Los americanos autóctonos opinan

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Title:
Los americanos autóctonos opinan XXV simposio del Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad de la Florida : actas de las conclusiones y recomendaciones aprobadas por el congreso el día viernes 20 de febrero de 1975
Physical Description:
vi, 138 p. : ports. ; 23 cm.
Language:
Spanish
Creator:
Hardman, Martha James
University of Florida -- Center for Latin American Studies
Conference:
Latin American Conference, 1975
Publisher:
Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida :
State University Presses of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians -- Social conditions -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Indians -- Government relations -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Indians -- Ethnic identity -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Martha James Hardman, editora.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 6891194
System ID:
AA00001398:00001


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LOS AMERICANOS AUTOCTONOS OPINAN


XXV SIMPOSIO DEL CENTRO DE STUDIOS LATINOAMERICANOS

DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE LA FLORIDA

ACTAS DE LAS CONCLUSIONS Y RECOMENDACIONES APROBADAS POR

EL CONGRESS EL DIA VIERNES 20 DE FEBRERO DE 1975


Martha James Hardman
Editora












Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


STATE UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA














XXV CONGRESS ANNUAL LATINOAMERICANO

"LOS AUTOCTONOS AMERICANOS OPIfAN"


CONCLUSIONS Y RECOMEMDACIONES


Los indigenas de America, reunidos en el XXV Congreso Anual

Latinoamericano "Los Autoctonos Americanos Opinan", con sede

en la Universidad de Florida en la ciudad de Gainesville durante

los dias 17 al 22 de febrero de 1975 hemos llegado a las con-

clusiones y recomendaciones que mas adelante anotamos. Con el

mas profundo espiritu indigena que llevamos impregnado y sin-

tiendonos mas unidos que nunca, estamos dispuestos a luchar por

el bienestar de nuestros pueblos indomitos que han sabido enfren-

tarse valerosamente a las diffciles situaciones.

Pedimos a todos que nuestras proposiciones sean estudiadas,

analizadas, atendidas y realizadas en cuanto sea possible.


CONCLUS IO NES :


1. Que los indios de America no reciben una education adecuada

a su realidad socio-cultural y como consecuencia sufren

marginaciones.

2. Que las lenguas aborigenes por ser en su mayoria solo habladas

y por pertenecer a cultures dominadas son consideradas inferiores.

3. El actual sistema socio-economico de los indios Americanos que

es basicamente de subsistencia, se debe a la complete irres-








ponsabilidad de las classes gobernantes y al ordenamiento socio-

politico injusto.

4. Los indigenas no participant concientemente en la vida political

del sistema social que los engloba.

5. Es notoria la falta de unidad inter-etnica que permit la

perception de la situation precaria en la que se encuentran.

6. Que existen organismos de diverso tipo que opera en los pauses

de Latinoamerica y en los grupos indigenas, que antes de elevar

el nivel human sirven mas bien como elements de alienacion.


RECOMENDACIONES :


1. Legislar la ensehanza en lengua materna, como medio de educa-

cion de acuerdo a las caracteristicas culturales de cada grupo

etnico.
f f
2. Crear institutes lingu6sticos indigenas de character autonomo,

dirigidos por profesionales nativos competentes en el ramo.

Igualmente se recomienda la creacion de un institute a nivel

continental con fines de promocion y coordinacion.

3. Incrementar el numero de becas y escuelas para estudiantes

indigenas de ambos sexos en los distintos niveles educativos,

de acuerdo a sus propios requerimientos.

4. En los programs de education bilingue el personal docente

debe ser indigena bilingie.

5. En las sedes de los organismos del ramo educativo en cuyas

jurisdicciones existan poblaciones monolingues o con bilin-








guismo incipiente, deber haber personal especializado en

education bilingue.

6. Restituir las tierras usurpadas a las comunidades indigenas

y dotar paralelamente de implementos de trabajo, credits

necesarios y asistencia tecnica.

7. Buscar promocion y mercadeo de los products indigenas que

deben ser comercializados por ellos mismos.

8. Recomendar a los Poderes del Estado el apoyo y fomento de

cooperatives que puedan elevar el nivel economic de los

indigenas.

9. Capacitar a elements indigenas para que participen en la

planificacion y realizacion de los programs de desarrollo

integral de las comunidades indigenas.

10. Exigir a los gobiernos nacionales e instituciones internacionales

una polftica de prevision y bienestar social para el indigena

y campesino en general, y canalizarla a travel's de sus propias

organizaciones.

11. Participaci6n active de los grupos indIgenas en la realidad

political national, con respect de los valores nativos para

lograr el cumplimiento de la legislation existente, que en la

mayoria de los casos es buena pero inoperante. En el caso de

ausencia de normas legales que garanticen la dignidad del indigena,

exigir se legisle en ese sentido con la participation de repre-

sentantes de organizaciones indigenas autenticas.








12. Formacion de una organization interamericana de indigenas que

coordine las actividades de interest comun a los grupos nativos

de todo el continent Americano.

13. En razon de la existencia de factors que permiten burlar y

desfigurar cualquier dispositivo bien intencionado y con miras

a la superacion del estado de dependencia y dominacion en que

los pauses subdesarrollados se encuentran, se luchara por la

transformation structural political de nuestros pauses, hacia

una mayor participacion de los pueblos en el gobierno de los

pueblos.

14. Que los organismos pertinentes prevean la preservation de los

valores culturales autoctonos frente a las actividades de

las instituciones extranjeras.


FIRMADO POR





Dr. DIMAS BAUTISTA ITURRIZAGA Prof. ROMAN SHAJIAN SAKEJAT

President Secretario





Prof. ALONSO LOPEZ MAR Prof. IGNACIO SOLIS

Relator Relator








En cumplimiento de las aspiraciones de los indfgenas Ameri-

canos y con el objeto de dar continuidad a los trabajos iniciados

se ha formado una comision de representantes de diversos pauses

para este efecto y que son los siguientes:


1. Juan de Dios Yapita

2. Pedro Curihuinca

3. Rafael Mashinguiashi

4. Pedro Verona Cumez

5. Alonso Lopez Mar

6. Ignacio Solis

7. Alberto Santa Cruz

8. Remedies Fajardo Gomez
(Ipuana)

9. Roman Shajian Sakejat

10. International Indian Treaty
Organization


Bolivia

Chile

Ecuador

Guatemala

Mexico

Panama

Paraguay


Colombia

Peru


Estados Unidos


A fin de agilizar la intercomunicacion de los representantes

indigenas Americanos se acord8 establecer como sede provisional

la Rep blica de Panama siendo responsables de esta actividad, los

seflores Ignacio Solis y Estanislao Lopez.

Se recomienda a los miembros participants en el Congreso,

ponerse en contact con los sefiores mencionados en caso que

tengan alguna novedad de interest comun.


Gainesville, 22 de febrero de 1975.










INDICE


I. Introduccion

Ia. Auspicidores del Simposio

Dr. Wm. E. Carter, Director, CLAS

lb. Los Americanos Autoctonos Opinan

Dr. Dimas Bautista Iturrizaga, Presidente

Ic. Prefacio a Las Actas

Dra. Martha James Hardman, Editora

Id. Homenaje a los Heroes Indigenas de las Americas, palabras

pronunciadas durante el Congreso por Roman Shajian Sakejat,

Aguaruna, Peru.

II. Los Congresistas

III. Los Grupos Linguisticos Representados

IV. Las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones

IVa. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones: Presentacion y Discusion

en Sesion Abierta.

IVb. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones: Difusion Proyectada.

IVc. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones: Realizacion Proyectada.

V. Palabras Generales y de Buenos Deseos.

Apendice I: Participantes y Observadores del Congreso, con Afilia-

cion y Direccion.

Apendice II: Mensajes al Congreso por Escrito y por Oral.

Apendice III: Post-Datum de los Americanos Autoctonos Opinan











Ia. AUSPICIADORES DEL SIMPOSIO

W.E. Carter, Director
Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos y
Coorganizador del Simposio


El Simposio empezo con una idea, y sin ningunos fondos. Solo por

la generosidad de varias entidades privadas y gubernamentales llego a

ser realidad.

Entre las organizaciones auspiciadoras, la Fundacion Inter-americana

fue la mas generosa. Su subvencion de $15,000 forms el nucleo de sosten,

e inclula gastos de publication. Siguiendo esta subvencion en impor-

tancia fue la de la Oficina de Educacion del gobierno federal de los

Estados Unidos. Subvenciones en menor escala tambien vinieron de ofi-

cinas Latinoamericanas de la USAID, en forma de pasajes y viaticos para

participants Latinoamericanos. Finalmente, la Fundacion Phelps Stokes,

trabajando con el Departamento del Estado, obtuvo financiacion para que

various Ifderes indigenas Norteamericanos tambien asistieran al Simposio.

Sobre todo venla el auspicio de la Universidad de la Florida, sin

el cual no se habria podido tomar el primer paso. El aprecio por la

intervention y la generosidad de dicha universidad es evidence en pala-

bras de elogio que eran frecuentes y que aparecen en algunas de las

transcripciones que siguen.

Una vez garantizado el sosten para el Congreso, la selection de los

congresistas fue relativamente facil. Entre los organizadores del Simpo-

sio y otros profesores de la Universidad de Florida, ya conoclamos a

dirigentes indigenas en various pauses de Latinoamerica. Excluimos a

1















Brasil porque los indLgenas de este pals no hablaban el Espanol, la lengua

franca del Congreso. De los demns pauses representados, visitamos a cada

uno con la sola exception de Chile. Para Chile, los antropologos Melville

nos ayudaron a ubicar a Pedro Curihuinca. Martha Hardman, profesora de

antropologfa lingUistica de la Universidad de Florida, personalmente entre-

visto a participants potenciales en Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, y Ecuador.

En Paraguay, ella tuvo la colaboracion del Profesor Chase Sardi y su Pro-

yecto Marandi. G. Alexander Moore, professor asociado de antropologla de

la Universidad de Florida, viajo a Colombia y Panama e hizo la selection

para estos pauses. William Carter, director del Centro de Estudios Latino-

americanos de la Universidad de Florida, viajo a Guatemala y Mexico para

hacer la seleccion alla. En Guatemala, la Sra. Nora de England, estudiante

de linguistica antropologica en la Universidad de Florida, fue de gran

ayuda, y en Mexico la Sra. Evangelina Arana de Swadesh, del Instituto

Nacional Indigenista, fue de igual ayuda.

Como resultado de esta bisqueda, logramos juntar a un grupo de

lideres indLgenas de muchos distintos niveles. Algunos eran l'deres poll-

ticos nacionales; otros eran lideres regionales en education; otros lideres

en la lingistica y el bilingeismo; y otros eran lideres politicos neta-

mente locales. La gama de liderazgo representada fue intencional. Pensa-

bamos que unicamente asf podriamos sentir el verdadero pulso de las muchas

distintas classes de indlgenas que habitan Latinoamerica. El lector de

estas actas tendrg que juzgar hasta que punto hemos tenido 4xito.










Ib. LOS AMERICANOS AUTOCTONOS OPIKAN

Dimas Bautista Iturrizaga, Presidente



El Problem Indfgena ha sido el tema de comun denominador de

todos los pauses Latinoamericanos cuando se ha tratado de aspects

socio-economicos de un sector mayoritario de una nacion, llamado

indfgenas. Pero, el problema en si no ha sido originado por la

mayorla desfavorecida, sino, de una parte, debido a la voracidad

oligarquica, de un minusculo grupo que se adueharon de las mejores

tierras, confinando a la mayoria a los riscos y petascos en la sierra

y determinando la formacion de minifundios, yanaconas y peones en

otros latifundios; por otro lado, la creciente e improductiva

burocracia (empleocracia) de la clase media asorbia y absorbe hasta

ahora el mayor presupuesto de la nacion y como consecuencia nada

se asignaba o se asigna para el 1amado problema indigena. Sin

embargo, como en el caso del Peru, la pequeta actividad agro-

pecuaria indigena provee de panllevar a las grandes ciudades.

Con miras de mejorar el status del indigena se instituyeron

los llamados Institutos Indigenistas, generalmente de character official,

cuyos miembros fueron prominentes profesionales de diferentes carre-

ras. Sus funciones fueron inoperantes por sus ideas paternalistas;

especularon sobre el problema indigena, pero jamas nos invitaron para

que escuchen nuestras opinions; no pensaron que los indios podriamos

solucionar nuestros problems mediante la incentivacion y asesora-

miento tecnico. Todas las trabas cometidas contra el indio fueron


















tambien la despreocupacion de los gobiernos ya sean constitucionales

o inconstitucionales.

Todas las esperanzas de la mayoria para el indio fueron meras

ilusiones, pero alguna vez esas esperanzas tenian que hacerse

realidad; asi se dio el paso inicial mediante al auspicio e invi-

tacion del Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad

de Florida.

A pesar de que la reunion de los indios Latinoamericanos se

realize en un Estado Norteamericano, se noto claramente la avidez,

coraje, voluntad y decision para afrontar la solution del problema

socio-economico comun que afecta a millones de indigenas. Los asis-

tentes nativos, ademas de los observadores oficiales de cada pals,

que represent bamos aproximadamente a 20 millones, expresamos y ex-

pusimos manifiesta similitud de problems. Desde luego, el document

de Conclusiones y Recomendaciones del Congreso es el fiel reflejo

de los deseos y aspiraciones de una masa homogenea desde Mexico hasta

la Tierra del Fuego.

Esperamos que esta 11ama brillante que se ha prendido con la

presencia de Aztecas, Cunas, Mapuches, etc. se vuelva una tea reden-

tora pacifica y humanista.










Ic. LOS AMERICANOS AUTOCTONOS OPIFAN:

PREFACIO A LAS ACTAS

M.J. Hardman, Editora y Coorganizadora del Congreso



Siempre ha sido la experiencia de quienes trabajamos con la

gente indigena, que los demas nos piden que hab2emos por ellos;

desde una invitaci6n a cenar hasta un anglisis de la situacion

poliftica, siempre viene la pregunta ZQue piensan ellos?

Nos hemos cansado de negar de hablar por quienes pueden expresarse

con todos los dones que tiene el ser human. Tambien los indigenas

han expresado la much frustration que sienten por encontrarse

ante la expectativa de que todo pasase por otro, como si no tuvieran

lengua. As{ que la idea seminal del Congreso nacio en forma inde-

pendiente en el pensamiento de los cinco quienes lo organizamos -

los tres indigenas, Yapita, Vasquez, y Bautista, y los dos no-indigenas,

Carter y Hardman.

Durante 24 ahos el Centro ha auspiciado simposios sobre toda

faceta de Latinoamerica---universidades, demografla, las Amazonas,

y, muchas veces, sobre el Caribe. Nos parecfa que, para celebrar

25 anos de simposios, seria just y apropiado proveer a los primeros

Americanos de una plataforma de donde pudieran hacer escuchar la

voz propia.

Hay en las Americas aproximadamente 30 millones de indigenas;

con los 31 congresistas logramos representation de las families

linguisticas y culturales de casi 25 millones, aunque una represen-

5











tacion de un individuo por cada million es una representacion muy

baja, desde luego, y la distribution no era muy exacta. Por razones

logisticas y por los contacts que teniamos, algunas families lin-

guisticas eran bien representadas y otras no. Ha sido un primer

paso; lo unico que se puede esperar es que no sea el ultimo, que la

voz del indfgena se haga escuchar en forma constant.

Era nuestra (y me refiero a todos los 5) preocupacion de que los

indigenas hablasen entire si con toda libertad, sin la presencia

inhibidora de los no-indigenas. Por eso se arreglo que por las

mananas se reunieran los indigenas a solas. En las tardes ellos

tenlan la plataforma para decirnos a nosotros lo que a ellos mejor

les parecia. Toda la organization y presentation estaba en manos

de los indigenas, pero mejor lo dice la voz indigena Estanislao

Lopez, Primer Cacique de los Cuna, Panama. Dijo asi: "Nosotros

vamos a ensenar porque aquj. se ve que hay cerebro. Segun las reso-

luciones que ustedes han visto, no ha habido ninguna intervention

de nadies, constant todos, constatamos todos nosotros que dia y noche
f
estuvimos aqui, y asi se cumplio como pidio el Centro de Estudios

Latinoamericanos cuando dijo---no tenemos que intervenir nada, nada---

y asi se cumplio y ustedes son testigos, aqui tenemos testigos que

se ha elaborado aqui el sentimiento indigena y, aun mal construldo,

es del indio. Es por eso que digo que aqui he aprendido much y

asi voy a llevar el mensaje a mis hermanos Cunas."

El viernes, el ultimo dia de las sesiones, los indIgenas nos

presentaron el document de Conclusiones y Recomendaciones que

hablan preparado y sobre el cual habla consenso unanime. Es de

las sesiones de ese dfa que se han editado estas Actas, por ser












este document de tan trascendental importancia. Habia entire los

observadores quienes no entend{an el proceder de los indIgenas

Latinoamericanos, cuando pedlan estas sugerencias de los observadores.

Escuchemos la voz indigena en respuesta, Solis, Cuna, Panama:

"En relacion a la pregunta, yo como indigena en primer lugar,

digamos, no domino la sintaxis, los puntos del idioma Espahol, yo

soy indigena. Hasta donde yo estoy acondicionado, preparado, mis

studios, yo tengo el concept del sentir del indigena. En cuanto

a como hemos discutido que como se va a ser esto, yo entiendo que

cuando terminemos esto, el seflor president va a decir si estamos

de acuerdo, porque cada uno tiene los papeles, por eso se esta

discutiendo. En relacion a los observadores, solamente ellos estan

hacienda preguntas, observaciones, ahora, nosotros estamos tomando

en cuenta la sintaxis del Espahol, que como esto se va a leer en

el mundo, naturalmente tienen que ir enlazadas algunas palabras para

tener el sentido...[T]al vez [algunas] cositas nos han hecho falta,

nada mas, pero que el sentido no se cambie. [L]os senores obser-

vadores nos estan ayudando, no es que esten participando, o que

esten diciendo que la idea ha de ser asi---yo no aceptaria como

indlgena."

De los 31 congresistas, ni uno tenia como lengua materna el

Castellano, aunque todos lo hablaban con mas o menos fluidez,

porque servia de lengua franca entire los congresistas. Castellano

es, entonces, lengua extranjera, segunda lengua, para todos, ya que

todos tienen como lengua materna, un idioma Americano. Al editar

estas Actas, se le ha respetado el Castellano que han hablado; en











muchos casos parece reflejar pensamiento en otra estructura gramatical.

Se exije del lector que comprenda que esta leyendo las palabras, no

de hispano-hablantes, sino de personas de habla Cuna, Mapuche,

Quechua, Aymara, Maya o uno de los otros de los 20 idiomas represen-

tados con los 31 congresistas (ver Seccitn III). Tratar de reescri-

bir el Castellano para que parezca ser Madrileto seria tergiversar

los mismos pensamientos de quienes hablan---y serfa otra vez rechazar

la voz del indlgena. Ademas, por la gran mayoria que son los indigenas

en muchos pauses, el sustrato de los idiomas nativos esta dando lugar

a nuevos dialectos del mismo Castellano, en process siempre creative

del glorioso mestizaje del cual hablo un observador (ver Seccion V

final).

Aquf en estas Actas habla el indigena. Algunas notas sobre la

edicion misma: En la session misma, por las preguntas y sugerencias

de los observadores, se saltaba a veces de un tema a otro; aqui se

ha juntado lo que se tocaba a un tema en un solo sitio. A veces

esto resultaba en dividir un solo discurso en 2 o 3 parties. Ademas,

en general, se ha omitido saludos y otros "rellenos" mas de cortesia

que de sustancia, y, aunque apreciamos muchlsimo los caros senti-

mientos hacia nosotros, al Dr. Carter y a mi y al personal del Centro,

el Centro mismo y la Universidad, en general hemos tambien omitido

estas expresiones.

La Iltima session antes del banquet de clausura fue grabada pero

no transcrita. Era la session en que escogieron los representantes

que forman el comite international. Es un modelo del trabajo en

forma de consenso, donde, para tomar la decision buscan un parecer

unanime.










9


Me siento satisfecha y content de haber podido former una

part de este Congreso; mi mas caro anhelo es que los indigenas

sigan haciendo escuchar su voz, y que los no-indlgenas hayan

aprendido, y que sigan aprendiendo a escuchar la voz de personas

quienes tambien son pasajeros en este barco que llamamos La

Tierra.














Id. HOMENAJE A LOS HEROES INDIGENAS DE LAS AMERICAS


President del Congreso, Dr. Bautista:

Continuando con el desenvolvimiento de esta reunion, es

moment propicio para recorder los heroes que nos han antece-

dido en la liberaci6n en los diferentes pauses de Latinoamerica

y tambien quizas entire los lideres Norteamericanos. En esta

oportunidad, vamos a rendir homenaje a esos heroes, y el

expositor es el compahero [Roman] Shajian [Sakejat, Aguaruna,

Peru ].

Representante de los Aguaruna, Sr. ShajiLn:

Sehores congresistas y amigos observadores, tengo la suerte

de no llevar ninguna mezcla .en mi sangre. Tengo el orgullo de

ser indigena Americano y hablar ante ustedes, con pocas palabras

y en Castellano mal hilvanado, nuestra inquietud como pueblos

oprimidos y marginados. LQuien puede negar que los blancos nos

quitaron nuestro derecho que tenlamos? LQuien puede negar que

nuestros territories fueron limitados a su antojo? LQuien

puede negar que a esta altura del Siglo XX todavfa hay genocidio

cultural? LQuien puede negar que nosotros los indigenas no

somos respetados como personas humans? Ante todo quiero dejar

bien claro ante ustedes, los indfgenas nunca supimos mentir.

Uno de los mandates de nuestros antepasados del Peru era: [ ama

suya, ama llulla, ama q"illa (Quechua, nota del editor)] no













robar, no mentir, no ser [flojo]. Comparto en muchos acapites

el planteamiento de nuestros hermanos Norteamericanos. [Hermanos],

ese es nuestro ideal. Nosotros los indigenas no debemos sentir-

nos humillados en ningun moment; los indigenas somos autonomos

en nuestra cultural. Nuestra cultural debe ser respetada de

hecho, sin trabas, porque nuestros antepasados nos dejaron

esto. Cuando nos invadieron los blancos de Europa, luchamos

con nuestras lanzas, que eran minimas frente a las armas del

ejercito opresor, pero tenlamos lo que no tenfan ellos, la

fuerza spiritual de nuestros antepasados y que en este momen-

to deben estar muchos de ellos presents. Ustedes, hermanos

de Norteamerica, sufren la opresi6n de esta organizacion

social tan gigante que es Norteamerica. Nosotros los indigenas

de Latinoamerica sufrimos la opresion de este gigantie, y de otros

gigantitos pequetos, y todavia otros despercudidos que no

tienen nada de blanco, nada del indio, pero que s{ se quieren

darse de opresores. Los indios estamos unidos con ese

espiritu unico, y eso nos enlaza. La historic nos une. Nuestros

problems son unicos. Debemos enfrentarnos, grupos pequehos

divididos en varias regions en various pauses, pero tenemos

que enfrentar como de lugar. Como dijo el compalero de

Ecuador, antes que lamentar, tenemos que luchar; accion

ahora, no manana.

En honor a nuestros antepasados, [quiero nombrar] a various

indios que lucharon para defender su territorio:












BOLIVIA

Bartolina Sisa, mujer de Tupac Catari, en el siglo 18, en el segundo

sitio a La Paz logro, juntamente con sus seguidores, represar las

aguas del rio Choqueyapu, de donde proviene toda el agua para la

ciudad de La Paz.

Tupac Catari, en el siglo 18, quizo reestablecer el gran Imperio;

juntamente con Tupac Amaru del Peru lograron gran levantamiento con

miles de seguidores indigenas; no tuvo exito.


CHILE

Lautaro. Un cacique indigena quien luch6 valientemente contra los

Fepaholes. Fue capturado por Pedro de Valdivia en 1550, y forzado

a servir como gula por tres ahos. Con la ayuda de Caupolican y

Colocolo, logro matar a Valdivia y a sus hombres en la batalla de

Tucapel. Participo en el sitio de Concepcion en 1554. En 1557,

durante la batalla de Mataquito, Villagra y sus soldados sorprendieron

el campamento indio, aniquilando a sus fuerzas militares, y matando

a Lautaro.


COLOMBIA

Guarmey Ipuana. Al principio de este siglo, Guarmey Ipuana se dedico

a resolver los conflicts entire las castas, buscando asi la unidad

Guajira.

Torito Uriana. Torito Uriano siguio el trabajo de Guarmey, abogando

sobre todo por los de las regions fronterizas. Logro much, sobre

todo dentro de la repiblica de Venezuela. Es por el que hoy dIa hay

diputados Guajiros en el Congreso de Venezuela.










ECUADOR

Rumihawi se destaco en las luchas contra los Espaholes despues

de la muerte de Atahuallpa, Inca del Reino de Quito. Rumihawi

siguio con sus hombres al norte para defender a Quito. Cuenta

la historic que, a pocos kilometros al sur de Quito, Ruminawi

tenia a sus adversaries al borde de la derrota. Desgraciadamente,

el volcan Tungurahua erupto, atemorizandolos a los nuestros,

escapandose de esta manera los Espanoles de una segura caida.

Rumitawi parece que salio con su proposito; escondio todo el tesoro

que existio en Quito y luego incendio la ciudad. (En el siglo 16.)


GUATEMALA

Tecun Uman. Hijo de Kicab Tanub, cacique de los Quiches. El

cacique murio en la resistencia contra los espaftoles, y Tecun

Uman condujo una fuerza de cerca de 90,000 guerreros Quiche contra

Pedro de Alvarado. Los guerreros fueron derrotados cerca de

Utatlan. Cuando los ejercitos chocaron por segunda vez, Tecun

Utan ataco personalmente a Alvarado. No podia contra un hombre

a caballo, y fug muerto en febrero 20, 1524. Tecun Unan sigue

siendo el heroe de la literature Guatemalteca.


MEXICO

Cuauhtemoc fue el ultimo rey Azteco. Su reino comenz6 despues

de la muerte de Cuitlahuac. Encabezo la resistencia despues de

la muerte de Montezuma. Se le recuerda por la tortura que sufrio

a manos de los Espanoles. Quemaron las plants de sus pies,

tratando de obligarle a divulgar el escondite del tesoro de los

Aztecas. Cortes le sentencio a muerte alegando una conspiracion.

Su vida era corta, habiendo nacido en 1502 y muerto en 1525.










PANAMA

Cemaco. En el siglo XVI, Cemaco era irreductible. Logro reunir

sigilosamente hasta 5,000 hombres para dar la batalla final y

acabar de una vez por todas con Balbao y sus hombres. Tenla

esplas infiltrados en la misma Santa Maria, quienes dabanle cuenta

de todos los movimientos del conquistador. Balbao acaba por

saberlo y se le adelanta asaltando de noche la gran concentration

indfgena bajo el grito de ISantiago! La sorpresa y superioridad

de las armas produce el efecto acostumbrado. Cemaco, derrotado,

huye mal herido y no se supo jamas de su paradero.

Urraca. LIder en la resistencia contra Espinosa, Pizarro, y

Compalon. Mando las mujeres y los nitos a las montanas, para que

estuvieran fuera de peligro. Al principio derroto a Pedrarias

Davila y sus 1500 soldados. Companon le invite para una reunion,

y cuando Urraca vino paclficamente, le capture, le encadeno, y

le mando a Nombre de Dios. Urraca se escape, y lucho por nueve

anos mas contra los Espatoles. (En el siglo 16.)


PARAGUAY

Tofai. Durante la Guerra del Chaco, los Chulup, quienes vivian

en la misma area donde se libraban las batallas, sufrieron gravemente.

Aun aumentando su sufrimiento fue el hecho de que, al terminar la

decada de 1930, hubo una series de inundaciones seguida por una

sequoia desastrosa que primero destruyo a su caballos y luego redujo

sus rebatas de ovejas. Valientemente enfrentando estas circunstancias,

los lideres de varias tribus trataron de salvar a sus compatriotas,

persuadiendoles a cultivar la tierra. Entre estos lideres progresivos

era Tofai, cacique Chulupi.













PERU

Tupac Amaru en el siglo 18 hizo levantamiento contra los Espanoles.

Abolio la mita y los impuestos. Paso en libertad a los esclavos,

y gano muchas batallas contra los Espaioles antes de ser capturado

y descuartizado. Hoy es sfmbolo de la actual Revolucion Peruana.

Micaela Bastidas. Esposa de Tupac Amaru, y tambien luchadora

en el levantamiento y heroina de la Revolucion.



En honor a ellos y a su heroismo, ruego a ustedes, hermanos

de America, ponerse de pie, si tenemos esa costumbre. Si no,

de rodillas en el suelo, como hacian nuestros antepasados, a

rendir homenaje a esos grandes indios Americanos que lucharon

para defender nuestro territorio, a pesar de lo que nos despo-

jaron. Un minute de silencio en honor a ellos.

Senores, que el Dios de nuestros antepasados este con vosotros

y con cada uno de nosotros.














II. LOS CONGRESISTAS


Los congresistas han venido de todas parties de Latinoamerica,

de profesiones y ocupaciones de toda Indole. A continuacion pre-

sentamos a cada uno con breve resume biografico y en orden alfa-

betico. [Para la lista por pals, vea el apendice, que incluye los

participants de los EEUU.] Eran 31 los congresistas. [NOTA. Se

incluye a la Srta.Juana Vasquez, por su valiosa ayuda en todos los

preparativos y participation en la formulacion y exito del Congreso.

Sin embargo, no pudo asistir por malas maniobras de la compaia

Braniff y no por ninguna razon personal.]



1. Dimas Bautista Iturrizaga, Jaqaru (Jaqi), Peru

Dimas Bautista Iturrizaga,











en Chincha y Lima; superior: Medicina Veterinaria en la Universidad

National Mayor de San Marcos de Lima.

Ademas de ocupar puestos de jefatura y de investigation en las

dependencias del Ministerio de Agricultura, se preocupo en el cambio

socio-economico de la Comunidad de Tupe, en la creacion de una Granja

Comunal Agropecuaria atraves del Centro Cultural-Deportivo Tupe con











sede en la ciudad de Lima del cual fue president. Asi mismo fue

secretario de la Organizacion de la Asociacion Provincial Yauyos,

formada por todas las comunidades distritales de la Provincia.

Actualmente sigue supervisando la march de la Granja Comunal

Agropecuaria de Tupe y dirige el control sanitario de dicha Granja.

Tambien realize gestiones en la consecucion de materials di-

dacticos para las escuelas de Tupe y presta ayuda en el ingreso de

Tupinos a las universidades, ya que al present es director del

Program Academico de Biologia y jefe del Area de Microbiologia en

La Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo de Lambayeque.


2. Teodoro Canul Cime, Maya (Maya), Mexico

Teodoro Canul Cime nacio

en la villa de Peto, Yuca-

tin, M4xico. Empez6 a

entender el Espanol a la

edad de nueve a diez ahos

aunque empezo a ir a la

escuela a los seis. Se recibi6 como maestro rural y lleg6a former

parte de una Delegacion Sindical de Maestros como Secretario de

Promoci6n y Previsi6n Social donde lleg6 a reconocer las forms

en que atropellaban a los maestros indigenas, y donde quizo lograr

mayor participaci6n de los indigenas en los programs educativos

destinados a ellos, pero encontr6 much oposici6on sin embargo,

estando en esta comision present una ponencia en el Congreso de

la Asociaci6n Antropologica Americana. Actualmente trabaja en

Chuchub, Tixmehuac, Yucatan.











3. Pedro Verona Cumez Garcia, Cakchiquel (Maya), Guatemala

Pedro Verona C7imez Garcia

nacio en San Juan Comalapa

de padres pobres que vivlan

de los frutos de 6 hectCareas.

Bilingie en Cakchiquel y

Quich4, aprendi6 Castellano

durante 7 ahos de educacion primaria. Ha sido dirigente de asocia-

ciones catolicas, alcalde de Comalapa durante 2 afos, organizador

y president de una cooperative a nivel departmental por Chimal-

tenango, y president de la cooperative agrlcola de Comalapa.

Despues, dentro de Comalapa moviliz6 por cuatro atos partido politico

y actualmente es diputado en el Congreso Nacional de Guatemala.

En su posici6n de diputado trabaja en pro de los indigenas de Guate-

mala sobre todo desde su posici6n en el sector agrlcola dentro del

Congress.


4. Pedro Curihuinca, Mapuche (Araucano), Chile

Pedro Curihuinca naci6 de

padres Mapuche cerca de la

ciudad de Temuco, en el

corazon de la region austral

de Chile. Cuando todavia

era muy joven, su abilidad

acadimica fue reconocida, gracias a lo cual llego a ser uno de los

primeros Mapuche en llegar a ser professor universitario. Actual-

mente trabaja como professor ayudante de historic en la Universidad











de Chile de Temuco. Durante el Congreso present un analysis

del problema de la tenencia de la tierra, agriculture, education,

salud, economia, tomando como punto de partida las investigaciones

que la Universidad de Chile de Temuco realize, ya que el es inte-

grante del Proyecto de Cultura Mapuche de la Sede Temuco, por ser

miembro de algunas sociedades indlgenas de aquella zona, y por su

gran amor por el pueblo indigena "valor que me han inculcado todos

los dirigentes que ha tenido el pueblo Mapuche y mis padres". El

professor Curihuinca fue ubicado gracias a la intervention de los

antropologos Thomas Melville y Margarita Bradford, que se encon-

traban realizando investigaciones en la isla Huapi, en Cautfn.


5. Martin Chacach Cutzal, Cakchiquel (Maya), Guatemala

Martin Chacach Cutzal nacio

Len el canton 60 municipio de

|Comalapa, Chimaltenango,

Guatemala, de padres mono-

lingues. Aprendio el Castellano

en la escuela a la edad de 8

y 9 ahos. Es socio de la Cooperativa de Ahorro y Credito San Juan

Comalapa donde ha participado con el Comite de Educacion. Despues

empez6 a trabajar .con el Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroqufn

en la rama de la Division Linguitstica en donde fue despues becado

para el studio de la linguistica, de la gramatica de las lenguas

propias y de la preparation de diccionarios y gramaticas de referen-

cia en la lengua misma. En 1975 la institucion fue entregada a la











gente indigena ya preparada y Chacach actualmente es director de

la Rama LingUistica Educativa, con sede en Huehuetenango.


6. Jose Maria Chavez Morales, Quichua (Quechua), Ecuador

Jose Maria Chavez Morales naci6

en Agualongo de Paredes, Imbabura,

Ecuador. Sus abuelos, peones

de la hacienda Pinsaquf, lograron

salir, liberandose del patron,

A dando asi oportunidad a sus

padres a pisar la escuela por cuatro aflos para luego abandonar por

razones economicas. Chavez aprendio Castellano empezando a la edad

de seis ahos al ingresar a la escuela, donde encontr6 un mundo nuevo

con un sin numero de obstaculos, sobre todo el idioma. Al terminar

primaria entr6 al colegio normal en Uyumbicho gracias a la "Misi6n

Andina" de UNESCO y UNICEF, donde se recibio de maestro rural. Por

carecer del apoyo del gobierno de Ecuador para seguir studios, tuvo

que mirar hacia el extranjero: estudio dos ahos en la Universidad

Tecnica del Estado de Santiago, Chile, hasta que la caida de Allende

termin6 los studios. Actualmente estudia en la Universidad de

Wisconsin en los Estados Unidos donde tambien dicta cursos de Quechua.

Los frutos de sus studios han l1egado a su pueblo por intermedio

de una estrecha colaboraci6n con su padre logrando la creaci6n de

la escuela, agua potable, y caminos, y la confederacion de unas

ochenta comunidades en Imbabura.












7. Felix Chen, Kekchi (Maya), Guatemala

Felix Chen nacio en la muni-

cipalidad de San Juan Chamelco,

Alta Verapaz, en una familia

tfpica de campesinos Kekchies.

*A pesar de tener muy pocas

oportunidades de educacion

formal, llego a ocupar el puesto de alcalde, el de mayor prestigio

en la municipalidad. De adulto, empezo con trabajos muy humildes,

como por ejemplo el de portero en un centro de desarrollo agricolo.

Paso tambien various atos en la ciudad de Guatemala. Su ascenso al

puesto de alcalde fue de especial importancia, dado el hecho de el

pueblo de San Juan Chamelco contiene a muchas families ladinas, y

estaba acostumbrado a seleccionar sus alcaldes de entire esta pobla-

cion ladina. De limitada preparation formal pero de una perspicacia

excepcional, el Sr. Chen trajo a la reunion importantes experiencias

directs como campesino y trabajador fuerte y responsible.


8. Carmen Chuquin Amaguaha de Ponce, Quichua (Quechua), Ecuador

Carmen Chuquin Amaguaha de Ponce

es native de la region de Otava-

lo de Ecuador. Se graduo como

la primera de su clase en la

Escuela Normal Superior, una

institucion dedicada al entre-

namiento de profesores. En 1972, fue seleccionada de entire various

solicitantes para ser instructor en el Proyecto Educacional BilingUe











"El Cercado". Era el primer proyecto de esta indole en la Sierra

Ecuatoriana. Ademas de ensehar, la Chuqufn asumio un papel de

liderazgo en todas las fases del proyecto, y en especial en la

produccion de materials bilingUes. Actualmente reside en Cotocachi

con su esposo e hijo.


9. Remedios Fajardo Gomez (Ipuana), Guajira), Colombia

Remedios Fajardo Gomez (Ipuana)

nacio en la poblaci6n native de

Iraipa en el municipio de Uribia,

La Guajira, Colombia. La familiar

4I de su madre es oriunda del Cabo

de la Vela, y son miembros de

la casta Ipuana. Aprendi6 el Espahol cuando fue por primera vez al

internado indfgena de Uribia, dirigido por religiosas, a la edad de

cinco ahos. Por intermedio de la misma comunidad religiosa ha Ulegado

a ser universitaria. Ha sido hasta ahora una representante de la

comunidad ante el Gobierno y cristaliza las ideas que el Gobierno se

propone siempre y cuando se tiene en cuenta las sugerencias de los

indlgenas. La comunidad en general apoya la labor y esta siempre

dispuesta a defenders, asi fuese con las armas. Actualmente es la

coordinadora de actividades a fines de los objetivos de la organiza-

ci6n. Es asesora en Cuesti6n Indigena de la Oficina de Asuntos

Indigenas, que opera en Uribia, donde comienza un trabajo muy

intense (ver Apendice III). Obtuvo el tftulo de maestra en la

escuela normal superior de Uribia; actualmente es universitaria en

Bogota en la Universidad Pedag6gica Nacional, donde aspira obtener











en diciembre de 1976 el titulo de Licenciada en Ciencias Sociales.

Tambien, en reconocimiento de su labor y experiencia, el gobierno

departmental le ha conferido el titulo de "Experta en Asuntos

Indigenas".


10. Severo Flores, Guarani (Tup{-Guaranf), Paraguay

Severo Flores viene de la

parte norte de la region

Guarani en Paraguay. Curs6

la escuela primaria, y des-

pues se titulo como professor

A rural. Regres6 para ensetar

en su propio pueblo de la Misi6n Santa Teresita de Mariscal Estegarribia.

Entre otras actividades, ha trabajado con el Concilio Mundial de

Iglesias y con el proyecto para el mejoramiento del indio "Marandi".


11. Diego Adrian Guarchaj Ajtzalam, Quiche (Maya), Guatemala

Diego Adrian Guarchaj Ajtzalam

nacio en uno de los rincones

mas pintorescos de Guatemala.

En su vida ha hecho trabajos

tipicos del campesino Guatemal-

teco. Por su avidez, fue

escogido para trabajar con el proyecto linguistico Francisco Marroquin

en Antigua. Al terminar su preparaci6n allf, se ha dedicado a

trabajos de enseianza bilingue y analisis lingilstico. Actualmente

reside en Nahuala, departamento de Solola.











12. Amadeo Huaman Lorenzo, Wanka (Quechua), Peru

Amadeo Huamrn Lorenzo nacio

en Pucara., Huancayo, JunIn

Peru. Quedo huerfano de

padre a los 6 afios de edad

a pesar de lo cual logro

estudiar primaria donde a

los 7 ahos de edad aprendio las primeras palabras de la lengua

Castellana. Por razones econ6micas no pudo seguir secundaria, mas

bien emigr6 a la capital, Lima, en busca de trabajo donde encontro

colocacion en una mueblerfa, aprovechando las noches para estudiar

Dibujo Tecnico Lineal y Artistico. Termino estos studios con honors

y la Medalla de Plata. Regreso a su region natal donde fue conduc-

tor de un taller de muebles. Mientras tanto cumplio con muchos

cargos y funciones, como fundador y president del Centro Cultual

Pucara Huancayo, fundador y president de la Liga Distrital de

Futbol, fundador y president del Colegio Provincial de Arbitros.

Tambien fue Personero Juridico de Pucara; durante su periodo

reorganize la Granja Comunal, organize la cooperative de transportes

comunales, y logro la electrificacion de Pucara. Ademas con coopera-

cion comunal se construyo la Casa Historica de Mariscal Coceres y

la posta medical. En Pucara se realize el primer proyecto de

Conduccion de Credito Supervisado del Peru. Despues fue Personero

Juridico de la Comunidad de Viques. Fue gestor de la Primera

Convencion Departamental de Comunidades IndIgenas del Centro del

Peru.











Ya pasando medio siglo de edad regreso a la escuela para

terminar secundaria especializada para maestros; actualmente es

instructor en el Centro para Educacion Vocacional Carpintero en

Chilca Huancayo, ademas de seguir cargos como secretario del

Sub-comite de Desarrollo Comunal de Viques y secretario de la

Organizacion del Magisterio a nivel distrital.

Se ha impuesto la tarea de escribir la historic de su pueblo

de Pucara en los aspects sociales, culturales y economics.

Recoge y recopila el folklore de los pueblos de la Zona Sur de

Huancayo, Pucara, Sapallanga, Huayucahi, Viques, Chongos Bajo

y Huancan.









13. Vitaliano Huanca Torrez, Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

Vitaliano Huanca Tirrez nacio'

en Sobra Pata, San Andres de Machaca,

Ingavi, La Paz, Bolivia. Curso

primaria en Sobra Pata donde aprendio

Castellano. Despues, sigui" cursos

independientes, sobre todo sobre alfa-

betizaciion, education de adults, y linguilstica. Actualmente es

miembro fundador y director de COPLA (Comision para la Promocion de

la Lengua Aymara) (Ver Apendice III), miembro de INEL (Instituto

Nacional de Estudios Linguitsticos), Secretario de Prensa y Propa-

ganda de la Central Agraria de Tiwanaku, y cofundador de la

Asociacion de Escritores en Lengua Aymara de Bolivia.











14. Macedonia Iturrizaga Casas, Jaqaru (Jaqi), Peru

---Macedonia Iturrizaga Casas

nacio en Tupe, Yauyos, Lima, Peru.

Aprendio Castellano cuando su her-

mano menor ingreso a la escuela,

cuando ella tenfa unos doce aftos,

aunque hasta hoy se siente incomoda

en la lengua a pesar de la fluidez con la cual la habla. Ex miembro

de la Granja Comunal de Tupe, comunera en Tape y actualmente comunera

de Cachuy, donde se habla Kawki, lengua muy parecida al Jaqaru.

Dedica su vida al trabajo agricola donde es ejemplo para la comuni-

dad. Cultiva terrenos desde las parte altes, mas o menos 3,000

metros (papa, oca, mashua, trigo, quinua, cebada, calabaza), por

las parties medias, mas o menos 2,500 metros (habas, maiz quinua,

trigo, alfalfa para vacas y queso) hasta las parties bajas, de solo

unos 1,500 metros (lim6n, naranja, platano, palta, aji, lima, alfalfa,

achira, guayaba, chirimoya). Su afen diario incluye el riego de

todas estas parties y el cuidado de los animals, ademas del cultivo

normal; por senderos tiene que subir y bajar, ya que todavia no

hay caminos para vehlculos. Como agricultora ha ocupado posiciones

de responsabilidad en el sistema de cargo-fiesta, sobre todo para

el 2 de febrero, Candelaria, la mayor fiesta agricola en Tupe,

donde ha sido 6 veces mayoral y una vez mayordomo. Tambien ha

ofrecido a la comunidad muchas fiestas de herranza de vaca.











15. Estanislao Lopez, Cuna (Chibcha), Panama

I Estanislao Lopez es el primer

cacique de un triunvirato de

caciques entire la nacion de los

Cuna. Su autoridad esta plena-

mente reconocida por el gobierno

de Panama. Por lo tanto, es la

primera autoridad de la provincia de San Blas. Fue el mis anciano

de los que asistieron al Congreso. Durante su larga vida y sus

muchos anos como cacique, ha conseguido para su pueblo escuelas,

representation polftica, autonomia policfaca, tres aeropuertos, e

integracion de los Cuna dentro de la nacion modern de Panama.

La comunidad ha dedicado la biblioteca en la escuela secundaria

a su honor. Ha sido reconocido ampliamente por su abilidad

como pacificador y juez.


16. Moises Lopez Gonzalez, Chinantec (Chinanteco), Mexico

Moises Lopez Gonzalez viene de uno

de los lugares mas pintorescos de

Mexico: Oaxaca. Representa a

uno de los idiomas menos conocidos

de las Americas: Chinantec. De

A l todos los idiomas representados

en el Congreso, Chinantec fu4 el unico que usa el tono en forma

fonemica. Moises Lopez Gonzalez actualmente trabaja como professor

bilingue y supervisor de la oficina regional de education bilingUe

en Tuxtepec, Oaxaca.











17. Alonso Iopez Mar, Huasteco (Maya), M4xico

Alonso Lopez Mar, como sus compaleros

Mejicanos que asistieron al Congreso,

trabaja en education rural. Su

puesto es el de supervisor de la

Soficina regional de educacion indl-

Sgena en Carrillo Puerto, Mexico, D.F.

Uno de los participants mas locuaces, Alonso Lopez Mar fug espe-

cialmente perspicaz en cuanto a planes de organization a largo

plazo.


18. Mauricio Mamani P., Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

Mauricio Mamani Pocoata nacio

en la Comunidad de Irpa Chico, La

Paz, Bolivia. Curso primaria en

la comunidad de Irpa Chico,
donde aprendio Castellano. Siguio

studios en la escuela normal

de Warisata, Omasuyos, y despues en la Universidad Catolica del Peru.

Tambien se ha preocupado de seguir cursillos de Cooperativismo y

Agriculture. Volvio a su pueblo como professor durante un aio, durante

el cual ocup6 muchos cargos dentro del pueblo. Despues, mas se ha

dedicado a investigaciones de tipo antropologico o sociologico.

Actualmente trabaja con el Museo de Etnologia, La Paz.












19. Rafael Mashinguiashi, Shuara (Jibaro), Ecuador

Oriundo del Oriente Ecuatoriano, Rafael Mashinguiashi logr6

titularse de licenciado en la Universidad Nacional de Quito.

Dentro de la federation Shuar, Rafael Mashinguiashi funciona como

dirigente de la comision de education, y ha trabajado como alfa-

betizador. En cooperation con los padres Salesianos, la federa-

cion ha desarrollado una red amplia de periodicos y estaciones de

radio.


20. Paulina Matfas Mancilla, Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

SAP Paulina Matias Mancilla viene del

altiplano Boliviano, el corazon

del territorio Aymara. Es miembro

de la primera generation de mujeres

Aymara que han tenido acceso a la

W aeducacion formal, y se ha aprove-

chado plenamente de sus oportunidades. Trabaja como uno de los

miembros principles de una organization de promocion campesina,

Mink'a. Dentro de la organization, se concentra en problems de

las mujeres, En sus palabras: "educar a la mujer es educar a

toda una generacion; en el altiplano la mujer esta sumamente al

lado del hombre para ayudarlo." Paulina Matfas Mancilla trabaja

actualmente como auxiliar del servicio social y promotora rural,

dictando cursos de artes domesticos.











21. Ambrosio Montevilla Mamani, Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

Ambrosio Montevilla Mamani sirve

como uno de los dirigentes provin-

ciales de la organization Mink'a,

una asociacion indIgena voluntaria

Ha alcanzado un nivel de education

que pocos en su generacion han

logrado, y actualmente trabaja como supervisor de la oficina

de desarrollo de la comunidad en Calacoto.


22. Basilio Ottey, Guaymi (Chibcha), Panama

Basilio Ottey ha tenido experien-

cias excepcionales para un indIgena

Latinoamericano. De joven, trabajo

como sirviente en la embajada

Britanica de Panama. De all3,

llego a dominar tanto el Ingles

como el Espafol. Actualmente, es el vocero official del primer

cacique de los Guaymi.


23. Lorenzo Rodriguez, Guaymi (Chibcha), Panama

Lorenzo Rodriguez fue escogido para

el Congress por su trabajo como

primer cacique de los Guaymi. Su

dedicacion al concept de desarrollc

de su pueblo fue reconocido por

hk RIn oficiales de la USAID trabajando en

Panama, quienes le recomendaron a los organizadores del Congreso.











Lorenzo Rodriguez es reconocido como uno de los primeros caciques

de su pueblo que se esfuerze por integrarlo plenamente a la nacion

de Panama y, a la vez, por mantener lo mejor de sus propias

tradiciones.


24. Alberto Santa Cruz, Chulupf (Mataco), Paraguay

F Alberto Santa Cruz es miembro de

uno de los grupos linguifsticos mas

pequenos representados en el Con-

greso. Su pueblo sufrio much a

S las manos de campahas militares,

y por consecuencias de la guerra

del Chaco. Despues de que los Chulupf fueron dominados militar-

mente, los padres de Alberto entraron como sirvientes de una orden

Alemana, y Alberto fue educado por los frailes Alemanes. Por lo

tanto, llego a ser cuatri-lingee, dominando el Chulupi, el Espanol,

el Alemnan, y el Guarani Ha trabajado como traductor professional,

y hasta ha traducido porciones grandes de la Biblia. En el ano

1974, sirvio como president del Parlamento Indo-americano del

Cono Sur, y tanbien ha servido como president del Consejo Directivo

del Proyecto Marandi. Oriundo del Chaco sur del Rio Pilcomayo

del grupo Chulupf Nivakle, Alberto Santa Cruz trabaja como otros

en su familiar, fabricando y vendiendo artfculos de arte folklorico

en Asuncion.











25. Roman Shajian Sakejat, Aguaruna (Jibaro), Peru

Roman Shajian Sakejat es considerado

por el Ministerio de Educacion en

Peru como uno de los especialistas

mas destacados en educacion bilingae

que tiene el pals. Por su obra

sobresaliente, ha llegado a ser

secretario regional de education en Jaen, Peru. Su tierra natal

es la region selvatica del oriented Peruano.


26. Ignacio Solfs, Cuna (Chibcha), Panama

Escogido para asistir al Congreso

Sport el primer cacique de los Cuna,

Ignacio Solfs es uno de los primeros

Cuna en conseguir una licenciatura

en pedagogla. Ha trabajado como

secretario de la nacion Cuna de

San Blas. Dentro de la education, persigue su especial interest:

la historic.


27. Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz, Ayacuchano (Quechua), Peru:

Oriundo de Ayacucho, Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz salio de su tierra

natal despues de haber obtenido su titulo universitario. Hizo

studios avanzados lingUisticos en la Universidad de Buffalo y tambidn

en la Universidad de Pittsburgh. Es co-autor de materials para

la ensenanza de Quechua. Dentro del Ministerio de Educacion en

Peru, esta encargado de preparar materials billngues en Quechua

para toda la nacion.












28. Sabina Subuyuj Rompich, Cakchiquel (Maya), Guatemala

Sabina Subuyuj Rompich nacio en

San Juan Sacatepequez, Guatemala,

el pueblo natal de sus ancestros.

Al entrar a la escuela a los 9

anos, empezo a aprender el Castellano

con una profesora de habla Cakchi-

quel. Al terminar primaria tuvo la oportunidad de seguir con

secundaria, pero bajo la condition de que dejara al lado la

ropa trpica, condition no acceptable ni a ella ni a la familiar.

Empezo a trabajar en una tienda. Al mismo tiempo empezo a dictar

cursos de religion a los niftos de la parroquia y en la escuela

primaria. Trabajo tambien con un grupo de sefloritas indigenas,

la Accion Catolica Juvenil Femenina. Despues de mas de 10 aflos

trabajando asi con grupos empezo con la Cooperativa de Ahorros

Credito San Juan Bautista, de la cual es actualmente gerente.

Cuando empezo habia 397 socios; hoy d{a tiene 1029. Por el

trabajo tan sobresaliente que ha realizado dentro de la cooperative

fue condecorada con una Monja Blanca, la Flor Nacional. En 1973

era la inica mujer trabajando en cooperativismo en Guatemala.

Ha sido representante de FENACOAC (Federacion Nacional de

Cooperativos) ante el Presidente de la Rep blica.

Actualmente, la Cooperativa esta jugando un papel importan-

tisimo en la reconstruction de San Juan Sacatepequez, que fue

totalmente destruido en el terremoto del 1976.










29. Arcenia Virginia Uribe Molina, Nahua (Uto-azteco), M4xico

~Arcenia Virginia Uribe Molina viene

de un pueblo montaEoso no muy dis-

tante de las grandes ciudades de

SMexico, pero sin embargo muy ais-

lado. Profesora bilingiue y promotora

'1 infatigable de progress para su

pueblo, Arcenia Virginia Uribe Molina contribuyo siempre en la

forma mas positive y efectiva a las discusiones del Simposio.


30. Juana Vazquez, Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

Juana Vazquez nacio en La Paz,

Bolivia donde aprendio Castellano

de amiguitos y al asistir a primaria.

Trabaj' en fibricas de telares y

como comerciante mayorista y mino-

.. rista durante 15 afos hasta empezar

studios de lingtfstica en INEL (Instituto Nacional de Estudios

Lingiisticos). Es co-autora de textos para ensenanza de Aymara

y de la gramatica y ha dictado cursos de Aymara en la Universidad

de Florida y la Universidad de Pittsburgh. Como artist, sus tra-

bajos forman parte de los materials de la lengua Aymara y fueron

presentados en la galerfa de la Universidad de Florida. Ha sido

editor del Aymara Newsletter, autora de una cartilla y otros traba-

jos educativos. Actualmente es investigadora de la lengua y cul-

tura Aymara dentro de INEL donde sigue con sus publicaciones, tra-

baja con la biblioteca rodante, y dicta cursos para la mejoria de

la educacion del nino Aymara.












31. Juan de Dios Yapita Moya, Aymara (Jaqi), Bolivia

Juan de Dios Yapita Moya

nacio en Qumpi, Omasuyos, La Paz,

Bolivia. Aprendi castellano al

cursar primaria en una escuela

-i evangelica a escondidas del patron

de la hacienda. Como beneficiaries

de la Revolucion y Reforma Agraria del aio 1952, sus padres le

1evaron a La Paz para que cursara secundaria commercial. Despues

studio cooperativismo, entro a la Normal para ser maestro, donde

aprendio Ingles y Frances, studio en =IEL instituteo Nacional de

Estudios Linguisticos), y despues en la Universidad Nacional Mayor

de San Marcos, Lima, Peru y la Universidad de la Florida, ademas

de otros centros superiores. Es miembro de entidades internacionales

tales como PILEI y ALFAL (Programa Interamericana de LinguIstica

y Ensenianza de Idiomas y Asociacion LingUlstica y Filologica de

America Latina). Ha sido secretario de various sindicatos, es

miembro de la Liga Deportiva de Munaypata de La Paz donde actual-

mente vive, y es fundador y coordinator del Festival Anual Folk-

lorico de Qumpi. Tambien ha ensenado la lengua Aymara a extranjeros

en EEUU y en Bolivia, y fonologia Aymara, lenguaje y cultural Aymara,

y linguistica a los de habla Aymara (ver Huanca apendice III). Ha

escrito ampliamente en el campo de literature Aymara, siendo, entire

otras publicaciones, co-autor de la Gramatica, autor de tres textos

de ensebianza de Aymara, y editor de los periodicos, JIPI, AYMARA

NEWSLETTER, y LITERATURE AYMARA. Es fundador y director de ILCA

(Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara).















III. LOS GRUFOS LINGUISTICOS REPRESENTADOS


De Latinoamerica habian representantes de veinte grupos lin-

gufsticos; es decir, que entire los congresistas se hablaban veinte

distintas lenguas, ademas del Espafol. En esta seccion, se presen-

tan las lenguas segun las families lingulsticas a las cuales se

pertenecen, en orden de numero de hablantes de la familiar linguls-

tica, de mayor a menor.

1. La familiar lingeistica QUECHUA. Hay mas de 10 millones de

hablantes entire los habladores del Peru, Bolivia, el Ecua-

dor, Colombia, y Argentina. Son por lo menos seis las
f
lenguas Quechuas que no se entienden entire si; se distin-

guen al nombrarles solo con referencia geografica. Asistio

al Congress dos representantes del Quechua del Ecuador,

Chuquin y Chivez. Su idioma suele denominarse Quichua,

pero como la [e] y la [i] son variantes una de la otra,

la diferencia de deletreo es solo de ojo y no de sonido.

Representaron el Quechua Wanca el Sr. Huamin, y el

Quechua Ayacuchano el Sr. Soto. Los dos venian del Peru.












2. La familiar linguistica MAYA. Hay mas de 3 millones de

hablantes mayormente en los parses de Mexico y Guatemala

con unos cuantos en Honduras y El Salvador. Hay 22 len-

guas Mayas en Guatemala y unos 10 mas en Mexico; entire

las mas grandes hay Quiche con 650,000, Mam con 450,000,

Cackchiquel con 300,000, Yucatan con 300,000 y Kekchi con

250,000 (Huasteco tiene 60,000). Cinco de las lenguas

Mayas fueron representadas en el Congreso: de Mexico,

1) Huasteco: Lopez Mar, y 2) Maya de Yucatan: Canul.

De Guatemala, 1) Cakchiquel: Subuyuj, Cumez, y Chacach,

2) Quiche: Guarchaj, y 3) Kekchf: Chen.



3. La familiar ling"i"stica JAQI. Hay mas de 2 millones de

hablantes entire tres lenguas en los pauses de Bolivia,

Peru, y Chile. Fue representada en el Congreso por cinco

hablantes de Aymara de Bolivia: Yapita, Huanca, Mamani,

Matias y Montevilla, mas la participation en la prepara-

cion por Vasquez; y por dos hablantes de Jaqaru del Peru:

Iturrizaga y Bautista. Esta representation fuerte de los

de esta familiar refleja el hecho de que en la Universidad

de Florida hay un Proyecto de Materiales de la Lengua

Aymara, y que, en la formulacion del Congreso participaron

tres indigenas de habla Jaqi: Bautista, Yapita, y Vasquez,

y del lado del Centro, tanto Hardman como Carter han reali-

zando studios dentro de comunidades de habla Jaqi.











4. La familiar lingiilstica TUPI-GUARANf. Hay unos 2 millones

de hablantes en los pauses de Paraguay y Brazil. La

mayor de las lenguas es el Guarani, lengua official en el

Paraguay, y representada en el Congreso por Flores.



5. La familiar lingeustica UTO-AZTECA. Hay casi 2 millones

de hablantes en Mexico y en el suroeste de los Estados

Unidos. Esta familiar fue representada en el Congreso

por una hablante de Nahua de Mexico: Uribe.



6. La familiar lingiiustica CHIBCHA. Hay como medio million de

hablantes de esta familiar divididos en grupos pequenos

con lenguas no mutuamente inteligibles por todo Centro

America, Venezuela y Colombia. Habla representation de

dos lenguas Chibchas, de Panama las dos: de Guaymi por

Rodriguez y Ottey; de Cuna por Lopez y Solfs.



7. La familiar linguiIstica ARAWAK. Hay como medio million

de hablantes de esta familiar muy extendida por el Caribe

y toda la cuenca Amaz6nica, hablada en muchas lenguas,

muy diversas, por grupos pequelos en Venezuela, Colombia,

Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, con much mas

extension antes. Actualmente la lengua mas grande es

Guajira, hablada por unos 120,000 hablantes en la penin-

sula Guajira compartida entire Colombia y Venezuela.

Habia representation de la Guajira Colombiana por Fajardo

(Ipuana), quien esta en estos moments dedicada al tra-












bajo de investigation para poder dotar a la lengua de

alfabeto. (Ver Apendice III).



8. La familiar lingUistica JIBARO. Hay unos 200,000 hablantes

en los pauses del Peru y Ecuador. Hay varias lenguas, dos

de las cuales tuvieron representation en el Congreso:

Shuara del Ecuador por Mashinkiash; y Aguaruna del Peru

por Shajian.



9. La familiar linguIstica ARAUCA. La lengua mayor de esta

familiar es el Mapuche, hablado en Chile principalmente,

con unos cuantos hablantes en Argentina, por 150,000

hablantes. Fue representada en el Congreso por Curihuinca

de Chile.



10. La familiar linguistica MATACO. Hablada en varias lenguas

en Paraguay y Argentina. La lengua Chulupi de esta familiar

hablada por 80,000 personas de Paraguay, fue representada

por Santa Cruz.



11. La familiar linguistica CHINANTECO consiste mayormente de la lengua

Chinantec, hablado por 25,000 personas en Oaxaca, Mexico,

representada por Lopez Gonzalez.














Lengua

Aguaruna

Ayacuchano

Aymara



Cakchiquel


Chinante c

Chulup

Cuna

Guaj iro

Guarani'

Guaymi

Huanca, ver Wanka


INDICE DE LENGUAS

Familia Pais de
Lingttistica Representacion

Jfbaro Peru

Quechua Peru

Jaqi Bolivia



Maya Guatemala


Chinanteco

Mataco

Chibcha

Arawak

Tupi-Guaranf

Chibcha


Huasteco Maya

Jaqaru Jaqi

Kekchi Maya

Mapuche Arauco

Maya, Yucatan Maya

Nahua Uto-Azteca

Quechua, ver Wanka, Ayacuchano

Quiche Maya

Quichua Quechua


Mexico

Paraguay

Panama

Colombia

Paraguay

Panama



Mexico

Peru

Guatemala

Chile

Mexico

Mexico



Guatemala

Ecuador


Personas

Shajiaan

Soto

Matias, Montevilla,
Mamani, Yapita, Huanca,
Vasquez

Subuyuj, Cumez,
Chacach

Lopez Gonzalez

Santa Cruz

Lopez, Solls

Fajardo

Flores

Rodriguez, Ottey



Lopez Mar

Iturrizaga, Bautista

Chen

Curihuinca

Canul

Uribe



Guarchaj

Chuquin, Chavez











INDICE DE LENGUAS (continuacion)


Familia Pals de
Lengua Linguistica Representacion Personas

Shuara Jrbaro Ecuador Mashinguiashi

Wanka Quechua Huancayo, Peru Huamin

Yucatan, ver Maya




TEXTOS

Algunos de los textos presentados aqui son de intervenciones

en las lenguas nativas durante el Congreso; en otros casos son

mensajes que nos han mandado los congresistas. No ha sido possible

publicar todas las intervenciones en. lenguas nativas por carecer

de transcripciones.


Guarani: Flores, Paraguay

(Presento saludos en su propio idioma):

PEneko' a ponemIntaba.


Guajiro: Fajardo, Colombia

(Ofrecio saludos en su idioma):

Guare upushwo.


Mapuche: Curihuinca, Chile

(Ofrecio saludos en su idioma):

Marmari iw 'ichukon.











Aymara: Yapita, Bolivia

(Una interpretation amplia de la palabra Aymara que dijo se

encuentra en su intervention en la seccion IVc.)

Aruskipasipxaaanakasakipunirakispawa.


(Yo se que) es deseable y obligacion que todos, tambien ustedes,

que nos comuniquemos.


Morfemas en esta palabra, que tambien es el lema de la publication

de Literature Aymara:

aru 'hablar'

-si- 'reflexivo'

-kipa- 'puente, que ilega de un punto a otro'

-si- 'progresivo'

-p- 'muchos, todos'

-xa- 'completivo'

-fla- 'nominalizador'

-naka- 'todos, muchos'

-sa 'nuestro, nosotros, ustedes incluidos'

-ki 'no mas'

-puni 'siempre'

-raki 'tambien

-"- 'verbalizador'

-spa 'infleccion verbal de tercera persona a tercera
persona del desiderativo'

-wa 'afirmacion de conocimiento personal, clase de
oracion'













Wanka: Huaman, Peru

Kay salakachtuy jutonacusha kayanchic mandacusham, lliu wau-

inchiqcuna indio Latino Americano masinchic-cunapime kanan ashinchic

entindinacunapame, ichapis talichwan allinta mejoranacunapa, chay

pasapasaypibam tacacunchic comunidaninchiqchtuy, kanan munanchic

oyalimananchictam 1lapa mandacucuna nacion-minchiqchtuy.


