Dominican Republic

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Dominican Republic country environmental profile : a field study
Physical Description:
xii, 118 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hartshorn, Gary S
JRB Associates
Publisher:
JRB Associates
Place of Publication:
McLean, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural resources -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 111-114.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gary Hartshorn et al..
General Note:
"AID contract no. AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247."
General Note:
"July, 1981."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 15303150
aleph - 016387372
Classification:
lcc - HC153.5 .H3 1981
System ID:
AA00001395:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
Country Environmental A Field Study
Profile


The Dominican Republic by:
Country Environmental Gary Hartshorn
Profile Gustavo Antonini
Random DuBois
A Field Study David Harcharik
Stanley Heckadon Harvey Newton Carlos Quesada John Shores George Staples
AID Contract No. AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247
July, 1981
JRB Associates 8400 Westpark Drive McLean, Virginia 22102


Preface
This environmental profile of the Dominican Republic is one of a series of country environmental profiles (CEPs) sponsored by the U.S. Agency for Internationa! Development, Office of Development Resources, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean (AID/DR/LAC). The scope of work for this in-country study was developed jointly by the AID mission in the Dominican Republic and Robert Otio, the environmental officer for LAC. Contractual arrangements for the profile, including publication, were handled by JRB Associates, 8400 Westpark Drive, McLean, Virignia 22102 (IQC: AID/SOD/PDC-C-024/). The following individuals contributed to the field study and preparation of this CEP:
PjjI J. Campanella, Ph.D., Ecologist, JRB Project Manager
Gary Hartshorn, Ph.D, Ecologist and Team
Leader/Editor
Tiopical Science Center
Apartado 8-3879
San Jose, Costa Rica
Gustavo Antonini, Ph.D., Geographer Center for Latin American Studies University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
Random DuBois, M.S., Marine Ecologist 3546 Alton Place Washington, D.C. 20008
David Harcharik, Ph.D., Forester School cf Forest Resources North Carolina State University
Stanley Heckadon, Ph.D., Rural Anthropologist Apartado 1462 Panama 1, Panama
Harvey Newton, Ph.D., Soil Scientist-Agronomist Apartado 63 Escazu, Costa Rica
Carlos Quesada, Ph.D., Civil Engineer Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Universidad de Costa Rica Gudad Universitaria, Costa Rica
John Shores, Wildlands Management Specialist School of Natural Resources University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109
George Staples P.E., Environmental Engineer JRB Associates 8400 Westpark Drive McLean, VA 22102
The CEP team was ably assisted by a team of Dominican counterparts organized and coordinated by Lie. Italo Russo, technical advisor of SURENA. The active participation of excellent counterparts not only provided valuable input to this CEP, but added a new component to the CEP process. Superb logistical support was provided Ly the local AID mission, SURENA, DNP, FORESTA and ALCOA. Special appreciation and gratitude is warmly extended to Andy Abreu, Orlando Almargoz, Fausto Grisanti, Gary Kemph, Cesar Lopez, Merilio Morell, Manuel Paulet, Ernesto Reyna, Italo Russo and Bias Santos, who went beyond their official duties to assist the CEP team. Many other Dominicans, too numerous to mention here, provided information and assistance that is greatly appreciated. These source persons are listed in an appendix. The CEP team wishes to publicly acknowledge the warm hospitality and professional comraderie received during their stay in the Dominican Republic.
HI


PfflfiUS PAGE BLAi
Table of Contents
PREFACE......................................................................................
LIST OF FlGUftES............................................................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES................................................................................. ix
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBBEVIATION8......................................................... xi
I. SUMMARY................................................................................... 1
Natural Vegetation.......................................................................... 1
Plantation Forestry.......................................................................... 2
Water.................................................................................... 2
Soils..................................................................................... 2
Coastal and Marine Resources.................................................................. 3
Wildlands and Wildlife....................................................................... 3
Small Farmers.............................................................................. 4
Pollution.................................................................................. 4
Inter-Institutio-.al Linkages.................................................................... 5
Human Resources........................................................................... 5
II. INTRODUCTION............................................................................. 7
Objectives and Scope........................................................................ 7
Principal Environmental Characteristics........................................................... 7
Development Policies and Natural Resources Management............................................. 10
Demographic and Economic Aspects............................................................. H
III. NATURAL VEGETATION...................................................................... 13
Gp.ieral Description.......................................................................... 13
Status of Major Forest Types................................................................... 18
Flora..................................................................................... IS
IV. PLANTATION FORESTRY..................................................................... 23
Introduction............................................................................... 2,'<
Status of Rantation Forertry.................................................................... 23
Technical Evaluation of Forest Plantations.......................................................... 25
The Need for Forest Plantations...................................... ........................ 26
Constraints on Progress...............................................,....................... 27
Institutional Analysis of the Direccion General Forestal................................................ 28
Other Government Institutions Involved in Forestry.................................................. 29
Recommendations........................................................................... 30
V. WATER RESOURCES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT........................................... 31
Introduction............................................................................... 31
The Role of Water Resources................................................................... 31
v


Table of Contents (continued)
Resource Base.............................................................................. 32
Current and Projected Demands................................................................. 37
Resource Management........................................................................ 42
Major Problems and Issues..................................................................... 44
Conclusions................................................................................ 45
Recommendations........................................................................... 4o
VI. SOILS...................................................................................... 47
Resource Base.............................................................................. 47
Current and Projected Land Use................................................................. 47
Resource Management........................................................................ 51
Principal Problems and Needs................................................................. 54
Conclusions and Recommendations.............................................................. 58
Vn. COASTAL AND NEAR-SHORE MARINE RESOURCES............................................. 59
Marine Fisheries............................................................................ ^3
Fresh Water Fisheries.........................................................................
Exotic Species Introduction.................................................................... 66
Endangered Species and Critical Habitats.......................................................... 66
Mining................................................................................... 68
Ports..................................................................................... f
Tourism.................................................................................. "
Recreation.................................................................................
Natural Disasters............................................................................ 9
Institutional Analysis......................................................................... 69
Conclusions............................................................................... 7"
Recommendations........................................................................... 71
VIII. WILDLANDS AND WILDLIFE................................................................. 73
Status of Native Wildlife...................................................................... 73
Status of Wildlands.......................................................................... 74
no
Resource Miinagement........................................................................ lo
Principal Problems and Needs.................................................................. 82
Recommendations........................................................................... 8-
IX. SMALL FARMERS............................................................................ 85
Introduction.............................................................................. 85
Ecological Implications of Agrarian Trends.................................... .................... 85
Production System in the Southwest.............................................................. 86
Institutional Analysis......................................................................... 90
Crucial Challenges During the 1980's............................................................. 91
X. POLLUTION................................................................................. 93
Introduction............................................................................... 93
Water Supplies and Water-Related Diseases........................................................ 94
Industrial Pollution.......................................................................... 95
Rural Environmental Problems.................................................................. 97
Urban Environmental Problems................................................................. 99
Summary.................................................................................. 101
XI. INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS.................................................................... 103
Major Institutions........................................................................... 103
Inter-Institutional Linkages..................................................................... 104
Human Resources........................................................................... 105
Budgeting and Financing...................................................................... 105
Conclusions and Recommendations.............................................................. 108
BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................. 111
APPENDIX..................................................................................... 115
vl


List of Figures
Figure II-l. Political divisions and geographic features of the Dominican Republic............................ 8
Figure II-2a. Pico Durate, highest point in the Antilles and La Pelona, second highest. Pure pine forest of native
Pinus occidtnlalis.................................................................... 9
Figure II-2b. Convoluted karst topography of limestone hills and sinks, Los Haitises........................... 9
Figure H-3a. The effects of Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979 on the deforested hills in the Rio Ocoa watershed........................................................................... 10
Figure il-3b. Abundant landslides in a deforested area with unstable soils between Manobao and Loma de la Sal...... 10
Figure II-4. Rainfall isohyets for the Dominican Republic.............................................. 12
Figure III-l. Life Zone diagram for the Holdridge Classification of World Plant Formations...................... 14
Figure III-2. Location of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic.................................. 15
Figure III- 3a. Subtropical dry forest between Barahona and Azua......................................... 16
Figure III-3b. Subtropical dry forest overlooking Lake Enriquillo.......................................... 16
Figure III-4a. Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este......................................... 16
Figure III-4b. Subtropical moist forest near La Vega converted to seasonal crops and pasture..................... 17
Figure III-5a. Deforested karst topography, Los Haitises................................................ 17
Figure Ill-iJb. Denuded landscape in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed........................................ 18
Figure IV-la. Reforestation in Manobao with Pinus occidentalis............................................. 25
Figure IV-lb. Subtropical wet pine 'orest near La Vega...............................,................. 27
Figure V-la. Watershed degradation on the southern flank of the Cordillera Central........................... 32
Figure V-lb. Complete deforestation at the margin of the Sabana Yegua reservoir............................ 32
Figure V-2. The Sabaneta reservoir and its deforested watershed........................................ 34
Figure V-3. Hydrogeographic divisions and watersheds............................................... 35
Figure V-4. Isoerosivity map for the Dominican Republic.............................................. 36
Figure V-5. Power balance projections energy demands to 1982....................................... 40
Figure V-6a. Main street of El Rosario inundated by irrigation water....................................... 43
Figure V-6b. Irrigation canal near El Rosario that ends by flooding the area.................................. 43
Figure V-7a. Severe gully erosion the semi-arid lower Sabana-Yegua watershed.............................. 44
Figure V-7b. Sediment load of the major tributary to the Tavera reservoir................................... 44
Figure V-8a. Landslide caused by road building and deforestation in the Cordillera Central..................... 45
Figure V-8b. Landslide activity increased by deforestation.............................................. 45
Figure V-9a. Inoperative irrigation canal near San Jose de Ocoa.......................................... 46
Figure V-9b. Excellent ?,gricultural land near El Rosario lost to poor irrigation management...................... 46
Figure Vl-la. Erosion is converting the Cordillera Central from renewable to non-renewable natural resources........ 55
Figure Vl-lb. Complete deforestation in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed..................................... 55
vll


List of Figures (continued)
Figure VI-2a. Denuded landscape in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed......................................... 55
Figure VI-2b. Serious deforestation of upper slopes in the so uthern Cordillera Central.......................... 55
Figure VI-3a. Massive gully and rill erosion in the Rio Ocoa watershed..................................... 56
Figure VI-3b. Steep slopes stripped of soil by the 1979 hurricanes......................................... 56
Figure VII-1. Living and non-living coastal resources maps.............................................. 60
Figure VH-2a. Limestone cliff, Los Haitises........................................................... 63
Figure VII-2b. Coral rock coast on north shore of Isla Saona, Parque Nacional del Este........................... 63
Figure V1I-3a. White sand beach and coconut palms, Parque Nacional del Este................................. 63
Figure VH-3b. Scars of uncontrolled extraction of beach sand near the Nigua River............................. 68
Figure VTI-1. Sabana Vieja Valley surrounded by beautiful pine forests in the Jcse del Carmen Rodriguez National
Park............................................................................ 77
Figure Vffl-2a. Isla Cabritas National Park severely degraded (1977) by charcoal-making and goat browsing........... 78
Figure VIII-2b. Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este......................................... 78
Figure IX-la. Slash and burn agriculture opening the subtropical dry forest near Padre las Casas................... 87
Figure IX-lb. Slash and burn agriculture on shallow, rocky soil in degraded subtropical dry forest in the lower
Sabana Yegua watershed............................................................. 88
Figure IX-2a. Carrying branches and small stems to make charcoal......................................... 88
Figure IX-2b. Stack of sticks ready to be converted into charcoal.......................................... 88
Figure IX-3a. Subtropical dry forest seriously depleted by cutting for charcoal................................ 89
Figure IX-3b. Woodcutter in the Parque Nacional del Este............................................... 89
Figure X-l. Falconbridge open pit mining and smelting operations in the Sierra de Yamasa..................... 97
vlil


List of Tables
Table III-l. Area of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic..................................... 13
Tabic III-2. Classes of actual land use or cover in the Dominican Republic.................................. 18
Table lU-3. Comparative estimates of major forest types in the Dominican Republic.......................... 19
Table III-4. Threatened and endangered plant species in the Dominican Republic............................ 20
Table IV-1. Estimated areas and locations of government forest plantations established in the Dominican Republic
through 1978..................................................................... 23
Table V-l. Projected investments in water resources and energy related projects for the 1980-82 period........... 32
fable V-2. Characteristics of the hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic....................... 33
Table V-3. Surface water resources by hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic................... 37
Table V-4. Hydrogeolo^ic zones, water demand and water resources in the Dominican Republic................ 38
Table V-5. Actual and potential land for irrigation................................................... 39
Table V-6. Installed electrical capacity, 1980....................................................... 39
Table V-7. Projected population served with potable water and sewage systems in the Dominican Republic........ 41
Table V-8. Projected urban, rural, and industrial demands for 1995 (mcm/yiear) in different hydrogeologic zones..... 41
Table V-9. Total water demand under CAASD administration for the Santo Domingo region............... ... 42
Table VI-1. U.S. soil taxonomy names, map symbols and CRIES (SlfcDRA) number; total area and main
characteristics.................................................................... 48
Table VI-2. Regional distribution of land in farms in 1960,1971, and 1977.................................. 50
Table VI-3. Percentage distribution of land use by farm size and regions................................... 50
T.iHe VI-4. 1979 area and production data for important crops in the Dominican Republic..................... 51
Table VI-5. Commentary on major Resource Production Units (RPU)..................................... 53
Table VI-6. Estimated area (km1) of Resource Production Units by region.................................. 54
Table VI-7. Soil loss by watershed............................................................... 57
Table Yl-8. Land capability classification.......................................................... 57
Table VI-9. Agricultural land and its potential by regions......................................... .... 58
Table VH-1. Macroscopic coastal classification of critical areas........................................... 64
Table VIJ-2. Important ports and number of fishermen............................................... 64
Ttble VII-3. Major regional ports based on landings................................................. 65
Tabic VH-4. Fish imports, exports, value and country of origin or destination................................ 65
Table VII-5. Major aquaculture projects currently being developed or now in production...................... 66
Table VII-6. List of aquatic species introduced into the Dominican Republic................................. 66
Table VD. -7. Threatened and endangered species in coastal and marine habitats.............................. 67
Table VHI-1. Status of selected fauna species in the Dominican Republic.................................... 75
Table VIII-2. Wildlands categories used or proposed in the Dominican Republic.............................. 76
lx


List of Tables (continued)
Table VHI-3. Government institutions affecting wildlands ir. the Dominican Republic.......................... 79
Table VHI-4. Completed and pk led programs of the Departamento de Vida Silvestre......................... 6C
Table VTII-5. Institutions in contact with the Departmento de Vida Silvestre................................. 81
Table X-l. Percentage of national population served by potable water and sanitary sewerage systems............. 94
Table X-2. Characterization of the major industries in the Dominican Republic............................. 96
Table X-i. Estimates of amounts of active ingredients and value of pesticides used in 1979..................... 98
Table XJ-1. Summary listing of current levels and projected increases in professional-technical staffing by field of
specialization..................................................................... 106
Table XI-2. Levels of professional and technical staffing by work-related activities in Dominican institutions....... 107
Table XJ-X Comparison of expenditures by programs in SEA, 1978-80.................................... 108
Table XI-4. Comparison of expenditures by programs in SURENA, 1978-80................................ 108
Table XI-5. Expenditures for the forest protection and control program of the Armed Forces, 1978-80............. 109
x


ist of Acronyms and Abbreviations
)p
3tanico
sd vtastro )e
)pex )a )a
hma 4PV eonarena )raasan toRDE
mjabon
;f(foresta)
>np >rp ta >vs iao )l
mcoopes )resta )dr
b
ecoop ca rhi jndesur jndotec jnapa intec isa
loyola
medio-ambiente
MDH
mnhm
oas
Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional Plan de Desarrollo AGropecuario, SEA Banco Inteiamericano de Desarrollo (- IDB) Jardin Botanico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso" Corporacion de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo Direccion General del Catastro Nacional Corporacion Dominicana de Electriridad Consejo Es ratal de Azucar
Centro Dominicano de Promocion do Exportaciones
Centro Norte de Desarrollo Agropecuario, SEA
Centro Sur de Desarrollo Agropecuario, SEA
Centro de Investigacion Agricola en Zonas Aridas, SEA
Centro de Investigacion de Biologia Marina, UASD
Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Vivienda
Consejo Nacional de Recursos Nadonales
Corporacion de Aqueducto y Alcantarillado de Santiago
Corporacion Dominicana de Empresas Estatales
Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System, SEA
Escuela Agricola de Dajabon
Direccion General Forest a]
Direccion National de Parques
Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros, SEA
Departamento de Tlerras y Aguas, SEA
Departamento de Vida Silvestre, SEA
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rsh'^y Development Ltd.
Federation Nacional de Cooperative Pesqueras
Direccion General Forestal
Government of the Dominican Republic
Instituto Agrario Dominicano
Inter-American Development Bank
Instituto de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperative
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Cooperation
Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos
Instituto de Desarrollo del Suroeste
Ltstituto Dominicano de Tecnologia Industrial
Instituto National de Aguas Potables y Alcantarillados
Institute Teen o! ogico de Santo Domingo
Instituto Superior de Agricultura, Santiago
Instituto Politecnico Loyola
Departamento del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Museo del Hombre Dominicano ( Museo de las Casas Reales) Museo Nadonal de Historia Natural Organization of American States


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations (continued)
ONAP Oficina Nacional dc Administration y Personal
ONAPLAN Oficina Nacional de Planificacion
ONAPRES Oficina Nacional de Presupuesto
OSISA Oficina de Integration Agropecuaria de Azua, SEA
PIDAGRO Programa Integrado de Desarrollo Agropecuario
PLAN SIERRA Plan de Desarrollo Integral "La Sierra", SEA
PNUMA Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente ( UNEP)
PRYN Proyecto Riego Yaque del Norte
SALESIAN A Escuela Agricola Salesiana
SEA Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura
SEAPLAN Subsecretaria de Planificacion Agropecuaria, SEA
SEICA Subsecretaria de Investigacion, Extension e Investigacion, SEA
SESPAS Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social
STP Secretariado Tecnico de la Presidencia
SURENA Subsecretaria de Estado de Recursos Naturales, SEA
UASD Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo
UCE Universidad Central del Este
UCMM Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Santiago
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environmental Program
UNPHU Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriqucz Urena
USAID Agenda de los Estados Unidos par el Desarrollo Internacional
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
ZOODOM Parque Zoologico Nacional
xll


Summary
This environmental profile of the Dominican Republic was car-ried out in a five week period during September-October, 1980, by a nine-man team of specialists in ecology, geography, marine ;; ecology, forestry, rural anthropology, soils, hydrology, wild-; lands/wildlife, and pollution controls. Dominican counterparts arranged by SURENA contributed significantly to the sectorial ; analyses.
The Dominican Republic faces very serious challenges involving food, energy, and population that have already caused substantial environmental degradation and portend a bleak future .not only for her natural resources but for the country as well. ^Despite the expansion of agriculture through major irrigation ^projetfs, the country is a net importer of food. Even though the .government is aggressively developing the country's substantial "hydroelectric potential, imported petroleum provides 85% of the 'national power needs. The Cordillera Central watersheds, that are [absolutely fundamental to irrigated cropland and hydroelectric 'projects, have been and continue to be severely degraded by .slash and burn agriculture. Protection and rehabilitation of critical {watersheds merit emergency measures similar to the 1967 closure jof sawmills and prohibition of tree cutting. With a projected doubling of population within 26 years and no traditional agricultural frontiers remaining, watershed protection and rehabilitation must involve the hillside farmers who have nowhere to go. I In this decade the Dominican Republic must accomplish what |she has b<*en unable or unwilling to do in the recent past: be-'come self-sufficient in food, increase agricultural exports, generate more energy from local renewable resources and implement a (realistic population policy. Only a fundamentally and qualitatively different relationship between the Dominican people and the 'country's natural resources will enable the Dominican Republic |to meet essential goals.
i Major conclusions and recommendations for each sector of Dominican natural resources are summarized below.
Natural Vegetation
Ecologically, nine Holdridge Life Zones occur in the Dominican Republic. Two Life ZonesSubtropical Moist and Subtropical Drycover 68% of the country, yet Subtropical Lower Montane Wet is the most critical Life Zone as a source of water for irrigation and hydropower. The latter Life Zone covers about 7% of the country, primarily in the Cordillera Central, where the major rivers originate.
The recent CRIES inventory of land cover indicates only 14% of the country remains in forest, primarily broad-leaved forests in the arid southwest and northwest. Some also remain in La Altagracia province and in Los Haitises. Due to low stand density, most pine forests were classified as limited rangeland.
The extensive pine forests in the Bermudez and del Carmen Ramirez national parks appear in excellent condition due to the protective efforts of FORESTA and DNP. The same cannot be said, however, for the lowland broad-leaved forests that are receiving intense pressure from slash and burn agriculturalists and from charcoal makers. FORESTA has largely ignored the non-pine forests in enforcing the 1967 law closing sawmills and pro-1 Siting tree cutting. Although different criteria and classification techniques make it difficult to compare forest area statistics in the OAS, FAO and CRIES studies, observations and interviews indicate considerable deforestation continues largely unabated in the broad-leaved forests. Active protection by FORESTA and DNP of the two Cordillera Central national parks seems to have slowed the agricultural advance in the upper valleys. Slash and burn agriculturalists are active in western dry forests as well as the humid forests of Los Haitises and La Altagracia.
Increasing demand for charcoal is largely directed to the dry forests of the southwest. FORESTA's token control of charcoal transport monitors only about 20% of the estimated annual production of 4.8 million sacks. Control and management of tree-cutting for charcoal is non-existent. Charcoal making and goat browsing are causing substantia] site degradation to the dry forests.
The national flora is estimated at 5,600 species, of which about 36% are endemic. A preliminary listing indicates 277 plant species threatened or in danger of extinction. The national botanical garden is very impressive, with an active botanical program. Major Recommendations:
Differentiate specific forest types in the national land cover inventory
Identify the portions of Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Life Zone not already included in national parks and assure their proteciton
Investigate management techniques for improving sustained use of the dry forests for goat browsing and charcoal production
Evaluate unique ecological areas such as minor Life Zones and transitional areas for vegetation remnants or plant


