The country environmental profile process and product

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Title:
The country environmental profile process and product an evaluation of profiles conducted prior to 1983 and recommendations for improvement
Physical Description:
1 v. (various pages) : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Dickinson, Joshua C
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Forestry, Environment, and Natural Resources
Publisher:
Agency for International Development, Science and Technology/Forestry and Natural Resources
Place of Publication:
Washington, DC
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental management -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Natural resources -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Environmental management -- Ecuador   ( lcsh )
Natural resources -- Ecuador   ( lcsh )
Environmental management -- Honduras   ( lcsh )
Natural resources -- Honduras   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
Joshua C. Dickinson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 703868980
lccn - 2010530282
Classification:
lcc - GE310.H8 D53 1983
ddc - 363.7/0097283
System ID:
AA00001397:00001


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The Country Environmental Profile

Process and Product

An evaluation of Profiles conducted
prior to 1983 and
Recommendations for improvement





Part I
Evaluation


Joshua C. Dickinson, III
Consultant to the
International Institute for
Environment and Development


Agency for International Development
Science and Technology/Forestry and Natural Resources


. I *




















SUMMARY

Evaluation of AID Country Environmental Profiles

Profile objectives
1. Identify major existing and potential problems and areas of concern
for natural resources and environmental management
2. Stimulate action on environmental problems
3. Identify environmental improvement projects for possible funding by
AID and other donors

Issues
1. Have the Profiles accomplished the stated objectives?
2. What constraints have limited theffectiveness of the Profiles?
3. Do the Profiles provide information relevant to sustained development?

Objectives accomplished Objectives not accomplished
1. A compendium of useful infor- 1. No systematic formula for
nation on natural resources and environmental management
their deterioration has been evaluation has been
assembled developed
2. Awareness, if not action, on 2. No environmental improvement
environmental n has been projects have been identified
stimulated Pr ;3. The population pressure/
3. Profiles are a sought after inequitable land distribution/
reference work environmental and life quality
*- deterioration was not
effectively addressed

Constraints
1. Failure to print enough Profiles initially coupled with interminable
publishing delays resulted in diminished impact
2. Failure of most Missions to become involved with host government
institutions in Profile development severely limited Profile influence
3. The sectoral approach of the Profiles with minimal synthesis
precluded discussion of the intersectoral conflicts affecting the
environment and development in the field


Conclusions
1* Profiles do not effectively communicate with those who, for better or
worse, control and manage the environment to produce food, fibre,
energy and construction materials. Profiles are prepared by and for
environmentalist and conservationists. Profiles funded by and for
an agency concerned with the well-being of the poor should contain
information explicitly organized to serve that mission.
2. Theb. environment is a complex system capable of providing, under
appropriate management, a wide range of goods and services. Profiles
should evolve a systematic approach to resolving the inevitable
conflicts between demand sectors hydroelectric energy or more
farmland? Construction sand or beaches? Condominiums or green turtles?













COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILES TO DATE

Background

Three countries were chosen for site visits and in-depth interviews;

the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Honduras. The Profiles done in the

Dominican Republic and Honduras are similar, the significant difference being

the greater AID mission commitment and local involvement in the Dominican

Republic relative to Honduras. The Ecuadorean case is distinct. There the

Profile was used as an institution building device with the document being

prepared by national experts. In all three cases Spanish language editions

have been available in limited quantities in country (a preliminary version

in Ecuador). English editions have been readily available to AID in the

Dominican Republic and Honduras,

For these three countries the Country Development Strategy Statements

(CDSS), Annual Budget Submissions CABS), and various project papers were

evaluated to determine relationships to the Profiles. For other countries

where Profiles have been prepared the documents were reviewed and selective

telephone interviews conducted. These countries included Panama, Costa Rica,

Bolivia, Upper Volta and Zaire.


Goals of the Country Environmental Profile

Variously stated the goals, general objectives and purpose of the CEP

are:

1. To identify major existing and potential problems and areas of

concern for natural resources and environmental management;

2. To stimulate action on environmental problems;

3. To pull together in one definitive document information, data and

analysis on environmental problems;







2



4. To identify possible environmental improvement programs and projects

that could be financed by the government and/or the private sector

with financial assistance from AID and other donors.












Dominican Republic Case


The CEP process

Growing concern over natural resource degradation led to the preparation

of an AID Project Identification Document (PID) in 1978 on the topic of

Natural Resource Management. Hurricanes David and Fredrick in 1979 caused

dramatic human suffering and massive erosion on an already degraded landscape.

This served as a catalyst for government and AID support for a Country Environ-

mental Profile (CEP) which in turn helped to justify the Natural Resources

Management Project and a later Forest Management Project with AID Washington.

The Dominican Republic Profile is distinguished by the degree of commit-

ment and preplanning devoted by the Mission Director and Agricultural Officer.

Prior to arrival of the multidisciplinary consultant team, a coordinator had

been named in the Subsecretariat of Natural Resources (SURENA) of the Ministry

of Agriculture. Counterparts in agriculture, forestry natural parks and

other areas were identified, These counterparts had assembled materials and

drafted some background material by the time the consultants arrived. During

periods of from three to five weeks during September and October, 1980 the

team and counterparts carried out intensive field reconnaissance and inter-

views.

Each team member prepared a "sector report" for his area of specializa-

tion. The team leader then edited the reports and prepared an introduction

and summary. The major chapter headings were:

Natural Vegetation
Plantation Forestry ,
Water Resources and Watershed Management
Soils
Coastal and Near-Shore Marine Resources
Wildlands and Wildlife












Small Farmers
Pollution

This draft CEP was then reviewed by AID and the Dominican counterparts and

a final document published with a date of July 1981.

The Dominican Profile was masterfully promoted by AID and SURENA. The

Team Leader presented the study results to the President and cabinet, a news-

paper published extensive parts of the Profile serially and the results

became an issue in the 1982 presidential election campaign.

As in the case of other Profiles reviewed, the number of copies printed,

especially in Spanish, were grossly inadequate to meet the potential demand

by professionals, schools and citizens not to mention potential users out-

side the country. The first printing was largely absorbed by Ministers and

Directors with few left over for professionals. A second printing is now

out, long after the interest and enthusiasm has died down.


Accomplishment of stated objectives

Objectives 1 and 2: ... to define environmental problems and trends, espe-

cially those related to the small farmer, and, to compile in one definitive

document the information, data and analyses concerning environmental problems,


The environmental problems of the Dominican Republic have been thoroughly

documented and described in the Profile. In each of the problem categories

such as deforestation, erosion and water resource degradation, a trend toward

further deterioration is predicted unless corrective action is taken. Rates

of sedimentation of hydroelectric reservoirs are quantified in the Soils

chapter, but the dramatic economic consequences are not effectively presented.

The small farmer is blamed for causing the major environmental problems

of the country, The causes are outlined in the chapter on Small Farms and

in sections of other chapters. The reason why; rapid population growth,












lack of access to productive land and failure of the service infrastructure

are explicitly stated or can readily be inferred.


Objectives 3 and 4: ... to develop an analytic framework for better under-

* standing of and taking action on environmental problems, and, to provide a

] detailed analysis of the constraints hindering more effective, action on en-

Svironmental problems.


An "analytic framework" was not provided, at least under that heading.

An approach to analysis will be discussed in the section on the design of

future profiles. Institutional, cultural and financial constraints hinder-

ing action on environmental problems are discussed with particularly thorough

Emphasis given to the legal and institutional aspects,


1. Objective 5; ... to prepare a document that will stimulate greater public

and private sector debate on environmental issues.


Significant Dominican participation in the profile process coupled with

a excellent use of political contacts and the press stimulated considerable

publicity and debate. Presentation of the Profile findings were made to

Sthe President and other high officials. Much of the Profile was reprinted

I serially in the newspaper. Realization of the existence of a set of related

problems is a first step toward gaining public and political support for

finding solutions.


1 Objectives 6, 7 and 8: ... to provide an environmental assessment that will

facilitate the efforts and cooperation of international development agencies

2 in dealing with environmental problems;

... to make recommendations on future public and private sector actions for

environmental improvement;











... to identify possible environmental improvement projects that could be

financed by the government and/or private sector with financial assistance

from international agencies.


Beyond meeting Objectives 1 and 2, the identification and compilation

of environmental problems, the Profile does not explicitly provide assessment

defining roles for international development agencies. However, any agency

wishing to formulate a program to alleviate environmental problems will find

ample information on the status of soil, water and forest resources and of

the institutions responsible.


Specific comments

The sections devoted to recommended actions and projects are generally

weak. The recommendations are rarely more than a single sentence. No indi-

cation is given as to relative priority, feasibility, or cost of carrying

out actions, Each chapter has its own set of recommendations on soils,

watershed management, forestry, etc., with inevitable inconsistencies and

repetition. The argument that conflict and duplication plague the solution

of environmental problems applies as well to the Profile, This weakness is

largely the result of a process that called for largely independent "sector

analyses" followed by editing from the team leader, Integration was neither

called for nor budgeted,

The major problems with the Dominican Republic Profile are in the Terms

of Reference themselves. The Profile is dedicated to "resource conservation

and environmental management" without ever stating why, One presumes that

the Profile is in some way related to development, however this is not stated

in the Objectives and Scope nor is the connection easy to infer from the

text,











The approach to the environment of the Dominican Republic is essentially

reductionist rather than systematic. Flora is treated in Chapter III and

fauna in Chapter IV. The Life Zone concept is introduced in Chapter III to

define and map the major ecological systems of the country and then totally

abandoned as an ecological framework for discussing such intimately related

elements as vegetation, wildlife, agricultural systems, soils and soil ero-

sion, watershed management, water supply and people. Extensive tabular data

on soils and production units is given without maps or even reference to

maps. Chapter VII on coastal resources is devoid of any analysis of the

effects of sediments, agricultural chemicals, or water impoundment and di-

version on the viability of coastal ecosystems, especially the extensive

mangroves in the Rio Yuna estuary.

The Executive Summary simply compresses the information in the main docu-

ment rather than forcefully presenting the most important issues and their

policy implications for executive consideration. Recommendations are so

general as to be gratuitous, i.e. "expand reforestation programs" or "mini-

mize interinstitutional conflicts and duplications,"

Given the substantive counterpart contribution to the Dominican Profile

by individuals from SURENA and other institutions, more generous recognition

on the title page would have been appropriate.













Relation of the Profile to the CDSS and ABS

The Dominican Republic Profile, published in July, 1981, opens with the
following statement:
"The Dominican Republic faces very serious challenges involving
food, energy and population that have already caused substantial
environmental degradation and portend a bleak future not only for
her natural resources but for the country as well."
Paralleling. the Profile, the CDSS identifies the following problems:
"...natural resource degradation must be reduced soon, if not
arrested."
"...the loss of benefits to siltation of major dams and irrigation
infrastructure, caused by inappropriate agricultural practices,
must be stopped."
Also stated is that the small farmer is the cause and the ultimate victim of
the natural resource degradation problem, which closely follows the Profile.

Three projects within the food production strategy area address several of
the problems explicitly. These include:

1. The Natural Resources Management Project designed to reduce extensive
soil erosion in a major watershed

2. The On-Farm Water Management Project for improving the management of
water at the farm level

3. The Agricultural Resources Management Project concerned with management
of forest land and range land.

As mentioned earlier, the Profile failed to identify adequately "environmental
improvement" actions and projects (which would also have development benefits).
Had more emphasis been given to synthesis and recommendations this might have
bridged the gap between problem definition and more concrete project identifi-
cation. This is a particularly serious omission in the case of other donors
such as IBD that lack the sophistication of AID in the environmental area
yet have larger portfolios in highly sensitive infrastructural projects such
as hydroelectric and highway development.

In the Wildlands and Wildlife chapter of the CEP, four lines are devoted to
environmental education:

"1.6 Continue supporting environmental education. The Government
of the Dominican Republic is to be congratulated on its efforts
to establish environmental education as an integral part of the
national education system."











Given the indictment of the rural population as the cause of environmental
degradation it is surprising that the CEP does not give more emphasis to edu-
cation, particularly since AID is a major donor in this area. The opportunity
to include an environmental component in the rurally oriented program has not
been seized as a complement to major agricultural support in natural resources
management affecting some 100,000 rural inhabitants (ABS-1985, p. 4).
Instead, a radio-based social science curriculum is being introduced (ABS -
1985, p. 6),

The relationship between natural resources and population is always a contro-
versial issue. The Small Farmers chapter of the CEP graphically illustrates
the interactions among high and increasing population density, inequitable
distribution of land and services, highly variable land capability and the
resultant poverty and low productivity of small farmers and rampant environ-
mental degradation. The deterioration of the resource base, in turn, feeds
back as a cause and low productivity and poverty. The CEP objectives don't
address the population/resource issue (carrying capacity) explicitly nor did
the CEP process encourage synthesis. Therefore, the opportunity to present
a convincing case for addressing the population/resource issue in future
development strategy formulation was missed although the basic data needed
was scattered through the independently developed chapters of the Profile,

AID is supporting PROFAMILIA in the establishment of an Institute for Popu-
lation and Development Studies, It is responsible for "studying and clarify-
ing complex interrelationships between demographic trends and socioeconomic
problems linked to health, education, and employment, housing, agriculture,
food, nutrition and energy" (CDSS 1985, p. 60). This provides an effec-
tive framework for addressing the population/resource issue. Unfortunately,
the case for family planning is built in the CDSS and ABS without reference
to the resource base deterioration argument.

AID's development strategy, as represented by the following quotation, repre-
sents a formidable challenge to the environmental science perspective on
development.

"A generation of experience in economic development has demon-:
strated the inevitable truth that development of an economy
and of a higher standard of- living depends more upon the stock
of human capital than the size of the natural resources endow-
ment of the economy" (CDSS 1985, p. 26).











While a perfectly valid argument, it could be misconstrued to mean that the
Dominican Republic should imitate a Singapore-Taiwan-Korea model of labor
intensive manufacturing (a la Caribbean Basin Initiative) and ignore the
maintenance of renewable source of goods and services such as energy, food,
water and raw materials. Elements of support for a balanced development
strategy can be inferred from the Profile, but it is not "user friendly" in
this regard, It is oriented toward problems and conservation while its audi-
ence in the Dominican Republic and in AID are overwhelmingly concerned with
solutions and development.

The problem orientation is particularly evident in agriculture and forestry.
Erosion due to land mismanagement is thoroughly documented. Solutions such
as agroforestry and forest management are mentioned only in passing and not
followed up by project recommendations comprehensible to the ecologically
naive development planner.












The Honduran Case
The CEP process.
Honduras had suffered no recent natural disaster to galvanize national
support for an Environmental Profile when the Mission agreed to fund the
process. A natural resources management project was already underway. The
ROCAP regional environmental officer established contact with the two young
professionals in the National Economic Planning Council (CONSUPLANE). They
prepared a list of contacts prior to team arrival and served as the primary
counterparts during field reconnaissance and interviews.

In contrast to the Dominican case, Mission and host government institu-
tional commitment to the project was minimal, The designated AID counter-
part left the country unexpectedly the day prior to team arrival. Others
in the Office of Environmental and Technology assumed responsibility and
provided excellent day-to-day backstopping. Interest by the agricultural
and engineering officers was notably lacking.

During a three to five week period in July and August 1981 the team
engaged in intensive field reconnaissance and interviewing. Three of the
eight team members had recent and highly successful Peace Corps experience in
Honduras which greatly facilitated contacts, access to literature and practi-
cal experience to guide other team members,

Team members each prepared reports which were typed on the AID Mission
word processor. Consultants were able to edit printouts of their drafts.
Once received the team leader edited each chapter and prepared an introduc-
tion and Executive Summary. The major chapter headings were:

Social and Cultural Issues
Environmental Considerations in Agricultural Development
Management of Honduran Forest Resources
Watershed Management
Management of Freshwater and Marine Resources
Wildlands Utilization and Management
Water Supply and Waste Management

The CEP draft was, reviewed'by the Mission and the ROCAP environmental
officer but not by anyone in the host government. The publication date was
August 1982.







12

Because of the inadequate number of copies printed and a lack of promo-
tion the Profile was virtually unknown among professionals at the time of
a site visit in September 1983. Copies from a large second printing have
begun to arrive. The AID supported Honduran Ecological Association-(AHE) will
play a major role in promoting and distributing the Profile.













4- Accomplishment of stated objectives
Objective 1. Current and potential environmental and natural resource manage-
ment problems: This section will present information on environmental problems
in....urban areas, agricultural lands, wildlands and coastal.

The Profile provides a comprehensive documentation of environmental issues
by sector for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, wildlife and selected elements
of the urban sector related to water supply, waste disposal and pollution.
Specific attention is focused on coastal ecosystems. Watershed management
which relates back to water supply, agriculture and forestry is treated as
a separate chapter. Emphasis is placed on the development consequences of
glaring discrepancies between potential land use and actual use; under utili-
zation, destructive practices and uses inappropriate to the tropics.

Objective 2. An assessment of the demographic, social and economic factors
affecting the environment; considering population pressure, tenure, land use
and development strategies.

01 JThe human dimension of environmental issues affecting development is treated

in each chapter of the Profile. Addressed are productivity of agrarian re-
Sform projects, the influence of tenure of land use and deterioration, the
effects of refugees and undocumented nationals on the land and social con-
|I siderations in forest management. The plight of indigenous groups as a
result of invasion of their lands is addressed.

Objectives 3 and 4. Administrative, institutional and legislative aspects
of environmental and natural resource management including functions of
governmental and nongovernmental organizations and an assessment of laws
SI affecting the management of the environment.

An institutional and legal assessment is structured along sectoral lines
SJincluding agricultural, forestry, fisheries, wildlands and wildlife, and
urban water and waste management considerations. The status of educational
institutions in each of the sectors is described noting the general lack
of an ecological/environmental science focus. Generally lacking is an ,
explicit analysis of the major gaps, overlaps and conflicts among institu-
tional mandates and laws.

Objectives 5 and 6. Current and proposed environmental activities and
suggestions for action.







14



In each chapter the programs and projects such as hydroelectric dams, re-
forestation and land reform are described and their interactions with the
environment addressed briefly. Some forty recommendations cover virtually
every environmental issue covered in the Profile, Though the two or three
sentence recommendations provide some orientation, they do not provide a
coherent framework for designing concrete environmental management to projects.
No priorities, feasibility or cost estimates are made to substantiate the
recommendations.







15



Relation of the Profile to the CDSS and ABS

e The Honduras CDSS for FY 83 is an update of the FY 82 version and has no direct
link to the Country Environmental Profile. The CDSS expresses an overall
awareness of the resource deterioration problem of Honduras, Under "Unfavor-
able Factors" related development efforts is found:

x. Forestry and other natural resources are being utilized in wasteful
ways (CDSS FY 83, p. 26)

SUnder current activities in agricultural/rural development;

vti. We have initiated work in the conservation of the resource
Base with emphasis on improving the GOH's institutional
capacity and on halting the escalating rate of deleterious
use of hilly land and consequent loss of soil fertility and
water holding capacity (CDSS FY 83, p. 34),

SThis statement relates to a number of Profile recommendations in agriculture
and watershed management.

In the ABS under Health it is noted that 90% of rural Hondurans lack an ade-
quate diet (ABS 1985, p. 34). Given the humanitarian and political implica-
tions of this in the Central American context, it is unfortunate that the
Profile did not give more effective coverage to possible solutions to the
problem.

Other than a passive source of data and generic recommendations, the Profile
has not been perceived by the Mission to a major contribution to make to the
CDSS or ABS.








16



Specific comments

SThe sectoral chapter structure may be efficient for easy access to data on
agriculture, forestry, etc., but it virtually precludes an assessment of
conflicts and interactions among sectors. For example, conflicts over
Indian land claims are treated in one chapter while the agrarian reform
Program is treated in depth elsewhere, Foresters, park administrators and
colonists often have interests in the same land. The Profile treats these
Issues in separate chapters.

* Ideally the Profile should be an encouragement and useful tool for strategic
planning. This and. other Profiles are weak in this regard,

A Profile should be thoroughly footnoted. This would lend credibility to
recommendations and allow readers to access pertinent information. The bib-
liography should be selective, annotated and include where material is located
i.e. Juan Midence in Danli has the only copy, for example. Special attention
should be given to locating maps, aerial photos and satellite imagery.












The Ecuadorean Case
The CEP process.

The Ecuadorean Profile is markedly different in all aspects of its execu-
tion and content when compared to the other Profiles reviewed.

The Profile was conceived in part as a vehicle for the development of
the capabilities of the Fundacion Natura, a private voluntary organization.
In addition it provides a model of both the potential for use of a PVO to
carry out a Profile in countries where an appropriate government agency does
not exist as well as an indicator of what can be accomplished by a national
team in a flexible time frame (Lieberman, 1982).

With the exception of a consultant review of the proposed project out-
line and periodic visits by an outside project advisor the process was exe-
cuted by Natura and its local consultants. Natura contracted a project manager
and some 14 Ecuadorean professionals to prepare the various sector reports.
That people were paid to prepare their sections was the key to success. Had
the job been attempted on the basis of individual's time "donated" by their
institutions the quality and timeliness of the effort would probably have
suffered. Having worked all their professional lives in Ecuador the team
members were intimately familiar with the landscape, literature and problems
of the country.

In addition to introductory sections and a listing of priority actions,
the Diagnostic Study on the Environmental Situation in Ecuador covered the
following topics:

General Characteristics of Ecuador
The Population
Anthropological and Social Aspects
Soils
Hydraulic Resources
Forest Resources
Fishery and Coastal Resources
Energy Resources
National Resources
National Parks, Reserves and Wildlife
Pollution










Development Projects and the Environment
Environmental Legislation
Institutional Analysis

The study did not operate under the rigid time constraints of other
Profiles. The technical writers were contracted for periods of four person/
months, the institutional analyst for twelve months and the Director and
staff for seven month periods, Beginning in 1980, elaboration and editing
took approximately a year to complete. According to Natura the 250 copies
printed of the bulky, 2 volume, 1400 page document were largely absorbed by
upper level bureaucrats, An insufficient number remained for use by
professionals, students and the public at large. The series of very impor-
tant maps were apparently never printed. Chapters of the document have been
copied individually for reference and people come to the Natura library to
consult copies available there.












Accomplishment of stated objectives

Objectives 1 and 2: Develop an analytical framework of the environmental
problems of Ecuador in order to better understand them and define a realis-
tic and immediate course of action to confront them, and, develop a compen-
Sdium of the environmental problems of Ecuador, in a single document.

SDuring the course of the Diagnostic Study it became clear that the second
objective was being accomplished, the creation of a massive data base or
Compendium on environmental problems. In order to produce an analytic and
synthesis document more useful to decision makers, AID, and Natura it was
determined that a shorter document, Ecology and Development, would be pre-
pared. (This will be discussed later.)

