subtropical Wet Forest; the zone covering most low-altitude mountain ridges and small mountains (mornes). Its coverage is restricted to the nothern and southern coasts of Haiti and portions of the Central Plateau. It supports coffee, cocoa and rubber plantations, primarily on calcareous (limestone) soils.
Subtropical Rain Forest; found typically at the lower altitudes of the Massif de la Hotte in the southern peninsula. This zone is not productive for farming, since it contains a shallow soil base, yet its recent exploitation for slash-and-burn agriculture indicates the extent of the population pressure on the remaining forest resources of the country. Because of heavy rainfall, it produces poor harvests and is very susceptible to erosion. Its value as wildlife habitat and erosion control far exceeds its value for cultivation of food crops.
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest; repre-
sents the zone of low altitude mountains, such as the Kenscoff area near Port-au-Prince, in altitudes ranging from 800 to 2000 masl. It is generally well suited for the cultivation of potatoes and other vegetables, if the slopes are farmed using soil conservation practices..
Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest; characterized by higher rainfall than in the previous zone and includes most of the pine forest remaining in Haiti. Its use should involve the protection and sustained utilization of the pine forest (Pinus occidentalis).
Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest and Subtropical Montane Wet Forest; cover a limited area in Haiti, primarily on the slopes of the higher mountain ranges in the south (La Selle). These zones are characterized by pine forest and evergreen broadleaf forest.
Trends
Today, there is little resemblance to this potential natural landscape as described by these Life Zones. Commercial harvesting of trees, and clearing of forest for agriculture, has destroyed the natural forests. By 1954, it was estimated that only 8 to 9 percent of the land surface remained in forest (Burns 1954). In spite of numerous reforestation projects, Haiti continues to lose its last remaining forests either to land clearing for food production or tree cutting for lumber and fuelwood.
TABLE IH-7 FOREST COVER BY MAJOR WATERSHEDS (Derived from DATPE 1:250,000 maps)
River Total Tree Basin %
Basin Area (Km1) Area(Km]) Tree Cover
4P.de-Paix/P. Margot 123.8 545 23
5 Limbe" 16.8 312 5
6 Zone Cap-Haitien 21.1 -
7 Grande R.du Nord 10.0 699 1
lOEstdre 25.8 834 3
11a Upper Artibonite 220.1 4,300 5
1 lb Lower Artibonite 431.3 2,562 17
13 Cul de Sac 12.8 1.250 1
14 Fond Verrettes 69.5 190 37
15 Leogane 1.8 650 <1
16Sud-Est 360.7 -
17 Jacmel 9.5 1,220 1
20 Cavaillon 51.0 380 13
21 LcsCayes 163.3 720 23
22 Tiburon/P. Salut 52.3 540 10
23Irois/Je:remie 41.8 365 11
24 G. Anse 117.3 556 21
25 Voldrogue/Roseaux 116.8 -
26Corail/
Anse a Veau 1.0 880 <1
Total 1,846.7 6.7
28


HAITI
LAND WITH 60% TREE COVER
jean pabe
Jeari-p.-::!;
mole st.-Nicola?
\ <
PORT-DE-PAIX
__
<4>le borgne
CAP-HAITIEN
.GONA'Vr 3
Golfe de
JEREMIE
la Gonave
dais ae Pon-aa-Princ-
PORT-AU-PRINCE &.
o
OR
*3
--r !
CAYES
!LE A VAO
MER
DES
ANTILLES
from DATPE 1982
PREPARED BY WILCOX ASSOCIATES


A very conservative estimate, based on the difference between wood products being consumed and the numbers of trees being planted and naturally regenerating, indicates that for every new tree, three are being cut or burned. Some estimates place the current ratio of trees cut and burned to planting and regeneration to be as great as seven to one. Trees are being cleared without regard for hydrologic and soils information, and not replaced where they are being cut, thus undercutting the attempted mitigation of deforestation impacts on the ecology.
Figure III-5 and Table III-7 quantify the 1978 areal coverage of broadleaf and pine forest throughout Haiti; these are parcels of forest by major watersheds falling within the dense and open forest categories and including all lands having at least 60 percent tree coverage. These data indicate that in 1978, only 6.7 percent of the country remained forested. The single largest forest parcel (264 km2) remaining is the pine forest in the southeastern portion of the nation, while the highest percentage of tree cover is found in the Fond Verrettes (37 percent) watershed, an area where all rivers drain into the Dominican Republic.
Of the thirty major watersheds within country, twelve were completely deforested by 1978. According to DATPE (Table IH-7), 9.2 percent of the country is forested; however, this includes savanna with trees as well as sparsely covered forest lands that, from an erosional or hydrologic perspective, do not function as tree covered landscapes.
Of the 6.7 percent of existing forest, approximately 36 percent (659 km2) falls within the dense category (80 to 100 percent canopy cover) and 64 percent is in the open category (60 to 79.9 percent canopy cover). From this, it can be inferred that the areas of open forest experiencing tree clearing are likely areas of agricultural and grazing activity expansion. The highly fragmented pattern of forest cover illustrated in Figure III-5 indicates that the edges of these parcels are undergoing active tree cutting and/or burning. The majority of these remaining forest parcels are concentrated along watershed divides, covering steep and potentially highly erodible lands. As these lands are cleared, hydrologic and sediment balances within the affected river systems will be further altered.
In the northwest (Anse Rouge to Jean Rabel) and the western portion of the southern peninsula (Camp-Perrin to Roseaux and Pic Macaya National Park), Cohen (1984) documents the pattern of current land clearing. Lowenstein (1984) substantiates the negative results of the deforestation in the Pic Macaya area on the irrigation potential in the Grande Ravine du Sud of the Cayes Plain.
From 1978 to 1984, Cohen (1984) determined that deforestation in three study areas, namely degraded
ICompMd by L ui>
Fig. IU-6: Deforestation trends In major watersheds
forest, open forest, and closed forest, ranged between 1.0 and 3.4 percent. Even more alarming, the actual decrease in closed forest area during this six year-period was 12.6 percent per year. The only environmentally beneficial vegetative cover in these humid mountainous lands apparently is rapidly disappearing.
Prospects
To estimate the future status of forest cover in Haiti, the 1978 vegetation cover (Table III-7) was assumed by the CEP team to undergo a constant decrease of 0.67 percent. Figure III-6 represents those trends and prospects. This value is conservative, since it is less than one-half of Cohen's measured rates. The demands for lands and trees should remain at least what they were between 1978 and 1984 unless spectacular changes occur in population, agriculture and industry.
If anything, the results presented in Table 1II-8 underestimate the severity of the problem. As is clearly evident from Table III-8, all areas of open and closed forest cover will likely be gone within fifty years unless extreme and immediate action is initiated and established. By 1990, eight, or one-half, of the river basins having forest cover in 1978, will likely be completely denuded of forest lands. One of these basins, the upper Artibonite, drains directly into Lake Peligre, which already has lost over 30 percent of its storage capacity due to sedimentation (LGL, 1981). The proposed multi-million dollar dam construction on the Guaya-mouc makes little sense unless the tree cutting is stopped in this area, and the lands above the proposed reservoir are immediately protected.
By the year 2008, unless current rates of tree cutting are stopped and reforestation in appropriate areas is accelerated only one river basin will have any forest cover remaining. There is no evidence, documented or otherwise, that the deforestation trend will be reduced, yet alone stopped. Clearly, new far-reaching initiatives need to be developed and implemented imme-
30


diately before the last vestiges of Haiti's forest is forever lost.
TABLE III-8
ESTIMATED NUMBER-YEAR DENSE AND OPEN FOREST IS TOTALLY REMOVED BY RIVER BASIN
Basin Year
4 Port de Paix/P. Margot 1995
5 Limbe 1986
7 Grande Riviere du Nord 1981 (Gone)*
10 Estere 1982 (Gone)
1 la Upper Artibonite 1987
lib Lower Artibonite 2002
13CuIdeSac 1982 (Gone)
14 Fond Verrettes 2042
15 Leogane 1981 (Gone)
17 Jacmel 1981 (Gone)
20 Cavaillon 1996
21 LesCayes 2008
22 Tiburon/P. Salut 1992
23 Irois/ Jeremie 1995
24 Grande Anse 2007
26 Corail / Anse a Veau 1980 (Gone)
# estimates based on an average decrease of 0.67%/ year of 1978 tree cover.
* gone only implies there are no stands of dense or open forest according to the DATPE, 1983 criteria that can be detected at a scale of 1:250,000.
Current and past mitigation projects have been inadequate to meet the challenge of reforestation. The integrated watershed projects, such as those undertaken in l'Acul (USDA/USAID, 1983) and Limbe (PNUD/FAO, 1984) failed, for a host of reasons. Significantly, two factors were identified: the lack of involvement of local people and the lack of perceived benefits of the projects by the local population. Once external funding stopped, the land improvment practices ceased. Planted saplings either died, were browsed by livestock, or cut by the inhabitants. Engineering works quickly went into disrepair and, once not maintained, increased land degradation. Two tree planting projects, the SHEEPA (Soctete' Haitienne d'Etude et d'Execution des Projets Agricoles) and the AOP (Agroforestry Outreach Project), appear to be successful in mobilizing the small farmer to plant trees for profit. The SHEEPA project is raising and selling mostly fruit trees in the eastern portion of the Upper Artibonite Valley. AOP through its three components, ODH (Operation Double Harvest), PADF (Pan American Development Foundation) and CARE, are distributing seedlings to be later used for fuelwood, charcoal, poles and eventually lumber. These projects, however, are conceptualized as income producing, not
as reforestation projects (Conway, 1983; Miller and Ehrlich, 1984). Tree planting locations are selected by the farmers and in almost all cases trees are not planted in areas where the trees cither maximize their role in the control of soil erosion or water conservation. In fact, the purpose of the AOP is to eventually harvest the trees. The ODBFA tree planting in the Upper Artibonite, to lower sedimentation yield into Lake Peligre, has also not been entirely planned as a reforestation project.
The continuation of the deforestation of Haiti's few remaining forest tracts, in response to both the need to expand farming into new areas to offset the decline of soil productivity in established areas, as well as to derive income from the sale of the wood, is fundamentally altering the nation's hydrologic regimes. River discharges everywhere are becoming less stable, permanent streamflows are changing the intermittent flows, while groundwater is decreasing. The magnitude of Haiti's environmental situation is evident in every region of the country. With the resource base declining everywhere, even if optimal land use strategies are immediately adopted, there is little hope that the potential productivity of the physical systems can ever return to former levels.
E.- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.- INITIATE LAND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
Today's grave environmental situation, as evidenced by the deterioration of the countryside, including sharply declining food production, internal migration into Port-au-Prince, the high unemployment of rural emigrants, and the continuing attempts at illegal international migration, has been thoroughly documented in a series of studies (e.g. Donner, 1975; Larose, undated; PNUD, 1981). To have any stabilizing effect at all, and conservation strategies are urgently needed now. The traditional conservative sectoral approach with a multitude of preliminary pilot programs that might seem prudent at first glance, is irresponsible in the Haitian context. Time is of the essence. Immediate large scale changes and investments are needed now; any alternative is defeatist. Hillslopes are being destroyed throughout Haiti, not just degraded. The natural resource base of the country is moving from the renewable resource category into a non-renewable classification.
Fortunately, previous reports and studies provide useful insights from which to develop immediate large scale land-use programs (e.g. Coffe et al, 1984; Conway, 1983; Murray, 1979; ODBFA, 1983). Therefore, it is possible to move directly toward implementation of land strategies, based upon these findings. Emphasis should be placed on projects involving systems where the greatest immediate and long-term benefits are likely to occur. Development projects concerned with environmental amelioration have to
31


include physical, social, economic, and institutional components; otherwise, prospects for success are negligible.
Projects will need to be conceptualized for longer time periods than the normal two-lo-l'ive year framework if there is to be any hope in reversing damaging physical and ocio-economic (rends.
The magnitude, of land degradation both in extent and severity negate any attempt to solve the problem on a national scale, at least in the foreseeable futme. A regional approach is more likely to prove successful in solving Haiti's environmental illness (Coffey, et al. 1984).
To select projects within this regional context, a set of criteria must be developed to determine priorities in selecting regional projects for strategy implementation. In the interest of immediate need, selection criteria should include those projects which preserve the potentially most productive lands. The areas, within Haiti, selected for immediate land conservation projects may not necessarily be the most productive lands today, since political considerations (such as ownership) with resulting investment practices, may be distorting production statistics.
The lands delineated by the CEP (see Figure IV-l) represent one possible set of high priority areas based on low erosion risk, arable land criteria. Other criteria should be developed to select areas which have important environmental and socio-economic implications in addition to or other than food production. For example, criteria which identify mountainous areas producing large quantities of sediment that threaten existing hydroelectric plants and other infrastructure and lowlands agricultural production should be included.
No matter which lands arc identified as crucial to preserve, it is critical, at the first stage of project formulation, to identify all the critical system links that affect and interact on these lands. For example, lowlands have and likely will remain the highest priority for both international donors and the GOH. Yet irrigation projects to increase food production in the lowland areas have rarely met expectations in the past because an integrated watershed approach was not part of the planning process.
2.- FOCUS ON CAYES BASIN REGION
The Cayes Basin region appears to be a high, if not the highest, priority area for immediate program initiatives based on the criteria suggested. Previous reports (Coffey et al. 1984; Delatour et al. 1984) indicate that this area, both physically and sociologically, has potential for success. Comparative data for all of Haiti indicate that the greatest concentration of agricultural lands with low erosion risk is found here. The area becomes even more valuable because 99 percent of these "good" lands form a single continuous tract. Furthermore, climatic conditions make possible rain-fed agriculture throughout the entire region, and sup-
plemental irrigation would increase the range of crop yields, especially if fertilizers are effectively used.
Unfortunately, numerous indicators point toward an accelerating deterioration in the environmental conditions of the Cayes region. Soil erosion on the uplands (Cohen, 19K4; Geter, 1983) appears to be accelerating in response to the cutting of trees and expansion uf shifting cultivation. A major change in the water balance of the area due to larger peak river discharges from less water retention of soils in the uplands, and lower sustained baseflow, will limit the success of irrigation. This trend to a less stable hydro-logic regime will constrain future management options throughout the entire Cayes plain.
To maintain and improve the environmental situation throughout this large area, a regional, not sectoral, approach must be developed. Lowland and upland sector planning must be integrated, and include both socio-economic and environmental considerations, if the resource base of this region is to remain and increase in productivity.
The planning issues and strategies pertinent to the Cayes Basin area can be usefully applied to other large parcels of "good land" in Haiti that have development potential at the regional scale.
3.- INCORPORATION OF LOCAL PARTICIPATION IN LAND-USE PROJECTS.
If the inhabitants are to accept the need to alter existing agricultural practices, benefits must directly and immediately accrue to the small farmer whenever innovations are attempted. Local participation of the people living on the land must be an integral part of any environmental project. Guarantees should be in place, prior to improvements, to protect the farmers from losing cither their land, or having tax laws applied to negate the benefits once the land utility increases.
Because of the ecological interaction of the physical processes and the fragmented nature of land holdings throughout the countryside, local participation must be coordinated within functional areas such as hillslopc and catchment units. A recent community soil conservation project, Ti Bwa (Petit-Bois) is illustrative of a successful environmental maintenance effort at the local level (Talbot, 1984; Lowcnthal, 1984). Minimal development occurred, but at least land degradation was arrested. In many ways, the building of waterway channels along the hillslopcs in this area illustrated the community cooperation/hillslope unit approach advocated by Murray (1979) (Figure III-7). The contour canals arc now catching runoff, which reduces erosion. Their primary benfit, however, increases groundwater recharge, which permits crops (e.g. sorghum to survive. Because of the thinsoil throughout the area, crop production likely will only be able to meet the needs of the existing population demands
32


I'i|>. Ill-V: HiiililiiiK lontiiiir lo ciinlrol erosion Iplmlo WM'/Kiuni'
ami economic development is limited in an environmental selling such as Ti Hwa. Ne\ crlhcilcss. lliis project has utilized elements dial should he incoiporated into any project design: (I) a putLci%ci! need ol the inhabitants. (2) the integration of local inhabitants in the project. (3) benefits directly accrued lo the small farmer, and (4) incorporation of legal inputs to ensure thai land resource improvements do not threaten peasant security and access to the land.
The organization ol llie inhabitants will require on-site advisors. Both PVO ami (i()II participation should be incorporated into ;iiiy project design. The use ol agronomists appears to be particularly crucial.
I'V() activities need lo be conceptualized beyond the normal narrow goals of these organizations. Their operations must be tailored to the needs ol an environmental framework and within an integrated environmental approach.
Population pressures on Haiti's fragile lands must decrease. Thus, projects intended to improve the environment must also include components concerned with rural and urban development anil familv planning. If employment opportunities do not expand to absorb the excessive upland agrarian population, oul-migiation from the hillslope areas will occur only after the upland environments are destroyed.
33


IV
Agriculture
A.- INTRODUCTION
Once the richest French colony in the new world, Haiti is now the poorest country in the western hemisphere and one of the poorest in the world. With independence came a breakdown of the plantation system and the irrigation works on which it depended to a large extent. In the civil wars which followed, two processes developed, became institutionalized and are characteristic of the Haitian scone: The parcelization of land, as the freed slaves occupied land in scattered and small parcels, further subdivided by increased population pressure, led to the present state of high degree of morcelization with much insecurity of tenure. The other characteristic which became implanted in Haitian society and which persists to this day, is a lack of identification of the individual with any greater purpose than self/family survival and/or agrandissement. Out of this evolved a society in which every layer of the society exploits those which are below.
Those two characteristics of the Haitian society are the underlying causes of rural poverty and of the deterioration of the resource base which threatens to make the very survival of the society problematical. Numerous assessments of the agricultural sector have been made in which the characteristics of the sector are amply described and analyzed. The discussion to follow will focus on elements which are most directly related, to the evolution of environmental changes: the resource base, the structure of the sector, production technology and productivity, the almost insurmountable task of bringing about a reversal of resources degradation and certain options which may be considered.
Haiti is a mountainous country with two parallel ridges forming the southern and northern peninsulas. An elevated area, the Central Plateau, extends southward from the northern ridge. A low lying plain,
the Cul de Sac, separates the southern mountains from the Central Plateau.
Only 29 percent of all lands have slopes of less the 10 percent. Conversely, 63 percent of all lands are too steep (more than 20 percent slope) to be cultivated sustainably. When the land is deprived of the vegetative cover by slash-and-burn farming activities, it can only yield a meager crop for one season. After losing the topsoil to erosion, it becomes unproductive. The situation has already occurred on most lands in Haiti.
The FAO estimates in 1982 that the equivalent of 6,000 ha of farmland is lost to erosion each year. Given the limited amount of arable land remaining in Haiti it is evident that this loss of soil is rapidly diminishing the viability of many areas of the country to support its human population.
B.- AGRICULTURAL USES OF THE LAND
The FAO Production Yearbook (1983) divides Haiti's total land area of 2,770,000 ha into use suitability classes: (a) arable land (897,000 ha, of which 550,000 ha are suitable for annual crops, and 347,000 ha are suitable for permanent crops); (b) permanent pasture (504,000 ha); (c) forest lands (119,000 ha); and (d) other lands (1,250,000 ha). Actual land use distribution (Table I V-6) shows that 2 out of every 3 ha. of cultivated lands are found on mountains, presumably on more or less steep slopes. Thus, twice as much land is cultivated on mountain slopes than is considered suitable by the FAO (1983) for permanent crops. Moreover, considering that only a small portion of the cultivated lands on the mountains is actually used under a permanent vegetative cover (permanent crops such as coffee, cocoa, fruit trees), the soil loss from mountain lands cultivated with annual crops is enormous.
35


Table IV-1
DISTRIBUTION OF LAND BY USE POTENTIAL
Potential Use (2) Land Area (km1) and % Distribution (I)
Lund/Soil Class North Transv. West South Total
la Good soils with possibilities for irriga- 785.6 1,046.3 588.7 633.7 3.054.5(3)
tion, suitable for mechanization, high 20.2 10.0 8.7 11.2 11.3(4)
productivity potential, topography 25.7 34.3 19.3 20.7 100 (5)
constraining
lib Good soils, not irrigable, some res- 1,040.4 3,712.5 2,135.0 1,683.9 8,571.8(3)
triction in type of crop, small localized 26.7 34.7 31 29.6 31.7(4)
mechanization and irrigation possible 12.1 43.3 24.9 19.6 100 (5)
traditional agriculture with soil
conservation measures, topography
a constraint, most appropriate for tree
crops, pasture and forest.
I lie Mediocre soils, swampy suited for rice 104.0 397.8 60 74.1 636 (3)
subject to adequate water develop- 2.7 3.7 1 1.3 3.2(4)
ment and management, drainage and 16.2 62.5 9 11.6 100 (5)
irrigation
I Vd Soils suited especially for forest, 1,966.9 5,547.4 4,014 3,289.8 14,818.6(3)
localized tree crop agriculture and 50.5 51.8 59 57.9 54.7(4)
pastures possible. Topography cons- 13.3 37.4 27.1 22.2 100 (5)
training subject to severe erosion.
a) includes classes I and II of the USDA system
b) includes classes III, IV and VI of the USDA system
c) includes class V of the USDA system
d) includes classes VII and VIII of the USDA system
1) The country is divided into four regions for resources inventory & planning by DATPE (sec figure)
2) adopted by DATPE from USDA soil capability classification
3) for each region/country the total area
4) for each region/country the percentage of the area corresponding to the respective land soil class
5) contribution of each region to area of the respective classes expressed in percentage.
The Ministry of Plan in its approach to regional planning, has divided the Haitian land area into land use classes based upon a modification of the USDA land capability classification system (DATPE, 1984). Potential uses of land in the four regions newly designated, based on that system of classification and derived from recently produced maps from 1978 aerial photography (DATPE, 1982), are given in Table IV-1.
Only I 1.3 percent of the total land area or 313,010 ha is placed in the combined classes 1 and II, which represent few constraints for agricultural use. Much of the 31.7 percent of the land placed in the combined USDA classes III, IV and VI, consists of steep slopes subject to severe erosion and suitable only for permanent crops or pastures. The DATPE figures show a considerably larger area in classes I, II and III (combined USDA classes through VI) than is classified as arable by the FAO. This is due to the inclusion by
DATPE in its class II of much of the land which FAO classes as suitable for permanent pasture rather than as arable land.
The CEP team, using more conservative criteria (e.g. arable land with low erosion risk), concluded that the area suitable for crop production with few restrictions is in order of approximately 205,000 ha, or 7.4%. The team also concluded that the area under forest cover is greatly overstated by the DATPE figures.
According to a recent GOH document (DATPE, I9S4), forty-two percent of Haiti's total land surface is actively being farmed (Tabic IV-2). Utilizing data derived from 1978 air photographs, a soil potential map and an erosional map were developed (DATPE, 1982). By combining the information presented on these two maps, the CEP team derived on a real dis-
36


Table IV-2
AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN HAITI *
Cultivated lands Shifting cultivated lands
within pastures Grazing lands Forest lands Non-cultivated lands
870,000 ha 31.4 percent
300,000 530,000 250,(KK) 820,(KM)
Total
10.8 19.2 9.0 29.6
2,770,000 100.0 percent
* DATPE (1984)
tribution of agriculturally "good" lands (low erosional risk under the existing Haitian agricultural system of classes I, II, III, and soils not degraded significantly by erosion Al, A2) within Haiti (Figure IV-1). Having a low risk of environmental degradation, these "good" lands have the best potential for sustaining long-term agriculture, provided that sufficient water is available.
A few basic patterns are evident from this map.
First, for a country where nearly eighty percent of the population lives in rural areas and whose livelihood is largely based on agricultural activities, there arc few "good" lands (7.4%: Table IV-3) that are environmen-
Table IV-3
DISTRIBUTION OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL LANDS (Independent of climate) and crop suitability zone
Basin (1) Area of Good Basin %Good Crop Suit.
Land (Km1) (2) Area (Km1) Land Zone (4)
1. VersantSud 10 550 2 1
2. VersantNord 27 3
3. Trois Rivieres, Port-de-Paix 41 897 5 4
4. P. Margot 18 545 3 4,5
5.B.de Limbe 32 312 10 2,4,5
6. Zde Cap-Haitien 116 3,5
7. B. de la Gde. Riv. du Nord 37 699 5 3,5
8. Zone Nord-Est 79 2,3,5
9. B.de Quinte 47 690 7 2,3,4
lO.B.del'Estere 29 834 3 1,3,4
1 la Upper Artibonite (3) 324 4,300 7 4,5
lib Lower Artibonite 166 2,562 6 1,3,4
12.ZSt-Marc 61 1,090 6 2
13.Z.Culde Sac 292 1,250 23 1,2,3
14. Fond Verrettes 2 190 1 5
15. P. de Leogane 71 650 11 5
16. Z. Sud-Est 32 1,2,5
17. B.de la Gde R.de Jacmel 20 1,220 2 5
18. Bainet / Cotes de Fer 35 1,065 3 3
19. Aquin / St-Louis du Sud 48 700 7 2,6
20. Cavaillon 32 380 8 6
21. Les Cayes 251 720 35 5,6
22. Tiburon/Port Salut 20 540 4 3,5,6
23. LesIrois/J6rmie 11 365 3 6
24. Grande Anse 16 556 3 1,6
25. Voldrogue / Roseaux 16 6
26.Corail/Anse 82 880 9 3,6
27. Gde. Riv. de Nippes 20 460 4 3,4
28. Miragdane/
Petit & Grand Goave 46 3,4
29. Tortue 4 180 2 3
30. Z. de la Gonave 63 680 9 1
31.IIeaVache Total 2,047 7,4
1) Delimitation of basins according to DATPE, 1982.
2) Area falling within Land Potential Classes I, II, III and Land Erosion Risk Al, A2; DATPE, 1982.
3) Upper Artibonite all lands draining above Lake Peligre Dam
4) Based on Rainfed Agriculture in Haiti (Hargreaves et al. 1983).
37


e
PREPARED BY WILCOX ASSOCIATES


tally stable under current land use practices. Second, the majority of these "good" lands arc not contiguous, but in small discrete units. Third, even without considering precipitation factors in the delimitation of "good" lands, the northwest has a very restricted percentage of "good" lands for agriculture. On the other hand, the southwest peninsula, especially the Cayes Basin, as well as the zone of the Cul-de-Sac have the greatest percentage of "good" land density. Fourth, almost all large parcels of "good" lands arc concentrated along the coast or found along valley bottoms that are likely to be susceptible to flooding. Fifth, if river basin divides are ignored, four large parcels of contiguous "good" lands dwarf all other parcels. These are from north to south: the lands in proximity to Cap-Hai-tien, the lower reaches of the Estere and Artibonite River Basins between Dcssalincs and St-Marc; the Cul-de-Sac lands focused on Croix-dcs-Bouqucts; and the Cayes river basins. Sixth and finally, when combining both the "good" land factor with the crop suitability zones (Tables IV-3 and IV-4), the Cayes river Basin appears to have the best potential per unit area of land within a river basin system for rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of crop suitability zones.
Table IV-5 provides data on current (based on 1978 aerial photographs) land use by type of crop, pasture or forest cover. It is clear from these figures that the land currently supporting crops is much larger in area than what the FAO has classified as agricultural land. This appears to be due to the high degree of food cultivation interspersed within the areas classed as suitable for tree crops and permanent pasture and forest.
Table IV-6 shows regional land use in relation to topography. The widespread cultivation of land unsui-tcd for annual crop production, without even minimal attention to soil conservation practices, as well as the extensive clearing of forest cover for new lands, has led to the catastrophic accelerated state of erosion throughout the country.
C CLIMATE
The range of temperatures in the areas which are suitable for agriculture does not pose an important constraint on agricultural production. Yet the combination of elevation and rainfall can determine the kinds of crop produced. For example, beans are principally grown at the high elevations during the rainy season because of severe damage from disease and pests when planted in the lowlands, while beans are successfully planted in the lowlands during the dry season where irrigation is available.
Although, based on evapotranspiration data, areas with rainfall of 1500 mm or more should be able to sustain reasonable crop growth without irrigation (a substantial portion of Haiti receives at least 1500 mm/year), the considerable variation between and within seasons makes annual crop production without irrigation hazardous in all but a few favored areas. Moreover, "agricultural droughts" frequently occur under conditions of generally adequate amounts and distribution of rainfall because of the low absorption and retention capacities of the soils (NOAA, 1979). Agricultural droughts are especially severe where soil erosion has reduced the land's water retention capacity over extensive areas, such as the northwest around
Table IV-4
CRITERIA USED TO DETERMINE GOOD AGRICULTURAL LANDS
Land Classification of Soils (USDA) Land/Soil Class
I. Excellent Soils well drained, slope 0-2% high productivity
II. Very Good Soils well drained, slope 2-5% good productivity
III. Good Slopes 5p8% need erosion control, average productivity
Erosion Characteristic of Soils (DADPE, 1982)
Al Slight erosion and low erosion potential when vegetation cover exists, primarily alluvial soils A2 Average erosion, need soil conservation, should primarily be kept in tree or perenial vegetation.
Crop Suitability Zones (Hargreavcs and Samani, 1983) Zone
1. Arid, cultivated crops need irrigation in all months
2. Semi-arid, crops requiring 60 days or less (e.g. millets and mung beans), low potentially yields for rainfed and irrigation very useful
3. Sum-humid bi-modal rainy season, average growing season three to four months, good yields possible under good water moisture storage
4. Humid, average growing season five to six months, rainfall usually dependable, some double cropping possible.
5. Humid, Average growing season seven to nine months, some months have excessive rainfall requiring good drainage for most general crops.
6. Perhumid, average growing season ten to twelve months, situated primarily in mountainous areas, important source areas for river flows.
39


Table IV-5
OCCUPATION OF LAND BY USE CATEGORIES (1)
Type of Land Use
North Transversak West South Haiti
Specialized crops 371.1 605.3 318.9 413.4 1,708.7
Rice 42.8 316.0 46.8 63.6 469.2
Sugarcane 126.1 NI 144.5 81.7 352.9
Annual Irrigated 48.4 265.6 28.0 162.4 504.4
Banana 0.9 42.9 12.3 56.1
Sisal 163.2 22.8 56.1 17.6 249.7
Vetiver 72.0 72.0
Coconut 0.6 3.8 4.4
Tree crops 725.9
dominant 413.0 4oC9 396.3 1.996.1
(Food crops in (c :)267.5 (c)io.4 (c)281.5 (c)183.5 (c)900.9
association) 145.5 557.5 17V.4 212.8 1.095.2
Tree crops sparce 846.7 1,728.6 1,094.8 861.0 4,531.1
associated food 553.1 1,462.9 577.9 535.7 3,129.6
crops dense (c)293.6 (c)265.7 (c)325.3 (c)l,401.5
Agricultural
Domain
Domain
Silvo
pastoral
Domain
Food crops dense
tree cover open 474.7 1,629.8 962.5 979.8 4,046.8
Food crops
moderately dense
in pasture and
natural vegetation 438.1 1,663.2 437.2 837.3 4,375.8
Food crops
dispersed pasture
and natural
vegetation 196.8 1,777.8 564.1 319.7 2,258.4
Extensive pasture
herbaceous species
dominant 305.1 1,244.9 385.0 27.4 1,962.4
Savana with trees 183.7 998.0 1,053.6 664.1 2,879.4
Trees localized 44.8 56.1 109.1 124.9 334.9
Trees dense 3.0 61.3 12.4 41.6 118.3
Trees sparse 12.7 443.3 316.5 219.1 991.6
Trees very sparse 123.2 437.3 615.6 258.5 1,434.6
Broad leaf forest 397.3 253.6 104.1 1,064.8 1.C19.8
Dense 13.3 58.6 31.4 116.1 219.4
Sparse 265.0 29.9 13.0 312.6 620.5
Very Sparse 119.0 165.1 59.7 631,1 979.9
Pine forest 94.6 74.2 252.4 52.6 473.8
Dense 9.8 27.9 53.8 91.5
Sparse 84.8 46.3 93.5 22.4 247.0
Very Sparse 105,1 30.2 135.3
Mangrove 49.1 43.1 17.7 61.6 171.5
6.651.2 5,658.0 26,223.8
(1) From maps showing occupation of land established from 1978 aerial photographs. (DATPE/SEP);
NI = Not Indicated
(c) Coffee probably in association
40


TABLE IV-6:
OCCUPATION OF LAND IN RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY
Region Valleys and Plains Low hills Mountains Mountains Plateau
North Region (Area (Km2) Specialized Crops Agricultural Domain Agro-pastoral Domain Silvo-pastoral domain 1,087.1 34.13% 84.52% 6.03% 9.44% 1,454.7 53.28% 25.62% 21.10% 1,195.3 31.91% 41.73% 26.36% Area: 3,831.2 Km1 33.1 91.24% 8.76%
Transversal Region Area (km2) Specialized Crops Agricultural Domain Agro-pastoral domain Silvo-pastoral domain 2,076.4 27.56% 76.91% 13.00% 4.54% 4,705.1 0.30% 41.58% 40.15% 17.52% 2,828.1 47.60% 30.82% 42.38% 9.54% Area: 10,735.4 km1 515.6 47.60% 23.54% 34.98%
Region West Area Area (Km2) Specialized crops Agricultural domain Agro-pastoral domain Silvo-pastoral domain
805.4 35.86 79.15% 13.00% 7.85%
2,768.4 1.08% 28.50% 40.15% 31.35%
Area: 6,959.1 km2 2,365.8 711.6
46.59% 43.34 42.38% 23.54% 11.0% 33.12%
Region South Area (Km2) Specialized crops Agricultural Domain Agro-pastoral domain Silvo-pastoral domain
967.40 33.37% 85.09% 2.53% 12.37%
3,111.0
2.29%
45.94%
23.05%
31.01%
Area: 5,776.1 km2 1,324.2 255.4
20.91% 47.49% 30.32 16.13% 48.77% 36.38%
Source: from interpretation of aerial photography of 1978 (DATPE/SEP).
Bombardopolis, M61e St-Nicolas and Jean-Rabel.
In these areas the soils are naturally thin and have poor water absorption and retention characteristics. Once denuded of forest or grass cover, the absorption and retention capacities diminish, making crop production hazardous even under generally adequate rainfall amounts and distribution. Even with the deeper soils on the steep slopes, absorption and retention of water 1 y denuded soils is frequently inadequate. The result of widespread clearing of vegetation is a vicious cycle of low rates of absorption, rapid runoff, erosion, still lower absorption capability, more rapid runoff and more erosion.
Although the view is frequently heard that rainfall is decreasing and droughts have increased in recent years in Haiti, this is not supported by the available data (NOAA, 1979). The occurrence of several series of drought years during the period of the late 50's to the late 70's, which was generalized throughout the Caribbean region, appear to be a cyclical phenomena. A comparison of variablity data for three periods,
1920-1937, 1938-1958 and 1958-1978, shows no significant differences or trends (NOAA, 1979). Nevertheless, a perception of increasing occurence of droughts affecting agriculture may be really due, not to natural phenomena, but because of the decreasing absorption capability of eroded lands.
D.- THE STRUCTURE
OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
The amount of arable land in Haiti has been variously estimated. The figures cited usually range between 890,000 and 1,100,000 ha, with most estimates in the lower range.
Although it is generally understood that the agricultural sector is composed primarily of a large number of small farmers, there are nonetheless some sizeable holdings. A total of 178,080 ha is attributed to ten such holdings (CEPAL/FAO 1983). If one single holding of 150,000 ha is subtracted (SHADA, Soci6t6 Haitienne Americaine de Developpement Agricole, was granted 150,000 ha of forest lands in the early
41


1940's), the remaining 28,080 ha which are mostly arable, constitute about three percent of the land area classed as arable by most authorities. This land is located in the plains and occupied principally by sugar cane and sisal.
Extensive areas arc attributed to the government referred to as "State lands". Little is definitively known about the magnitude and location of these holdings. They are not exploited by government, but rather rented or otherwise occupied by the local population. Much of the state lands fall in the non-arable
Cumulative %ol ttrnm
Cumul.1l,.%ol Holding. R 5
St a
8 a *
ess
-3
- 1 8
5 S 8
Fig. IV-2: Size distribution orctiltlvated holdings
(CEPAL/FAO1983) (1) 1 carreau = 1.29 ha.
category. There are also numerous holdings of 50 to 100 ha which are cultivated as single units; however, the total area thus occupied is very small as a percentage of the whole.
Figure IV-2 provides a diagramatic picture of the distribution of cultivated holdings by size (CEPAL/ FAO, 1983). The aggregate of 669,395 carreaux (863,519 ha; one carreau is equal to 1.29 ha) is represented by 616,710 production units. The degree of parcelization is clearly evident; seventy-one percent of all production units (generally family plots) occupying one carreau or less account for 32.5 percent of the total cultivated area.
The distribution by size of units, illustrated in Figure IV-2, refers to production units (family units). Since, in most cases, a production unit consists of more than one parcel of land which may be owned, rented, share-cropped or jointly farmed by several individuals with undivided interest, the degree of parcelization is greater than appears. Among holdings of 3 ha or less, 557,515 holdings averaging 0.96 ha, involving a total area of 534,142 ha., was distributed among 936,390 individual parcels. Table IV-7 shows the number of plots per farm and the size of each plot (IHS, 1973).
This feature of Haitian peasant agriculture is apparently of long standing. Data for 1950 and 1971 show essentially no change in average unit area, although the number of units and the total area involved more than doubled during this period. The Haitian farmer has evidently through the years chosen or was forced by limited resources, to limit the size of his production unit even when land was more generally available. Thus, in 1980, only 28 percent of all farms consisted of a single, continuous plot, while 47 percent consisted of non-contiguous plots at some distance from the peasant hut.
An interpretation of Table IV-8 (Anglade, 1974) shows that 59 percent of all holdings were smaller than one ha, consisted of 47 percent of all parcels of cultivated land, but occupied only 21 percent of all land cultivated. These smalls parcels supported approximately 54 percent of the peasant population.
Table IV-7
NUMBER OF PLOTS PER FARM AND SIZE OF PLOTS (1971)
Dept. No. of Farms No. of Plots Plots/Farm Avg. Plot (ha.)
Nord 106,400 200,400 1.9 0.85
Nord-Ouest 30,100 53,430 1.8 1.25
Artibonite 140,000 246,600 1.8 0.55
Ouest 177,060 312,100 1.8 0.65
Sud 163,150 305,700 1.9 0.75
Entire country 616,710 1,118,230 1.8 0.75
Source: IHS Port-au-Prince.
42


Table IV-8
SUMMARY STATISTICS ON AGRICULTURAL HOLDING (1971)
Land HoMlng. (by hectare) No. of Holding* No. of Parcels per Holding Total Land (Ha) Population Average # of parcels per hotdlnf. Average Parcel Sbe (Ha) Average # of persons per Holding
lha.A below 361,985 530,480 184,843 1,498,020 1.46 0.34 4.15
lto2ha 141,930 275,510 211,940 666,180 1.94 0.76 4.69
2to3ha 53,600 130,400 137,359 279,990 2.43 1.05 5.22
Cumulative % 91% 84% 62% 88%
3to4ha. 27,370 74,390 96,762 143,800 2.71 1.30 5.25
4to5ha. 6,440 39,340 36,790 48,000 3,47 1.32 5.68
Above 5ha. 23,385 78,110 193,822 143,030 3.34 2.48 6.11
Total 616,710 1,118,230 863,516 2,779,020,1.81 0.77 4.50
Source: George Anglade, Espace Haitien, 1974.
Table IV-9
HAITI: TOTAL AREA, CULTIVATED AREA AND POPULATION DENSITY, 1982
Surface Area Total Population Density
1000/Km1 (1000's) Persons/Km'
Region Total Cultivated Population Total Cultivated
West 4.649 1.546 1,551.792 334 1004
Southeast 2.215 0.601 367.911 166 612
North 2.045 0.873 564.002 276 646
Northeast 1.752 0.420 189.573 108 451
Artibonite 4.532 1.214 732.932 162 604
Center 3.700 0.820 361.470 98 441
South 2.894 1.158 502.624 174 434
Grande Anse 3.284 0.848 489.957 149 578
Northwest 2.330 0.711 293.530 126 413
Unknown* 0.299
Total 27.000 8.191 5,053.791 182 617
Note: One square kilometer equals 100 hectares
Note: The population is quoted between 5 and 6 millions
*: To balance Haiti total surface area
Source: Institut Haitien de Statistiques et d'Informatique, Analyse de quelques indicateurs d^mographiques tire des Recensements de 1950, 1971 et 1982; April 1982, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
If holdings up to 3 ha are considered, then the statistics are even more striking. These lands constitute 91 percent of all holdings, support 88 percent of the peasant population and occupy 62 percent of all cultivated lands.
A comparison of total area, cultivated area, population densities, expressed in terms of total area and area cultivated for 1982, is shown in Table IV-9 DATPE reports an overall population density for the
country of 677 inviduals per square kilometer (100 ha) of cultivated land. Regionally, the north, transversale, west and south regions contain 584; 448; 876; and 544 individuals per square km of cultivated land respectively. The high population density for the west region reflects the concentration of population in Port-au-Prince. With this very high density of population and remarkably high degree of parcelization, the need for the application of improved technology, use of water resources for irrigation, resources conservation and
43


improvement, an well as improvement of living standards for the rural population, become immediate.
E.- AGRICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON LAND TENURE
The tenure status of Haitian lands is complicated by the existence of several types of land tenure, the uncertainty of tenure and status of much of the land, the uncertainty as to the amount and geographical location of state-owned lands, and the tenancy status of farmers occupying this land. Moreover, while the majority of farmers own land, a large percentage rent, lease or sharecrop land while leasing out some owned land to others.
The 1950 census showed that as many as eighty percent of all farmers were land owners, with essentially no differences among regions. Table IV-10 shows the distribution of land ownership by tenure categories and by region us of 1950. The tenure pattern derived from a socio-economic survey in 1970 in which two percent of households were covered, (Table IV-11) shows distribution of land by mode of tenure and parcel size (CEPAL/FAO, 1983).
Data from a number of studies, restricted to specific areas and reported by Zuvekas (1977), showed that farmers owning at least part of their land ranged from 56 to 100 percent of the farmers in the sites studied. In many cases, farmers did not own all the land culti-
Table IV-10 LAND TENURE IN 1950
Tenure Category Northwest North Artibonite West South Total
1. Farming land adjacent to homesite plus
other land: Total 14,326 48,182 51,878 86,224 76,936 277,546
Owners 12,060 41,140 44,718 71,617 66,143 235,678
Renting from State 709 1,022 850 2,086 594 5,261
Renting from private
owners 276 1,476 1,391 3,487 1,563 8,282
Managers 484 1,730 1,375 2,172 2,281 8,042
Sharecroppers 556 1,983 1,128 3,754 2,207 9,628
Tenure status unknown 241 832 2,416 3,108 4,058 10,655
2. Farm only land adjacent
to homesite: Total 10,063 27,795 32,848 73,602 44,992 189,300
Owners 7,363 22,005 25,931 56,106 36,626 148,031
Renting from State 965 868 902 3,562 882 7,179
Renting from private
owners 196 893 1,601 2,908 1,137 6,735
Managers 651 1,730 1,761 2,927 2,230 9,299
Sharecroppers 675 1,687 1,309 5,051 1,782 10,504
Tenure Status unknown 213 612 1,344 3,048 2,335 7,552
3. Farming only land
away from homesite 5,818 22,662 32,593 24,929 23,032 109,034
4, Farm Households
- Total 30,207 98,639 117,319 184,755 144,960 575,880
Source: Haiti, IHS (1955) reported by Zuvekas 1977.
Table IV-11 LAND TENURE IN 1970
Tenure Category Number of Parcels % of Parcels
Owners 893,659 60.2
Renting from State 56,473 3.8
Renting from private owners 155,557 10.5
Sharecroppers 213,528 14.4
Other for of tenure 165,168 11.1
Total 1,484,385 100,0
Source: Haiti, IHS, (1975) reported by Zuvekas (1977).
44


vated, nor did they always cultivate all the land they owned.
The status of land titles is very unclear. Where attempts have been made to precisely determine ownership, it has been found that between 30 and 68 percent of farmers in the areas studied claimed to have titles. However, even when titles existed, the validity of many was frequently questionable. Sixty-seven percent of titles examined in the ODPG project area were found to be not recorded with the local Direction G6-nerale des Impots (assessment and tax offices), suggesting that these could be challenged.
Farmers are reluctant to divulge information on land holdings and tenure status. The confidence of farmers in the equity of the system has been seriously eroded by frequent cases of exploitation by the economically and politically powerful elements of the Haitian society, the exorbitant cost of litigation to obtain and/or defend titles, and the unscrupulous exercise of authority by local judges in administering land titling processes.
The absence of cadastral survey is a further complication. A recent (Dec. 1984) Decree establishes a Cadastral Institute in charge of carrying out a cadastral survey under the supervision of the Ministry of Interior. The unclear legal status of land ownership results in title insecurity, which adversely impacts on investment in land improvement, use of inputs, and the application of conservation practices.
F.- PRODUCTION
Tlr; production of agricultural commodities provides a livelihood for seventy-two percent of the Haitian population (IHS, 1984). The export of agricultural commodities accounted for 48.7 percent of total exports in 1983, and in 1981 the contribution of agriculture to GDP was thirty-one percent. During the period 1970-1980, the annual growth of the sector averaged 1.1 percent. Since 1980, growth has been negative, falling by 1%, 4.7% and 0.6% for 1980, 1981 and 1982, respectively.
Figure IV-3 traces certain trends in the agricultural sector with respect to contribution to GDP and export earning, while Figures IV-4, IV-5, IV,-6, and IV-7 provide trends in total production of food, production of major commodities and yield of principal crops. Figure IV-8 provides similar data for livestock.
Table IV-12 provides data on distribution of production of principal agricultural commodities by region for the year 1979, while Table IV-13 provides data on the values of production of the principal commodites. Several general observations can be made from these figures and the tabular data presented.
The total area under crops in 1979 exceeded, by over 25 percent, the area generally considered to be arable, and about five times the area classed as "good lands" by the CEP team. This is partially due to the production of two crops per year in many cases. This
Porconl
50
50-
Colao Exports parcant ol lolal
Contribution ol Agriculture toQDP (%)
Oil* from Banqua da la Rapubllqua d'HaTII and IMF (quolad by Barg, 1984)
Figure IV-3: Trend in Contribution to GDP and Export Value by Agriculture (%).
45


Fig. IV-4: Agricultural production: total versus per capita
Fig. IV-5: Trends in total production of food
46


iooomt oo
100
drain Production
1000 iiiBB wo io/i iu/a wj ip/m to/5 1070 to// 10m m/o ioho 1001 ion? _j--1-1_1--1_1_1__1_1_1__j_____j__l_
Data Irom MARNDR reported by
Food lor Development (1914)
USAID Projtcl Paper
M = Mal/o R = Rice S Sornhum
Fig. IV-6: Trends in production of major commodities.
kg/ha
1969-76
Crop Yields
1976 1977
1972 19/3
1974 1975
1978 1979
1980 1981
3000
i 5000
2000
Seal* lor:
Scale lor roola
X Roola
4000
Maize
Sorghum
3000
Pulses
Fig. IV-7: Trend in yield of principal crops.
47


Table 1V-12
PRODUCTION, AREA AND YIELDS OF PRINCIPAL CROPS BY REGIONS IN 1979 (1)
Production MT Area Hectares Avg yield, Kg/ha.
Crop N T w S Haiti N T w s Haiti N T w s Haiti
Maize 23903 61377 35930 62121 183331 36334 74438 530)8 69959 233749 658 825 768 888 784
Millet/
Sorghum 3330 55975 40453 23524 123282 10325 66687 41902 38051 156696 331 839 965 618 787
Rice 13055 94015 4721 10325 122116 7059 36340 3158 7419 53996 1850 2587 1494 1392 2262
Beans (dry) 11576 13047 16885 11190 52695 16128 21554 28460 23536 89678 718 605 593 475 588
Pigeon Peas 3473 10070 6417 5651 25541 7240 24829 18744 18567 69380 480 406 342 304 368
Beans 4002 4992 2856 2243 14093 6886 14029 9839 6420 39174 450 355 290 349 360
Peanut 9762 6872 12277 6629 36629 12860 8872 17560 7770 47062 753 776 699 853 754
Sesame 1362 1528 491 744 4125 4609 5549 1342 2387 13887 296 275 366 312 297
Manioc 63927 76037 51041 62351 25H356 14909 19374 12732 15846 62861 4288 3925 4008 5197 62861
Yams 17486 27466 21277 43928 110157 6777 6174 11909 33639 2583 3129 3446 3689 3275
Sweet Potato 49868 78993 65436 70491 264788 12209 18179 15715 16427 62530 4085 4345 4164 4291 4714
Plaintain 79020 100939 52649 68666 301274 10364 14.802 8825 13493 47484 7624 6819 5966 5089 6345
Coco Yam 3959 15472 6015 13683 39129 1869 8728 "431 7176 21204 2342 1773 1753 1907 1845
Banana J2335 44307 48613 64975 210230 9642 7362 6738 12876 33618 6056 6018 7215 5008 6253
Total Food 337057 571090 350061 446521 1740746
Coffee (4) 7117 5876 10032 12844 35900 33678 18196 40047 45617 137618 1262 1929 1496 1682 1558
Cocoa (3) 2052 2088 1814 5502 11456 632 645 188 3105 4570 3252 .95 1771 2507
Cotton 491 2472 1039 5589 1342 5046 4419 2819 13646 366 490 133 369 410
Rural Pop.
1971(1000) 582 1007 1027 913 3529 Food Prod.
(2)percapita 579 579 341 389 493
(1) From DATPE Ministry of Plan: Regions et Strategic de Developpement Regional (1984)
(2) Based on rural population
(3) Cocoa production has remained on average around 3000 Mt per year, but 1979 was an execptionaly good production year.
(4) Coffee figures are from OPRODEX
N = North region T = Transversal region W = West region S = South region
intensity of land use, nevertheless, with such primitive agricultural practices and less than optimal soil conditions is exceedingly high.
Grain crops occupy 37 percent of all the cultivated area; pulses and oil crops 22 percent; root and other starchy foods 22 percent; sugar cane 5 percent and export crops (mostly tree crops) 15 percent.
Although food crops cover about 80 percent of the cultivated area, the value of production is only about one half that of export crops, excluding sugar.
Comparable figures on livestock production arc not available. However, one estimate (Ithaca International, 1983) places the total value of livestock production at 24 percent of the value of the agriculture total, and 8 percent of GDP.
Livestock number (Figure IV-8) show an increasing trend between 1965 and 1971. During the period 1979 to 1982 the trend is flat except for swine, whose population was eradicated temporarily, and for poultry, which show an increasing trend.
Crop and food production has been static since 1970, while both have followed a decreasing trend on a per capital basis.
Production of the widely grown grain crops, maize and sorghum, accounting for 37 percent of all cropped area, has followed a decreasing trend since 1970. The trend in rice production is upward and follows closely the population growth line.
The production trend for pulses and beans has been flat, while root and other starch foods have followed slightly rising trends; at a slower rate, however, than population growth. Per capital daily calorie supply has diminished 4.5 percent in past twenty years (FAO, 1983).
Coffee production has remained essentially the same since 1974, with slightly decreasing yields per hectare. Cocoa production (3000 MT) hasn't significantly changed in the last ten years.
Although important differences among regions exist with respect to production of different crops, on bal-
48


Table IV-13
THE VALUE OF PRODUCTION OF CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES FOR 1979 (1)
Value of Production (1000 Gourdes)
Percentage of Total
N T W S Haiti N T W S
Maize 17,688 45,419 26,588 45,969 135,664 13.04 33.48 19.60 33.88
Millet 2,464 41,421 29,935 17,408 91,228 2.7 45.40 32.82 19.08
Rice 28,721 206,833 10,386 22,715 268,655 10.69 76.99 3.87 8.45
Beans 23,152 26,094 33,770 22,380 105,396 21.97 24.76 32.04 21.23
Peanut 17,798 15,118 27,009 14,584 74,509 23.89 20.29 36.25 19.57
Manioc 12,785 15,207 10,208 12,070 50,270
Plaintain 59,265 75,704 39,487 51,499 225,955 26,23 33.50 17.48 22.79
SdbtoUli 161.873 425,796 177.383 186,625 951.677
Coffee 38955 32162 54910 70302 196329 19.83 16.37 27.95 35.85
Cocoa 24,624 25,056 21,768 66,024 137,472 17.91 18.23 15.83 48.03
Cotton 982 4,944 3,174 2,078 11,178 8.79 44.21 28.40 16.60
Export Crops
TotaKD 64541 62162 79852 138464 344979
Per CafltaiS) 111 62 78 152
Coconut 222.6 162.5 311.1 771.6 146.78 15.17 11.07 21.19 52.57
Mangoes 1,239.0 1,375,3 433.1 1,411.3 4458.7 27.79 30.84 9.72 31.65
Oranges 1,012.1 304.1 366.3 439.6 2122.1 47.78 14.36 17.10 20.76
Chadeques 488.2 153.3 377.6 343.0 1362.1 35.84 11.26 27.72 25.18
Total FruH 2,961.9 19,952 14,881 29,655 9410.7
Fruit Per
Capita 51 17 14 32
I
I
Total (Food + Export + Fruit) =
1,306,067
(1) From DATPE (1984)
(2) Comparable data not available for other exports (sisal, sugar cane); coffee values from OPRODEX.
(3) Based on rural population from tabic IV-12
(4) Comparable data not available for other fruits.
ance, and on a per capita basis, there is relatively little disparity among the regions except for a considerably low per capita production of foods in the western region. In terms of non-food crops, it is the transversale region which is at a disadvantage.
Technology and Productivity
The Haitian farmer employs the most rudimentary technology. The method of cultivation employed has undergone few changes since the nineteenth century. Tools are generally limited to the hoe and the "machete". Table IV-14 provides data on number and type of tools (CEPAL/FAO, 1983). Varieties of crop plants used are largely traditional, which the population has maintained with virtually no improvement through the years. Neither manure, compost or commercial fertilizers are used to any extent. Minimal fallow of sufficient duration for natural restoration of soil fertility and effective crop rotation are practiced. Pest control is limited to a few pests and crops.
Crop production under irrigation suffers from: poor land leveling; poor maintenance of the water distribu-
tion system; inadequate maintenance and control of primary water distribution systems; lack of basic water requirements information; poor drainage; and the virtual lack of yield increasing inputs (improved seeds, fertilizers, pest control); all required to obtain the most effective returns from irrigation.
The production of perennial crops suffers from overage and low density of perennial crops; overshading and excessive density in coffee plantings; inadequate attention to weedings; and lack of fertilizer inputs, improved varieties and pest control. Lack of water and soil conservation characterizes much of the tree crop agriculture. The result is very low crop yield, among the lowest in the world. In a comparison of yields of five important crops in 10 developing and 6 developed countries, yields reported in Haiti were the lowest in all but 3 of 65 comparisons (DATPE, 1984).
Heavy losses from a wide variety of pests on mature crops in the field, as well as in storage, further reduced the effective productivity and availability of crops for consumption.
Production practices with livestock are even less de-
49


Farm size # of farms tractors Plow Hoes Machetes Sickles Picks Dig/Bars Spades Rakes Shovels Sprayer Other Total
Global 1500 7 1493 1314 960 277 286 30 22 37 52 4478
0,01 0,49 600 525 443 285 60 45 15 7 7 7 1394
0,50- 0,99 420 7 465 375 293 60 53 15 15 30 1313
J,00- 1,99 345 375 353 270 135 143 7 15 15 1313
2,00- 4,99 120 113 128 97 15 37 390
3,00- 9,90 - _
10,00- 19,90 15 15 15 15 7 8 8 68
veloped. Most animals are left to forage for available feed as free roaming individuals, herded on open ranges or staked out. A few ranches have fenced pastures and some attention is given to management of pastures and grazing. The livestock population exceeds the carrying capacity of the existing grazing areas. Overgrazing is evident everywhere.
Harvesting, storage and feeding or forage/hay is not practiced by the small farmer. Feeding of animals with bi- products (rice and wheat bran, oil seed cakes, mo-
lasses) is practiced to a very limited degree. Most of the feed bi-products are exported. Productivity is low, with livestock only reaching a live weight of up to 300 kg after 5 to 6 years, and cows producing about one-half quart of milk per day (Ithaca International, 1983).
After cattle, which to the small farmer is the principal repository of capital after land, swine was the most important animal production enterprise until pigs were eliminated to control the spread of African swine fever (Ithaca International, 1983). Pigs are now being reintroduced.
50


The low level of productivity in the agricultural sector and the limited application of improved practices can be traced to a wide range of interrelated constraining factors: difficult topography; variability of rainfall; inadequate security in land tenure; virtual absence of capital formation and access to capita! through credit, hence very low levels of investment by the farmer; limited public investment in the rural ureas; limited availability of improved crop vaii^ties and production practices; poor research and extension services; and extraordinary cultural factors, such as a long history of exploitation of the rural population by the urban elite and political power structure, and by elements of the rural population itself leading to apathy and distrust of any element external to the family and as a consequence resulting in a lack of cooperation among the rural population. An exhaustive listing of constraints is given in Table IV-15.
Research
As the agricultural resource base continues to deteriorate and as the population continues to increase, the maintenance of production at current levels will not be feasible without the application of new production practices which increase yields.
The existing research base on which to recommend practices for increasing production is still very limited. A research unit headquarted at MARNDR with access to seven state farms representing the more important ecological zones of the country, has existed for over forty years. Considerable assistance was provided to this unit by USOM during the period 1958-1962. Between 1962 and 1972, however, the unit was essentially dormant. Virtually no effective research was being done recently. Beginning in the early I970's, limited assistance for agricultural research was provided by Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI). This activity concentrated on maize variety testing and selection and, to a lesser extent, testing of bean varieties. The work was concentrated on the Levy Farm in Les Cayes.
A less extensive study of a range of cultural practices was also undertaken. The principal results from this work were the identification of five better yielding maize varieties, of which one was recommended because of wider adaptatility to the population. The report concluded, however, that the conditions of production practices, including quality of seed, fertilization, plant density, pest control, and adequate mois-tue, were more important determinants of yields than the crop variety (VPI, 1979).
In 1981, the Agricultural Research Service (Service d'Etude et Recherche Agronomique (SERA) was reorganized. A center for research and agricultural documentation (CRDA) was created within the Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMV). The creation of the center, lacking the responsibility for research in the FAMV, was predicated on the avail-
TABLE IV 15 CONSTRAINTS TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN HAITI: A TENTATIVE RANKING
Type of DcRrcof Constraint Importance (u)
Farm-Level Constraints 1 Accss to Productive Resources
Land and land tenure 2
Capital 2
Labor Supply 3
Technology I
Natural Constraints
Natural Disasters 2 Climate, soils, topography, water
ressources 2
Insects, diseases, rodents 2
Soil Erosion and Related Man-Made
Constraints 1
Support System Constraints Supply-Demand Constraints
Supply Constraints 1
Demand Constraints 2
Concessional food grain imports 3
Marketing Constraints
Dispersed production 3 Lack of uniform weights and
measures/grades and standards 3
Lack of storage facilities 2
Handling and transport costs 1
Lack of inventory financing 3
Lack of market information 3
Institutional Constraints Administrative/managerial/
technical capacities 1 Cooperatives and other farmer
organizations 1
Production Credit 2
Input suppliers 2
Research 1
Extension 2
Other services 2
National-Level (Policy) Constraints
Tax Policy 2
Monetary Policy 3
Price Policy 2
Credit Policy 2 Land Tenure and Land
Redistribution Policies 1 Policies Affecting Rural Levels of
Living and Income Distribution 2
Employment Policy 3 General Government Support for
Agricultural Development 1 Implementation Constraints Bilateral and International Agency
Procedures *
GOH Procedures *
(a) 1 = Major 2 = Moderate 3 = Minor
* Regarded by the DARNDR as significant constraints.
51


Tabic IV-16
ACTUAL CROP YIELDS WITH TRADITIONAL PRACTICES AND EXPECTED CROP YIELDS WITH IRRIGATION AND APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF TECHNOLOGY AT THE DUBREUIL PROJECT AREA
Actual, traditional Actual, appropriate Potential, appropriate
Crop Cycle practices and no technology and technology and
Crop Days irrigation irrigation Irrigation
Corn 120-150 8(H) 40(H) 60(H)
Beans 80 670 1500 2000
Sorghum 100 750 3(HH) 5000
Rice 90-140 1200 40(H) 6000
Pigeonpeas 235 600 2000 2500
Cowpeas 60-90 2000 3000
Soybeans 80-100 1500 3000
Sweet potatoes 135-150 2250 5300 6000
Cassava 300 4000 6000 10000
Tobacco 90-120 12(H) 1700
Sugarcane 365 30000 70000 120000
Irish potatoes 75 12000
1. Actual yields of corn, beans, sorghum, rice, sweetpotatoes and sugar cane taken from UN-FAO, 1975, Enquete et Demonstration Agricole dans la Pdninsule Sud, Haiti (28). For other crops, taken from Texas A&M/Haiti 1981 and 1982 Annual Reports (25, 26) and from Hargreaves and Samani (12).
2. Yields of corn, beans, sorghum, rice, sweetpotatoes and sugarcane taken from references 12, 25, 26 and 28.
3. Potential or near maximum yields, are adapted or taken from references 12,25,26 and 28. They are bases on the use of irrigation and the adoption of improved technologies.
ability of a staff of some twenty-eight qualified personnel in FAMV and financial support from CIDA.
Other assistance for research was also provided by USAID in 1981 through a Texas A & M team, and by CIMMYT with Canada's financial support. The nature of and results from these programs, detailed in annual reports and papers prepared by the two groups are provided in Table IV-16.
The CIMMYT work illustrated the approach of that institution to Farming Systems Research (FRS), i.e. several steps through which key factors involved in the production equation are isolated and their impact evaluated as a basis for defining research priorities. The information developed, in illustrating the approach, identified nitrogen fertilization as the most important determinant of yields. The next in importance was crop variety. Two varieties, La Maquina 7827 and 7928, outperformed the traditional varieties when nitrogen was applied. Without nitrogen, the differences were much smaller and varied with location and other practices.
The Texas A & M studies focused on selection and testing of varieties of maize, sorghum, beans and pigeon pea for yield and adaptability, introduction of cultural practices on productivity, and comparison of a number of cropping systems involving intercropping, multiple and rotational cropping systems.
The work of the Texas A & M team, working concurrently, confirmed the superiority of the two CIMMYT maize varieties and identified superior varieties of sorghum, pigeon pea, common bean, tomato and okra. Packages of technology were defined for each of these.
Economic analyses were made of some 29 cropping systems under traditional and improved technology. The improved technology resulted in up to 15-fold increases in net returns, with most systems returning over 4-fold increases. However, systems involving sorghum and maize alone or intercropped with cow peas or pigeon peas, rarely resulted in significant (less than 2-fold) increases in returns. Generally, intercropping systems yielded greater net returns than monocropping systems. Intercropping is commonly practiced by the Haitian farmer.
While the economic analysis of the several systems suggests that substantial improvement in productivity and economic returns could be obtained by appropriate cropping systems and production practices, they should be used with caution. In all systems studied, the improved practices package included irrigation, while the traditional package did not. In over 50 percent of the cases, fertilizer was included in the improved package. Consequently, the impact of other practices were confounded with response to irrigation and fertilizer, the two factors with the greatest possible
52


impact. The immediate applicability of the results are, thus, limited almost entirely to areas with irrigation. Moreover, as irrigated fields are used mostly for rice and sugar cane, the possible impact of these research activities on a large number of farmers producing food crops under rainfed conditions will be minimal.
TABLE IV-17 ADOPTION OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY BY FARMERS
Percent of Farmers Employing Traditional Improved Technology Practices Practices
Maize varieties 55.2 44.8
Millet/Sorghum varieties 57.1 42,7
Bean varieties S3.3 16.7
Fertilizers 26.8 (non-used) 73.2
Pesticides 35.7 (non-used) 64.3
The improved varieties selected could possibly have some impact, however, if adequate seed production programs and effective distribution systems are implemented. Some interest in seed production is found among agricultural input suppliers in the private sector.
Many estimates have been reported on the potential increase in productivity which could be obtained from the application of better technology. In most cases, appropriate irrigation and fertilization arc required. Only very limited information is available on farmer acceptance of improved technology. One study (IICA/ BCA, 1979) surveyed the use of improved technology by farmers in several of the Ilots de Dcvcloppement (developpment islands approach which was launched in the early 70's, but was abandoned after some five years of operation). Although the samples in each Ilot was small, the aggregate provides some idea of the rate of adoption of several practices (Table IV-17). Unfortunately, the survey did not provide information on the impact of the improved technology on productivity.
It is clear from the above that there is little information on the impact of technology on productivity under rainfed production practices, and without the use of fertilizer in Haiti. It is also clear that there is virtually no research addressing the problems of improving practices, whether for increasing productivity or for reducing erosion and water loss. There arc serious doubts that terracing, or similar physical measures to reduce water loss and erosion, are applicable to most of the land subject to erosion in Haiti. Perhaps a more appropriate approach would be to employ vegetative cover (legume species, mixtures of grasses and legumes, shrubs and trees in a strip pattern altenating with cultivated crops). A proper choice of vegetative cover
would not only provide protection, but could be used as animal feed.
The difficulties of obtaining wide application of such a system cannot be underestimated. It would mean close cooperation of many farmers, probably entire and/or, frequently, several communities. It would also reduce the land in crop production resulting in a serious constraint on populations which are already on the very edge of survival. Yet, there is no alternative but to reduce the area under cultivation, if soil loss is lo be halted and ultimately reversed.
Use of Agricultural Inputs
Good quality seeds of improved varieties, fertilizers and pesticides are the principal agricultural inputs, other than irrigation, which contribute to increasing crop production. The use of these inputs in Haiti remains at minimal levels.
Seeds. Seeds of vegetable crops are imported through the private sector. There is essentially no seed production operations per se for the traditional, widely grown crops. Seeds are produced by individual farmers and/or traded among farmers. There have been few introductions of new varieties of food crops either from outside of from local research. A notable exception is rice, in which case an introduced variety has become widely accepted. Limited amounts of this seed variety arc produced and distributed by ODVA, which also attempts to maintain purity and quality by reimportation. Other seed requirements are met by farmers. An effort was made to establish a seed production, processing and quality control unit in MARNDR in 1977. The operations ceased to exist in 1981.
Few, if any, superior varieties of widely produced crops have been available, and for those which are available demand is met by the traditional diffusion by peasants and "Madam Saras'*. The testing and demonstrating of the superiority of new varieties by recent research efforts will probably create such a demand.
Traditional diffusion processes will probably be able to continue to assure production and distribution. Tlv: principal task in the future will be to provide sufficiem seed for initial wide-spread diffusion and for subsequent distribution of sufficient amounts from well maintained stock to assure seed purity and quality. Probably more important than production itself, is the need to improve storage, in order to maintain the quality and germinative powers from one season to the next.
Fertilizers. Haiti uses far less fertilizer than any other country in the Caribbean region, using about one fifth as much as the Dominican Republic. One reason for this has been the generally exploitative practices employed by ferlilizer importers and suppliers. These practices include not only excessive price, but also lack of attention to quality, including frequent
53


resort to adulteration. Since the establishment in 1981 of a bulk mixing plant near Port-au-Prince by a joint venture of local and foreign capital, prices have decreased and quality control improved (ASSA, personal communication, 1985). This firm distributed, through vendors in the principle consumption areas, 570 MT in 1982, of an estimated total consumption of about 8000 MT. Nitrogenous fertilizers, principally urea, account for about 50 percent of consumption, with a wide variety of complex fertilizers making up the remaining 50 percent.
About sixty percent of all fertilizer is used for rice; vegetable production accounts for a large share of the remainder. Little is used on maize, sorghum or sugar cane.
Pesticides. A wide variety of pesticides are utilized. Five or six importers distribute most of the volume consumed. In 1983-84, it was estimated that between 300,000 and 400,000 kg, valued at slightly over $1,000,000, were used for agricultural purposes. Approximately 300,000 kg of Fenitrothion were imported in 1983, to control mosquitoes and prevent malaria.
Most of the pesticides are used on tobacco, vegetables and cotton. Zinc Phosphide and, to a lesser extent, Wafarin, are widely used for rat control in rice fields in a campaign organized by the Plant Protection Service (SPV) of MARNDR.
Private importers estimate that pesticide use has been increasing at a rate of about ten percent during the last three to four years. Utilization is limited by economic constraints and general lack of knowledge about pest control application by farmers.
The GOH ratified the International Convention of Rome, in December of 1981, for plant protection. A legislative proposal has been drafted which sets forth regulations for the application of the Rome Code with some modifications. This proposal is being studied by several ministries.
Although a number of the chemicals being used are highly toxic and some have long residual effects, the small amounts being used do not present an environmental problem. However, they present potential dangers to users unless certain precautions are taken. The SNEM prescribes a set of precautions for applicators of the insecticide Fenitrothion, and for the residents of the homes being treated; and an organized system of supervision and monitoring has been established. There is, however, no similar system for informing the public and protecting the users of pesticides used in agriculture.
Irrigateo Agriculture. Since the colonial period, irrigation has played an important role in Haitian agriculture. It is reported (Harza, 1979) that irrigation covered 140,000 ha. during the colonial period. Although as much as twenty percent of the arable area
of the country is potentially irrigable, less than ten percent has actually been developed for irrigation (70,000 ha) (FAO, 1983). The irrigated and potentially irrigated land areas contain the best land (soils and physical features) in the country. Greater and more effective exploitation of the irrigation potentials is limited by the slow rate of development of water and land resources, the poor state of maintenance of the irrigations systems, continuing deterioration of irrigated lands and structures because of erosion, flooding and silting, and insufficient use of water for production, For example, in the Artibonite Valley, which has the largest irrigation sytem, about 58 percent of the potential has been developed, yet only about 30 percent of the potential, or fifty percent of the developed area, is actually currently in production using irrigation (Le Baron et al., 1984).
The ineffective development and use of the water and land potential for irrigated crop production stems largely from the limited effectiveness of public services responsible for public administration and management of water resources.
The following institutional problems summarize the many obstacles to developing irrigation systems of value for Haiti:
The shifting of responsibilities for water development and management, over time, between the Department of Public Works and that of Agriculture, including a period of shared responsibility by the two departments;
The inadequacy of staffing and financial support of the Irrigation Service of the MARNDR (the entity now, and since 1958, charged with the total responsibility of water development and management), the division of authority between the Irrigation Service and autonomous entities such as the ODVA and ODPG;
The independence of financing of projects through special allocations of national budgets to autonomous entities;
The major role played by donor agencies in financing water and irrigation development activities by the autonomous agencies, as well as projects which are under direct control of the Irrigation Service;
The limited participation of the farmers in decisions about water and irrigation development, or in planning and design of the systems;
The lack of cooperation and frequent conflicts among the Irrigation Service, district agriculture personnel, local authorities and the local population;
54


The arbitrary exercise ol authority anil functions at the local level resulting in serious inequities;
The wide discrepancies in the levying and collection of the irrigation fees, often resulting in collection of less than 5(1 percent of taxes due, this due, in part, to ineffectiveness of maintenance operations leading to farmer reluctance to pay the taxes.
Although the legal basis for the rights anil responsibilities of the state, the land owner and the farmer have been defined in numerous legal cases, the law seems to be poorly understood and applied. Water users associations have been generally more effective in assuring proper maintenance of systems and distribution of water, but these organizations suffer from many of the same problems of the systems which are totally managed by the Irrigation Service. The limited financial resources which the associations command are insufficient to assure adequate control of operations and maintenance within the system.
The effectiveness of irrigation in agricultural production is much reduced by poor production practices, such as: use of excess water; inadequate drainage; poor land preparation, especially land leveling; lack of or limited use of other improved practices; limited use of good seed of improved crop varieties, proper fertilizers inadequate weed and pest control, which are essential to fully exploit t^e advantage of irrigation. Yields of crops which are grow*, under irrigation are very low compared to those ootained in other countries. Rice yielded 2-2. 5 MT/ha compared to 4-6 MT/ ha or more, sugar cane yields of 40-50 MT/ha compared to upwards of 100 MT/ha.
The developement of irrigated agriculture has bec-ii largely based on surface water. There are, nevertheless, two important areas in which irrigation is based on pumped water. In Cul de Sac, HASCO pumps water from fifty wells for irrigation of some 3500 ha of sugar cane; 19 other wells in the Cul de Sac are exploited by cooperatives for production of a wide variety of crops. In the plains of Gonaive, limited surface water is supplemented by well-pumped water from thirty-nine deep wells for irrigating approximately 3000 ha.
Although there appears to be some potential for tapping additional groundwater for irrigation, this has received little attention. It appears that irrigation from pumped wells is generally thought to be too expensive. This may simply be a reflection of the fact that pumping charges are payable by the users as these accrue or even in some cases in advance, while the real cost of surface water is frequently masked by only partial payment of user's fees and public support of operations and maintenance. Thus the perceived cost of irrigation from surface water may be substantially understated, while that for pumped wells may be much less so. For example, in the Cul-de-Sac, the cooperative farmers
pay in advance for the pump operator and the fuel cost (maintenance of wells and pumps are paid as needed from the cooperatives' equity capital). These operating costs vary from 18 to 24 gourdes per hour. At the higher range, the cost of irrigation for producing one crop of beans was estimated to be $285,00 per hectare (Iiaugc, 1984).
The pumping costs in the ODPG project are difficult 'o estimate because of the complex system of charging ;nd collecting payments. That the costs are high, however, is suggested by the substantial arrears in payments for electricity (Hauge, 1984), in spite of a fifty percent subsidy by Electricity d'llaiti. Some of the apparent high costs are due to mismanagement, easy credit, and arbitrary collection of charges.
G.- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
From the time of independence, utilizing primitive production technology, the Haitian peasant was hard put io produce surpluses over consumption to improve his productivity or to bring about greater efficiency and diversity in his use of the natural resources.
Historically, economic development beginning with agrai ian societies was based on a generation of surpluses from agriculture. In the Haitian experience, the small surpluses which were produced and invested failed tc generate development because of: a) the lack of organization, cooperation and community action by the rural population and b) by the policies of the government and exploitive practices of the urban elite resulting in the systematic transfer of resource benefits from the rural sector. Without surpluses for land improvement and a sense of permanency and ownership, pervasive undermining of the natural agricultural base has been tbe consequence leading to the serious degradation which exists today.
The reversal of this relentless degradation of renewable resources will be particularly difficult in Haiti because: a) the rural population still has little disposition for organisation and cooperation and appears to have little confidence in assistance from the government; b) the already overexploited resource base is barely providing for the survival of the majority of the peasant population; c) means for increasing productivity or to make up ,'br losses from retired or diverted land use are virtually non-existant, except irrigation.
There are no reserves which can be mobilized in most of the rainfed agricultural areas. As a result, any loss in production due to retirement of land for conservation purposes or any altered use which even on the shortest time frame, would result in reduction in production, will jeopardize the very survival of the affected population.
The outlook for developing ind applying, on the short to medium term, productivity increasing practi-
55


ces, which would be economically sound for most of the rainfed areas, is rather remote. Replacing annual crops in areas unsuitcd for such crops with tree crops is one possible option. This approach is, however, limited by the relatively few tree crops which are adapted to the environment and for which markets would pose no problem. It is also doubtful that returns from the tree crops would in most cases be superior or equal to the meager output of the traditional annual food crops.
The ability of the government to intervene is limited by the weakness of the existing institutions and the limited financial resources now being allocated to the agricultural sector. Functional operations budgets of the Ministry of Agriculture have averaged only about 5 percent of the national budget during the past several years. At the same time the rural population is paying a disproportionate share of the taxes. In 1975-76 it was estimated that the rural sector contributed 41.1 percent of domestic revenues, but only received 17.2 percent for services in the rural sector. The government has been reluctant in the past to relax rural sector taxation as an incentive to greater investment. Also with the policy of the GOH to operate with a balanced budget revenues, increasing the operational budget for agriculture will likely be difficult. While external organizations could contribute the development capital necessary, the capacity to use resources efficiently is limited by weak institutional structures, a lack of training and education and inadequate operational budgets.
The best strategy for maintaining agricultural production on the short to medium term and to eventually increase production, lies in the more effective use of irrigated lands and in the development of additional irrigation potential. This could be achieved with minimal adverse environmental impact. However, a prerequisite to more effective production from irrigation,
is the protection of upper watershed areas to avoid the destructive effects on irrigation systems, from flooding and siltation caused by poor land practices in the uplands. Protection of watersheds by depopulating the hillsides could displace some farmers on critical lands, but not their entire population. Intensification of irrigated crop production will probably absorb few if any of these displaced individuals, consequently means for providing subsistance to these small farmers will have to be found.
Intensification of production in irrigated areas, itself, will require a concentrated and determined effort. The impediments to more effective use of irrigation arc legion. Some have become institutionalized in the Haitian society and will be difficult to change. Nevertheless, since improvements in this area are likely to be more visible and more productive than other changes which could be considered, this alternative should be pursued agressively.
Production options on the irrigated land are also a factor. Concentration on high valued crops, to the extent that these can be consumed, processed and/or marketed, should be considered. In this connection, the traditional use of a significant portion of the irrigated area for sugar cane, currently being produced at a loss in terms of world sugar prices, should be reconsidered.
Initiate an Irrigation Study. A thorough study of all costs involved in irrigation: capital, system maintenance and operations on-farm distribution and drainage, structures maintenance and operations, land preparation (leveling) etc., is warranted. The study should consider sprinkler irrigation from wells. The cost of sprinkler equipment could be largely offset by the savings from reduced need for water distribution systems and lands leveling. More efficent water use would also reduce pumping costs.
56