species not already protected in the existing national parks and ensure their survival
Change the status of existing national parks from reserves to legitimate national parks.
Plantation Forestry
There is a serious need in the Dominican Republic to expand forest plantations in order to slow soil erosion, to provide fuel-wood, and to reduce the $30 million annual bill for imported wood products. Since 1969 only some 3,200 ha of forest plantations have been established, of which about 70% were government sponsored. Wood products and site stabilization are the major plantation objectives. The native Pinus occidcnlalis and the exotic P. cribaca var.hondurcnsis are the dominant plantation trees.
FORESTA is the principal government agency involved in plantation forestry, with assistance from FAO (1969)1792) and IDB (since 1977). The Secretariat of Agriculture also has a reforestation component in the Plan Sierra rural development project and in the Bao watershed project. Private reforestation programs involve the multinational firms ALCOA, Gulf & Western, Rosaricf and Falconbridge, with the latter having planted slightly less than 1,000 ha.
Species trials and provenance studies are virtually non-existent in the Dominican Republic. Nursery practices appear to produce acceptable planting stock, but both the vigor of planting stock and the efficiency of operation could be improved. No local data is available on growth and yields.
Despite rampant deforestation and the obvious need for tree plantations in order to reduce Tosion and aid in site rehabilitation, a massive reforestation program is not a workable solution at the present time. Major constraints to plantation forestry include a serious lack of technical expertise, little or poorly defined government land needing reforestation, absence of incentives and guarantees for private efforts in reforestation, and lack of a forestry consciousness. Both traditional plantations and tree planting as a component of agroforestry can play an important role in erosion control and site rehabilitation; however, they must be incorporated in integrated land management programs such as the Plan Sierra.
Plantations of fast-growing trees of high calorific value could appreciably lessen the abusive cutting of dry forests for charcoal. Only a few, small studies of the potentials and needs for fuel-wood plantations are under way. Due to the ecological importance of the remaining pine forests as critical watershed catchments for the country's major rivers, they should not be considered to be a significant source of industrial wood. Any substantial reduction in Dominican imports of wood products should only come about by plantation forestry.
Primary responsibility for Dominican forests and reforestation is in FORESTA, headed by \ military director who is appointed by the President. Most of FORESTA's personnel are field oriented, particularly in forest protection and fire control. The role of the military in FORESTA is politically contentious; however, FORESTA has done a fine job protecting the pine forests of the Cordillera Central. Transferal of FORESTA back to the Secretariat of Agriculture would probably not improve FORESTA's organizational structure, technical expertise or forest vigilance, but would greatly increase the political distance from the Presidency.
Major Recommendations:
Substantially upgrade professional and technical staff of FORESTA
Create a small research unit in FORESTA wilh initial emphasis on species-site selections, growth and yield data, and economic returns of plantation forestry
o Cooperate with other government agencies to begin pilot-scale integrated land managment projects in critical water sheds
Expand reforestation programs
Permit silvicultural treatment of non-critical private forests with the objective of scientific management for sustained timber yield
Educate the public in the values of forest conservation. Water
Water resources play fundamental roles in Dominican agriculture, energy and public health. Reservoirs on major rivers provide water to generate 15% of Dominican energy and to irrigate about 170,000 ha. Current projects will double installed hydroelectric capacity by 1983 and bring an additional 100,000 ha under irrigation by 1985. Many other projects and plans will continue to increase the use of water resources for hydropower and irrigation.
Inland water resources reflect precipitation on the watershed. Many factors influence watershed response, but land-use often has overriding and direct effects on watershed output. Dominican watersheds are in very poor condition due to pervasive conversion of natural forest vegetation to agricultural uses. Slash and burn agriculture, a complete absence of soil conservation techniques, and major hurricanes have devastated several important watersheds.
Massive watershed erosion on the order of 100-500 tons/ha/ year is literally drowning the reservoir with sediments. The Val-desia reservoir has 22 m of sediments at the heel of the dam, only 8 m from the intake; the Tavera reservoir, completed in 1973, already has 18 m of sediments behind the dam causing 40% reduction in dead storage capacity and a 10-14 m loss of active storage.
The deterioration of Cordillera Central watersheds is so critical that the situation requires emergency measures and drastic actions comparable to the 1967 closure of sawmills and prohibiting of tree cutting. But watershed protection and/or rehabilitation is not as simple as closing sawmills. Watersheds are literally full of small farmers eking out a subsistence on their small parcels. Massive resettlement is impossible because there simply is no new frontier for traditional agriculture in the Dominican Republic. Integrated land management involving small farmers is the only viable solution to sustaining watershed productivity.
INDRHI is a/i autonomous government institution responsible for controlled development of all surface and groundwaters. Although INDRHI has actively developed major irrigation works, its legal mandate is complicated by interinstitutional conflicts and duplications over potable water with INAPA and CAASD and with CDE hydroelectric projects. Several national government agencies independently plan, develop and operate water projects. The consequent duplication and jealousy substantially increase the real costs at a time when the Dominican Republic has increasingly less money available for capital developments.
Major Recommendations:
Declare watershed protection and rehabilitation a national emergency
Require that each watershed be treated as an integrated system
Develop and implement an integrated land and water management plan for each major watershed
Coordinate irrigation and drainage projects so as to maximize efficiency and eliminate redundancy
Minimize inter-institutional conflicts and duplications
Include the costs of watershed rehabilitation and protection in the dam construction cost estimates.
Soils
The fertile and productive soils of the Cibao misrepresent the abundance of poor, shallow soils on steep slopes, mostly stony and subject to severe erosion throughout much of the country.
3


Most small farmers eke out a living on marginal and sub-marginal lands unsuitable for annual crops. Of the 37 major soil mapping units identified by CRIES, 24 soil types covering about 21,000 km1 have moderate to high agricultural potential for specific crops. Yet, 27,000 km1 are already in farms; only in the arid northwest, southwest and south are there substantial aieas of potential lands for agriculture, but they will require irrigation. Farmland is divided almost equally between crops and pasture, with only about 13% in fallow or not used.
Exports crops include sugarcane, coffee and cacao, while rice, beans, plantains, and yucca are national staples. The bulk of basic food staples is produced on small or medium sized farms; nearly 70% of the farms are less than 5 ha, occupying less than 14% of the total farmland. Only 3.4% of the farms exceed 50 ha, but these farms occupy more than half of the total farmland.
Soil erosion is the most serious problem affecting the natural resources of the Dominican Republic due to the preponderance of shallow soils on steep slopes and the widespread prevalence of slash and burn agriculture for annual crops. Substantial loss of topsoil due to poor practices of hillside farming has greatly reduced soil fertility and crop productivity. The consequences are extensive areas of slash and burn agricultural based on a few years of annual crops followed by several years of poor pasture and, finally, abandonment. Soil erosion also deposits enormous quantities of sediments in reservoirs. The aggraded river beds also accentuate lower valley floods.
Salinity problems exist primarily in the dry southwest and northwest, where appreciable areas of irrigated land have been lost to crop production. Poor water management, including lack of drainage, is the primary cause of salinization.
Tine government-sponsored Plan Sierra is attempting to help small farmers convert from annual to perennial crops, in addition to promoting reforestation, forest management, social services and artisanal crafts. Although project area soils are relatively ; good compared to other critical watersheds in the Cordillera Central, Plan Sierra is an impressive national effort that can serve as a valuable model for seriously degraded watersheds.
Major Recommendations:
Delay additional reservoir projects so as to concentrate protection and rehabilitation efforts above existing reservoirs
Incorporate soil conservation measures into highway construction design
Create soil conservation or irrigation districts to facilitate land and water management as well as soil rehabilitation
Initiate research on more appropriate farming systems and soil conservation for hillside farmers.
Coastal and Marine Resources
The Dominican Republic has traditionally looked inland for development of natural resources, as shown by the dependence on sugar and minerals fcr export earnings. Land-oriented development has, until recently, largely protected the coastal zone from environmental problems associated with development, but current government priorities to develop tourism and marine fisheries indicate that the grace period is over. However, few mechanisms exist for integrated and ecologically sound develop-tment of coastal areas. Major constraints include: (1) non-tradi-: tional utilization of the resources; (2) a rapidly growing and still inexperienced group of administrative organizations; (3) an absence of coordinating mechanisms for an integrated approach; (4) a shortage of skilled, multidisciplinary professionals; and (5) an unclear legislative mandate.
The Dominican fishing sector is at an artesanal level, with imports accounting for 60% of fish consumption. \ recently completed INDOTEC study indicates Dominican marine fisheries car.
meet the national demand; however, little attention is given to fisheries management for sustained yield.
Despite government emphasis on tourism development, the tourism secretariat appears unable to evaluate the environmental impact of concentrated development. Serious unaddressed questions include public access to beaches, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, hurricane protection, food sources, shell and coral collecting, and critical habitat protection.
Although some endangered marine species are partially protected by law, significant harvesting of hawksbill and grien turtles and manatees continues. An estimated 85% of the world's population of humpback whales uses Dominican offshore banks as calving grounds.
Legislative inadequacies hamper efforts to effectively manage and coordinate coastal resources, often producing adversary positions between competing agencies. In spite of major housing damage by the 1979 hurricanes, sand extraction (e.g. Nigua) from protective foredunes continues unbated. No official mechanisms exist to rapidly and effectively combat major disasters such as oil spills. A simulated spill :n the Mona Passage indicates that oil would reach the eastern coast in three days and could extend as far as Laguan Limon and La Romana in five days.
Major Recommendations
Create a national commission lo function as a review and permit agency for coastal development
Define policy and guidelines for coastal development, including independent environmental assessment of proposed projects
Revitalize and strengthen CIBIMA, the only academic institution involved in marine sciences
Develop a functional national emergency plan for disasters such as hurricanes, floods, oil spills and toxic substances
Inventory cosstal and marine resources and establish criteria for creating marine parks to protect critical habitats and endangered species.
Wildlands and Wildlife
Wildlands in the Dominican Republic are defined as those areas not capable of sustaining permanent agriculture, livestock, or intensive forestry, plus analagous aquatic areas. Wildlands exploitation is overwhelmingly for subsistence though charcoal making also depends on the resource. Wildlands use, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, has riot been quantified.
The Dominican system of five national parks contains the largest and most important wildlands. The J. Armando Bermudez and and Jose del Carmen Ramirez national parks covering 1,530 km2 adjoin in the Cordillera Central. These two parks are dominated by well-protected pine forests; however, FORESTA views them as forest reserves suitable for exploitation rather than true national parks. Los Haitises national park originally covered 208 km1 of karst topography but nearly all has been seriously altered by slash and burn agriculturalists. Proposed boundary modifications would include the remaining 120 km1 island in Lago Enriquillo. Native vegetation is recovering since the removal of domestic and feral livestock. Regional irrigation projects lessen freshwater flow into Lago Enriquillo, causing increasing salinity that threatens aquatic species. Parque Nacional del Este occupies 434 km' in the southeastern corner of the country. Although the park includes Saona island, intervening and surrounding marine areas are not in the park.
The national directorate of parks (DNP) is a young government age.icy that has effectively established st.iff presence in the national parks and initiated protection of the parks' habitats and biota.
The insular nature of Hispaniola and varied ecological conditions have resulted in a small fauna with considerable endemism. Rampant habitat destruction and the deliberate introduction of
3


exotic species such as the mongoose have depleted most native populations. Threatened or endangered fauna include 6 turtle species, at least 11 reptiles, 44 bird species, and 9 mammal species. The wildlife department (DVS) emphasizes commercial production of wildlife and control of vertebrate pests. Endangered fauna receive only minor attention, while marine fauna seem to have been completely ignored.
Major problems include: (1) antiquated or unclear legislation; (2) fragmented and confused management categories; (3) poorly defined or misdirected management responsibilities; (4) lack of control over exotic species introduction; (5) lack of control over export of endangered species (the government is not a signatory member of CITES, hence exports are not controlled by international convention); and (6) almost complete absence of interinsti-tution cooperation.
Major Recommendations.
Develop environmental policy and the corresponding legislation that would establish government commitment to the conservation and rational management of natural resources
Revise existing laws to consolidate wildlands management categories
Become a signatory member of CITES
Approve and implement the proposed Fauna Law
Declare all island and keys as interim reserver until their natural resources are inventoried and evaluated
Clarify the status of the two Cordillera Central national parks by placing them under the absolute jurisdiction of DNP.
Small Farmers
Not only do small farmers constitute the uulk of the rural population of what is essentially still an agrarian country, but they also produce most of the country's staple foods. Because of traditional slash and burn agriculture and rudimentary technology, smali farmers are important agents of ecological transformations, part of the environmental probLms and a necessary component of any solution.
There is an ongoing dual trend in land tenure towards fragmentation and concentrationthe former creating ever more mini or microfarms and the latier to large estates dedicated to export commodities. The dominant crops raised by small farmers are plantains, yucca, beans, sweet potatoes, and pigeon peas. Another agrarian feature is the scarcity of jobs and the concentration of income, with the consequence of widespread underemployment (46%). The Agrarian Institute (IAD) estimates 60% of rural households survive on less than DR$450/year.
Burgeoning population on marginal or submarginal lands causes significant rural emigration. Rural population problems have caused a drastic increase in invasions of national and private lands.
Special emphasis was given iO the small farmer production systems in the southwestan area largely ignored by government agencies. During the past three decades subtle but significant changes have moved the Dominican peasants away from subsistence farniini' to an increasing involvement in the market economy. In order o satisfy his family's needs, the Dominican farmer must continua 7 increase production with the concomitant disastrous consequei :ei now so noticeable on Dominican hillsides.
Small farmeis in the southwest depend on slash and burn agriculture, charcoal making and goats. After the family's food and seed needs are met, excess crop production is sold. Charcoal making has traditionally been a sporadic activity, but now with increasing urban demand, cnarcoal making is a full-time activity for many families. Goats are known as the poor man's cow, yet they are seldom milked in the southwest because peasants prefer that it go to the juvenile goats. Traditional goat rearing involves
virtually no care and open range browsing. Though goats are an occasional source of milk and meat, they function primarily as a hedge against economic insecurity. Goats are especially important to small farmers now that pigs have been eradicated due to African swine fever.
Major Recommendations:
Incorporate small farmers in any attempt to develop integrated land management and watershed rehabilitation
Provide to small farmer production systems more government response, ranging from technical assistance with soil conservation to credit assistance
Employ the Plan Sierra model to reach the small farmers and improve crop systems, charcoal making, and goat rearing.
1 ".'flutlon
Three insitutions, INAPA, CAASD and CORAASAN are responsible for controlling municipal pollution, b it none is responsible for controlling industrial or agricultural pollution. Mining is currently the only industry subject to environi lental controls. Fisheries legislation requires that industry control v\ istewater discharge, but little attention is paid to this law.
Nearly 70% of the manufacturing dollar is produced by agricultureprimarily sugar, irfural, molasses, tobacco, food and beverages. The only heavy 'dustries are mining (bauxite, ferro-nickel, gold and silver), cei jnt, steel, petroleum refining and electric power generation.
Although the data base is weak, the dominant trends on water use, supply, potable water and sewer service do not appear encouraging. Only 10% of rural residences and 54% of urban homes have potable water service. The respective figures for community centers are also very low23% rural and 32% urban. Only 15-25% of urban homes are connected to sewage systems, while these sanitary systems don't occur in rural areas. Potable water is periodically contaminated with bacteria and often with sediments.
Industries generate minor water and air pollution, have minor safety and few noise problems. Specific pollution comes from particular or smoke emissions from the FDC cement plant and from Metaldom; suspended solids and sulfur oxide emissions from steam electric power generation using high sulfur bunker fuel oil; and the majority of waste waters from food processing, soap and detergent production and similar operations with minimal waste recovery operations. Major polluters are usually government-owned industries that are under capitalized and use old technology. Multinational companies, in contrast, have effective, state-of-the-art technology for control of emissions and wastes.
Rural pollution and health problems are rooted in poor education. Poor personal hygiene, contaminated water, lack of sanitation facilities, poor nutrition and high density in rural communities have increased the incidence of disease. The increasing abuse of pesticides causes chronic or acute poisoning, contaminates produce, and stimulates resistant pests.
Urban environmenidl problems are manifest in the slums that surround most urban centers. The location and expansion of slums is largely uncontrolled, hence they stretch or exceed the government capacity to provide service facilities.
Major Recommendations:
Give priority status to quality of potable water
Require that citizens pay full-user charges for potable water ard sewer services; it will be necessary to subsidize these services to the poor
Improve the pollution control efforts of government-owned industries
Educate small farmer? in the uses and abuses of pesticides


and fertilizers, as well as the need for personal hygiene and sanitation
Institute a serious urban planning effort; urban sprawl through unplanned slums and residential areas is placing enormous strain on service facilities.
iFterlnstitutlonal Linkages
There are 18 public sector agencies and 9 private institutions involved with the environment and natural resources in the Dominican Republic. That there are problems of division of interest and institutional conflicts is due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned each public agency, as it is to the absence of a natural resources policy. Virtually every natural resources sector has more than one primary government agency, hence there is considerable duplication of efforts and programs, as well as jealousy. Even worse, some institutions with similar programs have little substantive interchange of information.
There is little participation of the private sector in the public arena and no real coordination. Several international agencies are actively involved in technical assistance programs.
Major Recommendations:
Interinstitutional cooperation must replace the current competition and duplication if the Dominican Republic is to come to grips with the serious environmental crises confronting most natural resources
Passage 2nd implementation of CONARENA could play a leading role in coordinating natural resources action programs
Public agencies must take the lead in enlisting private sector assistance
SURENA must continue to be strengthened in order to develop more fully its mandate to plan, implement and supervise national policy for natural resources
Other key institutions such as FORESTA, INDRHI, and National Parks must be strengthened and they must coordinate more closely with SURENA in attaining common goals.
Human Resources
As part of this environmental profile, surveys were made of 26 public, semi-autonomous and private agencies involved in ing, research, planning and implementation in natural resources. Although several educational institutions offer undergraduate training in natural resources, graduate degree programs are not offered. In natural resources 321 professionals and 127 technicians are employed. Project implementation accounts for 6'^ (298) of the work force, researchers total 140, while only 10 work entirely in planning.
Implementing institutions with a large professional/techincal staff are FORESTA (53), INDRHI (47), Land and Water (34), Fisheries (30), and Meteorological Service (21). The best staffed research institutions are INDOTEC (47) and CENDA (39).
Human resource needs and additions to 1985 are detailed. Most new staff should be with masters' degree (82) or with a bachelor's degree (85). The prospective doubling of the number of technicians by 1985 is a direct response to the consensus that lack of qualified technicians is a primary impediment to project implementation. The greatest need for additional technicians is in SURENA, FORESTA and INDRHI.
Major Recommendations:
Strengthen the Department of Natural Resources at UNPHU
Initiate a professional training program to satisfy middle management and intermediate professional staff needs
Define sectorial research priorities for each public institution so that scholarship students are aware of potential theses topics.
5


PREVIOUS PAGE BLANK
II
Introduction
Objectives and Scope
The general objective of a Country Environmental Pr idle (CEP) is to identify major existing and potential problems and areas of concern for natural resources and environmental management, including an analysis of the social and economic impacts of these problems, and to develop an overview of government institutions, policies and resources related to natural resource conservation and environmental management. Specific purposes of this CEP are:
1. to define environmental problems and trends, especially those that relate to the small farmer;
2. to compile in one def'nitive document the information, data and analyses concerning environmental problems;
3. to develop an analytic framework for better understanding of and taking action on environmental problems;
4. to provide a detailed analysis of the constraints hindering more effective action on environmental problems;
5. to prepare a document that will stimulate greater public and private sector debate on environmental rroblems;
6. to provide an environmental assessment that will facilitate the efforts and cooperation of international development agencies in dealing with environmental problems;
7. to make recommendations on future public and private sector actions for environmental improvement;
8. to identify possible environmental improvement projects that could be financed by the government and/or private sector with financial assistance from international agencies.
The scope of wcrk for this CEP included a review of existing reports, environmental legislation, conditions and trends of the natural resource base, natural resource management, and an assessment of the demographic, sorj'.i! tud economic factors affecting the environment. Specific areas addressed in this CEP include deforestaMon; soil erosion; watershed de^iadntion; loss of wildlife and wildlands; contamination of air and water resources; natural resources development projects in hydropower, irrigation and marine fisheries; and institutional capabilities and constraints to natural resource m^.iagement and environmental protection.
Sector analyses >veie conducted during a three-to-five week period in Septemt T-October, 1980, by a nine-man team of independent consullai ts. The team included specialists in tropical ecology (G. Hartsh^t./, forestry (D. Harcharik), soils (H. Newton), water resjurces (C. Quesada), marine and coastal resources (R. DuBois), wildlife and wildlands (J- Shores), rural anthropology
(S. Heckadon), pollution (G. Staples), and Dominican geography and institutions (G. Antonini). Each consultant worked closely with one or more Dominican counterparts, who provided extremely valuable assistance with literature, field trips and a rapid introduction to Dominican natural resources. Numerous field trips by car, jeep and one by mule provided an excellent reconnaissance of the country that was further enhanced by aerial flights to Cabo Rojo, over Parque Nacio.ial del Este and Los Haitises and around the Cordillera Central. The extensive field reconnaissance by the consi'ltants, augmented appreciably by the competence and knowledge of the Dominican counterparts combine to provide in this CEP the most detailed analyses of natural resources and the environment offered to date by a CEP.
Each consultant prepared a sector report that was reviewed and edited by the team leader into a draft CEP. The draft CEP was submitted to the local AID mission and to the Dominican counterparts for review before the team leader prepared the final draft of this CEP of the Dominican Republic.
Principal Environmental Characteristics
The Dominican Republic shares with Haiti the island of Hispaniola; the second largest (77,914 km1) of the Antilles. Occupying the eastern portion of Hispaniola, the Domincan Republic covers 48,442 km2, with 1,575 km of coastline, and maximum distances of 390 km east-west and 265 km more or less north-south. With geographical coordinates 1736'-1958' N and 6819'-72or W, the Dominican Republic lies in the subtropical hurricane belt. Its insularity and relatively small area permit a strong maritime influence to control the general climatic patterns. An excellent overview of Dominiatn geography can be found in de la Fuente (1976).
The physiographic complexity of the Dominican Republic adds considerable heterogeneity and variability to local climatic regimes. Four major mountain ranges lie in a more or less parallel northwest-southeast trend (Fig. II-l). The three intervening valleys, but particularly the Cibao, are major agricultrual regions. The northernmost Cordillera Septentrional extends parnllel to the Atlantic Coast from Monte Cristi to Nagua, with small areas of narrow coastal plain squeezed between the hills and the Atlantic Ocean. Major fault zones on the southern flank result in most drainages flowing north. Exposure to northeasterly tradewinds
7