10 Natura chose to use people with a broad background in each area to
prepare chapters rather than more specialized scientists in order to enhance
communication to the public. Although it was noted that the scientific
quality of the chapters was generally poor, this was not a major concern
because the primary objective is to "raise the consciousness of the people"
CFers. Corn, Roque Sevilla). Those who have evaluated the Diagnostic Study
have criticized its emotional coloring, lack of documentation of data sources
Sand failure of authors to evaluate their data quality (Hartshorn, 1980 and
Lieberman, 1982), The Natura perspective has prevailed.

]j Failure to employ an Ecuadorean ecologist or to follow most of the
ecologically oriented recommendations of Hartshorn weakened both the
IDiagnostico and subsequent Ecology and Development publications,

* Objectives 3 and 4: Prepare a detailed analysis of constraints and obsta-
Scles limiting possible solutions of environmental problems in Ecuador, and,
recommend practical measures, for public and private sector consideration,
for improving the environmental situation.

The Diagnostic Study provides a general list of obstacles and recom-
3 mendations. The Ecology and.Development document includes a general but
thorough assessment of obstacles to solving problems including entrenched
land tenure patterns, rapid population growth and institutional disfunction.
PJ Recommended solutions to environmental problems are numerous and general.
However, in the Ecology document a more selective, high priority list is
J discussed. Lack of technically and economically feasible project outlines
rather than generic lists is a criticism common to all Profiles evaluated.







20



Ecology and Development Comments

SGalley proofs of this profusely illustrated book being published by
Salvat in Spain were reviewed. This document is expected to:
SSynthesize the information in the Diagnostic Study and to consoli-
date its conclusions and recommendations into more concrete
proposals for national conservation. It is also intended to be
a teaching document for managers concerned with natural resources
Sand environment and a statement of Fundacidn Natura's reaction
to the Diagnostic Study (Lieberman, 1982).

This book is almost exactly the same length as other Profiles prepared
in the Dominican Republic, Panama and Honduras. The striking contrast in
focus and content compared with other Profiles illustrate the difference
Between the Natura, and the typical North America, approach to identifying
and solving the same environmental problems.

SThe Natura book is philosophical, emotional, global in perspective and
devoid of maps, statistical tables or references. The other AID profiles
] are dispassionate edited down to concentrate the most data in the fewest
pages, Neither is better than the other. Each seeks to raise consciousness
Sand evoke action, one by emotional appeal and the other by the weight of
data. Each approach is consistent with the modus operendi and cultural
reference of the author institution. Both approaches are explicitly oriented
toward environmental conservation problems. Significant success in solving
the major problems affecting environmental quality, such as deforestation
Sand erosion, would at the same time contribute to sustained human develop-
ment, It is doubtful, however, that the Natura or the other Profile approach
alone will effectively convey that message to development decision makers.

If AID in Ecuador is to have a Country Environmental Profile which
Accomplishes the objectives set out for other Profiles and which will con-
tribute to its internal Project Planning Process--the Mission will have to
Prepare its own document drawing heavily on the two Natura studies,






.X







Use of the CEP by AID Mission

Background and justification were the most commonly heard terms used by
A.I.D. officials to describe the value of the Profile. New employees and con-
sultants used the Profiles to gain an overview of the country, its resources,
and major natural resource-related problems. A concrete example was the Pre-
sidential Commission Forest sector in Honduras. The Profile provided a con-
cise overview of problems limiting productivity of the forest sector (personal
communication, Clarence Boonstra). Similarly, profiles in Central America are
being used as briefing documents for the Kissinger Commission (personal com-
munication, Albert Prince).

In Honduras the profile provided substantial justification for a Vermont
Partners and a Rotary International project, both related to small-scale agri-
culture and soil conservation on hill land. The profile will provide substan-
tive background for a Bay Island Conservation Project now at the Concept Paper
stage. According to Mission professionals, the justification role of the pro-
files applies within the Mission, in promoting a project in Washington and
with government agencies.

In the Dominican Republic, the Mission director and agriculture officer
played a dynamic role in organizing government participation prior to the con-
sultant team arrival, allocating staff time to work with consultants and later
to promote the project. Such involvement hightens knowledge of the Profile
content and the potential for application. As mentioned earlier, the Profile
played a substantial role in justifying support for the Natural Resource
Management Project. In Honduras the Mission leadership did not substantively
participate in the project. The originally designated A.I.D. counterpart left
the country a few days prior to the consultant team arrival.

In Equador, A.I.D. involvement with the Profile has been minimal. The
Fundacion Natura published 250 copies of a 1,400-page diagnostic study carried
out by local experts. This voluminous document in Spanish has been
little-used by A.I.D. The final product of the profiling process will be a
book that analyzes the diagnostic study and makes recommendations. Some 5,000
copies will be printed and given wide circulation.











Use of the CEP by host countries

Unfortunately, opportunities for utilization have been limited due to
factors which vary from country to country. Bolivia conducted the first
Profile in late 1979 and two coups occurred during the publication period,
breaking linkages between AID and government personnel, In addition, the
document was published only in English, severely limiting utilization. In
Panama three years passed between field work and the publication of a
Spanish edition in May 1983. The English version has yet to appear,
Personnel changes in AID and editorial difficulties are contributing factors.
In Honduras it took two years before a sufficient number of Spanish editions
were available for effective distribution (September,1983). In the Domini-
can Republic the supply of copies, though larger than elsewhere, came no
where near meeting the demand created by a very effective promotional
effort,
Familiarity with a Profile has been greatest in the Dominican Republic,
in part because it has been available in Spanish for the longest period.
Other considerations include Mission commitment, early host country involve-
ment, excellent promotion and a major natural disaster.

An official in SURENA (the Natural Resources Subsecretariat of the
Ministry of Agriculture) said that the Profile is their "bible" on resource
issues. Staff from this agency were the principal counterparts to the con-
sultants. Active participation in the profiling process made these people
equally active partisans for AID projects in natural resource management and
forestry. The Profile contributed significantly to awareness of environ-
mental problems, particularly when sections of the document were published
serially in the newspaper and the "environment" became a political issue
in the 1982 presidential election campaign.

In Ecuador a Profile in a form comparable to those developed elsewhere
with AID funding has yet to be published. The 250 copies of the diagnostic
study have largely disappeared into the libraries of upper level administra-
tors. The sheer bulk of the document has left a strong impression as to its
importance according to the President of Fundacion Natura. Publications,
educational programs and press releases based largely on Profile data have
increased public awareness of environmental issues at all levels.











Place of the Country Environmental Profile

Place in overall AID environmental policy

In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
AID's environmental procedures are defined in 22 CFR Part 216, These proce-
dures have been concisely reaffirmed recently by the Administrator in a
Policy Determination (PD-6, 1983):

It is AID policy:
1. To assist the less developed countries (LDCs):
(1) in building the institutional and scientific capacity required
for identifying, assessing and solving their critical environmental
and natural resource problems, and (2) with establishing programs
to address natural resource management problems.

2. To ensure the environmental soundness and long-term sustainability
of AID assistance programs and projects.

3. To promote environmentally sound development projects funded by
multilateral and bilateral development assistance organizations.

While this Policy Determination goes on to state explicitly how environmental
assessments contribute to item 2 above and comply with 22 CFR Part 216, the
role of Country Environmental Profiles is less clearly stated.

Profiles are identified as a means of institution building and as a
means for "understanding natural resource constraints to development" which
applies to policy item 1.(l) above. In practice, the Statements of Work
for CEPs evaluated have not included an institutional development component.
In the Dominican Republic a local natural resource institution was incorporated
in the CEP process with marked success on Mission initiative. More local
involvement went into the Costa Rica CEP, In Bolivia, Panama, Honduras
Upper Volta and Zaire Profiles were conducted by outside consultant teams
drawing upon local professionals for information. Ecuador constitutes a
diatinctcase in which the Profile was used as a mechanism for expanding the
capabilities and influence of a private conservation group. The determination
of the PVO to conduct the Profile without offered technical assistance has
resulted in a final document which does not meet all of AID's internal CEP
goals, but which may be quite influential nationally.










-J The contribution of CEPs to promotion of environmental improvement
projects financed by other donors is explicit in item 3 above and in the
J Statements of Work for most of the Profiles evaluated. The Profiles to date
have failed to identify potential projects. The one to three sentence
recommendations are generally valid but fall far short of a technically con-
vincing outline,

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) gave top priority to com-
pletion of Profiles in all aid-receiving countries in their report

Aiding the Environment. The process is moving along in the direction, if not
W at the pace, recommended (NRDC, 1980).

Place in Development Project Planning Process

The place of the CEP in the Mission project planning process remains
nebulous in practice. The CEP and CDSS (Country Development Strategy State-
ment) concepts both evolved and were adopted at about the same time 1978/79
(Freeman, 1980). The CDSS has been institutionalized while the CEP remains
optional. Parallels, if not explicit inputs, can be inferred in the relation
of the Dominican CEP to the CDSS,

The awkward relationship between the CDSS and CEP derives in part from
the fact that the CDSS is, as its name implies, a development oriented docu-
ment rooted deeply in AID's fundamental mission, The CEP, on the other hand,
is exclusively a natural resources conservation document with equal emphasis
given to soils and wildlife and to forests and pollution (Saunier, 1983).
Definition of relation of the CEP content to development strategy is left
up to the imagination of the reader.

As stated previously, the CEPs have not fulfilled their objective of
identifying and promoting environmental improvement projects. Were they to
do so, there would be a line in Figure 1 from the Profile box to a Concept
Paper box thence to the PID box (or to an OPG project). This concept will
9U be expanded upon in the recommendations section.

Figure 1 illustrates the general irrelevancy of environment to project
planning, at least in the eyes of the draftor of the original figure. The
Profile input is out of harm's way as a conceptual input to the CDSS while
the IEE and EA occupy the smallest possible boxes at the other end of the
diagram. The environmental component apparently does not warrant host
government, Mission or consultant input.




0


L-J -,


*-i IU-i L3 L l a AL










EA







project Paper




ssion D. C.
taff Staff


Development Project Planning Process,


Figure 1.,












Conclusions

1. In terms of the goals of the CEPs, the identification of problems and the
preparation of a compendium of data were accomplished. The identification
of environmental improvement programs and projects was not accomplished,
particularly as a stimulus to other donors. It is too early to determine
if action on environmental problems has been stimulated. Awareness has
certainly been increased.

2. The value of the Profile document derives largely from the process of
local participation, the degree of Mission commitment and participation
and extent of promotion given to the product. Based on these criteria,
the Dominican Profile derived the greatest value from a product that did
not differ greatly in quality from those prepared elsewhere.

3. A team effort involving local institution and AID Mission participation
and close cooperation between local experts interacting with a small,
select consultant group experienced in synthesis appears to be the best
formula. Neither a hands-off local effort nor a foreign consultant
strike force approach has worked as well overall. Paid local consultants
assures accountability.

4. There are many excuses, but no good reasons, for delays of from one to
three years from the time field work on a Profile was completed until
enough copies were available to have an impact on potential users.
Logistical and communication breakdowns have occurred among the AID
Mission, AID Regional, AID Washington, contractors, editors and printers.
Streamlining review procedures combined with a word processor-phone line--
offset printing--linkage could greatly speed up the process.

5. The sectoral approach used in the Profiles effectively conveys informa-
tion on problems associated with wildlife or soils or coastal resources.
Totally missing is a synthesis discussing conflicts and coordination.
Development projects are carried out in specific regions and affect, and
are affected by, various sectors. Editors were only called upon to
edit, no time was allocated for synthesis.

6. The AID Country Development Strategy Statement in the Dominican Republic
is more explicit in identifying the relationship between population
growth and natural resources than many of the Profiles (CDSS 1985, p. 60).











Grossly inequitable access to the land resource, and under-utilization of
the most productive land coupled with reproductive incontinence are the
principal underlying causes of deforestation, erosion and deteriorating
water quality in the Wester Hemisphere. Carrying capacity determination-
under different land management and population policy strategies is a
conspicuously missing element in the Profiles to date.,

7, In general Profiles have not provided a practical guide for finding infor-
mation. Data in the text is not footnoted, the large bibliographies are
not annotated and locations of books, reports and especially maps and
photographs are not given. The latter problem is particularly serious
because few copies of reports are printed, card catalogs are virtually
nonexistent, individuals tend to squirrel away material and institutional
memories are woefully short, including that of AID.

8. Institutional analysis is generally weak, due in part to an intractable
problem. Visiting consultants lack the depth of local experience to
fully analyze how an institution functions both internally and in inter-
action with other entities. The national counterpart, on the other hand,
may know too much and thus is reticent to critically appraise his employer.

9. The Profiles treat the urban environment only in terms of pollution
(liquid, solid, gaseous and noise), water supply and disease. Given the
levels of increase in urban population, a broader, systematic approach
to interactions with the hinterland involving resources and waste would
be useful. Factors in the rural environment spurning migration should
be tested. Intra-urban issues such as- open space and energy efficiency
should be considered.

10. The Profiles are prepared by and for conservationists. To the extent
that the data base on environmental and natural resource problems raise
consciousness and strengthens the hand of the relatively weak conserva-
tion groups and agencies, the effort has been useful. However, the
documents do not communicate effectively with those concerned with human
well-being and economic growth. This audience holds overwhelming power
over actions affecting the environment. Their reaction tends to be one
of indifference or defensiveness. The small environmental community in
the developing countries will not cause much change as an adversary.







27




The data base is a good beginning but a project under the label "environ-
mental improvement" (see Goals) would be considered to be of marginal
relevance to the economist in a multilateral lending institution.

































The Country Environmental Profile
Process and Product

An evaluation of Profiles conducted
prior to 1983 and
Recommendations for improvement





Part II
Recommendations


Josphua C. Dickinson, III
Consultant to the
International Institute for
Environment and Development


Agency for International Development
Science and Technology/Forestry and Natural Resources









RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE COUNTRY
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILES

The Process

Introduction. The value of the product, a bilingual Country Environmental
Profile, is derived in large measure from the process of elaboration and
promotion. Essential to effective utilization of the document is the broadest
possible participation by host country professionals and by AID.

Pre-planning. Once the AID Mission has decided to prepare a Profile and
preliminary contacts made with potential collaborating agencies and private
groups, an experienced project advisor should be selected. This advisor
will follow the entire project through the promotional phase and will report
to the AID Mission Director. Objectives of a pre-planning visit will be:

1. To determine in consultation with the Mission Director and Staff, (a) the
purpose and expected results of the Profile, particularly in relation
to project planning process, (b) technical expertise and time commitment
of staff and (c) to define a strategy of coordination with national
entities, particularly with the counterpart organization.

2. Establish liaison with a counterpart organization, governmental or pri-
vate. This organization should have prestige and access to all sectors,
either through the institution rf-through the reputation of the individual
designated as Profile team leader.

3. Prepare with an ad hoc teamof national and AID experts a preliminary matrix,
conceptual model and working map defining sectors which make up the
economy, known or potential conflicts among sectors and general location
of major development projects.

4. Define overall Profile goals with reference to national development goals,
such as a five-year plan.

5. Identify expertise requirements, including those areas requiring outside
reinforcement. Prepare scope of work and individual terms of reference.
Establish clearly the responsibilities and financial accounting procedures
which will govern all the participants in the Profiling process.

6. The Mission, in coordination with the advisor and AID/Washington, will
contract outside consultants in those areas needing outside expertise.

Profile workshop. The duration of this workshop should be two weeks with
three days devoted to a field trip at the beginning of the second week. The













three major functions of this workshop are (a) to establish effective group
dynamics among the participants from different institutions and cultural
backgrounds, (b) establish a structure and methodology for the team to follow
in conducting the Profile including general layout, maps and other graphics,
source citations and length, and (c) define in detail the priorities, objec-
tives, work strategy and logistical/material requirements. After the workshop
the advisor will review the overall work plan based on the workshop with the
team leader and together they will prepare a Critical Path chart based on the
work plans submitted by each team member. The results of the CPM exercise
will be discussed with individual team members and adjustments made as required.

Major elements of the Workshop include:
1. Profile inauguration--a media event with short addresses by the
Mission Director, Minister of Planning (or of similar responsibility)
and the director of the institution responsible for the Profile,
introduction of the team and a response from the team leader. Among
invitees would be the international donor community, environmental
groups and prominent politicians.

2. A formal group dynamics session if an appropriate professional team
is available.

3. Introduction to environmental management, systems analysis and CPM.

4. Analysis of the country and its major regions as a system.

5. Briefings by major sector representatives to discuss development
issues and conflicts unique to that sector--including energy,
forestry, agriculture, agrarian reform, fisheries, mining, health,
minority affairs, education and research, population, parks and
wildlife and tourism. Those who provide briefings will then become
contacts for diffusion of Profile results.

6. Identification of major conflicts and management opportunities.

7. Definition of objectives establishment of methodologies.

8. Field trip as a team to a watershed where complex development issues
can be demonstrated.

9. Discussion of sectoral information gathering strategies in a regional
and national system context.












10. Determination of critical milestones for each team member in the
CPM framework.

Assessment. Once the team members have established a common set of proce-
dures, methodology, and understanding of the interactions among sectors, then
sectoral research can proceed. Periodic progress meetings, provide the
opportunity for information exchange.

The assessment process is described in detail in the section on The Product.

User guidance. A user's guide will be prepared to assist those in each target
group; decisionmakers, agency professionals, AID officials, teachers, conser-
vationists, etc.; find and interpret data and analyses in their own context.
A detailed methodology will be available for those wanting to evaluate other
issues.

Promotion. Without effective promotion the Profile will become just another
information-packed and useful document that is added to the myriad of others
gathering dust on the bureaucrat's bookshelf. Each potential user will re-
quire a somewhat different approach. For the President and cabinet perhaps
a one-hour presentation with flip charts and the distribution of an Executive
Summary would be appropriate. On the-other hand more detailed workshops and
panel discussions would be suitable for professional and university groups.
For the public, press releases, t.v. spots, audiovisuals and pamphlets could
be effective in different settings. If in fact the Profile results are
relevant to human well-being and development, then a concerted effort to
communicate with, and gain the support of, peasant and indigenous groups and
farming and ranching associations will be in order. Creation of an elite
patron group drawing from the leadership of engineering societies, service
clubs, industry and conservation organizations would aid in the diffusion
acceptance and use of the Profile. AID should be acknowledged for its contri-
bution of funds and personnel, but major credit should go to the national
institution, team leader and consultants.

Follow up. The first Environmental Profile is a beginning, a benchmark
against which to measure progress and failures in maintaining the quality
of the human environment. What data is gathered and how it is recorded
should lend itself to updating and measurement of change. This includes
quantitatively verifiable environmental parameters such as land cover and use,








4



as well as more complex measures of development accomplishment compared with
goals. Techniques will have to be devised to combat the institutional amnesia
that plagues developing countries (and AID Missions). At least if the Profile
can cite, for example, a FAO timber growth plot report, note who has one of
the three copies in the country and locate the now abandoned plot on a map--
so that invaluable long-term measures can be made ten years hence. The
follow-up process will be described in the Product section.











A Country Environmental Profiles
Table of Contents

1.0 Purpose of the Profile (2 pp.)

2.0 Cultural history of human interactions with the environment (3 pp.)

3.0 Country development goals (4 pp.)

4.0 The national environment (10 pp.)

4.1 External interactions
4.2 Country model
4.3 Thematic maps
4.4 Interaction matrix

5.0 Sector assessment (50 pp.)

5.1 Agriculture 5.8 Parks and wildlife
5.2 Forestry 5.9 Recreation
5.3 Fisheries 5.10 Urban infrastructure
5.4 Mining 5.11 People
5.6 Transportation 5.12 Education and research
5,7 Industrial 5.13 Private-Consultants, PVO0

6.0 Regional management units (50 pp.)

6.1 Regional model
6.2 Life Zones
6.3 Policies, programs and projects
6.4 Constraints and conflicts
6.5 Conflict resolution and management opportunities

7.0 Program and project recommendations (15 pp.)

8.0 Updating process

9.0 Relation of Profile to other donor activities (4 pp.)

10.0 Annexes

10.1 References cited 10,6 Directory of government
10.2 Annotated bibliography _0 e o vn
10.3 Location of useful information
10.4 Directory of environmental and social
Sciences
10.5 Bilingual glossary


s, etc.


agencies,
rms













Elements of a Country Environmental Profile

1.0 Purpose of the Profile (2 pp.)

This section outlines how the Profile serves the process of sustained,
optimum development. Elements that should be mentioned are:
1. An inventory and accounting benchmark for measuring the status and
changes in the capability of the environment to supply goods and
services.
2. Description of the country as a system of interacting and interde-
pendent sectors.
3. A sectoral data base including the traditional economic sectors,
the people, education and research, consultants and Private Volun-
tary Organizations.
4. Regional management units-an analysis of development conflicts and
opportunities at the provincial or river basin level.

A detailed user's guide should be included to assist each potential
user group. For example, in AID for use in Development Strategy and
Project Paper preparation and in national planning and regional develop-
ment programs. _..

2.0 Cultural history of human interactions with the environment (3 pp.)

The present status of the environment and the development level it
supports should be described as it has evolved since the beginnings
of agriculture. Emphasis is on those technological and social changes
that have most dramatically affected environmental management.

3.0 Country development goals (4 pp.)

3.1 Description of the current, and recent past, five year or similar
development plans and an assessment of their sensitivity to environ-
mental management considerations including constraints and opportu-
nities, available technology and carrying capacity.

3.2 Programs, project portfolios and policies of the international
development assistance community.

4.0 The national environment (10'pp.)

4.1 External interactions. This simple block diagram will illustrate
the major inputs and outputs of the country (see Figure 3). This













national account of energy, material and capital interchange with
the rest of the world will provide valuable insights into the
management of the national environment. Elements of interest
could be degree of dependency on outside sources of food and
energy. For example, the Dominican Republic Profile noted that
the value of fish exported was 3% of cost of fish imported. This
indicates for an island nation a serious foreign exchange drain
worthy of assessment. Data indicating major exports of plantation
crops or meat can be an indicator of possible land use conflicts.




Non-material imports
Loans
Grants
Technical assistance





Material inputs -- Exports
Energy The Country Agricultural
Food Forest
Equipment Fishery
Mining
Industrial





Export Sediments
Toxic materials
Diseases
Changed water regime


Figure 2. External interactions.

If the air, rivers, ocean currents or migrants carry harmful
materials across national boundaries, internationally significant
impacts may occur.

4.2 A country model (Figure 3) expands upon the simple box in Figure 2
to illustrate the role of environmental management in sustaining






Page
Missing
or
Unavailable













the flows of goods and services in an economy. Line represents
those actions to sustain the flow of goods and services (Lines 3.