Aqui en esta sala estamos reunidos los representantes de

nuestros hermanos indigenas de Latinoamerica, para buscar un enten-

dimiento mituo, posibles soluciones de muchos problems graves

que agobian a nuestras comunidades. Deseamos ser escuchados por

los mandantes de nuestros pauses.


Quichua: Chavez, Ecuador (mensaje)

Ruca quichua runa cangunata jariyachingapa munani cai shimi-

cunahuan. Rucanchi la callarishcanchi cuanchipaj cashcata quichun-

gapa, cuanchi punda timbu taitacuna saquishcata. Mana shuhuana-

junchichu, cuanchipaj cashcatallami tigrachihuaichi ninajunchi.

Mana runacunallaca quichui tucushca canchichu; mishucunapash,

yanacunapashmi cuanchishnallata nima illaj tianajun. Chaimandami

cumbacuna, mana mishucunahuanga macanajunata yana canchichu,

ashtahuangarin tandanajunatami charinchi pugripura charijcunata

quichungapa. Mana gubiernucunata maflana canchichu maquita vichai

churashpa taita diustashna, paicunaca nimaura na tigrachingachu

paicunapaj munaica. Runacuna, mishucuna, yanacuna, tucuilla

jatarishunchi shujlla jarishna, shinashpallami yalishunchi huauquicuna.











Yo, indigena quichua, quiero darles un mensaje de aliento con

estas palabras. Nosotros ya hemos iniciado a quitarles lo que es

nuestro, lo que nuestros antepasados nos dejaran. No les estamos

robando; solo estamos exigiendo que nos devuelvan lo que es nuestro.

No solo los indigenas somos los explotados: tambien los blancos.

Los negros estan como nosotros sin nada. Por eso compaheros, no

debemos pensar en pelear contra los blancos. Al contrario, tenemos

que juntarnos entire los pobres para luchar contra los poderosos.

No debemos pedir a los gobiernos poniendoles las manos al cielo

como a los dioses. Ellos nunca nos devblveran por su propia cuenta.

Indios, blancos, negros levantemonos todos como un solo hombre;

hermanos, solo asi venceremos.


Jaqaru: Iturrizaga, Peru, traducido por Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru

Amruchatx jaqkuna. Na ak ujtawt" akna jum illt'iri isha

naq jum illt'kajt"txi. Ishaw jum illt'asnhantxi ish ak doktor

irptupanqa, ishaw ak illsanhantxi qamish ujt pwedsananh ak"a.

Antz karu kwistki. Naq ak ill pyinskajt"txi ishaw aykaps, jamas

ishaw nunca, ishaw aykaps ill pyinskajt"txi aka matx muskinhanw

irpwutu. Doctoraw irpwutu, rupam illrush k"un pans wasatna sashu

irpwutu, sino akar ujtma rupam antz finw juman sawutuwa. Ukanw

ujtawt"a. Jaqaruskun art'ir ujtmata sawiwa. K"un illt'ir ujtmat

uk jaq"a antz finusanawkiw k"uwanq jaqiqa sawiwa. Ujtmat avionkun

wasmata ujtmat akat"a panma naq k"uwat" naryamama sawiwa.

Uk"uk"ap" uk" jaq illt'amata markamarkat" ujtki antz jayat" uk

jaqiq ujtki uk illt'amata sawiwa sapan ujtawt"a. Ishaw na pyin-

skajt"txi ujt"a, trabajunhps finkunhanw ujtawt"a. Antz bwen












jaqisanwajtaw jumaqa. Antz gall jaqisanwajtaw. Ishaw naq ak"maw-

katap" yatxkajt"txi. Ukshacha. Gracias.


Yo he venido a este pueblo a conocerlos a ustedes y a vivir

un rato con ustedes. Quizas si no hubiera sido por la Dra. Hardman,

no hubiera tenido oportunidad de conocer este gran pueblo, porque

para nosotros los indigenas cuesta muy caro el viaje hacia los

Estados Unidos. Efectivamente, en una forma impensada he venido

a este pueblo para discutir los problems del indigena porque yo

soy una de las mujeres que trabaja en el campo. La Dra. Hardman

me invite que trajera mi ropa tlpica, para que tambien los indi-

genas de los Estados Unidos conozcan como es la vestimenta tipica

del Peru, de una parte del Peru de la familiar Jaqaru. Me recomendo

mi comunidad que me expresara en mi propio idioma que es el Jaqaru.

Me dijeron que conociera a todos los pobladores de los Estados

Unidos, especialmente a los indfgenas. La Dra. Hardman me dijo

que ella debia esperarme aca y que va a estar acompa1andome a

todas parties para que conozca la costumbre. La Dra. Hardman

sugirio que iban a asistir al Congreso personas de todo el continent

y de Sudamerica. Entonces, por eso vine a conocerme con ellos y a

participar con ellos. Hasta he abandonando, francamente, mi

pequeho trabajo en el campo. He recibido una buena atencion,

estoy muy agradecida a todos. Gracias.











Maya de Yucatan: Canul, Mexico

En lengua Maya:

Zukuunex latinoamericanos cin aprovechartic le ocasiona

u tial in tuuxtic teex hun p'ee cimaac olal tu kaba u indigenasi

Yucatan, yetel cin kat oltic ka kuchuc u kini ic much'talex utial

u pahta ic mulan kexic ic tuculeex u tial u pahtal ic resolvertic

en parte ic problemaaex.


En Espanol:

Hermanos Latinoamericanos aprovecho esta occasion para mandar-

les un caluroso saludo a nombre de los indigenas de Yucatan y dese-

ando que l1egue el dia en que nos reunamos para intercambiar nuestras

ideas, con el fin de resolver nuestros problems.


Aymara: Vasquez, Bolivia

Taqinis md jil mg kullak jiwasakkam aruskipt'asipxanani, uk"aw

amirikpachaw anus misis jaqirjam ufijapxistanixa.


Todos como un solo hermano entire nosotros comuniquemos enton-

ces en toda America todos como a personas humans nos veran.


Aymara: Yapita, Bolivia

Niya qallantapxtan arusat qillqt'asiia, taqi ch'amamp sarantasi-

pkakiiani nayraqataru.


Comenzamos el desarrollo literario de nuestras lenguas. Sigamos

adelante con mas fuerza.


Quichua: Chuquin, Ecuador

Ruka llakta, jatun llaktamandapacha agradisipani kai tukuilla












gintikunata kai, doctor Carter, kai doctor Hardman, paikunata ninanda

agradisipani, ama fukanchij pubrigukunata ama shina kunganguichijchu

chashnallata yuyaringuichij tukuilla Kukanchijta.

Buka kai Cercado llakta, jatun llaki llaktamandapacha shamuni,

jatun pubriza 1aktamanda kaipi tukui Rukanchij llakikunata billan-

gapaj, parlangapaj kai tukuilla gintikunaman mana ashtawan nishachu

jatundami agradisipani, chaigullatami nini diusulpagui.


Desde mi tierra agradezco a today la gente, al doctor Carter, a

la doctor Hardman; a ellos agradezco profundamente; no se olviden

de nosotros tan pobrecitos en la misma forma que se acuerden de

todos nosotros.

Yo vengo desde la tierra grande El Cercado, del pueblo triste

y pobre, para conversar nuestras marginaciones aqul a toda la gente,

todas nuestras tristezas. No voy a decir mis. Agradezco a todos y

Dios les pague.


Guarani: Flores, Paraguay

CheirU cuera Rande atyva haina.

Ma.Tha, henduhdra cuera. Umi indigena guarani representante ramo.

Ard pe6me chereta Paraguay, cherekoha Mariscal Estigarribia, Santa

Teresita maitel ha chemaitel avel.

Pene ko.A p6r& mintepa.

Avy.aite ayeporavo hArehe ayuhagua ko atyrA ha arrepresentavo che

raza guaranime, maestro ramo ha Proyecto Marandi remimbou ramo avel upe

oiko ramoit6 vaekue, romba.apohA rolna roguerahA hagua tenonde upe

Proyecto rembipota, ofondive Departamento Asunto Indigena ndive. Royerovia












kova organizaci6n rupi ip6ra vdnehagua umi iane hermano indigena reko.

Ore rembipota hina, ofeme.e yevyvo oreve yvy kuatia herava titulo

de propiedad reheve, yvy oyepe.apa vaekue umi ore ypy kuegui raka.e

ha toyerespeta mive indlgenape. Ore.ypykue guive ore kokue rehegua, hevad

rupia. Yaguerovia niko umi aty oikova hetd henddrupi ko Am6ricape oupora

hina umi indIgenape.


Compaheros Congresistas.

Dignos observadores: Como representante de los indigenas Guaranies,

present el saludo de mi pals el Paraguay, del pueblo de Mariscal

Estigarribia, Santa Teresita y el mio propio.

Tengo el privilegio de haberme elegido para asistir a esta reuni6n

y representar a mi raza Guarani, como maestro, miembro del Proyecto

Marandd de reciente organizaci6n en la que estamos trabajando para

desarrollar los alcances de este proyecto, juntamente con el Departamento

de Asuntos Indigenas. Tenemos la esperanza de que con esta organizaci6n

mejorarla mAs la situaci6n de nuestros hermanos indigenas.

Nuestro objetivo es recuperar con titulo de propiedad, las tierras

de nuestros antepasados que han sido arrebatados de sus terrenos en la

6poca de las colonies y hacer respetar el derecho indigena. Desde mis

antepasados somos agricultores cazadores. Creemos que todas las

reuniones realizadas en distintos puntos de las Amdricas son fructlferas a

favor de los indlgenas.














IV. LAS CONCLUSIONS Y RECOMENDACIONES


IVa. PRESENTATION Y DISCUSSION EN SESSION ABIERTA

DEL 20 DE FEBRERO DE 1975


Abre la session el Presidente, Dr. Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Vamos a abrir esta session que practicamente [es] la session

de trabajo del Itimo dia [de este Congreso]. Vamos a presenter en

esta oportunidad las conclusions y recomendaciones a que hemos

llegado los indlgenas de Latinoamerica y con colaboracion con los

indIgenas de los Estados Unidos. Tambien nosotros estamos muy

agradecidos por la atingencia y colaboracion de los asistentes que

han contribuido al feliz termino de estas conclusions. Hemos

llegado a estas conclusions despues de haber conversado cada uno

de nosotros nuestras inquietudes, nuestros problems. En estas

conclusions y recomendaciones que hemos sacado solamente estan

plasmados todas nuestras inquietudes, nuestros problems. Las

conversaciones entire todos los grupos, entire todos los asistentes,

entire todos los delegados de Latinoamerica y de Estados Unidos

han sido bastante arduas, quiere decir no escabrosas, sino que

cada uno nos hemos querido comunicar nuestros problems. Efectiva-

mente, se ha llegado a entender de que los problems son bastante

similares; efectivamente, el indio Latinoamericano asi como el

indio Norteamericano tiene y se aqueja de los mismos problems.












Desde luego, francamente, en forma personal, y quizas tambien mi

grupo y los mismos congresistas, estamos muy agradecidos de esta

oportunidad que nos ha brindado el Centro de Estudios Latinoameri-

canos de la Universidad de la Florida, para conocernos en primer

lugar, para entendernos luego, y posteriormente organizarnos en

forma fuerte, para pedir que tambien los indigenas seamos tratados

como humans. Quizas muchos de nosotros estamos aqul en ciertos

estratos desde el punto de vista cultural, pero eso no ha dejado

que nosotros dejemos de ser indigenas. Seguimos siendo siempre

indigenas. Tengo la sangre siempre indfgena, y con esa sangre

indfgena he de morir.

Setiores congresistas, en esta mahlana vamos a abocarnos a

un pequefo program despues de este pequeno quizas mal hilvanado

preambulo, a discutir las conclusions y recomendaciones. Vamos

a poner en mano de los observadores y de todos nosotros las

conclusions a que hemos llegado.

Tambien sugerimos a los congresistas, no solamente podemos

expresarnos en Castellano porque ya la discussion hemos realizado

en ese idioma porque efectivamente casi es una lengua que nos

engloba, pero cada uno tenemos nuestros idiomas. Algunos pueden

expresarse con sus propios idiomas y si no hay traductor, que

traduzca el mismo que se ha expresado en su idioma. Les invito.

[Nota: Hubo intervenciones en 13 de las 20 lenguas representadas.

Hasta donde hemos podido transcribirlas, se encuentran en las

secciones donde correspondent; en otros casos solo las traducciones

hemos podido usar, por carecer de quien nos las transcriban.]












Senores congresistas y Srs. observadores, estas son las

conclusions y las recomendaciones a que se ha llegado en estos

4 dias de trabajo los congresistas Latinoamericanos y los indios

Norteamericanos.

Intervencion de Yapita, Aymara, Bolivia:

Como ustedes podran ver, estas conclusions resume todo

lo que se ha discutido en los cinco o seis dias.

Intervencion de la relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

Doy lectura a las conclusions para que sean analizadas

y discutidas y tomaremos en cuenta [los comentarios].

Los indigenas de America, reunidos en el XXV Con-
greso Anual sobre Latinoamerica "Los Autoctonos Americanos
Opinan", con Sede en la Universidad de Florida, de la
Ciudad de Gainesville durante los dfas 17 al 22 de febrero
de 1975; hemos llegado a las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones
que mas adelante anotaremos. Con el mas profundo esplritu
indfgena que llevamos impregnado y sintiendonos mas unidos
que nunca estamos dispuestos a luchar por el bienestar de
nuestro pueblo indomito que ha sabido enfrentarse valero-
samente a las dificiles situaciones.

Pedimos a todos, que nuestras proposiciones sean
estudiadas, analizadas, atendidas y realizadas en cuanto
sea possible.

C 0 NCLUS IO NES :

1.- Que los Indios de America no reciben una
Educacion adecuada a su Realidad Socio-
Cultural y como consecuencia sufren margina-
ciones.

2.- Que las lenguas aborngenes por ser en su mayoria
solo habladas y por pertenecer a cultures
dominadas son consideradas inferiores.










3.- El actual sistema socio-economico de los
indios Americanos que es basicamente de
subsistencia; se debe a la complete irres-
ponsabilidad de las classes gobernantes y
al ordenamiento socio-politico injusto.

4.- Los indigenas no participan conscientemente
en la vida political del sistema social que
los engloba.

5.- Es notoria la falta de unidad inter-etnica
que permit una conciencia de la situation
precaria en la que se encuentran.

6.- Que existen organismos de diverso tipo que
opera en los passes de Latinoamerica y en
los grupos indigenas que antes que elevar
el nivel human sirven mas bien como elemen-
tos del alienacion.


[Pregunta observador de que se entiende por elemento de

alienacion'.]


Intervention de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

La verdad es que en Latinoamerica existen organizaciones

especialmente de origen extranjero que bajo la intencion de ayudar

a los indfgenas, no se si conscientemente o inconscientemente,

tratan de cambiar los moldes de vida, tratan de introducir reali-

dades distintas a las cultures de los grupos etnicos; por tanto

nosotros aqui habiamos acordado que frente a esta situation los

gobiernos, si no que tambien nosotros como grupos etnicos, debemos

tomar conciencia de esta situation y tratar de evitar los efectos

que para nosotros son negatives.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Como consecuencia de estas conclusions, seiores delegados

y observadores, se han sacado las recomendaciones que se leeran

a continuation.











Intervencion de la Relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

1.- Legislar la enseganza en lengua materna, como
medio de educacion de acuerdo a las caracter-
isticas culturales de cada grupo etnico.

2.- Crear Institutos LingUlsticos indigenas de
character autonomo, dirigido por profesionales
nativos competentes en el ramo; igualmente
se recomienda la creacion de un Instituto
a Nivel Continental con fines de Promocion
y Coordinacion.


[Pregunta observador de que se entiende por 'profesionales

natives'.]


Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Voy a tomarme el derecho de contestar a esa pregunta tambien.

Nosotros en principio, la conclusion a la sugerencia esta que

nosotros hemos dado, esta basada en que los elements profesionales

que estan a cargo de la educationn" [comillas puestas por el orador]

de los indfgenas, siempre han sido foraneos, siempre han sido per-

sonas que no conocian las necesidades y las aspiraciones grupales

de los indigenas. Por tanto nosotros sugerimos que por lo menos

la direction de las actividades que se hagan en el campo educativo,

sea por profesionales, que sean personas con algun entrenamiento

professional y que no sean gente de afuera, es decir gente que no

pertenezcan a la cultural. Esto no quiere decir que no hagamos

una excepcion y que rechacemos tajantemente la intervention de

otra clase de personas, pero sf queremos que la direction de estas

instituciones este a cargo de indigenas que conozcan su realidad.


[Objecta observador si es que se refiere a education univer-

sitaria.]












Intervenci6n de Yapita, Aymara, Bolivia:

Entre los indigenas de America conocemos muy bien que hay

sistemas de educacion formal e informal. Entre los indLgenas,

a veces no tenemos necesidad de pisar a las universidades, pero

sin embargo tenemos en mente nuestras propias experiencias, de

nuestras propias comunidades. En este sentido, este punto engloba

a esos profesionales. Por ejemplo, vamos a decir, nos referiremos

a un tejedor de un pueblo; aquel sefor no ha ido a la universidad,

pero sabe combinar los colors en el tejido. Entonces esto se

valora, por ejemplo. Y, por otro lado, tenemos a una persona

que cura en la tradition. Seria medico, pero en el punto de vista

del que no habla nuestra lengua, le da un nombre medio despectivo

como curandero, pero para nosotros seria un medico. Entonces con

esto queremos decir que se valoran a ellos como a un professional;

para nosotros, para los campesinos son profesionales sin duda

alguna, con titulo o sin titulo, son profesionales. Esto se ha

discutido y estamos concientes de ello.


Pregunta observadora si existen ya Institutos Linguisticos

indigenas.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Existen ILCA (Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara) e INEL

(Instituto Nacional de Estudios Lingufsticos), que hable el

companero Yapita.












Intervencion de Yapita, Aymara, Bolivia:

En primer lugar, este primer contact ha sido muy valioso

para todos nosotros. En algunos pauses se ha hecho algo atraves

de los esfuerzos aunque propios. Voy a referirme a los hermanos

Aymara, que su representante que esta aca, hermano Vitaliano Huanca:

el dirige una Institucion que se llama COPLA (Comision para la

Promocion de la Lengua Aymara). Y por el estilo hay otro institute,

ILCA, el Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara. Las dos instituciones

estan dirigidas por Aymaras y para los Aymaras. Y posiblemente

tambien en algunos otros pauses tambien ya exista este tipo de

instituciones; y si no las hay, los que estan aqui presents van

a organizer y hacer marchar estas instituciones; pero por el

moment tenemos algunos.


Intervencion de Chacach, Cakchiquel, Guatemala:

Tambien queria decir algo similar. Soy parte de uno de

estos institutes, [el Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquln].

En el caso mlo estoy especializandome en la estructura de un

idioma, aun cuando no a un nivel de un linguista competent.


Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

En el caso de Panama, nosotros apenas hemos empezado con

estos programs de institutes linguisticos, entonces consider que

aun pudieran estar confusos respect a eso de los institutes

dirigidos por profesionales nativos. Entendemos que hay institutes

en los diferentes pauses que estan dirigidos por no-indigenas,











y entonces que se tome en consideration la participation de los

indigenas en estos programs. Luego dice, recomienda la creacion

y nosotros solicitamos un institute a nivel continental con fines

de promocion y coordinacion. Por supuesto que nosotros no tenemos

que dirigir a los organismos para que nos ayuden en la creacion

de este institute. No se si esta aclarada la duda.


Lectura de la Relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

3.- Incrementar el numero de Escuelas y Becas a
estudiantes indigenas para ambos sexos en
los distintos niveles educativos, de acuerdo
a sus propios requerimientos.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Vale la pena anotar que en su oportunidad anterior, esta

recomendacion suscito bastante polemica y fue bastante discutida,

que si ahora estan conformes con la modificacion.


[Un observador comenta de que las becas solo resolverian problems

individuals, porque las becas suelen concentrarse en las ciudades,

y lo que mas hace falta son mas escuelas en el campo.]


[Una observadora pregunta si pensaban en becas solo a nivel

superior o si pensaban incluir tambien becas para alumnos de

primaria o secundaria.]


Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

Nosotros acogemos las dos peticiones. Si bien es cierto

que pedimos mayor incremento de becas, es justamente porque no hay












muchas posibilidades para poder seguir estudiando; y la peticion

la entendemos en todos los niveles; ya sea primaries, secundarios,

superiores, normales, o universitarios y toda la gama de situaciones

educacionales y culturales que se vaya presentando. Ahora en

relacion a la sugerencia que present el observador por el Ecuador,

esta complementada, porque yo pregunto, Ique sacan los gobiernos

nacionales en seguir creando escuelas en todos los pauses, en todas

las regions, si van a estar manteniendo siempre un alto costo

para las matriculas de los alumnos? Es por esa razon que nosotros

estamos pidiendo becas. Es la sugerencia, creo, que nosotros tambien

la tenemos present, si bien es cierto que hay que pedir mayores

escuelas en todos los campos, tambien que se le de mayor incremento

[al numero de becas]. Porque ocurre muchas veces que los estudiantes

primarios solo alcanzan hasta tres alos de education. Y despues

no pueden seguir estudiando porque o los lapices son muy caros, o

las gomas son muy caras, los cuadernos, o los libros. Y muchas

veces, stores, tambien ocurre que los gobiernos nacionales ocupan

mayores presupuestos en construir caminos que en construir escuelas,

y ocurre muchas veces que se dan escuelas primarias infradotadas,

careciendo de lo mas mmnimo empezando con la simple tiza para

escribir. Por eso la sugerencia que present el observador por

el Ecuador esta perfectamente coordinada con este punto, y las

becas, nosotros la entendemos en todos los niveles educacionales.


[Observador sugiere que especifiquen lo entendido en papel, para

que nadie se olvide lo que si entienden los congresistas.]













Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

Entonces para la satisfaction del observador por el

Ecuador serla asl: incrementar el numero de escuelas y becas.

Seria abrir mas escuelas y no solamente becas. Es que result

que el problema es complejo, porque necesitamos tantas cosas,

verdad, porque este es un aspect: incrementar el numero de

becas para estudiantes indigenas para ambos sexos en los diferentes

niveles educativos de acuerdo a sus propios requerimientos porque

existen pauses que ni aun becas reciben. Ahora bien, habran algunos

pauses que tendran esta prioridad o en otros casos tengan las

facilidades; pero por otros pauses, a los indigenas ni les lleguen

becas. Por esta razon se ha solicitado incrementar el numero de

becas a los estudiantes indfgenas en los diferentes niveles:

primaria, secundaria, universitaria. La idea quedarna asi, "crear

mas escuelas, para indigenas", porque hay zonas indigenas que

necesitan escuelas tal vez.


[Observador observa que lo de becas normalmente implica que el

alumno vaya a estudiar en otra parte, que no en donde vive. Vuelve

a sugerir que pidan mas atencion al campo de por slJ


Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

Es decir, en cuanto a nosotros, en el asunto de las becas:

nosotros siempre solicitamos mas becas, y mas becas para que los

nitos aprendan en la escuela primaria, secundaria, y universitaria,

en este caso, en las escuelas indigenas, escuelas secundarias,













universidades, segun el sistema que haya en cada nacion.


Intervencion de Lopez Mar, Huasteco, Mexico:

Solo quisiera decir algo respect a las becas y las escuelas.

Un caso es el de Mexico. En Mexico se han abierto un sin-numero

de escuelas tecnologicas secundarias agropecuarias; secundarias

que son casi exclusivamente para la gente del campo, y es allif

entonces en donde se necesitan las becas para los indigenas que

estan estudiando en esas escuelas secundarias porque son elements

que van a trabajar en la misma region y porque no son elements

que van a trabajar en la ciudad. Ahora, hay que tender a las

necesidades de cada grupo indigena de acuerdo a los programs

educativos de su pals, y de acuerdo a lo que vayan a estudiar.

Porque si un indigena solicita beca para estudiar una carrera

universitaria que le pueda servir en su region hay que propor-

cionarsela. Pero, si hay personas que solicitan becas y son

indigenas y que sus miras son trabajar en la ciudad, no creo que

deben tener preferencias. Esa es mi sugerencia.


Intervencion de Matias, Aymara, Bolivia:

En estos moments tengo el honor y orgullo de saludarles,

a mis hermanos del simposio y a las sefioras y sefiores observadores.

Buenos dfas. Yo, representante de Bolivia, como mujer campesina,

de la organization centro de promocion campesina, Mink'a, voy a decir

unas cuantas palabras. En mi pals Bolivia existen tres regions:

Altiplano, Valle y Oriente. Yo, mujer Paceha del altiplano, tengo













mis actividades de trabajar con la mujer del campo: mis actividades

son la promocion social de la mujer campesina y entonces digo que

la mujer campesina de Bolivia es consciente, ella es consciente de

la razon por la que trabaja; sabe lo que hace; ella tiene su

fabrica. Yo diria que lo que hace falta es la tecnificacion y

coordinacion, que es lo que debemos hacer de hoy para adelante;

por eso lo que digo es que la mujer puede activar en cualquier

clase de actividad, puede participar en cualquier clase de pro-

blemas, y para resolver esta en condiciones, y digo yo, como mujer,

para hoy en dia, mujer y hombre tenemos que levantarnos para

salir de nuestros problems. Y entonces, por eso digo que educar

a la mujer es educar a today una generation. En el altiplano de

mi pals, la mujer esta sumamente al lado del hombre para ayudarlo,

como lo hicieron nuestros caudillos antepasados Bartolina Sisa

y Tupac Catari. [Ver Id.]


Lectura de la Relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

4.- En los Programas de Educacion Bilingue, el
Personal Docente debe ser indigena bilingie.

5.- En las Sedes de los Organismos del Ramo Edu-
cativo, en cuya jurisdiction exista poblacion
monolingue o con bilinguismo incipiente habra
personal especializado en Educacion Bilingue.


[Una observadora dice ver contradiction entire las recomendaciones

primera, cuarta, y quinta entire education impartida en lengua

materna, o en dos lenguas, y con personal bilingue indigena, o

monolingue no-indigena.]












Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Es decir, tenemos que partir desde dos puntos de vista.

El primero es el uso de la lengua materna para la enseflanza; y el

segundo se refiere a la sede de los organismos educativos, es

decir los Ministerios de Educacion o cualquier otra dependencia. Es

decir que en los sitios donde haya monolingaismo o bilingiismo

incipiente, supongamos en un departamento del Peru, por dar un

ejemplo, el Depto. de Ayacucho en donde existen monolingdes quechuas,

y bilingues en distinto nivel, deben existir en las oficinas de

los Ministerios de Educacion personal que esta enterado de los

asuntos de education bilingue. Son dos cosas distintas en defini-

tiva: en el primer punto se dice 'Legislar la ensenanza en lengua

materna de acuerdo a las caracterfsticas culturales de cada grupo

gtnico.' Es decir que las leyes deben favorecer que la ensefianza

sea usando la lengua materna: si la lengua materna es Espatol

que se les ensefle en Espahol, si la lengua materna es Quechua

que se les ensefle en Quechua y posteriormente se llegarg a una

castellanizacion. El punto numero cinco, no dice necesariamente

el uso de la lengua materna como instrument de education sino que

hace referencia a la administration; entonces se dice que en la

administration se debe tener en cuenta, que debe haber gente con

conocimientos de education bilingUe para que la institution march

pues en beneficio de los pueblos monolingu1es y bilingUes. No

hay contradiccion.












Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Pasemos entonces a la discussion del topico de la Economla

que comprende los puntos 6, 7, 8, y 9.


Lectura de la Relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

6.- Restituir las tierras usurpadas a las Comuni-
dades ind:genas y dotar y administrar paralela-
mente de implementos de trabajo, credits
necesarios y asistencia tecnica.

7.- Buscar promocion y mercadeo de los products
ind!genas que deben ser comercializados por
ellos mismos.

8.- Recomendar a los Poderes del Estado el apoyo
y fomento de cooperativas que puedan elevar
el nivel economic de los indIgenas.

9.- Capacitar a elements indigenas para que
participen en la planificacion y realizacion
de los Programas de Desarrollo Integral de
las Comunidades indigenas.


Referente a la sexta recomendacion, un observador pide

aclaracion de la palabra 'usurpada'.


Intervencion de Mashinguiashi, Shuara, Ecuador:

Voy a tratar de aclarar en lo possible, pero si el process

de aclaracion no esta entendido, pues creo que los hermanos haran

el uso de la palabra. Pues que desde el process de colonizacion

semidirigida en todo nivel en America Latina, hemos sentido y

vivido que el colonizador, utilizando todos medios de engano,

ha desalojado de sus tierras a todos los indigenas. Nos ha echado

de nuestros puestos que nos correspondlan como derecho inalienable












por asentamiento traditional, por el process hist6rico; entonces,

lo que se trata aquif con esto es que las tierras que fueron

en cierta manera quitadas por desalojo injusto, sean restituidas

mediante una legislation especial a los mismos indigenas; es

decir que en el process de Economia Politica en donde existen

hacendados y marginados por tierras, se les devuelvan estas

tierras y que se les relocalicen a los indigenas en las tierras

de sus origenes. Pues si hasta el moment han sido desechados,

pues hay que entregarlos sus tierras y acomodarlos como ellos

se lo merecen. No se si esta clara esta respuesta, si no,

un compatero podria ayudar a clarificarla.



Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

Para explicar la palabra usurpada: la palabra usurpada tiene

su significacion verdad; es robada, quitada a la fuerza una

tierra; entonces dice: restituir las tierras quitadas de las

tierras indigenas, restituir las tierras ocupadas a las comuni-

dades indigenas, y dotar: que quiere decir dar, implementos

de trabajo, credits necesarios y asistencia tecnica. Restituir:

volverlos rehabilitarles las tierras usurpadas a los indlgenas

ocupados por los colonos.


[Una observadora sugiere que se insist en administration por

los mismos indigenas.]


Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:


Yo sugiero y estoy de acuerdo en que se diga dotar y













administrar por los propios indIgenas paralelamente.


Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

Al decirse restituir las tierras usurpadas, quizas tambien

a mi me cae un poco de duda. Se dice usurpadas, bueno, en el

sentido literal: quitar. Pero yo agregaria aqui, perdonenme

sehores congresistas, usurpadas ilegalmente. Porque ocurre que,

en muchos casos, senores, que, muchas veces por engato, ocurre

que alguien compra tierra a indlgenas, y antes de ir al juzgado

o a la institution o a la notaria que va a hacer la entrega del

titulo y la marcacion de lI~ites, con un poquito mas de trago

pues, para emborrachar la mente del indigena, le agregan un poco

de tierras bajo guifo de ojo solamente, o un poco mas. En este

sentido yo hablo de usurpada ilegalmente, porque las tierras

ilegales, ya sabemos lo que ocurrio, a pesar de que muchos no

quieren reconocer, pero lo saben. En este sentido yo hablo de

usurpada ilegalmente o sea que todavia siguen usurpando, se

puede estar quitando tierra en forma totalmente illegal.


Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

En primer lugar, de hecho las usurpaciones son ilegales.

No existen usurpaciones legales. En segundo lugar, yo quisiera

tal vez intentar explicar un poco mas el significado de la palabra

usurpacion. Creo que todos mas o menos tenemos un concept de

lo que queremos decir, pero parece que aparentemente caemos,

digamos, en un peligro de atribuirle una extension demasiada












exagerada a la palabra. Pero en verdad, para responder a la pregunta;

si es necesario y si es possible restituir las tierras usurpadas.

Las tierras usurpadas deben ser devueltas.


[Un observador hace saber que en la epoca de la conquista las

usurpaciones si eran legales, segun las Leyes de Indias, donde

fueron codificadas, y que algunos pauses siguen regidos por esas

leyes hasta hoy.]


Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Es possible que el compaftero tenga razon, pero por lo

menos en cuanto al Peru las leyes que rigen la vida political y

economic del Peru son peruanas.


Intervencion de Mashinguiashi, Shuara, Ecuador:

Una sola pregunta a los companeros de America: Lcuantos

de los que estamos aqui, estamos regidos todavia por aquellas Leyes

de Indias? 40 es que cada cual estamos regidos por leyes de cada

uno de los pauses? Y creo que con esto aclarariamos, si hay

todavia pauses que estan regidos por aquellas Leyes de Indias, pues

naturalmente que tendriamos que ver la mayoria o la minoria para

poner en la discussion, si se incluye o no la palabra usurpacion

illegal, pues si la mayoria de los pauses estamos regidos por las

leyes de cado uno de los pauses, no tenemos porque tomar en

cuenta aquella ley que ya paso, casi de moda.












Intervencion de Montevilla, Aymara, Bolivia:

Bueno, respect a este punto, es important aclarar y

en especial, en primer lugar, quiero preguntar si esta palabra

usurpacion se refiere a nivel local o a nivel international o

alguna otra forma, para poder contestar, porque el concept mio,

como de Bolivia, voy a dar alguna idea de la palabra usurpacion.

En Bolivia nosotros decimos usurpacion en el campo indigena

o pueblo indigena. Realmente, antes, los campesinos tenfan de

.su origen todo complete, libre, de sus tierras. Despues de pasar

un tiempo, ha habido una dominacion, o quizas usurpacion como

hemos dicho, porque han venido gente de clase media, o sea,

personas capitalistas, que han venido al campo de los indigenas,

viendo que la tierra de sus comunidades o de su campo es rica, que

puede producer, y que, a traves de eso, puede enriquecerse, dejando

a un lado a la gente campesina que estaba produciendo, que estaba

trabajando libremente. Entonces se ha hecho dueno, y ha desalojado

a toda la gente, y les ha dicho "Bueno, yo pondre maquinaria y

cuantas cosas y ustedes me van a trabajar y yo les voy a pagar."

En este sentido la tierra se quedo en las manos de los que hoy

llamamos patron de la finca. En este sentido de la gente se que-

daron usurpadas sus tierras orlgenes. Ahora, despues de la revo-

lucion del ano 1952 en Bolivia, nosotros hemos tomado esa palabra

de restituir la tierra usurpada. Por el decreto de la Reforma

Agraria hemos desalojado a los patrons, ya sin derecho, solamente

un pedazo por lo que estaban trabajando hemos dejado una part.













Entonces se ha restituido esa tierra usurpada que era de ellos

mismos a los mismos ha devuelto. Hoy en dia estan trabajando

esas parcelas propias que nosotros consideramos tierras resti-

tuidas. Lo que era de los campesinos que nosotros consideramos

tierra usurpada a nivel de la comunidad y a nivel national se

ha restituido.


Intervencion de Yapita, Aymara, Bolivia:

Me parece que esta claro. La palabra usurpar me parece

que la entendemos todos los que estamos aca presents. La hemos

discutido y la hemos analizado antes de redactar este papel. Aca

la hemos explicado; aparentemente existen leves diferencias dialec-

tales. Si nos han usurpado, entonces la restitucion es lo que

hemos enfocado nosotros. La palabra esta clara segun mi concept,

como tambien ha explicado el hermano Montevilla. Y pienso que

al igual los demas la entienden en ese sentido.


Intervencion de Ottey, Guaymi, Panama:

Yo creo que de parte de nosotros estamos bien claro en

cuanto a los terminos. Pero quiero complementary lo dicho del

hermano Chileno, simplemente anadiendo usurpada ilegalmente.

Esto lo decimos nosotros porque uno de los compaheros descifro

las situaciones donde se emborracha al indio y por medios, una

u otra forma, se les usurpa ilegalmente. Pero si nosotros vamos

a pedir la restitucion de las tierras ya estarlamos pidiendo la

capital de Panama. Creo que con esto he dicho.












[Un observador comenta de que a veces los campesinos prefieren

tomar las tierras ellos mismos, ya no en la forma en que las da

la Reforma Agraria, y cuenta de una experiencia en la region de

Chimborazo del Ecuador donde los campesinos han tornado ellos mismos

las tierras. Afirma de que este modelo de accion direct esta

tomando bastante auge en esa region.]


Intervenci6n de Huamin, Wanka, Peru:

Relative a la recomendacion numero ocho, se podria recomendar

a los poderes del Estado el apoyo y fomento de cooperatives que

puedan elevar el nivel cultural, economic, y social de los indigenas.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

La decima recomendacion se refiere a la salud.


Lectura de la Relatora Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

10.- Exigir a los Gobiernos Nacionales e Institu-
ciones Internacionales una polftica de pre-
vision y bienestar social para el indigena
y campesino en general; y canalizarla a
traves de sus propias organizaciones.


pregunta una observadora si piden los congresistas control indigena

sobre los puestos medicos y otros servicios y/o personal medicos que

atiendan al indLgena.]


Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

No, lo que nosotros habiamos pedido, o estamos pidiendo

aqui es sencillamente no la presion al medico, sino una political











de prevision para el ind:gena. Es decir, que ocurre muchas veces,

yo pregunto aqui a los paises Americanos, LQue pauses en este moment

tienen una prevision para el anciano o para el niho indigena invalido,

aquel que no trabaja? Eso queria decir. Porque me parece que

ningun pals en este moment, no se si estare equivocado o no, ningun

pals Americano estara defendiendo o protegiendo aquel indigena o

aquel anciano que no trabaja, que esta mendigando. Eso es lo que

queria preguntar yo. Creo que el unico pals en el mundo que

defiende, que esta protegiendo al nifto desde que nace hasta el

anciano creo que es Suecia, si no me equivoco. Bueno, nosotros

como indigenas, es la idea que nosotros como Chilenos, vamos a

tratar de l1evar a cabo en nuestra patria: proteger integralmente

la vida del indlgena, de aquel indigena que no trabaja, que no

tiene ninguna prevision social. Eso es lo que nosotros estamos

haciendo aqu{, y lo queremos proyectar tambien al plano Latinoamericano.

No se si esta claro.


[Pregunta un observador sobre la canalizacion a cuales institu-

ciones se refiere.]


Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

La canalizacion irla practicamente a traves de los

respectivos ministerios que se esten preocupando, puede ser Salud

Publica, no se como estara organizado los sistemas de la adminis-

tracion political en cada pals, pero en el caso Chileno, nosotros

creemos que es el Ministerio de Educacion Publica, o de Salubridad.












Ahora, que esa plata vaya en beneficio, vaya directamente al

campesino y que no vaya a las instituciones burocraticas donde

van a tramitar un ahlo, dos atos y hasta cinco aflos, en pagar un

solo dia al anciano. Esa inquietud practicamente estarna depen-

diendo de los respectivos ministerios de cada pals.


Intervencion de Morales, Quichua, Ecuador:

Tal vez se puede aclarar un poco mas en este sentido la

frase correspondiente, 'canalizadas a traves de sus propias

organizaciones', querra decir que las programaciones, que los

proyectos que se tienen de salubridad dentro del campo indigena,

no sean impuestos por los intereses, aun asi sean nacionales o

internacionales. Es decir, que la programacion este hecha por

indlgenas, obedeciendo a las realidades y a las necesidades indi-

genas. Si hay alguna asistencia tecnica ajena al grupo, pues que

sea con la programacion con el indio y no para el indio porque

creemos que "para el indio" es un significado de "para el pobrecito

indio". Que decimos, las programaciones con el indio de acuerdo

a las necesidades del indio, con la coordinacion de las asistencias

tecnicas. No se si esta satisfecho o de lo contrario algun com-

pahero nos puede ayudan a complementary esto.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Vamos a pasar al topico de political. Tambien hemos debatido

bastante, y hemos sacado seis recomendaciones.













Lectura de la Relatora, Fajardo (Ipuana), Guajira, Colombia:

11.- Integracion de los grupos indigenas a la
realidad political national con respect de
los valores nativos.

12.- Creacion de mecanismos adecuados que permitan
que los grupos indigenas sean amparados por
la legislation existente, que en la mayoria
de los casos es buena pero inoperante para
los indigenas. En el caso de ausencia de
normas legales que garanticen la autonomia
y una vida digna al indigena, se exige la
introduction de dispositivos adecuados.

13.- Los gobiernos locales y nacionales deben
garantizar la participation de representan-
tes de organizaciones indigenas.

14.- Formacion de una organization interamericana
de indfgenas que coordine las actividades de
interest comun a los grupos nativos de todo
el continent Americano.

15.- En razon de la existencia de factors que
permiten burlar y desfigurar cualquier dis-
positivo bien intencionado, y con miras a
la superacion del estado de Dependencia y
Dominacion en que los pauses sub-desarrollados
se encuentran, se exige la transformation
structural political de nuestros pauses, se
va a luchar para una mayor participation de
los pueblos en el gobierno de los pueblos.

16.- Que los organismos pertinentes prevean la
preservacion de los valores culturales
autoctonos frente a las actividades de las
instituciones extranjeras.


[Un observador Ecuatoriano objeta la palabra 'integracion' por

entender que quiere decir que piden former parte de las mismas

estructuras de opresion.]












Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Bueno, que debo partir explicando, o creo que no es

necesario explicar que todos, los que nos hemos reunido aqui en

este congress, no somos especialistas en jurisprudencia o en

derecho o en political. Simplemente aqui hemos expresado los senti-

mientos que todos nosotros tenemos y que creemos que es positive

para nosotros. Para ir a la explicacion de este punto, "integracion

de los grupos indfgenas a la realidad political national con res-

peto de los valores nativos", pensamos en principio que los grupos

indigenas no podemos vivir aislados como republicas independientes

dentro de otras repiblicas. Creemos nosotros, o particularmente

yo pienso, que los grupos indigenas deben integrarse a la vida

political y economic de cada una de las naciones, pero esa inte-

gracion debe hacerse como se dice aqui, con respeto de la autonomia,

es decir, que debe haber en las naciones un juego unitario en

cuanto a political y economia, etc., pero con respeto individual a

las realidades y a la cultural etnica. Este era el sentido de este

dispositivo. No se hasta que punto mis palabras explican la pre-

gunta que ha hecho el compaiero.


[El observador Ecuatoriano explica no estar conforme porque en el

gobierno de Ecuador la orientacion de la education es humanIstica,

y el enunciado en favor de la integracion parece chocar con las

reales aspiraciones de los indfgenas, pero no insisted por no abrir

polemica.]












Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

Quisiera preguntarle al observador de Ecuador si su

pregunta 11eva la intencion de, ya que estamos aqui nosotros,

cuando el piensa de que le preocupa bastante la integracion;

piensa el que nosotros vamos al hablar de integracion Lvamos

a former un Estado dentro de otro Estado?


[Contesta el observador Ecuatoriana de que esa no era su inten-

ci6n; que solo pone reparos en la palabra 'integracion' por

entenderse peyorativamente dentro del Castellano.]


[Interviene observadora Mexicana para indicar que tambien en

Mexico se consider con mal sentido la palabra 'integracion',

que es volverse como todos los demas perdiendo todas las

caracteristicas propias. Sugiere mas bien participationn de

los grupos indigenas en la political national en igualdad de

condiciones y procurando o luchando por el respeto de sus

valores nativos".]


Intervencion de Mashinguiashi, Shuara, Ecuador:

Tal vez creo que estamos confundiendonos en el sentido y

significado de la palabra. Creo que los indigenas aquf reunidos

entendemos por integracion, no la absorcion que hasta el moment

se ha credo, sino que el respeto de cada uno de los grupos, es

decir en tanto la sociedad dominant tiene que respetar las

caracteristicas peculiares y dignidad de cada grupo, esto es













una verdadera y autentica integracion, complementarse en cuanto

es bueno y ayudarlos en un process de participation bien definida,

no absorcion total de un grupo dominant hacia la minorla.


Intervencion de Sol-s, Cuna, Panama:

Yo creo que en el aspect este no vamos a una discussion

pues, sino que se recoja el sentido de lo que nosotros sentimos.

Yo creo que lo U~nico que estamos aqui haciendo es el format

o la sintaxis y que no se pierda el sentido. Ahora en mi pals,

nosotros estamos luchando por usar la palabra participation.

Tal vez ustedes y otros hermanos mlos usan la integracion, pero

nosotros estamos usando participation, es decir, yo no puedo

integrarme a ciegas, sino que voy a participar. Asi que solamente

yo quisiera que se arreglara el sentido, que no se cambie el

sentido, ya mis compaTeros se han explicado que sentido tiene

esto, que el indigena, verdad, participe a la realidad political

national.


[Observador Guatemalteco observa de que, al mirar recomendaciones

11 y 13, que la 13 contiene la 11 y que alli si se usa la palabra

participation.]


Intervencion de Guarchaj, Quiche, Guatemala:

Creo que convendria cambiar la palabra si en algunos

pauses no conviene usarla.












[Referente a la recomendacion numero 12 un observador objeta de

que deben ser amparados los invalidos, los incapaces, pero que

no los indfgenas, que son series, con toda capacidad. Sugiere que

se cambie la palabra por 'garantizados por la legislation'.]


[Referentes a las recomendaciones 11, 12, 13, otro observador

comenta de que son bastante imprecisas, que no se especifica

que se debe entender por "mecanismos adecuados", etc. Las con-

trasta con la recomendacion 14, que si es precisa. Dice que

se deja much al libre albedrfo de quienes las vayan a leer o

interpreter.]


[Otro observador secunda lo dicho con el recuento de un incident

ocurrido en el Ecuador donde negaron autoridad a un older campesino

indigena por el solo hecho de que no sabla escribir a maquina.

Recalca de que lo que se busca es el poder y que hay que ser

concrete en cuanto a como se puede conseguir ese poder.]


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Seqores delegados y observadores, se ha tomado debida nota

de las recomendaciones 11, 12, y 13 para su modificacion y para

ser presentadas nuevamente a consideration de los congresistas

muy proximamente.


[Relativo a la recomendacion 14, un observador sugiere que se

forme de inmediato la organizacion mientras todos esten reunidos,

tomando en cuenta las grades dificultades que puedan surgir

para que se realice otra reunion de este tipo.]













Intervenci6n de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Para responder a esa inquietud, en principio debo recordarles

a todos ustedes la naturaleza de esta reunion. No se si algunas

delegaciones aqui traen la representation de los gobiernos; lo

dudo. Todos nosotros traemos aquf la representation de nuestras

comunidades que, debido al arreglo structural politico de

nuestros pauses, no tenemos much poder de decision. Por tanto

seria muy dificil en principio decirles en este moment la forma,

el modo, el dinero que vamos a usar para tratar de plasmar esta

inquietud. En verdad, en mi concept, muy personalmente, debo

decirle, que en general todas estas sugerencias, todas estas

conclusions son inquietudes, son inquietudes que posiblemente

nos van a llevar a meditar y a tratar de lograrlas por algun medio.

Pero, en este moment no creo que exista alguna persona o algun

delegado que diga "bueno, hemos pensado que tal gobierno nos

va a auspiciar y que vamos a hacer esta reunion en el proximo ato",

o cosas practices como estas, lo dudo. Sin embargo, creo que

aqui ya han habido algunas personas que me han antecedido en la

palabra y han hecho mencion que en ciertas naciones, por ejemplo

Bolivia, e incluso el Peru, ya existen organismos que estLn

tratando de canalizar todas estas actividades. Entonces pienso

que estos organismos en estos pauses pueden ser el punto de partida.

Cuando nosotros regresemos a nuestros pauses con esta inquietud

que nosotros llevamos de aqui, con el cambio de ideas que hemos

tenido entire todos nosotros, es muy possible que nosotros, parti-













cularmente yo en el Peru, y el sehor Yapita en Bolivia, o que

se yo, podran canalizar nuestras actividades hacia la consecu-

cion de esta inquietud. Creo que eso es todo lo que yo puedo

decirles en respuesta a esa pregunta.


[Un observador comenta de que la organization tendra que confron-

tarse con los problems de los muchos idiomas que se hablan en

Latinoamerica, tanto indigenas como Europeos, y tambien comenta

de las barreras culturales, no solo entire distintas cultures, sino

tambien las diferencias existentes entire los grupos indigenas

de cultures campesinas y los de cultures tribales.)


Intervencion de Sol-s, Cuna, Panama:

En relacion al punto 14 dice "formacion de una organization

interamericana de indigenas que coordine las actividades de intereses

comunes a los grupos nativos de todo el continent Americano".

Panama entiende en esta forma: nosotros tuvimos la oportunidad

de congregarnos con diferentes hermanos de America. Nuestra

position, de Panama, es seguir fomentando esto, y a ver como se

puede consolidar esa organization interamericana de indigenas.

Naturalmente ese es un paso; yo entiendo que ese espiritu

resuelto en former una organization interamericana de indigenas

que coordine las actividades de los indigenas hermanos aqul,

cada vez que cuando tengamos la oportunidad vayamos enlazando,

coordinando, que tuvieramos comunicaciones para ver como formamos

una organization interamericana.












Intervencion de Mashinguiashi, Shuara, Ecuador

[Referente a la recomendacion 15 'exige la transformation

polltica'.] Bueno, nosotros sabemos que todos los pauses sub-

desarrollados estamos bajo el mando de una estructura political

guiada por cierta ideologia; entonces nosotros no vamos a conten-

tarnos con solo exigir sino que tenemos que luchar por esa

transformation structural. Si yo soy, por ejemplo, jefe

guiado con una political, pero si es contra mis intereses, nunca

voy a permitir que me saquen, que me bajen. Entonces, el enemigo,

si quiere luchar, tiene que ir de la base luchando, no exigiendo.

Tenemos que luchar para cambiar la estructura political, para un

cambio profundo, para una sociedad equitativa y just.


[Comenta un observador que, referente a la decimosexta, que a

veces organizaciones nacionales se portan como las internacionales.]


Intervenci6n de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

Cuando queremos decir extranjeras, decimos extranjeras

a las comunidades.


[Observador comenta de que parece que el numero 15 expresa ya

el contenido de 11, 12, y 13.]


Intervencion de Soto, Ayacuchano, Peru:

[Relativo al punto no. 15.]

En verdad para mi podria resumirse toda la sugerencia

y todas las conclusions en el punto no. 15, porque ya aqui












hemos recibido preguntas de como se van a hacer, de como se van

a efectivizar y de como se van a llevar a cabo todas nuestras

sugerencias y tambien me permit recordarles que yo ya he mani-

festado que todas las inquietudes que nosotros tengamos, que todas

las aspiraciones que nosotros tengamos, nunca podran hacerse reales,

si es que en nuestros pauses no existe un cambio de estructuras,

economics, political, y sociales. Por tanto creo que la

operativizacion de todas las inquietudes que nosotros hemos

listado aquf tienen sentido unicamente en un context de trans-

formacion general de nuestros pauses, y en un cambio de actitud

del cual nosotros debemos tomar conciencia, y que cuando nosotros

regresemos veamos la forma de que esto pueda lograrse.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Ha llegado a la mesa una sugerencia al respect de 11, 12,

y 13, y que dice:

Participacion active de los grupos indigenas
en la realidad political national, con respect a
los valores nativos, para lograr el cumplimiento
de la legislation existente, que, en la mayoria
de los casos, es buena, pero inoperante; en el
caso de ausencia de normas legales que garanticen
la dignidad del indigena, exigir se legisle en
ese sentido con la participation de representantes
de organizaciones indigenas autenticas.

Esta es la colaboracion para resumir estos tres puntos por parte

del observador Ecuatoriano.


Intervencion de Lopez Mar, Huasteco, Mexico:

Esta recomendacion, recuerdo muy bien, se hizo porque

hubo una conclusion que, por ejemplo en Mexico, se dice que el













indigena dicen los politicos esta maduro para la political.

En realidad, el indigena no actua conscientemente en la political;

no sabe; es engahado constantemente por los que se consideran

lideres alla. Yo quiero dar con eso un ejemplo sobre que nos

basamos para sacar esa recomendacion. Generalmente cuando llega

la epoca de las elecciones, al indigena se le acostumbra mandarle

obsequios. Les mandan molinos, les mandan ropas, etc. Muchas

cosas les mandan icon que objeto? inicamente con que el candidate

pues tenga la simpatia y le otorguen el voto, y con base a este

enunciado se saco esa recomendacion, no se si con esa idea, mas

o menos. Por eso podria ser como sugirio el observador aquel

que es la participation active o consciente, conscientemente a

la realidad political national, con respect a los valores nativos.


Intervencion de Solls, Cuna, Panama:

En cuanto a la propuesta del observador, quisiera preguntar

a los delegados si estan de acuerdo con esa fusion de 11, 12, y

13 recomendaciones; me parece que nosotros hablamos, o yo personal-

mente solicited que solo alteraramos una coma o la sintaxis en esas

recomendaciones.


[El observador Ecuatoriano dice que no se permitio modificar,

sino solo solidificar.]












Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

Exactamente Sr. President, yo me pongo a solicitar a los

delegados para que se de ese voto de confianza para entonces

formalizarlo.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Pedimos la opinion de los representantes indIgenas de las

Americas, o sea los congresistas, al respect, si aceptamos esta

mocion presentada.


Intervencion de Verona, Cakchiquel, Guatemala:

Senor Presidente, en primer lugar quisiera agradecer a todas

las personas que ahorita nos estan observando y han dado su aporte.

inicamente quisiera sugerir a la directive de este seminario para

que se tome en cuenta la sugerencia ya por escrito y verbal, y

que en una forma conjunta los resolvamos nosotros los congresis-

tas si es convenient o no, pero no aqui en este moment.


Intervencion de Santa Cruz, Chulupf, Paraguay:

Yo queria hacer tambien una pregunta con respect a eso.

En mi pals por ejemplo, es la participation del indfgena, par-

ticipacion digo porque para mi pafs no es segun, no es obliga-

torio para los indfgenas hacer sus servicios militares, volun-

tarios si, pero en ese caso me pregunto Les obligatorio para

los indigenas para la votacion o sea para la election del go-

bierno?













Intervencion de Huaman, Wanka, Peru:

[Esta de acuerdo con la mocion.]


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Entonces yo creo que la mayor parte de los concurrentes

estan de acuerdo que esto se tome en cuento. Entonces de acuerdo

con el delegado por Guatemala, se avoque a redactar o a tener

en cuenta este respect.

Con esto hemos dado termino a la discussion de las recomen-

daciones. Solo hay en mente y en el ambiehte, la idea de que

cuando se podrfa llevar a cabo, bueno, en un future proximo, una

reunion semejante a la que se ha realizado en esta oportunidad;

es una pregunta que quizas la podemos ir mas o menos madurando.


[En una reunion realizada la noche del 20 de febrero, antes del

banquet official, las conclusions y recomendaciones finales

fueron aceptadas por los congresistas, tal cual se encuentran al

principio de este libro. -Nota de la editora]















IVb. CONCLUSIONES Y RECOMENDACIONES: DIFUSI6N PROYECTADA


Una de las mayores preocupaciones tanto de los congresistas

como de los observadores era la de la publication y difusion de

las conclusions y recomendaciones. A continuacion presentamos

las promesas, sugerencias, y compromises al respect.


Intervencion de Estanislao Lopez, Cuna, Panama:

Original en Cuna; traduccion por Solis:

Hermanos de America, estamos aqui reunidos, yo estoy como si

estuviera sofando y cuando llego a mi tierra de nuevo, todos los

movimientos que hayan pasado aqui, voy a informar a un congress

general de los indios Cuna de Panama. Tal vez nosotros los indios

panamehos, especialmente [los Cuna de] San Blas, gozamos de una

suerte de la naturaleza porque se encuentra por alli el Canal de

Panama, que pasan toda clase de personas de otras parties del mundo.

Por lo tanto, nosotros, para no cansarles, tendremos un informed

parcial escrito para dejarnos aqui a los amigos Americanos y para

los amigos indigenas que estamos aquf reunidos. Tan pronto como

lleguemos a nuestro pals, vamos a dar un informed final a su excelen-

tfsimo Presidente de la Republica, Doctor Basilio Lajas, y al

general Omar Torrijos, todos los acuerdos, todos los incidents

habidos en esta reunion. Por lo tanto, solicit a Dios todopoderoso

que estas conclusions y recomendaciones sean puestas en realidad

a todos nosotros. Y no crean que nosotros no tengamos problems,











sino que nuestros problems son similares; claro que naturalmente

en diferente escala; por lo tanto yo les dejo aqui un recuerdo

saludo de todos los indios Cunas Panamefios.


Intervencion de Matias, Aymara, Bolivia:

...Entonces, en cuanto vuelva yo, tendre que presentarles

[a toda mi comunidad Aymara]en honor de haber asistido a este

encuentro de lIderes indigenas, a informarles todo lo que hemos

podido intercambiar ideas en este simposio de lideres indigenas.

Nada mas podria decir en este moment.


[Pregunta un observador acerca de los planes que tuvieran para

la publication de las conclusions y recomendaciones y para

hacerlas saber ante los diferentes gobiernos, locales, nacionales,

e internacionales.]


Intervencion de Yapita, Aymara, Bolivia:

Cada uno de los representantes de los diferentes pauses

llevara este document, quienes se encargaran de distribuirlo

en la prensa de cada pals, ya sea prensa escrita u oral. Esa es

la forma que se ha pensado. Aparte de eso esperamos que las

conclusions, que los organizadores tienen grabadas [juntamente

con las discusiones], posiblemente en el posterior nos sirvan para

poder atiadir o implementar el mejor entendimiento a nuestras

conclusions. Como decia, la publication se hara en cada pals;

entonces cada representante de cada pars llevara copias suficientes

para distribuir a diferentes departamentos o mandar a la prensa,

y para eso posiblemente vamos a pedir la colaboracion a los











organizadores para que nos dieran mas copias, a fin de que

podamos disponer de lo suficiente. No se si los companeros

quieran agregar algo.


Intervencion de Chavez, Quichua, Ecuador:

Solamente para complementary pues, el compromise de cada

una de las delegaciones indigenas de cada pals y de cada uno de

los grupos, esta precisamente en divulgar estas conclusions a

nivel Latinoamericano e international; y de ser possible a otros

pauses europeos mediante publicaciones u organos de difusion que

tenemos cada cual los que las tenemos; y los que no las tenemos,

tendriamos que estar obligados a arrimarnos o apoyarnos en alguien,

para que estas ideas no se queden solamente en grabaciones y papeles,

ya sea aqul o en cada uno de nuestros pauses o en cada uno de los

subgrupos en que venimos delegados. Es decir que el compromise

individual y colectivo de toda Latinoamerica y America es difundir

empezando desde los idiomas maternos vernaculos, hasta en otros

idiomas para que esto sea conocido a todos los niveles. Gracias.


Intervencion de Lopez Mar, Hausteco, Mexico:

Despues de haber escuchado las palabras del compatiero y del

observador que me antecedieron: nosotros hemos concluido los pro-

blemas que tenemos en cada una de las regions indfgenas de las

cuales venimos; ademas de las conclusions, tenemos recomendaciones

escritas y que creo son mas que las conclusions. Unicamente

quisiera enterarme, para que asi los companieros que est n reunidos

aqui sepan, que organismos, o quienes son las personas indicadas

que nos van a proporcionar esas ayudas que estamos solicitando












por medio de las recomendaciones. Esa es una de mis preguntas:

Lquienes son aquellas personas quienes se van a encargar de esa

tarea en lo posterior? Claro, nosotros vamos a difundir todas

esas noticias que vamos a ilevar de aqui en cada una de nuestras

regions indigenas, pero no creo que con eso es suficiente; si

es muy bueno. No vamos a estar todo el tiempo esperando y para

eso quisiera saber, quienes son, o si es el mismo Centro de Estudios

Latinoamericanos, o quienes.


Intervencion de Solis, Cuna, Panama:

En cuanto a Panama, en relacion a la pregunta de como hemos

pensado para publicar todos estos documents, yo solicitaria aqui

al pleno que se diera un voto de confianza al Centro de Estudios

Latinoamericanos por intermedio de una aprobacion para que ellos

manden estos documents a diferentes organizaciones internacionales,

como la OEA, la ONU y otras instituciones. Ahora, en particular

de Panama, nosotros hemos traldo aqui unos aparatos y tan pronto

cuando liegamos a Panama, vamos a presentar al Gobierno Nacional

todos los documents pertinentes a este simposio y luego nosotros

tambien tenemos el program en Canal 4 de Panama; tambien tenemos

algunas columns en las prensas como "La Estrella de Panama", y

"Matutino Hispanoamerico". Por todas estas difusiones vamos a

bacer public toda la situation de las intervenciones que hubo

aquf. Eso en particular en cuanto a Panama.


Palabras del Presidente, Bautista, Jaqaru, Peru:

Hay una proposition del delegado de Panama que se le de












un voto de aplauso al Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos por

la Organizacion de este Congreso y ademas sugiere que por

intermedio de este Centro tambien se puede hacer la publication

de estas Conclusiones y Recomendaciones. Senores congresistas

indigenas, la proposition de Panama. [Es aceptada.]


Intervencion de Shajian, Aguaruna, Peru:

Tengo informaciones as de algunos amigos de Norteamerica,

y me refiero a los indios de Norteamerica, que tienen fundaciones

indigenas para la promocion aqul en Norteamerica. No se,

pregunto a los hermanos de Norteamerica, si podrian apoyar en algo.


Intervencion de Curihuinca, Mapuche, Chile:

Hay una institution en Mexico que esta editando una revista;

la revista se llama AMERICA INDIGENA. Pregunto a los selores

asistentes si esa revista, dirigida por el senor Rubio, no

podrfa publicar tambien las conclusions y recomendaciones, y

asi dar mayor posibilidad de comunicacion para que lleguen a

los palfses Americanos.


Intervencion de Lopez Mar, Huasteco, Mexico:

Desde luego que no estamos tan bien relacionados con estas

instituciones porque apenas estamos recien integrando grupos

para poder presentar nuestras demands y relacionarnos [con estas

entidades], en fin, para tener mas apoyo. Sin embargo, estamos

enterados de estas instituciones y pensamos que una vez que














lleguemos a Mexico, nos relacionaremos con esta institution

international y no dudo que, pues, nos apoyen en este sentido,

pues, para que se publiquen precisamente los acuerdos a que

hemos "legado.


[La Dra. Arana vda. de Swadesh intervene para comprometerse

a hacer todo lo possible, directamente con el director de la

revista America Indigena, el Seior Gonzalo Rubio, para lograr

la publication de las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones.]


[La Bibliotecaria de la Coleccion Latinoamericana de la Biblioteca

de la Universidad de la Florida apoya la sugerencia de que se

publiquen las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones en la Revista America

Indigena, por ser un organo official que represent los intereses

de los indigenistas, por tener buena circulacion,- y por tener

indice que le permit buena referencia en las bibliotecas. Tam-

bien hace recalcar la enorme importancia de bibliotecas para que,

una vez que la gente aprenda a leer, que no olviden, y que puedan

seguir desarrollando sus conocimientos. Habla en favor de bib-

liotecas escolares y de las comunidades, y sugiere que haya esfuerzos

hacia la creacion de estas bibliotecas, para hacer accessible a la

gente information, inclusive las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones.]


[Interviene el Dr. Carter para decir que, como Director del Centro

de Studios Latinoamericanos, habia recibido una solicitud de












la revista LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH REVIEW, una revista de inves-

tigaciones sociales sobre Latinoamerica publicada en EEUU en

ingles. Esta revista es el organo official de la Asociacion

de Estudios Latinoamericanos de los EEUU. Ser{a possible publicar

o una contribution pequelia, o si no, se pudiera dedicar un

numero entero al Congreso. Dice que el no podia contestar ni

si ni no, porque la decision de publicar en esa revista depend

de los congresistas, pero opina que es una oportunidad, porque

es la revista official de los que estudian profesionalmente los

problems latinoamericanos en los EEUU. [A su sugerencia no hubo

respuesta de parte de los congresistas.]













IVc. CONCLUSIONS Y RECOMENDACIONES: REALIZACION PROYECTADA


La otra mayor preocupacion, sobre todo de parte de los

congresistas, era la de la viabilizacion de las recomendaciones,

hacerlos efectivos, y no simplemente una declaracion en papel.

A continuacion estan las intervenciones al respect, los comentarios,

promesas, compromises, y sugerencias.


Intervencion de Subuyuj, Cakchiquel, Guatemala:

Quizas me voy a adelantar en hablar un poquito sobre todo

lo que he observado durante la semana. Companeros indigenas y

sefores observadores, quizas aqui hemos tratado muchos problems,

pero estos problems tampoco vamos a decir que los vamos a

solucionar inmediatamente; eso es impossible. Pero si, lo

unico, lo que yo quisiera, es que, a traves de nuestros obser-

vadores y de nosotros en cada uno de nuestros pauses, tambien

pensemos en los demas, y que, a traves de nuestros observadores,

eleven ellos un mensaje ante las altas autoridades que hay en

cada pals, y que, por medio de ellos, se nos apoye en las activi-

dades que nosotros querramos hacer, siempre de acuerdo a las

necesidades de cada pueblo. Muchas gracias.