a
i
M
A TL ANTIC OCEAN
1
D
3
CARIBBEAN SEA
Provinces:
1. Distrito Nacional 15. Puerto Plata
2. Altagracia 16. La Romans
3. Azua 17. Salcido
4. Baoruco 18. Samana
5. Barahona 19. San Cristobal
6. Daj abon 20. S. Juan de la Maguana
7. Duarte 21. San Pedro de Macori*
8. Espaillat 22. Sanchez Ramirez
9. Estrelleta 23. Santiago
10. Independencia 24. Santiago Rodriguez
11. Maria Trinidad Sanchez 25. El Seibo
12. Montecristi 26. Valverde
13. Pedernales 27. La Vega
14. Peravia


for more than half of the year causes abundant orographic rainfall to fall on the north tlank of the Cordillera Septentrional, an important coffee producing region. Due to widespread deforestation, no significant blocks of undisturbed forest remain on this cordillera. It is of interest that the Cordillera Septentrional is the primary source of amber, a fossilized pine resin of Miocene age, however, pines are not found naturally in these mountains.
The Cordillera Central is the principal mountain system in the Dominican Republic, extending from northwest Haiti almost to Santo Domingo. The central massif contains the highest point, Pico Duarte (3,807 m), in the Antilles. In addition to Pico Duarte (Fig. II-2a), two other peaks excede 3,000 m and 22 are over 2,000 m. The lengthy Cordillera Central has a maximum width of 80 km, occupying much of the central region of the country. Its central location, ample width and considerable height make it the source of all the important rivers in the country. It is a geologically and geomorphologically complex mountain range. The highlands are characterized by poor, shallow soils dominated by the native Pinus occidenlalis. The J. Armando Bermudez and Jose del Carmen Ramirez National Parks contain the most extensive pine forests in the country. The southeastern flanks of the Cordillera Central received direct hits from Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979, causing massive floods and landslides (Fig. II-3a).
A major branch of the Cordillera Central extends eastward, forming two sectionsSierra Yamasa and Cordillera Oriental. Both are low ranges, with no peaks exceeding 1000 m. The Sierra Yamasa, which separates the Yuna Valley and Los Haitises from the Caribbean coastal plain, is the major source area of fer-ronickel (Falconbridge) and gold (Rosario). The Cordillera Oriental (Sierra del Seibo) is a series of low hills south and east of Samana Bay.
Two lesser ranges. Sierra de Neiba and Sierra de Baoruca, occur in the southwest as continuations of major Haitian ranges. The Sierra de Neiba oscillates between 1,000 and 1,500 m, with a few peaks over 2,000 m. The Sierra de Baoruco also exceeds 2,000 m, but is more irregular with numerous block faults on the norlh flank and .vide marine terraces bordering the Caribbean. Both ranges still have pine forests covering the higher and less accessible slopes. Prior to development of ferronicl.el and gold mining in the Sierra de Yamasa, the Sierra de Boaruco was the most important mining region, producing bauxite, gypsum and salt.
The aforementioned mountain ranges delimit three major valleys-Cibao. San Juan and the Enriquillo Basin. The Cibao Valley lies between the Cordilleras Septentrional and Central, ex-
Flg. II-2a. Pice Durale (lift), highest point (3,087 m) in ihi Antilles and La Pelona, second highest. Pure pine forest of native Pinus occider.talis is naturally sparse on the shallow soils. These forests in the two nrJional parlrs straddling the Cordillera Central were only slightly damaged by Hurricanes David and Frederic in t979. (Handheld aerial photo, Gary Hartshorn.)
Figure M~2b. Convoluted karst topography of limestone hills and sinks, Los Haitises. The while areas lack soil. (Photo, John Shores.)
tending from Monte Cristi in the northwest to Samana Bay. The Cibao actually consists of two valleys: the Santiago Valley (or Western Cibao) drained by the Rio Yaque del Norte and the Vega Real (or Eastern Cibao) drained by the Rio Yuna. The drainage divide is at Licey al Medio (175 rn) near Santiago. Both valleys are very flat, with 1-2% slopes to sea level.
The Cibao Valley is the most important agricultural region of the country. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient from the wet eastern Cibao to the xeric western Cibao. Aridity and salinity are limiting factors in the western half of the Santiago Valley. The eastern Santiago Valley is the primary production area for tobacco. The Vega Real contains the best agricultural soils, with impressive production of plantains, cacao and rice.
The San Juan Valley lies between the Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Neiba, extending from the Haitian border to Ocoa Bay. Physiographically similar to the Cibao with a low drainage divide into two subvalleys, the San Juan Valley is relatively arid but lacks the extremes of the Cibao. With excellent soils and irrigation, the San Juan Valley is a major rice growing region.
Farther to the south between the Sierras de Neiba and Baoruco is the Enriquillo Basin extending from the Haitian border to Neiba Bay. The saline Lake Enriquillo is abviut 40 m below sea level. Due to the general aridity of thf: basin, saline soils are abundant.
A few intermountain valleys occur in the Cordillera Central: Constanza (30 km1), Jarabacoa (23 km1), and Bonao-Altogracia (12.3 km1). The higher Constanza and Jarabacoa Valleys have become important tourist and vacation attractions. The low Bonao and Altogracir Valleys are primarily in rice and sugarcane.
Although patches of coastal plain occur along the north coast, the Caribbean coastal plain is the most extensive and important. It extends south of the Cordillera Oriental-Sierra de Yamasa from Ocoa Bay to the eastern tip of the island. The Caribbean coastal plain consists of a series of limestone terr?ces and varies in width 10-40 km. It is the principal sugarcane area of the country, as well as the major pasture zone for beef cattle, the only undisturbed natural forests are protected in the Parque Nacional del Este.
The Peninsula de Sarnana is an isolated low mountain range and contains one of the wettest areas of the country. Some marble is quarried from the northeastern part of the peninsula.
Los Haitises is the most striking region of ihe country due to the extensive karst topography (1,600 km1). Differential dissolution of the Miocene limestone has produced the characteristic "cockpit" or "egg-carton" country (Fig. II-2b), with innumerable sinks among rounded hills. Other karst areas occur in the Sierra de Baoruco, Peninsula de Samana, and south of Sosua.
9


Figure U-3. The effects of direct hits by Hurricanes David and Frederic in t979 on the deforested hills in the Rio Ocoa watershed. The few trees in the foreground are native Pinus occidentals. Note the wide scouring of the valley floor by the major flooding of the Rio Ocoa. (Hand-held aerial photo, Italo Russo.)
The insularity and heterogeneous topography of the Dominican Republic determine local climatic regimes that vary markedly from arid to wet. Although frost is common at high elevations and snow is occasional on the highest peaks, temperatures vary regularly and predictably. Even in the lowlands, polar air masses can push surprisingly cool air over the Dominican Republic during the winter. Atmospheric moisture and wind conditions can accentuate local temperature differences.
The amount and distribution of rainfall play a much more important role in determining natural vegetation (Chapter III) and agricultural crops (Chapter VI).
Not only does rainfall vary appreciably in the country (from 350 mm in the Neiba Valley to 2,750 mm at Laguna Limon), it also varies in annual total and seasonal distribution at a given location. Annual variations in rainfall in mountainous watersheds affect the amount of water available for irrigation and hydro-power. Seasonal fluctuations in rainfall are critical to the success or failure of short-term crops, particularly in non-irrigated, sub-humid areas. The lengthy dry season and unpredictability of rain can cause seasonal crop failure in areas that average less than 1,500 mm per year (Fig. II-4).
March is usually the driest month and May the rainiest. December to March is usually the driest period throughout the country, except for the Cordillera Septentrional, which often is we'-'cA in November-January due to strengthening tradewinds.
Figure II-3b. Abundant landslides in a deforested area with unstable soils between Mmwbao and Loma de la Sal: most were presumably caused by the heavy rains of Hurricanes David and Frederic in t979. (Hand-held aerial photo, Carlos Quesada.)
Orographic rainshadows are the primary cause of xeric conditions in the Enriquillo, Azua, Neiba and western Cibao Valleys. The rainy season from May to Novmeber is characterized by weak tradewinds and convective rainfallboth sea to land and mountain-valley.
Summer often spawns hurricanes that occasionally bring tremendous winds and rains to the Dominican Republic. September, 1979, was particularly bad as two hurricanes, David and Frederic, hit the country within one week. Frederic was not as severe meteorologically as David, but caused much greater environmental damage. Apparently soils were saturated by David's heavy rains, so that when Frederic struck landslides were abundant and flooding was much greater (Fig. II-3b). Hurricanes cause tremendous environmental damage and economic losses.
Development Policies and Natural Resources Management
Background
The Dominican Republic has neither an explicit short nor long-term policy of environmental and natural resources management (H. Mejia, pers. comm.). Specific short-term actions are taken as the need arises by any one of several public policy formulating and implementing agencies. This manner of handling environmental matters reflects both the recent awakening of public sentiment and scientific concern as well as interinstitutional rivalries that have tended to keep apart rather than foster closer cooperation (Ml. de Jesus Vinas Caceres, pers. comm.).
Though Chardon (1937) demonstrated public awareness of the deforestation and soil erosion problems based on scientific observations as far back as 1937, very little action could be taken during the years of the Trujillo regime (1930-61) that was not in the dictator's interest. Rights to land, forest, and water wen; controlled outright by Trujillo or through the guise of quasi-independent companies. After his overtrhow in 1961, a wide range of political, economic and social restrictions were removed. Movements of people, goods and services became the rule rather than the exception; staged migrations from rural hamlet to town and city took place.
In the forested mountainous interior of the Republic, the demise of the dictator precipitated mass invasions of lumber company lands than many considered were owned in part by Trujillo. Standing timber was indiscriminately cut by peasants intent upon establishing their land claims by introducing slash-and-burn farms. Some planners and policy makers have suggested that this indiscriminate cutting of the forests in the early 1960s represented a true peasant revolt against the dictator's inhumane policies. In 1967, the OAS estimated that only a fraction of the republic could be classified as forested. As a result of this indiscriminate cutting, President Balaguer decreed a complete cessation of lumbering activities; he placed the matters of legal enforcement as well as reforestation in the hands of the Armed Forces (UNEP 1977).
The Dominican Republic in the late 1960s and early 1970s was a country trying to make up for years of social decay and economic stagnation. Relatively rich in natural resources and labor but poor in capital, the country sought to utilize its base to bolster primary agricultural production. The overriding concern was to improve the standard of living of the people. The method used to achieve this improvement was through fuller integration of the Dominican economy with foreign markets. Given the country's comparative advantage in selling agricultural commodities such as sugar and coti ?e, it was assumed that export earnings derived from these products could finance development of the other sectors of the economy.
10


Unfortunately, a number of serious obstacles surfaced that impeded development. These obstacles included: (a) inherent weakness of the Republic's single crop export sector; (b) weakness of the country's industrialization process; (c) externally caused price fluctuations; (d) regidity and fragility of the demand function; and (e) excessive increases in the country's import bill due to the spiraling cost of fossil fuels. Collapse of the price of sugar along with dramatic increases in the cost of imported petroleum in 1976 called for immediate actions to diversify the economy and improve the rational use of the country's natural resources. Over the past two years, the government has reoriented economic policy by placing major emphasis on the agricultural and mining sectors.
Current Policies
The present national development policy not only reasserts the previous administration's goal to improve the social and economic well-being of the population, but in addition it places emphasis on providing opportunities for improving the conditions of the poorest segments of society. Toachieve these goals, the medium-range Agricultural Development Plan (ADP) for the 1960-82 period contemplates activities with the following objectives: (a) improve the nutritional level of the population, especially the two lowest income levels; (b) increase food production; (c) improve income distribution in the rural areas; (d) reduce agricultural imports; (3) increase the exports of farm products as a means for alleviating the negative effects cause by price increases of petroleum products; (f) settle new families on agrarian reform projects and consolidate settlements; and (g) create new sources of salaried work in the rural areas (SEA 1979).
The ADP program of activities combines direct government action to increase productivity and improve the standard of living of small-holder agriculturalists with indirect incentives to stimulate greater private sector involvement in the development process. This Plan k being carried out at the present time, though with some variations in the ranking of priorities due to the damage caused by Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979.
The Plan's basic objective is to eliminate the condition of malnutrition in low income population groups. The strategy pursued is to increase food crop production to benefit both small-holders and salaried farm workers, since both groups suffer from limited availability of land and low salary levelssituations that have given rise to the high rate of under-employment in the rural sector.
The objectives to increase both food production and food supply go hand-in-hand with the need simultaneously to increase available farm income. The Plan does not exclude the role that large fanners should play to more fully employ and better remunerate on-farm labor. Stated in another way, the Dominican Republic's principal rural development policy is to provide a more equitable distribution of the factors of production so that increases in agricultural and livestock yields will benefit all income groups, but most especially the underprivileged smallholders, tenants and salaried farm workers. Aheady, a number of important steps have been taken to stimulate this change process: applied research, in-service training, institutional reorganization, credit and other extension services, construction of roads and irrigation works.
Future Prospects
The implications of such developmental impacts on the environ.ient are unmistakable. Population pressures, the search for universally greater economic well-being, land restrictions im-
posed by the country's relatively small size and absence of any frontier areas awaiting colonization, aie factors that urgently call for the development of short and medium-term strategies that can harmonize rural development schemes with future natural resources management policies. The ADP recognizes this need and calls for the formulation of a natural resources development policy that addresses community or living space concerns as well as considers factors of production directly related to physical landscape characteristics such as slopes, land cover, agricultural soils and water.
The Plan underscores the need to formulate and propose a natural resources management policy. Obviously, such a clearly established policy does not exist at the present time. Nonetheless, there is an awareness both in government circles and in the mind of the general public that the socioeconomic development goais of the country's growing population must be set within the context of a finite resource base, that use of such resources should be determined in a manner that does not imperil their use by future generations, and that natural resources management is a dynamic, constantly changing process whose problems and solutions must be considered within a holistic framework of relationships between people and the land.
Demographic and Economic Aspects
The Dominican Republic population is estimated a'. 5,570,000; an average density of 115 inhabitants per square kilometer (Benjamin, 1981). However, if only the good agricultural land (see Table VI-9) is considered, the density jumps tc 267 inhabitants/km'. In 1977, 21% of the gross domestic product was produced by agriculture. Even though sugar is the top export (gold and tourism follow), the Dominican Republic is not even close to self-sufficiency in basic foods.
High population growth rate of approximately 3.5% per year during the 1950's and '60's contributed to the burgeoning population. Government supported family planning policies dropped the annual growth rate to 1'b by the mid-70's. The GODR Family Planning Council estimates current population growth at 2.5% per yeara very significant decrease in one decade.
The baby boom of the '50's and '60's put the economically active population (15-64 years of age) in the minority (49%) in 1978. In that same year 48% of the population was under 15 years of age. In the past few years the birth rate (per 1000) has risen to 45the highest for the Caribbean region. Infant mortality of 83 per 1000 live births is one of the highest in Latin America.
Rapid population growth in the absence of traditional agricultural frontiers (see Chapters VI and IX) has caused considerable rural-urban migration. The urban population of the Dominican Republic now exceeds the rural population; one in four Dominicans lives in Santo Domingo. Urban growth rate is over 5% per year, whereas rural growth rate is only 0.75%.
Even though the Dominican Republic has achieved an appreciable lowering of the rate of population growth, a 2.6% annual rate yields a doubling of the population in 26 years. How will the GODR feed and service 10 million inhabitants by the year 20007 What will be the consequences of 10 million Dominicans on limited natural resources and an ahead, stressed environment? How will national eneujy demands be met7 Difficult but fundamental questions such as these form the basis of the following analyses of the natural resources and the environment of the Dominican Republic.
11




Ill
Natural Vegetation
General Description
The vegetation of the Dominican Republic is most easily interpreted using Holdridges Life Zone System, (Fig. III-l), a deceptively simple bioclimatic classification using two independent climatic parameters, mean annual rainfall and bio-temperature. The latter paiameter differs from regular temperature in that it substitutes zero for all unit values above 300 C and below 00 C, e.g. bio-temperature in the Dominican lowlands is lower than the standard temperature average. With normal climatic conditions a Holdridge Life Zone will have a characteristic vegetation that will be similar in structure anywhere in the world where the same climatic conditions exist.
The Life Zone system is not dependent on floristic relations or taxon amy, e.g. Hispaniola and northern Central America have different pine species dominating subtropical lower montane life zones, yet pines are completely absent from the same life zones in the Bolivian Andes. Despite the non-floristic basis of the Holdridge Life Zone system, geographic limits to species distribu-tioiis do often coincide with Life Zone boundaries.
The Holdridge Life Zone system (Holdridge 1967; is actually a hierarchical classification with the Life Zone as the first order or most general level. Other hierarchical levels include (2) association-grouping, (3) associations and (4) actual vegetation, whether an agricultural crop or a successional stage. Local differences in vegetation structure caused by soil, drainage or atmospheric conditions are recognzied as distinctive ecological association that typifies a particular Life Zone, any number of edaphic, hydric and/or atmospheric associations may also occur in that same Life Zone.
First order classification can be used to produce an ecological map of Life Zones as was done for the Dominican Republic by OAS in 1967 (Fig. III-2). The intermediate level association-grouping is anal?3ous to the catena concept of soil science and is particularly appropriate for regional mapping of land-use capability. The more-detailed association level is useful for detailed ecological mapping, watershed zoning or farm planning. It is important to note that the Life Zone, assocition-grouping and association levels all indicate potential vegetation, i.e. the naturally developed vegetation largely undisturbed by man or his activities. Only the fourth level takes into account the actual vegetation whether agricultural crops, pastures or successional vegetation.
Nine Life Zones and seven transitionals occur in the Dominican Republic (Table III-l), with two basal belt (lowland) Life
Table ITi-l. Area of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic (OAS, 1967),
Life Zones
Unit !un2(%)
1. Subtropical Thorn Woodland Subtropical Dry Forest
a. Non-transitional 9,812 (20.42)
b. Warm-moist transition 150 (0.31)
3. Subtropical Moist Forest
a. Non-transitional 22,139 (46.08)
b. Warm-dry tranjition 500 (1.04)
c. Warm-moist transition 155 (0.32)
4. Subtropical Wet Forest
a. Non-transitional 6,80i (14.17)
b. Warm-moist transition 26 (0.05)
5. Subtropical Rain Forest
6. Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest
a Non-transitiona! 3,214 (6.69)
b. Cool-dry transition 23 (0.05)
c. Cool-moist transition 243 (0.51)
7. Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest
a. Non-transitional 3,557 (7.40)
b. Cool-moist transition 20 (0.04)
8. Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest
9. Subtropical Montane Wet Forest
Total
km2 (%)
1,001 (2.08) 9,962 (20.72)
22,794 (47.42)
6,834 (14.22)
56 (0.12) 3,480 (7.24)
3,577 (7.44)
36 (0.08) 303 (0.63)
Zones covering 68% of the country. The following synopsis of Dominican Life Zones is taken primarily from the major OAS (1967) study of the country's natural resources.
Subtropical Thorn Woodland Life Zone
This Life Zone occurs in the driest areas of the country, particularly in the southwest where it extends from Lake Enriquillo to Puerto Viejo, usually less than 300 m in elevation. Minor outliers fringe Bahia Honda (Cabo Rojo), Bahia de Ocoa and Bahia de las Calderas (Punta Salinas). In northwestern Cibao a small area of this Life Zone occurs at the base of the Aguacate hills.
Climatic conditions are characterized by less than 500 mm of annual rainfall and mean annual biotemperature of 18 and 24 C. The combination of high temperatures and little rainfall produces a potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio between 2.0 and 4.0, i.e. the evapotranspirative demand of natural vegetation exceeds rainfall by a factor of 2 to 4 times.
13


I-
LATITUDINAL REGIONS
POLAR
SUBPOLAR
COOL TEMPERATE
WARM TEMPERATE SUBTROPICAL
TROPICAL
V
V
/ /
9.
f V "T V T V r* '/
O
$ V o-r N x>'' '/ \
A vx TaiidfO / Tondra v Tundra
J> y L\ /i\ /JL\ /! / 1 / i-
*'\$ yt> vr^ v", # -
Tandrt /
V
DiMrl
\ (Pirno)"
!" \ (Rati* /i '/ ,
/ \\ \ / \\. \ j^V ^* / \ / \ St t \
' Otttrt \ Sttppo r Moid x Wit \
V Scrub / / \ Fortit /' Fort.l /
\ \ X / \ /
. \ / \ / L \ / J \ /
o. \ serui
>y...............>r.../*?.
f Scrub \ I /' Sttppt
" s r
Otitrt
Scrub
Fort it I Forcit
C m i r t c *
x M0.it
/ Foittl
L t m r
77 0o '
/ Foftt! /%
\ Ram Fortsl
itk hhIiIbIw* in lm !> ttMptntgr* ntwn trim 0*C at mm 30* C, ttlpnlirr*) (Thi frWM ii tptfflift
pil| flkT Hntl*lli|
(I) > la Trtfirtl Sk*lrt Oalf
Ss Fortt / 1 \ Fortll / I V. Fofttt /
1? 0,"T, \Y? Thorft xV/Vtr), OtyvY/ Dry \S|^' Mor,t X
V\jy OMirl A/ Sc(ub \l / woodloitd \|/ Fofttt \j/ Fortit \j/ Fortit
y /k /^\ /K /-\ / \ /T\ /'\
i / / / / /' / / / / / // /////vv///7/'/;v/Y7'Ty vvy^/7/
\ i / \ i t
Fortit \L' Fortit \|/ Fofttt
ALTITUDINAL BELTS
ALPINE
SUBALPINE
LOWER MONTANE PREMONTANE
--- mm
MOO Ml l.O0 800 400 2 CO I0O or. OM 0123 OOS25 00JI21
\SEMIPARCHE0 \ SUPERARIO \ PERARIO \ ARID ^ SEMIARIO \ SUBHUUIO \ -HUM 10 \ PERHUUIO \jUPERHUUIO \5EM;tTUMTID \ SUBSATUMTtD \ 3ATURATC0
HUMIDITY PROVINCES
l. 258462 10570*
TROPIC'L SCIENCE CENTER. Soa Jon C.R.