Figure 3. Conceptual Model of N tional System.


and 4.) to society and the resource transformation and Finished
Product industries. Examples include watershed management, preven-
tion of conflict between productive sectors and enhancement of the
productivity of agriculture and forestry through environmental
management technology. Line 2. represents those actions in waste
management designed to reduce or direct urban-industrial waste
streams so that they can be absorbed and utilized by natural and
managed ecosystems without impairing the quality or quantity of













goods and services benefiting society. A prime example of the
interdependence of type 1. and 2. management actions is in mainte-
nance of a clean water supply for urban-industrial use. This
involves applying best management practices on farmland to minimize
agricultural chemical runoff and maintenance of streamside vegeta-
tion and natural channels (type 1. actions) and the recovery of
toxis chemicals (mercury, cadmium, etc.) and the inexpensive secon-
dary treatment of organic wastes in settling ponds and marshes
prior to discharge to flowing waters (type 2. actions). Figure 3
can be greatly expanded during the Workshop phase of the Profile
process to include identification of specific sectors and manage-
ment issues.

4.3 To support model development thematic maps, surveys and reports
should be collected to help identify the sectors, resources, spatial
patterns and interactions unique to a particular country.

4.4 An interaction matrix plotting sectoral activities on both axes
will permit the rapid identification of potential conflictive and
complementary interactions between sectors. (Figure 4) Other
sectoral activities not shown on the sample matrix are:

Annual crops Lake fisheries
Agroforestry Aquaculture
Wet Rice Strip mining
Industrial crops Biomass energy
Plantation forestry Geothermal energy
Recreation Human settlements
Estuarine fisheries Riverine transportation
Coral reef fisheries Highways
River fisheries












Figure 4. Partial matrix
of Intersectoral
Interactions.


Shifting agriculture 1 2 3 4 5

Cattle production 6 7 8

Forest production 9 10 11 12

Watershed management 13 14

Parks and wildlife 15

Hydroelectric energy


The following is a discussion of the numbered interactions in Figure 4
illustrating the types of conflictive and complementary interactions among
sectors on a national or regional scale.

1. Shifting agriculture/cattle production-In the Western Hemisphere tropics,
shifting agriculture is often followed by conversion of the land to
permanent pasture rather than back to forest fallow. This process leaves
the farmers in a marginal position as ranchers consolidate land holdings,
-forcing them to seek new forest lands to clear.

2. Shifting agriculture/Forest production-Farmers lack access to timber
markets and often burn valuable timber when clearing land. After logging,
access roads are used by shifting agriculturists and/or ranchers to
occupy new land. Reforestation by succession or replanting often is not
feasible.

3., 4. and 5. Shifting agriculture with: Watershed management/Parks and
Wildlife/Hydroelectric energy-Shifting agriculture at low intensity,
with long fallow periods, as practiced by a few indigenous groups is













compatible with the other uses, The more common intensification caused
by population growth coupled with the aforementioned conversion of land
to pasture has a decidedly negative effect on the other uses.

6., 7. and 8. Cattle production with: Forest production/Watershed management/
Parks and wildlife-Pasture displaces sustained forest production, usually
on sites suited only for forestry. Predominantely poor range management
characterized by overgrazing and uncontrolled burning results in degrada-
tion of watershed values. Conversion of forest to pasture results in
major losses in wildlife and recreation values.

9. Forest production/Forest production-Many systems of sustained yield tropi-
cal forest production have been under investigation. The potential for
applying the most promising results should be evaluated, such as strip
clear cutting, selective cutting, enrichment of succession (taungya)
etc.
10, and 11. Forest production with: Watershed management/Parks and wildlife-
Erosion resulting from access roads plus spontaneous colonization follow-
ing access roads is the most common incompatibility between forestry and
watershed management. Forestr-.As-incompatible with the values derived
from complete protection of park areas. Wildlife values are less affected
by succession management than by plantation monocultures.

12. and 13. Watershed management with: Parks and wildlife/Hydroelectric
energy-Hydroelectric energy production and all other downstream water
uses benefit from the least disturbance of upper watershed areas.
Therefore, the complete protection usually desirable for parks and wildlife
is also a beneficial form of watershed management.

14. Parks and wildlife/Hydroelectric energy production-Reservoir innundation,
changes in downstream water regime and access roads are all generally
detrimental to the integrity of parks and to wildlife values.













5.0 Sector assessment (50 pp.)

This section will be a compendium of national scale "mini-profiles" of
each major sector. A typical list would include:

5.1 Agriculture 5.8 Parks and Wildlife
5.2 Forestry 5.9 Recreation
5.3 Fisheries 5.10 Urban infrastructure
5.4 Mining 5.11 People
5.5 Energy 5.12 Education and Research
5.6 Transportation 5.13 Private-Consultants, PVOs, etc.
5.7 Industrial

Common elements in each sector analysis will be the following with adap-
tations to accommodate the differing characteristics of each sector:

1. Identification of the sector components. In agriculture, for example,
they might include small farms, cattle ranches, industrial farms
and agrarian reform projects. In energy, major hydroelectric pro-
jects, small hydro programs, fuelwood use or biomass/alcohol
projects, geothermal and thermoelectric could be the major components.

2. Detailed sector input-output analyses establishing resource accounts.
Changes in these accounts can be measured when the Profile is up-
dated. Any input to or.output from the sector should be identifi-
able as an output or input from other sectors. Figure 5 offers as
typical examples mining and estuarine fisheries. The major difference
between these two is that mining is based upon a stock resource, a
nonrenewable mineral and is a heavy user of fossil fuel resources
in extraction and processing, which fish represent a single flow
resource product from a complex natural ecosystem. Quantification
and analysis of these sector models can help raise questions about
energy, material and economic cost/benefit, sustainability of rates
of production. From the fishery model one can appreciate various
types of stress, such as wastes and water diversion. As various
sector models are completed, outputs, and inputs can be linked,
evaluated and management'options explored.














Recruitment
or loss -


New
Land


Reclamation


MINING
Bauxite, Tin,
Phosphate, etc


Product


Solid
Waste"


Wastewater Cost" of Operation
and Maintenance


Wastewater


Solid
Waste


Diversion or
Blockage


Losses
Aquaculture
Urban growth









-4> Cacch


Energy d
Materials


Recruitment
or loss


\ Recreation


Income


Figure 5. (a) Mining sector input-output. (b) Estuarine fishing sector
input-output.













3. The institutions which serve each sector will be analyzed in a
manner similar to that applied to the sectors themselves. Factors
to consider include:

Mission Legal mandate of the institution
Budget Personnel, Operations and maintenance, Research, Infra-
structure, Training, Materials

Personnel Central Office Field
Professional x x
Technical x x
Other x x

Equipment Items Items % Operable
Laboratory x x x
Computation x x x
Vehicles x x x

Programs Description, Budget, Duration, Results
International Assistance Description, Grant/Loan, Duration, Results
Training Inservice, Short Courses, Degree training, Budget
Intangibles Turnover rate, morale, productivity, reputation

The institutional analysis should not be restricted to the "natural
resource" agencies concerned with soil conservation, parks and wild-
life. These institutions generally have the least power to control
and guide environmental management. The degree to which ecological
concepts and experience are applied in agricultural development
projects is of high priority concern for example.

4. The education and research sector includes environmental science
education and research at universities and institutes, formal environ-
mental education at all pre-university levels, in-service training
for professionals and non-formal public education.

The personnel, budget and program evaluation should be similar to
that used for government institutions. Particular attention should
be given to the training, level of personnel, productivity, extent
of communication with other professionals and overall morale and
spirit of enquiry. An assessment should be made of the quality and













accessibility of library materials. Are the professionals actively
pursuing and promoting solutions to environmental management pro-
blems as a key to sustained development or are they militant against
pollution?

5. The evaluation of consulting companies and Private Voluntary Organ-
izations should include, in addition to the ecologically and environ-
mentally oriented, those powerful groups whose activities affect
the environment such as engineering societies, industrial associa-
tions, agricultural associations and civic clubs.

6. This section should review those basic characteristics of the popu-
lation which affect environmental management and development and
which reflects the quality of life and the human environment.
Aspects to consider include:

1. Ethnic composition dominant and minority groups, differences
in use and perception of the environment

2. Land and resource access access to land, appropriate technol-
ogy, credit for inputs and water.

3. Demographic data population growth rate, mortality, life
expectancy, density, rural/urban comparisons.

4. Economic indicators employment by sector, unemployment,
income by sector, migration, urban/rural comparisons,

5. Health incidence of environmentally related diseases.

6.0 Regional management units (50 pp.)

Virtually all development activities have a primary focus at the local
level with secondary or demonstration effects within a distinct region.
The Profile should focus on a convenient scale of regional analysis
determined by existing planning strategy, the size and complexity of
the country and the Profile budget. The river basin unit is the most
convenient. The national overview with its generic interaction matrix
(Section 4.3) and the sectoral evaluation in Section 5.0 are applied
at the regional level actual projects and environmental conditions.
6.1 Regional model

The failure to perceive the planet or a region as a system composed












of interacting natural and man-controlled components and processes
often blinds development planners to the value of certain kinds of
expertise, technology, and information that would make using and
protecting the system easier. A valid defense against this myopia
is through the management of an interdisciplinary team and some
form of systems analysis, such as a regional systems model.

While all systems models abstract and simplify reality, they do
eliminate superfluous detail and allow the lines of complicated
processes to emerge clearly. As an example, the highly simpli- -
fied model in Figure 3 focuses attention on a regional ecosystem's
key elements and interactions as the basis for understanding rela-
tionships and identifying potential conflicts. In brief, in involves
several steps.

First, the region's limits and major component ecosystems are iden-
tified. While all ecosystems have arbitrary limits, the Principle
of Intergrative Levels indicates that a system is best understood
through analysis of the next-higher system. (To understand a river
and its floodplain, for example, analyze the watershed.) Applying
this principle, each discipline or sector can see how a given
boundary affects its analysis. Once boundaries (whether a river
basin or an administrative unit) are decided upon, internal inter-
actions can be distinguished from exchanges with other systems--a
prerequisite to identifying system inputs and outputs later.

Second, the scale is defined (or better, several different scales
are defined depending on the objective). Since the location of a
highway requires a radically different model in scale than that
needed to optimize development for a region, the models are fine-
tuned to identify the quality and types of information available
(or unavailable) to each discipline or sector.

Third, components or subsystems are identified in detail. In any
regional model, the major divisions are natural systems (terrestrial
and aquatic), managed systems (such as agriculture or silviculture),
and such infrastructural components as cities or dams.

Fourth, inputs and outputs are identified. All the outside human
resources, material, and information that affect the systems as













delimited in step one are listed. These may include sunlight,
rainfall, tidal action, tectonic movement, fuels, goods, technol-
ogy, immigration policies, etc. all of which interact. Outputs
could include water, immigrants, residuals, heat, goods, services
and so on. The more complex the region, the more important it is
to identify system components and process and their external inter-
actions with external systems through interdisciplinary discussion.

Fifth, the systems diagram is prepared. Symbols are attached to
each characteristic of the system and connected by lines represent-
ing flows of energy or materials and information. The finished
product is a dynamic diagram of the region that enables planners
to identify major components processes and interactions among
socio-economic sectors or interest groups (i.e., conflicts and
support functions).

Some of the values of the modelling process include:

1. It enables the team members to "know" the functioning of a
region systematically, rapidly and quite thoroughly;
2. It enables the many dAAaciplines and sectors represented on a
Profile team to understand where their work will fit in the
overall scheme;
3. It allows a tightly knit yet flexible work plan to be written;
4. It enables team members to identify gaps iA information and to
figure out which areas of study are potentially the most
fruitful;
5. It enables the team leaders to write highly specific terms of
reference for the work of the different disciplines and
sectors, Consultants can no longer use a scatter gun approach;
neither can they get by with dusting off old reports and
plugging in new place names.
6. It provides a hook on which to hang ideas and enables team
members to foresee the ramification of each activity; and
7, To reiterate, it enables team members to identify interactions
so that potential conflicts can be resolved early on and so
that opportunities for inter-sectoral support can be seized
(Saunier, 1983).












The regional model is an expansion upon the overall structure of
the national model in Figure 3. The sectors analyzed in Section
5.0 would become the components of the regional model using specific
cases.

6.2 Life Zones

A major contribution to the understanding of a region and its
management comes through classification of land capability and then
comparing this with actual use. The Holdridge Life Zone system
can serve as the basis for capability assessment. The system is
based on readily available data on precipitation, temperature, and
evapotranspiration associated with the latitude and elevation found
in an area (Figure 6). The Life Zone can be further broken down
into capability units based on local conditions of soil, slope,
drainage, and climatic anomalies such as cloud forest conditions.
Classification involves a team effort by an ecologist, forester,
geomorphologist, soil scientist and agronomist. Each specialist
prepares a map of limitations which are used to make a composite
capability map. The capability map can be overlain with maps of
roads, settlement patterns"and actual and/or proposed land use in
order to assess conflicts and opportunities (Tosi, 1975).

6.3 Policies, programs and projects

An inventory of cu rrent and proposed projects including a descrip-
tion of the underlying institutional and national policies and
programs provides the basis for regional assessment.

6.4 Constraints and conflicts

Analysis of a proposed project, first in the context of the dynamics
of the regional model and second in comparison with land capability
maps allows identification of constraints and potential conflicts.
For example, if the region, a review of the other sectoral activities
would indicate whether a penetration road or an agrarian reform
colonization project were in progress. These would obviously con-
flict with hydroelectric development due to the potential for sedi-
mentation. Study of the capability map would indicate what uses
would be most compatible with energy generation.







DIAGRAM FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORLD LIFE ZONES OR PLANT FORMATIONS


by L.R. Holdridge


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6.5 Conflict resolution and management opportunities

Proposed actions to either mitigate a conflict or take advantage of
an opportunity involve a sequence of feasibility studies. These
sequential steps are:

1. Ecological feasibility the environmental sciences, such as
ecology, forestry and agronomy, evaluate options based upon the
opportunities and limitations inherent in the climate, soils
and landforms of the study area.

2. Sociocultural feasibility the rural sociologist or anthropolo-
gist evaluates the effect of a project based on the intended
beneficiaries as well as those prejudiced through physical or
economic displacement. The probability of acceptance of change,
capability to apply new technology, and appropriate mechanisms
for extension are also determined.

3, Economic feasibility presented with an array of options in
agriculture and forestry that have been screened for ecological
and sociocultural appropriateness, the economist can efficiently
perform cost/benefit and marketing analyses to determine economic
feasibility.

4. Institutional feasibility the team has an overall input to the
assessment of the technical competence, organizational structure
and discipline of the public and private institutions that would
provide support to a particular option.

Most procedures used in "environmental" studies are negative, being
oriented toward problem identification and hopefully mitigation.
Much less attention has been given to applying the environmental
sciences to finding development opportunities. Two examples will
illustrate the opportunity approach:

Reforestation has been misconstrued to be virtually the only
means to restore areas degraded by overgrazing and subsistence
farming. Trees are planted on sites no commercial forester would
consider. The approach cannot be extended beyond pilot projects
because it is prohibitively expensive, unattractive to farmers,
relatively ineffective and difficult to maintain. Two alternatives












are to initiate natural succession with agroforestry systems
coupled with soil conservation practices giving farmers both
short and long term income, or second, to apply the same fire
and grazing exclusion that would be applied to protecting a
plantation but let natural succession to begin watershed recovery
without the expense of tree planting.

Agricultural scientists and research facilities are overwhelm-
ingly dedicated to single crops. Tremendous expenditures are
made to force monoculture production despite environmental con-
straints. The ecologist acting as an agronomist seeks complemen-
tary crop and animal ecosystems adapted to particular Life Zones
which require less expensive chemical and energy subsidies.

7.0 Program and project recommendations (15 pp.)

The purpose of the recommendations is to provide the country, AID
and other specifically selected donors with recommendations that
constitute pre-feasibility studies or, in AID terminology, a detailed
outline of a Concept Paper. The recommendation should receive the
type of feasibility screea.ag outlined in 6.5 above. Emphasis will
be upon innovative development projects designed to sustain the
flow of goods and services which support development. A major
challenge is the design and testing of a mix of protective and
productive activities in the watersheds of major infrastructure
projects which significantly improve the economic well-being of the
population while maintaining the water quality requirements for
downstream users.

Other recommendations may include policy formulation, institutional
development, education and research. Research is particularly
important. Recommendations should focus on significant gaps of
knowledge revealed 'during the Profile process,

Recommendations should outline verifiable objectives for projects
to facilitate evaluation in future Profile updates.

8.0 The updating process

The Profile should be designed from the beginning to facilitate
update at intervals not exceeding five years. The system and sector












models in Figures 2, and 3 are designed to provide easily updated
accounts. Changes in state variables such as areas in certain types
of agriculture or forest cover and changes in flows such as crop
yields or fish catch can be compared. Such measures alone are only
indicators, subject to measurement error, changes in criteria, etc.,
however when coupled with field checks and interviews, a valid per-
spective can be gained on the state of the environment, Such an
approach applied to specific development projects can yield invaluable
data on the costs, benefits and conflicts.

Given the short memory of institutions, the tendency of reports to
disappear and the frequent abandonment of long term experiments--
a Profile task of creating a secure, but accessible, archive for
environmental information should be considered. Locating such an
archive in a PVO or private university would appear to be the
best strategy. Funding on a continuing basis of data storage,
cataloging and accessing service should be considered by the donor
community because of the direct value to future projects.

9,0 Relation of Profile to other donor activities (4 pp.)

Several independent processes are paralleling AID's Environmental
Profiles in efforts to integrate the "environmental factor" in
development planning and projects. These activities include World
Bank's "Upstreaming" process, the IUCN National Conservation Strate-
gies, and the UNEP Clearing House concept (not reviewed).

The objectives of the World Bonk process are very similar to those
recommended for the Profiles. "Upstream" refers to the strategic
goal of incorporating environmental concerns in policy decisions
prior to the formulation of specific projects (World Bmnk, 1983).
The four objectives are:

1. altering the mix of projects so that environmental concerns
are better represented. Called for is a more human scale and
focus to Bank projects, less dependence on fossil fuels and
massive infrastructure.

2. Improving the environmental qualities of individual projects.
This is the on-going role of the Office of Environmental Affairs













in sensitizing Bank staff. Upstreaming would reduce the flow
of environmentally unsatisfactory projects.

3. Improved environmental advice to member governments. The Bank
already provides extensive development counseling. This would
include an environmental component.

4. Improving the environmental performance of other development
institutions (e.g., IDB, ADB, OAS, EEC, bilaterals and PVOs).
This would involve an outreach process through seminars, con-
ferences and informal exchange.

The National Conservation Strategies, an outgrowth of the World
Conservation Strategy, seeks to provide a "strategic approach to
the management of natural resource use." (IUCN, 1983). Free of
the explicit mandate of AID and the World Bank to deal with the
development problems of the "poorest of the poor", the NCS deals
openly with the short-term sacrifices that would be entailed in
achieving long-term sustainable development.

While AID has the longest history in national level environmental
documentation, we are only"-talking about four years since the first
Profile was prepared in 1979. Most Profiles prepared under AID
funding have been available in quantity to professionals for less
than a year. All parties, AID, World Bank and IUCN are in the
process of reviewing their first efforts.

All three approaches are looked upon by those in the mainstream of
development assistance as being either adversaried or somewhat
irrelevant. In AID environmental considerations are legally man-
dated, but the spirit of applying environmental science expertise in
development projects has been slow in coming. Much of the fault
lies with us in the environmental movement. We have insisted on
separating environment and conservation from development and thus
effectively isolated ourselves from those we wish to influence,
and worse, from those we ostensibly wish to help.












The Place of Future Country Environmental Profiles

Place in the overall AID environmental policy

There is a crucial divergence between AID's environmental policy and its
fundamental development mission. Environmental policy is overwhelmingly
problem oriented, while development is a search for opportunities, an intrin-
sically positive mission. Not recognized is the significant positive contri-
bution that a timely and systematic application of environmental science
expertise could make to development. This includes, but is by no means
limited to, land capability assessment, design of higher net yield agricultural
systems, multipurpose forest management and low cost waste treatment.

Environmental Assessments. No where is this negative caste more entrenched
than in the Environmental Assessment process. Forced upon AID as an exten-
sion of the National Environmental Policy Act assessments are looked upon by
many in the field as a costly Congressionally mandated chore unrelated to
development. The Environmental Analysis Policy (PD-6, 1983) reinforces a
one sided, negative approach. "Eliminated from AID's requirement of environ-
mental review are categories of projects with little or no likelihood of
[negative] environmental impact. Camersely, projects which are most likely
to result in significant adverse impact and which will always need further
detailed environmental study are identified."

That an Environmental Assessment can be transformed into a development assess-
ment and become a fully integrated part of Project Paper preparation can be
illustrated by recent AID experience in Peru. The Upper Huallaga project
involved coca eradication and hence was highly controversial, triggering an
Environmental Assessment. The Project Paper consultants failed to produce a
satisfactory document and the project manager was forced to use much of the
EA team's alternative agricultural systems design to produce the Project
Paper. Based on the fortuitous success in the Huallaga project design, the
Palcazu Project was designed from the outset with the Environmental Assess-
ment generating options for the Project Paper (Network, 3/83).

In Egypt the Environmental Assessment of a major ($1.2 Billion) wastewater
management project was used imaginatively to broaden the scope of the feasi-
bility study. Because of the legal status of the Assessment it could be used
to leverage decisions that would otherwise become contentious professional












or political issues. Leverage was exerted both by AID and by one Egyptian
institution upon another (Pers. Com., Stephen Lintner). The Niger Livestock
Project used the Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE) as the vehicle for
a comprehensive inventory of ecological and natural resource information
(Pers. Con., George Thompson).

A fundamental change in the focus and use of Environmental Assessment proce-
dures to both enhance development directly as well as to mitigate negative
impacts is possible without violating the spirit of NEPA or the letter of
22 CFR Part 216. In fact, such an approach is clearly advocated in the Pur-
pose of NEPA. Broader application of "a systematic, interdisciplinary
approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social
sciences and the environmental design arts in planning and in decision making
. ." (NEPA, Section 102(2) (A))--would have two significant benefits.
First, AID would be assured that development project design would benefit
from the broadest technical input. Second, the PD-6 policy objectives of
"building the institutional and scientific capacity required for identifying,
assessing and solving their critical environmental and natural resources
problems. ." can be achieved more effectively in both Assessments and
Profiles. ---

Environmental Assessments have been an integral part of AID's formal procedures
for more than a decade, yet the examples of compliance with the spirit of the
regulations are the exceptions rather than the rule. The majority of main-
stream AID officers simply do not consider "environment" to be relevant to
development. Given this attitude it is no wonder that neither Assessments
nor Profiles have been used regularly as a vehicle for building environmental
institutions in host countries. Assessments are conducted only when there is
the threat of legal action or the letter of the law permits no escape. An
AID officer in-the Dominican Republic used the term "blackmail" figuratively
to describe how they were convinced of the value of doing a Profile.

Country Environmental Profiles will find a place in overall AID environmental
policy when environment is accepted as a legitimate development concern by
AID professionals. Unfortunately environment as reflected in the Assessment
procedures and in the Profiles is. only marginally relevant to AID's mission.
The environmental movement in general has taken great pains to distance
itself from development and in the process, poor people. Now we saw that












development really depends on a functioning environment, but no one is listen-
ing very carefully in the budgeting session, or the corridors of the Bank or
in the backwaters of Olancho.