Intervenci6n de Guarchaj, Quiche, Guatemala:

Senores congresistas y observadores de cada pals de

Latinoamerica, es para mi un gran placer que me hayan invitado













a asistir a este Congreso international, de los indlgenas de

cada pals de Latinoamerica. Lo que hemos hecho en este primer

simposio, claro que es el XXV [de esta Universidad], pero para

mnil es la primera vez que se realize en pro del indlgena Latinoameri-

cano. Es la oportunidad donde hemos intercambiado ideas [sobre los

problems] que nos aquejan en nuestras comunidades; quizas tenemos

el mismo problema. Pero a mi manera de pensar yo creo que en lo

future podemos ayudarnos nosotros mismos, porque a mi manera de

pensar, en cada pals yo creo que tenemos el mismo problema. No

vamos a esperar que nos vengan del cielo las ayudas, sino

que nosotros mismos tenemos que resolver nuestros problems

para powder llegar a los fines que queremos. Ahora doy una vez

mas mis agradecimientos a la Universidad de Florida por la

oportunidad que nos ha proporcionado. No se que problems

tuvieron para conseguir el financiamiento de todos nosotros de

los que estamos aqui frente a frente, pero sinceros agradecimien-

tos y gracias, que tal vez esta es la ralz que podemos comunicar-

nos mas para saber nuestros problems Latinoamericanos. Nada

mas quiero recalcar a los compaferos que ojalg que no [perdamos

la oportunidad], que este Congreso sea efectivo para inter-

comunicarnos mas. Tambien en cuanto[a] las conclusions, claro

que no podemos resolverlo en un espacio tan corto, o que sea

r pido, eso no, pero esta ralz de nuestro future [crecera].

Entonces queria expresar una vez mas mis agradecimientos a la

Universidad de Florida, y muchas gracias.













Intervencion de Chuquin, Quichua, Ecuador:

Setores congresistas, observadores, todos aquif en general,

tambien yo quiero pasar en alto el agradecimiento mas grande

que traigo en nombre de representation de mi pals Ecuador, y

al mismo tiempo agradecerles [a los organizadores de] este

grandiose Congreso en donde consistio, y vamos a terminar este

simposio, de un significado y un sfmbolo mas grande en toda

nuestra vida, que nunca ha existido y que por primera vez se

ha realizado. No queremos, y de mi parte personal, invoco a

todos los sefores congresistas, a los setores observadores, que

no dejemos asi, que sigamos realizando, que tengamos quiza una

oportunidad de uno de los passes Latinoamericanos, en uno de

los pauses andinos, en donde estamos mas situados nuestros

nativos, que realicemos [otro Congreso]. Tal vez el Dr. Bautista,

la Dra. Hardman, podria realizar asi algunos sugerimientos o

diligencias, para buscar el financiamiento, de otra vez, del

mismo tipo de Congreso, con los mismos fines o quizas con mas

experiencias de este Congreso.


Intervencion de Mashinguiashi, Shuara, Ecuador:

Por carecer de traductores pues tengo que hacer en lengua

official, aunque mal expresado en espaTol. Saludos a todos.

Solamente una pequeMa reflexion a consecuencia de toda esta

reunion durante una semana: una reunion [que] no signifique

solamente un encuentro flsico, una reunion que no signifique




Full Text

PAGE 1

-1AITI 2ountry Environmental ?rofi!e 4 Field Study BY Marko Ehrlich Fred Conway Nicsias Adrien Francis LeBeau Lawrence Lewis Herman Lauwerysen Ira Lowenthal Yaro Mayda Paul Paryski Glenn Smucker James Talbot Evelyn Wilcox USAID COI\'TRACT USAID Ehrlich No. 521-01224-00-4090-00 Cooperative Agreement USAID IIED NO. DAN-5517-A-00-2066-00

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Preface This Country Environmental Prolile (CEP) of Haiti is one of a series of environmental profiles funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), Office of Development Resources (DR), and the USAID Mission to Haiti. The scope of work for this in-country field study was developed jointly by James Talbot, USAID Regional Environmental Management Specialist (REMSICAR) and Robert Wilson, Assistant Agricultural Development Officer, USAID Mission to Haiti. Marko Ehrlich was contracted as the team leader and specialists were contracted through the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) to prepare sector reports during January 1985. Marko Ehrlich prepared the first draft of this synthesis and analysis of status of environment and natural resources in Haiti. James Talbot and Evelyn Wilcox prepared the final draft. CEP TEAM Marko Ehrlich Frederick Conway Nicolas Adrien Francis LeBeau Lawrence Lewis Herman Lauwerysen Yaro Mayda Team Leader, Natural Resources, B.P. 557, Port-au-Prince Coordinator for IIED, Washington, D.C. Engineer, Maplewood, New Jersey Agriculture, Crystal springs, Mississippi Geology and Hydrology, Clark University, Worcester Massachusetts Socio-cultural Resources, Bruxelles, Belgium Institutions and Legislation, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico Paul Paryski Wildlands and Wildlife, ISPAN, Port-au-Prince Evelyn Wilcox Marine and Ccastal Rewurces, Washington, D.C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This CEP was made possible by the contributions of numerous people in addition to ihe core field team. Throughout the editing process many individuals reviewed and contributed significant components to improve this study. James Talbot (Geology, Marinel Coastal), Glenn Smucker (Chapter VII), and Ira Lowenthal (Chapter VII) deserve special acknowledgement because their input was essential in strengthening specific sections of this report. Within the USAID Mission to Haiti, Ira Lowenthal, Richard Byess, Abdul Wahab and Barry Burnett provided constructive critisme to the Executive Summary. Special thanks is extended to the numerious Haitian government officials who have contributed information and valual-;e data and materials for the preparation of this report, especially M.R. Pierre-Louis, M. E. Magny M. Severin, M.G. Lafontant of the Ministry of Agriculture. M.G. Georges of the Ministry of Mines1Energy Resources, M. Pamphile of the Ministry of Health, and M. St. Albin and Mme. Pompilus of the Ministry of Plan. Representatives of the many int~tnational organisations such as FAO, UNICEF, PAHO, UNESCO, BID, FAC and PADF also contributed information and data and their contributions are hereby acknowledged. Finally, this study could not have been made possible without the effort of a cadre of typists during the various drafts, including Carole Metayer, Michelle ClCophat, and Sophia St. RCmy. Franz Kalil and Larry Fahey prepared the maps and figures contained in the report.

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This Profile Is Dedicated To The Haitian People Nou nan yon ti bouk pa trb lwen Pbtoprens. Bouk sa-a rele Fonrouj. Li gen yon probltm ki gro anpil: pa gen dlo. Pa gen dlo menm menm. Plant ap mouri, bbt ap mouri. Yon jou se moun ki ka mouri tou. Depi lontan lontan lapli pa tonbe. Tout bagay stk, tout bagay tris. Pet& se paske yo te koupe tout piebwa yo, men sa ou vle? Yo te bezwen bwa-a pou ft chabon, pou ft kay, lantiray, mbb. Epi yo te bezwen tt-a tou pou plante mayi, pou plante pwa, pou yo jwenn manje. Si yo pa travay t&-a, yo pap manje. "M2t Larouzk", Jacques Roumain (1907 1944) TRANSLATION FROM THE CREOLE: We are in a smal! iown not too far from Port-au-Prince. This town is caller! 8ond-Rouge. It has a very big problem: The:c7s no water, none at all. Plants and animals are dying: some day, people will die too. It hasn't rained for a long time. Everything is dry, everything is sad. Maybe it's because they cut all the trees; but what do you want? They needed the wood to make charcoal, to build homes and fences, to make furniture. And then, they needed the land to plant corn and beans, so they can have food. If they don't work the land, they won't eat. "Masters of the Dew", Jacques Roumain (19071944). K

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................... Preface 111 ................................................ Table sf Contents V List of figures ............................................. VIII List of tables ............................................... IX List of acronyms and abbreviations ................................... XI I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................... 1 .............................................. I1 INTRODUCTION 13 1 ..................................... A Geology and Physiography 13 ................................................ B Climate 16 ................................. C Economy 1 Economic Development 17 I11 LAND. WATER. AND FOREST RESOURCES ............................................. A Introduction 19 .......................................... B The land resource 19 .......................................... C The water resource 20 ........................................... Surface water 20 .......................................... Ground water 21 ............................... Availability of water for agriculture 22 ............................................. Irrigation 23 ............................................ Watersheds 24 ..................................... Watershed management 26 ......................................... D The forest resource 27 ............................................ Lifezones 28 .............................................. Trends 28 ............................................. Prospects 30 ................................. E Conclusions and recommendations 31 .............................. 1 Initiate land conservation strategies 31 ................................. 2 Focus on Cayes Basin region 32 3 Incorporate local participation in land-use projects .................... 32 IV AGRICULTURE ............................................. A Introduction 35 ..................................... B Agricultural uses of the land 35

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................................................ C Climate 39 D The structure of the agricultural sector ............................... 41 ............................... E Agricultural perspective on land tenure 44 .............................................. F Production 45 ................................... Technology and productivity 49 Research ............................................. 51 .................................... Use of agriculture inputs 53 ................................. G Conclusions and recommendations 55 V COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES ............................................. A Introduction 57 .......................................... B Coastal resources 57 Seagrass beds ........................................... 57 I Coral reefs ............................................ 57 ............................................ Mangroves 60 Coastal waters .......................................... 60 C Summary description of coastal areas ................................ 61 Fort-Libertt to M61e Saint-Nicolas ............................... 61 M61e Saint-Nicolas to Gonai'ves ................................. 61 Gonaives to Baie de Saint-Marc ................................. 62 Baie de Saint-Marc to Ile A Cabri ................................ 62 Ile A Cabri to Leogane ...................................... 62 Leogane to Jdrtmie ....................................... 62 Baradares to Les Cayemites ................................... 63 JCrkmie to Cap Tiburon ..................................... 63 Cap Tiburon to Port-Salut .................................... 63 Port-Salut to Baie d'Aquin .................................... 63 Baie d'Aquin to Anse-A-Pitre .................................. 63 La Gonave ............................................ 63 ......................................... D Uses of coastal areas 64 Marine and coastal fisheries ................................... 64 I Demersal species ......................................... 64 Shellfish species ......................................... 64 Pelagic species .......................................... 65 Ornamental reef fish ....................................... 65 Characteristics of fishing industry ................................ 65 Mariculture ........................................... -68 Conch cultivation ......................................... 68 Shrimp farming .......................................... 69 Brine shrimp harvesting ..................................... 69 Oyster culture .......................................... 69 Seaweed culture ......................................... 69 King crab cultr~re ......................................... 69 Fresh water fisheries ....................................... 69 Aquaculture ........................................... 70 .................................... Exotic species introduction 71 Seaports and coastal trade .................................... 71 E Endangered species and critical habitat ............................... 72 F Conclusions and recommendations .................................. 73 'I WILDLANDS CONSERVATION e. ............................................ A Introduction -77 B Flora of Haiti ............................................. 78 C Fauna of Haiti ............................................ ;. $79 Birds ............................................... 79 Mammals ............................................. 81 Reptiles .............................................. 81 D Threats to wildlife ........................................ -82 E Wildlife trade ............................................. 84

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F National parks ........................................... 84 La Visite National Park .................................... 84 ................................... Pic Macaya National Park 85 National historic park La Citadelle .............................. 85 G GOH protection of wildlife .................................... 85 H Conclusions and recommendations ................................ 86 VII THE PEASANTRY AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................ A Introduction 89 B From slave to peasant ....................................... 89 C Characteristics of the peasant farming system ........................... 90 Heterogeneity of the peasantry ................................ 90 Complex land tenure pattern .................................. 91 Giversity of farming strategies ................................. 91 Peasant access to land. labor and capital ........................... 91 1 MarketICash Orientation ............................. 92 I ............................. Increasing importance of annual crops 93 Avoidance of risk ....................................... 93 ....................... 7 Charcoal production and fuelwood consumption 93 Peasants. trees and agroforestry ................................ 83 D Relevant literature ......................................... 96 VIII WATER RESOURCES/SANITATION/AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ............................................ A Introduction 97 ................................ B Urban and Rural population trends 98 C Water resources .......................................... 100 Water supply .......................................... 100 Water quality .......................................... 100 Existing water supply system .................................. 101 Water supply trends and prospects ............................... 103 D Sanitation ............................................. 105 Human waste and the division of public hygiene ....................... 105 E Solid waste disposal ........................................ 106 F Stormwater drainage ........................................ 107 G Pollution .............................................. 108 H Conclusion and recommendation ................................. 109 ......................................... IX REFERENCES 110 X APPENDICES A Crop suitability zoning ....................................... 115 B Environmental legislation for Haiti ................................ 117 C Partial list of maps. aerial photographs. and Landsat imagery for Haiti ............. 120 VII

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LIST OF FIGURES ............................................. 1-1 Geopolitical map 2 ...................................... 11-1 General physiographic regions 14 ................................ 11-2 Generalized geologic map from OAS. 1972 15 ......................... 111-1 General rainfall pattern based on four selected localities 22 .................. 111-2 Water availability as a function of vegetative cover and river discharge 24 111-3 Aerial photograph taken in 1978 showing terrigenous sediment input to the marine environment .................................... from Riviere Roseau near J6rCmie 25 ....................... 111-4 River flow regimc in relation to hfiltration and through-flow 26 ................... 111-5 Remaining forest of Haiti: pine and broadleaf formations aggregated 29 ................................. 111-6 Deforestation trends in major watersheds 30 ............... 111-7 Buildingcontourdry-walls tocontrol erosion and retain moisture on hillsides 33 .................................... Map of agriculturally <
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LIST OF TABLES Principal catchment areas of Haiti ..................................... 20 Hydroelectric potential of Haiti ...................................... 21 Groundwater potentials for 22 selected areas ............................... 22 Monthly moisture availability index for selected stations ........................... 23 Irrigation needs based on MA1 index ................................... 23 River discharges ............................................. 27 Forest cover by major watersheds ..................................... 28 Estimated number-year dense and open forest is totally removed for each river basin ........... 31 IV-1 Distribution of land by use potential .................................... 36 IV-2 Agricultural land use in Haiti ....................................... 37 IV-3 Distribution of good agricultural lands ................................... 37 ............................ IV-4 Criteria used to determine good agricultural lands 39 IV-5 Occupation of land by use categories ................................... 40 IV-6 Occupatiorr of land in relation to topography ................................ 41 IV-7 Number of plots per farm and size of plots ................................. 42 .............................. IV-8 Summary statistics on agriculturd holdings 1971 43 IV-9 Haiti: Total area. cultivated area and population density. 1982 ...................... 43 IV-10 Land tenure in 1950 ............................................ 4 IV-I1 Landtenurein1970 ............................................ 4 IV-12 Production. area and yields of principal crops by regions in 1979 ...................... 48 IV-13 The value of production of certain agricultural commodities for 1979 ................... 49 IV-14 Distribution of Agricultural tools by farm size ............................. 50 .................. IV-15 Constraints to agricultural development in Haiti: a tentative ranking 51 ...... IV-16 Actual crop yields with traditional practices and expected crop yields with irrigation 51 and appropriate technology (Dubreuil) ................................. 52 ............................... IV-17 Adoption of improved technology by farmers 53 List of major mangrove swamps in Haiti ................................. 59 .......................... Extracts of the November 27. 1978 fishing law of Haiti 60 Estimate of total fish consumption in Haiti ............................... 64 Estimate of fisheries productivity ..................................... 64 ..................................... Haiti's trade in marine fisheries 64 Export in kilograms. in % of shell fish ................................... 65 Haiti Fisheries exports to the United States ................................ 66 .............................. Anse d'Hainault: Results of fishing by 7 boats 67 .......................................... Fish prices in June 1983 68 .................................... Native fish fauna of Etang Saumitre 70

PAGE 9

V-11 Distribution of fish; constructionofponds; stocking of ponds; lakes and rivers ............... 70 ................................................ V-12 Exotic fish 71 VI-1 List of plant species in danger of disappearance and in need of protection ................. 79 VI-2 Endemic land birds found in Haiti ..................................... 80 VI-3 List of animals in danger of disappearance and in need of protection .................... 83 VIII-1 Population estimates and projections .................................... 98 VIII-2 Some reported cases of water-related diseases in 1980 .......................... 100 VIII-3 Summary of existing and proposed water supply systems ........................ 102

PAGE 10

List of Acronyms and ~breviations AOP Agroforestry Outreach Project (USAID). ASSA Agricultural Services, S. A. BCA Bureau de CrCdit Agricole BID Banque InteramCricainc de DCvelopperncnt CAMEP Centrale Autonome Mdtropolitainc d'Eau Potable. CARE Cooperative for American Rclicf Everywhere. CEP Country Environmental Profile (Haiti). CEPAL Comision Economica para America Latina. cm Centimeters cmlhr Centimeters per hour. CIDA Canadian Agency for Inernational Development CONADE Conseil National de I'Eau. CONADEP Conseil National de DCveloppement et de Planification. CONAELE Conseil National de I'Environnement et de la Lutte contre I'Erosion. CRDA Center for Research and Agricultural Documentation CIMMYT Ccntro International de Mejoramiento de Maizc y de Trigo. DATPE Direction d'AmCnagement du Territoire ct Protection de I'Environnement (Ministry of Plan). DEP DCpartement dlEducation Publique (Ministry of Education) DHP Direction de I'Hygihe Publiquc. DRI Dkveloppement Rural Intbgrd DRN Direction des Ressources Naturelles (MARNDR) DSPP DCpartement de la Santk Publique et de la Population EDH ElectricitC d'Haiti EI A Environmental Impact Assessment ENAOL Entreprise Nationale des Oldagineux. FAC Fonds d' Aide et de CoopCration (France) FAMV FacultC d'Agronomie et de MCdecine VktCrinaire. FA0 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. FSR Farming Systems Research FY Fiscal Year PIB Produit IntCrieur Brut GDP Gross Domestic Product GJW G.J. White (Engineering Firm) GOH Government of Haiti ha Hectares (2.47 acres) HACHO Haitian American Community Help Organization HAMPCO Haitian American Meat and Produce Company. HASCO Haitian American Sugar Company HAVITAS Swiss International Cooperation Agency IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Bank IDB Interamerican Development Bank IICA lnstituto Interamericano de Cooperation para la Agrioultura IHS Institut Haitien destatistiques Btd'Informatique. IMF International Monetary Fund. INAHCA Institut National Haitien de la Culture et des Arts. INAREM Institut National des Ressources Energdtiques et des Mines ISPAN Institut de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National. IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Nautural Resources KFW Agency for International Cooperation (Federal Republic of Germany) km Kilometers km2 Square kilometers XI 2. ;:.9,1 LC$., 8 I

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LGL 119ec MARNDR mas1 mc mctsec mm mlmin MEN MMRE MSL MSPP MT NCO NMFS NOAA NRC 0 AS ODBFA ODH ODNO ODNO ODVA ONL OPEC PADF PAHO PAP PDAI PEN PLAN POCHEP PROTOS PVO SEP SERA SHADA SMCRS SNEM SNEP SPV TPTC UEH UMO UNDP UNEP UNESCO UNICEF US AID USDA USOM VPI WFP WHO WWF YH Lalonde, Ciirouard, Letendre & Associates (Montr6al) Liters per second Ministere de I'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles, et du Ddveloppement Rural. Meters above sea level Cubic mete: ; Cubic meters per second Millimeters Meters per minute Ministbre de I'Education Nationale. Ministbre des Mines et des Ressources EnergCtiques Marine Systems Laboratory (Smithsonian) Ministbre de la SantC Publique et de la Population (formerly DSPP) Metric ton Non-Governmental Organization National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.A.) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.A.) National Research Council (U.S.A.) Organization of American States Organisme de DCveloppement du Bassin versant du Fleuve de I'Artibonite OpCration Double Harvest Organisme de DCveloppement de la Plaine de Gonaives Organisme de DCveloppement du Nord-Ouest. Organisme de DCveloppement de la Vallte de I'Artibonite Office National du Logement Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Pan American Development Foundation Pan American Health Organization Port-au-Prime Projet de DCveloppement Agricole IntCgrC (USAID) Section de Protection de I'Environnement (part of DRN) Ministere du Plan Postes Communitaires d'Hygii?ne et d'Eau Potable Project Technische Ontribtilelings Somerverling Development (Belgium) Private Voluntary Organization Service de Protection de I'Environnement (MARNDR) Service d'Etude et de Recherche Agronomique (MARNDR) SocidtC Haitiano-AmCricaine de DBveloppement Agricole Service MCtropditain de Collecte des RCsidus Solides Service National des EndCmies Majeures Service National d'Eau Potable Service de Protection VCgCtale (MARNDR) Ministthe des Travaux Publics, Transport, et Communications UniversitC d'Etat d'Haiti University of Maine-Orono United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Children's Educational Fund United States Agency for International Development United States Department of Agricultu;-e United States Overseas Mission (former U.S. Development Assistance Organization Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University World Food Program World Health Organization World Wildlife Fund Year Since the change in government in kbruary 1986. scvcral rcorganizi~tions of GOH agencies have tiikcn placc. It is not possiblc to mcntion all of thcsc chilngcs bcc;luss milny arc in progrcss at tlic moment. Oncc the provisional govcrnrnent is rcplaccd by an clcctcd onc, iI more comprcheosive listing of GOH reorganization can be accornplishcd. XI1

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Executive Summary INTRODUCTION Few countries in the world face a more serious threat to their own survival from environmental catastrophe than Haiti. Ovcrpopulatcd, its resources are overexploited and trends towards further environmental deterioration are apparcnt everywhere. The chance for reversing these trends, thereby preventing human suffering, destabilization of the country, and the further loss of development potential is diminishing daily. Much needs to be done, and quickly. The field study for the country environmental profile of Haiti (HCEP), financed by USAIDIHaiti was carried out during the first three weeks of 1985 by a team of six specialists. The purpose of the Haiti Profile is to present in one document information, data and analyses on the country's natural resource base, and highlight environmental problems and trends. Included in the report are syntheses of the relative state of the country's natural resource base., the institutional a:ld legal aspects of environmental issues, and the socio-cultural background of the country as it affects the present state of its physical environment. Not all aspects relating to the state of the environment, such as public health, demography and energy were covered in detail due to time restrictions. A comprehensive institutional and legal sector analysis was also not possible. These may be covered in future additions to this document. GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE The country of Haiti is located in the mountainous western third of the island of Hispaniola, bordered on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Caribbean Sea and to the east by the Dominican Republic (DR). Its closest neighbors are Cuba and Jamaica, the Uilited States and the DR. (Figure 1-1). Haiti's position in the tropics and its mountainous terrain have created extreme weather conditions and temperature regimes which vary greatly with altitude. Rainfall patterns range from less than 300 mm in the northwest to more than 3,000 mm in the mountains of the southwest. Tropical storms, hurricanes, droughts and floods are not infrequent. One of the larger of the Caribbean nations, Haiti has 27,000 km2 of land area including four large offshore islands: La Gonave (680 km2), La Tortue (180 km2); Ile ti Vache (52 km2) and Grand Cayemite (45 km2): as well as numerous smaller islands and cays. Haiti is a mountainous country with very few plains. Two ranges, the Massif de la Hotte and the Massif de la Selle, including Pic la Selle, the country's highest peak at 2,684 meters above sea level, run in a west to east direction along the southern part of Haiti. The Massif Central gives rise to the Central Plateau with smaller mountains ("mornes") extending towards the north, south of Cap Haitien and west, along the northwestern peninsula. Approximately 63% of all lands have slopes greater than 20%, and only 29% have slopes of less than 10%. GEOLOGY It has been suggested that the island of Hispaniola was created by the uplifting of three major land masses and their subsequent collision over geologic time. These land masses were formed from oceanic crust, uplifted and influenced by sea level changes. Most marine terraces were exposed during the Pleistocene era. There have been no major sea level changes in

PAGE 14

the last 10,IM)O years. In Haiti cxposcd rock formations arc of igneous, metamorphic end scdirnentary origin. The latter formations are the n *)st abundant (80%) and are represented by limestone deposits from the middle and upper Eoccnc era, Where limestone formations occur, soils are relatively more fertilc than those derived from rock of igneous origin which, like the soils found in the northcrn part of the country, are heavily weathercd. Alluvial soils deposited by rivers arc thc most fertile and are found on thc major a coastal plains of Haiti and in pockets along mountain valleys. The geologic history of Hispaniola, characterized by rcpeated changes in sea level, has given rise to significant local. cndemism (speciation unique to the area) of plant and animal species. Although species extinctions from habitat destruction have been numerous, a great number of endemic plants and a few endemic animals still remain. HYDROLOGY Dissected by numerous mountain ridges and flowing across two relatively narrow peninsulas, Haiti's rivers are mostly short and swift flowing. The notable exception is the Artibonite River which originates along the border with the Dominican Republic and flows for approximately 290 km. It is not surprising, thcrefore, to find along this river the country's major hydroeiectric power generating facility (Peligre) and, on its delta, the country's major rice producing area. Surface water is used for domestic purposes by the great majority of the people in Haiti. It also flows directly into a great number of small and large irrigation systems. In fact, four large irrigated plains constitute the country's most important agricultural areas: the Plaine du Nord, Fort-LibertC area, in the North, the lower Artibonite and Estere valleys in the center, the Cul de Sac plain in the south and the Les Cayes plain in the southwest. Yet, the evidence is mounting that the quantity of surface waters available for irrigation is decreasing each year due to the relationship between vegetation cover and river discharge. Baseflows, which represent the water available for irrigation when storage is limitcd, are diminishing significantly due to continuous deforestration and loss of V..ater retention capacity in the rivers' upper watershe s. 5% sccond most irr,,ortant source of water is groun, water which alrc Jy contributcs significantly to the irrig,.:,,~ s,,'-.n ;the Cul de Sac region. Since limestone substrate underlies nearly 80% of the nation, groundwater reserves could become thc principal source of fresh water in the country in the future. This important source of water has not been mapped nor is being utiliscd to complcnicnt surface watcr and increase agriculture production through irrigation. Both groundwater and usable surface water depend upon the capacity of watershed areas to store water ana then to gradually release it into the river system and recharge the water table. The significant development potential of irrigated plains in Haiti calls for immediate action to be taken in an effort to protect and to restore the vegetative cover, and, thus, the watcr retention capacity of the country's major watershed areas. LAND USE In Haiti, not only is the most arable land already being utilized, but the total area under some form of agricultural production (more than 1,300,000 ha) is six times greater then the estimated area of ccgood agricultural landu. About one third of all lands are either extremely eroded, abandoned for farming, or saline and practi"cally sterile, due to inappropriate land use practices including farming, grazing and tree cutting. The country's marginal lands are mostly found on mountain slopes. Every year cultivation of annual food crops forces other crops and grazing lands higher up the mountain and every year the steepness of the cultivated plots increases. The end result of indiscriminate tree cutting and intensification of cultivation is tremendous soil erosion. Each year the equivalent of 6,000 ha of valuable arable land are lost to erosion. Over the past forty years, estimates of remaining "good" arable land in Haiti show a consistent decline of as much as 3% per year. Only 11.3% of the total land area of the country consists of good soils with possibilities for irrigation, mechanized cultivation and high yield potential. Much of the 31.7% of the land having good soil, but no potential irrigation is found on steep slopes subject to severe erosion. These lands are best suited for permanent tree crops such as coffee and managed pastureland. The extensive reduction of forest cover and widespread cultivation of lands unsuited for annual crop production, without even minimal attention to soil conservation practices, has led to the catastrophic state of erosion throughout the country and to the subsequent serious damage to the agricultural potential of the lowlands, both in terms of irrigation and infrastructure. It is evident that a high percentage of all cultivated lands are being farmed beyond their carrying capacity, resulting in an escalating and potentially irreversible land degradation process. If the strategy of maintaining existing land resources, let alone improving them, is a high priority, clearly a very significant portion of Haiti's cultivated lands needs to be removed from current land use and returned to forest. In practical terms however, only the upper watershed areas of the agriculturally and economically most important plains could become the object of such a drastic resource restoration strategy.

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AGRICULTURE The production of agricultural commodities directly provides a livelih\ood to 72% of the Haitian population. The export of agricultural commodities accounted for 48.7% of total exports in 1983, though the contribution of agriculture to GDP in 1981 was only 31%. During the period 1970-1980, the annual growth rate of the sector averaged 1.1%. Since 1980, growth has been negative, falling by about I%, 4.7% and 0.6% for 1980, 1981 and 1982 respectively. Although food crops cover approximately 80% of the cultivated area, their value of production is only about one-half that of export crops, excluding sugar. The great majority of all food crops are grown by small farmers on hillside plots. The annual production cycle, coupled with the lack of any soil conservation practice, exposes most of these lands to severe erosion, decreases yields and forces the peasants to clear a new plot, burn the vegetation and start a new cycle. Demographic pressure upon a limited supply of arable land and horticultural practices which haven't changed significantly since the nineteenth century, explain the decreasing trend in per capita food production (-2% year) and the accelerating rate of land degradation in the mountains. Only root crops and other starchy foods have followed slightly rising trends; at a slower rate however, than population growth. Rice production has also shown improvements in total yields; yet maize and sorghum production, accounting for 37% of all cropped area, has been decreasing since 1970. At the same time, per capita daily calorie supply has been reduced in the past twenty years and food imports have increased steadily over the past decade. Wheat imports, alone, account for one fourth of the negative trade balance with the USA. Haiti's agricultural sector suffers from physical, socio-political, institutional, and economic constraints. The arable land area is very small, limited by topography and high erosion risk. Rainfall is scattered and periodically unpredictable. Natural disasters, floods, droughts, tropical storms wipe out essential income from permanent crops. Only about half' of thc land situated on plains in Haiti is presently being utilized. Approximately 400,000 ha of mostly flat lands are not cultivated due to severe erosion, salinization, urbanization or lack of appropriate technology and investment. Just half the land that could be potentially irrigated is presently under irrigation. At the same time, increasing amounts of this precious land are being lost to agriculture, due to salinity caused by inadequate irrigation practices and technology. Land holdings are small and fragmented. Seventyone percent of all production units (generally multipleplot family farms) occupy less than 1.3 ha, consisting of an average of three plots, and account for only 32.5% of all cultivated land. The remaining land is cultivated in larger plots including a few large holdings (k. HASCO) of more than 10,000 ha, Thus, although Haiti's distribution of agricultural lands appears less unequal than in most countries of Latin America, it's scattered distribution prevents the deveioprnent of efficient production systems. Production technology i!; very primitive, lacking essential inputs such as organic and/or chemical fertilization, soil conservation practices, crop rotation and tree cover, which might serve to increase production capacity. Government taxes and pricing policies and oligopsonistic market structures, as well as limited credit availability, weak institutional support and lack of rural infrastructure contribute to the continued decline in agricultural productivity (0.6'/0 in 1982). It is evident that in order to address and, ultimately, solve the multiple and complex problems affecting the agricultural sector in Haiti, a number of organizational and institutional reforms need to be implemented. Tree crops such as coffee, cocoa and fruit trees that protect slopes from erosion, increase water retention, and whose products give the country a clear comparative advantage must be promoted with production and export incentives. Yields of traditional food crops could be improved to reduce, but not eliminate, reliance upon food imports. Hillside farming and grazing needs to be reduced by at least 30% to allow for natural recovery of water retention capacity, increased base flows and, thereby, more reliable irrigation of the plains. Large scale soil conservation/reforestation projects based on community participation in the uplands should accompany any effort and cash crops can be produced with greater efficiency and improvcd yields, if fertilizers and appropriate technology are applied. To restore the agricultural sector to a point at which it can contribute substantially to the nation's self-reliance in food production and significantly add to foreign earnings, it must receive priority attention by both the public and private sectors. A coordinated agricultural sector investment policy complemented by adequate credit and tax incentives could produce tangible results over a relatively short time and in the process, become the back-bone of the country's economic growth in the near future. FOREST RESOURCES The forests of Haiti have long ago lost their economic significance as renewable resources, and are quickly losing their ecological function as well. However, while the economic loss could conceivably be offset, the loss of the forest ecosystem has enormous, and potentially irreversible, repercussions which affect the livelihood of millions of people.

PAGE 16

At the beginning of the XVI Century, Haiti was mostly covered by lush forests with ecological variation defined in terms of different forest types. Since then, forested land area has been reduced drastically, and today covers only 6.7% of the total land area of the nation (approximately 185,000 ha). Almost 38% of the total forested area is represented by pine formations, which in a number of cases has been severely degradcd by unmanaged exploitation, repeated forest fires and overgrazing. The single largest parcel of forest land (26,400 ha) remaining is the pine forest in the southeastern portion of the country. While the highest percent of tree cover is found in this area (Fond Verrettes), all its rivers drain into the Dominican Republic. Of the thirty major watersheds within country, twelve were completely deforested by 1978. Thirty-six percent of the remaining forest (66,000 ha) falls within the udense forest>) category (more than 80% canopy cover) and sixty-four percent in the uopen forests category of less than 8O0/0 canopy cover. The high amount of open forest and its very fragmented distribution suggest that clearing and burning at the fringes of these parcels continues. In fact, if we assume a decrease in forest cover of only half of what has been estimated from aerial photography of two sample areas in Haiti, a 6.7% annual reduction will remove half of the remaining forest cover by 1995, and completely deforest all but five major watersheds in the nation. If the present trend continues, only the pine forest and its corresponding watershed will remain forested by the year 2008. Reforestation programs past and present, even when successful, have proven inadequate to reverse the trend in deforestation rates. In fact, successful small-scale projects implemented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have only replaced less than 20% of the tree biomass cut every year for lumber, charcoal and clearing for small-scale agriculture. Yet these projects, by appealing to individual self-interest and by relying upon a decentralized and efficient tree production and distribution system, have tested and proven a successful implementation strategy by planting nearly 14 million trees in four years with about 50% survival. Key elements of this strategy can be extrapolated to make future tree planting efforts successful in Haiti. It his highly unlikely that forest resources in Haiti will ever again be a significant economic resource. Yet if one considers that more than 70% of all energy consumed in the country comes from either firewood or charcoal; that sustained agricultural production of the plains and continuous hydroelectric output depend upon an adequate forest cover in the upper watersheds, it is evident that remaining forests in Haiti must be protected, restored and adequately managed in order to perform their ecologically critical role. THE PEASANTRY AND THE LAND Following a successful slave uprising against the French in 1804, Haiti emerged as a nation where 80% of its citizenry was and remains today rural freeholding and directy dependent upon agriculture for its livelihoud. History shows, that during those painful years of enslavement, the descendants of today's Haiti, forced to work in their ccoff-timen to defray the costs of their own upkeep, successfully developed techniques of intensive food cultivation, operated a country-wide internal market system and passed rights to certain parcels of land to their children. Rights to the land and control over one's own labor, far from the centers of government, became symbols of freedom which still exist today. Currently the Haitian peasantry is facing serious challenges to its way of life. Although the productivity of peasant agriculture has long been the mainstay of the nation's economy, a corresponding investment in the agricultural sector has yet to be made and, in fact, is declining. The combined pressures of population growth, shrinking farm sizes, soil erosion, and soil exhaustion, have Icd to the present situation where the majority of small farmers cannot count on even one profitable season to help them save or reinvest. Planning ahead, today's peasant is hoping to ensure the future of his children, by necessity, outside of the agricultural sector through education or emigration from the degraded hillsides. Today, the peasant farming system is a complex pattern of land ownership, investment, and crop strategies, which vary with the economic status of each farmer. While the majority of the peasantry are landowners, the majority of them are also land poor. Some wealthy peasants can afford to invest in perennial and export crops and livestock. Most are too poor to forego even a portion of their annual crop production or income to utilize soil conservation measures or begin to establish perennial multi-year crops. Peasant tenure is of ccmixedw character where farmers generally work several plots simultaneously, under different arrangements e.g. renting, sharecropping, owning, or leasing their own land to others. The security of tenure significantly affects their attitude towards the land. Overexploitation and poor management of the resource result in land farmed by sharecroppers and others with no permanent stake in the outcome. Although a national cadastral survey is desirable in principle, under present social and political arrangements it is unlikely to lead to a more equitable distribution of lands and to tenure security. Diverse farm strategies resulting from the great variation in climate and the highly dispersed pattern of multi-plot farm units complicate any national effort to improve farn~ing practices. Capital shortages are the

PAGE 17

most significant constraint on farm production and often foster destructive land use practices. Natural disasters, occ~~ring all too frequently, force the peasant farmer to select annual crops rather than more ecologically desirable perennials such as coffee. Land scarcity has caused the widespread destruction of Haiti's forests even though these mountainous and fragile lands are unsuitable for sustained agriculture. Although the peasants' need for new agricultural lands and their preference for fruit trees have prevailed in the past, new projects such as USAID'S Agroforestry Outreach Project demonstrate that peasants will plant non-fruit bearing trees on a large scale if there is public participation and an understanding of the goals of such a project. COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES In contrast to the declining resource value of its lands and forests, the country's coastal and marine habitats appear to be in a relatively pristine state. The magnitude and ecological significance of its resources; mangrove wetlands, seagrass meadows, coral reefs and protected bays and estuaries are considerable. The mangrove forests alone cover more than 180 kmz. Well developed coral reefs fringe large stretches of coastline and offshore barrier, and atoll-like reefs and "walls" directly offshore and largely unexplored, are prized by recreational users and fishermen. Underwater landscapes are considered among the most spectacular in the world. Fisheries export in 1982 earned 3.5 million US$, yet a similar amount is spent importing salted and dried fish each year. It has been estimated, however, that the fishery yield potential could greatly increase with the introduction of a.ppmpriate technology and adequate infrastructure. The fishing industry is predominantly artisanal in both scale and technology. Mariculture projects involving conch, shrimp and King crab have recently been proposed on a small-scale basis by Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs). Aquaculture projects involving tilapia and carp are widely scattered around the countryside, but not fully assessed for their ecologic and economic impact. The major constraints to improved fisheries production in Haiti are: the lack of fish in areas where artisanal fisherman have access to more productive areas, the lack of skills and proper training and a general lack of efficient fish preservation, distribution and marketing infrastructure and organization. In general, coastal and marine resources of Haiti remain relatively unknown and underexploited. Notable exceptions are: widespread nearshore overfishing; a large export trade in coral, sea turtles, aquarium fish, shells; some clearing of mangroves for charcoal making; and the pollution of coastal waters from human and industrial wastes near the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. Breeding and nesting sites of rare and endangered species in the coastal zone are almost totally unknown. Laws exist which protect these species, yet pressure upon rare sea turtles for eggs, meat and shells, as well as the hunting of shorebirds, continue unabated. At least thirteen, threatened or endangered species have been identified as utilizing the mangrove wetlands and lagoons of Haiti; among them the West Indian Manatee (Trichecus manatus) and the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Site specific species and habitat studies, as part of a coastal resources plan, could result in better management of coastal areas for the protection of rare and endangered species, as well as the enhancement of fisheries. Marine reserves and parks, once designated within the framework of such a plan could be eftectively used for both public education and research, and as fish reserves to replenish depleted fish stocks. Legal precedents in Haiti exist now for protecting and managing coastal resources. Haitian laws, especially those regulating the taking of fish and shellfish are rarely enfor= ced, however. Candidate marine areas worthy of protection include: the Arcadins and the Barraderes-Cayemites areas in the Golfe de la Gonave; the Ile il Vache, on the south coast; and baies de Labadie and Cadrasse on the north coast, west of Ft. LibertC. WILD FLORA AND FAUNA The insular nature of Hispaniola and the island's ecological diversity have resulted in a particulary rich and varied flora. More than five thousand different plants are known to exist at the present the. About two thirds of these are woody plants, trees and shrubs. They have adapted to a wide range of different environments from dry desert conditions to the permanently moist conditions of the mountainous rainforest. There are about 600 fern species and over 160 different kinds of orchids. Thirty-six percent of all plants are endemic to the island and it is probable that many plant species are still undiscovered. Haiti is characterized by nine life zones as defined by OAS (1972). They include arid zone biomes such as cacti formations and xerophitic forest typical of the Subtropical Thorn Woodland and the Subtropical Dry Forest life zones. The most commonly represented zone is the Subtropical Moist Forest characterized by mahogany and tropical oak forests. Few representative samples of this life zone remain, however, due to its extensive use for subsistence farming. Typical of the

PAGE 18

lower elevation mountains and ridges is the Subtropical Wet Forest best suited for the cultivation of coffee, cocoa and fruit trees. Found at hi~her elevations and primarily atop the Massif de la Gotte (Pic Macaya) are two characteristic high-humidity zones, the Subtropical Rain Forest and the Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest. Remains of these zones can still be found within the Macaya National Park in the southwestern portion of the country. The pine forest of Haiti are included in the Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest and in the Subt,ropical Lower Montane Wet Forest characteristic of the mountains in the south (Massif de la Selle) and portions of the Plateau Central. Finally, the Subtropical Montane Wet Forest is a life zonc which covers only a limited area at the highest altitudes of the Massif de la Selle located on the southern peninsula. Vertebrate fauna are well-known compared to invertebrates. A recent survey of two mountainous areas by a team from the University of Florida has found that 23 of 46 species of molluscs collected were new to science. The island's wildlife is represented by few mammals, but a diverse population (220 spccies) of birds. A number of these birds are endemic to the island, such as the Laselle Thrush (Turdus swalesi), the Ground Warbler (Microligea palustris) and the Hispaniola Parrrot (Amazona ventralis). Along the Haitian coast in marshes and mangrove wetlands, the American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), as well as the Frigate birds (Frigatidae) and other shorebirds abound. Most notable, however, is the presence of the American Crocodile (Crocodvlus acutus) primarily in Etang Saumatre and of two endemic and endangered rodents: the hutia (Plagiodontia aedium) and the solenodonte (Solenodon paradoxus) in the remaining remote forests of the southwest. A number of forces, not at all unique to Haiti, contribute to mount incredible pressures upon the island's rare and sometimes unique wildland resources and, thus, upon the nation's natural heritage. The most serious threat is represented by rampant habitat destruction within all life zones of Haiti, some of which have already lost their plant and animal representatives. The second most important factor is the introduction, over the years, of many exotic species which have replaced native a~:d often endemic species in their ecological niches. The third threat to wildlands in the country is of a structural and institutional nature. Protective legislation, although enacted, is rarely enforced, and the priority given to environmental protection has generally been very low. This lack of concern is often linked to the lack of adequate information on the interdependencies between the natural and human components of the biosphere. Finally, commercial exploitation of wild plant: and animal species, whose full impact has not yet been addressed, also contributes to the loss of the country's natural heritage. Basic information on populations, distributions and food habits of threatened and endangered wildlife in Haiti is generally very scarce. As population pressure further encroaches on the last remains of wildlife habitat in Haiti, the protection of wild fauna and flora within adequately managed reserves becomes increasingly urgent. Recent development in this direction, such as the establishment of two national parks, are encouraging signs that the preservation of the country's natural heritage is being seriously considered. POLLUTION Thc two most pressing pollution related issues in Haiti are the increasing population's need for (1) a safe water supply; (2) sanitary methods of disposing of human wastes. The Centrale Autonome Metropolitaine d'Eau Potable (CAMEP) now supplies only 60% of the Port-au-Prince area. Beyond the metropolitan area only 10% of the population have access to a safe water supply. Water-related diseases are prevalent particulary in the countryside. Children are especially affected. In 1979, diarrhea alone caused the death of 9% of the babies under one year of age (UNICEF 1984). The vast majority of Haitians do not have access to sanitary means of human waste disposal. UNICEF reported in 1984, that 40% of the population were using latrines or septic tanks, mostly in urban areas. Operation and maintenance of these disposal methods are often deficient. Contamination of surface and groundwater from human waste and other solid and liquid wastes is increasing without sufficient means or a plan to control it. The air in Port-au-Prince contains dust and emissions from poorly inspected vehicles. Smoke from burning garbage and industrial plants add to the air pollution problem. Haiti's population is projected to increase from an estimated 5,200,000 in 1985 to 6,500,000 in 2006, the long range planning horizon selected by the Ministry of Plan. During that period, the rural to urban areas are predicted to experience a population shift which will swell the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, alone, to 2,200,000 persons. A planning process has begun which holds the promise of future improvements. The Port-au-Prince drzinage program will help alleviate pollution problems emanating from stormwater. Reforestation of the upper watershed is continuing to reduce sediment loads to the city's sewers. Water resources, though not precisely known are believed adequate to meet domestic needs. Groundwater is abundant underlying the many limestone formations and easily accessible in some areas, particularly the coastal plains. Existing water supply systems irre the results of investment largely by bilateral and milltilateral banks and other international organizations. Progress has been made and efforts

PAGE 19

continue to expand water supply services, but. the population is growing faster than water supply development. The management of stoimwater and solid waste disposal is expected to improve considerably in Portau-Prince and other urban centers as a result of current or planned efforts, but other population problems, including air pollution from automobiles and industry in Port-au-Prince will become worse if no action is taken. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMISNTAL ISSUES Despite early and comprehensive legislation designed to protect and manage the country's natural resources, Haiti's environment, lands, forests, drinking water, wildlands, and wildlife, are irr serious trouble. Environmental laws, although well drawn, have not been applied and enforced. There are many repetitive laws and administrative orders which confuse and complicate their administration. Numerous agencies, private voluntary organizations, non-governmental organizations, and international donors are involved with the environment and natural resources in Haiti. Problems caused by lack of coordination are due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned to each public agency as to the absence of a coherent natural resoliVce policy. Virtually every natural resource sector has more than one primary government agency, hence there is considerable duplication of efforts and programs, as well as a kind of derritorial>> jealo.usy. Even worse, !;one institutions with similar programs have little substantive interchange of information. International donors are becoming increasingly involved in environmental conservation and management programs. In order to achieve the best results most efficiently, all efforts in the environmental arena should be placed within a coherent and unified framework, with priorities established, objectives and strategies defined, and programs coordinated and evaluated accordingly. Preparation of a National Conservation Strategy by DATPE may be a focal point for this unification of programs and policies. STRATEGIES FOR PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF THE RENEWABLE RESOURCES OF HAITI Deterioration of the countryside as evidenced by sharply declining food production, internal migration into Port-au-Prince, the high unemployment of rural emigrants, the continuing attempts at illegal international migration have all been thoroughly documented. To have any stabilizing effect at all, land conservation strategies are urgently needed now. Approach land conservation on a regional watershed management basis considering both cnvironmental and socio-economic issues. Conceptualize projects for ionger periods than thc normal two to five year framework. Manage the upper watersheds such as the Macaya and La Visite National Parks and the Upper Artibonite Watershed. Encourage large-scale conservation and reforestation projects to prevent further soil erosion, particularly in the watersheds directly above significant agricultural and economically important lands. Incorporate local participation in land use projects. Consider the removal of certain hillslope cultivated li~nds from production, return of these lands to forest and also a relocation of inhabitants where other living arrangements can be found. Promote tree crops such as coffee, cocoa and fruit trees that protect slopes from erosion and give the country an economic advantage. Employ vegetative cover in a strip pattern alternating with cultivated crops to reduce soil erosion. FORESTRY Elimate tax on imported wood products to encourage tree conservation. Establish price controls on lumber. Implement a fruit tree and fuelwood reforestation program in the mountains as well as the lowlands. Expand existing seedling production and outreach capabilities, to cover a wider range of land types across Haiti. Coordinate the efforts of donor agencies to enable the financing of a large-scale reforestration effort on private as well asstate lands. Support the expansion of teaching and training facilities in forest resource management, with special emphasis on the development of appropriate technological packages for reforestation and soil erosion control. Amend legislation to protect forest resources by

PAGE 20

exempting trees planted for harvest from current prohibitions and taxations and by prohibiting planting in zones set asidc for soil erosion protection. Subsidize kerosene, perhaps by taxing gasoline and support higher taxes and licence fees for commercial charcoal production. WATER CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT Improve the water retention capacity of the country's major watershed areas by reducing hillside farming and grazing. Consider groundwater as a valuable resource to provide fresh water for irrigation and map its extent. Evaluate the groundwater resource in the lowlands. Development should not begin until proper environmental safeguards are in place to avoid salinization. AGRICULTURE The he~t strategy for maintaining agricultural production on the short to medium term, is by the more efficient use af presently irrigated lowlands and by developing additional irrigation potential. Without immediate action tu manage the upper.watersheds, however, soil erosion and deching soil fertility continues to minimize the benefits of irrigation projects and lowiand agricultural efforts. Study the costs involved in developing irrigation capital, system maintenance and operation, on-farm distribution and drainage, structure maintenance and operation and land preparation. Special attention should be paid to sprinkler irrigation from wells. Increase agricultural production by improving farming practices to help to offset losses to small farms by removing their lands from cultivation. Encourage better land-use practices by making title registration papers less expensive, easier and faster to obtain. Title teams could be established and financing these initiatives within the context of a national cadastral survey should greatly henefit a long-term environmental restoration process. Concentrate on high valued crops to the extent that these can be consumed, processed andlor marketed. Reconsider using a significant portion of irrigated area, now in sugar cane currently being produced at a loss in terms of world sugar prices, for other crops. Initiate guarantees to farmers that once land improvements ilrc made, lands will not be taken away or taxes increased. Develop a program to help rural communities conserve their natural resources. THE PEASANTRY AND THE LAND The Haitian peasantry is facing serious challenges to its way of life. Although the productivity of peasant agriculture has long been the mainstay of the nation's economy, there has yet to be a reciprocal investment in the agricultural sector. Consider the unique and basic characteristics of the Haitian peasant farming system in projects by external sources as well as the government. Continue and initiate projects which invite the peasantry to fully participate in land conservation strategies. COASTAL MARINE RESOURCES, PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT Coastal and marine resources of Haiti remain relatively unknown and underexploited. Notable exceptions are widespread overfishing of nearshore reef areas and a large trade in aquarium fish, sea turtles and shells. A coastal resources plan could result in better management of coastal habitat for the enhancement of fisheries, tourism and rare and endangered species. COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Prepare a coastal resources plan for Haiti which would include: inventories of breeding, nesting areas of threatened and endangered species; invextory and designation of critical coastal areas, e.g. habitat for commercially important fish and shellfish species, areas of unusual scenic value for present or future tourism and proposed sites for mariculture; the conceptual, scientific, administrative and legal framework for decisions affecting coastal marine resources; the assessment of mariculture and fisheries development schemes and recommendations as to their suitability for Haiti. Evaluate and designate marine reserves and parks as part of a coastal resources plan. These parks and reserves would provide: areas for the replenishment of depleted breeding stocks of valuable but vulnerable fish and shellfish species that quickly disappear from heavily fished areas; interpretive education for the public and private recreational users of the coastal, marine areas;

PAGE 21

small cooperative fisheries programs to benefit the nearby fishingvillages; management plans for the longer range protection of the renewable resources; research programs to identify more precisely the ecological systems which determine continued productivity and value for recreation. Implement the recent (Nov. 17, 1983) amendment to Section 119 of the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act authorizing Federal executive agencies to provide assistance to countries in need of protecting and maintaining critical habitat. FISIIERIES MANAGEMENT Improve fisheries with a strong commitment from the government of Haiti to increase funding, staffing and extension training programs. Prepare fish stock assessments of potentially productive areas such as Anse d'Hainaultafld M61e St-Nicolas. Locate and organize communities and groups as production and marketing cooperatives in order to provide assistance and coordinate fish catch and distribution. Extend credit to such groups for the purchase of needed equipment. Stimulate small-scale industries related to fishing (e.g. gear manufacturing and maintenance, boat construction, fish saltingand dryingoperations). o Strengthen and expand marketing capabilities to ensure reasonable profits. Extend fish distribution networks to rural populations to increase protein consumption. Provide training and appropriate eyuipmcnt for fishing the nearshore areas in order to avoid depletion of these resources. Encourage the private sector to stimulate the expansion of artisanal fishing operations through investment and more effective distribution. Investigate mariculture proposals carefully as part of a coastal marine resource strategy to relieve fishing pressure on natural fish stocks, especially those from nearshore coral reefs. 0 Investigate the feasibility of installing artificial reefs in nearshore areas where fish stocks are declining. Enforce existing fishing regulations which regulate the taking of fish and shellfish. .. Assess the ecological and economic impacts I of aquaculture, particularly in estuarine and coastal waters. WILDLANDS CONSERVATION There are incredible pressures on Haiti's rare and often unique wildland resources and thus the nation's natural heritage. The most serious threats are rampant habitat destruction, the introduction of exotic species and the lack of law enforcement. Establish objectives for the protection and managemanagement of natural areas by adopting the IUCN World Conservation Strategy objectives. maintain essential ecological process and lifesupport systems on which human survival and development depend; preserve genetic diversity on which depends the the functioning of many of the above processes and live-support systems; ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems; notably fish and other wildlife, forest and grazing lands, which support rural communities as well as major industries. Establish a National Park Service with the technical support of the Ministhre d' Agriculture des Ressources Naturelles et du DCveloppement Rural (MARNDR) and direct access to the Presidency. Establish a Natural History Museum and Botanical Gardens to become centers for research and education about Haiti's endemic flora and fauna. Develop a long range plan for a program of scientific research on Haiti's flora and fauna with participation of qualified scientific institutions abroad. Institute a program for public education concerning environmental protection and resource conservation. Identify and protect, within a system of National Parks and other protected natural areas, significant remains of different forest types (from mangrove to rainforest) and other major biomcs, in an effort to preserve Haiti's diverse natural heritage. Strictly enforce those existing laws which prohibit the taking of certain endangered and threatened species. 0 Assess the impacts and control the wildlife tradc ill Haiti. Stop the trade in wild orchids and tree ferns. 0 Stop the trade taking placc in Haiti, either illegal or legal, which is rapidly depleting populations of endangered and threatened

PAGE 22

species such as sea turtles, certain coral, aquarium INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL CHANGES fish species, birds and reptiles. Almost every natural resource sector has more than POLLUTION ABATEMENT The two most pressing pollution related issues in Haiti are an ever expanding population's need for (1) a safe water supply and (2) a sanitary waste disposal system. With a population projected to increase from 5,200,000 in 1985 to 6,500,000 in 2006, existing efforts to supply potable water and manage stormwater drainage and human and solid waste disposal are grossly inadequate. one primary government agency, hencc there is considerable duplication of effort. International donors, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and private voluntary organizations (PVO's) are becoming increasingly involved with environmental programs. These public and private institutions, with similar goals and objectives, have very little substantive interchange of information and coordination and are not guided by a coherent set of priorities for natural resource management. Expand significantly the water supply network to meet increasing demand, reduce losses and Consolidate government agency authority over chances for contamination and upgrade and specific natural resource sectors, within a framemotivate personnel at the intermediate and lower work of a focused natural resource policy, to levels through training and incentives. avoid duplication and policy contradictions. Establish a realistic code for drinking water sources and treatment guidelines which consider rural and urban socioeconomic conditions and financial means. Consolidate the solid and liquid waste disposal facilities at Truitier, including the construction of a primary sewage treatment facility. Move the existing and underutilized composting plant to this site. Improve water quality controls as well as vehicle emission inspection. Consider changes in transit pattern to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Expand solid waste collection and human waste disposal systems throughout the metropolitan area, Continue drainage improvement and the recovery of the Morne Hopital watershed, near Port-au-Prince. Improve communication and promote a more integrated approach to natural resource management, by establishing and Inter-Ministerial Environmental Committee with direct access to the Presidency. Develop priorities for future cconomic development based on environmental as well as economic goals. @ Perform environniental impact assessments (EIA's) for all significant development projects funded by the GOH and external sources. 0 Consider an environmental management component (e.g. conservation and restoration) in the development of projects for rural development. Reorganize MARNDR along functional lines.

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Introduction The purpose of a country environmental profile (CEP) is to aggregate in one definitive document information, data and analyses on the country's resourcc base, focusing on the significant environmental issues and trends and to identify possible solutions to cnvironmental problems. Specifically, the Haiti CEP objectives were to identify major ilrciis of concern for management of Haiti's nitturid rcsourccs; to survey existing institutions, politics. i~nd i~ctivitics; to assess the effects of any identificd problcms on thc environment, society and thc cconomy: and to provide conclusions and recommendations for actions to ameliorate problematic situi~tions. Haiti is loci~ted on the island of Hispaniola, which is between Cuba and Puerto Rico in the West Indes, occupying the western third of the second largest island in the Caribbean (18-20N, 7 1"45'-74"-3O'W). Haiti is still isolatcd by language and culture from most of its Spanish and English speaking neighbors. Although materially the poorest nation is the western hemisphere, Haiti is perhaps the most distinctive and intriguing. Born of the only successful slave revolution in modern history, Haiti is the New World's second oldest Republic and has been dubbed "the most African of Afro-American countries." The Haitians are above all, a warm and gregarious people. The outsider, willing to speak to them on their own terms, in their own language of Creole or French, is richly rewarded with the opportunity to learn and appreciate the Haitian culture. A*GEOLOGY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY According to a recent study of the geological development and tectonics of the Caribbean islands (Maurasse, 1983), Hispaniola was formed by the collision of one small and one larger land mass during the late Miocene and early Pleistocene periods. The theory states that the smaller land mass broke off from Central America, drifted east and eventually collided with a larger land mass now comprising northern Haiti and most of the Dominican Republic. Following the impact the Plain of Cul-de-sac and the three large saline lakes, Bois Caiman, Etang Saumatre and Lac Enriquillo were uplifted. Throughout southern Haiti the uplift of the Eocene limestone seabed created towering and rugged mountains cut occasionally by plains and steep valleys. The mountains of the north were formed by local volcanic activity. Other authors claim that three land masses collided to form the present island of Hispaniola. Much research needs to be done to verify the geologic history. Most geologists agree that these land masses were formed from oceanic crust, uplifted and influenced by sea level changes. Marine terraces for the most part were exposed during the Pleistocene era. There have been no major sea levels changes in the last 50,000 years. Exposed in Haiti are rock formationsof igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary origin. The latter formations are the most abundant (80%) and are represented by limestone deposits from the middle and upper Eocene era. Where limestone formations occur, soils are relatively more fertile than those derived from rock of igneous origin which, like the soils found in the northern part of the country, are heavily weathered. Alluvial soils deposited by rivers are the most fertile and are to be found on the major coastal plains of Haiti and in pockets along mountain valleys. The geologic history of Hispaniola, characterized by repeated changes in sea level, has given rise to significant local endemism (speciation unique to the area) of plant and animal species. Althoughextinctions due to habitat destruction have been numerous, a great number of endemic plants and a few endemic animals still remain. The major mountain ranges of Haiti are: 1) Massif du Nord, the northwestern prolongation of the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, composed primarily of metamorphic volcanic rocks, metamorphic detrital rocks and quartz diorite sometimes covered by Limestone (max. altitude 1,200m).

PAGE 24

HAITI REGIONS PHYSIOGRAPHIQUES \ PREPARED BY WlLCOX ASSOCIATE

PAGE 25

Fig. 11-2: Generalized geologic map of Haiti from OAS, 1972

PAGE 26

Montagncs dc Tcrre-Neuve extending northwest from Gonaives, composed primarily of limestone iind volcanic rock (rnax, altitude 700m) Montagnes du Nord-Ouest along the northwestern pe~~insuli~, is composed of a thick cap of limestone above a mass of igneous rocks (max. altitude 850m); Mon tagnes Noircs, the rugged range between the central Plain and the Artibonite Valley, composed primarily of limestone (rnax. altitude 1,400 m); Montagnes du Trou d'Eau, north of the Plaine du Cul de Sac, primarily composed of limestone and some exposed basaltic rock (rnax. altitude 1,520 m); Chainc des Matheux, extending from St Marc to the Plaine du Cul de Sac, composed of limestone (rnax. altitude 1,575 m); Massif de la Selle, the highest i~nd largcst mountain range in Haiti, extending west from the Dominican border about 100 km, dominates the southern peninsula. The rsnge is about 30 km wide and composed mainly of limestone with some younger detrital rocks. It is vcry rugged with a maximum altitude of 2684 m at Pic la Selle; Massif de In Hotte covers the southwestern part of the southern peninsula. It is rugged, steep and almost inaccessible. Composed of Eocene limcstone and basaltic volcanic rocks. it features Pic Macaya, towering at 2347 meters above sea level (masl). Pic la Selle, in the southeast, has the highest clevation in Haiti. The highest peaks in the north are much lower, with Mornc Brigand near Le Borgnc reaching 1147 mad. In the south central region Mornc Baptist in the Chaine des Matheux and Morne Nan Puits in thc Montagnes Trou d'Eau attain elevations of 1575 and 1520 m. Exposcd in Haiti are ignous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Both plutonic and volcanic rocks are found, ranging in composition from ultramafics to leucratic tonalities. The metamorphic rocks originate primarily from volcanic flows, tuffs, and limestones. The metamorphism appears to be primarily regional, with contact metamorphic effects found only locally around some intrusions. Sedimentary rocks are mainly of later Cretaceous and younger ages. Some important facts about the geology of Haiti can be summarized as follows: The origin of the land miiss of Haiti is occitnic crust; Volcanic activity practically ccascd in Hispitniolii in the late Eocene; Some Upper Tertiary volcanic deposits havc been reported in Haiti, and several outpourings of late Cenozoic limburgite, hornblend-augite, andcsitic porphyry, and nephelinc basalt occured in the southern part of the island. the ages of which are approximately the Plcistocenc; The high pcrccntiigc oiscdimcntary rock!i, about 80 percent, iirc mostly middle iind upper L5occne limestones; Rocks of igneous origin, about 20 percent are found where the overlying striita of sedimentary rocks have been worn away; As a gcncritl rule areas of igneous rocks, or soils derived from them, coincide with areas of high rainfall where erosion has been rapid, as in the mountains of the north; Mountain soils cicrived from limestones iire more fertile then those derived from old igneous rocks; Alluvial plains and pockets of alluvium in mountains arc most productive since they receive ycarly inputs of new materials, such as silts and gravels from natural erosion; Repeated changes in sea level in the Caribbean over gcologic time have provided a sufficient number of land bridges for the dispersal of plant and animal species found on the island today; The subsequent permanent rise in the sea level has given rise to much local endemism of plant species, yet the basic common relationships among plant species exist throughout this biogeographic province. B.CLIMATE The highly varied topography with elevations ranging from sea level to over 2680 m results in a large variability of rainfall and temperatures. These variations over relatively short distances resulting in numerous micro-climates make characterization of rainfall patterns by areas of significant size and mapping for agricultural purposes problematic. Haiti lies in the Low Subtropical Region (18-20 degrees North latitude), not truly tropical but rather that portion of the Tropical and Warm Temperate Regions ivhich is free of frost at low eievations above sea level and in which the temperature range is significantly wider than in the deep tropics. An extensive chain of meteorological stations was set up in the 1920s and more have been added since that time with the result that many places have at least 40 years of precipitation data. Many other areas, however, do not resulting in the need to extrapolate frequently for planning purposes. The wettest areas for which records are available include: Bel Air (4180 mm); Soctces Chaude (3410 mm); Choiseul (3418 mm); and Baptiste (3322 mm). Unfortunately, the period of record for these sites is less than six years, hence they may have been unduly influenced by anomalous precipitation events such as tropical cyclones. Holdridge's Life Zone Map of Haiti prepared for and modified by the OAS in the 1960's indicstes the wettest region to lie in the Southwest in the Pic Macaya region, which could receive as much as 5000-6000 mm of rainfall, but for which no precipitation records exist.