The natural vegetation of Subtropical Thorn Woodland is dominated by spiny shrubs and cacti. The latter include Opuntia caribata ("quazabara") and Ntoabbottia paniculata. Also common are Cupemicia btrtcroana ("Yarey", Palmae), Prosopis julifora, ("baya-hondV, Mimosaceae) and Capparis spp. (Capparidaceae).
Fertile alluvium in this Life Zone is used for irrigated seasonal crops; however, salinization problems have arisen due to poor irrigation management and the very high PET ratio. The abundant rolling land is used as a source of firewood and as extensive rangeland for goat browsing. The complete absence of management of these limited resources has led to considerable degradation of the natural vegetation, including desertification.
Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone
The second most extensive Life Zone in the country covers most of the western Cibao (lower Yaque del Norte valley), San Juan and Neiba vaiieys, as well as much of the Azua and Bani plains as far as Hato Viejo south of San Cristobal. This Life Zone also covers the southern plains and foothills of the Baoruco peninsula and in the southeast it occurs around Bahia de Yuma to Cabo Cuemo. Topjgraphically, it extends from sea level to about 700 m.
Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone receives 500-1000 mm of annual rainfall with mean annual biotemperature of 18-24 0 C. This Life Zone has a PET ratio between 2.0 and 1.0. Small transitional areas to Moist Forest occur on some higher hills due to orographic rainfall and slightly cooler temperatures.
Natural vegetation in Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone is a low, single-stratum forest with an abundance of sclerophyll-leaved sped as. Some slow-growing tree species have exceptional l.y hard and heavy wood, such as Guaiacum officinale ("guayacan", Zygophyllaceae) and G. snaclum ("vera"). The most abundant tr.^e species is usually Prosopis juliflora or the invasive Acacia farnesiana ("cambron", Mimosaceae); however, Bursera simaruba ("almacigo", Burseraceae), Phyllostylon brasilienst ("baitoa", Ulmaceae), Acacia scltroxyla ("candelon") and Plumeria alba ("alelis", Apocynaceae) may be locally abundant. In areas transitional to Moist Forest Sabal umbraculiftra ("cana", Palmae) and Swicttnia mahogani ("caoba", Meliaceae) are common.
Figure ITI-3b. Subtropical dry forest overlooking Lake Enriquillo. (Photo, Stanley Heckadon.)
These dry forests are the major source area for firewood and charcoal, as well as the primary browse for goats. Indiscriminant and uncontrolled cutting of trees for charcoal and an open-range approach with goats has led to significant degradation wherever natural vegetation is accessible. Slash-and-burn farmers ("conu-queros") who have traditionally avoided this Life Zone due to the high risk of drought-caused crop failure, are now beginning to advance the "agricultural frontier" into the dry forests.
Subtropical Moist Fores! Ufe Zone
Covering almost half of the country, this Life Zone includes practically the entire Caribbean coastal plain east of San Cristobal, as well as the eastern Cibao (lower Yuna and Camu valleys) and the Cordillera Central foothills below about 850 m elevation. Substantial areas of this Life Zone also occur in the western San Juan valley, and on the low foothills of the Sierra de Baoruco and the Cordillera Septentrional.
Mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm and biotemper. ..ure of 18-24 C characterize this Life Zone. Rainfall tends to increase from west to east for this Life Zone, with the western part receiving less than 1500 mm, while the eastern part receives more than 1500 mm. Rainfall generally occurs in two maxima over a nine-month period, consequently the PET ratio is slightly less than 1.0, i.e. a modest excess of rainfall over evapotranspiration.
Natural vegetation for this Life Zone is characterized by a well-developed, heterogeneous forest of broad-leaved trees (Fig. III-4a). Despite its extension over nearly half of the country,
Figure DI-3a. Substropical dry forest between Barahrr.u at.i Azua degraded by over-grazing and cutting for charcoal Note the large landslides (upper left) and extensive gully formation (center) in this dry region. (Photo, Carlos Quesada.)
The fertile valley soils of the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone are the major areas used for irrigated agriculture, hence virtually no natural vegetation remains in irrigated areas. The rolling or undulating land unsuitable for irrigation and too dry for the majority of crops is often covered with natural vegetation (Fig. Ill 3b).
Figure LTI-4i. Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este; note the abandoned clearing (center). (Hand-held aerial photo, John Shores.)
18


clearing for agriculture has reduced the natural vegetation to mere remnants. Catalpa longisiliqua ("capa, roble dominicano", Big-noniaceae) and mahogany are characteristic tree species of this Life Zone. The royal palm (Royslonta regia) is very common on limesfone-derived soils (Fig. III-4b). Other occasional trees include Bucida buctras ("guaranguao", Combretaceae), Chlorphora linc-toria ("fustete, mora", Moraceae), Citharexylum fruticosum ("penda", Verbenaceae), Genipa americanA ("jagua", Rubiaceae), Guaiuma ulmifolia ("guacima", Stercuiiaceae), Hacmatoxylttm campechianum ("campeche", Caesalpiniaceae), Lonchocarpus domingensis ("anon de majagua", Fabaceae), Oxandra lanceolate ("yaya", Annonaceae), PilhectHobium berteroanum ("corbano", Mimosaceae), P. glaucum ("caracoli"), Simarouba glauca ("Juan Primero", Simaroubaceae), Tflragaslris balsamifera ("amacey", Burseraceae). Restrictive sites such as savannas or poor, shallow soils often have Anacardium oc-cidenlak "cajuil", Anacardiaceae), Coccoloba pubesccns ("hojancha", Polygonaceae), Curalella americana ("peralejo", Dillneiaceae), Tabebuia berteri ("aceituno", Bignoniaceae) and Trema micrantlm ("memizo", Ulmaceae).
Although mangrove forest is a hydric association that may occur in several tropical and subtropical Life Zones it is commonly encountered in Subtropical Moist Forest Life Zone in the Dominican Republic. Characteristic mangrove tree species include Rhizo-vhora mangle ("mangle Colorado", Rhizophoraceac,1 Avicennia nitida ("mangle prieto, Avicenniareae), Conocarpus sericea and C. erectus ("botoncillo", Combretaceae) and Laguncularia racemosa ("mangle bianco", Combretaceae). In swampy areas Pterocarpus officinalis ("drago", Fabaceae) may be locally dominant.
Of the nine Life Zones in the Dominican Republic, the Subtropical Moist Forest Life Zone is the most suitable for agriculture in the broadest sense. Many of the best soils (e.g. in the Vega Rel) are found in this Life Zone. Less fertile, but still adequate soils have long been converted to pasture or slash and burn agriculture. Several major population centers also are located in this Life Zone, hence it is not surprising that very little natural vegetation remains.
Subtropical Wet Forest Life Zone
The Cordilleras Septentrional and Oriental have the most extensive areas of this Life Zone in the country; it also occurs on the Cabrera promontory, Samana peninsula, Sierra de Yamasa, Los Haitises, the southeastern part of the Cordillera Central, as well as in a narrow ban on the northwestern flank of the Cordillera Central. In relation to Subtropical Moist, the Wet Life Zone generally occurs in topographically higher positions, although it
Figure lTI-4b. Subtropical moist forest near La Vega converted to seasonal crops and pasture. 77k abundant Roystonea regia palm on calcareous soils has many local uses: Ihe sheathing leaf base (yagua) is still used as siding material for shacks; fruit is a major food for pigs; and heart of palm. (Ph -, Gary Hartshorn.)
Figure III-5a. Deforested karst topography, Los Haitises, primarily for seasonal crops before conversion to extensive pasture. (Photo, John Shores.)
extends to sea level in some places between Cabrera promontory and Laguna Limon.
This Life Zone has mean annual rainfall of 2000-4000 mm and biotemperature of 18-240 C. Orographic lifting of moisture-laden tradewinds from the northeast is the primary source of the high rainfall. A small patch of warm moist transition occurs north of Vjlla Altagracia.
The natural vegetation of Subtropical Wet Forest Life Zone is a hetergeneous multi-strata! forest usually dominated by broad-leaved tree species. Characteristic trees include Alclwrnea latifolia ("aguacatillo", Euphorbiaceae), Buchenavia capitata ("gri-gri", Combretaceae), Byrsonima spicata ("mandrono", Malpihiaceae), Calpbyl-lum brasiliense ("varia", Guttiferae), Casearia a:borta ("palo de yagua". Flacourtiaceae), Didymopanax morototoni ("sablito", Araliaceae), Hymenaea courbaril ("algarrobo". Caesalpiniaceae), Manilkara bidentata ("balata", Sapotaceae) and Prunnus myrtifolia ("almendrillo", Rosaceae). the only native pine, Pinus occidentalis, dominates on lateritic soils (see Fig. IV-lb).
Primarily due to higher rainfall, this Wet Life Zone is not as suitable for seasonal crops as in the Moist Life Zone. The best agricultural soils (usually fertile alluvium) support perennial crops, particularly cacao, although som: areas grow coffee, rubber, or tea. The poorer hillside soils are generally used for slash and burn agriculture or converted to extensive pasture. Natural vegetation has been largely destroyed, leaving minor remnants only in the most inaccessible places. Even in the beautiful karstic terrain of Los Haitises, slash and burn agriculture has destroyed much of the natural vegetation (Fig. III-5a); uncontrolled fires often sweep up the limestone hills and degrade the uncut forest.
Subtropical Rain Forest Life Zone
Of extremely minor occurrence in the country, this Life Zone is found around Casabito hill and two isolated areas in the Cordilleras Septentrional and Oriental. Rainfall in excess of 4,000 mm is due to strong orographic influences. The natural vegetation is broad-leaved forest festooned with epiphytes. Tree ferns are especially abundant. A characteristic broad-leaved tree is Linociera domingensis ("lirio", Oleaceae).
Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Life Zone
This Life Zone occurs primarily on the eastern and southern flanks of the Cordillera Central. It is less abundant in the Sierras de Neiba and Baoruco, and on the northern flank of the Cordillera Central. This Life Zone is usually 'ound above 800 m elevation.
Mean annual rainfall varies between 1000 and 2000 mm, with average annual biotemperature of 12-18C. Cool-dry transitional
17


areas to Subtropical Lower Montane Dry Forest Life Zone occur in two small patches on the south flank of the Cordillera Central and on the eastern end of the Sierra de Neiba. These cool-dry transitions are due primarily to rain-shadow reductions in rainfall. Cool-moist transitional areas with rainfall between 1800-2000 mm occur in two small, isolated patches on the south flank of the Cordillera Central, as well as on the Sierra de Neiba.
The natural vegetation is primarily open pine forest. In addition to Pm:s occidentalis, the native conifers ]unipreus gracilior ("sabina", Cuprc^saceae) and Podocarpus buchii (Podocarpaceae) also occur in this Life Zone. Typical broad-leaved tree species include Guazuam tomcntosa (Sterculiaceae), Garrya fadyenii (Garryaceae), Rapanea ferruginea (Myrsinareae) and Vaccinium ciibense (Ericaceae).
The majority of the land in this Life Zone has been deforested or seriously degraded by slash and burn agriculturists (Fig. III-5b). Inappropriate hillside farming on poor, shallow soils has resulted in serious erosion and loss of fertility, with the consequence of substantial abandonment of land or conversion to poor pasture.
Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest Life Zone
This Life Zone covers much of the mid-elevations (850-2,100 m) of the Cordillera Central, Sierra de Neiba and Sierra de Baoruco. Small areas of cool-moist transition to Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest Life Zone occur on each of these mountain ranges. The non-transitional Life Zone also occurs in a few patches on the Cordillera Septentrional.
Mean annual rainfall is 2000-4000 mm and biotemperature of 18-12C. With a PET ratio of 0.50-0.25, there is a considerable excess of rainfall over evapotranspiration. The occurrence of this Life Zone over some 7% of the country in combination with steep terrain provides the bulk of the water for the major rivers. The importance of these rivers for irrigation and hydroelectricity make the Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest Life Zone the most critical ecological region of the country.
The natural vegetation of this Lift Zone is characterized by a complex mixture of broad-leaved and pine forests. The former occur in valleys and lower slopes, grading to pine forest on the ridges and upper slopes. Pine is usually present in the broad-leaved forest and regenerates well following disturbance, particularly fire. Characteristic broad-leaved tree species include Brunellia comociadifolia (Brunelliaceae), Didym^pattax tremulum ("temblon", Araliaceae), Diospyros ebenasler ("ebano", Ebenaceae), Garrya fadyenii (Garryaceae), Oreopunax capilalum (Araliaceae), Primus occidentalis ("almendro", Rosaceae) and Weinmannia pinnaia (Cunoniaceae).
This Life Zone is receiving considerable pressure from slash and burn agriculturalists, who are advancing deeper into the major mountain ranges. There are precious few patches in this Life Zone with soil suitable for permanent agriculture. Conversion of the broad-leaved forest on the lower slopes greatly reduces the water absorptive and retentive capacity of the topsoil, hence there is much greater fluctuation in runoff. Debris-clearing fires often escape up-slope into the pine forest where the temporary loss of groundwater results in serious erosion of the shallow soils. Natural forest vegetation is the best soil protector and regulator of runoff. The thick root-mat under broad-leaved forest functions like a gigantic sponge absorbing enormous quantities of rainwater during the wet season and slowly releasing water during the dry season. The sponge-like capacity moderates extremesreducing peak flow during floods and maximizing discharge during droughts. Protection of natural vegetation in the Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest Life Zone should be a top priority of the Dominican government.
Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest Life Zone
Of very limited occurrence, this Life Zone is found only in three isolated patches in the Cordillera Central. Though mean annual rainfall exceeds 4000 mm, the total area of only 36 km' contributes much less total runoff than the Subtropical Lower
Figure Ill-5b. Denuded landscape in the Rio Las Cuevrs watershed. The area was probably deforested decades ago for seasonal crops such as beans. Note the freshly prepared field (lower cent r). (Hand-held aerial photo, Gary Hartshorn.)
Montane Wet Forest Life Zone with 10C times more catchment irea.
The natural vegetation of this Life Zone is characterized by the dominance of broad-leaved species, and the abundance of tree ferns and epiphytes.
Subtropical tVnntane IVet Forest Life Zone
This Life Zone occurs above 2100 m and encompasses the highest peaks of the country. The most extensive representative of this Life Zone occurs around Pico Durate (3,087 m), with lesser areas in the headwaters of the Rio Nizao and on the Sierra de Baoruco.
Mean annual rainfall is 1000-2000 mm ard biotemperature is 12-60 C. Freezing temperatures occur regularly in this Life Zone.
The natural vegetation is predominantly open pine stands (see Fig ll-2a) of substantially lower height than in Lower Montan' Wet Forest Life Zor.s. Typical broad-leaved species include Buddleia domir -nsis (Loganiaceae), Lyonia spp. (Ericaceae), Verbena domingensis (Verbenace.'e) and Weinmannia pinnata (Cunoniaceae).
Status of Major Forest Types
The most recent inventory (Table I1I-2) of land cover indicates slightly less than 7,000 kmJ of forest remain in the country (CRIES 1980). Unfortunately, the CRIES study defines forest as having canopy closure of at least 75%, which exludes the majority of the open pine forests. Due to low density of trees, most
Table III-2. Classes of actual land use or cover in the Dominican Republic; Data from CRIES (1980).
Code Actual Land Use or Cover Km2 (%)
1.0 Urban and Built-up 292 (0.6)
2.1 Sugarcane (75%) 4,205 (8.8)
2.2 Intensive Agriculture (75% in crops) 6,496 (13.6)
2.3 Marginal Agriculture (25-74% in crops) 8,281 (17.4)
2.4 Pasture (planted grars) 2,325 (4.9)
3.0 Rangdand 5,278 (11.1)
3.1 Limited Rangeland 12,788 (26.8)
4.1 Broadleaved Forest 6,518 (13.7)
4.2 Pine Forest 311 (0.7)
5.0 Wetlands (excluding rice) 269 (0.6)
6.0 Barren or Open 402 (0.8)
7.U Inland Water 315 (0.7)
8.0 Qoud Cover 177 (0.4)
Total 4. .657 (100)
18


pine forests are classified as limited rangeland by CRIES. The lack of distinction of forest types makes it impossible to compare the CRIES results with esrier estimates of forest cover (Table III-3).
The two major forestry studies done by OAS (1967) and FAO (1973) Jo not permit substantive comparisons in forest cover (Table III-3). The OAS study conducted during the 1965 and 1966 determined 5,570 km1 of forest area with commercial trees. The FAO field work done in 1968-1971 classified as forest nearly double the total area reported by OAS; FAO reports twice as much humid broadleaved forest and five times more subhumid broadleaved forest. However, there is an important caveat buried in the FAO report that states only about one-third of the nearly 11,000 km* of forest area is undisturbed by fire ^r slash and burn agriculture. FAO's figure of 3,350 km* of undisturbed forest is about 40% less than the OAS area of commercial forests.
Table III-3. Comparative estimates of major forest types in the Dominican Republic.
Forest Type Primaeval Km'2 (%) OAS 1967 Km2 (%) FAQ 1V/3 Km2 (%) CRIES 1980 Km2 (%)
Pine 2,800a (5.8) 2,155 (4.5) 1,962 (4.1) 311 (0.6)
Mixed Pine-Broadleaved 4,800* (9.9) 835 (1.7) 1,385 (2.9) J 1
Humid Broadleaved 29,3 78b (61) 1,890 (3.9) / 4,135 (8 ">) .,,518 (13.5)
Subhumia Broadleaved 10,963c (23) 690 (1.4) 3,382 (7.0) )
Mangroves 102 (0.2) 102 (0.2)
Other (Lakes, etc.) 399 (0.8)
Total 48,442 (100) 5,570 (11.5) 10,966 (22.6) 6,829 (14.1)
aEstimutes based on aerial photo-interpretation by FAO (1973).
''Includes all Life Zones with PET ratio less then 1.0, minus the FAO estimates of original pine and mixed pine-broadleaved forests.
"includes all Life Zones with PET ratio greater than 1.0.
FAO (1973) offers interesting figures of the primaeval (pre-Co-lombian?) extent of pine and mixed pine-broadleaved forests (Table III-3). When compared with actual forest cover according to FAO, the pure pine forest decreased in area about 30% while the mixed pine-broadleaved forest lost over 70%. The striking difference in rates of presumed deforestation is probably due to the topogi aphically lower location of the mixed forest, hence it was more accessible for logging, and the better soil under the mixed forest.
Further extrapolations of the primaeval broad-leaved forests using Life Zones (see Table IIM) suggests 86% of the humid broadleaved forests and 69% of the subhumid broadleaved forests have been deforested (Table III-3). These very crude estimates of deforestation do indicate the pressures for conversion of lowland forests to non-forest use. Only in the highlands are the deforestation pressures less on the pure pine forests. The 1967 law closing sawmills and prohibiting the cutting of trees certain-
ly is a major factor in reduced deforestation. It should be noted that pine forests occur on poor soils in remote and rugged terrain, hence of neglibible interest to agriculturalists. Consequently the closing of sawmills took away the major threat and FORESTA (Forest Seivice) has dene an excellent job protecting the remaining pine forests.
While concentrating on pine forest protection, FORESTA has virtually ignored the other major forest types. The emphasis on enforcement prohibiting harvesting of commercial timber, primarily pine, seems to ignore the rampant and continuous deforestation for slash and burn agriculture, as well as for charcoal production and firewood. Significant areas of Los Haitises, including the national park, are currently being deforested. Slash and burn agriculturalists are rapidly advancing the agricultural frontier in La Altogracia province. FORESTA has token control of charcoal transport on the major highways, but makes no pretentions about regulating the cutting of wood to make into charcoal. FORESTA's (1980) report that national production totals 900,000 sacks of charcoal is only about 20% of the production estimated by Jennings and Ferreira (1979). The role of charocal production in the rural economy and the need for energy plantations are addressed in chapters IX and IV, respectively. The government, through FORESTA] clearly needs to address the charcoal economy in a much more thorough manner. FORFSTA should take the lead in ensuring rational use of natural forests for charcoal, development of trial energy plantations, use of more efficient kilns and stoves; and encourage industrial and home conversion from firewood to briquettes.
Flora
The ecological diversity of Hispaniola is reflected by great flor-istic richness, certainly the richest flora in the Antilles. Moscosa (1943) produced the first catalog of the Dominican flora; it was later expanded by Jimenez (1959). More recently, Logier (1974) compiled a dictionary of common plant names. A comprehensive systematic treatment of the flora has not been initiated. Approximately 36% of the 5,600 species are thought to be endemic (Hernandez 1980). A preliminary effort (Table 111-4) lists 137 plant species as threatened or in danger of extinction.
The national herbarium is housed at the very impressive botanical gardenJardin Botanico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso". The botanical garden was created by Law 456 (1976) with modifications in its legal base enacted under Law 921 (1978). As a dependency of the executive branch of government, the botanical garden receives annual government appropriations. The general administrator is appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic. In addition to maintair'ng live collections and the national herbarium, major funcitons include (1) strengthening educational and cultural appreciation of the botanical sciences, especially with respect to preserving the national flora; (2) conducting the necessary studies of the flora to assure its preservrtion or where necessary, restoration of green areas; (3) collabo. iting with the National Parks Directorate in botanical and ecological studies not only in parks and reserves but in areas destined for conversion to other uses; and (4) utilizing the green areas around Isabel de Torres as a substation for botanical garden programs (ONAP 1980).
19