In the wording and approach advocated in these recommendations for future
Environmental Profiles an overt effort has been made to present a convincing
case for the role of the environmental sciences in development.

Place in the Development Project Planning Process

Figure 7 illustrates an expanded role for environmental science inputs in
general. Retained is the input to the CDSS which should have a strategic
planning role in influencing the focus and mix of future projects, much along
the lines of World Bank's "upstreaming" concept.

The Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE) of the future will be strengthened
by the Profile allowing the draftor to determine how a potential project
might interact with the environment positively as well as negatively. The
Country model (Section 4.1) and appropriate sector and regional models in
Sections 5,0 and 6.1 of the Profile will help. Should any interaction be
found, the revolutionary idea of following up with an Environmental Assessment
would be pursued, not because of rumblings from Cultural Survival or Friends
of the Earth, but because the environmental sciences might have something
useful to contribute. For example, in the case of a community wastewater
collection and treatment proposal, typically the AID engineer and his counter-
part in the health ministry would simply dust off and adapt a package plant
design and a "Negative" (no impact) IEE would be submitted. Alternatively,
an environmental assessment (perhaps a team of two) would explore the linkage
of urban waste with an agricultural/aquacultural system, then employing an
existing swamp for final polishing before effluent water reaches the river,
Formally included in the Assessment process would be the feedback of basic
environmental information to update the Profile data base.

The Profile will serve a basic reference for Concept Paper preparation,
Section 7,0 will contain outlines for high priority items either as the basis
for AID projects or for promotion with the government and other donors.
Although AID is not into major infrastructural projects, its major current
commitment to environmental management (natural resource and forestry projects)
and to integrated rural development would have a synergistic effect if




b. i


". L. J LJI I 1 J "LL *LJ I-f LJ L-5 L-J


Project Identi-
fication Doc.


Figure 7. Development Project Planning Process








29




combined with IBD/WB projects where watershed management is sorely neglected.
Why couldn't AID/Honduras have a natural resource management project in the
Cajon Dam watershed rather than the Choloteca or integrated rural development
in Ecuador's Paute or Postoza watersheds rather than in the Salcedo area?
Section 6.3 will identify such opportunities which then would be detailed as
project concepts in 7.0.










Background Concepts

Environment and Natural Resources

Ghosts of Earth Day. There is decided nervousness among various organiza-
tions about the word "environment" and an attempt is underway to quietly
scuttle the term and substitute "natural resources" as a more politically
viable synonym. The two terms have usefully different meanings. An
Orwellian transposition would both impoverish our vocabulary and weaken our
potential contribution to development.

Natural Resources. Natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable, are
material goods the consumption of which are deemed necessary or desirable to
maintain a given level of development. Plant and animal products, water and
minerals are common examples. The (wise, rational or sustained yield)
management of renewable natural resources for the benefit of present and
future generations is a generally accepted, though widely ignored, concept
in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. Hence, the term "natural resources"
is familiar and unthreatening.

Environment. Environment is the layman's term for the world around us. It
is the array of dynamic ecological systems, terrestrial and aquatic, wild
and human dominated, that support life. This ecosystem includes the physical
substrate of land and water, the interacting living component and the tide
and solar derived energies that drive system processes.

Goods and Services. Development, then, is the process of managing the environ-
ment to produce the goods and services required to sustain and improve human
well-being. Goods are the natural resources defined above which are harvested
or extracted from the environment. Services are those dynamic processes in
the environment which directly or indirectly benefit society. These goods
and services have economic, social, cultural, scientific and ecosystem main-
tenance values for different constituencies. Examples include:

The dynamic interaction of plants, soil and precipitation which results
in aquifer recharge, regulated runoff of high quality water with a
minimum sediment content.

The combined biological and physical processes in an aquatic ecosystem
which purify wastes.

The role of tidal action in making coastal marshes and swamps as pro-
ductive as intensively cultivated farmland.








31



The recreational, aesthetic and scientific functions and values of
natural and managed areas.

The many processes such as nutrient recycling, soil formation, pollen-
ation and succession which make the sustained production of goods
possible.

Because of the intrinsic differences between goods and services it does not
make sense to substitute a more limited concept, natural resources (goods)
for a more dynamic and inclusive term, environment when talking about develop-
ment.












Development conflicts in the environment

Development for whom? Whose environment? In practice we are surrounded by
as many environments as there are individuals, interest groups and sectors
striving to improve their well-being. For example, in a single watershed
overlap may occur among the interests of the power industry, indigenous
groups, agricultural colonization, forestry, wildlife conservationists and
fisheries. Inevitably the sectors and environmental components generating
goods and services generate problems for each other.

These intersectoral conflicts affect human well-being, and hence development.
For example, sediments reduce electric power generation, pesticides kill
food, fish and urban-industrial wastes affect potable water supplies down-
stream.

Development, as defined above, is adversely affected when government fails
to guide and control activities in the sectoral environments in order to
resolve or minimize conflicts. These conflicts which limit development are
called environmental problems. This identifies them among other interrelated
development problems such as rapid population growth, inequitable distribu-
tion of resources, lack of-education, dysfunctional institutions and high
cost of fossil fuel energy.





Environmental Management for sustainable development

Managing the overall environment for sustained development requires a syste-
matic approach involving terrestrial and aquatic ecologists, the geomorphol-
ogist, experts in forestry, agriculture, fisheries and engineering working
closely with the economist, social scientist, politician and peasant.







33




The country environmental profile is an integral part of a country's develop-
ment strategy. It serves as a benchmark establishing the state of the
environment which supports development. The profile also establishes a process
for updating the status of the country's life support system and identifies
development opportunities and conflicts.











References Consulted

Agency for International Development, Annual Budget
Submission For Year 1985:
Dominican Republic (June, 1983)
Ecuador (June, 1983)
Honduras (June, 1983)
Peru (June, 1983)

Agency for International Development, Country
Development Strategy Statement:
Honduras, For Year 1983 (January, 1981)
Ecuador, For Year 1985 (May, 1983)

Country Environmental Profiles for:
Bolivia (July, 1980)
Dominican Republic (July, 1981)
Honduras (August, 1982)
Panama (August, 1980)
Turkey (December, 1981)
Zaire (1982)
Upper Volta (July, 1982)

Agency for International Development. Environmental.
Assessment Guidelines, September, 1974.

Agency for International DtTvlopmeht. Policy
Determination: Environmental and Natural
Resource Aspects of Development Assistance,
April 26, 1983.

Blake, Robert, B.J. Lausche, et.al. Aiding the
Environment: A Study of the Environmental
Policies, Procedures and Performance of the
U.S. Agency for International Development
(National Resources Defense Council, Inc.,
February, 1980).

Centro de Investigacidn y Promocion Amazonica.
CoStos Sociales de la Deforestacion IN.
Cultural Survival Quarteriy, Documento 6,
Junio de 1983.

Department of State, Agency for International
Development. Project Paper: Dominican Republic -
Agricultural Sector Loan II, AID-DLC/P-2186
(june, 1976).

Freeman, Peter-H. Environmental Profiles: A Review
of Progress as of February, 1980.

Fundacion Natura. Ecologia y Desarrollo, IN PRESS.











Fundacid'n Natura. Evidencias del Deterioro Ambiental
en el Ecuador. Quito: Marzo, 1982

Goodland, Robert. Upstreaming: Strategy Options for
Sustainable Development (DRAFT). Office of
Environmental Affairs, Project Advisory Staff,
May, 1983.

Hartshorn, Gary. Primer Informe del Asesor al Proyecto
Diagn6stico Sobre el Medio Ambiente. Quito, Ecuador:
Fundacidn Natura, 4 de Diciembre, 1980.

International Union for Conservation, National Conser-
vation Strategies: A Report to Development
Assistance Agencies on Progress and Priorities in
Planning for Sustainable Development (DRAFT),
June, 1983.

Lieberman, Gerald and Diane Wood. Evaluation of
Operational Program Grant to Fundaci6n Natura in
Ecuador. (Prepared for AID, Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean;for Presentation to
USAID /Quito) Washington, D.C: International
Science and Technology Institute, Inc., September,
1982.

International Development Program, Center for Technology,
Environment and Development, Clark University,
Worcester, Massachuset-s, USAID's New Approach to
Environmental Impact Assessment. IN Network for
Environment and Development, Vol. 3 No. 1, March, 1983.

Saunier, Richard. Integrated Regional.Development ahd
the Environment. (mimeo)

Saunier, Richard. USAID Dominican Republic Country
Environmental Profile and the Development Planning
Process. (Discussion Paper)

The State of India's Environment, 1982: A Citizen's Report.
New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment.

Tosi, J.A., Jr. Some Relationships of Climate to Economic
Development in the Tropics. IN The Use of Ecological
Guidelines for Development in the American Humid
Tropics. Morges, Switzerland: International Union
for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

United States International Development Cooperation Agency,
Agency for International Development. Dominican
Republic Project Paper: Natural Resource Management.
july 17, 1981.

United States International Development Cooperation Agency,
Agency for International Development. 22 CFR Part 216,
Environmental Procedures. October, 1980.




Full Text

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J..;JJ-,,j-JJJJJ-1'-.TheCountryEnvironmentalProfileProcessandProductAnevaluationofProfilesconductedpriorto1983and. RecommendationsforPartIEvaluationJoshuaC.Dickinson,IIIConsultanttotheInternationalInstituteforEnvironmentand Development AgencyforInternationalDevelopmentScienceandTechnology/ForestryandNaturalResources

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.,SUMMARYEvaluationofAIDCountryEnvironmentalProfilesProfileobjectives1.Identifymajorexistingandpotentialproblemsandareasofconcernfornaturalresourcesandenvironmentalmanagement2.Stimulate-actiononenvironmentalproblems3.IdentifyenvironmentalimprovementprojectsforpossiblefundingbyAIDandotherdonorsIssues1.Havethe'Profilesaccaupl;shedthestatedobjectives?2.WhatconstraintshavelimitedtheffectivenessoftheProfiles?3.DotheProfilesprovideinformationrelevanttosustaineddevelopment?.,Objectivesaccomplished1.A compendiumofusefulinformationonnaturalresourcesandtheirdeteriorationhasbeenassembled2.Awareness,ifnotaction,onenvironmentalhasbeenstimulated3.Profilesareasoughtafterreferencework.;:--Objectivesnotaccomplished1.Nosystematicformulaforenvironmentalmanagementevaluationhasbeendeveloped2.Noenvironmentalimprovementprojectshavebeenidentified3.Thepopulationpressurelinequitablelanddistributionlenvironmentalandlifequalitydeteriorationwasnoteffectivelyaddressed., .,..Constraints1.FailuretoprintenoughProfilesinitiallycoupledwithinterminablePUblishingdelaysresultedindiminishedimpactFailureofmastMissionstobecomeinvolvedwithhostgovernmentinstitutionsinProfiledevelopmenuseverelylimitedProfileinfluence3.The-sectoralapproachottheProfileswithminimalsynthesisprecludeddiscussionoftheintersectoralconflictsaffectingtheSDvironmentanddevelopmentinthefieldConclusions1:ProfilesdonoteffectivelycOllllllUnicatewiththosewho,forbetter.orworse,controlandmanagetheenvironmenttoproducefood,fibre,enerqyandconstructionmaterials.Profilesarepreparedbyandforenvironmentalistsandconservationists.Profilesfundedbyandforanagencyconcernedwiththewell-beingofthepoorshouldcontaininformationexplicitlyorganizedtoservethatmission.2.-The',environlll8ntiscomplexsystemcapable.ofprovidi.ng,underappropriatemanaqement,widerangeofgoodsandservices.Profilesshouldevolvesystematicapproachtoresolvinqtheinevitableconflictsbetweendemandsectors-hydroelectricenergyormorefarmland?constructionsandorbeaches?Condominiumsorgreenturtles?

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-.,---'-",J]..JJjJJ-J J/1COUNTRYENVIRONMENTALPROFILESTODATEBackgroundThreecountrieswerechosenforsitevisitsandin-depthinterviews;theDominicanRepublic,EcuadorandHonduras.TheProfilesdoneintheDominicanRepublicandHondurasaresimilar,thesignificantdifferencebeingthegreaterAIDmissioncommitmentandlocalinvolvementintheDominicanRepublicrelativetoHonduras.TheEcuadoreancaseisdistinct.TheretheProfilewasusedasaninstitutionbuildingdevicewiththedocumentbeingpreparedbynationalexperts.InallthreecasesSpanishlanguageeditionshavebeenavailableinlimitedquantitiesincountry(apreliminaryversioninEcuador).EnglisheditionshavebeenreadilyavailabletoAIDintheDominicanRepublicandHonduras.ForthesethreecountriestheCountryDevelopmentStrategyStatements(COSS), AnnualBudgetSubmissions(ABS),andvariousprojectpaperswereevaluatedtodeterminerelationshipstotheProfiles.ForothercountrieswhereProfileshavebeenpreparedthedocumentswerereviewedandselectivetelephoneinterviewsconducted.ThesecountriesincludedPanama,CostaRica,Bolivia,UpperVoltaandZaire.goalsoftheCountryProfileVariouslystatedthegoals,generalobjectivesandpurposeoftheCEPare:1.Toidentifymajorexistingandpotentialproblemsandareasofconcernfornaturalresourcesandenvironmentalmanagement;2.Tostimulateactiononenvironmentalproblems;3.Topulltogetherinonedefinitivedocumentinformation,dataandanalysisonenvironmentalproblems;

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-,._--_..__._.._-.,._._-__."----__-'._"--..I.....2J4.I-J]lIIIlij].]l1J""J, ,i]JJ.,Toidentifypossibleenvironmentalimprovement programsandprojectsthatcouldbefinancedbythegovernmentand/ortheprivatesectorwithfinancialassistancefromAIDandotherdonors.

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3:J....J J.J-JJ.-JJIII.....JDominicanRepublicCaseTheCEPprocessGrowingconcernovernaturalresourcedegradationledtothepreparationofanAIDProjectIdentificationDocument (PID)in1978onthetopicofNaturalResourceManagement.HurricanesDavidandFredrickin1979causeddramatichumansufferingandmassiveerosiononanalreadydegradedlandscape.ThisservedasacatalystforgovernmentandAIDsupportforaCountryEnviron-mentalProfile(CEP)whichinturnhelpedtojustifytheNaturalResourcesManagementProjectandalaterForestManagementProjectwithAIDWashington.TheDominicanRepublicProfileisdistinguishedbythedegreeofcommit-mentandpreplanningdevotedbytheMissionDirectorandAgriculturalOfficer.Priortoarrivalofthemultidisciplinaryconsultantteam,acoordinatorhadbeennamedintheSubsecretariatofNaturalResources(SURENA)oftheMinistryofAgriculture.Counterpartsinagriculture,forestrynaturalparksandotherareaswereidentified.Thesecounterpartshadassembledmaterialsanddraftedsomebackgroundmaterialbythetimetheconsultantsarrived.DuringperiodsoffromthreetofiveweeksduringSeptemberandOctober,1980theteamandcounterpartscarriedoutintensivefieldreconnaissanceandinter-views Eachteammemberprepareda"sectorreport"forhisareaofspecializa-tion.The teamleadertheneditedthereportsandpreparedanintroductionandsummary.Themajorchapterheadingswere:NaturalVegetationPlantationForestryWaterResourcesandWatershedManagementSoilsCoastalandNear-ShoreMarineResourcesWildlandsandWildlife

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...,..j-_..-_.-_._---_.-,4JSmallFarmersPollution.....,, ,,-]l]-JThisdraftCEPwasthenreviewedbyAIDandtheDominicanandafinaldocumentpublishedwithadateofJuly1981.The DominicanProfilewasmasterfullypromotedbyAIDandSURENA.TheTeamLeaderpresentedthestudyresultstothePresidentandcabinet,anews-paperpublishedextensivepartsoftheProfileseriallyandtheresultsbecameanissueinthe1982presidentialelectioncampaign.AsinthecaseofotherProfilesreviewed,thenumberofcopiesprinted,especiallyinSpanish,weregrosslyinadequatetomeetthepotentialdemand byprofessionals,schoolsandcitizensnottomentionpotentialusersout-sidethecountry.ThefirstprintingwaslargelyabsorbedbyMinistersandDirectorswithfewleftoverforprofessionals.Asecondprintingisnowout,longaftertheinterestandenthusiasmhasdieddown. Accomplishmentofstatedobjectivesciallythoserelatedtothesmallfarmer,and,tocompileinonedefinitive1Objectives1and2:...todefineenvironmentalproblemsandtrends,espe-J.,JJ.]Jdocumenttheinformation,dataandanalysesconcerningenvironmentalproblems.TheenvironmentalproblemsoftheDominicanRepublichavebeenthoroughlydocumented anddescribedintheProfile.Ineachoftheproblemcategoriessuchasdeforestation,erosionandwaterresourcedegradation,atrendtowardfurtherdeteriorationispredictedunlesscorrectiveactionistaken.RatesofsedimentationofhydroelectricreservoirsarequantifiedintheSoilschapter,butthedramaticeconomicconsequencesarenoteffectivelypresented Thesmallfarmerisblamed f.orcausingthemajorenvironmentalproblemsofthecountry.ThecausesareoutlinedinthechapteronSmallFarms andinsectfonsofotherchapters.Thereasonwhy;rapidpopulationgrowth,

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EeL.,]_._--_.._-...5Jlackofaccesstoproductivelandandfailureoftheserviceinfrastructureareexplicitlystatedorcanreadilybeinferred.]Objectives3 and4:todevelopananalyticframeworkforbetterunderstandingofandtakingactiononenvironmentalproblems,and,toprovideadetailedanalysisoftheconstraintshinderingmoreeffectiveactiononenvironmentalproblems-JJ.,andprivatesectordebateonenvironmentalissues.Objective5:topreparea documentthatwillstimulategreaterpublicAn"analyticframewor.k" wasnotprovided,atleastunderthatheading.Anapproachtoanalysiswillbediscussedinthesectiononthedesignoffutureprofiles.culturalandfinancialconstraintshinderingactiononenvironmentalproblemsarediscussedwithparticularlythoroughemphasisgiventothelegalandinstitutionalaspects.SignificantDominicanparticipationintheprofileprocesscoupledwithexcellentuseofpoliticalcontactsandthepressstimulatedconsiderablepublicityanddebate.PresentationoftheProfilefindingsweremadetothePresidentandotherhighofficials.MuchoftheProfilewasreprintedseriallyinthenewspaper.Realizationoftheexistenceofasetofrelatedproblemsisafirststeptowardgainingpublicandpoliticalsupportforfindingsolutions..J]I I!).]I,IiJObjectives6,7 and8:toprovideanenvironmentalassessmentthatwillfacilitatetheeffortsandcooperationofinternationaldevelopmentagenciesJindealingwithenvironmentalproblems;tomakerecommendationsonfuturepublicandprivatesectoractionsforenvironmentalimprovement;

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,.'J-].1J11IIJ..].JJJ]JIj.]6toidentifypossibleenvironmentalimprovementprojectsthatcouldbefinancedbythegovernmentand/orprivatesectorwithfinancialassistancefrominternationalagencies.BeyondmeetingObjectives1 and2,theidentificationandcompilationofenvironmentalproblems,theProfiledoesnotexplicitlyprovideassessmentdefiningrolesforinternationaldevelopmentagencies.However,anyagencywishingtoformulateaprogramtoalleviateenvironmentalproblemswillfindampleinformationonthestatusofSOil,waterandforestresourcesandoftheinstitutionsresponsible.Specificcomments Thesectionsdevotedtorecommendedactionsandprojectsaregenerallyweak. Therecommendationsarerarelymorethanasinglesentence.Noindi-cationisgivenastorelativepriority,feasibility,orcostofcarryingoutactions.Eachchapterhasitsownsetofrecommendationsonsoils,watershedmanagement,forestry,etc.,withinevitableinconsistenciesandTheargumentthatconflictandduplicationplaguethesolutionofenvironmentalproblemsappliesaswelltotheProfile,Thisweaknessislargelytheresultofaprocessthatcalledforlargelyindependent"sectoranalyses"followedbyeditingfromtheteamleader,Integrationwasneithercalledfornorbudgeted.ThemajorproblemswiththeDominicanRepublicProfileareintheTermsofReferencethemselves.TheProfileisdedicatedto"resourceconservationandenvironmentalmanagement"withouteverstatingwhy.OnepresumesthattheProfile1sinsome wayrelatedtodevelopment,howeverthisisnotstatedintheObjectivesand Scopenoristheconnectioneasytoinferfromthetext.