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Most precipitation is brought by the Northeast Trade Winds and io a lesser extent by winds from the east. Site specific rainfall patterns are influenced mostly by orographic (related to topography) factors. For example, high land masses such as mountains intercept this precipitation so that the highest rainfall areas are in the mountains of the north coast (new Cap Haitian) and in the southwest peninsula. In the latter case, the Gulf of Gonave scrvcs as an additional source of moisture which feeds the hydrologic cycle. The Central Plateau, an area of relatively high rainfall, exhibiits an anomalous pattern derived from turbulcncc of air masses flowing in laterally to fill the vacuum in the wake of the high mountain areas. This pattern probably applies to other areas of Haiti such as in the western end of the southwest peninsula. Convectional rainfall, e.g. thundertorms, and hurricanes, also may bring heavy local rain from any direction, dependi~~g on the relation of a given place to the path of the storm. Although one fourth of Haiti consists of areas with annual precipitation of less than 1200 mm (Moral, 1961), most of the country receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation annually, and a subtantial portion receives at least 1500 mm. The higher elevations of the southern peninsula, northern plains and central plateau receive over 2000 mm with some areas in the southern peninsula receiving over 3000 mm. Most of the northern peninsula, the coastal plains reaching from the western tip of the northern peninsula to the Cul-de-sac region, the lower elevations of La Gonave Island, and small areas in the extreme northeast and eastern ends of the Cul-de-sac receive less than 1000 mm of precipitation, with some areas receiving less than 500 mm. A rough characterization of the rainfall of seven principal areas, differentiated on the basis of rainfall, follows: (Library of Congress, 1979). Northern plain and mountains: More than 1270 mm, with as much as 2540 mm on the higher mountains; Northwest: Semi-arid conditions prevail throughout the region, especially around Mole St-Nicolas (508 rnm) on the extreme western end of the northern peninsula; Port-de-Paix has about 1524 mm in the mountainous areas; Western coast from Mole St-Nicolas to the Culdc-Sac Plain at Port-au-Prince: Very dry with 500 to 1000 mm of rain; a semi-arid area extending back from the coast over the plain to the mountains covered with xerophytic vegetation such as mesquite, thorny shrubs, and cacti; The island of La Gonave off the coast has similar cover and a rainfall of about 508 to 762 mm; Artibonite Valley: Lower portion of the valley is a semi-arid area, but rainfall increases rapidly up the valley until it reaches a mean annual level of about 3000 mm; however, about 40 km away in the Cul-de-sac plain, at about the same altitude, the driest area with annual rainfall of about 500 to 750 mm is found; Eastern part of the mainland between the tw., peninsulas: The Central Plateau receives aboui IOlCto 1524 mm of rainfall; Southern peninsula: Well-watered, with 1524 mm of rain or more in all parts, except the southern slope of the western end and a small area ncar Anse-A-Pitrc in the Southeast, C.ECONOMY I ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Haiti has potential to compete more successfully in the world economy, contrary to common belief outside the country. Its physical and human resources are not negligible. The country is well within the range of the vast North American market. It has built a basic infrastructure where 15 years ago there was hardly a paved road. Almost 50 percent more children are attending school than 20 years ago. Yet the pace of economic growth is slow compared to its potential. Haiti's economy has shifted significantly in recent decades away from traditional agriculture and towards urban dependency and its growing industrial sector. Sectors other than agriculture have grown but not sufficier~tly to absorb all those leaving rural Haiti. As a result, some 25,000 Haitians (0.5 percent of the population) leave their native land each year to seek employment in North America and the Dominican Republic. Exports, imports and investments have risen markedly in the last 15 years but consumption has not increased in real terms. There is now a greater reliance on imported goods, especially food and public goods and services. Present economic conditions are so critical that there are few peasants with surplus cash or agricultural commodities. Government policies, such as subjecting coffee, their primary cash crop, to an export tax which represents half the producer pr.ice, have made the situation far worse. Economic problems in industry are more recent. Manufacturing output grew throughout the 70's, at a very rapid 10 percent per year but has since declined sharply, partially due to the global recession of FY 81-83 but more fundamentally, because of the consequence of protectionist polices. While there was some improvement in FY 84, which protected import substitution industries, Haitian industry is still considered stagnant. Only a fast growing export assembly subsector contrjbuted to growth in N 84. Public investment, and, thus, economic growth have suffered both from less public savings and from the government's recent acquisition of five uneconomic

PAGE 28

hut major industrial cntcrpriscs. The tax base has grown slowly and unevenly, largely because of increasing exemptions. Many tax rates are too high, encouraging evasion. Meanwhile public expenditures have steadily expanded, outstripping current revenues and making the financing of the public investment program difficult, as evidenced by the government's frequent inability to meet its counterpart funding obligations for projects financed by external aid agencies. Haiti relies heavily on external donors to financc development activities. The United States providcs more assistancc than any other donor; over $45 million in development assistancc, food and disaster relief and Economic Support Funds in FY 84. Over 300 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) annually contribute an estimated $65 million in resources and services to Haiti's development (FAO, 1985) representing a powerful influence on the economy and the environment. Unfortunately, individual projects are not the end product of a clcarly defined set of priorities based on integrated economic and environmental goals. Moreover, their composition has changed from an initial concentration on providing economic infrastructure to include social sectors, and, morc recently, sevcrid major public industrial enterprises. To correct the stagnation and disequilibrium of recent years, it has been suggestctl that the short term priority for public policy be financial and cconomic stabilization, using a variety of methods; among thcm, tighter control of public expenditures, new tax objectives and the development of long-term financial institutions and instruments (World Bank, 1085). b In agriculture, the consensus seems to point to a concentration on farm enterprises in irrigated and rainfed zones of high production potential achieved through changes in price, trade and fiscal policy; the continued reform of the Ministry of Agriculture and its invcstnicnt program and the establishment of a strong crcdit institution. In industry, elimination of the anti-export bias principally through a reduction of protcction and actual export promotion, a restructuring of public industrial enterprises and a more realistic look at industry's infrastructure and training needs. With all these ci~anges, however, Haiti will still have to look to substantial external financial assistance for its economic recovery.

PAGE 29

Land, Water And Forest Resources A.INTRODUCTION Conceptually, the problem of environment and dcvelopment is how to mai~tain and increase resource exploitation without foreclosing futurc resource use options. This makes it essential to achieve compatibility between immediate, short-term needs for population support and long-term needs for a viable resource base and flexible resource use systems. The fact that physical system boundaries and the boundaries of human systems that exploit the resources seldom coincide, complicates effective resource management. Thus, there is u critical need to protect renewable resources through long-range ccological planning, including socio-economic considcrations. Developmeilt of an ecological approach to resource management must integrate physical, social, political and economic systems. To maintain the vegetation, soil, and water resources, it is crucial that human use of the environment does not sress the resource base to such an extent that degradation is either irreversible or so large as to require excessive economic inputs that exceed the potential returns (for many places in Haiti, this condition has already been reached). Vegetation, soil and water interact in defining the natural resource base. This, in turn, determines the carrying capacity of the land for agriculture, including livestock use, and forestry. B.THE LAND RESOURCE The landlsoil resource base in terms of erosionalldepositional dynamics is determined by precipitation (type, amount, intensity and seasonal patterns); wind (velocity, duration and direction); soil erodibility (structure and texture); topography (slope and length, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, and spatial location within the hillslope system); groundcover (vegetation density and type); and conservation practices (mulching, pasture rotation, ctc ...). Other factors, such as the location of the water supply (type and seasonal availability) protection against fire, iivestock type and numbers, land ownership, and service infrastructure, are significant in determining an area's erosionalldepositional patterns. The texture of the soil is important. Finer soils car1 be set into motion and transported at lower velocities than coarse ones. While coarser soils are more resistant to erosion and have higher infiltration rates, finer soils usually have higher agricultural potential. Finer soils generally have a higher porosity (soil moisture storage) increasing their plant potential during drier periods, and producing a higher seed germination rate in most cases. Where areas are drier, bare soil surfaces exist and the texture is sand size or finer, wind potentially becomes an erosional agent as well. Erosion rates for specific areas are determined by the interaction and magnitude of these variables. Removal of groundcover by stock overgazing, fires and farming, substantially reduces its effectiveness. In Haiti, as rural population pressures increase, and damaging agriculture practices continue, the ecological system of the soil, water and forest will continue to decline. Clearly, vegetation cover and soil properties are crucial management issuos for most areas where hydrology, forestry, and agriculture are primary concerns. Erosion While Eckholm (1976) clearly overestimates the proportion of exposed bedrock in Haiti (50 percent), the very existence of widespread rocky outcrops in a tropical setting indicates the severity of the Haitian erosion problem. Tropical areas, under natural conditions, normally have a thick veneer of weathered material. Almost always, bedrock exposures reflect acceIterated man-induced soil erosion in humid tropical areas. Generally, 90 percent of tota! nutrient supply is found in the upper 10 cm of tropical soils (Ewel, 1.977). Almost everywhere in Haiti, this rich topsoil is gone. Additionally with the coarser subsoils commonly found in upland areas, the decreased moisture-storage

PAGE 30

capacity of thcsc soils producc pscudo-droughts that stress vc~etatilon growth whencvcr rain docs not occur frequently. Thus, with the cvcr declining Haitiati soil rcsourcc, morc and morc watcr and nutrient supplies arc rcquircd to milinlain the status-quo. Unfortunately, almost no itctual soil erosion dittit cxist on a national scalc. Perceptions and qualitative studics comprise thc literature. Haiti's ovcrwhclming environmental problem is soil crosion. Dcspitc rcscarch, legislation, crosion control id reforestation projects, indicators cle;~rly point to an i~cccler'ation in thc processes contributing to land degradation from soil crosion. Food production is declining, rivcr regimes are becoming morc extreme (Lowcnstein, 1984), bedrock cxposures on hillslopes are growing in itrcal cxtcnt (Coffcy, ct al. 1984), and rural to urban migration pressures arc incrcitsing (DATPE, 1984). None of thcsc trends is surprising, since the rural population density per hectare (ha) of arable land is clo!;c to 700 (USAID, No. I, 1984). On steep slopes (15-100 percent), as much as possible annual crop agriculture is practiced. For example, on the southern peninsula population densities over 125 pcr km2 (Coffey, ct al., 1984) cxist on stecp slopes of the uplitnd arcas. Even in thc most rcniotc mountain arcas whcre no permanent scttlcments exist, land clearing occurs (Cohcn, 1984). This illtcration in the land use, from forest to shifting cultivation to abandonment, sets into motion an array of dynamic socio-economic and physical events that cuacerbatc the trcrid toward a declining land, water, iorcst rcsourcc base. This affects not only the uplands, but itlso niany ol' thc high potential lowlands. With the pi~ssing of each ycilr, the stratcgics that could salvage the Haitian countryside arc becoming less viable. Three direct results of soil loss nccd to be considered within thc Haitian context: the idverse effects of soil crosion on agricultural productivity; the impact of trimported sediments via rills, gullies, streams, and rivcrs on major engincering works (c.g, rcscrvoirs, irrigation canals); iind the irnpact on coastal habitats (c.g. mangrove, corid, seitgras bcds, fish spawning and nursery grounds). Corisidering the generally degraded nature of most Haitian soils with shallow root zones, targcl figures for erosion control of 2 MTIhi11yr are realistic (Young, 1980) to mitigate thc enormous impacts of erosion on agriculturitl productivity. To prevcnt ncgittivc impacts of soil loss on engincering works, even lower sediment delivery valucs than those affecting agricultural productivity arc generally rcquircd. Coastal resources such as mangroves, coral rccf and seagrass bcds, found in areas where significantly increased turbidity is adversely affecting the rcsource, will benefit from the erosion control initiated for conservation of agricultural soils and protection of engineering works. C.THE WATER RESOURCE Surface Water The brokcn and stecp landscape which characterizes most of Haiti's surfaces give rise to numcrous streams and rivcrs. Duriug periods of rai!:fall the flow of most streams is torrential and of short duration. Few rivers havc permanent flow. Thc principal catchment areas and rivcr systems arc shown in Table 1111 There havc bccn only limitcd tncasurcments of watcr flows, and thosc gcncrally date prior to 1940. Thc flow data cited usually rcfcr to werage flows. From thc standpoint of agricultural use, average flows havc only limited relevance to wittcr potential bccause of thc high irrcgularity of flow. This is illustrated by flow data for 31 rivers in 26 catchmcnt basins, iis provided by I-Iarza (1979). The average annual flow for thc 31 rivcrs is givcn as 274.031 mclscc, 90 percent of which is provided by four rivcrs. The ten year, one month low flow, is given its 48.770 mclscc, ol' which 73 percent is providcd by the silmc four rivcrs. In the absence of impounding structures (the di~m is the only significant one, since the physiography ol' most river basins docs not lcnd itsclf to impoundment), much of the watcr goes out to sea. Table 111-1 PRINCIPAL CATCHMENT AREAS OF HAITI The main river Average Length Catchment Runoff mcls Km Area 1 Km2 Artibonitc 34.0 280 6,862 Rivicre dc la Grandc-Ansc 27.0 9 0 556 Rivierc dc I'Esthrc 19.0 834 Lcs Trois I?iviLSrcs 12.0 102 897 Rivibre dc Cavaillon 9.0 43 380 Grandc Rivi2rc du Nord 7.0 70 312 Rivihre du Limb6 6.4 70 312 RiviQre Momancc 6.4 53 330 Grandc Ravine du Sud 3.9 34 330 Grande Rivikrc du Cul-de-sac 3.3 ? 290 Rivikrc I'Acul ? 36 17 Source: Data from Library of Congress, Draft Environniental Report on IIaiti, 1979.

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Table 111-2 HYDROELECTRIC POTENTIAL OF HAITI Region River Site Location Avail. Power Grde Rivihre du Nord GN-47,7 Limb6 L-34.6 Nord Caracol Caracol Pte Riviere Pte. Rivibre Artibonite Trans versale Guayanouc La Theme Fer-8-Cheval Gobe Samana Roche Plate TR-28 TR-76 A-108.1 A-139.9 A-166.0 A-176.7 GU-3.5 GU-25.7 La-1.6 FC-35.8 Saut d'Eau DCluge Gobe Samana Roche Plate Grisc G-31.0 G-41.7 Momancc Momance Pichon Pichon Ouest Gosselinc Gosseline P. Riv. Jacmcl Bassin Bleu Cavaillon C-42.3 G.R. dc Nippcs GNIP-29.5 S. du Baril Grandc Ansc GA-4.1 GA-35.4 Sud BD-8.6 BG-15.4 Voldrogue 18.5 kmM 85" W. Vallieres ll.OKm/S 15"W. Limb6 24 KmlS 24 Cap-Hai tien 8 KmIW Trou du Nord 13.5 KinI59" E Port-de-Paix 10.5 Kml N 88" E Gros-Morne 2.5 KmlN 60" E Verrettes 2 KmlN 12" E Lachapelle 5 KmlN 45 W Mirebalais 3 Km/N 24 E Mirebalais 10.5 KMIS 76" E Thomonde 8 KmlN 85" Thomassique 9'. Mirebalais 9kmIS 15" E Lascahobas 12 KmIS 83" W. Mirebalais 13 KmIS 5" E St. Marc 13 KmIS 69 St. Marc 8.5 KmM 15" E Hinche 14 KmIS 390 E Lascahobas 16 KmIS 70 E P.au.P 19 kmlS 60 E P.au.P. 20 km1S 72 W P.au.P. 6 KmlN 45" E Belle Anse 11 KmlN 32 E Jacmel 6 km/W Jacmel 5 kmRV 47" E Camp-Perrin 13 KmIS 360 W Anse-8-Veau 10 KmsIS 45" E Anse-8-Veau 4 KmlS 5 W. JCrCmie 20 KmIS 53 W. J6rdmie 24 kmIS 49 W. J6rCmie 26 km1S 59 W. JCrkmie 18 kmIS 4" W JCrCmie Source: lnventory of Hydrologic Rcsourccs (Synthesis of Hydro-electricPotcntialof Haiti-CIDA, April 1977. Water potential for agricultural purposes depends on the proximity of suitable land, Estimates of this potential is variously reported, with perhaps 180,000 ha as the upper limit. Actual irrigated lands cover less than 70,000 ha in Haiti. The water resources of Haiti have also been inventoried and characterized in accordance with hydroelectric potential (See Table 111-2). Groundwater The foregoing refers only to surface water and does not take into account groundwater resources. There is little information on the potential ,availability of groundwater. Harza (1979) estimated the potential groundwater resources in 22 areas selected to be used for possible irrigation. Table 111-3 summarizes these data.

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Tuhle 111..3 GROUNDWATER POTENTIALS FOR 22 SELECTED AREAS -Rcgion Numbcr of Project Nunibcr of Project Potential Water Arcas Acquifers No. of Acquifers Flow for which flow t/sec was estimated North & North Western Region 7 13 7 500-685 Artibonite Reglion 2 2 Southeast Coast Region 3 5 2 399-1 114 South Coast Rcgion 5 3 2 530+ Central Plains Rcgion 5 6 1 15-45 Total 22 29 12 14441844 Sourcr* Harza 1979 Final Reports: Water Rcsourccs Study for Haiti. Area springs ;Ire lumped and counted as one potential acquifer. Groundwater is used for irrigation in significant amounts in only two regions. currently water is pumped for irrigation in the Cul-de-sac area, with some 50 wells for irrigation of about 3500 ha by HASCO. An ndditional19 wells are used by several cooperatives for irrigation within the region, producing a wide variety of crops. The wells were initially expected to provide water to irrigate approximately 200 ha each. In practice, however, only about 100 ha are irrigated from each well (Hauge, 1984). Groundwater for irrigation has also been developed in the Plaine des Gonaives. Pumped wells supply about 75 percent of the water for irrigation of 3000 ha, the remaining 25 percent is supplied by pumping water from seasonal flows of nearby streams. Groundwater capital is widely used for domestic purposes in the larger towns, including the city of Portau-Prince. Some of the principal areas in which groundwater is domestically used include the Cul-deSac, Leogane, Carrefour, St-Marc, Cabaret, GrandeRivic're Du Nord (Gridc Rivikrc du Norcl), Linionade, ~uanarninthe' and Aquin (Library of Congress, 1079). Availability of Rainfall for Agriculture Figure 111-1 illustrates the general pattern of rainfall throughout Haiti. Most locations have a dry period during the winter months, while the high rainfrdlvalues in October and November partially reflect the impact of hurricanes on the mean monthly values. In most years, rainfall is less than the values given on this figure for these two months. Whcn hurricancs strike, the rainfall values are far greater than the 300 mm values. Table 111-4 presents mean monthly moisture availability index values (MAI) for some selected stations. Fig. 111-1: General rainfall patterns based on four selected loallties. The MA1 is a useful agro-climatological index for planning purposes because it indexes relative rainfall adequacy. It is defined as PDIETP, where PD is the 75 percent probability of monthly precipitation, and ETP is the monthly evapo-transpiration potential. An MA1 value of less than 0.50 signals that dry fertilizers should not be used, as not enough moisture exists to

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Table 111-4 MONTHLY MOISTURE AVAILABILITY INDEX FOR SELECTED STATIONS Station Jan Camp Perrin 0.30 Cerca la Source 0.00 Cap-Hait 0.45 Ennery 0.00 Furcy 0.00 Desdun. 0.00 Saut Mat 0.94 Soubois 0.44 Feb 0.28 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.02 0.00 1.12 0.52 Mar 0.39 0.00 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.85 0.58 June July Aug Sept Oct Nov 0.86 0.05 1.44 0.13 0.45 0.00 1.37 0.86 Dec Annual Source: MA1 values from: Coffey, Lewis, Hauge (1984) / Hargreaves and Samani (1983) allow the fertilizer to become solublc and then be absorbed for plant growth. Since it detects moisture deficiencies, the MA1 values are useful for first approximation determination of irrigations needs. Only when MA1 values are at least 0.75 will the better soils have high enough moisture storage to prevent moisture stress. As soils dcgtade through erosion, a higher MA1 valuc is likely needed. Finally, a high MA1 value (> 120). generally indicates a need for drainage to prevent water lugging on flat or gentle slopes. lrrigation Tablc 111-5 lists the number of months that irrigation is needed, by geographical location, according to MA1 values. For values between 0.50 and 0.74, supplemcntal irrigation would increase agricultural yields by removing moisture strcss during the growing season. Because thc moisture deficit in thcsc regions is not large, a small amount of irrigation should greatly incrcusc yields. In areas where slight moisture needs (0.50-0.75) arc only during brief dry periods falling within the humid season, supplemental irrigation has proven very effective elsewhere and would bc useful in Haiti. MA1 valucs bctwccn 0.33 and 0.49 indicate greater water demands. Without irrigation under thcsc conditions, yields are exceedingly low. Annual crops ideally should not be grown when the MA1 values are in this range; not only because of low yields, but also with the poor ground cover, high erosion would likely occur. Finally, when MA1 values are less than 0.33, not only is irrigation needed, but fields generally require large quantites of water when riverflows are low. According to the information provided in Table 111-5, the existing irrigation schemes that require the greatest quantitcs of water per arca of irrigated land, arc found in the Cul-de-sac, lower Artibonite and northwest, whilc thc irrigated areas with the lowest water demands are on the north and south coasts. Unfortunately, from an environmental management perspective, the prognosis is not favorable for irrigation expansion, anywhere, even in those arcas of relatively low water demand, unless major environmental interventions are immediately initiated in the uplands of the various watersheds. To maximize surfacc waters for irrigation, impoundment of water is required; yet, reservoirs can rarely be justified economically, solely for irrigation. Multipurpose use, including combinations of flood control, Table 111-5 IRRIGATION NEEDS BASED ON MA1 INDEX Location No. of Months having MA1 Values Months of Example of 0.50-0.74 0.33-0.49 <0.33 Irrigation Irrigation Project -____.1--1__----11-__---I--.----.--.--------*------------------.-----------------------.----.--------------.---.---------.-----.-----.-----------------So. Coast of the So. Peninsula 3 2 3 8 Moreau-Funfrede South East 3 2 6 11 Orangers Cul de Sac 2 3 7 12 Varreux Lower Artibonite 1 2 9 12 Artibonite dist. I-IV Upper Artibonite 1 2 6 9 Nan Paul North Coast 1 4 2 7 Limb6 North West 0 3 9 12 Jean-Rabel

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rccrcation and cncrgy production, more oftcn than not, must bc included to rnakc irrigation fcasil)lc, using impoundment stri~tcgics. Even then, costs can only be justified if the reservoir's costs can bc pro-rated over il long period of time (c.g. 100 years). In the context of Haiti's existing cnvironmcnt, reservoir construction is a rccklcss striitcgy. First, duc to thc lack of tree covcr and poor land monagcmcnt in the uppcr portions of almost ;dl I-luitian rivcr hasins, scdimcntation would be rapid in any reservoir. For exampfc, Lakc Pcligrc has lost over 30 percent of its stwage capacity in less than 25 years (LGL, Vol. 2, 1981). Second, good agricultural lands along the vellcy bottoms in the uplands would be removed from production, rcducing foodgrowirrg capacity for thousancls of small Famcrs. Hypolhallcal Hydrograph In rrrponsa lo raln event under nsluralcondllton 1 2 b Hypalhallcrl Hydrogr#ph In rmrponar to ldrnllcd rrlnavanl undrr clrrrrdground covar Fig. 111-2: Water nvallability as a function of vegetative cover and river discharge Evidence exists that the quantity of surface waters available for irrigatiorl is decreasing each year due to the relationship bctwecn vegetativc covcr end river discharge (Figure 111-2). Bascflows, which rcprcscnt the water available for irrigation when storagc is limited, arc diminishing (Lowenstein, 1984). Thus, it would appear that groundwater utilization needs now to be considcrcd, although a rcccnt evaluation dismisses this strategy a priori, without any data analysis (LcBaron ct ul. 1984). Potential groundwuter use, howcvcr, is king threntcncd by thc continuing dcgradation of thc uplands, With i\n cvcr lowcr percentage of rainfall infiltrating into the groundwater, recharge of groundwatcr must bc dccrcasing. Unlike other rcnewable resources, the groundwatcr resource still cxists within the lowlands due to rapid runoff causcd by deforestation and stccp slopes. Groundwater utilization, particularly in these arcas, needs to be evduatcd. Devclopnwnt of this potential resource, howcvcr, should not begin until proper environmental safcyuards arc implcmcntcd. If pumping rates cxcced inflow into the groundwater, thc salinization of fresh water will occur. To be ablc to maximizc pumping, interventions throughout the pertinent watcrshcds need to be undertaken. The linkages affecting the environmental status of water, soil and forests both in-situ and spatially, need to bc considcrcd at thc onset of any proposcd activity that intends to utilize groundwater resources. Watersheds Haiti's watersheds (river basins) include all the lands ubovc tl~c rivcr-discharges to scil. A11 flows of energy and matter move solely in a downstrcam direction. The flow conditions are determined by the elevation and slopc of the basin and the climate (precipitation), as well as the resistance of the soil and its infiltration characteristics (vcgctativc covcr). Crop selection, farming practices and trcc cutting also significantly affect thcs magnitude and stability of thc river basin system, or watershed. From an ccological perspcctivc, thc uplands and lowlands within u watershed arc completely inter-related, just as the physical characteristics and the socio-economic systems throughout each watershed impact onc another. The effects of soil crosion on rivcr flow arc cxpcricnced both on-site and downstream. Accelerated soil erosion upstream degrades both upland and downstream areas, such as reservoirs and engineering works (c.g. irrigation canals and sewage systems), resulting in ever higher costs for maintenance and reconstruction (Figure 111-3). In addition, with lower infiltration ratcs resulting from existing soil loss, the flow regime and total river discharge are often permanently altered. Changes in the flow, both rate and volume, and in sediment load, complicate the management considerations of forestry, agriculture, and downstrcam impacts of all activities affecting the watcrshcd. On-site and downstream impacts of all activities affecting the watersheds should be considered in both economic and environmental planning. The amount of water (discharge) flowing through the river basin system, and the seasonal variations, arc important factors in watershed management. When precipitation strikes the ground, the route that

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Fig. 111-3: Aerial photo~raph (Scale 1 :40,0W flown in 1978 showing ter'rigenous sediment input to the marineenvironment ltom Rivi&reRoaeoux, near Jkrhie (Courtesy: Service Chlksie et Cartographie) the wutcr takes (Figurc 111-4) in reaching the rivcr channel influences the river's flow rcgimc. Overland or surface wutcr flows travel at the highest velocity (m/min) and reaches the channel first. Surface wutcr, howcvcr, stops flowing shortly after the rain ends. Conversely, the rain that irriiltratcs through the soil and becomes groundwatcr, moves more slowly (cmlhr) and may take wccks or months before entering the rivcr channel. Overland flow contributes mainly to thc stormflow of a river (Figurc 111-2). Groundwater flow is the major contributor to the baseflow of the stream. It is thc baseflow that permits rivers to continue to flow during the dry scilson in Haiti. Throughflow's contribution to rivcr discharge is closer to that of the groundwatcr flow; howcvcr, in a humid tropical rivcr basin, a very largc proportion of the throughflow would be ci~pturcd by cvapo-transpiration. 'I'o :I large degree, this watcr source rcprcscnts rainfall that never cntcrs the rivcr system, but provides a very important sourcc of moisturc for deep-rooted plants. Whcn a river basin's groundcover is altcrcd from broadleaf forcst to an annual row crop such as maize, a larger proportion of the rainfall bccomcs overland flow; while thc groundwatcr, and, accordingly, the baseflow, decreases. With less watcr reaching groundwatcr lcvels and greater volumcs of water cntering the river, watcr lcvels in the channcl rise faster and the river systcm has larger peak discharges but lower recharge and bascflows. River flows also drop faster since surface watcr flows only continuc for a short period after the rain ceases. In Haiti, with its soils and altered vegetation cover, thc hydrograph illustrated for clcared lands in Figurc 111-2 is the typical cusc. It is prcdictcd that as conditions for crosion increase, rivcr regimes will become evcr more pc;~kcd duc to an evcr grcater proportion of the rainfall becoming overland flow. In Haiti this trend towards more extrcmc flow rcgimcs is further strcnghtcncd by the steep slope charnc-

PAGE 36

teristics of most of the river basins. Generally speaking, those parameters that affect the hydrologic balance between overland flow and infiltration into the groundwater are more sensitive on steeper slopes than on flat lands. Thus, the destruction of the forests on fragile uplands has severely altered river hydrographs in the lowlands, the very areas in Haiti where a stable stream regime is needed most to maximize the utility of the water resource. B = Infiltrated water that becomes ground water flow C = throughflow a ahallow (subsurkace) flow that moves within vegetal debris or the upper portlons ot the sol1 Fig. 111-4: River flow regime In relation to lnnltration and through flow. A paucity of river discharge data exists throughout the country. No systematic data collection is in operation. Almost all discharge values quoted for Haitian rivers are based on measurements dating from the 1930-1940 period. A few recent discharge values are available, based on short-term observations connected with specific projects. Since dramatic environmental changes to vegetation cover and soils have occurred during the last forty years, thc oftcn quoted values are out of date. Mean discharge values in almost all cases are probably larger since cvapo-transpiration losses must be less, with the seriously degraded vegetation cover decreasing the moisture storage potential of the soils found on most slopc lands (Coffey et al., 1984). Thcsc two changcs, alone, imply that a larger percentage of rainfall enters the river system today than in years past. Unfortunately, this larger total discharge, reflected in higher mean flows, is a water resource largely lost to the su~.rounding seas due to the trend of more extreme flow regimes. With each passing year, the rivers and streams throughout Haiti flow more and more like torrents than stable permanent rivers. As a result, the river's use as il water supply for ever increasing population is continuously decreasing. When water is needed during the dry seasons, less is available. Table 111-6 presents the published discharge data for all of Haiti. This lack of current data represents a critical shortcoming for sensible project design of hydroelectric and irrigation schemes. The numerous feasibility studies that have been prepared for irrigation, hydroelectric and other water-related projects, unfortunately, have had to extrapolate from this no longer relevant data base. For example, the Etude de FaisabilitC-Projet GU-1-Riv. Guayamouc (HQI-LGLLMBDS, 1982) which examines the proposed dam sites to protect the Peligre lake from sedimentation, at; well as to generate electrical power, is based on the 1925-1931 discharge data. The attempt to update this inndequate data base through correlation with precipitation has had to introduce error into the assessment, since the vegetation and soil attributes of the catchment basin clearly have changed between 1931 and 1982. Watershed Management One of the basic tenets of watershed management dictates that the soil surface be maintained in a condition that maximizes the infiltration of rainfall. Trees are crucial components in this strategy. By intercepting precipitation, a dense forest canopy reduces rainfall intensity; dead leaf matter riot only protects soils from the direct impact of raindrops, but also increases the infiltration of the ground surface; the root structures of trees increase the resistance of the soil to erosion; and, the vegetation matter on the forest floor increases friction which reduces the erosional potential of surface water runoff. Overland flow of water results whenever precipitation is greater than the sum of infiltration and interception. Removal of vegetative cover from an area increases the erosional potential of an area by lowering infiltration and interception rates which increase overland flow, the major cause of erosion in Haiti. To minimize erosional potential and create a stable hydrologic regime in an area, vegetation is a crucial variable. On steep lands, permanent vegetative cover is absolutely essential to retain vital soils and contribute to a stable hydrologic regime. The problems of bringing ecological land use planning to tropical river basins before erosion destroys too large a proportion of their soil and water resources, remain one of the major environmental challenges in the developing world (Pereira, 1973). Nowhere is this objective more critical than in Haiti. Improving land use in this country's watersheds must be one of the critical, if not the most crucial, environmental concern of the nation. All available data and surrogates, albeit very limited, indicate that despite widespread recognition of land degradation and destruction, land use practices and trends continue to lower the short-term potential productivity of Haiti's forest land and water resources, and threaten the long-term viability of the nation's natural resource base and its economy. This is not a rural or an urban problem, it is a national problem. A whole array of urban and rural needs, including water, food, building materials, energy and economic development are threatened by existing patterns of land use. More foreboding, recent evidence (Cohen, 1984; Lowenstein, 1984) points to an accele-

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Table 111.6 RIVER DISCHARGES River Site of Cleared Lands Year MeanMs. Max.Dis. M1n.W. dsec mdsec dsec Trois Ri~ibres Rivihe Limb6 Gde Riviere du Nord Riv. Massacre Riv. Boyaha Riv. Guayamouc Riv. Artibonite Riv. Artibonite Riv. Estere Riv. Fer-A-Cheval* Riv. Blanche* Riv. Grise Riv. Pedernaies Riv. Marigot Riv. de Jacmel Riv. Momance Riv. CBtes de Fer Riv. Cavaillon Riv. Islet Riv. Torbec Riv. Ravine du Sud Riv. Gde. Anse* Riv. Voldrogue Riv. Limb6 # Riv. Gallois # Riv. Est&re # Riv. Bois # Riv. La Theme # Riv. Montrouis # Riv. Torcelle # Riv. Courjol # Riv. Matheux # Riv. Islet # Riv. Acul Paulin Lacorne Pont Gros Morne Plaisance Roche A I'Inde Pont Parois Ouanaminthe St-Raphael Hinche Mirebalais Pont Sonde Pont Est&re Pont P6tion La Gorge Amt. Bassin G6n. Anse-A-Pitre Peredot Jacmel Amont Barrage C8tes de Fer Cavaillon Charpentier Torbec Camp Perrin Passe Ranja Passe Laraque Pont Christophe Grison Garde Pont Benoit Verrettes Passe Fine Pont Toussain t Messaye Bassin Proby Arcahaie Cayes Carr. Valere 1965-67 23-40;62-67 25-40;62-67 22-40 22-40 22-40 22-40 26-31 22-40 22-40 65-67 23-31 22-40 19-40 29-30 28-30 26-31 20-40 28-30 22-41 23-31 23-31 23-35 25-31 28-30 22-30 22-31 22-31 24-31; 33,3540 23-3 1 24-30 22-41 22-39 22-36 23-31 83 est. Sources of data OAS, Haiti-Mission d'Assistance Technique Integree, 1972 # HARZA, Water Ressources Study for Haiti, 1979 SHELADIA Ass., Integrated Agricultural Development Project-Dubreuil, 1983. ration in the processes of environmental destruction. Given the long history of abusive environmental activities, for all practical purposes, the undermining of the country's renewable resources has become an integral part of the nation's fabric. In practice, almost every conventional conservation strategy in the agricultural, hydrologic and forestry realms is ignored throughout the country. Ecosystems everywhere must be experiencing decreasing capacities for sustained production; yet this statement is impossible to prove at the national level, as too little data exists. Only in very limited areas, such as on the bare slopes in the uplands of 1'Acul river basin (Coffey, et al., 1984), is there proof of ecosystem decline and collapse. Given the apparent poor status of Haiti's forest land and water resources, immediate action must be taken without the waiting for a complete data base. D.THE FOREST RESOURCE With temperature being relatively uniforw throughout the year, it is the amount and seasond

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patterns of rainfall that largely determine vegetative patterns under natural conditions in the tropics. With annual precipitation almost everywhere greater than 1000 mm broadleaf or pine forests should exist throughout 75 percent of Haiti (NRC, 1982). Only in the drier areas along the southern coast, the northwest, the northeast, the lower Artibonitc, and the Cul-deSac Plain, should dry forest be found (OAS, 1972 Chapter 5). This was the vegetative pattern of Haiti prior to the European colonization. Life Zones According to the Holdridge Life Zone Classification System, there are nine different life zones in Haiti. It is interesting to note that Holdridge devised his classification system while working in Haiti in the 1940's. Subtropical Thorn Woodland; represented by semi-desert conditions of only 550 mm of rainfall a year, and a xerophytic forest dominated by Cercidium praexcox, Prosopis juliflora (bayahonde) and cacti from the genera Opuntia and Cereus. This life zone is typical of the cacti formations of the northwestern peninsula. Subtropical Dry Forest; characterized by Phyllostylon brasiliensis, Prosopis juliflora and Guaiacum officinalis. Found at altitudes below 400 mad, this second largest life zone is highly productive where soils are deep and irrigation is available (Cul-de-sac). On shallow soils and without water, it has typically supported sisal plantations. Subtropical Moist Forest; constitute the most extensive life zone in Haiti. Characteristic plants have included the mahogany tree (Swietenia mshogani), the tropical oak tree (Catalpa longissimn and the royal palm (Roystonea regia). It prevails on the Central Plateau and on the alluvial plains in the north, center and south. This zone supports the majority of subsistence farming and the cultivation of mangoes and avocados. Subtropical Wet Forest; the zone covering most low-altitude mountain ridges and small mountains (mornes). Its coverage is restricted to the nothern and southern coasts of Haiti and portions of the Central Plateau. It supports coffee, cocoa and rubber plantations, primarily on calcareous (limestone) soils. Subtropical Rain Forest; found typically at the lower altitudes of the Massif dc la Hotte in the southern peninsula. This zone is not productive for farming, since it contains a shallow soil base, yet its recent exploitation for slash-and-burn agriculture indicates the extent of the population pressure on the remaining forest resources of the country. Because of heavy rainfall, it produces poor harvests and is very susceptible to erosion. Its value as wildlife habitat and erosion control far exceeds its value for cultivation of food crops. sents the zone of low altitude mountains, such as the Kenscoff area near Port-au-Prince, in altitudes ranging from 800 to 2000 masl. It is generally well suited for the cultivation of potatoes and other vegetables, if the slopes are farmed using soil conservation practices.. Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest; characterized by higher rainfall than in the previous zone and includes most of the pine forest remaining in Haiti. Its use should involve the protection and sustained utilization of the pine forest (Pinus occidentalis). Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest and Subtropical Montane Wet Forest; cover a limited area in Haiti, primarily on the slopes of the higher mountain ranges in the south (La Selle). These zones are charicterjzed by pine forest and evergreen broadleaf forest. Trends Today, there is little resemblance to this potential natural landscape as described by these Life Zones. Commercial harvesting of trees, and clearing of forest for agriculture, has destroyed the natural forests. By 1954, it was estimated that only 8 to 9 percent of the land surface remained in forest (Burns 1954). In spite of numerous reforestation projects, Haiti continues to lose its last remaining forests either to land clearing for food production or tree cutting for lumber and fuelwood. TABLE 111-7 FOREST COVER BY MAJOR WATERSHEDS (Derived from DATPE 1:250,000 maps) -River Total Tree Basin O/O Basin Area (Km') Area(Krna) Tree Cover 4 P.de-PaixIP. Margot 5 LirnbC 6 Zone Cap-Haitien 7 Grande R. du Nord 10 Esthrc 1 la Upper Artibonitc llb Lower Artibonite 13 Cul de Sac 14 Fond Verrettes 15 Leogane 16 Sud-Est 17 Jacmel 20 Cavaillon 2 1 Lcs Cayes 22Tiburon 1 P. Salut 23 irois l JCrCrnie 24 G. Anse 25 Voldrogue/Roseaux 26 Corail I Anse B Veau Total 1,846.7 6.7 Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest; repre-

PAGE 39

Fig. 111-5: Rotli~ini~~g forcsts of Ili~iti: I'itlr and Ilroc~tllci~f for~netions i~ggrc~i~tccl,

PAGE 40

A very conservative estimate, based on the difference between wood product9 being'consumed and the numbers of trecs being planted and naturally regenerating, indicates that for (:.very new tree, three are being cut or burned. Sorne estimates place the current ratio of trees cut and burned to planting and regeneration to be as great as seven to one. Trees are being cleared without regard for hydrologic and soils information, and not replaced where they are being cut, thus undercutting the attempted mitigation of deforestation impacts on the ecology. Figure 111-5 and Table 111-7 quantify the 1978 areal coverage of broadleaf and pine forest throughout Haiti; these are parcels of forest by major watersheds falling within the dense and open forest categories and including all lands having at least 60 percent tree coverage. These data indicate that in 1978, only 6.7 percent of the country remained forested. The single largest forest parcel (264 km2) remaining is the pine forest in the southeastern portion of the nation, while the highest percentage of tree cover is found in the Fond Verrettes (37 percent) watershed, an area where all rivers drain into the Dominican Republic. Of the thirty major watersheds within country, twelve were completely deforested by 1978. According to DATPE (Table 111-7), 9.2 percent of the country is forested; however, this includes savanna with trees as well as sparsely covered forest lands that, from an erosional or hydrologic perspective, do not function as tree covered landscapes. Of the 6.7 percent of existing forest, approximately 36 percent (659 km2) falls within the dense category (80 to 100 percent canopy cover) and 64 percent is in the open category (60 to 79.9 percent canopy cover). From this, it can be inferred that the areas of open forest experiencing tree clearing are likely areas of agricultural and grazing activity expansion. The highly fragmented pattern of forest cover illustrated in Figure 111-5 indicates that the edges of these parcels are undergoing active tree cutting and/or burning. The majority of these remaining forest parcels are concentrated along watershed divides, covering steep and potentially highly erodible lands. As these lands are cleared, hydrologic and sediment balances within the affected river systems will be further altered. In the northwest (Anse Rouge to Jean Rabel) and the western portion of the southern peninsula (CampPerrin to Roscaux and Pic Macaya National Park), Cohen (1984) documents the pattern of current land clearing. Lowenstein (1984) substantiates the negative results of the deforestation in the Pic Macaya area on the irrigation potential in the Grancle Ravine du Sud of the Cayes Plain. From 1978 to 1984, Cohen (1984) determined that deforestation in three study areas, namely degraded forest, open forest, and closed forest, ranged between 1.0 and 3.4 percent. Even more alarming, the actual decrease in closed forest area during this six year-period was 12.6 percent per year. The only environmentally beneficial vegetative cover in these humid mountainous lands apparently is rapidly disappearing. Prospects To estimate the future status of forest cover in Haiti, the 1978 vegetation cover (Table 111-7) was assumed by the CEP team to undergo a constant decrease of 0.67 percent. Figure 111-6 represents those trends and prospects. This value is conservative, since it is less than one-half of Cohen's measured rates. The demands for lands and trees should remain at least what they were between 1978 and 1984 unless spectacular L changes occur in population, agriculture and industry. If anything, the results presented in Table 111-8 underestimate the severity of the problem. As is clearly evident from Table 111-8, all areas of open and closed forest cover will likely be gone within fifty years unless extreme and immediate action is initiated and established. By 1990, eight, or one-half, of the river basins having forest cover in 1978, will likely be completely denuded of forest lands. One of these basins, the upper Artibonite, drains directly into Lake Peligre, which already has lost over 30 percent of its storage capacity due to sedimentation (LGL, 1981). The proposed multi-million dollar dam construction on the Guayamouc makes little sense unless the tree cutting is stopped in this area, and the lands above the proposed reservoir are immediately protected. By the year 2008, unless current rates of tree cutting are stopped and reforestation in appropriate areas is accelerated only one river basin will have any forest cover remaining. There is no evidence, documented or otherwise, that the deforestation trend will be reduced, yet alone stopped. Clearly, new far-reaching initiatives need to be developed and implemented imme-

PAGE 41

diately before the last vestiges of Hiiiti's forest is forever lost. TABLE 111-8 ESTIMATED NUMBER-YEAR DENSE AND OPEN FOREST IS TOTALLY REMOVED BY RIVER BASIN Basin Year 4 Port de Paix 1 P. Margot 1995 5 Limb6 1986 7 Grande Rivibre du Nord 1981 (Gone)* 10 Estbre 1982 (Gone) IlaUpper Artibonite 1987 llb Lower Artibonite 2002 13 Cul de Sac 1982 (Gone) 14 Fond Verrettes 2042 15 Ltogane 1981 (Gone) 17 Jacmel 1981 (Gone) 20 Cnvaillon 1996 21 Les Cbyes 2008 22Tiburon / P. Salut 1992 23 Iroisl Jkr6mie 1995 24 Grande Anse 2007 26 Corail / Anse ri Veau 1980 (Gone) # estimates based on an average decrease of O.670/0/ year of 1978 tree cover. gone only implies there are no stands of dense or open forest according to the DATPE, 1983 criteria that can be detected at a scale of 1:250,000. Current and past mitigation projects have been inadequate to meet the challenge of reforestation. The integrated watershed projects, such as those undertaken in I'Acul (USDAIUSAID, 1983) and Limb6 (PNUDIFAO, 1984) failed, for a host of reasons. Significantly, two factors were identified: the lack of involvement of local people and the lack of perceived benefits of the projects by the local population. Once external funding stopped, the land improvment practices ceased. Planted saplings either died, were browsed by livestock, or cut by the inhabitants. Engineering works quickly went into disrepair and, once not maintained, increased land degradation. Two tree planting projects, the SHEEPA (SociCt6 Haitienne d'Etude et dlExtcution des Projets Agricoles) and the AOP (Agroforestry Outreach Project), appear to be successful in mobilizing the small farmer to plant trees for profit. The SHEEPA project is raising and selling mostly fruit trees in the eastern portion of the Upper Artibonite Valley. AOP through its three components, ODH (Operation Double Harvest), PADF (Pan American Development Foundation) and CARE, are distributing seedlings to be later used for fuelwood, charcoal, poles and eventually lumber. These projects, however, are conceptualized as income producing, not as reforestation projects (Conway, 1983; Miller and Ehrlich, 1984). Tree planting locutions iire selected by the farmers and in almost all cases trees awe not planted in areas where the trees either maximize their role in the control of soil erosion or water cot~servution. In fact, the purpose of the AOP is to eventually harvest the trees. The ODBFA tree planting in the Upper Artibonite, to lower sedimentation yicld into Lake Peligre, has also not been entirely planned as a reforestation project. The continuation of the deforestation of Haiti's few remaining forest tracts, in response to both the need to expand farming into new areas to offset the decline of soil productivity in established areas, as well as to derive income from the sale of the wood, is fundamentally altering the nation's hydrologic regimes. River discharges everywhere are becoming less stable, permanent streamflows are changing the intermittent flows, while groundwater is decreasing, The magnitude of Haiti's environmental situation is evident in every region of the country. With the resource base declining everywhere, even if optimal land use strategies are immediately adopted, there is little hope that the potential'productivity of the physical systems can ever return to former levels. E.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1 .INITIATE LAND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES Today's grave environmental situation, as evidenced by the deterioration of the countryside, including sharply declining food production, internal migration into Port-au-Prince, the high unemployment of rural emigrants, and the continuing attempts at illegal international migration, has been thoroughly documented in a series of studies (e.g. Donner, 1975; Larose, undated; PNUD, 1981). To have any stabilizing effect at all, and conservation strategies are urgently needed now. The traditional conservative sectoral approach with a multitude of preliminary pilot programs that might seem prudent at first glance, is irresponsible in the Haitian context. Time is of the essence. Immediate large scale changes and investments are needed now; any alternative is defeatist. Hillslopes are being destroyed throughout Haiti, not just degraded. The natural resource base of the country is moving from the renewable resource category into a non-renewable classification. Fortunately, previous reports and studies provide useful insights from which to develop immediate large scale land-use programs (e.g. Coffe et al, 1984; Conway, 1983; Murray, 1979; ODBFA, 1983). Therefore, it is possible to move directly toward implementation of land strategies, based upon these findings. Emphbsis should be placed on projects involving systems where the greatest immediate and long-term benefits are likely to occur. Development projects concerned with environmental amelioration have to

PAGE 42

iriclrltlc plly~ici~l, so~ii~l, cco~ionlic, i~ntl iiistitutionitl ccmlwnc~its; otherwise. pros~xxts for ~IICC~SS ;ire ncgligihlc. 'l'lic ~n;ignitutlc ol' I:r~~il cleg~xcl;~lio~r I.wth in cstclit i11)tI scvclity IlCg;llc ;Illy ;ItIcI111M I0 SOIVI: lll~ p1.0IIIc111 011 il 11iiliOllil~ SC;I~C, ;I1 li'il~l ill 111~ l'Ol'c'5~~~l~I~~ ~'U~lll~, A rcgio11;il ;~pproiicli is niorc likely to prove succcs::l'ul 111 solvi~ig I l;~iti's c~~~viro~~~~ie~it;il ill~icss (C'oSfcy, ct ill. I 0H-I). '1'0 select projects withill this regional co~itcst, ;I sct of critcri;~ must he tlcvclopctl to tlctc~rnii~ic priorities ill sclccli~ig rcgion;~l ~~rojccts I'or slri~tcgy iniplcnicnt;~tion. 111 the interest of i~ii~iicdii~tc ~iei~d. sclcctioli critcriii slioulcl ilicluclc 11iosc projects wll~ich prcscrvc the ~wtcntinlly most prorluctivc lands. 'She ilrciis, within I liiiti, sclcctctl I'or ininicili;~tc land co~lscrv;ition projects IliiIy not necessarily be thc most procluctivc lunrls toil;~y, hicc political considcrirtions (such as owncrship) with resulting investment priicticcs. may t7c distorting 1)rocluction st;rtistics. 'I'hc lands dclincatccl by the CEP (see Figure IV-I) rcprcsent one possihlc set of high priority urc;is bi~sccl on low crosion risk. :~rablc land critfcria. Othcr criteria sho~~lil he dc~clopcd to select i\rc;ls which Iiavc iniportnnt cnvironmcntol and socio-economic implications in ;idilition to or othcr thim l'ooel prodilction. For cxampic, criteria which identify mountitinous iircils producing lurgc qun~ititics of sctliment that thrci~tcn existing hydroelectric plants and other infri~structurc and lowlands agricultural production should be ir~clutlcd. No matter which lands arc idcntificd as crucial to prcscrvc, it is critical, ill the first stage of project formulation, to identify all the critical systcni links that ilffcct and interact ori these lands. For example, lowlands have arid likely will rcniain the highest priority Cor both intc:rnational donors and the GOI-I. Yet irrigation projects to increase food production in the lowlittd arcils have ri~rely 11lct expectations in the pi~st bcc;rusc an integrated wiitcrshcd approach wiis not part of the planning process. 2.FOCUS ON CAYFiS BASIN REGION The Caycs Basin region appears to be il high. if not the highest, priority area for immediate program initiatives bnscd on the criteria suggcstcd. Previous rcports (Coffcy ct al. 1984; Dclatour et al. 1984) indicate that this area, both physically unrl sociologically, has potential for success. Compiiri~tivc datn for all of Haiti indicate that thc greatest co~icentriition of agricultural lands with low crosion risk is found here. The ilrcil becomes even more valtii~blc hcc;iusc 99 percent of these "good" lands form ;I single continuous tract. Furthermore, climatic conditions mukc possihlc rainfed agriculture throughout the critirc rcgion, and supplcnicnti~l irrigiltion wodtl incrcilsc the riqy of crop yicltls, cspcciidly if fcrtilizcrs arc cl'l'cctivcly usctl. 3.INCORI'ORA'I'ION OF LOCAL PAR'I'ICIPATION IN LAND-USE PROJECTS. If thc inhabit;ults ilrc to accept the licccl to alter existing i~gricultiiriil priicticcs, benefits must directly and immcdiatcly accrue to the small farmcr whcncvcr innovations arc attempted. Local participation of the pcoplc living on the li~nd must be an integral part of any environmental project. Guarantees should be in pli~cc, prior to improvements, to protect the farmers from losing cithcr their land, or having tax laws applied to negate the bcnefitsonce the land utility increi~ses. B~C~ILISC of the ecological interaction of the physical processes and the fragmented nature of land holdings throughout the countryside, local participation must be coordinated within functional ilroi.is such ;is hillslopc iind catchment units. A rccent community soil conservation project. Ti Bwa (Petit-Bois) is illustriitive of a successful environmental maintenance effort at the local level (Tnlbot, 1984; Lowcnthal. 1984). Minimal development occurred, but at least land degradation was arrested. In many ways. the building of waterway channels along the hillslopes in this arcit illustrated t hc conimirni ty coopcrntion/liiIlslopc unit approach i~dvocatcd by Murray (1979) (Figure 111-7). The contour canills arc now cwhing runol't'. which reduces erosion. Thcir primary bcnfit, howcver, incrci~scs gro11nclw:itcr rcchargc, which permits crops (c.g. sorghum to survivc. Bccausc of the thinsoil throughout the arca, crop production likely will only be able to meet the nccds of the existing population demands

PAGE 43

I'V( :~c.tit,itica ~~cb~tl 10 Iw co~~c'ptu;~li/cd Ilqo~d tllc IIO~III;I~ II;II~SOW *go;~Is 01' IIIC\~ ~I.~;IIIIY;I~I~I~\. 'lllcir opes~.;ltions IIIII\~ Iw 1;1ilor~~l to the ~~ccils O~';III ~IIV~I.~I~IIIL*IIti11 I'r;~~i~cwork ;IIICI wi111i11 ;III i~itcg~~;~tcil e~r~~~iro~~~~icr~t;~l :l~l~Il~o;lcll. I'oln~l;~rio~~ IJI.L*~~III.~S OII I I;~iti'\ I'r;~gilc* I;111iIs IIILIS~ dccrc;~~~. '1'11~s. pro~ect\ i~~tc~~dcil to il~~l~~x)vc tl~c ellviro~~~~ic~~t 111~~1 ;11ho ~II~III~~ ~*OI~~IJ~II~II~S C'OII~~~II~~ wit11 111r;11 ;III~ ~I~II:III ~.IC~~~~OIIIIICII~ ;111iI I';~niily ~I;IIIning. II' CIIIIIIO~IIICIII o;ylortu~~itich do 1101 CSIJ;IIICI 10 :111sorh t11c cxccsaivc II~I:III~I ;I~~;II.I;III pop~li~tio~~, out111igr;ltion I'rorn tllc liillslolw ;~rc;~s \vill occwr only al'tcr. the uplar~il c~~viron~ncr~ts arc ilclrtroyctl.

PAGE 44

1 Agriculture A.INTRODUCTION Once the richest French colony in the new world, Haiti is now the poorest country in the western hemisphere and one of the poorest in the world. With independence came a breakdown of the plantation system and the irrigation works on which it depended to a large extent. In the civil wars which followed, two processes developed, became institutionalized and are characteristic of the Haitian scme: The parcelization of land, as the freed slaves occupied land in scattered and small parcels, further subdivided by increased population pressure, led to the present state of high degree of morcelization with much insecurity of tenure. The other characteristic which became implanted in Haitian society and which persists to this day, is a lack of identification of the individual with any greater purpose than selflfamily survival and/or agrandissement. Out of this evolved a society in which every layer of the society exploits those which are below. Those two characteristics of the Haitian society are the underlying causes of rural poverty and of the deterioration of the resource base which threatens to make the very survival of the society problematical. Numerous assessments of the agricultural sector have been made in which the characteristics of the sector are amply described and analyzed. The discussion to follow will focus on elements which are most directly related. to the evolution of environmental changes: the resource base, the structure of the sector, production tsihndogy and productivity, the almost insurmountable task of bringing about a reversal of resources degradation and certain options which may be considered. Haiti is a mountainous country with two parallel ridges forming the southern and northern peninsulas. An elevated area, the Central Plateau, extends southward from the northern ridge. A low lying plain, the Cul de Sac, separates the southern mountains from the Central Plateau. Only 29 percent of all lands have slopes of less the 10 percent. Conversely, 63 percent of all lands are too steep (more than 20 percent slope) to be cultivated sustainably. When the land is deprived of the vegetative cover by slash-and-burn farming activities, it can only yield a meager crop for one season. After losing the topsoil to erosion, it becomes unproductive. The situation has already occurred on most lands in Haiti. The FA0 estimates in 1982 that the equivalent of 6,000 ha of farmland is lost to erosion each year. Given the limited amount of arable land remaining in Haiti it is evident that this loss of soil is rapidly diminishing the viability of many areas of the country to support its human population. B.AGRICULTURAL USES OF THE LAND The FA0 Production Yearbook (1983) divides Haiti's total land area of 2,770,000 ha into use suitability classes: (a) arable land (897,000 ha, of which 550,000 ha are suitable for annual crops, and 347,000 ha are suitable for permanent crops); (b) permanent pasture (504,000 ha); (c) forest lands (119,000 ha); and (d) other lands (1,250,000 ha). Actual land use distribution (Table IV-6) shows that 2 out of every 3 ha. of cultivated lands are found on mountains, presumably on more or less steep slopes. 'Thus, twice as much land is cultivated on mounlain slopes than is considered suitable by the FA0 (1983) for permanent crops. Moreover, considering that only a small portion of the cultivated lands on the mountains is actually used under a permanent vegetative cover (permanent crops such as coffee, cocoa, fruit trees), the soil loss from mountain lands cultivated with annual crops is enormous.

PAGE 45

IDotentiul Use (2) 1,uncl Area (kml) md '%, 1)istribution (I) I,n~ntllSoil Clr~ss North l'ri~nsv. West South 'I'otul (h)d soils with possihilitics for irrigation, suiti~blc for mcchilniz;rtion, high ~m)iluctivity potential, topogr;~phy constraining Good soils, not irrigahlc, sonic rcstriction in type of crop, small localized ~ncchunization antl irrigation possible tr:~ditional agriculture with soil coriscrvntion mcasurcs, topogrirphy ;I constraint, most appropriate for tree crops, pasture i~nd forcst. Mediocre soils, swampy suited for ricc subjcct to aclcquntc water dcvclopment and managerncnt, clrainugc and irrigation Soils suited especially for forest, localized tree crop egriculturc and p;lsturcs possible. 'I'opogri~phy constrainingsubjcct to scvcrc erosion. a) includes classcs I and 11 of the USDA systcni 17) inclurlcs clnsscs Ill, IV and V1 of the USDA systcm c) includes class V of the USDA systcni d) inclutlcs clnsscs VI1 and VllI of thc USDA systcm I) 'Shc country is divided into four regions for resources inventory & planning by DATPE (see figure) 2) atlol7tcd by DA'I'I'E from USDA soil capability classification 3) for each rcgionlcountry the totill urea 4) for each rcgionlcountry the percentage of the arca corresponding to the rcspcctive land soil class 5) contribution of each region to area of the rcspcctive clilssc~ expressed in pcrccntage. 'I'hc Ministry of I'li111 in its approi~ch to regional planning. has divided the I-laitian land area into land usc cli~sscs bascil upon a nioclification of the USDA li~nil capability classification systcm (DA'SI'E, 1984). Potential uscs of lullil in the four rcgions rlcwly clcsignatctl, hasctl on that system of classification and clcrivccl from rcccntly producccl miips from 1978 aerial photography (DATI'E,, 1982), arc given in'l'ahlc IV-I. Only 1 1.3 pcrccnt o!' thc total lanil ilrca or 313,010 1ir1 is plnccd in the combined classcs 1 and 11, which represent few constraints for agricultural usc. Much of thc 31.7 pcrccnt of the Iimd placed in the comhincd IJSDA classcs Ill. IV ;~nd VI, consists of stccp slopes subject to scvcrc erosion and suit:~l~lc* only for permncnt crops or pitst~rcs. The I1 A'I'I'E figures show it considcrably largcr ;lrcil in classes I, I1 atld I11 (conibinccl USIIA classcs through VI) than is cl:~ssificd as arable by the FAO. This is due to thc inclusion by DA'l'PE in its class I1 of much of thc land which FA0 classcs as suitablc for permanent ppasttrrc rather than its arable land. l'hc CEP tco111, using more conservative criteria (cog. arable land with low erosion risk). concluded that the arca s~~itiiblc for crop production with few restrictions is in order of approximately 205,000 ha, or 7.4%. The tcam also concluded that the arca unilcr forcst cover is greatly overstated by thc DATPE figures. According to u recent GOH document (DATIJE, l984), forty-twc; pcrccnt of I-laiti's total Ii~nd surfacc is actively being farmed ('hhle IV-2). Utilizing dntii ilcrivccl fro111 1978 air photographs, u soil potcntii~l nlilp and an crosionul map were clcvclopctl (DATPE, 1082). By combining the informiition prcscntcd on these two milps, the CEP tcam dcrivcd on a real dis-

PAGE 46

Table IV-2 AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN HAITI Cultivated lands 870,00() ha 31.4 pcrcent Shiftingcultivatcd lands within pastures 3OO,o(H) 10.8 Grazing lands 530,OM) 19.2 Forest lands 250,OM) 9.0 Non-cultivi~tcd lands 820 ,O(H) 29.6 Total 2,770,00() 100.0 perccnt DATPE ( 1984) tribution of agriculturally "good" lands (low erosional risk under the existing Haitian agricultural system of classes I, 11, Ill, and soils not degraded significantly by erosion Al, A2) within Haiti (Figure IV-1). Having a low risk of environmental degradation, these "good" lands have the best potential for sustaining long-term agriculture, provided that sufficient water is available. A few busic patterns are evident from this map. I3rst, for a country where nearly cighty percent of the population lives in rural areas and whose livelihood is largely based on agricultural activities, there arc fcw "good" lands (7.4% : Table IV-3) that are environmen-Table IV-3 DISTRIBUTION OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL LANDS (Independent of climate) and crop suitability zone Baeln (1) Area of Good Basin % Good Crop Suit. Land (Km') (2) Area (Km') Land Zone (4) 1. Versant Sud 2. Versant Nord 3. Trois Rivii?res, Port-de-Paix 4. P. Margot 5. B. de Limb6 6. Z de CapHaitien 7. B. de la Gdc. Riv. du Nord 8. Zone Nord-Est 9. B. de Quinte 10. B. de I'Estkre 1 la Upper Artibonite (3) llb Lower Artibonite 12. Z St-Marc 13. Z. Cul de Sac 14. Fond Verrettes 15. P. de Leogane 16. Z. Sud-Est 17. B. de la Gde R. dc Jacmel 18. Bainet 1 CBtes de Fer 19. Aquin / St-Louis du Sud 20. Cavaillon 21. Les Cayes 22. Tiburon/ Port Salut 23. Lcs Irois / JCrCmie 24. Grande Arise 25. Voldrogue / Roseaux 26. Corail / Anse 27. Gde. Riv. de Nippes 28. MiragGane / Petit & Grand Gofive 29. Tortue 30. Z. de la Gonave 31. Ile B Vache < than Total 1) Delimitation of basins according to DATPE, 1982. 2) Area falling within Land Potential Classes I, 11, 111 and Land Erosion Risk Al, A2; DATPE, 1982. 3) Upper Artibonite all lands draining above Lake Peligre Dam 4) Based on Rainfed Agriculture in Haiti (Hargreaves et al. 1983).

PAGE 47

t..J oc == '" "0 ... '" :JQ ::!.. '" 5-C ., :0 :.i 1 S' = Q, tIl: I ;; 0' ., til >I "CI S' = = S" ;. z :E o o PREPARED BY WILCOX ASSOCIATES

PAGE 48

tally stable under current land use practices. Second, the majority of these "good" lands itre not contiguous, but in sm;rll discrete units. 'l'hird, even without considering precipitation factors in the delimitation of "good" lands, the northwest has it very restricted pcrcentage of "good" Iilncls for agriculture. On the other hand, the southwest pe~~insuli~, e~peciitlly the Cayes Basin, as well as the zone of the Cul-de-Sac havc the greatest percentage of 'pod" land density Fourth, almost all large parcels of "good" lands arc concentrated along the coast or found along valley bottoms thi~t are likely to be susceptible to flooding. Fifth, if river basin divides are ignored, four large parcels of contiguous "good" lands dwarf all other parcels. These are from north to south: the I;I& in proximity to Cap-Haitien, the lower reaches of the Estere and Artibonite River Basins between Dessalines and St-Marc; the Cul-de-sac lands focused on Croix-des-Bouquets; arid the Cayes river basins. Sixth and finally, when combining both the "good" land factor with the crop suitability zones (Tables IV-3 and IV-4), the Cayes rivcr Basin appears to have the best potential per unit arca of land within a rivcr basin system for rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of crop suitability zones. Table IV-5 providcs data on current (based on 1978 aerial photographs) land use by type of crop, pasture or forest cover. It is clear from these figures that the land currently supporting crops is much larger in arca than what the FA0 has classified as agricultural land. This appears to be due to the high degree of food cultivation interspersed within the areas classed as suitable for tree crops and permanent pasture and forest. Tiible IV-6 shows regional land use in relation to topography. The widespread cultivation of land unsuited for annual crop production, without even minimal attention to soil conservation practices, as well as the extc~~sive clearing of forest covcr for new lands, has led to the catastrophic accelerated state of erosion throughout the country. 'The range of temperatures in the areas which are suitable for agriculture does not pose an important constraint on agricultural production. Yet the combination of elevation and rainfall can determine the kinds of crop produced. For example, beans are principally grown at the high elevations during the rainy season because of severe damage from disease and pests when planted in the lowlands, while beans are successfully planted in the lowlands during the dry season where irrigation is available. Although, based on evapotranspiration data, areas with rainfall of 1500 mm or more should be able to sustain reasonable crop growth without irrigation (a subst;tntial portion of Haiti receives at least 1500 mmlyear), the considerable variation between and within seasons makes annual crop production without irrigation hazardous in all but a few favored areas. Moreover, "agricultural droughts" frequently occur under conditions of generally adequate amounts and distribution of rainfall because of the low absorption and retention capacities of the soils (NOAA, 1979). Agricultural droughts are especially severe where soil erosion has reduced the land's water retention capacity over cxtcnsive areas, such as the northwest around Table IV-4 CRITERIA USED TO DETERMINE GOOD AGRICULTURAL LANDS Land Classification of Soils (USDA) LandISoil Class I. Excellent Soils well drained, slope 0-2% high productivity 11. Very Good Soils well draincd, slope 2-5% good productivity 111. Good Slopes 5p8% need erosion control, average productivity Erosion Characteristic of Soils (DADPg, 1982) Al Slight erosion and low erosion potential when vegetation covcr exists, primarily alluvial soils A2 Average erosion, need soil conservation, should primarily be kept in tree or perenial vegetation. Crop Suitability Zones (Hargrcavcs and Samani, 1983) Zone 1. Arid, cultivated crops need irrigation in all months 2. Semi-arid, crops requiring60days or less (e.g, millets and mung beans), low potentially yields for rainfed and irrigation very useful 3. Sum-humid bi-modal rainy season, avcragc growing season three to four months, good yields possible under good water moisture storage 4. Humid, average growingseason five to six months, rainfall usually dcpendablc, some double cropping possible. 5. Humid, Average growing season seven to nine months, some months havc excessive rainfall requiring good drainage for most general crops. 6. Perhumid, average growing season tcn to twelve months, situated primarily in mountainous areas, important source areas for river flows.