Table hi-4. Threatened and endangered plant J pedes In th* Dominican Republic, Bated on list prepared by cib1ma by Dr.
Jose de Jeiui Jimenez, with a few addition* suggested by Alain Liogier. Orchid Hit prepared by D.D. Dod. 'Denotes Endemic Specie*.
agavaceae
'Ajavt mltmixta Tre).
bk;noniaceae
Elmanianlhe langifolia (Grlseb.) Urb. Tynnanthus caryephylltus (Bello) Alain
bombacaceae
Ciibaptnlandra (L.) Caertn.
cactaceae
Dendroctrtus undulosus (DC) Brit ton & Rose lliirjv.it! hurstii Marshal] 'Ntoabbolia paniculala (Lam) Brit ton ft Row Opmtia urbaniuna Werdem Ptrtslda portulacifolia (L) Haw
camfanulaceae
'Lobtlia idkir: Lam. var. Brachyantha Urb.
compositae
Agtratum domingtnst Spreng. 'Chitptalia tggtnii Urb. 'Chaptalia vtgatnsis Urb.
!...!'.'-" dominginsis Urb. "Errfctraw futrltsii Urb. 'EnjmiH Ottttnsrs Urb. 'Eryfron psihxaulis Urb. 'Urigtron subalpinus Urb. 'Etigmn tutrckhtimii Urb. 'tryfron wjocnsii Urb. "uipiihriiim (iinstMJiiitf Urb. *rip(i/oriffl AcftnK-fiMmfMM Urb, 'GnjtpfioJjHm rositltnse Urb. "C."k-,i..,,.'.i:i^/v;nv-. (Spreng.) A. Gray 'CunrftoWii efBioia Urb. Ac Ekm. 'Htttrodonla hmHtnsis Urb. & Ekm, 'Htttrodonla mikanioidts Urb. fc Ekm. 'Htltrodonla alinii Jimenez
Mikania cyanosma Urb. & Ekm.
Mikania plah/loba Urb. & Ekm,
Mikania producta Urb. it Ekm.
CUCURBITACEAE
Doytrta tmtlocalhartica Gros. 'Mtlolkria domingtnsis Copn. 'Ptntkptia suburctolata Cogn.
cupres5aceae
*}vniptnii gracilior Pllger Cuprcssus stmpervirtns L.
ebenaceae
Dioipyros domingtnsis (Urb.) Alain Diospyrei rnwlufa Poir.
euphorbia cla
'Afidoiun m\crophyllus U'b. Ou/im i.'iiKsuiniis Urb. & Fkm. Cretan futrltsii Urb. Cutimlhus umbtlliformit Urb. & Ekm. EupWfcia dtfoliata Urb. Uueocroton ttprosas (Wilid.) Pjx ft Hofhn. Vrtfi'rinri! arronifrfl (Urb.) Leon
gutti ferae
Mammta amtricana L.
hern an diaceae
Htmandia sonata L
LEGUMINOSAE (MIMOSACEAE)
'Acacia barahontnsis Urb. *GiJ/jiirt(fra nervosa (Urb.) Urb. & Ekm. 'Mimosa aimnsis Britt 'Mimosa farisii Leonard ex Britt 'Pithtalhbium abboiii Rose ft Leonard "fWittt/fofeiMm ntJtraiiJJiHin Benth Samanca patturiona Britt & Alain
LEGUMINOSAE (CAESALPINIACEAE)
'Catsalpinia anacanlka Urban. 'Cacsalpinia barahontnsis Urb.
Catsalpinia dominginsis Urb. 'Cassia angustisiligua Lam
Cassia tnntryana (Britt.) Jimenez 'Mora abbolHi Rose Ac Ieonard
Mora tkmanii (Urb.) B:itt. ft Rose 'Ptltcphenim btrltroanum 'Jrb.
5/n/i/ifl monospfrnw (Tul.) Urb.
LEGUMINOSAE (FABACEAE or PAFIUONAlDI'Ax)
Adtnanlhim ptngrim (L.) Sperg. 'Atschynomtnt pltwontrvia DC 'GtJapegwn'Hfti (A'.n n(fnil's Urb. & Ekm.
C/i'ton'ii laurifotia Poir
ftWi'n piscipula (L) Sarg.
Sopbora oligosptrma Urb. St Ekm.
MAGNOUACEAE
lllicim tkmanii A. C. Smith Mfl^ofoi Immuri R. A. Howard Magnolia paiitsctns Urb. & Ekm.
MALVACEAE
Hibiscus f-aetllolus Lam, var.fl'.KtnMJ Urb. ft Helw
'' !J;l.-S ;,l./l;f.',l (L) L
RtyiMaSM nl'rifrliinJrj (L) Desv. 'Ulbrichia bealtnsis Urb.
MELASTOMATACEAE
Clidtmia oligantha Urb.
Conasltgia furfuractot Urb. ft Ekm.
Grbfftnntda barahontnsis Urb. *A-f(tranjkm owitum Cogn. 'Mitmia futrltsii Cogn,
Tttraiygin tordata Urb. ft Ekm. ex Alain
MELIACEAE
Cedrtla odorala L StPKfniM mofi^tini (L) Jacq. Trichilia cuneifolia (L) Urb.
MORACEAE
Pstudolmtdia spuria (SW) Griseb. MYRSINACEAE
(dijh ; Urb. Ardisia futrltsii Urb. 'Walltnia apiculala Urb. *l MYRT ACEAE
'G^j/orfiiza hattitniis Urb. Pimmfji MUD (I1 ft Ekm.) Bur ret Psidium salulart (H.B.K.) Berg
ORCHID ACEAE (by D. D. Dod)
Orchids Threatened by Habitat Destruction
Barboittta monslrabilia (Ames) Garay
BkHa purpurea (Lam.) D.C.
Bulbophyllum arislaium Horn si
Bulbophyllum pachyrrhachis (A. Rich) Griseb.
('.;,):::,;., fii,','iiiii monltotrdii (Rchb. f.) Kdlfe
Campyloctntntm pcrrtctum (Rchb. f.) Rolfe
Gwiirfris diphylla Sw.
Dtndrophylax arita-juliat (Ames) Dod
Dicliota svwtiii (C. Schwrinf.) Caray ft Sweet.
Dilomilis scirpoidta (Schltr.) Surmmerh.
Domingoa nodosa (Cogn.) Schltr.
Entycm domingtnst (Cogn.) Dod
Epidendrum ntoporpax Ames
Efidtnirum paranaenst Rarb.-Rodr.
fyidtndrum strobiliftrum Rchf. r.
Erylhradts hirltlla (Sw.) Fawc. ft Rendle.
Eulophia alia (L.) Fawc. ft Rendle.
hnopsis sutyoidts (Sw.) Li id I.
Leptmlhopsis mtlananlha (Rchb. f.) Ames
Lcpimlhopsis strrulalfl (Cogn) Hespenheide ft
Gtfay Malaxis umbtlliflora Sw Malaxis tinifolia Michx. Miixillaria tidrndrobium (Rchb. f.) Dressier Muiilutria crussifolia (Lindl.) Rchb. f. Ntocogniauiia btzapltra (Griseb.) Schltr. Oncidium osmtnlii Wit liner Oncidium quttdribbum C. Schweinf. Plturclballii npptndicutala Cogn, Plturolhallis arislala Hook. Pkurothallis trcsa Urb. Plturalhaliis foliata Griseb. Plturolhallis htltnac Fawc. ft Rendle. Pleurolhattis parvula A. ft S. Plturolhallis auisqutyma Dod Plturolhallis ttshfolia (Sw.) Lndl. Ponlhitva pauciflora (Sw.) F. & R. Rtiihenbmltanllius tmarginnlm Garay Spiranlhts cranichoidts (Griseb.) Cogn, Spiranlhts dominginsis Dod Sltlis doming:nsis Cogn. Tropidia pflyslachya (Sw.) Ames
Orchid* In Danger of Extinction
Antdfononltis mdlachii (Wright ex Griseb.) Garay
Busiphylluta angustifoha Schltr. Basiphyllata sttrwphylta (Rchb. f.) Schltr, Brachionidium shtrringii Rolfe Campyloctntntm conslunztnst Garay Campyloctntnim macrocarpum Dod Gmjwrentnim ierptr.tilingua Dod
CompmlHa fahala Poepp. ft Engl.
Corallorhiia tkmanii Mansf.
CorymtorJris flava (Sw.) Kuntze
Corymborkis forcipigtra (Rchb. f.) L. O. Wms.
Crmichis wagtntri Rchb. f,
Cryplophoranthus auraatiacus Dod
Cryplophoranthus atropurpurtus (Lindl.) Rolfe
Cryplophoranthus ttusus Garay
Domingoa xsusiana Dod
Entytlia acuHfolia Schltr.
EiKytftfl bipupularts Rchb. f.
Encyclia blttiodts Griseb.
J in v. /hi |.,iii'il:i'ni;.i (Lindl.) Dresiler
Encyclia buchii (Cogn.) Dod
Encyclia cothltala var. alba Dod
Encyclia diuma (Jacq.) Schltr.


Table III-4. (continued)
Orchids in Danger of Extinction (continued)
Encyclia tkmanii (Mansf.) Dod
Encyclia fucala (Lindl.) Britt. & Mil.
Encyclia hodgeiana (Lindl.) Dod
Encyclia photnicta (Lindl.) Dod
Encyclia polygonal* (Lindl) Dressier
Encyclia vtrrdcosa Dod
Epidendrum rivulart Lindl.
Epidendrum simdaium S'v.
Epidtndrum soralai Rchb. f.
Epidendropsis victntina (Lindl.) Garay & Dunst.
Eurystyles athcota Dod
Eurystyles anmiassacomos (Rchb. f.) Schltr.
Eurysiytts dominginsis Dod
Futrltsiella pltriclwides Schltr.
Galtandra btyrichii Rchb. f.
Goodytra striata Rchb. f.
Habtnaria quinqueselc. (Michx.) Garay
Habtnaria odonlopttala Rchb. f.
Lankisterella orlhanlha (Kransl.) Garay
Leochilus labialus (Sw.) Kuntze
Ltpanlhts dussii Urb.
Ltpanthcs furcatipttala Garay
Lepanlhopsis anthocttnium (Rchb. f.) Ames
Ltpanthopsis dtnlifera (L. O. Wms.) Garay
Lepanlhopsis dodii Garay
Lepanlhopsis domingensis Dod
Ltpanthopsis glandulifera Dod
Ltfxr.mopsis holltari (Mansf.) Garay
Lepanlhopsis nicrolepanlhes (Griseb.) Ames
Lepanlhopsis moniliformis Dod
Ltpimlhopsis pygmata C. Schweinf.
Lepanlhopsis slellaris Dod
Liparis neuroglussa Rchb. f.
Liparis viridipurpurca Griseb.
Malaxis hispanioiae (Schltr.) L. O. Wms.
Malaxis keonardii Ames
Malaxis parlhonii Morren
Maxillaria inflexa (Lindl.) Griseb.
(M. croeesruhcns) Oncidium ariia-julimum Withner & Jimenez Oncidium calochilum Cogn. Oncidium guiantnst var. alborubrum Moir. Oncidium henekenii Schomb. ex Lindl. Oncidium meirax Rchb. f. Oncidium lutrckheimii Cogn. Pinelia leochilus (Rchb. f.) Garay & Sweet.
Platysltk qutrctticola (Lindl.) C;ray
Plturolhallis alainii Dod
Plturolhallis claudii Rchb. f. ex Dod
Plturothallis comiculaia (Sw.) Lindl.
Plturolhallis dod" Garay
Plturolhallis grobyi Batem. ex Undl.
Plturolhallis imrayi Lindl.
Plturolhallis lanceola Spreng.
Pleurothallis laxa Lindl.
Plturolhallis longilabris Lindl.
Plturolhallis mazei Urb.
Pleurothallis murex Rchb. f.
Pleurothallis pendens Dod
pleurothallis simpliciflora Dod
Pleurothallis spilo-porphureus Dod
Pleurolhallis Iribuloides (Sw.) Lindl.
Plturolhallis tricostala Cogn.
Ponlhieva ekmanii Mansf.
Ponlhieva harrisii Cogn.
Ponlhieva peliolala Lindl.
PrescoIHa sp. no v.
Pseudocentrum minus Benth.
Quisqueya ekmanii Dod
Quisqueya futrltsii Dod
Quisqutya holdridgei Dod
Quisqueya karstii Dod
Spiranlhes coslaricensis Rchb. f.
Spiranlhes fauci-sanguinea Dod
Spiranlhes monophylla (Griseb.) Dod
Spiranlhes polyanlha Rchb. f.
Spiranlhes speciosa (3mel.) A. Rich.
Slelis chabreana Mansf.
Slellilabium minutiflora (Krangl.) Garay
Tetramicra bulbosa Mansf.
Tetramicra canaliculala var. alba
Tetramicra ekmanii Mansf.
Tetramicra schoenina (Rchb. f.) Rolfe
Triphora geniianoides (Sw.) Ames & Schwenfueth
Tiiphora surinamensis Lindl.
Vanilia mexicana Mill
Vanilla phaeanlha Rchb. f.
Wullschhtgtlia aphylla (Sw.) Rchb. f.
PALMAE
'Acrocomia quisqutyaua Bailey 'Bactris plumeriana Mart. Calyplrogyne dulcis (Wright ex Griseb.) Gomez Maza
Calyplrogyne rivalis (O.F. Cook) Leon
Copcrnicia berteroana Becc 'Haitiella ekmanii (Burret) Bailey
Presloea monlana (Grah.) Nichols. "Pstudophotnix sargtnlii Subsp. saonae var.saonae (Cook) Red
PODOCARPACEAE
Podocarpus buchii Urb.
RUBIACEAE
AnHrhea lliptica Urb. & Ekm. Antirhea involucrda Urb. & Ekm. Casasia haiticnsis Urb. & Ekm. Exoslema nilens Urb. Exosiema rupicolum Urb. Exoslema subcordalum Krug. & Urb. Gonzalagunia brachyanlhc (A. Rich.) Urb. Guellarda barahonensis Urb. Guellarda slenophylla Urb. Olloschmidlia haiticnsis Urb. 'Palicourea mkruniha Urb.
RUTACEAE
Zanlhoxylum flavum Vahla
SAPOTACEAE
Bumelia inlegra Cronq.
Dipholis ferrugiuea
Micropholis chrysophylloides Pierre
Pouleria sapola (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Steam.
STERCU LIACEAE
Byltneria microphylla Jacq. Neoiegnellia cubensis Urb. Wallheria calciocola Urb.
THEOPHRASTACEAE
*]acquinia conosn Urb. "Jacquinia eggersii Urb.
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Guaiacum officinale L. Guaiacum sanctum L.
ai


IV
PREVIOUS PAGE BLANK
Plantation Forestry
Introduction
The Dominican Republic was once well-endowed with pine, hardwood and mixed pine-hardwood forests, but uncontrolled cutting, wildfire, hurricanes and conversion to agriculture have destroyed all but occasional stands in higher elevations, a few private forests and scattered remnant plots and strips along property boundaries or water courses. Much of the low elevation, dry scrub forest also remains. Devastation of the nation's better forests has resulted in widespread erosion and led the government to close all private mills in 1967 and to prohibit harvesting of live trees. The country has since become a net importer of about $30 million of wood products annually.
Although deforestation is the root cause of most of the country's most critical environmental problems, a massive reforestation program is nut a workable solution at the present time. Reforestation of selected, controlled sites and tree planting in conjunction with integrated watershed management, however, are possible and desirable. This chapter aims to describe the state of the art of plantation forestry in the Dominican Republic and the role that reforestation can play in restoring the nation's land resource to a protective and productive state.
The Status of Plantation Forestry
Extent of Existing Plantations
Efforts to establish forest plantations in the Dominican Republic have been extremely modest. Planting of ornamental species has occurred for some time, but the first forest plantations of any significant extent were not begun until 1969. Progress has been slow since then.
Statistics on forest tree plantations are rare or nonexistent. Most organizations record the number of seedlings planted, but because of variable plaiting densities, some replanting of failed areas, and occasionally the tallying of plar5s which leave the nursery instead of those actually planted, it is difficult to accurately ascertain the area of land reforested in the Dominican Republic. Records of seedlings planted provided by the Dirrecion General de Foresta, converted to area, indicate that from 1969 to 1978 about 1,9000 hectares were reforested by the government. Locations and approximate areas of these stands are given in Tab)? IV-1. By 1980 the government plantations may have been increased to about 2,200 hectares. In addition, private industry (es-
Table IV-1. Estimated areas and locations of government forest plantations established in the Dominican Republic through 1978.
Location Main Species Year Planting Started Approximate Area (Hectares)
Constanza (Jarabacoa) P. Caribaea, P. occidtnlaiis 1975 107
Loma de la Sal (Jarabacoa) P. carihata P. occidtnlaiis 1969 280
Los Gajitos (San Juan) Swie'tnir mahagoni P. carihata, others 1975 40
Manabao (Jarabacoa) P. carihata P. occidentalis 1969 1,230
Sabana Clara (Dajabon) P, carihata P. occidentalis P. occidentalis others 1976 262
1,919
pecially Falconbridge Dominicana) is estimated to have planted about 1,000 hectares to mid-1980, bringing the country-wide otal to approximately 3,200 hectare, of which about 70% were government sponsored and 30% were privately established. The main species planted are Pinus occidtnlaiis and P. carihata var. hon-dwtnsis. Most of the plantations have the objectives of site stabilization and the future production of wood products.
National Organizations Active in Reforestation
Direccion General de Foresta. The organization most active in plantation forestry in the country is the national forest service, the Direccion General Forcstal, or FORESTA. FORESTA began planting for combined protective and productive purposes in 1969 with technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This assistance lasted until 1972. Planting has continued since then at a modest scale, and government plantations now cover an estimated 2,200 hectares, mainly in the province of La Vega near Jarabacoa, but with smaller stands in San Juan and Dajabon. Since 1977 the FORESTA planting program has benefitted from financial and technical assistance from the In-tevamerican Development Bank (IDB). FORESTA has made a
33


start at reforestation, but they need to expand planting on government land and to extend it to private holdings as well. The possibilities and limitations of FORESTA doing this are covered elsewhere in this chapter.
Other Government Agencies. Other than FORESTA, the government organization most active in reforestation is the Secretaria de Efrado de Agricultura (SEA). Two major SEA plans with reforestation components are the Plan Sierra, prepared by the Planning Department (SEA 1978 and 1979), and the Project Bao, prepared by the Department of Lands and Water (Tamayo 1980).
With headquarters in San Jose de Las Matas, Plan Sierra aims to promote development and integration into the national economy of the mountainous region covering about 2,000 square kilometers in parts of the provinces of Santiago and Santiago Rodriguez by improving cropping systems and by fostering better management of natural resources. The forestry component of Plan Sierra calls for harvesting and management of natural forests as well as reforestation. Initially, plans are to reforest by planting about 50 hectares annually to suitable species, mainly Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis. Planting is to be done on agriculturally underproductive private lands through a cropping system called taungya which encourages establishment "'nd cultivation of mixed plantations of trees and agricultural crops for a period of three to four years, after which the trees are left to take over the site. On the better soils this same taungya system is being used to convert from annual or seasonal crcps to more permanent coffee p'antations, by first planting a short-term cash crop together with leguminous shade trees, and then by setting out coffee seedlings once sufficient shade is assured. Some 40,000 hectares are thought to be suitable for coffee production. Other components of the Plan Sierra are the devlopment of disease-resistant, adaptable varieties of fruit trees (such as avocado) suitable for export, as well as pasture improvement and fuelwood plantations. There has been only minimal cooperation between FORESTA and plan Sierra, due largely to the technical weakness of FORESTA.
As Plan Sierra had been operational for only about 18 months prior to the profile team's visit, it was difficult to evaluate how successful it has been in meeting its objectives. It is obvious, however, that the Plan is off to an excellent start. It has confronted the major problems head on and is developing local solutions to solve them. In particular, Plan Sierra is striving to work with the rural poor, to gain their trust, and to enlist their collaboration. It is, for example, helping to teach housewives better family nutrition, explaining to farmers' organizations the benefits of agroforestry, and working through lending institutions to promote conversion to coffee production on suitable sites. Nonetheless, these efforts will need to be intensified and expanded if Plan Sierra is to have a significant impact on the region. In particular, it will need management, and in some areas terrace construction, on the poor, dry, and often shallow soils which exist in much of the region. Aid agencies could be of great assistance to Plan Sierra by providing much needed technical expertise as well as incentives to small farmers either in the form of cash subsidies or food. There is a real opportunity for international agencies to face the challenge of helping the rural poor by assisting Plan Sierra.
The second major SEA project with a forest plantation component is Project Bao. This plan, with offices in Janico, is a soil and water conservation scheme aimed at protecting the Tavera-Bao dams and reservoirs. Geographically, it concentrates on the 864
"Exotic species, such as P. carihata, are not recommended here for planting in national parks. In addition, P. carihata is unlikely to be as adaptable as the indigenous P. oiddtntalis at elevctions above about 800 meters, which includes most of the park.
square kilometer 3ao watershed which includes the rivers Bao, Jagua and fciico. an estimated 9,000 hectares of the project area are public lands of greater than 40% slope which are now occupied by small farmers, and about 5,000 hectares lie within Ber-mudez National Park. Most of the rest of the land is in private ownership.
The forestry component of Project Bao aims to change the cropping system from seasonal crops to more permanent types, such as trees, through taungya, and to reduce forest fires. Specifically it proposes to plant annually some 1.6 million fruit and forest trees (about 1,000 hecta.es) outside the park and another 1.6 million trees of P. occidentalis and possibly P. caribaea* inside the park. Although FORESTA has been cooperating with Project Bao, the reforestation goals of the project are viewed here as being unrealistic. No organization in the country has been able to plant anywhere near 2,000 hectares annually, and in light of the seriousness of land tenure problems in the Bao watershed and the need for technical assistance and incentives, Project Bao will certainly not be able to reach its goal anytime in the near future. No figures were available for the area of land actually reforested to date, but it must be remembered that the project is only two years olda very young age for forest plantation schemes. Project Bao should be considered as a candidate for bilateral and multilateral technical and financial assistance based largely on the need for protecting the Tavera-Bao watersheds, but success in improving the lot of the rural poor is likely to be faster by supporting Plan Sierra.
Alcoa Corporation. Although time did not allow a visit to Alcoa Corporation's bauxite mining operation in the extreme southwest of the country, the following information was obtained through an interview with a company representative.
Alcoa started forest plantations in 1973 out of a desire to rehabilitate mined-over land and to provide a useful product to the local people. The area planted is small, but the planting rate is increasing. In 1980 about 12 hectares were afforested while another 30 were prepared for future planting. The main species used are almonds, Cupressus arizonica (two varieties), Eucalyptus globus, E. Citriodora and Fraximus alba. A number of North American fruit trees were also tried but most were severely damaged by climatic extremes which ranged from hot, dry daytime conditions followed by night temperatures approaching freezing. Two technicians are employed full-time in afforestation. Falconbridge Dominicana. Falconbridge is a ferro-nickel mining firm operating a government concession of about 10,000 hectares near Bonao. In 1971, at their own initiative and with some technical advice from FAO, Falconbridge started planting cut-over lands which were not intended to be mined. They later expanded planting to include mined land, and subsequently a provision calling for the rehabilitation of mine spoils was written into the concession agreement. The company also has a government permit to harvest natural pine forests on land scheduled for strip mining. Logs are sawn in two small FORESTA mills and the wood is used for government sponsored lew-income housing.
Falconbridge claims to have planted about 1,000 hectares in the 1971-1980 period, but this estimate is likely on the high side. Currently, planting is restricted to mine spoils and is down to about 24 hectares annually. About 70-75% of the plantations are of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis with seed coming largely from Belize; most of the remaining plantations are P. occidentalis.
Falconbridge appears to have an excellent overall forestry operation. Including the five sections of I) administration and planning, 2) forestry, 3) mine reclamation and rehabilitation, 4) technical services and 5) harvesting their woodlands division has the services of 56 full-time employees. Although the comr >y does not have a university-trained forester, the techical staff interviewed by the profile team was knowledgeable and has developed appropriate site rehabilitation techniques for mine spoils. Falconbridge should be commended for its success in restoring
24