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...-._--..',-,..---_..._.-.-._._-----'._----.'1..,1.1J7TheapproachtotheenvironmentoftheDominicanRepublicisessentiallyreductionistratherthansystematic.FloraistreatedinChapterIIIand-]-J]J..,J.,J JfaunainChapterIV.TheLifeZoneconceptisintroducedinChapterIIItodefineandmapthemajorecologicalsystemsofthecountryandthentotallyabandonedasanecologicalframeworkfordiscussingsuchintimatelyrelatedelementsasvegetation,wildlife,agriculturalsystems,soilsandsoilero-sion,watershedmanagement,watersupplyandpeople.Extensivetabulardataonsoilsandproductionunitsisgivenwithoutmapsorevenreferencetomaps.ChapterVIIoncoastalresourcesisdevoidofanyanalysisoftheeffectsofsediments,agriculturalchemicals,orwaterimpoundmentanddi-versionontheviabilityofcoastalecosystems,especiallytheextensivemangrovesintheRio Yunaestuary.TheExecutiveSummarysimplycompressestheinformationinthemaindocu-mentratherthanforcefullypresentingthemostimportantissuesandtheirpolicyimplicationsforexecutiveconsideration.Recommendationsaresogeneralastobegratuitous,i,e,"expandreforestationprograms"or"mini-mizeinterinstitutionalconflictsandduplications,"GiventhesubstantivecounterpartcontributiontotheDominicanProfilebyindividualsfromSURENAandotherinstitutions,moregenerousrecognitiononthetitlepagewouldhavebeenappropriate

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.,.J]-J-J-J.JiI-J8RelationoftheProfiletotheCDSSandABSThe DominicanRepublicProfile,.publishedinJuly,.1981,.openswiththe.followingstatement:"The DominicanRepublicfacesveryseriouschallengesinvolvingfood,.energyandpopulationthathavealreadycausedsubstantialenvironmentaldegradationandportendableakfuturenotonlyforhernatural.resourcesbutforthecountryaswell."theProfile,theCDSSidentifiesthefollowingproblems:"natural.resourcedegradationmustbereducedsoon,ifnotarrested.""thelossofbenefitstosiltationofmajordamsandirrigationinfrastructure,causedbyinappropriateagriculturalpractices,mustbestopped."Alsostatedisthatthesmallfarmeristhecauseandtheultimatevictimofthenaturalresourcedegradationproblem,.whichcloselyfollowstheProfile.Threeprojectswithinthefoodproductionstrategyareaaddressseveraloftheproblemsexplicitly.Theseinclude:1.TheNaturalResourcesManagementProjectdesignedtoreduceextensivesoilerosioninamajorwatershed2.The On-FarmWaterManagementProjectforimprovingthemanagementofwateratthefarmlevel3.TheAgriculturalResourcesManagementProjectconcernedwithmanagementofforestlandandrangeland.Asmentionedearlier,.theProfilefailedtoidentifyadequately"environmentalimprovement"actionsandprojects(which"lOuldalsohavedevelopmentbenefits).Had moreemphasisbeengiventosynthesisandrecommendationsthismighthavebridgedthegapbetweenproblemdefinitionand moreconcreteprojectidentification.ThisisaparticularlyseriousomissioninthecaseofotherdonorssuchasIBDthatlackthesophisticationofAIDintheenvironmentalareayethavelargerportfoliosinhighlysensitiveinfrastructuralprojectssuchashydroelectricandhighwaydevelopment.IntheWildlandsandWildlifechapteroftheCEP,fourlinesaredevotedtoenvironmentaleducation:"I.6Continuesupportingenvironmentaleducation.The GovernmentoftheDominicanRepublicistobecongratulatedonitseffortstoestablishenvironmentaleducationasanintegralpartofthenationaleducationsystem.",

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__ r._....;.._.-'....-.._....--.:9-,.]]---J-JJ].J-1GiventheindictmentoftheruralpopulationasthecauseofenvironmentaldegradationitissurprisingthattheCEPdoesnotgivemoreemphasistoeducation,particularlysinceAIDisamajordonorinthisarea.Theopportunitytoincludeanenvironmentalcomponentintherurallyorientedprogramhasnotbeenseizedasa complementtomajoragriculturalsupportinnaturalresourcesmanagementaffectingsome100,000ruralinhabitants(ABS-198S,p.4).Instead,aradio-basedsocialsciencecurriculumisbeingintroduced(ABSp.6).Therelationshipnaturalresourcesandpopulationisalwaysacontroversialissue.TheSmallFarmerschapteroftheCEPgraphicallyillustratestheinteractionsamonghighandincreasingpopulationdensity,inequitabledistributionoflandandservices,highlyvariablelandcapabilityandtheresultantpovertyandlowproductivityofsmallfarmersandrampantenvironmentaldegradation.Thedeteriorationoftheresourcebase,inturn,feedsbackasacauseandprOductivityandpoverty.TheCEPobjectivesdon'taddressthepopulation/resourceissue(carryingcapacity)explicitlynordidtheCEPprocessencouragesynthesis.Therefore,theopportunitytopresentaconvincingcaseforaddressingthepopulation/resourceissueinfuturedevelopmentstrategyformulationwasmissedalthoughthebasicdataneededwasscatteredthroughtheindependentlydevelopedchaptersoftheProfile.AIDissupportingPROFAMILIAintheestablishmentofanInstituteforPopulationand DevelopmentStudies,Itisresponsiblefor"studyingandclarifyingcomplexinterrelationshipsbetweendemographictrendsandsocioeconomicproblemslinkedtohealth,education,and employment,agriculture,food,nutritionandenergy"(CDSS-1985,p.60).Thisprovidesaneffectiveframeworkforthepopulation/resourceissue.Unfortunately,thecaseforfamilyplanningisbuiltintheCDSSandABSwithoutreferencetotheresourcebasedeteriorationargumentAID'sdevelopmentstrategy,asrepresentedbythefollowingquotation,representsaformidablechallengetotheenvironmentalscienceperspectiveon.development."Agenerationofexperienceineconomicdevelopmenthasstratedtheinevitabletruththatdevelopmentofaneconomyandofahigherstandardoflivingdependsmore uponthestockofhumancapitalthanthesizeofthenaturalresourcesendow mentoftheeconomy"(CDSS-1985,p.26).

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on..__'",_._,.'-!',-,J.-.I-]-.JJ.],.'dI.I'10WhileaperfectlyvaliditcouldbemisconstruedtomeanthattheDominicanRepublicshouldimitateaSingapore-taiwan-Koreamodeloflaborintensivemanufacturing(a1aCaribbeanBasinInitiative)andignorethemaintenanceofrenewablesourceofgoods andservicessuchaswaterandrawmaterials.Elementsofsupportforabalanceddevelopmentstrategycanbeinferredfromthebutitisnot"userfriendly"inthisregard.ItisorientedtowardproblemsandconservationwhileitsaudienceintheDominicanRepublicandinAIDareoverwhelminglyconcernedwithsolutions,anddevelopment.,Theproblemorientationisparticularlyevidentinagricultureandforestry.Erosionduetolandmismanagementisthoroughlydocumented.Solutionssuchasagroforestryandforestmanagementarementionedonlyinpassingandnotfollowedupbyprojectrecommendationscomprehensibletotheecologicallynaivedevelopment"planner.

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-,._._.......'__,_.___,_._._._....-.4-..___._.11TIThe Honduran Case-J.,-J-]TI)Ji.1,jTheCEPprocess.Hondurashadsufferednorecentnaturaldisastertogalvanizenationalsupport-foranEnvironmentalProfilewhentheMissionagreedtofundtheprocess.Anaturalresourcesmanagementprojectwasalreadyunderway.TheROCAPregionalenvironmentalofficerestablishedcontactwiththetwo youngprofessionalsintheNationalEconomicPlanningCouncilTheypreparedalistofcontactspriortoteamarrivalandservedastheprimarycounterpartsduringfieldreconnaissanceandinterviewsIncontrasttotheDominicanMissionandhostgovernmentinstitu.,tionalcommitmenttotheprojectwasminimal.ThedesignatedAIDcounterpartleftthecountryunexpectedlythedaypriortoteamarrival.OthersintheOfficeofEnvironmentalandTechnologyresponsibilityandprovidedexcellentday-to-daybackstopping.Interestbytheagriculturalandengineeringofficerswasnotablylacking.DuringathreetofiveweekperiodinJulyandAugust1981theteamengagedinintensivefieldreconnaissanceandinterviewing,ThreeoftheeightteammembershadrecentandhighlysuccessfulPeaceCorpsexperienceinHonduraswhichgreatlyfacilitatedcontacts,accesstoliteratureandpracticalexperiencetoguideotherteammembers. Team memberseachpreparedreportswhichweretypedontheAIDMissionwordprocessor.Consultantswereabletoeditprintoutsoftheirdrafts.OncereceivedtheteamleadereditedeachchapterandpreparedanintroductionandExecutiveSummary. Themajorchapterheadingswere:SocialandCulturalIssuesEnvironmentalConsiderationsinAgriculturalDevelopment ManagementofHonduranForestResourcesWatershedManagement ManagementofFreshwaterandMarineResourcesWildlandsUtilizationandManagementWaterSupplyandWaste Management TheCEPdraftwas_reviewed'bytheMissionandtheROCAPenvironmentalofficeJ;butnotby.-anyoneint1)ehost.g.overnment. Thepublicationdatewas August1982.

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;;=____.._....____-->-..... ......A......__-o.__.'12J J.,J].,j].JJ.JJBecauseoftheinadequatenumberofcopiesprintedandalackofpromotiontheProfilewasvirtuallyunknown amongprofessionalsatthetimeofasitevisitinSeptember1983.Copiesfromalargesecondprintinghavebeguntoarrive.TheAIDsupportedHonduranEcologicalAssociation-(AHE)willplayamajorroleinpromotinganddistributingtheProfile

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JJ]---.J ].]{JJ13AccomplishmentofstatedobjectivesObjective1.Currentandpotentialenvironmentalandnaturalresourcemanagementproblems:Thissectionwillpresentinformationonenvironmentalproblemsinurbanareas,agriculturallands,wildlandsandcoastal TheProfileprovidesacomprehensivedocumentationofenvironmentalissuesbysectorforagriculture,forestry,fisheries,wildlifeandselectedelementsoftheurbansectorrelatedtowatersupply,wastedisposalandpollution.Specificattentionisfocusedoncoastalecosystems.Watershedmanagementwhichrelatesbacktowatersupply,agricultureandforestryistreatedasaseparatechapter.Emphasisisplacedonthedevelopmentconsequences,ofglaringdiscrepanciesbetweenpotentiallanduseandactualuse;underutilization,destructivepracticesandusesinappropriatetothetropics.Objective2.Anassessmentofthedemographic,socialandeconomicfactorsaffectingtheenvironment;consideringpopulationpressure,tenure,landuseanddevelopmentstrategies The humandimensionofenvironmentalissuesaffectingdevelopmentistreatedineachchapteroftheProfile.Addressedareproductivityofagrarianreformprojects,theinfluenceoftenureoflanduseanddeterioration,theeffectsofrefugeesandundocumentednationalsonthelandandsocialconsiderationsinforestmanagement. Theplightofindigenousgroupsasaresultofinvasionoftheirlandsisaddressed.Objectives3and4.Administrative,institutionalandlegislativeaspectsofenvironmentalandnaturalresourcemanagementincludingfunctionsofgovernmentalandnongovernmentalorganizationsandanassessmentoflawsaffectingthemanagementoftheenvironment.Aninstitutionalandlegalassessmentisstructuredalongsectorallinesincludingagricultural,forestry,fisheries,wildlandsandwildlife,andurbanwaterandwastemanagementconsiderations.Thestatusofeducationalinstitutionsineachofthesectorsisdescribednotingthegenerallackofanecological/environmentalsciencefocus.Generallylackingisan./"explicitanalysisofthemajorgaps,overlapsandconflictsamonginstitutionalmandatesandlaws.Objectives5and6.Currentandproposedenvironmentalactivitiesandsuggestionsforaction.

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'i-J]-JJ-J"/IlJqJJ.JJ14Ineachchaptertheprogramsandprojectssuchashydroelectricreforestationandlandreformaredescribedandtheirinteractionswiththeenvironmentaddressed'Somefortyrecommendationscovervirtuallyeveryenvironmentalissuecoveredinthefrofile.Thoughthetwoorthreesentencerecommendationsprovidesomeorientation,theydonotprovideaframewarkfordesigningconcreteenvironmentalmanagementtoprojects.Noprforties,feasibilityorcostestimatesaremadetosubstantiatetherecommendations.

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J151-..JJ..]]1l...J..Ji.,JjRelationoftheProfiletotheCOSSandABSThe HondurasCOSSforFY83isanupdateoftheFY82versionandhasnodirectlinktotheCountryEnvironmentalProfile.TheCDSSexpressesanoverallawarenessoftheresourcedeteriorationproblemofHonduras.Under"UnfavorableFactors"relateddevelopmenteffortsisfound:x.Forestryandothernaturalresourcesarebeingutilizedinwastefulways(COSSFY83.p.26) Undercurrentactivitiesinagricultural/ruraldevelopment:WehaveinitiatedworkintheconservationoftheresourcebasewithemphasisonimprovingtheGOH'sinstitutionalcapacityandonhaltingtheescalatingrateofdeleterioususeofhillylandandconsequentlossofsoilfertilityandwaterholdingcapacity(CDSSFY83,p.Thisstatementrelatestoa numberofProfilerecommendationsinagricultureandwatershedmanagement.IntheABSunderHealthitisnotedthat90%ofruralHonduranslackanadequatediet(ABS1985,p.34}.GiventhehumanitarianandpoliticalimplicationsofthisintheCentralAmericancontext,itisunfortunatethattheProfiledidnotgivemoreeffectivecoveragetopossiblesolutionstotheproblem.Otherthanapassivesourceofdataandgenericrecommendations,theProfilehasnotbeenperceivedbytheMISsiontoamajorcontributiontomaketotheCOSSorABS.

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16jSpecificcomments.,J]JJ JJ.jThesectoralchapterstructuremaybeefficientforeasyaccesstodataonagriculture,forestry,etc.,butitvirtuallyprecludesanassessmentofconflictsandinteractionsamongsectors.Forexample,conflictsoverIndianlandclaimsaretreatedinonechapterwhiletheagrarianreformprogramistreatedindepthelsewhere.Foresters,parkadministratorsandcolonistsoftenhaveinterestsinthesameland..TheProfiletreatstheseissuesinseparatechapters..IdeallytheProfileshouldbeanencouragementandusefultoolforstrategicplanning.ThisandotherProfilesareweakinthisregard.AProfileshouldbethoroughlyfootnoted.Thiswouldlendcredibilitytorecommendationsandallowreaderstoaccesspertinentinformation.Thebibliographyshouldbeselective,annotatedandincludewherematerialislocatedi.e.JuaninDanlihastheonlycopy,forexample.Specialattentionshouldbegiventolocatingmaps,aerialphotosandsatelliteimagery.

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----_._------------_.._._-----_._._---_.17jTheEcuadoreancaseTheCEPprocess.lJ..J J..ljJlJ.-JJTheEcuadoreanProfileismarkedlydifferentinallaspectsofitsexecutionandcontentwhen comparedtotheotherProfilesreviewed.TheProfilewasconceivedinpartasavehicleforthedevelopmentofthe.capabilitiesoftheFundacionNatura,aprivatevoluntaryorganization.Inadditionitprovidesa modelofboththepotentialforuseofaPVOtocarryoutaProfileincountrieswhereanappropriategovernmentagencydoesnotexistaswellasanindicatorofwhatcanbeaccomplishedbyanationalteaminaflexibletimeframe(Lieberman,1982).WiththeexceptionofaconsultantreviewoftheproposedprojectoutlineandperiodicvisitsbyanoutsideprojectadvisortheprocesswasexecutedbyNaturaanditslocalconsultants.Naturacontractedaprojectmanagerandsome14Ecuadoreanprofessionalstopreparethevarioussectorreports.Thatpeoplewerepaidtopreparetheirsectionswasthekeytosuccess.Hadthejobbeenattemptedonthebasisofindividual'stime"donated"bytheirinstitutionsthequalityandtimelinessoftheeffortwouldprobablyhavesuffered.Having workedalltheirprofessionallivesinEcuadortheteammemberswereintimatelyfamiliarwiththelandscape,literatureandproblemsofthecountry.Inadditiontointroductorysectionsandalistingofpriorityactions,theDiagnosticStudyontheEnvironmentalSituationinEcuadorcoveredthefollowingtopics:GeneralCharacteristicsofEcuadorThePopulationAnthropologicalandSocialAspectsSoilsHydraulicResourcesForestResourcesFisheryandCoastalResourcesEnergyResourcesNationalResourcesNationalParks,ReservesandWildlifePollution

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jNJJ]1]j.,IJ.",.].JjJI..",lB DevelopmentProjectsandtheEnvironmentEnvironmentalLegislationAnalysisThestudydidnotoperateundertherigidtimeconstraintsofotherProfiles.Thetechnicalwriterswerecontractedforperiodsoffourperson/monthsttheinstitutionalanalystfortwelvemonthsandtheDirectorandstaffforsevenmonthBeginninginelaborationandeditingtookapproximatelyayeartocomplete.AccordingtoNaturathe250copiesprintedofthebulky". 2 vo1umet1400pagedocumentwerelargelyabsorbedbyupperlevelbureaucrats.Aninsufficientnumberremainedforusebyprofessionals,studentsandthepublicatlarge.Theseriesofveryimportantmapsapparentlyneverprinted.ChaptersofthedocumenthavebeencopiedindividuallyforreferenceandpeoplecometotheNaturalibrarytoconsultcopiesavailablethere

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j..J] ]]]'-jJ-J!J]JIJ\,(-119AccomplishmentofstatedobjectivesObjectives1 and2:Developananalyticalframeworkoftheenvironmental.problemsofEcuadorinordertobetterunderstandthemanddefinearealisticandimmediatecourseofactiontoconfrontthem,and,developa compen diumoftheenvironmentalproblemsofEcuador,inasingledocument DuringthecourseoftheDiagnosticStudyitbecameclearthatthesecondobjectivewasbeingaccomplished,thecreationofamassivedatabaseorcompendiumonenvironmentalproblems.Inordertoproduceananalyticandsynthesisdocument moreusefultodecisionmakers,AID,andNaturaitwasdeterminedthatashorterdocUment,EcologyandDevelopment,wouldbeprepared.(Thiswillbediscussedlater.)Naturachosetousepeoplewithabroadbackgroundineachareatopreparechaptersratherthanmorespecializedscientistsinordertoenhancecommunicationtothepublic.Althoughitwasnotedthatthescientificqualityofthechapterswasgenerallypoor,thiswasnotamajorconcernbecausetheprimaryobjectiveisto"raisetheconsciousnessofthepeople"(rers.Com.RoqueSevilla}.ThosewhohaveevaluatedtheDiagnosticStudyhavecriticizeditsemotionalcoloring,lackofdocumentationofdatasourcesandfailureofauthorstoevaluatetheirdataquality(Hartshorn,1980andLieberman,1982).TheNaturaperspectivehasprevailed.FailuretoemployanEcuadoreanecologistortofollowmostoftheecologicallyorientedrecommendationsofHartshornweakenedboththeDiagnosticoandsubsequentEcologyand Developmentpublications.Objectives3and4:PrepareadetailedanalysisofconstraintsandobstacleslimitingpossiblesolutionsofenvironmentalproblemsinEcuador,and,recommendpracticalmeasures,forpublicandprivatesectorconsideration,forimprovingtheenvironmentalsituation.TheDiagnosticStudyprovidesagenerallistofobstaclesandrecommendations.. TheEcologyand.DeveJ.opment documentincludesageneralbutthoroughassessmentofobstaclestosolvingproblemsincludingentrenched.landtenurepatterns,rapidpopulationgrowthandinstitutionaldisfunction Recommendedsolutionstoenvironmentalproblemsarenumerous andgeneral.However,intheEcology::document a moreselective;highprioritylistisdiscussed.Lackoftechnicallyandeconomicallyfeasibleprojectoutlinesratherthangenericlistsisacriticismcommontoall.Profilesevaluated.

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201EcologyandDevelopment CommentsGalleyproofsofthisprofuselyillustratedbookbeingpublishedbySalvatinSpainwerereviewed.Thisdocumentisexpectedto:SynthesizetheinformationintheDiagnosticStudyandtoconsolidateitsconclusionsand recommendationsintomoreconcreteproposalsfornationalconservation.ItisalsointendedtobeateachingdocumentformanagersconcernedwithnaturalresourcesandenvironmentandastatementofFundacionNatura'sreactiontotheDiagnosticStudy(Lieberman,1982).J]n.".]-t"j---_.._..__._-..-.-....,d11'1].JJ]ThisbookisalmostexactlythesamelengthasotherProfilespreparedintheDominicanRepublic,Panama andHonduras.'I1lestrikingcontrastinfocusandcontentcomparedwithotherProfilesillustratethedifferencebetweentheNatura,andthetypicalNorthAmerica,approachtoidentifyingandsolvingthesameenvironmentalproblems.TheNaturabookisphilosophical,emotional,globalinperspectiveanddevoidofmaps,statisticaltablesorreferences.TheotherAIDprofilesaredispassionateJediteddowntoconcentratethemostdatainthefewestpages,Neitherisbetterthantheother.Eachseekstoraiseconsciousnessand evokeaction,onebyemotionalappealandtheotherbytheweightofdata.Eachapproachisconsistentwiththemodusoperendiandculturalreferenceoftheauthorinstitution.Bothapproachesareexplicitlyorientedtowardenvironmentalconservationproblems.Significantsuccessinsolvingthemajorproblemsaffectingenvironmentalquality,suchasdeforestationanderosion,wouldatthesametimecontributetosustainedhumandevelopment.Itisdoubtful,however,thattheNaturaortheotherProfileapproachalonewilleffectivelyconveythatmessagetodevelopmentdecisionmakers.JIfAIDinEcuadoristohaveaCountryEnvironmentalProfilewhichaccomplishestheobjectivessetoutforotherProfilesandwhichwillcontributetoitsinternalProjectPlanningProcess--theMissionwillhavetoprepareitsowndocumentdrawingheavilyonthetwoNaturastudies.1

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......UseoftheCEPbyAIDMissionBackgroundandjustificationwerethemostcommonlyheardtermsusedbyA.1.0.officialstodescribethevalueof"theProfile.NewemployeesandconsultantsusedtheProfilestogainanoverviewofthecountry,itsresources,andmajornaturalresource-relatedproblems.AconcreteexamplewasthePresidentialCommissionForestsectorinHonduras.TheProfileprovidedaconciseoverviewofproblemslimitingproductivityoftheforestsector(personalcommunication,ClarenceBoonstra).Similarly,profilesinCentralAmericaarebeingusedasbriefingdocumentsfortheKissingerCommission(personalcommunication,AlbertPrince)InHondurastheprofileprovidedsubstantialjustificationforaVermontPartnersandaRotaryInternationalproject,bothrelatedtosmall-scaleagricultureandsoilconservationonhillland.Theprofilewillprovidesubstantivebackgroundfora BayIslandConservationProjectnowattheConceptPaperstage.AccordingtoMissionprofessionals,thejustificationroleoftheprofilesapplieswithintheMission,inpromotingaprojectinWashingtonandwithgovernmentagencies.IntheDominicanRepublic,theMissiondirectorandagricultureofficerplayedadynamicroleinorganizinggovernmentparticipationpriortotheconsultantteamarrival,allocatingstafftoworkwithconsultantsandlatertopromotetheproject.SuchinvolvementhightensknowledgeoftheProfilecontentandthepotentialforapplication.Asmentionedearlier,theProfileplayedasubstantialroleinjustifyingsupportfortheNaturalResourceManagementProject.InHondurastheMissionleadershipdidnotsubstantivelyparticipateintheproject.TheoriginallydesignatedA.1.0.counterpartleftthecountryafewdayspriortotheconsultantteamarrivalInEquador,A.1.0.involvementwiththeProfilehasbeenminimal.TheFundacionNaturapublished250copiesofa1,40o-pagediagnosticstudycarriedoutbylocalexperts.ThisvoluminousdocumentinSpanishhasbeenlittle-usedbyA.I.D.Thefinalproductoftheprofilingprocesswillbeabookthatanalyzesthediagnosticstudyandmakesrecommendations.Some5,000copieswillbeprintedandgivenwidecirculation

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j1...-J J..I-J]lJJ]J-122 UseoftheCEPbyhostcountriesUnfortunately,opportunitiesforutilizationhavebeenlimitedduetofactorswhichvaryfromcountrytocountry.BoliviaconductedthefirstProfileinlate1979and twocoupsoccurredduringthepublicationperiod,breakinglinkagesbetweenAIDandgovernmentpersonnel.Inaddition,thedocument waspublishedonlyinEnglish,severelylimitingutilization.InPanamathreeyearspassedbetweenfieldwork andthepublicationofaSpanisheditioninMay1983.TheEnglishversionhasyettoappear,PersonnelchangesinAIDandeditorialdifficultiesarecontributingfactorsInHondurasittooktwoyearsbeforeasufficientnumberofSpanisheditionswereavailableforeffectivedistribution(September,1983).IntheDominicanRepublicthesupplyofcopies,thoughlargerthanelsewhere,came nowherenearmeetingthedemandcreatedby averyeffectivepromotionaleffort.FamiliaritywithaProfilehasbeengreatestintheDominicanRepublic,inpartbecauseithasbeenavailableinSpanishforthelongestperiod.OtherconsiderationsincludeMissioncommitment,earlyhostcountryinvolvement,excellentpromotionandamajornaturaldisaster.AnofficialinSURENA(theNaturalResourcesSubsecretariatoftheMinistryofAgriculture)saidthattheProfileistheir"bible"onresourceissues.Stafffromthisagencyweretheprincipalcounterpartstotheconsultants.ActiveparticipationintheprofilingprocessmadethesepeopleequallyactivepartisansforAIDprojectsinnaturalresourcemanagementandforestry.TheProfilecontributedsignificantlytoawarenessofenvironmentalproblems,particularlywhensectionsofthedocumentwerepublishedseriallyinthenewspaperandthe"environment"became apoliticalissueinthe1982presidentialelectioncampaign.InEcuadoraProfilein:aformcomparabletothosedevelopedelsewherewithAIDfundinghasyettobepublished.The 250copiesofthediagnosticstudyhavelargelydisappearedintothelibrariesofupperleveladministrators.ThesheerbulkofthedocumenthasleftastrongimpressionastoitsimportanceaccordingtothePresidentofFundacionNatura.Publications,educationalprogramsandpressbasedlargelyonProfiledatahaveincreasedpublicawarenessofenvironmentalissuesatalllevels.