V
Coastal and Marine Resources
A.- INTRODUCTION
Haiti's coastal waters include both the Atlantic Ocean (to the North), and the Caribbean Sea (to the east and south). The insular shelf, an estimated 5000 km2, occurs as a narrow platform 0-200 m deep, extending for the most part less than 300 rn offshore, before dropping abruptly to the ocean floor some 300 to 4000 m below.
The coastal zone supports 180 km2 of mangrove wetlands (IUCN, 1983), and barrier and fringing coral reefs and meadows. Four large offshore islands: lie de la Tortue, La Gonave, Grande Cayemite and He a Vache and numerous smaller islands contribute to the richness of the coastal system. Protected bays and estuaries, white coral sand beaches, limestone cliffs, and rocky shore line the coast. Long stretches of this coastline are inacessible by road and, consequently, have remained in a pristine state. Mangrove, coral reef, and seagrass habitats appear to be well developed in Haiti and represent a major renewable resource for fishing and tourism.
B. COASTAL RESOURCES
Seagrass Beds
Rich seagrass beds are known to occur along the north coast, and at Les Cayes. Potentially rich areas appear to be La Gonave and Les Cayemites area. Seagrass meadows, in particular, represent the greatest concentrated source of primary productivity, providing oxygen and nutrients to marine species and a means of stabilizing substrates. Their distribution in Haiti is poorly known. However, it is likely that offshore areas, including shallow offshore islands such as He a Vache, where turbidity and sedimentation from land runoff do not occur, harbor productive seagrass beds.
Coral Reefs
An inventory of the many extensive barrier and fringing and associated patch reefs has not been made, and the productivity and species diversity have never been assessed. It is assumed, however, that with the absence of large scale coastal development and commercial fishing except in the more polluted areas of
57




Inble V-l
LIST OF MAJOR MANCiKOVK SWAMPS IN HAITI
Area Percent of Forest
Locution (Ha) Country Total I.V|K'
1. North Coast
A. Ft. l.iberte area
1. Riviere Massacre 60 0.27 R,B
2. Coastal 70 0.31 B.I
-V Baicde F. Liberie 340 1.52 F.B
B. Baic de Caracol 3, WO 17.84 F
C. Cap 1 lahien 760 3.40 B,F,
D. Limbe
1. Baiedel'Acul 4N0 2.14 F,B
2. Riviere Limbe 100 0.45 B
I.. Porl-de-Paix 70 0.31 B
II. West Coast
A. Anse Rouge 350 1.57 I
B. l/Lstere N.490 37.97 F
C. Artibonite 490 2.19 F.B
D. Port-au-Prince 670 3.00 F
HI. South Peninsula
A. Petit-Goavc 50 0.22 I"
B. Trouin 70 0.31 B
C. Miragoane 350 1.57 I'
D. EJaradcre 1.200 5.37 F.B
Ei. St-Jean du Slid ISO 0.S1 F
F. Cayes area
1. Marsay 140 0.63 F.B
2. Cavaillon 350 1.56 B
3. Mombin 60 0.27 B
4. Riviere Millionaire 80 0.36 B
5. Scattered coastal 400 1.79 F.B.
G. Aquin
IV. Satellite Islands
A. He de la Tort tie 110 0.49 F
B. Ilede la Gonave 1.150 5.14 F
C. Grande Cayemite 250 1.12 F
D. Ile-a-Vache l,fil() 7.20 B
Total Area 22,360 or (). Mangrove Forest Types: F-Fringing/ B-Basin / R-Rivcrine
* Note: Between 1956-1957 about 7% of mangrove vegetation disappeared.
Source: J. Thorbjarnason: Status and Ecology of the American Crocodile in Haiti. LI. of Florida (1984).
59


llie haic ilc I'oi't-aii-l'riitce and certain heavily fished areas nearshore, the reef habitat is healthy and productive.
Coral reefs rank among the most biologically productive and diverse of all natural systems even though the waters that surround them are devoid of nutrients which normally support plankton found in richer, more temperate waters.
Reefs provide food and shelter for resident and migratory species, protect coastal properly from tropical storm damage by acting as self-repairing breakwaters and offer a storehouse for potentially valuable species (e.g. pharmaceuticals, commercially harvestablc species).
Mangroves
Haiti's mangrove wetlands, also largely unaffected by coastal development, are important reservoirs of plant and animal species, and contribute to the diversity and ecological significance ol the coastal marine environment. They protect adjacent estuarine and nearshore marine ecosystems, provide essential habitat to a wide diversity of wildlife, especially birds, and offer vast breeding and nursery grounds to reef fish.
Significant mangrove forests occur on the north coast between baic de I'Acul and Fort-I.ibcrtc\ the region of the Artibonite estuary, the Cirandcs Cavernites area on the north coast of (he southwest peninsula, and Les (ayes region including lie a Vache (Table V-l). Important mangrove systems tire also found on the large offshore island of La Gonave, primarily on the north coast, but also fringing much of the south coast in small discrete areas. Mangroves arc used for charcoal and construction (polcwood), but impacts are not yet significant. Mangroves are protected by Article 97 of the Fisheries Laws of November 27, 1978 ('Table V-2), which forbids their cutting for any reason because of their nursery value for finfish and shellfish. This law, however, is not enforced.
Coastal Waters
In general, the waters of Haiti are not naturally productive, due to a number of factors:
- The Caribbean is deep, 80 percent deeper than 1800 m;
- The coastal shelf area of 5000 km', commonly the most accessible and productive fishing ground, is narrow and used mostly by bottom-dwelling fish;
TAHLE V-2 EXTRACTS OF THE NOV. 27, 1978, FISHING LAW OF HAITI
Art. 97 It is forbidden:
a. To capture, to sell, to export llie triton (Cluro-tni.s varii'K b. To capture the green and the Caray turtle during the nesting season between May and October.
c. To collect turtle eggs of any kind within the boundaries of the territorial waters.
d. To capture sea turtles and Caray on the beach.
e. To collect sea crabs between Dec. 11th and Mar. 31st.
f. To capture marine mammals such as seals and sea
lions, whales, dolphins, porpoises within the territorial waters without a special permit from the Ministry of Agriculture (DARNDR)
g. To cut mangrove vegetation which serves as the
natural habitat for numerous marine species (oyster in particular).
Art. 115. The exploitation and sale of spoiled sea food is prohibited. Any Fish Service Inspector can seize the stock and if necessary, proceed to destroy it.
Art 112. It is forbidden.
a. To capture, sell, buy small conch shells and to
engage in the commerce of their shells.
b. To export the shells of sea turtles without authorization of Fishery Service.
c. To export the following shells without authorization of the Fishery Service
- Nerila poloronta (Dent saignante)
- Linova pita (Brig noir)
- CV/aw/.v tuberosis, Cassis inadascariencis (Casques)
d. To export lobster and conch without adequate cleaning
e. To use the chemical products such as "Salpetre" "Chlorox" and others to clean shellfish.
f. To use the refrigerator as a storage facility when the freezer is required.
Restrictions by species
a. Lobsters Weighing less than 151 gr or 5 oz. cannot be captured
- Season is closed between Apr. I and Sept. 30
- Females with eggs cannot be captured
b. Conch No shell less than 10 cm in length can be collected
- Use of "hooka" (air compressors) lo dive for conch between Feb. 1 and July 31 is forbidden.
60


- Surface waters arc warm year-round at 26-28" C, and the water column is relatively stable, thai is, there is little mixing or exchange of deep and shallow waters;
Nutrients which sink to deeper depths in tropical waters are not recycled to the surface as in many temperate fishing grounds;
- River-source nutrients are low since there are few perennial streams, and those which do enter the water column are rapidly used or sink to deeper waters;
- Nutrient production from mangroves, coral reels and seagrass beds, while locally important, cover a small area compared to that of the open seas.
Specific areas, however, do exhibit a comparatively higher productivity, In such areas as the western tip of the southern peninsula, prevailing currents are warm, easterly and influenced by the strong North Equatorial Current, bringing seasonal migration of pelagic fish such as skipjack, mackerel, dolphinfish and billfish into Haitian waters. The exact nature and extent of these fish stocks, however, are not known. At Cap Dame Marie, where the continental shelf (;ess than 2()()m deep) extends over 20 km offshr.e, the Cuban (Equatorial) Countercurrcnt forces v-viters eastward, causing some enrichment of coast;;! waters. The absence of upwelling or seasonal mixing of warm surface waters with colder, nutrient-laden deeper waters off the shelf, does limit primary (plankton) production along the coast,,but nutrients essential for the proliferation of plankton occur in areas draining mangrove forests or other river runoff areas such as baie des Cayes and Canal de I'Est on the southwest coast, baie de la Tortue, Baie du Grand Pierre and Baie des Gonaives of the Artibonite River, and selected locations along the north coast from Liberte to Baie de I'Acul.
C- SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF COASTAL AREAS
Ft. Liberte to Mdle St. Nicolas
The area between Chou Chou Bay and Ft. Liberte has productive bays and coves, sandy beaches, mangroves, extensive seagrass beds, and coral formations including fringing reefs and a barrier reef more than 17 km in length stretching between Cap Haitien and Ft. Libert^. The shoreline at Morne du Haut Cap is separated from Cap Haitien by mountains, and has limited accessibility by unimproved road. Within this region, unimpactcd by shoreline development, are two small bays which appear to have potential as marine reserves to enhance fish breeding and nursery grounds: Baie de Labadie and Baie de Cadrasse (J.C. Dicque-mare, 1985 pesonal communication). Important fishing grounds include Ft. Liberte and the Baie de I'Acul du Nord (DAPTE, 1984).
Unique features include good conch (Strombus gi-gas) habitat from He de la Tortue to Ft. Liberty, sig-
nificant mangrove area between Buie de I'Acul and Ft. Liberie, excellent shrimp habitat (Pcnaeus brusi-!ii'J]_si?j P. duorarum P. schmittii, Trachypcnacus simi-lis, Alphcus sp.) in Baie dc I'Acul, and good habitat for Manatee (Trichechus manatus) and green turtles (sightings of both endangered species tire infrequent), There have been crocodile (Crocodylus ucutus, or American crocodilefsightings at I.agones aux Boeufs near the border. There is a conch mariculture project in Ft, Libert^ bay, an area with suitable henthic vegetation, well protected with fringing reefs and good circulation and high oxygen levels (PROTOS 1985, personal communication). Conch Ministries, u PVO based in West Virginia, is buing juvenile conch from the Pride-operated hatchery based on Turk and Caic./s islands, to reseed Ft. Liberty bay and to conduct experiments on the best way for local fishermen to manage the resource. Ft. Liberty is also the location of a Tilapia project funded by the Project Tcchnische Ontribtilelings Somer-verling Development (PROTOS), a PVO from Belgium and managed by volunteers working closely with community members.
This stretch of coastline is the site of offshore 18th and 19th century shipwrecks (some estimates go as high as 250), including the Santa Maria, Columbus' flagship. Bord-de-Mer dc Limonade, a fishing village, just east of Cap Haitien is believed to be the site of the ill-fated colony of La Navidad.
The major population center is Cap Haitien, the second largest city in Hani. The extended shelf area north of Cap Haitien offers increased potential for fishing. Offshore, along the coast, is a major migratory pathway for whales.
The north coast of lie dc la Tortue is devoid of reefs, and drops sharply down to 3600m, directly offshore. The south coast from Point Saline in the west to Pointe Portugal in the east is protected by a long continuous barrier reef. This large offshore island has 47 species of birds, and is believed to have had a large and distinct animal fauna in pre-colombian times (C. Woods, 1985 personal communication).
Mdle St. Nicolas to Gonaives
From M6le St. Nicolas to Gonaives there are eleven fishing centers; Gonaives, La Pie, Grande Savane, L'Etang, Coridone, Pt. Demong, Anse Rouge, Petit Anse, Baie de Henne, La Plateforme and M6le St. Nicolas. The fishing village of M6le St. Nicolas (population 2000) is located on the Baie du M6le, a well protected deep water harbor on the westernmost point of the northwest peninsula, 297 km from Port-au-Prince. At the bay's entrance, the edge of the shelf is only one-half mile distant. In case of severe weather, i.e. cyclones, fishermen take refuge in the Baie Carenage.
One of Haiti's poorest regions, the northwest coastal area is arid and almost completely deforested. The
61


villagers support themselves by fishing, charcoal making, salt production and limited cultivation. Although post-harvest losses arc reported to be common in Haiti's fishing villages, here the use of ice-packed buckets delivered each morning to the buyers, the salting of some species and an efficient markc!'.ni> system, prevent spoilage.
(ionulvc'N to Rale de St-Marc
The Artibonite estuary and adjacent regions have hundreds of hectares of rice paddies which extend on either side of the Artibonite River within several kilometers of the estuary. Three large bays, Gonaives, Tortue and Grande Pierre, occur, north of the river and arc said to harbor a small group of manatee. The small village of Grande Saline and a smaller bay (name unknown) lies just south of the river. These mangroves border the bays while a vast zone of flat, often tidal influenced lands without vegetation, lies nearby, providing feeding habitat for hundreds of flamingos and other shorebirds.
Gonaives is a major fishing port (DAPTE, 1984). The insular shelf widens in the Gonaives, Grande Saline region, providing extended fishing grounds.
The brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) has recently been discovered in the salt ponds just north of Grande Saline, where salt is being harvested in numerous small ponds on both sides of the river.
Brine shrimp are found throughout the year in all salt ponds, especially when salt concentrations are low (C. Mock, 1984).
The area, however, was declared unsuitable for shrimp and Artemia farming by an American investment group because of the soil characteristics.
Baie de St. Marc to He a Cabri
Located well within the Gulf of La Gonave and sheltered by La Gonave Island to the south, this area contains many extensive fringing reefs and offshore reef formations, including those that surround Les Ar-cadins.
With the exception of the densely populated area of St. Marc, the region can be characterized as a low density beach resort areas, easily accessible to tourists from Port-au-Prince. There are seven beich resort hotels with coastal recreational facilities, as well as private beach houses, dotting the coastline.
The area below Baie de St-Marc and above He a Cabri is relatively pristine. The He a Cabri area, once a significantly productive reef, lagoon and mangrove system, has been heavily impacted by coastal industry.
The baie de St-Marc contains a coral encrusted wall
of great beauty, directly offshore, (A. Maskin, 1985 personnal communication) and an extensive fringing reef along its northern coast, where manatee have been sighted. However, it is also the location of the densely populated town of St-Marc, which may be adversely impacting the bay's ecological system.
Les Arcadins, small points of land located seven miles offshore from the nearest shore at Pt, Paturan, are known for unusually large and abundant specimens of both fish and invertebrates and extensive seagrass beds in surrounding waters. This area is prized by snorkclers and Scuba divers.
It is also the fishing grounds of Lully a well-established village and fishing cooperative.
He a Cabri to Leogane
Demarcated by Port-au-Prince Bay and the capital city of Port-au-Prince, there arc no large rivers, strong tide:; or winds in the inner harbor to create fast currents in nearshore areas resulting in a low flushing rate of sediments and toxic wates entering the bay from land runoff. The mean tidal variation is only 1.18 ft. The maximum wave height recorded in the harbor does not exceed 3 feet.
The coastline is largely developed, with altered topography and drainage, and bordered by landfills, docks and other impermeable surfaces. There is abnormally high turbidity in nearshore waters. Stormwater containing heavy sediment loads and low sewage drains into the bay from open channels and closed lines.
At one time there were well-developed mangroves, lagoons and coral reefs lining the shore. Now the combination of dredging, harbor activity, silt deposits and sewage pollution has apparently irreversibly reduced benthic diversity and productivity in nearshore waters.
Approximately 7.1 km off the coast of Port-au-Prince lies a reef system, the Grand Banc, which includes Pelican Caye. Sand Caye, a second reef area, lies approximately 4.9 Km offshore. Both areas appear to be utilized by artisanal fishermen and tourists from Port-au-Prince (e.g. Yellowbird cruises, which leave from Port-au-Prince.)
Leogane to JeXimie
The south coast of the Baie dc Port-au-Prince is well populated nearest Port-au-Prince, with population centers clustered in the river valleys. Farther along the coast near Jeremie, the sparsely settled Grand Cayemite area offers spectacular scenery, including extensive mangrove forested islands and mangrove lagoon systems, coastal mangrove wetlands, rocky cliffs, offshore reefs, and seagrass beds.
There is reportedly a large fishing population who
62


fish I he nearshore coral reels and several secluded resort areas Icaluiiiu', a pristine ciiviieiimcnlal setting. The southern highway I'rom I'oil-au-l'iincc does not hug the coastline as in the north and. consequently, the shore is less accessible and less imp.u-lcd by development.
A unique feature, the small islet. Ruclielois. is an atoll-like reef with a lighthouse, npp.oximalcly 13 km from shore and often fieqiiented by dive, aid fishermen alike. The reel extends in a circle from 0 lo 60(1 It., less than hall a kilometer from the atoll. The clear waters surrounding Rochclois, unimpactcd by land runoff, have encouraged the growth of extensive coral formations, including a coral encrusted wall of great beauty al the shelf's edge (G. Kenn, 1985, personal communication).
Barudcrcs to les Cavernites
Baraderes-C'ayemites, an area located just east of Jeremie on the southern peninsula, features an extensive and pristine coral reel system, as well as large untouched mangrove formations. Spectacular hays ringed with mangroves and offshore sandy cays lined with surfacing reefs, contain many samples of the coastal and marine environments of Haiti.
As such, it deserves protection as one of the first marine reserves of the country. (See Marine Reserve discussed on p. 75.
Jeremie to Cap Tiburon
The area west of Jeremie between Dame Marie and Cap Tiburon features the largest shallow submerged shelf (339 Km') of potentially good fishing grounds in Haiti (FAO, 1983). At Cap Dame-Marie, the 'equatorial countcrcurrent forces waters eastward, mixing and enriching coastal waters.
The fishing village of Anse d'Hainault lies in the center of the western coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti. It is located 210 km west of Port-au-Prince, and 40 km from Jeremie. The town lies on a small area of flatlund about half a kilometer square at the mouth of a valley which discharges into the Baie de Nault. It is entirely surrounded by mountainous country. Anse d'Hainault is on the most exposed coastline of Haiti. It is particularly vulnerable to west winds during the hurricane season, but winds from the nonh or south can also cause high wave conditions at this point. Sheltered anchorage along this coast is very infrequent, with Anse d'Hainault offering the best protection.
The Baie de Nault is protected by two barrier reefs north and south of the bay, and also by two sand bars formed by these reefs and stretching almost across the mouth of the bay. Depth of water in the natural passage at the center of this bar is over 5m.
Following a six month field study at Anse d'Hainault the FAO mission in Haiti is proposing to continue in
this potentially viable fishing area by landing training to preserve fish and make and repair nels.
(up Tiburon to I'ort-ttuliit
Thin area is not well known. Port-a-Pimcnl is the major coastal shipping port located about four hours by truck Iron1 Les (ayes. Small coastal villages dot the shore, built close lo the mouths of rivers which empty into the sea. The inhabitants mostly sustain themselves through farming.
Port-Salut to Baie d'Aquin
Les (ayes region features mangrove forests which stretch along the coast to Baie d'Aquin, and part of the lie a Vache, a large island approximately 2 km from the coast. The mangrove forests, considered to be some of the most productive in Haiti, the vast seagrass beds and well developed coral reef systems in shallow coastal waters, form a vast spawning, nursery and fishing ground. The submerged coastal shelf widens at Cayes, enhancing the fisheries potential, Fishermen report seasonal migrations of tuna and bo-nito as well as large catches of conch, lobster and shrimp.
A unique feature of Les Cayes regions is the approximately 50 flamingos frequenting the Baic dc Flamands. Crocodiles are found in the mangroves between Les Cayes and Baie d'Aquin (J. Thorbjarnason, 1985, personal communication).
The wreck of the Haiti warship, St. Simon .which sank in 1901, is half-submerged at a distance of 80 m directly in front of Les Cayes.
Bate d'Aquin to Anse-a-Pitre
The south coast is characterized as a high wave energy area, with cliffs and rocky shores, waves on crashing surf, white coral sand beaches and sandy bottoms along the submerged shelf. Although many rivers empty into the sea along the coast, there is good visibility and little turbidity. There appears to be a barrier reef running parallel to the coast at the edge of the shelf, approximatly 0.5 to 1 km from shore, but little is known of this area. There are also well defined reef systems along the coast at C6tes de Fer and Cayes Jacmel.
Jacmel, located on the Baie de Jacmel, is a unique town port favored by tourists.
The limestone cliffs between Point de Lagon and Anse a Pitres, near the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, feature significant sea bird populations.
La Gonave
La Gonave Island is situated in the middle of the Bay of Port-au-Prince, 60 km from the city of Port-au-
63


Prince and 18 km from Point Montrouis, the closest point on the main island. The island is 45 km long and 20 to 25 km wide (less than 700 km1).
Large barrier and fringing reefs ring the island with the exception of the westernmost shoreline. The best known reefs are located at the eastern end of the island where a large shallow shelf of 60 ft or less stretches between Gonaives and the inner reaches of Port-au-Prince Bay. Two areas, in particular, arc close to Port-au-Prince Bay and popular recreational areas: the small island and surrounding reefs of Petit-Gonave, and Pointe Fantasquc. Iguanas still remain on Petit Gonave.
The southeast coast of La Gonave is lined by mountains dropping abruptly to the sea, while the southwest features coastal plains where mangroves, salt flats and beaches provide excellent habitat for shore birds and sea birds. Nesting areas include Brown pelican, flamingos and frigate birds. Anse a Galets, the largest village on Gonave and nearest point to Montrouis on the main island, is situated at the northeastern end of the island on a spit of of land almost entirely enclosed by a barrier reef. Behind the town, the land rises steeply into the mountain ranges which cover almost the entire island. Small cargo boats sail regularly between Anse a Galets and Montrouis bringing conch, lobster, turtle, fish and other products to the market at Montrouis.
D.- USES OF COASTAL AREAS Marine and Coastal Fisheries
Despite 1500 km of coastline, Haiti produces 5000 tons of fish annually and must import on an average 12,000 tons of dried and salted fish (valued at $3.4 million) to meet domestic demand (FAO, 1983) (Tables V-3, V-4, V-5).
Domestic consumption of fish products is relatively low and can be broken down by user group as follows:
fishing families 1,500,000 kg
urban areas 900,000 kg
rural areas 2,500,000 kg
A narrow insular shelf, characteristically low productivity of tropical coastal waters, and the absence of a developed fishing industry, have thus far resulted in a low annual fish catch. Although no accurate assessments of fish stocks exist in Haiti, a 1983 FAO study on the biological, social and economic aspects of the fisheries of Haiti has provided estimates of actual and potential yields of major fish resources based on sampling and fishing effort data collected in 1982-1983 (Table V-4).
TABLE V-4
ESTIMATES OF FISHERIES PRODUCTIVITY
Fishery Actual Yields Potential Yields
Resource (Tons) (Tons)
Demersal 2,500-3,000 3,000-4,000
(insular, shelf
& slope)
Pelagic
Nearshore 1,000-1,500 3,500-5,000
Offshore Negligible 5,000
Lobsters 500 600
Mollusks 200 7
Other shellfish 400 7
Totals 4,600-5,600 12,000-15,000
Source: FAO Report No. 72/83 IF-HAI II
TABLE V-3
ESTIMATE OF TOTAL FISH CONSUMPTION IN HAITI Range of Consumption (T/year) Source Minimum Maximum
Total fish catch-Haiti 3,000 5,000
Imports 10,000 14,000
Exports 500 1,000 Local consumption (restaurants
hotels, home use 12,500 18,000 Average consumption
per year* 2.5 Kg 3.6 Kg Fishing villages; 30 to 50 kg fish/per person/per year
Source: La PSche Artisanale Cotiere en Haiti Elements Pour une Stratdgie de Developpement, G. Cha-pond, FAO, Port-au-Prince, Jan. 10, 1984.
Table V-5
HAITI'S TRADE IN MARINE FISHERIES (1980-81)
Exports Weight (tons) value (U.S. $000's)
Lobster tails 23.4 309
Frozen shrimp .2 1.3
Frozen conch 125.6 552.6
Other shellfish 462.2 1,321.8
Aquarium fish 2.2 15.4
Total 614.6 2,200.1
Imports Salted
& dried fish 12,000 3,400
Source (Tables 1,2,3): FAO Report no. 72/83 IF-HAI 11
Haiti's fisheries resources fall roughly into three categories: demersal, shellfish and pelagic species.
64


Demersal Species
Reel' and bottom-dwelling (demersal) speeies, including members of the snapper (lutjanid) and grouper (scrranid) families (Table V-4), are traditionnaly the most sought after for flavor and value throughout the Caribbean. Of the more than 30(1 species of demersal fish recorded in Haiti waters, only 150 are regularly found and harvested. Snappers and groupers of various kinds account for 70 percent (or nearly 1300 tons) of the total fish catch for this group in Haiti.
Shellfish Species.
Shellfish (lobster, shrimp, conch and other mol-lusks) associated with coral reefs and seagrass beds (lobster and conch) and mangrove wetlands (shrimp) arc distributed throughout the coastal zone. Nearly 1000 metric tons of lobster and conch, Haiti's principal fishery exports (Table V-6), are harvested each year. While little information exists on standing stocks of shellfish species, recent National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) statistics (Table V-7) reported declines in catch of both conch and lobster, suggesting that these may be overfished, at least in certain areas. Their easy access by divers (in the less than 15 m of water) makes them especially vulnerable. The high prices obtained for shellfish (e.g. lobster, conch, as well as snapper andgrouper) have led to increased fishing effort and localized overexploitation along the entire near-shore reef areas. This is particularly true in areas with easy access to both fishing grounds and markets, as arc the banks between Port-au-Prince and Gonave. This area is fished many times a day, with yields of only 1-3 kg/boat/day.
Shrimp, in contrast, appears to be underutilized, particularly in the Bay of Port-au-Prince near the mangroves of Grande Saline and in the southern Cayes between Aquin and He a Vache, where lack of appropriate harvesting techniques has resulted in low yields (Hatziolos, 1984).
TABLE V-6
EXPORT IN KGS, IN % OF SHELL FISH October 1983 September 1984
Shellfish Kgs %
Shells (Conch & Others) 272,970 74.2
Conch meat 54,399 14.8
Lobsters 32,285 8.8
Aquarium Fish 2,303 0.6
Shrimps 3,723 1.0
Turtle shells 2,198 0.6
Crabs 197
Total 368,045 100
Source: R. Kavanaght, 1984. Le Commerce de Pro-duits de peche en Haiti.
Direction de Peche des Ressources Naturelles, Service de Peche et pisciculture. Report, Dec. 1984.
Pelagic Species
Nearshore pelagics, or small open water schooling fish, such as herring, sardines, anchovies and jacks appear to be significantly more productive than dcir'ir-sal species in Haiti (estimated al 3000-7000 tons/yu t). Catch data indicate that current harvests of these coastal pelagics are well below potential yields (Table V-4).
Offshore pelagic species, or oceanic schooling fishes, including tuna, bonito, mackerel, skipjack and marlin, occur off the shelf in waters deeper than 180m. Seasonal migration of tuna and bonito (April-May and August-October) bring large schools of these species to shelf waters off Les Cayemites and Miragoanc These migrations, however, arc often associated with strong easterly winds, especially in the fall when fishing is difficult. Landings are made generally by small resident populations along the northern and southern coasts of Haiti. Essentially unharvested, Haiti's offshore pelagic fishery, with estimated yields of about 50(H) MT/year, is an untapped resource with considerable potential for development.
Ornamental Reef Fish
Although the hundreds of small ornamental fish species found on the reefs throughout the Caribbean are not considered harvestablc by commercial fishermen, the artisanal fisherman takes them for food and profit. Overfishing, including the daily taking of sexually immature fish in these easily accessible areas can eventually lead to the permanent disappearance of many species from the reef and a deterioration of the complex ecological system.
Widespread fish collecting for export to the tropical aquarium industry in the United States and Japan adds to the problem. In 1982, Haitian exports of live fish and shellfish to the U.S. earned almost $753,000, while in comparison shrimp earned only $100,000 (NMFS, 1982). Many more fish arc taken than sold. Fish mortality is high as a result of careless trapping, collecting (dynamiting and poisoning), and subsequent handling of fish.
Characteristics of the Fishing Industry
Coastal fishing in Haiti is primarily artisanal, supported by unskilled labor and equipped with rudimentary and generally inadequate gear. The GOH Fisheries Services' efforts have been directed towards inland fisheries and aquacuiture, although most of the fish consumed and sold comes from the sea. Most fishermen are only concerned with providing fish for immediate consumption. Brokers may take a portion of the catch and preserve it for resale in large population centers such as Port-au-Prince. Major species found in the markets are snapper, lobster, conch, shrimp and parrot fish. Occasionally, seafood stores which cater to the Haitian upper classes and tourists will have swordfish and other pelagic species.
65


Tublc V-7
HAITI IISIIF KIIS KXI'OKT TO THE UNITED STATES (1979-1982)
Year 1979
I'roduct lbs Kk(IHIO) im
Suit water fish 1 i Hots lio/cn 294 0.13 456
Lobster tail fresh Shrimp shell-on 5,045 2.2V 21,187
Crabs fresh & frozen 5,022 2,28 5,375
Othershclllish 20.1,935 92.50 223,715
'Iota! 'idihle product 474,531 215.24 1,652,442
Marine shells crude 862,369 391.16 237,234
Articles of shell 2,500
Sponges & other non-edible products 100 .05 4(M)
Fish & shellfish live for a(|uarium 125.581
Total 1,337.(KM) 606.45 2,018,207
Your 1980
Saltwater fish fillet fro/en 37.5(H) 17.01 37.5(H)
Lobster live fresh 4,320 1.96 21.6(H)
Lobster tails 197,440 89.56 1,037,216
Other lobsters 33,941 15.40 167,315
Shrimp shell-on 17,753 8.05 87,114
Shrimp peeled 251,192 113.94 571.988
Other shellfish 279.023 126.56 408,581
Total edible products 821,169 372.48 2,331,314
Coral crude 7,329 3.32 2,279
Articles of shells 14,981
Seaweed & other non-edible
fishery products 2,295 1.04 3,450
Fish & shellfish live for aquarium 179,820
Total 1,219,190 553.01 2,705,211
Year 1981
Product lbs Kg (000) US$
Lobster live fresh 990 .45 5,346
Lobster tails 316,077 143.37 1,988,830
Other lobster 74,481 33.78 419,825
Shrimp shell-on 44,044 19.96 155,313
Shrimp peeled 2,400 1.09 14.4(H)
Other shellfish 391,962 177.79 754,630
Edible fisheries 829,914 376.44 3,338.344
Coral Crude 15,760 7.15 14,620
Marine Shells Crude 450,330 204.27 406,473
Articles of shell 5,016
Fish & shellfish live for aquarium 146,303
Total 1,296,004 587,86 3,910,756
Year 1982
Lobster tails 279,325 126.70 1,926,157
Other lobsters 44,620 20.24 298,890
Shrimp shell-on 18,275 8.29 81,178
Shrimp canned 9,650 4.38 17,937
Other shellfish fresh & frozen 111,1980 50.43 214,082
Edible Fisheries Products 463,060 210.04 2,538,239
Coral crude 2,586 1.17 4.248
Marine shells crude 332,754 150.93 182,326
Articles of shell for aquarium 752,819
Total 798.4(H) 362.14 3,524,226
Source: National Marine Fisheries Service Resource Statistics Division; US Imports.
66


Rural Haitians arc usually not oriented toward the sea, Low fish catch may represent lack of tradition, technology and expertise (rather than short supplies offish), and hick of an interested government in fisheries and coastal /.one management. Comprehensive legislation exists to protect coastal and marine resources, but enforcement is non-existent. Table V-2 summarizes the most pertinent fish regulations (Monitcur, November 20, 1978).
Haiti's artisanal fishing fleet consists of approximately 3000, almost entirely non-motorized sailboats and rowboats (3-6m) whose maximum fishing radius, under optimum conditions, is about 5 km, At least 150 days out of the year, however, heavy winds and seas keep fishermen in port. Both catch per unit effort (average 5-10 kg/trip) and total annual catch (about one ton) are greater for the larger better equipped and more seaworthy boats (FAO, 1983).
Estimates of the number of fishermen in Haiti vary widely, between 3000 full-time to 8000 part-time (Ka-vanaght, 1985). Fishing gear ranges from one to three to multiple hook and line, to palm-woven fish traps. Free diving for conch and lobster, and spearfishing occur in clear waters of less than 15 m. Hooka units (compressed air) arc used, but are prohibited between February 1 and July 31 each year. Hook and line, and fish traps are among the most commonly used gear because of their low cost ($2-$20) and rate of return. Use of nets, ranging in size from several meters (tre-mails) to 400 m in length (beach seines), bring in substantial yields: $100/catch (tremails) and up to five tons of schooling fish (beach seines) at certain times of year. The tremail, the most effective method for the capture of demersal fish, must be raised within two to three hours to prevent asphyxiation and rapid deterioration of the catch. Current usage appears to leave the net in place for an entire morning or afternoon, spoiling a large portion of the catch. Fish traps are sometimes left in place for three or four days (M. Fitzgerald, 1985, personnal communication).
The commercial distribution and marketing of the fish catch in Haiti is transmitted through a network of rural merchants and geared to markets in Port-au-Prince. A substantial portion of the catch, however, never reaches the marketplace due to spoilage from lack of preservation. During long hours at sea (an estimated
II to 15 hoiiis at Anse d'Hainault, for example) fish exposed to the sun often spoil before the boats can return to port.
Access lo refrigeration facilities is repeatedly cited as the most pressing need of fishermen. Ice is a scarce commodity in most rural fishing villages and refrigeration facilities exist in only a few central locations throughout the country. Smaller, temporary refrigeration units are occasionally supplied by middlemen at key distribution points. This system is generally inadequate in areas where roads arc poor and access difficult, Units typically break down because of improper maintenance or chronic power failures, In remote areas of the northwest (e.g. M61c St-Nicolas) and in the southwest (Baie d'Hainault; Table V-8), where fishing yields are comparatively high, these facilities are unavailable.
Post-harvest losses, due to lack of preservation and successful distribution, lead to wasted fisheries resources and an eventual return to subsistancc fishing. Independent entcpreneurs have tried on two occasions to organize mobile distribution units, loading the catch at sea directly onto mother ships bound for Port-au-Prince (L. Sharon, 1985 personal communication). Although initially successful, these efforts were later abandoned. Not only is the issue of preservation problematic from boat to dock, a significant quantity of fisheries exports from Haiti to the U.S. are detained at U.S. borders each year because of inadequate packaging or preservation. For example, U.S. Customs data for FY 1980 indicated that eight detentions of frozen conch meat were made because of either decomposition, insects, filth, or leaky containers. Total dollar value of the loss was not given.
Lack of extension facilities to market the catch outside the urea of production places a heavy burden on local market structure. Despite a large rural population eager to fish, the lack of efficient distribution networks, inaccessibility of the villages and the (relatively) high price of fish (Table V-9) make it difficult for these harvests to be utilized beyond coastal population centers. Fishermen are left with excess catch and meager profits.
The major constraints to improved fishery production in Haiti are: (1) Lack of fish in areas where artisanal fishermen have access; (2) Inadequate boats and
Table V-8
ANSE D'HAINAULT: RESULTS OF FISHING BY 7 BOATS (Between Sept. 1 and Nov. 18, 1984)
Month No. of Trips Fish Catch (lbs) Average Fish Catch (lbs)
September 44 3,050 69.3
October 56 4,077,5 72.8
Nov. 1 to Nov. 18 30 2,247 30
Total 130 9,374.5 130
Source: M.L. Le Menach Fisheries Expert (FAO field study, 1984),
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Tabic V-9 FISH PRICES IN JUNE 1983
Price of Price Price
Product Production Port-au-Prince Rural
White fish fresh 1,80-2,00 2,20-2,50
Red fish fresh 2,00-2,20 2,50-2,70
Small fish 0,80-1,50 1,50-2,00 -
Local dry fish 1,80-2,00 2,00-2,50 2,00-2,50
Lobster 5,00-7,00
Conch fresh (unit) 0,15-0,20 0,20-0,50 -
Fresh water fish 1,00-1,25 1,50-2,(10 1,25-1,50
Source: Rapport FAO/FIDA June 1983
gear denying fishermen access to many productive or potentially productive areas; (3) Lack of skills and proper training in the most efficient, cost-effective techniques for harvesting species and ensuring sustained utilization of renewable marine resources; and (4) Lack of sufficient fish preservation, distribution and marketing infrastructure and organization in many locations.
The following solutions to the above mentioned constraints have been proposed:
- Install artificial reefs and habitat enhancement devices in accessible and suitable areas. If placed in ecologically appropriate locations, these artificial reefs and fish-aggregating devices might prove an excellent means of taking the pressure off overfished, depleted natural reef systems.
- Improve boat design, fishing gear and harvesting techniques. Focusing fishing activities in deeper waters off the shelf with such improvements, could expose fishermen to marketable species such as skipjack, mackerel, bonito, marlin and tuna. However, without working with Haitian fishermen and without adequate infrastructure to preserve, distribute and market fish catch, heavy post-harvest losses and wasted fish resources could result. An extension service for fishermen, access to refrigeration, better roads to service and fishing centers, and infrastructure responsive to fishermen, are needed before an offshore fishery is developed.
- Increase shrimp production through the development of appropriate harvesting techniques. Good shrimping grounds are reported in the Golfe de La Gonave, off the mangroves of Grande Saline and in the southern Cayes district, between Aquin and He a Vache. From preliminary investigations, this is an area where appropriate technology might be most effectively applied. Small mid-water trawls, such as those used off the North Carolina coast, could be successfully introduced in Haiti to increase production without adverse environmental impacts.
Mariculture
Although mariculture in Haiti is still in the early development stage, several activities have been proposed. These include: brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) farming in salt ponds of the Artibonitc estuary; shrimp farming (Penaeus sp.) in the mangrove wetlands of Baie de l'Acul du Nord; conch farming (Strombus gi; gas) in the Baie de Ft. Liberte" (now in progress) and elsewhere along the North Coast; and the cultivation of mangrove oysters (Ostrea sp.) in the protected estuaries and bays of Haiti's northern and western coasts.
A brief survey of seaweed and algae was conducted in selected areas along the coast to identify species of algae and seaweed rich in agar in 1980-81 (Renoux Meunier, 1978). Culture of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) has been attempted in a small lagoon on the southern coast of the northwestern peninsula (UNDP, 1980). Culture of reef fish in floating cages in many protected bays along the coast has been suggested.
Conch Cultivation
Conch (Strombus gigas) generally inhabit nearshore waters, easily accessible to subsistance fishermen, sport divers and commercial fishermen alike. In Haiti, increased fishing pressure has quickly led to a decline in local conch population and a drop in yields (Hatzio-los, 1984). Research into the hatchery techniques for rearing queen conch larvae (which began in 1980) has led to serious consideration of conch mariculture as a viable program in the Caribbean. Commercial hatchery production of juvenile conch in captivity has begun. Seeding reefs with conch to maintain overfished stocks or to culture conch to marketable size for profit, seems feasible in Haiti. The cultivation of conch would not only reduce pressure on wild populations, but increase production of a valuable export commodity (both meat and shell) and a popular source of protein among Haitians.
Shrimp Farming
Habitat for farming shrimp in Haiti is found in the extensive mangrove wetlands of the Grand Saline region and Baie de l'Acul in the north. Questions remain,
68


however, regarding pesticide loads in the rivers draining the Artibonite valley, lack of essential infrastructure (e.g. electricity) to support shrimp farming opcr-tions and the high costs of shrimp farming for feed and technical assistance. Reports from Ecuador, moreover, indicate serious problems emerging from the widespread mangrove habitat destruction from building shrimp ponds. Post-larval and juvenile shrimp are disappearing as mangroves are cleared, making it more and more difficult to seed the ponds with local shrimp species upon which this technology depends
Brine Shrimp Harvesting
A recent study of the development potential for eastern Caribbean Artemia sp. (Island Resources Foundation, 1984) has indicated that brine shrimp culture in salt ponds, where it is endemic, is a viable proposition, particulary as a cottage industry. Brine shrimp is used as an aquarium feed when processed into pellets. Following investigation of the brine shrimp farming potential in Haiti, this species was found in the salt ponds of the Artibonite estuary.
Although the site was rejected due to soil characteristics, it is apparent that the opportunity for brine shrimp culture does exist. Salt ponds trap sediments, protect fragile reef environments from siltutiun and act as habitat for numerous migrating and resident populations of shorebirds, including a number of rare and threatened birds species. Farming brine shrimp in the salt ponds of Haiti, if properly managed, could maintain the ecological role of salt ponds in coastal areas, provide an alternative source of income to local fishermen, and preserve the original Artemia gene pool.
Oyster Culture
A small scale culture project at Ft. Liberie bay attempted a hanging oyster culture, starting with the imported Crassotrea gigas. When most of these died, a second oyster (this time a local species, Crassotrea luca was introduced. The project failed apparently because of wide fluctuations in salinity caused by runoff from heavy rains, attacks by boring sponges and lack of funding to continue the experiments. Unlike some countries in the Caribbean, most people in Haiti consume oysters. The viability of culturing oysters cannot be assessed, however, seaweed culture, without additional research.
Seaweed Culture
Certain areas along the coast have been identified as having seaweed and p'.gae species rich in agar, a commercially desirable product. No further research has been conducted and the costs of seaweed culture in Haiti have not been assessed. Areas identified with this potential are:
- From Grand Savane to Anse Rouge (northwest): Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnaea musciformis, Acan-throphora spicifera, Gracilaria cylindrica;
- La Gonave island: Gracilaria crassissima;
- Area of Petite Riviere dc Nippc; (from Charlier to Anse-a-Veu): Hypnaea musciformis;
- Baic Anglaise, Zanglais, Si-Louis du Sud: Graci-laris sp.)
- From Jacmel to Marigot: Gracilaria sp. (Figure VI)
King Crab Culture
Recent field laboratory experiments conducted in the Caribbean (SML) indicate that growing Mithrax spinosissimus (Caribbean King crab in reality a spider crab), on screened floatingcages and rafts, is possible. Although such a project is not yet operational, a prc-feasibility study for Haiti would be desirable to assess the technical and economic viability of beginning a pilot project in Haiti waters, where crabs are known to occur and fishermen are familiar with their harvest and marketing.
Fresh Water Fisheries
Haiti has many short rivers with steep gradients, flowing swiftly from mountains to sea. Most tend to have a torrential flow pattern with stormy flows during the rainy season and dry beds during the dry season. There is one large river, the Artibonite, whose watershed includes most of the Plateau Central and which empties into the Golfe de la Gonave. The. total area of fresh water lakes and lagoons is approximately 23,000 ha, of which most is" represented by Etang Sau-matre (16,000 ha) and Lake Peligre, a reservoir of 3200 ha, created in 1956-57 by the construction of a hydroelectric facility across the Artibonite River. Very little information is available about the productivity of these fresh water sources. A partial list of indigenous lake species is shown in Table V-10.
Table V-10 NATIVE FISH FAUNA OF ETANG SAUMATRE
Species
Family
Cichlasoma batiensis Cyprinodon bondi Gobionellus sp. Dormitator maculutus Stronylura notata Limia tridens Limia melanonotata Gambusia hispaniolae
Cichlidae
Cyprinodontidae
Gobeiidae
Elotridae
Belonidae
Poeciliidae
Poeciliidae
Poeciliidae
Source: Thorbjarnason (1984): Status and Ecology of the American Crocodile in Haiti.
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In addition to the lur< rid rivers, there are numerous fish ponds stocked mostly with Tilapia sp. and carp. These ponds are maintained by individual farmers, NGO's and the GOII Fisheries Service. Total fresh water fish production from these ponds is estimated at about 1200 tor.s/ycar (Kavanaght, 1984).
Aquaculture
Fish culture was introduced in the 1950's by the FAO Technical Assistance Project as a means of improving nutrition in rural areas. Chinese carp (Tricho-gaster pectoralis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Tilapia mossamhica were stocked" in riven., lakes and irrigation canals, where they reproduced rapidly. Nursery and experimental ponds were constructed at the Damien Fish Culture Staiton outside Port-au-Prince, and extension work began in 1952. An estimated 5000 ponds were constructed between 1958 and 1977 (Table V-11). Lack of trained personnel and extension agents, as well as a limited budget, apparently brought the program to a standstill by 1965 or 1966 (D. Puelle, 1983). By 1985, only 400 ponds remained in the Cul de Sac region, the area most accessible from the Da-mien Station (G. LaFontant, 1985, personnal communication).
Recently, there has been a revived interested in fish culture in rural areas of Haiti. The present impetus comes from the private sector (PVO's and from international organizations such as FAO and the Peace Corps). Technical assistance for these aquaculture pro-
jects is provided by expatriate volunteers, foreign university faculty and students, and a few Haitian technicians.
Fish presently cultured in Haiti include: Tilapia ni; lotica, most widely used; Tilapia mossamhica, a less efficient producer and now rarely used; Tilapia aurca, used only on La Gonave Island; and the common carp, which requires more technical skill than Tilapia to culture. Table V-12 lists approximate dates and origins of exotic fish species introduced in Haiti since 1952. Recent private sector proposals suggest that future PVO projects might include the building of fish ponds on salt flats :ind growing Tilapia in coastal waters. The potentially sciious impacts upon marine ecosystems of introducing exot'r >pecics has, however, not been assessed.
All fresh water fisheries' research is handled by the Damien Fish Culture Station and staffed by the Fisheries Service. The aquaculture program is, however, severely limited by inadequate funding and staffing. Extension work with the individual farmer is an essential prerequisite of successful fish culture, yet the program can count on only a handful of trained extension agents with limited transport equipment to distribute fry to outlying areas.
Exotic Species Introduction
Since there is virtually no information available on the natural productivity of inland and coastal waters
Table V-ll
DISTRIBUTION OF FISH; CONSTRUCTION OF PONDS; STOCKING OF PONDS, LAKES AND RIVERS
1958 1973
Fiscal Distributed Ponds Stocked
Year Carp Tilapia Constructed Stocked Rivers Lakes
58-59 113,428 106,428 00 400 3 2
59-60 94,428 212,858 754 754 2 1
60-61 115,428 164,000 754 754 3 1
61-62 98,428 74,428 600 600 1 2
62-63 99,728 106,428 800 800 2 1
63-64 115,428 63,625 900 900 4 1
64-65 117,428 70,500 414 414 1
65-66 25,000 15,000 100 100
66-67 -
67-68 13,000 8,000 62 62
68-69 15,673 8,000 62 62
69-70 35,620 2,025 98 175
70-71 34,822 1,125 70 225
72-73
Totals 920,528 828,917 5,032 5,549 15 9
Source: Technical assistance in Freshwater Fisheries Development in Haiti, 1973.
Note: This data has been included because it is the official record from the Dept. of Agriculture. However, the original information used to compile this table is highly questionable. It is the opinion of the author that the values given are grossly inflated, (Puelle, 1983).
70


other than very localized data on fish catch, it is very difficult to assess the impacts of having introduced exotic species such as Tilapia sp. and carp into the aquatic environment of Haiti. Findings in the Dominican Republic indicate, however, that few if any natural and brackish water environments remain unaffected by exotic species introduction (Hartshorn et al, 1981).
Aquaculture in Haiti is being promoted primarily as an alternative source of protein for the rural population and a source of cash income. Some attempts have been made to grow Tilapia commercially, but these efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Introduction of if' exotic species, such as Tilapia, into coastal water, as a result of pond construction along the coast, should be assessed and monitored for their impact on coastal lagoons and reef ecosystems; especially since Tilapia exhibits some tolerance to saltwater and could conceivably compete for resources with native species. Recent proposals to raise Tilapia in estuarinc environments should be reviewed carefully.
Seaports and Coastal Trade
Since the early sixteenth century, a system of coastal trading ports existed throughout Haiti (Figure V-2). By the early 1%0's, the system had lost much of its dynamic nature due to lack of adequate facilities and investment to improve harbors and docks, as well as to the closing of many regional ports to foreign commerce in favor of Port-au-Prince. At present, only 12 ports arc open for trade:
Port-au-Prince Jdremie Cap-Haitier. Les Cayes Port-de-Paix St-Marc
Oonaives Jacmel Pctit-GoAvc Ft. Libcrtd Miragonuc Aquin
Cities such as Les Cayes, Jacmel and Jcr A 1977 classification of coastal trading vessels roughly divides the commercial fleet into 580 sailboats and 2t> motorized launches. Some boats arc not included because of tonnage less than one.
Range(Tons) No. of Vessels Average Tonnage
1-15 155 12
I6--30 155 22
31-45 137 39
46-60 41 51
61-highcr 10 57
Source: Le Menach, FAO (1985)
Since 1977, the number of Haitian vessels has diminished due to further decline in local seaport activity and retirement/loss of old vessels. Recently, the GOH has stressed rcgionalization as a strategy to improve the quality of life in rural and remote areas. Perhaps a resurgence of coastal seaports and increased vessel usage will be seen in the future.
Table V-12
EXOTIC FISH SPECIES INTRODUCED IN HAITI
Species Year From Where Purpose Reference
Tilapia
mossambica 1951 Jamaica DFCS FC Lin (1952)
Cyprinus carpio 1951 Alabama DFCS FC Lin (1952)
Trichogaster
pectoralis 1952 Singapore DFCS FC FAO (1956)
Cyprinus carpio 1952 Israel DFCS FC FAO (1956).
Pocilia reticulata 1977 Dornin. Rep. DFCS MC
Tilapia nilotica 1979 Limonade FC Starley.p.com
Ctenophary-
ngodon idellus** 1979 Limonade FC Starley, p. com.
Tilapia aurea 1982 Illinois LaGonave FC Puelle (1983)
Gambusia affinis 1983 Florida Ft. Librte MC Linden, p. com.
Ictalurus sp. 1983 DFCS FC Wilson, p. com.
* disappeared from DFCS since 1955; DFCS = Damien fish cult, station ** disappeared from Limonade since 1981; FC = Fish Culture MC = Mosquitoe Larvae Control
Source: Vlaminck (PROTOS), Aquaculture Stat. Fort-Libertc.
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Fig. V-2: Small sailboats carry much of Intercoastal freight such as charcoal.
E.- ENDANGERED SPECIES AND CRITICAL HABITAT
Many threatened or endangered animal species inhabit coastal and marine areas of Haiti. Those which utilize mangrove habitats include among others:
- American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)
- Green Sea Turtle (CheIonia mydas)
- Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
- Loggerhead Turtle (Carrcta caretta)
- American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber)
- Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaia)
- Reddish Egret (Pichromanassa rubescens)
- West Indian Tree Duck (Dendrocygna arborea)
- Masked Duck (Oxyura dominica)
- White-crowned Pigeon (Columbia leucocephala)
- Hispaniolan Trogon (Temnotrogon roscigaster)
- Peregrine Falcon (Falco pcregrinus)
- West Indian Manatee (Trichecus manatus)
Of the marine mammals, the West Indian Manatee is faced with extinction. Recent aerial surveys have located a well established population of manatees (be-* 'een 5 and 8) living in the mangrove areas of the Artibonite estuury (C. Woods. 1985 personal communication). Sightings have also occured at Montrouis and the bay of St-Marc, where fresh water enters the
sea and at Ft. Libertc\ west of Cap Haitien. Hunting pressure on the manatee is unknown.
Haiti's remote, deep sand beaches offer excellent nesting habitat for sea turtles. Of four endangered species of turtles, three have been reported in Haitian waters: Chelonia mydas (green turtle), Caretta caretta, (the loggerhead) and to a lesser extent Eretmochelys imbricata (hawskbill turtle). Divers along the northern coast have also reported the leatherback (Dermoehelys coriacea), as an occasional visitor (J.C. Diquemare, 1985 personal communication).
Location of nesting beaches and primary nesting season are unknown. Fishermen take turtle for food and in the case of the hawskbill and the green turtle, sell the shell lo tourists and to manufacturers of turtle jewelry. Table V-7 summarizes trade with .ne U.S. in seafood products, including turtle shells and aquarium fish. Export of turtle shells arc higher than those in Table V-7, as Japan buys all the shells exported by two firms in Port-au-Prince (quantity unknown). See Wildlife Trade section. Chapter VI).
American flamingos arc found throughout Haiti, especially in the mud flats near Port-au-Prince and the Etang Saumatrc and the salt ponds at the estuary of the Artibonite river, on La Gonave and at the Baie
72


de llaiiiaiids, They ate sometimes hunted and eaten in certain areas. Koscate spoonbills, as well as other rare and threatened slxuvbirds Iced in the mangrove wetlands al It I.iheite. when- they arc al"> hunted and trapped in violation ol huntingti*>>uhili<>ns.
Although I hi- Liang Saiimatie ippcais lo have the largest concerninlions of the American crocodile (( ro-codylus acnlus) llus endangered species also exists in niangiovc areas lliioiiglioul the coast (.1. Tliorbjaina son, I'W.S, personal communication). This species is iclcircd lo locally as "caiman-, although, it is not a liuc caiman.
I.- CONCLUSIONS AND KL( 'OMMKNDA HONS
I.- Improvements in I isluriis Product ion
I or many developing countries such as Haiti, fisheries arc a vital source of protein and foreign exchange. Yet lishciies resources are being rapidly depleted in many instances, by overfishing, use of inappropriate fishing techniques and the destruction of critical feeding and breeding habitats such as mangrove wetlands, coral reefs and seagrass beds.
In Haiti, mountainous terrain, poor, non-existent coastal roads and lack of coastal development have, thus far, protected the country's vast wealth of coastal and marine environments from significant destructive developments. The only major impact on the sea's resources comes from the relentless fishing by thousands of artisanal fishermen who must fish all year long, without benefit of adequate training, appropriate equipment, technical assistance and marketing infrastructure. Although accurate data of fish stocks arc unavailable, all evidence points to the fact that while easily accessible nearshore areas are being fished to the limit (and often overfished), species farther offshore are underutilized. The recent expedition by Jacques Cousteau of Haitian coastal waters supports this empirical observation.
The extensive ecological systems along the vast coastline of Haiti, can be regarded as natural capital potentially providing a continuous flow of goods and services to support and enhance economic development. Continued overfishing of nearshore areas will eventually seriously affect both species populations and diversity, as has already occurred in other parts of the Caribbean.
To stop this trend a new committment from the GOH is needed. The GOH Fisheries Service is presently underbudgctcd (e.g., $60,000 for FY 83), understaffed and undertrained. For example, of the 35 employees of the Service, only eight arc technical staff and two are extension agents.
No reliable statistics are kept on fish catch, either locally or nationally, nor are fish stock assessments carried out to determine the country's exploitable marine resources. Although legislation does exist (Fish-
erics I ,aw 1978) which limits the harvest ol lobster and conch below a certain size and during certain times ol llie year, (his ,s rarely enforced,
The lack of effective management of Haiti's resources is the fundamental problem in conserving the resource base as well as in the development of a signilicanl fishing industry. (i()ll institutional capabilities arc insufficient to address llie needs of the rural fishermen, rural consumers and the private sector. Developing a fishing industry to fish (he underutilized areas will also take pressure off the iiearsliorc reel systems and could potentially contribute lo (he national economy. Increases in fish production could be achieved on a modest scale by:
Conducting a lish stock assessment in potentially productive areas;
I ocalmg and organising communities and groups as fishery production and marketing cooperatives in order lo provide assistance and coordinate catch and fish distribution;
extending credit to such groups for the purchase of equipment and to give them access beyond nearshore areas;
- stimulating small-scale industries related to fishing (e.g. gear manufacturing and maintenance, boat construction, fish salting and drying operations), to meet demand;
- strengthening and expanding marketing capabilities to ensure that fishermen receive reasonable profits for their efforts;
- extending fish distribution networks to rural populations to provide them access to this source of protein;
- providing {raining and appropriate equipment and for the fishing of demersal/benthic (nearshore) fish stocks in order to avoid depletion of these resources;
- encouraging the private sector to stimulate expansion of artisanal fishing operations through investments and more effective distribution systems.
These activities should be concentrated in areas of greatest potential (e.g. along the southern coast between JeYemie and Les Irois and between Aquin and Belle-Anse, and in the northwest, between Mole St. Nicolas and Baie de Henne). Activities should also be coordinated to avoid duplication of efforts and to identify activities with greatest cost-effectiveness.
Mariculture or the cultivation of marine species to increase optimum sustained yields is another possible strategy to relieve fishing pressure from natural fish stocks, especially nearshore.
The limits of natural production, especially in areas
73


of low productivity such as the Caribbean region, iiire poorly understood, Developing mariculture opportunities in Haiti could add to the food supply, improve nutrition in rural areas and contribute to foreign exchange earnings. The most promising opportunities will be those that increase the carrying capacity of natural systems such as reefs and seagrass beds, for locally acceptable fish and shellfish (i.e., conch) which can be harvested. Impacts of introduction of exotic species on ecosystems should be, however, carefully assessed. Especially designated marine and coastal reserves should lie set aside to protect indigenous fish resources and the gene pool of commercial species such as shrimp, conch, lobster.
2.- Protection and Muiiuguinunt of Coastal Marine Habitats
A recent (1983) amendement to the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act authorizes the President to provide assistance to countries in need of protecting and maintaining the habitat of threatened and endangered wildlife species. Particular emphasis was given to the establishment wildlife sanctuaries and reserves, the enactment and enforcement of antipoaching measures, and support of research programs to identify, study and catalog rare animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments. 1 Iaiti is one of the largest Caribbean countries, with a suprisingly untouched coastal and marine environment. Much of its wildlife, particularly in the coastal areas, has never been specifically identified and studied.
With its limited resources and yet significant coastal wildlife habitat, Haiti is good candidate for application of the amendment mentioned above, as part of a coastal resources planning effort. U.S. donors, such as USAID, could sponsor small research efforts with students and faculties from qualified academic institutions, in Haiti and elsewhere, to inventory rare and threatened species such as sea turtles, shorebirds and seabirds. A few efforts of this nature have already begun with the participation of faculty and students from the University of FVrida with ISPAN. Participation of Haitian residents, however, is crucial if long-term protection of coastal resources is to be accomplished.
The plan need not be a highly sophisticated one, as in the case of coastal zone programs in the United States. It should, however, provide information and maps (at useful scales) of critical areas in need of protection, such as mangrove wetland/coral recf/sea-grass bed areas along Haiti's coast and areas suitable for marine reserves and parks, and propose sound integrated sustainable economic development of Haiti's coastal resources, primarily for fisheries and tourism. Criteria for selection of critical coastal areas have already been developed worldwide and could be applied to Haiti. These areas would include habitat for commercially important fish and shellfish species, rare and endangered species, areas of unusual scenic
value as sites for present or future tourism, and proposed sites for mariculture.
The coastal resources plan would provide Hhc conceptual, scientific, administrative and legal framework for decisions affecting coastal marine resources by the (iOll and external proposals could be researched and evaluated as part ol an integrated plan, and not piecemeal, as so often and so dclctcriously has been done in the case of land development.
Projects to be evaluated within the planning management context would inclucl'- existing proposals for conch cultivation, shrimp farming, brine shrimp harvesting, oyster culture, seaweed culture and King crab mariculture.
3.- Establishment of Marine Reserves and Parks as Part of the Coastal Resources Plan
Protection and Management of Coastal Marine Habitats and marine parks, can be effectively used for both public education and research, and to replenish depleted breeding stocks of valuable but vulnerable fish and shellfish species that quickly disappear from heavily fished areas. Once identified and managed as critical areas, they serve as important habitats for commercially valuable fish, as well as for rare and endangered fish and invertebrates.
The success of these protected areas depends heavily on their role in a larger or even national system of coastal resource protection, the existence of an appropriate management framework, and their general acceptance by local residents.
There are legal precedents for protecting coastal resources. In 1942, the GOH ratified the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere. The convention calls for international cooperation in the protection of flora and fauna throughout the hemisphere, including the establishment of protected areas, such as national parks and reserves. Subsequently, the GOH Hunting Law (1971) was enacted which forbids the hunting of various threatened and endangered coastal birds, as well as other species. Interpretive education, research and management programs, developed as part of a marine park/reserve system in Haiti, could, if prepared appropriately, help to create a better awareness of the law and an appreciation for the resource.
The following areas are proposed for cither marine parks (multiple use areas) or marine reserves (restricted usage):
Arcadins
The Arcadins are a group of small islands with adjacent reefs approximately seven miles from the nearest point of land (Pt. Paturan) and 36 miles north of Port-au-Prince. The largest of tne three. Lighthouse Island (300 m by 100 in) features a white sand beach
74


and an unmanned lighthouse. Surrounding the three islands, lighthouse, Ti Teal and He dc Sud arc reported to he unusually huge and diverse specimens ol marine life, (e.g. sponges, anemones, bristle worms, seafans, and extensive coral formations). The reels are accessible to inexperienced divers. Recreational divers frequently sight deep water fish species such as Dig kinglish, African poinpauo, wahoo, saillish and niarlin that move in from the edge of the insular shell, which, at the Aieadins, is quite close. Some divers report finding rare invertebrate species that apparently have never been identified (A. Baskin, l85, personal communication).
The Aieadins are also a traditional fishing ground for the fishing community at I.ully. The coial reefs and seagrass beds, evidently provide excellent fish habitat for a variety of desirable species.
This area, if managed wisely, with the cooperation of both the fishing village and the recreational users from nearby tourist beach hotels, could provide a renewable fisheries habitat, a means of educating the public to better conservation practices, and an attraction to tourists which will help boost the lagging tourist economy. A marine park at the Aieadins should, however, be planned carefully as part of an overall coastal management plan which would also set aside other marine coastal areas for special protective management.
Barradcres Cayemites Marine Reserve
One of Haiti's most outstanding coastal areas, includes a shallow bay (Barradcres) and an archipelago of islands (Cayemites). It is located along the stretch of coast between Petit Trou de Nippes and Corail. The bay is lined with more than 1200 ha of mangrove ve-
getation, most of it in pristine state. The archipelago contains small and spectacular cays which dot an extensive reef system between the larger island and the peninsula of liarradeies. The reel resources of this area (Cayemitc Hay) are reported as being among the richest and more spectacular of the Caribbean region. No scientific survey or resource inventory exists. It ranks at the top ol the list among coastal areas deserving some form of protective management (reserve), An extensive inventory of marine and coastal resources is also urgently warranted.
The lack of development of this area does not appear to be due, however, to limited potential, but rather to lack of road access. The hinterland of this area is characterized by karst topography of small rounded hills, still covered by forest vegetation, Unspoiled beaches, mangrove swamps, and the extensive reef system represent undoubtedly the best sample of coastal resources in Haiti. Some charcoal making activity is evident on the Barradcres peninsula and on Grande Cayemite.
He a Vache
The lie a Vache, just lo the south of Les Cayes, contains a beautiful mangrove system on its eastern half which provides habitat for a small colony of crocodiles and numerous shorcbirds and waterfowl. Just off the eastern end of the island is one of the largest coral reef systems found in Haitian waters.
Baie de Labadic and Baie de Cadrasse
These small bays, unimpaeted by shore line development, have excellent potential as marine reserves where breeding stocks of commercially desirable species could be protected.
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VI
Wildlands Conservation
A.- INTRODUCTION
The arrival of the Amerindians (aboriginal peoples), primarily the Arawaks some 7000 years ago, did not greatly alter the ecosystems ol the island. Although perhaps as many as one million Amerindians lived on Hispaniola at the time Columbus landed, a vast majority lived in the coastal zones and depended on seafoods, mostly shellfish for their subsistance. Agricultural activities were confined to the plains. The Amerindians also hunted certain hutias as a source of food (Woods, 1984). Primates became extinct before the arrival of the Amerindians. The Amerindians introduced domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to the island which presumably hunted many of the native mammals, thus contributing to their extinction.
When Christopher Columbus first set foot on Haiti in 1492, and claimed it for Spain, he described it as an earthly paradise. Immediately, the Spanish began a pattern of destructive exploitation of human and natural resources, a pattern that has marked the history of Haiti. Gold was mined, and the Amerindian population enslaved and virtually wiped out. The plains were cleared and cattle and goats introduced. Hardwoods were cut for lumber. Rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) invaded the island, taking over the biological niches of some native rodents. Cats, dogs and swine became feral. The Spanish imported Slaves from Africa to replace the fast disappearing aboriginal people.
The Spanish were succeeded by the French who reaped enormous profit from the large plantations of sugar, coffee, indigo and cocoa. The French did not limit their agricultural activities to the plains, but also cleared numerous virgin forests on mountain sides for hardwood lumber and to plant coffee. The large mahogany forests of La Gonave were cut down. Most of the colonists regarded Haiti as a territory to exploit for quick profit without any regard for the conservation of the natural resources or their renewal. The entire colonial system was based on a brutal and oppressiv exploitation of African slaves.
The slaves, after years 01 hitter and bloody struggle, gained their freedom and founded Haiti, an independent nation, in 1804. Unfortunately, although slavery was abolished, the inappropriate exploitation of natural resources continued unabated. The freed slaves were given small tracts of land in the mountains, which they cleared to create small farms. Any unclaimed land was cut for lumber. In 1845, 18,600 mc of mahogany alone were exported (World Bank, 1982a). Other hardwoods were cut for fuelwood, charcoal and construction, and slash-and-burn agricultural techniques were adopted. Fragmentation of land holdings was required by Haitian inheritance laws, causing further intensification of land ujc. Poor agricultural techniques caused erosion which, in turn, lessened water retention capacity; the subsequent decreased yields forced the growing population of peasants to clear more and more land in the mountains, and to make more charcoal as a source of complimentary revenue (Cohen, 1984).
As mentioned in chapter III, only 6.7% of Haiti's land area remains under forest cover. These areas are found in only the most inaccessible mountains and isolated unproductive zones.
The following is an assessment of the past, present and future status of wildlands and wildlife in Haiti, and its relationship to sustainable economic and human development. Wildlands, defined as those areas that have not been significantly affected by human activities, are very rare in Haiti. Some direct causes for the disappearance of Haiti's wildlands are: (1) an exponentially increasing population density (about 700/ ha of arable land as of 1985) combined with extensive poverty (average $300 per capita 1985), (2) a mountainous topography with relatively few fertile plains, (3) damaging agriculture practices and (4) widespread deforestation.
The prior introduction of domestic animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, cattle and goats by the Indians, vanish and French, the lunting of wild animals, and i* long standing deforestation of Haiti's wildlands
77


have contributed to a significant decrease in Haiti's wildlife. Of the 25 endemic land mammals once found in Haiti, only two remain (Plagiodontia acdium and Solcnodon paradoxus) (sec Figures 1 and 2), and of the 75 species of resident and/or endemic birds, 45 arc rare or threatened (C. Woods, personal communication, 1985). Over 129 species of endemic orchids are endangered and most other Hispaniolan plants can be considered in risk of extinction, with the exception of the most undesirable and uncxploitablc trees and shrubs which propagate rapidly under the most difficult conditions (Dod, 1985). Surprisingly, however, there are small areas in the most remote and inaccessible mountains and in certain coastal zones that can be still considered modified wildlands, which contain very important samples of endemic flora and fauna.
Haiti's geologic history, its varied topography and variability of temperature and precipitation have created a greater diversity of biomes than can be found in the eastern part of North American. Due to the isolation and adaptation to specific environments a great number of Haitian plants and animals eventually became separated endemic species.
B.- FLORA OF HAITI
As a result of the diversity of Haiti's ecosystems and
Fig.: VI-1: Line drawing of Solendon paradoxus (nez long), an endan*, *red mammal.
their biological isolation, Haiti has a particulary rich and varied flora. At the present time, over 5000 species of plants are known to exist in Haiti, of which about two thirds are woody plants, trees or shrubs, in addition, there arc about 600 species of ferns (T. Zanoni, personal communication, 1985); 36 percent of all plants are endemic to the island (Hernandez, 1980). Over 3(H) kinds of orchids can be found throughout the island of Hispaniola, of which 40 percent arc endemic (Dod, 1985). There are undoubtedly many undiscovered species of plants in Haiti, since the flora has not been thoroughly investigated.
The vegetation varies considerably from a very dry desert zone dominated by spiny shrubs, cacti, baya-honds (Prosopis juliflora) and acacia (Acacia farnc-siana) to heterogenous subtropical moist and wet forests dominated by such broadlcaf trees as mahogany, campeche (Haematoxvlum campechianum) and manglier (Rhizophora mangle) to montane subtropical forests of native pine (Pinus occidentalis), "Bois Mabel" Brunellia comocladifolia) and "Bois Tremble" (Didymopanax tremulum). A list of endangered plant species is found in the Table VI-1. Of all the ecosystems in Haiti, the coastal zones and mangrove forests are the least threatened. Only seven percent of the mangrove forests disappeared between 1956 and 1977 (Thorbjarnarson, 1984).
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Table VI-1
LIST OF VEGETATION IUREATKNKD AND IN NEED OK PROTECTION
Common French Name Family Scientific Name
Arbricotier (iut literal' Mammea americana
Acajou, noix d'acajou Anaeardiaeeae Anacardium occidenlalc
Acajou Meliaeea Swietenia mahogani
Boiscampcchc Leguminosae 1 lematoxylum campechianum
BoisChandcllc Rulaeeae Amyrisbalsamilera
Boiscapab Rhamnaeeae (oluhrina arborescensel ('. Reclinata
BoisPin Pinaccac Pinusoceidentalis
Blimhlin Oxalidaceae Avcrrhoa bilimbi
Cuehitnan La Chine Annonaeeae Annonacherimolia
Cuimitc Sapolaceae Chrysophyllum cainilo
Ccdrc Meliaceae Cedrela odorata
Cirouelle Anaeardiaeeae Spondias purpurea
Chene Hignoniaeea Catalpa longissima
Dalemarie Gultifcruc (alophyllumealaba
Divi-divi Leguminosa Caesalpiniocoriaria
Ebene Boraginaceae Rochefortia acanthophora
Fromagicr Bombacaccae Bombux tussacii
Gaiac Zygophyllaeeae Guaiacum officinale
Grain ouary Leguminosea Canavalia obtusifolia
Ilan-Ilan Annont'eeae Cananga odorata
Juuned'oeuf Sapotaceae Lucuma domingensis
Latanierchapeau Palmae Sabalcausiarum
Manccnillicr Anaeardiaeeae Metopium toxifcrum
Macoutouca Palmae Euterpe globosa
Pomme zombi Euphorbiaceac Hippomane mancinclla
Mangle; Palctuvier Combretaccae Conocarpus crcctus
Mangle blanc Combrctaccac Laguncularia raccmosa
Manglier rouge Rhizophoracca Rhizophora mangle
Manglier petitesfcuilles, pativier Sapindaccac Dodonaca viscosa
Mapou Bombacaccae Ceiba pentandra
Mapouzombi; baobab Bombacaccae Adansoniadigitata
Palme coyeau Palmae Coccothrinax argentea
Carte- Palmae Pseudophoenix vinifera
Palmiste Palmae Roystonia regia
Pomme cythere Anaeardiaeeae Spondias cytherea
Raisin de Mer, raisinier Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera
Romarin Euphorbiaceac Croton linearis
Roucou, Roucouyier Bixaceae Bixaorellana
Sapotille marron Sapotaceae Manilkara albescens
Tavernon Leguminosae Lysiloma latisiliqua
Zicaque, Icaquier Rosaceae Chrysobalanus icaco
Source: MARNDR / Direction des Ressources Naturelles- Service de Protection l'Environnement et de la Faune.
C- FAUNA OF HAITI Birds
As a result of its isolation and the variety of its eco-zones, Haiti also has a rich and unique fauna. There are more than 220 species of birds in Haiti, of which 75 are considered resident. A number of them are endemic to the island, such as the La Selle Thrush
(Tardus swalesi), the Hispaniolan Trogon (Temnotre-gon roseigaster), the Hispaniolan Parrot (Amazona ventralis) and Parakeet (Aratinga chloroptera), the Chat Tanager (Calyptophilus frugivorous), the Pal-mchat (Dulus dominicus), and the Black-crowned Palm Tanager (P. poliocephalus' ""*ble VI-2). The Grey-crowned Palm Tanager -d remaining
completely unique to Haiti
79


Large colonies of American Flamingos (Phoenicop-lerus ruber) are still found wailing near the shores of Ivtang Satimalic and smaller ni'inhcrs arc found in the Hay of Port-au-Prince, la Baie des Flamumlcs and in the Artibonite. Miignificicut Frigate birds (I'rcgata mngnificens), perhaps the most aerial of all scahirds, and the unusual White-tailed Tropichirds, can he seen soaring off the coast of Haiti's southern peninsula.
Ilispaniola and Haiti, in particular, have al least two breeding colonics ol the almost extinct Mlack-cap-ped Petrel (Pterodroina hasitala), a large seabird that feeds over the sea for weeks at a time (Figure VI -.1). During the breeding season il returns to its burrows in sleep inaccessible cliffs high in tlie mountains of I,a Selle as well as I lit* Massif cle I .a Mode (Windgntc, l%4).
Table VI-2
KNDKMIC LAND BIRDS FOUND IN HAITI
Scientific Name
Common Name
* Turdusswalcsi Todussubulatus
* Todus angustirostris
* Amazona ventralis Aratinga chloroptera
* Microligea palustris
* Xenoligea montana Dulus dominicus
* Carduellisdominicensis
* Nesoctitcs micromegas Mclancrpcs striatus Saurothcra longirostris Hyetornis refigularis Temnotrogon roseigaster Chlorostilbon swainsonii Phaenicophilus palmarun
* Phaenicophilus poliocephalus
* Calyptophilus frugivorus
* Vireo nanus
* Buteo ridgewayii
** Siphonorhis brewstcri
La Selle Thrush Broad-billed Tody Narrow-billej Tody Hispaniolan Parrot Hispaniolan Parakeet Ground Warbler White-winged Warbler Palmchat
Hispaniolan Siskin Antillean Piculet Hispaniolan Woodpecker Hispaniolan lizard cuckoo Bay-Breasted cuckoo Hispaniolan Trogon Hispaniolan Emerald Black-crowned Palm Tanager Grey-crowned Palm Tanager Chat Tanager Flat-billed Vireo Ridgeway's Hawk Least Parakeet
Found on Hispaniola but not on other West Indies islands. These South America.
es are however, found in North and
Dendroica pin us Loxia leucoptera Speotyto cunicularia Asio flanneus Zonotrichia capensis Euphoniamusica Pterodrorne hasitata Corvus leucognaphelus (1) Falco Peregrinus
Pine Warbler White-winged Crossbill Burrowing Owl Short-eared Owl Rufous-collored Sparrow Blue-hooded Euphonia Black-capped Petrel White-necked Crow Peregrine Falcon
Source: Woods. Doddand Paryski, Pcrs. Comm.. 1985 (1) Found on Hispaniola and once found on Puerto Rico (but now missing) = Threatened = Endangered # Resident Land Birds 73 # Endemic Land Birds 21 % Endemics = 29%
80


Fig. VI-2: Line drawing of Plaglodontla aedlum (zagouli), an endangered mammal.
The Narrow-billed (Todus sangustirostris) and the Broad-billed (Todus subulatus) Todies reside only in Hispaniola. The Todies are small, fluffy, insect-eating birds of vibrant green with blazing red throats, and are among the most beautiful small birds in the world. High in the mountains of La Hotte and La Selle one can hear the mystical flute-like call of the Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibaris), aptly called oiseau musicien in Haiti. In huge communal nests perched high in palm trees lives the endemic and highly social Palmchat (Dulus dominicus). The Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus), a brightly colored yellow and black, highly vocal bird, was brought to Haiti, presumably by slaves, from Africa.
Haiti is also the winter home for hundreds of species of migratory North American warblers, ducks, shore-birds, terns, herons, ibises, bitterns, egrets, hawks and falcons, including the highly endangered Peregrine Falcon (Falco percgrinus). Many of these North American birds, such as the Great Blue Heron and the American Redstart, now reside permanently in Haiti.
Mammals
Unfortunately, only two species of Haiti's endemic mammals, which once included primates and a large 400 pound giant slot!:, now survive: the Zagouti (Plagiodontia aedium), a secretive nocturnal rodent the size of a very large guinea pig (Figure VI-2), nez longue (Soknodon paradoxus) a nocturnal insectivore with a long pink snout and human-like hairless feet
(Figure VI-1). Both these animals are threatened with extinction. Another mammal, the manatee (Trichecus manatus), large sea cow still survives off the coasts of Haiti, but is now reduced in numbers and only occasionaly observed (Rathburn, et al., in press).
Reptiles
Haiti still has significant numbers of American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus). They were once widely distributed in Haiti, but now their range has been quite reduced and existing populations severely depleted. The largest population resides in 1'Etang Saumatre, with 450 adults (Thorbjarnason, 1984). Fowunately, the crocodile has a wide distribution, and, even though endangered world-wide, can be saved in Haiti if adequately protected.
Haiti has a large population of endemic herptofauna (reptiles and amphibians), including many unusual boas and other snakes. Snakes in Haiti are rapidly disappearing due to illegal e "*>irtation to North America and Europe, where th ,j is a particularly large market for highly exotic pets, and because they are usually killed when encountered by peasants. Even tarantulas are exported illegally to North America as pets.
D.- THREATS TO WILDLIFE
The major threat to Haiti's wildlife destruction of habitat. As mentioned, the vegetative land cover
81


KIr. VI-3: A rri> photograph of (he Muck-cupped petrel, u nt-ur extinct seu bird (hut nests in the Pic Mucayu and Morne l.n Visile Nullonul Parks (Courtesy of P. Paryski, LSI'AN).
in Haiti is rapidly and progressively disappearing. The belief, held in common by Haitians rich and poor, that in the remote parts of Haiti mythical lush jungles still grow, is no longer tenable. According to a recent survey by Cohen (1984), in the Pic Macaya area in the western part of the southern peninsula, land covered by virgin forest decreased from one-hundred percent in 1956 to four percent in 1984, indicating the rapidity with which even the most inaccessible areas (Pic Macaya has no road access) are being deforested. This process deprives wildlife of food, shelter and water, and completely upsets the ecological equilibrium of the various biomes. Human economic development has also been negatively affected by this process. Lo-wenstein (1984) has estimated that the deforestation of the Pic Macaya area alone is now costing over $9 million a year in declining agricultural and hydroelectric production. Some birds, such as the Hispaniolan Woodpecker (Melanerpes striatus), the Black-crowned Palm Tanager, the Grassquits (Tiaris olivacea & T. bicolor), the Palmchat, the Banaquit (Coereba flaveola/ and the Kestrel (Falco sparverius), fortunately seem to have a remarkable ability to adapt to environments and have may increased in population
(Woods, personal communication, 1985). However, if the destruction is not halted soon, and if it continues at the same rate, entire habitats will be irrevocably damaged within the next ten years (Cohen, 1984), resulting in the extinction of many valuable species of plants and animals, particuk'.ry birds, such as the Black-capped Petrel, the La Selle Thrush, the Hispaniolan Parrot and Parakeet, the Hispaniolan Trongon, the Rufous-throated Solitaire, the Chat Tanager, and the Ground and White-winged Warblers (Table VI-3).
Also affecting the status of wildlife in Haiti has been the introduction of non-native species such as rats and mice (Rattus rattus and (Mus musculus). Arriving with the Spanish they have succcssfuly competed with native rodents and insectivores, and have taken over their ecological niche and driven them into extinction (e.g. Brotomys vocatus, Nesophantes sp. and perhaps even certain species of Plagiodontia and Isolobodon Woods, 1985). Dogs and particularly feral cats, also destroy large numbers of endemic mammals and birds. The mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced in 1908 to eliminate rats, mice and certain boas from sugar cane fields. The mongoose reduced the
82