PAGE 49

Tabk IV-5 OCCUPATION OF LAND BY USE CATEGORIES (1) Type d Laad Urn North Tramversak Wcst Swth Hdti Agricultural lhnnain Silvo pastoral Domain Specialized crops 371.1 Rice 42.8 Sugarcane 126.1 Annual Irrigated 48.4 Banana Sisal 163.2 Vctiver Coconut Tree crops dominant 413.0 (Food crops in (c)267.5 association) 145.5 Tree crops sparce 846.7 associated food 553.1 crops dense (c)293.6 Food crops dense tree cover open 474.7 Food crops moderately dense in pasture and natural vegetation 438.1 Food crops dispersed pasture and natural vegetation 196.8 Extensive pasture herbaceous species dominant 305.1 Savana with trees 183.7 Trees localized 44.8 Trees dense Trees sparse Trees verv svarse Broad leif iorest Dense Sparse Very Sparse Pine forest Dense Sparse Very Sparse Mangrove (1) From maps showing occupation of land established from 1978 aerial photographs. (DATPEISEP); NI = Not Indicated (c) Coffee probably in association

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TABLE IV-6: OCCUPATION OF LAND IN RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY RValleys and Low bus MounOolns PIattau Plains Mountains North Region Area: 3,831.2 Km2 (Area (Km') 1,087.1 1,454.7 1,195.3 33.1 Specialized Crops 34.13% Agricultural Domain 84.52% 53.28% 31.91% 91.24% Agro-pastorai Domain 6.03% 25.62% 41.73% 8.76% Silvo-pastoral domain 9.44% 21.10% 26.36% -. Transversal Region Area: 10,735.4 km' Area (km2) 2,076.4 4,705.1 2,828.1 515.6 Specialized Crops 27.56% 0.30% 47.60% Agricultural Domain 76.91% 41.58% 30.82% 47.60% Agro-pastoral domain 13.00% 40.15% 42.38% 23.54% Silvo-pastoral domain 4.54% 17.52% 9.54% 34.98% Region West Area Area: 6,959.1 km2 Area (Km2) 805.4 2,768.4 2,365.8 71 1.6 Specialized crops 35.86 1.08% Agricultural domain 79.15% 28.50% 46.59% 43.34 Agro-pastoral domain 13.00% 40.15% 42.38% 23.54% Silvo-pastoral domain 7.85% 31.35% 11.0% 33.12% -----*----------------------------------------------------------------------------.---------------------------------------------------------------Region South Area: 5,776.1 km2 Area (Km2) 967.40 3,111.0 1,324.2 255.4 Specialized crops 33.37% 2.29% Agricultural Domain 85.09% 45 -94% 20.91% 47.49% Agro-pastoral domain 2.53% 23.05% 30.32 16.13% Silvo-pastoral domain 12.37% 31.01% 48.77% 36.38% ................................................................................................................................................... Source: from interpretation of aerial photography of 1978 (DATPEISEP). Bombardopolis, MOle St-Nicolas and Jean-Rabel. Iri these areas the soils are naturally thin and have poor water absorption and retention characteristics. Once denuded of forest or grass cover, the absorption and retention capacities diminish, making crop production hazardous even under generally adequate rainfall amounts and distribution. Even with the deeper soils on the steep slopes, absorption and retention of water I by denuded soils is frequently inadequate. The result of widespread clearing of vegetation is a vicious cycle of low rates of absorption, rapid runoff, erosion, still lower absorption capabi'lity, more rapid runoff and more erosion. Although the view is frequently heard that rainfall 'is decreasing and droughts have increased in recent years in Haiti, this is not supported by the available data (NOAA, 1979). The occurrence of several series of drought years during the period of the late 50's to the late 701s, which was generalized throughout the Caribbean region, appear to be a cyclical phenomena. A comparison of variablity data for three periods, 1920-1937, 1938-1958 and 1958-1978, shows no significant differences or trends (NOAA, 1979). Nevertheless, a perception of increasing occurence of droughts affectirig agriculture may be really due, not to natural phenomena, but because of the decreasing absorption capability of eroded lands. D.THE STRUCTURE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR The amount of arable land in Haiti has been variously estimated. The figures cited usually range between 890,000 and 1,100,000 ha, with most estimates in the lower range. Although it is generally understood that the agricultural sector is composed primarily of a large number of small farmers, there are nonetheless some sizeable holdings. A total of 178,080 ha is attributed to ten such holdings (CEPALJFAO 1983). If one single holding of 150,000 ha is subtracted (SHADA, Sociktk Haitienne Am6ricaine de D6veloppement Agricole, was granted 150,000 ha of forest lands in the early

PAGE 51

1940's). the remaining 28,080 ha which are mostly aracategory. There are also numerous holdings of 50 to ble, constitute about three percent of the land area 100 ha which are cultivated as single units; however, classed as arable by most authorities. This land is lothe total area thus occupied is very small as a percencated in the pluins and occupied principally by sugar tage of the whole. cane and sisal. Extensive areas are attributed to the government rcfcrrcd to as "Statc lands". Littlc is dcfinitively known about the magnitude and location of these holdings. They are not exploited by government, but rather rcntcd or otherwise occupied by the local population. Much of the state lands fall in the non-arable Figure IV-2 provides a diagramatic picture of the distribution of cultivated holdings by size (CEPAU FAO, 1983). The aggregate of 669,395 carreaux (863,519 ha; one carreau is equal to 1.29 ha) is represented by 616,710 production units. The degree of parcelization is clearly evident; seventy-one percent of all production units (generally family plots) occupying one carreau or less account for 32.5 percent of the total cultivated area. The distribution by size of units, illustrated in Figure IV-2, refers to production units (family units). Since, in most cases, a production unit consists of more than one parcel of land which may be owned, rented, sharecropped or jointly farmed by several individuals with undivided interest, the degree of parcelization is greater than appears. Among holdings of 3 ha or less, 557,515 holdings averaging 0.96 ha, involving a total area of 534,142 ha., was distributed among 936,390 individual parcels. Table IV-7 shows thc number of plots per farm and the size of each plot (IHS, 1973). Table 1V-7 NUMBER OF PLOTS PER FARM AND SIZE OF PLOTS (1971) -I.. .. .. .. .,.. .. Dept. No. of Farms No. of Plots PlotdFarm Avg. Plot (ha.) This feature of Haitian peasant agriculture is apparently of long standing. Data for 1950 and 1971 show essentially no change in average unit area, although the number of units and the total area involved more than doubled during this period. The Haitian farmer has evidently through the years chosen or was forced by limited resources, to limit the size of his production unit even when land was more generally available. Thus, in 1980, only 28 percent of all farms consisted of a single, continuous plot, while 47 percent consisted of non-contiguous plots at some distance from the peasant hut. An interpretation of Table IV-8 (Anglade, 1974) shows that 59 percent of all holdings were smaller than one ha, consisted of 47 percent of all parcels of cultivated land, but occupied only 21 percent of all land Nord Nord-Ouest Artibonite Ouest Sud Entire country ~lg. 1v.2: size dlstributlon orcultivated holdlngs cultivated. These smalls parcels supported approxima(CEPAWFAO 19%J) (1) 1 carreau = 1.29 ha. tely 54 percent of the peasant population. Source: IHS Port-au-Prince.

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Table IV-8 SUMMARY STATISTICS ON AGRICULTURAL HOLDING (1971) No.dHddlngl No. ofPamla TOW Land Populalbn AVC# ol ~vcrw Puce1 Average rY of prr HdcUnll (m parabper Sb(N.) paroarpcr bddlal Hddlnl lha. & bclow 361,985 530,480 184,843 1,498,020 1.46 0.34 4.15 1 to2ha 141.930 275,510 21 1,940 666,180 1.94 0.76 4.69 2to3ha 53,600 130,400 137,359 279,990 2.43 1.05 5.22 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Cumulative % 91% 84% 62% 88% ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 to4ha. 27,370 74,390 %,762 143,800 2.71 1.30 5.25 4 to5ha. 6,440 39,3Nl 36,790 48,000 3,47 1.32 5.68 Above 5ha. 23,385 78,110 193,822 143,030 3.34 2.48 6.11 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... Total 616,710 1,118,230 863,516 2,779,020,1.81 0.77 4.50 Source: George Anglade, Espace Haitien, 1974. Table IV-9 HAITI: TOTAL AREA, CULTIVATED AREA AND POPULATION DENSITY, 1982 Surface Area Total Population Density 1000/Km1 (1000's) Persons/Kma Total Cultivated Population Total Cultivated West Southeast North Northeast Artibonite Center South Grande Anse Northwest Unknown* Total 27.000 8.191 5,053.791 182 617 ___________________-----*-.-------------.A-------------------------------------------------------------.--------------Note: One square kilometer equals 100 hectares Note: The population is quoted between 5 and 6 millions *: To balance Haiti total surface area Source: Institut Haitien de Statistiques et d'hformatique, Analyse de quelques indicateurs ddmographiques tire des Recensernents de 1950, 1971 et 1982; April 1982, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. If holdings up to 3 ha are considered, then the statistics are even more striking. These lands constitute 91 percent of all holdings, support 88 percent of the peasant population and occupy 62 percent of all cultivated lands. A comparison of total area, cultivated area, population densities, expressed in terms of total area and area cultivated for 1982, is shown in 'Table IV-9 DATPE reports an overall population density for the country of 677 inviduals per square kilometer (100 ha) of cultivated land. Regionally, the north, transversale, west and south regions contain 584; 448; 876; and 544 individuals per square km of cultivated land respectively. The high population density for the west region reflects the concentration of population in Port-auPrince. With this very high density of population and remarkably high degree of parcelization, the need for the application of improved tcchnology, use of water resources for irrigation, resources conservation ad

PAGE 53

improvcment, an well as improvement of living standards for the rural population, become immediate. The 1950 census showed that as many as eighty percent of all farmers were land owners, with essentially no differences among regions. Table IV-10 shows the distribution of land ownership by tenure categories and by region ris of 1950. The tenure pattern derived from a socio-wonomic survey in 1970 in which two percent pf households were covered, (Tablc IV-11) shows distribution of land by mode of tenure and parcel size (CEPAWFAO, 1983). E.AGRICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ONLANDTENURE The tenure status of Haitian lands is complicated by the existence of several types of land tenure, the uncertainty of tenure and status of much of the land, the uncertainty as to the amount and geographical location of state-owned lands, and the tenancy status of farmers occupying this land. Moreover, while the majority of farmers own land, a large percemtage reot, lease or sharecrop land while leasing out some owned land to others. Data from a number of studies, restricted to specific areas and reported by Zuvekas (1977), showed that farmers owning at least part of their land ranged from 56 to 100 percent of the farmers in the sites studied. In many cases, farmers did not own all the land cultiTable IV-10 LAND TENURE IN 1950 Tenure Category Northwest North Artlbonite West South Total to homesi te ~lus other land: i'otal Owners Renting from State Renting from private owners Managers Sharecroppers Tenure status unknown 2. Farm only land adjacent to homesite: Total Owners Renting from State Renting from private owners Managers Sharecroppers Tenure Status unknown 3. Farming only land away from homesite 4, Farm Households Total --Source: Haiti, IHS (1955) reported by Zuvekas 1977. Tuble IV-11 LAND TENURE IN 1970 Tenure Category Number of Parcels '10 of Parcels Owners 803.650 Renting from State 56,473 Renting from private owners 155,557 Sharecroppers 2 13,528 Other for of tenure 165,168 Total 1,484,385 Source: Haiti, IHS, (1975) rcportcd by Zuvckas (1977).

PAGE 54

vatcd, nor did they illways cultiv;rtc all the land they owned. The status of land t~tlcs is very unclcw. Where i~ttempts have been made to precisely determine owncrship, it has been found thirt between 30 and 68 pcrccnt of farmcrs in the ilrcirs studied claimed to have titlcs. I-Iowevcr, even when titlcs existed, the validity of many was frequently qucstionablc. Sixty-seven pcrcent of titles examined in the ODPG project arcil were found to be not recorded with the loci~l Direction Cidlll!rilk dcs ImpOt~ {il~~c~~lllcllt illld tilX OffiW$), SLlggcSting that these could be challcngcd. Farmers iire reluctant to divulge information on land holdings and tenure status. The confidcncc of farmcrs in the equity of the systcnl has been seriously croded by frequent cases of cxploitation by the economically and politically powerful elements of the Haitian society, the exorbitant cost of litigation to obtain andlor dcl'cnd titlcs. irnd thc unscrupulous excrcisc of ii~thority by local judges in edministcring land titling proccsSCS. The absence of cadastral survcy is a furthcr complication. A recent (Dcc. 1984) Decrcc establishes a Cadastri~l Institute in charge of carrying out a cadastral survcy under the supervision of the Ministry of Intcrior. The unclear legal status of land ownership results in title insecurity, which adversely impacts on investment in land iniprovcmcnt, usc of inputs, and the application of conservation practices. 'I'll$: production of agricultural commoditics provides ir livelihood for seventy-two percent of the Haitian population (Ills, 1984). The cxport of egricultural commodities i~ccou~~tcd for 48.7 pcrccnt of total cxports in 1083, and in I981 thc contribution oC agriculture to GDP was thirty-one pcrccnt. During the period 10701980, the antiual growth of the scctor averaged 1. I pcrccnt. Since I'J80, growth has been ncgirtivc, I'i~lling Iy I'X,. 4.7% and 0.0% for 1080, 1981 i~nd 1982, respectively. Figure IV-3 traces certain trcnds in the agricultural scctor with respect to contribution to GDP and cxport ci~rning, while Figures IV-4, IV-5, IV,-6, and IV-7 provide trends in total production of food, production of major commodities and yield of principal crops. Figure IV-8 provides similar data for livestock. Table IV-12 providcs data on distribution of production of principal agricultural commoditics by region for the year 1979, while 'rablt: IV-13 provides data on the values of production of the principal commodites. Several general observations can be made from these figures and the tabular data presented. The total arca under crops in 1079 cxcecded, by over 25 percent, the arca generally considered to be arable, and about five times the area classed as "good lands" by the CEP team. This is partially due to the production of two crops per year in many cases. This Porconl \ Cole0 Exporlrrao parcrnl ol lolal Dala Imm Banqua da la R@publlque d'tianl md IMF Flgure IV-3: Trend in Contrlbutlon to GDP and Export Value by Agriculture ('10).

PAGE 55

/ Total A~rlcullurrl Producllon / \ Agrlculturrl Producllon par caput From USDA Slrllallcrl Bullalln 880(1881) World Indlcrr ol Agricultural and Food Producllon Fig. IV-4: Agricultural production: total versus per capi(cl 1971 R 1889.7 1 1872 1973 1874 1975 1970 1977 1878 1878 lee0 1 I I I I I I I I From USDA Slallatlcrl Bullrlln 6887 (1881) Flg. IV-5: Trends in total production of food

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Dtla from MARNDR rrparlrd by Food lor Devrlopmenl (lBSq) USAID ProJrcl Paper Scale for: I \__ Melte --. -3M)O Sorghum Fig. IV-7: Trend in yield of principal crops.

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Table IV-12 PRODUCTION, AREA AND YIELDS OF PRINCIPAL CROPS BY REGIONS IN 1979 (1) Production MT Area Htcbrts Avg yield, Kgh. CW N T W S Haiti N T W S Haiti N T W S Haiti Maizc 23903 61377 35930 62121 183331 36334 74438 530)H 69959 233749 658 825 768 RlUl 784 Millet/ Sorghum 3330 55975 40453 23524 123282 10325 66687 41902 38051 156696 331 839 %5 618 787 Ricc 13055 94015 4721 10325 122116 7059 36340 3158 7419 53996 1850 2587 1494 1392 2262 Bcans(dry) 11576 13047 16885 11190 52695 16128 21554 28460 23536 89678 718 605 593 475 588 Pigeon Peas 3473 10070 6417 5651 25541 7240 24829 18744 18567 69380 480 406 342 304 368 Beans 402 4992 2856 2243 1403 W6 1407.9 9839 6420 391'74 450 355 290 349 360 Peanut 9762 6872 12277 6629 36629 12860 8872 17560 7770 47062 753 776 6Y9 853 754 Sesame 1362 1528 491 744 4125 4609 5549 1342 2387 13887 296 275 366 312 297 Manioc 63927 76037 51041 62351 253356 14Y09 19374 12732 15846 62861 4288 3925 4008 5197 6i%1 Yams 17486 27466 21277 43928 110157 6777 6174 11909 33639 2583 3129 3446 3689 3275 SwmPdalo 49866 78993 65436 70491 264788 12209 18179 15715 16427 62530 4085 4345 4164 4291 4'114 Plaintain 79020 100Y39 52649 68666 301274 10364 14.802 M25 13493 47484 7624 6819 5966 5089 6345 CocoYam 3959 15472 6015 13683 39129 1869 8728 "431 7176 21204 2342 1773 1753 1907 1845 Banana 52335 44307 48613 64975 210230 %42 7362 6738 12876 33618 6056 6018 7215 5008 6253 Total Food 337057 571090 350061 446521 1740746 -----Coffee (4) 71 17 5876 10032 12844 35900 33678 181% 40047 45617 137618 1262 1929 14% 1682 1558% Cocoa(3) 2052 20118 1814 5502 11456 632 645 188 3105 4570 3252 -95 1771 2507 Cotton 491 2472 1039 5589 1342 5046 4419 2819 13646 366 490 133 369 410 Rural Pop. 1971 (1000) 582 10M 1027 913 3529 Food Prod. (2)perapita 579 579 341 389 493 (1) From DATPE Ministry of Plan: Regions et Stratdgie de Ddveloppernent Rdgional (1984) (2) Bascd on rural population (3) Cocoa production has remained on average around 3000 Mt per year, but 1679 was an cxceptionaly good paoduction year. (4) Coffee figures are from OPRODEX N = North region T = Transversd re~ion W = West rcgion S = South region intensity of land use, nevertheless, with such primitive agricultural practices and less than optimal soil conditions is exceedingly high. Grain crops occupy 37 percent of all the cultivated area; pulses and oil crops 22 percent; root and other starchy foods 22 percent; sugar cane 5 percent and export crops (mostly tree crops) 15 peicent. Although food crops cover about 80 percent of the cultivated area, the value of production is only about one half that of export crops, excluding sugar. Comparable figures on livestock production arc not available. Howcvcr, one cstimatc (Ithaca Intcrnrrtional, 1983) placcs the total value of livestock production at 24 percent of thc vi~lue of the i~griculture total, and 8 percent of GDP. Livestock number (Figure IV-X) show an increasing trend bctwccn 1965 and 1971. During the period 1979 to 1982 the trcnd is flat cxccpl for swinc, whose population was eradicated temporarily, and for poultry, which show an increasing trcnd. Crop and food production has been static since 1970, while both have followed a decreasing trend on a per capital basis. Production of the widely grown grain crops, maize and sorghum, accounting for 37 percent of all cropped area, has followed a decreasing trend since 1970. The trend in rice production is upward and follows closely the population growth line. The production trend for pulses and beans has been flat, while root and other starch foods have followed slightly rising trends; at a slower rate, however, than population growth. Per capital daily calorie supply has diminished 4.5 percent in past twenty years (FAO, 1983). Coffee production has remained cssentially the same since 1974, with slightly decrcasing yields pcr hectare. Cocoa production (3000 MT) hasn't significantly changed in the last tc11 yeiirs. Although important differences among regions exist with rcspcct to production of diffcrcnt crops, on bal-

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Table IV-13 THE VALUE OF PRODUCTION OF CERTAIN AGRICULTURAI, COMMODITIIES FOR 1979 (1) Value of Production (1000 Gourdes) Percenlage of Total N T W 8 Hdt1 N T W S Maim 17,688 Millet 2,464 Rice 28,721 3 Bcana Lu 23,152 Peanut 17,798 Manioc 12,785 Plvintain 59,265 SUM 161.873 Coffee 38955 % ma 24,624 Cotton 982 mm cmp TW2) 64561 Ba 111 Coconut 222.6 Mangoes 1,239.0 Z orang, Im 1,012.1 Chodbq~ 488.2 Fruit Per Capita 5 1 ToW (Food + Export + Frult) = (1) From DATPE (1984) (2) Comparable data not available for other exports (si!~al, sugar cane); coffee values from OPRODEX. (3) Based on ~ral population from table IV-12 (4) Comparable data not available for other fruits. ance, and on a per capita basis, there is relatively little disparity among the regions except for a considerably low per capita production of foods in the western region. In terms of non-food crops, it is the transversale region which is at a disadvantage. Technology and Productivity The Haitian farmer employs the most rudimentary technology. The nicthod of cultivation employed has undergone few changes since the nineteenth century. Tools are generally limited to the hoe and the "machete". Table IV-14 provides data on number and type of tools (CEPALIFAO, 1983). Varieties of crop plants used are largely traditional, which the population has maintained with virtually no improvement through the years. Neither manure, compost or commercial fertilizers are used to any extent. Minimal fallow of sufficient duration for natural restoration of soil fertility and effective crop rotation itre practiced. Pest control is limited to a few pests and crops. Crop production under irrigation suffers from: poor land leveling; poor niaintcnancc of the water distribution system; inadequate maintenance and control of primary water distribution systems; lack of basic water requirements inforniation; poor drainage; and the virtual lack of yield increasing inputs (improved seeds, fertilizers, pest control); all required toobtain the most effective returns from irrigation. The production of perennial crops suffers from overage and low density of perennial crops; overshading and excessive density in coffee plsntings; inadequate attention to weedings; and lack of fertilizer inputs, improved varieties and pest control. Lack of water and soil conservation characterizes much of the tree crop agriculture. The result is very low crop yield, among the lowest in the world. In a comparison of yields of five important crops in 10 developing and 6 developed countries, yields reported in Haiti were the lowest in all but 3 of 65 comparisons (DATPE, 1984). Heavy losses from a wide variety of pests on mature crops in the field. as well as in storage, further reduced the effective productivity and availability of crops for consumption. Production practices with livestock are even less de-

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/ / Poultry PIUS Oorts Shnep ClIII. Drlr from FA0 Producllon Yearbook (1983) Fig. IV-8: Trenda In llveutock production. Table 1V14 DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TOOLS BY FARM SIZE Number of Tools by Type Farm dzc # of arms tractors Plow Hoes Machetes Sickles Picks DiR/Uars Spadw Rakes Shovels Sprayer Qther TOW Global 1500 7 1493 1314 960 0,Ol 0,49 600 525 443 285 O,50 8,99 420 7 465 375 293 I,()() 1,99 345 375 353 270 2,M4,99 120 113 128 97 3,OO 9,90 -. 10,OO 19,90 15 15 15 15 veloped. Most animals are left to forage for available feed as free roaming individuals, herded on open ranges or staked out. A few ranches have fenced pastures and some attention is given to management of pastures and grazing. The livestock population exceeds the carrying capacity of the existing grazing areas. Overgrazing is evident everywhere. Harvesting, storage and feeding or foragdhay is not practiced by the small farmer. Feeding of animals with biproducts (rice and wheat bran, oil seed cakes, molasses) is practiced to a very limited degree. Most of the feed bi-products are exported. Productivity is low, with livestock only reaching a live weight of up to 300 kg after 5 to 6 years, and cows producing about onehalf quart of milk per day (Ithaca International, 1983). After cattle, which to the small farmer is the principal repository of capital after land, swine was the most important animal production enterprise until pigs were eliminated to control the spread of African swine fever (Ithaca International, 1983). Pigs are now being reintroduced.

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'I'hc low level of productivity in the i~griculturi~l scctor i111d the liniitccl applicirtion of improvccl prircticcs ciln be treccd to it wide rirngc of intcrrclirtcd constririning fi~ctors: clifficult topogri~phy; virriirbility of rainfell; inirdcqualc security in Iirnd tcnurc; virtual irbscncv k of cirpiti~l formirtio11 i111tl ilcccss to ci~l);::!! through clc(lit, ticncc vcry low lcvcls of invcst~ticnt by the farmer; littiitctl public i~ivcstmc~il in tllc rural arcits; limited i~vi~ilirbility of improved crop var;ctics irnd production priuticcs; poor rcscirrcli irnrl cxtctislon scrviccs; and cxtrirortlini~ry ctrllur,rl l'irctors, such iis ;I lo~lg Iiislory of cxploiti~tion of the rurirl populatioti by tllc urban clitc i~nrl political powcr struclurc, ;rritl by clc~ncnls of the rurirl population itself Ici~tli~lg to irpirthy irntl clistlust of i~ny clcmcnt cxtcrriirl to tlic f;miily i~ntl its a conscqucncc resulting in it lack ofcoopcr;rtion ilmollg thc rural populirtiorr. An1 cxhi~uslivc listi~ig of corlstrirints is given in 'I'irblc 1V-15. As tlic agricultural resource base continucs to deleriorate and as the populatiori continues to increase, the mirintcnancc of production at current lcvcls will not be feasible without the application of new production practices which increase yiclds. The existing research base on which to recommend pri~cticcs for increasing production is still vcry limitcd. A research unit hcadquartcd at MARNDR with access tc seven state farms rcpresenting the more important ecological zones of the country, has cxistcd for over forty years. Considerable nssistancc wiis provided to this unit by USOM during the period 1958-1962. Between 1962 and 1972, however, the unit was essentially dormant. Virtually no effective research was being done recently. Beginning in the early 1970's, limitcd assistance for agricultural research was provided by Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI). This activity concentrated on maize variety testing and selection and, to a lesser extent, testing of bean varicties. The work was conccntrated on the Levy Farm in Les Cayes. A less extensive study of a range of cultural practices was also undertaken. The principal results from this work were the identification of five better yielding maize varieties, of which one was recommended because of wider adaptatility to the population. The report concluded, however, that the conditions of production practices, including quality of seed, fertilization, plant density, pest control, and adequate noi istue, were more important determinants of yields than the crop variety (VPI, 1979). In 1981, the Agricultural Research Service (Service d'Etude et Recherche Agronomique (SERA) was reorganized. A center for research and agricultural documentation (CRDA) was created within the Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMV). The creation of the center, lacking the responsibility for research in thc FAMV, was predicated on the avail'I'AI1LIS IV IS CONSrI'HAlN1'S 'I'O ACHICUI,TUKAI~ DEVELOPMENT IN HAITI: A THN'I'A'I'IVE RANKING 'I'y pe or Constralnb Ikgre or Ilnportancc. (a) Farm-Lmcl Co11str;rints Accss to I1roductivc Hcsourccs Land and land tenure Capital Labor Supply Tcchnology Natural Constraints Natural Disastcrs Climate, soils, topography, watcr rcssourccs Insccts, discuses, rodcnts Soil Erosion and Rclatcd Man-Madc Constraints Support Systcm Constraints Supply-Dcmand Constraints Supply Constraints Demand Constraints Concessional food grain imports Marketing Constraints Dispcrsed production Luck of uniform weights and mcasurcs/grades and standards Lack of storage facilities Handling and transport costs Lack of inventory financing Lack of market information Institutional Constraints Administrative/managcrial/ technical capacities Cooperatives and other farmer organizations Production Credit Input suppliers Research Extension Other services National-Level (Policy) Constraints Tax Policy Monetary Policy PI ice Policy Credit Policy Land Tenure and Land Redistribution Policies Policies Affecting Rural Levels of Living and Income Distribution Employment Policy General Government Support for Agricultvral Development Implementation Constraints Bilateral and International Agency Procedures GOH Procedures (a) 1 = Major 2 = Moderate 3 = Minor Regarded by the DARNDR as significant constraints.

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Table IV-16 ACTUAL enw YIICLDS WITH TRAI)ITIONAI~ PRACTICES AND EXPECTED CHOP YIEI,DS WITH IRRIGATION AND APPROPRIATE LEVEIS OF TECHNOLOGY AT THE DUIIREUIL PROJECT AREA Crup ---Actual, tradlllunul Aduul,nlyKuprlPk! IJotcntlml, nppruprlnte Crop Cycle pructlces and no technulogy und technology and I~YN lrrlgatlun Irrlfimtiun Irrlpllun Corn 120150 800 4000 bO(I0 Beans 80 670 1500 2000 Sorghum 100 750 3OW 50()0 Rice 90140 12OU 40(H) 6000 Pigeonpeas 235 600 2000 2500 Cowpeas 60-90 2000 3000 Soybeans 80100 1500 3000 Sweet potatoes 135150 2250 5300 6000 Cassava 300 4000 6000 loo00 Tobacco 90120 1200 1700 Sugarcane 365 30000 7oOOO 120000 Irish potatoes 75 12000 --------------------------------------------------------------------------"-----------------------*-----------------------------------------------1. Actual yields of corn, beans, sorghum, rice, sweetpotatoes and sugar cane taken from UN-FAO, 1975, Enquete et Ddmonstration Agricole dans la Pdninsule Sud, Haiti (28). For other crops, taken from Tcxas ABMIHaiti 1981 and 1982 Annual Reports (25, 26) and from Hargreaves and Samani (12). 2. Yields of corn, beans, sorghum, rice, sweetpotatoes and sugarcane taken frvm references 12, 25, 26 and 28. 3. Potential or near maximum yields, are adapted or taken from references 12,25,26and 28. They are bases on the use of irrigation and the adoption of improved technologies. ability of a staff of some twenty-eight qualified personnel in FAMV and financial support from CIDA. Other assistance for research was also provided by USAID in 1981 through a Tcxas A blr M tcam, and by CIMMYT with Canada's financial support. The nature of and results from thcsc programs, detailed in annual reports and papers prepared by the two groups are provided in Table IV-16. The CIMMYT work illustrated the approach of that institution to Farming Systems Research (FRS), i.e. several steps through which key factors involved in the production equation nrc isolated and their impact evaluated as a basis for defining research priorities. The information developed, in illustrating the approach, identified nitrogen fertilization as the most important determinant of yields. The next in importance was crop variety. Two varieties, La Maquina 7827 and 7928, outperformed the traditional varieties when nitrogen was applied. Without nitrogen, the differences were much smaller and varied with location and other practices. The Texas A & M studics focused on selection and testing of varieties of maize, sorghum, beans i~nd pigeon pea for yield and adaptability, introduction of cultural practices on productivity, and comparison of a number of cropping systems involving intercropping, multiple and rotational cropping systems. The work of the Texas A & M team, working concurrently, confirmed the superiority of the two CIMMYT maize varieties and identified supcrior varieties of sorghum, pigeon pea, common bean, tomato and okra. Packages of technology were defined for each of these. Economic analyses were made of some 29 cropping systems under traditional and improved technology. The improved technology resulted in up to 15-fold incrcascs in net rcturns, with most systems returning over bfold increases. However, systems involving sorghum and maize alone or intercroppecl with cow peas or pigeon peas, rarely resulted in significant (less than 2-fold) increases in returns. Generally, intercropping systems yielded greater net returns than monocropping systems. Intercropping is commonly practiced by the Haitian farmer. While the economic analysis of the several systems suggests that substantial improvement in productivity and economic returns could be obtained by appropriate cropping systems and production practices, they should be used with caution. In all systems studied, the improved practices package included irrigation, while the traditional package did not. In over 50 percent of the cases, fertilizer was included in the improved package. Consequently, the impact of other practices were confounded with response to irrigation and fertilizer, the two factors with the greatest possible

PAGE 62

impi~ct, l'hc immctliatc itpplici~hility ol' tlic results itrc, thus, litnitccl ollnost clitircly to irrcits with irrig;ttioti. Moreover, as irrigirtctl ficlcls arc used tnostly for ricc and sugar cirnc, the possildc inlpirct ol' tllcsc rcscirrcli irctivitics on a large numbcr of f;~rn~crs proclucing I'ootl crops undcr ririnfctl contlitio~is will bc ~ninilnal. I'ercent of Iiurmers limploying 'l'ruditionul Improved Technology I'ructices I'ri~c tices Maize varieties 55.3 44.H Millct/Sorgl~\~ni varieties 57.1 42.7 Bean varictich 83.3 10.7 Fertilizers 26.8 (non-uscd) 73.2 Pesticides 35.7 (non-used) 04.3 The improvcd vurictics sclcctccl could possibly have some impact, however, if i~dcquatc seed production programs and effcctivc tlistrihu~ion systems are implcmented. Some interest in secd production is found among agricultural input suppliers in the private scctor. Many estimates have been reported on the potential increase in productivity which could be obtained from the application of better technology. In most cases, appropriate irrigation and fertilization arc required. Only very limited information is available on farmer acceptance of improvcd tcchnology. One study (IICAI BCA, 1979) surveyed the use of improvcd technology by farmers in several of the ccllots de Ddveloppement,, (ccdeveloppment islands,, approach which was launched in the early 701s, but was abandoned after somc five years of operation). Although the samples in each aIlot>> was small, the aggregate provides somc idea of the rate of adoption of scvcral practices (Table IV-17). Unfortunately, the survey did not provide information on the impact of the improvcd technology on productivity. It is clear from the above that there is littlc information on the impact of tcchnology on productivity undcr rainfed production practices, and without the use of fertilizer in Haiti. It is also clear that there is virtually no research addressing the problems of improving practices, whether for increasing productivity or for reducing erosion and water loss. There arc serious doubts that terracing, or similar physical measures to reduce water loss and erosion, are applicable to most of the land subject to erosion in Haiti. Perhaps a more appropriate approach would be to employ vegetative cover (Icgume species, mixtures of grasses and Iegumes, shrubs and trees in a strip pattern altenating with cultivated crops). A proper choice of vegetative cover would 1101 ody provitlc prolcction, hut could he used its irnilnirl fccd. 'I'hc difl'icullics ol'ohti~i~litig widc applic;rtion ol'suc:h a systcnl ci1llnot be untlcrcstirni~tctl. It would mean clow cooperation ol' mirny farmers, prol~i~bly entire itntllor, frcyucntly, scvcral communities. It woulcl also rctlucc the lantl in crop protluction resulting in it scrious constrilint ot~ popdirtions which arc drci~cly on tlic wry ctlgc of survival. Yet, thew is no iiltcrni~tivc l)ul to rcducc the irrca untlcr cultivation, if soil loss is to 11c hi~ltcd i~ntl dtimirtcly reversed. Use of Agricultural Inputs Good cluitlity sccds of i~nprovcd virrictics, fertilizers id pesticides iirc the principal agricultural inputs, othcr than irrigation, which contribute to i~icrcasing crop production. The use of these inputs in Haiti rcniai~is at minimal levels. Sccds. Sccds of vcgctable crops arc imported tlirough the private sector. Thcrc is essentially no seed production opcrations per sc for the traditional, widely grown crops. Seeds arc produccd by individual farmers andlor traded among farmers. There have been few introductions of new varieties of food cropscithcr from outside of from local research. A notable exception is rice, in which case an introduced vuricty has become widely accepted. Limited amounts of this seed variety arc produced and distributed by ODVA, which also attempts to maintain purity and quality by reimportation. Other secd rcquircments are met by farmcrs. An effort was made to establish a seed production, proccssing and quality control unit in MARNDR in 1077. The operations ceased to exist in 1981. Few, if any, supcrior varieties of widcly produccd crops have been available, and for those which are available demand is met by the traditional diffusion by pcasants itnd "Mitcluni Sitriis". 'I'hc testing and demonstrating of the superiority of new varieties by recent research efforts will probitbly create such a demand. Traditional diffusion processes will probably be able to continue to assure production and distribution. Tht: principal task in the future will be to provide sufficien~ seed for initial wide-spread diffusion and for subsequent distribution of sufficient amounts from well mi~i~ltaincd stock to assurc seed purity and quality. Probably more important than production itself, is the need to improve storage, in order to maintain the quality and germinative powers from one season to the next. Fertilizers. Haiti uses far less fertilizer than any other country in the Caribbean region, using about one fifth as much as the Dominican Republic. One reason for this has been the generally cxploitativc practices employed by ferlilizer importers and suppliers. These practiccs include not only excessive price, but also Iilck of attention to quality, including frequent

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resort to adultcr;rtion. Siricc the cstirhlislilncnt in I9XI of it hulk mixing plimt rrcilr Port-iru-Prince I3y i~ joint venture of lociil and foreign cirpital, prices hitvc tlccrcusccl and quirlity control improvctl (ASSA, pcrsonitl communicirtion, 11)XS). 'I'liis firm tlistrihutctl, through vendors in the principle consumption areas, 570 M'I' in 1982, of itn cstimittcd total corisunlptioli of about XOOO MT. Nitrogenous fertilizers, principally urcir, iiccount for iibo11t SO pcrccnt of consumption, with i1 wick variety of complex fcrtilizcrs muking up the rcmi~ining SO pcrccnt. About sixty pcrccnt of all fertilizer is used for rice; vcgctirblc prorluction accounts for a litrgc shitr~ of the rcmirindcr. Little is uscd on maize, sorghum or sugar cilnc. Pesticides. A wide variety of pesticides iirc utilized. Five or six importers distribute most of the volume consumed. In 198344, it was estimated that between 300,000 iind 400,000 kg, valued i~t slightly over $1,000,000, were used for irgricultural purposes. Approximately 300.000 kg of Fcriitrothion were imported in 1983, to control mosquitoes and prevent malaria. Most of the pcsticidcs are uscd on tobacco, vegetables and cotton. Zinc Phosphide and, to a lesser extent, Wafarin, are widely used for rat control in rice fields in a campaign organized by the Plant Protection Service (SPV) of MARNDR. Private importers estimate that pesticide use has been increasing at a rate of about ten percent during the last three to four years. Utilization is limited by economic constraints and general lack of knowledge about pest control application by farmers. The GOH ratified the International Convention of Rome, in December of 1981, for plant protection. A legislative proposal has been drafted which sets forth regulations for the application of the Rome Code with some modifications. .This proposal is being studied by several ministries. a Although a number of the chemicals being used are highly toxic and some have long residual effects, the small amounts being used do not present an environmental problem. However, they present potential dangers to users unless certain precautions are taken. The SNEM prescribes a set of precautions for applicators of the insecticide Fenitrothion, and for the residents of the homes being treated; and an organized system of supervision and monitoring has been established. There is, howcver, no similar system for informing the public and protecting the users of pesticides used in agriculture. Irrigates Agriculture. Since the colonial period, irrigation has played iln important role in Haitian agriculture. It is reported (Harza, 1979) that irrigation covered 140,000 ha. during the colonial period. Although as much as twenty percent of the arable area of the country is potentially irrigable, less than ten pcrccnt has irctuitlly bccn devclopcd for irrigation (70,000 ha) (FAO, 198.3). I'lic irrigated and potentially irrigated land irrcas contain the best land (soils irnd physici~l fci~turcs) in the country. Grcetcr and more effective exploitation of the irrigation potentials is limited by the slow rate of tlcvclopmcnt of watcr and land rcsources, the poor state of maintenance of the irrigations systems, continuing clctcrioration of irrigated lands and structures because of erosion, flooding id silting, and insufficient use of water for production. For example, in the Artibonite Valley, which has the largest irrigation sytem, about 58 pcrcent of the potential has bcen developed, yet only about 30 percent of the potential, or fifty pcrcent of the developed area, is actually currently in production usingirrigation (LC Baron et al., 1984). The ineffective development and use of the water and land potential for irrigated crop production stems largely from the limited effectiveness of public services responsible for public administration and management of water rcsources. The following institutional problems summarize the many obstacles to developing irrigation systems of vi~lue for Haiti: I. The shifting of responsibilities for water development and management, over time, betwcen the Department of Public Works and that of Agriculture, including a period of shared responsibility by the twodepartments; The inadequacy of staffing and financial support of the Irrigation Service of the MARNDR (the entity now, and since 1958, charged with the total responsibility of water development and management), the division of authority between the Irrigation Service and autonomous entities -such as the ODVA and ODPG; The independence of financing of projects through special allocations of national budgets to autonomous entities; The major role played by donor agencies in financing water and irrigation development activities by the autonomous agencies, as well as projects which are under direct control of thc Irrigation Service; The limited participation of the farmers in decisions about water and irrigation development, or in planning and design of the systems; The lack of cooperation and frequent conflicts Among the Irrigation Service, district agriculture personnel, local authorities and the local population;

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'I'l~c irrl~itri~ry cxcrcisc of i~uthority i11i0 I'u~icliolis irt the locirl level resulting in serious inequities; 'I'hc wide discrcpirncics in tlic levying ittid collection of the irrigirtion fees, often rcsdting in collection of less tllitn SO percent of taxcs rluc, this due, in pirrt, to incffcctivcnc~~ of mi\intc~ii~~i~ opcrirtions Icirding to farmer reluctance to pily the taxcs. Altliougli the Icgal Ixrsis for the riglits irntl rcsponsililitics of tlic stirtc, the Iirnd owner irntl the firrmcr havc been tlcfincd in numcrous Icgal cases, tlic law sccms to be poorly understood irnd ;rppliccl. Water u,scrs associations havc lwn gcncrirlly morc effective in assuring proper mirintcnirncc of systems ant1 distribution of water, I~ut thcsc organizations sul'fcr from miiny of the same problems of the systems wliich irrc totally managed by the Irrigation Service. 'I'hc lirnited financii~l rcsourccs which the i~ssociirtions command ilrc insufficient to nssurc irclccluirtc control of opcriltions and mirintcnancc within the system. The cffcctivcncss of irrigation in agricultural production is much reduced by poor production practices, such ils: use of excess water; inudcqua~c dri~inagc; poor land preparation, cspcci;illy land Icvcling; lack of or limited use of othcr improved prircticcs; limited use of good scccl of improved crop vitrietics, proper fertilizers ini~dctlui~tc weed and pest control, which arc csscntiirl to Sully cxploi: thc advantage of irrigation. Yields of crops which iirc grcw,: under irrigation iirc very low compared to thaw ootiqincd in othcr countries. Rice yielded 2-2. 5 M'I'Ihu ci~nipirrecl to 4-6 M'I'I hi1 or morc, sugar cimc yields of 40-50 M'l'lh;~ compared to upwards of 100 MTIha. The developemcnt of irrigated agriculture has bcvi~ largely based on surface water. 'I'hcrc arc, ncvcrthcless, two important arciis in which irrigation is busctl on pumped wi~tcr. In Cul dc Sac, 1-IASCO pumps water from fifty wells for irrigation of some 3500 hi1 of sugar cane; 19 othcr wells in the Cul dc Sac iirc exploited by cooperatives for production of n wide variety of crops. In the plains of Gonuivc, limited surface water is supplemented by well-pumped water from thirty-nine deep wells for irrigating approxitnutely 3000 ha. Although there appears to be some potential for tapping additioniil groundwater for irrigation, this has received little attention. It appears that irrigation from pumped wells is generally thought to be too expensive. This may simply be a reflection of the fact that pumping charges are pay.able by the users as these accrue or even in some cases in advance, while the real cost of surface water is frequently masked by only partial payment of user's fees and public support of operations and maintenance. Thus the perceived cost of irrigation from surface water may be substantially understated, while that for pumped wells may be much less so. For example, in the Cul-de-Sac, the cooperative farmers pry in udvi~ncc for the pump operator irnd the fuel cost (tn;rinlcni~acc of wells irnd punips irrc pilid its neetlctl from the coopcrativcs' equity ci~pitiil). 'l'hcsc opcrating costs vilry from 18 to 24 gourdes per hour. At the higher range, the cost of irrigirtion for protlucing one crop of bci~ns wits cstimatctl to be $2H5.00 per hcctirrc (I laugc, l9H4). 'I'hc pumping costs in the OIII'Ci project arc clifficult lo cstiniirtc bccirusc of the complcx system of chirrging 2 1111 collecting pity~iic~its. 'I'hitt the costs ;ire high, 110wever, is suggcstctl by tlic substantiid arrears in payrr,cnts for electricity (I lirugc, I9H4), in spite of iI fifty pc,rccnt subsidy by ElcctricitC d'Miriti. Some of the irpni~rcnt high costs ore clue to misniirnagcmcnt, ciISy crcdit, rrntl ur\)itrery collcction \)I' cllirrgcs. <;.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS From the titnc of independence, utilizing primitive protluction technology, the Haitian peasant was hard put to produce surpluscs over consumption to improve his ~woductivity or to bring about greater cfficicncy and diversity in his use of the natural rcsourccs. I-listorically, economic development beginning with agrm ian societies wils bird on a generation of surpluses f;om agriculture. In the Haitian expcrience, the sniall surpluscs which were produced and invested failed t( gcncriite dcvclopment because of: a) the lack of org,rnization, cooperation and community action by the ruial population and b) by the policies oF the govcrnmcnt and cxploitivc practices of the urbarl elitc rcsultinjr, in the systematic transfer of resource bcncfits from thc rural sector. Without surpluses for land improvcmcrit and a sense of permanency and ownership, pervasive undermining of the natural agricultural base has been t\~c consequence leading to the serious degratli\ti(jn whitli cxists todiry. The rcversqrl of this relentless degradation of renewable resources will be particularly difficult in Haiti because: a) thc rural population still has little disposition for organiration and cooperation and appears to havc little confirlcnce in assistance from the government; b) thc irlrcady overexploited resource base is barely providing fi,r the survival of the majority of the peasant populirtion; c) tnciins Ibr incrcirsing productivity or to nii~kc up for low:, from rctircd or divcrtcd land use arc virtually non-existant, cxccpt irrigation. There are no reser\'es which can be mobilized in most of the rainfed agri>-ultural areas. As a result, any loss in production due to retirement of land for conservation purposes or any a1:ered use which even on the shortest time frame, would result in reduction in production, will jeopardize the very survival of the affected population. The outlook for developing ~tnd applying, on the short to medium term, productivity increasing practi-

PAGE 65

ccs, which would hc cconomici~lly sound for nlo!;t ol' the rainfed areas, is rather remote. Replacing annuid crops in areas unstritcd for such crops with tree crops is one possible option. 'I'his i~pproi~ch is, however, limited by thc relatively few tree crops which ilrc ;dip tcd to the environment and for which markets would pose no prohlcm. It is also douhtful that returns from the trce crops would in most cases bc supcrior or equal to the rnciigcr output of the tri~ditional annual food crops. The ability of the government to intervene is limited by the weakness of the existing institutions and the limited financial resources now being allocated to the agricultural sector. Functional operations budgets of the Ministry of Agriculture have averaged only about 5 percent of the national budget during the past several years. At the same time the rural population is paying a disproportionate share of the taxes. In 1975-76 it was estimated that the rural sector contributed 41.1 percent of domestic revenues, but only received 17.2 percent for services in the rural sector. The government has been reluctant in the past to relax rural sector taxation as an incentive to greater investment. Also with the policy of the GOH to operate with a balanced budget revenues, increasing the operational budget for agriculture will likely be difficult. While external organizations could contribute the development capital necessary, the capacity to use resources efficiently is limited by weak institutional structures, a lack of training and education and inadequate operational budgets. The best strategy for maintaining agricultural production on the short to medium term and to eventually increase production, lies in the more effective use of irrigated lands and in the development of additional irrigation potential. This could be achieved with minimal adverse environmental impact. However, a prereis tllc protection of upper wi~tcrshcd arcits to avoid thc tlC~;trwtive effects on irrigation systems, from flooding ittitl silti~tior~ caused by poor li111d pri~cticcs in the i~plirntls. Protection of watersheds by depopulating the hillsides could tlinplacc some firrmcrs on criticid lands, but not tl~cir critirc populalion. Intcnsification of irrigated crop production will probably i~bsorb few if any of thcsc displaced individuals, consequently means for providing sut)sistancr to thcsc small farmers will have to be found. Intc~.~sific;~tion of production in irrigated areas, itself, will require il concentrated and dctermincd effort. The impediments to more cffcctive use of irrigation arc legion. Somc have bccomc institutionalized in the Haitian society and will be difficult to change. Ncvertheless, since improvcmcnts in this area are likely to be morc visible and morc productive than other changes which could be considered, this alternative should be pursued agressivcly. Production options on the irrigated land are also a factor. Concentration on high valued crops. to the extent that these can be consumed, processed andlor marketed, should be considered. In this connection, the traditional use of a significant portion of the irrigated area for sugar cane, currently being produced at a loss in terms of world sugar prices, should be reconsidered. Initiate an Irrigation Study. A thorough study of all costs involved in irrigation: capital, system maintenance and operations on-farm distribution and drainage, structures maintenance and operations, land preparation (leveling) etc., is warranted. The study should consider sprinkler irrigation from wells. The cost of sprinkler equipment could be largely offset by the sa' vings from reduced need for water distribution systems and lands leveling. More efficent water use would also quisitc to more effective production from irrigation, reduce pumpingcosts.

PAGE 66

Coastal and Marine Resources A*INTRODIJCTION Haiti's coastal waters include both the Atlantic Ocean (to the North), and the Caribbean Sea (to the east and south). The insular shelf, an estimated 5000 km2, occurs as a narrow platform 0-2.00 m deep, extending for the most part less than 300 rn offshore, before dropping abruptly to the ocean floor some 300 to 4000 m below. The coastal zone supports 180 km2 of mangrove wetlands (IUCN, 1983). and barrier ilnd fringing coral reefs and meadows. Four large offshore islands: Ile de la Tortue, La Gonave, Grande Cayemite and Ile A Vache and numerous smaller islands contribute to the richness of the coastal system. Protected bays and estuaries, white coral sand beaches, limestone cliffs, and rocky shore line the coast. Long stretches of this coastline are inacessible by road and, consequently, have remained in a pristine state. Mangrove, coral reef, and seagrass habitats appear to be well developed in Haiti and represent a major renewable resource for fishing and tourism. B. COASTAL RESOURCES Seagrass Beds Rich seagrass beds are known to occur along the north coast, and at Ides Cayes. Potentially rich areas appear to be La Gonave and Les Cayemites area. Seagrass meadows, in particular, represent the greatest concentrated source of primary productivity, providing oxygen and nutrients to marine species and a means of stabilizing substrates. Their distribution in Haiti is poorly known. However, it is likely that offshore areas, including shallow offshore islands such as Ile A Vache, where turbidity and sedimentation from land runoff do not occur, harbor productive seagrass beds. Coral Reefs An inventory of the many extensive barrier and fringing and associated patch reefs has not been made, and the productivity and species diversity have never been assessed. It is assumed, however, that with the absence of large scale coastal development and commercial fishing except in the more polluted areas of

PAGE 67

PREPARED BY WlLCOX ASS~~IA~%S

PAGE 68

I'crcenl of' I;orcsl Country 'I1ol;d 'I'y pe 11. West Coast A. Ansc Kougc 13. 1 .'h.sti.rc ('. Artil~onirc n I). I'ort-;ru-Princl' 111. South Peniusula A. Petit-GOavc U. Troui 11 1 C# Mir~rg0~11ic D. E3arirdi.r~ E. St-Jean du Sud F. Caycs arcii 1. Marsay 2. Cavaillon 7 3. Mombin 3. Rivikrc Millionirirc 5. Sc:rttcrcd coiistd .I. G. Aquin IV. Satellite Islands A. llc dc laTortuc B. Ilc dc la Gonuvc C. Grandc Caycmitc D. Ilc-LVachc I-'. 13 13 I3 B F.B. Mangrove Forest Types: F-Fringing 1 B-Busin / R-Kivcrinc :': Notc: Between 1956-1957 a9out 7% of mangrove vegetation disappeared. I Source: .I. Thorhiarnason: Status and Ecology of tho American Crocodile in Haiti. II. of Florida (1984).

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Ictwccn Miry and October. irtion of the Pishcrv Service Nerilrr polorotrrcr (Dent snignantc) c. To collect turtle cggs of i\ny kind withi11 the I~ounclIhovtr pic-tr (Brig noir) arics of the territorial waters. ( irssis rlrhc~rosis, C i~ssis t?~rr~/rsccrri~rtciss~rit~cs (C'i~sq ucs) f. '1.0 ci~pturc marine mnmmiils such iIS scds iwcl sci~ lions, whales, clolphins, porpoises within the territorial waters without iI spcciul permit from the Ministry of Agriculture (IIARNIIII) g. To cut mangrove vcgctirtion which serves i\s the natural hahitiit for numerous marinc spccics (oyster in porticul;rr). Art. 115. 'The cxploitution i~ncl si~lc of spoilccl scil food is prohihitcd. Any Fish Scrvicc Inspector ciln scizc the stock and if ncccssiiry, proceed to tlcstroy it. il. '1'0 export lohstcr iincl conch withoirt i~dcquatc clcirning c. 'So use the chemical products such ;IS "Salpctrc" "Chlorox" irnd others to clciin shcllfish. 1'. 'So use the rcfrigcri~tor as a storage facility whcn thc frcczcr is required. I
PAGE 70

Surfircc w:rtcrs irrc wartri year-round ill 20-28" (.', irnd the wirlcr column is rclirtivcly stirhlc, thirl is, there ia little l~iixirigol~cxchirtigc ofdccp irnd sliirllow wnlcrs; Nutrients which sitrk lo tlccpcr tlcp:hs it1 tropic;d waters ilrc not rccyclctl to tlic surfi~cc its in tnilny tctnpcriltc fishing groulitls; -. River-source nutrients irrc low siticc thcrc irrc few pcrcnniitl strcirms, irtitl those which (10 ctitcr tlic wirtcr column ilrc rirpidly used or sink to clccpcr watcrs; Nutrient production from milngrovcs, corirl ~wfs i111tl scirgrilss beds, while loci~lly iltiporti~nt, cover ir smirll irrcir compirrctl to tliirt of Ihc open scirs. Specific iircils, howcvcr, (lo exhibit it compirrirtivcly liiglicr protluclivity. In ~;ucIi iIrciIs its the wcstcrti lip of the southern pcninsu!;~, prcviriling curr,ents arc warni, cirstcrly irntl influcncccl by tlic strong North Equirtoriirl Current? bringing scirsonul migration of pclagic fish such as skipjack, mackerel, tlolphinfish irnd billfish into I-liritian wirtcrs. 'l'hc cxirct naturc and cxtent of thcsi: fish stocks, howcvcr. irrc not known. At Chp Dame Mirrie, whcrc the conlincntirl Shell' (~CSS than 200m dccp) extends over 20 km offslir..,c, tlic Cubi~n (Equ.atoriirl) Countcrcurrcnt forces v;ntcrs cirstward, causing sonic cnricl~mcnt of coirsl:;l watcrs. 'l'hc irbscncc of upwelling or seasonal mixlirg of warm surface watcrs with coldcr, nutrient-l:idcn dccpcr waters off the shelf, docs limit primary (plankton) production along the coast, !,ul nutrient!; csscntiiil lor the prolifcration of planktoil xcur in ilrc;ls draining mangrove forcsts or other river runoff ilrcas such ils baic dcs Caycs and Canal dc I'Est on thc southwest coast, hie dc la Tortuc, Baic du Grand Picrrc and Baic dcs Gonaivcs of the Artibonite Rivcr, and selected locations alongthe north coast from Libertd to Boic dc I'Acul. C.SUMMARY DESCRIP'TION OF COASTAL AREAS Ft. LibertC to M61e St. Nicolas The area between Chou Choir Bay and Ft. Libcrti. has productive bays and covcs, sandy bcaches, mangroves, extensive seagrass beds, and coral formations including fringing rcefs and a barrier reef inore than 17 km in length stretching bctwccn Cap Haitien and Ft. LibertC. The shoreline at Morne du Haut Cap is separated from Cap Haitien by mountains, and has limited accessibility by unimproved road. Within this region, unimpactcd by shoreline development, are two small bays which appear to have potential as marine reserves to enhance fish brceding and nursery grounds: Baie de Labadie and Baie de Cadrasse (J.C. Dicquemare, 1985 pesonal communication). Important fishing grounds include Ft. LibertC and the Baic de I'Acul du Nord (DAPTE, 1984). Unique features include good conch (Strombus gigas) habitat from Ile de la Tortue to Ft. LibertC, significimt mrrnpvc itrca bctwccn Ihic dc I'Acul r~nd I;t I,ihcrlt, cxccllcrit aliritiip IirrOil~rt (Pcnrrcwi !-w!w$: %E?II_NJ I~.!~gr-r_u~ I~~~ifi~!~l~r;lc~[?_c~c~,~~~~~ li~_,AIplicu~ sp.) in Ihric tlc I'Acul, irntl good hrrl~itirt for MIIII~I~C~ (~'~C~IXI!~ mirnirtua) ~rnd grccn turtlcs (siglitings of both cndrrngcrcd spccicn ilrc infrcqucnt). 'I'licrc hirvc Iwcti cqwtlilc (Crocodylus ecutus, or Atncric:rti crocodilcFsightings irt I..irgoncs irux IJocufs :~cirr the 1n)rtlcr. 'lbcrc is II conch mericulturc projcct in 14. I.,ihcrtb hay, irn arcir with suitirblc Iwnthic vcgctation, well protcctctl with fringing rccfs id gcwd cirwli~tion i~ritl high oxygen levels (1W)TOS 1985, pr~ni~l communication). (lonch Ministries, ;I PVO birscd in West Virginia, is buing juvcnilc conch from tlic Pride-opcrcrtcd Iiatclict y bused on Turk irnd Ciric!;~ islir,;4s, to rcsccd Ft. Libcrtd bay ilnd to con
PAGE 71

villugcrs xupport thclnsclvcs by fishing, chirrcoirl muking, wit production irntl limitctl cultivirtiot~. Althougli post-harvest loxscs irrc reported to bc common in 1lai.e ti's lishing villirgcs, hcrc tlic use of ice-packed I~ckct!i tlclivcrctl cilch morning to the buyers, the sillting of some species irntl i1n cl'ficicnt mi~rkclit~r! systcnl, prcvcrlt spoilugc. Gonulvcn to Dale de St-Marc 'She Artibmitc cstuirry irntl utljirccnt regions Ilirvc huntlrcds of hectares of rice pircltlics which extend on either side of the Ariibonitc Hivcr within scvcrel kilometers of the estuary. Three large buys, (ionaivcs, 'Sortuc and Cirirnde Pierre, occur, north of the river iind arc said to hirrbor a small group of mirnntcc. 7'11~ small villirgc of Grantlc Saline i~nd a smaller bay (lli~nlc unknown) lics just south of the river. These mangroves border the bays while it vast zone of flat, oftcn titlirl influenced lands without vegetation, lics nearby, providing feeding habitat for hundreds of fli~mingos and other shorebirds. Gonaivcs is ;I major fishing port (DAPTE, l9H4). The insular shelf widcns in the Gonaivcs, Grandc Saline region, providing extended fishing grounds. The brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) has recently been discovered in the salt ponds just north of Grandc Saline, where salt is being harvested in numerous small ponds on both sides of the river. Brine shrimp are found throughout the year in all salt ponds, especially when salt concentrations ilrc low (C. Mock, 1984). The area, however, was declared unsuitable for shrimp and Artemia farming by an American investment group because of the soil characteristics. Baie de St. Marc to Ile h Cabri Located well within the Gulf of La Gonave and sheltered by La Gonave Island to the south, this area contains many extensive fringing reefs and offshorc reef formations, including those that surround Les Arcadins. With the exception of the densely populated area of St. Marc, the region can be characte:ized as a low density beach resort areas, easily accessitde to tourists from Port-au-Prince. There are seven be~ch resort hotels with coastal recreational facilities, as well as private beach houses, dotting the coaa!line. The area below Baie de St-Marc and above Ile il Cabri is relztively pristine. The Ile b Cabri area, once a significantly productive reef, lagoon and mangrove system, has been heavily impacted by coastal industry. The baie de St-Marc contains a coral encrusted wall of grcirt I)ciruty, directly offshore, (A, I3irskit1, I9H5 pcrsonnirl cotnmunicaliol~) i~nd cln cxtcllsivc fringing rccf idong its nortlicrn cOitSt, wllcrc nlirniltcc II~IVC hccn siglitctl. I lowevcr, it is irlso Ihc loci~tion of the tlcl~scly pop~li~tcd towti of St-Miw, which mily I)c i~tlvcrscly itnpi~cting the hiry's ccologici~l system. I.cs Arciditis, small points of Ii~ntl loci~tcd scvcn miles offshore from tlic ncurcst shore at I't. I'i~turan, iIrc known for unusuirlly Iilrgc i~ntl irhundent spccilncl~s of both fish and invcrtcbrirtcs ant1 extensive seagrass I~ctls in surrouoding waters. 'Shis arcir is prized by snorkclcrs and Scubir tlivcrs. It is also the fishing grounds of 1,ully ;I wcll-cstablislicd vill;lgc and fishing coopcriitivc. Ile il Cabri to 1,eogane Dcmirrcatcd by Port-iru-Prince Bay and the capital city of Port-uu-Prince, there are no large rivers, strong tide:; or winds in the inner harbor to crcirte fast currents in nearshore irreas rcsl~lting in a low flushing rate of scdimcnts and toxic wates entering the bay from land ruttoff. The mcan tidal variation is only 1.18 ft. The mnximum wavc height recorded in thd harbor docs not exceed 3 feet. The coastline is largely developed, with altered topography and drainage, and bordered by landfills, docks and other impermeable surfaces. There isabnormally high turbidity in nearshore waters. Stormwater containing heavy scdimcnt loads and low sewage drains into the bay from open channels and closed lincs. At one time there were well-developed mangroves, lagoons and coral reefs lining the shore. Now the combination of dredging, harbor activity, silt deposits and sewage pollution has apparently irreversibly reduced benthic diversity and productivity in nearshore waters. Approximately 7.1 km off the coast of Port-auPrince lies a reef system, the Grand Banc, wh~ch includes Pelican Caye. Sand Caye, a second reef area. lies approximately 4.9 Km offshore. Both areas appear to be utilized by artisanal fishermen and tourists from Port-au-Prince (e.g. ccYellowbird>, cruises, which leave from Port-au-Prince.) Leogane to JdrCmie The south coast of the Baie de Port-au-Prince is well populated nearest Port-au-Prince, with population centers clustered in the river valleys. Farther along the coast near JCrCrnie, the sparsely scttled Grand Caycmite area offers spectacdar scenery, including extensive mangrove forested islands and mangrove lagoon systems, coastal mangrove wetlands, rocky cliffs, offshore reefs, and seagrass beds. There is reportedly a large fishing popjrlation who

PAGE 72

A u11iq11e I'c;I~II~c, Ihc SIII~III idct. lto~:l~clois, I<, ~III i~t~)ll-lilii~ ILX~I' wit11 ;I ligl~tl~o~~~c, i~pl),o~i~~~;~tcly I .I LIII I'ro111 sI101.c i111d oI'tcl~ IIC~IICII~C(~ by LIIv!'~~ :nd I'isIl~1.me11 i~likc. 'll~c rccll' cxtc~~ls 111 i~ circle II,(,VI i) to 000 St.. less tllirn hi1I1' kilo~nctcr I'roni the i~toli. 'l'l~c clci~r WilfCrb s11rrol111~~ilig l
PAGE 73

1"rincc crad It( km from Point Motitrouis, thc closcsl point on the milin islilnd. 'l'hc islitnd is 45 ktn long i~nd 20 to 25 km wide (Icsa then 71x1 km'). Largc barrier trntl fringing rccfs ring tlic island with thc cxccption of the wcstcrnmost sliorclinc. The best known rccfs itrc loci~tcd ilt the castcrn end of tlic island whcrc a large shi~llow sllclf of 60 ft or less stretches bctwcctl Cionaivcs and the inner rcaclws of Port-iluPrince Bay. Two areils, in particular, iirc closc to IJortau-Prince I3uy anel popular rccrci~tional iircas: tl~c small island itntl surrounding reefs of Petit-Gonnvc, ilnd Pointc Fantasquc. Iguanas still rcmirin on Petit Gonavc. The southeiist coast of La Gonavc is lined by tnountains dropping abruptly to the sea, while the southwest fcaturcs coastal plains where mangroves, salt flats and beaches provide excellent habitat for shore birds and scil birds. Ncstit~g areas include Brown pelican, flamingos and frigate birds. Anse h Galets, the largest village on Gonave i~nd nearest point to Montrouis on the main island, is situated at the northeastern end of the island on a spit of of land almost entircly enclosed by a barrier reef. Behind the town, the land rises steeply into the mountain ranges which cover almost the entire island. Small cargo boats sail regularly Setween Anse ri Galets and Montrouis bringing conch, lobster, turtle, fish and other products to the market at Montrouis. D.USES OF COASTAL AREAS Marine and Coastal Fisheries Despite 15W km of coastline, Haiti produces 5000 tons of fish annually and must import on an average 12,000 tons of dried and salted fish (valued at $3.4 million) to meet domestic demand (FAO, 1983) (Tables V-3, V-d, V-5). TABLE V-3 ESTIMATE OF TOTAL FISH CONSUMPTION IN HAITI Range of Consumption (Tlyear) Source Minimum Maximum Total fish catch-Haiti 3,000 5 ,ooO Imports 10,000 14,000 Exports 500 1,000 Local consumption (restaurants hotels, home use 12,500 18,000 Average consumption per year* 2.5 Kg 3.6Kg Fishing villages; 30 to 50 kg fishlpcr personlper year Source: La PCche Artisanale CBti6re en Haiti Elements Pour une StratCgie de DCveloppement, G. Chapond, FAO, Port-au-Prince, Jan. 10, 1984. Domestic cotlsumption of fish products is rclativcly E!,low ilnd ciln I>c hrokcn clown by user group 11s follows: fishing I'i~n~ilics urbiln mils rnrid itreas A narrow insular shclf, chi~ri~ctcristi~i~lly low procluctivity of tropical co:~sti~l wiltcrs, ilnd the i~hscncc of a dcvclopccl fishing industry, havc thus filr resulted in a low annual fish ci~tch. Althougl~ no ilcclrratc i~sscssrncnts of fish stocks exisl in Hi~iti, a 1983 FA0 study on the biologi~i~l, sociul :~nd economic aspects of the fisheries of Haiti hiis provided cstimatcs of actual nnd potential yields of major fish resources bi~scd on sampling and fishing effort date collected in 1982-1083 ('Sable V-4). TABLE V-4 ESTIMATES OF FISHERIES PRODUCTIVITY Fishery Actual Yields Potential Yields Resource (Tons) (Tons) Demersal 2,500-3,000 (insular, shelf & slope) Pelagic Nearshore 1,0001,500 Offshore Negligible Lobsters 500 Mollusks 200 Other shellfish 400 Totals 4,600-5,600 Source: FA0 Report No. 72/83 IF-HA1 I1 Table V-5 HAITI'S TRADE IN MARINE FISHERIES (1980-81) Exports Weight (tons) value (U.S. $000'~) Lobster tails 23.4 309 Frozen shrimp .2 1.3 Frozen conch 125.6 552.6 Other shellfish 462.2 1,321.8 Aquarium fish 2.2 15.4 Total 614.6 2,200.1 Imports Salted &dried fish 12,000 3,400 Source (Tables 1,2,3): FA0 Report no. 72/83 IF-HA1 11 Haiti's fisheries resources fall roughly into three categories: demersal, shellfish and pelagic species.