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_._.__._-_.__.---.---_..23JPlaceof.theCountryEnvironmentalProfilePlaceinoverallAIDenvironmentalpolicy1J..ij]-JriJ..JJ.]IncompliancewiththeNationalEnvironmentalPolicyActof1969(NEPA)AID'senvironmentalproceduresaredefinedin22CFRPart216.lheseprocedureshavebeenconciselyreaffirmedrecentlybytheAdministratorinaPolicyDetermination(PD-6.1983):ItisAIDpolicy:1.Toassistthelessdevelopedcountries(LOCs):(1)inbuildingtheinstitutionalandscientificcapacityrequiredforidentifying,assessingandsolvingtheircriticalenvironmentalandnaturalresourceproblems,and(2)withestablishingprogramstoaddressnaturalresourcemanagementproblems.2.Toensuretheenvironmentalsoundnessandlong-termsustainabilityofAIDassistanceprogramsandprojects.3.Topromoteenvironmentallysounddevelopmentprojectsfundedbymultilateralandbilateraldevelopmentassistanceorganizations.WhilethisPolicyDeterminationgoesontostateexplicitlyhowenvironmentalassessmentscontributetoitem2aboveand complywith22CFRPart216,theroleofCountryEnvironmentalProfilesislessclearlystated.Profilesareidentifiedasa meansofinstitutionbuildingandasa meansfor"understandingnaturalresourceconstraintstodevelopment"whichappliestopolicyitem1.(1)above.Inpractice,theStatementsofWorkforCEPsevaluatedhavenotincludedaninstitutionaldevelopmentcomponent.IntheDominicanRepublicalocalnaturalresourceinstitutionwasincorporatedintheCEPprocesswithmarkedsuccessonMissioninitiative.MorelocalinvolvementwentintotheCostaRicaCEP.InBolivia,Panama,HondurasUpperVoltaandZaireProfileswereconductedbyoutsideconsultantteamsdrawinguponlocalprofessionalsforinformation.Ecuadorconstitutesa..distinctcaseinwhichtheProfilewasusedasamechanismforexpandingthecapabilitiesandinfluenceofaprivateconservationgroup.ThedeterminationofthePVOtoconducttheProfilewithoutofferedtechnicalassistancehasresultedinafinaldocumentwhicqdoesnotmeetallofAID'sinternalCEPgoals,butwhichmaybequiteinfluentialnationally.

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-."]].".1J-JJ."JJ,.:1...124ThecontributionofCEPstopromotionofenvironmentalimprovementfinancedbyotherdonorsisexplicitinitem3aboveandintheStatementsofWorkformostoftheProfilesevaluated.TheProfilestodatehavefailedtoidentifypotentialprojects.Theonetothreesentencerecommendationsaregenerallyvalidbutfallfarshortofatechnicallyconvincingoutline TheNaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil(NRDC)gavetopprioritytocompletionofProfilesinallaid-receivingcountriesintheirreportAidingtheEnvironment.Theprocessismovingalonginthedirection,ifnotatthepace,recommended(NRDC,1980)PlaceinDevelopmentProjectPlanningProcessTheplaceoftheCEPintheMissionprojectplanningprocessremainsnebulousinpractice.TheCEPandCDSS(CountryDevelopmentStrategyStatement)conceptsbothevolvedandwereadoptedataboutthesametime1978/79(Freeman,1980).TheCDSShasbeeninstitutionalizedwhiletheCEPremainsoptional.Parallels,ifnotexplicitinputs,canbeinferredintherelationoftheDominicanCEPtotheCOgS.The awkwardrelationshipbetweentheCDSSandCEPderivesinpartfromthefactthattheCDSSis,asitsnameimplies,adevelopmentorienteddocumentrooteddeeplyinAlDIsfundamentalmission,The CEP,ontheotherhand,isexclusivelyanaturalresourcesconservationdocumentwithequalemphasisgiventosoilsandwildlifeandtoforestsandpollution(Saunier,1983).DefinitionofrelationoftheCEPcontenttodevelopmentstrategyisleftuptotheimaginationofthereaderAsstatedpreviously,theCEPshavenotfulfilledtheirobjectiveofidentifyingandpromotingenvironmentalimprovementprojects.Weretheytodoso,therewouldbealineinFigure1fromtheProfileboxtoaConceptPaperboxthencetothePID box(ortoanOPGproject).Thisconceptwillbeexpandeduponintherecommendationssection.Figure1illustratesthegeneralirrelevancyofenvironmenttoprojectplanning,atleastintheeyesofthedraftoroftheoriginalfigure.TheProfileinputis.outofharm'swayasaconceptualinputtotheCDSSwhilethelEEandEAoccupythesmallestpossibleboxesattheotherendofthediagram.Theenvironmentalcomponentapparentlydoesnotwarranthostgovernment,Missionorconsultantinput.

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,_', Iel-JL...;JeL-..1dLJIJLPlDProjectIdentificationDoc..,EAI\J{>PPi>PlO/TProjectPaperAAALMissionD.C.StaffStaffIIAOutsideTeamAJlEEOPGProjectAMissionStaffConceptPaperCongressionalAllocations'ABSAnnual BudgetSubmissionEnvironmentalProfileslissiont:HostGov't.CDSS:ountryDevelop-,lentStrategyitatementAlD/WorConsultantslQC'sorotherContractorsRFPD.C.StaffSectorAnalysisFigure1.DevelopmentProjectPlanningProcess.

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11J].JJ.]]JjJjJ.JJ25Conclusions1.IntermsofthegoalsoftheCEPs,theidentificationofproblemsandthepreparationofa compendiumofdatawereaccomplished.Theidentificationofenvironmentalimprovementprogramsandprojectswasnotaccomplished,particularlyasastimulustootherdonors.Itistooearlytodetermineifactiononenvironmentalproblemshasbeenstimulated.Awarenesshascertainlybeenincreased2.ThevalueoftheProfiledocumentderiveslargelyfromtheprocessoflocalparticipation,thedegreeofMissioncommitment andparticipationandextentofpromotiongiventotheproduct.Basedonthesecriteria,theDominicanProfilederivedthegreatestvaluefromaproductthatdidnotdiffergreatlyinqualityfromthosepreparedelsewhere3.A teameffortinvolvinglocalinstitutionandAIDMissionparticipationandclosecooperationbetweenlocalexpertsinteractingwithasmall,selectconsultantgroupexperiencedinsynthesisappearstobethebestformula.Neitherahands-offlocaleffortnoraforeignconsultantstrikeforceapproachhasworkedaswelloverall.Paidlocalconsultantsassuresaccountability.4.Therearemanyexcuses,butno goodreasons,fordelaysoffromonetothreeyearsfromthetimefieldworkonaProfilewascompleteduntilenoughcopieswereavailabletohaveanimpactonpotentialusers.LogisticalandcommunicationbreakdownshaveoccurredamongtheAIDMission,AIDRegional,AIDWashington,contractors,editorsandprinters.Streamliningreviewprocedurescombinedwitha wordprocessor--phoneline-offsetprinting--linkagecouldgreatlyspeeduptheprocess.5.ThesectoralapproachusedintheProfileseffectielyconveysinformationonproblemsassociatedwithwildlifeorsoilsorcoastalresources.Totallymissingisasynthesisdiscussingconflictsandcoordination.Developmentprojectsarecarriedoutinspecificregionsandaffect,andareaffectedby,varioussectors.wereonlycalledupontoedit,notimewasallocatedforsynthesis6.TheAIDCountryDevelopmentStatement.intheDominicanRepublicismoreexplicitinidentifyingtherelationshipbetweenpopulationgrowthandnaturalresourcesthanmanyoftheProfiles(CDSS1985,p.60>'!

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..,i":J1]jJ-J-J-JJJ-126Grosslyinequitableaccesstothelandresource,andofthemostproductivelandcoupledwithreproductiveincontinencearetheprincipaiunderlyingcausesofdeforestation,erosionanddeterioratingwaterqualityintheWesterHemisphere.Carryingcapacitydetermination.underdifferentlandmanagement andpopulationpolicystrategiesisaconspicuouslymissingelementintheProfilestodate.7.IngeneralProfileshavenotprovidedapracticalguideforfindinginformation.Datainthetextisnotfootnoted,thelargebibliographiesarenotannotatedandlocationsofbooks,reportsandespeciallymapsandphotographsarenotgiven.Thelatterproblemisparticularlyseriousbecausefewcopiesofreportsareprinted,cardcatalogsarevirtuallynonexistent,individualstendtosquirrelawaymaterialandinstitutionalmemoriesarewoefullyshort,includingthatofAID.8.Institutionalanalysisisgenerallyweak,dueinparttoanintractableproblem.Visitingconsultantslackthedepthoflocalexperiencetofullyanalyzehowaninstitutionfunctionsbothinternallyandininteractionwithotherentities.Thenationalcounterpart,ontheotherhand,mayknowtoomuchandthusisreticenttocriticallyappraisehisemployer.9.TheProfilestreattheurbanenvironmentonlyintermsofpollution(liquid,solid,gaseousandnoise),watersupplyanddisease.Giventhelevelsofincreaseinurbanpopulation,abroader,systematicapproachtointeractionswiththehinterlandinvolvingresourcesandwastewouldbeuseful.Factorsintheruralenvironmentspurningmigrationshouldbetested.issuessuchas'openspaceandenergyefficiencyshouldbeconsidered.10.TheProfilesarepreparedby andforconservationists.Totheextentthatthedatabaseonenvironmentalandnaturalresourceproblemsraiseconsciousnessandstrengthensthehandoftherelativelyweaktiongroupsandagencies,theefforthasbeenuseful.However,thedocumentsdonotcommunicateeffectivelywiththoseconcernedwithhumanwell-beingandeconomicgrowth.Thisaudienceholdsoverwhelmingpoweroveractionsaffectingtheenvironment.Theirreactiontendstobeoneofindifferenceordefensiveness.Thesmallenvironmentalcommunityinthedevelopingcountrieswillnotcausemuchchangeasanadversary.

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-111.,] ]'"l.]]JJJ-JI:--.J-127Thedatabaseisa goodbeginningbutaprojectunderthelabel"environmentalimprovement"(seeGoals)wouldbeconsideredtobeofmarginalrelevancetotheeconomistinamultilaterallendinginstitution.

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j-J]l]-]..J]JTheCountryEnvironmentalProfileProcessandProductAnevaluationofProfilesconductedpriorto1983andRecommendationsforimprovement-PartIIRecommendationsJoshuaC.Dickinson,IIIConsultanttotheInternationalInstituteforEnvironmentandDevelopmentAgencyforInternationalDevelopmentScienceandTechnology/ForestryandNaturalResources

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-..] ]..]J]JJ..JJ",/RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURECOUNTRYENVIRONMENTALPROFILESTheProcessIntroduction.Thevalueoftheproduct,abilingualCountryEnvironmentalProfile,isderivedinlargemeasurefromtheprocessofelaborationandpromotion.EssentialtoeffectiveutilizationofthedocumentisthebroadestpossibleparticipationbyhostcountryprofessionalsandbyAID.Pre-planning.OncetheAIDMissionhasdecidedtoprepareaProfileandpreliminarycontactsmadewithpotentialcollaboratingagenciesandprivategroups,anexperiencedprojectadvisorshouldbeselected.ThisadvisorwillfollowtheentireprojectthroughthepromotionalphaseandwillreporttotheAIDMissionDirector.Objectivesofapre-planningvisitwillbe:1.TodetermineinconsultationwiththeMissionDirectorandStaff,(a)thepurposeandexpectedresultsoftheProfile,particularlyinrelationtoprojectplanningprocess,(b)technicalexpertiseandtimecommitmentofstaffand(c)todefineastrategyofcoordinationwithnationalentities,particularlywiththecounterpartorganization.2.Establishliaisonwithacounterpartorganization,governmentalorprivate.Thisorganizationshouldhaveprestigeandaccesstoallsectors,eitherthroughtheinstitutionthereputationoftheindividualdesignatedasProfileteamleader.3.PreparewithanadhocteamofnationalandAIDexpertsa"preliminarymatrix,conceptualmodel andworkingmapdefiningsectorswhichmakeuptheeconomy. knownorpotentialconflictsamongsectorsandgenerallocationofmajordevelopmentprojects.4.DefineoverallProfilegoalswithreferencetonationaldevelopmentgoals,suchasafive-yearplan.5.Identifyexpertiserequirements,includingthoseareasrequiringoutsidereinforcement.Preparescopeofworkandindividualtermsofreference.EstablishclearlytheresponsibilitiesandfinancialaccountingprocedureswhichwillgovernalltheparticipantsintheProfilingprocess.6.TheMission,incoordinationwiththeadvisorandAID/Washington,willcontractoutsideconsultantsinthoseareasneedingoutsideexpertise.Profileworkshop.Thedurationofthisworkshopshouldbetwo weekswiththreedaysdevotedtoafieldtripatthebeginningofthesecondweek. The

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-].Jj.J]JJ-JJ.,2threemajorfunctionsofthisworkshopare(a)toestablisheffectivegroupdynamicsamongtheparticipantsfromdifferentinstitutionsandculturalbackgrounds,(b)establishastructureandmethodologyfortheteamtofollowinconductingtheProfileincludinggenerallayout,maps andothergraphics,sourcecitationsandlength,and(c)defineindetailthepriorities,objectives,workstrategyandlogistical/materialrequirements.AftertheworkshoptheadvisorwillreviewtheoverallworkplanbasedontheworkshopwiththeteamleaderandtogethertheywillprepareaPathchartbasedontheworkplanssubmittedbyeachteam member. TheresultsoftheCPMexercisebediscussedwithindividualteammembers andadjustmentsmadeasrequired.MajorelementsoftheWorkshopinclude:1.Profileinauguration--amediaeventwithshortaddressesbytheMissionDirector,MinisterofPlanning(orofsimilarresponsibility)andtheoftheinstitutionresponsiblefortheProfile,introductionoftheteamandaresponsefromtheteamleader.Amonginviteeswouldbetheinternationaldonorcommunity,environmentalgroupsandprominentpoliticians.2.Aformalgroupdynamicssei!!Pnifanappropriateprofessionalteamisavailable.3.Introductiontoenvironmentalmanagement,systemsanalysisandCPM.4.Analysisofthecountryanditsmajorregionsasasystem.5.Briefingsbymajorsectorrepresentativestodiscussdevelopmentissuesandconflictsuniquetothatsector--includingenergy,forestry,agriculture,agrarianreform,fisheries,mining,health,minorityaffairs,andresearch,population,parksandwildlifeandtourism.ThosewhoprovidebriefingswillthenbecomecontactsfordiffusionofProfileresults.6.Identificationofmajorconflictsandmanagementopportunities.7.Definitionofobjectivesestablishmentofmethodologies.8.Fieldtripasa teamtoawatershedwherecomplexdevelopmentissuescanbedemonstrated.9.Discussionofsectoralinformationgatheringstrategiesinaregionalandnationalsystemcontext

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-'.j..J]-I.-}.J]-JJ-J-)J.JJ-,310.DeterminationofcriticalmilestonesforeachteammemberintheCPMframework.Assessment.Oncetheteammembershaveestablishedacommonsetofprocedures,methodology,andunderstandingoftheinteractionsamongsectors,thensectoralresearchcanproceed.Periodicprogressmeetings,providetheopportunityforinformationexchange.!heassessmentprocessisdescribedindetailinthesectiononTheProduct.UsergUidance.Auser'sguidewillbepreparedtoassistthoseineachtargetgroup;decisionmakers,agencyprofessionals,AIDofficials,teachers,conservationists,etc.;findandinterpretdataandanalysesintheirowncontext Adetailedmethodologywillbeavailableforthosewantingtoevaluateotherissues.Promotion.WithouteffectivepromotiontheProfilewillbecomejustanotherinformation-packedandusefuldocumentthatisaddedtothemyriadofothersgatheringdustonthebureaucrat'sbookshelf.Eachpotentialuserwillrequirea somewhatdifferentapproach.ForthePresidentandcabinetperhapsaone-hourpresentationwithflipchartsandthedistributionofanExecutiveSummary wouldbeappropriate.Ontfte-otherhandmoredetailedworkshopsandpaneldiscussionswouldbesuitableforprofessionalanduniversitygroups.Forthepublic,pressreleases,t.v.spots,audiovisualsandpamphletscouldbeeffectiveindifferentsettings.IfinfacttheProfileresults'arerelevanttohumanwell-beinganddevelopment,thenaconcertedefforttocommunicatewith,andgainthesupportof,peasantandgroupsandfarmingandranchingassociationswillbeinorder.Creationofanelitepatrongroupdrawingfromtheleadershipofengineeringsocieties,serviceclubs,industryandconservationorganizationswouldaidin"thediffusionacceptanceanduseoftheProfile.AIDshouldbeacknowledgedforitscontributionoffundsandpersonnel,butmajorcreditshouldgotothenationalinstitution,teamleaderandconsultants.Followup.ThefirstEnvironmentalProfileisabeginning,a benchmarkagainstwhichtomeasureprogressandfailuresinmaintainingthequalityofthehumanenvironment.Whatisgatheredandhowitisrecordedshouldlenditselftoupdatingandmeasurementofchange.Thisincludesquantitativelyverifiableenvironmentalparameterssuchaslandcoveranduse,

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I1-8j:-J--J].,.j]J-JJ.JJ4asasmorecomplexmeasuresofdevelopmentaccomplishmentcomparedwithgoals.Techniqueswillhavetobedevisedtocombattheinstitutionalamnesiathatplaguesdevelopingcountries(andAIDMissions).AtleastiftheProfilecancitetforexampletaFADtimbergrowthplotreporttnotewhohasoneofthethreecopiesinthecountryandlocatethenowabandonedplotonamap-sothatinvaluablelong-termmeasurescanbemadetenyearshence.Thefollow-upprocesswillbedescribedintheProductsection.--

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..-,....J5ACountryEnvironmentalProfilesTableof1.0PurposeoftheProfile(2pp.)2.0Culturalhistoryofhumaninteractionswiththeenvironment(3pp.)3.0Countrydevelopmentgoals(4pp.)4.0Thenationalenvironment(10pp.)4.1Externalinteractions4.2Countrymodel4.3Thematicmaps4.4Interactionmatrix5.0Sectorassessment(50pp.)-1]5.1 5.25.35.45.65.7AgricultureForestryFisheriesMiningTransportationIndustrial5.85.95.105.11 5.125.13ParksandwildlifeRecreationUrbaninfrastructurePeopleEducationandresearchPrivate-Consultants,PVOs,etc.6.0Regionalmanagementunitspp.)1I,6.16.2 6.36.46.5RegionalmodelLifeZones0_Policies,programsandprojectsConstraintsandconflictsConflictresolutionandmanagementopportunities7.0Programandprojectrecommendations(15pp.)9.0RelationofProfiletootherdonoractivities(4pp.)10.0Annexes8.0UpdatingprocessJ.,JJ..J-110.110.2 10.310.410.5ReferencescitedAnnotatedbibliographyLocationofusefulinformationDirectoryofenvironmentalandSciencesBilingualglossary10.6socialofgovernmentPVOs,andconsultingfirms

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]1.,]]l.JJ1j_JJJ.J..1..-'6ElementsofaCountryEnvironmentalProfile1.0PurposeoftheProfile(2pp.)ThissectionoutlineshowtheProfileservestheprocessofsustained,optimumdevelopment.Elementsthatshouldbementionedare:1.Aninventoryandaccountingbenchmarkformeasuringthestatusandchangesinthecapabilityoftheenvironmenttosupplygoodsandservices.2.Descriptionofthecountryasasystemofinteractingandinterdependentsectors.3.Asectoraldatabaseincludingthetraditionaleconomicsectors,thepeople,educationandresearch,consultantsandPrivateVoluntaryOrganizations.4.Regionalmanagementunits--ananalysisofdevelopmentconflictsandopportunitiesattheprovincialorriverbasinlevel.Adetaileduserrsguideshouldbeincludedtoassisteachpotentialusergroup.Forexample,inAIDforuseinDevelopmentStrategyandProjectPaperpreparationandinnationalplanningandregionaldevelop-mentprograms.2.0Culturalhistoryofhumaninteractionswiththeenvironment(3pp.)Thepresentstatusoftheenvironmentandthedevelopmentlevelitsupportsshouldbedescribedasithasevolvedsincethebeginningsofagriculture.Emphasisisonthosetechnologicalandsocial-changesthathavemostdramaticallyaffectedenvironmentalmanagement.3.0Countrydevelopmentgoals(4pp.)3.1Descriptionofthecurrent,andrecentpast,fiveyearorsimilardevelopmentplansandanassessmentoftheirsensitivitytoenvironmentalmanagementconsiderationsincludingconstraintsandopportunities,availabletechnologyandcarryingcapacity.3.2Programs,projectportfoliosandpoliciesoftheinternationaldevelopmentassistancecommunity 4.0Thenationalenvironment(lOpp.)4.1Externalinteractions.Thissimpleblockdiagramwillillustratethemajorinputsandoutputsofthecountry(seeFigure3).This