Table VI-3
LIST OF ANIMALS THREATENED AND IN NEED OF PROTECTION
(Non-exhaustive list)
Local Name
Kn|(llNh Name
Scientific Name
A. Mammals
Lamuntin Zagouti Nc/ long
It.- Reptiles
Caiman, Crocodile Tortuc demer
Iguanc
Coulcuvrcs(Boa) C- Birds
Malfini, Petit malfini, Emouchet
Malfini, Gros malfini Malfini savanc Gris-Gris
Ramicr, Millet, Ceniza, Ramicr ccniza
Ramicr
Jacquot
Pcrruchc, Pcrnichc Maitre bois, chuct-boua Ouanga Ndgrcssc
Hirondellc noire, Gros martinet noir Dame ou Demoiselle anglaise, Pie de montagnc, calecon rouge Colibri morne, Chicorettc Charpenticreameilc.charpcnticrbois Chittc Sara
Oiseau dc la pluie, jollc-jolle
Ouete-ouete noir, Merle
Musicien, oiseau musicicn
Petit chitte, quatre yeux
Petit chitte
Louis d'or, Pcrruchc
Mounedcld
Cornichon
Petit serin
Bcc-croisd
Petrel a coiffc noire
Aigrette, Crabier blanc, Ouock blancc
Crabier blanc, quock blanc
Cuillcs
Faisan
Flamand rose Crabier Tricoloured Crabier; Valet dc Caiman Crabier, Cracra, Valet dc caiman Crabier, Crabier bleu, Crabier noir, quock, quock blanc Crabier, quock, coq d'eau, Coq de nuit Crabier de bois
Pcrdrix rouge (male), perdrix ru>irc f female) Perdrix grise
West Indian Manatee Agouti
West Indian Shrew
American Crocodile Sea Turtle
Iguana Boa
Sharp-shinned Hawk Peregrine Falcon W.I. Red tail Hawk Ridv."iy'i Hawk Sparrow hawk Plain Pigeon Red necked pigeon Hispaniolan parrot Hispaniolan parakeet Hispaniolan Stygian Owl Hispaniolan Emerald hummingbird Black Swift
Hispaniolan Trogan Narrow-billed Tody Antillean Piculct Greater Antillean Elacnia Golden Swallow La Selle Trush Rufous-Throated solitaire White winged Warbler Ground Warbler Blue hooded Euphonia Stripe-headed Tanager Chat-Tanager Antillean siskin White-winged Crossbill Black-capped petrel Great Egret Snowy egret Common Bob-white Wood Ibis, Wood Stork Flamingo Heron
Little green hero
West Indian green heron
Little blue heron Black crowned night heron Yellow crowned night heron Ruddy Quail Dove Keywcst Quail Antillean Wood Duck
Trichcchus manatus Plugiodontia aedium Solcnodon paradoxus Ncsophuntcs *
Crocodylus acutus Dcrmochcys coriacca Chryscmys decorata Cyclura cornuta cornuta Epicrates subflavus
Accipitcrstriatus Falco pcregrinus Butcojamaicensis Rupornis ridgwayi Falco sparvcrius Columba inornata Columba squamosa Amazona ventralis Aratinga chloroptcra Asiostygius
Chlorostilbon swainsonii Cypscloides niger
Tcmnotrogon roseigaster Todus angustirostris Ncsoctitcs micromcgas Elaenia fallax Kalochclidon euchrysea Turdusswalesi Myadcstes genibarbis Xcnoligea montana Microligea palustris Euphonia musica Spindaliszena Calyptophilus frugivorus Carduclis dominicencis Loxia leucoptera Ptcrodroma hasitata Egrctta alba Egrctta thula Colinusvirginianus Mycteria americana Phoenicopterus ruber Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis Butorides virescens vires Butoridcs virescens maculutus
Florida caerulca cacrulescens Nycticorax nycticorax hoactili Nyctanassa violacea violacea Geotrygon montana Geotrygon chrysia Aixsponsa
Source: Direction Ressourccs Natu alles, Service dc l'Environnement et de la Faunc, MARNDR, Decembre 1984 1 Possiblement disparu (
i
-i--
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number of native boas, but ignored the rats and mice, preferring to eat chickens and many kinds of native birds. Today the mongoose, rats and mice tire found virtually everywhere in Haiti incliid-ng the peaks of the highest and most inaccessible mountains, such as Pic Macaya (2347m) (Woods, 1984).
Domestic livestock, primarily cows and goats, were introduced by the Spanish and proved to be highly successful in Haiti. The export of hides provided a major sourse of revenue for the early Spanish colonists. Livestock, however, has directly contributed to the destruction of vegetative land cover. Ironically, the elimination of the Haitian pig, due to the program to eradicate swine fever, has also contributed to the process of deforestation. Haitian peasants traditionally raised pigs as a capital security that could be sold for cash in times of urgent need, such as death in the family, school bills, or a marriage. Now, deprived of revenue from the slaughter of pigs, the Haitian peasants cut down and sell trees, even fruit trees, in times of dire need,
Wildlife is also being eliminated by hunting, and by incidental killing, primarily of crocodiles and manatees. The Haitian peasant generally does not hunt wildlife, since he has no firearms, and only sporadically uses the flora for medicinal herbs. However, tree cutting for construction timber, sculpture wood, basket-making and charcoal, remains the most significant cause of deforestation.
E.- WILDLIFE TRADE
According to U.S. statistics, Haiti is the largest Caribbean supplier of raw coral and ornamental fish to the United States. Haiti also exports significant numbers of live reptiles, amphibians and arachnids (primarily tarantulas and scorpions) to the U.S. (World Wildlife Fund, 1982); and is a major source "' transshipment port for raw and processed tortoise shell headed for Japan (WATS, vol. 1, p. 150).
In 1977, Haiti exported 1172 kg of raw tortoise shell (1.31 percent of the total world market). In 1982, Haiti exported shell (carapace) of Caretta caretta (328 kg), Chelonia mydas (250 kg), and Eretmochelys imbricata (241 kg)"(WATS, 3-218). A major supplier of coral to the U.S. in 1978 and 1980, Haitian species appearing on the market included brain corals such as Acropora sp. and Millepora sp. A government communique, issued in 1977, banned coral exportation for two years (Wells, International Trade in Corals, IUCN, 1981). However in 1982, '83 and '84 between 3,000 and 6,000 pound per year of raw corals were imported illegally from Haiti and in 1981, exports amounted to over 15,000 pounds. The long-term implications of both legal and illegal wildlife trade on Haiti's vast, productive reef systems and indigenous species of birds, fish and reptiles are not known.
F.- NATIONAL PARKS
La Visltc National Park
Area: 2200 ha
Established April, 1983, by Presidential
Decree
Administraded by: MARNDR in cooperation
withlSPAN Vegetation: pine forest, Savannah,
and montane wet cloud
forest
Objectives of protection of a major water
the park: catchment zone for the
agricultural Plaine du Cul de Sac and Plaine du Marigot
protection of endemic and rare species of flora and fauna
tourism / recreation
scientific research
Located high in the western part of the Massif de la Selle, the park includes three peaks: Morne La Vi-site (2150m), Pic Cabaio (2282 m), and Tcte Opaque (2268 m), and a high saucer-shaped plateau of thick lopsoil underlain by limestone and conglomerate rock.
The northern boundaries of the park contain striking and grandiose 1000 m limestone cliffs, some of which contain virgin montane cloud forest. On the exceedingly steep northern cliff faces, exist one of the three remaining breeding colonies of the strange, once believed to be extinct, Black-capped Petrel (Pterodroma hasitata) and one of the two remaining endemic land mammals on the island, the hutia (Plagiodontia ae-dium). These two species are highly endangered, as are some twenty-two other birds which are residents in the park, including the melodius Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes gejubaris), the La Selle Thrust (Turdus swalesi), the endemic White-winged Warbler, the Ground Warbler (Microligca palustris), the beautiful Hispaniolan Parrot (Amazona ventralis), the Hispaniolan Parakeet (Aratinga chloroptera).
The park, within its 2200 ha, contains savannah, pine forest (Pinus occidentalis), montane cloud forests, the remnant of an endemic juniper forest (Juni-perus ckmanii), many endemic plants and orchids, numerous springs, sinkholes and cave systems, the headwaters of two major rivers (Riviere Blanche and Riviere Grise), as well as a number of waterfalls and small canyons, thus making it an area of unique and varied natural beauty.
The park was established under the auspices of the Institut de Sauvegardc du Patrimoine National (IS-PAN), and the Ministere d'Agriculture des Ressources Naturelles et du Developpement Rural (MARNDR). Funding was obtained from USAID with technical assistance by the University of Florida (Gainesville) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The development of this park has just
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begun unci a park management program and adequate infrastructure have yet to be established. A number of squatters live within the park, unfortunately practicing damaging agricultural methods and cutting lumber.
Macuyu Nutionul Park
Area:
Established:
Administered by:
Vegetation:
Objectives of the park:
5500 ha
April, 1983, by
Presidential Decree
MARNDR in cooperation
with I SPAN
pine and montane
wet cloud forest
protection of a major watershed zone for the agricultural Plaine desCayes, the Grande Anse and the Riviere duCavaillon (hydroelectric production)
protection of endemic and rare species of flora and fauna
scientific research
Pic Macaya National Park, loc-.ted near the tip of the southern peninsula of Haiti, provides the water supply for Haiti's most productive agricultural area, the Plaine des Caycs. Two major east-west and extremely steep mountain ridges, Morne Macaya (2347 m) and Morne Formond (2250 m), form the center of the park. Due to its remoteness and inaccessibility, the park has remained undisturbed until very recently, and within its boundaries are still found large tracts of impenetrable rain and cloud forest. This park contains a rich and unique fauna and flora with a high degree of endemism. Recently new species of orchids, including the beautiful (Lepanthopsis michelii, have been discovered in the park. Pines 45m high and 2m in diameter loom over the peaks and trap moisture from the almost ever present cloud cover, giving the area over 6m of total precipitation a year.
The park includes a significant breeding colony of Black-capped Petrels, and provides habitat for numerous other birds including the Hispaniolan Trogon, the Chat Tanager, the Stripe-head Tanager (Spindalfs lena), the Hispaniolan Parrot and Parakeet, the Rufous-throated Solitaire, and the Gray-crowned Palm Tanager, which probably resides only in Haiti. Endemic mammals such as the Plagiodontia aedium and Solenodon paradoxus, as well as numerous species of endemic herpetofauna and mollusks, arc found in the park.
This park was established under the auspices of IS-PAN am' .he MARNDR. Funding was provided by USAID with technical assistance from the University of Florida and IUCN. The first steps are being taken
to protect the resources of the park, define its boundaries and establish basic protective infrastructure. Recent Ministerial Decrees have stopped illegal cutting of trees for lumber, yet slash-and-burn activities on the fringes of the proteced urea continue, Deforestation in the Park Macaya area is particularly intense and dramatic, although few peasants live within the park. Pine is being cut by unscrupulous lumbermen, and peasants arc fire-clearing many of the steep slopes to plant corn, malanga (Xanthosoma fiaggitifolium) and mason-bell (Colocasia csculcma).
An emergency committee composed of representatives of MARNDR, ISPAN and USAID has been formed to formulate and undertake an immediate action program to meet this crisis. Among the proposals being made arc: (1) a complete survey and physical delimitation of park boundaries, (2) the establishment of a 15,000 ha buffer zone, (3) the training and deployment of a park ranger corps, (4) the construction of a park hcadquatcrs, and (5) the strict enforcement of all existing legislation concerning protection of natural resources and the environment of the park.
National Historic Park La Citadellc, Sans-Souci et Ramiers
Area:
Established: Administered by:
Vegetation: Objectives of of the park:
2200 ha
1961 by Presidential Decree Office National du Tourism in cooperation with ISPAN subtropical wet forest
protection of the historic monuments: the Citadellc Henry Christophc, the Palais de Sans-Souci and
the site of Ramiers.
tourism / recreation
protection of endemic species of flora and fauna
Although this park was established primarily to assure the protection of Haiti's most important historic monuments (the Citadellc, the Pala^ i of Sans-Souci, and the Site of Ramiers; built in 1806 by King Henri Christophc, a national hero in the fight for Haitian independence), it does have a secondaiy role as a natural park. The park contains samples of subtropical wet forest and a rugged karst topography serving as a refuge for many upland an < lowland birds, such as the Narrow Billed Tody (uplai hummingbirds, the Peregrine Falcon, and for large ilocks of parrots sometimes mixed with parakeets (Woods, 1984).
However, the natural environment of the park has not yet been adequately protected. The park is being developed with the technical and financial aid of UNESCO and the U.S. Peace Corps.
G.- GOH PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE
Presently there are two Haitian government organi-
85


zaiions whose responsibilities include the protection ol Haiti's wildlands and wildlife: MARNDR and ISPAN, The Department of Natural Resources (DRN) of MARNDR is primarily responsible for the conservation and protection of Haiti's natural resources. The structure of this department has been altered repeatedly in the last few years. Haiti has a good number of laws protecting natural resources and flora and fauna, but the laws are rarely enforced.
The Hunting Decree of 1971 outlaws hunting of bird species listed in Article IK and all domestic species. (Article 2) No hunting is permitted during closed season or without a license from the Chief of State, Major of Armed Forces or his Officers (Arts. 3, 5, 15, 27). It is illegal to lake nests, eggs or the young of birds or animals ccept nuisance species designated by the MARNDR, No mammals or other classes of animals are covered by the DRN, Article 19 Decree, The Secretary of MARNDR established hunting seasons and conditions (Art. 16). Bird and game animals may be temporarily captured for scientific purposes. (Art. 20).
Law No. 9 of the Rural Code of 1962, which may be obsolete, prohibits hunting of birds during nesting season and of certain specified non-game birds (Library of Congress, 1979). The DRN has, in the last year, been taking serious measures ot protect Haiti's wildlife. New laws governing the exportation of animals and plants have been enacted to end a growing and illegal international trade in Haitian animals, most of them endemic and in danger of extinction, A World Bank financed project for the appropriate exploitation and protection of certain forests is underway. A division to manage parks and protected areas, for which the Department is presently responsible, has been established. In this task, the DRN is cooperative with ISPAN, the other GOH organization whose objectives include the protection of Haiti's natural heritage. It was ISPAN, that initiated the movement to create a system of natural parks and reserves in Haiti, and it was ISPAN that obtained a grant from USAID for the establishment of the first two parks at Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya. The marks' project, after some initial difficulties, is proceeding well, especially since the media and many government leaders have recognized the necessity of protecting Haiti's threatened natural heritage and resources.
Government agencies, however, are hampered by lack of funds and a lack of communication and coordination between concerned organizations, and by a number of very difficult political and socio-economic problems, such as the displacement of extremely poor peasants ftom areas that must be protected. To be successful, the protected areas project requires the enforcement of existing laws and no small amount of political will.
H.- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In general, the threat to Haiti's wildlands has come
from human destruction of the environment as a direct result of extensive poverty, a rapidly increasing population, a highly individualistic survival mentality, a counterproductive land tenure and inheritance system, a lack of planning, inappropriate agricultural techniques, and the lack of tin adequate governmental and private agricultural infrastructures,
A secondary threat to wildlife in Haiti has come from the introduction of such mammals as dogs, cats, rats, mongoose, and domestic livestock such as goats, cattle and pigs.
Wild plants have been destroyed by the advance of rural populations clearing remote locations, and by slash-and-burn agricultural followed in a number of cases by the degradation of the naturul ecosystems to a state of near-sterile conditions (desertification).
The vestiges of Haiti's wildlife and wildlands arc at a very critical point. Ecologically, it is ten minutes before midnight in Haiti, due mainly to the destruction of the land cover and consequent desertification. In a few years this process will be irreversible and there will be no possibility of naturul regeneration of endemic plants and animals (C. Woods, personal communication, 1985). The conservation of Haiti's natural resources is necessary to preserve the country's viability as a naturul and social system and for sustained economic development. If the remaining natural ecosystems, which constitute the major watershed areas as well, arc not protected and allowed to degenerate, there will be no water to irrigate the agricultural plains, to be used for human consumption and for hydroelectric power generation. There will be little arable soil on which to plant, and carrying capacity of the land will be irreversibly reduced.
To protect Haiti's remaining wildlands and wildlife, it is suggested that the following measures be undertaken:
1. Designate areas deserving protective management
These areas would compliment a coastal resources plan since most of them provide scabird and shore bird habitat, especially during the winter months.
L'Etang Saumatre is a large brackish lake 30 kms to the cast of Port-au-Prince in the Plaine du Cul de Sac; it is connected by an irrigation canal to a much smaller lake, Trou Caiman. Both of these lakes were believed to have been formed during the early Quaternary era, when the seabed was uplifted as a r^jult of the drifting together of the northern and southern land masses of Hispaniola (Woodring, 1926; Maurasse 1982). Due to the inflow of fresh water from the adjacent mountains the salinity of both these lakes is slowly diminishing (Thorbjarnason, 1984), thus creating a biologically flexible environment. Although the land around both lakes is inhabited, large areas of man-
86


grove and swamp surround the lake and a strip of land on I he eastern shore of I ,'liianj- SauinAtre belonging to Haiti, hut surrounded by the Dominican Republic, is entirely uninhabited. The area attracts large numbers of migratory North American waterfowl and shore-birds.
Large flocks of flamingos, terns, ducks, stills, herons, plovers, gulls, ibises and egrets mingle on and off the shores of both lakes, especially during the winter months, L'Etang Saumalrc also contains a significant number of crocodiles (Cjmaidylus acutus) estimated at 450 adults (Thorbjaruarson, 1984), and a colony of iguanas on a small isolated rocky islet. The crocodiles arc occasionally trapped and killed by local fishermen in their nets, but they are threatened primarily by the destruction of their breeding grounds. The waterfowl, particularly ducks, are hunted often quite wantonly killed during the winter months and many times even Flamingos are shot by unscrupulous hun-teis.
Etang de Miragoanc in the southern peninsula near Les Cayes harbors a small flock of American Flamingos and other waterfowl and shorebirds. It is a deep freshwater lake that once had crocodiles.
The He de la Gonave once contained beautiful hardwood forests that were cut for lumber during th, J'" century, but still has an active population of some 84 species of birds (Wctmore and Swales, 1931) and a breeding colony of iguanas on its western tip.
Tortue Island, off the north coast of Haiti, has 47 different species of birds and is believed (Woods, personal communication, 1985) to have had a large and distinct animal fauna in precolombian times and may yet contain some species of rodent (Isolobodon sp.) and insectivores (Ncsophantes sp.) that are extinct elsewhere in Haiti.
The Artibonite/Estere river estuary zone contains large tracts of mangrove, swamps and wetlands providing sanctuary for many migratory and resident birds, particularly shore birds such as herons, ibises and egrets. The Estere area has the largest mangrove forest in Haiti containing some 8490 ha. The area contains the best remaining habitat for the manatee and most remaining manatees live there.
The He de la Navasse, claimed by both Haiti and the United States, is reported to provide nesting grounds for many seabirds. It is uninhabited and its flora and fauna have not been investigated.
Three areas that should be considered immediately are:
Etang Saumatre and its surrounding coast and the mountainside to its north since it harbor numerous waterfowl, crocodiles and iguanas and since many springs flow on it shores.
1'olnte Moiistlquc: a small, forest covered peninsula (3(0 in) to the northeast of Aquin on the southern coast of the southern peninsula, as untouched area (hat harbors numerous seabirds and coast ecosystems,
Eastern hall of lie a Vuche, which has an extremely healthy mangrove swamp and an extended coral reef system.
2. Create a National Purk Service under 1N1IACA with the direct technical support of MAKNDK. litis organization should have direct access to the Presidency, to give it enough political weight to act effectively. By coordinating with MARNDR, it would avoid any potential policy conflicts between utilization and conservation of natural resources. It should have an adequate budget and staff and be adequately equipped and trained.
3. Adopt the IUCN World Conservation Strategy objectives. These objectives are:
- to maintain lesscntial ecological processes and life-support systems (such as soil regeneration and protection, the cleansing of waters), on which human survival and development depends;
- to preserve genetic diversity (the range of genetic material found in the world's organisms), on which depend the functioning of many of the above processes and life-support systems, the breeding programs necessary for the protection and improvement of cultivated plants, domesticated animals and microorganisms, as well as many scientific and medical advances, technical innovations, and the security of the many industries that use living resources;
- to ensure sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems (notably fish and other wildlife, forests and grazing lands), which support millions of rural communities as well as major industries. Any attempt to preserve Haitian wildlands and wildlife must be based on the principle of conserving nature for human development.
4. Implement the following as support to or which complement recommendations 1, 2 and 3:
- Prepare detailed studies in order to expand the system of protected areas to include other significant natural areas and the representative samples of Haiti's unique terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems.
- Initiate a program of public education about the environment and resource conservation for both urban and rural schools.
- Strictly enforce all existing laws on the protection of flora and fauna, watersheds, and the utilization of governmental lands.
- Establish a Natural History Museum and Botanical Gardens to become centers for research and education about Haiti's endemic flora and fauna.
87


Eliminate luxes on imported wood products lo encourage tree conservation and establish price controls,
Implement a fruit tree and fuelwood reforestation program in the mountains, as well as in the llutlands,
Establish a program of scientific icscarcli on Haiti's floral and fauna, Such a program should he undertaken with the participation of qualified scientific institutions abroad, which as in the case of the Florida State Museum and the University of Florida, have already collected samples of native plants and animals and compiled the most extensive data base on the island's flora and fauna.
- Donor agencies perform environmental impact studies as a part of project design and include natural resource or environmental management components
(e.g., conservation and restoration) as an integral part of any rural development project.
Unfortunately the problems of conservation in Haiti and one might add, in most countries, are to a great extent political, Until decisions are made at the highest levels to implement an effective conservation program, very little can be done. The lack of understanding of the importance of environmental conservation and the extensive poverty of the great majority of the Haitian people are factors that must be considered,
It is clear, that unless urgent and immediate action is taken by the (JOII, an unprecedented ecological and environmental crisis will occur, irreversibly destroying Haiti's naturul resource base, the country's endemic fauna and flora and diminishing the currying capacity of the nation to support its population.
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VII
The Peasantry and
the Physical Environment
A. INTRODUCTION
Haiti is the New World's most agrarian society. Following its birth as a modern nation in the western hemisphere's only successful slave revolution (1804), Haiti quickly became a country of peasants. Since that time, the vast majority of Haiti's citizens have continued to be independent farmers dedicated to living on their own land. In spite of significant urban migration and the recent growth of a dynamic assembly industry sector in the capital, over 80% of the country's population remains rural, freeholding, and directly dependent upon agriculture for its livelihood. The Haitian countryside is occupied throughout its entire length and breadth by peasant households. Each household is a distinct unit of production and consumption which is grounded quite literally in its land resources. Thus, to understand the Haitian physical environment and its prospects, it is essential to explore the complex historical, material and spiritual relationships that link the landscape to its inhabitants.
B. FROM SLAVE TO PEASANT
Haitian peasant culture has its beginnings in the 18th centi.,/. It was born in the struggle of nearly one million slaves of West and Central African origin to survive and to assert their humanity in the face of a brutal plantation regime under French rule. By the middle of the 18th century, creole slaves the children and grandchilden of enslaved Africans who were originally purchased from many language groups by plantation owners eager to impede potentially dangerous communication and cooperation were already speaking a fully developed Haitian Creole as their common native tongue. Slaves assigned provision grounds and forced to work in their off-time in order
to defray the costs of their own upkeep had developed effective techniques of intensive food cultivation. Turning necessity to opportunity, the slaves not only provisioned themselves, but operated an island-wide internal market system, generated modest personal incomes, and even passed de facto rights in particular parcels of land on to their children. Under pain of severe penalty, many slaves also persisted in serving personalized spirits and family ancestors in innovative, African-based rituals of celebration that were the precursors of modern Haitian religion. In short, the foundations of today's peasant cuiture were laid long before the Revolution brought freedom and independence.
These emergent creole traditions were further enriched by continuously high levels of slave importation from Africa, throughout the 18th century. The high demand foi slave labor was fueled by an extremely high mortality rate due to the harsh regimen of the sugar plantations. In 1789, on the eve of the Haitian Revolution, the slaves born in Africa as free men and women, may well have outnumbered the creole slaves born to the condition of bondage in St. Domingue. Together, they were close to 500,000 strong, as compared to approximately 30,000 free persons of color (gens de couleurs, or affranehis) and 40,000 whites. Fifteen years later, those who survived the Revolution were thus able to draw freely on their memories of Africa, as well as to build upon their accomplishments as slaves, in constructing a> new way of life.
The Haitians of the i9th century set out to define their newly-won freedom in terms of personal autonomy and economic self-sufficiency. The f. Tmer slaves staunchly resisted the efforts of Haiti's new leaders and large landowners to engage them as nominally free laborers on the same plantations that they had so
89


recently woik'd under the lush. Unwilling to work lor any overseer, they sought to establish themselves as indcpcndcir,, lamlhoUling, agricultural producers.
I'opulai struggles for access lo land continued Ihroughoti, the I'Jth century, and even now continue in some fertile areas still controlled hy absentee Ian dlords. Nevertheless, llie people ol Haiti succeeded in their quest lor laud. In their scattered homesteads, far from the centers ol national and inlein ilional po wer, the peasants of the I'hh century constructed a new way of lile, and they wisely built upon the firm bedrock of land ownership and food production, Kighls to land and control over one's labor became (he hallmarks of freedom and remain so lo (his day.
In the 20(h century, the peasantry is facing serious; challenges thai threaten its continued viability. While (he productivity of peasant agriculture has long underwritten the national economy, no corresponding reinvestment of resources, either public or private, has yet been made in the rural sector. Under such circumstances, a decline in peasant productivity was inevitable. The pressures of population growth, erosion, shrinking farm size and soil exhaustion have trapped the peasantry in a vicious cycle of ever-diminishing returns to labor. Currently, the majority have little hope of even one profitable agricultural season, let alone prospects for long-term savings and investment. While they remain, for the most part, committed to their way of life as independent, small-scale agricultural producers, they are hardly satisfied with the steadily worsening conditions of their existence. Looking ahead to the next generation, today's peasant commonly strives to ensure the future of his children outside of the agricultural sector through education, emigration, and alternative forms of employment.
In retrospect, it is all too easy to allow Haiti's current predicament to obscure the fundamental accomplishments of the Haitian people. Freed by their own hands of both colonial control and slavery, they were to articulate a vision of freedom that was, above all, their own. For the better part of a century the peasantry pursued that vision successfully, with results that compared quite favorably to the circumstances of their Afro-American compatriots throughout the hemisphere. If their descendants today have been unable to sustain that powerful vision of freedom in its entirety, nor even to maintain a satisfactory standard of living, this in no way diminishes the historical and cultural significance of their original achievement
C- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEASANT FARMING SYSTEM
Land scarcity, in the face of an expanding rural population, has resulted in the cutting of Haiti's forests to meet the need for cropland, even in mountains and fragile land areas unsuitable for sustained agriculture. While the large-scale cutting of trees for charcoal pro-
duction is an important cause ol deforestation in eer tain areas, overall it is veiy much secondary lo the simple expansion of peasant agriculture under cotidi lions of demographic piessuic and declining productivity.
Yet, if peasant agriculture has been lhe primary cause of the destruction of Haiti's forest cover and widespread environmental degradation, it has been so only in response lo a whole host of constraints external lo peasant fainting itself I'easant fanning may ultimately prove to have significant potential for positive impacts on the environment, as well. In fact, traditional features ol peasant farming have been instrumental in the success of current programs lo ameliorate the environment and reverse negative trends. These elements include the peasant orientation to the market, mixed cropping strategies, and indigncous agroforcs-try associations.
Peasant agriculture is virtually ubiquitous in Haiti, and is certain to remain so in the foreseeable futqre. Therefi 'c, any proposed future interventions in rural areas must necessarily take account of the basic features of peasant farm systems and strive to offer the small farmer a real chance to participate in the solution of Haiti's environmental problems.
Heterogeneity of the peasantry
The Haitian peasantry is not a single homogeneous class. Variations in peasant economic status aie reflected in highly differentiated relations to the market, patterns of landholding, and varied cropping strategies. Wealthier peasant families generally have greater access to savings. These families are likely to invest in land and livestock, but surpluses may also be invested in commerce, speculation, money-lending or emigration. Wealthier peasants are more oriented to perennial and export crops, and can afford both the higher capital inputs and the lag between investment and return that these crops require.
In contrast, poor peasant households tend to conceal the presence of a hidden rural proletariat. Most of the rural poor arc not landless sharecroppers. They arc more likely to be small landowners who are forced to supplement their farm income by occasional or seasonal day labor and petty commerce. The vast majority of peasant families are landowners; yet the majority of them ure also land poor in absolute as well as in relative terms.
Thus, even on privately held lands, most hillside farmers are too poor to forego even a portion of their annual crop production and income for soil conservation structures or for the establishment of perennial, multi-year cropping patterns. Even where the appropriate technologies are already known to peasants, the required inputs, including tools and intermediate-term investment capital, are not readily available.
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Complex land tenure patterns
The predominant feature of peasant tenure is its "mixed" character. Farmers generally work several plots under several different modes of tenure, simultaneously renting, sharecropping, owning and renting out land. A given farmer's operational farm unit may vary from season to season depending on his needs and on his ability to gain access to land, usually through personal and kin tics. Furthermore, peasant land tenure is characterized by a dual system of formal, legal tenure and of holding land by "custom", in ways neither provided for, nor excluded by, the law. This often ambiguous system of law and custom serves several functions: to protect the moral rights of kin, to avoid or delay the cost of paying taxes on transfers of title, and to avoid potential abuses by officials and competing claimants.
The varied character of land holding affects agricultural decision-making. Some plots arc more readily alienated than others. Some are used as collateral on loans. Some are privately farmed while collectively owned, through group inheritance. The relative security of a plot clearly affects the farmer's willingness to invest in it, or to plant it with perennials, or to build costly earthworks for soil conservation. Indeed, where land is not own^d outright by those who work it, as is the case with a significant percentage of fragile hillside lands, there may even be positive incentive for the operator to overexploit the plot under his temporary control There is good evidence that both State lands and absentee holdings are virtually "mined" by poor leaseholders and sharecroppers with no permanent stake in the resource base precisely because they are under intense pressure to survive from one cropping season to the next. Certain land reforms, such as the "privatization" of selected State land and absentee holdings in favor of those who work to improve them, or at least the assurance of relatively secure access through long-term leaseholds granted to the actual farmers in place, might go a long way towards improving the current situation in some of the most fragile and critical areas of the country.
On the other hand, the much discussed general climate of insecurity of tenure on small, owner-operated holdings may neither be as widespread nor as amenable to legislated, externally-imposed solutions as is commonly suggested. Certainly, the situation on such private peasant holdings does not provide prima facie justification for a national cadastral survey, as is sometimes recommended. On the contrary, there is good evidence on record that local cadasters have already led to abuses, and even to the loss of land by small, powerless farmers. While customary arrangements and ambiguous ownership may complicate the implementation of projects' land management strategies, they often serve to protect access to land on the part of small peasant farmers.
In principle, an effective national cadastral survey is desirable; in practice, it is unlikely to lead to a more equitable distribution of holdings or to more secure land tenure under present social and political arrangements. In any case, it requires more than a pre-project cadaster to insure that land tenure arrangements and security remain relatively unaffacted by land improvement projects. The most significant constraints to land tenure security reside in the socio-political context of peasant powerlessncss rather than in the lack of adequately surveyed and titled garden plots.
Diversity of farming strategies
Just as there is no homogeneous peasant class, there is no homogeneous farming economy in Haiti. Rather, there is a range of peasant economies, each one with its own mix of strategies and varied impacts, both positive and negative, upon the environment. This diversity is attributable, in large measure, to immense variation in micro-climatic conditions, as well as to the highly dispersed pattern of multi-plot farm units in any particular area.
Where there is sufficient rain, mountain peasant agriculture is based on intensive intercropping, and tubers are an important food crop. Well-watered highlands tend to have more land devoted to perennials, and a greater diversity of cultigens, except in areas of specialized vegetable production such as Kens-coff (near Port-au-Prince), where the traditional coffee/corn/bean association has been supplanted. Arid lowlands tend more toward "extensive" cropping strategies, fewer crops, longer periods of fallow, fewer planting seasons, and a greater reliance on grazing. Where irrigation is available in lowland plains, peasant agriculture more easily controls the factor of risk and therefore focuses on cash cropping, with high capital inputs and high labor demand, attracting large numbers of landless and land-poor agricultural wage laborers.
In short, differing crop strategies represent distinct variations in crop rotation, length of fallow, land tenure, slack season activity, patterns of storage, and the relative monetization of peasant houshold economies. These complex variations in fanning strategies and potential are directly correlated with the significant environmental diversity characteristic of Haiti. They are bound to complicate any national programs aimed at the improvement of peasant farming systems from the point of view of their ecological soundness and sustainability.
Peasant access to land, labor and capital
Capital is by far the scarcest of the peasant household's production factors. Capital shortages arc a significant constraint to peasant production and tend to foster destructive land use practices. Labor is the least scarce factor of production, while land is the pivotal factor. Land serves as the powerful fulcrum for gaining
91


access to labor and capital resources. Land is the primary source of livelihood and the most significant form of investment. Peasant farmers have relatively more control over land and labor resources than over capital.
As the most significant form of peasant wealth, land is readily bought and sold. Since land changes hands easily, there may be some disincentive to invest in perennials crops, except as a long-range investment strategy among the better off peasants. On the other hand, land improvement investments, especially is the form of trees plantings, significantly enhance the local market value of any particular plot of land, and the net incentive for such investments, particularly those requiring low capital inputs, is likely to be positive.
Market/cash orientation
While there is a mix of monetary and non-monetary features in the peasant economy, the Haitian peasant adaptation evolved in a modern, post-colonial setting, and has always been firmly embedded in a cash nexus.
Today's peasant is neither a classic subsistence producer, nor the marketer of a true surplus. Rather he
is a deficit producer and a marketer for subsistence goals. That is, the average peasant producer produces less than the minimum necessary to support himself and his family; he operates at a loss, and likely loses ground in one way or another every year. Yet he must go to market (or, more precisely, send his wife to market) every single week, in order to secure those basic necessities without which his daily consumption requirements cannot be met. Such essential items include cooking oil, salt, matches, laundry soaps, cooking vessels, cloth, and a host of other manufactured, processed or non-locally produced goods. These necessities are available only through purchase, and some portion of perennially scarce on-farm produce must be sold to generate the needed cash. Paradoxically, the poorer the peasant, the higher the proportion of his on-farm produce sold at market. This inverse relationship holds at least within the lower and middle strata of the peasantry, until the true surplus producer emerges in the upper reaches of rural society. The terms of exchange, needless to say, are controlled from without, and are almost invariably weighted against the small local producer.
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P48_ST00264 1687 140 0000403
P48_SP00234 531 1719
P48_ST00265 555 1684 07
P48_SP00235 589 1710
P48_ST00266
P48_SP00236 653
P48_ST00267 676 1678 due 605
P48_SP00237 739
P48_ST00268 763 1683
P48_SP00238
P48_ST00269 0.94 010
P48_SP00239 874
P48_ST00270 high 1303
P48_SP00240 974
P48_ST00271 996 degree 500100
P48_SP00241
P48_ST00272
P48_SP00242
P48_ST00273 79 food 4670
P48_TL00032 1724
P48_ST00274 1725 191 cultivation 00204003020
P48_SP00243 1758
P48_ST00275 intersperscd 002603080878
P48_SP00244 719 1766
P48_ST00276 732 0.78 005700
P48_SP00245 1757
P48_ST00277 856
P48_SP00246
P48_ST00278 924 1735 areas 20855
P48_SP00247 1017
P48_ST00279 1028 1726 classed 0106757
P48_SP00248
P48_ST00280 1168 0.28
P48_SP00249 1203
P48_ST00281 47 sui suitable
P48_TL00033 1771
P48_ST00282 table 45070
P48_SP00250 378 1803
P48_ST00283
P48_SP00251 441 9
P48_ST00284 450 1777 tree 0063
P48_SP00252 519
P48_ST00285 1781 00532
P48_SP00253 1811
P48_ST00286 637 706
P48_SP00254 1802
P48_ST00287 711 1776 196 permanent 000010504
P48_SP00255
P48_ST00288 0373001
P48_SP00256 1812
P48_ST00289 1061 1772 65
P48_SP00257 1126
P48_ST00290 1136 forest. 5883350
P48_TB00002 1560
P48_TL00034 1425 254 944
P48_ST00291 50758
P48_SP00258 1528 287
P48_ST00292 1552 255 IV-6 6018
P48_SP00259
P48_ST00293 1652 shows 75814
P48_SP00260 1759
P48_ST00294 1782 144 rgional 08718070
P48_SP00261 1926
P48_ST00295 1948 257 6613
P48_SP00262 2024 290
P48_ST00296 2043 267 0.31
P48_SP00263 2100
P48_ST00297 2122 02
P48_SP00264 2153
P48_ST00298 2174 259 139 relation 35556050
P48_SP00265 2313
P48_ST00299 2335 264
P48_TL00035 1386 968 45
P48_ST00300 217 topography. 07050000044
P48_SP00266 1603
P48_ST00301 1619 The
P48_SP00267 1690 334
P48_ST00302 1703 205 widespread 1068702305
P48_SP00268 1908 345
P48_ST00303 1921 303 189 00650038173
P48_SP00269 2110 336
P48_ST00304 2123 304
P48_SP00270 2160
P48_ST00305 2171 0.97 0100
P48_SP00271 2247
P48_ST00306 2260 305 unsui 02800 unsuited
P48_TL00036 1385 982
P48_ST00307 026
P48_SP00272 1438 380
P48_ST00308 1454
P48_SP00273 1504
P48_ST00309 1518 349 120 annual 413686
P48_SP00274 1638
P48_ST00310 8280
P48_SP00275 1734
P48_ST00311 1746 production, 21876870854
P48_SP00276 1957
P48_ST00312 1972 0455846
P48_SP00277 2108 384
P48_ST00313 361 8170
P48_SP00278 2205
P48_ST00314 2220 352 minimal 0000003
P48_TL00037 394
P48_ST00315 162 attention 700500061
P48_SP00279 1547
P48_ST00316 1566 0.27 68
P48_SP00280 1598 426
P48_ST00317 1614 61 soil 8800
P48_SP00281 1675
P48_ST00318 1691 396 231 conservation 582850073050
P48_SP00282 1922
P48_ST00319 1938 practices, 0006502462
P48_SP00283
P48_ST00320 2125 407
P48_SP00284 429
P48_ST00321 2175 398
P48_SP00285 2246
P48_ST00322 2262
P48_SP00286 2298
P48_ST00323 2314
P48_TL00038 1383 440
P48_ST00324 168 extensive 827887005
P48_SP00287 1551 473
P48_ST00325 143 clearing 50857006
P48_SP00288 1714
P48_ST00326 1733
P48_SP00289 1769
P48_ST00327 1788 442 685635
P48_SP00290 1889
P48_ST00328 452 cover 88083
P48_SP00291 2006
P48_ST00329 2025 443 49
P48_SP00292 2074
P48_ST00330 2093 453 new 073
P48_SP00293 2164
P48_ST00331 2184 444 051540
P48_SP00294 2289
P48_ST00332 2310
P48_TL00039
P48_ST00333 led
P48_SP00295 1437 518
P48_ST00334 1462 490
P48_SP00296
P48_ST00335 1521 486
P48_SP00297 1576
P48_ST00336 222 catastrophic 860243070104
P48_SP00298 1820
P48_ST00337 1844 202 accelerated 08070747668
P48_SP00299 2046 521
P48_ST00338 2070 state 02040
P48_SP00300 2154
P48_ST00339 2176
P48_SP00301 2213
P48_ST00340 2234 134 rosion 5487370
P48_TL00040 1384
P48_ST00341 201 throughout 2458337800
P48_SP00302 573
P48_ST00342 534 0.22 778
P48_SP00303 1658
P48_ST00343 1676 540 149 country. 08000003
P48_TL00041 1381 272
P48_ST00344 C- 0.20
P48_SP00304 640
P48_ST00345 1453 CLIMATE 3870852
P48_TL00042 1420
P48_ST00346 708
P48_SP00305 1489
P48_ST00347 1512 range 11085
P48_SP00306 1609
P48_ST00348 1631
P48_SP00307 1668
P48_ST00349 1686 684 240 tempratures 680040404056
P48_SP00308
P48_ST00350 1945 680 04
P48_SP00309 1976
P48_ST00351 1996 008
P48_SP00310 2050 713
P48_ST00352 690 77868
P48_SP00311
P48_ST00353 2183 which 43063
P48_SP00312 2286
P48_ST00354 2308 692
P48_TL00043 1379
P48_ST00355 03075378
P48_SP00313 1519
P48_ST00356 1543
P48_SP00314 1593
P48_ST00357 1615 agriculture 53135000057
P48_SP00315
P48_ST00358 1834 does 0330
P48_SP00316 1916
P48_ST00359 731 005
P48_SP00317 1994
P48_ST00360 2018 735 pose 4818
P48_SP00318 2098 767
P48_ST00361 2120 736 an
P48_SP00319
P48_ST00362 727 important 000501500
P48_TL00044 1378
P48_ST00363 constraint 8836023205
P48_SP00320 1557
P48_ST00364 1575 782
P48_SP00321 1617
P48_ST00365 1635 207 067780071060
P48_SP00322 1842 814
P48_ST00366 1860 773 production. 12884000820
P48_SP00323 2066
P48_ST00367 2087 774 Yet
P48_SP00324 2151 806
P48_ST00368 2168
P48_SP00325 2221 807
P48_ST00369 2238 124 combi- 664700
P48_TL00045 1380 816
P48_ST00370 nation 005080
P48_SP00326
P48_ST00371 1503 817 0.38
P48_SP00327
P48_ST00372 166 lvation 638140041
P48_SP00328
P48_ST00373 0.92 002
P48_SP00329 1790
P48_ST00374 1801 rainfall 22000004
P48_SP00330 1927
P48_ST00375 1936 829 can
P48_SP00331
P48_ST00376 dtermine 370630216
P48_SP00332 2191 852
P48_ST00377 2202 821
P48_SP00333 2256
P48_ST00378 2267 kinds 01053
P48_TL00046
P48_ST00379
P48_SP00334 1416
P48_ST00380 1429 872 8270
P48_SP00335 1508
P48_ST00381 180 produced, 008700560
P48_SP00336 1704
P48_ST00382 866 62 For 0.91 020
P48_SP00337 1787 897
P48_ST00383 163 example, 71604160
P48_SP00338 1965
P48_ST00384 1983 beans 03306
P48_SP00339 2084 898
P48_ST00385 2099 875
P48_SP00340
P48_ST00386 2170 principally 46404000346
P48_TL00047 909
P48_ST00387 918 grown 70003
P48_SP00341 1488
P48_ST00388 at
P48_SP00342
P48_ST00389
P48_SP00343 1613
P48_ST00390 7005
P48_SP00344 952
P48_ST00391 1728 lvations 0500020303
P48_SP00345 1911
P48_ST00392 911 during 006654
P48_SP00346 2044
P48_ST00393 2060
P48_SP00347 2115
P48_ST00394 2135 rainy 20201
P48_SP00348 2224 954
P48_ST00395 2242 season 0.90 000410
P48_TL00048 956 46
P48_ST00396 because 8802038
P48_SP00349
P48_ST00397 1531
P48_SP00350 1569
P48_ST00398 1577 severe 420048
P48_SP00351 990
P48_ST00399 damage 800047
P48_SP00352 1843
P48_ST00400 1856
P48_SP00353 1939
P48_ST00401 1951 disease 0360344
P48_SP00354 2078
P48_ST00402 2091
P48_SP00355 2155
P48_ST00403 2166 pests 00033
P48_SP00356 2255 1002
P48_ST00404 2265 960 0023
P48_TL00049
P48_ST00405 planted 1414487
P48_SP00357 1042
P48_ST00406 1532
P48_SP00358 1563
P48_ST00407 1582 1004 155
P48_SP00359 1636
P48_ST00408 1655 1003 172 lowlands, 451000751
P48_SP00360 1827
P48_ST00409 1846 while 13035
P48_SP00361 1940 1036
P48_ST00410 1958 02506
P48_SP00362 2059
P48_ST00411 1015
P48_SP00363 2133 1037
P48_ST00412 successfully 710055000440
P48_TL00050 1377
P48_ST00413 0102038
P48_SP00364 1511 1090
P48_ST00414
P48_SP00365 1562 1082
P48_ST00415
P48_SP00366
P48_ST00416 1656 lowlands 08037035
P48_SP00367 1815 1083
P48_ST00417 1832 037700
P48_SP00368 1949 1092
P48_ST00418 1967 1051 630
P48_SP00369 2021 1084
P48_ST00419 2040 dry
P48_SP00370 2097 1093
P48_ST00420 2114 806550
P48_SP00371 2231
P48_ST00421 2251 where 01004
P48_TL00051 1095
P48_ST00422 irrigation 0066007000
P48_SP00372
P48_ST00423 05
P48_SP00373 1588
P48_ST00424 1096 173 available, 0001010136
P48_TL00052 1419 1158 940
P48_ST00425 1161 182 Although, 446274570
P48_SP00374 1601
P48_ST00426 1620 based 73477
P48_SP00375 1722 1192
P48_ST00427 1740
P48_SP00376 1191
P48_ST00428 1799 vapotranspiration 000036430005132060
P48_SP00377 2141
P48_ST00429 2158 data, 00045
P48_SP00378 2248 1196
P48_ST00430 02428
P48_TL00053
P48_ST00431 1207 0044
P48_SP00379 1450 1239
P48_ST00432 1472 27020013
P48_SP00380
P48_ST00433 0.99
P48_SP00381 1657 1238
P48_ST00434 1500 0088
P48_SP00382
P48_ST00435 mm
P48_SP00383
P48_ST00436 1864
P48_SP00384 1901 1237
P48_ST00437 1920 1214 more
P48_SP00385 2011
P48_ST00438 2032 118 should 105540
P48_SP00386 2150
P48_ST00439 2169
P48_SP00387 2210 1236
P48_ST00440 2229 able
P48_SP00388 2304
P48_ST00441 2325 1208
P48_TL00054 1250
P48_ST00442 1253 sustain 8350070
P48_SP00389 1287
P48_ST00443 1520 194 reasonable 0625002212
P48_SP00390 1286
P48_ST00444 1262 0260
P48_SP00391 1814 1294
P48_ST00445 1252 125 growth 050430
P48_SP00392 1959
P48_ST00446 1979 1251 0252000
P48_SP00393 2116 1285
P48_ST00447 2137 3204210310
P48_SP00394 2303 1293
P48_ST00448 (a
P48_TL00055 1375 1297
P48_ST00449 1298 substantial 84785307012
P48_SP00395 1330
P48_ST00450 portion 0803084
P48_SP00396 1738 1341
P48_ST00451 1762 1299
P48_SP00397
P48_ST00452 1824 Haiti 45040
P48_SP00398 1914
P48_ST00453 148 receives 06070074
P48_SP00399 2088
P48_ST00454 2112
P48_SP00400 2144
P48_ST00455 least 00181
P48_SP00401 2252
P48_ST00456 2281 I5()0 50728
P48_TL00056 1343
P48_ST00457 1346 188 mmyear), 308060013
P48_SP00402 1387
P48_ST00458 1590 0.98 000
P48_SP00403 1646
P48_ST00459 1344 229 considrable 082858710225
P48_SP00404 1902
P48_ST00460 1929 variation 200606420
P48_SP00405
P48_ST00461 0070000
P48_SP00406 2266 1376
P48_ST00462 2293
P48_TL00057 1390
P48_ST00463 1391 110600
P48_SP00407 1485
P48_ST00464 1401 scasons 5840504
P48_SP00408 1424
P48_ST00465 1651 1392 makes 05064
P48_SP00409
P48_ST00466 1780 000132
P48_SP00410 1900 1423
P48_ST00467 1915 1400 0.95 0010
P48_SP00411 1995 1432
P48_ST00468 2009 197 production 3400000070
P48_SP00412 2206
P48_ST00469 0221000
P48_TL00058
P48_ST00470 1440 0034000030
P48_SP00413 1541 1481
P48_ST00471 1439 184 hazardous 004000064
P48_SP00414 1750
P48_ST00472 1773
P48_SP00415 1804 1471
P48_ST00473 1826
P48_SP00416 1868 1470
P48_ST00474 1890 060
P48_SP00417 1947
P48_ST00475 1969 1448
P48_SP00418 1987
P48_ST00476 2008 few 001
P48_SP00419 2069
P48_ST00477 favored 6502002
P48_SP00420 2228
P48_ST00478 1446 areas. 002002
P48_TL00059 1482
P48_ST00479 Moreover, 025220003
P48_SP00421 1568 1522
P48_ST00480 1483 "agricultural 0007701120500
P48_SP00422 1822 1525
P48_ST00481 1847 178 droughts" 020030331
P48_SP00423
P48_ST00482 186 frequently 1200000510
P48_SP00424 2236
P48_ST00483 100 occur
P48_TL00060 1530
P48_ST00484 10460
P48_SP00425 1480 1565
P48_ST00485 conditions 5748600507
P48_SP00426 1685
P48_ST00486
P48_SP00427 1564
P48_ST00487 1756 165 generally 380000000
P48_SP00428 1573
P48_ST00488 adquate 20780506
P48_SP00429 2103
P48_ST00489 1535 amounts 4070006
P48_SP00430 2276
P48_ST00490
P48_TL00061
P48_ST00491 1578 distribution 706351030153
P48_SP00431 1611
P48_ST00492 1602
P48_SP00432 1640 1610
P48_ST00493 00000022
P48_SP00433 1783
P48_ST00494 2505606
P48_SP00434 1943
P48_ST00495 1960
P48_SP00435 1998
P48_ST00496 2013
P48_SP00436 2067
P48_ST00497 2086 low
P48_SP00437 2148
P48_ST00498 2165 193 absorption 0000015070
P48_TL00062 1623
P48_ST00499
P48_SP00438
P48_ST00500 1460 1625 rtention 045140100
P48_SP00439 1624
P48_ST00501 1643 capacities 0321601065
P48_SP00440 1821 1666
P48_ST00502 1838
P48_SP00441 1877
P48_ST00503 1893
P48_SP00442
P48_ST00504 soils 22006
P48_SP00443
P48_ST00505 2062 (NOAA, 035011
P48_SP00444 2226 1663
P48_ST00506 2250 1979). 063101
P48_TL00063 981
P48_ST00507 1670 219 Agricultural 401001000001
P48_SP00445 1596 1713
P48_ST00508 1612 1671 droughts 40400613
P48_SP00446 1712
P48_ST00509 1679
P48_SP00447 1702
P48_ST00510 1858 1669 3606302045
P48_SP00448 2033 1711
P48_ST00511 401200
P48_SP00449 1701
P48_ST00512 02100
P48_SP00450 2283
P48_ST00513
P48_TL00064 1715
P48_ST00514 1718 8078680
P48_SP00451 1506 1751
P48_ST00515
P48_SP00452
P48_ST00516 1589 reduced 0163007
P48_SP00453
P48_ST00517 1744 1717
P48_SP00454
P48_ST00518 land's 050560
P48_SP00455
P48_ST00519 water 13054
P48_SP00456 2026 1749
P48_ST00520 2038 1716 000206070
P48_SP00457 2200
P48_ST00521 2211 capacity 04008020
P48_TL00065
P48_ST00522 1774 over 5210
P48_SP00458 1796
P48_ST00523 1476 1764 167 400408000
P48_SP00459
P48_ST00524 1667 areas, 001403
P48_SP00460 1800
P48_ST00525 1763 such 6405
P48_SP00461 1875 1795
P48_ST00526 1896
P48_SP00462 1932 1794
P48_ST00527 1953
P48_SP00463
P48_ST00528 2031 031110104
P48_SP00464 2208
P48_ST00529 2230 around 308507
P48_TB00003
P48_TL00066 1230 1872
P48_ST00530 04637
P48_SP00465 1904
P48_ST00531 1348 IV-4 7314
P48_TL00067 1345
P48_ST00532 CRITERIA 81012007
P48_SP00466 863 1946
P48_ST00533 USED 8706
P48_SP00467
P48_ST00534 1917 TO
P48_SP00468
P48_ST00535 1918 DETERMINE 705000700
P48_SP00469
P48_ST00536 1919 GOOD 0034
P48_SP00470 1484
P48_ST00537 AGRICULTURAL 740877237267
P48_SP00471 1950
P48_ST00538 1863 LANDS 88032
P48_TB00004 2092 1038
P48_TL00068 2016
P48_ST00539 2017 Land 4103
P48_SP00472 2049
P48_ST00540 404 243 Classification 03277011204080
P48_SP00473 647
P48_ST00541
P48_SP00474
P48_ST00542 717 Soils 08010
P48_SP00475 801
P48_ST00543 157 (USDA) 070004
P48_TL00069 2063 285
P48_ST00544 LandSoil 500051706
P48_SP00476 2094
P48_ST00545 Class 27064
P48_TL00070 2109
P48_ST00546 1,
P48_SP00477 319
P48_ST00547 340 Excellent 558013002
P48_SP00478 510 2142
P48_ST00548 526 2128 4 -
P48_SP00479 2132
P48_ST00549 06057
P48_SP00480
P48_ST00550 665
P48_SP00481
P48_ST00551 drained, 00203053
P48_SP00482 903 2147
P48_ST00552 2111 slope 83601
P48_SP00483 1014 2152
P48_ST00553 1031 0-2% 8000
P48_SP00484 1125 2143
P48_ST00554 1146
P48_SP00485
P48_ST00555 1240 productivity 507748700040
P48_TL00071 2156
P48_ST00556 II. 635
P48_SP00486 335 2188
P48_ST00557 355 Very 3400
P48_SP00487 2197
P48_ST00558 Good 0050
P48_SP00488
P48_ST00559 5 6
P48_SP00489 2179
P48_ST00560 2157 07005
P48_SP00490 2189
P48_ST00561
P48_SP00491
P48_ST00562 80200500
P48_SP00492 957 2194
P48_ST00563 975 66660
P48_SP00493 1068 2199
P48_ST00564 2-5% 0021
P48_SP00494 2190
P48_ST00565 good 7575
P48_SP00495
P48_ST00566 406320620060
P48_TL00072 1276
P48_ST00567 III, 7673
P48_SP00496 2235
P48_ST00568
P48_SP00497
P48_ST00569 489
P48_SP00498 2225
P48_ST00570 525 2203 Slopes 006021
P48_SP00499 643 2245
P48_ST00571 661 5p8% 0770
P48_SP00500
P48_ST00572 783 2204 need
P48_SP00501
P48_ST00573 crosion 1278042
P48_SP00502
P48_ST00574 control, 56010855
P48_SP00503 1176 2241
P48_ST00575 2214 average 6050088
P48_SP00504 1333
P48_ST00576 1352 006458500000
P48_TL00073 2277
P48_ST00577 Erosion 1064080
P48_SP00505 2309
P48_ST00578 253 Characteristic 00000004778708
P48_SP00506 703
P48_ST00579 2278
P48_SP00507
P48_ST00580 05046
P48_SP00508
P48_ST00581 873 (DADPH, 0040083
P48_SP00509 2318
P48_ST00582 1982) 06800
P48_TL00074 289 2324
P48_ST00583 Al
P48_SP00510 2356
P48_ST00584 Slight 005005
P48_SP00511 2366
P48_ST00585 479 1050020
P48_SP00512 2357
P48_ST00586
P48_SP00513
P48_ST00587
P48_SP00514
P48_ST00588 0026080
P48_SP00515
P48_ST00589 941 2326 084000614
P48_SP00516 2367
P48_ST00590 4611
P48_SP00517 2358
P48_ST00591 1233 vgtation 1877076080
P48_SP00518 1421
P48_ST00592 2336 08020
P48_SP00519 1537 2359
P48_ST00593 2327 exists, 8408563
P48_SP00520 2363
P48_ST00594 1682 2328 primarily 000057720
P48_SP00521 1848 2369
P48_ST00595 1866 129 alluvial 50600006
P48_SP00522 2360
P48_ST00596 2012 47008
P48_TL00075 2370 1876
P48_ST00597 A2
P48_SP00523 2401
P48_ST00598 2371 Average 2000104
P48_SP00524 2411
P48_ST00599 rosion, 00771401
P48_SP00525 2407
P48_ST00600 697 2376
P48_SP00526 781 2402
P48_ST00601 799 7800
P48_SP00527 858
P48_ST00602 2373 246 con.servation, 00077200140701
P48_SP00528 2408
P48_ST00603 538254
P48_SP00529 1259 2404
P48_ST00604 2372 000050323
P48_SP00530 2413
P48_ST00605 1457
P48_SP00531 1498
P48_ST00606 1517 kept 0777
P48_SP00532 2414
P48_ST00607 2374
P48_SP00533 2405
P48_ST00608 1662 2379 6052
P48_SP00534 1730
P48_ST00609 1748 2383
P48_SP00535 1786
P48_ST00610 perenial 04050055
P48_SP00536
P48_ST00611 1966 vgtation. 01104030804
P48_TL00076 288 2463
P48_ST00612 Crop 0060
P48_SP00537 2505
P48_ST00613 Suitability 02030000060
P48_SP00538
P48_ST00614 Zones 07021
P48_SP00539 2496
P48_ST00615 728 2464 224 (Hargreaves 04005050030
P48_SP00540 2506
P48_ST00616
P48_SP00541 1032 2497
P48_ST00617 Samani, 0300015
P48_SP00542 2502
P48_ST00618 2465 1983) 16760
P48_TL00077 2545 1001
P48_ST00619 Zone 0404
P48_SP00543 2576 -90
P48_ST00620 2592
P48_SP00544 317 2623
P48_ST00621 2591 Arid, 37706
P48_SP00545 433 2627
P48_ST00622 cultivated 0043000087
P48_SP00546 2624
P48_ST00623 2601 80802
P48_SP00547 744 2633
P48_ST00624 0152
P48_SP00548 846
P48_ST00625 0277500050
P48_SP00549
P48_ST00626 2593
P48_SP00550 2625
P48_ST00627 1099
P48_SP00551
P48_ST00628 1157 2594 months 730057
P48_TL00078 2637 1985
P48_ST00629 2638 2,
P48_SP00552 2670
P48_ST00630 Semi-arid, 1000000023
P48_SP00553 2675
P48_ST00631 2647 00606
P48_SP00554 2680
P48_ST00632 requiring 020006601
P48_SP00555 2681
P48_ST00633 2639
P48_SP00556
P48_ST00634 days 0206
P48_SP00557 2679
P48_ST00635 2648
P48_SP00558
P48_ST00636 less 0157
P48_SP00559 1060 2671
P48_ST00637 (e,g, 03170
P48_SP00560
P48_ST00638 millets 6000025
P48_SP00561 1284 2672
P48_ST00639 2640
P48_SP00562
P48_ST00640 1370 2650 mung
P48_SP00563 1468 2682
P48_ST00641 1478 beans), 2160205
P48_SP00564
P48_ST00642 1621 2642
P48_SP00565 2673
P48_ST00643 1694 potentially 06340304000
P48_SP00566 1888
P48_ST00644 1897 yields 000600
P48_SP00567 2000 2683
P48_ST00645 2643
P48_SP00568 2061
P48_ST00646 rainfed 0200000
P48_SP00569
P48_ST00647
P48_TL00079
P48_ST00648 0020650000
P48_SP00570 2725
P48_ST00649 2694 0500
P48_SP00571 2726
P48_ST00650 619 2685 useful 000403
P48_TL00080 2729 2068
P48_ST00651 2730 3,
P48_SP00572 2762
P48_ST00652 332 Sum-humid 050300300
P48_SP00573
P48_ST00653 551 bi-modal 00006813
P48_SP00574
P48_ST00654 2731
P48_SP00575 2771
P48_ST00655 824 2740 068770
P48_SP00576 2763
P48_ST00656 2756 ,
P48_SP00577 2767
P48_ST00657 2741 5030452
P48_SP00578 1107 2772
P48_ST00658 2732 growing 5080006
P48_SP00579 1264 2773
P48_ST00659 1273 116 008080
P48_SP00580 1389 2764
P48_ST00660 three 00011
P48_SP00581 1493
P48_ST00661 2738
P48_SP00582
P48_ST00662 2733 0130
P48_SP00583 1622 2765
P48_ST00663 2734 months, 4504737
P48_SP00584 1778 2769
P48_ST00664 1789 0250
P48_SP00585 1879 2775
P48_ST00665 505300
P48_SP00586 1991
P48_ST00666 2001 po.ssible 577200032
P48_SP00587 2776
P48_ST00667 2735 00200
P48_SP00588 2259
P48_ST00668 2268 2736 0150
P48_TL00081 424
P48_ST00669 2782 20500
P48_SP00589 2808
P48_ST00670 455 moisture 08350004
P48_SP00590 614 2810
P48_ST00671 storage 0480080
P48_TL00082 2822 2029
P48_ST00672 2824 4,
P48_SP00591 2854
P48_ST00673 Humid, 420005
P48_SP00592 2859
P48_ST00674 2832 3080004
P48_SP00593 621 2865
P48_ST00675 2823 3080028
P48_SP00594 777 2864
P48_ST00676 2833 113280
P48_SP00595 904 2855
P48_ST00677 five 5513
P48_SP00596
P48_ST00678 2829
P48_SP00597
P48_ST00679 2825 six
P48_SP00598
P48_ST00680 0400265
P48_SP00599 2861
P48_ST00681 08050660
P48_SP00600 2856
P48_ST00682 usually 3007550
P48_SP00601 2866
P48_ST00683 2826 223 dcpendabic, 51040677302
P48_SP00602
P48_ST00684 2836 some 4823
P48_SP00603 1849 2858
P48_ST00685 double 026230
P48_SP00604 1982
P48_ST00686 1992 2828 cropping 00000003
P48_SP00605 2868
P48_ST00687 2161 possible. 466000521
P48_TL00083 2869
P48_ST00688 5,
P48_SP00606 2901
P48_ST00689 339 250050
P48_SP00607 2907
P48_ST00690 496 2870 0000100
P48_SP00608 649 2910
P48_ST00691 3042003
P48_SP00609 811 2911
P48_ST00692 2880 608070
P48_SP00610 945 2902
P48_ST00693 964 seven 17080
P48_SP00611 1063 2903
P48_ST00694 2875 0.24
P48_SP00612
P48_ST00695 2871 nine
P48_SP00613
P48_ST00696 1229 2872 0800321
P48_SP00614 2908
P48_ST00697 2881 7750
P48_SP00615 2904
P48_ST00698 470057
P48_SP00616 2905
P48_ST00699 hve 0407
P48_SP00617
P48_ST00700 excessive 300007024
P48_SP00618
P48_ST00701 1935 2873 27002520
P48_SP00619 2906
P48_ST00702 326000001
P48_SP00620 2244 2916
P48_ST00703 5358
P48_TL00084 2915
P48_ST00704 156 drainage 00700002
P48_SP00621 2957
P48_ST00705 513
P48_SP00622 2947
P48_ST00706 2921 most 6732
P48_SP00623 2948
P48_ST00707 683 gnerai 3400003
P48_SP00624 2958
P48_ST00708 831 2926 crops. 803030
P48_TL00085 286 2962 1984
P48_ST00709 2964 6.
P48_SP00625 316 2995
P48_ST00710 Perhumid, 120050035
P48_SP00626 520 2999
P48_ST00711 2972 0002054
P48_SP00627 3004
P48_ST00712 7002006
P48_SP00628 3005
P48_ST00713 2973 602460
P48_SP00629 2996
P48_ST00714 2969 tcn
P48_SP00630
P48_ST00715 0.33
P48_SP00631 1065
P48_ST00716 1077 2965 twelve 400206
P48_SP00632 2997
P48_ST00717 1604221
P48_SP00633 1347 3002
P48_ST00718 situated 70405004
P48_SP00634 2998
P48_ST00719 066417730
P48_SP00635 3007
P48_ST00720 2966
P48_SP00636
P48_ST00721 235 mountainous 68004600711
P48_SP00637
P48_ST00722 1975 2977 100073
P48_SP00638 2079
P48_ST00723 2968 imporiant 000277400
P48_TL00086 3009 517
P48_ST00724 3017 source 062002
P48_SP00639 3040
P48_ST00725 3018 20024
P48_SP00640
P48_ST00726 581
P48_SP00641 3041
P48_ST00727
P48_SP00642
P48_ST00728 750 flows. 334004
P48_TB00005 3147
P48_TL00087 2330 3153
P48_ST00729