ugly, mined-over sites to a productive and aesthetically pleasing state.
Gulf and Western. This large sugar producer in the southern and southeastern part of the country was not contacted about its interest in reforestation. It is known, however, that the firm iecent-ly established some small plantations of Swientenia mahagoni near La Romana.
Rosario Dominicana. Rosario i\ .i rold mine operation northeast of Bonao which started production in 1974 on a government concession of 758 hectares. Sin-'. Oc'.ober, 1979, the operation his been completely govenmerir j-vnei
As did other companies, Rosaiio started reforestation at its own initiative before a planting clause was added to the concession agreement. Planting began in 1973 and has covered an estimated 175 hectares through mid-1980. About 92% of the stands are composed of pines, largely Pinus cribaea from Honduras; the rest are of eucalypts and mahogany (Swietenia mahogani). The objective is to reforest antf slow erosion on cut-over land not scheduled for mining. All of such available land is likely to be planted by the next couple of years, after which plantation establishment will come to a halt. The chemical mining process used by Rosario does not allow planting of mine spoils. Rosario employs two technicians and 26 laborers full-time in reforestation and grounds work around the concession. A special feature of the Rosario operation is tha 3% of the net profits are channelled to a government forestry fund to finance reforestation and related forestry development projects.
Foreign Assistance to Plantation Projects
FOA/UNDP. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Special Fund, now called the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), were the first to provide outside assistance for reforestation to the Dominican Republic. Reforestation, however, was only o'.ie component of a larger project (described in the chapter on the institutional analysis of FORESTA) which was operated 'com 1968 to 1972 by FAO/UNDP together with FORESTA. This project was largely responsible for initiating the reforestation vork at Mana-bao near Jarabacoa. It also prepared a plan for extending reforestation to other parts of the country, but except for the Jarabacoa region, FORESTA has been unable to follow the plan. IDB. A second assistance to FORESTA's reforestation program came in 1977 when a three-year soil conservation project was begun in the watershed of the Rio Yaque del Norte to protect the Tavera dam and reservoir. The total project budget was for $2.74 million, of which $1.22 million was in the form of a soft loan at 4% interest from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The original objectives were l) to reforest 2,500 hectares of public land on slopes greater than 40%, 2) to construct terraces and related conservation works on 1,500 hectares of land in the vicinity of the Tavera reservoir, 3) to build 822 check dams for torrent control, 4) to provide technical advice and training, and 5) build the required physical infrastructure (primarily offices). In retrospect it is apparent that the plans were over-ambitious and as a result of delays in project execution, severe damages to roads and watersheds by hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979, and an inability to identify available public Ian for planting, the project was unable to meet its objectives. By the end of 1979, for example, only 10% of the reforestation goals were reached, 16% of the terraces constructed and 17% of the check dams built (FORESTA 1980). Technical assistance, training and infrastructure goals met a similar fate. An extension was requested and granted to continue with a revised project through 1981 whose total reforestation component (1977-81) was scaled down to 625 hectares. Whether or not this goal will be met will depend on how successful the project is in 1) finding available government land for planting, 2) convincing private landholders
to plant trees and undertake conservation works, and 3) securing enough technically trained staff.
Technical Evaluation of Forest Plantations
For lack of time, an in-depth country-wide ev Juation of forest plantations was not possible. The following cursory assessment is based largely on brief visits to Manabao (Fig IV-la) and Loma de la Sal near Jarabacoa and to Falconbridge and Rosario.
Species
The two main species planted are the indigenous Pinus occidentalis and the introduced P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Both are planted for the dual purposes of watershed stabilization and wood products. Where growth is good, they are well-suited to these uses. More so than most broadleat species, both of these pines can tolerate low nutrient levels and competition from grass and shrubs, and their needles produce an excellent, interwoven mat of protective layer to cover exposed sites. They also have thick bark which makes them resistant to light ground fires once the trees are past the juvenile stage. In addition, their wood is suitable for a variety of wood products.
Although planned species-site studies have not been initated and no comparative data is available from existing plantations, it appears that P. occidentalis is more windfirm and is the superior performer at elevations above about 800 meters, whereas P. caribaea does better in lower areas. Planting could continue with these two species on selected sites, at least in the Cordillera Central.
Other species existing in small plots, as roadside plantings, or under trial are Swientenai mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala, both of which are indigenous, as well as Cassia siamea and "arious eucalypts, especially Eucalyptus robusla.
Species which should be considered for initial or expanded testing are Pinus oocarpa, Eucalyptus camaldulensi?, E. terelicornis, luecaena leucocephala and possibly some species of Prosopis and Acacia. The fast-growing P. oocarpa merits introduction as a possible alternative to P. occidentalis, especially at elevations above 800 meters, while the eucalypts, leucaena and dry scrub species should be tested as possible trees f jr fuel.vood plantations.
In addition to fuelwood plantations, leucaena may have an expanded role to play in agroforestry schemes, particularly on moderately fertile, moist, non-acidic soils. Leucaena has a number
Figure IV-la. Reforestation in Manobao with Pinus occidentalis (the uniform darker swath cxttnding from lower right up the ridge, aaoss the upper valley and down the left slopes). This is the largest forest plantation in the country and was done by FORESTA. (Hand-held aerial photo, Gary Hartshorn:)
25


of features, for example, which make it a versatile and potentially valuable component in agroforestry programs: it is easily propagated by seed or cuttings, grows fast, fixes nitrogen, performs well in mixtures or intercropped with other species, is effective in reducing erosion, and has wood useful for charcoal and firewood and leaves suitable for fodder. Caution is advised, however, not to view leucaena as a panacea or so-called "miracle" species; rather, it should be tested in a scientific and rational manner on available sites and for needed uses just as other promising species. Some work has recently been started with leucaena, but it needs to be expanded.
Seed Source
Due primarily to the limited scope of the plantation program in the Dominican Republic, very little attention has been paid to seed source. For P. occidentalis, most seed is collected from natural stands near the planting area. This is recommended procedure ?s long as mother trees of good phenotype are selected from a number of different stands. No seed production areas have been established. Most of the P. caribaea var. Uondurensis seed used has been imported from Honduras and Belize, bui provenance tests have not been made.
Other than a small, recently initiated trial of hucaena leucocephala cultivars near Azua and Falconbridge's test of progeny from 12 controlled crosses each of Eucalyptus robusla and E. grandis made in Florida, no seed source studies are underway These should be started for promising species, both native and introduced, if expanded planting for erosion control, fuelwood or industrial products is to be highly successful.
Nurseries
Tree nurseries in the country are small, labor intensive and poorly equipped, yet most of them apparently produce acceptable planting st; ck; nonetheless there is room for a great deal of improvement !x>th in efficiency of operation and in seedling vigor.
The most common practice is to sow pine seed in a germination bed and tc prick-out the newly emerged seedlings into soil-filled polythene bags before the seed coat is dropped. This is acceptable practice. Some nurseries, however, such as those of Plan Sierra near San Jose de las Matas, apparently delay pricking-out until new needles are formed, and insufficient care in placing the larger root sytem into the bag has resulted in root deformation. Some of these nurseries have also experienced a problem with insufficient mycorrhizal inoculation for good pine seedling growth. This could be overcome by mixing the duff and pine straw from a natural pine forest into the soil of the germination beds. Other nurseries visited apparently received adequate natural mycorrhizal inoculation from fungal spores from surrounding pine forests.
Outplanting and Tending
Most government reforestation has taken place on steep, cut-over, but vegetated sites. Since minimization of soil erosion is a primary objective, these sites are not intensively prepared for planting. The usual practice is to clear a swath on the contour through 2ny existing brush and to prepare a hole to recieve the seedling. In early years of the planting program, a spacing of 2 x 2 meters was used; this has since been extended to 2.5 x 2.5 meters. Occasional weeding is done the first couple of years after planting if needed to free seedlings from overtopping competition, but usually the young pines are able to grow through the grass and small shrubs. Failure to weed is likely to result in some reduction of growth but is acceptable practice considering the justifiable concern over soil erosion and the need to minimize it.
At Falconbridge and Alcoa very intensive site preparation is practiced in the rehabilitation of strip mine spoils. Prior to mining, the topsoil is scraped away, piled and saved. After the min-
eral ore is removed, the site is shaped, terraces are constructed, and the topsoil replaced. At Falconbridge, terraces 2-2.5 meters wide and spaced 3-7 meters apart, depending on slope, are built. A grass cover, African star, is them planted, followed by pines at a 2 x 2 meter spacing. Alcoa plants Bermuda grass and prefers a wider tree spacing of 5 x 5 meters. Both firms fertilize lightly; Alcoa also spreads manure and waters from a tank truck. The keys to the success of these opertions are the saving and reusing of the topsoil, shaping and terracing to slow runoff, and rapid establishment of a good cover crop.
Post establishment tending is generally not practiced, although some pruning has been done at Loma de La Sal as laboratory exercises by students. Thought is now being given to thinning some stands. This can be done judiciously without significantly increasing the risk of erosion.
Growth and Yield
No information is available on the growth and yield of plantations, but some studies apparently have been initiated with the assistance of students from the forestry school at Jarabacoa. Such studies need to be expanded. There is no information on rotation length.
The Need for Forest Plantations
The priority need for forest plantations in the Dominican Republic is as a means of slowing accelerated, water-caused soil erosion. Plantations are also viewed as a source of fuelwood and, to a lesser extent, of future industrial wood products.
Erouion Control
Soil erosion has reached serious proportions in most of the watersheds visited by the profile team, and unless it is checked urgently the soil resource in which much of the nation's food is produced will be lost and the reservoirs so important as sources of irrigation water and hydroelectric power will soon become choked with sediment. Nonetheless, checking accelerated soil erosion is no simple matter, especially on already degraded lands which are often of unsure ownership yet which in many cases are under intensive use. Effective erosion control will require a concerted, long-term effort which must begin immediately.
Technically, erosion can be slowed by covering the soil surface to protect it against rain drops and by breaking the flow of runoff from the land. Often a vegetative cover alone is sufficient, but where erosion is severe mechanical measures will also be needed. For a given watershed, overall erosion control can best be achieved through a program of integrated land management which includes both pasture and forest management, reforestation, gully control measures, better road construction and maintenance, improved agricultural practices, and in some cases terrace construction and the conversion from short-term crops to more permanent types.
Both reforestation in the traditional sense of establishing closely-spaced plantations and tree planting as a component of agro-forestry have important roles to play in rehabilitating eroded land in the Dominican Republic. On cut-over lands unequivocally under government control and vigilance, reforestation can proceed almost immediately if staff and funds are available. All that is needed is cadastral information to locate and mark the land and an on-site soil inspection to determine whether sufficient soil remains for adequate tree growth and anchorage. Although generally a minimum of about two meters of soil is required for economic timber production, tree planting for erosion control can be done on somewhat shallower soils as long as one
28


is willing to accept a reduction in growth and as long as the tree roots are able to anchor themselves adequately into deeper, friable material. However, where little soil remains and terrain is steep, rehabilitation is likely to be more effective by managing for pasture or for other low forms of vegetation. Many of the upper catchment areas of watersheds in the Central Cordillera could likely be reforested with pines using existing technology if land tenure is assured and if soils are first assessed on-site.
On non-industrial, private holdings ai?d on land of contested ownership, traditional reforestation of large blocks of closely spaced plantations holds litt'e promise Although plantations would be effective in slowing erosion jn many such lands, it will be all but impossible to con*-:ace landowners and users to reforest, especially with pines, until such time as they can be shown that a tree crop is a superior investment to agriculture or grazing. At present, there is no data in the Dominican Republic to support such an argument. Obtaining this information should be a research priority.
Meanwhile, the planting of multi-purpose tree species on small holdings as components of integrated land management, or agroforestry, may have an important role to play in slowing erosion and increasing the income of rural people. Species such as Leucaena leucocephala, fruit and nut trees, and other versatile species should be promoted for interplanting with agricultural crops and for planting along proprety boundaries, terraces, gullies and water courses. In some areas, conversion to a semi-permanent tree crop by taungya may be possible, such as is now being tried by Plan Sierra. Of major importance here is that trees not be looked upon as the sole solution, rather that they be considered as a part of a more comprehensive land management program that includes erosion control works, pasture managment and better farming techniques. Even then, however, implementation of an integrated program will require public education, extension, demonstration, and most of all financial incentives (and/or food aid) to landowners. In addition to Plan Sierra, such projects are urgently needed on most of the water catchment areas above key dams in the Cordillera Central.
Fuelwood
There is a large and growing demand for fuelwood in the Dominican Republic, both in the form of firewood and charcoal. FAO (1971) estimated the consumption at about 0.45 cubic meters per person annually in 1970, or roughly 1,840,000 m5 for the country as a whole and 87% of the total use of roundwood.
Figure IV-lb. Subtropical wet pine forest near La Veg^ This is the largest block of pines in private ownrrship, rj well as the only extensive pine forest remaining in the lowlands. This forest has excellent potential [or production foreiky, .i ihe 1967 closure of sawmills and prohibiting of tree cutting does not entourage private efforts in forestry. (Hand-held aerial photo, Gary Hartshorn.)
With a population growth rate of about 3% annually, fuelwood consumption may have reached 2,470,000 m' per year by 1980
Although data is not available, much of the fuelwood demand is apparently met by the dry, scrub forest, with the remainder coming from high forest illegally cleared by shifting cultivators, private landowners or trespassers. How long the forest can continue to meet the fuelwood needs is unknown, but it is certain that as sites are cleared for irrigated agriculture and as land pressure forces shiff:ag cultivators from the higher, wetter mountains to lower, dryer regions (both of which aie already happening), the pressure on the natui J forest for fuelwood will increase. In some other tropical countries, the demand for fuelwood has led to uncontrolled cutting of forests and the virtual denuding of forest land, which in turn has resulted in accelerated soil erosion, in some cases desertificition, and extreme hardships on rural people. It should be a top priority of government to ensure that this does not happen in the Dominican Republic.
Among the ways to slow the abusive cutting of forests for fuelwood are to improve the management and utilization of natural forests and to establish plantations of fast-growing species of high calorific value. Due to their greater productivity than natural forests, plantations in particular are viewed as an important future source of fuelwood in the Dominican Republic. An estimated 13,000 hectares of plantations, for example, could likely meet the entire national fuelwood demand. Plans are currently being made to test species and develop techniques for establishing and managing fuelwood plantations, but only a few, small studies are underway to date. These studies need to be intensified and expanded immediately, both in Cibao and in the Southwest, so that data and on-site information are available on which to base a decision concerning large-scale fuelwood plantations in the future.
Industrial Wood Products
The Dominican Republic is a net importer of about $30 million of wood-based products annually. Much of this demand could be met by the existing natural forests if they were wisely managed (Fig IV-lb). Current policy, however, is to preserve existing forests. In the future, plantations could be important supplies of industrial wood if sites suitable for intensive i">restry were made available. The establishment of industrial plar ations would permit a reduction in the import bill and still allow large blocks of natural forest to be maintained in parks. Again, studies of species, sites, plantation management, and profitability are needed if industrial plantations are to be founded on a sound technical base.
Constraints on Progress
Insufficient Professionally-Trained Foresters
There is a serious shortage of university-trained foresters in the Dominican Republic. Technicians are also in limited supply but the immediate needs are likely to be met by the newly reopened school at Jarabacoa and by the 3-year school at Siguatepeque, Honduras, which is now training Dominican forest technicians. At present the country has a mere eight professional foresters, only one of whom works for FORESTA. The lack of well-trained personnel is the primary reason that little, if any, statistical information is available on plantations or on species' productivity. It also explains why there is not coordinated research on species-site relationships, seed sources, yield, nursery and plantation practices, the profitability of growing trees as a crop or on the suitability of different species for erosion control, fuelwood or as components in agroforestry schemes. The lack of professional staff is, at least in part, responsible for the FORESTA subprogram's realization of only about 10% of its reforestation goals. It also no doubt accoi"its for some of the apparent lack of coop-
27


eration between FORESTA and other government agencies on forestry mattersin many cases, FORESTA simply does not have the expertise to lend. Unless something is done soon to upgrade the professional qualifications of personnel working on forestry projects, little progress can be expected on the key reforestation priorities outlined in the previous section.
Land Tenure and Control
Two obivous and related constraints on reforestation are the difficulty of determining land ownership and the problem of providing adequate vigiliance and protection to public lands. Although strictly speaking FORESTA is empowered to define and manage all forest land, both public and private, in practice government-sponsored reforestation has taken place only on lands clearly under government control. Little public land remains around Manabao and Loma de la Sal and its location elsewhere in the country is unclear, except for some national parks which are, for the most part, forested. Much of the so-called public land is in practice being converted to agricultural crops or pasture by shifting cultivators. There is a real need to define the boundary of public land in the country and to decide which lands can realistically be controlled. Starting with the high priority areas, such as critical watersheds, such land needs to be mapped, physicaly marked on ihe ground and patrolled. Unless this is done the \> al scope and potential of reforestation cannot be gauged.
The Law
The forest law itself is a constraint on reforestation. Although the closing of all private sawmills and the restrictions placed on tree cutting were the salvation of existing forests, they have also served as strong deterrents to reforestation. Logically, in the absence of other incentives, there is little interest on the part of private landholders to plant when harvesting is effectively prohibited. In theory, legal cutting permits can be obtained through FORESTA but in practice few are issued. If sound management of private forest land is to be encouraged and if tree planting on small holdings is to be successfully promoted, FORESTA will need to start granting harvesting permits, at least to landowners willing to accept government supervision of logging.
Lack of Forestry Consciousness
A common affliction of many fledgling forest services is a lack of a conservation awareness on the part of rural people. In the Dominican Republic, the native forest was considered as a resource to exploit and convert to agriculture or pasture. It was not viewed as a crop, nor was its role in rural land management fully appreciated. This viewpoint continues today. If FORESTA and other government agencies are to be successful in promoting integrated land management which includes tree plantations, they will need to foster a conservation ithic among the people, especially those in rural areas. This is no simple matter, but a start can he made in the school systems, through the mass media, by setting up demonstration areas, ind by strengthening extension programs.
Institutional Analysis of the Direccion General Forestal
The Formative Period and Legal Base
The primary organization charged with protecting and managing the nation's forest land is the Direccion General Forestal, also call-id the Direccion General de Foresta, but more commonly referred to as FORESTA. FORESTA was created in 1962 as dependency of the Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura (SEA) with the passage of Law No. 5856. This law, as subsequently amended, entrusts FORESTA with the conservation, restoration, develop-
ment and utilization of forest vegetation and the transport and commerce of forest products. It also provides for the central administration of the previously created national forest services arid the development and integral ion of forest industries by FORESTA. The law applies to all forest land, both public and private, and authorizes FOkESTA to define forest land and to dictate the measures convenient for its conservation and reforestation. Another important and salient feature of Law 5956 is Article 87 which made it illegal to cut any fruit or forest tree without a permit from SEA.
Unfortunately, FORESTA lacked the resources to adequately implement the law, and in the turbulent years following the death of Trujillo in 1961, forests disappeared at an alarming rate due to uncontrolled logging, conversion to agriculture and wildfire. It is said, for example, that the number of sawmills incrased from about 65 in 1961 to 172 in 1967. Concern over this accelerated destruction of the nation's forests led to the passage of Law No. 206 (1967) which transferred FORESTA from SEA to the armed forces and national police with a direct line to the presidency. Direct involvement of the armed forces and national police in administering the forest law led to a sudden ard sharp decrease in forest abuse. The law was tightened still further in 1969 with the adoption of Decree No. 3777 which specified that no tree cutting permits could be authorized by FORESTA save for exceptional cases and then only with the approval of the President. Together Law 206 and Decree 3777 effectively closed all private sawmills and stopped all cutting except for the salvage of dead timber or that to be removed by mining concerns or certain public works projects.
Organizational Structure
FORESTA is headed by a director-general who carries the rank of brigadiei general in the armed forces and who answers directly to the president. The general's staff and a captain who is in charge of the technician school at Jarabacoa are also involved in the administration of FORESTA, but all other personnel are civilian.
Structurally, the organization of FORESTA is in a period of change and it was difficult to secure specific information on the duties and responsibilities of some offices. The only organization chart that could be obtained shows two main divisions, one technical and one administrative, each answering to the director-general's office. Each division in turn is composed of various sections, some of which are no longer operative, e.g., forest inventories. Recently a third ad hoc division has been nominally set up whose duties are unclear but are apparently in the area of project evaluation. Although details were unavailable, there apparently is also a reorganization proposal pending which would place most of the day-to-day operation of FORESTA under one professional forester, who in turn would report to the director-general.
At the regional level, FORESTA has eight districts and 24 sub-districts. Each district has an officer-in-charge (civilian) who is responsible to the central office in Santo Domingo, but the lines of communication between the districts and Headquarters are not clear. Except for minor routine matters, the district offices apparently answer directly to the director-general.
Objectives and Major Projects
Although there is no detailed statement of forest policy, by iaw the basic objective of FORESTA is to manage all forest land in the country, regardless of ownership, in accordance with acceptable norms of protection, conservation, development and rational utilization. In practice, most of FORESTA's personnel are occupied with vigilance and fire control while most of the more highly trained staff work on planning and implementing projects dealing with the rehabilitation of degraded land. There is no integrated or sustained yield management of forest land and little utilization except for salvage operations.
28