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JJ-]]-J-J]-]7nationalaccountofenergy.materialandcapitalinterchangewiththerestoftheworldwillprovidevaluableinsightsintothemanagementofthenationalenvironment.Elementsofinterestcouldbedegreeofonoutsidesourcesoffoodandenergy.Forexample.theDominicanRepublicProfilenotedthatthevalueoffishexportedwas3%ofcostoffishimported.Thisindicatesforanislandnationaseriousforeignexchangedrainworthyofassessment.DataindicatingmajorexportsofplantationcropsormeatcanbeanindicatorofpossiblelanduseNon-materialimportsLoansGrantsTechnicalassistance.JJJMaterialinputsEnergyFood:........,.Equipment TheCountryExportsAgriculturalForestFisheryMiningIndustrialFigure2.Externalinteractions.Iftheair,rivers,oceancurrentsormigrantscarryharmfulmaterialsacrossnationalboundries,internationallysignificantimpactsmayoccur.-J__.JJJExportSedimentsToxicmaterialsDiseasesChangedwaterregimeJ4.2Acountrymodel(Figure3)expandsuponthesimpleboxinFigure2toillustratetheroleofenvironmentalmanagementinsustaining

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I]9theflowsofgoods andservicesinaneconomy.Linel.representsthoseactionstosustaintheflowofgoodsandservices(Lines3]-]JJ1.SOCIETYINSTITlJTI08SSOCIALA!lDPOLICIES,.TECBIlOLOGYOFu.JIOR-'isure3.ConceptualModelofNationalSyateEX7EIUOR!CotlOKt.000DSA!lDSEB.VICES-I.JJand4.)tosocietyandtheresourcetransformationandFinishedProductindustries.Examplesincludewatershedmanagement,preventionofconflictbetweenproductivesectorsandenhancementoftheproductivityofagricultureandforestrythroughenvironmentalmanagementtechnology.Line2.representsthoseactionsinwastemanagementdesignedtoreduceordirecturban-industrialwastestreamssothattheycanbeabsorbedandutilizedbynaturalandmanagedecosystemswithoutimpairingthequalityorquantityof

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-B.,,'","J]-J ].-J10goodsandservicesbenefitingsociety.Aprimeexampleoftheinterdependenceoftype1.and2.managementactionsisinmaintenanceofacleanwatersupplyforurban-industrialuse.Thisinvolvesapplyingbestmanagementpracticesonfarmlandtominimizeagriculturalchemicalrunoffandmaintenanceofstreamsidevegetationandnaturalchannels(type1.actions)andtherecoveryof.texischemicalsetc.)andtheinexpensivesecondarytreatmentoforganicwastesinsettlingpondsandmarshespriortodischargetoflowingwaters(type2.actions).Figure3canbegreatlyexpandedduringtheWorkshopphaseoftheProfileprocesstoincludeidentificationofspecificsectorsandmanagementissues4.3Tosupportmodeldevelopmentthematicsurveysandreportsshouldbecollectedtohelpidentifythespatialpatternsandinteractionsuniquetoaparticularcountry.4.4Aninteractionmatrixplottingsectoralactivitiesonbothaxeswillpermittherapididentificationofpotentialconflictiveandcomplementaryinteractionsbetweensectors.(Figure4)Other-sectoralactivitiesnotshownonthesamplematrixare:]JJ.-].JJAnnualcropsAgroforestryWetRiceIndustrialcropsPlantationforestryRecreationEstuarinefisheriesCoralreeffisheriesRiverfisheriesLakefisheriesAquacultureStripminingBiomassenergyGeothermalenergyHumansettlementsRiverinetransportationHighways

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-1,-]'...]-I,J]-,I.)JJ.,JJ11Figure4.PartialmatrixofIntersectora1QJ.u>.d00;:lQJInteractions..uI::d.....QJo-l00QJ....I::;:l00o-lQJCJ.u .ueu"0CJ CJI::r-fCJ;:l ;:leu....00"0"0aeu0 0.u "0"0CJ00Po PoQJdQ.II::..cIIIo-lQJ.uII]QJ.ur-flDCD0......uQJQJ.uk.u"0..ceu0eueutI)ul:lo4Shiftingagriculture1 2 345Cattleproduction678Forestproduction91011 12Watershedmanagement 1314Parksandwildlife15Hydroelectricenergy-Thefollowingisadiscussionofthe.numberedinteractionsinFigure4illustratingthetypesofconflictiveandcomplementaryinteractionsamongsectorson anationalorregionalscale.1.Shiftingagriculture/cattleproduction-IntheWesternHemispheretropics,shiftingagricultureisoftenfollowedbyconversionofthelandtopermanentpastureratherthanbacktoforestfallow.Thisprocessleavesthefarmersinamarginalpositionasranchersconsolidatelandholdings,.forcingthemtoseeknewforestlandstoclear.2.Shiftingagriculture/Forestproduction-Farmerslackaccesstotimbermarketsandoftenburnvaluabletimberwhenclearingland.Afterlogging,accessroadsareusedbyshiftingagriculturistsand/orrancherstooccupynewland.Reforestationbysuccessionorreplantingoftenisnotfeasible.3.,4.and5.Shiftingwith:Watershedmanagement/ParksandWildlife/Hydroelectricenergy-Shiftingagricultureatlowintensity,withlongfallowperiods,aspracticedby a fewindigenousgroupsis

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J,.....II]s01)_J]-JJ00)]jJ-]J-----------------.,-----------12compatiblewiththeotheruses.The morecommonintensificationcausedbypopulationgrowthcoupledwiththeaforementionedconversionoflandtopasturehasadecidedlynegativeeffectontheotheruses.6.,7.and8.Cattleproductionwith:Forestproduction/Watershedmanagement/Parksandwildlife-Pasturesustainedforestproduction,usuallyonsitessuitedonlyforforestry.Predominantelypoorrangemanagementcharacterizedbyovergrazinganduncontrolledburningresultsindegradationofwatershedvalues.Conversionofforesttopastureresultsinmajorlossesinwildlifeandrecreationvalues.9.Forestproduction/Forestproduction-Manysystemsofsustainedyieldtropicalforestproductionhavebeenunderinvestigation.Thepotentialforapplyingthemostpromisingresultsshouldbeevaluated,suchasstripclearcutting,selectivecutting,enrichmentofsuccession(taungya)etc.10.and11.Forestproductionwith:Watershedmanagement/ParksandwildlifeErosionresultingfromaccessroadsplusspontaneouscolonizationfollowingaccessroadsisthemostcommonincompatibilitybetweenforestryandwatershedmanagement.isincompatiblewiththevaluesderivedfromcompleteprotectionofparkareas.Wildlifevaluesarelessaffectedbysuccessionmanagementthanbyplantationmonocultures.12.and.Watershedmanagementwith:Parksandwildlife/Hydroelectricenergy-Hydroelectricenergyproductionandallotherdownstreamwaterusesbenefitfromtheleastdisturbanceofupperwatershedareas.Therefore,thecompleteprotectionusuallydesirableforparksandwildlifeisalsoabeneficialformofwatershedmanagement.14.Parksandwildlife/Hydroelectricenergyproduction-Reservoirinnundation,changesindownstreamwaterregimeandaccessroadsareallgenerallydetrimentaltotheintegrityofparksandtowildlifevalues.

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I.-IJ.....] ]l.J]-]135.0Sectorassessment(50pp.)Thissectionwillbea compendiumofnationalscale"mini-profiles"ofeachmajorsector.Atypicallistwouldinclude:5.1Agriculture5.8ParksandWildlife5.2Forestry5.9Recreation5.3Fisheries5.10Urbaninfrastructure5.4Mining5.11People5.5Energy5.12EducationandResearch5.6Transportation5.13Private-Consultants,PVOs,etc.5.7IndustrialCommonelementsineachsectoranalysiswillbethefollowingwithadaptationstoaccommodatethecharacteristicsofeachsector:1.Identificationofthesectorcomponents.Inagriculture,forexample,theymightincludesmallfarms,cattleranches,industrialfarmsandagrarianreformprojects.Inenergy,majorhydroelectricprojects,smallhydroprograms,fuelwooduseorbiomass/alcoholprojects,geothermalandthermoelectriccouldbethemajorcomponents.-2.:1'JJ."J.)JJ-Jj-1Detailedsectorinput-outputanalysesestablishingresourceaccounts. ChangesintheseaccountscanbemeasuredwhentheProfileisupdated.Anyinputtoor.outputfromthesectorshouldbeidentifiableasanoutputorinputfromothersectors.Figure5offersastypicalexamplesminingandestuarinefisheries.Themajordifferencebetweenthesetwoisthatminingisbaseduponastockresource,anonrenewablemineralandisaheavyuseroffossilfuelresourcesinextractionandprocessing,whichfishrepresentasingleflowresourceproductfrom a complexnaturalecosystem.Quantificationandanalysisofthesesectormodelscanhelpraisequestionsaboutenergy,materialand economiccost/benefit,sustainabilityofratesofproduction.Fromthefisherymodelonecanappreciatevarioustypesofstress,suchaswastesandwaterdiversion.Asvarioussectormodelsarecompleted,outputsandinputscanbelinked,evaluatedandmanagement'optionsexplored.

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-.:'14ReclamationEnergyMaterialsProductNewMineAreaC<,,",Cost'ofOperationandMaintenanceMININGBauxite,Tin,Phosphate,(a)TreatJ-------tmentWastewaterSolidWasteRecruitmentIncomeorloss'"WaterAirPollutant:.!.";\NumberofPeople____JI!--...1J-nCatchLossesAquacultureUrbangrowthPotentialYieldSolidWasteAreaOtherUses\\Recreation\\,IncomeFishHabitatFishermenRecruitmentorlossEnergyflMaterialsFreshWaterTide-DiversionBlockageJlof-."JJ-JI..JFigure5.(a)Miningsectorinput-output.(b)Estuarinefishingsectorinput-output.-1

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3..J]-l..:1]-]l)JJ-J-,I153.Theinstitutionswhichserveeachsectorwillbeanalyzedina mannersimilartothatappliedtothesectorsthemselves.Factorstoconsiderinclude:Mission-LegalmandateoftheinstitutionBudget-Personnel,Operationsandmaintenance,Infra-structure,Training,MaterialsPersonnelCentralOfficeFieldProfessionalx xTechnicalx xOtherx x EquipmentItemsItems%OperableLaboratoryxx xComputationxx xVehiclesxx xPrograms-Description,Budget,Duration,ResultsInternationalAssistance-Description,Grant/Loan.Duration,ResultsTraining-Inservice,ShortCourses.Degreetraining,Budget-Intangibles-Turnoverrate,morale.productivity.reputationTheinstitutionalanalysisshouldnotberestrictedtothe"naturalresource"agenciesconcernedwithsoilconservation,parksandwildlife.Theseinstitutionsgenerallyhavetheleastpowertocontrolandguideenvironmentalmanagement. Thedegreetowhichecologicalconceptsandexperienceareappliedinagriculturaldevelopmentprojectsisofhighpriorityconcernforexample.4.Theeducationandresearchsectorincludesenvironmentalscienceeducationandresearchatuniversitiesandinstitutes,formalenvironmentaleducationatallpre-universitylevels,in-servicetrainingforprofessionalsandnon-formalpubliceducation.Thepersonnel,budgetandprogramevaluationshouldbesimilartothatusedforgovernmentinstitutions.Particularattentionshouldbegiventothetraining.levelofpersonnel,productivity,extentofcommunicationwithotherprofessionalsandoverallmoraleandspiritofenquiry.Anassessmentshouldbemadeofthequalityand

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.71.HJ-TI-]-.J].!'il-JJ J.,-,I16accessibilityoflibrarymaterials.Aretheprofessionalsactivelypursuingandpromotingsolutionstoenvironmentalmanagementproblemsasakeytosustaineddevelopmentoraretheymilitantagainstpollution?5.TheevaluationofconsultingcompaniesandPrivateVoluntaryOrganizationsshouldinclude,inadditiontotheecologicallyandenvironmentallyoriented,thosepowerfulgroupswhoseactivitiesaffecttheenvironmentsuchasengineeringsocieties,industrialassociations,agriculturalassociationsandcivicclubs.6.Thissectionshouldreviewthosebasiccharacteristicsofthepopulationwhichaffectenvironmentalmanagementanddevelopmentandwhichreflectsthequalityoflifeandthehumanenvironment.Aspectstoconsiderinclude:1.Ethniccomposition-dominantandminoritygroups,differencesinuseandperceptionoftheenvironment2.Landandresourceaccess-accesstoland,appropriatetechnology,creditforinputsandwater.-3.Demographicdata-populationgrowthrate,mortality,lifeexpectancy,density,rural/urbancomparisons.4.Economicindicatorsemploymentbysector,unemployment,incomebysector,migration,urban/ruralcomparisons.5.Health-incidenceofenvironmentallyrelateddiseases6.0Regionalmanagementunits(50pp.)Virtuallyalldevelopmentactivitieshaveaprimaryfocusatthelocallevelwithsecondaryordemonstrationeffectswithinadistinctregion.TheProfileshouldfocusonaconvenientscaleofregionalanalysisdeterminedbyexistingplanningstrategy,thesizeandcomplexityofthecountryandtheProfilebudget.Theriverbasinunitisthemostconvenient.Thenationaloverviewwithitsgenericinteractionmatrix(Section4.3)andthesectoralevaluationinSection5.0areappliedattheregionallevelactualprojectsandenvironmentalconditions6.1Regionalmodel Thefailuretoperceivetheplanetoraregionasasystemcomposed

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J-..J]i.j]-]II..JJ.J,I------.-------c------------------------------17ofinteractingnaturalandman-controlledcomponentsandprocessesoftenblindsdevelopmentplannerstothevalueofcertainkindsofexpertise,technology,andinformationthatwould makeusingandprotectingthesystemeasier.Avaliddefenseagainstthismyopiaisthroughthemanagementofaninterdisciplinaryteamandsomeformofsystemsanalysis,suchasaregionalsystemsmodel.Whileallsystemsmodelsabstractandsimplifyreality,theydosuperfluousdetailandallowthelinesofcomplicatedprocessestoemergeclearly.Asanexample;thehighlysimpli-fiedmodelinFigure3focussesattentiononaregionalecosystem'skeyelementsandinteractionsasthebasisforunderstandingrelationshipsandidentifyingpotentialconflicts.Inbrief,ininvolvesseveralsteps.First,theregion'slimitsandmajorcomponentecosystemsareidentified.Whileallecosystemshavearbitrarylimits,thePrincipleofIntergrativeLevelsindicatesthatasystemisbestunderstoodthroughanalysisofthesystem.(Tounderstandariveranditsfloodplain,forexample,analyzethewatershed.)App1ying-thisprinciple,eachdisciplineorsectorcanseehowagivenboundaryaffectsitsanalysis.Onceboundaries(whetherariverbasinoranadministrativeunit)aredecidedupon,internalinteractionscanbedistinguishedfromexchangeswithothersystems--aprerequisitetoidentifyingsysteminputsandoutputslater.Second,thescaleisdefined(orbetter,severaldifferentscalesaredefineddependingontheobjective).Sincethelocationofa highwayrequiresaradicallydifferentmodelinscalethanthatneededtooptimizedevelopmentforaregion,themodelsarefinetunedtoidentifythequalityandtypesofinformationavailable(orunavailable)toeachdisciplineorsector.Third,componentsorsubsystemsareidentifiedindetail.Inanyregionalmodel,themajordivisionsarenaturalsystems(terrestrialandaquatic),managedsystems(suchasagricultureorsilviculture),andsuchinfrastructuralcomponentsascitiesordams.Fourth,inputsandoutputsareidentified.Alltheoutsidehumanresources,material,andinformationthataffectthesystemsas

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J18...-JSomeofthevaluesofthemodellingprocessinclude:delimitedinsteponearelisted.Thesemayincluderainfall,tidalaction,tectonicmovement,fuels,goods,technology,immigrationpolicies,etc.allofwhichinteract.Outputscouldincludewater,immigrants,residuals,heat,servicesandsoon.The more complextheregion,themoreimportantitistoidentifysystemcomponentsandprocessandtheirexternqlinteractionswithexternalsystemsthroughinterdisciplinarydiscussion.Fifth,thesystemsdiagramisprepared.Symbolsareattachedtoeachcharacteristicofthesystemandconnectedbylinesrepresentingflowsofenergyormaterialsandinformation.Thefinishedproductisa dynamicdiagramoftheregionthatenablesplannerstoidentifymajorcomponentsprocessesandinteractionsamongsocio-economicsectorsorinterestgroups(i.e.,conflictsandsupportfunctions).1.Itenablestheteammembersto"know"thefunctioningofaregionsystematically,rapidlyandquitethoroughly;2.ItenablesthemanyandsectorsrepresentedonaProfileteamtounderstandwheretheirworkwillfitintheoverallscheme;3.Itallowsatightlyknityetflexibleworkplantobewritten;4.Itenablesteammemberstoidentifygapsin:informationandtofigureoutwhichareasofstudyarepotentiallythemostfruitful;5.Itenablestheteamleaderstowritehighlyspecifictermsofreferencefortheworkofthedifferentdisciplinesandsectors.Consultantscannolongeruseascattergunapproach;neithercantheygetbywithdustingoffoldreportsandplugginginnewplacenames.6.Itprovidesahookonwhichtohangideasandenablesteammemberstoforeseetheramificationofeachactivity;and7.Toreiterate,itenablesteam memberstoidentifyinteractionssothatpotentialconflictscanberesolvedearlyonandsothatopportunitiesforinter-sectoralsupportcanbeseized(Saunier,1983).]-J]JJ.J:.,i-1

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IJ., 4..I...I1'.] ],"I.JJ-]J.-JJ.,19TheregionalmodelisanexpansionupontheoverallstructureofthenationalmodelinFigure3.ThesectorsanalyzedinSection5.0would becomethecomponentsoftheregionalmodelusingspecificcases.6.2LifeZones Amajorcontributiontotheunderstandingofaregionanditsmanagement comesthroughclassificationoflandcapabilityandthencomparingthiswithactualuse.TheHoldridgeLifeZonesystemcanserveasthebasisforcapabilityassessment.Thesystenisbasedonreadilyavailabledataonprecipitation,temperature,andevapotranspirationassociatedwiththelatitudeandelevationfoundinanarea(Figure6).TheLifeZonecanbefurtherbrokendownintocapabilityunitsbasedonlocalconditionsofsoil,slope,drainage,andclimaticanomaliessuchascloudforestconditions.Classificationinvolvesa teameffortbyanecologist,forester,geomorphologist,soilscientistandagronomist.Eachspecialistpreparesamapoflimitationswhichareusedtomake acompositecapabilitymap. Thecapabilitymapcanbeoverlainwithmapsofroads,settlementactualand/orproposedlanduseinordertoassessconflictsandopportunities(Tosi,1975).6.3Policies,programsandprojectsAninventoryofcurrentandproposedprojectsincludingadescriptionoftheunderlyinginstitutionalandnationalpoliciesandprogramsprovidesthebasisforregionalassessment6.4ConstraintsandconflictsAnalysisofaproposedproject,firstinthecontextofthedynamicsoftheregionalmodel andsecondincomparisonwithlandcapabilitymapsallowsidentificationofconstraintsandpotentialconflicts.Forexample,iftheregion,areviewoftheothersectoralactivitieswouldindicatewhetherapenetrationroadoranagrarianreformcolonizationprojectwereinprogress.Thesewouldobviouslyconflictwithhydroelectricdevelopmentdue,tothepotentialforsedimentation.Studyofthecapabilitymapwouldindicatewhatuseswouldbemostcompatiblewithenergygeneration

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DIAGRAMFORTHECLASSIFICATIONOFWORLDlIFEZONESORPLANTbyL.R.Holdridge-"..""'VALALTITUDINALBELTS..,,,/" "/"I0yV.f''l0'\",.I\\,lfi'\,1\,,'",>"1\\'\,t''\v\,\\'\\,..\,,\'\,\..OLAItLATITUDINALREGIONSoNluel'OLAIteO"EAL-"'AL"'''!r:.g..",,0"..".n.,151_.,.SCIENCECENTER,SaftJoM,C.".'-)lOY\\\\\o.eoO.u0\2'Oc\t25001125\PERHUMIJ\SUPERHUMID\SE..SAlURATED\SUlISATUIIATED\rc"ri'"510ii,'"l;..,"'0'...."1010on.-'4'4-"'2..-"'0-171.-...MONTANELOWE"MONTANE=z-'"l;l-::IL.2584112JO"'OCHUMIDITY PROVINCESFIGURE6,1I 'Il.-/,'\/','\,'\,',I / IIII11'1'1'1I1 11/"1111/11/11/'1"',/'11I1111//'1/.'1/1/IIIIIII'\\\\\,,\\\\\'\\1400'!.{lO11.001.004.002.00'.00\SEMIPARCHED\SUPRARID\PERARID\AAI!'\SE...ARID\SUBHUNIO\HUMIDCOOLTE....E...l!III-,.lAllilt-II...01.11-,.,104,_""",,"'...,""",."'It.11,_,,,,"'ttl0't ....."', wrtiPte'''tf,.(Thi"1_I,I.nt.,i,.,.,>",...11..11..1.