PAGE 74

Reef i~titl bottom-tlwcllitig ((lcti~crsi~l) spccics, itlcluding rncmbcrs of the srlilppcr (lutji~tlitl) i~ntl grouper (scrri~tiitl) filtnilics ('l'itblc V-4), ilrc tri~tlitiotlnirly the most sought ilftcr for flrrvor i~nd vi~luc throughout tlic C'arihbcirn. Of the more tliiln 300 spccics of tlcrncrsi~l fish rccortlctl in Ili~iti wiltcrs, only 150 ilrc rcguli~rly found and Iii~rvc~tcd. Stli~ppcrs ;~tiil grotlpcrs of v;~rious kinds ;~ccount for 70 pcrcclit (or nci~rly I'300 tons) of the total fish ci~tcli for this group in I li~iti. Slleilfi~h Species. Shellfish (lohstcr, shrimp, conch i~nil otlicr tnollusks) i~ssociatcd with coral rccfs and sc;lgrirss beds (lobstcr and conch) and mangrove wctli~ncls (shrimp) arc distributed throughout the coastal zone. Nearly IOOU tnctric tons of lobstcr ancl conch, I laiti's principal fishcry exports ('Tablc V-6), arc harvested each year. Wliilc little infortnation exists on sti~ncling stocks of shellfish spccics, rcccnt Nationill Marine Fishcries Scrvice (NMFS) statistics (Tablc V-7) reported declines in catch of both conch and lobster, suggesting that these may bc ovcrfishcd, at Icast in certain urciis. 'Shcir easy access by divers (in the lcss than 15 m of water) makes them especially vulnerable. 'She high prices obtained for shellfish (c.g. lobstcr, conch, as wcll as snapper and,,groupcr) have Icd to increased fishing effort and localized ovcrcxploitation along the entire ncarshore rcef areas. This is particulirrly true in areas with casy access to both fishing grounds and markcts, a!; arc the banks bctwecn Port-au-Prince and Cionavc. This area is fished many times a day, with yiclds of only 1-3 kg/boat,'di~y. Shrimp, in mntrast, appears to be undcrutilized, particularly in the Bay of Port-au-Prince ncar the mangroves of Grande Saline and in thc southern Caycs between Aquin and Ilc :I Vachc, where lack of appropriatc harvesting techniques has resulted in low yields (Hatziolos, 1984). TABLE V-6 EXPORT IN KGS, IN '10 OF SHELL FISH October 1983 September 1984 Shellfish KfP O/O Shells (Conch & Others) Conch meat 1 Lobsters Aquarium Fish Shrimps Turtle shells Crabs Total ----*-------------Source: R. Kavanaght, 1954. Le Commerce de Produits de pCche en Haiti. Direction de PCchc des Rcssources Naturelles, Service de PCche et pisciculturc. Report, Dee. 1984. Nci~l.~hOrc pchgics, or srni~ll open wiltcr schtroling fish, such iIs Ilcrring, sardines. i~ncliovic~ irnrl jacks ;Il)lIciIt to I)c sigt1iCic;wtly more protluclivc tliirt~ dctr*:rsill spccics in I.liriti (estimated at 3o(H)-7000 tonslyc.,.r). (.'i~tch tlirti~ indici~tc thi~t current Ilarvcsts of tlicsc co;~sti~l pcli~gics arc wcll below potential yiclds (l'ahlc v-4). Offshore pelagic spccics, or occmic schooling fishes, iticluding tuna, bonito, tnackcrcl, skipjack and marlin, occur off the sliclf in wi~tcrs dccpcr than IHOtn. Scasonul migration of tunil i~nd bonito (April-May and August-October) bring li~rgc schools of thcsc species to shelf waters off Lcs Crrycmites and MiragoAnc 'Thcsc migrations, however, arc often associated with strong easterly winds, especially in thc fall when fishing is difficult. Landings are madc generally by small rcsident populations along the northern and southern coasts of Haiti. Essentially unhi~rvcstcd, Haiti's offshore pelagic fishery, with cstitnatcd yiclds of about 5000 MTIyear, is an untapped resource with considerable potential for dcvelopmcnt. Ornamental Reef Fish Although the hundreds of small ornamental fish spccies found on the reefs throughout thc Caribbean arc not considered harvestable by commercial fishermen, the artisanal fisherman takes them for food and profit. Overfishing, including the daily taking of sexually immature fish in these ciisily accessible arcas can cventually lead to the permanent disappearance of many species from the rcef and a deterioration of the complex ecologici~l system. Widespread fish collecting for cxport to the tropical aquarium industry in the United States and Japan adds to the problem. In 1982, Haitian exports of live fish and shcllfish to the U.S. carned almost $753,000, while in comparison shrimp earned only $100,000 (NMFS, 1982). Many more fish are taken than sold. Fish mortality is high as a result of careless trapping, collecting (dynamiting and poisoning), und subsequent handling of fish. Characteristics of the Fishing Industry Coastal fishing in Haiti is primarily artisanal, supported by unskilled labor and equipped with rudimentary and generally inadequate gear. The GOH Fisheries Services' efforts have been directed towards inland fisheries and aquaculture, although most of the fish consumed and sold comes from the sea. Most fishermen are only concerned with providing fish for immediate consumption. Brokers may take a portion of the catch and preserve it for resale in large population centers such as Port-au-Prince. Major species found in the markets are snapper, lobster, conch, shrimp and parrot fish. Occasionally, seafood stores which cater to the Haitian upper classes and tourists will have swordfish and othcr pelagic spccics.

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'l'otd ~xlil~lc ~~IIICI Mirri~~c slicllscruili~ Articlcs ofahcll Sponges & otllcr r~ori-cdihle products Fitill Kc ahcllfisli livc for ~I~~II~I~~IIIII Year 1980 37.5(H) 4,320 197,440 33,941 17,753 .lSI,l92 279.O23 !iiiltwiitcr fish I'illct fromi I.ol)ster livc fresh I.ohstcr tails Other lobsters Shrimpshell-on Shrimp peeled Other shellfish 'Total cdible products Coral crude Articles of shells Scuweed cYt other non-cdihlc fishery products Fish & shellfish livc QI~ i~quarium Year 1981 Ibs Kg!m) 990 .45 316,077 143.37 74.481 33.78 44.044 19.96 2,400 1 .ON 39 l ,9 62 177.79 Product Lobster live fresh Lobster tails Other lobster Shrimpshell-on Shrimp peeled Other shcllfish Edible fisheries Coral Crude Marine Shells Crude Articlesof shell Fish & shellfish live for aquiirium Total 1,296,004 587,86 3.910.756 Year 1982 279,325 126.70 44,620 20.24 18,275 8.29 9 ,650 4.38 111,19R0 50.43 Lobster tails Other lobsters Shrimp shell-on Shrimp canned Other shellfish fresh & frozen Edible Fisheries Products Coral crude Marine shellscrudc Articles of shell for aquarium Total 79H,40() 362.14 3 ,524,226 -Source: National Mi~rinc Fishcries Service Resource Statistics Division: US Imports.

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Ihml I I;~itiirris ;Ire us~ri~lly ~iot oricntctl lowi~rtl the sci~. Idow fish cirtclr mily rcprcscnt Ii~ck of trirdition, tcch~lology ;~nd cxpcrtisc (t';ltllcr tlii~tl short supplics of fish), i~ntl Iirck of irli intcrcstctl government in fislicrics irntl coirsl;rl zone ~l~;~~ii~gc~iic~lt. ('omprchcnsivc Icgislirlion exists to protect coirstirl ;lnd marine rcsourccs, hi~l cnforcclncnt 1s I~OII-cxistcnt. 'I'i~l,lc V-2 summarizes the most pertinent fish rcguli~tiotis (Monitcur, Novclnl)cr 20, 1078). I-li~iti's ;lrtisanal fishing flcct consists of i~plmxinii~lcly 30(N), ;rlrnost cntircly r~or~-~iioIot~izccl ~irillxrirts ;rnd rowl~oi~ts (3-Om) whose ni;~xirnum fishing radius, untlcr optimum conclitions, is ;lI~)ut 5 kln. At Icest 150 days out of the yc;w, tiowcvcr, Iicavy winds and seils kccp I'ishcrtncn in port. 130th ci1lcl1 per unit effort (avcr;rgc 5-10 kgltrip) and total annud catch (irbout one ton) ilrc grcirtcr for the larger hcttcr cquippcd ilnd more sci~worthy b~ts (FAO, 1983). Estimi~tcs of the number of fishcrmcn in I laiti vary widely, bctwcen 3000 full-time to 8000 part-time (Kavanirght, 1985). Fishing gcer ranges from one to three to multiplc hook and line, to palm-woven fish traps. Free diving for conch and lobster, and spearfishing occur in clear waters of less than 15 m. Hooka units (compressed air) i1rc uscd, but arc prohibited hctwccn February 1 iind July 31 each year. Hook and line, and fish traps arc among the most commonly uscd gciir because of their low cost ($2-$20) and rate of return. Use of nets, ranging in size from scveri~l mctcrs (trcmails) to 400 m in length (beach seines), bring in substantial yields: $100lcatch (trctnails) ancl up to five tons of schooling fish (beach seines) at ccrtain times of year. The tremail, thc most effective method for the capture of demersal fish, must be raised within two to thrcc hours to prevent asphyxiation and rapid dctcrioration of the catch. Current usage appears to leave the net in place for an entire morning or afternoon, spoiling a large portion of the catch. Fish traps are sometimes lcft in placc for thrcc or four days (M. Fitzgerald, 1985, personnal communication). The commercial distribution and marketing of the I fish catch in Haiti is transmitted through a network of rural merchants and geared to markets in Port-au-Prince. A substantial portion of the catch, however, never reaches the marketplace due to spoiliige from lack of preservation. During long hours at sea (an estimated I I to 1s I~~II~s ill /2rlsc (1'1 li~in;~~ll, for cx;~niplc) fish cxposcd to tlic suti oftcn spoil IxAhc the ho;rts c;rn rcturli to lwrt. Access to rcfrigcr;~tioti f;~cilitics is rcpcrrtctlly citcd ;is the most pressing nccd of fishermen. Ice is a sc;rrcc commodity in rnost rttrirl fisliing vill;~gcs i~nd refrigcralioti f;~cilitii~s exist in only ii few ccntr~rl Iocirtiolis throughout the country. Smidlcr, tcmpor;lry rcfrigcralion units irrc occ;rsiotially supplicd by middlcmcn at key distribution points. 'l'his system is gcncrally inadcquatc irl arcits wlicrc ro;rds irrc poor and ucccss difficult. Units typicully break down because of impropcr maintcnancc or clironic power f;rilurcs. In remote ;Ire;ls of the northwest (e.g. MBlc St-Nicolas) and in the southwest (Biric $1-lainault; Table V-h), wllcrc fishing yields irrc comparatively high, these facilities ;Ire unavailable. Post-harvcst losses, due to lack of preservation and succcssful distribution, lead to wasted fishcrics resources ancl an eventual return to subsistance fishing. Independent cntcprcneurs hirvc tried on two occasions to organize mobile distribution units, loading the catch at sea directly onto mother ships bound for Port-auPrince (L. Sha-on, 1985 personal communication). Although initially succcssful, these efforts were later abandoned. Not only is the issue of preservation problematic from boat to dock, a significant quantity of fishcrics exports from Haiti to the U.S. are detained at U.S. borders each year because of inadequate packaging or preservation. For example, U.S. Customs data for FY 1980 indicated that eight detentions of frozen conch meat were made because of either decompo$ition, insects, filth, or leaky containers. Total dollar value of the loss was not given. Lack of extension facilities to market the catch outside the area of production places a heavy burden on local market structure. Despite a large rural population eager to fish, the lack of efficient distribution networks, inaccessibility of the villages and the (relatively) high price of fish (Table V-9) make it difficult for these harvests to be utilized beyond coastal population centers. Fishermen are left with excess catch and meager profits. The major constraints to improved fishery production in Haiti are: (1) Lack of fish in areas where artisanal fishermen have access; (2) Inadequate boats and Table V-8 ANSE D'HAINAULT: RESULTS OF FISHING BY 7 BOATS (Between Sept. 1 and Nov. 18, 1984) Month No. of Trips Fish Catch (Ibs) Average Fish Catch (Ibs) September 44 3,050 69.3 October 56 4,077.5 72.8 Nov. 1 to Nov. 18 30 2,247 30 Total 130 9,374.5 130 Source: M.L. Le Menach Fisheries Expert (FA0 field study, 1984).

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Table V-9 FISH PRICES IN JUNE 1983 Product Price of Price Price Production Port-nu-Prince Hurnl -White fish fresh I ,H02,OO 2,20-2,50 Rcd fish frcsh 2,O-2,20 2,50-2,70 Small fish 0,801,50 1,502,OO Local dry fish 1,80-2,OO 2,OO-2,50 2,M-2,50 Lobster 5 ,oO 7 ,OO Conch fresh (unit) 0,15-O,2O 0,20-0,50 Fresh water fish 1 ,OO1,25 1,50 2,0() 1,25 1,50 Source: Rapport FAOIFIDA Junc 1983 gear denying fishcrmcn ilcccss to many productivc or potentially productive areas; (3) Lack of skills and proper training in the most eflicicnt, cost-effective techniqucs for harvesting specics and ensuring sustaincd utilization of r~newi~bk mi~rinc rcsourccs; and (4) Lack of sufficicnt fish preservation, distribution and marketing infrastructurc and organization in many locations. Thc following solutions to thc above mcntioncd constraints havc hecn proposed: Install artificial reefs and habitat enhancement devices in accessible and suitable areas. If placed in ecologically appropriate locations, these artificial reefs and fish-aggregating devices might prove an excellent means of taking the pressure off oveafished, depleted natural reef systems. Improve boat design, fishing gear and harvesting techniques. Focusing fishing activities in deeper waters off the shelf with such improvements, could expose fishermen to marketable species such as skipjack, mackerel, bonito, marlin and tuna. However, without working with Haitian fishermen and without adequate infrastructure to preserve, distribute and market fish catch, heavy post-harvest losses and wasted fish resources could result. An extension service for fishermen, access to refrigeration, better roads to service and fishing centers, and infrastructure responsive to fishermen, are needed before an offshore fishery is developed. Increase shrimp production through the development of appropriate harvesting techniques. Good shrimping grounds are reported in the Golfe de La Gonave, off the mangroves of Grande Saline and in the southern Cayes district, between Aquin and Ile A Vache. From preliminary investigations, this is an area where appropriate technology might be most effectively appiied. Small mid-water trawls, such as those used off the North Carolina coast, could be successfully introduced in Haiti to increase production without adverse environmental impacts. ~duriculture Although nii~riculturc in Haiti is still in thc early dcvclopmcnt stage, several activities havc been proposed. These include: brinc shrimp (Artcmia sp.) farming in salt ponds of the Artibonite cstuary; shrimp farming (Pcnaeus sp.) in thc mangrove wetlands of Baie de I'Acul du Nord; conch farming (Strombus & gasJ in the Baie de Ft. LibertC (now in progress) and clscwhcrc along the North Coast; and the cultivation of mangrove oystcrs (Ostrea sp.) in the protected cstuaries and bays of Haiti's northern and western coasts. A brief survey of seaweed and algae was conducted in selected areas along the coast to identify species of algae and seaweed rich in agar in 1980-81 (Renoux Meunier, 1978). Culture of the spiny lobster (Panulirus arRus) has been attempted in a small lagoon on the southern coast of the northwestern peninsula (UNDP, 1980). Culture of reef fish in floating cages in many protected bays along the coast has been suggested. Conch Cultivation Conch (Strombus gigas) generally inhabit nearshore waters, easily acccssiblc to subsistance fishermen, sport divers and commercial fishermen alike. In Haiti, increased fishing pressure has quickly Icd to a dccline in local conch population and a drop in yields (Hatziolos, 1984). Research into the hatchery techniques for rearing queen conch larvae (which began in 1980) h3s led to serious consideration of conch mariculture as a viable program in the Caribbean. Commercial hatchery production of juvenile conch in captivity has begun. Seeding reefs with conch to maintain overfished stocks or to culture conch to marketable size for profit, seems feasible in Haiti. The cultivation of conch wou!d not only reduce pressure on wild populations, but increase production of a valuable export commodity (both meat and shell) and a popular source of protein among Haitians. Shrimp Farming Habitat for farming shrimp in Haiti is found in the extensive mangrove wetlands of the Grand Saline region and Baie de I'Acul in the north. Questions remain,

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howcvcr, regarding pesticide lo;tds in the rivcrs dririning the Artibonitc v;rllcy, lack of csscntiirl inrr;rstructurc (c.g. clcctricity) to support shrimp farming opcrtions irnd the high costs of shrimp f;rrming for fcctl and tcchnical assistnncc. Reports from Ecuador, moreover, indicate serious problems emerging from the widespread mangrove hirbitirt destruction from huilding shrimp ponds. J'ost-lirrv;rl irnd juvenile shrimp irrc disappearing ils m;rngrovcs arc clcarcd, making it more and more difficult to seed the ponds with local shrimp species upon which this technology depends Brine Shrimp Harvesllng A rcccnt study of the dcvclopmcnt potential for eastern Caribbcan Artcmia sp. (Island Rcsourccs Foundation, 1984) h;rs indicated that brine shrimp culture in salt ponds, whcrc it is endemic, is it viablc proposition, pirrticulury it5 a cottage industry. Brine shrimp is uscd as an aquarium feed when proccsscd into pellets. Following investigation of the brinc shrimp farming potential in Haiti, this specics was found in thc salt ponds of the Artibonitc cstuary. Although the site was rejcctcd due to soil charactcristics, it is apparent that the opportunity for brinc shrimp culture does exist. Salt ponds trap scdiments, protect fragile reef environments froni silttitior: and act as habitat for numerous migrating and resident populations of shorebirds, including ii number of rare and threatened birds species. Farming brine shrimp in the salt ponds of Haiti, if properly managed, could maintain the ecological role of salt ponds in coastal areas, provide an altcrnativc source of income to local fishermen, and preserve the original Artcmia gene pool. Oyster Culture A small scale culturc projcct at Ft. Liberti. bay attempted a hanging oyster culture, starting with thc imported Crassotrea gigas. When most of these died, a second oyster (this time a local species, Crassotrea luca was introduced. The project failed apparently because of wide fluctuations in salinity causcd by runoff from heavy rains, attacks by boring sponges and lack of funding to continue the cxpcriments. Unlike some countries in the Caribbean, most people in Haiti consume oysters. The viability of culturing oysters cannot be assessed, however, seaweed culture, without additional rescarch. Seaweed Culture Certain areas along the coast have becn identified as having seaweed and :3lgae species rich in agar, a commercially desirable product. No further rcsearch has been conducted and the costs of seaweed culture in Haiti havc not becn asscsscd. Areas identified with this potential are: From Grand Savane to Anse Rougc (northwest): Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnaea musciformis, canthrophora spicifera, Gracilaria cylindrica; Arc:r of Pctitc Rivic)rc dc Nippc!; (froni Chirrlier to Ansc-A-Vcu): I 1ypn:rc;r musciformis; hit Anglirise, Zanglilis, Sl-Louis du Sud: tirircius sp.) From Jacmcl to Mirrigot: Gracilariir sp. (Figure v 1) King Crab Culturc Rcccnt field laboratory experiments conductcd in the Caribbean (SML) indicatc that growing Mithrax spinosissimus (Caribbean King crabin rcality a spider crirb), on screened floatingcagcs and rafts, is possible. Although such a projcct is not yet opcrational, ;I prcfeasibility study for Haiti would be dcsirablc to assess the technical and cconomic viability of beginning a pilot projcct in Haiti wirtcrs, where crabs are known to occur and fishermen arc familiar with their harvest and marketing. Fresh Water Fisheries Haiti has many short rivers with stcep gradients, flowing swiftly from mountains to sea. Most tend to have a torrential flow pattern with stormy flows during the rainy season and dry beds during the dry season. There is one large. river, the Artibonite, whose katershed includes most of the Plateau Central and which empties into the, Golfe de la Gonave. ~he,total area of fresh water lakes and lagoons is approximately 23,000 ha, of which most iS represented by Etang Saumatre (16,000 ha) and Lake Peligre, a reservoir of 3200 ha, created in 1956-57 by the construction of a hydroelectric facility across the Artibonite River. Very little information is available about the productivity of these fresh water sources. A partial list of indigenous lake species is shown in Table V-10. Table V-10 NATIVE FISH FAUNA OF ETANC SAUMATRE Species Family Cichlasoma batiensis Cichlidae Cyprinodon bondi Cyprinodontidae Gobionellus sp. Gobeiidae Dormitator maculutus Elotridae Stronylura notata Belonidae Limia tridens Poeciliidae Limia melanonotata Poeciliidae Gambusia hispaniolae Poeciliidae Source: Thorbjarnason (1984): Status and Ecology of the American Crocodile in Haiti.

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In addition to the Iitr (nd rivers, thcrc arc numcrjccts is providctl by cxpntriatc volunteers, foreign uni. ous fish ponds stocked mt~stly with 'I'ilupia sp, i~ntl vcrsi~y f;rculty iintl stutlcnts, :~nd ii few I leitii~n tcchnicarp. Thcsc ponds ;ire m;rintirined by individual I'arnlcii~ns. crs, NGO's and the GOI-I Fisheries Scrvicc. Total I'rcsh w;rtcr fish production from thcsc ponds is cstinlirFish prcscr~tly cultured in I liniti include: Tihpia nitcd at irbout 1200 tot;slycirr (Knvirnught, 1984). loticir, most witlcly used; 'l'ilirpiir ma less efficient producer nntl now rarely used; Tilapiir irurca, Aquaculture used only on Ida Cionavc Island; and the common car^. Fish culturc was introtluccd in thc 1950's hy the FA0 Technical Assistance Project as iI mcans of improving nutrition in rural arcas. Chincsc carp (Trichogrster pwtoralis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) ;and Tilapia mossambica were stocked in river:,, Inkcs and irrigation canals, whcrc they reproduced rapidly. Nursery and experimental ponds wcrc constructed irt the Damicn Fish Culture Steiton outside Port-au-Prince, and extension work bcnnn in 1952. An estimated 5000 ponds wcrc constructcdbctwccn 1958 and 1977 (Table VI 1). Lack of trained personnel and cxtcnsiorr agents, its well ;IS a liniitcrl budget, ilppnrcntly brotight the program to a standstill by 1965 or 1966 (D. Puclle, 1983). By 1985, only 400 ponds remained in the cul clc Sac region, the area most acccssiblc from the Damicn Station ((3. LaFontant, 1985, pcrsonnal cotntnunication). Rcccntly, thcrc has bccn ii revived interested in fish culture in rural areas of Haiti. The present impetus comcs from thc privatc sector (PVO's and from intcrnational organizations such as FA0 and thc Peace Corps). Technical assistance for thcsc aquaculture pro. which r&luircs more tcchnicul skill than Tilirpiir to culturc. 'I'uhlc V12 lists approximate cIi\tcs ml origins of exotic fish species introtluccd in tiditi sincc 1952. Iicccnt privatc scctor propowls ssuggcst that future PVO projects might include thc building of fish porlds on salt flats :!nd growing Tilapia in coastal waters. 'The potentially scrious irrpircts upon marine ecosystems of introducing exot'c ipccics has, however, not been asscsscd All fresh water fishcrics' research is handled by the Damicn Fish Culture Station and staffed by the Fisheries Scrvicc. The aquaculture program is, howcvcr, severely limited by inadequate funding and staffing. Extension work with the individual farmer is an csscntial prerequisite of successful fish culture, yet the program can count on only a handful of trained extension agents with limited transport equipment to distribute fry to outlying areas. Exotic Species Introduction Since there is virtually no information available on the natural productivity of inland and coastal waters Table V-11 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH; CONSTRUCTION OF PONDS; STOCKING OF PONDS, LAKES AND RIVERS 1958 1973 Fiscal Year Distributed Ponds Stocked Carp Tilapia Constructed Stocked Rivers Lakes 58-59 59-60 60-6 1 61-62 62-63 63-64 64-65 65-66 66-67 67-68 68-69 69-70 7r3-:! 72-73 Totals Source: Technical assistance in Freshwater Fisheries Development in Haiti, 1973. Note: This data has been included because it is the official record from the Dept. of Agriculture. However, the original information used to compile this table is highly questionable. It is the opinion of the mthor that the values given are grossly inflated. (Puelle, 1983).

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otlicr tllirn vcry localiw,l tlirtir on fish cirtcli, it i!; vcry difficult to irsscss the itnpi~cts of hirving intrc~~dt~cccl cxotic spccics such irs Tilirpii~ sp, i111d cirrp into the irquirtic cnvirotimcnt of I.liriti. 1;illtlings in tlic Ihniniciin Rcpul~lic inrliciltc, however, tllirt few if irny tlirturid irticl I~rirckish wirtcr cnvirorrtncnts rcniirin ut~i~l'l'cctctl by cxoticspccics introiluction (I Iirrtshorti ct ill, IOHI). Acluirculturc in I liriti is Ixing ~~ro~notctl primirrily :IS i~n irltcrnirlivc source of protein for the rnrirl popuhition and iI source of cash income. SOIIIC i~tlcmpts hirvc bccn niidc to grow Tilirpii~ co~~~mcrcii~lly, but these efforts hirve hcen Ii~rlgcly unsucccssful. Introtluction of iw cxotic spccics, such ;IS 'Tilirpiir, ihto coirstirl wirtcr, as iI result of potd n)nstruction ~IIOII~ lllc coirst, should bc ~:;SCSSC~ and mnnitored for their impuct on coastal lagc.)ons iilld rccf ccosystcms; cspcciirlly sincc 'I'ilirpiir cxhihits some tolcrirncc to saltwater and could conc~ivi~hly compete for rc!iourccs with ni~.tivc spccics. Rcccrrt proposals to raise Tilapiir in cstuurinc cnvironmcnts should bc rcvicwcd carefully. Seaports and Coastal Trade Sincc the carly sixteenth century, il sysrm ofcoi~stiil trading ports cxistcd throughout I-laiti ~(Figurc V-2). By the carly 1900's. the system hucl los,t much of its dynamic naturc duc to lack of irdcquate facilities and invcstmcnt to improve harbors and docks, iIs well i1s to thc closing of rcgionid ports to foreign comnicrcc in favor of I'ort-au-Prince. At prcscnt, only 12 ports i\rc open for trade: Port-au-Princc JCrCnnic Cap-Haitier. Lcs Chyes Port-de-Paix St-Marc Oonaivcs Jucmcl Pet it-GoAvc R. 1,ibcrtt Mirugonue Aquin Cities such trs Lcs Chyc~, Jucmcl und Jdrdmic, howcvcr, do little if irny interrptional mrlritime commcrcc. Port-uu-I'rincc has thc highcst trudc volume und tonnllgc of any port in Haiti. Ports which ore closed to intcrnirtionirl shipping includc, umong others, M61c St-Nicolas, Port-h-Pimcnt, Ansc d'Huinault, Ansc-hVC~IU, Grandc Saline, Coruil und Pestcl. A 1977 cli~ssification ofcoastal trading vessels roughly divitlcs the commercial flcct into 580 sailboats id 2b motorizcd launches. Some bouts urc not included hcciruse of tonnage less than onc. Range (Tonx) No. of vessel.^ Average Tonnage Sincc 1077, the number of tiaitim vcsscls has diminished due to furthcr dcclinc in local seaport activity und rctircmcntlloss of old vcsscls. Recently, the GOH has stressed rcgionalization as a strategy to improve the quality of life in ruri~l and remote arcas. Perhaps a rcsurgencc of coastal scaports and increased vesscl usagc will bc seen in the futurc. Table V-12 EXOTIC FISH SPECIES INTRODUCED IN HAITI Species Year Fralm Where Purpose Reference Tilapia mossambica Cyprinus carpio Trichogaster pectoralis Cyprinus carpio Pocilia reticulata Tilapia nilotica Ctenopharyngodon idellus Tilapia aurca Gambusia affinis Ictalurus sp. Jamaica Alabama Singapore Israel Dornin. Rep. Limonade FC Illinois Florida DFCS DFCS DFCS DFCS DFCS Starlcy, p. com Limpnade LaGonavc Ft. Librtk DFCS Lin ( 1052) Lin (1952) Starley, p. corn. Puelle (1983) Linden, p. corn. Wilson, p. corn. disappeared from DFCS since 1955; DFCS = Damien fish cult. station ** disappeared from Limonadc since 1981; FC = Fish Culture MC = Mosquitoe Larvae Control Source: Vlaminck (PROTOS), Aquaculture Stat. Fort-Libcrte.

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Fig. V-2: ~mul~lboats curry much of lntercuarrtnl frelght nuch ae charcoal. E.ENDANGERED SPECIES AND CRITICAL HABITAT Many thrcatcncd or cndangcrcd iinimal spccics inhabit coastal and marine areas of Haiti. Those which utilize mangrove habitats include among others: American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) Green Sca Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hawksbill Turtle (Erctmochelys imbricata) Loggerhead Turtle (Carrcta caretta) American Fliimingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaia) Reddish Egret (Dichromanassa rubescens) West Indian Tree Duck (Dcndrocygna arborca) Masked Duck (Oxyura dominica) White-crowned Pigcon (Columbia leucocephala) Hispaniolan Trogon (Temnotrogon roseiaaster) Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) West Indian Manatee (Trichecus manatus) Of the marine mi~mnliils, the West Indian Mmatcc is faced with extinction. Recent aerial surveys have Il)cntcd iI well cstahlishcd population of nlilfii~tecs (be' -wn 5 and 8) living in the mangrove ilreils of the ~rtibonite estuary (C. Woods, I9X5 pcrsonnl conmunication). Sightings hilv~ also occured at Montrouis and the hay of St-Milrc, whcrc I'rcsh watcr cntcrs the sea and at Ft. LibertC, west of Cap I-Iaitien. Hunting prcssurc on the manatee is unknown. Haiti's remote, deep sand beaches offer excellent nesting hiibitat for sca turtles. Of four cndangcrcd species of turtles, three have been reported in Haitian waters: Chelonia mydas (green turtle), Caretta caretta (the loggerhead) and to a lesser extent Eretmo-9 chelvs imbricata (hawskbill turtle). Divers along the northern coast have also reported the leatherback (Dermochely!i coriacea), as an occasional visitor (J.C. Diquemare, 1985 personal communication). Location of nesting beaches and primary nesting season ilrc unknown. Fishcrmcn take turtlc for food iind in the case of the hawskbill and the green turtle, sell the shell to tourists and to manufacturers of turtlc jewelry. Table V-7 summarizes trade with !he U.S. in seafood products. including turtlc shells and aquarium fish. Export of turtle shclls are higher than tliose in 'Tablc V-7, ils Japan buys ell thc shells exported by two firms in Port-au-Prince (quantity unknown). See Wiltllil'c 'Trade section. Chi~ptcr VI). American flamingos ilrc found throughout I-laiti, especially in lhc mud fl;tts ncur Port-au-Prince and the Etiing Saumatrc and the salt ponds at the estuary of the Artibonite river, on La Gonavc and at the Baie

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In I laili. ~iiot~nti~i~ious tcrr;~iti, poor, non-cxistcnt coiis~i~l ~O~ICIS i111~l Ii~ck 01' ~oi1sIi11 ~CVCIO~TII~CII~ liii~~, lhus fill', protcctcd tll~ ~OLIII~~Y'S VilSt ~~illtll Of ~Oil~till i~ncl ~ni~rilic cnviron~nc~its from signil'ici~nt rlcstructivc dcvclopmcnts. 'l'hc only major impact on the sea's rcsourccs conics froni the relentless fishing by thou~i11ltl~ of i~rtisi~nirl fishermen who must fish all year long, without benefit ofatlcqu;~tc training, appropriate equipment, technical assistance and marketing infrastructure. Although accurate diiti~ ol fish stocks ilrc ~~li~~ailablc, ill1 cvidcncc points to the fact that while easily iicccssiblc ncarshorc ilrcils ilrc being fished to the limit (and often ovcrfished), species farther offshore iirc untlcrutilizcd. 'I'hc recent expedition by Jacques Cousteau of Haitian coastel waters supports this empirical observation. The extensive ecological systems along the vast coastline of Hi~iti, can be regarded us natural capital potentially providing ii continuous flow of goods and services to support and cnhancc economic dcvelopment. Continued overfishing of nearshore areas will eventually seriously affect both species populations and diversity, as has already occurred in other parts of the Ciiribbcitn. To stop this trend a ncw committment from the Got1 is needed. The GOH Fisheries Scrvicc is prcsently underbudgeted (e.g., $60,000 for FY 83), understiiffed and untlcrtreinctl. For cxiimplc, of thc 35 cmployees of the Scrvicc, only eight arc technical staff and two arc extension iipcnts. No reliable statistics ere kept on fish catch. either lochlly or nationally, nor arc lish stock esscssmcnts carried out to determine the country's cxploitablc marine resources. Although Icgislation docs exist (FishI .ocxti~~g ;IMI orgi~~~izil~g coni~iit~nilics i~litl groups ;IS fislicry production i~ntl niiirkcti~~g coopcriitivcs in ortlcr to ~mwitlc assisti111~~~ arid coorc.liniitc ci~tcli iltirl fish ilislril,ulion; cxrcncling credit to such groups for the purchirsc of cquilmcnt i111cl to give thcni ;lcccss beyond nciirshors ilrCilS; stimulating sniall-scale industries related to fishing (c.g, gCiN ~nilll~fii~~~rillg il11d nlilintcnancc, boilt COIlStruction, fish salting and drying operations), to meet dcmand; strengthening and expanding marketing capabilities to ensure that fishermen receive rcasonablc profits for their efforts; extending fish distribution networks to rural populutions to provide them access to this source of protein; -providing training and appropriate equipment and for the fishing of ?emersal/benthic (nearshore) fish stocks in order to avoid depletion of these resources; cncouriiging the private sector to stimulate expansion of artisanal fishing operations through investments and more effective distribution systems. These activities should be concentrated in areas of greatest potential (c.g. along the southern coast between JCrkmie and Les Irois and between Aquin and Belle-Ansc, and in the northwest, between MOle St. Nicolas and Baie de Henne). Activities should also be coordinated to avoid duplication of efforts and to idcntify activities with greatcst cost-effectiveness. Mariculturc or the cultivation of mit~inc species to increase optimum sustained yields is another possible strategy to rclievs fishing pressure from natural fish stocks, especially nearshore. The limits of natural prorluction, cspcciitlly in iircns

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2.Y'roteclion und Mi~~urgcrnenl of Countul Murine W~hitutu A rcccnt (1083) a~ncntlcnic~it to tlic U.S. I:orcign Assistance Act autliorizcs the Prcsidcnt to provitlc i~~~i~tilllcc to ~Olllltr'i~~ ill llccd of pt'0t~~litIg alld tllilitltaining the habitat of thrcatcncd and endangered wildlife species. Particular emphasis wi given to the establishment wildlifc sanctuaries and rcscrvcs, thc enactment and enforcement of antipoaching mcasurcs, and support oF rcscarch progritnls to iclcnlify, study and ci~titlog ritrc itnimal and plant spccics, especially in tropical cnviron~ncnts. I laiti is one of the largest Chribbcan countries, with it suprisingly untouched coastal and ~nirrinc cnvironmcnt. Much of its wildlifc, particularly in the coastal ilrcils, hits never hccn specifically identified i~nd studied. With its limited rcsourccs and yet significant coi~sti~l wildlife habitat, 1 laiti is good cirndidutc for i~pplici~tion of thc amcndmcnt mentioned ithove, as part of it coirstal rcsourccs planning effort. US. donors. such as USAID, could !;polisor snlall rcscarch efforts with students and Sacultics from qualified acirdcniic institutions, in Haiti and elscwhcre, to invcntory rilrc and threatened spccics such as sea turtles, shorebirds arid seabirds. A few efforts of this nature have already begun with the participation of faculty and students from the University of Fir-icla with ISPAN. Participation of Haitian residents, however, is crucial if long-term protection of coastal resources is to be accornplishcd. The plan nced not be a highly sophisticated one, as in thc case of coa!;tal zone progrims in the United States. It should. however, provide information and maps (at useful scales) of critical arcas in need of protection, such as mangrove wetlandlcoral rccflseagrass bed arcas along Haiti's coast and areas suitable for marine reserves and parks, and propose sound intcyratcd sustainable economic dcvclopnlcnt of I-laiti's coastal resources, primarily for fisheries and tourism. Criteria for selection of critical coastal ilrcits have already been devcloped worldwide and could be applied to Haiti. These itrcils would include hi~bitut for commercially important fish and shellfish species, rare and endangered species, arcus of unusual scenic IJrojccts to bc c~i~l~ittctl within the pli\l\~\ii\p tniwitp,c11icn1 context would inclutlfl existing proposills for cotlcli cultiv;rtion, sllrirnp I'i~rniing, I~rinc shrimp Ilorvcsting, oyster culturc, scitwccd culturc irnd King cri~h mariculturc, 3.Estubllshment of Marine Heserves and Parks as Part of the Coastal Herwucces Plan I'rotcction irnd Management of Coastal Mi~ritic 1 labitats and marinc parks, can be cffccaivcly uscd for both public cducution und rcscarch, irnd to rcplcriish tlcpletcd breeding stocks of valuahlc but vulnerable fish and shellfish spccics that quickly Jisirppci~r from heavily fished arcas. Once identificd and managed its critical i\rciIs, they scrvc as important hi~bititt~ for commercially valuable fish, as well iis for rare and cndangcrctl fish i~ntl invcrtcl~ratcs. The success of these protected itrci~s depends hewily on their role in ii lirrgcr or cvcn nirtional systcm of coastal rcsourcc protection, the existence of i1n appropriutc manugcmcnt framework, and their gcncrirl i~cccptiincc by loci~l residents. 'I'licrc ilrc legal prcccclcnts for protecting coustal resources. In 1942, thc GOH ratified the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hcmispherc. Thc convention calls for intcrniltioni~l cooperation in the protection of flora i~nd fauna throughout the hcmispherc, including the estahlislimcnt of protcctcd areas, such as nationul parks and reserves. Subsequently, thc GOH Hunting Law (1971) was enacted which forbids the hunting of various threatened and endangcrcd coastal birds, as well as other spccics. lntcrprctivc education, rcscarch and management programs, dcvcloped as part of a marine parklrcscrvc systcm in Ilaiti. could, if prepared ill>l>ropriately, help to crcatc a better ilwarcncss of the law itnd an i~pprccii~tion for the resource. The following areas arc proposcd for either marine parks (niultiplc use arcus) or marine rcscrvcs (rcstrictcd usagc): Arcadins The Arcadins arc a group of sniull islands with i~djacent reefs approximately scven miles from the ncarcst point of land (Pt. Pitturit~i) and 36 miles north of Port-au-Prince. Thc largest of tne three. Lighthouse I~littid (300 nl by 100 ~n) features it whitc sand hcirch

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'IIIc AI'C~I~~IIS i1t.C ~IIsO it ~~~i~tlitio~~i~l fishhg ~~OUIILI for the I'isl~inl: con~munity ilt I.ully. 'l'l~c coriil reel's iltltl !icilgl.ilSs I>cth. cvidclltly ~Il'ovitlc cx~cllclll I'Ihll I~i~biti~l for ;I vi~ricty of tlcsiri~l)lc spccics. 'Illis ilrcil, it' 111i111i1jictl wisely, with the coopcri~tion of both tllc fishing villi~gc and the rccrcutionid users from ncilrhy tourist 1)cilch liotcls, could provide ;I rcncwirblc fisheries hi~hiti~t, ;I mci\ns of ctlucating the public to better conscrvi~tion pri~cliccs, alld iln altraction to tourists which will help boost the Iilgging tourist ccononiy. A marine purk at thc Arcidins sl~oultl, however. bc plillltlctl cilrcfully ils pill? Of illl 0~~r;dl ~Oil~tid milnagcmcnt plan which would also set aside other mirrinc coastal iircils for special protcctivc management Barraderes Cuyemites Marine Reserve One of Hi~iti's most outstanding coi~stid ilrcas, it~cludcs a shallow bay (Barrad2rcs) and iln archipelago of islands ((.'aycnlitcs). It is located along the stretch of coast between Petit Trou de Nippes and Corail. The hay is lined with more thi111 1200 hi1 of tlliingrovc vc'I'hc Iilck oftlcvclop~~icnt ol'tl~is :Ircil tlocs not i1ppc;lr to l)c clue, however, to lin~ilcd p)tcnlii~l, Iwl rother to lack of' road i~cccss. 'l'hc hinterland of this iirca is chi~ri~ctcri~ctl Ily ki~rsI topogrilphy of sn~i~ll rountlctl hills. still covcrctl by forest vcgcti~tion. Unspoiled bci~chcs, miltlgrovc hWiItIIl)S, i~ntl the cxtcllsivc rccf system rcprcscnl untloul>tctlly Ihc bcst sirmple of Coilstill resources in I li~iti. Somc chilrcoi~l ~ni~king activity is cvidcnt on tllc 13arratl~rcs peninsula and on Grantlc Caycmitc. Ile rr Vache 'l'hc Ilc ;i Vi~cllc, just lo Ihc south of Lcs ('ayes, conti~ins ;I hcrrutiful miingrove system on its eastcrn half wliic11 provides hi~hiti~t lor it small colony of crocodilcs i~nd numerous shorcbirds and waterfowl. Just off the ci~stcrn ctltl of the island is one of tlic largest coral rccf systcnls found in Haitian waters. Bale de Labadie and Buie de Cadrasse Thcsc small hays, uninipactctl by shore line devclopment, have exccllcnl potentid its marine reserves where breeding stocks of con~nlcrcii~lly desirable spccies could be protcctcd.

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Wildlands Conservation 'I'hc arrive1 of thc Amcrindians (ahoriginul peoples), prhiarily thc Arawaks some 70(H) years ago, did not greatly alter the ccosystcms ol khc island. Although perhaps as many as one million Amerindians lived on Hispaniolir itt the time Columbus landed, a vast majority lived in the coastal zones and depended on seafoods, mostly shcl'lfish for thcir srlbsistance. Agricultural activities were confined to the plains. 'The Amerindians also huntcd certain huti;~r; as a source of food (Woods, 1984). Primi~tes bccanic extinct before the arrival of the Amcrintlians. The Amerindians introduced domestic dogs (Canis firmiliaris) to the island which presumably huntcd many of the rrative mammals, thus contributing to thcir cxtinction. 7 I When Christopher Columbus first set foot on Haiti in 1492, and claimed it for Spin, he dcscribcd it as an tcearthly para disc.,^ ImmeGiatcly, the Spanish began a pattern of destructive exploitation of human and natural resources, a pattern 'that has marked the history of Haiti. Gold wils mined, and the Amerindian population enslaved and virtually wiped out. The plains were cleared and cattle and goats introduced. Hardwoods were cut for lumber. Rats (Rattus rattus and -Rattus norvegicus) invaded the island, taking over the biological niches of some native rodents. Cats, dogs and swine became feral. The Spanish imported Slaves fronAfrica to rcplacc thc fast Jisuppcaritlg aboriginal people. The Spanish were succeeded by the French who reaped enormous profit from the large plantations of sugar, coffee, indigo and cocoa. The French did not limit thcir agricultural activities to the plaills, but also cleared numerous virgin fcrests on mountain sides for hardwood lumber and to plant coffee. The large mahogany forests of La Gonavc were cut down. Most of the colonists regarded Haiti as a territory to exploit for quick profit without any regard for the conservation of the natural resources or their renewal. The entirc colonial system was based on a brutal and oppressif exploitation of African slwes. The slaves, after yci1r.s oi Iutlcr and bloody struggle, gained their freedom and founded Haiti, an independent nation, in 1804. Ulr.fortunately, altho~tgh slavery was abolishcd, the inappropriate exploitation of natural resources continued unabated. The freed slaves were given small tracts of land in thc mountains, which they cleared to create small farms. Any unclaimed land was cut for lumber. In 1845, 18,600 mc of mahogany alone were exported (World Bank, 1982a). Other hardwoods were cut for fuelwood, charcoal and construction, and slash-and-burn agricultural techniques were adopted. Fragmentation of land holdings was required by Haitian inheritance laws, causing further intensification of larid uie. Poor agricultural techniques caused erosion which, in turn, lessenled water retention capacity; the subsequent decreased yields forced the growing population of peasants to clear more and more land in the mountains, and to make more charcoal as a source of complimentary rcvenuc (Cohen, 1984). As mentioned in chapter 111, only 6.7% of Haiti's land area remains under forest cover. These areas are found in only the most inaccessible mountains and isolated unproductive zones. The Following is an assessment of the past, present and future status of wildlands and wildlife in Haiti, and its relationship to sustainable economic and human devclopment. Wildlands, defined as those areas that have not been significantly affected by human activities, are very rare in Haiti. Some direct causes for the disappearance of Haiti's wildlands are: (1) an exponenC~tily increasing population density (about 7001 ha of xal
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hirvc contributed to ir significant dccrcirsc in I-liriti's wiidlifc. Of the 25 cndcrnic lirnd mummirls oncc found in tliriti, only two rcmuin (Plugiodonticr irctlium i~nd Solcnodon pirrudoxus) (scc Figures 1 und 2), irntl of & 75 species of rcsidcr~t irndlor cndcmic birds, 45 irrc rare or thrcatcncd (C. Woods, personirl comnluniartion, 1985). Ovcr 129 spccics of endemic orchids arc endangered irntl most other I-lispaniolan plants call be considered in ri:ik of extinction, with the exception of the most undesirable and uncxploitablc trccs and shrubs which propagate rirpitlly under the most difficult conditions (Dotl, 1985). Surprisingly, howcvcr, there irrc small ilrcas in the most remote and in;~cccssiblc mountains and in certain coastal zoncs that can bc still considcrd modified wildlands, which contain vcry importirrrt samples ol' cntletnic l'lorir irnd founa. I-Iaiti's geologic history, its varied topography and variability of tcmpcrirture and precipitation hirvr: crcatcd il greater diversity of binmcs than cirn he found in the eastern part of North American. Due to the isolation und adaptation to specific environments a pat number of Haitian plants and animals cvcntually bccilmc separated cndcmic spccics. IB.FLORA OF HAITI As a result of the divcrsity of Haiti's ecosystems and their biological isolirtion, lliriti hirs ir pirrticulury rich irnd varied florir. At the present tirnc, over 5M)O spccics of plants irrc known to exist in I4iriti, of which ihut two thirds irrc woody pliltlts, trees or shrubs, 111 addition, thcrc arc irbout 600 spccics of ferns ('1'. Zunoni, personal communicirtion, 1985); 36 pcrccnt of irll plants ilrc endemic to the islirnd (Ilcrnirndcz, IOUO). Ovcr 300 kinds of orchitls cirn be found throughout thc island of Hispaniola, of which 40 pcrccnt iirc cndcmic (Dod, 1985). Thcrc arc undouhtctlly many untliscovered spccics of plants in I-laiti, since the florir has not bccn thoroughly invcstigatcd. The vegetation varies considerably from n vcry dry dcscrt zone dominated by spiny shrubs, cacti, Sayahonds (Prosopis juliflora) and acacia (Acircia farncsiilna) to hetcrogerious srlbtropicid moist and wet forests dominated by such broadlcaf trccs as mi~hoaany, campcche (klaematox'ylum c~mpcchianum) arid manglier (Rhizophora mangle) to montane subtropical forests of native pine (ms occidentirlis), "Sois Mabel" Bruncllia comocladifolia) and "Bois Tremble" (Didymopanax tremulum). A list of endangered plant species is found in the Tablc VI-1. Of all the ecosystems in Haiti, the coastal zoncs and mangrove forests are the least threatened. Only seven percent of the mangrove forests disappcarcd bctwccn 1956 and 1977 (Thorbjarnarson, 1984). Fig.: VI-1: Line drawing of Solendon paradoxus (nez long), an endanb !red mammal.

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T"hlc VI-I LIST ()It' VEGKI'ATION 'l'IIRI<:A'n:Nlm ANn IN Nlmn OF I'RO' .... :CT!ON Conuncm Frcllich Numc Al'hl'icoticl' Acajou, noix d'acajoll Acajoll Bois campcchc Bois Chandelk Boiscapah Bois Pin Blimhlin "'n mil y (lull i fc J'al' Anacardial:cac Mcliarca l,egullIinosac Rlitacca..: Rhanlllilceae Pi n ae..: al: ( >xalidaecae Cachimanl ,a ('hine Anllonaccac Caimitc Sapotaceac CcdJ'e Mcliaccae Ciroucllc Anacardiaceae Chenc Bignoniacca Dalcmaric Ciuttifcrac Divi-llivi Lcguminosa Ehenc Bomginaccac Froll1agicr BOll1bacaccae Gaiac Zygophyllaccac Grain ouary Lcguminosca I1{m-llan Annol1i..'(":ac .Jaune d'ocuf Sapotaccac Latanicr chapeau Pal mac Mancenillier Anacardiaccac Macoutouca Pal mac Pommc zombi Euphorbiaccac Mangle; Paletuvicr Combrctaceac Mangle blanc Combretaceac Manglicr rouge Rhizophoracea Manglicr petites feuilles, pativicr Sapindaccac Mapou Bombacaceae Mapouzombi; baobab Bombacaccae Palme coycau Pal mae Catie Pal mae Palmiste Pahnac Pommc cythere Anacardiaceac Raisin de Mer, raisinicr Polygonaceae Romarin Euphorbiaceae Roucou, Roucouyicr Bixaccae Sapotille marron Tavernon LcgulIlinosae Zicaque, Icaquier Rosaceae Sclcntlfic NIIIIIC Mallllllea americana AnacaJ'dillll1 occidentak Swiclenia Illahogani IlctTIatoxylullI campcchialllllll AIllYJ'is halsamifera (:oluhrilla arhoresccns..:t (', Reclinata Pinlls occidcntalis Averrhoa hilimhi Annona chcrill10lia ('hrysophyllull1 cainito (:cdr..:la odmata Spol1dias purpurea Catalpa longissima Calophyllum calaha CacsHlpinio coria ria Rochcfortia acanthophot'a Bornbax tussacii (iuaiacum officinale Canavalia obtusifolia Cananga odorata Lucuma domingensis Sabal causiarum Mctopium toxiferum Euterpe globosa Hippomane mancinella Conocarpus erectus Laguncularia racemosa Rhizophora mangle Dodonaea viscosa Ceiba pentandra Adansonia digitata Coccothrinax argentea Pseudophoenix vinifera Roystonia regia Spondias cytherea Coccoloba uvifera Croton Iinearis orellana Manilkara albescens Lysiloma latisiliqua Chrysobalanus icaco Source: MARNDR / Direction dt's Ressources NaturellesService de Protection l'Environnement et de la Faune, C.FAUNA OF HAITI Birds As a result of its isolation and thc variety of its eco-zones, Haiti also has a rich and unique fauna, There are more than 220 species of birds in Haiti, of which 75 are considered resident. A number of them are endemic to the island, such as the La Selle Thrush (Tnrdus the Hispaniolan Trogon (Temnotw gon roseigaster), the Hispaniolan Parrot (Amazona ventralis) and Parakeet (Aratinga chloroptera), the Chat Tanager (Calyptophilus frugivorous), the Pal mchat (Dulus dominicus), and the Black-crowned Palm Tanager (P, '""r.ble VI-2), The Grey-crowned Palm Tanager :'d remaining completely unique to Haiti 79

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1 iihpllio~il i11d ll~~ili, 111 pitrlkdi~r, ~IVC ill li*i~sl two I)rc.ctlilrg colol~ics 01 llrc ;tl~rlosl cxti~lcl I1Ii1ck-ci11)1)ed l'~tr~1 (~'~~~O~~~Olllil ~lil~l~illil), il lill'~~ scilbird ~IliIl I'ccds ovcr ll~c sci~ for wwks ill ;I tinrc (1;igut.c VI -3). lh~ri~~g Ihc I~rwlitrg SciISOIt il 1c1ur11s to its lwwws ill hlccy) ilti~cccssil~lc clil'l'~ 11igl1 ill lllc III~II~~~I~IIS or I .;I Scllc i1h well ;IS 1I1c Mi~hsil' tli: 1.i1 Ilo~tc (Wit~tl~i~tc, I004 ) Scientific Nume Common Nurne 'I'urclus SW~I~CS~ 'I'o~~us subuli~tus 'l'odus irngustirostris Arnazo~~i~ ventralis Arirtinga chloroptcrit Microligea palustris Xenoligea montirna I>ulus dominicus Cartlucllis dominicensis Nesoctitcs microrncgas Mclancrpcs striirtus Saurothcra longirostris f.lyctornis refigularis Tcmnotrogon rosdgaster Chlorostilbon swainsonii Phacnicophilus palmarun Phacnicophil~rs poliocephalus C~lyptophilus frugivorus Virco nanus Buteo ridgcwayii ** Siphonorhis brewsteri l,ii Scllc Thrush Broad-billed 'I'ody Nirrrow-billed Tody Clispaniolan Parrot flispaniolan Parakcct Ground Warblcr White-winged Warblcr Palmchat Hispaniolan Siskin Antillcan Piculet Hispaniolan Woodpecker I.iispi~nioli~n lizirrd cuckoo Bay-Breasted cuckoo Hispaniolan Trogon Hispaniolan Emerald Black-crowned Palm Tanager Grey-crowned Palm Tanager Chat Tanager Flat-billed Vireo Ridgeway's Hawk Least Parakeet Found on Hispaniola but not orr other West Indics islands. These es are however, found in North and South America. Dendroica pinus Loxia leucoptera Speotyto cunicularia Asio flanneus Zonotrichia capensis Euphonia musica Pterodrome hasitata Corvus leucognaphelus (1) Falco Peregrinus Pine Warbler White-winged Crossbill Burrowing Owl Short-eared Owl Rufous-collored Sparrow Blue-hooded Euphonia Black-capped Petrel White-necked Crow Peregrine Firlcon Sourcc: Woods, Dodd and Pnryski. Pcrs. Comm.. 1985 (1) Found on Hispaniola and once found on Pucrto Rico (but now missing) = Threatened ** = Endangered -# Resident Land Birds 73 # Endemic Land Birds 21 % Endemics = 29%

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Fig. VI-2: I.ine drawing ut Plagiuduntia uedium (zpguuli), an endangered mammal. The Narrow-billed (Todus sangustirostris) and the Broad-billed (Todus subulatus) Todies reside only in Hispaniola. The Todics are small, fluffy, insect-eating birds of vibrant green with blazing red throats, and arc among the most beautiful small birds in the world. High in the mountains of La Hotte and La Selle one can hear the mystical flute-like call of the Rufousthroated Solitaire (Myadestes genibaris), aptly called (coiseau musicienn in Haiti. In huge communal nests perched high in palm trees lives the endemic and highly social Palrnchat (Dulus dominicus). The Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus), a brightly colored yellow and black, highly vocal bird, was brought to Haiti, presumably by slaves, from Africa. Haiti is also the winter home for hundreds of species of migratory North American warblers, ducks, shorebirds, terns, herons, ibises, bitterns, egrets, hawks and Crl;lcons, including the highly endangered Peregrine Falcon (Falco percgrinus). Many of these North American birds, such as the Great Blue Heron and the American Redstart, now reside permanently in Haiti. 1 Mammals Unfortunately, only two species of Haiti's endemic mammals, which once included primates and a large 400 pound giant sloth. now survive: the Zagouti (Plagiodontia aedium)! a secretive nocturnal rodent the size of a very large guinea pig (Figure VI-2), nez longue (Solenodon paracioxus) a nocturnal insectivore with a long pink snout and human-like hairless feet (Figure VI-1). Both these animals are threatened with extinction. Another mammal, the manatee (Trichecus manatus), large sea cow still survives off the coasts of Haiti, but is now reduced in numbers and only occasionaly observed (Rathburn, et al.. in press). Reptiles Haiti still has significant numbers of American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus). They were once widely distributed in Haiti, but now their range has been quite reduced and existing populations severely depleted. The largest population resides in I'Etang Saumatre, with 450 adults (Thorbjarnason, 1984). Fa iunately, the crocodile has a wide distribution, and, even though endangered world-wide, can be saved in Haiti if adequately protected, Haiti has a large population of endemic herptofauna (reptiles and amphibians), including many unusual boas and other snakes. Snakes in Haiti are rapidly disappearing due to illegal e-wrtation to North America and Europe, where th .,: is a particularly large market for highly exotic pets, and because they are usually killed when encountered by peasants. Even tarantulas are exported illegally tc North America as pets. D.THREATS TO WILDLIFE The major threat to Haiti's wildlife I> I ttestruction of habitat. As mentioned, the vegetative lawd cover

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FIE. VI-3: A rrlre photogruph of the BIuck-cul~l~'cl petrel. u neur extinrt aeu bird thut nests in the I'ic Mucuyu umd Morne I,II Vivitc ~ ~ Nutionul IJurka (Courtesy of 1'. P~~ryskl, ISIaAN). in Haiti is rapidly itnd progressively Jisi~ppcaring. 'l'hc bclicf, held in common by I-Iititians rich and poor, thitt in the remote purls of Heiti mythical lush jungles still grow, is no longer tenable. According to it recent survey by Cohcn (1984). in tllc Pic Mitcityit itreit in the wcstcrn part of the southern pcninsulit, litnil covcrcil by virgin forest dccrcascd from one-hundrcd pcrccnt in 1056 to four percent in 1984, indicating thc rapidity with which even the niost inaccessible ;IreiIs (Pic Macayil hits no roitd itccess) arc being dcforcstcd. 'Illis process deprives wildlife of food, shelter and watcr, and completely upscts the ecological equilibrium of the vitrious biomes. Human economic development has also been negatively affected by this process. Lowcnstein (1984) has estimated that the deforestation of the Pic Macaya itreil itlonc is now costing over $9 million a ycar in declining agricultural and hydroclectric production. Some birds, such as the Hispaniolan Woodpecker (Melancrpes striatus), the Blackcrowned Palm Tanager, the Grassquits (Tiaris -olivacca & T. bicolor), the Palmchat, the Banaquit (Coereba flaveola) and the Kestrel (Falco sparverius), fortunately seem to have a remarkable ability to adapt to environments and have may increased in population (Woods, pcrsonal cortiniunicittic~n, 1985). I-lowcvcr, if the ilcstruction is not Iiitltcd sol.)n, itnil if it continucs at the sitme rate, entire hahiteits will be irrcvocahly tlitmitgcd within the next ten yeilrs (Cohc11, 1984), scsuiting in the extinction of many vitluitblc species of plants and animals, pitrticulnry birds, such as the Black-citppcd Petrel, the La Scllc Thrush, the tfispaniolan Parrot and Parakeet, the I-li;pniolan 'I'rongon. the Rufous-throated Solitaire, thc Chat Titnitgcr, itnd the Ground i~nd White-winged Warblers VI-3). Also itffcctin[: the stiltus of *wildlife in Hi~iti has been the introcluction of non-nativc species such as rats and mice (Rattus -rattus and (Mus musculus). Arriving with the Spanish thcy have succc!;sfuly competed with nativc rodents and insectivores, and have taken over their ecologici~l nichc and driven them into extinction (e.g. Brotomys vocatus, Nesophantes sp. and perhaps even certain species of Plagiodontia and Isolobodon Woods, 1085). Dogs and particularly feral cats, also destroy large numbers of cndcmic mammals and birds. The mongoose (Herpcstes a_uropunctatus) was introduced in 1908 to eliminate rats, mice and certain boas from sugar cane fields. The mongoosc reduced the

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'I'uble VI-3 LIS'I' OF ANIMAIS 'I'~IHI~A'L'ENE1) AN11 IN NICICD OF' I'WOTECTION (Non-cxhwstivc list) Imal Name ISngIIuh N~mc Sclentlflc Name I A,Mu,mmalu I,irmontin Ziigcwti Ncz long 11.Hepllleu C;limun, Crocodilc WCS~ Intlii~n Mi111;1tec Agouri .-..-West Intlii~n Slircw Anicrican Crocodile Trichcclius tnawtus Plugiodontin ilcdiun Solenodon paradoxus Nesophuntcs Crocodvlus acutus 'I'ortue dc nicr Scil Turtle ~crmo&c~s coriacea ..ma.---.-Chrysemys decorata Igui~nc lguani~ Cyclura cornuta cornuta Couleuvres (Boa) Uoe Epicratcs subflavus C.. ma Mulfini, Petit malfini, Emouchct Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus -.--.Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Mulfini, Gros mulfini W.I. Red tail Haw!( Buteo jamaicensis Malfini suvane Rid~.wy'q U~NL Ruporni~ ridgwayi Gris-Gris Sparrow hawk Falco sparverius Ramier, Millet, Ccniza. Ramicr ccniza Plain Pigeon Columba inornata Ramicr Red necked pigeon Columba squomosa Jacquot Hispaniolan parrot Amazona venlrr~lis Pcrruchc, Pcrnichc Hispaniolan parakeet Aratinga chloroptera Maitre bois, chuet-boua Hispaniolnn Stygian Owl Asio stygius Ouanga NCgressc I-fispaniolan Emerald hummingbird Chlorostilbon swainsonii Hirondellc noirc, Gros martinct noir Black Swift Cypseloides niger Dame ou Dcmoisellc anglaisc, Pie de montagnc, cirleqon rouge Hispaniolan Trogan Temnotrogon roseigaster Colibri mornc, Chicorette Narrow-billed Tody Todus angustirostris Charpentier camcllc, charpentier bois Antillean Piculet Ncsoctites micromegas Chitte Sara Greater Antillcan Elaenia Elaenia fallax Oiseau de la pluie, jolle-jollc Golden Swallow Kalochelidon euchrysea Outte-outte noir, Merle La Selle Trush Turdus swalesi Musicien, oiscau musicicn Rufous-Throated solitaire Myadestes genibarbis Petit chitte, quatre ycux White winged Warbler Xcnoligea montana Petit chittc Ground Warbler Microligea palustris Louis d'or, Pcrruchc Blue hooded Euphonia Euphonia musica MounedCIC Stripe-headed Tanager Spindalis zena Cornichon Chat-Tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus Petit scrin Antillean siskin Carduelis dominieencis Bcc-croist? White-winged Crossbill Loxia lcucoptera Pctrcl h coiffc noirc Black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata Aigrette, Crabier blirnc, Quock bluncc Great Egret Egretta alba Crabier blanc, quock blanc Snowy egret Egretta thula Caillcs Common Bob-white Colinus virginianus Faisan Wood Ibis, Wood Stork Mycteria americana Flamand row Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber Crabier Tricoloured Heron Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis Crabier; Valet de Caiman Little green hero Butorides virescens vircs Crabier, Cracra, Valet dc caiman West Indian grcen heron Butorides virescens maculutus Crabicr, Crabier bleu, Crabier noir, quock, quock blanc Little blue heron Florida caerulea caerulescens Crabier, quock, coq d'eau, Coq de nuit Black crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax hoactili Crabier de bois Yellow crowned night heron Nyctanassa violacea violacea Perdrix rouge (male), perdrix he (female) Ruddy Quail Dove Geotrygon montana Perdrix grise Keywcst Uuail Geotrygon chrysia I Antillean Wood Duck Aix sponsa Source: Direction Ressourccs Natu des, Service dc IIEnvironnement et dc la Faunc, MARNDR, Ddcembre 1984 L Possiblement disparu I II 1 i 83