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P20_ST00003 716 221 134 42 planted 0.66 0182505
P20_SP00003 850 14
P20_ST00004 864 223 52 33 for 0.45 384
P20_SP00004 916 256
P20_ST00005 928 130 harvest 0.53 1581456
P20_SP00005 1058
P20_ST00006 1072 85 34 from 0.69 2071
P20_SP00006 1157 257
P20_ST00007 1169 230 current 0.57 8320527
P20_TL00002 415 266 887 47
P20_ST00008 40 prohibitions 0.89 007300000002
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P20_ST00009 663 267 63 32 and 1.00 000
P20_SP00008 726 299
P20_ST00010 754 268 163 taxations 0.70 070770004
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P20_ST00011 943 269 0.73 800
P20_SP00010 1006 27
P20_ST00012 1033 41 by 0.67 60
P20_SP00011 1074
P20_ST00013 1102 200 44 prohibiting 00040100008
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P20_ST00014 150 planting 04304625
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P20_ST00015 596 313 31 in 0.98 00
P20_SP00013 627 346
P20_ST00016 660 323 101 23 zones 35048
P20_SP00014 761 30
P20_ST00017 791 320 48 sel 0.96 100
P20_SP00015 839 347
P20_ST00018 872 315 90 asidc 0.49 76451
P20_SP00016 962 348
P20_ST00019 996 316 50 0.54 670
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P20_ST00020 1077 317 59 soil 4601
P20_SP00018 1136
P20_ST00021 rosion 3056060
P20_TL00004 359
P20_ST00022 protection. 0.74 40555060100
P20_TL00005 311 450 45
P20_ST00023 459 22 0.00 10
P20_SP00019 333 481 77
P20_ST00024 410 451 171 Subsidize 004002744
P20_SP00020 581 484
P20_ST00025 606 176 37 krosne, 0.92 000003003
P20_SP00021 782 488
P20_ST00026 794 452 143 perhaps 0206404
P20_SP00022 937 495 24
P20_ST00027 961
P20_SP00023 1002 494
P20_ST00028 1027 111 taxing 0.91 031000
P20_SP00024 1138
P20_ST00029 1160 147 gasoline 0.75 00117036
P20_TL00006 499 888
P20_ST00030 500 67 207
P20_SP00025 477 532
P20_ST00031 506 140 36 support 0000205
P20_SP00026 640 542
P20_ST00032 665 113 higher 0.83 410030
P20_SP00027 778 541
P20_ST00033 802 505 taxes 0.64 36142
P20_SP00028 892
P20_ST00034 64
P20_SP00029 981
P20_ST00035 124 licence 3013081
P20_SP00030 1130
P20_ST00036 1155 69 fces 6215
P20_SP00031 1224
P20_ST00037 1249 49 0.63 631
P20_TL00007 546 594
P20_ST00038 212 commercial 0.76 0012500077
P20_SP00032 622 578 11
P20_ST00039 633 charcoal 01700077
P20_SP00033 783
P20_ST00040 210 production. 0.72 03700550404
P20_TL00008 969
P20_ST00041 639 158 WATER 36400
P20_SP00034 468 671 15
P20_ST00042 483 342 CONSERVATION 020000670650
P20_SP00035 825 17
P20_ST00043 842 AND 0.59 705
P20_SP00036 932 16
P20_ST00044 948 331 DEVELOPMENT 20306471003
P20_TL00009 702 988
P20_ST00045 710
P20_SP00037 332 732 82
P20_ST00046 154 Improve 0.81 5400300
P20_SP00038 568 745
P20_ST00047 598 55 the 0.79 014
P20_SP00039 653 735
P20_ST00048 681 708 102 water 0.94 00110
P20_SP00040 29
P20_ST00049 812 703 165 rtention 0.77 027406000
P20_SP00041 977
P20_ST00050 1005 149 capacity 0.88 02040030
P20_SP00042 1154 743
P20_ST00051 1181 39 of
P20_SP00043 1220 733
P20_ST00052 1246 204
P20_TL00010 412 748
P20_ST00053 751 169 country's 0.68 000453075
P20_SP00044
P20_ST00054 609 749 105 major 03045
P20_SP00045 714
P20_ST00055 740 185 watershed 044501044
P20_SP00046 925
P20_ST00056 953 758 94 areas 0.65 34540
P20_SP00047 1047
P20_ST00057 02
P20_SP00048 1116 789
P20_ST00058 1144 155 rcducing 0.84 05000007
P20_TL00011 795 507
P20_ST00059 796 hillside 30000017
P20_SP00049 544 829
P20_ST00060 555 139 farming 0100000
P20_SP00050 694 837
P20_ST00061 65 0.80
P20_SP00051 769 828
P20_ST00062 779 142 grazing. 00550000
P20_TL00012 314 986
P20_ST00063 896
P20_SP00052 336 919 78
P20_ST00064 166 Consider 00010100
P20_SP00053 580 921
P20_ST00065 595 234 groundwater 00230000600
P20_SP00054 930
P20_ST00066 898 as
P20_SP00055 878 920
P20_ST00067 894 a 1
P20_SP00056 911 18
P20_ST00068 929 151 valuable 0.78 01600260
P20_SP00057 1080
P20_ST00069 1098 152 resource 02173004
P20_SP00058 1250
P20_ST00070 1268 to 0.38 75
P20_TL00013 933
P20_ST00071 935 138 provide 0000000
P20_SP00059 551
P20_ST00072 575 934 88 fresh 00106
P20_SP00060 967
P20_ST00073 685 940 0.85 03400
P20_SP00061 786 966
P20_ST00074 809 51
P20_SP00062 860
P20_ST00075 882 168 irrigation 2040730004
P20_SP00063 1050 976
P20_ST00076 1073 0.71 403
P20_SP00064
P20_ST00077 1162 map
P20_SP00065 1239 975
P20_ST00078 1262 38 its 046
P20_TL00014 125
P20_ST00079 extent. 0.97 0020000
P20_TL00015 1025 973
P20_ST00080 1034
P20_SP00066 1056
P20_ST00081 Evaluate 40060000
P20_SP00067 576 1059 21
P20_ST00082 597 56 110
P20_SP00068 19
P20_ST00083 672 1026 232 00010600500
P20_SP00069 904 1067
P20_ST00084 00200000
P20_SP00070
P20_ST00085
P20_SP00071 1129
P20_ST00086 1149 070
P20_SP00072 1204
P20_ST00087 1225 62 low 401 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT lowlands.
P20_TL00016 1071
P20_ST00088 lands. 200030 HypPart2
P20_SP00073 515 1107
P20_ST00089 240 Development 50112004005
P20_SP00074 772 1115
P20_ST00090 784 115 should 100063
P20_SP00075 899 1105
P20_ST00091 914 1078 not 051
P20_SP00076 1106
P20_ST00092 982 95 begin 20500
P20_SP00077 1114
P20_ST00093 1092 until 00154
P20_SP00078
P20_ST00094 1183 1081 117 proper 0.99 000000
P20_TL00017 1118
P20_ST00095 1119 environmental 0000000500010
P20_SP00079 679 1153
P20_ST00096 699 safeguards 0.82 2502412000
P20_SP00080 891 1161
P20_ST00097 910 1128 are
P20_SP00081 965 1152
P20_ST00098 985 03
P20_SP00082 1017 1151
P20_ST00099 1037 place 06000
P20_SP00083 1131
P20_ST00100 1150 1124
P20_SP00084 1184
P20_ST00101 1203 97 avoid 02002
P20_TL00018 1166 219
P20_ST00102 salinization. 4350305300600
P20_TL00019 1259
P20_ST00103 AGRICULTURE 70080740700
P20_SP00085 628 1292 -274
P20_ST00104 354 1329 71 The 0.19 788
P20_SP00086 425 1360
P20_ST00105 445 1328 73 best 0.40 8780
P20_SP00087 518
P20_ST00106 536 1332 strategy 05017030
P20_SP00088 1369
P20_ST00107 698 1327 400
P20_SP00089 1359
P20_ST00108 1326 213 maintaining 10020001400
P20_SP00090 1368
P20_ST00109 1001 209 agricultural 104000000004
P20_SP00091 1210
P20_ST00110 1229 1335 pro production
P20_TL00020 1372
P20_ST00111 1374 136 duction 0000142
P20_SP00092 1407
P20_ST00112 1383 on
P20_SP00093 511 1406
P20_ST00113 529 1373
P20_SP00094 584
P20_ST00114 602 short 0.95 00100
P20_SP00095 692
P20_ST00115 1378 0.61
P20_SP00096 744 1405
P20_ST00116 145 mdium 000500
P20_SP00097 906
P20_ST00117 923 1377 term, 00045
P20_SP00098 1020 1409
P20_ST00118 1038 is 0.62
P20_SP00099 1063 1404
P20_ST00119 1079
P20_SP00100 1122 1412
P20_ST00120 1137
P20_SP00101 1193
P20_ST00121 1381 92 more 2001
P20_TL00021 1418
P20_ST00122 1421 efficient 086763004
P20_SP00102 462 1454
P20_ST00123 487 1430 use 250
P20_SP00103 543 1453
P20_ST00124 566 1420 0.47 81
P20_SP00104 604 1452
P20_ST00125 625 presently 047000532
P20_SP00105 790 1463
P20_ST00126 815 1419 153 irrigated 000530304
P20_SP00106 968 1461
P20_ST00127 990 161 lowlands 60010050
P20_SP00107
P20_ST00128 1173 66
P20_SP00108 1451
P20_ST00129 1260
P20_TL00022 1464 974
P20_ST00130 1467 202 developing 0.86 3000300600
P20_SP00109 1508
P20_ST00131 526 1466 181 additional 2078651020
P20_SP00110 707 1498
P20_ST00132 719 1465 167 0010230070
P20_SP00111 1507
P20_ST00133 897 173 potential. 0037400000
P20_SP00112 1070
P20_ST00134 1083 Without 5001006
P20_SP00113 1234 1496
P20_ST00135 1245 im immdiate
P20_TL00023 1511
P20_ST00136 1514 144 mdiate 6050000
P20_SP00114 458 1546
P20_ST00137 471 1513 108 action 084000
P20_SP00115 579
P20_ST00138 592 1518 0.52
P20_SP00116 626 1545
P20_ST00139 636 1521 manage 000020
P20_SP00117 776 1554
P20_ST00140 54
P20_SP00118 840 1544
P20_ST00141 851 106 upper 00000
P20_SP00119 957 8
P20_ST00142 216 watersheds, 00000000002
P20_SP00120 1549
P20_ST00143 1192 howe 0200 however,
P20_TL00024 1556
P20_ST00144 1569 70 ver, 0000
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P20_ST00145 1559 61 1007
P20_SP00122 464 1591
P20_ST00146 132 0064000
P20_SP00123 616 1592
P20_ST00147 635 1558 031
P20_SP00124
P20_ST00148 1557 164 declining 020002800
P20_SP00125 883 1600
P20_ST00149 0063
P20_SP00126 960
P20_ST00150 979 fertility 300472730
P20_SP00127 1113 1598
P20_ST00151 172 continues 000000000
P20_TL00025 1604
P20_ST00152 1613 0.93
P20_SP00128 1638
P20_ST00153 377 1606 minimize 27005020
P20_SP00129
P20_ST00154
P20_SP00130 1637
P20_ST00155 649 1605 benefits 60037732
P20_SP00131
P20_ST00156 816
P20_SP00132 852 1636
P20_ST00157 876 1004706060
P20_SP00133 1043 1645
P20_ST00158 projects 00200130
P20_SP00134 1213
P20_ST00159 1238
P20_TL00026 1650 514
P20_ST00160 1651 lowand 3726500
P20_SP00135 1685
P20_ST00161 476 206 440400510030
P20_SP00136 682 1693
P20_ST00162 700 129 efforts. 06303400
P20_TL00027 1742 972
P20_ST00163 1752
P20_SP00137 337 1775 79
P20_ST00164 416 1745 104 Study 04400
P20_SP00138 520 1786
P20_ST00165 1744
P20_SP00139 599 1776
P20_ST00166 621 1749 costs 10253
P20_SP00140
P20_ST00167 729 1743 involved 00405030
P20_SP00141 881
P20_ST00168 1746
P20_SP00142
P20_ST00169 201 0000100001
P20_SP00143 1158 1784
P20_ST00170 1179 109 irrigat 2000000
P20_TL00028 1788 884
P20_ST00171 1790 ion 360
P20_SP00144 1822
P20_ST00172 490 capital, 02001010
P20_SP00145 1833
P20_ST00173 641 1795 121 System 507500
P20_SP00146 762 1832
P20_ST00174 781 1789 229 maintenance 10000600000
P20_SP00147 1010
P20_ST00175 1029
P20_SP00148 1094 1821
P20_ST00176 1112 187 opration, 4000020005
P20_TL00029 1835
P20_ST00177 1837 on-farm 5003001
P20_SP00149 561 1869
P20_ST00178 208 distribution 000300003120
P20_SP00150 805
P20_ST00179 1836 arid 0872
P20_SP00151 1868
P20_ST00180 938 170 drainage, 000002036
P20_SP00152 1108 1876
P20_ST00181 1140 1839 structure 440301403
P20_TL00030 1881 870
P20_ST00182 1884 05000100000
P20_SP00153 648 1916
P20_ST00183 688 1883
P20_SP00154 753 1915
P20_ST00184 792 174 opration 002045000
P20_SP00155 1924
P20_ST00185 003
P20_SP00156
P20_ST00186 land 0005
P20_SP00157 1189 1914
P20_ST00187 1231 1891 pr prparation.
P20_TL00031 418 1927
P20_ST00188 1930 paration. 0.60 073541651
P20_SP00158 582 1970
P20_ST00189 613 1928 126 Spcial 1006445
P20_SP00159 739
P20_ST00190 766 1929 attention 603604060
P20_SP00160 927 1961
P20_ST00191 954 119 017006
P20_SP00161 1960
P20_ST00192 1099 be 01
P20_SP00162 1959
P20_ST00193 1167 paid 0175
P20_SP00163 1244 1968
P20_ST00194 1271 1933
P20_TL00032 1974
P20_ST00195 1975 sprinkler 000000001
P20_SP00164 2017
P20_ST00196 590 0000500000
P20_SP00165 756
P20_ST00197 768 83 0004
P20_SP00166 2007
P20_ST00198 862 wells. 007500
P20_TL00033 2066
P20_ST00199 2075
P20_SP00167 2097
P20_ST00200 2069 Increase 10005000
P20_SP00168 569 2100
P20_ST00201 2067 205 000025440000
P20_SP00169 801 2109
P20_ST00202 2068 197 0007010000
P20_SP00170 2107
P20_ST00203 1051
P20_SP00171 1093
P20_ST00204 1120 183 improving 040000006
P20_TL00034 417 2113
P20_ST00205 2115 5603706
P20_SP00172 559 2156
P20_ST00206 572 2114 practices 000020021
P20_SP00173 730 2157
P20_ST00207 2119 35
P20_SP00174 2146
P20_ST00208 793 help 3030
P20_SP00175 868
P20_ST00209 2120
P20_SP00176
P20_ST00210 931 99 offset 353500
P20_SP00177 1030
P20_ST00211 1045 103 losses 203006
P20_SP00178 1148 2145
P20_ST00212 2118
P20_SP00179 1195
P20_ST00213 1208 small 00704
P20_TL00035 2158
P20_ST00214 2161 farms 10041
P20_SP00180 2194
P20_ST00215 528
P20_SP00181 2202
P20_ST00216 2160 removing 00400300
P20_SP00182 9
P20_ST00217 760 2159 84 their 00603
P20_SP00183 844 2192
P20_ST00218 853 lands 50000
P20_SP00184 947
P20_ST00219 0120
P20_SP00185 1041
P20_ST00220 1052 cultivation. 000000000003
P20_TL00036 2251
P20_ST00221 2260
P20_SP00186 2282
P20_ST00222 2253 Encourage 000000004
P20_SP00187 615 2294
P20_ST00223 107 better 006400
P20_SP00188 2285
P20_ST00224 land-use 00000400
P20_SP00189 912 2284
P20_ST00225 159 000060000
P20_SP00190 2293
P20_ST00226 1111
P20_SP00191
P20_ST00227 1171 133 making 004000
P20_TL00037 2297
P20_ST00228 2300 title 10302
P20_SP00192 486 2332
P20_ST00229 2299 registration 000050055080
P20_SP00193 2342
P20_ST00230 718 2308 118 papers
P20_SP00194 836 2341
P20_ST00231 847 less 0002
P20_SP00195 909 2331
P20_ST00232 2298 193 expensive, 0300012005
P20_SP00196
P20_ST00233 1123 easier 040000
P20_SP00197
P20_ST00234
P20_TL00038 2344
P20_ST00235 2346 faster 520300
P20_SP00198 519 2379
P20_ST00236 531 2352
P20_SP00199 567
P20_ST00237 obtain. 0040122
P20_SP00200
P20_ST00238 720 2345 Title
P20_SP00201 804 2378
P20_ST00239 818 2350 teams 00402
P20_SP00202
P20_ST00240 936 could 00130
P20_SP00203
P20_ST00241
P20_SP00204 1088 2377
P20_ST00242 established 47001000454
P20_TL00039 2391
P20_ST00243 2394 600
P20_SP00205 2425
P20_ST00244 2393 financing 550500000
P20_SP00206 666 2435
P20_ST00245 678 thse 32000
P20_SP00207 770 2424
P20_ST00246 2392 initiatives 00060125750
P20_SP00208 2428
P20_ST00247 112 within
P20_SP00209 1085 2423
P20_ST00248 1100 370
P20_SP00210
P20_ST00249 2396 context 8001050
P20_TL00040 2437
P20_ST00250 2439 05
P20_SP00211 453 2472
P20_ST00251 2449
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P20_ST00252 148 national 17305175
P20_SP00213 674
P20_ST00253 2438 cadastral 010007004
P20_SP00214 2471
P20_ST00254 2447 survey 010000
P20_SP00215 2479
P20_ST00255 1032 120 000040
P20_SP00216 2470
P20_ST00256 greatly
P20_TL00041 2483
P20_ST00257 2486 henefit 7000440
P20_SP00217 2519
P20_ST00258 2496
P20_SP00218 585
P20_ST00259 611 2487 177 long-term 001530002
P20_SP00219 2527
P20_ST00260 265 0000050471004
P20_SP00220 2518
P20_ST00261 1104 restoration 01200002000
P20_TL00042 2542
P20_ST00262 process. 00000610
P20_TL00043 318 2623
P20_ST00263 2632
P20_SP00221 340 2654
P20_ST00264 2624 224 Concentrate 02086060000
P20_SP00222 2658
P20_ST00265 661 2633
P20_SP00223 2657
P20_ST00266 723 high 0001
P20_SP00224 798 2666
P20_ST00267 valued
P20_SP00225 2656
P20_ST00268 96 crops 00001
P20_SP00226 2664
P20_ST00269 2627
P20_SP00227
P20_ST00270 610
P20_SP00228 1174 2655
P20_ST00271 1191 extent 000005
P20_TL00044 2669
P20_ST00272 2672 that 0143
P20_SP00229 2704
P20_ST00273 510 91 03130
P20_SP00230 601
P20_ST00274 624 2680 can 0.56 157
P20_SP00231 683
P20_ST00275 2671 06
P20_SP00232 746 2702
P20_ST00276 2670 196 consumed, 050740003
P20_SP00233 2707
P20_ST00277 179 processed 000320100
P20_SP00234 1165 2711
P20_ST00278 1186 andor 000300
P20_TL00045 2714
P20_ST00279 2717 marketed. 220103000
P20_SP00235 603 2750
P20_ST00280 2716 Reconsidcr 2020025160
P20_SP00236
P20_ST00281 using 05500
P20_SP00237 2758
P20_ST00282 944 2725 2
P20_SP00238 2747
P20_ST00283 significant 11000440000
P20_SP00239 2757
P20_ST00284 portion
P20_TL00046 2762
P20_ST00285 2763
P20_SP00240 454 2796
P20_ST00286 2764 000031710
P20_SP00241 629 2806
P20_ST00287 2772 89 area, 06006
P20_SP00242 742 2801
P20_ST00288 now 040
P20_SP00243 2795
P20_ST00289 863
P20_SP00244 893
P20_ST00290 2771 sugar 10003
P20_SP00245 1013 2804
P20_ST00291 cane 0107
P20_SP00246 1117 2794
P20_ST00292 1139 currently 002000600
P20_TL00047 2807 46
P20_ST00293 2810 being
P20_SP00247 2852
P20_ST00294 2809 produced 00000060
P20_SP00248 2853
P20_ST00295 2814 at
P20_SP00249 2842
P20_ST00296 2819
P20_SP00250 785 2841
P20_ST00297 loss 3010
P20_SP00251
P20_ST00298 879
P20_SP00252
P20_ST00299 926 2815 terms 36061
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P20_ST00300 1040
P20_SP00254 2840
P20_ST00301 1090 2808 worid 05001
P20_SP00255
P20_ST00302 2817 30710
P20_TL00048 2855
P20_ST00303 pries, 0007064
P20_SP00256 2898
P20_ST00304 548 300
P20_SP00257 2888
P20_ST00305 2856 other
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P20_ST00306 713 2864 crops. 000050
P20_TL00049 2946 987
P20_ST00307 2954
P20_SP00259 2977
P20_ST00308 419 2949 Initiate 70800435
P20_SP00260 2982
P20_ST00309 2953 guarantecs 0560001400
P20_SP00261 773 2991
P20_ST00310 799
P20_SP00262 832 2981
P20_ST00311 2948 farmers 4000406
P20_SP00263 2980
P20_ST00312 1023 68 0013
P20_SP00264 1091
P20_ST00313 2956 once 7000
P20_SP00265 1201 2979
P20_ST00314 1228 0300
P20_TL00050 2993
P20_ST00315 2996 improvements 000050031203
P20_SP00266 3038
P20_ST00316 3004 405
P20_SP00267 747 3027
P20_ST00317 763 2995 made, 47000
P20_SP00268 3032
P20_ST00318 890 2994 38520
P20_SP00269
P20_ST00319 997 will 0047
P20_SP00270 3026
P20_ST00320 2999 305
P20_SP00271 1133 3025
P20_ST00321 1147
P20_SP00272 1188
P20_ST00322 98 taken 33061
P20_TB00002 1380 1009 922
P20_TL00051 1497 429
P20_ST00323 away 5001
P20_SP00273 1587
P20_ST00324 233 or
P20_SP00274 1635 255
P20_ST00325 1644 228 93 04106
P20_SP00275 1737
P20_ST00326 180 increased. 0024540744
P20_TL00052 1397
P20_ST00327 319
P20_SP00276
P20_ST00328 1499 Develop 7000051
P20_SP00277 1653 356
P20_ST00329 1675 324
P20_SP00278
P20_ST00330 1716 program 0053200
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P20_ST00331
P20_SP00280
P20_ST00332 1946 5000
P20_SP00281 2024
P20_ST00333 2043 rural 00002
P20_SP00282 2129
P20_ST00334 2150 communities 02301010287
P20_TL00053
P20_ST00335 conserve 43210000
P20_SP00283 1656 393
P20_ST00336 1667 26500
P20_SP00284 1750
P20_ST00337 1760 361 128 natural 0700215
P20_SP00285 1888
P20_ST00338 1900 369 resources. 0230400001
P20_TL00054 1396 456 701
P20_ST00339 460 87 THE
P20_SP00286 1483 491
P20_ST00340 1500 PEASANTRY 407070206
P20_SP00287 1754
P20_ST00341 1773
P20_SP00288 1862
P20_ST00342 1878 457
P20_SP00289 1964 489
P20_ST00343 1980 LAND 6600
P20_TL00055 1436 534 946
P20_ST00344 535 440
P20_SP00290 1506
P20_ST00345 1528 135 Haitian 4700070
P20_SP00291 1663
P20_ST00346 539 peasantry 002010500
P20_SP00292 1859
P20_ST00347 1880
P20_SP00293 1905
P20_ST00348 1923 facing 120008
P20_SP00294 2031 574
P20_ST00349 2047 serious 1077004
P20_SP00295 2175
P20_ST00350 2193 189 challenges 0236600601
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P20_ST00351 0.46
P20_SP00296 1431 612
P20_ST00352 1445 064
P20_SP00297 1484
P20_ST00353 589 way
P20_SP00298 1567
P20_ST00354 1579
P20_SP00299 1616
P20_ST00355 1627 life. 34060
P20_SP00300 1694
P20_ST00356 1711 Although 03002001
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P20_ST00357 1897
P20_SP00302 1951
P20_ST00358 1965 productivity 000300700000
P20_SP00303 2184
P20_ST00359 2196
P20_SP00304 2234
P20_ST00360 2244 peasant 0000106
P20_TL00057
P20_ST00361 194 agriculture 85751076035
P20_SP00305 668
P20_ST00362 1608 has
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P20_ST00363 1682 long 2705
P20_SP00307 1759
P20_ST00364 been 0561
P20_SP00308 659
P20_ST00365 1874 0.48 446
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P20_ST00366 1944 mainstay 0.39 74758465
P20_SP00310 2103
P20_ST00367 0.41
P20_SP00311 2155
P20_ST00368 2168 030
P20_SP00312 2223
P20_ST00369 2239 nation's 57705570
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P20_ST00370 economy, 02000004
P20_SP00313 1574 715
P20_ST00371 673 there
P20_SP00314 706
P20_ST00372 1703 57
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P20_ST00373 677 yet 021
P20_SP00316 1830
P20_ST00374 1847
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P20_SP00318 1936
P20_ST00376 1955 6
P20_SP00319 1972
P20_ST00377 1989 178 reciprocal 0410000005
P20_SP00320 2167
P20_ST00378 2185 198 investment 0000000400
P20_TL00059 466
P20_ST00379 04
P20_SP00321 1428
P20_ST00380 1447
P20_SP00322 1501
P20_ST00381 000000004005
P20_SP00323 1727
P20_ST00382 724 sector. 0000820
P20_TL00060 1398 810 984
P20_ST00383
P20_SP00324
P20_ST00384 811 64050523
P20_SP00325 1662
P20_ST00385 1689
P20_SP00326 843
P20_ST00386 1770 123 unique
P20_SP00327 1893
P20_ST00387 1920 0.55
P20_SP00328 1984
P20_ST00388 2012 basic 07500
P20_SP00329 2099
P20_ST00389 2124 258 characteristics 040450050000014
P20_TL00061 857
P20_ST00390 859
P20_SP00330 1533
P20_ST00391 1543 858 203
P20_SP00331
P20_ST00392 2006200
P20_SP00332
P20_ST00393 1540103
P20_SP00333
P20_ST00394 1911 7004008
P20_SP00334 2050
P20_ST00395 2060 122 system 001500
P20_SP00335 2182
P20_ST00396
P20_SP00336 2224
P20_ST00397 2238 00063502
P20_TL00062 903
P20_ST00398
P20_SP00337 1538
P20_ST00399 external 05200005
P20_SP00338 1705
P20_ST00400 1725 913 sources 3103005
P20_SP00339 1860
P20_ST00401 1879
P20_SP00340 1913
P20_ST00402 1931 well 5050
P20_SP00341 2002
P20_ST00403 2023
P20_SP00342 2057
P20_ST00404 2076
P20_SP00343 2131
P20_ST00405 2149 907 government. 00000000000
P20_TL00063 995 983
P20_ST00406 1003
P20_SP00344
P20_ST00407 ConUnue 4008000
P20_SP00345 1665 1028
P20_ST00408 1687 302
P20_SP00346 1751
P20_ST00409 1772 initiate 10000000
P20_SP00347 1898
P20_ST00410 1919 141 01020054
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P20_ST00411 2080 which
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P20_ST00412 2205 invite 500000
P20_SP00350 2306
P20_ST00413 2326
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P20_ST00414 1048 175 010100000
P20_SP00351 1672
P20_ST00415 1684
P20_SP00352 1718 1075
P20_ST00416 1729 1042 fully 00200
P20_SP00353 1807 1084
P20_ST00417 1817 participate 02030801007
P20_SP00354 2010
P20_ST00418 2021
P20_SP00355
P20_ST00419 2062
P20_SP00356 2139
P20_ST00420 2148 conservation 000002002440
P20_TL00065 1089
P20_ST00421 stratgies. 00000400010
P20_TB00003 1820
P20_TL00066 1216 676
P20_ST00422 COASTAL 1060055
P20_SP00357
P20_ST00423 1614 1217 MARINE 062041
P20_SP00358
P20_ST00424 1805 RESOURCES, 0200622405
P20_TL00067 1400 1261 717
P20_ST00425 279 PROTECTION 2032010764
P20_SP00359 1679 1295
P20_ST00426 1697 630
P20_SP00360 1294
P20_ST00427 1803 MANAGEMENT 1707441010
P20_TL00068 1334
P20_ST00428 1337 Coastal 3552305
P20_SP00361 1572 1371
P20_ST00429 1585 1338
P20_SP00362
P20_ST00430 1664 marine 305500
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P20_ST00431 1345 resources 300000000
P20_SP00364 1973 1370
P20_ST00432 1983
P20_SP00365 2022
P20_ST00433 2033 Haiti 60034
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P20_ST00434 2134 remain 210200
P20_SP00367 2258
P20_ST00435 2272 relati 004230 relatively
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P20_ST00436 1385 72 vely 0070
P20_SP00368 1468 1426
P20_ST00437 1478 1386 unknown 0003000
P20_SP00369 1646
P20_ST00438 1657 1384 050
P20_SP00370 1724
P20_ST00439 1735 286 underexploited. 040102201400200
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P20_ST00440 2035 Notable
P20_SP00372 2179 1417
P20_ST00441 2189 exceptions 0110002200
P20_TL00070
P20_ST00442 1441
P20_SP00373
P20_ST00443 1432 widespread 0003100200
P20_SP00374 1670 1474
P20_ST00444 1681 overfishing 00004400500
P20_SP00375 1473
P20_ST00445 0.43
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P20_ST00446 1939 nearshore 000102000
P20_SP00377 2117
P20_ST00447 reef 0006
P20_SP00378
P20_ST00448 2211 1440
P20_SP00379 2305
P20_ST00449 2317
P20_TL00071 1476
P20_ST00450 1487
P20_SP00380 1415 1510
P20_ST00451 1433 large 41000
P20_SP00381 1519
P20_ST00452 trade 20403
P20_SP00382 1632
P20_ST00453 1479
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P20_ST00454 1700 aquarium 34000500
P20_SP00384 1872
P20_ST00455 1477 fish, 55022
P20_SP00385 1966
P20_ST00456 1485 sea
P20_SP00386 2039 1509
P20_ST00457 2055 116 turties 2002050
P20_SP00387 2171
P20_ST00458 2188
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P20_ST00459 2269 shells. 0100110
P20_TL00072 1522 971
P20_ST00460 1525 A
P20_SP00389 1427
P20_ST00461 1443 coastal 0600013
P20_SP00390
P20_ST00462 1586 000001000
P20_SP00391 1755
P20_ST00463 1524 plan 0610
P20_SP00392 1849 1566
P20_ST00464 1866 1523
P20_SP00393
P20_ST00465 1981 resuit 020570
P20_SP00394
P20_ST00466 2096
P20_SP00395 2128
P20_ST00467 008000
P20_SP00396 2252
P20_ST00468 2268 1531 mana management
P20_TL00073 1568
P20_ST00469 1576 gement
P20_SP00397 1612
P20_ST00470 1570
P20_SP00398 1584 1603
P20_ST00471 1595 0000003
P20_SP00399 1720
P20_ST00472 habitat 0000030
P20_SP00400 1863
P20_ST00473
P20_SP00401 1602
P20_ST00474 1945
P20_SP00402
P20_ST00475 243 enhancement
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P20_ST00476 2276
P20_SP00404 2315
P20_ST00477 2328 fis fisheries,
P20_TL00074 1615
P20_ST00478 1617 heries,
P20_SP00405 1517 1655
P20_ST00479 1535 137 tourism 5000704
P20_SP00406 1649
P20_ST00480 1690
P20_SP00407 1648
P20_ST00481 1771 1626 rare
P20_SP00408 1844
P20_ST00482 1861
P20_SP00409 1925
P20_ST00483 1941 endangered 6000003301
P20_SP00410 2154
P20_ST00484 species. 00000000
P20_TL00075 1739 667
P20_ST00485 1740 0070064
P20_SP00411 1599
P20_ST00486 ZONE
P20_SP00412 1734
P20_ST00487 0304001020
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P20_ST00488 1841
P20_SP00413 1864 53
P20_ST00489 Prpare 1000000
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P20_ST00490 1850
P20_SP00415 1654
P20_ST00491 1840 0000006
P20_SP00416 1796
P20_ST00492 1816 002000000
P20_SP00417 1985 1873
P20_ST00493 2003 76
P20_SP00418 2079
P20_ST00494 2098
P20_SP00419 2151
P20_ST00495 1842 00006
P20_SP00420 1875
P20_ST00496
P20_TL00077 1472 1885
P20_ST00497 would 10040
P20_SP00421 1582
P20_ST00498 include: 00002300
P20_TL00078
P20_ST00499 1948 -
P20_SP00422 1494 1954
P20_ST00500 inventories 00013030033
P20_SP00423 1710
P20_ST00501
P20_SP00424 1762
P20_ST00502 1774 breeding, 000000020
P20_SP00425
P20_ST00503 1962 1934 nesfing 0007700
P20_SP00426 2091
P20_ST00504 2104 1943
P20_SP00427 2197 1967
P20_ST00505 2210 1935
P20_SP00428 2249
P20_ST00506 2261 threat 000030 threatened
P20_TL00079 1979
P20_ST00507 ened
P20_SP00429 2011
P20_ST00508 005
P20_SP00430
P20_ST00509 1691 6106004100
P20_SP00431 1904
P20_ST00510 species; 10400506
P20_SP00432
P20_ST00511 inve:Uory 500288005
P20_SP00433
P20_ST00512
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P20_ST00513 dsignation 01100000080
P20_SP00434
P20_ST00514 1701 2025
P20_SP00435
P20_ST00515 critical 02020000
P20_SP00436 1877 2058
P20_ST00516 1896 2026 0400000
P20_SP00437 2059
P20_ST00517 2040 2036 areas,
P20_SP00438 2147 2065
P20_ST00518 2166 2037 e.g.
P20_SP00439 2231
P20_ST00519 2255 2027
P20_TL00081 908
P20_ST00520 2070
P20_SP00440 2101
P20_ST00521 245 commercially 001235010006
P20_SP00441 1801 2110
P20_ST00522 important 001030000
P20_SP00442
P20_ST00523 fish 4400
P20_SP00443 2105
P20_ST00524 2137
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P20_ST00525 2233 shellfish 020050000
P20_TL00082 895
P20_ST00526 species, 00500350
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P20_ST00527 1639 2123 02100
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P20_ST00528 1757
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P20_ST00529 1818 unusual 2300005
P20_SP00448 1956
P20_ST00530 scenic 040200
P20_SP00449 2090
P20_ST00531 2112 value 00005
P20_SP00450 2208
P20_ST00532 2232
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P20_ST00533 2309 2122 58 prsent
P20_TL00083 1471
P20_ST00534 sent
P20_SP00452 2195
P20_ST00535
P20_SP00453 1610
P20_ST00536 2163 future 600008
P20_SP00454 1747
P20_ST00537 0510310
P20_SP00455 1912
P20_ST00538 1938
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P20_ST00539 proposed
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P20_ST00540 sites
P20_SP00458 2302
P20_ST00541 2329 2162
P20_TL00084 225
P20_ST00542 mariculture; 002000000046
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P20_ST00543 2273 5
P20_SP00459 1492 2278
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P20_SP00460 1573 2287
P20_ST00545 2254 conceptual, 08006000050
P20_SP00461 1809 2295
P20_ST00546 1834 scientific, 00000005000
P20_SP00462 2006
P20_ST00547 administrative 05300030400022
P20_SP00463 2291
P20_ST00548 2316
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P20_ST00549 lgal 12003
P20_SP00464
P20_ST00550 framework 040021003
P20_SP00465 1783 2333
P20_ST00551 1810 060
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P20_ST00552 1886 162 dcisions 020200000
P20_SP00467 2048
P20_ST00553 2074 affecting 001003000
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P20_ST00554 2256 0500000
P20_TL00087 2348
P20_ST00555 002000
P20_SP00469 2380
P20_ST00556 1609 2356 184 resources; 0326020300
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P20_ST00557 2410 3
P20_SP00470 1493 2415
P20_ST00558 020
P20_SP00471 1577
P20_ST00559 2397 assessment 0024001000
P20_SP00472 2426
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P20_ST00561 mariculture 00400120002
P20_SP00474
P20_ST00562 2136
P20_SP00475 2201
P20_ST00563 fisheries 550210030
P20_TL00089
P20_ST00564 2440 237 development 02034700000
P20_SP00476 1709 2482
P20_ST00565 1753 schemes 0003210
P20_SP00477 1903 2473
P20_ST00566
P20_SP00478
P20_ST00567 326 recommendations 000450000000000
P20_TL00090 2485
P20_ST00568 2495
P20_SP00479
P20_ST00569 2490
P20_SP00480 1552
P20_ST00570 1562 02500
P20_SP00481 1647 7
P20_ST00571 suitability 00000000005
P20_SP00482 2528
P20_ST00572 1843
P20_SP00483 1895
P20_ST00573 00410
P20_SP00484 1993
P20_ST00574 1999 2510 .
P20_TL00091 2567
P20_ST00575 2573
P20_SP00485 2594
P20_ST00576 160 30500000
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P20_ST00577 1668
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P80_SP00229 1644
P80_ST00266 1657 506 733
P80_SP00230 1719
P80_ST00267 1734 intcrniational 43470684408152
P80_SP00231 1967 535
P80_ST00268 1983 161 maritime 0.79 27000007
P80_SP00232 2144
P80_ST00269 2159 504 196 commerce. 870300774
P80_TL00038 963
P80_ST00270 543 263 0.66 77000420800087
P80_SP00233
P80_ST00271 1660 544 58 has
P80_SP00234 1718
P80_ST00272 1733
P80_SP00235 1788 576
P80_ST00273 1805 highest 4458360
P80_SP00236 585
P80_ST00274 1950 trade 72577
P80_SP00237 2042
P80_ST00275 2058 volume 072402
P80_SP00238 2189
P80_ST00276 2206
P80_SP00239 2270
P80_ST00277 2288 ton 787 tonnage
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P80_ST00278 nage 0768
P80_SP00240 632
P80_ST00279 1482
P80_SP00241 1519
P80_ST00280 1536 599
P80_SP00242 630
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P80_SP00243
P80_ST00282 1711 01
P80_SP00244 1740 621
P80_ST00283 1763 100 500202
P80_SP00245 1863
P80_ST00284 1886 Ports 76218
P80_SP00246 1979
P80_ST00285 1998 which 22006
P80_SP00247 2102
P80_ST00286 2122 704
P80_SP00248 2177
P80_ST00287 2194 113 closed 048807
P80_SP00249 2307
P80_ST00288 2326
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P80_ST00290 152 shipping 63063007
P80_SP00251 1785
P80_ST00291 1808 635 143 include, 00110850
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P80_ST00292 1976 645 among 42806
P80_SP00253 2098
P80_ST00293 2119 others. 8658080
P80_SP00254 2242 673
P80_ST00294 2267 Mle 5828
P80_TL00041 681
P80_ST00295 683 St-Nicolas, 50300887145
P80_SP00255 1576
P80_ST00296 1596 268 Port-iVPiment, 78204085026043
P80_SP00256 1864
P80_ST00297 1884 Anse
P80_SP00257 1975
P80_ST00298 1994 204 d'Hainault, 63450000110
P80_SP00258 2198 719
P80_ST00299 2219 Ansc-ii- 20746880
P80_TL00042
P80_ST00300 Veau, 67300
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P80_SP00260 1641
P80_ST00302 Saline, 6356350
P80_SP00261 1780 767
P80_ST00303 1798 Coiail 376343
P80_SP00262 1909 761
P80_ST00304 1927
P80_SP00263 1993
P80_ST00305 2011 Pestcl. 6481252
P80_TL00043 1424
P80_ST00306 A 2
P80_SP00264 1452
P80_ST00307 1470 7 1 4
P80_SP00265 1477
P80_ST00308 1485
P80_SP00266 1546
P80_ST00309 228 classification 40857060807180
P80_SP00267 1784 826
P80_ST00310 1795 85
P80_SP00268 1834 5
P80_ST00311 1839 8388577
P80_SP00269 1963
P80_ST00312 1974 129 0268023
P80_SP00270 2103 835
P80_ST00313 2112 vessels 0827825
P80_SP00271 2232
P80_ST00314 rough 35326 roughly
P80_TL00044 838
P80_ST00315 ly 1.00 00
P80_SP00272 1410 881
P80_ST00316 1438 divides 5000886
P80_SP00273 1564
P80_ST00317 1593 54
P80_SP00274 1647
P80_ST00318 1675 209 commercial 0320733000
P80_SP00275
P80_ST00319 1913 ficet 05281
P80_SP00276
P80_ST00320 2022
P80_SP00277 2090
P80_ST00321 2118 388
P80_SP00278 2178
P80_ST00322 2204 .sailboats 7100686756
P80_TL00045
P80_ST00323 887
P80_SP00279 1444
P80_ST00324 1458
P80_SP00280 1499
P80_ST00325 182 motorizcd 073720308
P80_SP00281 1696
P80_ST00326 1712 launches. 153043575
P80_SP00282 1879
P80_ST00327 1895 101 0600
P80_SP00283 1996
P80_ST00328 2012 boats 67318
P80_SP00284 2106
P80_ST00329 2121 897 500
P80_SP00285 2175
P80_ST00330 2190 not
P80_SP00286 2246
P80_ST00331 2262 inclu 30800 included
P80_TL00046
P80_ST00332 ded
P80_SP00287
P80_ST00333 because 8738075
P80_SP00288
P80_ST00334 1619
P80_SP00289
P80_ST00335 937 0600744
P80_SP00290 1815
P80_ST00336 1833 less 3575
P80_SP00291
P80_ST00337 1912 3252
P80_SP00292 1990
P80_ST00338 2008 one. 8001
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P80_ST00339 Range 68077
P80_SP00293 1539
P80_ST00340 1548 (Tons) 066083
P80_SP00294 1661 1093
P80_ST00341 1751 1057 No. 780
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P80_ST00342 1823 170 ofVes.sel:fi 505585770885
P80_SP00296
P80_ST00343 2046 145 Average 7070645
P80_SP00297 2191
P80_ST00344 2200 Tonnage 0500856
P80_TB00003 1440 1142 238
P80_TL00048
P80_ST00345 1-15 0317
P80_TL00049 96
P80_ST00346 Kv.lO
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P80_ST00347 31-45 70007
P80_TL00051 1492 1289
P80_ST00348 46-60 68588
P80_TL00052 1455 1334 177
P80_ST00349 61-higher 706307660
P80_TB00004 1830
P80_TL00053
P80_ST00350
P80_TL00054 1846
P80_ST00351 087
P80_ST00352 1242
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P80_ST00353 1861
P80_SP00299 1321 -27
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P80_TB00005 2164 72
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P80_ST00355
P80_TL00056 2180
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P80_ST00357
P80_ST00358
P80_ST00359
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P80_TL00057 1427
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P80_ST00361 Le
P80_SP00301 1579
P80_ST00362 Menach, 0784883
P80_SP00302 1745
P80_ST00363 1769 FAO 565
P80_SP00303 1858
P80_ST00364 1877 (1985) 178610
P80_TB00007 1354
P80_TL00058 1568
P80_ST00365 00488
P80_SP00304 1510 1601
P80_ST00366 1547 1569 1977, 58106
P80_SP00305 1606
P80_ST00367 1666 1570
P80_SP00306
P80_ST00368 1750 1572 number 551885
P80_SP00307 1890 1604
P80_ST00369 1917 1573
P80_SP00308 1956 1605
P80_ST00370 1984 Haitian 8807033
P80_SP00309 2117
P80_ST00371 2147 1575 0860807
P80_SP00310 2266
P80_ST00372 2298
P80_TL00059 1373 1614
P80_ST00373 198 diminished 6000108388
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P80_ST00374 1587 1615 due
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P80_ST00375 1670 1621
P80_SP00313
P80_ST00376 1722 further 5007660
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P80_ST00378
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P80_ST00383 1478
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P80_ST00384 1558 269 rctirementlo.ss 0870085846608503
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P80_ST00385 1665
P80_SP00322
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P80_SP00323 1945 1697
P80_ST00387 1961 vessels, 08868170
P80_SP00324 1699
P80_ST00388 2113 1667 169 Recently, 188807044
P80_SP00325 2282 1709
P80_ST00389 1668
P80_TL00061 1707
P80_ST00390 GOH 231
P80_SP00326 1474 1739
P80_ST00391 1491
P80_SP00327 1549
P80_ST00392 1563 stressed 45586085
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P80_ST00393 1721 rcgionalization 504080230320070
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P80_ST00394 2007
P80_SP00330 2040 1744
P80_ST00395 3
P80_SP00331 2074
P80_ST00396 2089 1716 strategy 0.73 60006340
P80_SP00332 2231
P80_ST00397
P80_SP00333 2281 1746
P80_ST00398 2296 1713 im
P80_TL00062 1372 1755
P80_ST00399 prove 10808
P80_SP00334 1472 1794
P80_ST00400 1496
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P80_ST00402 1757
P80_SP00337
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P80_SP00340 1987 1791
P80_ST00406 1760
P80_SP00341 1792
P80_ST00407 1765 remote 084878
P80_SP00342 2223 1793
P80_ST00408 2245 1771 103 areas, 608175
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P80_ST00409 Perhaps 3731223
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P80_SP00344 1831
P80_ST00411 1559 1810 rsurgence 0762063046
P80_SP00345 1843
P80_ST00412 1764 1803
P80_SP00346 1802
P80_ST00413 1804 0735004
P80_SP00347 1836
P80_ST00414 1947 seaports 76078060
P80_SP00348 2095
P80_ST00415 2107 1806 252
P80_SP00349 2171 1838
P80_ST00416 2184 increased 000050546
P80_TL00064 712
P80_ST00417 vesscl 0.85 007100
P80_SP00350
P80_ST00418 1857 usage 11737
P80_SP00351 1888
P80_ST00419 1848 will 0000
P80_SP00352
P80_ST00420 1689
P80_SP00353 1729
P80_ST00421 secn 4361
P80_SP00354 1824 1882
P80_ST00422 02
P80_SP00355 1873
P80_ST00423 1892
P80_SP00356
P80_ST00424 1965 future. 3622340
P80_TB00008 287 2081 927
P80_TL00065
P80_ST00425 Table 33657
P80_SP00357 1324
P80_ST00426 1340 1962 V-12 0055
P80_TL00066 2006
P80_ST00427 EXOTIC 203030
P80_SP00358 1003
P80_ST00428 1021 FISH 4640
P80_SP00359 1116
P80_ST00429 1132 SPECIES 1706403
P80_SP00360 1306 2039
P80_ST00430 285 INTRODUCED 6000768207
P80_SP00361
P80_ST00431 IN
P80_SP00362
P80_ST00432 1686 HATI 08627
P80_TL00067 306 2123
P80_ST00433 Species 1065056
P80_TL00068 662
P80_ST00434 Year 5822
P80_TL00069
P80_ST00435 From 4780
P80_TL00070 1320
P80_ST00436 Where 11807
P80_TL00071
P80_ST00437 Purpose 8000885
P80_TL00072 2029 2124 175
P80_ST00438 Rfrence 070706055
P80_TL00073 304 2214
P80_ST00439 1000035
P80_TL00074 348 2260 218
P80_ST00440 mossambica 0.88 0512000300
P80_TL00075 664 2261
P80_ST00441 4400
P80_TL00076
P80_ST00442 Jamaica 0140051
P80_TL00077 1322
P80_ST00443 DFCS 3050
P80_TL00078
P80_ST00444 FC
P80_TL00079 2030 179
P80_ST00445 Lin
P80_SP00363 2087 2295
P80_ST00446 (1952) 048003
P80_TL00080 307 283
P80_ST00447 162 Cyprinus 0.96 00000030
P80_SP00364 469 2349
P80_ST00448 carpio 000000
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P80_ST00449 0015
P80_TL00082
P80_ST00450 Alabama 0300726
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P80_TL00084
P80_ST00452
P80_TL00085
P80_ST00453
P80_SP00365 2342
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P80_SP00366 2442
P80_ST00457 *
P80_TL00088 663 2401
P80_ST00458 1952 0502
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P80_ST00459 Singapore 060800703
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P80_ST00460 0017
P80_TL00091 1674
P80_ST00461
P80_TL00092 2028 2403 213
P80_ST00462 033
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P80_TL00093 2446
P80_ST00464 21001021
P80_SP00368 2488
P80_ST00465 0.90 004001
P80_TL00094 2447
P80_ST00466 6000
P80_TL00095
P80_ST00467 Isral 0.92 400000
P80_TL00096 2448
P80_ST00468 2000
P80_TL00097
P80_ST00469
P80_TL00098 221
P80_ST00470
P80_SP00369 2120 2481
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P80_TL00099 2492
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P80_ST00473 1977 5140
P80_TL00101
P80_ST00474 135 Dornin, 0027006
P80_SP00370 1100 2527
P80_ST00475 1115 2495 Rp.
P80_TL00102 1319
P80_ST00476 1140
P80_TL00103
P80_ST00477 MC 0.91
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P80_ST00478 0050000
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P80_ST00480 5004
P80_TL00106 247
P80_ST00481 Limonade 40071277
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P80_ST00482
P80_TL00107 2542 267
P80_ST00483 Stariey,p,com 0147741306020
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P80_ST00484 Ctenophary- 40000000003
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P80_ST00486 4031
P80_TL00111 2634
P80_ST00487 40380610
P80_TL00112
P80_ST00488
P80_TL00113 2025
P80_ST00489 Starley, 06064040
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P80_ST00490 2643 p.
P80_SP00374 2211 2675
P80_ST00491 2230 com.
P80_TL00114 2679 236
P80_ST00492 4040000
P80_SP00375 2721
P80_ST00493 439 2689 aurea 20211
P80_TL00115 2680
P80_ST00494 1982 7502
P80_TL00116
P80_ST00495 Illinois 45101808
P80_TL00117 190
P80_ST00496 LaGonave 25073608
P80_TL00118 1673
P80_ST00497
P80_TL00119 239
P80_ST00498 2681 Puelle 000360
P80_SP00376 2135 2713
P80_ST00499 2152 (1983) 054033
P80_TL00120 2724 309
P80_ST00500 Gambusia 41010000
P80_SP00377 2760
P80_ST00501 109 affinis 0002031
P80_TL00121 2726
P80_ST00502 6205
P80_TL00122
P80_ST00503 Florida 0007755
P80_TL00123 171
P80_ST00504 2727 050
P80_SP00378 2759
P80_ST00505 1382 Librt 007777
P80_TL00124
P80_ST00506
P80_TL00125 2024 2725
P80_ST00507 Linden, 3000302
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P80_ST00508 2182 2735
P80_SP00380 2213 2768
P80_ST00509
P80_TL00126 2772
P80_ST00510 Ictalurussp, 202060102006
P80_TL00127 2773
P80_ST00511 6566
P80_TL00128
P80_ST00512 0320
P80_TL00129
P80_ST00513 06
P80_TL00130 2023
P80_ST00514 Wilson, 0220005
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P80_ST00515 2783
P80_SP00382 2209 2816
P80_ST00516 2228
P80_TB00009 2854 1388
P80_TL00131 2864 1353
P80_ST00517 0.95
P80_SP00383 2881
P80_ST00518 disappeared 00000000000
P80_SP00384 2907
P80_ST00519 574 from
P80_SP00385 2898
P80_ST00520 2865 0030
P80_SP00386
P80_ST00521 70003
P80_SP00387 896
P80_ST00522 1955; 02000
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P80_ST00523
P80_SP00389
P80_ST00524 1157 2877 6
P80_SP00390 1182 2890
P80_ST00525 2866 Damien 043020
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P80_ST00529 **
P80_SP00394 2928
P80_ST00530 359 219 20000050400
P80_SP00395 578 2954
P80_ST00531 4010
P80_SP00396
P80_ST00532 185 10260000
P80_SP00397 2945
P80_ST00533 2912 00000
P80_SP00398
P80_ST00534 1981; 00803
P80_SP00399 1101 2949
P80_ST00535
P80_SP00400 1173
P80_ST00536 1192 2924
P80_SP00401 1218 2937
P80_ST00537 Fish 0076
P80_SP00402 1311
P80_ST00538 1330 Culture 8000007
P80_TL00133 2958
P80_ST00539
P80_SP00403 2991
P80_ST00540 389 2970
P80_SP00404 2984
P80_ST00541 436 Mosquitoe 000600400
P80_SP00405 3001
P80_ST00542 Larvae 220000
P80_SP00406 774
P80_ST00543 Control 0.94 0020000
P80_TB00010 3042 1204
P80_TL00134 3051
P80_ST00544 3052 0300011
P80_SP00407 437 3085
P80_ST00545 Vlaminck 00040004
P80_SP00408 3084
P80_ST00546 223 (PROTOS), 040100043
P80_SP00409 3093
P80_ST00547 893 06100400600
P80_SP00410 3094
P80_ST00548 3053 Stat. 00002
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P116_SP00041 1086
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P116_ST00384 2579 table, 777061
P116_SP00337 2610
P116_ST00385 2576 244 Groundwater 01800608683
P116_SP00338 762 2609
P116_ST00386 2574 160 683214060
P116_SP00339 957 2616
P116_ST00387 991 2575
P116_SP00340 2606
P116_ST00388 1050 2583 more 0800
P116_SP00341 1141 2605
P116_ST00389 187 dangerous 462760602
P116_TL00049 2619
P116_ST00390 2626 06407
P116_SP00342 2658
P116_ST00391 52
P116_SP00343 560 2657
P116_ST00392 2624 194 population 4845076070
P116_SP00344 772
P116_ST00393 2633 uses 0.26 6787
P116_SP00345 2655
P116_ST00394 2622 80000008
P116_SP00346 1028 2662
P116_ST00395 2627 08680
P116_SP00347 2653
P116_ST00396 1159 2621 6080
P116_SP00348 2652
P116_ST00397 wells, 073085
P116_TL00050 2668
P116_ST00398 2672 sometimes 282600358
P116_SP00349 2704
P116_ST00399 2671 located 3435438
P116_SP00350 2702
P116_ST00400 738 2675 too
P116_SP00351 2701
P116_ST00401 2669 close 80835
P116_SP00352 898 2700
P116_ST00402 917 2674
P116_SP00353 950 2699
P116_ST00403 076000080
P116_TL00051 2731
P116_ST00404 2734
P116_SP00354 2765
P116_ST00405 515 2733 third 66007
P116_SP00355 598
P116_ST00406 form 4602
P116_SP00356 2764
P116_ST00407 725 2732 0.14
P116_SP00357
P116_ST00408 2737 07380
P116_SP00358
P116_ST00409 080004080
P116_SP00359 2772
P116_ST00410 1081 117 affects 0718835
P116_SP00360 1198 2763
P116_ST00411 1219
P116_SP00361 2762
P116_ST00412 2740 69 sea, 0.44 4863
P116_TL00052 2776
P116_ST00413 2779
P116_SP00362 2811
P116_ST00414 2780 receives 38070060
P116_SP00363
P116_ST00415 2788
P116_SP00364 687 2809
P116_ST00416 2778 huge 6081
P116_SP00365 792 2819
P116_ST00417 volume 080034
P116_SP00366 2810
P116_ST00418 962 0.30
P116_SP00367
P116_ST00419 1013 2782 waste 04560
P116_SP00368 2808
P116_ST00420 1133 produced 00626022
P116_SP00369 2817
P116_ST00421
P116_TL00053 2823
P116_ST00422 2826 land 7808
P116_SP00370 456 2857
P116_ST00423 474 2825 170 activities. 48640060584
P116_SP00371 644
P116_ST00424
P116_SP00372 2856
P116_ST00425 2835 8846
P116_SP00373 808
P116_ST00426 825 2834 102 cases, 0.40 837375
P116_SP00374 2860
P116_ST00427 2824 415
P116_SP00375
P116_ST00428 2828 wastes 048477
P116_SP00376 2855
P116_ST00429 2833 0.20 886
P116_SP00377 2854
P116_ST00430 1220 dischar- 84707500
P116_TL00054 2868 984
P116_ST00431 2871 ged 076
P116_SP00378 2913
P116_ST00432 465 136 directiy 70020030
P116_SP00379 2912
P116_ST00433 623
P116_SP00380 664 2911
P116_ST00434 686 2870 186 industries, 00106477366
P116_SP00381 872 2907
P116_ST00435
P116_SP00382 959 2901
P116_ST00436 2869 individuals. 007023705051
P116_SP00383
P116_ST00437
P116_SP00384 2900
P116_ST00438 1267 00200
P116_TL00055 2915
P116_ST00439 2928 cases 11255
P116_SP00385 2951
P116_ST00440 491 2919 they 2230
P116_SP00386 566 2959
P116_ST00441 586 608
P116_SP00387
P116_ST00442 2918 brought 5083847
P116_SP00388
P116_ST00443 2923
P116_SP00389 2949
P116_ST00444 2917 488
P116_SP00390 2950
P116_ST00445 942 2927 sea 327
P116_SP00391 995
P116_ST00446
P116_SP00392 2958
P116_ST00447 1075 2916 rivers, 7706056
P116_SP00393 2952
P116_ST00448 drainage 50100508
P116_TL00056 2963
P116_ST00449 2964 ditches, 50400116
P116_SP00394 520 2999
P116_ST00450 534 2974
P116_SP00395 2996
P116_ST00451 2965 026
P116_SP00396
P116_ST00452 656 wind. 40000
P116_SP00397 753
P116_ST00453
P116_SP00398 806 2994
P116_ST00454
P116_SP00399 2995
P116_ST00455 14050800777211
P116_SP00400 1153
P116_ST00456 1167 2972 area, 70683
P116_SP00401 1258 2997
P116_ST00457 2971 seve several
P116_TL00057 3008
P116_ST00458 3011 ral
P116_SP00402 3044
P116_ST00459 22872
P116_SP00403
P116_ST00460
P116_SP00404 3043
P116_ST00461 632 3010 166 0607100800
P116_SP00405 798 3051
P116_ST00462 814 03078
P116_SP00406 3052
P116_ST00463 3009 209 commercial 0705504003
P116_SP00407 3041
P116_ST00464 3018
P116_SP00408 1177 3040
P116_ST00465 industrial 6082346680
P116_TL00058 3053
P116_ST00466 3057 enterprises 80210004004
P116_SP00409 3099
P116_ST00467 00800
P116_SP00410 3097
P116_ST00468 013
P116_SP00411 3088
P116_ST00469 784 3062 coast 01610
P116_SP00412 3089
P116_ST00470 3055 discharge 410027030
P116_SP00413 1060 3096
P116_ST00471 1078 3054 their 20040
P116_SP00414 3087
P116_ST00472 liquid 001705
P116_SP00415
P116_ST00473 1297
P116_TB00002 294 2807
P116_TL00059 1466
P116_ST00474 solid 38504
P116_SP00416 1549 333
P116_ST00475 1568 306 616073
P116_SP00417 1684
P116_ST00476 302 linto 40004
P116_SP00418 1783
P116_ST00477 1800 037
P116_SP00419 1855
P116_ST00478 311 sea; 1537
P116_SP00420 1938
P116_ST00479 slaughterhouscs, 7002634605827470
P116_SP00421 344
P116_ST00480 2278 mat 0580
P116_SP00422 2366 335
P116_ST00481 2383 303
P116_TL00060 1467
P116_ST00482 61 fish 7000
P116_SP00423 1528
P116_ST00483 vendors, 00203400
P116_SP00424 1705
P116_ST00484 1728 HASCO, 500030
P116_SP00425 1895
P116_ST00485 Ciment 300002
P116_SP00426
P116_ST00486 2067 d'HaiU. 1300080
P116_SP00427
P116_ST00487 2228 164 Pollution 673003040
P116_SP00428 2392
P116_ST00488 2413 349
P116_TL00061 1468 394 966
P116_ST00489 264 10200000300052
P116_SP00429 1732
P116_ST00490 1744 bay 400
P116_SP00430 1807 435
P116_ST00491 395 should 465306
P116_SP00431
P116_ST00492 1949
P116_SP00432 1989
P116_ST00493 130 studied 6016050
P116_SP00433 2131
P116_ST00494 carefully; 0001310005
P116_SP00434 2310 436
P116_ST00495 2325 Conta 00030 Contaminants
P116_TL00062
P116_ST00496 minants 0003028
P116_SP00435
P116_ST00497 tend 4000
P116_SP00436 1704
P116_ST00498 71
P116_SP00437 470
P116_ST00499 1773 445 get 050
P116_SP00438 1827
P116_ST00500 1846 trapped 6000000
P116_SP00439 1983
P116_ST00501 2002
P116_SP00440 2033
P116_ST00502
P116_SP00441 2106
P116_ST00503 2125 inner 00045
P116_SP00442 2217
P116_ST00504 parts 08021
P116_SP00443
P116_ST00505 2340
P116_SP00444
P116_ST00506
P116_TL00063
P116_ST00507
P116_SP00445
P116_ST00508
P116_SP00446 1614 519
P116_ST00509 1638
P116_SP00447
P116_ST00510 1695 217
P116_SP00448
P116_ST00511 1772 direction 800750080
P116_SP00449
P116_ST00512 1954 67
P116_SP00450 1991
P116_ST00513
P116_SP00451
P116_ST00514 2088 currents 33030006
P116_SP00452 2235
P116_ST00515 2257 191 circulating 00100000020
P116_TL00064
P116_ST00516 around 821000
P116_SP00453 1592
P116_ST00517 067
P116_SP00454
P116_ST00518 island 080700
P116_SP00455
P116_ST00519 1804
P116_SP00456 1841
P116_ST00520 1858 La
P116_SP00457 1901
P116_ST00521 1919 152 Gonave. 2732000
P116_TL00065 1509
P116_ST00522 Industrial 3280821005
P116_SP00458 1680
P116_ST00523 1697 187353361
P116_SP00459 1859
P116_ST00524 1874 does
P116_SP00460 638
P116_ST00525 1970
P116_SP00461 2027
P116_ST00526 2041 seem 4013
P116_SP00462 2130
P116_ST00527 2145
P116_SP00463 2179
P116_ST00528 01004
P116_SP00464 2289 640
P116_ST00529 2304 concern 0030500
P116_TL00066 1465 649
P116_ST00530
P116_SP00465 1495
P116_ST00531 1508 655 government 2400000505
P116_SP00466 1725
P116_ST00532 1738 circles, 80003405
P116_SP00467 1861
P116_ST00533 651 Perhaps 2001006
P116_SP00468 2021
P116_ST00534
P116_SP00469
P116_ST00535
P116_SP00470 2092
P116_ST00536 2103
P116_SP00471 2121
P116_ST00537 2133 652 lack
P116_SP00472 2204
P116_ST00538 2215
P116_SP00473
P116_ST00539 2262 185 awareness 000500600
P116_TL00067 696
P116_ST00540 706
P116_SP00474 1500
P116_ST00541 1516 il
P116_SP00475
P116_ST00542 1553 060
P116_SP00476 1627
P116_ST00543 1643
P116_SP00477
P116_ST00544 1701
P116_SP00478 1735
P116_ST00545 save
P116_SP00479 1825
P116_ST00546 worker's 07023064
P116_SP00480 1997 730
P116_ST00547 2009 jobs 0057
P116_SP00481
P116_ST00548 2100 699 0014
P116_SP00482
P116_ST00549 2183 prevent 0000207
P116_SP00483 2321 740
P116_ST00550 2336 action 000350
P116_TL00068
P116_ST00551 742
P116_SP00484 1548
P116_ST00552 1564 being 27001
P116_SP00485 1662
P116_ST00553 1676 taken. 632400
P116_SP00486 774
P116_ST00554 173 5160101252
P116_SP00487
P116_ST00555 1992 managers 00100703
P116_SP00488 2164
P116_ST00556 2177 745 do 08
P116_SP00489 2219 777
P116_ST00557 750
P116_SP00490 2292
P116_ST00558 2306 755 0020
P116_SP00491 2396 778
P116_ST00559 2411 01
P116_TL00069
P116_ST00560
P116_SP00492 1502
P116_ST00561 concerned 400000350
P116_SP00493
P116_ST00562 1719 either. 0002305
P116_SP00494
P116_ST00563 1851
P116_SP00495 1921
P116_ST00564 1937 following 060040005
P116_SP00496 2104
P116_ST00565 793 214 summarizes 5300800881
P116_SP00497 2331
P116_ST00566 infor- 005000
P116_TL00070
P116_ST00567 matioi 0630678
P116_SP00498 1587
P116_ST00568 1604
P116_SP00499 1689
P116_ST00569 1708 major 10420
P116_SP00500 1813
P116_ST00570 174 industries 0520603060
P116_SP00501
P116_ST00571
P116_SP00502 2050
P116_ST00572 Haiti: 010000
P116_TL00071
P116_ST00573 40045
P116_SP00503 1661
P116_ST00574 00863035
P116_SP00504 1849
P116_ST00575 1866 918 02200
P116_SP00505 1962
P116_ST00576 1979 3080
P116_SP00506
P116_ST00577 2080 cane
P116_SP00507
P116_ST00578 cultivated 0004000102
P116_SP00508 2354
P116_ST00579
P116_SP00509 2404
P116_ST00580 2422
P116_TL00072 1464 954
P116_ST00581 964 own
P116_SP00510 1538 987
P116_ST00582 1555 fields 058003
P116_SP00511 1650
P116_ST00583
P116_SP00512 1706 986
P116_ST00584 bought 072005
P116_SP00513 1847
P116_ST00585
P116_SP00514 1948
P116_ST00586 others. 8200250
P116_SP00515
P116_ST00587 065
P116_SP00516 2175
P116_ST00588 2192 company 0500781
P116_SP00517 2355
P116_ST00589 2372
P116_TL00073
P116_ST00590 060213
P116_SP00518 1567
P116_ST00591 1590 tanks 06058
P116_SP00519 1034
P116_ST00592
P116_SP00520 1741
P116_ST00593 1762 treat 60651
P116_SP00521 1033
P116_ST00594 1869 350
P116_SP00522 1922 1032
P116_ST00595 1943 wastewater 0524003743
P116_SP00523 2147
P116_ST00596 1003 8180
P116_SP00524 2252
P116_ST00597 2275 its 771
P116_SP00525 2316
P116_ST00598 2337 toilets 4710515
P116_TL00074
P116_ST00599 405
P116_SP00526 1529 1080
P116_ST00600 188 discharges 0201101060
P116_SP00527 1730
P116_ST00601 1746 ihe 843
P116_SP00528
P116_ST00602 1815 processed 137367072
P116_SP00529 1088
P116_ST00603 0502707040
P116_SP00530
P116_ST00604 2222 into 0008
P116_SP00531
P116_ST00605 1047
P116_SP00532 2362
P116_ST00606 2376 sea.
P116_TL00075 1461 1093
P116_ST00607
P116_SP00533 1533
P116_ST00608 1544 1103 0050100
P116_SP00534
P116_ST00609 5032
P116_SP00535 1794
P116_ST00610 1806
P116_SP00536 1844 1126
P116_ST00611 1856 sludge 740606
P116_SP00537 1136
P116_ST00612 1981 1104 as
P116_SP00538
P116_ST00613 fertilizer 0000040200
P116_SP00539 2181
P116_ST00614
P116_SP00540 2224
P116_ST00615 213 supplment 0004452100
P116_TL00076
P116_ST00616 compost 0720000
P116_SP00541 1180
P116_ST00617
P116_SP00542 1658
P116_ST00618 1678 buys 0205
P116_SP00543
P116_ST00619 1780 6047
P116_SP00544
P116_ST00620 1886
P116_SP00545 1940
P116_ST00621 198 Dominican 602000140
P116_SP00546 2160
P116_ST00622 2180 Republic. 150000000
P116_SP00547 2353
P116_ST00623 2375
P116_TL00077 970
P116_ST00624 88023
P116_SP00548 1545
P116_ST00625 1562 residue 4600414
P116_SP00549 1691
P116_ST00626 1707
P116_SP00550
P116_ST00627 025
P116_SP00551 1811
P116_ST00628 1826 84000
P116_SP00552
P116_ST00629 1935 12040
P116_SP00553 1224
P116_ST00630 2045 called 740050
P116_SP00554 2149
P116_ST00631 bagasse, 05600160
P116_SP00555 2314
P116_ST00632
P116_SP00556
P116_ST00633 2370 bur burned
P116_TL00078 1232
P116_ST00634 ned 011
P116_SP00557
P116_ST00635 1551 1237
P116_SP00558 1586
P116_ST00636 1605 0000341006
P116_SP00559
P116_ST00637 1837 fuel
P116_SP00560 1903
P116_ST00638 oil. 0470
P116_SP00561 1265
P116_ST00639 Ashes 42001
P116_SP00562
P116_ST00640
P116_SP00563 2187
P116_ST00641 2209
P116_SP00564
P116_ST00642 2311
P116_SP00565 2343
P116_ST00643 2365
P116_TL00079 1279
P116_ST00644 beds
P116_SP00566
P116_ST00645 1560
P116_SP00567 1597 1311
P116_ST00646 1613 disposed 00704666
P116_SP00568 1770
P116_ST00647
P116_SP00569 1824
P116_ST00648 1838
P116_SP00570 1882
P116_ST00649 1899 fields, 0050004
P116_TL00080 1345
P116_ST00650 1347 ACIERIE 4060040
P116_SP00571 1379
P116_ST00651 1709 D'HAITI 4000442
P116_SP00572
P116_ST00652 1346 produces 00045025
P116_SP00573 1388
P116_ST00653 2079
P116_SP00574 2120
P116_ST00654
P116_SP00575
P116_ST00655 2211 steel 34000
P116_SP00576
P116_ST00656 2243
P116_SP00577 1378
P116_ST00657 2409
P116_TL00081 1457 1393 969
P116_ST00658 1394 223 construction 070150037600
P116_SP00578 1427
P116_ST00659 1696
P116_SP00579 1759
P116_ST00660 04040
P116_SP00580 1871 1426
P116_ST00661 activities 7037004005
P116_SP00581 2042
P116_ST00662
P116_SP00582 2086
P116_ST00663 Haiti, 004500
P116_SP00583 2200
P116_ST00664 Annual 601013
P116_SP00584 2351
P116_ST00665 pro production
P116_TL00082 1439
P116_ST00666 1440 duction 3705040
P116_SP00585 1472
P116_ST00667
P116_SP00586 1642 1471
P116_ST00668 1669 18,000 003585
P116_SP00587 1477
P116_ST00669 tons, 17100
P116_SP00588 1894 1476
P116_ST00670 1918 only 3032
P116_SP00589 1994 1480
P116_ST00671
P116_SP00590 2055
P116_ST00672 percent 0000000
P116_SP00591 2214
P116_ST00673 2236
P116_SP00592
P116_ST00674 planned 0400020
P116_TL00083 1486
P116_ST00675 1487 capacity, 860200506
P116_SP00593
P116_ST00676 1631 310
P116_SP00594 1519
P116_ST00677 0100000
P116_SP00595
P116_ST00678 1897 1496 0040
P116_SP00596
P116_ST00679 1987 00700
P116_SP00597 2087
P116_ST00680 2102 6000
P116_SP00598 2186
P116_ST00681 CAMEP 03003
P116_SP00599 2360
P116_ST00682
P116_TL00084 1531
P116_ST00683 rain
P116_SP00600 1526 1565
P116_ST00684 water. 045005
P116_SP00601
P116_ST00685 Il
P116_SP00602
P116_ST00686 has 570
P116_SP00603 1779
P116_ST00687 1797 4
P116_SP00604
P116_ST00688 1532 340330
P116_SP00605 1934 1573
P116_ST00689 1950 tank
P116_SP00606 2029
P116_ST00690 2046
P116_SP00607
P116_ST00691 toilet
P116_SP00608
P116_ST00692 2221 1535 216 wastewater. 00200400001
P116_TL00085
P116_ST00693 1581
P116_SP00609 1485
P116_ST00694 recycles 04802004
P116_SP00610 1648
P116_ST00695 1667
P116_SP00611
P116_ST00696 1726 cooling 1700000
P116_SP00612
P116_ST00697 03050
P116_SP00613
P116_ST00698 1996 after 00540
P116_SP00614
P116_ST00699 255 sdimentation 5600073330080
P116_SP00615
P116_ST00700
P116_TL00086
P116_ST00701 disposes 55500066
P116_SP00616 1606
P116_ST00702 1615
P116_SP00617 1654 1657 7
P116_ST00703
P116_SP00618
P116_ST00704 260007
P116_SP00619 1840
P116_ST00705 1629
P116_SP00620
P116_ST00706 036
P116_SP00621 1947
P116_ST00707 Iruitier 80000032
P116_SP00622
P116_ST00708 sanitary 20001056
P116_SP00623
P116_ST00709 2258 landfill. 700000330
P116_TL00087 1671
P116_ST00710 HAMPCO 600203
P116_SP00624
P116_ST00711 (Haitian 04005004
P116_SP00625
P116_ST00712 1892 American 40066000
P116_SP00626
P116_ST00713 2090 Mat
P116_SP00627 2182
P116_ST00714
P116_SP00628 2268
P116_ST00715 2290 Produce 0000130
P116_TL00088 1717
P116_ST00716 Co.)
P116_SP00629 1539 1758
P116_ST00717 1559 processes 048004023
P116_SP00630
P116_ST00718 1750 mcat 0701
P116_SP00631
P116_ST00719
P116_SP00632
P116_ST00720 1727 0003
P116_SP00633 2016
P116_ST00721 2036 20000
P116_SP00634 2137
P116_ST00722
P116_SP00635
P116_ST00723 2261 wells. 103700
P116_SP00636
P116_ST00724 2385 Ef Effluents
P116_TL00089 1764
P116_ST00725 1767 fluents 4455043
P116_SP00637 1798
P116_ST00726 1766
P116_SP00638
P116_ST00727 1685 008
P116_SP00639 1740
P116_ST00728 1751 slaughter 807172550
P116_SP00640 1917
P116_ST00729 1928 1765 house 06284
P116_SP00641
P116_ST00730 1775
P116_SP00642
P116_ST00731 205 chlorinated 82085035488
P116_SP00643
P116_ST00732 2322 before 020405
P116_TL00090 1810
P116_ST00733 discharge. 7060000140
P116_SP00644 1637 1852
P116_ST00734 1812 A 2
P116_SP00645 1843
P116_ST00735 050000
P116_SP00646
P116_ST00736 6504
P116_SP00647
P116_ST00737 1942 01605003
P116_SP00648
P116_ST00738 600801
P116_SP00649
P116_ST00739 2220 215 00700062001
P116_TL00091
P116_ST00740 Manure 360702
P116_SP00650 1890
P116_ST00741 1608
P116_SP00651 1634
P116_ST00742 1644 1857 transported 50400020400
P116_SP00652 1853 1898
P116_ST00743 1863
P116_SP00653 1904
P116_ST00744 wagon 00530
P116_SP00654
P116_ST00745
P116_SP00655 2074 1889
P116_ST00746 00100
P116_SP00656
P116_ST00747
P116_SP00657 2269
P116_ST00748 2280 fields. 7008610
P116_TL00092
P116_ST00749 RHUM 5062
P116_SP00658 1946
P116_ST00750 1652 355 BARBANCOURT 03403005500
P116_SP00659 2007
P116_ST00751
P116_SP00660
P116_ST00752 well 0600
P116_SP00661 2174
P116_ST00753 1920 053200
P116_SP00662 1952
P116_ST00754 414
P116_SP00663
P116_ST00755 re
P116_TL00093 1961
P116_ST00756 cycles 000060
P116_SP00664 1561
P116_ST00757 062
P116_SP00665 1630
P116_ST00758 1647 boiler 000050
P116_SP00666
P116_ST00759 1966 055500
P116_SP00667
P116_ST00760 Oil
P116_SP00668
P116_ST00761 1964
P116_SP00669 1990
P116_ST00762 178 recovered 003707000
P116_SP00670
P116_ST00763 2196
P116_SP00671 2279
P116_ST00764 2293
P116_SP00672 2349
P116_ST00765 2363
P116_TL00094
P116_ST00766 cessed 207150
P116_SP00673 1570 2040
P116_ST00767 1591 05444
P116_SP00674 2039
P116_ST00768 1710 040
P116_SP00675
P116_ST00769 reused. 0000300
P116_SP00676 1923
P116_ST00770 2008
P116_SP00677 2013
P116_ST00771 effluent 04000001
P116_SP00678 2172
P116_ST00772 2191
P116_SP00679 2216
P116_ST00773 mixed 04000
P116_SP00680
P116_ST00774 0010
P116_TL00095
P116_ST00775 8734006
P116_SP00681
P116_ST00776 1602 00600
P116_SP00682
P116_ST00777 207
P116_SP00683
P116_ST00778
P116_SP00684
P116_ST00779 1902
P116_SP00685
P116_ST00780 irrigation. 00006304301
P116_SP00686
P116_ST00781 2056 Part 0006
P116_SP00687
P116_ST00782 2256
P116_SP00688
P116_ST00783 2309
P116_SP00689
P116_ST00784 2381 ba bagasse
P116_TL00096 1455
P116_ST00785 2109 gasse 75407
P116_SP00690
P116_ST00786
P116_SP00691
P116_ST00787
P116_SP00692 2132
P116_ST00788 1700
P116_SP00693
P116_ST00789 fuel, 30022
P116_SP00694
P116_ST00790 645
P116_SP00695
P116_ST00791 remainder 010460101
P116_SP00696 2115
P116_ST00792 2127
P116_SP00697 2153
P116_ST00793 2166 53007457
P116_SP00698
P116_ST00794
P116_SP00699
P116_ST00795 2382
P116_TL00097
P116_ST00796 706084
P116_SP00700
P116_ST00797 1572 2157
P116_SP00701
P116_ST00798 donated 7800257
P116_SP00702 1776
P116_ST00799 2152
P116_SP00703
P116_ST00800 local 07870
P116_SP00704
P116_ST00801 farmers 1302304
P116_SP00705 2096
P116_ST00802
P116_SP00706
P116_ST00803 2173 use
P116_SP00707
P116_ST00804
P116_SP00708
P116_ST00805 2305 poultry 8003500
P116_TL00098
P116_ST00806 litter, 3065703
P116_SP00709 1552 2225
P116_ST00807 247
P116_SP00710 1646
P116_ST00808 8272300
P116_SP00711
P116_ST00809
P116_SP00712 1880
P116_ST00810 considering 05080007705
P116_SP00713
P116_ST00811 2129 404
P116_SP00714
P116_ST00812 feasibility 44200070030
P116_SP00715 2380
P116_ST00813 2401
P116_TL00099
P116_ST00814 using 28038
P116_SP00716
P116_ST00815 1563 2240 224
P116_SP00717 2272
P116_ST00816 6678702
P116_SP00718
P116_ST00817
P116_SP00719 2271
P116_ST00818 make 1603
P116_SP00720 1932
P116_ST00819 briquettes 4007280041
P116_SP00721
P116_ST00820 2146 5034
P116_SP00722 2213
P116_ST00821
P116_SP00723 2288
P116_ST00822
P116_SP00724 2346
P116_ST00823 2361
P116_TL00100
P116_ST00824
P116_SP00725 2318
P116_ST00825
P116_SP00726 1571 2317
P116_ST00826 1589 domestic 54187202
P116_SP00727
P116_ST00827 8044
P116_SP00728
P116_ST00828 1850 instead 0062486
P116_SP00729
P116_ST00829 1993
P116_SP00730
P116_ST00830 wood.
P116_TL00101
P116_ST00831 ENAOL 30054
P116_SP00731
P116_ST00832 1673 cxlracls 70042007
P116_SP00732 1814
P116_ST00833 1832 vegetable 077833728
P116_SP00733
P116_ST00834 2020 59 oils
P116_SP00734
P116_ST00835
P116_SP00735
P116_ST00836 soybeans 28008585
P116_SP00736
P116_ST00837 im imported
P116_TL00102
P116_ST00838 ported 470660
P116_SP00737 1574
P116_ST00839
P116_SP00738
P116_ST00840 1690
P116_SP00739
P116_ST00841 United 600320
P116_SP00740 1885
P116_ST00842 States 040022
P116_SP00741
P116_ST00843
P116_SP00742 2083
P116_ST00844 Argentina, 0000040162
P116_SP00743
P116_ST00845 2308 2394
P116_SP00744 2379 2426
P116_ST00846 oil
P116_TL00103
P116_ST00847 50860857
P116_SP00745
P116_ST00848 1640
P116_SP00746
P116_ST00849 0.21 8777
P116_SP00747 2472
P116_ST00850 1774 locally, 07280006
P116_SP00748 1900
P116_ST00851 Tbc
P116_SP00749 1986
P116_ST00852 0370607
P116_SP00750 2473
P116_ST00853 2450 serves 730058
P116_SP00751
P116_ST00854 2267 2451
P116_SP00752 2301
P116_ST00855 animal 400675
P116_TL00104
P116_ST00856 feed, 25250
P116_SP00753 1543
P116_ST00857 1558 There 46505
P116_SP00754 2518
P116_ST00858
P116_SP00755
P116_ST00859 little 107605
P116_SP00756
P116_ST00860 2490 04448
P116_SP00757
P116_ST00861 800
P116_SP00758
P116_ST00862 1984 2495
P116_SP00759
P116_ST00863 2035 01603
P116_SP00760 2519
P116_ST00864 2492 waste, 086606
P116_SP00761
P116_ST00865 2487 Processed 304050000
P116_TL00105
P116_ST00866 0870203020
P116_SP00762 2565
P116_ST00867 1674
P116_SP00763 2564
P116_ST00868 00441064
P116_SP00764 1873
P116_ST00869 through 8008050
P116_SP00765 2032
P116_ST00870 2049 2534 canals 860004
P116_SP00766
P116_ST00871
P116_SP00767
P116_ST00872 2539 most 0734
P116_SP00768
P116_ST00873
P116_SP00769 2398
P116_ST00874
P116_TL00106 2578
P116_ST00875
P116_SP00770 1479
P116_ST00876 1499 absorbed 56240320
P116_SP00771
P116_ST00877
P116_SP00772
P116_ST00878 1737
P116_SP00773 1791
P116_ST00879 soiL 5408
P116_SP00774
P116_ST00880 1909 764000
P116_SP00775
P116_ST00881
P116_SP00776 2611
P116_ST00882 reaches 0000644
P116_SP00777
P116_ST00883 2241 600
P116_SP00778
P116_ST00884 beach. 000012
P116_TL00107 1451 2625
P116_ST00885
P116_SP00779 1522
P116_ST00886 opration 738080070
P116_SP00780
P116_ST00887
P116_SP00781
P116_ST00888 practically 02784047000
P116_SP00782
P116_ST00889 8280
P116_SP00783 2062
P116_ST00890 free. 20740
P116_SP00784 2659
P116_ST00891 47630
P116_SP00785 2299
P116_ST00892 012000
P116_TL00108 1453
P116_ST00893 2681 comes 80177
P116_SP00786
P116_ST00894 0070
P116_SP00787
P116_ST00895 Bon 660
P116_SP00788 2703
P116_ST00896 Repos 42072
P116_SP00789 2712
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P116_SP00791
P116_ST00899 Cooling 0030030
P116_SP00792 2263
P116_ST00900 2678 04330
P116_SP00793
P116_ST00901 2410 2673
P116_TL00109 2718
P116_ST00902 recirculated. 0780015087302
P116_SP00794 2751 -181
P116_ST00903 1497 2789 257 MINOTERIE 060100241
P116_SP00795 1754 2822
P116_ST00904 0703515
P116_SP00796 2820
P116_ST00905 50303003
P116_SP00797 2830
P116_ST00906 wheat 02375
P116_SP00798
P116_ST00907 flour 50603
P116_SP00799 2364
P116_ST00908 2786
P116_TL00110 1452 2836
P116_ST00909 2837 232 consumption 87054452060
P116_SP00800 2878
P116_ST00910
P116_SP00801 1731
P116_ST00911 Haiti. 761000
P116_SP00802 2867
P116_ST00912 1860 60706
P116_SP00803
P116_ST00913
P116_SP00804 2866
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P116_SP00805 2060
P116_ST00915 process 0088823
P116_SP00806 2876
P116_ST00916 2839 10618083800
P116_TL00111 2879
P116_ST00917 2882 6740000
P116_SP00807
P116_ST00918 2887 40370
P116_SP00808 2914
P116_ST00919 1733
P116_SP00809
P116_ST00920 1777 2880 recycled. 002003330
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P116_ST00923 2890 0.39
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P116_ST00927 2930 because 4016057
P116_SP00816 1594 2962
P116_ST00928 2929
P116_SP00817 1649
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P116_ST00930 1736 2938
P116_SP00819 1792
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P116_SP00820 2961
P116_ST00932 filters, 06000020
P116_TL00113 3005
P116_ST00933 3007 CIMENT 040000
P116_SP00821 3039
P116_ST00934 1688 3006 0154203
P116_SP00822 3038
P116_ST00935 3014 6241
P116_SP00823 3037
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P116_ST00937 2037 50040
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P116_ST00939 2232 fresh 50356
P116_SP00827 2319
P116_ST00940 2335
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P116_ST00941 6077
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P116_ST00942 1556 wells 00085
P116_SP00829 1645
P116_ST00943 003
P116_SP00830 3086
P116_ST00944 1743 3063
P116_SP00831 3085
P116_ST00945 spring. 6005054
P116_SP00832 1896 3095
P116_ST00946
P116_SP00833
P116_ST00947 3058 gnrtes 710015046
P116_SP00834 3094
P116_ST00948
P116_SP00835 3084
P116_ST00949 0581370
P116_SP00836 3093
P116_ST00950 3061 was- 0130
P116_TB00003 3187
P116_TL00115 3193
P116_ST00951