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-------------------c---------------------------------------------------21J6.5Conflictresolutionand managementopportunitiesProposedactionstoeithermitigateaconflictortakeadvantageofanopportunityinvolveasequenceoffeasibilitystudies.Thesesequentialstepsare:J.,JOJ..j]1.Ecologicalfeasibility-theenvironmentalsciences,suchasecology,forestryandagronomy,evaluateoptionsbasedupontheopportunitiesandlimitationsinherentintheclimate,soilsandlandformsofthestudyarea2.Socioculturalfeasibility-theruralsociologistoranthropologistevaluatestheeffectofaprojectbasedontheintendedbeneficiariesaswellasthoseprejudicedthroughphysicaloreconomicdisplacement.Theprobabilityofacceptanceofchange,capabilitytoapplynewtechnology,andappropriatemechanismsforextensionarealsodetermined.3.Economicfeasibility-presentedwithanarrayofoptionsinagricultureandforestrythathavebeenscreenedforecologicalandsocioculturalappropriateness,theeconomistcanefficientlyperformmarketinganalysestodetermineeconomicfeasibility.4.Institutionalfeasibility-theteamhasanoverallinputtotheassessmentofthetechnicalcompetence,organizationalstructureanddisciplineofthepublicandprivateinstitutionsthatwouldprovidesupporttoaparticularoption.Mostproceduresusedin"environmental"studiesarenegative,beingorientedtowardproblemidentificationandhopefullymitigation.Muchlessattentionhasbeengiventoapplyingtheenvironmentalsciencestofindingdevelopmentopportunities.Twoexampleswillillustratetheopportunityapproach:Reforestationhasbeenmisconstruedtobevirtuallytheonlymeanstorestoreareasdegradedbyovergrazingandsubsistencefarming.Treesareonsitesnocommercialforesterwouldconsider.Theapproachcannotbeextendedbeyondpilotprojectsbecauseitisprohibitivelyexpensive,unattractivetofarmers,relativelyineffectiveanddifficulttomaintain.Twoalternatives

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J J] ]-1]-]JJ]-J22aretoinitiatesuccessionwithagroforestrysystemscoupledwithsoilconservationpracticesgivingfarmersbothshortandlongtermincome,orsecond,toapplythesamefireandgrazingexclusionthatwouldbeappliedtoprotectingaplantationbutletnaturalsuccessiontobeginwatershedrecoverywithouttheexpenseoftreeplanting.scientistsandresearchfacilitiesareoverwhelminglydedicatedtosinglecrops.Tremendousexpendituresaremadetoforcemonocultureproductiondespiteenvironmentalconstraints.TheecologistactingasanagronomistseekscomplementarycropandanimalecosystemsadaptedtoparticularLifeZoneswhichrequirelessexpensivechemicalandenergysubsidies7.0Programandprojectrecommendations(15pp.)Thepurposeoftherecommendationsistoprovidethecountry,AIDandotherspecificallyselecteddonorswithrecommendationsthatconstitutepre-feasibilitystudiesor,inAIDterminology,adetailedoutlineofaConceptPaper.Therecommendationshouldreceivethetypeoffeasibilityoutlinedin6.5above.Emphasiswillbeuponinnovativedevelopmentprojectsdesignedtosustaintheflowofgoodsandserviceswhichsupportdevelopment.Amajorchallengeisthedesignandtestingofamixofprotectiveandproductiveactivitiesinthewatershedsofmajorinfrastructureprojectswhichsignificantlyimprovetheeconomicwell-beingofthepopulationwhilemaintainingthewaterqualityrequirementsfordownstreamusers.Otherrecommendationsmayincludepolicyformulation,institutionaldevelopment,educationandresearch.Researchisparticularlyimportant.Recommendationsshouldfocusonsignificantgapsofknowledgerevealed':duringtheProfileprocess.RecommendationsshouldoutlineverifiableobjectivesforprojectstofacilitateevaluationinfutureProfileupdates.8.0TheupdatingprocessTheProfileshouldbedesignedfromthebeginningtofacilitateupdateatintervalsnotexceedingfiveyears.Thesystemandsector

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-]].,j]-]J1])]J9.023modelsinFigures2,and3aredesignedtoprovideeasilyupdat;edaccounts.Changesinstatevariablessuchasareasincertaintypesofagricultureorforestcoverandchangesinflowssuchascropyieldsorfishcatchcanbecompared.Suchmeasuresaloneareonlyindicators,subjecttomeasurementerror,changesincriteria,etc.,howeverwhencoupledwithfieldchecksandinterviews,avalidperspectivecanbegainedonthestateoftheenvironment.Suchanapproachappliedtospecificdevelopmentprojectscanyieldinvaluabledataonthecosts,benefitsandconflictsGiventheshortmemoryofinstitutions,thetendencyofreportstodisappearandthefrequentabandonmentoflongtermexperiments-ataskofcreatingasecure,butaccessible,archiveforenvironmentalinformationshouldbeconsidered.LocatingsuchanarchiveinaPVOorprivateuniversitywouldappeartobethebeststrategy.Fundingonacontinuingbasisofdatastorage,catalogingandaccessingserviceshouldbeconsideredbythedonorcommunitybecauseofthedirectvaluetofutureprojects.RelationofProfiletootherdonoractivities(4pp.).-SeveralindependentprocessesareparallelingAID'sEnvironmentalProfilesineffortstointegratethe"environmentalfactor"indevelopmentplanningandprojects.TheseactivitiesincludeWorldBank's"Upstreaming"process,theIUCNNationalConservationStrategies,andtheUNEPClearingHouseconcept(notreviewed).TheobjectivesoftheWorld BonkprocessareverysimilartothoserecounnendedfortheProfiles."Upstream"referstothestrategicgoalofincorporatingenvironmentalconcernsinpolicydecisionspriortotheformulationofspecificprojects(WorldBmk,1983).Thefourobjectivesare:1.alteringthemixofprojectssothatenvironmentalconcernsarebetterrepresented.Calledforisa more humanscaleandfocustoBankprojects,lessdependenceonfossilfuelsandmassiveinfrastructure.2.Improvingtheenvironmentalqualitiesofindividualprojects.Thisistheon-goingroleoftheOfficeofEnvironmentalAffairs

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-l]J-]]l-]JJ..JJ-124insensitizingBankstaff.Upstreamingwouldreducetheflowofenvironmentallyunsatisfactoryprojects.3.Improvedenvironmentaladvicetomembergovernments.The Bankalreadyprovidesextensivedevelopmentcounseling.Thiswouldincludeanenvironmentalcomponent.4.Improvingtheenvironmentalperformanceofotherdevelopmentinstitutions(e.g.,IDB,ADB,OAS,EEC,bilateralsandPVOs).Thiswouldinvolveanoutreachprocessthrough'seminars,conferencesandinformalexchange.TheNationalConservationStrategies,anoutgrowthoftheWorldConservationStrategy,seekstoprovidea"strategicapproachtothemanagementofnaturalresourceuse."(IUCN,1983).FreeoftheexplicitmandateofAIDandtheWorld Banktodealwiththedevelopmentproblemsofthe"poorestofthepoor",theNCSdealsopenlywiththeshort-termsacrificesthatwouldbeentailedinachievinglong-termsustainabledevelopment.WhileAIDhasthelongesthistoryinnationallevelenvironmentaldocumentation,wearetalkingaboutfouryearssincethefirstProfilewaspreparedin1979.MOstProfilespreparedunderAIDfundinghavebeenavailableinquantitytoprofessionalsforlessthanayear.Allparties,AID, World Bank andIUCNareintheprocessofreviewingtheirfirstefforts.Allthreeapproachesarelookedupon bythoseinthemainstreamofdevelopmentassistanceasbeingeitheradversariedorsomewhatirrelevant.InAIDenvironmentalconsiderationsarelegallymandated,butthespiritofapplyingenvironmentalscienceexpertiseindevelopmentprojectshasbeenslowincoming.Muchofthefaultlieswithusintheenvironmentalmovement.Wehaveinsistedonseparatingenvironmentandconservationfromdevelopmentandthuseffectivelyisolatedourselvesfromthosewewishtoinfluence,andworse,fromthoseweostensiblywishtohelp.

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J J.,,.,J]..,IJ.,JJ J J-125ThePlaceofFutureCountryEnvironmentalProfilesPlaceintheoverallAIDenvironmentalpolicyThereisacrucialdivergencebetweenAID'senvironmentalpolicyanditsfundamentaldevelopmentmission.Environmentalpolicyisoverwhelminglyproblemwhiledevelopmentisasearchforanintrinsicallypositivemission.Notrecognizedisthesignificantpositivecontributionthatatimelyandsystematicapplicationofenvironmentalscienceexpertisecouldmaketodevelopment.Thisbutisbyno meanslimitedlandcapabilityassessment.designofhighernetyieldagriculturalsystems,multipurposeforestmanagementandlowcostwastetreatment.EnvironmentalAssessments.NowhereisthisnegativecastemoreentrenchedthanintheEnvironmentalAssessmentprocess.ForceduponAIDasanextensionoftheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyActassessmentsarelookeduponbymanyinthefieldasacostlyCongressionallymandatedchoreunrelatedtodevelopment.TheEnvironmentalAnalysisPolicy(PD-6,1983)reinforcesaonenegativeapproach."EliminatedfromAID'srequirementofenvironmentalreviewarecategoriesofprojectswithlittleornolikelihoodof[negative}environmentalimpact.projectswhicharemostlikelytoresultinsignificantadverseimpactandwhichwillalwaysneedfurtherdetailedenvironmentalstudyareidentified."ThatanEnvironmentalAssessmentcanbetransformedintoadevelopmentassessmentandbecome afullyintegratedpartofProjectPaperpreparationcanbeillustratedbyrecentAIDexperienceinPeru.The UpperHuallagaprojectinvolvedcocaeradicationandhencewashighlycontroversial,triggeringanEnvironmentalAssessment.TheProjectPaperconsultantsfailedtoproduceasatisfactorydocumentandtheprojectmanager wasforcedtousemuchoftheEAteam'salternativeagriculturalsystemsdesigntoproducetheProjectPaper.BasedonthefortuitoussuccessintheHuallagaprojectdesign,thePalcazuProjectwasdesignedfromtheoutsetwiththeEnvironmentalAssessmentgeneratingoptionsfortheProjectPaper(Network,3/83).InEgypttheEnvironmentalAssessmentofamajor($1.2Billion)wastewatermanagementprojectwasusedtobroadenthescopeofthefeasibilitystudy.BecauseofthelegalstatusoftheAssessmentitcouldbeusedtoleveragedecisionsthatwouldotherwisebecomecontentiousprofessional

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l]J-J]lj]-]".J.JJJ-126orpoliticalissues.LeveragewasexertedbothbyAIDandbyoneEgyptianinstitutionuponanother(Pers.StephenLintner).TheNigerLivestockProjectusedtheInitialEnvironmentalEvaluation(lEE)asthevehicleforacomprehensiveinventoryofecologicalandnaturalresourceinformation(Pers.GeorgeThompson). AfundamentalchangeinthefocusanduseofEnvironmentalAssessmentprocedurestobothenhancedevelopmentdirectlyaswellastomitigatenegativeimpactsispossiblewithoutviolatingthespiritofNEPAortheletterof22CPRPart216.Infact,suchanapproachisclearlyadvocatedinthePurposeofNEPA.Broaderapplicationof"ainterdisciplinaryapproachwhichwillinsuretheintegrateduseofthenaturalandsocialsciencesandtheenvironmentaldesignartsinplanningandindecisionmaking "Section102(2)(A))--wouldhavetwosignificantbenefitsFirst,AIDwouldbeassuredthatdevelopmentprojectdesignwouldbenefitfromthebroadesttechnicalinput.thePD-6policyobjectivesof"buildingtheinstitutionalandscientificcapacityrequiredforassessingandsolvingtheircriticalenvironmentalandnaturalresourcesproblems."canbeachievedmoreeffectivelyinbothAssessmentsandProfiles.--EnvironmentalAssessmentshavebeenanintegralpartofAID'sformalproceduresformorethanayettheexamplesof"compliancewiththespiritoftheregulationsaretheexceptionsratherthantherule.ThemajorityofmainstreamAIDofficerssimplydonotconsider"environment"toberelevanttodevelopment.Giventhisattitudeitisno wonderthatneitherAssessmentsnorProfileshavebeenusedregularlyasavehicleforbuildingenvironmentalinstitutionsinhostcountries.Assessmentsareconductedonlywhenthereisthethreatoflegalactionortheletterofthelawpermitsnoescape.AnAIDofficerin.:theDominicanRepublicusedtheterm"blackmail"figurativelytodescribehowtheywereconvincedofthevalueofdoingaProfile.CountryEnvironmentalProfileswillfindaplaceinoverallAIDenvironmentalpolicywhenenvironmentisacceptedasalegitimatedevelopmentconcernbyAIDprofessionals.UnfortunatelyenvironmentasreflectedintheAssessmentproceduresandintheProfilesis.onlymarginallyrelevanttoAID'smission.Theenvironmentalmovementingeneralhastakengreatpainstodistanceitselffromdevelopmentandinthepoorpeople.Nowwesawthat

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-Jj?1'":.of-J]1j]-J]J-]J27developmentreallydependsonafunctioningenvironment,butnooneislisteningverycarefullyinthebudgetingsession,orthecorridorsoftheBankorinthebackwatersofOlancho.InthewordingandapproachadvocatedintheserecommendationsforfutureEnvironmentalProfilesanovertefforthasbeenmadetopresentaconvincingcasefortheroleoftheenvironmentalsciencesindevelopment.PlaceintheDevelopmentProjectPlanningProcessFigure7illustratesanexpandedroleforenvironmentalscienceinputsingeneral.RetainedistheinputtotheCDSSwhichshouldhaveastrategicplanningroleininfluencingthefocusandmixoffutureprojects,muchalongthelinesofWorldBank's"upstreaming"concept.TheInitialEnvironmentalEvaluation(lEE)ofthefuturewillbestrengthenedbytheProfileallowingthedraftortodeterminehowapotentialprojectmightinteractwiththeenvironmentpositivelyaswellasnegatively.TheCountrymodel(Section4.1)andappropriatesectorandregionalmodelsinSections5,0and6.1oftheProfilewillhelp.Shouldanyinteractionbefound,therevolutionaryideaoffollowingupwithanEnvironmentalAssessmentwouldbepursued,notbecauseoffromCulturalSurvivalorFriendsoftheEarth,butbecausetheenvironmentalsciencesmighthavesomethingusefultocontribute.Forexample,inthecaseofa communitywastewatercollectionandtreatmentproposal,typicallytheAIDengineerandhiscounterpartinthehealthministrywouldsimplydustoffandadaptapackageplantdesignand a"Negative"impact)lEE wouldbesubmitted.Alternatively,anenvironmentalassessment(perhapsateamoftwo)wouldexplorethelinkageofurbanwastewithanagricultural/aquaculturalsystem,thenemployinganexistingswampforfinalpolishingbeforeeffluentwaterreachestheriver.FormallyincludedintheAssessmentprocesswouldbethefeedbackof'basicenvironmentalinformationtoupdatetheProfiledatabase.TheProfilewillserveabasicreferenceforConceptPaperpreparation,Section7.0willcontainoutlinesforhighpriorityitemseitherasthebasisforAIDprojectsorforpromotionwiththegovernment,andotherdonors.AlthoughAIDisnotintomajorinfrastructuralprojects,itsmajorcurrentcommitmenttoenvironmentalmanagement(naturalresourceandforestryprojects)andtointegratedruraldevelopmentwouldhaveasynergisticeffectif

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i',------EnvironmentalProfilesConceptPaperEnvironmentalAssessment Governmentap.dotherDonorsOPGProjectCDSS,untryDevelop-1----......,otStrategyatementABSAnnual Budget Subm:lssionProjeclIdenU..ficationDoc.PPProjectPaper1----0[>PIO/Tssion+HostGov't.CongressionalAllocationsMissionStaffOutsideTeamMissionStaffD.C.Staff. C.:aff"AID/WorConsultantsIQC'sorotherContractorsRFPSectorAnalysisFigure7.DevelopmentProjectPlanningProcess

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J]1]-]1)]J]J29 combinedwithIBD/WBprojectswherewatershedmanagementissorelyneglected.Whycouldn'tAID/HondurashaveanaturalresourcemanagementprojectintheCajonDamwatershedratherthantheCholotecaorintegratedruraldevelopmentinEcuador'sPauteorPostozawatershedsratherthanintheSalcedoarea?Section6.3willidentifysuchopportunitieswhichthenwouldbedetailedasprojectconceptsin7.0.--

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J]lj]1]."JIJ""]J-130BackgroundConceptsEnvironmentandNaturalResourcesGhostsofEarthDay.Thereisdecidednervousnessamongvariousorganizationsabouttheword"environment"andanattemptisunderwaytoquietlyscuttlethetermandsubstitute"naturalresources"asa morepoliticallyviablesynonym. Thetwotermshaveusefullydifferentmeanings.AnOrwelliantranspositionwouldbothimpoverishourvocabularyandweakenourpotentialcontributiontodevelopment.NaturalResources.Naturalbothrenewableandarematerialgoodstheconsumptionofwhicharedeemednecessaryordesirabletomaintainagivenlevelofdevelopment.Plantandanimalwaterandmineralsarecommonexamples.Therationalorsustainedyield)managementofrenewablenaturalresourcesforthebenefitofpresentandfuturegenerationsisagenerallythoughwidelyconceptinforestryandhydrology.theterm"naturalresources"isfamiliarandunthreatening.Environment.Environmentisthelayman'stermfortheworldaroundus.Itisthearrayofdynamicecologicalterrestrialandwildandhumandominated,thatsupportlife.Thisecosystemincludesthephysicalsubstrateoflandandtheinteractinglivingcomponentandthetideandsolarderivedenergies'thatdrivesystemprocesses.GoodsandServices.istheprocessofmanagingtheenvironmenttoproducethegoodsandservicesrequiredtosustainandimprovehumanwell-being.Goodsarethenaturalresourcesdefinedabovewhichareharvestedorextractedfromtheenvironment.Servicesarethosedynamicprocessesintheenvironmentwhichdirectlyorindirectlybenefitsociety.Thesegoodsandserviceshavescientificandecosystemmaintenancevaluesfordifferentconstituences.Examplesinclude: Thedynamicinteractionofplants,soilandprecipitationwhichresultsinaquiferregulatedrunoffofhighqualitywaterwitha minimumsedimentcontent. The combinedbiologicalandphysicalprocessesinanaquaticecosystemwhichpurifywastes. Theroleoftidalactioninmakingcoastalmarshesandswampsasproductiveasintensivelycultivatedfarmland.

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..JJ..J."]..],IJjJ.,JJ31 Therecreational,aestheticandscientificfunctionsandvaluesofnaturalandmanagedareas. The manyprocessessuchasnutrientrecycling,soilformation,po11enationandsuccessionwhichmakethesustainedproductionofgoodspossible.Becauseoftheintrinsicdifferencesbetweengoodsandservicesitdoesnotmakesensetosubstitutea morelimitedconcept,naturalresources(goods)fora moredynamicandinclusiveterm,environmentwhentalkingaboutdeve10p-ment.--

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Jj]JJjJ"132DevelopmentconflictsintheenvironmentDevelopmentforwhom?Whoseenvironment?Inpracticewearesurroundedbyasmanyenvironmentsasthereareindividuals,interestgroupsandsectorsstrivingtoimprovetheirwell-being.Forexample,inasinglewatershedoverlapmayoccuramongtheinterestsofthepowerindustry,indigenousgroups,agriculturalcolonization,forestry,wildlifeconservationistsandfisheries.Inevitablythesectorsandenvironmentalcomponentsgeneratinggoodsandservicesgenerateproblemsforeachother.Theseintersectoralconflictsaffecthumanwell-being,andhencedevelopment.Forexample,sedimentsreduceelectricpowergeneration,pesticideskillfood,fishandurban-industrialwastesaffectpotablewatersuppliesdown-stream.Development,asdefinedabove,isadverselyaffectedwhengovernmentfailstoguideandcontrolactivitiesinthesectoralenvironmentsinordertoresolveorminimizeconflicts.Theseconflictswhichlimitdevelopmentarecalledenvironmentalproblems.Thisidentifiesthem amongotherinterrelateddevelopmentproblemssuchasrapidpopulationgrowth,inequitabledistributionofresources,lackofeducation,disfunctionalinstitutionsandhighcostoffossilfuelenergy.Environmentall1anagementforsustainabledevelopmentManagingtheoverallenvironmentforsustaineddevelopmentrequiresasystematicapproachinvolvingterrestrialandaquaticecologists,thegeomorphologist,expertsinforestry,agriculture,fisheriesandengineeringworkingcloselywiththeeconomist,socialscientist,politicianandpeasant.

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...J,-,j!]...!!II!ij.JJ..J-J..JJJ-133Thecountryenvironmentalprofileisanintegralpartofacountry'sdevelopmentstrategy.Itservesasabenchmarkestablishingthestateoftheenvironmentwhichsupportsdevelopment.Theprofilealsoestablishesaprocessforupdatingthestatusofthecountry'slifesupportsystemandidentifiesdevelopmentopportunitiesandconflicts.--

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1.'.-IJj!:-!-j]-I)J],""JJ--1.,fill..ReferencesConsultedAgencyforInternationalDevelopment.AnnualBudgetSubmissionForYearDominicanRepublic(June,1983)Ecuador(June,1983)Honduras(June,1983)Peru(June,1983)AgencyforInternationalDevelopment,CountryDevelopmentStrategyStatement:Honduras,ForYear1983(January,1981)Ecuador,Forear1985(May,1983)CountryEnvironmentalProfilesfor:Bolivia(July,1980)DominicanRepublic(July,1981)Honduras(August,1982)Panama(August,1980)Turkey(December,1981)Zaire(1982)UpperVolta(July,1982)AgencyforInternationalDevelopment..EnvironmentalAssessmentGuidelines,September,1974.AgencyforInternationalpolicyDetermination:EnvironmentalandNaturalResourceAspectsofDevelopmentAssistance,April26,1983.Blake,Robert,B.J.Lausche,et.a1.AidingtheEnvironment:AStudyoftheEnvironmentalPolicies,ProceduresandPerformanceoftheU.S.AgencyforInternationalDevelopment(NationalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,February,1980).CentrodeInvestigacionyPromocionCostosSocia1esde1aDeforestacionIN.CulturalsurvivaI-Quart-eriy,--DocUrile-nto6,Juniode1983DepartmentofState,AgencyforInternationalProjectPaper:DominicanRepub1-icAgriculturalSectorLoanII,AID-DLC/P-2186(june,1976).Freeman,Peter-H.Profi1es:-AReviewofProgressasofFebruary,1980.FundacionNatura.Eco1og{ayDesarrollo,INPRESS 34

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--c=;.:.:!... i35TheStateofIndia'sEnvironment,1982:ACitizen'sReport.NewDelhi:CentreforScienceandEnvironment.EvidenciasdelDeterioroAmbientalenelEcuador.Quito:Marzo,1982Hartshorn,PrimerInformedelAsesoralProyectoDiagnosticoSobreelMedioAmbiente.Quito,Ecuador:Fundaci6nNatura,4deDiciembre,1980.'/EnvironmentalMay,1983.Goodland,UstreaminSaunier,Richard.USAIDDominicanRepublicCountryEnvironmentalProfileandtheDevelopmentPlanningProcess.(DiscussionPaper)InternationalDevelopmentProgram,CenterforTechnology,EnvironmentandDevelopment,ClarkUniversity,Worcester,USAID'sNewApproachtoEnvironmentalImpactINNetworkforEnvironmentandDevelopment,Vol.3No.1,March,1983.Saunier,ahdthe(mimeo)Lieberman,GeraldandDianeEvaluationofOperationalProgramGranttoFundaci6nNaturainEcuador.(PreparedforAID,BureauforLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean:forPresentationtoUSAID /Quito)Washington,D.C:InternationalScienceandTechnologyInstitute,Inc.,September,1982.InternationalUnionforNationalConservationStrategies:AReporttoDevelopmentAssistanceAgenciesonProgressandPrioritiesinPlanningforSustainableDevelopment(DRAFT),June,1983.Tosi,J.A.,Jr.SomeRelationshipsofClimatetoEconomicDevelopmentintheTropics.INTheUseofEcologicalGuidelinesforDevelopmentintheAmericanHumidTropics.Morges,Switzerland:InternationalUnionforConservationofNatureandNaturalResources.UnitedStatesInternationalDevelopmentCooperationAgency,.AgencyforInternationalDevelopment.DominicanRepublicProjectNaturalResourceManagement.july17,1981.UnitedStatesInternationalDevelopmentCooperationAgency,AgencyforInternationalDevelopment.22CPRPart216,EnvironmentalProcedures.October,1980.J1"].-J].,J-j]-]lj]."JJ-J.J-1