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tiuml>cr of nirtivc I>oirs, hut ignored the rats i~ntl tiiicc, preferring to ci~t cliickclis irntl niilny kiritls of ~~irtivc hirds, 'l'odiry tlic mongoose, rats ilntl riiicc i11.c fount1 virtuidly cvcrywlicrc in I li~iti incltding tlic pci~ks of the highest irntl most inircccssil>lc tnountirins, such ;IS Pic Macayi~ (2347m) (Wootls, 10H4). 1)olncstic livestock, primarily cows ant1 goilts, were introtlucctl by the Spatiis11 and proved to I)c highly successful in I4iriti. 'l'lic export of hiilcs provitlcd i1 major soursc of rcvcnuc for the csrly Spirnish colonists. Livestock, Iiowcvcr, has directly contributed to the clcstruction of vcgetiitivc land cover. Ironicidly, the elimination of the Fliritiirn pig, tluc to the progrim to cridici~tc swine fcvcr, has also contributed to the process of dcforcsti~tion. I laitian PC~IS~II~~S trirdition;rlly raisccl pigs as il capital security that coultl be soltl for cash in times of urgent nccd, such as clcirtli in the family, school bills, or a rnarriuqc. Now, deprived of rcvcnuc I'roni the sli~ughtcr of plgs, the Ilailian pcasirnts cut down and sell trccs, cvcri fruit trccs, in times of dire nccrl. Wildlife is also being clirninirtcd by hunting, and by iticidcntal killing, primarily of crocodiles and mnatccs. The I loitian pcasimt generally tlocs not hunt wildlife, since he has no firearms, and only spori~dically uscs the Ilora for medicinel herbs. However, tree cutting for corzstruction timber, sculpture wood, haskctmaking ;lnd charco;~l, rcnlirins tlic most significant cause of deforestation. According to U.S. statistics, Haiti is the largest C;Iribbcan supplier of rilw coral and ornamental fish to the llnitcd States. Haiti also exports significant numhers of live reptiles, amphibians nnd arachnids (primarily tarantulas and scorpions) to the U.S. (World Wildlife Fund, 1982); irnd is u major source --' trnnsshipmcnt port for raw and processed tortoisc shcll headcd for Japan (WATS, vol. 1, p. 150). In 1077, Haiti cxportcd 1 172 kg of raw tortoisc shcll (I .31 percent of the total world market). In 1982, Haiti cxportcd shell (carapace) of Caretta caretta (328 kg), Chcloniu -mydas (250 kg), and Eretniochclys imbricata (241 kg) (WATS, 3-218). A major supplier of coral to the U.S. in 1978 and 1980, Haitian species appearing on the market included brain corals such as Acropora sp. and Millcpora sp. A government communique, issued in 1977. banncd coral cxportution for two years (Wells, International Tradc in Corals, IUCN, 1981). I-lowevcr in 1982, '83 and '84 between 3,000 and 6,000 pound per year of raw corals wcrc imported illegally from Haiti and in 1981, cxports amounted to over 15,000 pounds. The long-tcrm implications of both legal and illegal wildlifc trade on Haiti's vast, productive reef systcms and indigenous spccies of birds, fish and reptiles are not known. I?.NA'I'IONAI, I'AKKS I,u Vi~ite Nulionul IJurk Arei~: 2200 hit Ihti~hli~li~tl April, 1083, by I'rcsitlctitiirl Decree Administri~tlctl by: MAl
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bcgun rrnd ir park tnrtnegcmcnt program end rrtlcquutc infrastructurc iiuvc yct hc cstr11)lihctl. A numhcr of syurlttcrs live within the perk, unfortunutcly prircticing darnirging rrgricultur;rl mcthotls irntl cuttilrg lumtwr. Mucuya Nutlor~ul Park Arcir : 5500 IN Established: April, 1083, by I'resitlcntiirl Ilccrcc Administered hy: MARNDR in coopcrirtion with ISPAN Vcgctirtion: pine irnd rnontanc wet cloud fc~rcst Ol>jcctives protection of a major of the park: watershed zone for the agriculturirl Plainc des Caycs, the Grande Anse and the Rivikrc du Cirvirilloa (hydroelectric production) protection of endemic id rarc species of flora and fauna a scientific rcscirrch Pic Macaye National Park, loc:;tcd near the tip of the southern peninsula of Haiti, provides the wirtcr supply for I-liriti's most productive irgricultural area, the Plainc dcs Ci~y~s. Two major eiist-west and cxtrcmcly steep mountain ridges, Mornc Mucaya (2347 tn) and Morne Formond (2250 m), form the center of the park. Due to its remoteness and inaccessibility, thc piirk h;rs remained undisturbcd until very recently, and within its boundaries arc still found largc tracts of impenetrable rain i~nd cloud forest. This park contains a rich and unique fauna and flora with a high degree of cndcmism. Recently new species of orchids, including the beautiful (Lepanthopsis michelii, have been discovcrcd in the park. Pines 45m high and 2m in diameter loom over the peaks and trap moisturc from the almost ever present cloud cover, giving the area over 6m of total precipitation a year. The park includcs a significant breeding colony of Black-capped Petrels, and provides habitat for numcrous other birds including the Mispaniolan 'Trogon, the Chat Tanager, the Stripe-head Tanager (Spindalis Icna), the Hispaniolan Parrot and Parakeet, the Ru fous-throated Solitaire, anel the Gray-crownccl Palm Tanager, which probably resides only iri Flaiti. Endcmic mammals such as the Plagiodorrtia acdium and Solenodon paradoxus, as well as numerous species of endemic hcrpctofauna and mollusks, arc found in the park. This park was established under the auspices of ISPAN an< .he MARNDR. Funding was provided by USAID with technical assistance from the University of Florida and IUCN. 'The first steps are being taken to protect the resources of the park, dcfine its houndarics irnd ~~lllldi~h 1)ir~ic protcctivc infr~~~tructurc. Rccent Ministerid Decrcc~ hrwc stopped illc~rtl cutting of trccs for lumbcr, yet lush-und-burn uctivitics on the fringes of the protcccd urcir continue, Dcforcstrrtion in the Pitrk Mirciry,~ rrrcn is pitrticularly intense ittltl dral~lirtic, ~rlthough f(:w pcasants live within the prrrk. I'inc is hcing cut by unscrupulous lumbcrtncn, itnd P~~lRillllS itrC fir~-~Ic~lrillg milIly Of the Steep dopes to plant corn, mirlangir (Xantho~orng hcrgsitifolium) and tnirson-bell (Colocirsia csculciitrr). An emergency committee composcd of rcprcscntalives of MARNDIS, ISPAN irnd USAII) has bccn formed to formulate snd undertake an imnicdiatc uction program to tncct this crisis. Among the proposals hcing made arc: (I) ii complete survey and physical delimitation of park boundurics, (2) the establishment of a 15,000 ha buffcr zonc, (3) thc training and deployment of a park ranger corps, (4) the construction of a park headquirtcrs, and (5) the strict enforcement of all existing Icgislittion cotwrning protection of natural resources and the cnvirc~nment of the park. National Historic Park Lu Cltadelle, Suns-Souci et Rnmiers A rc;r : 2200 hit Established: 1061 by Presidential Decree Administcrcd by: Office Nittional du Tourism in cooperation with ISPAN Vcgctation: subtropical wet forest Objcctivcs of protection of the historic of the pirrk: monuments: the Citadellc Henry Christophc, the Palais de Sans-Souci and the site of Ranliers. tourism /recreation protection of endemic species of flora and fauna Although this park was established primarily to assure the protection of Haiti's most important historic monumcnts (the Citadellc, the Palac.: of Sans-Souci, i~ntl the Site of Ramicrs; built in 1806 by King Henri Christophc. a national hcro in the fight for Haitian intlcpcntlcncc), it clocs have a secondahy role as a niituriil park. 'The park contains samples of subtropical wct forest i111d it ruggcd karst topography serving as a refuge for many upland an.! lowland birds, such as the Narrow I3illccl l'ocly (upla, '1, hummingbirds, the Pcrcgrine Falcon, and for largc Jocks of parrots sometinics mixed with parakeets (Woods, 1984). However, the natural environment of the park has not yet been adequately protcctcd. The park is being developed with the technical and financial aid of UNESCO and the U.S. Peace Corps. G.GOH PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE Presently there are two Haitian government organi-

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zrrtions whosc rcsponsil)ilitics include tl~c protection of Iltriti's wiltllir~ltls irnd wildlife: MAItNl>It irntl ISPAN, 'I'llc Ikpirrlt~rcnt !)I' Ni~turirl ltcsourccs (IIItN) of MAItNIIH is prinlilrily rcspot~sil)lc for lllc collscrvirtion irntl 1~rotcctio11 of I li~ili's 111rtr1rir1 rcsotIrccs. '1'11~ S~rtI~~Ull! Of Illis tk~Xlr~111~11~ hil~ ~CII illt~r~d r~pilt~(fly in tllc Ii~st few ycilrs, l liriti Ilils ir good nr~tnhcr of laws protccling ni1tttri11 rcsourccs irntl I'lorir ;rntl firuni~, hut the Iirws irrc rirrcly cnforcctl. 'l'lie 1111nti11g llccrcc of I07 I OII~I~IWS 1111nting of bird spccics listed irr Article IH irnd it11 tlonwstic spccics. (Articlc 2) No I~utlting is pcrmiltctl tluring closctl SciIson or witllout iI liccnsc from the Chief of Stirtc, Major of Arnlctl Forces or his Officers (Arts. 3, 5, 15, 27). It is illcgrrl to tirkc nests, eggs or the young of birds or ilnilnals cccpt tlt1isi111~~ spccics tlcsignirtctl by the MARNDK, No niirmmals or othcr classes of animals irrc covered by thc DRN, Article I9 Ilccrcc. ?'he Sccrctary of MARNIJK cstablishcd hunting scirsons and wnditions (Art. 10). Bird irld giimc atlimirls may be tcmporirrily cirpturcd for scientific purposes. (Art. 20). L~IW No. 0 of the Rurirl Code of 1962, which may he ohsolctc, prohihits hunting of birds during ncsting scilson i~ncl of ccrtirin specified non-game birds (Library of Congress, 1979). The DRN 'has, in thc last ycor, hccn taking serious measures ot protect Haiti's wildlife. Ycw laws governing the exportation of irnimals id pliints have bccn cnactcd to end a growing and illegal intcrnational trade in Haitian animals, most of them endemic and in danger of extinction. A World Bank financed projcct for the appropriate exploitation irnd protcction of certain forests is undcrway. A division to manage parks and protected irrcas, for which the Ilcpartmcnt is presently responsible, has bccn cstablishcd. In this task, the DRN is cooperative with ISPAN, thc othcr GOI-I organization whosc objectives includc thc protcction of Haiti's natural hcritage. It wils ISPAN, that itiitiatcd the movement to create a system of naturl;! parks and reserves in Haiti, and it wils ISPAN that obtaincd il grant from USAID for the establishment of the first two parks at Morne La Visitc i\nd Pic Macuya. Thc -arks' projcct, after some initial difficulties, is proceeding well, especially since the media and many govcrnmcnt leadcrs hiwe recognized the necessity of protecting Haiti's thrcatcned natural heritage itnd resources. Govcrnmcnt agencies, however, arc hampered by lack of funds i~nd a lack of communicrition and coordinAtion between conccrned organizations, and by a number of vcry difficult political awl socio-economic problems, such as the displacement of extremely poor peasants ftom areas that must be protcctcd. To be successful, the protected areas project requires the cnforccment of existing laws and no small amount of political will. H.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In gcncral, the threat to Haiti's wildland? has come from I~unlirt~ tlcslructiot~ of the ct~virot~a~cnt {IS rr tlircct result of cxlcnsivc ~ovcrty, ir rr~pitlly ir~crcirsing popuIirlion, ir highly i~~tlivitlilrrlistic wrvivi11 ~ncnt~rlity, ir coirnrcrprotl~~ctivc Iirntl tenure rrntl it~l~crititncc system, ir Iirck of plrrnt~in~, irlirppropriirtc rrgricirltilri~l tcchniqucs, irntl the lirck of rrn irtlcqirirlc govcrnmcnlirl irtld privirtc ir~ricrrltirrrrl infrt~structurcs. A sccontlrrry tllrcirt to wiltllife itr llirili Iltrs come from the introtluction of such mi~nln~i~ls 11s dogs, ci~ts, rills, mongoose, ;rt~d clotncstic livestock such as goirts, cid!!~ irntl pigs. Wilt1 plirnts Iwc I~ccii destroyed by the atlvancc of rurirl populations cleirring rcmotc locations, trnd by slash-iud-burn irgriculturd followcd in it number of cases by the dcgrirdirtion of thc natural ccosystcms to i~ state of ncirr-sterile conditions (dcscrtificution). The vcstigcs of I-hiti's wildlife and wiltllirnds arc at ir vcry critical point. Ecologic;rlly, it is tcn minutes beforc midnight in Haiti, due mirinly to the destruction of thc land covcr and conseyucnt descrtification. In a few ycars this proccss will be irrcvcrsiblc and therc will be no possibility of natural regcrieration of cndcmic plants and animals (C. Woods, pcrsonal communication, 1985). Thc conscrvalion of Haiti's natural rcsourccs is neccssirry to preserve the country's viabllity as ,I natural and social system and for sustained economic development. If the remaining natural ccosystems, which constitute the major watcrshed areas as wcll, arc not protected and allowcd to degenerate, there will be no water to irrigate the agriculturd plains, to be used for human consumption and for hydroelectric power generation. There will be little arable soil on which to plant, and carrying capacity of the land will be irrcvcrsibly reduced. To protect Haiti's remaining wildlands and wildlife, it is suggested that the following measurcs be undertaken: 1. Designate areas deserving protective management These areas would compliment il coastal resources plan since most of them providc scirhird irnd shore bird habitat, cspccii~lly during thc winter months. L'Ebng SaumAtre is a large brackish lake 30 kms to the cast of Port-au-Prince in the Plainc du Cul de Sac; it is connected by an irrigation canal to a much smaller lake, Trou Caiman. Both of these lakes were bclicved to have been formed during the early Quaternary era, when the seabed was uplifted as a r;iult of the drifting together of the northern and southcrn land masses of Hispaniola (Woodring, 1926; Maurrisa:: 1982). Due to the inflow of fresh water from the adjacent mountains the salinity of both these lakes is slowly diminishing (Thorbjarnason, 1984), thus creating a biologically flcxible environment. Although the land around both lakes is inhabitcd, large areas of man-

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1,irrgc flocks of fli~~iiitigos, tcr:ls, ducks, stilts, Ilcrow, plovers, gulls, ibises iltiil cgrcts tninglc 011 ilntl off tlic shotts of I)otli Ii~kcs, cspcciirlly tluritlg tlic wititcr tilontlis, I,'I:tirt~g S:rutni~trc i~lso contilitis ;I significiltit nutnhcr of crocodiles (Crocodylus KC&!) cstiniiltctl at 450 irrlults ('l'llorhii~rtii~rson, IOH4), ilntl ;I coloiiy of igui~ni~s on ;I srnirll istrlirtcd rocky islct. 'She crocodilcs ilrc occosionirliy trilppcd iltld killcd I>y loci~l I'ishcrmen it1 thcir nets, hut thcy arc thrcatcrrcd primarily by thc dcstruci%n (A' thcir brcctlit~g grounds. 'l'llc wiitcrfowl, particularly tlucks, ilrc hunted often quitc w:~titonly killed cluritig tlic winter ~nonths irnd tnilny timcs cvcn b'lmningos ilrc shot by unscrupulous hunfcts. Ihng de Mirugohne in thc southcrn peninsula ncirr L,cs C'aycs harlnrs ;I small flock of Amcricirn Fli~mingos and othcr waterfowl and shorcbircl!;. It is iI deep frcshwirtcr litkc that once hird crocodiles. Thc Ile de la Gonave once contained beautiful hardwood forcsts that wcrc cut for lumber during th, ."" century, but still hirs an active population of some 84 spccics of birds (Wctmorc and Swalcs, 1931) and a brccding colony of iguanas on its wcstcrn tip. Tortue Island, off the north coast of Haiti, has 47 different spccies of birds and is bclievcd (Woods, pcrsonal communication, 1985) to have had a large and distinct animal fauna in prccolombian timcs and may yet contain some specics of rodcnt (Isolobodon sp.) and insectivores (Ncsophantes sp.) that are extinct elsewhere in Haiti. The ArtiboniteIEstere river estuary zone contains large tracts of mangrove, swamps and wc [lands providing sanctuary for many migratory and rcsident birds, particularly shore birds such as herons, ibises and egrets. The Estere area has the largcst mangrove forest in Haiti containing some 8490 ha. The area contains the best remaining habitat for the manatee and most remaining manatees live there. The Ile de la Navasse, claimed by both Haiti and the Unitcd States, is reported to provide nesting grounds for many seabirds. It is uninhabitcd and its flora and fauna have not been investigated. Three areas that should be considered immediately are: Etang Saumitre and its surrounding coast and the mountainside to its north since it harbor numerous waterfowl, crocodiles slnd iguanas and since many springs flow on it shores. IDolnle Mo~~atlqae: i~ stnell, forcst covcrcd pcth~ulcr (300 m) to tlic rr~ortlrci~st of Aquin oti tl~c sout;'crti coirst of the souulicrn pctiinnuln, irs untouched irrcir tlii~t hrrrl>ors nwicrous scrr1)irds i~ntl coirst ccosystcrnn. 2. Create u Ntrllonul IDurk Service under INHACA with the cllrect tcchnlcul upp port of MAHN1)H. This orgi~nizi~tio~l should hirvc direct ilcccss to the I'rcsitlmcy, to give il enough p!)liticirl weight to crct cffcclivcly. Ijy coortlitii~ting with MAHNIiR, it would avoid i1ny potcntii~l policy conflicts bctwccn utiliztion i~nd conscrvution of natural resources. It should havc un irtlequirtc hutlgct: crnd staff and be udequutely equippcd irnd tririncd. 3. Adopt the IUCN World Conservution Strategy ol)Jectivee. Thesc objectives arc: to mrrintt~in lesscntial ecological proccsscs and lifcsupport systems (such as soil rcgcncration and protection, thc cleansing of waters), on which human survivul i~nd dcvclopmcnt dcpcnds; to prcs::rvc genetic diversity (the range of genetic mi~terii~l found in the world's organisms), on which depend the functioning of many of the above processes and lifc-support systems, thc breeding programs ncces. sary for the protection and iniprovement of cultivated pli~nt~, domesticated animals dnd microorganisms, ds wcll as many scientific and medical advances, technical innovations, and the security of the many industries that usc living resourccs; to cnsure sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems (notably fish and other wildlife, forcsts and grazing lands), which support millions of rural communitics as well as major industries. Any attempt to preserve Haitian wildla~nds and wildlife must be based on the principle of conwrving nature for human development. 4. Implement the following as support to or which complement recommendations 1, 2 and 3: Prepare detailed studies in ordcr to expand the system of protected areas to include other significant natural areas and the representative samples of Haiti's unique tcrrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. Initiate a program of public education about the environment and resource conservation for both urban and rural schools. Strictly enforce all existing laws on the protection of flora and fauna, watersheds, and the utillization of governmental lands. -Establish a Natural History Museum md Botanical Gardens to become centers for research and education about Haiti's endemic flora and fauna.

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I~nplcn~c~~t ii fruit trcc i~trcl fuclwoocl rcforcsti~tion progriltn it1 the mountilitls, irs wcll its ill tl~c flrrtli~ntls, Donor agencies perform environmental impact studies us u part of projcct design and include nitturd resource or cnvironmcnial munclgcmcnt componcrrts (c.g., conscrvalion ilntl rcstoriilion) rrs 4111 itllcgriil pirrt of my rt~rrrl tlcvclopmcnt projcct. ~Jnfortuniltcly the prol,lctns of coascrvi~tion in I li~iti rlncl one niigI1t irtlcl, in most countries, ilrc to ;I greet cxtcnt lmlitici~l. IJntil dcci~ions ilrc nii~clc ill the Iiigllcst levels to itnplcnicnt iln effective conscrvi~tio~l progrim, very little citn Ilc tlonc. 'l'hc lwk ol' understittitling of tlic iaiportilncc of cnvironnicn till conscrvirt ion ilntl lllc cxtcrisivc poverty of the great mnjorily of tlw I leilii~n pcoplc irrc fiictors tllirt must be consiclcrctl. It is clear, thi~t unless urgcnt i~ntl immccliiitc i1cti011 is tilkctl by tlic (iOll, on unprcccdcntcd ecological i~nd cnvironmcntid crisis will occur, irreversibly dcstroying I-hiti's t~i~t~ri~l rcsourcc hub the country's # endemic fi~t~tl~ and flora and dirninis ~ng the carrying cilpiicity of the nittion to support its population.

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VII The Peasantry and the Physical Environment A,INTRODUCTION Haiti is the New World's most agrarian society. Following its birth as a modern nation in the western hernispherc's only successful slave revolution (1804), Haiti quickly became a country of peasants. Since that time, the vast majority of Haiti's citizens have continued to be independent farmers dedicated to living on their ow11 land. In spite of significant urban migration and the recent growth of ia dynamic assembly industry sector in the capital, over 80% of the country's population remains rural, freeholding, and directly dcpendent upon agriculture for its livelihood. Thc Haitian countryside is occupied throughout its entire length and breadth by pcasant households. Each household is a distinct unit of production and consumption which is grounded quitc literally in its land lesources. Thus, to understand the Haitian physical environment and its prospects, it is essential to explore the complex historical, material and spiritual relationships that link the landscape to its inhabitants. B.. FRQM SLAVE TO PEASANT Haitian Deasunt culture has its beginnings in the 18th centu.. 3. It was born in the struggle of ni-arly one million slaves of West and Central African origin to survive and to assert their humanity in the face of a brutal plantation regime under French rule. By the middle of the 18th century, creole slaves the children and grandchilden of enslaved Africans who were originally purchased from many language groups by plmtation owners eager to impede potentially dangerous communication and cooperation were already speaking a fully developed Haitian Creole as their common native tongue. Slaves assigned provision grounds and forced to work in their cff-time in order to defray the costs of their own upkeep had developed effective techniques of intensive food cultivation. Turning necessity to opportunity, the slaves not only provisioned themselves, but operated ao island-wide internal market system, generated modest personal incomes, and even passed de facto rights in $articular parcels of land on to their children. Under pain of severe penalty, many slaves also persisted in serving personalized spirits and family ancestors in innovative, African-based rituals of celebra~tion that were the precursors of modern Haitian religion. In short, the foundations of today's peasant cuiture were laid long before the Revolution brought freedom and independence. These emergent creole traditions were further enriched by continuously high 'levels of slave importation from Africa throughout th~e 18th century. The high demand fol slave labor wrrs fueled by an extremely high mortality rate due to the harsh regimen of the sugar plantations. In 1789, on the eve of the Haitian Revolution, the slaves borrr in Africa as free men and women, may well have outnumbered the creole slaves born to the condition of bondage in St. Dominguc. Together, they were cl~se to 500,000 strong, as compared to approximately 30,000 free persons of color (gens de couleurs, or affrrrnehis) and 40,000 whites. Fifteen years later, those who survived the Revolution were thus able to draw freely on their memories of Africa, as well as to build upon their accomplishments as slaves, in constructing a, new way of life. The Haitians of the i9th century set out to define their newly-won freedom in terms of personal autonomy and economic self,.sufficiency. The f .mer slaves staunchly resisted the efforts of Haiti'e, nc;w leaders and large landowners to engage them as nominaliy free laborers on the same lplantations that they had so

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rccc111Iy WOI k~,.tl 1111(l(*r IIIC Iilsl~, t IIIW~IIIII~! to work 1.01 IIII~ ovorsccr, tllcy sotr~l~l III c.stc~l)li~I~ Il~c.~r~sc.lv~s ;IS ~~ttlcl)ct~dc~~',, ~illlrlhOl~~ill~, i~y.t.iiwltttt,~l I)I.O~II~:CI\. 111 the 20th cclllury, the pci~sitnlry is I'i~(:i~lg scrioui; cl~itllc~~gcs tllirl tllrci~tct~ its continuctl viilhility. Whilc lllc protlr~ctivity of pci~sil~lt i~griculturc Ili~s long untlcrwriltc~l the ~ii~liolli~l economy, no corrcspontling rcitlvcsltncnt ol' resources, cithcr pul)lic or ptivittc, hirs yct 1)ccn nii~dc in the rurirl sector. Untlcr such circumstitnccs, ;I dcclitlc in pcitsunt ~)roductivity wits incvitilblc. 'lhc prcssurcs of populi~tion growth, crosion, shrinking Silr111 size i~ntl soil cxhi~ustion hitvc trapped the pcasitntry in it vicious cycle of cvcr-diminishing returns to lalwr. Currently, the majority have little hope #of cvctr one profitirl)lc agriculturid season, let alone prospects for long-term s:rvings and invcstmcnt. Whilc they remilin, for the most part, committed to thcir wily of life its independent, small-scale agriculturill proiluccrs, they arc hi~rdly satisfied with the stci~dily worscnirrg conclition!i of thcir existence. Looking ahead to the ncxt generation, today's peasant commonly strivcs to ensure thc futurc of his children 02 s* of thc agricultural scctor through education, cmigration, itnd altcrnativc forms of employment. In rctrospcct, it is all too eitsy to allow flaiti'scurrcnt prcdicarncnt to obscurc the fundamental accomplishments of the Haitian pcop!e. Freed by thcir own Irands of both colonial control and slavery, they were to articulate a vision of freedom that was, above all, their own. For the bettcr part of a century the peasantry pursucd that vision successfully, with results that comyarcd quite fi~vorably to the circumstances of their Afro-American compatriots throughout the hcmisphere. If their descendants today havc been unable to sustain that powcrful vision of freedom in its entirety, nor cven to maintain a satisfactory standard of living, thici in no way diminishes the historical and crrltural significance of thcir original achicvemcnt C.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEASANT FARMING SYSTEM Land scarcity, in the face of an cxpanding rural population, has resulted in the cutting of Haiti's iorcsts to meet the need for cropland, even in mountains and fragile land areas unsuitable for sustained agriculture. While thc large-scale cutting of trees for charcoal prePc;~sirnt agriculture is virtuillly 111)icpitous in I-liriti, i~nd is ccr1;h to rcmain so in the forcsceill~lc futyrc. 'I'hcrcfi w, ilny proposed futurc intcrvcntions in rural iIt.cils must ncccss;lrily ti~kc iiccount of the bosic fci~turcs of pcits;tnt fimi systems and strive to offcr the small fitrnlcr ic real clri~ncc to participate in the solution of Haiti's cnvironmcnti~l problems. Heterogeneity of the peasuntry The 1 laitian peasantry is not ii single homogeneous class. Variations in pci1:;ilnt cconomic status alc rcflcctcd in highly diffcrcntiatcd relations to the markct, pi~ttcrn~)f landholding, i~ntl varied cropping strategies. Wc;~lthicr peasant familics gcncrillly havc grcatcr access to savings. Thcsc families arc likely to invest in land and livestock, but surpluses may also bc invested in commerce, speculation, money-lending or emigration. Wealtliier peasants are more oriented to pcrcnnial and cxport crops, and can afford both the higher capital inputs and the lag bctwcen investment and rcturn that these crops require. In contrast, poor pcasant households tend toconceal the prcsencc of a hiddcn rural proletariat. Most of the rural poor arc not landless sharecroppers. They arc more likcly to be small landowners who are f~:cc-! to supplement thcir farm income by occasional or seasonal day labor and petty commerce. The var;t majority of pcasant families are landowners; yet the majority of them ;re also land poor in absolute as well as in relative terms. Thus. cven on privatcly held lands, most hillside farmers are too poor to forego even a portion of their annual crop production and income for soil conservation structures or for the establishment of perennial, multi-year cropping patterns. Even where the appropriate technologies are already known to peasar~ts, the required inputs, including tools and intermediate-term investment capital, are not readily available.

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Complex land tenure pxtterns The predominant feature of peasant tenurt: is its "mixed" character. Farmers generally work scveral plots under several different modes of tenure, simultaneously renting, sharecropping, owning and renting out land. A given farmer's operational farm unit may vary from seilson to season depending on his needs and on his ability to gain access to land, usually through personal and kin ties. Furthermore, peasant land tenure is characterized by a dual system of formal, legal tenure and of holding land by "custom", in ways either provided for, nor excluded by, the law. This often ambiguous system of law and custom serves several functions: to protect the moral rights of kin, to avoid or delay the cost of paying taxes on transfers of title, and to avoid potential abuses by officials and competing claimants. The varied character of land holding affects agricultural decision-making. Some plots are more readily alienated than others. Some are used as collateral on loans. Some are privately farmed while collectively owned, through group inheritance. The relative security of a plot clearly affects the farmer's willingness to invest in it, or to plant it with perennials, or to build costly earthworks for soil conservation. Indeed, where land is not ownrd outright by those who work it, as is the case with a significant percentage of fragile hillside lands, there may even be positive incentive for the operat\?r to overexploit the plot under his temporary control There i!; good evidence that both State lands and absentee holdings are virtually "mined" by poor leaseholders and sharecroppers with no permanent stake in the resource base precisely because they are under intense pressure to survive from one cropping season to the next. Certain land reforms, such as the "privatization" of selected State land and absentee holdings in favor of those who work to improve them, or at least the assurance of relatively secure access through long-term leaseholds granted to the actual farmers in place, might go a long way towards improving the current situation in some of the most fragile and critical areas of the country. On the other hand, the much discussed general climate of insecurity of tenure on small, owner-operated holdings may neither be as widespread nor as amenable to legislated, externally-imposed solutions as is commonly suggested. Certainly, the situation on such private peasant holdings does not provide prima facie justification for a national cadastral survey, as is sometimes recommended. On the contrary, there is good evidence on record that local cadasters have already Icd to abuses, and even to the loss of land by small, powerless farmers. While customary arrangements and ambiguous ownership may complicate the implementation of projects' land management strategies, they often serve to protect access to land on the part of small peasant farmers. In principle, iin effective national cadastral survey is desirable; in practice, it is unlikely to lead to a more equitalde distribution of holdings or to more secure land tenure under present social and political arrangements. In any case, it requires more than a pre-project cadaster to insure that land tenure arrangements and security remain relatively unnffacted by land improvement projects. 'The most significant constraints to land tenure security reside in the socio-political context of peasant powerlessness rather than In the lack of adequately surveyed and titled garden plots. Diversity of farming strategies Just as there is no homogeneous peasant class, there is no homogeneous farming economy in Haiti. Rather, there is a range of peasant economies, each one with its own mix of strategies and varied impacts, both positive and negative, upon the environment. This diversity is attributable, in large measure, to immense variation in micro-climatic conditions, as well as to the highly dispersed pattern of multi-plot farm units in any particular area. Where there is sufficient rain, mountain peasant agriculture is based on intensive intercropping, and tubers are an important food crop. Well-watered highlands tend to have more land devoted to perennials, and a greater diversity of cultigens, except in areas of specialized vegetable production such as Kenscoff (near Port-au-Prince), where the traditional coffeelcorn/bean association has been supplanted. Arid lowlands tend more toward "extensive" cropping strategies, fewer crops, longer periods of fallow, fewer planting seasons, and a greater reliance on grazing. Where irrigation is available in lowland plains, peasant agriculture more easily controls the factor of nsk and therefore focuses on cash cropping, with high capital inputs and high labor demand, attracting large numbers of landless and land-poor agricultural wage laborers. In short, differing crop strategies represent distinct variations in crop rotation, length of fallow, land tenure, slack season activity, patterns of storage, and the relative monetization of peasant houshold economies. These complex variations in farming strategies and potential are directly correlated with the significant environmental diversity characteristic of Haiti. They are bound to complicate any national programs aimed at the improvement of peasant farming systems from the point of view of their ecological soundness and sustainability. Peasnnt access to land,labor and capital Capital is by far the scarcest of the peasant household's production factors. Capital shortages are a significant constraint to peasant production and tend to foster destructive land use practices. Labor is the least scarce factor of production, while land is the pivotal factor. Land serves as the powerful futcrum for gaining

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access to labor and capital resources. Land is the primary source of livelihood and the most significant form of investment. Peasant farmers have relatively more control over land and labor resources than over capital. As the most significant form of peasant wealth, land is readily bought and sold. Since land changes hands easily, there may be some disincentive to invest in perennials crops, except as a long-range investment strategy amorlg the better off peasants. On the other hand, land improvement investments, especially is the form of trees plantings, significantly enhance the local market value of any particular plot of land, and thc net incentive for such investments, particularly those requiring low capital inputs, is likely to be positive. h!(arket/cash orientation While there is a mix of monetary and non-monetary features in the peasant economy, the Haitian peasant adaptation evolved in a modern, post-colonid setting, and has always been firmly embedded in a cash nexus. Today's peasant is neither a classic subsistence producer, nor the marketer of a true surplus. Rather he is a deficit producer and a marketer for subsistence goals. That is, the average peasant producer produces @ than the minimum necessary to support rlimself and his family; he operates at a loss, and likely loses ground in one way or another every year. Yet he must go to market (or, more precisely, send his wife to market) every single week, in order to secure those basic necessities without which his daily consumption requirements cannat be met. Such essential items include cooking oil, salt, matches, laundry soaps, cooking vessels, cloth, and a host of other manufactured, processed or non-locally produced goods. These necessities are available only through purchase, and some portion of perennially scarce on-farm produce must be sold to generate the needed cash. Paradoxically, the poorer the peasant, the higher the proportion of his on-farm produce sold at market. This inverse relationship holds at least within the lower and middle strata of the peasantry, until the true surplus producer emerges in the upper reaches of rural society. The terms of exchange, needless to say, are controlled from without, and are almost invariably weighted against the small local producer. Fig. VII-I: Going into a town market (photo WFPIRome)

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Increasing importance of annual crops In the face of this constant need for small sums of cash in order to provision the household with daily necessities, peasant farming strategies currently depend primarily on the sale of food crops. Not only has food-crop production always been spread more evenly throughout the annual cycle than traditional export crop production but, during the past fifteen years, prices for domestic food crops have tended to rise faster than prices for export crops. Although food-crop prices are characterized by significant fluctuations in the short run, they have steadily risen in price in the long run. On the other hand, both prices and the production of export crops have tended to be highly unstable. t This situation has clearly tended to favor food crops produced for the local market as the primary cash crop of the peasant production system. Moreover, the necessity for cash crops with a quick turnaround time and favorable prices provides an additional strong incentive to plant annual, "erosion-intensive" crops such as corn and beans, as opposed to the slower growing, soil-holding perennials such as tree crops, coffee and cocoa. Avoidance of risk With a large percentage of small farmers living on the very margins of survival, peasant farming is more strongly oriented to minimizing risk than to maximizing production. The risk factor tends to promote a diversity of holdings and tenure arrangements on small plots in order to spread the risk within a single peasant farm unit. Different plots located in different micro-climatic zones, are managed in different ways. One extremely significant, yet virtually uncontrollable risk factor, with profound effects on peasant farming systems, is the island's location in the path of numerous tropical storms and hurricanes. The following list of natural disasters is not complete, but it is indicative of the unusual significance of natural disasters in a domain of production where success is tenuous, at best, and where peasant's ability to absorb loss is very limited. 1947 drought 1954 Hurricane Hazel 1956 Hurricane Greta 1956 drought 1958 Hurricane Ella 1958 drought 1959 Hurricane Gracie 1959 drought 1963 Hurricane Flora 1963 floods 1964 Hurricane Cleo 1966 Hurricane Inez 1966 drought Hurricane Beulah drought drought floods drought floods drought drought drought drought Hurricanes David & Frederick floods Major storms are not only destructive in the short run, but they may have a long-term impact on the qnvironment, as well, by forcing peasants to adapt to drastic conditions by altering their farming strategies in ways that ultimately lead to even greater negative effects on the local ecology. Thus, for exsmple, peasants in the Jacmel region cite hurricanes as the precipitating cause for a significant transformation of their farming practices a major shift away from perennialcrop production to annual-crop production. Once a hurricane destroyed established coffee plantations on south-facing slopes, and simultaneously destroyed the bulk of the local food supply still in the ground, there was little choice but to plant food crops extensively on the once-protected hillside I~rids, and to do so as quickly as possible. ilnable fillancially to wait for new coffee plar~tings to become poductive, most peasants in the area appare4y failcd to re-established their perennial plantations, 3au continue to produce annuals on lands where they are essentialy inappropriate. Charcoal production and fuelwood consumpticn The production of charcoal comes primarily, but not exclusively, from large-scale production zones in semi-arid regions of the country (i.e., Northwest, CGte-de-Fer). Large-scalz production of charcoal is a relatively recent phenomenon. Its advent coincides with the tremendous growth of Port-au-Prince since the !940's, and also with the destruction of crops and the felling of trees by hurricanes. In many charcoal producing areas, the first period of charcoal production can be dated within living memory, and this date often coincides with the passing of a destructive hurricane. The landmark date in this regard is 1954, with the tremendous destruction left in the wake of Hurricane Hazel Unlike charcoal, whose demand curve has risen dramatically with the recent explosion of the urban population, the peasant demand for fuelwood for how schold cooking needs, though absolutely high, has risen relatively gradually with rural population growth and has always been evenly distributed geographically. These local needs have traditionnaly been met through the gathering of dead wood and the pruning of branches from living trees. The commercial exploitation of both fuelwood (for rural and urban industries such as bakeries, dry cleaners, essential oil distilleries, etc.) and charcoal, on the other hand, has always been focused and intense, moving from one locale to another only after near-total deforestation has occured. Peasants in many parts of the country have only turned from gathering dead wood to cutting trees down for their own fuelwood needs after their local resources have suffered the effects of such commercial exploitation. In some specific areas, in fact, this dynamic may be as significant a factor in severe deforestation as the sheer effects of population pressure on agriculture expansion and household fuelwood demand.

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Peasants, trees and agroforestry Given the wholesale destruction of forest cover built into peasant agriculture, the impression is sometimes given that peasants do not plant trees. This is emphatically not the case. Peasants have commonly planted fruit trees, although not in large numbers. Trees of many kinds are traditionally planted in patterned agroforestry associations, as evidenced in the botany nial land may be divided, for example, while trees on the same land, and their produce, might remain a collective resource for generations. Trees may be owned entirely ~eparetely from the land upon which they grow. Land may be rented or sharecropped separately from the trees present on the land, which themselves may be rented for one or more seasons. Traditionally, peasant farmers have tended not to Fig. VII-2: Gathering firewood in the arid Northwest (photo WFP/Rome) of the peasant houseyard and residential compound, in living fences or boundary markers (for gardens, yards or animal pens), and in shade cover for such crops as coffee and cacao. Peasant farmers also have a distinct preference for self-regenerating and self-propagating trees. In arid zones, there is a traditional practice of macaging woodlots of Prosopis (bayahonde or mesquite), a coppicing, drought-resistant wood species highly valued by peasants as construction timber and for charcoal production. Indeed, trees of virtually any kind are of such considerable importance to the peasant that distinct rules of ownership and inheritance apply to them. P ~trimoplant hardwood trees, but hardwood seedlings are often protected, or transplanted from sites where they sprout by natural regeneration. USAID's Agroforestry Outreach Project, however, has clearly demonstrated that peasants are more than willing to plant nonfruit-bearing trees on a large scale, if certain conditions are met. Small peasant farmers, in collaboration with this project, are presently planting trees, at their own expense in land and labor, at the rate of seven million trees per year. Overall project objectives are to promote cash cropping of trees by small farmers, to plant multi-purpose trees as a renewable natural resource, to foster soil conservation, to develop new sources of

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Fig. VII-3: Peasant families are self-reliant units processing their own homegrown grains for sale or consumption. (Photo courtesy of S. Seguino)

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income in rural areas, and to generate new supplies of timber, fuelwood, fruit and forage. Much like the land, which at one time, at least, ensured the continued viability of peasants as independent producers and free men, trees too are imbued with more than just material significance. They play a symbolic role in the spiritual lives of rural Haitians, as well. Some trees on peasant lands, for example, are protected from cutting by strong taboos linked to family spirits or special pilgrimage sites. Many trees, especially certain species and most old trees, are considered to be repositories of various types of spirits. It is customary in many areas to plant a tree over the spot where the afterbirth is buried at childbirth, and to consecrate its future production and value to the newborn. The child is expected, someday, to profit from it, and to be anchored by it as he or she grows up to face the increasingly stringent demands of making a living on the land. D.RELEVANT LITERATURE The best regional study of human geography in Haiti is the work by H. Wood, Northern Haiti: Land, Land Use and Settlement. A Geographical Study of the DB-partement du Nord, University of Toronto Press, 1963. The best general study of Haitian peasants is a work by another geographer, P. Moral, Le Paysan Haitien, Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris, 1961. The effect of peasant settlement on the land in two countries is vividlv contrasted in E. Palmer's dissertation, Land Use and Landscape Changes Along 5 Dominican-Haitian Borderlands, University of Florida, 1976. The most important recent work in Haitian geography is the political geography of G. Anglade: L'Espace Haitien (1974), Espace et LibertC en Haiti (1982) and especially, the Atlas Critique d'Haiti (1982), Montreal (Centre de Recherches Caraibes de I'Universite de Montreal).

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VIII Water Resources / Sanitation / and Environmental Health A*INTRODUCTION Signs of environmental pollution are evident in Haiti, particularly in the densely populated sections of urban areas. Surface and groundwaters are being polluted by human waste; and solid wastes are dumped into the drainage ways. The air in Port-au-Prince contains dust and emissions from poorly inspected vehicles. Control of environmental pollution is non-existent. The two most pressing environmental health issues are access to a relatively safe water supply system and access to a safe method of human waste disposal. Haiti's population is projected to increase from 5,200,000 in 1985 to 6,500,000 in 2006, the long range planning horizon selected by the Ministry of Plan. During that period the proportion of rural population will decrease from '74 to 43 percent, while the metropolitan area will grow from 720,000 to 2,200,800 persons. Employment and government services are better in the Port-au-Prince area, which thus attracts many people. Other national development constraints include a high population density (670 people per square kilometer of arable land), low agricultural productivity and a lack of basic infrastructure. Socio-economic trends are alarming and development prospects constrained. However, a planning process has begun and it holds the promise of future improvement. The Ministry of Plan has prepared a development strategy dividing the country into four new planning regions. The scenario envisioned for the year 2006 is for essential services to be available to all urban areas and the largest rural centers; for 60 percent of total jobs to be outside the metropolitan area and for four provincial cities to exceed a population of 100,000 serving as regional development poles. Another notable planning effort is under way for water supply and land use in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. The water supply sector has a long way to go to meet its needs both in the metropolitan areas and in the remainder of the country. The Centrale Autonome Mdtropolitaihe d'Eau Potable (CAMEP) now supplies only 60 percent of its potential customers. This percentage is expected to decrease to 50 percent in the next six years. The Service National d'Eau Potable (SNEP) serves 700,000 people or 16 percent of the population outside the metropolitan area. This proportion is expected to increase to 39 percent in 1991. It is unlikely that PLAN'S goals for the international water and sanitation decade will be realized, but the gap between targeted demand and level of population served will keep narrowing. Progress towards some reason*.tble goal is slow, but some planning activities undervfay are promising and should be encouraged. An ef~ective CONADE (National Water Council) would be a powerful planning and regulatory agency to protect water resources and ensure their reasonable availability for competing uses. Water resources, though not precisely known, are believed adequate to meet basic domestic needs. The main constraint is deficient cashflows and for CAMEP, to a certain extent, losses through leaks and piracy. Water quality at most systems can be improved by more frequent testing. Establishing a national code of drinking water quality standards would help in the selection of water sources and the preparation of treatment guidelines. Finally, employees at the iotermediate and lower levels could be motivated and upgraded through training. The metropolitan drainage program, underway, will help alleviate considerably the problems of stormwater and solid waste disposal in the Port-au-Prince area. Other programs are under consideration for soce large provincial cities. Disposal of stormwater and solid waste is critical in rural areas. Only 35 percent of the population have adequate means of human waste disposal. That is an increase

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from 20 percent in 1971. PLAN envisions a program to construct family latrines for all the unserved population by 1990. A most serious problem is disposal of sullage (from latrines) and septage (from septic tanks). With its limited means, the Division of Public Hygiene meets only 10-20 percent of the necds, the rcmainder of the work being done unsafely by honey dippcrs. B.URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION TRENDS l'ilblc VIII-1 presents the population estimates and projections proposed for the four new pli~nning regions biiscd on the results of the thrcc censuses of 1950, 1971 and 1982 iis reported by the Haitian Institute of Statistics (Scptcmhcr 1982). Tlic total population of tlic country for the period 1950-2006 is shown on Figure VIIII along with projcction made by the Ministry ol' Plan itlid Institute of Statistics (IHS) for comparison. In the rcsults of the censuses, urban avciis include citics, communc +xiits and certain communities wit11 simihr hciusing pilttcrti~. some which may have only a few hundred persons (Institut Haitien de Statistiques, 1978). The majority of the population (74 percent) live in rural areas and most of thc urban populat;oti (55 percent) is in the metropolitiin area. Outsid:: Port-au-Prince, only 10 cities hrtvc more than 10,000 people. Tlic populations (IHS, 1980) of the largest citics arc K estimated iis follows: Port-iiu-Princc 830.000 I'ort-de-Paix 16,000 E Ciip-Haitien 66,300 Jacmcl 14,100 Goniti'ves 35,100 Dcsdunes 14,000 Lcs Caycs 35,100 I-linchc 10,400 St. Marc 24.900 JCrCmic 1 5) ,000 Petite-Rivic'rc dc I'Artibonitc 10,000 From an environmental planning standpoint, Plan divides tlic population into thrcc groups (National Program for Water Supply and Sanitation, 1984): Urban i~nd scmi-urbzn communities, including Portau-Prince and census centers that will havc a populaNor111 Ilc'pt. Northcast Ilcpt. North Rcgion Total Artitwnitc Dcpt. C'cntcr Dcpt. Northwest Dc'pt. Tronsvcrsalc Rcgion Totill West Dcpt. Southeitst Dcpt West Region Total South Dcpt. Grand'Ansc Dcpt. South Region Total Metropolitan Arca Port-au-Prince Other Urhnn Arciis ('L) 45% 44.S'%, 43.2% 4 1 '%) Ruriil Population 3,752.584 3,700.000 ("/.I 74% 7 1 '%I Sourcc: Based on cetisus result and trends predicted by the Ministry of Plan (1084).

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Fig. VIII-1: Population Trends tion of 5,000 or more in 1990. Thirty such communities (including the capital) have a present total population of about 1,200,000. -Concentrated rural communities that can be supplied from regional systems, springs and drilled or excavated Fig. VIII-2: Water supply plan wells. These relatively dense communities include the remaining 150 urban towns with a total population of 300,000 plus approximately 1,000,000 people in the *sections ruralesv. Scattered rurul communities that can be served only by individual systems and include the remainder of the rural population, that is ?.,700,000 people. If present population trends continue, one can expect Haiti's population to greatly increase thereby increasing the need for water supply sanitation services, and pollution control. Overall densities will increase to 235/Km2. The rural population will actually decrease and its relative share will go from 74 percent in 1985 to 43 percent in 2006. Under these conditions, it becomes more imperative than ever to manage environmental resources carefully and to plan for long term objectives even if project implemenlation cannot go beyond short-term needs. In rural areas and the smallest towns and villages, projects to increase basic services such as water supply and sanitation should continue. At the other end of the spectrum, the situation will become explosive in the metropolitan area unless necessary actions are taken to meet the needs of a population exceeding 2,000,000 people. The current infrastructure elements, barely adequate for the population of 150,000 in 1950, will require considerable improvements. It is imperative to adopt measures as part of a land use plan that will provide adequate water supply and sanitation services as well as pollution controls. An important first step in these planning endeavors was taken during the preparation of the CAMEP's master plan to supply the metropolitan area with water to the year 1995 (SAFEGE, 1984). In cooperation with other divisions of the Ministry of Public Works, CAMEP's consultant prepared a preliminary land use master plan that essentially proposes a preliminary land use master plan that essentially proposes a development scenario for Port-au-Prince including: protecting agricultural lands as well as lands with a slope greater than 25 percent (at the same time this will protect part of the CAMEP's watershed from the risks of pollution by residential or industrial development); directing future expansion towards the northeastern and northwestern areas. The prospect of 2,200,000 people (34 percent of Haiti's projected population) in the metropolitan area is frightening, but may be worse if the provincial towns cannot slow down the exodus towards Port-au-Prince and absorb a reasonable share of the population growth. Programs to develop these towns into primary and secondary centers of development should continue at an intensified rate.

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C.0 WATER RESOURCES Water Supply Two government ministries share the responsibility for managing and developing water resources in Haiti. The Ministry of Agriculture, through the Service des Ressources en Eau is in charge of water resources studies, research, control and protection and also develops water resources for irrigation. The Ministry of Public Works provides drinking water through two organizations: CAMEP for the metropolitan area and SNEP for the remainder of the country. In practice, however, there is little control over the use of water resources and several other government and non-government organizations execute water supply programs. Despite past studies, there is no definitive assessment of Haiti's water resources. A current project sponsored by an agency of the United Nations is collecting and analyzing data that may allow a quantification of the resource. However, it is generally agreed that there is enough water for drinking purposes and that the water supply problem is: to find means of developing the resource (DATPE, 1984). Groundwater is abundant and easily accessible in some areas, particularly in the coastal plains (Plaine du Nord, RiviGre Colombier, Plaine des Gonaives, Basse Artibonite, Plaines du Cul-de-sac, de LCogiine, de Jacmel et des Cayes). Aquifers in these areas yield between 10 and 120 liters per second. Their waters are of good quality except for salt water intrusion in some cases. Groundwater resources in the Plains of Gonaives and Cul-de-sac have been exploited to a certain extent. Other areas are rich in groundwater that cannot be easily developed (40 percent of the country receives between 1600 and 2000 mm of rainfall per year, but has a karstic substratum). Groundwater sources could yield between 0 and 1000 liters per second of water of good quality, except for an excessive hardness. Finally, some areas are poor in groundwater because of low precipitation or the presence ol'impermeable layers, as in the Central Plateau and parts of the northwest peninsula and the Island of La Gonave (DATPE, 1984). A complete inventory of water uses is not available for all the watersheds. For the Cul-de-sac plain (which is not representative of the entire country because of extensive uses and relatively abundant resources), groundwater use may be summarized as follows (SAFEGE, 1974): irrigation 100,000,000 mclyear industry 15,000,000 mclyear Port-au-Prince's potable 8,000,000 mdyear individuals wells 125,000 mclyear Water Quality Water supplied by CAMEP and SNEP is disinfected before distribution and is considered relatively safe. However, in some installations, treatment is irregular because of breakdowns and the absence of backup equipment. Water from surface sources and uncapped springs presents a high risk of contamination. Water supplied by private vendors in the Port-au-Prince area is considered unsafe because it is not disinfected and its sources are not protected. Strictly speaking, there is no controlled potable water in the country; even the treated and bottled water sold by two plants cannot be absolutely guaranteed; although the treatment method is satisfactory, contamination may occur during the bottling operation (DATPE, 1984). Water-related diseases are prevalent in Haiti, particularly in the rural areas where potable water systems are rare. In 1980, several thousand cases of water-related diseases were reported as shown on table VIII-2. The actual number of infections is much higher, particularly for diarrhea, which is not often reported. In any case, the numbers are too high. Children are particularly affected. In 1979, diarrheas alone caused the Table VI11-2 SOME REPORTED CASES OF WATER-RELATED D1SEASE:S IN 1980 Area and Population Diarrhea Intestinul Infections Typhoid Cases 11000 Cases /I000 Cases /I000 Port-au-Prince Gonai'ves Port-de-Paix Hinchc St-Marc Petit-GoSve Bclladt?re Jacmel North Dept. South Dept. Source: CONADEPA (April 1984), from Bullctin dc Statistiqucs ct d'Epidkmiologic. D+i~rtcnicnt dc la Sant6 Publique ct de la Population.

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death of 9 percent of the babies under one year (UNICEF, 1984). Existing Water Supply Systems In 1978 there were 40 domestic water supply systems in the country serving 700,000 people or 15 percent of the population, mostly in Port-au-Prince and other urban areas (Harza Engineering Company, 1979). Since then several other systems have been added to the network and some have been expanded. It is estimated that, by the end of 1985, a total population of 1,200,000 or 23 percent will have access to a community water supply. A good portion of these people live in the metropolitan area (42 percent) and in the 13 provincial cities of 10,000 or more (25 percent). Thus, 67 percent of the urban population will have access to a community water supply while there will be practically no water supply systems in the rural areas with a scattered population. The existing water supply systems are the results of investment programs by government agencies, and bilateral and multilateral cooperation organizations. (Table VIII-3). The government devotes 4 percent of the budget to potable water projects and this contribution is financed by external assistance at 85 percent (UNICEF, 1984). Their actions are summarized as follows: CAMEP is an agency of the Ministry of Public Works, Transports and Communications (TPTC) creaTed to provide drinking water to an area that includes the cities of Port-au-Prince and PCtionville, the communities of Carrefour and Delmas, the towns of Gressier and Croix-des-Bouquets, and the Quartier Croix des Missions. This vast franchise area is designated as the ccCommunaut6 Urh:linen or Metropolitan District. Presently, CAMEP serves only Port-au-Prince, PCtionville, Carrefour and Delmas. The last major expansions of the system were financed in 1969 and 1977 by the Inter-American Development Bank. CAMEP supplies its customers from 17 springs producing 44,000 mc per day and three wells in the plain of Cul-de-sac producing 22,500 mc per day. It is estimated that the safe yield of these combined sources is 70,000 mc per day. CAMEP uses distribution reservoirs with a total capacity of 36,650 mc. Maintenance of these structures and the distribution pipes leave much to be desired. The quality of the raw water is generally good except for a high salinity in the Cul-deSac and traces of bacteriological contamination at two springs, Plaisance -and Cerisier, caused probably by malfunctioning latrines and septic tanks. All the sources (springs and wells) have a disinfection unit except one spring (Source Doco), but the equipment at some installations often does not work. Flg. Vm-3 Refuse disposal and sanitation are problematic in most poor neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince (Photo, courtesy ofS. Squino).