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P111_ST00065 978 87 main 5600
P111_SP00056 1065
P111_ST00066 746 141 concern 0022600
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P111_ST00070 867 although 0.72 40710052
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P111_ST00156 658 1377 171 l'Hygine 070000003
P111_SP00135 1420
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P111_ST00227 516 1907 years
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P111_SP00202 1116 1927
P111_ST00233 1130 1903 progress 00010546
P111_TL00032 1941
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P111_SP00204 601 1984
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P111_SP00206 789 1974
P111_ST00238 804 1942 116 040004
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P111_ST00239 103 needs 00060
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P111_SP00397 1969
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P111_ST00517 2104
P111_SP00452 2140 1112
P111_ST00518 2153
P111_SP00453 2208
P111_ST00519 1088 govern government
P111_TL00067 1126
P111_ST00520 1135 0205
P111_SP00454 1163
P111_ST00521 1488 (including 0000030020
P111_SP00455
P111_ST00522 1687 1128 146 external 40400000
P111_SP00456
P111_ST00523 assistance) 00000000000
P111_SP00457 2044 1168
P111_ST00524 2062
P111_SP00458 1160
P111_ST00525 2145 $.50,000,000 408542060577
P111_TL00068 1174
P111_ST00526 0302
P111_SP00459 1464
P111_ST00527 1482
P111_SP00460 1537
P111_ST00528 1553 000000560016
P111_TL00069
P111_ST00529 1251
P111_SP00461 1283
P111_ST00530 1540 1250 projects 30070030
P111_SP00462 1293
P111_ST00531 1702 1249 00100
P111_SP00463 1806
P111_ST00532 1248 design 400060
P111_SP00464 1290
P111_ST00533 1258 or
P111_SP00465 1994 1280
P111_ST00534 2011 223 construction 000003105000
P111_SP00466 2234
P111_ST00535 2252 1255
P111_SP00467 2308 1279
P111_ST00536 2328 li likely
P111_TL00070
P111_ST00537 1297 kely 3020
P111_SP00468 1337
P111_ST00538 1301
P111_SP00469 1506
P111_ST00539 1523 1296
P111_SP00470 1564
P111_ST00540 1581 1295 190 completed 000000300
P111_SP00471 1771
P111_ST00541 1787
P111_SP00472 1830 1335
P111_ST00542 1848 1294 1991. 70050
P111_SP00473
P111_ST00543 1956 They
P111_SP00474 2048 1333
P111_ST00544 2065 include; 02000006
P111_TL00071 1369
P111_ST00545
P111_SP00475 1447 1399
P111_ST00546 1371 Installation 602000001000
P111_SP00476 1661 1404
P111_ST00547
P111_SP00477 1403
P111_ST00548 1719 1370 023
P111_SP00478 1780 1402
P111_ST00549 1791 additional 0014102000
P111_SP00479
P111_ST00550
P111_SP00480
P111_ST00551 00003
P111_SP00481 2199 1412
P111_ST00552 170820
P111_TL00072 1417
P111_ST00553 1419
P111_SP00482 1474 1452
P111_ST00554 II)
P111_SP00483 1535
P111_ST00555 1552
P111_SP00484 1586 1451
P111_ST00556 1601 30207
P111_SP00485 1693
P111_ST00557 100,000 0605577
P111_SP00486
P111_ST00558 1862 054035
P111_SP00487 1982
P111_ST00559
P111_SP00488 2028
P111_ST00560
P111_SP00489 2098
P111_ST00561 plains
P111_SP00490 1459
P111_ST00562 2233
P111_SP00491
P111_ST00563 2283 Cul- 0030
P111_TL00073
P111_ST00564 de-Sac, 0000301
P111_SP00492 1502
P111_ST00565 Logne, 31000002
P111_SP00493 1703
P111_ST00566 1726 Artibonite, 20041102140
P111_SP00494 1929 1500
P111_ST00567 1952 Nord
P111_SP00495 1495
P111_ST00568
P111_SP00496
P111_ST00569 Cayes. 000007
P111_SP00497 2273
P111_ST00570 2296
P111_TL00074
P111_ST00571 financed 00073030
P111_SP00498 1530 1544
P111_ST00572
P111_SP00499
P111_ST00573 1512
P111_SP00500 1663
P111_ST00574 CIDA, 06600
P111_SP00501
P111_ST00575 1827 Rotary 004010
P111_SP00502 1950
P111_ST00576 1967 1510 0003400000023
P111_SP00503 2203 1543
P111_ST00577 2221
P111_SP00504
P111_ST00578 2303
P111_TL00075
P111_ST00579 GOH,
P111_SP00505 1491
P111_ST00580 20070060
P111_SP00506 1675
P111_ST00581 1698
P111_SP00507 1589
P111_ST00582 1752
P111_SP00508 1807
P111_ST00583 1556 0000003
P111_SP00509 1598
P111_ST00584
P111_SP00510 2004
P111_ST00585 2025
P111_SP00511 2079
P111_ST00586 2102 160 purchase 08003000
P111_SP00512
P111_ST00587 2286
P111_SP00513 2323 1588
P111_ST00588 2342 1566
P111_TL00076 1602 968
P111_ST00589 1604 drilling 52033000
P111_SP00514
P111_ST00590 1519 1605 machine 0031003
P111_SP00515
P111_ST00591 0014
P111_SP00516 1754
P111_ST00592
P111_SP00517 1879
P111_ST00593 1892 1613 can
P111_SP00518
P111_ST00594 1968 use
P111_SP00519
P111_ST00595 2039
P111_SP00520
P111_ST00596 401041
P111_SP00521 2204 1644
P111_ST00597 additio
P111_TL00077 310
P111_ST00598 nal
P111_SP00522 1681
P111_ST00599 1446 052010000326
P111_TL00078
P111_ST00600
P111_SP00523
P111_ST00601 01200
P111_SP00524 1574 1758
P111_ST00602
P111_SP00525 1706
P111_ST00603 1720 0004000
P111_SP00526 1857 1766
P111_ST00604 041
P111_SP00527 1923 1757
P111_ST00605
P111_SP00528
P111_ST00606 towns
P111_SP00529 2095
P111_ST00607 2110
P111_SP00530
P111_ST00608 2156
P111_SP00531 2210
P111_ST00609 Plateau 3002300
P111_TL00079 1772
P111_ST00610 Central; 02000206
P111_SP00532 1805
P111_ST00611 Pignon, 0000602
P111_SP00533
P111_ST00612 La
P111_SP00534 1804
P111_ST00613 Victoire, 460500002
P111_SP00535 1809
P111_ST00614 1963 Ranquitte, 5702000020
P111_SP00536 2155
P111_ST00615 2180 Maissade, 102240000
P111_TL00080 1816
P111_ST00616 1818 Savanne 0040200
P111_SP00537 1529
P111_ST00617 1546 Haleine, 10005005
P111_SP00538 1700 1856
P111_ST00618 Mombin
P111_SP00539 1850
P111_ST00619 1817 Crochu, 0000020
P111_SP00540
P111_ST00620 322 Cerca-La-Source, 1000030100004000
P111_TL00081 1864
P111_ST00621 1865 189 Colladre, 0200477004
P111_SP00541 1568
P111_ST00622 Saltade, 035010351
P111_SP00542
P111_ST00623 1790 Thomonde, 020010003
P111_SP00543
P111_ST00624
P111_SP00544 2076
P111_ST00625 2103 Belonne, 10000012
P111_SP00545
P111_ST00626
P111_TL00082 1910
P111_ST00627 1912 Malte 00630
P111_SP00546 1483
P111_ST00628 1503 1911 Peralte 2024000
P111_SP00547 1629
P111_ST00629 1648 82 (Los 1405
P111_SP00548 1951
P111_ST00630 1746 Palis 50106
P111_SP00549 1831
P111_ST00631
P111_SP00550 1873
P111_ST00632 1890 already 0002000
P111_SP00551
P111_ST00633
P111_SP00552 2072
P111_ST00634 opration). 40500041005
P111_SP00553 2293
P111_ST00635 Fi Financed
P111_TL00083
P111_ST00636 nanced 070004
P111_SP00554
P111_ST00637
P111_SP00555
P111_ST00638 1582 UN,
P111_SP00556 1995
P111_ST00639
P111_SP00557 1733
P111_ST00640 1749 1957 0211762080
P111_SP00558
P111_ST00641 1961 100000
P111_SP00559
P111_ST00642
P111_SP00560
P111_ST00643 7001
P111_SP00561
P111_ST00644 0201
P111_SP00562
P111_ST00645 2318
P111_TL00084 1384
P111_ST00646 16,000. 4005510
P111_SP00563 2041 -87
P111_ST00647 2086
P111_SP00564 1441
P111_ST00648 ODN, 0240
P111_SP00565 1569 2118
P111_ST00649
P111_SP00566 1662
P111_ST00650 2092
P111_SP00567 1696
P111_ST00651 1712 loan 0600
P111_SP00568
P111_ST00652 1803 2500
P111_SP00569 1888
P111_ST00653
P111_SP00570
P111_ST00654 IBRD, 63450
P111_SP00571 2097
P111_ST00655
P111_SP00572
P111_ST00656 construct 010000000
P111_TL00085 1374
P111_ST00657 wells
P111_SP00573 1461 2161
P111_ST00658 1480
P111_SP00574 1545
P111_ST00659 8000462
P111_SP00575
P111_ST00660 1707 2132 0450000
P111_SP00576
P111_ST00661
P111_SP00577 2160
P111_ST00662 1915
P111_SP00578 2009
P111_ST00663 125,000 2003637
P111_SP00579
P111_ST00664 2184 000012
P111_SP00580
P111_ST00665
P111_TL00086 468
P111_ST00666 2174
P111_SP00581
P111_ST00667 North
P111_SP00582
P111_ST00668 1570
P111_SP00583 1634
P111_ST00669 1651 Northeast. 0000000010
P111_TL00087 925
P111_ST00670 2260
P111_SP00584 2282
P111_ST00671 2254 02023
P111_SP00585 2291
P111_ST00672 1615 2351
P111_SP00586 1691
P111_ST00673 1710 USAID 70000
P111_SP00587
P111_ST00674 1868 165 600000300
P111_SP00588 2295
P111_ST00675 2049
P111_SP00589
P111_ST00676 SNEP's 001064
P111_SP00590
P111_ST00677 2284 2263 par participation,
P111_TL00088
P111_ST00678 ticipation, 20100030500
P111_SP00591
P111_ST00679 1572
P111_SP00592 2334
P111_ST00680 build
P111_SP00593 1739
P111_ST00681 1753 2311
P111_SP00594 1792
P111_ST00682 rehabilitate 563300500331
P111_SP00595 2013
P111_ST00683 2026
P111_SP00596 2067 2333
P111_ST00684 0000120
P111_SP00597
P111_ST00685 2216 2306
P111_TL00089 1376
P111_ST00686
P111_SP00598 1439 2380
P111_ST00687 solar 30500
P111_SP00599 2381
P111_ST00688 2357 energy 300010
P111_SP00600 2390
P111_ST00689 217 installations 2050040030213
P111_SP00601
P111_ST00690 1924 2352
P111_SP00602 1960 2379
P111_ST00691 2356 00400
P111_SP00603
P111_ST00692 160,000 2030365
P111_SP00604 2385
P111_ST00693 2235 012002
P111_TL00090
P111_ST00694
P111_SP00605 2426
P111_ST00695 037
P111_SP00606 1477 2427
P111_ST00696 southern 67001200
P111_SP00607 1652
P111_ST00697 peninsula. 2403410000
P111_TL00091 1415 2462
P111_ST00698 2477
P111_SP00608 1435 2498
P111_ST00699 2470 UNICEF, 6041510
P111_SP00609 2508
P111_ST00700 2468
P111_SP00610 2501
P111_ST00701 1751 2467 800
P111_SP00611
P111_ST00702 1825 2465 financial 020002100
P111_SP00612 2499
P111_ST00703 1997 2463 229 participation 0203205000060
P111_SP00613 2226 2507
P111_ST00704
P111_SP00614 2281
P111_ST00705
P111_TL00092 2511
P111_ST00706 2519 230 Government 0401041000
P111_SP00615
P111_ST00707 2516
P111_SP00616 2550
P111_ST00708 1708
P111_SP00617 2548
P111_ST00709 1784 2513 241 beneficiaries, 00003205101005
P111_SP00618
P111_ST00710
P111_SP00619 2107 2544
P111_ST00711 2514 000604020
P111_SP00620 2543
P111_ST00712
P111_TL00093 1372 2554
P111_ST00713 2563 206 007000003000
P111_SP00621 1578 2597
P111_ST00714 2561 0000040
P111_SP00622 1717 2603
P111_ST00715 2564 3005320
P111_SP00623 1867 2601
P111_ST00716 1881
P111_SP00624 2591
P111_ST00717 2557
P111_SP00625 2600
P111_ST00718 2556 72,000 000840
P111_SP00626 2595
P111_ST00719 2188 000040
P111_SP00627 2598
P111_ST00720
P111_TL00094 2602
P111_ST00721 2611 1000000
P111_SP00628 2645
P111_ST00722 1526 2608 04300007220
P111_SP00629 2643
P111_ST00723 1789
P111_SP00630 1826 2640
P111_ST00724 1855 2606
P111_SP00631 1908 2639
P111_ST00725 2604 northwest, 0122400264
P111_SP00632 2641
P111_ST00726 2163 west,
P111_SP00633 2256 2642
P111_ST00727 2288
P111_TL00095 2657
P111_ST00728 Grand-Anse. 00000010000
P111_SP00634 1609 2691 -194
P111_ST00729 2734
P111_SP00635 1438
P111_ST00730
P111_SP00636 1521 2760
P111_ST00731 1536 0100000005
P111_SP00637
P111_ST00732 1782 2727
P111_SP00638 2759
P111_ST00733 Protos 020000
P111_SP00639 1978
P111_ST00734 2726 (Belgian 00800000
P111_SP00640 2768
P111_ST00735 NGO) 0021
P111_SP00641 2275
P111_ST00736 2290 2300
P111_TL00096 2773
P111_ST00737 2774 128 finance 0005001
P111_SP00642 1499 2808
P111_ST00738
P111_SP00643 2807
P111_ST00739 2779 000070105
P111_SP00644 1750
P111_ST00740 1761 2784
P111_SP00645 2806
P111_ST00741 potable 0600001
P111_SP00646
P111_ST00742 1933
P111_SP00647 2035
P111_ST00743 400502
P111_SP00648
P111_ST00744
P111_SP00649
P111_ST00745 1
P111_SP00650 2805
P111_ST00746
P111_SP00651
P111_ST00747 2280 ,000
P111_TL00097 2820
P111_ST00748 2822
P111_SP00652
P111_ST00749 2826
P111_SP00653 2853
P111_ST00750 Hinche. 0100500
P111_TL00098 2893
P111_ST00751 2900
P111_SP00654 2923
P111_ST00752 With 0060
P111_SP00655 1541 2927
P111_ST00753 2904 5
P111_SP00656
P111_ST00754 1587 2899 grant 01003
P111_SP00657 2935
P111_ST00755 2894
P111_SP00658 2926
P111_ST00756 1798
P111_SP00659
P111_ST00757 GTZ
P111_SP00660
P111_ST00758
P111_SP00661
P111_ST00759 108 GKW
P111_SP00662 2149
P111_ST00760 enginering 0002004400
P111_TL00099 2941
P111_ST00761 firm 4001
P111_SP00663 1444 2974
P111_ST00762 2943
P111_SP00664 2975
P111_ST00763 2942 02000650
P111_SP00665 1704 2984
P111_ST00764 feasibility 00100640007
P111_SP00666 2983
P111_ST00765 1916 studies 7000032
P111_SP00667
P111_ST00766 2059 005
P111_SP00668 2123
P111_ST00767 2143 preliminary 00100300000
P111_TL00100 2987
P111_ST00768 540005
P111_SP00669 1484 3029
P111_ST00769
P111_SP00670 3019
P111_ST00770 1558 03044
P111_SP00671
P111_ST00771 000071
P111_SP00672 1794
P111_ST00772 2992 0305500
P111_SP00673 3028
P111_ST00773 1970
P111_SP00674
P111_ST00774 2997 02002
P111_SP00675
P111_ST00775
P111_SP00676 3018
P111_ST00776 seecndary 108880000
P111_TL00101 3033
P111_ST00777 cities; 0030022
P111_SP00677 3068
P111_ST00778 Pase-Reine 1743210400
P111_SP00678 1692
P111_ST00779 (near
P111_SP00679 1802 3076
P111_ST00780 Gonaives), 5204000804
P111_SP00680 3075
P111_ST00781 Desdunes, 100600043
P111_SP00681
P111_ST00782 Desca- 001202
P111_TB00003 3169
P111_TL00102 2310
P111_ST00783 621


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P14_ST00002 438 59 last 0.45 8616
P14_SP00002 497 17
P14_ST00003 514 260 114 35 10,(K)0 0.54 1803738
P14_SP00003 628 295 11
P14_ST00004 639 268 104 years. 0.86 000133
P14_SP00004 743 301
P14_ST00005 760 32 In 0.60 70
P14_SP00005 795
P14_ST00006 809 89 34 Haiti 0.70 52060
P14_SP00006 898 293 12
P14_ST00007 910 147 41 exposed 0.80 1107110
P14_SP00007 1057 13
P14_ST00008 1070 76 rock 0.97 0001
P14_SP00008 1146
P14_ST00009 1159 197 formations 0.77 0600260303
P14_TL00002 304 984 44
P14_ST00010 314 54 24 are 0.71 008
P14_SP00009 424 338 18
P14_ST00011 442 37 of
P14_SP00010 479
P14_ST00012 494 150 43 igneous, 0.93 00020010
P14_SP00011 644 347
P14_ST00013 662 243 metamorphic 24061813400
P14_SP00012 905
P14_ST00014 920 305 64 and
P14_SP00013 339 16
P14_ST00015 1000 222 sedimentary 0.63 86701604006
P14_SP00014 1222
P14_ST00016 1239 115 origin. 0.74 8200303
P14_TL00003 369 350 987
P14_ST00017 351 71 The 540
P14_SP00015 440 384 21
P14_ST00018 461 352 97 latter 0.61 501763
P14_SP00016 558 385 19
P14_ST00019 577 0.66 0840621605
P14_SP00017 774 20
P14_ST00020 794 361 23 0.99 000
P14_SP00018 848 22
P14_ST00021 870 55 601
P14_SP00019 925
P14_ST00022 947 n 0.43 5
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P14_ST00025 1244 112 (80%) 08800
P14_TL00004 397 985
P14_ST00026 0.98
P14_SP00023 434 430
P14_ST00027 456 407 0.85 400
P14_SP00024 511 431
P14_ST00028 532 214 represented 00036251003
P14_SP00025 746
P14_ST00029 768 by 0.87 10
P14_SP00026 439
P14_ST00030 831 398 175 limestone 0.62 130663706
P14_SP00027 1006
P14_ST00031 1026 148 deposits 0.56 71376035
P14_SP00028 1174
P14_ST00032 1195 84 from 0.38 5685
P14_SP00029 1279
P14_ST00033 1301 399 0.39 755
P14_TL00005 443 973
P14_ST00034 123 middle 0.64 500736
P14_SP00030 493 477
P14_ST00035 512 530
P14_SP00031 576 476
P14_ST00036 595 453 105 upper 00000
P14_SP00032 700 486
P14_ST00037 719 133 Eocene 003502
P14_SP00033 852
P14_ST00038 871 67 era. 0.83 0006
P14_SP00034 938
P14_ST00039 960 444 120 Where 0.88 01111
P14_SP00035 1080
P14_ST00040 1099 173 0.76 300402505
P14_SP00036 1272
P14_ST00041 1292 51 for 0.65 640 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT
P14_TL00006 489
P14_ST00042 143 mations 4000607 HypPart2
P14_SP00037 513 524
P14_ST00043 533 500 111 occur, 0.48 707636
P14_SP00038 528
P14_ST00044 668 77 soils 0.36 78537
P14_SP00039 745 523
P14_ST00045 766 006
P14_SP00040 821
P14_ST00046 845 490 167 relatively 0.68 0644300606
P14_SP00041 1012
P14_ST00047 1035 92 more 0603
P14_SP00042 1127
P14_ST00048 1148 491 107 fertile 0.69 0704035
P14_SP00043 1255
P14_ST00049 1277 78 than 0.58 8530
P14_TL00007 371 536
P14_ST00050 537 94 thosc 0.57 74413
P14_SP00044 465 570
P14_ST00051 482 137 derived 0077015
P14_SP00045 619
P14_ST00052 635 0083
P14_SP00046 571
P14_ST00053 738 0600
P14_SP00047 816 569
P14_ST00054 38 0.51 36
P14_SP00048 869
P14_ST00055 884 138 igneous 0002508
P14_SP00049 1022 578
P14_ST00056 1036 origin 200500
P14_SP00050 1141
P14_ST00057 1156 118 which, 0.72 050154
P14_SP00051 1274 574
P14_ST00058 1291 65 like 0.94 0002
P14_TL00008 582
P14_ST00059 583 52 610
P14_SP00052 422 616
P14_ST00060 446 31253
P14_SP00053
P14_ST00061 544 found 0.73 17004
P14_SP00054 648
P14_ST00062 670 30 in 1.00 00
P14_SP00055
P14_ST00063 723 650
P14_SP00056 777
P14_ST00064 801 157 northern 74373330
P14_SP00057 958
P14_ST00065 980 588 part 0.79 0403
P14_SP00058 1051 626
P14_ST00066 1073
P14_SP00059 1110
P14_ST00067 1129 515
P14_SP00060 1182
P14_ST00068 1203 151 country, 03312312
P14_TL00009 629 971
P14_ST00069 638 040
P14_SP00061
P14_ST00070 445 127 heavily 4553036
P14_SP00062 572
P14_ST00071 589 202 weathercd. 0600670500
P14_SP00063 791
P14_ST00072 811 144 Alluvial 00300043
P14_SP00064 955 663
P14_ST00073 55041
P14_SP00065 1050
P14_ST00074 1066 deposited 070651053
P14_SP00066 1241 672
P14_ST00075 1259 630 40 0.52
P14_SP00067 1299
P14_ST00076 1317 ri 50 rivers
P14_TL00010 368 676 988
P14_ST00077 685 73 vers 0401
P14_SP00068 441 709
P14_ST00078 460 0.55 508
P14_SP00069
P14_ST00079 075
P14_SP00070 587
P14_ST00080 607 681 most 0615
P14_SP00071 691
P14_ST00081 711 3400060
P14_SP00072 818
P14_ST00082 836
P14_SP00073 901
P14_ST00083 25 030
P14_SP00074 974 710
P14_ST00084 993 04405
P14_SP00075 1097
P14_ST00085 1115 686 on
P14_SP00076 1158
P14_ST00086 1177 405
P14_SP00077 1231
P14_ST00087 1251 major 00670
P14_TL00011 722
P14_ST00088 coastal 8641084
P14_SP00078 492
P14_ST00089 plains 202007
P14_SP00079 615 763
P14_ST00090 631 31
P14_SP00080 754
P14_ST00091 683 88 56000
P14_SP00081 771
P14_ST00092 789
P14_SP00082 853
P14_ST00093
P14_SP00083
P14_ST00094 918 pockets 4611620
P14_SP00084 1055 765
P14_ST00095 1071 along 13210
P14_SP00085 1168 764
P14_ST00096 1184 171 mountain 03000000
P14_TL00012 991
P14_ST00097 valleys. 40443030
P14_SP00086 501 -88
P14_ST00098 413 864 060
P14_SP00087 484 897
P14_ST00099 149 gologie 0.89 00050003
P14_SP00088 657 906
P14_ST00100 680 865 124 history 6036800
P14_SP00089 804
P14_ST00101 826 866
P14_SP00090
P14_ST00102 209 Hispaniola, 00603407471
P14_SP00091 1093
P14_ST00103 1116 characterized 0410232620172
P14_TL00013 372
P14_ST00104
P14_SP00092 953
P14_ST00105 911 156 repeated 04000408
P14_SP00093 594
P14_ST00106 142 changes 5560503
P14_SP00094 761
P14_ST00107 786
P14_SP00095 817 944
P14_ST00108 840 921 56 sea
P14_SP00096 896
P14_ST00109 912 96 level, 430026
P14_SP00097 1017 949
P14_ST00110 1040 has 022
P14_SP00098 945
P14_ST00111 1121 given 50000
P14_SP00099 1215 954
P14_ST00112 61 rise 0.95 0010
P14_SP00100 1300
P14_ST00113 1324 916 29 to 60
P14_TL00014 373 957
P14_ST00114 184 significant 10000000000
P14_SP00101 557 998
P14_ST00115 87 local 26108
P14_SP00102 665 989
P14_ST00116 185 endemism 23020060
P14_SP00103
P14_ST00117 888 198 (speciation 0.91 03040000010
P14_SP00104 1086 1001
P14_ST00118 1107 121 unique 000303
P14_SP00105 1228
P14_ST00119 962 0.44
P14_SP00106 1284
P14_ST00120 1303 959 066
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P14_ST00121 93 area) 02300
P14_SP00107 1044
P14_ST00122
P14_SP00108
P14_ST00123 541 91 plant 42000
P14_SP00109 632 1045
P14_ST00124 652 001
P14_SP00110 716
P14_ST00125 1004 animal 000001
P14_SP00111 858
P14_ST00126 879 species. 60641570
P14_SP00112 1016 1046
P14_ST00127 1005 172 Although 02037302
P14_SP00113 1212
P14_ST00128 128 species 0260064
P14_TL00016 1048
P14_ST00129 extinctions 22400000804
P14_SP00114 1082
P14_ST00130 584 1049 86 0060
P14_SP00115
P14_ST00131 126 habitat 0.92 1030000
P14_SP00116 812 1083
P14_ST00132 827 203 destruction 0.78 06620010050
P14_SP00117 1030
P14_ST00133 83 hve 0.75 0413
P14_SP00118 1128
P14_ST00134 1144 been 0731
P14_SP00119 1084
P14_ST00135 1245 1060 98 nume 0007 numerous,
P14_TL00017 1096
P14_ST00136 1105 rous, 07204
P14_SP00120 462 1133
P14_ST00137 1106 a
P14_SP00121 504
P14_ST00138 527 1101 great 23000
P14_SP00122 618 1139
P14_ST00139 643 140 number 010000
P14_SP00123 783
P14_ST00140 05
P14_SP00124 842
P14_ST00141 863 153 endmie 4064700
P14_SP00125 1130
P14_ST00142 1038 plants 003017
P14_SP00126 1145
P14_ST00143 1167 1098 403
P14_SP00127
P14_ST00144
P14_SP00128
P14_ST00145 1295 63 few 300
P14_TL00018 1142 543
P14_ST00146 154 0.82 4051000
P14_SP00129 526 1175
P14_ST00147 139 animais 0000840
P14_SP00130
P14_ST00148 695 still 03614
P14_SP00131 758
P14_ST00149 1143 remain. 0720420
P14_TL00019 1242 132
P14_ST00150 278 HYDROLOGY 050007006
P14_SP00132 1276 -235
P14_ST00151 1332 174 Dissected 335450424
P14_SP00133 1365
P14_ST00152 599
P14_SP00134 642 1373
P14_ST00153 654 1341 179 numerous 04000042
P14_SP00135 833
P14_ST00154 1333 06200803
P14_SP00136
P14_ST00155 106 ridges 770001
P14_SP00137 1136 1374
P14_ST00156
P14_SP00138 1213 1364
P14_ST00157 1224 flowing 0.84 4001500
P14_TL00020 1377
P14_ST00158 1387 109 across 001004
P14_SP00139 481 1411
P14_ST00159 496 1382 66 two
P14_SP00140 562
P14_ST00160 1378 168 0051650070
P14_SP00141 1419
P14_ST00161 762 1388 narrow 000400
P14_SP00142 889
P14_ST00162 peninsulas, 06040002003
P14_SP00143 1108 1420
P14_ST00163 1124 119 Haiti's 2010070
P14_SP00144 1243
P14_ST00164 300050
P14_TL00021 1424
P14_ST00165 1435
P14_SP00145 1458
P14_ST00166 1425 mostly 360000
P14_SP00146 1467
P14_ST00167 short 00050
P14_SP00147
P14_ST00168 675
P14_SP00148 740
P14_ST00169 753 swift 02453
P14_SP00149
P14_ST00170 851 flowing. 40200100
P14_SP00150
P14_ST00171 1008
P14_SP00151 1079
P14_ST00172 notable 1333543
P14_SP00152 1226
P14_ST00173 1238 1434 103 excep 0.96 00100 exception
P14_TL00022 1471
P14_ST00174 69 tion
P14_SP00153 1503
P14_ST00175 is 04
P14_SP00154 480 1504
P14_ST00176 600
P14_SP00155 548
P14_ST00177 564 190 Artibonite 0000300050
P14_SP00156
P14_ST00178 769 101 River 40500
P14_SP00157
P14_ST00179 881 which 00017
P14_SP00158
P14_ST00180 999 178 originales 5770100554
P14_SP00159 1512
P14_ST00181 1190 1472 12003
P14_SP00160 1288
P14_ST00182
P14_TL00023 1517
P14_ST00183 122 border 000000
P14_SP00161 1551
P14_ST00184 75 with
P14_SP00162 590 1550
P14_ST00185 614 070
P14_SP00163 669
P14_ST00186 692 200 Dominican 300000000
P14_SP00164 892 27
P14_ST00187 919 161 Republic 00000010
P14_SP00165 1559
P14_ST00188 1102
P14_SP00166 1166
P14_ST00189 1189 flows 00032
P14_SP00167 1282
P14_ST00190 1304 1518
P14_TL00024 1563
P14_ST00191 262 approximately 0000040000000
P14_SP00168 633 1606
P14_ST00192 649 1564 290 013
P14_SP00169 1596
P14_ST00193 725 km.
P14_SP00170 792 1597
P14_ST00194 813 It
P14_SP00171 837
P14_ST00195 854
P14_SP00172
P14_ST00196 895 1570 57 not 015
P14_SP00173 952
P14_ST00197 968 189 surprising, 00507700000
P14_SP00174 1157
P14_ST00198 181 thcrefore, 0020353040
P14_TL00025 1610 970
P14_ST00199 1616
P14_SP00175 1643
P14_ST00200 420 find 6601
P14_SP00176
P14_ST00201 505 1611
P14_SP00177 603 1652
P14_ST00202 62 this 0332
P14_SP00178 1642
P14_ST00203 696 river 03000
P14_SP00179 779
P14_ST00204 730
P14_SP00180 849
P14_ST00205 country's 100070070
P14_SP00181
P14_ST00206
P14_SP00182 1150
P14_ST00207 1163 hydroelec 000052045 hydroelectric
P14_TL00026 1656 969
P14_ST00208 tric 6000
P14_SP00183 428 1689
P14_ST00209 1665 113 power
P14_SP00184 556 1698
P14_ST00210 1657 193 generating 0003102000
P14_SP00185
P14_ST00211 776 facility 00003010
P14_SP00186
P14_ST00212 913 (Peligre) 320000000
P14_SP00187 1699
P14_ST00213 1085 39 and, 0000
P14_SP00188 1162 1695
P14_ST00214 1176 1666 0.90
P14_SP00189 1220
P14_ST00215 1235 its
P14_SP00190 1275
P14_ST00216 1286 del 003 delta,
P14_TL00027 1702
P14_ST00217 1708 ta,
P14_SP00191 414 1740
P14_ST00218 432 1703 020
P14_SP00192 488 1736
P14_ST00219 000001064
P14_SP00193 1745
P14_ST00220 689
P14_SP00194 1744
P14_ST00221 rice 7700
P14_SP00195 875
P14_ST00222 producing 000060100
P14_SP00196 1076
P14_ST00223 1712 area.
P14_TL00028 412 1793 943
P14_ST00224 1794 134 Surface 0005010
P14_SP00197 546 1827
P14_ST00225 565 1799 water
P14_SP00198 666
P14_ST00226 26
P14_SP00199 707 1826
P14_ST00227 82 used
P14_SP00200 805
P14_ST00228 822
P14_SP00201 873
P14_ST00229 160 domestic 000030810
P14_SP00202
P14_ST00230 1802 purposes 03003502
P14_SP00203 1227 1835
P14_ST00231
P14_SP00204 1834
P14_ST00232
P14_TL00029 1840
P14_ST00233 1846 90 80000
P14_SP00205 1884
P14_ST00234 majority 60650003
P14_SP00206 1883
P14_ST00235 658 1841
P14_SP00207 1873
P14_ST00236 715
P14_SP00208 770 1874
P14_ST00237 people 000060
P14_SP00209 915
P14_ST00238 939
P14_SP00210
P14_ST00239 Haiti. 100510
P14_SP00211 1094
P14_ST00240 1120
P14_SP00212 1872
P14_ST00241 1169 also
P14_SP00213
P14_ST00242 1262
P14_TL00030 1886
P14_ST00243 1888 135 directiy 04000050
P14_SP00214 1930
P14_ST00244 1887 68 into
P14_SP00215 591 1920
P14_ST00245 1897
P14_SP00216
P14_ST00246 641 1891
P14_SP00217 732 1929
P14_ST00247 749 013000
P14_SP00218
P14_ST00248 903
P14_SP00219 941 1919
P14_ST00249 small 20067
P14_SP00220
P14_ST00250 1062
P14_SP00221 1126
P14_ST00251 large 60000
P14_SP00222 1229 1928
P14_ST00252 1247 irriga 006600 irrigation
P14_TL00031 1933 983
P14_ST00253 1935 6060
P14_SP00223 1967
P14_ST00254 457 1939 Systems. 30062150
P14_SP00224 605 1976
P14_ST00255 627
P14_SP00225 1966
P14_ST00256 1934 fact, 50820
P14_SP00226 1971
P14_ST00257 74 four 4700
P14_SP00227 850
P14_ST00258 867
P14_SP00228 1975
P14_ST00259 irrigated 000003606
P14_SP00229
P14_ST00260 043108
P14_SP00230 1246 1974
P14_ST00261 1943 cons- 35001
P14_TL00032 1979 981
P14_ST00262 1980 95 titute 600000
P14_SP00231 466 2013
P14_ST00263 230
P14_SP00232 535
P14_ST00264 550 000050261
P14_SP00233 717 2021
P14_ST00265 1984 0004
P14_SP00234 2012
P14_ST00266 important 000000004
P14_SP00235
P14_ST00267 1027 206 agricultural 200000803007
P14_SP00236 1233
P14_ST00268 1249 1988 areas: 200002
P14_TL00033 2025
P14_ST00269 2027
P14_SP00237 2060
P14_ST00270 2026 110 Plaine 100620
P14_SP00238 553
P14_ST00271 573 du
P14_SP00239 2059
P14_ST00272 Nord, 05003
P14_SP00240 2064
P14_ST00273 225 Fort-Libert 120301000062
P14_SP00241
P14_ST00274 2035 area, 01000
P14_SP00242
P14_ST00275 1113
P14_SP00243 2058
P14_ST00276
P14_SP00244 1216
P14_ST00277 1234 North, 010614
P14_TL00034 2072
P14_ST00278 2074
P14_SP00245 2106
P14_ST00279 lower 34300
P14_SP00246 2105
P14_ST00280 2073 191 0011000001
P14_SP00247 747
P14_ST00281 506
P14_SP00248 828
P14_ST00282 844 116 Estere 302003
P14_SP00249
P14_ST00283 977 valleys 0006006
P14_SP00250 2113
P14_ST00284
P14_SP00251 2103
P14_ST00285 1160
P14_SP00252 1214 2104
P14_ST00286 2077 125 center, 0003000
P14_TL00035 2118
P14_ST00287 2120
P14_SP00253 2153
P14_ST00288 2119 Cul 035
P14_SP00254
P14_ST00289 525 de
P14_SP00255 2152
P14_ST00290 585 Sac
P14_SP00256 646
P14_ST00291 664 plain 07000
P14_SP00257 752 2161
P14_ST00292 772
P14_SP00258 803
P14_ST00293 823
P14_SP00259 876 2151
P14_ST00294 south
P14_SP00260
P14_ST00295 1011
P14_SP00261
P14_ST00296 130
P14_SP00262 1149
P14_ST00297 Les
P14_SP00263 1230
P14_ST00298 1248 Cayes 02001
P14_TL00036 2165 417
P14_ST00299 2166
P14_SP00264 458 2208
P14_ST00300 02
P14_SP00265 507 2199
P14_ST00301 016
P14_SP00266 580
P14_ST00302 596 192 southwest. 0404543200
P14_TL00037 2259
P14_ST00303 79 Yet, 3060
P14_SP00267 2298
P14_ST00304 510
P14_SP00268 2292
P14_ST00305 158 vidence 50140000
P14_SP00269 741
P14_ST00306 06
P14_SP00270 785 2291
P14_ST00307 mounting 55500000
P14_SP00271 2300
P14_ST00308 that 4001
P14_SP00272 1063
P14_ST00309 1081 2260
P14_SP00273 1135
P14_ST00310 1154 quantity 05001000
P14_SP00274 1302 2302
P14_ST00311 1321
P14_TL00038 2304
P14_ST00312 2306 surface 0315005
P14_SP00275 498 2339
P14_ST00313 2311 waters 106010
P14_SP00276
P14_ST00314 2305 available 400001235
P14_SP00277 825 2338
P14_ST00315
P14_SP00278 900
P14_ST00316 926 166 0000402200
P14_SP00279 1092 2347
P14_ST00317 1117 03
P14_SP00280 2337
P14_ST00318 1164 decreasing 0000404002
P14_TL00039 2351
P14_ST00319 2352 81 each
P14_SP00281 451 2386
P14_ST00320 470 2362 year 3001
P14_SP00282 2395
P14_ST00321 due
P14_SP00283 2385
P14_ST00322 2357
P14_SP00284 2384
P14_ST00323
P14_SP00285 751
P14_ST00324 relationship 053204730602
P14_SP00286 2393
P14_ST00325 between 0000000
P14_SP00287
P14_ST00326 187 vgtation 0000000041
P14_TL00040 2398
P14_ST00327 2408 cover
P14_SP00288 472 2431
P14_ST00328 2399
P14_SP00289
P14_ST00329 563 85
P14_SP00290 2430
P14_ST00330 660 discharge. 0053370060
P14_SP00291 841 2439
P14_ST00331 859 195 Baseflows, 2012500015
P14_SP00292 1054 2434
P14_ST00332 1068 03002
P14_SP00293 1172
P14_ST00333 1187 2402 represent 200000004
P14_TL00041 2443
P14_ST00334 2446
P14_SP00294 2478
P14_ST00335 2449 102 00600
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P14_ST00336 554 2444 010000005
P14_SP00296 2477
P14_ST00337 731 100
P14_SP00297 2476
P14_ST00338 797 0177040220
P14_SP00298 964 2486
P14_ST00339 when 2000
P14_SP00299 1074
P14_ST00340 1090 2450 storage 7140000
P14_SP00300 2487
P14_ST00341
P14_SP00301 1261
P14_ST00342 limi- 30204
P14_TL00042 2490
P14_ST00343 2491 ted, 2700
P14_SP00302 437 2529
P14_ST00344 463 2501
P14_SP00303 517 2525
P14_ST00345 539 diminishing 80000056070
P14_SP00304 2532
P14_ST00346 773 218 significantly 1000020001006
P14_SP00305
P14_ST00347 1013
P14_SP00306 1078 2523
P14_ST00348 1103 2496 0.46 46
P14_SP00307
P14_ST00349 199 continuons 0500200182
P14_TL00043 2537
P14_ST00350 256 deforestration 00200016100510
P14_SP00308 625 2570
P14_ST00351
P14_SP00309 708 2569
P14_ST00352 726 loss 5603
P14_SP00310 2568
P14_ST00353 808
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P14_ST00354 2547 7 ' 0.28
P14_SP00312 2558
P14_ST00355 890 2542 ater
P14_SP00313 961
P14_ST00356 979 162 rtention 320600070
P14_SP00314
P14_ST00357 146 capacity 04001300
P14_SP00315 1305 2579
P14_ST00358 1323 2538
P14_TL00044 2582 534
P14_ST00359 2585
P14_SP00316 425 2616
P14_ST00360 2583 rivers' 0000026
P14_SP00317
P14_ST00361 2593 20040
P14_SP00318 677 2625
P14_ST00362 watershe 00540052
P14_SP00319 2615
P14_ST00363 2592 s.
P14_TL00045 409 2656
P14_ST00364 2657 72 "i^^n 0.12 7710108
P14_SP00320 2688
P14_ST00365 second 040501
P14_SP00321
P14_ST00366 2661 4244
P14_SP00322 750 2687
P14_ST00367 780 irr,^ortant 047510015002
P14_SP00323 2696
P14_ST00368 2665 117 source 040000
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P14_ST00369
P14_SP00325 1171
P14_ST00370 1197 2662
P14_SP00326 1298
P14_ST00371 1328 01
P14_TL00046 2703
P14_ST00372 2712 grounv 607408
P14_SP00327 2745
P14_ST00373 502 2709 99 84400
P14_SP00328 2735
P14_ST00374 612 53000
P14_SP00329 2734
P14_ST00375 729 aire 3313
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P14_ST00376 824 Jy
P14_SP00331 862 2743
P14_ST00377 874 204 contributes 16040005504
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P14_ST00378 2704 215 4030060040000
P14_SP00333 2744
P14_ST00379 1318 0.20
P14_TL00047 2748
P14_ST00380 2750
P14_SP00334 2782
P14_ST00381 2749 irrig^.!^.! 0.50 0010810781008
P14_SP00335 2790
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P14_ST00383 2758 '- 0.17 1077
P14_SP00337 798 2768
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P14_SP00338 2780
P14_ST00385 894 108
P14_SP00339
P14_ST00386 975
P14_SP00340 1015
P14_ST00387
P14_SP00341 1095
P14_ST00388 1114 rgion. 4800605
P14_SP00342 1237 2789
P14_ST00389 1257 Since
P14_TL00048 2795
P14_ST00390 2797 312216800
P14_SP00343 542 2830
P14_ST00391 2796 substrate 103630362
P14_SP00344 2829
P14_ST00392 165 underlies 007705037
P14_SP00345 914 2828
P14_ST00393 936 nearly 001040
P14_SP00346 2838
P14_ST00394 80%
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P14_ST00397 1297 2806 na nation,
P14_TL00049 2841
P14_ST00398 2843 80 tion, 0.59 70705
P14_SP00350 450 2879
P14_ST00399 464 2842 233 groundwater 00010100500
P14_SP00351 697 2883
P14_ST00400 2851 reserves 02300050
P14_SP00352 855 2873
P14_ST00401 could 10038
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P14_ST00402 become 750007
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P14_ST00403
P14_SP00355 1181
P14_ST00404 1194 principal 500000150
P14_TL00050 2888
P14_ST00405 2899 141310
P14_SP00356 2922
P14_ST00406
P14_SP00357 2921
P14_ST00407 547 2889 fresh 40023
P14_SP00358 634
P14_ST00408 2894 08240
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P14_ST00410 807
P14_SP00361 861
P14_ST00411 country 0500300
P14_SP00362 2930
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P14_ST00414 future. 6544006
P14_SP00365 1258
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P14_TL00051 2934
P14_ST00416 2936 242200105
P14_SP00366 2977
P14_ST00417 567 2944 050000
P14_SP00367 682 2967
P14_ST00418 702
P14_SP00368 739
P14_ST00419 756 2939 10160
P14_SP00369 856 2966
P14_ST00420
P14_SP00370 934
P14_ST00421 2940 080
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P14_ST00422 2935 0520
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P14_ST00423 1132 mapped 300000
P14_SP00373 2976
P14_ST00424 1293 2945 nor
P14_TL00052 2981 45
P14_ST00425 2984
P14_SP00374 395 3016
P14_ST00426 bcing 88058
P14_SP00375 3026
P14_ST00427 529 2983 129 uliliscd 60030688
P14_SP00376 3015
P14_ST00428 2989
P14_SP00377
P14_ST00429 226 complment 8857070803
P14_SP00378 951 3024
P14_ST00430 967 2982 4670683
P14_SP00379 3014
P14_ST00431 1112 2988 02380
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P14_ST00432 038
P14_SP00381 1290 3013
P14_ST00433 1308 in- 084
P14_TL00053 3028
P14_ST00434 3041 crea.se 0025645
P14_SP00382 3064
P14_ST00435 499 3030 agriculture 67778125506
P14_SP00383 694 3072
P14_ST00436 713 3029 196 production 3060046060
P14_SP00384 909
P14_ST00437 929 through 0600020
P14_SP00385 1069 3071
P14_ST00438 1088 irrigation. 06002440600
P14_TB00002 1436
P14_TL00054 254 47
P14_ST00439 Both 0704
P14_SP00386 1591
P14_ST00440 1604 258 60830700060
P14_SP00387 1836
P14_ST00441 1849 704
P14_SP00388 1913
P14_ST00442 257 usable 048352
P14_SP00389 2041
P14_ST00443 2055 7060605
P14_SP00390 2184 289
P14_ST00444 2197 16353
P14_SP00391 288
P14_ST00445 2310 dpend 650800
P14_TL00055 1463 982
P14_ST00446 315 upon 4440
P14_SP00392 1552
P14_ST00447 1574
P14_SP00393 1628
P14_ST00448 1648 303 00000470
P14_SP00394 346
P14_ST00449 1814
P14_SP00395 1851 336
P14_ST00450 1868 watershed 432600140
P14_SP00396 2052
P14_ST00451 2071 310 areas 05004
P14_SP00397 335
P14_ST00452
P14_SP00398 2219 333
P14_ST00453 2237 store 46010
P14_SP00399 2326
P14_ST00454 2343 05706
P14_TL00056 1461 348
P14_ST00455 353
P14_SP00400 1526 386
P14_ST00456 1546 ib.p.n 0.34 784846
P14_SP00401 1622
P14_ST00457 1641
P14_SP00402 1675
P14_ST00458 1693 gradually 600040000
P14_SP00403 1860 394
P14_ST00459 1879 release 0.53 6077046
P14_SP00404 2003
P14_ST00460 2022 it
P14_SP00405 2044 382
P14_ST00461 2062 349
P14_SP00406 2132
P14_ST00462 2150 061
P14_SP00407 2204
P14_ST00463 2223 34003
P14_SP00408 381
P14_ST00464 2323 system 402440
P14_TL00057 393
P14_ST00465
P14_SP00409 1528
P14_ST00466 1543 155 recharge 00001530
P14_SP00410
P14_ST00467 1711
P14_SP00411 1766 429
P14_ST00468 1779 401 00023
P14_SP00412 1882
P14_ST00469 1893 396 table. 400000
P14_SP00413 1994
P14_ST00470 2008 302
P14_SP00414 2078 427
P14_ST00471 2092 42100000000
P14_SP00415 2277 436
P14_ST00472 2288 develop 0050000 development
P14_TL00058 1462 48
P14_ST00473 ment 0105
P14_SP00416 478
P14_ST00474 1577 159 potential 070631000
P14_SP00417 487
P14_ST00475 1760 0.25
P14_SP00418 1797
P14_ST00476 1819 001070061
P14_SP00419 1972
P14_ST00477 1997
P14_SP00420 2102 485
P14_ST00478 2124
P14_SP00421 2157 474
P14_ST00479 2181 00065
P14_SP00422 2270
P14_ST00480 calls 10655
P14_SP00423 2369 473
P14_ST00481 005
P14_TL00059
P14_ST00482 immdiate 000505060
P14_SP00424 1653
P14_ST00483 1672 action 006000
P14_SP00425 1781 522
P14_ST00484 1801
P14_SP00426 521
P14_ST00485 1855 be
P14_SP00427 1895
P14_ST00486 1914 taken 20200
P14_SP00428 2015
P14_ST00487 2036
P14_SP00429 2066 520
P14_ST00488 2086 an
P14_SP00430 2127
P14_ST00489 2146 effort 060050
P14_SP00431 2245
P14_ST00490 2265
P14_SP00432 518
P14_ST00491 2317 protect 0301000
P14_TL00060
P14_ST00492 538 002
P14_SP00433 1527
P14_ST00493
P14_SP00434 1586
P14_ST00494 1608 restore 0011742
P14_SP00435 1733
P14_ST00495 1757
P14_SP00436 1812
P14_ST00496 vgtative 0470403200
P14_SP00437 2019
P14_ST00497 2042 cover, 000200
P14_SP00438 2154
P14_ST00498 2178
P14_SP00439 2255
P14_ST00499 2280 thus, 24035
P14_SP00440 2365
P14_ST00500 2389
P14_TL00061
P14_ST00501 00056
P14_SP00441
P14_ST00502 1578 410003150
P14_SP00442
P14_ST00503 1754 581 00000000
P14_SP00443 1901 622
P14_ST00504
P14_SP00444 1952 613
P14_ST00505 1963
P14_SP00445
P14_ST00506 2034 579 080050004
P14_SP00446 2200 620
P14_ST00507 2214 02211
P14_SP00447 2319
P14_ST00508 2332 00347
P14_TL00062 201
P14_ST00509 shed 0465
P14_SP00448 1544
P14_ST00510 1561 areas. 202305
P14_TL00063 211
P14_ST00511 720 LAND 5704
P14_SP00449 1575
P14_ST00512 1592 USE
P14_TL00064 1497
P14_ST00513
P14_SP00450 1533
P14_ST00514 1555 Haiti, 501000
P14_SP00451
P14_ST00515 1678
P14_SP00452 1735
P14_ST00516 only 0425
P14_SP00453 1832
P14_ST00517 1852
P14_SP00454 1878
P14_ST00518 1896 004
P14_SP00455 1951
P14_ST00519 0350
P14_SP00456
P14_ST00520 arable 000055
P14_SP00457 2189
P14_ST00521 2209 land
P14_SP00458 2285
P14_ST00522 2303 already 0060005
P14_TL00065 1455
P14_ST00523 being 05000
P14_SP00459 1554 891
P14_ST00524 1571 145 utilized, 410004400
P14_SP00460 1716
P14_ST00525 but
P14_SP00461 1790 882
P14_ST00526 1808
P14_SP00462 1863
P14_ST00527 1881 total 30000
P14_SP00463 1960
P14_ST00528 area 0220
P14_SP00464
P14_ST00529 under 08000
P14_SP00465
P14_ST00530 2191 some
P14_SP00466 2286
P14_ST00531 2301 form 5000
P14_SP00467 2387 880
P14_ST00532 2401
P14_TL00066 1453
P14_ST00533 207 300020500300
P14_SP00468 1660
P14_ST00534 1674 0013030000
P14_SP00469
P14_ST00535 (more 00400
P14_SP00470 1995
P14_ST00536 2007 0500
P14_SP00471 2085
P14_ST00537 2101 1,300,000 700160376
P14_SP00472 2272
P14_ST00538 2283 ha)
P14_SP00473 2340 937
P14_ST00539 i$ 08
P14_SP00474 2377 935
P14_ST00540 six
P14_TL00067 940
P14_ST00541 times 01050
P14_SP00475 976
P14_ST00542 1562 greater 0062000
P14_SP00476 1692
P14_ST00543 942 then
P14_SP00477 1780
P14_ST00544
P14_SP00478 1848
P14_ST00545 177 estimated 042000015
P14_SP00479 2037
P14_ST00546 2048
P14_SP00480 2125
P14_ST00547 2135
P14_SP00481 2174 8
P14_ST00548 2182 good 00320
P14_SP00482
P14_ST00549 agricul 3303004
P14_TL00068 1454
P14_ST00550 tural 30062
P14_SP00483 1538 1023
P14_ST00551 1556 land. 600406
P14_TL00069 1494 1064
P14_ST00552 About 10510
P14_SP00484
P14_ST00553 1630 one
P14_SP00485 1696 1100
P14_ST00554 1717 third 40600
P14_SP00486
P14_ST00555 1822 1067
P14_SP00487
P14_ST00556 ail
P14_SP00488 1918
P14_ST00557 1940 lands
P14_SP00489
P14_ST00558 2054
P14_SP00490 2110
P14_ST00559 2129 either 045205
P14_SP00491 2235
P14_ST00560 2254 extremely 014400000
P14_TL00070 1450 1111
P14_ST00561 eroded,
P14_SP00492 1590 1153
P14_ST00562 abandoned 000000000
P14_SP00493
P14_ST00563 1825 007
P14_SP00494 1877
P14_ST00564 farming, 02026000
P14_SP00495 2046 1155
P14_ST00565 2063 1122 or
P14_SP00496
P14_ST00566 2117 saline
P14_SP00497 2220
P14_ST00567 2236
P14_SP00498
P14_ST00568 practi- 0100501
P14_TL00071 1451
P14_ST00569 cally 00040
P14_SP00499 1535 1202
P14_ST00570 1161 strile, 00440010
P14_SP00500 1676 1198
P14_ST00571 1697 050
P14_SP00501 1761 1192
P14_ST00572 1782 1165
P14_SP00502 1817
P14_ST00573 inappropriate 0000002010001
P14_SP00503 2084 1200
P14_ST00574 8001
P14_SP00504
P14_ST00575 58 use
P14_SP00505 2257
P14_ST00576 practices 000022005
P14_TL00072 1204
P14_ST00577 1207 including 000300007
P14_SP00506 1619 1250
P14_ST00578 1206 60000005
P14_SP00507 1783
P14_ST00579 1796 1205 grazing 0000012
P14_SP00508
P14_ST00580
P14_SP00509 2006
P14_ST00581 1210 tree
P14_SP00510 2088
P14_ST00582 cutting. 10000000
P14_SP00511
P14_ST00583 2249
P14_SP00512 2320 1236
P14_ST00584 2334 coun 4000
P14_TL00073 1452
P14_ST00585 try's 30430
P14_SP00513 1530 1296
P14_ST00586 1553 1252 marginal 00004000
P14_SP00514
P14_ST00587 1734 20000
P14_SP00515 1285
P14_ST00588
P14_SP00516 1904
P14_ST00589 003074
P14_SP00517
P14_ST00590 2069
P14_SP00518 2175
P14_ST00591 2195
P14_SP00519 2241
P14_ST00592 2262 00600000
P14_TL00074
P14_ST00593 slopes. 0030030
P14_SP00520 1573 1342
P14_ST00594 1600 Every 00030
P14_SP00521 1706
P14_ST00595 1727 1309
P14_SP00522 1804
P14_ST00596 cultivation 20221004000
P14_SP00523 2016
P14_ST00597 2038
P14_SP00524 2075 1331
P14_ST00598 2094 annual 000002
P14_SP00525 2215
P14_ST00599 food
P14_SP00526 2318 1330
P14_ST00600 1306 crops
P14_TL00075
P14_ST00601 1347 forces 000004
P14_SP00527 1379
P14_ST00602 1583 1346 other
P14_SP00528 1679
P14_ST00603 1701 1354
P14_SP00529 1386
P14_ST00604 1343
P14_SP00530
P14_ST00605 1905 0005500
P14_SP00531 2039
P14_ST00606 2061
P14_SP00532 2155 1376
P14_ST00607 higher 350100
P14_SP00533 1384
P14_ST00608 2313 1351 up
P14_SP00534
P14_ST00609 2378
P14_TL00076
P14_ST00610 1393 00000200
P14_SP00535 1624 1427
P14_ST00611 1640
P14_SP00536 1705
P14_ST00612 1720 1401 every 00002
P14_SP00537
P14_ST00613 1833 0005
P14_SP00538 1909 1433
P14_ST00614 1924 1392
P14_SP00539
P14_ST00615 1996 1396 steepness 025100000
P14_SP00540 2168
P14_ST00616 1390
P14_SP00541 1422
P14_ST00617 2232
P14_SP00542 1423
P14_ST00618 cultiva 0506500 cultivated
P14_TL00077
P14_ST00619 1439 ted
P14_SP00543 1509
P14_ST00620 1529 1440 plots 00401
P14_SP00544 1615 1481
P14_ST00621 1634 increases. 0010000000
P14_SP00545
P14_ST00622 1829 1438
P14_SP00546 1899 1470
P14_ST00623 1437 end
P14_SP00547 1986
P14_ST00624 resuit 622003
P14_SP00548 2107
P14_ST00625
P14_SP00549 2163 1468
P14_ST00626 2180 indiscriminate 00301266050000
P14_TL00078 1482
P14_ST00627 1491 0023
P14_SP00550 1522 1519
P14_ST00628 1534 1486 cutting 0050320
P14_SP00551 1658
P14_ST00629 1668 1485
P14_SP00552 1732
P14_ST00630 1742 1484 intensification 005700400000050
P14_SP00553 1999
P14_ST00631 2010 1483
P14_SP00554 2047 1516
P14_ST00632 00000000111
P14_SP00555 2246
P14_ST00633
P14_SP00556 2284 1515
P14_ST00634 2294 1487 tremen- 0400102
P14_TL00079
P14_ST00635 1532 dous
P14_SP00557
P14_ST00636 1531 soil 4035
P14_SP00558
P14_ST00637 rosion. 60003303
P14_SP00559 1778
P14_ST00638 1800 Each 1007
P14_SP00560 1890
P14_ST00639 0003
P14_SP00561
P14_ST00640
P14_SP00562
P14_ST00641 2079 quivalent 0306017004
P14_SP00563 2269
P14_ST00642 2287
P14_SP00564 2324 1560
P14_ST00643 6,000 01064
P14_TL00080
P14_ST00644 1580 ha
P14_SP00565 1612
P14_ST00645 1513 1579
P14_SP00566
P14_ST00646 1568 valuable 20520070
P14_SP00567 1719
P14_ST00647 1739
P14_SP00568 1850
P14_ST00648 1871
P14_SP00569 1948
P14_ST00649
P14_SP00570 2023
P14_ST00650 1576 lost
P14_SP00571 1609
P14_ST00651
P14_SP00572 2160
P14_ST00652 2179 30046000
P14_SP00573 2322
P14_ST00653 2344 Over
P14_TL00081 1620
P14_ST00654 1626
P14_SP00574
P14_ST00655 1629 past
P14_SP00575 1603
P14_ST00656 1625 forty 61030
P14_SP00576
P14_ST00657 1633 years, 000040
P14_SP00577 1837 1664
P14_ST00658 1858 1623 170 estimtes 140000030
P14_SP00578 2028 1655
P14_ST00659
P14_SP00579 1654
P14_ST00660 183 remaining 042620300
P14_SP00580 1661
P14_ST00661 1621 "good" 000011
P14_TL00082 1667
P14_ST00662 640005
P14_SP00581
P14_ST00663 1585 1670 0011
P14_SP00582 1662 1704
P14_ST00664 1682 1671
P14_SP00583 1714
P14_ST00665 1669 45002
P14_SP00584
P14_ST00666 1845 show 4060
P14_SP00585 1936
P14_ST00667 1957 2
P14_SP00586
P14_ST00668 consistent 0000322000
P14_SP00587 2177
P14_ST00669 2196 dcline 0300005
P14_SP00588
P14_ST00670 2345
P14_SP00589 2382
P14_ST00671 2400 1677 as
P14_TL00083
P14_ST00672 1718 much 0202
P14_SP00590 1750
P14_ST00673
P14_SP00591
P14_ST00674 3%
P14_SP00592
P14_ST00675 1726 per
P14_SP00593 1758
P14_ST00676 1770 year. 11000
P14_TL00084 1492
P14_ST00677 Only
P14_SP00594
P14_ST00678 1605 1795 11.3%
P14_SP00595 1828
P14_ST00679 1737
P14_SP00596 1774
P14_ST00680 1792
P14_SP00597 1847
P14_ST00681 1869 00203
P14_SP00598 1950
P14_ST00682 5001
P14_SP00599
P14_ST00683 2068
P14_SP00600 2144
P14_ST00684 07
P14_SP00601 2201
P14_ST00685
P14_SP00602 2274
P14_ST00686 136 0000042
P14_TL00085 1449 1839
P14_ST00687 consists 16000002
P14_SP00603 1587
P14_ST00688 1842
P14_SP00604
P14_ST00689 1659 good 0140
P14_SP00605
P14_ST00690 1764 03052
P14_SP00606
P14_ST00691 1859
P14_SP00607
P14_ST00692 1954 212 possibilities 1003200400002
P14_SP00608
P14_ST00693 2183
P14_SP00609
P14_ST00694 2250 180 irrigation, 02000000302
P14_TL00086
P14_ST00695 mechanized 0325000462
P14_SP00610 1921
P14_ST00696 00220000012
P14_SP00611 1866
P14_ST00697 320
P14_SP00612
P14_ST00698 high
P14_SP00613 2033
P14_ST00699 yield 60031
P14_SP00614 2131
P14_ST00700 potential. 1000000030
P14_SP00615 2314
P14_ST00701 2329 Much 2500
P14_TL00087
P14_ST00702
P14_SP00616 1488
P14_ST00703 1508
P14_SP00617 1965
P14_ST00704 31.7%
P14_SP00618 1700
P14_ST00705
P14_SP00619 1763
P14_ST00706 1784
P14_SP00620
P14_ST00707 1861
P14_SP00621 1937
P14_ST00708 having
P14_SP00622 2080
P14_ST00709 7820
P14_SP00623 2190
P14_ST00710 2211 soil, 00014
P14_SP00624 1970
P14_ST00711 2308
P14_SP00625 2366
P14_ST00712 2388 no
P14_TL00088
P14_ST00713 1981 072400004
P14_SP00626
P14_ST00714 0077000050
P14_SP00627 1791
P14_ST00715 1807
P14_SP00628
P14_ST00716 06000
P14_SP00629
P14_ST00717 1990
P14_SP00630
P14_ST00718 1985 steep 20020
P14_SP00631
P14_ST00719 2133 slopes 000322
P14_SP00632 2243
P14_ST00720 2256 subject 0035000
P14_SP00633 2381
P14_ST00721 2397
P14_TL00089
P14_ST00722 severe 001000
P14_SP00634 1565
P14_ST00723 00005001
P14_SP00635 1722
P14_ST00724 Thse
P14_SP00636 1844
P14_ST00725 62000
P14_SP00637
P14_ST00726
P14_SP00638
P14_ST00727 best 3006
P14_SP00639 2108
P14_ST00728 2121 suited 000460
P14_SP00640 2228
P14_ST00729
P14_SP00641 2293
P14_ST00730 perma permanent
P14_TL00090
P14_ST00731 nent
P14_SP00642
P14_ST00732 1547 7000
P14_SP00643
P14_ST00733 1632
P14_SP00644 1729 2116
P14_ST00734 such
P14_SP00645 1824
P14_ST00735
P14_SP00646
P14_ST00736 coffee
P14_SP00647
P14_ST00737
P14_SP00648
P14_ST00738 managed 4005000
P14_SP00649 2266 2114
P14_ST00739 pasture-
P14_TL00091
P14_ST00740 land.
P14_SP00650
P14_ST00741 1557
P14_SP00651
P14_ST00742 extensive 115020100
P14_SP00652 1809
P14_ST00743 rduction 000003003
P14_SP00653
P14_ST00744
P14_SP00654
P14_ST00745 forest
P14_SP00655 2169
P14_ST00746 2128 02010
P14_SP00656
P14_ST00747
P14_SP00657
P14_ST00748 2376 wi-
P14_TL00092
P14_ST00749 164 despread 05500451
P14_SP00658 1613
P14_ST00750 00200035054
P14_SP00659 1816
P14_ST00751 1830 2167
P14_SP00660 1867
P14_ST00752 00154
P14_SP00661
P14_ST00753 unsuited 00200000
P14_SP00662 2140
P14_ST00754
P14_SP00663 2205
P14_ST00755 2218
P14_SP00664
P14_ST00756 2176 crop
P14_TL00093 2212
P14_ST00757 production, 03600000600
P14_SP00665
P14_ST00758 1685 2213 without 0024000
P14_SP00666
P14_ST00759 2222 even 3000
P14_SP00667
P14_ST00760 1956 minimal 0000301
P14_SP00668
P14_ST00761 attention
P14_SP00669 2289
P14_ST00762 2217
P14_SP00670 2348
P14_ST00763
P14_TL00094 1448 2258
P14_ST00764 231 conservation 040420010050
P14_SP00671
P14_ST00765 1691 practices, 0004000220
P14_SP00672
P14_ST00766 503
P14_SP00673 1931
P14_ST00767 1942 led
P14_SP00674
P14_ST00768 2264
P14_SP00675
P14_ST00769 2051
P14_SP00676
P14_ST00770 219 catastrophic 000044323040
P14_SP00677
P14_ST00771 2263 state 40000
P14_TL00095
P14_ST00772
P14_SP00678
P14_ST00773 1502 rosion 2030000
P14_SP00679
P14_ST00774 throughout 0120104700
P14_SP00680 1857
P14_ST00775 1876
P14_SP00681
P14_ST00776 2309 0300102
P14_SP00682
P14_ST00777
P14_SP00683
P14_ST00778 2192
P14_SP00684 2227
P14_ST00779
P14_SP00685
P14_ST00780 subs 00013 subsquent
P14_TL00096
P14_ST00781 2358 quent 31500
P14_SP00686 2396
P14_ST00782 1569 2353 serious 2000203
P14_SP00687 1694
P14_ST00783 damage 000005
P14_SP00688 2394
P14_ST00784
P14_SP00689 1903
P14_ST00785
P14_SP00690
P14_ST00786 001000100005
P14_SP00691
P14_ST00787 050000021
P14_SP00692
P14_ST00788
P14_TL00097
P14_ST00789 034
P14_SP00693 1505
P14_ST00790 lowlands, 120610000
P14_SP00694 1687 2436
P14_ST00791 both 0305
P14_SP00695
P14_ST00792
P14_SP00696
P14_ST00793 terms
P14_SP00697
P14_ST00794 1945
P14_SP00698 1983
P14_ST00795 1991 0002000050
P14_SP00699 2158 2438
P14_ST00796 2171
P14_SP00700
P14_ST00797 infrastruc 0730122000 infrastructure.
P14_TL00098
P14_ST00798 ture. 35020
P14_SP00701 -43
P14_ST00799 2519
P14_SP00702 1514 2550
P14_ST00800 2518
P14_SP00703
P14_ST00801 vident 4000400
P14_SP00704 2551
P14_ST00802 0300
P14_SP00705 1788
P14_ST00803 1803 2527 3
P14_SP00706 1821
P14_ST00804 1838 3002
P14_SP00707 1912 2559
P14_ST00805 1927 2522 percentage 0510700003
P14_SP00708
P14_ST00806 2143
P14_SP00709
P14_ST00807
P14_SP00710 2233
P14_ST00808 176 0230002040
P14_TL00099 1443 2563
P14_ST00809 2564 03003
P14_SP00711 2597
P14_ST00810 2574 042
P14_SP00712
P14_ST00811 20700
P14_SP00713 2606
P14_ST00812 1728 farmed 600003
P14_SP00714 1854
P14_ST00813 1865 beyond
P14_SP00715
P14_ST00814 their 07066
P14_SP00716 2095
P14_ST00815 carrying
P14_SP00717 9
P14_ST00816 capacity, 000000632
P14_TL00100 1444 2609
P14_ST00817 2610 resulting 053050002
P14_SP00718 1601 2651
P14_ST00818
P14_SP00719 1650 2643
P14_ST00819 2620
P14_SP00720
P14_ST00820 1731 escalating 0003000000
P14_SP00721 1908
P14_ST00821 1925
P14_SP00722
P14_ST00822 potentially 07000000404
P14_SP00723 2202 2652
P14_ST00823 2221 irrversible 200200000073
P14_TL00101
P14_ST00824 2658 5402
P14_SP00724 1520 2691
P14_ST00825 1539 216 dgradation 00001201166
P14_SP00725 1755 2699
P14_ST00826 2667 process. 01703540
P14_SP00726
P14_ST00827 If
P14_SP00727
P14_ST00828 1987
P14_SP00728
P14_ST00829 strategy 10006105
P14_SP00729
P14_ST00830
P14_SP00730 2261 2690
P14_ST00831 2276 maintai- 07030601
P14_TL00102 1445
P14_ST00832 ning
P14_SP00731
P14_ST00833 existing 54050001
P14_SP00732
P14_ST00834 2014
P14_SP00733 1756
P14_ST00835 1769 2711 resources, 0230002310
P14_SP00734 2740
P14_ST00836 let
P14_SP00735 2009
P14_ST00837 alone 04005
P14_SP00736
P14_ST00838 improving 011042010
P14_SP00737 2312
P14_ST00839 2321 them, 00004
P14_TL00103
P14_ST00840
P14_SP00738
P14_ST00841 2760
P14_SP00739 2783
P14_ST00842 1521
P14_SP00740 2792
P14_ST00843 1614 priority, 000001002
P14_SP00741
P14_ST00844 2751 clearly 0500030
P14_SP00742
P14_ST00845 1
P14_SP00743 1932
P14_ST00846 2759 very
P14_SP00744 2791
P14_ST00847 2040 00000550000
P14_SP00745 2225
P14_ST00848 2242 131 portion 0700010
P14_SP00746 2373
P14_ST00849
P14_TL00104
P14_ST00850 2200040
P14_SP00747
P14_ST00851 5033000202
P14_SP00748 1752
P14_ST00852 60020
P14_SP00749
P14_ST00853 needs 24410
P14_SP00750
P14_ST00854 2800
P14_SP00751
P14_ST00855
P14_SP00752 2076
P14_ST00856 removed
P14_SP00753
P14_ST00857 0100
P14_SP00754
P14_ST00858 2355 2805 cur-
P14_TL00105
P14_ST00859 2847 rent 0601
P14_SP00755 2875
P14_ST00860
P14_SP00756
P14_ST00861 1618 2853
P14_SP00757
P14_ST00862 1688
P14_SP00758 1751
P14_ST00863 1765 returned 20400002
P14_SP00759 2876
P14_ST00864 2848
P14_SP00760 1969
P14_ST00865 forest. 4003062
P14_SP00761
P14_ST00866 2844
P14_SP00762
P14_ST00867 2159 practical 000000075
P14_SP00763 2884
P14_ST00868
P14_TL00106
P14_ST00869 however, 20000000
P14_SP00764 2926
P14_ST00870 3020
P14_SP00765
P14_ST00871 1721
P14_SP00766 1775
P14_ST00872 2898 30010
P14_SP00767
P14_ST00873 1911 001000000
P14_SP00768 2096
P14_ST00874
P14_SP00769
P14_ST00875
P14_SP00770
P14_ST00876
P14_SP00771
P14_ST00877 2342 agri-
P14_TL00107 1442
P14_ST00878 culturally 0040200400
P14_SP00772 2978
P14_ST00879
P14_SP00773 2969
P14_ST00880 238 economically 220000050160
P14_SP00774
P14_ST00881 2941
P14_SP00775
P14_ST00882 000006001
P14_SP00776
P14_ST00883 060005
P14_TL00108
P14_ST00884 07230
P14_SP00777 1540
P14_ST00885 400440
P14_SP00778
P14_ST00886 1725
P14_SP00779
P14_ST00887 object 300306
P14_SP00780 1910 3022
P14_ST00888
P14_SP00781
P14_ST00889 1989
P14_SP00782 2070
P14_ST00890 2091 2993
P14_SP00783 2109
P14_ST00891 drastic 0001540
P14_SP00784 2251
P14_ST00892 2992 resource 00001003
P14_TL00109 3027 366
P14_ST00893 restoration 04071006400
P14_SP00785 3061
P14_ST00894 3033 strategy. 430110040
P14_TB00003 2419 3162
P14_TL00110 2425 3168
P14_ST00895 0.49