A major subprogram of FORESTA deals with the retoresiarion and conservation of the Tavera watershed and comprises part of the larger PIDAGRO program (Integrated Program for Agricultural Development) with SEA. The subprogram is financed by a soft loan of US $1.22 trillion from IDB at 4% interest and a Dominican input of $1.5 million for a total of $2.72 million over a 3-year period from 1977 to 1980. Further details are given in a previous section.
Finances
Although an in-depth financial analysis was not possible, FORESTA does riot seem to have the extreme monetary limitations so prevalent in the forest services of many other developing countries. Most of FORESTA's operating budget comes directly from government funds. In fiscal 1980 this amounted to $3.9 million; some $6.4 million have be^n requested by FORESTA for 1981. This is in addition to incidental revenue, such as that collected from fines, and the PIDAGRO subprogram, which is budgeted separately. Approximately 70% of the budget goes to pay salaries.
An additional source of revenue for the forestry sector, although not specifically for FORESTA, is the Forestry Fund. This fund, started in 1979, takes 5% of the profits from Rosario Dominicana and makes them available as soft loans for forestry development projects. However, until the profitability of growing trees is determined and until more harvesting f lits are granted, there is likely to be little demand for forestry loans. In 1980 about $600,000 were lent through the Forestry Fund to Plan Sierra for coffee plantations. In the future, efforts will need to be intensified to channel this money to specific forestry projects instead of institutions.
Human Resources
A noteworthy feature of FORESTA is that it appears to be a field oriented organization with commitment to on-site vigilance and protection rather than a top-heavy, central office bureaucracy. Although it was not possible to obtain a current breakdown of FORESTA employees by responsibility and location of assignment, an accounting made in 1976 showed 840 employees, 784 (92%) of whom were assigned to district offices. The situation is not thought to have changed much since then.
In terms of sheer numbers, FORESTA does not appear to be badly staffed. F^owever, there is an obvious shortage of professionally-trained people. In 1976 there were only two engineers, two lawyers, and one professional forester with a B.S. degree, all in the central office. At a minimum, it would be desirable to have at least one professional forester at each district office and an additional five or six for special projects and central office administration of technical programs.
The need for additional training at the university level was recognized by a team of two foresters from Texas A&M University who visited the Dominican Republic recently on the behalf of AID. It is possible that a follow-up to their mission will include forestry training of some Dominicans in the US.
The Dominican Government also recognized the need for future training, and in 1980 FORESTA reopened the forestry school Escuela Nacional Forestal "Dennis Stamers Smith" at Jarabacoa. The school trains forest guards in a few weeks and forest technicians in two years. About 18 technicians are expected to be graduated annually. In addition, twelve Dominican students will be sent to Honduras during 1981-85 to attend the three-year technical school Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Forestales at Siguatepeque.
University-level training in agronomy with specialization in forestry is available at the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra in conjunction with the Instituto Superior de Agricultura in Santiago. This is a five-year program. The first forestry class was given in 1978, and in 1980, 15 students were enrolled in the for-
estry option. Students receive both practical and academic training. The program is off to an excellent start, but should not at present be considered as substitute for a B.S. degree in forestry. There is a need to strengthen the teaching staff and curriculum as well as a need for more equipment and laboratory facilities, particularly in wood technology. The program could benefit greatly from outside aid.
Foreign Assistance
At present the only foreign assistance to the forestry sector is that provided to FORESTA by IDB, as earlier described. Prior to this, the principal aid project was that operated by FAO and UNDP with FORESTA from 1968 to 1972. The main objectives were to l) inventory the nation's forest resources, 2) plan the protection, development and utilization of forest resources, and 3) train FORESTA personnel. The only other assistance in forestry was that offered by AID in the mid-sixties to help establish the forestry school, which was subsequently assisted by the FAO/UNDP project.
Other Government Institutions Involved in Forestry
Conflicts and Constraints
The Military. The role of the military in FORESTA is an obvious point of political contention in the country. Recently a bill was vetoed by the president which would have removed FORESTA from the armed forces and returned it to SEA, but which would have provided for military assistance in vigilance and law enforcement. Military involvement in the operation of forest services and uther agencies is not uniqi e to the Dominican Republic and should not be viewed with outright alarm. For one, the military has been highly effective in slowing the rate of forest destruction and must be credited with saving most of the remaining natural forests in the higher catchment areas of mountainous regions, particularly in the Cordillera Central. Second, the direct line that the director-general of FORESTA has to the president can be a decided advantage in decreasing governmental red tape and in gaining support for programs. However, for this to be a beneficial arrangement it requires 1) that the director-general cultivate an active concern for the operations of FORESTA, and 2) that he receive sound technical advice from his subordinates. A dedicated military with direct access to the president and supported by well-trained civilian foresters could, in theory, be a highly effective arrangement. In practice, it appears that FORESTA has been more content to maintain the status quo by continuing with some vigilance and only a small rehabilitation program than to engage in active forest management. Whether the fault lies with the military leadership or with an undertrained staff is open to conjecture; certainly it is at least in part due to the latter and more likely than not may be due to both.
Professional Staff There is an obvious and urgent need for more highly trained staff throughout FORESTA, from top to bottom, and especially for more professional, university-trained foresters. Lack of qualified staff has clearly limited the implementation of some programs and has probably caused fewer project proposals and suggestions to be passed to the directorship for consideration.
Forester as Leader. In particular there is a need for a professional forester with demonstrated leadership capabilities to direct the day-to-day operation of FORESTA. This need not be done at the expense of the military, but could be accomplished by a reorganization which would make the forester responsible for technical and administrative programs but answerable directly to the director-general.
29


L&nd Tenure. Poor definition of national land, as opposed to private ones, has hampered field activities. Those lands where FORESTA can operate directly and imperviously need to be physically marked on the ground, mapped and patrolled. This has been covered earlier.
Public Relations Program. As covered earlier, development of conservation measures on private lands has been hampered by the lack of an incentive program and a promotional campaign to educate people in improved land use.
Lack of Technical Information. Management of both state and private lands has been inhibited by a lack of technical information. There is no research organization and no one engaged in any form of scientific research. What little has been accomplished to date has been done haphazardly by trial and error. With the possible exception of Pinus occidtnlaiis and P. caribaeu, for example, in most cases there is little evidence to suggest which species and sources should be planted on which sites for different objectives, and there is no data on either biological or economic productivity.
The Law. The laws restricting the harvest and commerce of timber crops have created an environmental/developmental conflict of sizable proportions. The laws have no doubt been a boon to the general environment, but at the expense of short-term economic development which would have been fostered by forest industries. They have also resulted in the dt foclo limitation of the scope of FORESTA's activities to protection and conservation and the inhibition of integrated forest management. Once FORESTA is able to build up a qualified professional and technical cadre and improve its vigilance of forest lands, it should be possible and desirable to loosen the controls on cutting to permit the implementation of sound forest management plans, including harvesting, where it can be done without undue damage to the environment, with confidence that forests may be harvested, private landowners would also be encouraged to engage in reforestation.
Recommendations
1. FORESTA should continue to try to upgrade the professional and technical level of its staff by strengthening the forestry school at Jarabacoa and by seeking study grants for qualified students to seek professional degrees outside the country. In-service refresher training should also be pursued for existing staff, especially by offering short courses. FORESTA should explore all existing channels to provide scholarships for Dominican foresters to study overseas. They should also seek teaching assistance and equipment.
2. FORESTA, with international assistance, should create a small research unit whose initial priorities would be to 1) establish species-site studies of tree species suitable for agroforestry, erosion control, fuel wood and industrial wood, 2) obtain growth and yield data from existing plantations, and 3) determine the profitability of reforestation, especially for fuel wood, agroforestry, and industrial products.
3. FORESTA, with the cooperation of other government agencies and with technical and financial assistance from international donors should immediately begin pilot-scale integrated land management projects on critical watersheds, especially on private land.
4. Where cut-over government lands can be protected from trespassers and sufficient soil remains, FORESTA should expand its reforestation program to reduce erosion and to restore the land to a productive use.
5. FORESTA should launch a public relations program which would include use of extension techniques, the mass media and the school systems to educate the public on the value of conservation. This should be supported with an incentive program to encourage tree planting.
6. FORESTA should continue and expand the issuing of thinning permits and should start approving some- harvesting permits on private lands under government supervision.
30


V
Water Resources & Watershed Management
Introduction
In addition to environmental problems related to use of water resources and the impact of land use within watersheds there are multiple water uses and problems related to hydropower, water supply, irrigation, drainage, flooding, etc. Within river basin systems the characteristics of water supply and demand are changing. Water quality and streamflow regimes are also dynamic, being closely linked to human activities in the river basins and to the degree of stability and protection of the watersheds.
Numerous comprehensive studies, in some cases consisting of several volumes each, have been written on general aspects of Dominican water resources, e.g. OAS 1967, Boyle 1971, PLANI-MEX 1978, INDRHI-BID 1978, Bromley and Crosson 1978, Figueroa 1978 and CONARENA 1979. De La Fuente (1976) summarizes the basic information on general hydrography. Similarly, numerous specific studies on projects, river systems or watershed problems also exist (e.g. Italo-Consult 1972, Hanson-Rodriguez 1973, Tahal 1977, ONAPLAN 1978, Hydrocomp 1979, Douro-jeanni 1980, and Anon. 1980).
This chapter does not attempt to summaiize the voluminous technical information nor to reproduce published material. Rather, the author wishes to capitalize mainly on his experiences derived from several field trips throughout most of the accessible Dominican Republic, end the many hours of very productive interviews with key people in several institutions dealing either with water resources and/or watershed management. This diagnostic approach provides an updated version of environmental problems, particularly as they have evolved since Hurricanes David and Frederic, and will contribute to the perception of specific problems dealing with present and future uses of water resources.
The Role of Water Resources
Water continues to be a key element in the development process of any nation, as well as an irreplaceable resource for improving or maintaining the quality of life. The rise and fall of most of the so-called ancient riverine civilizations was closely linked to the wise or unwise management of their soil and water resources (Carter and Dale 1974; Hughes 1975).
The goals of the 1980-82 Agricultural Development Plan (SEA 1979) are: 1) to improve agricultural production in rural areas so
that more food can be grown both for internal consumption as well as for generating exports to help pay the cost of increasing oil imports; 2) creating permanent jobs for the landless peasants; and 3) to decrease the dependency on petroleum products by generating more local electricity from hydropower. It is obvious that water resources development must play the key role in achieving these goals. As a matter of fact, no more land can be put into intensive use unless irrigation is available, no new swamplands or saline areas can be reclaimed unless a sound program of soil and water management is established through irrigation and drainage, and no more energy can be obtained from the relatively abundant hydropower resources still untapped within the country unless costly new dams are built on rivers with an adequate supply of good quality water.
However, it must be remembered that inland fresh water resources are nothing more than the output response of the watershed system to precipitation. Thus, watershed characteristics such as topography,climate, geology, soil, river morphology, and vegetation cover, and what goes on within the watershed boundaries in terms; of man-related activities, particularly land use (Fig. V-l), will have significant effects on the type of water resources that a particular society must depend on, now and in the future. It is within the perspective of integrated natural resources management using the watershed system as the base, that the important role of water in the socio-economic development of the Dominican Republic should be viewed. This approach will lead to appreciation of the importance of water as a catalyst to development and the necessity to keep the resource in good condition to insure sustained benefits from it.
To fully understand the critical econon-'. situation of the Dominican Republic and the role of water resources projects in helping to alleviate it, two economic aspects are relevent: 1) the escalating balance of payments deficit, largely induced by increasing petroleum imports and 2) the investments in water resources projects for the 1980-82 three-year plan (Table V-l). The three-year projected investments associated with water related projects amount to almost 80% of the total export income generated by the Dominican Republic during 1978. Obviously, under any circumstance but especially under the unfavorable national economic situation, actions (institutional and fiscal) should be taken to insure high, sustained productivity from these large and costly investments in water resources. The main issue is how many of the important existing water resources works (e.g. Fig V-2) as well as future ones will be able to serve their projected
31


Figure V-l. Watershed degradation on the southern flank of the Cordillera Central caused by massive deforestation, erosion and hurricane-induced landslides. Though there is an almost complete absence of houses, slash and burn agriculturalists practice shifting cultivation for seasonal crops on these sleep slopes. (Photo, Italo Russo.)
Figure V-lb. Complete deforestation at Ihe margin of the Sabana Yegua memoir. The wood is used lo make charcoal. Note Ihe debris in Ihe lake (foreground). 'Die men fishing for tilapia were former small farmers displaced by the filling of Ihe resewoir. (Photo, Stanley Heckadon.)
economic life, and if they will ever attain the rates of returns and other secondary benefits anticipated in their investments.
The actual situation of widespread watershed destruction, high river silt loads, present instability and unpredictability of some of the most important fluvial systems, and heavy silting of existing reservoirs and canals seem to indicate that only a major effort to effectively carry out massive watershed protection and erosion control can guarantee that many of the future investments may turn out to be productive. However, even if immediate appropriate actions are taken, the lag time needed for them to be implemented and be effective, does not guarantee that some existing projects such as Tavera or Valdesia can be salvaged or recuperated. The Dominican Republic is in the path of destructive hurricanes Jnd tropical storms and many of its soils are highly eroda-ble, her.ce contingency plans must be made for the probability of future destructive events. evn if massive watershed protection and erosion control are soon undertaken.
Although immediate needs must be somehow satisfied, long term economic losses and benefits, including some of the irreversible social costs imposed on future generations, should be accounted for in the planning efforts. Planning must certainly go well beyond the usual four year political promises to win an election. Some of the planning efforts should ai.Ti for long term watershed rehabilitation and consolidation of costly existing projects that are now operating well below their potential, such as several of the large irrigation systems in the Cibao and in Azua.
Resource Rase
Hydrographic Units
The physiographic characeristics and orientation of the mountain ranges and valleys of the Dominican Republic determine hydrography and highly influence climate. Four mountain ranges running parallel to each other and oriented in an east-west direction with flat valleys between define drainage units of the main river systems whose headwaters originate in the mountains in the western and central part (see Fig. II-l of the Dominican Republic).
Between these four mountain ranges three agriculturally important valleys occur with different precipitation characteristics. The Cibao Valley located between the northern and central mountain ranges contains the two most important river systems in the Dominican Republic, the Yaque del Norte and the Yuna Rivers. The Cibao Valley is the richest agricultural area and, except for Santo Domingo, has the highest concentration of popu-
lation. Second in importance is the fertile San Juan Valley between the cordillera Central and the Sierr t de Neiba. This valley is irrigated by the Yaque del Sur River and its tributaries. The hot, dry Neiba Valley extends between the Sierra de Neiba and the Sierra de Eahoruco, and includes the below sea level, saline Enriquillo Lake. In some parts of the couhy such as the Azura plain and the karst topography of Los Haitises, streams actually disappear before reaching the sea.
The central mountain range is by far the most important. It is the highest mountain range in the Antilles and from it originate the three important river systems of the Dominican Republic: The Yaque del Norte, the Yuna, and the Yaque del Sur.
Running first north and then west through the Cibao, the Yaque del Norte River has a length of 296 km and drains a watershed of 7044 km* or about 15% of the country. Precipation in this watershed ranges between 500 and 2000 mm per year, amounting to approximately 9169 x 10" mVyear; average annual flow is on the order of 2017 x 10* mVyear or about 64 m'/second. This river system contains the largest irrigation network in the country and has great hydroelectric potential, a small part of which is now being utilized. The Tavera-Bao project will soon be completed, increasing the hydroelectric energy generated, helping to regulate more water for irrigation, and supplying additional domestic and indus Irial water for Santiago. One of the main problems with this river system is the high sediment load eroded from seriously deteriorated, steep watersheds.
The second largest river is the Yuna with a length of 209 km, draining 5498 km1. From the Cordillera Central it runs east to Samana Bay, crossing one of the most humid regions of the country known as the Cibao Oriental. Average annual precipitation of this valley ranges between 1170 mm and 2256 mm. Average annual flow at Villa Riva is about 91 m'/second, with max-
Table V-l. Projected investments in water resources and energy related projects for the 1980-82 period (thermal plants exch led).
INSTITUTION
CAASD INAPA ODE
INDRHI (Energy) INDRHI (Agriculture)
MILLIONS DRS
49.9
79.2 168.6
37.5 189.6
524.8
32


Table V-2. Characteristics of the hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic shown In Figure V-l. (Information adapted from UNEP 1979). "Not studied.
Hydrographic Subdivision
1. Sierra de Bahoruco zone
Location
Rivers Induded
South of the Sierra Pedemales and de Bahoruco Nizalto
3. Ozama River basin
4. San Pedro Macon's and La Romana
5. Higuey zone
Santo Domingo area Ozama, Yabacao Canal
San Pedro Macoris zone
Higuey and San Rafael del Yuma
Chavon, Dulce, Soco, Cumayasa, Macrois
Yuma
Precipitalon in mmyear
2,000 in the mountains, 750 on the plains
2. Azua, Bani and San South of the Central Haina, Nigua, Nizao, 750-2,000 Cristobal zones mountain range be- Ocoa and Bani
tween the Yaque del Sur and the Ozama Rivers
1,400-2,250
1,000-2,250
1,000-1,750
Area In Km2
2,814
4,460
2,706 4,626
2,207
Water Quality
Shallow or poorly developed wells may contain chlorides
Ground waters show good potential
Poor water quality because of the high concentration of solids in suspension, micro-organisms and dissolved gases.
High degree of erosion and dredging of sediments.
Good water quality; positive potential for use.
Miches zone Siim an a
8. Northern coast zone Atlantic coast zone
6. Miches and Sabana de la Mar zone
7. Samana Peninsula zone
9. Yuna river basin
Central mountain range to the Bay of Samana
Small rivers -(**)
Boba, Nagua, San Juan, Yasica, Ba-jabonico
10. Dajabon river basin Central mountain
range
11. Yaque del Sur Basin Central mountain San Juan, Hijo del
range. S'^rra Neyba Medio, Las Cuevas
and Martin and Los Baos
Guayabal, Las Damas, Marguita, Barrero, Arro, Los Pinos
12. Hoyo del Lago Enriquillo
Lago Enriquillo
13. Artibonito River basin
14. Yaque del Norte basin
Near Haitian border Macaria
Yaque del Norte Yaque del Norte
2,000-2,700
-(*') 1,000-2,300
Jima, Camti, Yuna 1,170-2,250
750-2,000 700-1,500
Very arid zone
1,200-2,000 500-2,000
2.265 Good ground water potential. -(**) -(")
4.266 Good water quality.
5,630 Problems caused by poor drain-
age and salinity. Good potential in deep wells.
858 Good for agricultural uses.
5,345 Good water quality but contains
many solids in suspension.
3,048 Waters of moderate agricultural
yield.
2,643 Good water quality but contains
many solids in suspension.
7,053 Poor water quality; contains
solids in su .pension and numerous micro-organisms.
imum monlhly flown weraging 162 and 114 m'/second in May and November, respectively, and 57 and 42 m'/second in January and July, respecii/ely. This river experiences cyclic floods every two or three yeais. Especially during ihe rainy season, the river carries very high silt loads that obstruct the existing irrigation canals and aggrade the river bed, accentuating the flooding problems (de La Fuente 1976).
Ending in Neiba Bay near Barahona, the Yaque del Sur River drains an area of 4972 km* with an approximate length of 183 km. With the highest (2707 m) headwaters in the country the
Yaque del Sur drains the southern flank of the cordillera Central and part of the Sierra de Neiba. This river runs across an arid and semi-arid region with precipitation of 500 to 1200 mm/year. The rainfall patterns in this watershed vary greatly in the uplands and from year to year (de La Fuente 1976). Due to an abundance of shallow soils and sparse vegetation, watershed response to precipitation is rather quick, causing serious floods associated with high intensity storms.
Although there are at least three different h'japs of the hydro-graphic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic, the most appro-
33


Figure V-2. The Sabaneta reservoir and its deforested watershed. Note the sediments entering the reservoir from the quarry on the right margin. (Hand-held aerial photo, Carlos Quesada.)
priate for the purpose of this work is ihe one (Fig. V-3) prepared by OAS (1967). Table V-2 presents a brief description of the main characteristics of this hydrographic system (UNEP 1979). Information on the Samana Peninsula >s lacking because the area is not among the priorities for hydrologic studies due to a lack of water demand or useful availability.
The Dominican Republic possesses national and regional cli-matological and hydromei.-ic networks that exceed the specifications and recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization (Salas 1980). The major Dominican Republic watersheds have probably received more attention than other Latin American countries. They have been studied extensively by PLANIMEX (1976) including basic data and regional plans at a project level, several specific studies for the Yaqur del Norte River, a peliminary study of the water resources fcr the Yaque del Norte, Cajabon, and Chacuey Rive's (PLANIMEX 1975) and others (e.g. de La Cruz de Suazo et al. 1972; CDE 1972). The Yuna River has also been studied at different levels of detail, from the multiple purpose general reconnaissance study by Tahal (1967), to more specific ones such as those by Hanscn-Rodriguez (1973) on the feasibility of the Alto Yuna and Hatillo dam. There is also a ten volume report by Tahal (1977) on the lower Yuna. Similarly, several general and detailed reports (e.g. a seven-volume study made by SOGREAII, 1978) concern the multiple development of the Yaque del Norte and the Yaque del Sur watersheds. A later five-volume study by ITALO-CONSULT (1972) was dedicated specifically to the Yaque del Sur. Several other specific studies can be found in the literature on hydroelectric
projects, irrigation systems and flooding problems for most of the major river systems in the Dominican Republic.
Smaller river systems have also been studied by Parsons Corporation (1967), and an important plan for water resources development, including possible uses both for water supply and hydropower purposes, in the neighborhood of Santo Domingo was made by Boyle Engineering (1972). PLANIACAS (1978) and Figueroa (1978) have studied groundwater resources. Regional water quality studies both for superficial and groundwater are available (CENDA 1979).
The available information on Dominican river systems has served as a good basis 'or more detailed studies and information syntheses now being used in the preparation of comprehensive water resources planning and development, such as in the regional studies by ONAPLAN. Serious inter-institutional conflicts must be solved before realistic integrated ard comprehensive large scale watershed protection and rehabilitation progra.-ns can be started in order to guarantee the effectiveness and usefulness of the many existing and future water resources projects.
Hydro-meteorology and Precipitation
Most hydrometeorological data are collected by INDRHI, the Meteorological Department, and the CEA (State Sugar Council), there are 96 climatological stations operated by INDRHI and 72 by the Meteorological Department (PLANIACAS 1978). The INDRHI network consists of 7 first order climatological stations, 29 secondary climatological stations, 31 non-recording rain gauges and 6 recording cumulative rain gauges. The Meteorological Service network consists of 6 agroclimatological stations and 66 stations to record daily temptrature and rainfall. Stream gauge measurements are conducted by 1NDRI at 124 stations throughout the country. Fifty-three of these are continuous recording stream gauges and the remaining 71 are non-recording fixed gauges.
Although the country's hydrometeorological network exceeds the WMO standards, the quality of data has not been evaluated, thereby limiting its use. Deficiencies are found in the collection, processing retrieval, publication, and analysis of data (Salas 1980). Ma: y of these deficiencies are apparently Hie result of lack of capital and human resources, as well as inter-institutional duplication.
Better trained hydrologists could use the available information more effectively. Even though new equipment started generating data in 1975, they are still basically unavailable because of lack of processing and publication. With today's computer and software technology this type of information could be easily updated every other year. Nevertheless, there are indications that corrective steps will be 'aken in the near future (INDRHI and Meteorological Department, pers. comm.).
An excellent inter-institutional effort produ ed an isoerosivity map (Fig. V-4) based on maximum rainfall inh nsity and erosivity of rainfall for 30 selected meteorological stations (SEA 1978). Independent of its precision, this map is useful as an assessment tool regarding the relative erosivity between different locations and regions in the Dominican Republic.
Surface Runoff
Based on OAS (1967) data for 14 hydrographic units, de La Fuente (1976) estimated mean annual discharge of 14.8 x 109 mVyear. However, PLANIACAS estimates the surface runoff to the 20 x 109 mVyear. Of the latter amount, about 3.5 x 109 ..iVyear are expected to be stored in existing and projected dams. Table V-3 presents an estimation of the surface water resources by hydroc-r;phic zone as presented by the World Bank. This value agrees very closely with the estimates of PLANIACAS (1978). Regulated surface runoff plays its most important role in the irrigation and hydropower, while the industrial and domestic sectors depend more on groundwater.
34