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Table VIII -3 SUMMARY OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED WATER SL'PFLY SYSTEMS Service Area Population Served in 1978 1985 1991 Metropolitan Area Balance of West Dept. Southeast Department North Department Northeast Department Artibonite Department Center Department Northwest Department South Department Grand' Anse Department Total Served 715,000 1,200,000 2,300,000 Total Population 4,750,000 5,200,000 5,600,000 Percent Served 15% 23% 41 % SYSTEMS TO BE COMPLETED IN 1985 (UNDER POCHEP AND UNICEF) Service Area Pop. Served Service Area Pop. served North (18) 15,200 West (50) 27,400 Northeast (0) 0 Southwest (3) 4,900 Artibonite (38) 34,100 South (18) 23,100 Center (4) 6,500 Grande Anse (8) 9,500 Northwest (0) 0 Subtotal (139) 120,700 Total SNEP in Operation in 1985: 725,800 Source: Harza Engineering Company (1979);) SNEP (January 1985) and Project POCHEP's files CAMEP presently servcs about 500,000 people through: 40,000 connections, 25 percent of which iire illegal and do not contribute any revenue (total 300,000 people). 80 functioning standpipes at the disposal of the sixty-five percent of the urban population that is below the absolute level of poverty. Actually, less than 80,000 people derive their water from this source; the overwhelming majority of the group purchase water from private vendors (300,000 people), share a connection with a subscriber (100,000), break illegally into CAMEP's pipes (40,000) or use approximately 120 spring and private wells. Water loss through leaks and waste is estimatcd iit 50 percent (70 percent by one account). There are no water meters. CAMEP's annual revenue is less than $700,000 while the vendors collect close to $4,000,000 (DATPE, 1984, and Pass, 1982). SNEP is another agency of the Ministry of Public Works. It is responsible for the construction, operation and maintenance of all water supply systems outside the metropolitan area. SNEP has an executive office (Direction Gdntrale) and four regional offices at Portau-Prince, Cap-Haitien, Gonaives and Cayes. SNEP's financial means are extremely limited, but the agency hiis received assistance from several donors including United Nations agencies (UNICEF, WHO), the World Bank (IBRD) the Inter American Development Bank (IDB), the German Foundation for Technical Assistance (GTZ), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). This year SNEP will have 185 water supply systems in operation, serving a total population of 700,000 in the departments, including those to be completed in 1985. Most of these systems are capped springs, three notable exceptions being those serving lthe cities of CapHaitien, Gonaives and Cayes. The community systems range from a dug or bored well with a hand pump serving 200 people, to the system at Cap-Haitien serving close to 60,000 people through house connections and public fountains. Several organizations assisted in the financing of these systems or participated in their construction, particularly: the IDB (10 largest cities), the Organization pour le DCveloppement du Nord (ODlrr) the DSPP (Ddpartement de la SantC Publique

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et de la Population) at the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations such as CARE, World Church Service, Missionary Church Association, German Foundation for Technical Assistance, Canadian Agency for International Development (CIDA). 0 There is no evidence of national drinking water supply standards. Conversations with managers of CAMEP, SNEP, the Public Hygiene Division, and the Sanitation Office indicate that the main concern is bacteriological contamination, although physical-chemica1 analyses are sometimes also conducted. Some portable kits for testing water quality are available to SNEP. Included in the existing systems are those constructed by the sanitation office (Bureau d'Assainissement) of the Ministry of Health. The 35 systems serve 92,000 people in 73 communities whose populations vary from 700 to more than 5,000. Under an i~grcement between the Ministries of Health and Public Works, and the financing agencies (IDR and the European Economic Community), the systems are constructed under Poste Communautaire de I'Hygikne et de I'Eau Potabic? (POCHEP), but SNEP will opcrate and maintain them. The Bureau d'Assainissement expects to complete the first phase of the POCHEP project by September 1985. UNICEF has cooperated with SNEP in the installation of 100 hand pumps (INDIA Mark 11), io servc 40,000 people throughout the country and 15 gravity systems for 17,000 people in the Northwest. Water Supply Trends and Prospects In recent years the country has made some progress towards meeting the water supply needs of the popuInrion. On the average, the number of people having access to a community system increases by 70,000 every year. However, the rate of progress is reduced by population growth. Thus, in the past 7 years the number of people served has increased from 700,000 to 1,200,000, but the percentage served has only increased from 15 to 23. (Figure VIII-2). If this trend were to continue, it would take more than 60 years for supply to catch up with needs. What are the prospects for improvement? PLAN'S CONADEPA (GOH, 1984) has prepared a water supply plan with the following objectives for 1990 the end of the International Water and Sanitation Decade: Supply the entire population of the metropolitan area; 30 percent through private connections and 70 percent through public standpipes (total population 1,200,000 in 1991). Supply the remainder of the urban population through private connections and public standpipes in proportions varying from 2%s to %s, depending on the size of the communities (total population: 900,000 ic 1991). Supply all the concentrated rural communities through standpipes (total population: 1,000,000 in 1991). For scattered rural communities, provide sanitary surveillance services to improve the quality of existing individual drinking water sources. A few simple facilities would be built, e,g, cisterns for collecting rainwater (total population: 2,500,000 in 1991). Thus, PLAN envisions that by the end of the water and sanitation decade, community systems will serve 55 percent of the population and the Ministry of Health will improve the quality of the drinking w!er for the remainder. This is a very ambitious plan that requires investments of $90,000,000 on the part of the government (including external assistance) and $50,000,000 from the communities. Some projects under design or construction are likely to be completed by 1991. They include: Installation of 400 additional hand pumps (INDIA Mark 11) to serve 100,000 people in the plains of Culde-Sac, LCogane, Artibonite, Nord and Cayes, and financed by the CIDA, Rotary International and the GOH. Included in the project is the pcrchase of a drilling machine that SNEP can use to supply additional communities. Water supply systems for 12 towns in the Plateau Central: Pignon, La Victoire, Ranquitte, Maissade, Savanne Haleine, Mombin Crochu, Cerca-La-Source, Colladbre, Saltadke, Thomonde, La Belonne, and Malte Peralte (Los Palis is already in operation). Financed by UN, the population served in 1991 will be 16,000. ODN, with a loan from the IBRD, will construct wells and gravity systems to serve 125,000 people in the North and Northeast. CARE, with USAID financing and SNEP's participation, will build or rehabilitate 40 gravity systems and solar energy installations to serve 160,000 people in the southern peninsula. a. UNICEF, with the financial participation of the Government and the beneficiaries, will construct or rehabilitate gravity systems to supply 72,600 people in several communities of the northwest, west, and Grand-Anse. The Government and Protos (Belgian NGO) will finance and construct a potable water system for 11,000 people at Hinche. With a grant from the GTZ the GKW enginering firm has prepared feasibility studies and preliminary design of water supply systems to serve 7 secondary cities: Pase-Reine (near Cionaives), Desdunes, Desca-

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heaux, Dessalirres, Petite-Rivikre dc I'Artibonite, Ville Bonheur, Arcahaie, and Cabaret. Total population in 1991 is cstimatcd at 78,000. Sweral non-governmental organizations are active in the water supply sector. In addition, the Ministry of Plan will soon seek financing for a second phase of the POCHEP project; its preliminary design has already been completed under a grant of IDB, which, reportedly, is willing to finance part of it (estimated cost: $21,000,000). Thesc two sources will supply approximately 300,000 persons. It may be assumed that the existing systems outside the metropolitan area have enough capacity to accomodate at least half their natural growth or will expand accordingly. With the existing capacity and control to rcduce losses and curb illegal connections, Port-auPrince can easily increase the number of its customers by 20 percent, which is by far insufficient to meet additional demand. In all, the existing systems can serve 230,000 morc pcoplc in 1991. Thus, by 1991, it is reasonable to expect a total of 2,300,000 people (41 percent of the population) to have access to a community water supply. That is an increase of 1,100,000 or 92 percent in. the next six years. Although less optimistic than PLAN'S plan, this estimate shows an improvement over the progress made between 1978 and 1985. If this trend continues, before the year 2006, about 80 percent of the population will have access to a community system. Then supply will catch up with a targeted demand, defined as the entire urban population plus 50 percent of the rural population (it ib not reasonable to serve the scattered rural areas through community systems). Beyond 1990-91, the water supply situation is less clear. It may be noted, however, that SNEP has on file, feasibility studies and preliminary plans for more than !GO water supply systems and only financing is needed for their implementation. For CAMEP there is a water supply master plan, just prepared with assistance from Fonds d'Aide et de Coopdration, France (FAC). The fundamental objective of the CAMEP master plan is to provide, by 1995, the entire metropolitan area with chemically as well as bacteriologically safe potable water, in sufficient quantity and at a reasonablc access distance. The water will be treated as necessary (removal of carbon dioxide and disinfection). In the long run (beyond year 2000), CAMEP must consider the use of surface waters (Rivers: Froide, Mornance, Grise) to meet its demand (CAMEP 1984). SNEP is preparing a survey of water supply needs within its jurisdiction. The study starts with an accurate inventory of existing systems. It will enable the agency to determine a priority list. Another notable activity at SNEP is the program of institutional reinforcement conducted with the assistance of the German government. It aims at increasing SNEP's planning and management capabilities. In its national program, PLAN mentions some othcr ~orthwhilc projects: A pilot project to supply water through public standpipes to 150,000 peoplc in the low income, northwest scctions of Port-au-Prince. The Office National clu Logement (ONL), a national housing agency, is already involved in rehabilitating housing for 3000 families in part of this area (at Drouillard, Linthau I and Linthau 11). Stormwater removal will also be provided under thc sccond phase of thc metropolitan drainage plan. Financing has nor yet becn secured. A national rural water supply master plan to be prepared by SNEP with support and participation from the Ministry of Health and active NGO's. A pilot project to provide water supply and sanitation installations to 50,000 people in a rural area to be selected. The project would be implemented by SNEP in close coordination with the current primary health care program. A promotion program to encourage potential CAMEP customers to obtain private connections to the network. The program will be implemented by CAMEP in collaboration with ONL and the Ministry of Health. @ Improvement of the Kenscoff system to serve zdditional SNEP and CAMEP customers. An inventory of existing water supply systems and a determination of needs of rural and urban populations, to be carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture. A campaign to encourage the population to participate in the water supply and sanitation programs. AI information and training program for low cost water supply and sanitation options to be financed by Canadian International Development Agency, UNDP and others. An organization of Corlseil National de I'Eau (CONADE), a national water authority to coordinate the plan and manage water resources for the entire country, including water supply and sanitation activities. This is an importation project that was scheduled to begin in October 1982, but has made little progress. The water supply sector faces some serious difficulties. The most serious problem is deficient cashtlows. Both SNEP and CAMEP are heavily subsidized because revenues are not sufficient to meet operating and maintenance experlses as well as expansion needs. For example, for the years 1981 through 1983, SNEP has shown an average deficit of $520,000 per year (more than 50 percent of its budget). This does not include capital amortization for the systems that were donated. Means to increase SNEP's revenues, for example, by financial participation of the beneficiaries, should be pursued in addition to external assistmce. Governmental subsidies have gradually decreased by 18 percent beiween 1961 and 1983. CAMEP has a similar problem, but it could be solved more easily as CAMEP's customers can gcnerally afford to pay for water service. For example, water vendors in the Port-au-

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Prince area, some of whom use CAMEP's water, could control water losses, curb illegal cbnnections and collect fees from all users. Another area that can be improved for both agencies is the control of the quality of the water delivered. In the rural and semi-urban areas, however, it is recognized that water supply availability is more urgent than water quality as sanitxy education has not advanced far enough to guarantee that contamination does not occur betwecil source and point of consumption. The mere scpply of drinking water is a health improvement. The establishment of a national code of drinking water standards and the preparation of treatment guidelines. The CEP team suggests that the recent WHO drinking water standards be adopted with modifications, as necessary, to take into account rural and urban socio-economic conditions and financial means. For example, these standards can very well apply to CAMEP, but is is not practical to require the same level of quality in rural systems that supply fewer people, do not bring revenues and whose water is likely to suffer some secondary contamination before consumption. The upgrading and motivation of personnel resources at the intermediate and lower levels through training and incentives. However, at the management and supervisory levels of both CAMEP and SNEP, although much dedication and pride was detected there may be at times a sense of frustration caused by the limited means to be applied tooverwhelming task. D. SANITATION Whereas water supply has received a great deal of attention from governmental agencies, as well as bilateral and multilateral organizations, environmental sanitation is almost completely neglected. The lack of funds mainly hampers rapid progress in the field of drinking water supply, but its complementary field is treated as a poor cousin. There are frequent comphints about the inadequacy of the water systems, but a real perception of the need for environmental sanitation measures is lacking. Haitian leadership appears to be not willing to pay for such measures, until environmental pollution becomes a nuisance that affects them directly. Adequate legislation to deal with urban sanitation problems is lacking. For example, the only article in the hygiene code regulating the disposal of human waste merely states (paragraph 20): "all houses and commercial or business establishment must have latrines or septic tanks that must satisfy the cquirements of the sanitary officer as to their location and all other aspects ... It is prohibited to spill fecal matter or urine on the ground." The extent of pollution problems in rural and urban areas is not well known, but there is a consensus among workers in the public health field that environmental conditions are poor, except in a very few rich communities. Many streets of Port-au-Prince, which receive more attention than the remainder of the country, are filthy. In some areas, they are covered with litter and mud. In the crowded low-income areas of the city, water is scarce and sanitation poor, wastes are disposed close to living quarters thus creating a dangerous situation. Responsibility for ensuring healthy environmental conditions revolves mainiy around the Ministry of Public Health and Population with three notable exceptions. Its Division of Public Hygiene is in charge of human waste disposal and many other activities. Its Sanitation Office is involved in water supply and latrine construction (POCHEP). Municipal administrations handle solid waste disposal at Port-au-Prince and most provincial cities, while stormwater drainage and street cleaning are the responsibility of the TPTC. There is a Division of Land Development and Environmental Protection at the Ministry of Plan, but it is not active in pollution control. The same is true for an environmental protection service within MARNDR. Human wastc and solid waste disposal, drainage, environmental pollution, some cases of industrial waste management and sanitary education are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. Human waste and the Division of Public Hygiene This branch of the Ministry of Health has a sanitation subdivision that includes four sections: House inspections, refuse disposal and control of drinking water quality through laboratory tests for chlorine residual. Food and beverage quality control, from production to consumption (markets, bars, restaurants, hotels, etc.) Vector Control Human waste disposal (construction of latrines and disposal of wastes from latrines and septic tanks). The Division has about 150 employees, including a sanitary engineer, 2 sanitary inspectors and 13 sanitary officers. Some members are old or handicapped. The Division's budget amounts to $784,000 provided mostly by the Ministry of Health (80 percent). Revenues from human waste disposal charges represent less than 3 percent of the budget. USAID contributes 13 percent through the rural health project. The division operates through four regional offices, divided into districts. The metropolitan district includes eight subdistricts. The vast majority of the Haitian population do not have an adequate means of human waste disposal. According to the results of a 1971 census, (Parisien, 1979, from a publication of the Institute of Statistics), less than one percent of the population had a flush toilet and, presumably, a septic tank, and 19 percent used latrines; the remaining 80 percent used open fields, sometimes adjacent to the housing units. According to UNICEF (1984) the proportion of the population using latrines or septic tanks would now be around 40 percent, most of them in the urban areas. In 1984, WHO estimated that at the end of 1983, 41 percent

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of the urban population and 12 percent of the rural population would thus have access to an acceptable means of waste disposal. PLAN (GOH 1984e) estimated the overall proportion at 33 percent. Generally speaking, the design and construction of the latrines and septic tanks are inadequate because there are no relevant regulations. Their operation and maintenance are also deficient and most of them are overloaded, requiring frequent emptying, One common deficiency is the lack of ventilation, causing odors in houses with septic tanks and both odors and flies in latrines. No authority reviews the design of septic tanks nor inspects their construction. In 1984, the Division of Public Hygiene emptied 100 septic tanks and 230 latrines in Port-au-Prince. According to the Division's director, this represents only 10 to 20 percent of the needed disposal. The Division has only two trucks for this service. For lack of an adequate final disposal site, the waste thus removed from the latrines and septic tanks is dumped untreated onto a private field. Some time ago, the Division managed to obtain a disposal site at the foot of Morne 2 Cabris (9 ha. of government land). With the asisstance of the Ministries of Health and Public Works, the site was transformed to operate as a landfill that could serve indefinitely since the wastes would be removed after decomposition and reused as fertilizer. However, for unexplained reasons, the palace guard condemned the site before it could start functioning (as an emergency measure, they allowed the discharge of one truck load). Another site, found at Truitier near the refuse disposal landfill (10 km from the city), is awaiting preparation. It is not easily accessible when it rains. The remaining 80-90 percent of the septage and sullage is collected by honey dippers at night, transported in precarious and unsanitary conditions through city streets, and dumped at sea, in the storm sewers or sometimes anywhere. There is no municipal sewage collection and disposal system in Haiti, but in Port-au-Prince, Engineering Science Inc. (1972) studied the wastewater disposal problem for the city. It recommended a separate wastewater collection system for a portion of the city and improvement of the septic tanks elsewhere. An advanced primary treatment would be provided at two plants (including the removal of grease, oil and flottable matter) before discharge of the effluents into the ocean at Lamentin to the west and Cite Soleil to the north. The project has not been implemented because of its high cost. There are illegal connections of effluent pipes to the drainage system although the extent of this problem is not known. It is suspected that such conrlections are practiced by industrial and commercial entities, individuals and even government institutions. Far example, it is reported that the effluent of the septic: tank of the INLR is pumped directly into the Bois dr: ChCne, an important canal draining a good portion of Port-auPrince. In general, disposal of ..eptic tank: effluents is a problem as few tanks are followed by an adequate absorption field. Two other known instances of sewage disposal into the drainage system are at a market, Marchei Vallitres, and a school, Ecole Rtpublique du VCntzuCla (personal communication, Division of Public Hygiene, 1985). Illegal connectit ns are common in the lower zone of Port-au-Prince because of its intense development and a high water table that makes wastewa'ter disposal difficult. Sometimes, kitchen and laundry wastewaters find their way into storm sewers, as well as through street collectors. The provincial cities face similar, but less severe problems because of their lower population densities. A recent survey (GKW, 1984) found the following conditions in the locities that had water supply systems installed in 1983 (St. Marc, Gonai'ves, Jacmel, CapHaitien, .Les Cayes, Port-de-Paix, JCrCmie, Aquin, LCogSne, MiragoSne): There are very few flush toilets; the tanks into which they discharge are not adequate. More than 40 percent of the the population does not have a means of human waste disposal other than uncontrolled defecation. Most of the others use latrines, more than half of which need improvement. When the pit is filled, it is covered with earth and another is dug. Wastewater is disposed In the yard by infiltration or discharge into the drainage system. In the rural areas, therc are very few latrines. The rural population disposes of excreta on the beaches, in fields, drainage ditches, dumps, and vacant lots. D.SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL Solid waste disposal is the responsibility of the "Mairie" in metropolitan Port-au-Prince. The mayor is Director General of the SMCRS, or Service MCtropolitain de Collecte des RCsidus Solides (Mttropolitan Solid Waste Disposal Authority) and a sanitary engineer serves as its technical director and deputy director general. In the provincial towns, the sanitary district (Division of Public Hygiene) or the Mairie, or both, provide the refu!,e collection service. Until recently, refuse disposal was chaotic in Portau-Prince. Unsanitary conditions existed because the population in residential and business areas discarded its refuse literally everywhere: stcets, storm sewers, drainage ditches, sea and water courses. In some areas, the population openly burned part of its refuse to dispose of it or reduce its volume. In addition to the obvious public health hazards, these practices led to the obstruction of the drainage facilities to the point that the solid waste disposal problem had to be solved before the drainage network could be improved and extended. In 1980, SCET InternationalIBeture conducted a solid waste disposal study. As a result, a program is being implemented, although with some delay. According to the technical director of the SMCRS, 70 percent of the recommendations have already been realized: the managing structure is already in place; 30 new

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trucks are working and the remaining 35 trucks have been ordered; the administration building is completed, but not yet occupied; and the public promotion campaign is under way. The proportion should reach 100 percent by July 1985. The SMCRS now collects 300 tons of refuse per day 12t of an estimated production of 519 tons per day including: 380 tons from 950,000 persons in Port-au-Prince, Pdtionville, Delmas and Carrefour at 0.4 kg per person per day (SCET's population estimate); 50 tons from commercial and industrial subscribers; 75 tons from the public markets; and 14 tons from parks, hotels, schools, ztc. SMCRS collects the refuse three times a week in front of the houses in certain areas, and daily from 600 liter garbage cans or spot dumps in the less affluent areas. These dumps will be eliminated when the program is in full operation, The refuse thus collected is disposed in a sanitary landfill at Truitier a few kilometers from the city. With its 200 ha this site can last at least 20 years. A sensible improvement in the solid waste situation has been noted as a result of this incomplete program, except the lower areas of the city where the storm sewers still bring debris following rainstorms. Concerning solid waste disposal, a municipal refuse composting plant operated for a few years near Portau-Prince, beginning in March 1980 (Farr, 1981). A pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of co-composting municipal refuse and latrine wastes (D.J. Dalmat, J.F. Farr et al., 1983). At a construction cost of $7,000,000, the facility uses the PRATT process, a European design. It has a design capacity of 1000 tons/ 24 hours. In 1983, it was processing only 30-100 tons per day. The status of this facility is not known nor are the real reasons for its closure. Besides the apparent difficulty in receiving the raw refuse, the facility produced compost that was too expensive for the farmers ($1 1 per ton) and not easily accessible to potential customers. There has been a proposal to relocate the plant at Truiter near the sanitary landfill and the proposed site for disposal of latrine wastes by the Division of Public Hygiene. It would then be convenient to the tracks of HASCO, (sugar plantations) a potential large customer. This would also allow a more efficient operation by reducing the number of employees and transportation costs. F.STORMWATER DRAINAGE For years, stormwater drainage of Port-au-Prince was totally indadequate resulting in a considerable loss of lives and damage to buildings and personal property. The problem was aggravated by natural features (e.g, steep slopes), uncontrolled development, removal of tree cover and an inadequate refuse collection service that encouraged disposal in the storm sewers and drainage ways. With assistance from the IDB and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Haiti is implementing the first phase of a drainage project for metropolitan Port-au-Prince at a cost of $45,000,000. There are three subprojects: Reforestration of Morne I'Hbpital to slow down runoff, reduce erosion and sediment loads to the sewers. This subproject is completed: 400,000 trees were planted, but they represent only 20 percent of the area's reforestation needs. Platforms and retaining dry stone walls were also built. Collection of solid wastes, as discussed above. Repair and realignment of existing channels; construction of additional collectors. The Bois de Ch$ne canal has already been enlarged and secondary collectors have been cleaned. The construction of new collectors is 90-95 percent complete. Results observed to date are encouraging. All the principal provincial towns have stormwater systems consisting of underground pipes, concrete canals and street draining ditches, all of which receive also refuse and wastewaters, to a certain extent. Their maintenance is inadequate. Two of the cities, Gonaives and Les Cayes are flat, low-lying and subject to frequent flooding; their drainage would justify a special study. G.POLLUTION There are many cases of environmental pollution in Haiti, but there exists little documentation of them. Some were mentioned in the preceding discussions of water supply, drainage and waste disposal. There are point and non-point sources of air and water pollution, still undocumented. Most of the known cases are in Port-au-Prince and its vicinity. Air pollution has not reached any great proportion, but on a clear day, from the hills surrounding Port-auPrince, one can observe the smoke or dust from at least 12 chimneys shifting with the wind. The most serious discharges are those of the sugar factory, HASCO, and the cement plant (Ciment dlHaiti). The black smoke emanating from HASCO is the result of burning cane residue to produce steam. The combustion is incomplete and escaping particles eventually fall on residential areas such as Delmas. Homeowners have complained about this nuisance and the government has asked the plant to do something about it, but to no avail. HASCO's position is that the particles are not toxic and that the solution to the problem would require prohibitive investments. It has been suggested (Parisien, 1979) that one way to reduce this impact is to concentrate combustion in the morning, when the prevailing winds are more seaward. The cement plant emits dust that affects mostly the nearby residences of some 20 employees and to a lesser extent the community of Source Matelas. The metropolitan area is too far (30 km) to be affected. Another source of air pollution in Port-au-Prince is vehicular traffic. The situation is worse during morning

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and evening rush hours, when commuters converge towards the main business district from three directions or hurry to return home. PCtionville traffic is then chaotic and vcry slow along Delmas road and Avenue John Brown. The intersection of Delmas, Martin Luther King and Hail6 SBlassiC is a permanent bottleneck. Some sections of the road to Carrefour are always heavily congested, a situation that is aggravat~d by a large number of slow moving trucks with diesel engines. Vehicle inspection is not thorough. Air pollution is heavy along the congested arteries, due to emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbo~is. Until traffic congestion can be relieved, mitigating measures could be adopted. Emissions tests in vehicle inspection, the restriction of traffic, particularly of' slow moving trucks, at certain times on some roads could be considered. Regulating ((tap-tap camionette!;a which create h great deal of the chaos along the road to Carrefour, might be considered (e.g. institution specific ((tap-tap* stops for picking up or discharging passengers). Dust and odor constitute other common torms of air pollution. In sections of Port-au-Prince and other cities, the streets are not paved and where traffic is relatively heavy, dust is a nuisance. Bad odorsemanate from some open markets and garbage dumps. Problems similar to those of HASCO may occur at other sugar plants (Darbonc lleilr LCogane, Caycs and Cap-Haiticn) and at numerous guildives throughout the country producing "clairin" out of sllgilr cane. Water pollution occurs in three forms. Surface waters are polluted by sediments resulting f~om erosion and by all debris ur refusc. Runoff from both urban and rural areas brings to the receiving wnter courses oils, grease and fecal matter. Surface Watcr is not uscd now to any extent for drinking watcr, but it may become thc long term source of potable water to supply metropolitim Port-au-Prince. One potential source for the area, Rivikrc Grisc, may be subject to incidents of pollution at Damie11 by HAMPCO, Rhurn Barbancourt, and small guildives. The milin cause of pollution of groundwi~tcr is faulty and overlondcd latritlcs. Inadequntc septic tiink-soil absorption systems also pollute thc groundwater. Although it is not documented, pollution of ground water must be severe in densely populated ilrcas of Port-au-Prince where latrine pits arc very deep. Sonic areas also havc a high water table. Groundwater pollution is more dilngcrous where the population uscs drinking wiltcr from wells, somctimcs located too close to latrines. The third form of water pollution affccts the sea, which receives n huge volume of waste produced by Iimd activities. In some cases, the wastes i1re ~Jischi~rged directly by industries, and individuals. In other cases they are brought to the sea by rivers, drainage ditches, or thc wind. In the Port-au-Prince awl, scverill smid and rclatively large commercial or industrial enterprises along the coast discharge their liquid and solid wastes linto the sea: slaughterhouses, meat and fish vendors, I-IASCO, Ciment d'Haiti. Pollution of Port-au-Prince bay should be studied carefully: Contaminants tend to get trapped in the inner parts of the bay due to the direction of the currents circulating around the island of La Gonave. Industrial pollution does not seem to cause concern in government circles. Perhaps it is a lack of awareness or it may be to save worker's jobs that prevent action from being taken. Industrial managers do not seem to be concerned either. The following summarizes information from major industries in Haiti: HASCO produced sugar from cane cultivated in is own fields or bought from others. The company uses septic tanks to treat the wastewater from its toilets and discharges ihe processed wastewater into the sea. The company uses its sludge as fertilizer to supplement compost it buys from the Dominican Republic. The solid residue of the sugar cane, called bagasse, is burned to supplement fuel oil. Ashes are used in road beds or disposed of on fields. ACIERIE D'HAITI produces all the steel used in construction and other activities in Haiti. Annual production is 18,000 tons, only 25 percent of planned capacity. The company uses water from CAMEP and rain water. It has a septic tank for toilet wastewater. It recycles its cooling watcr after sedimentation and disposes of the sludge at ther'ruitier sanitary landfill. HAMPCO (Haitian American Meat and Produce Co.) processes meat and uses water from wells. Effluents from the slaughter house are chlorinatcd before discharge. A septic tank receives toilet wastewater. Manure is transported by wagon to sugar cane fields. RHUM BARBANCOURT uses well water, and recycles the boiler water. Oil is recovered from the processed waste and reused. The effluent is mixed with cooling water and used for irrigation. Part of the bagassc is used as fuel. The remainder is disposed in the fields or donated to local farmers to use as poultry litter. The Compilny is considering the feasibility of using the bagasse to make briquettes that can be burned as don~estic iuel instead of wood. ENAOL extracts vegetable oils from soybeans imported from the United States and Argentina. The oil produced is uscd locally. The residue serves as animal feed. There is little waste oil or solid waste. Processed wastcwater is disposed through canals and most of it is absorbed in thc soils before it reaches the beach. The operation is practically dust free. Wi~tcr supply comcs from Bon Repos (12 km). Cooling water is rccirculated. MINOTERIE D'HAITI produces wheat flour for consumption in Haiti. Thcrc is no process wastewater. Cooling water is recycled. It is a dust free operation because of the use of filters. CIMENT D'HAITI uses sea water and fresh water from wells and a spring. It generates no process was-

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tewater and littlz solid waste, but produces a great deal of dust. Note: ENAOL and Minoterie d'Haiti are located st 26km; Ciment d'Haiti 31 km along the road to the North. Impact upon a beach (Ibo Beach) and the village of Source Matelas is unknown. H.CONl i ';ISIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: PLAN h it. *I IMPLEMENT A SYSTEM OF SANZTATION SERVICES From 1971 to 1985 the proportion of the population disposing of its human waste into latrines and septic tanks has increased from 20 to 35 percent. At this rate of progress it would take more than 60 years to assure sanitary disposal of thc human waste for the entire population. PLAN has proposed th:! all thc inhabitants dispose of their wastcs in family latrims by 1990, except 25,000 people in downtown Port-au-Prince who will have access to a seweragc system and a few others who can afford septic tanks. To achieve this goal, PLAN envisioned a sanitation project that was to start in 1983 under the supervision of the Bureau d'Assainissement. The project was to construct 450,000 latrines in urban and rural areas. It is doubtful that the goal of 100 percent service will be reached in 1990. The trend in the collection and disposal of septagc and sullage is more alarming. Service has decreased over the past 40 years. In 1947, at the peak of its performance in that regard, the Division of Public Hygiene had a total of five trucks for collection of septage and sullage. Kow it has only two. Thuscapacity has decreased by 60 percent while the population of the metropolitan area has increased fivefold. Drainage and solid waste disposal are expected to improve considerably in Port-au-Prince and the other cities as a result of current or proposed sanitation projects. Other population problems will worsen if nothing is done.

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IX. References Anglede, G. ASSA Bowln, C. Bremer, J. et el. Burns, L.V. Butterlln, J. Butterlin, J. Bond, J. 1975. Erosion hazard and farming systems in Caribbean countries. In: Greenland and SaI, eds. Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics, Wiley, Chichester P. 247. 1974. L'Espace Haitien. Presses de I'Universite du Quebec, Montreal. 1985. Personal communication with John Currelly, Agricultural Services, S.A. Petion-Ville. 1985. Personal communication on fish species and coral reefs. "Baskin in the Sun Dive Shop". Kaliko Beach, Haiti. 1975. The Geology of Hispaniola. 4.501-551. In: The Ocean Basins and Margins. Edited by A. Narin und F. Stehli. Plenum Press, N.Y. 1984. Fragile Lands. Development Alternatives. Washington D.C. Report prepared for USAIDISTIRD. 1954. Report to the Government of Haiti on Forestry Policy and its implementation. Report No. 349. FAO. Rome. 1960. Geologie GCnerale et KCgionale de la Republiquc #Haiti. lnstitut des Hautes Etudes de I'Amerique Latine, Paris. 1354. La Geologie de la RCpublique d'Haiti et ses rapports nvec celle des regions voisines, Publ. comm. 150e anniversaire de I'Indtpendance d'Hniti, Port-au-Prince, 446 pages. 1980. Birds of the West Indies. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. Conwny, F. 1984. Social Science Research in Forestry Project Design: a case Study. USAlD Report (Sept. '84), prepared for STIFNR. Conwey, F. 1983. Agroforestry Outreach Project Final Report, prepared for USAIDMaiti. Cohen, W.B. 1984. Environmental Degradation in Haiti. An Analysis of Aerial Photography. Report prepared for USAIDMAITI, Port-auPrince. CIDA 1977. Inventory of Hydrologic Resources. Synthesis of Hydroelectric Potential of Haiti. Canadian Embassymaiti. Chapond, G. 1984. La PEche Artisanale CBtibre en Haiti. Elemeots pour une Strategic de DBveloppernent. FAOIHaiti. CEPAL 1978. Statistics of the Caribbean Countries. CEPAL, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. DATP'L 1982. Cartographie Thematique #Haiti/ Notice Explicative. Report prepared by BDPA, Paris, in cooperation wi1.h FACIDATPE, Ministry of Plan. .x DATPE 1984. (In preparation). Regions et Strategies de Developpement Regional, Ministbre du Plan, Port-au-Prince. Deletour, L.H. D. LPlonhnt, J. k.agny, C. Roy, and L. VolWre 1984. Regional Development in Haiti. APSA, Port-au-Prince. Dlcquemare, J.C. 1975. Personal communication on Fisheries and Fish species. Ccmier Plage, CapHaitien. Coltey, W.J., Dod, D. 1985. Personal communication on Flora of L.A. Lewis, A.B. Heuge Haiti. Jardin Botanica Dr. R. Moscoso, end H.J. Imuwerysen 1984. Social institutional profile of the Santo-Domingo, Rep. Dom. Cayes Plain Basin: Toward a coordinated rural regional development strategy. Dod, D. 1984. Massif de la Hotte Isla Peculiar: Worcester, Mussachusetts, Clark University. Orquideas Nuevos iluminan su historia. 8' I 4 I

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Moscosoa 3:91-100, (Bull. Jardin Botanico Nac. Moscoso, Santo Domingo). 1981-82. Ordre dlAvocats du Bureau de Port-au-Prince: a) Vingt ans de ldgislation 1950 69, 2 vols (1981). B) Dix ans de ldgislution 1970-79 (1982). Dodge, R.E. et a!. 1982. Pleistocene Sea levels from Raised Coral Reefs of Haiti. Science 219 (4591): 14231425 1981-84. Budget de fonctionnement de I'cxercice 81-82; 82-83; 83-84; 84-85. 1982. Secr. du Plan IIHSI. Rdsumd prdlim. du reccnsement gdndral (Sept. '82). 1975. Agricultural Development Regions as Instruments for Spatial Agricultural Planning. Document 15, DARNDR, Damien, Haiti. 1984 a. President J.C. Duvalier Budget message (Octobre), in: Haiti, 1984 e. Fxkholm, E.P. Eckman, E.L. 1976. Losing Ground. Norton, New York. 1984 b. Direction d'Hygi8ne publique et programme d'investissement publique FY 85). 1926. Botanizing in Haiti.US Naval Med. Bull. 24(1)483-497. 1984 c. Budgct dconomique ct programme d'investissemcnt publique (FY 85). 1928. A botanical cxcursion in La Hotte, Haiti. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 22(1-2):200-219 Eckman, E.L. 1984 d. Budget de ddvcloppement et annuel (FY-84). 1984 e. Regions et Stratdgies de Ddveloppcment Regional (July 1984, not yet released). Sec also DATPE 1984. Engineering Science, Inc. 1972. Preliminary Design Study of Sewerage and Stormwater Drainage. Port-au-Prince. Mnrtshorn, G., et al. 1981. The Dominican Republic: Country Environmental Profile A Field study. JRB Associates, McLean. Virginia. Ewel, J. 1977. Soil Erosion and Prospects for land Rcstoration in Haiti. Rcport preparcd for USAIDIPort-nu-Prince. Hauge, A.B. 1984. Factors in Irrigation Management in Haiti, and the Potential of Water Users Associations. Report prepared for USAIDl Haiti. 1983. Agricultural Production Year Book. Rome 1983. Rapport de la Mission d'ldentifiwtion dans Ics Sccteurs de la Pt?che Maritime et la Pisciculture en Haiti. Programme de Coopdration FAOIFIDA, Rapport No. 72/83 IF-HA1 11. HQI-LCL-LMBDS, Consultnne 1982. Etude de Faisabilitd Project GU-1, Hiv. Guayamoue, Montrdal. 1979. Water Resources Study for Haiti. Final Report. HARZA Engineering Co. Chicago. HARZA 1978. Reboisement et lutte contre I'drosion en Haiti. Conclusions et recommendations du projet. Rome. Report No. HAIflU012. Hargreavcs, C.H. and Z.A. Samani 1974. Recueil de Ugislation Forestihre Haitienne. Projet de Reboiscment. Lutte contre l'drosion et Mise en valeur des ForCts naturelles. Projet PNUDlFAOlHaiti -72-012, Port-au-Prince. 1983. Rainfed Agriculture in Haiti. A Practical Manual. Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Hsrtshorn, C.S. et al. 1984. Belize: Country Environmental Profile A field Study. R. Nicolait & Associates, Belize City, Belize. 1982. Water and Politics: The Process of Meeting a basic need in Haiti. Development and Change, Vol. 13:347-364. (Sage Publ., London). 1984. Marine Fisheries Production in Haiti: Problems and opportunities for growth. Report prepared for USAIDmaiti. 30 p. 1985. Personal Communication on Fisheries. US. Peace Corps, Port-au-Prince. 1972. Life Zones in Haiti. Carte: Ecologie &Haiti (see OAS, 1973). GAO(Gened Accounting Omce). 1985. U.S. Assistance to Haiti: Progress made, challenges remain. Report to the Hon. W.E. Fauntroy, House of Representatives, GAO/NSIAD-85-86, Wahington, DC 1980. World Conservation Strategy (with UNEP, FAO, WWF). Morges, Switzerland. 1 Geit~. J.A. 1984. RCsultats prtliminaires de recensement de 1982, Instiut de Statistiques et d'lnformstique. 1983. Watershed Management in Haiti. USDADIPDAI, Chief of Party, Report to USAIDMaiti. 1982. Analp de quelques indicateurs dtmographiques tirte de Recensement de 1950,1971,1982, Port-Hu-Prince. GOH 1954. Service National d'Hygiine et Assistance Publique. Code d'HygiQne, d'Assistance Publique et Sociale. 1955. RCsultat de Recensernent de 1950. Institut Haitien de Statistiques et d'lnformatique. Port-au-Prince. 1981. IlIe Plan Quinquennal du DCveloppement Economique et Social 1981-86.

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IUCN 1983. Global Status of Mangrovc Ecosystcms. Comments on Ecology, Papcr # 3. Gland, Switzerland Mayda, J. 19115 a. Environmcnt~~l legislation for dcvcloping countries: somc parameters and constraints, To bc published in Ecology Law Journal (Bcrkcly, Cu.), Special issue 1985. IUCN 1085. Internotional Trarlc in Raw Turtle Shell. Traffic Bulletin VII (2): 30-39. Mayda, J. 1985 b. "Forest Management and the Environment: Worldwide trends in legislation and institutions". To be published. lthaca International Ltd. 1084. An usscssrnrnt of the Livestock in Haiti. USAIDlHuiti. Island Resources Foundetion 1984. Proposal for a Brine Shrimp Culturc Projcct. USAiDIREMSIHaiti. hllller, R.P. ar~d M. Ehrllch Mock, C. et al. 1983. Mid-Term Evaluatioq for the Agroforestry Outreach Projcct. i'rcparcd for USAIIIIHaiti, ARDO files. JMS 1984. Misc en vulcur du Plateau Ccntral. Rapport Principal. Paris. 1984.. Trip Reports on Penaeid Shrimp Culture, Consultations and Visit Haiti West Indies. April 15-25, and July, 5-16. Prepared for G, Mc lntosh and private investors. Available from USAlDlHaiti files. Kovanaght, R 1984. LC Commerce dc Produit dc Pechc en Haiti. !iervicc dc Pechc et Pisciculturc. DARNIIR. Darnicn, Haiti. Kenn, G. 1985. Personal Communications on Fishcries. Proprietor La Lanterne Restaurant. PCtion-Ville. Murray, C.F. 1977. The Evolution of Haitin11 Land Tenurc: A case Study on Agrarian Adaption to Population Growth. 2 vols. Ph.D Dissertiition, Columbia University, N.Y. Lafontant, G. 1985. Personal comniunication on Fisheries. Scrvice en PCche ct POcherics. MARNDR. Damien. Haiti. Murray, Gerald F. 1978. Hillside Units, Wage Labor, and Rural H~~itian land Tenure. A proposal for the Organization of Erosion Control Projects IJSAlDlHaiti Report. 41 p. La Rose, S. (Undated). L'Exploitation Agricole en Haiti: Guide d'Etude. Centre dc Rccherchcs. Undated. Murray, G.F. 1979. Terraces, Trees, and the Haitian Peasant: An Assessment of 25 years of Erosion Control in rural Haiti. USAIDIHaiti. LaLonde, Cirouard, Letendre & Assoc. 1081. Etudc SCdimentologiquc du RCser(LCL) voir Pdligre Rapport final. MontrCal. LaLonde Cirouard, 'i Letendre & Assoc. 1981. Etudc SCdimentologiquc du ~&rvoir PCligre, Vol. 2. MontrCal. ": Moral, P. 1978. LC Paysan Haitien: Etude sur la vie ruraleen Haiti. Ed. Fardie, Paris. Maurpsse, F. F. Pierre Louis und J.G. Rigaud Le Baron, A,, R. Hill, and A. Battikhl. 1984. Irrigation Sector Analysis. ~e~;)rt prepared for USAIDIHaiti. I 1983. Cenozoic facies distribution in the Southern Peninsula of Haiti and the Barahona Peninsula, Dominican Republic, and its relations concerning the tectonic evolution of the La Selle Baoruco block. Available from Florida State Museum, Gainesville. Lauwerysen, J. 1985. Tree-Planters and Non-Planters !n St. Michel dc I'Attalaye and Bainet: A socilteconomic study. Report prepared for Pan American Development Foundation. Haiti. Maurasse, F. NOAA 1982. Transaction du premier colloque sur la Gdologie &Haiti, Port-au-Prince. Lowenthai, I. 1984. Ti Bwa Trip Report prepared for USAIDIRDO. 1979. A study of the Caribbean Basin Drought-Food Production Problem. Final Report, PASA DOC. NO. CCICARB-999-1-7. University of Missouri, Columbia. Le Mcnach, M.L. Ansc d'Hainault: Results of Fishing by 7 boats. Projcct Report, FAO. Port-au-Prince. Le Menach, M.L. 1985. Personal Communication on Fisheries, Port-au-Prince. NO A A NRC NMFS Nelson, R. 1979. Haiti-Statistical Summary of monthly and Seasonal Precipitation Data, Washington, D.C. I Library ofcongress. 1979. Draft environmental report on Haiti. Scicncc iYL Technology Division. Washington. D.C. 1 1982. Ecological Aspects of Development in the Humid Tropics, National Academy Prcss, Washington, D.C: Lowenstein, F. 1984. LC DCboisemcnt du PCrimktre nPic hlacayw et son Impact sur la Plaine dcs Caycs. Rapport au Ministre d'Agriculturc. MARNDR, Damien. 1982. U.S. Imports (1979-1982. National Marine Fisheries Scrvice. Resourcc Statistics Division, Washington, D.C. 1979. Zouazo Ayiti yo Boukc. Port-aurincc, 103 p. Lundahl, M. 1983. The Haitian Economy: Man, Land and Mnrkcts. StMartin's Prcss, New York.

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1972. Mission d'Assistunce Technique IntdgrCc, 1972. Rapport final. Haiti. Sykos, L.R., W.R. McCann and A.L. Dalka 1982. Motion of Caribbean Plate during last 7 million years and implications for curlier Cenozoic movements. J. Geography Res. 87(813):10656-10,676. ODRFA 1983. Programme d'uction (198319116). Olson, S.L. 1978. A Paleontological Perspective -of West Indian Birds i~nd Mammuls: Pagcs 99-117 in F.G. Gil (ed) Zoogeography in the Caribbean. Phila. Acad. Nut. Sci., Spcc. Publ. No. 13. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sloel, T.B. elal. 1978. Environmental, Natural Rc.ssources and Development: The role of the US. Agency for International Development. Washington D.C.: Natural Rcsourccs Defence Council. Otto, R., and W. Segrue 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Studies Fauna & Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 189:86-127. 1980. A proposal for Environmental Action in Haiti. USAID/Washington. D.C. Pan American Foundallon, Inc. Man and Land in the Haitian Economy. Univ, of Florida Prcss, Gainesville (1958). 1984. Soil Conservation Works at PetitBois, Haiti Trip Report for USAID, ARDO. 1979. Quclques aspects dc la Protection dc I'Environncment Physique en Haiti. Thesis: Ing. S;mitaire. Ecole Nationale de la Sent6 Publique, Renncs. France. 179 pages. Parlslen, L. 1984. Status and Ecology of the American Crocodile in Haiti. Univ, of Florida. Gainesville. Pereira, H.C. Plolkln, D. 1973. Land Use and Water Rcsourccs. Cambridge University Press. Thome, R. Tlmyan, J. 1978. Land Tenure Insecurity in Haiti. USAID: Port-au-Prince. 1984. Haitian Women's Participation in Development: Energy and Forestry. UN Paper, mimeograph. 1981. A study on State Land and Tenure Patterns in the Source-a-Philippe Region of La Gonave. Undergraduate Thesis: B.A. in Social Science, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois. PNUDlFAO 1984. Protection ct Amdnagcment du Bassin Montagncux du Limbd. Rapport Terminal PO:DP/HAli77MW)S, Rome. USAlD Unlted Nations Report USDAIUSAID 1984, (November). Fact Sheet on Haiti PNUD Prlntz, A.C., Jr. 1981. Etude Sfdimcntologique du RCservoir PCligre. Rapport final, Montreal. 1949. Mission to Haiti. 1983. A General Introduction to Watershed Management. 1984. "A format for development assistance". Presented before the 16th Gencral Assembly, IUCN, Madrid (November). USAID USAlD 1984. Summary program overview. Haiti (December). PROTOS Puelle, D.W. 1985. Personal communications with staff on Fisheries. Ft. Libertd, Haiti. 1984. Country Development Strategy Statement, FY '84. USAIDIPort-nu-Prince, Haiti. 1983. Status of Inland Aquuculturc in Haiti. Report prepared for USAIDMaiti. ARDO, under Student Intern Program with Univ. of Maine-Orono. UNDP UNDPIFAO 19879. Rapport sur I'Assistance Externc en Haiti. United Nations, New York. Renoux-Meunler, A. 1978. lnvcntaire des Algues Marines dcs CBtes dlHaiti. Rapport Prkliminaire de la Mission effectuCe pour le FAO, Project HA1/78/004.l6pages. 1976. Rapport de la Mission PNUDlFAO d'Cvaluation du projet reboisement, lutte contre I'frosion et mise en valeur de for& naturelles en Haiti, Rome, FAO, Report No. (HAM2/012). Sharon, L. 1985. Personal communication on commercial fishing/Fisheries in Haiti. GSOl USAlDIHaiti. VaIIb. M.T. 1967. Les idfologies coopCrativcs et leurs applicabilitCs en Haiti. Paris: Maisonncuve et Lurose. SheladlaAssoclates 1983. Integrated Agricultural Devclopment Project Dubreuil. Report prepared for USAIDIHaiti. Van Den Bossche, A. V.P.I. 1958. L'llc de la Gonavc (non-edited munuscript) (Available at Scheut-Fathers Archives. BP 1594, Port-au-Prince). Smucker, C.R. 1983. Peasants and Development Politics: A study in Haitian Class and Culture. Ph.D Dissertation. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Michigan. 1979. Maize varieties experimentation in Haiti, First Report. Virginia Politechnic Institut, Blacksburg, Virginia prepared for USAIDIHaiti. SAFECE 1984. Water supply for the Port-au-Prince Metropolitan Area. CAMEP. Port-auPrince, Haiti. Vlaminck, B. 1985. Personal communication (PROTOS, Aquaculture Station, Fort-Libertf).

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Welb, S.M. Woods, C. et PI. Woods, C. Woods, C.A. Woods, C. and R.C. Rosen Wetmore, A. and F.C. Lincoln Wetmore, A. and B.H. Swsles 1981. International Trade in Corals. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Center, Gland, Switzerland. 1924. Geology of the Republic of Haiti. Dept. Travaux Publ., Port-au-Prince. 631 pages. 1985. Biogeophysical inventory of the Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks. Univ. of Florida, in Press. Report prepared under contract for USAIDMaiti. 1980. Collecting Fossil Mammals in thc Greater Antilles: An immensc journey. In: The Plaster Jacket, Florida State Museum, no. 34, Geinesville. 1985. Personal communication on birds, manatees, and sea turtles in Haiti. Florida State Museum, Gainesville. 1981. Last Endemic mammals in Hispaniola. Oryx 16(2): 142-152. 1977. Biological Survey of Haiti: Status of Plagiodontia aedium and Solenodon paradoxus. Recommendations concerning Natural Preserves and National Parks. Dcpt. of Zoology, Univ. Vermont, Burlington. 1933. Additional notes on the birds of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Proc. US. National Museum 82(25): 1-68. 1931. The Birds of Haiti and The Dominican Republic. US. National Museum Windgate, D. World Bank World Bank World Bank Young, K.K. Zanonl, T. Zuvckse, C. ZuveLPs, C. Zuvekns, C. Bulletin 155: 483 pages. Smithsonian Inst., Wushington, D.C. 1984. Discovery of breeding Black-capped Petrelson Hispaniola. Auk 81: 147-159. 1985. Haiti Policy Proposals for Growth. Report No. 5601-HA, Washington, D.C. 1982. World Bank Atlas. Washington, DC 1982 a. Staff Appraisal Report-Haiti Forestry Project. Report No. 377a-HA, Projects Department, Latin American and the Caribbean Regional Office, Wushington, D.C. 1980. The impact of erosion on the productivity of soils in the U.S. Pages 295-303, in: De Boodt, M. and D. Gabriels, cds. Assessment of Erosion, Wiley, Chichester (England). 1985. Personal communication on flora of Haiti, Jardin Botanico National, Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso, Santo Domingo, R.D. 1978. Land Tenure, Income and Employment in Rural Haiti: A survey. Washington USAID. 1977. An annotated bibliotraphy of Agricultural Development in Haiti. USAIDl Haiti. 1978. Agricultural Development in Haiti. An assessment of sector problems. policies and prospects under conditions of severe soil erosion. USAIDIWashington, D.C.

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Appendices CROP SUITABILITY ZONING A computer analysis was made of the MA1 values for Haiti. The number of consecutive months with MA1 values exceeding 0.33 and the average MA1 for those consecutive months were calculated. These calculations were used to zone Haiti into six climatic divisions. The followingzones are shown on a map presented as Figure: A-1 ZONE 1 This zone is generally not suitable for the production of cultivated crops without irrigation. Locations having all months with MA1 less than 0.33, those with only one morhh with MA1 greater than 0.33 and bi-modal climates with one month with MA1 exceeding 0.33 then several dry months and then another month with MA1 greater than 0.33 are including. The MA1 values for the rainy month are usually low. ZONE 2 The areas of lower rainfall are generally characterized by bi-moda; precipitation. The two rainy periods are usually separated by two or more dry months (usually June and July). Zone 2 generally has two rainy months followed some months later by two or more rainy months with MA1 values exceeding 0.33. Climates with two rainy months and then later one month of usable rainfall or one month followed later by two months are also included. For the periods of two rainy months the average MA1 value found is 0.51 with a standard deviation of 0.10 (68 percent of the MA1 values are between 0.41 and 0.61). Average potential evapotranspiration for the two months is about 320 mm. Rainfall is dependably available to supply somewhat more than half this amount. Crops requiring60 dnysor less for production can be prod~~ced. Application of fertilizers should not exceed about 50 percent of normal amounts. Some millets and mungbeans mature in 60 days or less. Rainfall is useful for plant growth only when it enters the crop root zone and becomes available to the plant. Some measures may be necessary in order to conserve rainfall. ZONE 3 The precipitation in this zone is also bi-modal. The minimum growing season consists of three rainy months and in some areas there may be both a three month and a four month rainy season. The average MA1 for these three and four month periods is 0.63 with a standard deviation of 0.17. Some varieties of beans, groundnut, millet, sorghum, soybeans and vegetables can be produced. Yields under rainfed agriculture will be low. Application of somewhat more than half or normal rates of fertilization may be considered. Experience with the black soils at ICRISAT (International Crop Research lnstitue for the Semi-Arid Tropics) in India under similar conditions of rainfall amounts and climatc has indicated the advnntages of broad (1.5 m width) beds and furrows on flat (about 0.5 percent) slopes. On the heavier soils this system improves surface drainage and also slows runoff increasing the opportunity time for water to penetrate into the soil. Increases in gross crop value have usually been threefold. ZONE 4 The rainy season (number of consecutive months of precipitation such that MA1 values exceed 0.33) in this zone varies from five to six months. The average MA1 is 0.70 with a standard deviation of 0.12. Rainfall is usually dependable enough that with the application of somewhat over 100 kg of nitrogen good yields of maize (corn) can be produced on the better soils under good management. If conditions are favorable, yields of six to eight tons per hectare should be possible. Good drainage is a requisite. Some double cropping is possible. ZONE S This zone has a rainy season of seven to nine months. The average MA1 IS 0.86 with a standard deviation of 0.15. With good water conservation, adequate drainage management the climate is suitable for production of high yields of a large number of crops. Large areas are mapped as zone 5E. These locations have two or more months of excessive rainfall. Good natural or artificial drainage is required for most general crops. Rainfed rice production is recommended on the arear of favorable soils and topography. Grapefruit and sugarcane can be considered for rainfed production on suitable soils and topography. Coffee produces well at suitable elevations. ZONE 6 The rainy season extends to from ten to twelve months. Most of this zone is mounrainous. On suitable soils and topography rice, bananus, plaintoin, grapefruit, pineapple and sugurcanc can be considered. The average MA1 is 0.92 with a standard deviation of 0.10. Significant areas have two or more months of excessive precipitation. These locations are shown as zone 6E. Rainfall is generally sufficient so that normal applications of fertilizers should be considered provided other management practices are satisfactory,

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Figure A-I: Crop SuftabDllty Zonev

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In uvcr;~gi~ig the MA1 valucs for this zone (rmd illso the otllcr zones) MA1 Indices cxcccding I .oU were avcrirgcd in as bci~ig ~(lui~l to I .(lo. This wils to prevent i~ssigning ;I hills due to unusual rilinf;~II amounts. a LIMITATIONS The map, provides a good rcprcscnt;~tion of how conditions vary. The boundaries hctwccn irrcus of the vi~ricus zoncs arc not ilccuriltc. Scvcrul arcus arc separated based upon ;In analysis of di~t;~ from ;I single rainfall stirtion. The mcnsurcd data may or may not be typicid of the area. No allowance could be made for possible inirccuracics of the ~ncasuririg, recording or reporting of rainfnll. In drawing the boundaries hctwecn zoncs somc use was ~n;~dc of topographic conditions and of five ycilrs of cxpcric~icc working with irrigation and agriculture in general in Haiti. As more data become available and more expcriencc with ;~griculturc c;~n be utilizcd it will be desirable that this zonation be iniprovcd irnd updated. The monthly MA1 valucs shown in chapter IV indici~te approximate planting dates. l'hcsc will vary somewhat from ycar to ycar and for the crop sclcctcd. In general, if the rainy rcirson is well defined. a month at the beginning of the rainy season w~th MA1 at 0.30 to 0.50 will indicate a desirable planting d;w of about the middle of the month. TAKEN FROM G.H. Hargreavcs and Z.A. Samani (1983) Rainfcd Agriculture in Haiti (A Practical Manual). International Irrigation Center, Department of Agricultural and Irrigation Engineering. Utah State University, Logan, Utah. pp. 21-25. APPENDIX B ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION FOR HAITI The laws, decrees, presidential cxecutive orders, regulations and circuiarscollectcd for this CEP arc listed in lndex I of this Appendix. The list consists of over IOIJ entries, gathered from the following sources: -FAOIUNDP, 1974 40 Items -Supplementsfrom Raymond Laurin 5 -Supplementsfrom Jaro Mayda 45 -Miscellaneous items from ministries 12 -Library of Congress, 1979 I -A list of unknown origin 1 The list is indexed (rcfer to Index I) by principal sectors and systems. Any items passed the Haitian legislature or other GOH groups after January 1. 1985 are not included. INDEX I INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION BY SECTOR AND YEAR OF ENACTMENT (Some items are entered under more than one heading. A number in parentheses following the year indicates how many items have been indexed for that year). Agriculture 1826, 1864, 1935, 1936, 1941, 1945, IYSO, 1951, 1952, 1950(2), 1959, 1960, 1962.1975. Fisheries 1959, 1962, 19'11, 1978, 1979, (see "rcsourccs protection"). Forestry II! Protection against exploitation Limits of timber cutting for export: 1933,1936, 1937, '1944(2), 1945(2): 1955, 1958, 1962,1981,1983. b) Reforestration: promotion, financing e 1938.IY44,l966,1Y72(2), 1974,1979(2) 1981 ("WaterlSupply"). Irriai~tion Land Use -MincrallEncrgy Rcsourccs Parks PlanningIRcgional dcvelopnient Public HealthlPopulations: MarinelCoastal resources1 Protection Soil Managemcs Urban plannind Housing Regulations Watcr Quality Water Supply Wildlife c) Ihcrvcd iircils, nutioni~l parks: 1926(2), 193f1, 1037, 1944, 1947, I96H, IOH0(2), 1981, 1983, Scc "Wildlife". ;I) Rural: 1962(3) (includes com~~icrcii~l chirrcoal regulations). I)) Manufacture: 1974, 1970, 1970 ("wilstcs"). Scc "Agriculturc". 1927,1962, IOM, 1972, 1975(2) 1984. (Quarries). See "Forestry (c)". 1919, 1937, 1945, 1954, 1978. See also "Water quality, wustcs". IY58,1962.1963,1977. See also: "Water Supply. Watershed management". (cnvironmcntal aspects): 1937. (including "Watershed management"): 1937(2), 1943, 1951. 1959, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1979 (2). 1980. INDEX II LIST OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION CR = Rural Code L = Law D = Decree DL = Decree-Law CO = Communique PD = Presidential Decree Rural Code-Haiti, May 6. 1826 (Extracts) Rural CodeHaiti, 1864 (extracts) Law of Feb 24, 1919: creates service Nat'l dlHygiene (implementcd by Reglement Sanitaire, April 12, 1919). Law of Feb. 3, 1926 on National Forest Reserves. Min. Decree of Apr. 30, 1926 on the St-Raphael National Forest. Law of July 26, 1927: public lands divided into public and private domain. Law of Sept. 30, 1935 reorganizing the National Service for Agricultural Production and Rural Education. Law of 8, 1936 establishing the Cerisier Plaisance Resewed Zone

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Law of Mity 28 prcscrihing nlcilsurcs to stopdcforcstation Law of June 4 giving spcciid gui~ri~ntecs to whocvcr cultivutes soil mcthodici~lly. L L-DLDL D -11-DLDL-DLI'rcs. Dccrcc of Mi~r. 17, 1950: lrrigi~tion works in Pli~inc Artihonitc declared of public utility. Min. Dccrcc of Aug. 17, 1951 modifying the boundi~rics of the Ccrisicr I'laisirncc Rcscrvcd Zo~ic. L~IW of Aug. 28. 19.51. coordinating the i~ctivitics of thc various dcrviccs,, of the Dcpartmcnt of Agriculture in ordcr to improvc administration i111d dclivcry of thcir services (Art. I1 defines the iittributcs and duties of the wiltcr and Forest Division). Dccrec-Li~w of Jun. 23, 193? on forest regulation Dccrce-Law of Jul. 27. 27, 1937 on Urbanisme Arts. 37-45: Disposi~l of liquid watcs drilinagc Arts. 69-72: industrial or commcrciid cstablishmcnts: rcguli~tion of those which endanger or inconvcnicncc residcntial arcas or crciltc problc~ns of public health, or l~avc an impxt on on agricultural uctivitics. Art. 73: i'enulties CilW-h(H) (1937 value). Min. Dccrce of Aug. 13, 1937 declaring Rcservcd Zonc the region bctwccn Fonds Vcrrcttcsand Bodi~rie. Min. Dccrec of May 3, 1978 cstahlishingthe Day of thcTrcc. 1952 L1954 CtlLaw of Scpt. 20. 1952: yearly tax on "rural irrigation lands". Codc d1l4yigihnc d'Haiti. 1954: excepts from various gcncral codes (civil, penal commercial, ctc.), relevant to public health concerns. Law of Aug 17, 1955 regulilting planting, felling trunsport and cummcrcc of wood used of limcstonc furnaces. Decree-Law of Aug. 28, 1941 approving the contract between Haiti and the Societd Haitiano-Amtricainc dc D~vcloppcment Agricolc (SHADA). Dccrce-Law of Nov. 27, 1941 approving Convention on the Protection of the Flora, Fauna and Natural Sceneries of thc American Continent, provisional list of plant and animal species requiring protection; related i~ppcndices. Dccrcc of Mar. 20, 1943 protecting the springs of Thor. Law of Scpt. 1958 protecting soils from crosion, defining thc boundaries of "rcscrvcd zones" and regulating forest exploitation in Haiti. Organic Law of March 14, 1958 (art. 1, 2.9and 10). Dccrce of Dcccmbcr 23, 1958: creatcs Experimental stations demonstration farms(Rcgul, issucd in Jan. 1959). Law of Mar. 1, 1944 prohibiting the export of logs and boards of niahoguny and of all other precious woods nonprocessed Dccrcc of Apr. 4, 1944 dccli~ring "Reserved Zone" ;ill thc nationid territory comprised within the boundiiries of the Ilc Lib Gon;~vc ilnd Ilc La Tortuc. Dccrcc Law of Scpt. 29. I944 coordinating iictivities rcliltcs to rcforcstation, soil conservation, irrigation. ;md dreitiage of the plains and mountains ;~nd creating the water and Forcsts Services Dccrce Law of Jun. 27. I947 submitting to previous authorization the clling, debarking and incision of pines, m;~hogatiy, oaks, (gaiacs, bi~yahondc, campcchc, ccdrcs, tavcrnons, ctc.) Communique of Jul. 4. I945 providing for a tariff for the felling of trceson sti~tc lands and for the inspection fees to conform with the DILof Jun. 27,1945. Law of Scpt. 24, 1945: Art. 2 creates. among other departments, Dcpartcmcnt dc la Santc Publiquc (implcmentcd by DINov. 26. 1945, defining attributes of DSP. and DIScpt. 25. 1947, organizing the Serviccsof DSP. Decree-Law of Dcc. 24, 1945 modifying the designation and prcscnt organization of the National Service for Agricultural Production ;ind Rur:d Education without changing its gcncral structure and principles. Min. Decree of Mar. IS, 1947 dcclilring national forcst reserves the rural sections comprising the mountains callcd q~Morncs du Cap~b. Min. Dccrcc of March 13,1959 modifying the boundarics of thc rcscrvcd Zonc of 1 the watershed of the Ccrisicr Plaisance m springs. Law of Nov. 25, 1959: Establ. (
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Decree of Jan, 18, 1905: (CONADEP abolished; rcplrrccd by Comrnissrrriut Nationrrl du L'Bvcloppcmcnt ct Plunification, attached lo Dcpurtmcnt of Finirnccs irntl Economic Affeircs. Law of Jul. 5, 1960 declaring the ycar 1966 thc first of a five-ycirr rcforcstrutio~l campaign ovcr the cntirc nrrtioni~l territory. Dccrcc of Mar. IH, 1968 defining "National Parks", "Naturul Sites" irll those forested or non-forested lands within which historic or naturi~l monuments arc cstablishcd. Dccrcc of March 31,1971 organizing thc enforcement of huntingrcgulution, estublishing thc "Police de lo Chirsse" (gamc wardens), conforming to the Internutional Convcntion ratified by Haiti on the protection of naturc irnd the prcscrvation of wildlife in the western hcmisphcre Law of Sept. 9, 1971: adopts planning priorities bawd on Five-year projections: 1971 72 (the beginning of 5-year planning). Decree of Feb. 23, 1972: crentes ODPG (Organization de UCveloppement de la Pluinc dcs Gonaivcs) to substitue a previous presidentid commission. Decree of Mar. 29, 1972 approving the contract between Haiti and the New Haiti North Social and Economic Authority, S.A. Decree of Apr. 6, 1972: defining the limits of territorial waters, continuous zone (fishing rights). Decree of Nov. 20, 1972 declaring reforestation works acivities of general interest and public utility. Decree of Nov. 20, 1972 creating a national land use commission called "Commission Nationale d'Amenagement du Territoirc" (CONAT) and the Tomite d'Amenagement Forestiers". Decree of Nov. 20, 1972, creating a special reforestation fund called "Fond Special de Reboisement" (FSR). Decree of Nov. 20, 1972, crcating "Forets Comr~runaux". Decree of Oct. 19, 1973: creates INAG (Inst. Nat, d'Administration et Gestion). Pres. Decree of Oct. 9, 1973: regulation for INAG. Dccrec of Nov. 20, 1973: Kerost!ne tax reduced from G. 5Oto G. 411gaI. Decree of Oct. 10, 1974: declaring property of the state all mineral deposits, deposits of lignitc, natural gas, mineral water sources, geothermal sources and other concentrations of natural energies and mineral resources. Law of Jul. 18, 1974: dcfincs the statusof industrial parks. Law of June 12, 1974: decliircs all groundwater to be iil public domain and gives to the Dept. Of Agriculture thc control ovcr its cxploitalion. Dccree of Feb. 4, 1974: reorganization of CONADEP (DBveloppcmcnt et Planification). DLPD Dccrcc of Scpt. 14, and Wov. 4 1974, imposing an utlditionul tux of 10% on land taxes. (50'L pour Ic comptc "Fonds dc Rcboiscmcnt ct dc Protection du Sol FHPS). Dccrce of Mar. 13, 1975: ratifies Int'l Convcntion on the prevention of pollution of the seas (of Dcc. 29, 1972). Law of Aug. I I, 1975: Art. 22 (preccding item) reiterated, extended to all unusucd land, in framework of govrrnmcnt program o' agricultural devclopment. Penaltierr for non compliance, Decrec of Mar. 11, 1975: Taxe G.8.50 for each diploma issued by any establishment for profesvionnllvocationul training. Law of July 28, 1975: Artibonite Valley given a "special status". Dee. li, llr16: creates ODNO (Organization de DCvcloppemcnt du Nord'Ouest). Decree of Mar. 3, 1976: on exploitation (by the state) of mineral and energy resources. Decree of Mar. 17, 1977: exempting kerosene from custom dutics. Decree of Apr. 8, 1977, extending tcrritorial sea to 12 miles and declaring Exclusive Economic Zone (200) (emancipation of the law of the sea, signed in 1983). Decrec of Aug. 31, 1977: establishes SNEP. Dccree of June 16, 1977: establishes CONAELE Decree of Mar. 7, 1978: Transfer rural education from DARNDR (Apriculture) to the Dept. of Education Decree of Oct. 27, 1978: Fishing regugulations (Service de Peche established in 1959; Law IX of Rural Code is 1962). Decree Law of Oct. 30,1978: CONADEP replaced by Departement du Plan. Pres. Decree of Nov. 17,1978: createsin TPTC a special section of stormwater drainage. Communique DARNDR of Dee. 18, 1978: Public adviidon need for permits to exploit groundwater and on coordination between MMER, TPTC and DARNDR. Communique DARNDR of March 18, 1979: prohibition of any neo-drilling of wells in the Plaine du Cul de Sac, until the termination of hydro-geological studies to determine the risk of intrusion of sea water into the aquifer. Decree of Apr. 4, 1!)79: creates INAGHEI (Institut National d'Administration, de Gestion et de Hautcs Etudes Internationales) as part of Univ. d'Etat. Dccrce of Apr. 5, 1979: abtrogatcs the decrecsof Sept. and Nov. 1974. Decree of Apr. 20,1979: new regulation for INAG Dccree of Jul. 12, 1979: declaring of public use the Centre de Formation Professionncilc.

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Memorandum DARNDR of Aug. 27, 1979: declaring OpCration Koumhitc (volunteer non-profit reforcstution organ., since 1972) tcr he of puhlic utility. I'rcs. Dccrcc of Nov. 9, 1979: First ind, park established in Gon;~ives. 27 ha (dtclaration of this ;Irc;l as rcscrvedzoncof public utility). Law of Nov. 27. 1979 on Fisheries ilnd Mirriw Kcsources. Law of Sept. 4, 1980: Fmest reserved zone (4). administered hy SCIADA. CommuniquC DARNDR of DCc. 16, 1980: ohligation of all projects public or private that catch surfilce water or that exploit groundwater. to be declared Proceduresin case of infractions. Law of Sept. 7, 1980: on forest protection. Communiqut of Feb. 4, 1981: prohibiting the cuttingof pines Decree of Marc. 6, 1981: proclaiming the asaison d'arbre* Decree of Apr. 4, 1983: Creating national parks "Morne Lavisiten and "Morne Macaya". Decree of Mar. 2, 1984: Exploitation of quarries on the whole national territory. Decree of Jan. 15 1985: Pic Macaya region deckred "Protection Zone". Enforcement of protective measures initiated. APPENDIX C PARTIAL LIST OF MAPS, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS .AND LANDSAT IMAGES FOR HAITI Prepared by Jim Tnlbot Listing of all maps, aerial photographs and Landsat images available to technical consultants, including their possible location. I. Record Group 127: Rccords of the U.S. Marine Corps from the General Servicds Administration, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. 20408; contact Mr. Robert E. Richardson. Cartographic and Architectural Branch. 2. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, Washington. D.C. 20540; another repository of Haiti maps. 3. L>cpartmcnt of State, Washington. 1D.C. 20520; contiict the library's map departn~ent for ;I copy of a I:I,OHH),000 scale map of Haiti. 4. General Informiltion i~nd Operation Map of thc Repuhlic of Haiti at a scale of I:150,0HH); Map No. JM wailable from the National Archives; three copies and u negative arc in Ili~iti: one at MARNDR-DHN, one at ISPAN and onc is held hy Paul I'aryski; at the nloment Jim Talhot has the ncgativc. 5. RCpubliquc d'llaiti. Cchcllc I:25O.o(Ml, I'rojcction Transvcrsale de Mercutor, Organisi~tion des Etats ,4n1r'ricains; map of aerial photos, coordinates and their map nun~bm based on 1968 study conducted hy OAS; the acrial photos arc thow ol the 1Wh scrieh; available from OAS. 6. Defense Mapping Agency Hydrogra:i~ic Center, Washington, D.C. 2039) has prepared ni~viyational maps at ;I sci~lc of 1: l0()40 on Mcrcador Projection from a survey cotlductcd in 1956; provided arc soundings in fathoms. heights in mctcls. 7. Institut Gfographique National. Service dc la Docunlcntution Geographique, 2, avenue Pustcur. 94160 Satnt-Mondc, or Direction GCnCrale, 136 bis, rue de Grenelle, 757W Paris, prepared Black and White and Color Infrared Photographs a! a scale of I:40.OHK) available only at the Haitian Service Geodcsie et Cartographic. 8. Aerial photographs available at the Servicc dc GCodCsic ct de Cartographie. Port-au-Prince. 9. Landsat images availables from EROS DATA CENTER, Sioux Falls. South Dakota 57198. 10. Tacticul Pilotugc Charts, scale of I:500.(l0() are available from the Aeronautical Chart and Information Ccrtter. Second and Arscnal, St. Louis. Missouri 631 18. Attn: PDP. I I. RCpuhliquc dlHaiti, Echcllc 1:5oO.(HUl, is availahlc at most bookstores; this is general geopolitical map in color. 12. Topographic maps at scales of I:50,WO (entire country) and 1:100,000 (only some of the country) are available from Servicc Gcodesie; these arc Transverse Mcrcator Projections which show contour intervals of 20 meters; where 2 em = Io(H) m. 13. OAS has prepared a seriesof natural resourcesand population maps based on I956 on 1956 aeriul photos; AID Lihrary has these as do most of the international Organizations and the various ministries. 14. Direction de I'AmCnagement du Tcrritoirc ct Protection dc I'Environnement (DATPE) with thc assistance of Fonds d'Aide et de Coophition and a French consulting firm. BDPA, prcpi~rcd a series of natural resource and population and transportation maps at a scale of 1:250.000 based on 1978 aerial photos; this was cssentially an update of the OAS series of maps. 15. Other maps and aerial photos are probably availahle from the various ministries such us TPTC. MARNDII. Plan. MMER which were targeted toward specific themes. Jim TaItmt, REMSKAR. June 14, 1985