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Illustration P81_CB1_SUB 516 1422 202 136 TYPE
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P81_TL00002 677 1473 225
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P81_TB00003 1044 1444 144 34
P81_TL00003
P81_ST00004 7^S*. 0.28 810877860
P81_TB00004 2148 1412 210 46
P81_TL00004 2154 1424 204
P81_ST00005 66 31 ..-i**- 0.36 07768777
P81_SP00002 2220 1455 8
P81_ST00006 2228 1425 16 28 \ 0.13
P81_SP00003 2244 1453 14
P81_ST00007 2258 1427 100 ¦¦r;a.,.,, 0.18 10101085867776
P81_TB00005 466 1558 444 112
P81_TB00006 1712 132 60
P81_TL00005 446 1721 116 47
P81_ST00008 Ilfaiii 0.30 8833888
P81_TB00007 624 1718 188 52
P81_TB00008 1950 1662 360 80
P81_TB00009 436 1766 1160
P81_TL00006 451 1769 1128 38
P81_ST00009 1775 32 Fig. 0.56 5560
P81_SP00004 505 1807
P81_ST00010 521 1774 59 27 V-2: 0.83 0600
P81_SP00005 580 1801 13
P81_ST00011 593 1773 Small 0.80 00440
P81_SP00006 674 1800 12
P81_ST00012 686 1772 124 sailboats 0.38 775366557
P81_SP00007 810
P81_ST00013 822 1780 77 25 carry 0.78 05005
P81_SP00008 899 1805
P81_ST00014 913 1771 79 26 mucii 00786
P81_SP00009 992 1797
P81_ST00015 1004 30 of 0.84
P81_SP00010 1034 11
P81_ST00016 1045 164 Iniercoaiital 0.60 0044108585580
P81_SP00011 1209
P81_ST00017 1223 1770 95 freiRht 0.49 2285835
P81_SP00012 1318
P81_ST00018 1331 62 suclt 0.35 84756
P81_SP00013 1393 1795
P81_ST00019 1405 1777 18 as 0.27
P81_SP00014 1436
P81_ST00020 1447 charcoal. 0.72 405007610
P81_TB00010 432 1848 1012 1260
P81_TL00007 449 1854 553 33
P81_ST00021 1855 E.- 0.46 861
P81_SP00015 501 1886
P81_ST00022 519 293 ENDANGERED 0.53 7088066072
P81_SP00016 812 1887 15
P81_ST00023 827 1856 175 SPECIES 6868757
P81_TL00008 1900 520
P81_ST00024 1901 89 AND 0.69 701
P81_SP00017 538 1932
P81_ST00025 552 208 CRITICAL 0.70 00403086
P81_SP00018 760 1933 17
P81_ST00026 777 192 HABITAT 0.57 0637570
P81_TL00009 492 1983 918 44
P81_ST00027 1987 99 40 Many 0.81 1031
P81_SP00019 591 2027
P81_ST00028 609 1984 193 threatened 0.58 0504806088
P81_SP00020 802 2018
P81_ST00029 819 1995 39 22 or
P81_SP00021 858 2017
P81_ST00030 873 1985 212 41 endangered 0.52 8230088088
P81_SP00022 1085 2026
P81_ST00031 1103 118 animal 0.63 800580
P81_SP00023 1221 2016
P81_ST00032 1238 126 42 species 0.39 0788088
P81_SP00024 1364 2025
P81_ST00033 1381 29 in 1.00 00 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT inhabit
P81_TL00010 450 2029 976 36
P81_ST00034 2033 habit 0.68 33503 HypPart2
P81_SP00025 539 2065
P81_ST00035 554 2032 123 coastal 0.67 8534100
P81_SP00026 2064 19
P81_ST00036 696 2031 and 140
P81_SP00027 758
P81_ST00037 776 marine 0.45 477751
P81_SP00028 900 2063
P81_ST00038 919 2040 93 areas 00084
P81_SP00029 2062
P81_ST00039 1028 37 85
P81_SP00030 1065
P81_ST00040 1081 98 Haiti. 0.77 400701
P81_SP00031 1179
P81_ST00041 1197 2030 109 Those 41165
P81_SP00032 1306
P81_ST00042 1323 103 which 00000
P81_TL00011 2076 885
P81_ST00043 2079 utilize 2702054
P81_SP00033 556 2111 20
P81_ST00044 576 2087 176 mangrove 0.93 00000500
P81_SP00034 752 2120
P81_ST00045 771 2077 141 habitats 05700065
P81_SP00035 912 2110
P81_ST00046 930 128 include 0.87 0003005
P81_SP00036 1058 2109
P81_ST00047 1076 2085 120 among 0.62 82601
P81_SP00037 1196 2117
P81_ST00048 1212 others: 0202050
P81_TL00012 2145 791
P81_ST00049 2163 21 4 0.55
P81_SP00038 471 2167
P81_ST00050 488 American 50277020
P81_SP00039 664 2177
P81_ST00051 682 Crocodile 308276005
P81_SP00040 857
P81_ST00052 875 2146 222 (Crocodylus 0.66 84080726000
P81_SP00041 1097 2182
P81_ST00053 1114 2147 127 acutus) 0003032
P81_TL00013 2192 700
P81_ST00054 2210 0.33 6
P81_SP00042 470 2214
P81_ST00055 486 113 Grcen 0.48 16655
P81_SP00043 599 2224
P81_ST00056 616 Sea 0.44 088
P81_SP00044 678 2223
P81_ST00057 694 111 Turtle 0.42 666816
P81_SP00045 805
P81_ST00058 823 179 (Chclonia 0.54 102787427
P81_SP00046 1002 2229
P81_ST00059 1020 129 mydas) 0.29 784767
P81_TL00014 2238 829
P81_ST00060 2257 3
P81_SP00047 2260
P81_ST00061 487 178 Hawksbill 866287577
P81_SP00048 665 2270
P81_ST00062 0.71 605005
P81_SP00049 793 2271
P81_ST00063 811 266 (Erctmochelys 2447378624486
P81_SP00050 1077 2276
P81_ST00064 1095 2239 184 imbricata) 3507036037
P81_TL00015 2283 707 43
P81_ST00065 2302 0.73 2
P81_SP00051 2306
P81_ST00066 214 Loggerhead 4580005000
P81_SP00052 702 2326
P81_ST00067 716 640737
P81_SP00053 828 2317
P81_ST00068 847 2285 152 (Carrela 0.51 513606105
P81_SP00054 999 2321
P81_ST00069 1016 2284 caretta) 0.65 05405506
P81_TL00016 448 2331 846
P81_ST00070 2349
P81_SP00055 2353
P81_ST00071 00000000
P81_SP00056 663 2363
P81_ST00072 167 Flamingo 0.61 00350587
P81_SP00057 849 2371
P81_ST00073 867 299 (Phoenicopterus 0.59 245715055537105
P81_SP00058 1166 2368
P81_ST00074 1182 2332 ruber) 013021
P81_TL00017 447 2377 619
P81_ST00075 2396
P81_SP00059 469 2400
P81_ST00076 2378 142 Roseate 4666721
P81_SP00060 629 2410
P81_ST00077 648 170 Spoonbill 008738070
P81_SP00061 818 2420
P81_ST00078 836 (Ajaia 008448
P81_SP00062 949 2416
P81_ST00079 968 ajaia) 0.34 678268
P81_TL00018 2423
P81_ST00080 2441 23
P81_SP00063 2445
P81_ST00081 145 Reddish 0.43 4688524
P81_SP00064 632 2456
P81_ST00082 651 2425 97 Egret 13248
P81_SP00065 748 2464
P81_ST00083 766 2424 296 (Dichromanassa 0.47 56078057637555
P81_SP00066 1062 2461
P81_ST00084 1079 191 rubcscens) 0477750166
P81_TL00019 2470 921
P81_ST00085 2489 5
P81_SP00067 2493
P81_ST00086 485 2471 88 West 0080
P81_SP00068 573 2503
P81_ST00087 594 Indian 600040
P81_SP00069 2502
P81_ST00088 722 84 Tree 5062
P81_SP00070 806
P81_ST00089 826 94 Duck 6350
P81_SP00071 920
P81_ST00090 939 258 (Dcndrocygna 506136800802
P81_SP00072 2508
P81_ST00091 1216 2472 arborea) 04574767
P81_TL00020 2516 658
P81_ST00092 2535
P81_SP00073 2539
P81_ST00093 138 iVIasked 28807047
P81_SP00074 2549
P81_ST00094 644 2517 0500
P81_SP00075 737
P81_ST00095 756 150 (Oxyura 6052400
P81_SP00076 906 2554
P81_ST00096 924 181 dominica) 760000667
P81_TL00021 2563
P81_ST00097 2582
P81_SP00077 468 2585
P81_ST00098 276 White-crowned 1064051061167
P81_SP00078 761 2595
P81_ST00099 781 119 Pigeon 0.75 101480
P81_SP00079 2603
P81_ST00100 2564 194 (Columbia 758785507
P81_SP00080 1113 2600
P81_ST00101 1131 246 leucocephala) 6010701004130
P81_TL00022 2609
P81_ST00102 2628 0.41
P81_SP00081 2632
P81_ST00103 484 217 Hispaniolan 76245100705
P81_SP00082 2651
P81_ST00104 715 2610 134 Trogon 407585
P81_SP00083
P81_ST00105 265 (Temnotrogon 262708518840
P81_SP00084 1132 2647
P81_ST00106 1151 2611 207 roscigaster) 051608674007
P81_TL00023 2656 703
P81_ST00107 2674
P81_SP00085 2678
P81_ST00108 171 Peregrine 000760000
P81_SP00086 656 2696
P81_ST00109 675 117 Falcon 000830
P81_SP00087 792 2688
P81_ST00110 (Falco 038708
P81_SP00088 2694
P81_ST00111 942 2657 peregrinus) 0.76 42308001050
P81_TL00024 2702 824
P81_ST00112 2721
P81_SP00089 467 2725
P81_ST00113 2703 87 0844
P81_SP00090 571 2736
P81_ST00114 592 0.85 620000
P81_SP00091 705 2735
P81_ST00115 156 Manatee 2500776
P81_SP00092 878
P81_ST00116 897 (Trichecus 3777057414
P81_SP00093 1088 2739
P81_ST00117 1106 2704 manatus) 54006005
P81_TL00025 2784 932 35
P81_ST00118 2785 48 Of 03
P81_SP00094 540 2816
P81_ST00119 53 the 008
P81_SP00095 606
P81_ST00120 623 121 260008
P81_SP00096 744 2817
P81_ST00121 763 2786 185 mammals, 18686287
P81_SP00097 948 2819
P81_ST00122 965 848
P81_SP00098 1019
P81_ST00123 1036 2787 90 0885
P81_SP00099 1126 2818
P81_ST00124 1143 808666
P81_SP00100 1254
P81_ST00125 1271 1706688
P81_TL00026 2830 975
P81_ST00126 24 is
P81_SP00101 475 2862
P81_ST00127 498 faced 52035
P81_SP00102
P81_ST00128 613 with 0056
P81_SP00103 687
P81_ST00129 710 189 extinction. 02100450800
P81_SP00104 2863
P81_ST00130 925 2831 Rcent 568007
P81_SP00105 1051 2864
P81_ST00131 1073 aerial 067720
P81_SP00106 1172
P81_ST00132 2841 133 surveys 6600402
P81_SP00107 1325 2872
P81_ST00133 1345 2832 havc 2118
P81_TL00027 2878
P81_ST00134 located 0.31 0886688
P81_SP00108 577 2909
P81_ST00135 2888 a 0.14
P81_SP00109
P81_ST00136 70 well 1870
P81_SP00110 693
P81_ST00137 708 197 established 82288757888
P81_SP00111 905 2910
P81_ST00138 2879 population 7876357080
P81_SP00112 2919
P81_ST00139 1129
P81_SP00113 1165
P81_ST00140 1176 2884 manatees 70772888
P81_SP00114 1343 2911
P81_ST00141 1356 2881 69 (be- 0782
P81_TL00028 2922
P81_ST00142 2928 9 ' 0.25 7
P81_SP00115 458 2939
P81_ST00143 2933 'cen 1550
P81_SP00116 2955
P81_ST00144 575 2923
P81_SP00117 2954
P81_ST00145 64 206
P81_SP00118 680
P81_ST00146 2925 8)
P81_SP00119 734 2963
P81_ST00147 757 living 0.86 000007
P81_SP00120 854 2964
P81_ST00148 876
P81_SP00121 2956
P81_ST00149 928 2924 55 0.26 588
P81_SP00122 983
P81_ST00150 1006 05050808
P81_SP00123 2966
P81_ST00151 1203 2934 60276
P81_SP00124 1296 2957
P81_ST00152 1316
P81_SP00125 1353
P81_ST00153 1371 0.40 268
P81_TL00029 2970 963
P81_ST00154 Arlibonite 8000786008
P81_SP00126 636 3003
P81_ST00155 2976 estuury 8750800
P81_SP00127 780 3010
P81_ST00156 794 2971 (C, 320
P81_SP00128
P81_ST00157 139 Woods, 288887
P81_SP00129 3006
P81_ST00158 1025 2972 0.22 5888
P81_SP00130 1099 3004
P81_ST00159 1116 personal 0.32 78668465
P81_SP00131 1266 3012
P81_ST00160 1279 2981 commu 88772 communication),
P81_TL00030 3016 977
P81_ST00161 3017 169 nication), 0024507000
P81_SP00132 3055
P81_ST00162 161 Sightings 004010250
P81_SP00133 3057
P81_ST00163 hve 1815
P81_SP00134 909 3048
P81_ST00164 933 also 0.37 3578
P81_SP00135 1003
P81_ST00165 1024 occured 8186084
P81_SP00136 3049
P81_ST00166 1187 3023 at 65
P81_SP00137 1218
P81_ST00167 1241 3018 186 Montrouis 0.74 180007006
P81_TL00031 3063
P81_ST00168 3064 63 755
P81_SP00138 512 3096
P81_ST00169 531 51 llie 0158
P81_SP00139 582
P81_ST00170 602 bay 821
P81_SP00140 661 3104
P81_ST00171
P81_SP00141 3095
P81_ST00172 728 St-Marc, 05118287
P81_SP00142 884 3099
P81_ST00173 902 whcrc 11808
P81_SP00143 1011 3097
P81_ST00174 1029 86 Ircsh 60857
P81_SP00144 1115
P81_ST00175 1133 3071 water 08385
P81_SP00145 1232
P81_ST00176 1247 3070 108 entcrs 882805
P81_SP00146 1355
P81_ST00177 1372 3065 578
P81_TB00011 1502 1836
P81_TL00032 1523 1846
P81_ST00178 57 sea 835
P81_SP00147 1580 1878
P81_ST00179 1597 040
P81_SP00148
P81_ST00180 1678 1851
P81_SP00149 1711
P81_ST00181 1729 Ft. 247
P81_SP00150 1776
P81_ST00182 143 Libert, 65070586
P81_SP00151 1940 1882
P81_ST00183 1958 78 west 5765
P81_SP00152 2036
P81_ST00184 2052
P81_SP00153 2090
P81_ST00185 2104 72 Cap 660
P81_SP00154 2176 1888
P81_ST00186 2194 Haitien, 60107670
P81_SP00155 2338
P81_ST00187 2359 147 Hunting 8040708
P81_TL00033 1524 1892 691
P81_ST00188 1903 pressure 50874508
P81_SP00156 1674 1935
P81_ST00189 1691 1904 on
P81_SP00157 1734 1925
P81_ST00190 1753 1894
P81_SP00158 1806 1926
P81_ST00191 1826 1899 149 manatee 5207288
P81_SP00159 1975 1927
P81_ST00192 06
P81_SP00160 2019
P81_ST00193 2037 unknown, 60028004
P81_TL00034 1566 1978 935
P81_ST00194 Haiti's 7600070
P81_SP00161 1683 2010
P81_ST00195 1704 remote, 0177614
P81_SP00162 1843 2015
P81_ST00196 1864 deep 7200
P81_SP00163 1952
P81_ST00197 1971 82 sand 6003
P81_SP00164 2053
P81_ST00198 2075 1979 beaches 1400640
P81_SP00165 2216 2011
P81_ST00199 2237 offer 40140
P81_SP00166 2323
P81_ST00200 2342 159 excellent 558000105
P81_TL00035 1521 2024 979
P81_ST00201 nesting 0826056
P81_SP00167 1650 2067
P81_ST00202 1673 habitat 3330076
P81_SP00168 1796 2059
P81_ST00203 1821 50 for
P81_SP00169 1871 2057
P81_ST00204 2035 287
P81_SP00170 1949
P81_ST00205 1972 125 turties, 06020885
P81_SP00171 2097
P81_ST00206 2125 0.24
P81_SP00172 2172
P81_ST00207 four 5850
P81_SP00173 2268 2058
P81_ST00208 2290 0.50 8070088088
P81_TL00036 2071 980
P81_ST00209 2072 7060064
P81_SP00174 1648 2113
P81_ST00210 1661
P81_SP00175 1698 2103
P81_ST00211 1710 03000532
P81_SP00176 2108
P81_ST00212 92 three 36020
P81_SP00177 1943
P81_ST00213 7706
P81_SP00178 2039
P81_ST00214 2055 been 0303
P81_SP00179 2139
P81_ST00215 2155 155 reported 50030034
P81_SP00180 2310
P81_ST00216 2324
P81_SP00181 2355
P81_ST00217 2370 131 Haitian 0.82 1003070
P81_TL00037 1520 967
P81_ST00218 2124 waters: 0.99 0000000
P81_SP00182 1649 2149
P81_ST00219 1677 162 Chclonia 72308100
P81_SP00183 1839 2150
P81_ST00220 mydas 54000
P81_SP00184 1976 2153
P81_ST00221 2001 (green 422200
P81_SP00185 2158
P81_ST00222 2142 turtle), 04023000
P81_SP00186 2269 2157
P81_ST00223 2294 Caretta 0040460
P81_SP00187 2428
P81_ST00224 2450 2128 ca caretta,
P81_TL00038 1522 2161
P81_ST00225 2168 retta, 244000
P81_SP00188 1619 2201
P81_ST00226 1635 2162 (the 0.88 0031
P81_SP00189 1705 2204
P81_ST00227 1722 loggerhead) 31700020000
P81_SP00190 1936 2205
P81_ST00228 000
P81_SP00191 2195
P81_ST00229 to
P81_SP00192 2066
P81_ST00230 2080
P81_SP00193
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P12_ST00172 635 001
P12_SP00149 675
P12_ST00173 691 146 physical 00000000
P12_SP00150 837 2499
P12_ST00174 854 2457 244 environment. 000600800000
P12_SP00151 1098 2492
P12_ST00175 1120 Not
P12_SP00152 1187
P12_ST00176 1204 ail
P12_SP00153 1246 2493
P12_ST00177 2470 02
P12_TL00024 2501
P12_ST00178 2506 pects 00342
P12_SP00154 419 2543
P12_ST00179 434 relating 00100087
P12_SP00155 572 2546
P12_ST00180 587 2507
P12_SP00156 622 2535
P12_ST00181 636 2502 270
P12_SP00157 2536
P12_ST00182 705 2508 86 00003
P12_SP00158 2537
P12_ST00183 804 2503
P12_SP00159 843
P12_ST00184 853 2504
P12_SP00160
P12_ST00185 923 environment, 002302000074
P12_SP00161 2545
P12_ST00186 1183 such 1307
P12_SP00162 2540
P12_ST00187 1276 2516
P12_TL00025 2547
P12_ST00188 112 public
P12_SP00163 438 2588
P12_ST00189 456 2548 124 health, 5302000
P12_SP00164 580 2587
P12_ST00190 599 2549 227 demography 0050100001
P12_SP00165 2592
P12_ST00191 2551
P12_SP00166 2582
P12_ST00192 925 2560 energy 003050
P12_SP00167 2593
P12_ST00193 1065 2561 were 0002
P12_SP00168 2584
P12_ST00194 1168 2553 143 covered 2000140
P12_TL00026 48
P12_ST00195
P12_SP00169 358 2626
P12_ST00196 380 dtail 000034
P12_SP00170 482 2627
P12_ST00197 504 2595 due
P12_SP00171 2628
P12_ST00198 590 2599
P12_SP00172 625
P12_ST00199 647 2594 time 7000
P12_SP00173
P12_ST00200 746 213 restrictions. 0000030370000
P12_SP00174 959 2630
P12_ST00201 A 0.61 3
P12_SP00175 2631
P12_ST00202 2598 274 comprchensive 0010080007000
P12_TL00027 2639 49
P12_ST00203 218 0003100008100
P12_SP00176 544 2674
P12_ST00204 558 2641 0.52
P12_SP00177
P12_ST00205 53402
P12_SP00178 718 2683
P12_ST00206 2647 109 sector 210732
P12_SP00179 840 2676
P12_ST00207 851 2642 140 analysis 00003200
P12_SP00180 991 2685
P12_ST00208 2654
P12_SP00181 1070 2677
P12_ST00209 1082 2644 also 0233
P12_SP00182 1151 2678
P12_ST00210 1165 2651 58 not 0.66 064
P12_SP00183 1223
P12_ST00211 1236 2655 pos possible.
P12_TL00028 325 2686
P12_ST00212 94 sible.
P12_SP00184 2719
P12_ST00213 2687 Thse 20050
P12_SP00185 2720
P12_ST00214 557 2697 may
P12_SP00186 631 2729
P12_ST00215 2689
P12_SP00187
P12_ST00216 697
P12_SP00188 2721
P12_ST00217
P12_SP00189 884
P12_ST00218 2690 future 002000
P12_SP00190 1007 2723
P12_ST00219 2691 additions 000011000
P12_SP00191 1188 2724
P12_ST00220 1200 2696 0.49
P12_SP00192 1235
P12_ST00221 this 5522
P12_TL00029 2732 193
P12_ST00222 document. 250001100
P12_ST00223 2833 287 GEOGRAPHY, 0405063050
P12_SP00193 612 2871
P12_ST00224 199 CLIMATE 0650600
P12_TL00030 2915
P12_ST00225 2916 500
P12_SP00194 2949
P12_ST00226 2921
P12_SP00195 2959
P12_ST00227 613 2917
P12_SP00196 651
P12_ST00228 665 00100
P12_SP00197 2950
P12_ST00229
P12_SP00198
P12_ST00230 811 131 located 0600010
P12_SP00199 942
P12_ST00231
P12_SP00200 989
P12_ST00232
P12_SP00201 1062
P12_ST00233 mountainous 00000033303
P12_TL00031 2962
P12_ST00234 2967 141 weSk'ern 30687001
P12_SP00202 2996
P12_ST00235 third 01001
P12_SP00203
P12_ST00236 585 2963
P12_SP00204 623 2995
P12_ST00237 634 054
P12_SP00205
P12_ST00238 702 105 island 003020
P12_SP00206 807
P12_ST00239 0.63
P12_SP00207
P12_ST00240 869 210 Hispaniola, 02008000033
P12_SP00208 3004
P12_ST00241 1093 165 bordered 40004020
P12_SP00209
P12_ST00242 1270 2973
P12_TL00032 3008
P12_ST00243 3009 324
P12_SP00210 386 3041
P12_ST00244 99 north 14020
P12_SP00211
P12_ST00245 0.67
P12_SP00212 3051
P12_ST00246 565
P12_SP00213
P12_ST00247 149 Atlantic 22216432
P12_SP00214 780 3042
P12_ST00248 3010 Ocan, 600402
P12_SP00215 919 3048
P12_ST00249 933 3014
P12_SP00216
P12_ST00250
P12_SP00217 3043
P12_ST00251 1046 81 west 0135
P12_SP00218
P12_ST00252 1139
P12_SP00219 1203
P12_ST00253 1215 98 south 01020
P12_TL00033 3053
P12_ST00254
P12_SP00220 372 3097
P12_ST00255 3054
P12_SP00221 439 3088
P12_ST00256 451 188 Caribbean 015501000
P12_SP00222 3089
P12_ST00257 Sea
P12_SP00223 713 3087
P12_ST00258 3055
P12_SP00224 790
P12_ST00259 801 3060
P12_SP00225 836
P12_ST00260 848
P12_SP00226
P12_ST00261 913 3062 east
P12_SP00227
P12_ST00262 994 3057
P12_SP00228 1036 3098
P12_ST00263 3056
P12_SP00229 1103
P12_ST00264 197 Dominican 000000000
P12_TB00004 1393 1336 1010 1767
P12_TL00034 1411 1342
P12_ST00265 1343 163 Republic 02002600
P12_SP00230 1574 1385
P12_ST00266 1596 (DR). 05702
P12_SP00231
P12_ST00267 1731 Its
P12_SP00232 1775 1377
P12_ST00268 1796 120 closest 0010301
P12_SP00233 1916
P12_ST00269 1936 178 neighbors 000000501
P12_SP00234 2114 1387
P12_ST00270 1353
P12_SP00235 1378
P12_ST00271 2212 1346 Cuba 6000
P12_SP00236 2310 1379
P12_ST00272 2329 203
P12_TL00035 1409 1389 937
P12_ST00273 Jamaica, 40006005
P12_SP00237 1569 1427
P12_ST00274 1578
P12_SP00238 1634 1422
P12_ST00275 1644 1390 United 780000
P12_SP00239 1770 1423
P12_ST00276 1780 108 States 050002
P12_SP00240 1888
P12_ST00277 1897 1391
P12_SP00241 1963
P12_ST00278 1973
P12_SP00242 2027 1425
P12_ST00279 DR. 130
P12_SP00243 2113 1424
P12_ST00280 2127 133 (Figure 0310040
P12_SP00244 1433
P12_ST00281 2270 I-l). 43000
P12_TL00036 1453
P12_ST00282 119 Haiti's 4000144
P12_SP00245 1572 1510
P12_ST00283 1590 position 06000063
P12_SP00246 1736 1519
P12_ST00284
P12_SP00247
P12_ST00285 1806
P12_SP00248 1861
P12_ST00286 1478 tropics
P12_SP00249 2000
P12_ST00287 2018
P12_SP00250 2083
P12_ST00288 2100
P12_SP00251 2142
P12_ST00289 2159 238 00030000400
P12_TL00037 1412
P12_ST00290 terrain
P12_SP00252 1532
P12_ST00291 1550 hve 0202
P12_SP00253
P12_ST00292 1651 created 0003000
P12_SP00254 1557
P12_ST00293 1802 1527 extrme 0082000
P12_SP00255
P12_ST00294 1965 weather
P12_SP00256 2111
P12_ST00295 2125 conditions 0000000200
P12_SP00257
P12_ST00296 2330
P12_TL00038 1568 981
P12_ST00297 223 temprature 30100500204
P12_SP00258 1612
P12_ST00298 1570 rgimes 0000006
P12_SP00259 1791
P12_ST00299 1804 which 00400
P12_SP00260 1909 1603
P12_ST00300 1922 vary 0010
P12_SP00261
P12_ST00301 2013 greatly 3200300
P12_SP00262 2138
P12_ST00302 2152 with 0340
P12_SP00263 1604
P12_ST00303 2243 altitude. 003420001
P12_TL00039
P12_ST00304 Rainfall 21000057
P12_SP00264
P12_ST00305 1573 1620 patterns 20000010
P12_SP00265 1722
P12_ST00306 1738 1625 100 range 00020
P12_SP00266 1838 1658
P12_ST00307 1855 1050
P12_SP00267 1940
P12_ST00308 1957 1617 less 3000
P12_SP00268 2020
P12_ST00309 2036
P12_SP00269
P12_ST00310 0.54 076
P12_SP00270 2193
P12_ST00311 2208 1626 mm 03
P12_SP00271
P12_ST00312 2292
P12_SP00272 2324
P12_ST00313 2340
P12_TL00040
P12_ST00314 1662 northwest 052200050
P12_SP00273 1589
P12_ST00315 1609 1666
P12_SP00274 1645
P12_ST00316 1664 1671 4430
P12_SP00275 1758 1696
P12_ST00317 1777 80
P12_SP00276 1857
P12_ST00318 3,000 10503
P12_SP00277 1701
P12_ST00319
P12_SP00278 2058
P12_ST00320 2078
P12_SP00279 2109
P12_ST00321 2130
P12_SP00280 2184
P12_ST00322 2205 190 mountains 220000001
P12_TL00041
P12_ST00323
P12_SP00281 1448 1741
P12_ST00324 1488 502
P12_SP00282 1543
P12_ST00325 1586 Southwest. 0000020110
P12_SP00283 1778
P12_ST00326 1822 Tropical 00003004
P12_SP00284 1975
P12_ST00327 2016 1713 storms, 0007031
P12_SP00285 2149 1748
P12_ST00328 2192 hurricanes, 01073000014
P12_TL00042
P12_ST00329 droughts 05404650
P12_SP00286
P12_ST00330 1584 061
P12_SP00287
P12_ST00331 1667 111 floods 166643
P12_SP00288 1789
P12_ST00332 1764 0.62
P12_SP00289 1850
P12_ST00333 1867 256
P12_SP00290 1925
P12_ST00334 201 infrequent. 65200605450
P12_TL00043 1853 943
P12_ST00335 One
P12_SP00291 1526 1887
P12_ST00336 1545 1854
P12_SP00292 1583 1886
P12_ST00337
P12_SP00293
P12_ST00338 1677 larger 117000
P12_SP00294 1782 1896
P12_ST00339 01
P12_SP00295
P12_ST00340
P12_SP00296
P12_ST00341 1928 003000000
P12_SP00297 2116 1889
P12_ST00342 1856 nations, 07020004
P12_SP00298
P12_ST00343 2301 20400
P12_TL00044 1408 1899
P12_ST00344 has
P12_SP00299 1466 1932
P12_ST00345 1481 1900 27,000 000276
P12_SP00300
P12_ST00346 km^
P12_SP00301 1685 1933
P12_ST00347 1700 0.58
P12_SP00302 1737 1935
P12_ST00348 1901 land
P12_SP00303 1827 1934
P12_ST00349 1910 area
P12_SP00304 1920
P12_ST00350 including 010000047
P12_SP00305 2101 1944
P12_ST00351 1902 four 0050
P12_SP00306
P12_ST00352 1903 large
P12_SP00307 2296 1945
P12_ST00353 2312 offs 0300 offshore
P12_TL00045 1407
P12_ST00354 hore
P12_SP00308 1487
P12_ST00355 islands: 51730000
P12_SP00309 1641
P12_ST00356 1663 La
P12_SP00310 1711 1980
P12_ST00357 1730 Gonave
P12_SP00311 1873
P12_ST00358 1892 (680 3001
P12_SP00312 1969 1988
P12_ST00359 km^), 101003
P12_SP00313 1990
P12_ST00360 2105 1949
P12_SP00314
P12_ST00361 Tortue 002200
P12_SP00315 2294 1982
P12_ST00362 2315 (180 4004
P12_TL00046
P12_ST00363 95 km^); 021000
P12_SP00316 1503 2034
P12_ST00364 Ile 410
P12_SP00317
P12_ST00365 1993
P12_SP00318 2026
P12_ST00366 1622 115 Vache 00034
P12_SP00319
P12_ST00367 1755 (52
P12_SP00320 1811
P12_ST00368 km^)
P12_SP00321
P12_ST00369
P12_SP00322
P12_ST00370 2011 116 Grand
P12_SP00323
P12_ST00371 2145 174 Cayemite 00100530
P12_SP00324
P12_ST00372 2335 (45
P12_TL00047 1406 956
P12_ST00373 km^):
P12_SP00325 1500 2081
P12_ST00374
P12_SP00326
P12_ST00375 1571 well
P12_SP00327 1643
P12_ST00376 1660 2049
P12_SP00328
P12_ST00377 numerous 00003601
P12_SP00329 1891
P12_ST00378 1907 132 smaller 0200000
P12_SP00330
P12_ST00379 2054 121 islands 0060014
P12_SP00331 2175
P12_ST00380
P12_SP00332 2259 2075
P12_ST00381 2051 cays. 10040
P12_TL00048 1446 941
P12_ST00382 00320
P12_SP00333 1537 2161
P12_ST00383
P12_SP00334 1576 2160
P12_ST00384 1588
P12_SP00335 1607
P12_ST00385 1619 2128 00022000500
P12_SP00336 2162
P12_ST00386 1868 0005004
P12_SP00337 2004 2170
P12_ST00387 2015 0021
P12_SP00338 2093
P12_ST00388 2104 very 0005
P12_SP00339
P12_ST00389 few
P12_SP00340 2258
P12_ST00390 plains. 0700000
P12_TL00049 1405 2172
P12_ST00391 Two
P12_SP00341 1485 2207
P12_ST00392 ranges, 0006000
P12_SP00342 1631 2216
P12_ST00393
P12_SP00343
P12_ST00394 1718 Massif
P12_SP00344 1837
P12_ST00395 1848 de
P12_SP00345
P12_ST00396 1904 la
P12_SP00346 2206
P12_ST00397 Hotte 02000
P12_SP00347
P12_ST00398 2066
P12_SP00348
P12_ST00399 2147
P12_SP00349 2202
P12_ST00400 2217 500000
P12_SP00350 2337
P12_ST00401 2347
P12_TL00050
P12_ST00402 2220
P12_SP00351 1435 2254
P12_ST00403 1455 Selle, 002010
P12_SP00352
P12_ST00404 210000000
P12_SP00353 1743 2262
P12_ST00405 1761 Pic
P12_SP00354 1816
P12_ST00406 1834
P12_SP00355 1865 2253
P12_ST00407 1881 000730
P12_SP00356
P12_ST00408
P12_SP00357 2055
P12_ST00409 550040500
P12_SP00358 2242 2261
P12_ST00410 highest 0002400
P12_TL00051 2264
P12_ST00411 2266 peak 0003
P12_SP00359 1491
P12_ST00412 2271 at 0.59 08
P12_SP00360 1540 2300
P12_ST00413 2,684
P12_SP00361 1652 2304
P12_ST00414 meters 004001
P12_SP00362
P12_ST00415 1803 107 above 40050
P12_SP00363 2299
P12_ST00416 1924 57 sea
P12_SP00364
P12_ST00417 level, 300073
P12_SP00365 2091
P12_ST00418 2107 59 run
P12_SP00366 2166 2298
P12_ST00419
P12_SP00367
P12_ST00420 2227
P12_SP00368 2247
P12_ST00421 79 2047
P12_SP00369 2341
P12_ST00422 2356
P12_TL00052 2311
P12_ST00423 2317
P12_SP00370 2346
P12_ST00424 1494 162 direction 040000500
P12_SP00371
P12_ST00425 along
P12_SP00372 2355
P12_ST00426 1795
P12_SP00373
P12_ST00427 1870 157 southern 61000000
P12_SP00374
P12_ST00428 2046 73 part 0350
P12_SP00375
P12_ST00429 2139
P12_SP00376 2176 2345
P12_ST00430 2194 103 000603
P12_SP00377 2297
P12_ST00431
P12_TL00053 2357
P12_ST00432 003030
P12_SP00378 2393
P12_ST00433 Central 1300010
P12_SP00379 1676 2392
P12_ST00434 2360 89 gives
P12_SP00380 1784 2402
P12_ST00435 rise
P12_SP00381
P12_ST00436 2363
P12_SP00382 1917
P12_ST00437 006
P12_SP00383
P12_ST00438 0000303
P12_SP00384
P12_ST00439 Plateau 0800000
P12_SP00385 2295
P12_ST00440 5400
P12_TL00054
P12_ST00441 0100800
P12_SP00386 1538 2438
P12_ST00442 200000402
P12_SP00387 1744 2439
P12_ST00443 1760 205 ("mornes") 0140000000
P12_SP00388 2447
P12_ST00444 cxtending 813000000
P12_SP00389
P12_ST00445
P12_SP00390
P12_ST00446 2334
P12_TL00055 2450
P12_ST00447 north, 405003
P12_SP00391 1517 2491
P12_ST00448 1535 20000
P12_SP00392 1633 2485
P12_ST00449 2451
P12_SP00393 1688 2484
P12_ST00450 Cap
P12_SP00394 1773 2494
P12_ST00451 Haitien 0004010
P12_SP00395
P12_ST00452 1939
P12_SP00396
P12_ST00453 2019 2455 west, 00500
P12_SP00397 2490
P12_ST00454
P12_SP00398
P12_ST00455
P12_SP00399
P12_ST00456 nor- 0204
P12_TL00056 2497
P12_ST00457 2498 176 thwestern 052000020
P12_SP00400 2532
P12_ST00458 1598 186 peninsula. 0004002000
P12_SP00401 2541
P12_ST00459 273 Approximately 0004003006030
P12_SP00402
P12_ST00460 63%
P12_SP00403 2531
P12_ST00461 2187
P12_SP00404
P12_ST00462 2238
P12_SP00405
P12_ST00463 lands
P12_TL00057
P12_ST00464 2544 82 2010
P12_SP00406 2577
P12_ST00465 1511 slopes 050060
P12_SP00407 2586
P12_ST00466 greater 0020000
P12_SP00408 1774
P12_ST00467 3500
P12_SP00409 1875
P12_ST00468 1895 20%,
P12_SP00410 2583
P12_ST00469 2014 070
P12_SP00411 2079 2576
P12_ST00470 only 0013
P12_SP00412
P12_ST00471 2199 29%
P12_SP00413 2279
P12_ST00472
P12_TL00058 446
P12_ST00473 2591 040040
P12_SP00414 1516 2633
P12_ST00474 2590
P12_SP00415 2624
P12_ST00475
P12_SP00416 2623
P12_ST00476 2589
P12_SP00417
P12_ST00477 1762 10%. 0100
P12_TL00059 2679
P12_ST00478 GEOLOGY 0004206
P12_SP00418 2713 -178
P12_ST00479 1442 2777 It
P12_SP00419 1470 2810
P12_ST00480
P12_SP00420 1546 2811
P12_ST00481 1563 2776 been 0200
P12_SP00421
P12_ST00482 suggested 001020002
P12_SP00422 1841 2820
P12_ST00483 1859 68 that 4247
P12_SP00423 1927
P12_ST00484 306
P12_SP00424 1998
P12_ST00485 607027
P12_SP00425 2809
P12_ST00486 0.47
P12_SP00426
P12_ST00487 2775 198 Hispaniola 4004040730
P12_TL00060 1401 2822
P12_ST00488 2832
P12_SP00427 2856
P12_ST00489 2823
P12_SP00428 1611
P12_ST00490 1623
P12_SP00429 2865
P12_ST00491
P12_SP00430 1732 2857
P12_ST00492 151 uplifting 000104600
P12_SP00431 2866
P12_ST00493 1905
P12_SP00432 1943 2855 8
P12_ST00494
P12_SP00433
P12_ST00495 major 00170
P12_SP00434 2864
P12_ST00496
P12_SP00435 2249
P12_ST00497 2831 masses 001220
P12_TL00061 2868
P12_ST00498 2869
P12_SP00436 1465 2902
P12_ST00499 1492 02230
P12_SP00437
P12_ST00500 subsquent 0005200000
P12_SP00438 1808 2913
P12_ST00501 collision 017300430
P12_SP00439
P12_ST00502 2008 2877 over 0123
P12_SP00440
P12_ST00503 gologie 07340020
P12_SP00441 2911
P12_ST00504 2289 time. 00010
P12_TL00062 1400
P12_ST00505 30000
P12_SP00442
P12_ST00506 1529
P12_SP00443 1605
P12_ST00507 1624 2924 700000
P12_SP00444
P12_ST00508 1768
P12_SP00445 2948
P12_ST00509 1874 formed 410000
P12_SP00446
P12_ST00510 2023
P12_SP00447
P12_ST00511 oceanic 0850000
P12_SP00448
P12_ST00512 2283 2919 crust, 000106
P12_TL00063 1402 2961
P12_ST00513 uplifted 00014600
P12_SP00449 1542 3005
P12_ST00514 1564
P12_SP00450 1630
P12_ST00515 1653 influenced 0020000000
P12_SP00451
P12_ST00516 1866
P12_SP00452 1906
P12_ST00517 2971
P12_SP00453
P12_ST00518 level 60000
P12_SP00454
P12_ST00519 2112 changes. 00070007
P12_SP00455
P12_ST00520 2293 Most
P12_TL00064 1403 3007
P12_ST00521 marine 036625
P12_SP00456
P12_ST00522 3013 terraces
P12_SP00457 1689 3040
P12_ST00523 1705 3018
P12_SP00458
P12_ST00524 1809 145 exposed 0100504
P12_SP00459 3049
P12_ST00525 1972 004005
P12_SP00460 3050
P12_ST00526 2106
P12_SP00461
P12_ST00527 207 Pleistocene 70060030430
P12_TL00065 1399
P12_ST00528 3064 era.
P12_SP00462
P12_ST00529 There 02010
P12_SP00463
P12_ST00530
P12_SP00464
P12_ST00531 1720 5000
P12_SP00465
P12_ST00532 1825 no
P12_SP00466
P12_ST00533 106 10080
P12_SP00467
P12_ST00534
P12_SP00468
P12_ST00535 10002
P12_SP00469
P12_ST00536 changes 0222041
P12_SP00470 2332 3096
P12_ST00537
P12_TB00005 2382 3197
P12_TL00066 2388 3203
P12_ST00538 1 2


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P98_ST00319 2171 77
P98_SP00280 2197
P98_ST00320 476 2165 arliculatc 0000205058
P98_SP00281
P98_ST00321 2175
P98_SP00282 2196
P98_ST00322 697 2163 vision 002780
P98_SP00283 801 2195
P98_ST00323 819 2164
P98_SP00284
P98_ST00324 150 0.63 4260560
P98_SP00285 1023
P98_ST00325 0.94 0100
P98_SP00286 2194
P98_ST00326 was, 0253
P98_SP00287 2198
P98_ST00327 1225 above 04018
P98_SP00288 2193
P98_ST00328 1348 ail, 0.98 0000
P98_TL00041 2208
P98_ST00329 2212 52600
P98_SP00289 2245
P98_ST00330 2221 own. 7400
P98_SP00290 604 2244
P98_ST00331 623 For 084
P98_SP00291
P98_ST00332 2211
P98_SP00292 2243
P98_ST00333 better 786420
P98_SP00293
P98_ST00334 2215 part 5825
P98_SP00294 2251
P98_ST00335 2209
P98_SP00295 2241
P98_ST00336 1020 2220 1.00
P98_SP00296 1037 2242
P98_ST00337 1050 2214 0.70 7605100
P98_SP00297 1185 2248
P98_ST00338 1198
P98_SP00298 2240
P98_ST00339 2217 peasan 0.85 040400
P98_TL00042 2253
P98_ST00340 2263 try 530
P98_SP00299 471 2300
P98_ST00341 2258 pursued 3033050
P98_SP00300 2299
P98_ST00342 653 2257 6605
P98_SP00301 2289
P98_ST00343 2256 208080
P98_SP00302 2288
P98_ST00344 2255 successfully, 7186656000000
P98_SP00303 1086 2293
P98_ST00345 2254 0.86 0050
P98_SP00304 2286
P98_ST00346 results 1670003
P98_SP00305
P98_ST00347 1334 5400
P98_TL00043
P98_ST00348 2305 180 compared 88380036
P98_SP00306 600 2347
P98_ST00349 612 2304 89 quite 70067
P98_SP00307
P98_ST00350 2303 favorably 360866100
P98_SP00308 2344
P98_ST00351 898 2307
P98_SP00309 2335
P98_ST00352
P98_SP00310
P98_ST00353 2302 252 circumstances 4004057200000
P98_SP00311 1262 2334
P98_ST00354 1272
P98_SP00312 1309 2333
P98_ST00355 0.84 62000
P98_TL00044 2346 45
P98_ST00356 2352 Afro- 21062
P98_SP00313 521 2384
P98_ST00357 2350 American 40477430
P98_SP00314 2383
P98_ST00358 2349 compatriots 34023477563
P98_SP00315 930 2391
P98_ST00359 2348 200 throughout 0.76 6507000004
P98_SP00316 2390
P98_ST00360
P98_SP00317 2379
P98_ST00361 171 hmisph 0.82 43202010 hmisphre.
P98_TL00045 2394
P98_ST00362 2408 re. 056
P98_SP00318 2430
P98_ST00363 496 2398 If
P98_SP00319 2429
P98_ST00364 33000
P98_SP00320
P98_ST00365 647 2397 219 descendants 76306004142
P98_SP00321 866
P98_ST00366 889 2396 99 today 57421
P98_SP00322 988 2437
P98_ST00367 1012 0604
P98_SP00323 1094 2427
P98_ST00368 2395 3630
P98_SP00324
P98_ST00369 unable 0.83 100800
P98_SP00325 1345 2425
P98_ST00370
P98_TL00046 2439
P98_ST00371 2444 124 sustain 3372704
P98_SP00326 545 2476
P98_ST00372 561 5306
P98_SP00327 628 2475
P98_ST00373 2442 159 powcrfu 04310200
P98_SP00328 2484
P98_ST00374 818 002070
P98_SP00329 923 2474
P98_ST00375 938
P98_SP00330
P98_ST00376 2440 5100280
P98_SP00331 1137 2473
P98_ST00377
P98_SP00332 1183 2471
P98_ST00378 050
P98_SP00333 2472
P98_ST00379 entirely, 0.92 000020004
P98_TL00047 2486
P98_ST00380 2501 nor 081
P98_SP00334 2523
P98_ST00381 498 2500 8011
P98_SP00335
P98_ST00382 2496 08
P98_SP00336 630
P98_ST00383 2490 maintain 40320000
P98_SP00337 802 2522
P98_ST00384 2499
P98_SP00338 2521
P98_ST00385 2488 satisfactory 686163086800
P98_SP00339 1059 2530
P98_ST00386 1073 2487 standard 45108027
P98_SP00340 2520
P98_ST00387
P98_SP00341 2518
P98_ST00388 1292 living, 0.90 0000042
P98_TL00048 2533
P98_ST00389 2538 this 0518
P98_SP00342 2569
P98_ST00390
P98_SP00343 536 2568
P98_ST00391 2546
P98_SP00344
P98_ST00392 000
P98_SP00345 2577
P98_ST00393 2535 diminishes 6200003155
P98_SP00346 2567
P98_ST00394 310
P98_SP00347
P98_ST00395 163 historical 0030755080
P98_SP00348 2566
P98_ST00396 003
P98_SP00349 2564
P98_ST00397 cnltural 08100204
P98_TL00049 2580 760
P98_ST00398 2583 209 significance 500010013087
P98_SP00350 631 2625
P98_ST00399 2582
P98_SP00351 2614
P98_ST00400 700 34702
P98_SP00352
P98_ST00401 2581 original 0.89 70000010
P98_SP00353 937 2623
P98_ST00402 achicvemcnt 08201030666
P98_TL00050 2670 655
P98_ST00403 2672 C-
P98_SP00354 2703
P98_ST00404 405 CHARACTERISTICS 007072040760730
P98_SP00355 903
P98_ST00405 919 2671 OF
P98_SP00356 2702
P98_ST00406 990 THE
P98_TL00051 425 2715
P98_ST00407 2716 PEASANT 7053614
P98_SP00357 2748
P98_ST00408 201 FARMING 7620808
P98_SP00358 2747
P98_ST00409 SYSTEM 068240
P98_TL00052 464 2814
P98_ST00410 2816 Land 0.91 2001
P98_SP00359 2849
P98_ST00411 scarcity, 780000603
P98_SP00360 726 2857
P98_ST00412
P98_SP00361 2848
P98_ST00413 008
P98_SP00362
P98_ST00414 2815 face 4487
P98_SP00363
P98_ST00415
P98_SP00364 2847
P98_ST00416 2825 an
P98_SP00365
P98_ST00417 expanding 620125602
P98_SP00366 2856
P98_ST00418 0.80 04050
P98_TL00053 2860
P98_ST00419 2861 population, 18000052500
P98_SP00367 2904
P98_ST00420 027
P98_SP00368 2893
P98_ST00421 712 2862 resulted 00100600
P98_SP00369
P98_ST00422 867
P98_SP00370
P98_ST00423 005
P98_SP00371
P98_ST00424 cutting 2040056
P98_SP00372 2901
P98_ST00425 1110
P98_SP00373 1146 2892
P98_ST00426 5002044
P98_SP00374
P98_ST00427 forests 4304280
P98_TL00054 2906
P98_ST00428 2914
P98_SP00375 455 2942
P98_ST00429 2913 meet 0066
P98_SP00376 557
P98_ST00430 2909 055
P98_SP00377 2941
P98_ST00431 641 need 0375
P98_SP00378
P98_ST00432 741
P98_SP00379 2940
P98_ST00433 2908 cropland, 636000004
P98_SP00380 2950
P98_ST00434 2917 4060
P98_SP00381
P98_ST00435
P98_SP00382 1120 2939
P98_ST00436 2907 mountains 350033006
P98_SP00383
P98_ST00437 66 0.93
P98_TL00055 2952
P98_ST00438 2955 113 fragile 0000000
P98_SP00384 2997
P98_ST00439 2954 4002
P98_SP00385 2987
P98_ST00440 2964 20701
P98_SP00386
P98_ST00441 747 2953 unsuitable 0050007003
P98_SP00387
P98_ST00442 462
P98_SP00388 2986
P98_ST00443 sustained 204060055
P98_SP00389 1179
P98_ST00444 1193 agriculture, 001000000016
P98_TL00056 3000
P98_ST00445 3002 03480
P98_SP00390 527 3035
P98_ST00446
P98_SP00391 3034
P98_ST00447 large-scale 41007142078
P98_SP00392 3043
P98_ST00448 8645700
P98_SP00393 940
P98_ST00449 952 3001
P98_SP00394 3033
P98_ST00450 1001 3006 trees 00704
P98_SP00395 1087
P98_ST00451
P98_SP00396 3032
P98_ST00452 1162 charcoal 31006000
P98_SP00397
P98_ST00453 3008 pro- 0380
P98_TB00002 1486 234 2808
P98_TL00057 1507
P98_ST00454 diietioii 875864855
P98_SP00398 1640
P98_ST00455
P98_SP00399 1684 270
P98_ST00456 250 un
P98_SP00400
P98_ST00457 importuiit 2688878557
P98_SP00401 1931
P98_ST00458 1952 249 euiise 887488
P98_SP00402 2048
P98_ST00459 2066 242
P98_SP00403
P98_ST00460 deforestation 8888887786188
P98_SP00404 2355
P98_ST00461 2373
P98_SP00405 2404
P98_ST00462 2421 ecr 882
P98_TL00058 1508
P98_ST00463 288 tain 7838
P98_SP00406 319
P98_ST00464 1595 aieas, 858880
P98_SP00407 1700 323
P98_ST00465 1724 287 121 overall 8188811
P98_SP00408
P98_ST00466 1868
P98_SP00409
P98_ST00467 1912
P98_SP00410 1936 318
P98_ST00468 1960 very 0885
P98_SP00411 2034 327
P98_ST00469 286 iiiiieh 2677388
P98_SP00412 2153
P98_ST00470 2176 179 seeondary 488888886
P98_SP00413
P98_ST00471 2377
P98_SP00414 2411
P98_ST00472 2433
P98_TL00059
P98_ST00473 333 simple 846838
P98_SP00415 1622 374
P98_ST00474 expansion 868888688
P98_SP00416 1819
P98_ST00475 1838
P98_SP00417 1874 364
P98_ST00476 1890 338 peasuiil 88888556
P98_SP00418
P98_ST00477 2043 agrieiillnie 888586108868
P98_SP00419 2238
P98_ST00478 under 88888
P98_SP00420 2360
P98_ST00479 2376 97 eoiidi 885381
P98_TL00060 379
P98_ST00480 382 lions 62888
P98_SP00421 1589
P98_ST00481 1605 383
P98_SP00422 1637
P98_ST00482 1653 235 deniogiu|)liie 88858858683838
P98_SP00423 1888
P98_ST00483 1903 390 piessuie 84886878
P98_SP00424 2051
P98_ST00484 und
P98_SP00425 2132
P98_ST00485 2147 deeliniiig 8885386448
P98_SP00426 2310
P98_ST00486 2323 prodiieti 878875860
P98_TL00061 428
P98_ST00487 vity. 57830
P98_SP00427 1583 -30
P98_ST00488 Yet, 4880
P98_SP00428 1626 543
P98_ST00489 il
P98_SP00429 1672 538
P98_ST00490 1699
P98_SP00430
P98_ST00491 1860 ugrieiiltiire 8885803080588
P98_SP00431 2052 548
P98_ST00492 2080 lias 3787
P98_SP00432 2137 540
P98_ST00493 2160
P98_SP00433
P98_ST00494 2270 Ihe
P98_SP00434 2322
P98_ST00495 primury 8848880
P98_TL00062 546
P98_ST00496 95 887588
P98_SP00435 1602
P98_ST00497 1627
P98_SP00436 1658 583
P98_ST00498 1685 8778
P98_SP00437 1737
P98_ST00499 202 desliiutioii 887237866878
P98_SP00438 1961
P98_ST00500 1984
P98_SP00439
P98_ST00501 liuiti's 84836408
P98_SP00440 2159
P98_ST00502 2184 lorcst 688886
P98_SP00441 2280 586
P98_ST00503 564 eover 88086
P98_SP00442 2401
P98_ST00504 2424
P98_TL00063
P98_ST00505 widespread 4788788888
P98_SP00443 1710
P98_ST00506 1726 259 eiiviioiimeiital 8663068474867880
P98_SP00444 1985
P98_ST00507 2002 degiadatioii, 8884888778374
P98_SP00445 2231
P98_ST00508
P98_SP00446 2267
P98_ST00509 2283 8586
P98_SP00447 2340
P98_ST00510 2353 bccn
P98_SP00448 2436 634
P98_ST00511 2450
P98_TL00064
P98_ST00512 only 8820
P98_SP00449
P98_ST00513
P98_SP00450
P98_ST00514 1641 response 88788858
P98_SP00451
P98_ST00515 1810
P98_SP00452 1843
P98_ST00516 1856
P98_SP00453 1871
P98_ST00517 1885 whole 58808
P98_SP00454 1989
P98_ST00518 2004 host 8878
P98_SP00455
P98_ST00519 2088 ofeonstrainis 8888866881877
P98_SP00456 2330
P98_ST00520 2341 146 external 86786880
P98_TL00065
P98_ST00521
P98_SP00457 1539 724
P98_ST00522 1555 peasunt 8888887
P98_SP00458 1687
P98_ST00523 1705 695 laiinitig 681581748
P98_SP00459 732
P98_ST00524 1857 itself 457808
P98_SP00460 1941
P98_ST00525 1971 l'eusant 10883885
P98_SP00461 2105
P98_ST00526 faiiiiiiig 8834772768
P98_SP00462 2261
P98_ST00527 2274 704 muy 785
P98_SP00463 2345
P98_ST00528 ultima 817288 ultimately
P98_TL00066
P98_ST00529 tely 7800
P98_SP00464 1571 779
P98_ST00530 1594 748 prove 88808
P98_SP00465 1694
P98_ST00531 1721
P98_SP00466 1752
P98_ST00532 1778 liiive 056748
P98_SP00467 1858 771
P98_ST00533 1882 significant 83882708887
P98_SP00468 2064
P98_ST00534 2091 740 158 poteiilial 8888575081
P98_SP00469 2249
P98_ST00535 2275
P98_SP00470 2324
P98_ST00536 positive 88648028
P98_TL00067
P98_ST00537 imimets 0828878
P98_SP00471 1642 827
P98_ST00538 1657 on
P98_SP00472 817
P98_ST00539 1718 0.26
P98_SP00473 1769
P98_ST00540 environment, 880088878874
P98_SP00474
P98_ST00541 2046 797
P98_SP00475
P98_ST00542 2096 well. 38527
P98_SP00476 2178
P98_ST00543 2199
P98_SP00477 2230
P98_ST00544 laet, 38860
P98_SP00478
P98_ST00545 traditio 73880238 traditional
P98_TL00068 832
P98_ST00546 nal
P98_SP00479 1557 864
P98_ST00547 fcatures 88848886
P98_SP00480 1714
P98_ST00548 1725 834 o)
P98_SP00481 1756 863
P98_ST00549 1770 8887885
P98_SP00482
P98_ST00550 1918 farming 7818088
P98_SP00483
P98_ST00551 8808
P98_SP00484 865
P98_ST00552
P98_SP00485 2247
P98_ST00553 2260 225 insirumcnlal 088808888082
P98_TL00069 1505
P98_ST00554
P98_SP00486 1535
P98_ST00555
P98_SP00487
P98_ST00556 1630 success 6888885
P98_SP00488
P98_ST00557 1774
P98_SP00489 1811
P98_ST00558 1827
P98_SP00490 1955
P98_ST00559 programs 84880747
P98_SP00491
P98_ST00560 2167
P98_SP00492 2200
P98_ST00561 2219 amcliorate 8380080838
P98_SP00493 912
P98_ST00562 2431
P98_TL00070 1504
P98_ST00563 230 environment 88000888885
P98_SP00494 1734
P98_ST00564
P98_SP00495 1816
P98_ST00565 reverse 0808878
P98_SP00496 1964
P98_ST00566 ngative 88888008
P98_SP00497 2135
P98_ST00567 2155 120 trends, 5388857
P98_SP00498
P98_ST00568 2306 Thcsc 88868
P98_SP00499
P98_ST00569 2420 elc- 8282
P98_TL00071
P98_ST00570 mcnts 88852
P98_SP00500 1610 1003
P98_ST00571 include 0880788
P98_SP00501 1004
P98_ST00572 1776 478
P98_SP00502 1829
P98_ST00573 1849 8885885
P98_SP00503
P98_ST00574 973 orientation 80088386388
P98_SP00504 2202
P98_ST00575
P98_SP00505
P98_ST00576 2272
P98_SP00506 2325
P98_ST00577 2343 974 market, 5803845
P98_TL00072
P98_ST00578 mixed 50288
P98_SP00507 1611 1048
P98_ST00579 1631 cropping 87888478
P98_SP00508 1789
P98_ST00580 1806 181 slralej^ies, 6078788100870
P98_SP00509 1987
P98_ST00581
P98_SP00510
P98_ST00582 2090 indigneous 0880808875
P98_SP00511 2284
P98_ST00583 169 agrofores 880828381 agroforestry
P98_TL00073 1064
P98_ST00584 1069
P98_SP00512 1551
P98_ST00585 1569 associations, 8658835608820
P98_TL00074 1548
P98_ST00586 Peasant 8885883
P98_SP00513 1187
P98_ST00587 1703 88038804868
P98_SP00514 1895
P98_ST00588 1915
P98_SP00515 1939
P98_ST00589 1957 virtually 040288006
P98_SP00516
P98_ST00590 2125 ubiquitous 8808701861
P98_SP00517 2315
P98_ST00591 2332
P98_SP00518 2361
P98_ST00592 2381 llaiti, 8660200
P98_TL00075 1503
P98_ST00593 1203
P98_SP00519 1234
P98_ST00594 1586 1202
P98_SP00520
P98_ST00595 1628 certain 8804808
P98_SP00521 1750
P98_ST00596 1768 1207
P98_SP00522 1802 1233
P98_ST00597 1820 rcmain 583808
P98_SP00523 1942
P98_ST00598
P98_SP00524 1997
P98_ST00599 2016
P98_SP00525 2045
P98_ST00600 2065
P98_SP00526
P98_ST00601 2139 forcsceabic 68083886838
P98_SP00527
P98_ST00602 futqre, 6578080
P98_TL00076 1501
P98_ST00603 Thcrcfi 8585557
P98_SP00528 1281
P98_ST00604 1651 1258 46 'c, 71082
P98_SP00529 1697
P98_ST00605 750
P98_SP00530 1775
P98_ST00606 1792 165 proposed 80888688
P98_SP00531
P98_ST00607 1249 347308
P98_SP00532 2082
P98_ST00608 interventions 0458008052843
P98_SP00533 2336
P98_ST00609 2351
P98_SP00534 2382 1278
P98_ST00610 2399 1247 07050
P98_TL00077 1294
P98_ST00611 1306 87887
P98_SP00535
P98_ST00612 must 6536
P98_SP00536
P98_ST00613 1709 1295 necessarily 68885883000
P98_SP00537
P98_ST00614 take 7808
P98_SP00538 1992
P98_ST00615 139 account 8888226
P98_SP00539 1327
P98_ST00616
P98_SP00540
P98_ST00617 2210
P98_SP00541 2264
P98_ST00618 2278 basic 73708
P98_SP00542 2365
P98_ST00619 featu 68473 features
P98_TL00078 1338
P98_ST00620 res
P98_SP00543
P98_ST00621 1576 1341
P98_SP00544 1612
P98_ST00622 1633 5886737
P98_SP00545 1767 1383
P98_ST00623 1340 8816
P98_SP00546 1873
P98_ST00624 1896 syslcms 6000568
P98_SP00547 2035
P98_ST00625
P98_SP00548 2121
P98_ST00626 2145 slrive 407708
P98_SP00549
P98_ST00627 2265
P98_SP00550 1371
P98_ST00628 2321 offer 87650
P98_SP00551 2406
P98_ST00629
P98_TL00079 1502 1386
P98_ST00630 small 33803
P98_SP00552 1593 1421
P98_ST00631 1607 farmer 870280
P98_SP00553 1728 1420
P98_ST00632 1399
P98_SP00554
P98_ST00633 real
P98_SP00555 1833
P98_ST00634 1387 chance 888788
P98_SP00556 1968
P98_ST00635 1393
P98_SP00557
P98_ST00636 2028 participate 58242806648
P98_SP00558 2218
P98_ST00637
P98_SP00559 1419
P98_ST00638 578
P98_SP00560 2327
P98_ST00639 2339 solution 68067084
P98_TL00080 1433
P98_ST00640 1435
P98_SP00561 1538 1466
P98_ST00641 1556 8647064
P98_SP00562
P98_ST00642 1689 260 environmental 8000088033784
P98_SP00563 1949
P98_ST00643 1969 problems, 548808331
P98_TL00081 1518
P98_ST00644 1520 247 Heterogeneity 4648088808235
P98_SP00564 1751 1559
P98_ST00645 1766 1519
P98_SP00565 1549
P98_ST00646 1817
P98_SP00566 1550
P98_ST00647 pea,santry 0887870607
P98_TL00082 1606
P98_ST00648 The
P98_SP00567
P98_ST00649 1632 8810301
P98_SP00568 1762
P98_ST00650 1779 376068700
P98_SP00569 1648
P98_ST00651
P98_SP00570 1993 1639
P98_ST00652 1613 not
P98_SP00571 1638
P98_ST00653 2083 1618
P98_SP00572
P98_ST00654 2115 101 single 000808
P98_SP00573 2216
P98_ST00655 2232 251 homogcncous 48887856852
P98_TL00083 1652
P98_ST00656 class. 802741
P98_SP00574
P98_ST00657 1654 Variations 0710240805
P98_SP00575 1686
P98_ST00658 1812
P98_SP00576 1842
P98_ST00659 pear;anl 37687550
P98_SP00577 1991
P98_ST00660 2003 conomie 78808208
P98_SP00578
P98_ST00661 2189 status 344734
P98_SP00579 2291
P98_ST00662 aie 388
P98_SP00580 2357
P98_ST00663 2371 reflec 087364 reflected
P98_TL00084 1698
P98_ST00664 ted
P98_SP00581
P98_ST00665 1581
P98_SP00582 1733
P98_ST00666 1634 highly 706704
P98_SP00583 1741 1742
P98_ST00667 246 differentiated 80547164603088
P98_SP00584
P98_ST00668 2033 relations 380800807
P98_SP00585 2188 1732
P98_ST00669 1704
P98_SP00586
P98_ST00670 2266 068
P98_SP00587 2319 1731
P98_ST00671 4702350
P98_TL00085 1745
P98_ST00672 patterns 83208028
P98_SP00588 1650
P98_ST00673 1748
P98_SP00589
P98_ST00674 1746 landholding, 032358080073
P98_SP00590 1950
P98_ST00675 1974
P98_SP00591 2039
P98_ST00676 2059 varied 002006
P98_SP00592
P98_ST00677 2191 00802018
P98_SP00593
P98_ST00678 2369 strat 603530 stratgies,
P98_TL00086
P98_ST00679 gies, 60857
P98_SP00594 1835
P98_ST00680 Wcalthicr 047078000
P98_SP00595 1773
P98_ST00681 1784 2375700
P98_SP00596 1920
P98_ST00682 1933 families 67260043
P98_SP00597 1826
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P98_SP00598 2250 1834
P98_ST00684 2262 7000
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P98_ST00685 1797 greater 0521660
P98_TL00087 1837
P98_ST00686 1850 381663
P98_SP00600
P98_ST00687
P98_SP00601 1667 1872
P98_ST00688 1840 savings. 08100680
P98_SP00602 1824 1881
P98_ST00689 Thse 02807
P98_SP00603
P98_ST00690 1976 1839 05100088
P98_SP00604
P98_ST00691 1848
P98_SP00605 2190
P98_ST00692 likely 001640
P98_SP00606
P98_ST00693
P98_SP00607 2359 1870
P98_ST00694 invest 000055
P98_TL00088
P98_ST00695 01
P98_SP00608 1534
P98_ST00696 0357
P98_SP00609 1624 1921
P98_ST00697 257
P98_SP00610
P98_ST00698 livestock, 4008268044
P98_SP00611
P98_ST00699 1902 but
P98_SP00612 1958 1919
P98_ST00700 surpluses 143060585
P98_SP00613 2140 1928
P98_ST00701 2154 may 073
P98_SP00614 2226
P98_ST00702 also 3007
P98_SP00615 2311
P98_ST00703 1886 be
P98_SP00616 2364
P98_ST00704 inves 00453 investcd
P98_TL00089 1930
P98_ST00705 tcd
P98_SP00617 1966
P98_ST00706 1575 1934
P98_SP00618 1965
P98_ST00707 1620 199 commerce, 162236810
P98_SP00619
P98_ST00708 218 spculation, 306720000805
P98_SP00620 1973
P98_ST00709 money-lending 0806010607007
P98_SP00621
P98_ST00710 1940
P98_SP00622 1962
P98_ST00711 2403 migration.
P98_TL00090
P98_ST00712 1980 gration. 12003605
P98_SP00623
P98_ST00713 1662 060165580
P98_SP00624 2012
P98_ST00714 63585155
P98_SP00625
P98_ST00715
P98_SP00626 2011
P98_ST00716 1988 more 0735
P98_SP00627
P98_ST00717 oricnlcd 70084166
P98_SP00628
P98_ST00718
P98_SP00629 2410
P98_ST00719 pe perennial
P98_TL00091 2023
P98_ST00720 rennial 2503046
P98_SP00630
P98_ST00721 2027
P98_SP00631 1717
P98_ST00722 export 530815
P98_SP00632
P98_ST00723 crops, 838080
P98_SP00633 1990
P98_ST00724 007
P98_SP00634
P98_ST00725 can
P98_SP00635
P98_ST00726 afford 051705
P98_SP00636 2298
P98_ST00727
P98_SP00637 2402
P98_ST00728 302
P98_TL00092
P98_ST00729 2074 higher 400353
P98_SP00638
P98_ST00730 capital 8414040
P98_SP00639
P98_ST00731 inputs 000675
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P98_ST00732 638
P98_SP00641
P98_ST00733
P98_SP00642 2032
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P98_SP00643 2101
P98_ST00735 between 8362600
P98_SP00644 2103
P98_ST00736 2285 197 investment 0026462005
P98_TL00093
P98_ST00737 2120 006
P98_SP00645
P98_ST00738 1585 2124 return 023250
P98_SP00646 1695
P98_ST00739 1712 0300
P98_SP00647 1780
P98_ST00740 1798 thse 50602
P98_SP00648
P98_ST00741 1906 2127 crops 80623
P98_SP00649
P98_ST00742 2020 require. 06042000
P98_TL00094 1540
P98_ST00743 2213
P98_SP00650
P98_ST00744 contrast, 880706104
P98_SP00651
P98_ST00745 2222 poor 0884
P98_SP00652 2252
P98_ST00746 0808403
P98_SP00653
P98_ST00747 1996 203 households 5833848073
P98_SP00654
P98_ST00748 tend 6428
P98_SP00655 2287
P98_ST00749 toconceal 678602001
P98_TL00095 1497
P98_ST00750
P98_SP00656 2290
P98_ST00751 prsence 00621034
P98_SP00657
P98_ST00752
P98_SP00658
P98_ST00753
P98_SP00659
P98_ST00754 1818 hidden 507871
P98_SP00660
P98_ST00755 1954 00042
P98_SP00661
P98_ST00756 2053 proltariat. 008004001100
P98_SP00662
P98_ST00757 2273 Most 0547
P98_SP00663
P98_ST00758 2374
P98_SP00664
P98_ST00759 2422
P98_TL00096 1496
P98_ST00760 03040
P98_SP00665 2337
P98_ST00761 1603 2314 0870
P98_SP00666
P98_ST00762 026
P98_SP00667 1760
P98_ST00763 1783 377
P98_SP00668
P98_ST00764 1861 landless 58282487
P98_SP00669
P98_ST00765 265 sharecroppers. 52000808000350
P98_SP00670
P98_ST00766 2309 They 2502
P98_SP00671
P98_ST00767
P98_TL00097
P98_ST00768 0503
P98_SP00672
P98_ST00769 030000
P98_SP00673
P98_ST00770 2356
P98_SP00674
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P98_ST00776 forcei 388888
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P98_ST00783 occasional 7352508007
P98_SP00686
P98_ST00784 2316 2407
P98_SP00687
P98_ST00785 seaso 11066 seasonal
P98_TL00099
P98_ST00786 010
P98_SP00688
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P98_SP00689
P98_ST00788 00340
P98_SP00690
P98_ST00789
P98_SP00691
P98_ST00790 2448 petty 00700
P98_SP00692 1923 2485
P98_ST00791 1938 2452 commerce. 060670003
P98_SP00693
P98_ST00792 370
P98_SP00694 2225
P98_ST00793 vast 0488
P98_SP00695
P98_ST00794 20130360
P98_TL00100 2489
P98_ST00795 2491
P98_SP00696 1532
P98_ST00796 6756400
P98_SP00697
P98_ST00797 70504007
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P98_ST00798 1864
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P98_SP00700 2527
P98_ST00800 2179 2495 yet 220
P98_SP00701 2532
P98_ST00801 040
P98_SP00702
P98_ST00802 2326 10062040
P98_TL00101 2536
P98_ST00803 2537
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P98_ST00806 7077
P98_SP00706
P98_ST00807 0307
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P98_ST00808 5552
P98_SP00708 2005
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P98_SP00709 2054
P98_ST00810 2075 absolutc 55586002
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P98_ST00812 well 0562
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P98_SP00713
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P98_ST00815 relative 00001036
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P98_ST00818 5050
P98_SP00716 1743
P98_ST00819 2680
P98_SP00717
P98_ST00820 privately 056040320
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P98_ST00821 2013 held 5100
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P98_ST00824 hillside 50320270
P98_TL00104 1493
P98_ST00825 farmers 7708308
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P98_ST00826 2726
P98_SP00723
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P98_SP00724 1772
P98_ST00828 0280
P98_SP00725 2758
P98_ST00829 2721
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P98_ST00830 2717 forego 270087
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P98_SP00731 2378
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P98_SP00732 2795
P98_ST00837 2772 crop 8081
P98_SP00733 2803
P98_ST00838 production 0380000540
P98_SP00734 2804
P98_ST00839 1937
P98_SP00735
P98_ST00840 084040
P98_SP00736
P98_ST00841
P98_SP00737
P98_ST00842 2227
P98_SP00738
P98_ST00843 2301 conserva 00100030 conservation
P98_TL00106 2809
P98_ST00844 tion 3080
P98_SP00739 1562 2843
P98_ST00845 1582 structures 7013451067
P98_SP00740
P98_ST00846 2820
P98_SP00741 2842
P98_ST00847 1830 2811
P98_SP00742
P98_ST00848 1897 2810
P98_SP00743 1951
P98_ST00849 establishment 2700041640460
P98_SP00744
P98_ST00850 2236
P98_SP00745
P98_ST00851 perennial, 0130070020
P98_TL00107
P98_ST00852 multi-year 8001040037
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P98_ST00853 00000500
P98_SP00747 1855 2897
P98_ST00854 patterns. 020000600
P98_SP00748 2029
P98_ST00855 Even
P98_SP00749 2141
P98_ST00856 2158 where 25000
P98_SP00750
P98_ST00857
P98_SP00751
P98_ST00858 2865 appro 80038 appropriate
P98_TL00108 1492 2902
P98_ST00859 priate 003650
P98_SP00752 1596 2945
P98_ST00860 technologies 403305060000
P98_SP00753 2944
P98_ST00861 2912
P98_SP00754 1900 2935
P98_ST00862 1913 2903 already 0020000
P98_SP00755
P98_ST00863 2058 known 10000
P98_SP00756
P98_ST00864
P98_SP00757
P98_ST00865 2237 peasai4s, 000007830
P98_SP00758
P98_ST00866 2416 0.87 400
P98_TL00109 2948
P98_ST00867 2949 required 52502061
P98_SP00759 2991
P98_ST00868 inputs, 0000040
P98_SP00760 2990
P98_ST00869 including 000000000
P98_SP00761
P98_ST00870 tools 04621
P98_SP00762 2055 2981
P98_ST00871
P98_SP00763 2131
P98_ST00872 2143 329 intermediate-term 08200011000343000
P98_TL00110 2995 821
P98_ST00873 2996 0300000401
P98_SP00764 1690 3027
P98_ST00874 capital, 00005000
P98_SP00765 3036
P98_ST00875 3005 041
P98_SP00766 1909
P98_ST00876
P98_SP00767
P98_ST00877 readily 0300663
P98_SP00768 2126
P98_ST00878 available. 0000000030
P98_TB00003 3131
P98_TL00111 3137
P98_ST00879


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P70_SP00122
P70_ST00139 1191 1069
P70_SP00123 1229
P70_ST00140 1238 pe- 880
P70_TL00018 1115
P70_ST00141 lagic 08838
P70_SP00124 387
P70_ST00142 406 61 fish 8017
P70_SP00125 467 1147
P70_ST00143 485 1116 7587
P70_SP00126
P70_ST00144
P70_SP00127
P70_ST00145 632 159 skipjack, 240728856
P70_SP00128 1157
P70_ST00146 811 178 mackeicl, 588085800
P70_SP00129 989
P70_ST00147 201 dolphinfish 88465083006
P70_SP00130 1208
P70_ST00148 1227 817
P70_TL00019 1161
P70_ST00149 120 billfish 0.64 80340183
P70_SP00131
P70_ST00150 446 1162 69 into 0038
P70_SP00132 515
P70_ST00151 533 Haitian 8605064
P70_SP00133 665
P70_ST00152 1167 129 waters. 1807471
P70_SP00134
P70_ST00153 The
P70_SP00135 899
P70_ST00154 93 exact 80882
P70_SP00136
P70_ST00155 1026 nature 284815
P70_SP00137 1139
P70_ST00156 1158 64 217
P70_SP00138 1222
P70_ST00157 1171 ex 0.69 60 extent
P70_TL00020 1207
P70_ST00158 1213 tent 8857
P70_SP00139 376 1240
P70_ST00159 391
P70_SP00140
P70_ST00160 443 thse 85858
P70_SP00141
P70_ST00161 552 7038
P70_SP00142 612
P70_ST00162 stocks, 2888026
P70_SP00143 750
P70_ST00163 768 78380880
P70_SP00144 1243
P70_ST00164 952 1218 808
P70_SP00145 1006
P70_ST00165
P70_SP00146 1079
P70_ST00166 1097 known. 508030
P70_SP00147
P70_ST00167 Al 47
P70_TL00021 1253
P70_ST00168 1254 73 Cap 860
P70_SP00148 379 1294
P70_ST00169 1255 108 Dame 7537
P70_SP00149 509 1286
P70_ST00170 532 Marie, 061085
P70_SP00150 1290
P70_ST00171 109 where 87868
P70_SP00151 783
P70_ST00172 807 0.31
P70_SP00152
P70_ST00173 continental 88780280680
P70_SP00153 1085
P70_ST00174 iihelf 886807
P70_SP00154
P70_ST00175 1256 (icss 88806
P70_TL00022 1301
P70_ST00176 1302 than 8058
P70_SP00155 1334
P70_ST00177 407 20()m 08754
P70_SP00156 502 1333
P70_ST00178 525 deep) 78870
P70_SP00157 626 1343
P70_ST00179 extends 8178876
P70_SP00158 788
P70_ST00180 1312 over 8080
P70_SP00159
P70_ST00181 912
P70_SP00160 953
P70_ST00182 km 0.76 04
P70_SP00161
P70_ST00183 offshr.c, 888048786
P70_SP00162 1212 1338
P70_ST00184 1236
P70_TL00023 1346
P70_ST00185 111 (Juban 881882
P70_SP00163 418 1379
P70_ST00186 208 (Equatorial) 058577722851
P70_SP00164 1388
P70_ST00187 676 1347 263 Countercurrcnt 0.67 18540735200700
P70_SP00165
P70_ST00188 963 forces 580888
P70_SP00166 1062
P70_ST00189 1084 1352 v.viters 75887805
P70_SP00167
P70_ST00190 1214 east- 85403
P70_TL00024 1394
P70_ST00191 1395 ward, 04086
P70_SP00168 1430
P70_ST00192 causing 8845588
P70_SP00169 556 1435
P70_ST00193 1404 some 0868
P70_SP00170 661 1426
P70_ST00194 675 205 cnrichmcnt 8477886876
P70_SP00171 1427
P70_ST00195
P70_SP00172 931
P70_ST00196 coast;;! 88828888
P70_SP00173 1064
P70_ST00197 1399 126 waters, 0778002
P70_SP00174 1205
P70_ST00198 1220
P70_TL00025 1440 972
P70_ST00199 absence 5675088
P70_SP00175 447 1472
P70_ST00200 464
P70_SP00176
P70_ST00201 174 upwelling 0.68 450800018
P70_SP00177 689 1482
P70_ST00202 1450
P70_SP00178 741
P70_ST00203 756 1441 152 48858163
P70_SP00179 908
P70_ST00204 926 121 007787
P70_SP00180 1047
P70_ST00205 1061
P70_SP00181
P70_ST00206 4303
P70_SP00182
P70_ST00207 1224 sur 730
P70_TL00026 1487
P70_ST00208 face 6288
P70_SP00183 377 1519
P70_ST00209 394 1493 078803
P70_SP00184
P70_ST00210 527 1488 with 0.73 0037
P70_SP00185
P70_ST00211 618 colder, 8808867
P70_SP00186 743 1523
P70_ST00212 761 258 nutrient-l;.idcn 0550088705706888
P70_SP00187 1019
P70_ST00213 123 888381
P70_SP00188 1159 1527
P70_ST00214 1175 1494 116 088807
P70_TL00027 305 1532
P70_ST00215 1533 off 710
P70_SP00189 357 1565
P70_ST00216 368 1534
P70_SP00190
P70_ST00217 435 96 shelf, 333362
P70_SP00191 531 1570
P70_ST00218 544 does 8788
P70_SP00192
P70_ST00219 639 limit 0.80 00405
P70_SP00193
P70_ST00220 732 143 primary 0.92 2002000
P70_SP00194 875 1574
P70_ST00221 889 (plankton) 0.66 4208205801
P70_SP00195 1081
P70_ST00222 1094 1487288284
P70_TL00028 1580
P70_ST00223 1581 along 87878
P70_SP00196 403 1622
P70_ST00224
P70_SP00197 472 1612
P70_ST00225 1586 103 coast, 887002
P70_SP00198 591 1617
P70_ST00226 603 1610 ,
P70_SP00199 613 1621 -5
P70_ST00227 56 but
P70_SP00200 664
P70_ST00228 680 162 467008068
P70_SP00201 1613
P70_ST00229 essential 808856084
P70_SP00202 1009
P70_ST00230 50 for
P70_SP00203 1076
P70_ST00231
P70_SP00204
P70_ST00232 prolif 7080058 prolifration
P70_TL00029 1626
P70_ST00233 ration 280284
P70_SP00205 411 1658
P70_ST00234 431 1627
P70_SP00206 1657
P70_ST00235 486 plankton 56400088
P70_SP00207 645 1667
P70_ST00236 666 1636 occur 88060
P70_SP00208
P70_ST00237
P70_SP00209 812
P70_ST00238 832 60583
P70_SP00210
P70_ST00239 945 149 draining 81304048
P70_SP00211 1666
P70_ST00240 1114 175 mangrove 48070808
P70_TL00030 1673
P70_ST00241 forests 6828030
P70_SP00212 1706
P70_ST00242 1684
P70_SP00213 1705
P70_ST00243 1674 other 87680
P70_SP00214
P70_ST00244 625 river 0.83 00080
P70_SP00215
P70_ST00245 runoff 036868
P70_SP00216 845
P70_ST00246 865 1683 50842
P70_SP00217 960
P70_ST00247 980 0580
P70_SP00218 1059
P70_ST00248
P70_SP00219 1117
P70_ST00249 1137 72 baie 8518
P70_SP00220
P70_ST00250 1233 57 des
P70_TL00031 1719
P70_ST00251 1720 107 Cayes 15051
P70_SP00221 413 1761
P70_ST00252 428 0.86 013
P70_SP00222 493 1751
P70_ST00253 Canal 57765
P70_SP00223 611
P70_ST00254 de
P70_SP00224 667
P70_ST00255 TEst 88887
P70_SP00225
P70_ST00256 777 1729 on
P70_SP00226
P70_ST00257 836
P70_SP00227 890
P70_ST00258 905 179 southwest 074332766
P70_SP00228
P70_ST00259 1724 885851
P70_SP00229 1756
P70_ST00260 1217 3618
P70_TL00032 1764
P70_ST00261 1767
P70_SP00230 344 1800
P70_ST00262 363 la 1.00 00
P70_SP00231
P70_ST00263 137 Tortue, 4807380
P70_SP00232 543 1803
P70_ST00264 1766 Baie 7268
P70_SP00233 640 1799
P70_ST00265 657 du
P70_SP00234 699
P70_ST00266 716 Grand 80817
P70_SP00235
P70_ST00267 850 Pierre 0.75 008204
P70_SP00236 957
P70_ST00268
P70_SP00237 1798
P70_ST00269 8848
P70_SP00238 1132
P70_ST00270 1765 786
P70_SP00239 1204 1797
P70_ST00271 Go Gonaives
P70_TL00033 1811
P70_ST00272 1814 naives 300067
P70_SP00240 417 1847
P70_ST00273
P70_SP00241 1846
P70_ST00274 484 1813 468
P70_SP00242
P70_ST00275 1812 190 Artibonite 0060655504
P70_SP00243 744
P70_ST00276 River, 0.81 100720
P70_SP00244 873 1851
P70_ST00277 0.93 200
P70_SP00245 955 1845
P70_ST00278 144 selected 83202167
P70_SP00246
P70_ST00279 1130 locations 083600837
P70_TL00034 1856 46
P70_ST00280 1858 20505
P70_SP00247 1902
P70_ST00281 068
P70_SP00248 466 1891
P70_ST00282 479 north 06015
P70_SP00249 574
P70_ST00283 1863 91 coast 88361
P70_SP00250
P70_ST00284 686 85 8283
P70_SP00251 771 1890
P70_ST00285 784 1857 Libert 6088068
P70_SP00252
P70_ST00286 1862
P70_SP00253 1889
P70_ST00287 7508
P70_SP00254
P70_ST00288
P70_SP00255 1101
P70_ST00289 TAcul 80550
P70_SP00256
P70_ST00290 1228 1882 3
P70_TL00035 1952
P70_ST00291 1953 C-
P70_SP00257 361 1984
P70_ST00292 378 SUMMARY 1700857
P70_SP00258 1985
P70_ST00293 289 DESCRIPTION 75700588680
P70_TL00036 1999
P70_ST00294 OF
P70_SP00259 362 2030
P70_ST00295 COASTAL 7561486
P70_SP00260 579 2031
P70_ST00296 139 AREAS 71564
P70_TL00037 2104 564
P70_ST00297 48 Ft. 513
P70_SP00261 354 2135
P70_ST00298 375 131 4078157
P70_SP00262 506
P70_ST00299 522 2107
P70_SP00263 553
P70_ST00300 89 Mle 4507
P70_SP00264 660
P70_ST00301 St.
P70_SP00265 722
P70_ST00302 Nicolas 6053566
P70_TL00038 2203
P70_ST00303 2204
P70_SP00266 414 2237
P70_ST00304 2214 0001
P70_SP00267 510
P70_ST00305 526 2206 between 8440432
P70_SP00268 677 2236
P70_ST00306 693 Chou 3482
P70_SP00269
P70_ST00307 97 4585
P70_SP00270
P70_ST00308 924 67 Bay 0.94 010
P70_SP00271 991 2245
P70_ST00309 237
P70_SP00272 1073
P70_ST00310 1091 Ft, 060
P70_SP00273 2235
P70_ST00311 5086068
P70_TL00039 2249 969
P70_ST00312 2251 has 035
P70_SP00274 2282
P70_ST00313 2250 193 productive 6050007023
P70_SP00275 575 2291
P70_ST00314 594 bays 0.90 0003
P70_SP00276
P70_ST00315 691 000
P70_SP00277 755 2281
P70_ST00316 775 2258 coves, 150504
P70_SP00278 886 2285
P70_ST00317 906 102 sandy 80020
P70_SP00279 2289
P70_ST00318 beaches, 04006764
P70_SP00280 1180
P70_ST00319 1200 74 man
P70_TL00040 303 2296
P70_ST00320 2307 groves, 0001561
P70_SP00281 434 2338
P70_ST00321 452 2297 extensive 504606000
P70_SP00282 619 2329
P70_ST00322 635 2305 seagrass 75650056
P70_SP00283
P70_ST00323 02774
P70_SP00284 2333
P70_ST00324 910
P70_SP00285 2328
P70_ST00325 87042
P70_SP00286
P70_ST00326 1095 formations 7210200708
P70_TL00041 2342
P70_ST00327 2343 including 0.97 000000020
P70_SP00287 2384
P70_ST00328 fringing 0.95 01000010
P70_SP00288 630
P70_ST00329 648 reefs 0.77 06202
P70_SP00289 2375
P70_ST00330 001
P70_SP00290 816 2374
P70_ST00331 835 2352
P70_SP00291 853
P70_ST00332 871 barrier 0.96 0000200
P70_SP00292
P70_ST00333 71 reef 0000
P70_SP00293
P70_ST00334 2351 more 6040
P70_SP00294
P70_ST00335 1210 0030
P70_TL00042 2389
P70_ST00336 2391
P70_SP00295 2422
P70_ST00337 0.98
P70_SP00296
P70_ST00338 2390
P70_SP00297 2421
P70_ST00339 length 672105
P70_SP00298 2431
P70_ST00340 616 stretching 0607402004
P70_SP00299 2430
P70_ST00341 0550530
P70_SP00300 964
P70_ST00342 0.89 210
P70_SP00301
P70_ST00343 1074 Haitien 5505050
P70_SP00302
P70_ST00344 0.74
P70_TL00043 2434
P70_ST00345 2436 49 050
P70_SP00303 353 2468
P70_ST00346 142 Libert. 0.79 54000070
P70_SP00304 519
P70_ST00347 538 0.87 030
P70_SP00305 609
P70_ST00348 2435 165 shoreline 643074006
P70_SP00306
P70_ST00349 2440 at 07
P70_SP00307 2467
P70_ST00350 864 Morne 00006
P70_SP00308
P70_ST00351 1003
P70_SP00309
P70_ST00352 Haut 0.88 4000
P70_SP00310 1155
P70_ST00353
P70_SP00311 1248 2476
P70_ST00354 1265 02
P70_TL00044 2482
P70_ST00355 2483 separated 240237567
P70_SP00312 2525
P70_ST00356 6614
P70_SP00313 585 2516
P70_ST00357 607 0.91
P70_SP00314 679 2524
P70_ST00358 701 0006000
P70_SP00315 2515
P70_ST00359
P70_SP00316
P70_ST00360 921 203 mountains, 0700450045
P70_SP00317 1124 2519
P70_ST00361
P70_SP00318 2514
P70_ST00362 1231 006
P70_TL00045 2528
P70_ST00363 2529 limited 2001034
P70_SP00319 2562
P70_ST00364 214 accessibility 0007840001005
P70_SP00320 662 2570
P70_ST00365 678
P70_SP00321
P70_ST00366 737 221 unimproved 1000005030
P70_SP00322 2569
P70_ST00367 road, 45277
P70_SP00323 2560
P70_ST00368 Within 020100
P70_SP00324
P70_ST00369 this 0404
P70_TL00046 2575
P70_ST00370 2576 rgion, 2000831
P70_SP00325 2618
P70_ST00371 445 unimpacted 1001005015
P70_SP00326
P70_ST00372 669
P70_SP00327 2617
P70_ST00373 020244105
P70_SP00328 2608
P70_ST00374 897 248 development, 0.82 600400002070
P70_SP00329 1145
P70_ST00375 2584
P70_SP00330 2607
P70_ST00376 2579 two 617
P70_TL00047 2621
P70_ST00377 2622 0.99 00000
P70_SP00331 399 2655
P70_ST00378 5500
P70_SP00332 497 2664
P70_ST00379 21010
P70_SP00333 2654
P70_ST00380 2631 appear 100100
P70_SP00334 2663
P70_ST00381 2625
P70_SP00335 2653
P70_ST00382 830 hve 1000
P70_SP00336
P70_ST00383 934 potential 004000010
P70_SP00337 1093 2662
P70_ST00384 2630
P70_SP00338 1146
P70_ST00385 1164 marine 050064
P70_TL00048 2668
P70_ST00386 2679 147 reserves 60002002
P70_SP00339 451 2703
P70_ST00387 462 2675
P70_SP00340 496 2702
P70_ST00388 2670 enhance 0.62 7035036
P70_SP00341
P70_ST00389 2669 6000
P70_SP00342
P70_ST00390 160 breeding 02600104
P70_SP00343 900 2711
P70_ST00391
P70_SP00344 2701
P70_ST00392 2678 nursery 0106400
P70_SP00345 1120 2710
P70_ST00393 10300716
P70_TL00049 2704 51
P70_ST00394 2715 0040
P70_SP00346 386 2748
P70_ST00395 402 2716
P70_SP00347
P70_ST00396 2714 145 Labadie 3000236
P70_SP00348 606 2747
P70_ST00397 623 037
P70_SP00349 687
P70_ST00398 704 5000
P70_SP00350
P70_ST00399 802
P70_SP00351 2746
P70_ST00400 164 Cadrasse 00000000
P70_SP00352
P70_ST00401 1040 (J,(). 0157880
P70_SP00353 1128 2755
P70_ST00402 Dicque- 5300004
P70_TL00050 2761
P70_ST00403 2772 mare,
P70_SP00354 2801
P70_ST00404 2763 8200
P70_SP00355 2795
P70_ST00405 535 2762 pesonal 0.85 0007030
P70_SP00356 2804
P70_ST00406 communication). 050400003300010
P70_SP00357 2803
P70_ST00407 Important 400506006
P70_SP00358
P70_ST00408 fis 007
P70_TL00051 2807
P70_ST00409 2809 hing
P70_SP00359 2851
P70_ST00410 392 2808 grounds 0001025
P70_SP00360
P70_ST00411 547 include 0400051
P70_SP00361 2841
P70_ST00412 020
P70_SP00362 2840
P70_ST00413 751 4050062
P70_SP00363
P70_ST00414
P70_SP00364
P70_ST00415 500
P70_SP00365
P70_ST00416 5003
P70_SP00366 1118
P70_ST00417
P70_SP00367 1169 2839
P70_ST00418 1181
P70_TL00052 2855 480
P70_ST00419 2856
P70_SP00368 2888
P70_ST00420 364 Nord 0216
P70_SP00369 458
P70_ST00421 (DAPTE, 1032000
P70_SP00370 2896
P70_ST00422 1984), 000004
P70_TL00053 349 2937
P70_ST00423 Unique 106000
P70_SP00371 2979
P70_ST00424 503 features 00001004
P70_SP00372 2969
P70_ST00425 0410006
P70_SP00373
P70_ST00426 2938 good 0007
P70_SP00374 901 2978
P70_ST00427 920 conch 38000
P70_SP00375
P70_ST00428 1042 188 (Strombus 702015066
P70_SP00376 2975
P70_ST00429 1247 gi-
P70_TL00054 2983
P70_ST00430 gas) 8007
P70_SP00377 3020
P70_ST00431 397 habitat 0050300
P70_SP00378 523 3016
P70_ST00432 2984 2060
P70_SP00379 624
P70_ST00433 643 Ile
P70_SP00380 3015
P70_ST00434
P70_SP00381 746
P70_ST00435 2985
P70_SP00382 794
P70_ST00436 Tortue 032200
P70_SP00383
P70_ST00437 2989
P70_SP00384
P70_ST00438 1001 031
P70_SP00385 1049 3017
P70_ST00439 1070 Libert, 10300464
P70_SP00386 3022
P70_ST00440 2986 sig
P70_TB00002 2811
P70_TL00055 1393
P70_ST00441 133 nificant 02608837
P70_SP00387 1526 257
P70_ST00442 1550 mungrovc 77280807
P70_SP00388 1728 265
P70_ST00443 1748 233 76 7877
P70_SP00389 1824
P70_ST00444 223 bctwccn 7062450
P70_SP00390 1995
P70_ST00445 2020 224 8708
P70_SP00391 2098 259
P70_ST00446 2118 225
P70_SP00392 2160
P70_ST00447 2182 l'Acul 405814
P70_SP00393 260
P70_ST00448 2310 und
P70_TL00056 271 979
P70_ST00449 273 l't. 8030
P70_SP00394
P70_ST00450 1464 80865680
P70_SP00395 1608
P70_ST00451 1628 excellent 858802761
P70_SP00396 1788
P70_ST00452 1806 shrimp 880275
P70_SP00397 1929 313
P70_ST00453 1949 habitai 7880768
P70_SP00398 2072
P70_ST00454 2093 (Pcnacus 18857888
P70_SP00399
P70_ST00455 2276 brusi- 807607
P70_TL00057 317 966
P70_ST00456 Lli'I!ij 8886858888
P70_SP00400 1515 360
P70_ST00457 1531 P.
P70_SP00401 1564
P70_ST00458 1579 177 duorarum 88877756
P70_SP00402
P70_ST00459 1773
P70_SP00403 1804
P70_ST00460 1819 .schmitlii, 08888378230
P70_SP00404 1986
P70_ST00461 2000 277 l'rachypcnacus 86088728777688
P70_SP00405 2277
P70_ST00462 simi 8040 similis,
P70_TL00058 355 978
P70_ST00463 lis, 6260
P70_SP00406 1442
P70_ST00464 1462 Alpiieus 510878847
P70_SP00407 1614
P70_ST00465 1630 365 sp.) 8745
P70_SP00408 1697 405
P70_ST00466 1717
P70_SP00409 1745 396
P70_ST00467 8808
P70_SP00410
P70_ST00468
P70_SP00411 1903
P70_ST00469 1922 TAcul, 858250
P70_SP00412 2042
P70_ST00470 2062
P70_SP00413 2127
P70_ST00471 2144
P70_SP00414 2232
P70_ST00472 haiiilat 78580883
P70_TL00059 410
P70_ST00473
P70_SP00415 1444
P70_ST00474 1463 158 Manatee 6787688
P70_SP00416 442
P70_ST00475 1641 ('Tricliechus 6087688788877
P70_SP00417 1855
P70_ST00476 1874 manatus) 68888787
P70_SP00418 2038
P70_ST00477 2059 588
P70_SP00419 2123
P70_ST00478 2142 grcen 83770
P70_SP00420 2241
P70_ST00479 2261 412 turties 3005788
P70_TL00060 977
P70_ST00480 173 (sightings 0457800888
P70_SP00421 1567
P70_ST00481
P70_SP00422 1616
P70_ST00482 both 8868
P70_SP00423 1708 489
P70_ST00483 1723 endangered 8888588588
P70_SP00424 1933
P70_ST00484 1947 127 species 3788088
P70_SP00425 2074 499
P70_ST00485 2087
P70_SP00426 2143
P70_ST00486 2157 infrequent), 407088686600
P70_TL00061 1401
P70_ST00487 There 88808
P70_SP00427 1499 536
P70_ST00488 havc
P70_SP00428 1609
P70_ST00489 been 8887
P70_SP00429
P70_ST00490 1746 crx)codile 8080888028
P70_SP00430 1910
P70_ST00491 1937 (Crocodylus 78688876485
P70_SP00431 2159 541
P70_ST00492 2185 acutus, 8856170
P70_SP00432 2311
P70_ST00493 2336
P70_TL00062 545
P70_ST00494 American 78860887
P70_SP00433 1571 583
P70_ST00495 crocodilefsightings 8088884088808640083
P70_SP00434 1940 592
P70_ST00496 1956
P70_SP00435
P70_ST00497 2005 Lagones 8888487
P70_SP00436 2155
P70_ST00498 2171 561 aux 872
P70_SP00437
P70_ST00499 Boeufs 888756
P70_TL00063
P70_ST00500 near
P70_SP00438 1465 633
P70_ST00501 1483 598
P70_SP00439
P70_ST00502 1554 liorder. 08818826
P70_SP00440
P70_ST00503 1693 Hicre 105848
P70_SP00441 1794
P70_ST00504
P70_SP00442 1836
P70_ST00505 1852 u
P70_SP00443 1868
P70_ST00506 1884 ainch 88687
P70_SP00444 1982
P70_ST00507 2001 mariculture 38778565518
P70_SP00445 2194
P70_ST00508 2211 114 project 7386885
P70_SP00446 2325
P70_ST00509
P70_TL00064 1392
P70_ST00510 827
P70_SP00447
P70_ST00511 1455 646 8088048
P70_SP00448 1577
P70_ST00512 1592 bay, 8561
P70_SP00449 1662
P70_ST00513 1678 an
P70_SP00450 1716
P70_ST00514 1733 8084
P70_SP00451
P70_ST00515 1818 644 6068
P70_SP00452 1888
P70_ST00516 1904 suitable 37008828
P70_SP00453 2033
P70_ST00517 2048 lx;nthic 48865508
P70_SP00454 2172
P70_ST00518 2186 vgtation, 27886850800
P70_TL00065
P70_ST00519 well
P70_SP00455 1457
P70_ST00520 1471 protected 708788888
P70_SP00456
P70_ST00521 1643 0088
P70_SP00457 1713 725
P70_ST00522 1727 85088608
P70_SP00458
P70_ST00523 1866 68871
P70_SP00459 1945 724
P70_ST00524 1957
P70_SP00460 2018 723
P70_ST00525 gcnid 88888
P70_SP00461 2112
P70_ST00526 2125 circulaticm 80088177088
P70_SP00462 2299
P70_ST00527 2313
P70_TL00066
P70_ST00528 739 high 7077
P70_SP00463
P70_ST00529 1475 748 oxygen 850880
P70_SP00464 1595 781
P70_ST00530 levels 580848
P70_SP00465 1702
P70_ST00531 1715 182 (PROTOS 0887576
P70_SP00466 1897
P70_ST00532 1915 1985, 08870
P70_SP00467 1997
P70_ST00533 2012 personal 48068044
P70_SP00468 2153
P70_ST00534 2166 a)mmunica- 8800100852
P70_TL00067
P70_ST00535 785 tion). 708001
P70_SP00469 1479
P70_ST00536 1502 Conch 88785
P70_SP00470
P70_ST00537 1631 Mini.strics, 600062700873
P70_SP00471 823
P70_ST00538 1822 0.12
P70_SP00472 1840
P70_ST00539 1860 PVO 806
P70_SP00473 1944
P70_ST00540 1963 based 88788
P70_SP00474 2056
P70_ST00541 2076
P70_SP00475
P70_ST00542 2124 West 0857
P70_SP00476 2207
P70_ST00543 2226 Virginia, 000807073
P70_TL00068
P70_ST00544
P70_SP00477 1415
P70_ST00545 1443 buing 88038
P70_SP00478 1537 874
P70_ST00546 1561 juvnile 73280407
P70_SP00479
P70_ST00547 a)nch 88041
P70_SP00480 1816
P70_ST00548 6780
P70_SP00481 1923 863
P70_ST00549 1951
P70_SP00482 2002
P70_ST00550 2032 250 Pride-operated 80078186808587
P70_SP00483
P70_ST00551 hat- 8600
P70_TL00069 1391
P70_ST00552 876 chciy 84870
P70_SP00484 916
P70_ST00553 1504 87088
P70_SP00485 1605 907
P70_ST00554
P70_SP00486 1664
P70_ST00555 Turk 8203
P70_SP00487
P70_ST00556 1782
P70_SP00488
P70_ST00557 1861 Caic.s 7808488
P70_SP00489 1979
P70_ST00558 ishu'ls, 058886785
P70_SP00490 2128 911
P70_ST00559 2145 881
P70_SP00491 2180
P70_ST00560 resced 082888
P70_SP00492 2309
P70_ST00561 F-'t, 87760
P70_TL00070
P70_ST00562 5078048
P70_SP00493 1524
P70_ST00563 1544 bay 076
P70_SP00494 1606
P70_ST00564
P70_SP00495 1690
P70_ST00565 1710
P70_SP00496 1744
P70_ST00566 1762 conduc 8808468
P70_SP00497
P70_ST00567 cxperiments 40680007017
P70_SP00498 2146
P70_ST00568 2165
P70_SP00499
P70_ST00569 2229
P70_SP00500
P70_ST00570 2303 best 8752
P70_TL00071 967
P70_ST00571 way
P70_SP00501 1460
P70_ST00572 1481 280
P70_SP00502
P70_ST00573 1552 local 08872
P70_SP00503 1633
P70_ST00574 1654 176 fishermen 605070787
P70_SP00504 1830
P70_ST00575 1853
P70_SP00505
P70_ST00576 1905 136 manage 774888
P70_SP00506 2041
P70_ST00577
P70_SP00507 2117
P70_ST00578 2138 163 resource, 078847880
P70_SP00508 2301
P70_ST00579
P70_TL00072 1013
P70_ST00580 4088057
P70_SP00509
P70_ST00581 1540 05
P70_SP00510
P70_ST00582 68 also 8588
P70_SP00511 1649
P70_ST00583 1663 015
P70_SP00512 1718
P70_ST00584 locution 08882080
P70_SP00513
P70_ST00585
P70_SP00514 1925 1044
P70_ST00586
P70_SP00515 1954
P70_ST00587 1968 Tilapia 6016506
P70_SP00516 2095
P70_ST00588 2109 5050803
P70_SP00517 2234
P70_ST00589 funded 030887
P70_TL00073
P70_ST00590
P70_SP00518 1432 1102
P70_ST00591 1466
P70_SP00519 1521
P70_ST00592 1555 Project 7064687
P70_SP00520 1680
P70_ST00593 1712 Technische 6084006868
P70_SP00521 1914
P70_ST00594 1948 Ontribtilelings 756778817804075
P70_SP00522 2212
P70_ST00595 2244 Somer 78085 Somerveriing
P70_TL00074 1106
P70_ST00596 veriing 0632217
P70_SP00523 1516
P70_ST00597 1536 245 Development 46053737414
P70_SP00524 1781
P70_ST00598 1802 (PROTOS), 078883703
P70_SP00525 2024
P70_ST00599 2045
P70_SP00526 1138
P70_ST00600 2085
P70_SP00527 2175
P70_ST00601 2195 6062
P70_SP00528 2279
P70_ST00602 Bel 450 Belgium
P70_TL00075 1154
P70_ST00603 gium 8265
P70_SP00529 1478
P70_ST00604 867
P70_SP00530 1558 1187
P70_ST00605 managed 3775678
P70_SP00531 1734 1195
P70_ST00606 1747
P70_SP00532
P70_ST00607 1801 volunteers 0827078806
P70_SP00533 1989
P70_ST00608 2003 working 1840058
P70_SP00534 2150
P70_ST00609 2162 closely 8184800
P70_SP00535 2283
P70_ST00610 2068
P70_TL00076 1199
P70_ST00611 community 851010271
P70_SP00536 1594
P70_ST00612 members, 58388256
P70_TL00077 1431 1269 941
P70_ST00613 1272 This 7758
P70_SP00537 1511 1305
P70_ST00614 strctch 6846684
P70_SP00538 1647 1304
P70_ST00615
P70_SP00539 1701
P70_ST00616 1271 coastline 888650018
P70_SP00540 1873
P70_ST00617
P70_SP00541 1916
P70_ST00618 1932
P70_SP00542 1987 1303
P70_ST00619 1270 site 4778
P70_SP00543 2063
P70_ST00620 2080
P70_SP00544
P70_ST00621 2131 offshore 88847848
P70_SP00545
P70_ST00622 ISth 3886
P70_TL00078 1316
P70_ST00623 1318
P70_SP00546 1456 1350
P70_ST00624 1484 19th 0870
P70_SP00547
P70_ST00625 1323 century 8607600
P70_SP00548 1358
P70_ST00626 1317 198 shipwrecks 5700046508
P70_SP00549 1357
P70_ST00627 1955 (some 47846
P70_SP00550 1356
P70_ST00628 2086 estimtes 882005423
P70_SP00551 2255 1348
P70_ST00629 2275 1326 go
P70_SP00552 2318
P70_ST00630 1325
P70_TL00079 1362
P70_ST00631 1365 7086
P70_SP00553 1407
P70_ST00632 1489 1375
P70_SP00554 1397
P70_ST00633 250), 05805
P70_SP00555 1634 1405
P70_ST00634 1656 1364 008058007
P70_SP00556 1820 1406
P70_ST00635 1842 1363
P70_SP00557 1894 1396
P70_ST00636 1917 Santa 86554
P70_SP00558 2015
P70_ST00637 2037 Maria, 327763
P70_SP00559 2156 1400
P70_ST00638 2178 194 Columbus' 080507066
P70_TL00080 1408
P70_ST00639 1411 flagship, 666761076
P70_SP00560 1543 1452
P70_ST00640 1562 1410 Bord-de-Mer 88082874080
P70_SP00561
P70_ST00641 1413
P70_SP00562 1854
P70_ST00642 1871 1409 Limonade, 502854772
P70_SP00563 2064 1446
P70_ST00643 2081 1419
P70_SP00564 2097
P70_ST00644 2113 3345005
P70_SP00565
P70_ST00645 village, 00126862
P70_TL00081 1389
P70_ST00646 1458 just 7586
P70_SP00566 1498
P70_ST00647 east 8758
P70_SP00567 1541 1491
P70_ST00648
P70_SP00568 1598 1490
P70_ST00649 1615 1459
P70_SP00569 1688
P70_ST00650 6817077
P70_SP00570 1839
P70_ST00651
P70_SP00571
P70_ST00652 believed 88008088
P70_SP00572 2052
P70_ST00653 2073
P70_SP00573
P70_ST00654 bc
P70_SP00574
P70_ST00655 036
P70_SP00575 2240
P70_ST00656 2260 6067
P70_SP00576 2319
P70_ST00657 2337
P70_TL00082
P70_ST00658
P70_SP00577 1445
P70_ST00659 1503 ill-fated 020067688
P70_SP00578 1602
P70_ST00660 1620 colony 881840
P70_SP00579 1739
P70_ST00661 1755
P70_SP00580 1792
P70_ST00662 1809 La
P70_SP00581
P70_ST00663 1872 Navidad. 01007870
P70_TL00083
P70_ST00664
P70_SP00582 1500
P70_ST00665 1576 major 48084
P70_SP00583
P70_ST00666 1653 population 1881387380
P70_SP00584 1618
P70_ST00667 1870 center 880880
P70_SP00585
P70_ST00668 2004 1575 01
P70_SP00586
P70_ST00669 2051
P70_SP00587
P70_ST00670 2148 Haitien, 80070805
P70_SP00588 2293 1611
P70_ST00671
P70_TL00084
P70_ST00672 1623 second 388817
P70_SP00589 1655
P70_ST00673 1535 1624 largest 3337847
P70_SP00590 1651
P70_ST00674 1671 city 8062
P70_SP00591
P70_ST00675 1753
P70_SP00592
P70_ST00676 Haiii. 1070200
P70_SP00593
P70_ST00677
P70_SP00594 1993 1652
P70_ST00678 extended 84560844
P70_SP00595
P70_ST00679 2196 shelf 37505
P70_SP00596
P70_ST00680 2298 1629 3087
P70_TL00085
P70_ST00681 1670 78071
P70_SP00597
P70_ST00682 1512
P70_SP00598 1549
P70_ST00683 1669
P70_SP00599 1642
P70_ST00684 1668 7806685
P70_SP00600
P70_ST00685 oficrs 885805
P70_SP00601 1924 1700
P70_ST00686 increased 008185088
P70_SP00602 2116
P70_ST00687 2141 782804073
P70_SP00603
P70_ST00688
P70_TL00086
P70_ST00689 fishing. 66050085
P70_SP00604 1757
P70_ST00690 Offshore, 536058082
P70_SP00605 1709 1752
P70_ST00691 83858
P70_SP00606
P70_ST00692 1831 1714
P70_SP00607
P70_ST00693 1896 887026
P70_SP00608 1749
P70_ST00694 2014
P70_SP00609 2039
P70_ST00695 2050
P70_SP00610 2067
P70_ST00696 08680
P70_SP00611 1754
P70_ST00697 2197 migratory 003034800
P70_TL00087 1763
P70_ST00698 pathway 7446274
P70_SP00612 1542
P70_ST00699
P70_SP00613 1795
P70_ST00700 whalcs, 0870840
P70_TL00088 1841 943
P70_ST00701
P70_SP00614
P70_ST00702 1525 07667
P70_SP00615
P70_ST00703 1645 88676
P70_SP00616
P70_ST00704 1758
P70_SP00617
P70_ST00705 1843 lie 003
P70_SP00618
P70_ST00706 1883
P70_SP00619
P70_ST00707
P70_SP00620 1977 1875
P70_ST00708 1998 470558
P70_SP00621 2122 1876
P70_ST00709 2147
P70_SP00622
P70_ST00710 2193 dcvoid 800700
P70_SP00623 2314
P70_ST00711
P70_TL00089
P70_ST00712 rccfs, 082375
P70_SP00624 1486
P70_ST00713
P70_SP00625 1569 1921
P70_ST00714 drops 70876
P70_SP00626 1686 1931
P70_ST00715 sharply 7560640
P70_SP00627
P70_ST00716 down 6800
P70_SP00628 1943
P70_ST00717 1961
P70_SP00629 1996
P70_ST00718 2011 36()0m, 6805805
P70_SP00630 1927
P70_ST00719 2158 directiy 70058420
P70_SP00631 2292
P70_ST00720 2308 1892 offshore.
P70_TL00090 1935
P70_ST00721 shore. 428071
P70_SP00632 1497 1966
P70_ST00722 1517
P70_SP00633 1588 1967
P70_ST00723 1936 south 57067
P70_SP00634 1703
P70_ST00724 1721 1941 87037
P70_SP00635
P70_ST00725 3570
P70_SP00636 1913
P70_ST00726 Point 56404
P70_SP00637 2027
P70_ST00727 2044 Saline 245346
P70_SP00638
P70_ST00728
P70_SP00639 2202
P70_ST00729 2221 1938
P70_SP00640 1969
P70_ST00730 west 0062
P70_TL00091
P70_ST00731
P70_SP00641 1422
P70_ST00732 Pointe 480047
P70_SP00642 1557 2013
P70_ST00733 Portugal 57074880
P70_SP00643 1730 2023
P70_ST00734
P70_SP00644 1780
P70_ST00735 1983 288
P70_SP00645
P70_ST00736 1988 8016
P70_SP00646 1942
P70_ST00737
P70_SP00647
P70_ST00738 308488726
P70_SP00648 2025
P70_ST00739
P70_SP00649
P70_ST00740 1994
P70_SP00650 2274 2016
P70_ST00741 2294 long 0807
P70_TL00092 1387
P70_ST00742 continuous 8806303727
P70_SP00651
P70_ST00743 1601 2028 7860050
P70_SP00652 1725
P70_ST00744 1740 reef, 05520
P70_SP00653
P70_ST00745 1834 5507
P70_SP00654
P70_ST00746 2029 large 36067
P70_SP00655 2071
P70_ST00747 77571626
P70_SP00656 2179
P70_ST00748 island 073008
P70_SP00657
P70_ST00749 058
P70_TL00093 1386 2075
P70_ST00750
P70_SP00658 2106
P70_ST00751 7088486
P70_SP00659 2115
P70_ST00752
P70_SP00660
P70_ST00753 birds, 801816
P70_SP00661 2110
P70_ST00754
P70_SP00662 1808
P70_ST00755 1823
P70_SP00663 1848 2108
P70_ST00756 88322068
P70_SP00664
P70_ST00757 2082
P70_SP00665
P70_ST00758 2077 bave 8008
P70_SP00666
P70_ST00759 2173 2078 had
P70_SP00667
P70_ST00760
P70_SP00668 2268
P70_ST00761 20088
P70_TL00094 2120
P70_ST00762 2121
P70_SP00669 1451 2152
P70_ST00763 1469 distinct 20640003
P70_SP00670 1599
P70_ST00764 animal 040001
P70_SP00671 1736
P70_ST00765 fauna 50370
P70_SP00672 2154
P70_ST00766
P70_SP00673 1900
P70_ST00767 1920 pre-colombian 0030740700100
P70_SP00674 2183 2163
P70_ST00768 2201 times 20050
P70_SP00675 2295
P70_ST00769 2312 (C,
P70_TL00095 2167
P70_ST00770 Woods, 088151
P70_SP00676
P70_ST00771 2168 0770
P70_SP00677 2199
P70_ST00772 Personal 36058070
P70_SP00678 2209
P70_ST00773 2169 054000000008003
P70_TL00096 529
P70_ST00774 3704
P70_SP00679
P70_ST00775
P70_SP00680 1538
P70_ST00776 6620376
P70_SP00681
P70_ST00777
P70_SP00682 2324
P70_ST00778 1750 Gona'ives 365658604
P70_TL00097 1429 2386 936
P70_ST00779 2388 From 0070
P70_SP00683 2418
P70_ST00780 2387 0008
P70_SP00684
P70_ST00781
P70_SP00685
P70_ST00782 0088066
P70_SP00686 1837 2417
P70_ST00783 1850 2392
P70_SP00687
P70_ST00784 1895 170 07040066
P70_SP00688 2065
P70_ST00785 60208
P70_SP00689
P70_ST00786 2184 2395
P70_SP00690
P70_ST00787 clevcn 505000
P70_TL00098
P70_ST00788 6656040
P70_SP00691 1506 2473
P70_ST00789 1529 centers: 00051005
P70_SP00692 2464
P70_ST00790 Gonaives, 010000030
P70_SP00693 1879
P70_ST00791 2432
P70_SP00694 2463
P70_ST00792 1974 Pie,
P70_SP00695 2040
P70_ST00793 2066 Grande 027003
P70_SP00696
P70_ST00794 Savane, 0000003
P70_TL00099 2477
P70_ST00795 2480 L'Etang, 56533426
P70_SP00697 1545 2521
P70_ST00796 2479 Coridone, 010070052
P70_SP00698
P70_ST00797 1768 Pt.
P70_SP00699 1815 2511
P70_ST00798 Demong, 5301235
P70_SP00700 2520
P70_ST00799 Anse
P70_SP00701 2114
P70_ST00800 2478 Rouge, 151500
P70_SP00702 2265
P70_ST00801 Petit 10703
P70_TL00100
P70_ST00802 2526 106 Anse, 00403
P70_SP00703 1492
P70_ST00803 5013
P70_SP00704 2558
P70_ST00804
P70_SP00705
P70_ST00805 Henn, 040005
P70_SP00706
P70_ST00806 1835
P70_SP00707 1880 2557
P70_ST00807 1901 Plateforme 0000004300
P70_SP00708 2101
P70_ST00808
P70_SP00709
P70_ST00809 2208 0400
P70_SP00710 2556
P70_ST00810 2320
P70_TL00101
P70_ST00811 2572 Nicolas. 00060760
P70_SP00711 1530 2604
P70_ST00812 155
P70_SP00712
P70_ST00813 2571 4430006
P70_SP00713 2612
P70_ST00814 1760 village 0000403
P70_SP00714 2613
P70_ST00815
P70_SP00715 2603
P70_ST00816 0555
P70_SP00716
P70_ST00817
P70_SP00717
P70_ST00818 2102 0007000
P70_SP00718
P70_ST00819 2247 (popu 28001 (population
P70_TL00102 2616
P70_ST00820 lation 010040
P70_SP00719 2650
P70_ST00821 1509 2000) 06580
P70_SP00720 1607 2658
P70_ST00822
P70_SP00721 2649
P70_ST00823 1675 located 4610003
P70_SP00722
P70_ST00824 1825 2626
P70_SP00723
P70_ST00825
P70_SP00724
P70_ST00826 4300
P70_SP00725 2046
P70_ST00827
P70_SP00726 2648
P70_ST00828 2132 Mle, 04604
P70_SP00727
P70_ST00829 2259
P70_SP00728
P70_ST00830
P70_TL00103 1385
P70_ST00831 2665 065520301
P70_SP00729 2708
P70_ST00832 0220
P70_SP00730 2707
P70_ST00833 00510
P70_SP00731 1769 2698
P70_ST00834 harbor 500031
P70_SP00732 2697
P70_ST00835 1911 2674
P70_SP00733 2696
P70_ST00836 061
P70_SP00734 2022
P70_ST00837 2034 westernmost 20030204161
P70_SP00735 2262
P70_ST00838 point 00300
P70_TL00104
P70_ST00839 2712
P70_SP00736 1424 2742
P70_ST00840 1433
P70_SP00737 2743
P70_ST00841 1501 northwest 070000007
P70_SP00738 1681
P70_ST00842 0200000250
P70_SP00739 1878 2751
P70_ST00843 297
P70_SP00740 1950
P70_ST00844
P70_SP00741 2017 2741
P70_ST00845
P70_SP00742
P70_ST00846 Port-au-Prin 505120052021 Port-au-Prince.
P70_TL00105 2756
P70_ST00847 2767 ce.
P70_SP00743 2790
P70_ST00848 2758 At
P70_SP00744 1496
P70_ST00849 2757
P70_SP00745
P70_ST00850 1583 bay's 57070
P70_SP00746 2799
P70_ST00851 1687 entrance, 407002003
P70_SP00747
P70_ST00852
P70_SP00748 2789
P70_ST00853 1939 edge 4050
P70_SP00749
P70_ST00854 2036
P70_SP00750
P70_ST00855
P70_SP00751 2140
P70_ST00856 01806
P70_SP00752
P70_ST00857 2253
P70_SP00753 2278
P70_ST00858 only 7000
P70_TL00106
P70_ST00859 one-half 60000000
P70_SP00754 1539 2836
P70_ST00860 mile
P70_SP00755
P70_ST00861 distant. 00003000
P70_SP00756
P70_ST00862
P70_SP00757
P70_ST00863 2812 case 3040
P70_SP00758 1930
P70_ST00864
P70_SP00759 2835
P70_ST00865 severe 050002
P70_SP00760
P70_ST00866 2133 weather, 00300122
P70_SP00761
P70_ST00867 i.e. 0300
P70_TL00107 956
P70_ST00868 2853 cyclones, 410180030
P70_SP00762 2892
P70_ST00869 557000010
P70_SP00763 1738 2884
P70_ST00870 2852 take 5100
P70_SP00764 1826 2883
P70_ST00871 refuge 040255
P70_SP00765
P70_ST00872 1959
P70_SP00766 1991
P70_ST00873
P70_SP00767 2882
P70_ST00874 0100
P70_SP00768
P70_ST00875 183 Carnage, 000606006
P70_TL00108 2932
P70_ST00876 2935 One
P70_SP00769 2967
P70_ST00877 2934
P70_SP00770
P70_ST00878 2933 Haiti's 0003570
P70_SP00771 2966
P70_ST00879 1691 poorest 0500050
P70_SP00772
P70_ST00880 rgions, 00200005
P70_SP00773 1978 2974
P70_ST00881
P70_SP00774 2965
P70_ST00882 000050010
P70_SP00775
P70_ST00883 coastal 0001004
P70_TL00109
P70_ST00884 2992 5007
P70_SP00776
P70_ST00885 2982
P70_SP00777 3014
P70_ST00886 2981 arid 0004
P70_SP00778 1603
P70_ST00887 1625
P70_SP00779
P70_ST00888 almost 003642
P70_SP00780 3013
P70_ST00889 2980 completely 0370002800
P70_SP00781 3021
P70_ST00890 204 deforested. 00420000205
P70_SP00782 3012
P70_ST00891
P70_TB00003 2344 3121
P70_TL00110 2350 3127
P70_ST00892


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Description
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sourceImageInformation
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OCRProcessing ID OCRPROCESSING_1
preProcessingStep
processingSoftware
softwareCreator Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
softwareName BookScan Editor
softwareVersion 3.6
ocrProcessingStep
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SP P36_SP00001 587 281 19
P36_ST00002 606 38 33 of 0.68 42
P36_SP00002 644 280 18
P36_ST00003 662 251 86 29 most 0.79 3012
P36_SP00003 748
P36_ST00004 766 245 37 15
P36_SP00004 803 279
P36_ST00005 821 246 55 the 0.59 254
P36_SP00005 876 21
P36_ST00006 897 83 river 0.60 24065
P36_SP00006 980 278
P36_ST00007 998 244 121 basins. 0.93 0004000
P36_SP00007 1119
P36_ST00008 1140 179 Generally 0.71 410001746
P36_SP00008 1319 286
P36_ST00009 1337 252 82 spea 0.98 0000 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT speaking,
P36_TL00002 451 290 965 46
P36_ST00010 294 87 king, 0.73 62032 HypPart2
P36_SP00009 538 336
P36_ST00011 556 295 95 32 those 0.70 52231
P36_SP00010 651 327 16
P36_ST00012 667 299 202 parameters 1045053230
P36_SP00011 869 335 17
P36_ST00013 886 293 70 that 0.80 0322
P36_SP00012 956 325
P36_ST00014 971 292 101 affect 0.95 000100
P36_SP00013 1072 324
P36_ST00015 1087 53 0.67 152
P36_SP00014
P36_ST00016 1156 192 hydrologie 1304054001
P36_SP00015 1348 332
P36_ST00017 1363 291 31 bal 0.74 322 balance
P36_TL00003 979
P36_ST00018 349 79 24 ance 0.86 0302
P36_SP00016 530 373 20
P36_ST00019 550 340 150 between 0.87 0430010
P36_SP00017 700 372
P36_ST00020 719 338 160 overiand 0.76 00277010
P36_SP00018 879 371
P36_ST00021 899 75 flow 3301
P36_SP00019 974 370
P36_ST00022 337 65 and 1.00 000
P36_SP00020 1058
P36_ST00023 1077 191 infiltration 0.82 004411050003
P36_SP00021 1268 369
P36_ST00024 1287 into 0.89 0040
P36_SP00022 1357
P36_ST00025 1375 005
P36_TL00004 450 383
P36_ST00026 230 groundwater 14400030301
P36_SP00023 680 429 11
P36_ST00027 691 396 56 23 are 0.81 050
P36_SP00024 747 14
P36_ST00028 761 395 92 more 0004
P36_SP00025 853 12
P36_ST00029 865 385 155 sensitive 0.91 000007000
P36_SP00026 1020 418
P36_ST00030 1031 394 45 on 0.61
P36_SP00027 1076 417
P36_ST00031 1088 388 130 steeper 3161010
P36_SP00028 1218 426
P36_ST00032 1229 110 slopes 207076
P36_SP00029 1339 425
P36_ST00033 1351 78 than 0.88 4000
P36_TL00005 430 39
P36_ST00034 442 44 0.94 01
P36_SP00030 495 465
P36_ST00035 513 433 57 flat 0003
P36_SP00031 570
P36_ST00036 588 432 103 lands. 0.96 000001
P36_SP00032 464
P36_ST00037 711 Thus, 04045
P36_SP00033 814 469
P36_ST00038 833 431 0.97
P36_SP00034 888
P36_ST00039 906 destruction 0.84 00100305600
P36_SP00035 1108 463
P36_ST00040 1125 30 03
P36_SP00036 1162 461
P36_ST00041 1178 0.75 600
P36_SP00037 1233
P36_ST00042 1252 118 forests 0.69 3512053
P36_SP00038 1370
P36_ST00043 1386 438 22 40
P36_TL00006 475 978
P36_ST00044 479 112 fragile 6600000
P36_SP00039 564 521
P36_ST00045 579 478 139 uplands 3000000
P36_SP00040 718 520
P36_ST00046 734 58 has 601
P36_SP00041 792 511 13
P36_ST00047 805 149 41 severely 20000000
P36_SP00042 954 519
P36_ST00048 968 476 125 altered 0060000
P36_SP00043 1093 510
P36_ST00049 44030
P36_SP00044 1191 508
P36_ST00050 1205 225 hydrographs 0.90 40000400001
P36_TL00007
P36_ST00051 525 in 00
P36_SP00045 483 558
P36_ST00052 499 526 54 500
P36_SP00046 553
P36_ST00053 568 524 170 lowlands, 060000002
P36_SP00047 738 562
P36_ST00054 754
P36_SP00048 809 557
P36_ST00055 823 534 very
P36_SP00049 902 565
P36_ST00056 916 532 93 areas 06000
P36_SP00050 1009
P36_ST00057 1023 522
P36_SP00051 1054 555
P36_ST00058 1070 Haiti 0.77 03062
P36_SP00052 1157 554
P36_ST00059 1172 108 where 04005
P36_SP00053 1280
P36_ST00060 1295 531 a 0.41 5
P36_SP00054 1313
P36_ST00061 1325 106 stable 300000
P36_TL00008
P36_ST00062 578 119 27 stream 460044
P36_SP00055 605
P36_ST00063 571 122 rgime 006405
P36_SP00056 709 612
P36_ST00064 727 25 is
P36_SP00057 752 604
P36_ST00065 768 131 needed 060400
P36_SP00058
P36_ST00066 575 85 28 0001
P36_SP00059 1001 603
P36_ST00067 1018 to
P36_SP00060 1051 602
P36_ST00068 1068 569 maximizc 0.78 00030248
P36_SP00061 1238
P36_ST00069 1255 0.62
P36_SP00062 1309
P36_ST00070 1326 104 utility 4602050
P36_TL00009 617 405
P36_ST00071 04
P36_SP00063 489 650
P36_ST00072 503 618
P36_SP00064 649
P36_ST00073 574 622 100 water 0.65 40506
P36_SP00065 674
P36_ST00074 625 165 resource. 000007001
Illustration P36_CB1_SUB 699 992 580 TYPE
P36_TB00002 549 1315 870
P36_TL00010 1321 793
P36_ST00075 1323 B 4
P36_SP00066 577
P36_ST00076 592 1332 0.34 6
P36_SP00067 1343
P36_ST00077 629 143 26 inflllraled 0.44 50257845875
P36_SP00068 772 1349
P36_ST00078 785 42270
P36_SP00069 867
P36_ST00079 tha 5388
P36_SP00070 937
P36_ST00080 949 becomes 4864086
P36_SP00071
P36_ST00081 1082 ground 007000
P36_SP00072 1183 1353
P36_ST00082 1197 80 0.57 53660
P36_SP00073 1277 1347
P36_ST00083 1289 60 How 0.56 705
P36_TL00011 1367 858
P36_ST00084 1369 C
P36_SP00074 1394
P36_ST00085 594 1377 0.37
P36_SP00075 614 1389
P36_ST00086 630 1368 177 Ihroughflow 0.64 84032270063
P36_SP00076 807 1400
P36_ST00087 818 1382 1
P36_SP00077 836 1387
P36_ST00088 847 1376
P36_SP00078 863
P36_ST00089 875 107 shallow 0.46 8747405
P36_SP00079 982
P36_ST00090 995 175 (subsurface) 0.63 043564134452
P36_SP00080 1170 1397
P36_ST00091 0.52 3626
P36_SP00081 1243 1392
P36_ST00092 1256 0.55 3247
P36_SP00082 1312
P36_ST00093 1324 1373 89 moves 54054
P36_TL00012 1413 784 35
P36_ST00094 1415 90 wilhtn 0.49 058672
P36_SP00083 645 1442
P36_ST00095 659 1416 98 vegeUI 0.43 275783
P36_SP00084 757 1448
P36_ST00096 769 dbris 274067
P36_SP00085 859 1441
P36_ST00097 871 1422 or
P36_SP00086 903
P36_ST00098 915 Ihe 0.21 877
P36_SP00087 959 1440
P36_ST00099 1421 upper 00060
P36_SP00088 1056 1447
P36_ST00100 portions 0.66 05057008
P36_SP00089 1186 1446
P36_ST00101 1198 1414
P36_SP00090 1227 1439 10
P36_ST00102 1237
P36_SP00091
P36_ST00103 1291 48 soil 5673
P36_TB00003 1478 997 1569
P36_TL00013 449 1484 749
P36_ST00104 1488 Fig. 4510
P36_SP00092 504 1519
P36_ST00105 514 1487 74 III-4: 400420
P36_SP00093 1513
P36_ST00106 1486 River 35072
P36_SP00094 678 7
P36_ST00107 685 0.47 5564
P36_SP00095 745 1512 8
P36_ST00108 753 274423
P36_SP00096 851 1517
P36_ST00109 50
P36_SP00097 883 1511
P36_ST00110 891 1485 111 relation 04045450
P36_SP00098 1002
P36_ST00111 0.36
P36_SP00099 1037
P36_ST00112 1044 154 innilration 30718064602
P36_TL00014 599 1523
P36_ST00113 1524 52
P36_SP00100 1550
P36_ST00114 113 Ihrough 8007030
P36_SP00101 1555
P36_ST00115 780 llow. 0.48 88152
P36_TL00015 498 1613 935
P36_ST00116 1614 A
P36_SP00102 527 1646
P36_ST00117 544 129 paucity 0000035
P36_SP00103 673 1656
P36_ST00118 690
P36_SP00104 725 1645
P36_ST00119 742
P36_SP00105 824
P36_ST00120 839 discharge 006020061
P36_SP00106 1654
P36_ST00121 1027 76 data 5060
P36_SP00107 1103
P36_ST00122 97 exists 420756
P36_SP00108 1216
P36_ST00123 1232 201 throughout 0.58 1603367706
P36_TL00016 455 1659
P36_ST00124 1660 056
P36_SP00109 509 1691
P36_ST00125 523 1665 148 country. 36208000
P36_SP00110 671 1700
P36_ST00126 689 No
P36_SP00111 741 1690
P36_ST00127 755 188 systematic 7020652000
P36_SP00112 943 1699
P36_ST00128 1661 77 0.83 0221
P36_SP00113 1033
P36_ST00129 1046 172 collection 0457507060
P36_SP00114
P36_ST00130 1234
P36_SP00115 1259
P36_ST00131 1272 06
P36_SP00116 1302
P36_ST00132 1318 1669 102 opra 20003 opration.
P36_TL00017 454 1705
P36_ST00133 1706 tion. 40501
P36_SP00117 533 1738
P36_ST00134 1707 Almost 0.50 106867
P36_SP00118 687 1739
P36_ST00135 707 ail 733
P36_SP00119
P36_ST00136 767 171 600832022
P36_SP00120 938 1747
P36_ST00137 957 values 0.72 043054
P36_SP00121
P36_ST00138 123 quoted 603121
P36_SP00122 1210
P36_ST00139 1230 for
P36_SP00123 1737
P36_ST00140 1299 133 Haitian 4002060
P36_TL00018 1751
P36_ST00141 1752 rivers 000000
P36_SP00124 1784
P36_ST00142 1761 250
P36_SP00125 632 1785
P36_ST00143 657 based 0.85 00502
P36_SP00126 758
P36_ST00144 782 1762
P36_SP00127
P36_ST00145 1756 260 rneasurements 0500400043000
P36_SP00128 1111
P36_ST00146 1134 dating
P36_SP00129 1246 1793
P36_ST00147 1270 from 4040
P36_SP00130
P36_ST00148 1380 811
P36_TL00019 459 1798 973
P36_ST00149 1800 173 1930-1940 083800808
P36_SP00131 1831
P36_ST00150 126 period, 0600703
P36_SP00132 777 1840
P36_ST00151 799 1801
P36_SP00133 829 1830
P36_ST00152 850 62 few 070
P36_SP00134 912
P36_ST00153 932 1804 rcent 008404
P36_SP00135 1043
P36_ST00154 1061 167 307632060
P36_SP00136 1228 1839
P36_ST00155 1247 1799 075057
P36_SP00137 1359
P36_ST00156 1378 1808 004
P36_TL00020 1844
P36_ST00157 available, 0030500102
P36_SP00138 626 1881
P36_ST00158 641 00044
P36_SP00139 1877
P36_ST00159 1854
P36_SP00140 796 1876
P36_ST00160 1845 189 short-term 0.92 1000100005
P36_SP00141
P36_ST00161 1010 229 observations 000400460800
P36_SP00142 1239
P36_ST00162 1249 184 connected 081000300
P36_TL00021 453 1891
P36_ST00163 1892 with
P36_SP00143 528 1924
P36_ST00164 132 spcifie 00000008
P36_SP00144 681 1933
P36_ST00165 701 153 projects. 004000050
P36_SP00145 854 1934
P36_ST00166 94 Since 00100
P36_SP00146
P36_ST00167 159 dramatic 60300006
P36_SP00147 1151 1923
P36_ST00168 1169 262 environmental 0005061100205
P36_TL00022 1937
P36_ST00169 1938 changes 0000006
P36_SP00148 596 1978
P36_ST00170 615 1943
P36_SP00149 1969
P36_ST00171 669 vgtation 0610256010
P36_SP00150 857 1979
P36_ST00172 1947 cover
P36_SP00151 975
P36_ST00173 994 64
P36_SP00152
P36_ST00174 1078 soils 03020
P36_SP00153 1154
P36_ST00175 1173 bave 8000
P36_SP00154
P36_ST00176 1274 158 occurred 10130000
P36_TL00023 1983
P36_ST00177 116 during 707705
P36_SP00155 2026
P36_ST00178 583 1985 0.45 348
P36_SP00156 636 2016
P36_ST00179 1984 last 0167
P36_SP00157
P36_ST00180 723 forty 77070
P36_SP00158 2025
P36_ST00181 1994 years, 304053
P36_SP00159 928
P36_ST00182 944 350
P36_SP00160 996 2015
P36_ST00183 often 20385
P36_SP00161
P36_ST00184 1116 124 037472
P36_SP00162 1240
P36_ST00185 1254 014054
P36_SP00163 1364
P36_ST00186 1993
P36_TL00024 2029
P36_ST00187 2036 59 out 401
P36_SP00164 2062
P36_ST00188 2030
P36_SP00165
P36_ST00189 88 date. 00200
P36_SP00166 663
P36_ST00190 2031 99 Mean
P36_SP00167
P36_ST00191 003020073
P36_SP00168 2070
P36_ST00192 981 004044
P36_SP00169 1094 2061
P36_ST00193 1109
P36_SP00170 1138
P36_ST00194 almost 060766
P36_SP00171
P36_ST00195 1285 045
P36_SP00172
P36_ST00196 1341 2039 91 cases 00002
P36_TL00025 2076
P36_ST00197 2087
P36_SP00173 507 2110
P36_ST00198 2077 probably 00500000
P36_SP00174 2119
P36_ST00199 714 2079 105 larger 080750
P36_SP00175 819
P36_ST00200 840 2078 since 80005
P36_SP00176 929
P36_ST00201 952 353 evapo-transpiration 8000605070600065040
P36_SP00177 1305 2118
P36_ST00202 1330 losses 388723
P36_TL00026 2122
P36_ST00203 2128 84 must 0005
P36_SP00178 537 2155
P36_ST00204 2124 be
P36_SP00179 2154
P36_ST00205 2123 less, 40035
P36_SP00180 693 2159
P36_ST00206 713 0015
P36_SP00181 788
P36_ST00207 670
P36_SP00182
P36_ST00208 882 seriously 000000060
P36_SP00183 1041 2163
P36_ST00209 1059 166 degraded 14600050
P36_SP00184 1225 2162
P36_ST00210 0554405040
P36_TL00027 2169 977
P36_ST00211 2179 85000
P36_SP00185 2202
P36_ST00212 563 2170 decreasing 0640408043
P36_SP00186 2211
P36_ST00213 770 001
P36_SP00187
P36_ST00214 157 moisture 47087008
P36_SP00188
P36_ST00215 2175 storage 7480766
P36_SP00189 1139 2210
P36_ST00216 1155 potential 072700005
P36_SP00190
P36_ST00217 1327 73
P36_SP00191 2201
P36_ST00218
P36_TL00028 2214
P36_ST00219 2216 75030
P36_SP00192 529 2248
P36_ST00220 540 2215 found 78100
P36_SP00193 643
P36_ST00221 653 2226
P36_SP00194 695 2247
P36_ST00222 2221 3701
P36_SP00195 791
P36_ST00223 802 2217 slope 50005
P36_SP00196 894 2257
P36_ST00224 lands 15007
P36_SP00197
P36_ST00225 1008 136 (Coffey 6510500
P36_SP00198 1144 2256
P36_ST00226 2240 ,
P36_SP00199 2250
P36_ST00227 1167 et
P36_SP00200 1199
P36_ST00228 al.
P36_SP00201 1250
P36_ST00229 1260
P36_SP00202 1266 2252
P36_ST00230 1282 1984). 024000
P36_TL00029 497 2304 923
P36_ST00231 2305 Thcsc 36268
P36_SP00203 2337
P36_ST00232 621 2310 two 238
P36_SP00204
P36_ST00233 703 changes, 62036787
P36_SP00205 2346
P36_ST00234 109 alone, 608000
P36_SP00206 986 2342
P36_ST00235 1005 imply 05030
P36_SP00207 1104 2345
P36_ST00236 1121 67 1625
P36_SP00208 1188 2336
P36_ST00237 1206 2314
P36_SP00209 1224 2335
P36_ST00238 1242 040540
P36_SP00210 1346
P36_ST00239 1361 2313 per 080 percentage
P36_TL00030 2350
P36_ST00240 2355 137 centage 0007050
P36_SP00211 591 2392
P36_ST00241 608
P36_SP00212 646 2382
P36_ST00242 661 rainfall 50020110
P36_SP00213 2383
P36_ST00243 2356 enters 700008
P36_SP00214 913
P36_ST00244
P36_SP00215 985
P36_ST00245 1003 00040
P36_SP00216
P36_ST00246 2354 system 204547
P36_SP00217 1222 2391
P36_ST00247 today 54200
P36_SP00218 2390
P36_ST00248 1355 5170
P36_TL00031 2397
P36_ST00249 2398
P36_SP00219 486 2429
P36_ST00250 2407 years 03307
P36_SP00220 2439
P36_ST00251 611 2403 81 past. 30700
P36_SP00221 692
P36_ST00252 271 Unfortunately, 60610540474501
P36_SP00222 2437
P36_ST00253 1000 this 3032
P36_SP00223 1062 2428
P36_ST00254 205360
P36_SP00224 1181 2438
P36_ST00255 1195 total 58053
P36_SP00225 1275
P36_ST00256 dischar 1066000 discharge,
P36_TL00032 2442
P36_ST00257 2452 ge,
P36_SP00226 2485
P36_ST00258 156 reflected 000000401
P36_SP00227 2475
P36_ST00259
P36_SP00228
P36_ST00260 115 higher 002000
P36_SP00229 2484
P36_ST00261 96 mean 5000
P36_SP00230 963
P36_ST00262 flows, 000030
P36_SP00231 1083 2480
P36_ST00263 1099
P36_SP00232 1123 2473
P36_ST00264 1136
P36_SP00233 2474
P36_ST00265 1168 2448 01470
P36_SP00234 1269
P36_ST00266 1281 151 resource 00031006
P36_TL00033 2489 976
P36_ST00267 2490 largely 5507330
P36_SP00235 2532
P36_ST00268 595 61 lost
P36_SP00236 656 2522
P36_ST00269 675 2494 0.28
P36_SP00237
P36_ST00270
P36_SP00238
P36_ST00271 801 219 surrounding 86808307430
P36_SP00239 2531
P36_ST00272 1039 2499 seas 7527
P36_SP00240 1112
P36_ST00273 1128 63 due 007
P36_SP00241 2521
P36_ST00274 1212
P36_SP00242 1245
P36_ST00275 1265 300
P36_SP00243
P36_ST00276 1338 trend 14006
P36_TL00034 2534
P36_ST00277 2536
P36_SP00244 493 2569 9
P36_ST00278 502 2545 2000
P36_SP00245 2568
P36_ST00279 2541 145 extrme 1101050
P36_SP00246
P36_ST00280 762 1113
P36_SP00247 837
P36_ST00281 849 rgimes. 00055003
P36_SP00248 999 2577
P36_ST00282 1013 2535 With 0050
P36_SP00249 1101 2567
P36_ST00283 each 3000
P36_SP00250
P36_ST00284 1202 passing 0.99 0000000
P36_SP00251 1334 2576
P36_ST00285 year, 01005
P36_TL00035 2581
P36_ST00286 2582 200
P36_SP00252 2615
P36_ST00287 660202
P36_SP00253
P36_ST00288 633
P36_SP00254 696 2614
P36_ST00289 2588 streams 3004406
P36_SP00255 846
P36_ST00290 2583 203 6000062704
P36_SP00256 2624
P36_ST00291 73000
P36_SP00257 1163
P36_ST00292 1176 3350
P36_SP00258
P36_ST00293 2591 0800
P36_SP00259
P36_ST00294
P36_TL00036 2628
P36_ST00295 2638 0051
P36_SP00260 547 2661
P36_ST00296 like 3120
P36_SP00261
P36_ST00297 2633 141 torrents 50001010
P36_SP00262
P36_ST00298 4240
P36_SP00263 2660
P36_ST00299 893 050061
P36_SP00264
P36_ST00300 2634 194 permanent 000680200
P36_SP00265 1207 2669
P36_ST00301 rivers. 7700000
P36_SP00266 1333 2659
P36_ST00302 47 As
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P36_ST00303 0.32
P36_TL00037 2674
P36_ST00304 2676 resuit, 0203020
P36_SP00268 2713
P36_ST00305 581 006
P36_SP00269 634 2708
P36_ST00306 2675 river's 7700065
P36_SP00270 760
P36_ST00307 773 2686 use 040
P36_SP00271 828
P36_ST00308 841 as
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P36_ST00309 889
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P36_ST00310 918 2681 04001
P36_SP00274 1019
P36_ST00311 1030 supply 700030
P36_SP00275 1146 2717
P36_ST00312 1161 49 471
P36_SP00276 2707
P36_ST00313 2684 ever 4020
P36_SP00277 1298
P36_ST00314 1310 increa 408000 increasing
P36_TL00038 2720
P36_ST00315 2721 71 sing 0400
P36_SP00278 2763
P36_ST00316 193 population 0001307650
P36_SP00279 731 2762
P36_ST00317 2722
P36_SP00280 2752
P36_ST00318 787 continuously 000331011000
P36_SP00281 1017 2761
P36_ST00319 decreasing. 00000003000
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P36_SP00283 1356
P36_ST00321 2730 wa
P36_TL00039 2766 927
P36_ST00322 2773 ter
P36_SP00284 2800
P36_ST00323 2768
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P36_ST00324 2767 128 000300
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P36_ST00325 000200
P36_SP00287 2809
P36_ST00326 813
P36_SP00288 866 2799
P36_ST00327 878 dry
P36_SP00289 936
P36_ST00328 946 2776 147 scasons, 01020004
P36_SP00290 2805
P36_ST00329 1105 less 2600
P36_SP00291 1166
P36_ST00330 1177
P36_SP00292 1200
P36_ST00331 available 000230058
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P36_ST00332 2792 0.33
P36_TL00040 494 2861
P36_ST00333 2862 Table 03060
P36_SP00294 2893
P36_ST00334 III-6 04220
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P36_ST00335 722 2867 prsents 30007000
P36_SP00296 2902
P36_ST00336
P36_SP00297 947 2892
P36_ST00337 970 publishcd 053500551
P36_SP00298 1142 2901
P36_ST00338 1165 168 006007000
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P36_ST00339 3053
P36_TL00041 2907
P36_ST00340 2909 51
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P36_ST00341 2908 144
P36_SP00301 559 2940
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P36_SP00304 822
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P36_SP00305 909
P36_ST00346 925
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P36_ST00347 2913 current 4000200
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P36_ST00348 6456
P36_SP00308 1196 2939
P36_ST00349 1213 2912 185 represents 0600581304
P36_SP00309 1398 2949
P36_ST00350 2917
P36_TL00042 2953 966
P36_ST00351 2954 120 critical 03000007
P36_SP00310 572 2987
P36_ST00352 590 223 shortcoming 00000001006
P36_SP00311 2994
P36_ST00353 830
P36_SP00312 2985
P36_ST00354 sensible 04050540
P36_SP00313 1038 2986
P36_ST00355 1057 project 0040004
P36_SP00314 1180
P36_ST00356 design 015010
P36_SP00315 1308 2993
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P36_SP00316 1362
P36_ST00358 hy hydroelectric
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P36_ST00359 3001 droelectric 00024080000
P36_SP00317 3033
P36_ST00360 658
P36_SP00318 721
P36_ST00361 736 irrigation 0000715000
P36_SP00319 901 3041
P36_ST00362 161 schemes. 50020860
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P36_ST00363 1090 69 The
P36_SP00321 1159
P36_ST00364 1175 3010 numerous 05630400
P36_SP00322 1352
P36_ST00365 66 fea- 5015
P36_TB00004 446 3132
P36_TL00044 3138
P36_ST00366
P36_TB00005 1516 2810
P36_TL00045 1532 241
P36_ST00367 sibility 02005412
P36_SP00323 1652 287
P36_ST00368 1666 studies 3103522
P36_SP00324 1788
P36_ST00369 68 2440
P36_SP00325 1872
P36_ST00370 1887 hve 5002
P36_SP00326 1972 277
P36_ST00371 1986 been
P36_SP00327 2073
P36_ST00372 2089 163 prepared 02020002
P36_SP00328
P36_ST00373 2267
P36_SP00329 2318 275
P36_ST00374 2332 178 irrigation, 50770000000
P36_TL00046 1531
P36_ST00375 236 4402653402300
P36_SP00330 1767 334
P36_ST00376 1781
P36_SP00331 1847
P36_ST00377 1862 other 50174
P36_SP00332 1958
P36_ST00378 water-related 0005263130040
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P36_ST00379 2229 projects, 040050500
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P36_ST00380 2399 unfor 00034 unfortunately,
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P36_ST00381 tunately, 022005162
P36_SP00335 380
P36_ST00382 1708
P36_SP00336 1790
P36_ST00383 1807 had
P36_SP00337 1870
P36_ST00384 1886 342
P36_SP00338 1922
P36_ST00385 1936 208 extrapolate 10005000003
P36_SP00339 2144 378
P36_ST00386 2161 0520
P36_SP00340 2245 368
P36_ST00387 2262
P36_SP00341 2324
P36_ST00388 2339 344 no 05
P36_SP00342 367
P36_ST00389 longer 440101
P36_TL00048 382
P36_ST00390 386 relevant 00400303
P36_SP00343 1677
P36_ST00391 1693 0550
P36_SP00344 1769
P36_ST00392 base. 60000
P36_SP00345 1874
P36_ST00393 1894 384 For 002
P36_SP00346 1957
P36_ST00394 1971 example, 04000220
P36_SP00347 2137
P36_ST00395 320
P36_SP00348 2209 416
P36_ST00396 2224 Etude
P36_SP00349 415
P36_ST00397 de
P36_SP00350 2389 414
P36_ST00398 2404 Faisa 00010 Faisabilit-Projet
P36_TL00049 427
P36_ST00399 215 bilit-Projet 4661200306606
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P36_ST00400 1791 GU-l-Riv. 054240005
P36_SP00352 462
P36_ST00401 220 Guayamouc 000300400
P36_SP00353 2251
P36_ST00402 2294 217 (HQI-LGL- 000504011
P36_TL00050 473 964
P36_ST00403 477 LMBDS, 400003
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P36_SP00355 1810 517
P36_ST00405 1825 which 23000
P36_SP00356 1929
P36_ST00406 1944 examines 22003000
P36_SP00357 2114
P36_ST00407 2129
P36_SP00358 2183
P36_ST00408 2200 474 proposed 06300100
P36_SP00359 2366
P36_ST00409 2381 dam
P36_SP00360 2456
P36_ST00410 2469 si sites
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P36_ST00411 tes 501
P36_SP00361 1580
P36_ST00412 1597
P36_SP00362 1631
P36_ST00413 1647 127 protect 0007000
P36_SP00363 1774
P36_ST00414 702
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P36_ST00415 Peligre 2010020
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P36_ST00416 2002 lake
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P36_ST00417 2091
P36_SP00367 2177
P36_ST00418 2192 268 sdimentation, 10060000050000
P36_SP00368 2460
P36_ST00419 2476 08
P36_TL00052 567
P36_ST00420 well
P36_SP00369 1602
P36_ST00421 1622
P36_SP00370 1657
P36_ST00422 1676 576
P36_SP00371 1710
P36_ST00423 1727 generate 02060002
P36_SP00372 1883
P36_ST00424 1902 electrical 2350000114
P36_SP00373 2065
P36_ST00425 2086 power, 070001
P36_SP00374 610
P36_ST00426 2230
P36_SP00375
P36_ST00427 2275 40600
P36_SP00376 2375
P36_ST00428 2393
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P36_ST00429
P36_TL00053 1536
P36_ST00430 616 1925-1931 420011413
P36_SP00378 648
P36_ST00431 1725 169 132060700
P36_SP00379 655
P36_ST00432 1911 data. 00600
P36_SP00380 647
P36_ST00433 2017
P36_SP00381 2088
P36_ST00434 2105 attempt 0700000
P36_SP00382 2244
P36_ST00435 2261
P36_SP00383 2295
P36_ST00436 2312 update 300040
P36_SP00384 2433
P36_ST00437 2450 7275
P36_TL00054
P36_ST00438 197 inadquate 0080070070
P36_SP00385 1728 704
P36_ST00439 1741 0030
P36_SP00386 1818 694
P36_ST00440 base 0710
P36_SP00387 1907
P36_ST00441 1921 142 through 0000200
P36_SP00388 2063
P36_ST00442 2074 199 corrlation 00300051300
P36_SP00389 2273
P36_ST00443 2286 0034
P36_SP00390 2361
P36_ST00444 2373 prcipi 0002004 prcipitation
P36_TL00055 706
P36_ST00445 tation 200002
P36_SP00391 1634
P36_ST00446 1651 708
P36_SP00392 1709
P36_ST00447 1723
P36_SP00393 1787 740
P36_ST00448 1803 712 07
P36_SP00394 1837
P36_ST00449 1853 introduce 000310025
P36_SP00395 2024
P36_ST00450 716 error 00300
P36_SP00396 2132 739
P36_ST00451 2146 3006
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P36_ST00452
P36_SP00398 2285
P36_ST00453 2300 210 assessment, 03343003100
P36_TL00056 1530
P36_ST00454 756 10002
P36_SP00399 1617
P36_ST00455 1644 036
P36_SP00400 1698
P36_ST00456 1722 2704000052
P36_SP00401 1909
P36_ST00457 1935 030
P36_SP00402 2001 786
P36_ST00458 2023 0007
P36_SP00403 2085
P36_ST00459 2111 attributes 5017760000
P36_SP00404 2283
P36_ST00460 2306
P36_SP00405 2343
P36_ST00461 2365 053
P36_SP00406 2420
P36_ST00462 2445 cat catchment
P36_TL00057 797
P36_ST00463 chment 220802
P36_SP00407 1664 834
P36_ST00464 1680 800 basin 00220
P36_SP00408 1771
P36_ST00465 1786 clearly 0210244
P36_SP00409 1905
P36_ST00466
P36_SP00410 2004 832
P36_ST00467 2019 changed 5330215
P36_SP00411
P36_ST00468 2184 0040005
P36_SP00412 831
P36_ST00469 2353 798 1931
P36_SP00413
P36_ST00470 2447 010
P36_TL00058 1535
P36_ST00471 1982. 66001
P36_TL00059 930
P36_ST00472 Watershed 524864031
P36_SP00414 1724 962
P36_ST00473 1740 Management 5103523005
P36_TL00060 1571
P36_ST00474 One
P36_SP00415 1049
P36_ST00475 1015
P36_SP00416 1703
P36_ST00476 1719 1016
P36_SP00417 1773 1048
P36_ST00477 1792 basic 70001
P36_SP00418 1880
P36_ST00478 1897 tenets 000020
P36_SP00419 2006 1047
P36_ST00479 2021
P36_SP00420 2060
P36_ST00480 watershed 000000000
P36_SP00421 2259
P36_ST00481 2278 231 management 0000000000
P36_TL00061 1529
P36_ST00482 1063 138 dicttes 00000031
P36_SP00422 1667
P36_ST00483 1682 0570
P36_SP00423 1750
P36_ST00484 1765 034
P36_SP00424 1820
P36_ST00485 1834 1060 4801
P36_SP00425 1893
P36_ST00486 surface 4000015
P36_SP00426 2035 1092
P36_ST00487 2049
P36_SP00427 2090 1091
P36_ST00488 2106 maintained 3000200040
P36_SP00428 2308
P36_ST00489 2320
P36_SP00429 2352
P36_ST00490 1067
P36_SP00430 2385 1089
P36_ST00491 condi condition
P36_TL00062
P36_ST00492 tion
P36_SP00431 1598
P36_ST00493 3715
P36_SP00432 1687 1141
P36_ST00494 1107 maximizes 002022303
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P36_ST00495 310
P36_SP00434 1966
P36_ST00496 501105000000
P36_SP00435 2178
P36_ST00497 2196
P36_SP00436 2235
P36_ST00498 rainfall. 000070030
P36_SP00437 1137
P36_ST00499 2408 Trees 01001
P36_TL00063 1149
P36_ST00500 003
P36_SP00438 1585 1187
P36_ST00501 1596 crucial
P36_SP00439 1715
P36_ST00502 components 0200000000
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P36_ST00503 1954 1153
P36_SP00441 1185
P36_ST00504 1998 1152 0350
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P36_ST00505 strategy. 540002000
P36_SP00443 1193
P36_ST00506 2237 By
P36_SP00444 1192
P36_ST00507 216 intercepting 204000200000
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P36_SP00445 1772
P36_ST00509 1794 1211
P36_SP00446 1812
P36_ST00510 1833 1201 dense 07324
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P36_ST00511 1955 forest 000014
P36_SP00448 2057
P36_ST00512 1208 canopy 001000
P36_SP00449 2205
P36_ST00513 2227 134 reduces 3002005
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P36_ST00514 00000614
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P36_ST00515 intensity; 2000006000
P36_SP00451 1288
P36_ST00516 1711 dead
P36_SP00452 1796 1278
P36_ST00517 leaf
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P36_ST00518 matter 004130
P36_SP00454 2007
P36_ST00519 iiot 7802
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P36_ST00520 1244 only
P36_SP00456 2168
P36_ST00521 protects 00050000
P36_SP00457 2323
P36_ST00522 00700
P36_SP00458 2412
P36_ST00523 2424 5306
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P36_ST00524 1294
P36_SP00459 1583
P36_ST00525 1601 direct 000005
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P36_ST00526 1293 impact 061000
P36_SP00461 1842
P36_ST00527 1858
P36_SP00462 1895
P36_ST00528 1910 1292 raindrops, 0001116250
P36_SP00463 2095
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P36_SP00464 2171
P36_ST00530 2188 also
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P36_ST00531 1290 increases 000270111
P36_SP00466 2436
P36_ST00532 2454
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P36_ST00533 1340 004400002000
P36_SP00467 1372
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P36_SP00468 1777
P36_ST00535 400
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P36_ST00536 1865 003100
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P36_ST00537 2011 surface; 30000020
P36_SP00471 2152
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P36_ST00539 root 0220
P36_SP00473 2317
P36_ST00540 structures 0000000400
P36_TL00068 1381
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P36_SP00474 1566 1419
P36_ST00542 1581 trees 32000
P36_SP00475
P36_ST00543 1683 146 increase 03020000
P36_SP00476 1829 1418
P36_ST00544 1846 1385
P36_SP00477 1900
P36_ST00545 1918 1384 176 rsistance 1001040000
P36_SP00478 2094 1417
P36_ST00546 2112 1383
P36_SP00479 2149
P36_ST00547 2165
P36_SP00480 2219
P36_ST00548 2236
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P36_SP00482 2347
P36_ST00550 2362 rosion; 00002606
P36_TL00069 1427
P36_ST00551 1433 and, 0002
P36_SP00483 1608 1471
P36_ST00552 1620
P36_SP00484 1465
P36_ST00553 1431 0002005000
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P36_ST00554 1436 200000
P36_SP00486 1463
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P36_ST00556 2072 1430
P36_SP00488 2127 1462
P36_ST00557 2139 1429 002006
P36_SP00489 2241 1461
P36_ST00558 floor 22000
P36_SP00490 2338
P36_ST00559 000001400
P36_TL00070 1474
P36_ST00560 1479 friction 52004000
P36_SP00491
P36_ST00561 1678 00500
P36_SP00492 1782
P36_ST00562 0030130
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P36_ST00563 1956 1477
P36_SP00494 2012 1510
P36_ST00564 2028 1476 erosional 607006555
P36_SP00495 2195 1509
P36_ST00565 2213 1475 002205004
P36_SP00496 2371
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P36_SP00497 2427 1507
P36_ST00567 sur
P36_TL00071 1520
P36_ST00568 1525 face
P36_SP00498 1557
P36_ST00569 1629 00000
P36_SP00499 1730 1556
P36_ST00570 runoff. 0100400
P36_SP00500 1878
P36_ST00571 1908 1522 Overland 50000100
P36_SP00501
P36_ST00572
P36_SP00502 2182 1554
P36_ST00573 2208
P36_SP00503 2246 1553
P36_ST00574 2269 30000
P36_SP00504 2369 1552
P36_ST00575 2395 results 0000503
P36_TL00072 1567
P36_ST00576 1573 whencver 00008000
P36_SP00505 1604
P36_ST00577 1718 1570 228 0000006700000
P36_SP00506 1946
P36_ST00578 1960
P36_SP00507
P36_ST00579 1997 1574 greater 0600500
P36_SP00508 1611
P36_ST00580 6010
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P36_ST00581 1568
P36_SP00510 2284
P36_ST00582 2297 1576 sum
P36_SP00511 2367 1600
P36_ST00583 2379
P36_SP00512 2416
P36_ST00584 2426 infil 00330
P36_TL00073 1533 1616
P36_ST00585 1618 tration
P36_SP00513 1653 1650
P36_ST00586 1668
P36_SP00514 1732
P36_ST00587 1745 interception. 0025303002210
P36_SP00515 1976 1658
P36_ST00588 Removal 4001002
P36_SP00516 2156
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P36_SP00517 2207
P36_ST00590 vgtative 2004300600
P36_SP00518 2401
P36_ST00591 2414 00208
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P36_ST00593 1635 1674 an
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P36_ST00594 1673 area
P36_SP00521 1696
P36_ST00595 162 440000026
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P36_ST00596 1974 1663
P36_SP00523 1695
P36_ST00597 2050 1662 010000063
P36_SP00524 1694
P36_ST00598 460204064
P36_SP00525 2394
P36_ST00599 2413
P36_SP00526 2451 1692
P36_ST00600 2467 02
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P36_ST00601 1720
P36_SP00527 1607 1743
P36_ST00602 by
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P36_ST00603 lowering 00006600
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P36_ST00604 001100004010
P36_SP00530 2069
P36_ST00605 2093
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P36_ST00606 interception 003000000000
P36_SP00532 2400 1748
P36_ST00607 rates 00001
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P36_ST00608 1757 00013
P36_SP00533 1633
P36_ST00609 00030000
P36_SP00534 1795 1789
P36_ST00610 1809 70077000
P36_SP00535 1968
P36_ST00611 1755 flow, 00003
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P36_ST00613 1754 major
P36_SP00538 2264
P36_ST00614 2277 cause 00410
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P36_SP00540 2425
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P36_ST00621 minimize 02004441
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P36_SP00546 2239
P36_ST00623 020000500
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P36_ST00625 create 010060
P36_SP00548 1638
P36_ST00626
P36_SP00549 1882
P36_ST00627 1679 1849 130000
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P36_ST00628 1848 4013000000
P36_SP00551 1890
P36_ST00629 1995
P36_SP00552 2117 1889
P36_ST00630 2130
P36_SP00553 2160 1879
P36_ST00631 1856
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P36_ST00632 2222 area,
P36_SP00555 2311
P36_ST00633 2321 0410600200
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P36_SP00556 1928
P36_ST00635 1906
P36_SP00557 1589
P36_ST00636 1603 0200006
P36_SP00558 1721
P36_ST00637 1735 variable. 006600300
P36_SP00559 1927
P36_ST00638 On
P36_SP00560 1963 1926
P36_ST00639 1977 1899 steep
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P36_ST00640 lands, 500000
P36_SP00562 1930
P36_ST00641 1896 195 000040000
P36_SP00563 2402
P36_ST00642 2415 vg
P36_TL00080
P36_ST00643 tative 403000
P36_SP00564 1975
P36_ST00644 1952 08010
P36_SP00565 1744
P36_ST00645 1760
P36_SP00566 1973
P36_ST00646 1941 183 absolutely 0004602300
P36_SP00567 1982
P36_ST00647 1940 essenfial 023107703
P36_SP00568 2153
P36_ST00648 1945
P36_SP00569
P36_ST00649 retain 033020
P36_SP00570
P36_ST00650 2341 vital 01506
P36_SP00571
P36_ST00651 2432 07007
P36_TL00081
P36_ST00652 1989
P36_SP00572 1595
P36_ST00653 1612 1987 186 contribute
P36_SP00573 2020
P36_ST00654 1815 1992
P36_SP00574 1850
P36_ST00655 1866 1996
P36_SP00575 1884
P36_ST00656 130600
P36_SP00576 2005 2018
P36_ST00657 2022 6000030041
P36_SP00577 2027
P36_ST00658 2232 rgime. 0105300
P36_TL00082 921
P36_ST00659 032
P36_SP00578 2102
P36_ST00660 problems 00001018
P36_SP00579 1823
P36_ST00661
P36_SP00580 1875
P36_ST00662 bringing 00006000
P36_SP00581
P36_ST00663 2054 2071 181 ecological 0045000403
P36_SP00582
P36_ST00664 2253 land
P36_SP00583 2326 2103
P36_ST00665 2344 2080
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P83_SP00145 1411
P83_ST00168 1378 178 measures, 0.54 080745815
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P83_SP00153 1154
P83_ST00177 1177 65 287
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P83_TL00025 1461
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P83_ST00180 1463 animal 882070
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P83_SP00188 1070
P83_ST00217 1089 specifically 738801080200
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P83_ST00218 1302 1647 iden 0880 identified
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P83_SP00190 502 1729
P83_ST00220 520 1697
P83_SP00191 1728
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P83_TL00032 1832
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P83_SP00199 1868
P83_ST00231 554 habitat, 58807766
P83_SP00200 691 1870
P83_ST00232 706 1834 Haiti 87070
P83_SP00201 1866
P83_ST00233 809
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P83_ST00234 843 good
P83_SP00203 930 1875
P83_ST00235 1833 candidate 887807778
P83_SP00204 1115
P83_ST00236 l'or 6080
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P83_TL00033 409 1879
P83_ST00238 1882
P83_SP00206 1913
P83_ST00239 471 1881
P83_SP00207 525 1914
P83_ST00240 551 214 amendment 001072704
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P83_SP00209 1912
P83_ST00242 1009 above, 888083
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P83_ST00262 2022 students 75078086
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P83_SP00228 636 2053
P83_ST00264 652 facultics 558606087
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P83_ST00515 2174 80888588
P83_SP00449 2318
P83_ST00516 2337 787 141 iiianagc- 677888882
P83_TL00068
P83_ST00517 824 menl 8881
P83_SP00450 1588
P83_ST00518 1614 context 8887816
P83_SP00451 1746 852
P83_ST00519 1775 48408
P83_SP00452 1885
P83_ST00520 129 includ'- 00805807
P83_SP00453 2040
P83_ST00521 822 existing 84057058
P83_SP00454
P83_ST00522 2231 proposais 708786806
P83_SP00455 2402
P83_ST00523
P83_TL00069 1497 866 968
P83_ST00524 conch
P83_SP00456 1600
P83_ST00525 1618 205 cultivation, 875600870876
P83_SP00457 1823
P83_ST00526 1843 868 shrimp 671027
P83_SP00458 1966
P83_ST00527 1986 farming, 86880884
P83_SP00459 2136
P83_ST00528 869 brine 85558
P83_SP00460 2246
P83_ST00529 270187
P83_SP00461 2388
P83_ST00530 2407 har harvesting,
P83_TL00070
P83_ST00531 vesting, 08760882
P83_SP00462 954
P83_ST00532 oyster 803681
P83_SP00463 1758
P83_ST00533 1770 culture, 85064474
P83_SP00464 1909 950
P83_ST00534 1923 seaweed 0870888
P83_SP00465 2074
P83_ST00535 2087 culture 8736018
P83_SP00466 2212 947
P83_ST00536 2227
P83_SP00467
P83_ST00537 2306 King 3078
P83_SP00468 2390
P83_ST00538 crab 8088
P83_TL00071 1498 959
P83_ST00539 mariculture, 677784405087
P83_TL00072 887
P83_ST00540 1052 47 3.-
P83_SP00469 1084
P83_ST00541 1560 252 E,stal)lishment 878068414841805
P83_SP00470
P83_ST00542 1828
P83_SP00471
P83_ST00543
P83_SP00472 2009
P83_ST00544 2026 Rserves 88880088
P83_SP00473 2182
P83_ST00545 2197
P83_SP00474 2261
P83_ST00546 2281 101 Parks 86008
P83_TL00073 689
P83_ST00547
P83_SP00475 1531 1131
P83_ST00548 1548 Part 8824
P83_SP00476 1623
P83_ST00549 1099
P83_SP00477 1675
P83_ST00550
P83_SP00478 1742
P83_ST00551 1757 8878286
P83_SP00479 1892
P83_ST00552 1908 Resources 788700888
P83_SP00480 2088
P83_ST00553 2106 Plan 7584
P83_TL00074 1537 1163
P83_ST00554 8080886086
P83_SP00481 1722
P83_ST00555
P83_SP00482 1800
P83_ST00556 1817 236 Management 6708872857
P83_SP00483
P83_ST00557
P83_SP00484
P83_ST00558 8865080
P83_SP00485 1196
P83_ST00559 674088
P83_SP00486 2392
P83_ST00560 2409 Ha
P83_TL00075 1209
P83_ST00561 bitats 840058
P83_SP00487 1591
P83_ST00562 028
P83_SP00488
P83_ST00563 1698 012007
P83_SP00489 1821
P83_ST00564 1844 574000
P83_SP00490 1954
P83_ST00565 1219
P83_SP00491 2034
P83_ST00566 2056
P83_SP00492
P83_ST00567 effectively 60658601705
P83_SP00493 2302
P83_ST00568 2324 1210 used 5878
P83_SP00494 2403
P83_ST00569 2424
P83_TL00076 1256
P83_ST00570 both
P83_SP00495 1573
P83_ST00571 1592 public 458758
P83_SP00496 1700
P83_ST00572 1718 176 ducation 885888687
P83_SP00497 1894
P83_ST00573 1258
P83_SP00498
P83_ST00574 1996 162 research, 686873886
P83_SP00499
P83_ST00575 2177
P83_SP00500 2240
P83_ST00576 2257
P83_SP00501
P83_ST00577 2309 replenish 583085548
P83_TL00077
P83_ST00578 depleted 88708208
P83_SP00502 1343
P83_ST00579 1670 breeding 80887007
P83_SP00503 1829
P83_ST00580 1848 stocks 168807
P83_SP00504
P83_ST00581 1978
P83_SP00505
P83_ST00582 valuable 04208805
P83_SP00506
P83_ST00583 but
P83_SP00507 2262
P83_ST00584 2285 vulnrable 0630805708
P83_TL00078 978
P83_ST00585 7077
P83_SP00508 1381
P83_ST00586 1572
P83_SP00509
P83_ST00587 1655 shelllish 088058338
P83_SP00510
P83_ST00588 1818 8788084
P83_SP00511 1945 1391
P83_ST00589 1350 3676
P83_SP00512 2030 1382
P83_ST00590 2050 quickly 8408006
P83_SP00513 2179
P83_ST00591 2195 175 disappear 800885880
P83_SP00514 2370
P83_ST00592 2389
P83_TL00079 1394
P83_ST00593 heavily 8821005
P83_SP00515 1619 1436
P83_ST00594 1637 1395 fished 501588
P83_SP00516
P83_ST00595 1759 1405 areas. 508035
P83_SP00517 1862
P83_ST00596 1884 1396 Once
P83_SP00518
P83_ST00597 0882000088
P83_SP00519 2165
P83_ST00598 2181 347
P83_SP00520 2244
P83_ST00599 161 managed 0820788
P83_SP00521 2422 1437
P83_ST00600 2439 1406
P83_TL00080 1492 1442
P83_ST00601 80070830
P83_SP00522
P83_ST00602 1624 1452 808476
P83_SP00523 1478
P83_ST00603 they 7380
P83_SP00524 1483
P83_ST00604 1831 serve 88008
P83_SP00525 1921
P83_ST00605 1935 1453
P83_SP00526 1969
P83_ST00606 1443 imporiant 105800775
P83_SP00527
P83_ST00607 2173 habitats 78807886
P83_SP00528 2313
P83_ST00608 2325 7080
P83_SP00529 2374
P83_ST00609 2384 com
P83_TL00081 1487
P83_ST00610 mercially 384807106
P83_SP00530 1656 1528
P83_ST00611 1673 1488 18058708
P83_SP00531
P83_ST00612 fish, 00256
P83_SP00532 1523
P83_ST00613 1931
P83_SP00533
P83_ST00614 1981 well 3731
P83_SP00534 1520
P83_ST00615
P83_SP00535
P83_ST00616 2120
P83_SP00536
P83_ST00617 2186
P83_SP00537 2254
P83_ST00618
P83_SP00538
P83_ST00619 2350 109 endan 80832
P83_TL00082 1491 1534
P83_ST00620 gered 88088
P83_SP00539 1576
P83_ST00621 1609 1535 7056
P83_SP00540 1668 1567
P83_ST00622 1686 218
P83_SP00541 1749
P83_ST00623 248 invertebrates, 05083288087840
P83_TL00083 1532 1613
P83_ST00624 368
P83_SP00542 1645
P83_ST00625 success 4585806
P83_SP00543 1741
P83_ST00626 1750 1615
P83_SP00544
P83_ST00627 thse 63642
P83_SP00545 1890
P83_ST00628 1901 1616 protected 008688887
P83_SP00546
P83_ST00629 2083 1626 52886
P83_SP00547
P83_ST00630 1617 dpends 7878072
P83_SP00548
P83_ST00631 4580000
P83_TL00084 1489
P83_ST00632
P83_SP00549
P83_ST00633 their 77808
P83_SP00550
P83_ST00634 1662 rolc 0828
P83_SP00551 1727 1694
P83_ST00635
P83_SP00552 1779
P83_ST00636 1801
P83_SP00553
P83_ST00637 1842 1663 larger 086880
P83_SP00554 1946 1704
P83_ST00638 1965 1674
P83_SP00555 1695
P83_ST00639 2023 even 8180
P83_SP00556
P83_ST00640 2129 national 88808382
P83_SP00557 2272
P83_ST00641 2295 system 006880
P83_SP00558 2413 1707
P83_ST00642 2436 1667
P83_TL00085
P83_ST00643 8856260
P83_SP00559 1739
P83_ST00644 1717 152 resource 08086088
P83_SP00560 1778 1740
P83_ST00645 1792 40866800833
P83_SP00561 1991
P83_ST00646 1710
P83_SP00562 2060
P83_ST00647 existence 800568088
P83_SP00563
P83_ST00648 1711
P83_SP00564 2289
P83_ST00649 1721
P83_SP00565
P83_ST00650 2353 appro 71008 appropriate
P83_TL00086 1490 1754
P83_ST00651 priate 004768
P83_SP00566 1794
P83_ST00652 231 management 7888880830
P83_SP00567 1796
P83_ST00653 1860 1756 framework, 8080808203
P83_SP00568 2070
P83_ST00654 2089
P83_SP00569 1789
P83_ST00655 37800
P83_SP00570 2253
P83_ST00656 2270 gnral 8878072
P83_SP00571 1798
P83_ST00657 2418 1768 ac acceptance
P83_TL00087
P83_ST00658 1805 ceptance 88435088
P83_SP00572
P83_ST00659 1665
P83_SP00573 1705 1841
P83_ST00660 local 07170
P83_SP00574 1803
P83_ST00661 0848860077
P83_TL00088 1529 1878
P83_ST00662 Ihcrc 83808
P83_SP00575
P83_ST00663 1661 arc
P83_SP00576 1715
P83_ST00664 lgal 08830
P83_SP00577
P83_ST00665 1847 prcccdents 6088888861
P83_SP00578 2043
P83_ST00666
P83_SP00579 2117
P83_ST00667 2140 6680887078
P83_SP00580 2323
P83_ST00668 8885682
P83_TL00089 1924 977
P83_ST00669 1933 resources. 0887108662
P83_SP00581
P83_ST00670 1690 In
P83_SP00582 1955
P83_ST00671 1942, 78001
P83_SP00583 1961
P83_ST00672 1852
P83_SP00584 1906
P83_ST00673 GOH
P83_SP00585 2025
P83_ST00674 2044 ratified 40407080
P83_SP00586
P83_ST00675 2188
P83_SP00587 2241
P83_ST00676 Convention 6800606050
P83_TL00090
P83_ST00677
P83_SP00588 2003
P83_ST00678 Nature 047008
P83_SP00589
P83_ST00679 1687 6785881083
P83_SP00590 1872
P83_ST00680
P83_SP00591 1953
P83_ST00681 142 Wildlife 00483078
P83_SP00592 2110
P83_ST00682 2127 225 Prservation 508080077080
P83_SP00593 2352
P83_ST00683 2367 0.97
P83_SP00594 2397
P83_ST00684
P83_TL00091
P83_ST00685 Western 0.82 0610500
P83_SP00595 2049
P83_ST00686 Hmisphre, 68038004047
P83_SP00596 1888 2058
P83_ST00687 2017 455
P83_SP00597
P83_ST00688 convention 7800000030
P83_SP00598 2193
P83_ST00689 2209 calls 04003
P83_SP00599 2288
P83_ST00690 450
P83_SP00600 2356
P83_ST00691 inter 04460 international
P83_TL00092 2064
P83_ST00692 88808582
P83_SP00601
P83_ST00693 216 coopration 88818787580
P83_SP00602
P83_ST00694 1897
P83_SP00603 2095
P83_ST00695 1952 55
P83_SP00604
P83_ST00696 4287885084
P83_SP00605 2214
P83_ST00697
P83_SP00606 2275
P83_ST00698 flora 45803
P83_SP00607
P83_ST00699 2404
P83_TL00093 2109
P83_ST00700 fauna 01000
P83_SP00608 2141
P83_ST00701 throughout 1648106820
P83_SP00609 2151
P83_ST00702 1822 044
P83_SP00610 1876 2142
P83_ST00703 1895 hmisphre, 08008868060
P83_SP00611
P83_ST00704 2134 including 012206000
P83_SP00612
P83_ST00705
P83_SP00613 2368
P83_ST00706 2115 esta 6710
P83_TL00094
P83_ST00707 blishment 850050877
P83_SP00614
P83_ST00708
P83_SP00615
P83_ST00709 1736 008788888
P83_SP00616
P83_ST00710 2167 848686
P83_SP00617 2033 2194
P83_ST00711 0082
P83_SP00618 2131
P83_ST00712 2168
P83_SP00619
P83_ST00713 05308673
P83_SP00620
P83_ST00714 2369 parks 58017
P83_TL00095 2203
P83_ST00715 003
P83_SP00621 1551 2234
P83_ST00716 050700500
P83_SP00622
P83_ST00717 Subsequently, 0105773402056
P83_SP00623
P83_ST00718 2027 036
P83_SP00624 2081
P83_ST00719 2102 023
P83_SP00625 2202
P83_ST00720 Hunting 6200287
P83_SP00626 2372 2243
P83_ST00721 Law
P83_TL00096 964
P83_ST00722 (1971) 608550
P83_SP00627 1598 2290
P83_ST00723 004
P83_SP00628
P83_ST00724 enacted 8208687
P83_SP00629 1836 2282
P83_ST00725 05084
P83_SP00630
P83_ST00726 forbids 6828080
P83_SP00631
P83_ST00727 068
P83_SP00632
P83_ST00728 2185 hunting 8654248
P83_SP00633 2321 2292
P83_ST00729
P83_SP00634 2371
P83_ST00730 2385 vari 0300 various
P83_TL00097 1486
P83_ST00731 ous
P83_SP00635 1547 2328
P83_ST00732 1564 0408307025
P83_SP00636
P83_ST00733 2296
P83_SP00637 1839 2327
P83_ST00734 1856 212 8071036074
P83_SP00638 2338
P83_ST00735 2085 5877463
P83_SP00639
P83_ST00736 2226 birds, 600850
P83_SP00640 2326
P83_ST00737 2345
P83_SP00641
P83_ST00738 2394 4701
P83_TL00098 1485 2343
P83_ST00739
P83_SP00642
P83_ST00740 other 88170
P83_SP00643 1629
P83_ST00741 1643 70080800
P83_SP00644 1780
P83_ST00742 Interpretive 305805086008
P83_SP00645 2383
P83_ST00743 2029 ducation, 8808460850
P83_SP00646 2218
P83_ST00744 08787085
P83_SP00647
P83_ST00745
P83_TL00099
P83_ST00746 0005400201
P83_SP00648
P83_ST00747 1733 programs, 107403546
P83_SP00649
P83_ST00748 1929 330607058
P83_SP00650
P83_ST00749 2130 2399
P83_SP00651 2420
P83_ST00750 3604
P83_SP00652
P83_ST00751
P83_SP00653
P83_ST00752 2311
P83_SP00654 2421
P83_ST00753 061000
P83_TL00100
P83_ST00754 223 parkrcserve 015550857008
P83_SP00655
P83_ST00755 203580
P83_SP00656
P83_ST00756 2437
P83_SP00657 1887 2468
P83_ST00757 880806
P83_SP00658 2471
P83_ST00758 could, 885084
P83_SP00659 2126
P83_ST00759
P83_SP00660 2164
P83_ST00760 prepared 21888788
P83_SP00661 2335
P83_ST00761 2446 appro- 874482
P83_TL00101 2481
P83_ST00762 2482 priately, 000750104
P83_SP00662
P83_ST00763 1653 help 3200
P83_SP00663
P83_ST00764
P83_SP00664 2513
P83_ST00765 1795 create 0.89
P83_SP00665 1905 2514
P83_ST00766 2492
P83_SP00666 1941
P83_ST00767 2483 better 764740
P83_SP00667 2515
P83_ST00768 2082 awareness 600081860
P83_SP00668 2265
P83_ST00769
P83_SP00669 2319
P83_ST00770
P83_SP00670 2387
P83_ST00771 2406 law 010
P83_TL00102 1484 2529
P83_ST00772 2530 818
P83_SP00671 2561
P83_ST00773 1565 2538
P83_SP00672 1605
P83_ST00774 apprciation 606088327381
P83_SP00673
P83_ST00775
P83_SP00674 1916
P83_ST00776 1934
P83_SP00675 1987
P83_ST00777 2008 resource. 687850883
P83_TL00103 1527 939
P83_ST00778
P83_SP00676 2642
P83_ST00779 following 065580004
P83_SP00677 2650
P83_ST00780
P83_SP00678 2641
P83_ST00781 1903 are
P83_SP00679
P83_ST00782 1975 00708450
P83_SP00680
P83_ST00783
P83_SP00681
P83_ST00784 2221 either 407060
P83_SP00682
P83_ST00785 470002
P83_TL00104 2657
P83_ST00786 68022
P83_SP00683 1583
P83_ST00787 (multiple 327020728
P83_SP00684 2698
P83_ST00788 1777 use
P83_SP00685 2688
P83_ST00789 1849 2659 areas) 828831
P83_SP00686 1957 2695
P83_ST00790
P83_SP00687
P83_ST00791 680088
P83_SP00688
P83_ST00792 58786483
P83_SP00689 2310
P83_ST00793 (restric 28857778 (restricted
P83_TL00105
P83_ST00794 ted
P83_SP00690 2735
P83_ST00795 1559 usage): 5768627
P83_TL00106 2777
P83_ST00796 160 Arcadins 70450100
P83_SP00691 2809 -131
P83_ST00797 2845 358
P83_SP00692 2876
P83_ST00798 1612 2844 20887002
P83_SP00693 1773 2877
P83_ST00799 1790 2855
P83_SP00694
P83_ST00800 2856
P83_SP00695 2878
P83_ST00801 1899 group 80864
P83_SP00696 2887
P83_ST00802 oi
P83_SP00697
P83_ST00803 57744
P83_SP00698
P83_ST00804 2180 islands 0607887
P83_SP00699 2301
P83_ST00805 2315 4007
P83_SP00700
P83_ST00806 ad adjacent
P83_TL00107 1480 2889
P83_ST00807 jacent 260006
P83_SP00701 1582
P83_ST00808 1606 2891 reefs 08337
P83_SP00702 1685 2922
P83_ST00809 approximately 0050130000400
P83_SP00703 1950 2932
P83_ST00810 2901 seven 67040
P83_SP00704 2924
P83_ST00811 2090 miles 00085
P83_SP00705
P83_ST00812 2200 0080
P83_SP00706 2279
P83_ST00813 2304
P83_SP00707 2355
P83_ST00814 2902 near 0601 nearest
P83_TL00108 1482 2937
P83_ST00815 est
P83_SP00708 2970
P83_ST00816 point 08007
P83_SP00709 1639 2979
P83_ST00817 2939
P83_SP00710
P83_ST00818 2938
P83_SP00711
P83_ST00819 (Pl, 4200
P83_SP00712
P83_ST00820 Paturan) 38640845
P83_SP00713 2047
P83_ST00821
P83_SP00714 2971
P83_ST00822
P83_SP00715 2972
P83_ST00823 20084
P83_SP00716
P83_ST00824 north 78351
P83_SP00717 2410
P83_ST00825 2427 2942
P83_TL00109 2984
P83_ST00826 Port-au-Prince. 810450300000220
P83_SP00718 3015
P83_ST00827 2985 265
P83_SP00719 3016
P83_ST00828 1869 0006325
P83_SP00720 3025
P83_ST00829
P83_SP00721 3017
P83_ST00830 2061 tne
P83_SP00722
P83_ST00831 three, 650585
P83_SP00723
P83_ST00832 Lighthouse 5057085250
P83_TL00110 3030
P83_ST00833 Island 270668
P83_SP00724 3063
P83_ST00834 3031 (300
P83_SP00725
P83_ST00835 1702 3041 m
P83_SP00726
P83_ST00836
P83_SP00727 3073
P83_ST00837 1813 3033
P83_SP00728
P83_ST00838 in)
P83_SP00729 3072
P83_ST00839 3032 fcatures 58863380
P83_SP00730 3065
P83_ST00840 6
P83_SP00731
P83_ST00841 white 08068
P83_SP00732
P83_ST00842 2260 sand
P83_SP00733 2341
P83_ST00843 2358 bcach 88886
P83_TB00003 3170
P83_TL00111 3176
P83_ST00844


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P86_SP00002 725 276 23
P86_ST00003 748 245 34 29 to 0.23 68
P86_SP00003 782 274
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P86_ST00005 840 239 185 44 significant 0.53 70803608447
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P86_ST00006 1047 240 156 33 decrease 0.24 78858885
P86_SP00006 1203
P86_ST00007 1224 32 in 0.40 47
P86_SP00007 1256 272
P86_ST00008 1278 117 Haiti's 0.57 8307008
P86_TL00002 285 981 37
P86_ST00009 289 143 wildlife. 0.72 328700030
P86_SP00008 556 322
P86_ST00010 574 Of 0.45 55
P86_SP00009 621 321 13
P86_ST00011 634 288 53 the 0.38 566
P86_SP00010 687 14
P86_ST00012 701 39 25 08
P86_SP00011 740
P86_ST00013 754 287 152 cndcmic 0.51 8088108
P86_SP00012 906 320
P86_ST00014 920 74 land 0.61 0807
P86_SP00013 994 15
P86_ST00015 1009 286 172 mammals 3732547
P86_SP00014 1181 319
P86_ST00016 1194 295 83 once 0.14 8888
P86_SP00015 1277 318
P86_ST00017 1291 103 found 0.44 78307
P86_TL00003 414 330 46
P86_ST00018 335 0.35 48
P86_SP00016 443 369 24
P86_ST00019 467 334 101 40 Haiti, 0.65 770213
P86_SP00017 568 374
P86_ST00020 589 77 42 only 0.56 8422
P86_SP00018 666 376
P86_ST00021 685 339 66 28 two 0.70 008
P86_SP00019 751 367 20
P86_ST00022 771 333 123 rcmain 0.62 481800
P86_SP00020 894
P86_ST00023 915 332 243 38 (Plagiodontia 6720848580408
P86_SP00021 1158 370
P86_ST00024 1178 331 133 aedium 0.30 885576
P86_SP00022 1311 365
P86_ST00025 1332 63 and 0.20 878
P86_TL00004 377 984
P86_ST00026 382 192 Solcnodon 0.42 687038584
P86_SP00023 605 416
P86_ST00027 626 381 201 paradoxus) 6806881686
P86_SP00024 827 419
P86_ST00028 848 379 71 43 (sec 1885
P86_SP00025 919 422
P86_ST00029 940 Figu>-cs 71804788
P86_SP00026 1073 421
P86_ST00030 1097 1 0.79 2
P86_SP00027 1105 411
P86_ST00031 1127 65 845
P86_SP00028 1192 412
P86_ST00032 1211 378 2), 0.91
P86_SP00029 1258 420
P86_ST00033 64
P86_SP00030 1342
P86_ST00034 1360 31 of 84
P86_TL00005 424
P86_ST00035 430 54 0.29 758
P86_SP00031 462
P86_ST00036 481 429 75 1.00 00
P86_SP00032 520
P86_ST00037 533 428 127 species 4388088
P86_SP00033 660 471 12
P86_ST00038 672 0.26
P86_SP00034 709 460 11
P86_ST00039 720 427 144 rcsidcnt 0.43 08807388
P86_SP00035 864
P86_ST00040 426 116 andor 618780
P86_SP00036
P86_ST00041 1006 0.50 8188008
P86_SP00037 459
P86_ST00042 1171 102 birds, 0.52 702864
P86_SP00038 1273
P86_ST00043 1285 0.90 02
P86_SP00039 1325 457
P86_ST00044 1339 433 are
P86_TL00006 470
P86_ST00045 484 rare 0.41 4863
P86_SP00040 485 509 17
P86_ST00046 502 or 0.54 81
P86_SP00041 539 508
P86_ST00047 557 473 195 threatened 7316455088
P86_SP00042 752
P86_ST00048 (C. 074
P86_SP00043 825 515
P86_ST00049 846 472 138 Woods, 0.37 388782
P86_SP00044 510
P86_ST00050 1003 153 personal 17878070
P86_SP00045 1156
P86_ST00051 1173 222 comnmnica- 0.46 8864800881
P86_TL00007
P86_ST00052 522 tion, 0.80 20700
P86_SP00046 561
P86_ST00053 521 1985). 387326
P86_SP00047 622 564
P86_ST00054 644 89 Over 0.58 7044
P86_SP00048 733 554
P86_ST00055 757 129 0.66 108
P86_SP00049 812 553 16
P86_ST00056 828 128 7688084
P86_SP00050 956 563
P86_ST00057 973 519 0.18 87
P86_SP00051 1010 552
P86_ST00058 1024 517 151 endmie 0.47 8388008
P86_SP00052 1175
P86_ST00059 131 orchids 8085078
P86_SP00053 1323 550
P86_ST00060 1340 525 0.22 868
P86_TL00008
P86_ST00061 211 endangered 8083068866
P86_SP00054 624 610
P86_ST00062 640 567 558
P86_SP00055 703 600
P86_ST00063 718 572 27 most 1876
P86_SP00056 804 599
P86_ST00064 818 96 other 85085
P86_SP00057 914
P86_ST00065 930 215 Hispaniolan 80758008572
P86_SP00058 1145 607
P86_ST00066 1161 565 41 plants 665474
P86_SP00059 1269 606
P86_ST00067 1280 573 59 can 888
P86_SP00060 597
P86_ST00068 1355 be 0.15 88
P86_TL00009 609 986
P86_ST00069 614 considered 0.39 8837067476
P86_SP00061 648
P86_ST00070
P86_SP00062 655 647
P86_ST00071 613 61 risk 7782
P86_SP00063
P86_ST00072 0.33 76
P86_SP00064 788 646
P86_ST00073 801 612 extinction, 86430860850
P86_SP00065 993 650
P86_ST00074 with 2176
P86_SP00066 1086 645
P86_ST00075 1103 611 727
P86_SP00067
P86_ST00076 174 exception 868831088
P86_SP00068 1345 652
P86_ST00077 1359 0.34
P86_TL00010 415 980
P86_ST00078 661 663
P86_SP00069 469 694 30
P86_ST00079 499 665 85 4856
P86_SP00070 584
P86_ST00080 undesirable 00687010578
P86_SP00071 693
P86_ST00081 849 0.55
P86_SP00072 913
P86_ST00082 944 658 244 unexploitable 0.63 0054037054745
P86_SP00073 1188
P86_ST00083 1218 662 trccs 73758
P86_SP00074 1303 690
P86_ST00084 1331 0.64 037
P86_TL00011 702 967
P86_ST00085 708 shrubs 780578
P86_SP00075 529 741
P86_ST00086 546 706 104 which 0.71 03036
P86_SP00076
P86_ST00087 669 711 180 propagate 146677657
P86_SP00077 750
P86_ST00088 869 705 125 rapidly 0.67 1670800
P86_SP00078 749
P86_ST00089 1013 under 70883
P86_SP00079 1117 739
P86_ST00090 1134
P86_SP00080 738
P86_ST00091 1208 0.21 7887
P86_SP00081 1290 737
P86_ST00092 1308 diffi 81680 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT difficult
P86_TL00012
P86_ST00093 cult 0067 HypPart2
P86_SP00082 478 787
P86_ST00094 501 186 conditions 8805050707
P86_SP00083 786
P86_ST00095 710 (Dod, 07885
P86_SP00084 794
P86_ST00096 105 688204
P86_SP00085 950 792
P86_ST00097 975 Surprisingly, 0.48 8563778048006
P86_SP00086 1205
P86_ST00098 1230 165 however, 78081762
P86_TL00013 797
P86_ST00099 91 there 76836
P86_SP00087 506 834
P86_ST00100 523 811 arc 618
P86_SP00088 578
P86_ST00101 594 800 small 60702
P86_SP00089 833
P86_ST00102 809 94 areas 73804
P86_SP00090 796
P86_ST00103 798 0.94 01
P86_SP00091 841 832
P86_ST00104 859 799
P86_SP00092 831
P86_ST00105 931 0846
P86_SP00093 1015
P86_ST00106 1032 126 remote 141777
P86_SP00094
P86_ST00107 1174 047
P86_SP00095 1238 830
P86_ST00108 1255 inacces 0088888 inaccessible
P86_TL00014 843
P86_ST00109 847 sible 70707
P86_SP00096 881
P86_ST00110 514 187 mountains 080048007
P86_SP00097 880
P86_ST00111 068
P86_SP00098 783
P86_ST00112 802
P86_SP00099 879
P86_ST00113 certain 5600633
P86_SP00100 974
P86_ST00114 991 844 124 coastal 8877285
P86_SP00101 1115
P86_ST00115 1131 854 zones 28157
P86_SP00102 1233
P86_ST00116 1249 69 that 4681
P86_SP00103 1318 877
P86_ST00117 1335 852 0.89 030
P86_TL00015 417 891 979
P86_ST00118 893 bc
P86_SP00104 456 926
P86_ST00119 496 still 56015
P86_SP00105
P86_ST00120 596 196 4865067086
P86_SP00106
P86_ST00121 851 892 160 modified 48768168
P86_SP00107 1011 60
P86_ST00122 1071 182 wildlands, 1048485872
P86_SP00108 1253
P86_ST00123 06036
P86_TL00016 936
P86_ST00124 938 130 contain 8840330
P86_SP00109 545 972
P86_ST00125 948 very 0831
P86_SP00110
P86_ST00126 659 176 imporiant 366833886
P86_SP00111 835
P86_ST00127 853 samples 1707084
P86_SP00112 996
P86_ST00128 937
P86_SP00113 1050 971
P86_ST00129 1064 0.31 8788608
P86_SP00114 1215
P86_ST00130 80 flora 0.36 80868
P86_SP00115 1313
P86_ST00131
P86_TL00017
P86_ST00132 109 fauna, 284385
P86_SP00116 526 1019 -67
P86_ST00133 118 0.69 7105042
P86_SP00117 577 1082
P86_ST00134 148 gologie 55627208
P86_SP00118 744 1091
P86_ST00135 765 1049 135 history, 50667000
P86_SP00119 900 1089
P86_ST00136 1048 its 204
P86_SP00120 960 1080
P86_ST00137 977 112 varied 077767
P86_SP00121 1081
P86_ST00138 1109 205 topography 4607660650
P86_SP00122 1314 1090
P86_ST00139 1333 0.75 700
P86_TL00018 1095 966
P86_ST00140 1096 variability 0.81 00404401050
P86_SP00123 1140
P86_ST00141 608 07
P86_SP00124 1130
P86_ST00142 657 1100 temprature 07106085237
P86_SP00125 1139
P86_ST00143 0.59 408
P86_SP00126 957 1129
P86_ST00144 970 228 prcipitation 7075005380070
P86_SP00127 1198
P86_ST00145 1213 3808
P86_SP00128 1294 1128
P86_ST00146 1306 crea 0.68 1272 created
P86_TL00019 1142
P86_ST00147 1144 ted 667
P86_SP00129 1177
P86_ST00148 486 1154 6
P86_SP00130 504 1176
P86_ST00149 1148 greater 8045662
P86_SP00131 1186
P86_ST00150 1143 154 diversity 0.82 000707010
P86_SP00132 816
P86_ST00151 829 73
P86_SP00133 866
P86_ST00152 biomes 708085
P86_SP00134 1007
P86_ST00153 1022 78 than 3762
P86_SP00135
P86_ST00154 1151 58
P86_SP00136
P86_ST00155 1190
P86_SP00137
P86_ST00156 1246 08048
P86_SP00138 1349
P86_ST00157 1364
P86_TL00020 1189
P86_ST00158 1191
P86_SP00139 468 1223
P86_ST00159 1196 eastern 6372560
P86_SP00140
P86_ST00160 629 1195 part 0.88 2200
P86_SP00141
P86_ST00161 714
P86_SP00142 1222
P86_ST00162 North 0.73 06060
P86_SP00143 870
P86_ST00163 886 190 American. 058618413
P86_SP00144 1076
P86_ST00164 Duc 405
P86_SP00145 1168 1221
P86_ST00165 1183
P86_SP00146
P86_ST00166 1232
P86_SP00147 1286
P86_ST00167 1300 isola 06604 isolation
P86_TL00021 1235
P86_ST00168 1237 tion 4085
P86_SP00148 1270
P86_ST00169
P86_SP00149
P86_ST00170 588 1236 193 adaptation 6811243060
P86_SP00150 781
P86_ST00171 1241
P86_SP00151
P86_ST00172 134 spcifie 71630005
P86_SP00152
P86_ST00173 248 environments 600004315164
P86_SP00153 1251 1268
P86_ST00174 1244
P86_SP00154 1287 1267
P86_ST00175 1304 92 great 0.77 70400
P86_TL00022 1281
P86_ST00176 1283 139 number 0.87 001150
P86_SP00155 1317
P86_ST00177 570 1282
P86_SP00156 1316
P86_ST00178 Haitian 2403430
P86_SP00157
P86_ST00179 777 107 0.74 017033
P86_SP00158 884
P86_ST00180 901 0.78 006
P86_SP00159 1315
P86_ST00181 983 animais 8150038
P86_SP00160 1122
P86_ST00182 1137 eventually 7073408036
P86_SP00161 1324
P86_ST00183 0.25 became
P86_TL00023 1330 649
P86_ST00184 1341 93 came 8808
P86_SP00162
P86_ST00185 173 separated 760803687
P86_SP00163 699 1374
P86_ST00186 8088008
P86_SP00164 890 1363
P86_ST00187 927 species. 44880820
P86_TL00024 409 1415 423
P86_ST00188 1416 B.- 503
P86_SP00165 1448
P86_ST00189 479 FLORA 64507
P86_SP00166 623
P86_ST00190 639 57 OF 56
P86_SP00167 696 1447
P86_ST00191 712 120 HATI 05025
P86_TL00025 461 1479 939
P86_ST00192 1485 49 As
P86_SP00168 1516
P86_ST00193 1494 7
P86_SP00169 540
P86_ST00194 1484 98 resuit 043033
P86_SP00170
P86_ST00195 1483 36
P86_SP00171 1515
P86_ST00196 527
P86_SP00172 767
P86_ST00197 780 1482 403803050
P86_SP00173 933 1524
P86_ST00198 946
P86_SP00174 1514
P86_ST00199 1481 7706066
P86_SP00175 1112 1513
P86_ST00200 1123 200 ecosystems 2087080100
P86_SP00176 1522
P86_ST00201 1336 0.92
P86_TB00002 1472
P86_TL00026 1493 236
P86_ST00202 their 65720
P86_SP00177 1576 271
P86_ST00203 1595 biological 7081870844
P86_SP00178 1768 280
P86_ST00204 1789 isolation, 0884760870
P86_SP00179 1954 275
P86_ST00205 1976 Haiti 88010
P86_SP00180 2063 270
P86_ST00206 2083 237 has 887
P86_SP00181 2141
P86_ST00207 2159 246 0.13
P86_SP00182 269
P86_ST00208 2195 particulary 88250874407
P86_SP00183 2390 279
P86_ST00209 2409 rich
P86_TL00027 1491
P86_ST00210 817
P86_SP00184 1556 317
P86_ST00211 1567 284 111 078088
P86_SP00185 1678 316
P86_ST00212 1690 flora. 258384
P86_SP00186 1783
P86_ST00213 1798 At
P86_SP00187 1843
P86_ST00214 1855
P86_SP00188 1908
P86_ST00215 1920 132 prsent 6075807
P86_SP00189 2052 326
P86_ST00216 2064 lime, 0.60 10584
P86_SP00190 2155
P86_ST00217 2168 293 79 over 8083
P86_SP00191 2247 315 10
P86_ST00218 2257 5lM)0
P86_SP00192 2339 9
P86_ST00219 2348 8488087
P86_TL00028 328
P86_ST00220
P86_SP00193 1529 363
P86_ST00221 1544 406448
P86_SP00194 1652 372
P86_ST00222 1670
P86_SP00195 1725
P86_ST00223 1742 329 119 known 11842
P86_SP00196 1861 362
P86_ST00224 1879 0.28
P86_SP00197 1914 361
P86_ST00225 1930 exist 85086
P86_SP00198 2011
P86_ST00226 2028
P86_SP00199 2059
P86_ST00227 880600
P86_SP00200 2181 366
P86_ST00228 2199
P86_SP00201 2237
P86_ST00229 2251 37074
P86_SP00202 2354
P86_ST00230 2372 about 87860
P86_TL00029 968
P86_ST00231
P86_SP00203 1559
P86_ST00232 1575 thirds 710087
P86_SP00204
P86_ST00233 1694 387
P86_SP00205 1747 410
P86_ST00234 1764 woody 48874
P86_SP00206 1882
P86_ST00235 1898 plants, 7182480
P86_SP00207 2018
P86_ST00236 2034 trees 50877
P86_SP00208 2121
P86_ST00237 2135 386
P86_SP00209 2174
P86_ST00238 2188 shrubs. 3630875
P86_SP00210 2316
P86_ST00239 2336 In 0.27
P86_SP00211 2369
P86_ST00240 2386 addi 7871 addition,
P86_TL00030
P86_ST00241 40802
P86_SP00212
P86_ST00242 1593 thcrc 06758
P86_SP00213 1686
P86_ST00243 1703
P86_SP00214 1757
P86_ST00244 1773 88845
P86_SP00215 1874
P86_ST00245 1890 62
P86_SP00216 1952 455
P86_ST00246 1966 8778388
P86_SP00217 2092 466
P86_ST00247 2107
P86_SP00218 2144
P86_ST00248 2158 ferns 18474
P86_SP00219 2246
P86_ST00249 2262 52 (T, 075
P86_SP00220 2314 463
P86_ST00250 2332 Zanoni, 7648500
P86_TL00031
P86_ST00251 Personal 78048670
P86_SP00221 1644 512
P86_ST00252 1675 communication, 88004408800801
P86_SP00222 1968
P86_ST00253 2004 1985); 488800
P86_SP00223 2109 511
P86_ST00254 2139 0.17
P86_SP00224 2179
P86_ST00255 2207 474 percent 6808831
P86_SP00225 2341
P86_ST00256 2370
P86_SP00226 2407 26
P86_ST00257 2433 ail
P86_TL00032 978
P86_ST00258 106 803464
P86_SP00227 1599
P86_ST00259 1619 808
P86_SP00228 1674 548
P86_ST00260 1693 8076108
P86_SP00229 1845 549
P86_ST00261 1864
P86_SP00230 1897
P86_ST00262 1917 388
P86_SP00231 1971
P86_ST00263 1991 island 030838
P86_SP00232 2093
P86_ST00264 2114 (Hernandcz, 010800818885
P86_SP00233 2342
P86_ST00265 2368 1980), 088875
P86_TL00033 1492 562
P86_ST00266 7067
P86_SP00234 1583
P86_ST00267 1604 300 688
P86_SP00235 1666
P86_ST00268 1687 kinds 0.83 00070
P86_SP00236 1781
P86_ST00269 1800
P86_SP00237 1838
P86_ST00270 8585087
P86_SP00238 1986
P86_ST00271 2006 882
P86_SP00239 2065
P86_ST00272 2087
P86_SP00240 2127
P86_ST00273 2149 78268
P86_SP00241 2253
P86_ST00274 2274 throughout 6428583827
P86_TL00034
P86_ST00275 418
P86_SP00242 1547
P86_ST00276 1562 072708
P86_SP00243 1665 643
P86_ST00277 1677
P86_SP00244 1715
P86_ST00278 1726 206 Hispaniola, 50857058480
P86_SP00245 1932 653
P86_ST00279 1945
P86_SP00246 1983 642
P86_ST00280 1993 26588
P86_SP00247 2096
P86_ST00281 2108
P86_SP00248
P86_ST00282 2161 7828836
P86_SP00249 2296
P86_ST00283 2309
P86_SP00250 2363
P86_ST00284 2374 end 8077
P86_TL00035 656 969
P86_ST00285 mie
P86_SP00251 1554 691
P86_ST00286 1569 56875
P86_SP00252 1676
P86_ST00287 1697 1985), 188100
P86_SP00253 698
P86_ST00288 1816 There 55808
P86_SP00254 1923
P86_ST00289 1939 768
P86_SP00255 1994
P86_ST00290 227 undoubtcdly 40785858810
P86_SP00256 2238
P86_ST00291 2254 many 0470
P86_SP00257 2350
P86_ST00292 2365 95 undis 12807 undiscovered
P86_TL00036 1490 985
P86_ST00293 704 142 covered 8807036
P86_SP00258 1632
P86_ST00294 1650 7668077
P86_SP00259 1776 746
P86_ST00295 1793
P86_SP00260 1830 736
P86_ST00296 741007
P86_SP00261 1951 745
P86_ST00297 1969
P86_SP00262 1999
P86_ST00298 2019
P86_SP00263 2027 735
P86_ST00299 2038 laiti, 480402
P86_SP00264 742
P86_ST00300 2138 since 60088
P86_SP00265 2226
P86_ST00301 2245
P86_SP00266 2300
P86_ST00302 2318 77848
P86_SP00267 2399
P86_ST00303 2417 678
P86_TL00037
P86_ST00304 not 085
P86_SP00268 1548
P86_ST00305 bccn 7801
P86_SP00269 1651
P86_ST00306 thoroughly 4083856335
P86_SP00270 1866 791
P86_ST00307 1884 226 investigated, 4808850780787
P86_TL00038 1531 824 941
P86_ST00308 70 The
P86_SP00271 1601 857
P86_ST00309 vgtation 4868280087
P86_SP00272 1806
P86_ST00310 1823 varies 257658
P86_SP00273 1928 858
P86_ST00311 1943 considerably 886217777751
P86_SP00274 2173
P86_ST00312 2190 826 from 7487
P86_SP00275 2275 860
P86_ST00313 2292 836
P86_SP00276 2310
P86_ST00314 2324 0670
P86_SP00277 2400
P86_ST00315 2416 dry
P86_TL00039 1488 871
P86_ST00316 de-sert 7778507
P86_SP00278 1597 903
P86_ST00317 zone 6424
P86_SP00279 1702
P86_ST00318 1723 dominated 883050658
P86_SP00280 1915 904
P86_ST00319 1937 by
P86_SP00281 1977
P86_ST00320 1997 872 spiny 64001
P86_SP00282 2090
P86_ST00321 2110 shrubs, 5703281
P86_SP00283 2240 908
P86_ST00322 2260 cacti, 003740
P86_SP00284 2355 910
P86_ST00323 2376 873 97 baya- 86200
P86_TL00040
P86_ST00324 916 honds 68076
P86_SP00285
P86_ST00325 1614 917 170 (Prosopis 576868604
P86_SP00286 1784
P86_ST00326 1795 juliflora) 7070068400
P86_SP00287 1955
P86_ST00327 1970 530
P86_SP00288 2032 951
P86_ST00328 2069 acacia 304508
P86_SP00289 2178
P86_ST00329 2214 (Acacia 8007408
P86_SP00290 2352 955
P86_ST00330 farne- 374084
P86_TL00041 963
P86_ST00331 siana) 034507
P86_SP00291 1002
P86_ST00332 1615
P86_SP00292 1649
P86_ST00333 1667 964 heterogenous 777708478777
P86_SP00293 1911
P86_ST00334 subtropical 68561803171
P86_SP00294 2128
P86_ST00335 2147 965 moist 24066
P86_SP00295 2244 998
P86_ST00336 2263
P86_SP00296 2326
P86_ST00337 2344 wet 056
P86_SP00297 2406 999
P86_ST00338 2424 fo forests
P86_TL00042 1489
P86_ST00339 1014 rests 05702
P86_SP00298 1571 1043
P86_ST00340 1584 670006376
P86_SP00299 1777 1044
P86_ST00341 1792
P86_SP00300 1832 1052
P86_ST00342 1847 such 5006
P86_SP00301 1925
P86_ST00343 broadleaf 428482740
P86_SP00302 2115 1045
P86_ST00344 2126 1016 40507
P86_SP00303 2212
P86_ST00345 2224 1021 as
P86_SP00304
P86_ST00346 2273 199 mahogany, 326652570
P86_TL00043 1054
P86_ST00347 1055 campeche 10062057
P86_SP00305 1671 1098 50
P86_ST00348 1721 303 (Hacmatoxylum 5673537734546
P86_SP00306 2024 1094
P86_ST00349 2072 1056 campechianum) 7520484080276
P86_SP00307 2361
P86_ST00350 1057 747
P86_TL00044 1101
P86_ST00351 159 manglier 0.76 01080072
P86_SP00308 1673
P86_ST00352 1710 (Rhizophora 53637707700
P86_SP00309 1938 1141
P86_ST00353 1957 1102 145 mangle) 5468666
P86_SP00310 2102
P86_ST00354 1107
P86_SP00311 1136
P86_ST00355 2172 montane 0504008
P86_SP00312 2328
P86_ST00356 2345 1104 115 subtro 538727
P86_TL00045
P86_ST00357 pical 40572
P86_SP00313 1574
P86_ST00358 1591 1149 4503084
P86_SP00314 1709 1182
P86_ST00359 1724
P86_SP00315 1761
P86_ST00360 native 127008
P86_SP00316 1880
P86_ST00361 1150 pine 0012
P86_SP00317 1973
P86_ST00362 1988 114 (Pinus 780340
P86_SP00318
P86_ST00363 2116 occidentalis). 40434322770777
P86_SP00319 2357
P86_ST00364 100 "Bois 77004
P86_TL00046
P86_ST00365 Mabel" 000072
P86_SP00320 1626 1228
P86_ST00366 1640 Brunellia 024477327
P86_SP00321 1805
P86_ST00367 1817 281 comocladifolia) 870524055086356
P86_SP00322 2098 1234
P86_ST00368 2111
P86_SP00323 2175
P86_ST00369 1197 40505
P86_SP00324 2288
P86_ST00370 2298 175 Tremble" 40306040
P86_TL00047
P86_ST00371 (Didymopanax 663506000752
P86_SP00325 1763
P86_ST00372 1243 tremulum). 2207163573
P86_SP00326 1982
P86_ST00373 A
P86_SP00327 2030
P86_ST00374 2044 51 list 5004
P86_SP00328 2095
P86_ST00375
P86_SP00329
P86_ST00376 2157 212 5003008050
P86_SP00330 1288
P86_ST00377 2382 plant 20507
P86_TL00048 1289
P86_ST00378 0017024
P86_SP00331 1616
P86_ST00379 1634 is 0.86
P86_SP00332 1659
P86_ST00380 70504
P86_SP00333 1780
P86_ST00381
P86_SP00334 1828
P86_ST00382
P86_SP00335 1901
P86_ST00383 Table 23000
P86_SP00336 2021
P86_ST00384 VI- 053
P86_SP00337 2097
P86_ST00385 2105 1.
P86_SP00338 2131
P86_ST00386 2150
P86_SP00339
P86_ST00387 2213
P86_SP00340 2255
P86_ST00388
P86_SP00341
P86_ST00389 2343 1301 ecosys 006810
P86_TL00049
P86_ST00390 tems 0500
P86_SP00342 1368
P86_ST00391 1588 04
P86_SP00343
P86_ST00392 1637 200101
P86_SP00344 1739 1373
P86_ST00393 1756 1337 055
P86_SP00345 1810 1369
P86_ST00394 1825 1338 5465140
P86_SP00346 1948
P86_ST00395 1964 1347 26202
P86_SP00347
P86_ST00396 2080 0.96 000
P86_SP00348 2145
P86_ST00397 2160 177 mangrove 47362633
P86_SP00349 2337 1379
P86_ST00398 0706785
P86_TL00050 1382
P86_ST00399 1391 601
P86_SP00350
P86_ST00400
P86_SP00351 1621
P86_ST00401 1643 1383 least 02316
P86_SP00352
P86_ST00402 1745 threatened, 60032611570
P86_SP00353 1950
P86_ST00403 Only 1000
P86_SP00354 1426
P86_ST00404 1393 99 seven 34043
P86_SP00355 2182
P86_ST00405 2205 1388 4370306
P86_SP00356 2338
P86_ST00406 2360 1385
P86_SP00357 2397 1417
P86_ST00407 1384 454
P86_TL00051 1428
P86_ST00408 1438 00070800
P86_SP00358 1669 1470
P86_ST00409 1685 1429 2505446
P86_SP00359 1803 1462
P86_ST00410 218 disappeared 00652276086
P86_SP00360
P86_ST00411 2050 1430 between 8670630
P86_SP00361 2201 1463
P86_ST00412 2221 1431 1956 2786
P86_SP00362 2299
P86_ST00413 2313
P86_SP00363
P86_ST00414 2396 0821
P86_TL00052 1474 440
P86_ST00415 314 (Thorbjarnarson, 1002160000471035
P86_SP00364
P86_ST00416 1984). 478803
P86_TB00003 3004 1266
P86_TL00053 3012 1247
P86_ST00417 3017 Fig.: 65361
P86_SP00365 482 3048
P86_ST00418 497 3015 VI-1: 03630
P86_SP00366 3041
P86_ST00419 585 3016 Line 7208
P86_SP00367
P86_ST00420 drawing 3343630
P86_SP00368 779 3047
P86_ST00421 0.93
P86_SP00369 822 3039
P86_ST00422 Solendon 47070020
P86_SP00370 962 3040
P86_ST00423 150 paradoxus 065606206
P86_SP00371 1125 3045
P86_ST00424 3014 (nez
P86_SP00372 3042
P86_ST00425 long), 343234
P86_SP00373
P86_ST00426 3021 an
P86_SP00374 3038
P86_ST00427 cndan^ 7106010
P86_SP00375 1451 3044
P86_ST00428 3013 tred 8070
P86_SP00376 3037
P86_ST00429 1528 136 mammal. 1230700
P86_TB00004 407 3138
P86_TL00054 3144
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P46_ST00036 20 0.96
P46_SP00015 298
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P46_TB00003 1352 1011 602
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P46_SP00017 1531 14
P46_ST00040 1545 of 50
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P46_ST00041 1593 230 240 agriculturally 0.78 63022040010233
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P46_ST00043 1992 229 72006
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P46_SP00022 2177
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P46_ST00056 1560 II,
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P46_ST00057 1621 58 III, 0.85 0005
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P46_ST00059 1780 soils 63056
P46_SP00035 1859
P46_ST00060 1877 328 57 28 not 000
P46_SP00036 1934 356
P46_ST00061 1952 322 169 degraded 04401000
P46_SP00037 2121
P46_ST00062 2138 216 significantly 4403266000544
P46_TL00026 368
P46_ST00063 371 40 by 0.81 03
P46_SP00038 1416 411
P46_ST00064 1428 370 133 crosion 0074040
P46_SP00039 1561 402
P46_ST00065 1573 Al, 0.74 250
P46_SP00040 1638
P46_ST00066 1653 68 A2) 203
P46_SP00041 1721
P46_ST00067 1733 112 001000
P46_SP00042 1845 401
P46_ST00068 1857 90 Haiti 04310
P46_SP00043 1947
P46_ST00069 132 (Figure 0.97 0000001
P46_SP00044 2091
P46_ST00070 2105 IV- 015
P46_SP00045 2163 7
P46_ST00071 2170 1). 0.65
P46_SP00046 2211
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P46_TL00027 413 980
P46_ST00073 427 23 a
P46_SP00047 1391 450
P46_ST00074 1404 416 low 071
P46_SP00048 1466 449
P46_ST00075 1479 2040
P46_SP00049 1544
P46_ST00076 1555
P46_SP00050
P46_ST00077 1602 415 environmental 8004000021102
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P46_ST00082 1485 82 havc 0010
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P46_ST00084 1655 72 best 0.94 0001
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P46_ST00085 1742 461 160 potential 0.69 032404164
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P46_SP00059 1970 494
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P46_ST00103 2093 this 0305
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P46_ST00108 1625 644 137 country 0720601
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P46_ST00109 640 110 where 31323
P46_SP00079 1890 673
P46_ST00110 1908 nearly 030005
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P46_TL00050
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P46_ST00200 B.
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P46_ST00203
P46_TL00066
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P46_TL00067
P46_ST00205
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P46_ST00206 2,4,5 40130
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P46_TL00071
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P46_ST00214
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P46_SP00147 719
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P46_ST00220
P46_TL00074
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P46_TL00075
P46_ST00222
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P46_ST00223
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P46_SP00151
P46_ST00231
P46_SP00152
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P46_ST00233
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P46_ST00243 307
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P46_ST00246 (3)
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P46_ST00247
P46_TL00092 1423 1688
P46_ST00248 4,300 21503
P46_TL00093 1807
P46_ST00249
P46_TL00094 2151
P46_ST00250 120
P46_TL00095 285 388
P46_ST00251 1737 llb
P46_SP00157
P46_ST00252 117 Lower 70000
P46_SP00158
P46_ST00253 2255000400
P46_TL00096
P46_ST00254 070
P46_TL00097 1424 1735
P46_ST00255 2,562 02000
P46_TL00098
P46_ST00256
P46_TL00099 1734
P46_ST00257 63640
P46_TL00100 1782 244
P46_ST00258 1783 12.
P46_SP00159 1815
P46_ST00259 Z
P46_SP00160
P46_ST00260 381 147 St-Marc 0040003
P46_TL00101
P46_ST00261
P46_TL00102 1427 1781
P46_ST00262 1,090 0.48 62537
P46_TL00103 1796
P46_ST00263
P46_TL00104
P46_ST00264
P46_TL00105 1828
P46_ST00265 1829 13. 042
P46_SP00161 1862
P46_ST00266 Z,
P46_SP00162 1861
P46_ST00267 Cul
P46_SP00163
P46_ST00268
P46_SP00164 511
P46_ST00269 522 Sac
P46_TL00106
P46_ST00270 292
P46_TL00107
P46_ST00271 1,250 03006
P46_TL00108 1786 1827
P46_ST00272
P46_TL00109 1826
P46_ST00273 1,2,3 0.43 66347
P46_TL00110 1876
P46_ST00274 49 14.
P46_SP00165 1909
P46_ST00275 Fond
P46_SP00166
P46_ST00276 Verrettes 500344002
P46_TL00111 1145
P46_ST00277
P46_TL00112 1461 1875
P46_ST00278
P46_TL00113 1810
P46_ST00279
P46_TL00114 1874
P46_ST00280
P46_TL00115 1922
P46_ST00281 1923 15.
P46_SP00167 1954
P46_ST00282 P.
P46_SP00168 1953
P46_ST00283 392
P46_SP00169
P46_ST00284 156 Leogane 2000000
P46_TL00116
P46_ST00285
P46_TL00117 1457 1921
P46_ST00286 650
P46_TL00118
P46_ST00287
P46_TL00119 1920
P46_ST00288
P46_TL00120 1968 254
P46_ST00289 16.
P46_SP00170 2001
P46_ST00290 Z.
P46_SP00171
P46_ST00291 141 Sud-Est 0301000
P46_TL00121 1967
P46_ST00292 0.46
P46_TL00122 2137 1965 83
P46_ST00293 1,2,5 64140
P46_TL00123 2014 540
P46_ST00294 2015 17.
P46_SP00172 2048
P46_ST00295
P46_SP00173 2047
P46_ST00296
P46_SP00174
P46_ST00297
P46_SP00175
P46_ST00298 75 Gde 001
P46_SP00176
P46_ST00299 R.
P46_SP00177 635 2046
P46_ST00300 647
P46_SP00178 689
P46_ST00301 124 Jacmel 202007
P46_TL00124
P46_ST00302
P46_TL00125 2013
P46_ST00303 1,220 23004
P46_TL00126
P46_ST00304
P46_TL00127 2012
P46_ST00305
P46_TL00128 2060 434
P46_ST00306 2062 18.
P46_SP00179
P46_ST00307 2061 Bainet 205000
P46_SP00180 465
P46_ST00308 474 123 Ctes 703000
P46_SP00181
P46_ST00309
P46_SP00182 2092
P46_ST00310 658 Fer 0.99
P46_TL00129 1126
P46_ST00311
P46_TL00130 1426
P46_ST00312 1,065 52700
P46_TL00131
P46_ST00313
P46_TL00132 2059
P46_ST00314
P46_TL00133 2106
P46_ST00315 19.
P46_SP00183 2140
P46_ST00316 347 2107 Aquin 20300
P46_SP00184 2149
P46_ST00317 469 0.41
P46_SP00185 481
P46_ST00318 151 St-Louis 00220000
P46_SP00186 641
P46_ST00319 45
P46_SP00187
P46_ST00320 704
P46_TL00134
P46_ST00321
P46_TL00135
P46_ST00322 700
P46_TL00136
P46_ST00323
P46_TL00137
P46_ST00324 2,6 022
P46_TL00138 2154 238
P46_ST00325 20.
P46_SP00188 2187
P46_ST00326 173 Cavaillon 000000100
P46_TL00139 2153
P46_ST00327
P46_TL00140
P46_ST00328 380 0.64 405
P46_TL00141
P46_ST00329 0.23
P46_TL00142
P46_ST00330
P46_TL00143 2201 246
P46_ST00331 21.
P46_SP00189 2233
P46_ST00332 63 Les
P46_SP00190
P46_ST00333 418 Cayes 00070
P46_TL00144 1105 2200
P46_ST00334 251
P46_TL00145 2199
P46_ST00335 720 107
P46_TL00146 1804
P46_ST00336
P46_TL00147 2198
P46_ST00337 5,6 031
P46_TL00148 2246
P46_ST00338 22. 024
P46_SP00191 2279
P46_ST00339 Tiburon 0010001
P46_SP00192 492
P46_ST00340 Port 73005
P46_SP00193
P46_ST00341 607 Salut 00132
P46_TL00149 2245
P46_ST00342
P46_TL00150
P46_ST00343 506
P46_TL00151
P46_ST00344
P46_TL00152 2243
P46_ST00345 3,5,6 55040
P46_TL00153 2292 390
P46_ST00346 2293 23.
P46_SP00194 2326
P46_ST00347 2294
P46_SP00195 2325
P46_ST00348 420 Irois 30061
P46_SP00196 501
P46_ST00349 Jrmie 40005060
P46_TL00154
P46_ST00350
P46_TL00155 2291
P46_ST00351
P46_TL00156
P46_ST00352
P46_TL00157 2290
P46_ST00353
P46_TL00158 2340
P46_ST00354 24.
P46_SP00197 2373
P46_ST00355 Grande 520101
P46_SP00198
P46_ST00356 493 Anse 0800
P46_TL00159 1128 2339
P46_ST00357
P46_TL00160 2338
P46_ST00358 556 600
P46_TL00161
P46_ST00359
P46_TL00162
P46_ST00360 1,6
P46_TL00163 2386
P46_ST00361 25.
P46_SP00199 2418
P46_ST00362 Voldrogue 007000000
P46_SP00200 539 2426
P46_ST00363 547
P46_SP00201 558
P46_ST00364 567 2387 Roseaux 0000044
P46_TL00164
P46_ST00365
P46_TL00165 2384
P46_ST00366
P46_TL00166 2432 299
P46_ST00367 26.
P46_SP00202 2465
P46_ST00368 Corail 461050
P46_SP00203 2466
P46_ST00369 67000
P46_TL00167
P46_ST00370
P46_TL00168 2431
P46_ST00371 880 005
P46_TL00169
P46_ST00372
P46_TL00170 2430
P46_ST00373 3,6 430
P46_TL00171 2478
P46_ST00374 2479 27.
P46_SP00204 2512
P46_ST00375 2000
P46_SP00205
P46_ST00376 74 Riv.
P46_SP00206 521 2511
P46_ST00377 532
P46_SP00207
P46_ST00378 585 Nippes 050030
P46_TL00172
P46_ST00379
P46_TL00173 2477
P46_ST00380 083
P46_TL00174
P46_ST00381
P46_TL00175 2476
P46_ST00382 3,4
P46_TL00176 2525
P46_ST00383 2526 28.
P46_SP00208 2558
P46_ST00384 215 Miragane 0500040006
P46_TL00177 2571
P46_ST00385 Petit 14060
P46_SP00209 2604
P46_ST00386 439 2572 &
P46_SP00210 471
P46_ST00387 482 Grand 03000
P46_SP00211 599
P46_ST00388 608 Gove 00300
P46_TL00178
P46_ST00389
P46_TL00179 2569
P46_ST00390 630
P46_TL00180 2618 189
P46_ST00391 29.
P46_SP00212 2651
P46_ST00392 125 Tortue 000637
P46_TL00181 1144 2617
P46_ST00393
P46_TL00182 1460 2616 59
P46_ST00394 180
P46_TL00183
P46_ST00395 0.26
P46_TL00184 2615
P46_ST00396
P46_TL00185 2664 349
P46_ST00397 30, 243
P46_SP00213 335 2696
P46_ST00398
P46_SP00214
P46_ST00399
P46_SP00215
P46_ST00400 2665
P46_SP00216 480
P46_ST00401 Gonave 000010
P46_TL00186 2663
P46_ST00402
P46_TL00187
P46_ST00403 680
P46_TL00188
P46_ST00404
P46_TL00189 2662
P46_ST00405
P46_TL00190 2710 395
P46_ST00406 31.
P46_SP00217 2743
P46_ST00407 2711 Ile
P46_SP00218 391
P46_ST00408
P46_SP00219 421 2742
P46_ST00409 Vache
P46_SP00220 543
P46_ST00410 554 2715 <
P46_SP00221 2741
P46_ST00411 than 6000
P46_TL00191 1149 2709
P46_ST00412
P46_TL00192 1478
P46_ST00413
P46_TL00193 1811
P46_ST00414
P46_TL00194 2707
P46_ST00415
P46_TL00195 2757 99
P46_ST00416 00400
P46_TL00196 1069 2756
P46_ST00417 2,047 03500
P46_TL00197 2755
P46_ST00418 7,4 660
P46_TB00011 2840 1938 194
P46_TL00198 2848 997
P46_ST00419 2849 1)
P46_SP00222 2891
P46_ST00420 Dlimitation 308300003000
P46_SP00223 562 2882
P46_ST00421 580
P46_SP00224 618
P46_ST00422 632 basins 000510
P46_SP00225
P46_ST00423 760 according 000000200
P46_SP00226 937
P46_ST00424 952 2852 to
P46_SP00227 986 2881
P46_ST00425 1004 163 DATPE, 100030
P46_SP00228 1167 2887
P46_ST00426 1187 1982. 10002
P46_TL00199 2893 1917
P46_ST00427 2895 2)
P46_SP00229 2937
P46_ST00428 2897 1400
P46_SP00230 426 2929
P46_ST00429 442 falling 4000000
P46_SP00231 2938
P46_ST00430 568 2894 000000
P46_SP00232 683 2928
P46_ST00431 2896 4004
P46_SP00233 793
P46_ST00432 Potential 320000600
P46_SP00234 973
P46_ST00433 990 Classes 0001020
P46_SP00235 1122
P46_ST00434
P46_SP00236 2933
P46_ST00435 1182 012
P46_SP00237
P46_ST00436 1243 III 464
P46_SP00238 1289 2927
P46_ST00437
P46_SP00239 1370
P46_ST00438 1389
P46_SP00240 1480
P46_ST00439 Erosion
P46_SP00241 1639
P46_ST00440 1656 Risk 0133
P46_SP00242
P46_ST00441 1753
P46_SP00243 1819
P46_ST00442 1837 67 A2;
P46_SP00244 1904 2931
P46_ST00443 165 200403
P46_SP00245 2932
P46_ST00444
P46_TL00200 2941 1229
P46_ST00445 2942 3)
P46_SP00246 2985
P46_ST00446 2944 20023
P46_SP00247 2986
P46_ST00447 466 192 4100061072
P46_SP00248 2976
P46_ST00448 2961 -
P46_SP00249 2966
P46_ST00449 710 ail
P46_SP00250 752 2975
P46_ST00450 30002
P46_SP00251 863
P46_ST00451 draining 10000000
P46_SP00252 1029 2984
P46_ST00452 1045 above 00006
P46_SP00253
P46_ST00453 1169 Lake 4013
P46_SP00254 2974
P46_ST00454 1278 Peligre 2220070
P46_SP00255 1403
P46_ST00455 1420 Dam
P46_TL00201 1248
P46_ST00456 2989 4) 07
P46_SP00256 3030
P46_ST00457 Based 43238
P46_SP00257 3022
P46_ST00458 2998
P46_SP00258 3021
P46_ST00459 523 Rainfed 5000070
P46_SP00259 666
P46_ST00460 2988 211 Agriculture 40500000022
P46_SP00260
P46_ST00461 910
P46_SP00261 944 3020
P46_ST00462 961 00010
P46_SP00262
P46_ST00463 1068 2987 223 (Hargreaves 00000420044
P46_SP00263 1291
P46_ST00464 1306 2992 et
P46_SP00264 3019
P46_ST00465 1357 al.
P46_SP00265 1399
P46_ST00466 1421 1983). 401202
P46_TB00012 2305 3121
P46_TL00202 2311 3127
P46_ST00467


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P102_ST00021 533 70 that 0000
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P102_ST00023 786 do
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P102_ST00025 918 90 plant 0.85 34000
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P102_ST00027 1134 80 This 0.97
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P102_ST00028 1229 25 0.98
P102_SP00025 1254 470 13
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P102_ST00031 548 489 000
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P102_ST00032 622 485 0.81 500
P102_SP00028 677
P102_ST00033 691 494 86 23 case. 00082
P102_SP00029 777
P102_ST00034 796 156 Peasants 40011050
P102_SP00030 952
P102_ST00035 965 hve 7000
P102_SP00031 1048
P102_ST00036 1064 190 commonly 06000041
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P102_ST00039 520 537 trees, 000000
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P102_ST00040 640 although 0.78 10010086
P102_SP00035 573 22
P102_ST00041 818 538 001
P102_SP00036 875
P102_ST00042 897 in 0.72 50
P102_SP00037 928 564
P102_ST00043 949 87 large 00000
P102_SP00038 1036 574
P102_ST00044 1058 167 numbers. 0.90 00305000
P102_SP00039 1225
P102_ST00045 1246 Trees
P102_SP00040 1347
P102_ST00046 1366 05
P102_TL00007 576
P102_ST00047 585 many 0.80 0205
P102_SP00041 522 618
P102_ST00048 550 kinds 20270
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P102_ST00051 1005 577 0301056
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P102_ST00053 173 patterned 510070021
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P102_ST00054 624 223 0.93 000050000300
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P102_ST00055 662 224 associations, 0110420115000
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P102_SP00057 971
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P102_ST00069 476 living 000200
P102_SP00060 2549
P102_ST00070 598 111 fences 020040
P102_SP00061
P102_ST00071 731 2516 or 06
P102_SP00062 770
P102_ST00072 172 boundary 0.75 07006023
P102_SP00063 963 2550
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P102_SP00064 1132 2541
P102_ST00074 69 (for 0060
P102_SP00065 1223
P102_ST00075 1244 gardens, 00003010
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P102_SP00066 2594
P102_ST00077 2562 60
P102_SP00067 2585
P102_ST00078 596 119 animal 0.88 000105
P102_SP00068 715
P102_ST00079 736 110 pens),
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P102_ST00080 869 030
P102_SP00070 934
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P102_SP00071 987
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P102_SP00072 1110
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P102_SP00074 1300
P102_ST00085 1319 79 such 0001
P102_TL00012 2599
P102_ST00086 2609 crops 02200
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P102_ST00089 710 64 200
P102_SP00078 774
P102_ST00090 790 cacao. 004000
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P102_ST00092 1075 farmers 0021010
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P102_SP00082 1299
P102_ST00094 1314
P102_TL00013 2645 978
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P102_ST00104 719 2693 In
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P102_ST00105 778 arid 0.65 0444
P102_SP00092 847
P102_ST00106 2702 112 zones, 020000
P102_SP00093 2731
P102_ST00107 93 there 40401
P102_SP00094 1099 2725
P102_ST00108 1122
P102_SP00095 1147
P102_ST00109 2703
P102_SP00096 1188
P102_ST00110 1210 traditional 10020000000
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P102_ST00112 571 2738
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P102_ST00114 802 2739 162 woodlots 00001000
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P102_ST00116 1017 Prosopis 03000130
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P102_ST00117 1183 213 (bayahonde 8008000000
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P102_ST00118 2795 0.92
P102_SP00103 456 2818
P102_ST00119 mesquite), 3210000603
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P102_ST00125 cies HypPart2
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P102_SP00110 2872
P102_ST00127 626 118 valued 000055
P102_SP00111 744 2864
P102_ST00128 761 by
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P102_ST00129 820 2837 00002000
P102_SP00113 973
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P102_ST00166 1679 279 75 may
P102_SP00145 1754 311
P102_ST00167 1768 be
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P102_ST00171 2231 while 30002
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P102_TL00024 363
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P102_ST00184 1706 372 resource 00002100
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P102_ST00187
P102_SP00164 2318
P102_ST00188 2344 070
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P102_ST00192 1798 411 separetely 8300020000
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P102_ST00201 1817 73 803
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P102_ST00202 1903
P102_SP00177 1945
P102_ST00203 1958 115 rented 300010
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P102_ST00204 2086
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P102_ST00205 2136 246 sharecropped 000000100000
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P102_ST00224 2112 more
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P102_ST00226 249 Traditionally, 06004002006000
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P102_ST00227 136 0004201
P102_SP00199 1946
P102_ST00228 1966 629 0007000
P102_SP00200
P102_ST00229 2122 630 bave 8000
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P102_ST00230 2225 123 tended 052140
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P102_ST00235 1793 2466 000004
P102_SP00206 1892 2500
P102_ST00236 1907 but 604
P102_SP00207
P102_ST00237 1979 00201000
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P102_ST00238 2174 seedlings 002340000
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P102_ST00239 2352 2469
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P102_ST00256 1550 2601 Outreach 10220000
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P102_ST00257 1732 141 Project,
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P102_ST00260 2134 clearly 0300104
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P102_ST00261 207 demonstra- 0002005500
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P102_SP00239 1814 2726
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P102_ST00277 2005 scale, 723030
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P102_ST00291
P102_SP00255 1777 2819
P102_ST00292 1792 165 presently 000000501
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P102_ST00293 1972 planting
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P102_ST00294 2791 600202
P102_SP00258 2823
P102_ST00295 2248 at
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P102_ST00296 84
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P102_SP00262 1680
P102_ST00300 1695 3000
P102_SP00263 2865
P102_ST00301 1787 310
P102_SP00264 1852
P102_ST00302 1865 labor, 200200
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P102_ST00303 1984 2836
P102_SP00266 2018
P102_ST00304 2030
P102_SP00267
P102_ST00305 2099 rate
P102_SP00268
P102_ST00306 2182
P102_SP00269 2219
P102_ST00307 2229 2840 seven 05000
P102_SP00270 2330
P102_ST00308 126 million 2010150
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P102_ST00309 2884
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P102_ST00310 1591 2889 per
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P102_ST00311 1668 2888 year. 10010
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P102_ST00315 2268 2887
P102_SP00277 2324
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P102_SP00278
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P102_SP00280 1670
P102_ST00320 1684 2925 161 cropping 03000000
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P102_ST00321 1857
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P102_SP00284 2044
P102_ST00324 2058 94 small
P102_SP00285 2152
P102_ST00325 2166 149 50000001
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P102_SP00289 1848
P102_ST00330 1866 2982
P102_SP00290 1900 3004
P102_ST00331 1917
P102_SP00291 1935
P102_ST00332 1954 renewable 200004660
P102_SP00292 2138
P102_ST00333 2157 0000003
P102_SP00293 2283
P102_ST00334 2302 2980 resource, 000024015
P102_TL00042 3016
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P102_SP00294 1523 3050
P102_ST00336 foster 641000
P102_SP00295
P102_ST00337 1657 soil
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P102_SP00300
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Illustration P102_CB1_SUB 705 2061 1585 TYPE
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P102_TL00043 2301 1073
P102_ST00344 2304 Fig. 1430
P102_SP00302 2336
P102_ST00345 490 VII-2: 000320
P102_SP00303
P102_ST00346 146 Gathering 022070500
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P102_ST00347 749 firewood 0.63 33052870
P102_SP00305 874 2329
P102_ST00348 2303 0.32
P102_SP00306 913
P102_ST00349 925
P102_SP00307
P102_ST00350 5110
P102_SP00308
P102_ST00351 Northwest 060105863
P102_SP00309
P102_ST00352 (photo 000733
P102_SP00310 1305
P102_ST00353 1317 177 WFPRome) 300304063
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P42_ST00095 820 963 wilhin 0.60 330808
P42_SP00084 930
P42_ST00096 947 this 6857
P42_SP00085 1007
P42_ST00097 1025 48808683
P42_SP00086 1003
P42_ST00098 1183 145 context, 88878656
P42_SP00087 1328 998
P42_ST00099 1344 973 a 0.12
P42_SP00088 1361 994
P42_ST00100 1377 47 set 486
P42_TL00013 984
P42_ST00101 1010 36 of
P42_SP00089 1040
P42_ST00102 127 criteria 85138808
P42_SP00090 623
P42_ST00103 644 1015 must 8734
P42_SP00091 724 1041
P42_ST00104 746 1008 be 0.14
P42_SP00092 786
P42_ST00105 806 developed 0.22 883868888
P42_SP00093 991 1049
P42_ST00106 1011 1014
P42_SP00094 1044 1039
P42_ST00107 1062 182 delcnnine 880888088
P42_SP00095 1244
P42_ST00108 1265 priorities 0.70 8008001082
P42_TL00014 1055 966
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P42_SP00096 1088
P42_ST00110 489 157 seleeting 782885088
P42_SP00097 646 1097
P42_ST00111 0.27 88808885
P42_SP00098 1096
P42_ST00112 822 88828832
P42_SP00099
P42_ST00113 1057 1388
P42_SP00100 1087
P42_ST00114 1042 1061 140 strategy 63587886
P42_SP00101
P42_ST00115 1199 210 implementa 0780858758 implementation.
P42_TL00015 967
P42_ST00116 1103 81 tion. 0.59 60850
P42_SP00102 524 1134
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P42_ST00118 597
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P42_ST00119 1102 135 interest 08784857
P42_SP00105 803
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P42_SP00106 856
P42_ST00121 188 immdiate 061882878
P42_SP00107 1059
P42_ST00122 1079 96 nccd, 88885
P42_SP00108 1175 1135
P42_ST00123 1193 slection 280885088
P42_SP00109 1349
P42_ST00124 1368 cri
P42_TL00016 442 1148
P42_ST00125 1149 teria 78828
P42_SP00110 1181
P42_ST00126 538 1150 should 188848
P42_SP00111 655 1180
P42_ST00127 672 129 0880888
P42_SP00112 801
P42_ST00128 93 Ihose 08858
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P42_ST00129 928 87878886
P42_SP00114 1068 1189
P42_ST00130 1084 wliieh 0.54 028087
P42_SP00115 1185 1179
P42_ST00131 1203 1157 150 prserve 86878818
P42_SP00116 1353
P42_ST00132 1371 52
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P42_ST00133 1194 193 potentially 88788408150
P42_SP00117 636 1235
P42_ST00134 82 most 6852
P42_SP00118 739 1226 23
P42_ST00135 762 192 productive 6088887008
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P42_ST00136 977 lands. 078810
P42_SP00120 1078
P42_ST00137 The 688
P42_SP00121 1168 1225
P42_ST00138 1190 areas, 888800
P42_SP00122 1293 1228
P42_ST00139 within 0.64 005708
P42_TL00018 1241
P42_ST00140 1242 Maiti, 0.61 860700
P42_SP00123 544
P42_ST00141 564 seleeled 48588088
P42_SP00124 707 1274
P42_ST00142 729 6084
P42_SP00125 1273
P42_ST00143 087880768
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P42_ST00144 2888
P42_SP00127 1272
P42_ST00145 228 conservation 888585075188
P42_SP00128 1331
P42_ST00146 1351 pro
P42_TL00019 439 1287
P42_ST00147 83 jects 08885
P42_SP00129 522 1327
P42_ST00148 1298 72 may 580
P42_SP00130 608
P42_ST00149 625 55 not
P42_SP00131 680
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P42_SP00132 890
P42_ST00151 905
P42_SP00133 945
P42_ST00152 960 tho
P42_SP00134 1013
P42_ST00153 mosl 6828
P42_SP00135 1112
P42_ST00154 1127 191 7688686008
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P42_ST00155 1333 lands 07885
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P42_ST00156 1336 112 loday, 088873
P42_SP00137 554 1375
P42_ST00157 sinee 70788
P42_SP00138 1367
P42_ST00158 684 144 political 787080884
P42_SP00139 828
P42_ST00159 849 261 considrations 88770887871844
P42_SP00140 1110
P42_ST00160 1132 92 (such 87788
P42_SP00141 1224
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P42_SP00142 1281 1365
P42_ST00162 1343 owner 80580 ownership)
P42_TL00021 1379
P42_ST00163 1381 ship) 0.65 27070
P42_SP00143 530 1422
P42_ST00164 75 with 0.58 0077
P42_SP00144 622 1412
P42_ST00165 642 1380 155 resulting 882331028
P42_SP00145 1421
P42_ST00166 investment 0808464807
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P42_ST00167 praclices, 4668008836
P42_SP00147 1420
P42_ST00168 1389 0.67 180
P42_SP00148 1289
P42_ST00169 1306
P42_SP00149 1345 1411
P42_ST00170 1363 62 dis- 8020
P42_TL00022 1427 515
P42_ST00171 1428 120 torling 7870088
P42_SP00150 562 1468
P42_ST00172 196 production 8488787088
P42_SP00151 776
P42_ST00173 statistics. 73870780850
P42_TL00023 1493
P42_ST00174 878
P42_SP00152 1525
P42_ST00175 566 78786
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P42_SP00154 864
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P42_SP00156 1526
P42_ST00179 CEP 387
P42_SP00157 1091
P42_ST00180 1107 1496 69 (sec 7788
P42_SP00158 1176 1532
P42_ST00181 1196 Figure 878828
P42_SP00159 1308 1535
P42_ST00182 1495 95 lV-1) 0.87 00033
P42_TL00024 440 1540 980
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P42_SP00160 607 1581
P42_ST00184 624 1550 one
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P42_SP00166 1582
P42_ST00190 1551 ureas 84882
P42_SP00167 1305 1574
P42_ST00191 1320 1543 based 88388
P42_TL00025 438 1586
P42_ST00192 1596
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P42_ST00193 497 low 0.71 080
P42_SP00169 558 13
P42_ST00194 1587 131 rosion 8087188
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P42_ST00195 718 risk, 40517
P42_SP00171 794 1620
P42_ST00196 809 arable 868858
P42_SP00172 919 1618
P42_ST00197 934 5558
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P42_ST00198 1020 criteria. 800784067
P42_SP00174 1160
P42_ST00199 1588 107 Other 76786
P42_SP00175 1282 10
P42_ST00200 1292 0.63 85078000
P42_TL00026 437 1632
P42_ST00201 678828
P42_SP00176 1664
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P42_ST00203 1633 186 884808888
P42_SP00178 810 1674
P42_ST00204 825 1639 Io
P42_SP00179 1666
P42_ST00205 870 selcct 680886
P42_SP00180 970 1665
P42_ST00206 1643 areas 80871
P42_SP00181 1075
P42_ST00207 1634 102 which 07047
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P42_ST00208 1206 havc 8818
P42_SP00183 1286
P42_ST00209 1300 106 impor 47884 important
P42_TL00027 1679
P42_ST00210 1684 tant 0.47 2844
P42_SP00184 507 1710
P42_ST00211 531 262 environmental 8800085486680
P42_SP00185 793 1711
P42_ST00212 1680 358
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P42_ST00213 902 279 socio-economic 77808658828008
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P42_ST00214 1204 218 implications 061108670840
P42_TL00028 1726
P42_ST00215 1.00
P42_SP00188 469 1757
P42_ST00216 146 addition 88855088
P42_SP00189 628 1758
P42_ST00217 1732
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P42_ST00220 79 7780
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P42_ST00222 1018 208 production, 60878883880
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P42_ST00224 1311 1737 exam 8277 example,
P42_TL00029 1771
P42_ST00225 64 ple, 0.52 7380
P42_SP00197 503 1812
P42_ST00226 519 10077006
P42_SP00198 647 1803
P42_ST00227 18084
P42_SP00199 1802
P42_ST00228 identify 0.75 07800020
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P42_ST00229 1772 mountainous 26647803823
P42_SP00201 1163 1804
P42_ST00230 1782 80880
P42_SP00202 1270
P42_ST00231 produc 888708 producing
P42_TL00030 1818
P42_ST00232 1819 ing 258
P42_SP00203 1859
P42_ST00233 86 large 68088
P42_SP00204 593
P42_ST00234 610 177 quantities 8788530083
P42_SP00205 1860
P42_ST00235
P42_SP00206 1851
P42_ST00236 852 sdiment 48802847
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P42_ST00237 1820 70 thut 2788
P42_SP00208
P42_ST00238 1117 151 threaten 65688787
P42_SP00209 1268 1852
P42_ST00239 139 existing 86187588
P42_TL00031 1864
P42_ST00240 236 hydroelectric 4070885884003
P42_SP00210 675 1905
P42_ST00241 1865 plants 757405
P42_SP00211
P42_ST00242 850 65
P42_SP00212 1896
P42_ST00243 948 1866 85040
P42_SP00213 1897
P42_ST00244 245 infrastructure 08208370681708
P42_SP00214 1323 1898
P42_ST00245 1356 1867
P42_TL00032 1911 972
P42_ST00246 158 lowlands 0.68 07008080
P42_SP00215 595 1942
P42_ST00247 612 1912 207 agricultural 772086087070
P42_SP00216 819 1952
P42_ST00248 1913 198 3088384088
P42_SP00217 1034
P42_ST00249 1052 148168
P42_SP00218 1169 1944
P42_ST00250
P42_SP00219 1227
P42_ST00251 163 included. 088358870
P42_TL00033 1973 939
P42_ST00252 1977 No
P42_SP00220 2009
P42_ST00253 1982 matter 770086
P42_SP00221 670 2008
P42_ST00254 1976 38681
P42_SP00222 2007
P42_ST00255 67473
P42_SP00223 908
P42_ST00256 1985 201
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P42_SP00225 1173 2006
P42_ST00258 1984
P42_SP00226 2005
P42_ST00259 crucial 8050185
P42_SP00227 1364
P42_ST00260 1386 1979
P42_TL00034 2020
P42_ST00261 2033 prserve, 308783085
P42_SP00228 603 2066
P42_ST00262 621 2024 it 0.94 01
P42_SP00229 643 2055
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P42_SP00230
P42_ST00264 2022 critical, 830508523
P42_SP00231 835 2059
P42_ST00265 853 2028
P42_SP00232 884 2054
P42_ST00266 2023
P42_SP00233 956
P42_ST00267 first 80058
P42_SP00234
P42_ST00268 1058 2027 89 stage 77688
P42_SP00235 2063
P42_ST00269 1164 2021
P42_SP00236 1201 2052
P42_ST00270 124 project 5080887
P42_SP00237 1338 2062
P42_ST00271 1355 for formulation,
P42_TL00035 2067
P42_ST00272 2070 172 mulation, 007440702
P42_SP00238 2104
P42_ST00273 632 2074
P42_SP00239 665 2100
P42_ST00274 683 2069 138 0.69 07705004
P42_SP00240 821 2109
P42_ST00275 ail
P42_SP00241 2099
P42_ST00276 900 2068
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P42_ST00277 critical 86060842
P42_SP00243 1093
P42_ST00278 1111 2072 119 system 0.78 033060
P42_SP00244 1230 2108
P42_ST00279 links 30308
P42_SP00245 2098
P42_ST00280 1350 that 1077
P42_TL00036 436 2113
P42_ST00281 2117 affect 487787
P42_SP00246 535 2149
P42_ST00282 2116 178
P42_SP00247 631 2148
P42_ST00283 interact 01784887
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P42_ST00284 2124
P42_SP00249 872 2146
P42_ST00285 904 2115 thcsc 36838
P42_SP00250 2147
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P42_SP00251 1129
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P42_TL00037 2159
P42_ST00289 2162 159 48028778
P42_SP00253 596 2194
P42_ST00290 611 2163 7843
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P42_ST00291 711 2161 ard
P42_SP00255 774 2193
P42_ST00292 791 071603
P42_SP00256 887 2202
P42_ST00293 903 0.79 4210
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P42_ST00294 2160 123 remain 087866
P42_SP00258 2192
P42_ST00295 1122 748
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P42_ST00296 1192 highest 7482556
P42_SP00260 1319 2200
P42_ST00297 prio 6058 priority
P42_TL00038 2206
P42_ST00298 2211 rity 3010
P42_SP00261 2250
P42_ST00299 517 2209 7082
P42_SP00262 565 2241
P42_ST00300 2210 both 7850
P42_SP00263
P42_ST00301 681 2208 232 international 0878017708188
P42_SP00264 2240
P42_ST00302 donors 781808
P42_SP00265 1054 2239
P42_ST00303 1070 2207
P42_SP00266 2238
P42_ST00304 1151 017
P42_SP00267
P42_ST00305 1223 GOH. 0480
P42_SP00268 1335
P42_ST00306 Yet 046
P42_TL00039 2251
P42_ST00307 2255 irrigation 6010880050
P42_SP00269 604 2297
P42_ST00308 2253 00700835
P42_SP00270 2295
P42_ST00309 2259
P42_SP00271 2285
P42_ST00310 increase 04804038
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P42_ST00311 1002 5585
P42_SP00273 1081 2284
P42_ST00312 195 2007380070
P42_SP00274 1295 2294
P42_ST00313 1314 2252 0.93
P42_SP00275 2283
P42_ST00314 053
P42_TL00040 2300
P42_ST00315 2302 lowand 4801708
P42_SP00276 577 2335
P42_ST00316 2312 71848
P42_SP00277 2334
P42_ST00317 0.76 0108
P42_SP00278 2333
P42_ST00318 2301 rarely 060720
P42_SP00279 901 23