1
It
<
ATLANTIC OCEAN
I
o
In
Hydrogeographic Divisions
Sierra Baoruco Zone Azua, Bani y S. Cristobal Zone Rio Ozama Watershed S. Pedro de Macoris y la Romana Zone
5. Higuey Zone
6. Miches y Sabana de ia Mar Zone
7. Peninsula de Samana Zone
8. Costa Norte Zone
9. Rio Yuna Watershed Rio Yaque del Norte Watershed Rio Dajabon Watershed Rio Yaque del Sur Watershed Lake Enriquillo Rio Artibonito Watershed




An important thoi^h undetermined number of people make direct use of stream waters, especially those in the lowest income level in rural areas not connected to any type of aqueducts (pers. observation).
Many water resources projects will be needed in the future to enhance economic development through hydropower, irrigation, and industrial and domestic supplies. Water for recreational uses could also become somewhat important in the future. Most regulations of important surface waters reqjire expensive works which depend, for their effective functioning, not only on water quantity but also its quality.
A great deal of hope has been placed in existing or projected water resources projects, but not enough consideration has been given to the silt loads that these rivers are carrying. At this point, it b appropriate to quote Eric Eckholm (19/6):
Engineers build one dam after another, paying only modest heed to the farming practices and deforestation upstream that will, by influencing river silt loads, determine the dam's life span.
Groundwater
An estimated 1500 x 10* mVyear of groundwater recharge the three important aquifers of the Dominican Republic (PLANIACAS 1978). Most of it circulates within the tertiary limestones. Further studies to be carried out as part of the PLANIACAS project will provide more precise information on the groundwater resources. In general, the groundwater qualify is good except in some coastal areas where saline intrusion has taken place. Low areas such as the Neiba Valley also experience groundwater salinity problems.
There are 4000 to 5000 wells in the country, of which about 30% are out of order. About 75% of the wells are estimated to be registered. Annual extraction of groundwater is estimated at 500 x lCr* m\ About 50% of the wells have a discharge of less than 80 1/minute and 30% have a depth less than 25 meters; the deepest wells barely exceed 200 meters.
As more pressures are put on surface water resources, the groundwater resources may play an increasing role in meeting the requirements, particularly for irrigation. Already groundwater resources contribute largely to meet important demands in the domestic and industrial sectors. PLANIACAS projections from the mid-1970's to 1985 suggest demands will increase by 71% for potable water, 39% for industrial uses and 80% for agricultural
Table V-3. Surface water resources by hydrographic zone in the Dominican Republic. Source: World Bank (1978).
Annual Annual
Zone Area Rainfall threat Flow
(ha) (mm) (bi'Uon m3)
Sierra de Bahoruco 281,400 750-2,000 320
Azua, Bani, San Cristobal 446,000 750-2,250 1,516
Ozama River Bas'.i 270,600 1,400-2,250 1,586
San Pedro de Macon's and
La Romana 462,900 1,000-2,250 2,444
Higuey 220,700 1,000-1,750 609
Miches and Sabana del Mar 226,500 2,000-2,700 1,284
Samana Peninsula n.a.
Northern Coastal Zone 426,600 1,000-2,300 3,870
Yuna River Basin 563,000 1,170-2,250 2.375
Yacjue del Norte River Basin 705,300 500-2,000 2,017
Dajabon River Basin C5,800 750-2,000 370
Yaque del Sur Paver Basin 534,500 700-1,500 1,181
Lake Enriquillo Basin 304,800 600-1,200 312
Artibonito River Basin 265,300 1,200-2,000 1,190
TOTAL 4,793,400 19,074
uses (Table V-4). The substantially increasing demands for potable and agricultural uses (primarily irrigation in the latter case) are putting considerable pressure on the major aquifers and surface waters. These critical water resources are the keystone tc continued development and socio-economic progress of the Dominican Republic; hence they must be managed in the most rational and sustainable form possible.
Current and Projected Demands
General Comments
The economy of a country, its rate of development, and ultimately, the quality of its citizens' lives, are closely related to the availability and cost of energy. With the second escalation of the oil prices since 1977, and with the real possibility of severe shortages in the 1980's due to Middle East political instability and/or prices that could reach the fifty dollar a barrel mark in a not too distant future, it is reasonable to think that the evolving economic scenarios do not look promising at all. This situation will impose a severe burden on the less-developed oil-importing countries, not only because they may have to face the future with less energy but also because the increasing costs will keep accentuating the balance of payments deficit.
On the other hand, large capital investments may be mandatory in order to build infrestructure and develop options to miti-g*1" ...iS energy/financial crisis and to decrease international dependency. This contradiction of expecting to invest more with less available income and higher costs is taking place in countries like the Dominican Republic, and under these circumstances it is crucial to implement a highly efficient management of resources for the projects to be successful.
Many developing countries are facing economic and social pressures resulting from unsatisfied needs and wants. This dissatisfaction continues to expand because of rising expectations, appreciable population growth, and a decrease in relative prices between the exported primary products and the ever-expanding cost of both imported industrial commodities and the value of borrowed capital necessary to build developmental projects. Therefore, it is important to reevaluate how realistic the projections made a few years back have turned out to be and what changes need to be made to adjust actual and future production and projections according to the priorities and restrictions imposed by new economic and social circumstances. Regardless of accuracy, it must be realized that the more expensive the solutions and the higher the financial, operating, and maintenance costs, the higher the burden resulting from poor, unwise use of funds and of shorter useful life of projects affected by the deterioration of the natural resources on which they depend. It is therefore necessary to make every possible effort to insure that 1) the projects will prove to be technically and economically sound; 2) that the resources on which those projects depend are, as much as possible, maintained or upgraded and 3) that the projects are efficiently operated.
Irrigation
There isn't a precise figure of how much land is currently irrigated in the Dominican Republic. The literature and water resources specialists provide conflicting information for there is no updated map of the area under irrigation nor a reliable layout of the main irrigation canals. Probably the most reliable figures are those of INDRHI indicating about 170,000 ha irrigated in 1980. An additional 100,000 ha are expected to be irrigated by 1985, and it is estimated (depending upon soil studies) that the total potential irrigated land could be as much as 500,000 ha (Reynoso and Encarnacion 1980).
Table V-5 indicates the land irrigated in 1978 as well as projections for 1985 and the total potential land for irrigation where
37


Table V-4. Hydrogeologlc zones, water demand* and water resource* in the Dominican Republic (Adapted from PLANIACAS 1978).
Water Retonrcet
Irrigated Dtmand (10^ m3/yr*r) _Surface__Subterranean
Zone Hydrogeologlc Zone Area (lun2| Actual (W) Potential (km!) Potable 1977 19S5 Industry 1974 1985 Agriculture 1975 1985 Principal Rivers Runoff (i^/sec) Aquifer Area (km*) Well Depth (m) (I/mln) Other Criteria
I Eastern Coastal Plain 6872 128 428 80.0 137.0 6.0 10.2 60 210.0 Nizao. Haina. Ozama. Soco. Chavon. Yuma. Cuamo 90 Alluvium Marine Limestone LaVe sediments 414 5163 1258 50 100 600 800 40 Danger of saline instrusion
2 fastem Cordillera 2910 77 9.0 15.9 so 10 Alluvium Igneous Faults 4 2435 20 50 100 ^0 Insignificant demand Minimal groundwater resources
3 Los Haitises 1452 is 5.9 - 4 Tert. Limestone 1415 100-500 100-500 Potential aquifer, no demand
4 Samana 627 4 4 3.8 63 0J 03 4.0 4.0 5 Alluvium Marine Limestone 79 106 100 20-30 20-200 300 Insignificant demand
5 Norhem Cordillera and Valleys 4951 30 100 18.0 3IJ 10.0 17.0 4.0 10.0 Bajobonico, Yasica. Boba 62 Alluvium Marine Limestone Tert. Limestone 178 250 924 50 50 100 250 300 50-200 Fligh rainfall Supplies local demand
6 Gbao Valley 6304 635 1162 85.0 144.0 10.4 16.0 425.0 7800 Yaque del Norte. Yuna 74 90 Alluvium Tert. Sediments 1416 1371 60 100 100-200 100 West is semi-arid Inadequate surface waters
7 Central Cordillera 14590 90 218 40.0 653 8.1 13.5 5.0 11.0 Upper Yaque Norte Upper Yaque Sur Upper Yuna 18 8 35 Alluvium Tert. Sediments igneous Faults 545 414 10553 50 100 50 400 50 20 High rainfall Supplies local demand
8 San Juan Valley /35 178 298 13.0 22.6 120.0 200.0 Macasia. San Juan 7 8 Alluvium Tert. Sediments 764 582 50 50 100 50 Agricultural demands supplied by surface waters
9 Neiba Hills 2496 39 120 23 4.7 30 12.0 Yaque del Sui 50 Alluvium Tert. Limestone 43 2174 100 150-400 100 800 Potential aquifer supplies for zone 10
10 Neiba Valley 2012 154 264 13.0 23.0 4.7 7.6 160.0 280.0 Yaque del Sur 50 Alluvium Marine Limestone 690 26 50 25 300 100 Semi-arid Inadequate surface waters
11 Bahoruco Hills 2433 2 1.5 2.4 1.0 1.0 Pedernales. Nizaito 6 Tert. Limestone 2302 150-300 800 Potential aquifer supplies for zon 10 and 12
12 South Peninsula 1030 10 59 0.8 13 1.0 1.6 2.0 5.0 2 Tert. Limestone 1782 100-200 400 Irrigation demand Proximity to good aquifer
13 Azua PUin 564 55 123 6.4 11.0 0J 0.4 60.0 88.0 2 Alluvium 513 100 200 Demand met by surface waters
14 Bani Pliin 466 80 140 S3 9.6 0.2 0.3 55.0 95.0 Ocoa 6 Alluvium 926 50 200 Irrigation demand
TOTAL 48442 1405 2995 282.0 480.9 41.0 67.1 701.0 1263.0


Table V-5. Actual and potential land for irrigation. (Source: PLANIACAS 1978).
Hydrogeologlc Zone Actual area under Irrigation Total Area Expected to be Irrigated by 1985 Additional Area with Potential for Irrigation Total Potential It for Irrigation
Oriental Coastal Plains 12,800 ha 42,800 ha 50,000 ha 92,800 ha
Oriental Mountain Range 7,700 10,000 17,000
Los Haitises
Samana Peninsula 400 400
Northern Mountain Range and Atlantic Coast 3,000 10,000 15,000 25,000
Cibao Valley 63,500 116,200 100,000 216,7.00
Central Mountain Range 9,000 21,800 30,000 51,800
San Juan Valley 17,800 29,800 20,000 49,800
Neiba Mountain Range 3,900 12,000 12,000
Neiba Valley 15,400 26,400 20,000 46,400
Bahoruco Mountain Range 240 240 240
Barahona Southern Peninsula 975 5,875 5,875
Aiua Valley 5,500 12,310 5,000 17,310
Bani Valley TOTAL 6,000 140,515 ha 14,000 299,525 ha 4,000 254,000 ha 16,000 552,426 ha
soil conditions permit. More detailed information on irrigated land by resource production units (RPU's) and types of crops cultivated is given by Bromley and Crosson (1978). Their total of 192,000 ha of irrigateci land in 1978 differs from INDRHI's figure of 170,000 ha and the World Bank's estimate of 153,600 ha.
Hydropower
The installed electrical capacity (1980) is 683 Megawatts (mw) under CDE control plus about 367 Mw generated by several industries (Table V-6). Of the total installed capacity, only 15% is generated by hydropower, produced mainly from the Tavera and Valdesia reservoirs, with 80 and 54 Mw of generating capacity, respectively. Both reservoirs have been subjected to heavy silting due to the poor conditions of the watersheds. The effects of hurricanes David and Frederic on the gates of the Valdesia reservoir and the flooding of the Tavera powerhouse significantly reduced their original capacity and operation.
The electric industry has been going through a critical period of severe rationing in the last few years because of delays in the installation of additional units, lack of proper maintenance of the thermal units, and the excessive draw-down of the Tavera and Valdesia reservoirs (World Bank 1978). Frequent blackouts are now normal even in Santo Domingo.
Projects under construction with completion planned for 1983 will almost double the existing hydropower generation capacity in the Dominican Republic. A list of these projects, their expected year of completion, and energy in GWH are given below:
Hydroelectric Project GWH
Bao, 1981 110 Hatillo, 1982 40.9
Sabaneta, 1983 30
A recent study on energy strategies (CNPE 1980) lists 14 projects that could be completed by 1987 if funding of a hundred million dollars per year were available. These projects would add 450 Mw of new installed capacity, almost a threefold increase in existing hydropower capacity. Annual generation would be approximately 1110 GWH. This same study lists 18 additional projects that could be completed by 1990 with additional funding of some $1400 million. These projects would add 860.6 Mw of additional installed capacity and an increase of 2586 GWH in annual generation. The CNEP (1980) figures should be carefully checked and taken with precaution since the Sabana Yegua dam is listed for completion by 1990 when in fact it is already built.
Although many hydroelectric projects are proposed, it remains to be seen if the country has the capacity to undertake so many
Table V-6. Installed electricity capacity, 1980. (Source: CNEP 1980)
MW
Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE)
Hydro 159
Steam plants (fuel oil) 377
Gas turbines (diesel) 147
TOTAL CDE 683
Industrial Generation
Falconbridge 90
Sugar Industry ca.lOO
Emergency Generators 177
TOTAL INDUSTRIAL GENERATION 367
39


Mw 2000-1
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92
Figure V-5. Power balance projections of enetjy demands to 1982. (SOFRELEC 1980.)
major projects in such a short time, since they demand a great deal of organization, human resources and capital availability. Despite all these, the implications are that with enough funding at hand and proper organization, the Dominican Republic could probably increase its generation capacity tenfold in a ten year period. One aspect that must be addressed if these expectations are to be fulfilled is the critical problem of watershed deterioration. Two questions must be raised: 1) Will some funding proportional to the projected investments in hydropower generation be available for watershed protection and rehabilitation? 2) Will the decision mskers, economists, engineers, and lending institutions realize that silting rates, increased danger of tlocding, and decreased base-flow significantly alter the economic or technical feasibility of hydropower projects? These questions must be given serious consideration in order to assure the success of the hydroelectric and irrigation projects.
The number of projects either in the design process or in preliminary study indicates that the Dominican Republic has enough resources to help mitigate, on a short-term basis, the so-called energy crisis, at least in the electrical sector. Despite the existing potential hydropower estimates, the figures could change because of the unfea.cibility in some projects. On the other hand, there may be some hydropower projects not yet identified, and additional energy could be generated through systems optimization, pump storage, or the development of small hydroelectric projects not yet considered. Besides hydropower, water resources projects also play an important part in providing water for irrigation and in meeting domestic and industrial demands, as well as in helping to control flooding.
The scenarios (CNEP 1980) calling for massive investments in hydropower thai would lead to total installed capacity of 1460 Mw by 1990 contrast with the demand and supply scenarios presented by SOFRELLC (1980) shown in Figure V-S. The SOFRELEC study shows that after 1984, emphasis is placed on coal-fueled thermal plants and that by 1990 about 1500 Mw of total installed power capacity is required, of which only about 1/3 will be met by hydropower generation amounting to some 500 Mw of installed capacity.
The SOFRELEC emphasis on thermal units raises the question of whether the Dominican Republic can afford, in the future, to import the necessary coal and oil required, given the expected escalation in their prices, while still depending on its agricultural projects to earn the much needed foreign exchange. One aspect that is not clear with regard to total demand considerations is the projected demand for charcoal and its supply potential. This consideration could lead to a much larger amount of biomass energy required if the country were to face, as it probably will (unless massive fuel wood plantation is undertaken), a drastic reduction in supply of charcoal and wood in future years. The study by SOFRELEC (1980) does not include alternative options to switch away from non-renewable sources of energy. Therefore, studies and research should emphasize non-conventional energy options to reduce energy dependency, even though these new technologies may not be currently feasible from the economic standpoint. Depending on world prices of energy, some of these appropriate technologies could become competitive in the future; however, hydropower is the alternative now.
The total potential capacity of hydropower resources in the Dominican Republic should be studied in an integrated and systematic way. At the present time, different institutions such as CDE and INDRHI are each considering or planning their independent projects, without taking into account what the effects of a project upstream can have on other projects downstream.
Municipal Water
The actual usage and future demands for municipal water are difficult to estimate because, besides population growth, they are tied to many cultural, economic, and technical factors. Water losses in some localities may exceed 50% depending on the condition of the aqueduct. An average value of 40% is used by INAPA (pers. comm.). Besides the losses, another important factor to consider is waste, especially in rural areas. In many localities people use up to 50% of the potable water in non-domestic activities, such as for livestock or for irrigating garden plots.
INAPA data (Table V-7) for 1970 and 1979 are estimations which in turn served as the basis to project the needs for 1985 and 1990. Other projections (Table V-8) on water demands in million cubic meters (MCM) by hydrogeologic zone and for population growth rates of 1.8% and 2.8% are based on estimated annual per capita use of 80 ms. Expected industrial demand is projected to reach 255 MCM/year by 1995.
Two corporations independent of INAPA are responsible for the planning, design, construction, and operation of the potable water and sewer systems of the two largest urban centers and surrounding areas in Santo Domingo and SanHago. The Santo Domingo region is under the control of CAASD (Corporacion del Acueducto Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo), while the city of Santiago has CORAASAN.
A good picture of water resources requirements in the Santo Domingo area and the water supply projects to meet expected demands can be obtained in a study made by Boyle Engineering Corporation (1972) who prepared a master plan for the water resources usage in greater Santo Domingo.
According to CAASD sources, the number of people served by direct connections is about 940,000, amounting to 74% of the estimated 1980 population. Each connection serves an average of
40


Table V-7. Projected population served with potable water and sewage systems in the Dominican Republic. (Source: INAPA 1980)
'Estimation made by ONE, July 1
Diagnostic
Projection
1970* No
%
1979' No
%
1985
No %
1990
No %
Total Population Urban Population Rural Population
A. Potable water
Population served with home connection
Rural
Urban
4,061,935 1,626,946 40 2,434,989 60
117,568 5 974,893 60
5,275,410 2,616,767 50 2,658,643 50
273,828 10 1,395,349 53
6,365,000 7,253,000 3,424,000 54 4,243,000 58 2,941,000 46 3,010,000 42
516,494 18 718,716 24
1,981,396 58 2,674,885 63
Population served ,vith close by connection
Rural
Urban
B. Sewer Systems
Urban population served
257,474 11 406,736 25
258,000 16
599,683 23 836,036 32
648,271 25
1,131,122 38 1,573,988 52 929,007 27 1,143,815 27
1,302,117 38 1,846,989 44
Table V-8. Projected urban, rural, and industrial demands for 1995 (MCM/year) in different hydrogeologic zones. Adapted from PLANIACAS 1978.
Urban and Rural
Hydrogeologic Demand Industrial
Zone 1.8%* 2.8%* Demand
Oriental Co?stal Plains
Bahoruco Mountain Range
Barahona Southern Peninsula
Azua Valley
Bani" Valley
TOTAL
142.0 181.3
16.6 21.0
6:2 7.3
6.7 8.5
2.6
3.0
1.6 2.0
11.4 14.5
9.9 12.6
500.0 635.0
162.0
0.03
0.8
Oriental Mountain Range
Los Haitises
Samana Peninsula
Northern Mountain Range and Atlantic
Coast 32.5 41.3 27.0
Cibao Valley 150.0 190.5 27.2
Central Mountain Range 68.1 86.5 21.8
San Juan Valley 23.5 29.5 0.07
Neiba Mountain Range 4.9 6.2
Neiba Valley 24.0 30.5 12.3
2.7 0.6 0.5 255.0
'Demand estimated at 80 m^/year/person and according to two different population growth rates: 1.8% and 2.8%.
seven persons which implies a total of 134,000 connections. Most of the water for the Santo Domingo region comes from groundwater of good quality; however, about 0.63 m'/second are taken directly from the contaminated Haina River. The totel production system for Santo Domingo is 4.39 m'/second; but with an estimated 38% loss, net production is probably about 2.74 m'/second. Since the total expected demand for 1980 is 5.30 m'/second, there is a present deficit of 0.91 m'/second. Besides this deficit, there are also deficiencies in production that cause discontinuities in the service, increasing the real deficits in relation to actual demand.
Table V-9 provides total water demands as a function of time for Santo Domingo. This information provides evidence that major investments and technical efforts should be undertaken in order to tap both the surface and groundwater resources needed to satisfy the water requirements of a growing population. An example of these efforts is the important Madrigal project on the Haina River that will store some 400 million cubic meters, in order to regulate a supply of 8 m'/second for the Santo Domingo area.
In contrast, only 420 of 8646 rural communities throughout the country possess potable water. Despite the efforts of INAPA to install new service connections to the people, a growing number of rural families disconnect the services because they consider the INAPA fees are too expensive. Cost of water, however, is rather low since rural water fees have not been increased since 1960. Although the official minimum monthly fee is DR$1.50, in underprivileged areas the monthly rate oscillates between DR$0.50 and DR$1.00. Therefore, INAPA is losing money on its rural services since the average income per connection is DR$0.84, while the actual cost per connection is DR$1.52. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 14% of the connections are illegal.
The previous aspects, plus the fact that only an urban minority possess measurement devices, make it difficult to estimate effective water demands. Large investments are necessary in order to upgrade, maintain, and initiate projects that will pro v. ; the much needed water so vital to the public and to the country's development in general. Special care must be given this precious resource, since its quality and time distribution have been and
41


Tabic V-9. Total water demand under CAASD administration for the Santo Domingo region. Source: Personal communication.
Population Unit Total Total
lobe Deb.and Demand Demand
Year served (LPCD)* (m^/sec.) (m^xlufryear)
I960 1,272,000 360 5.3 167
T.985 1,665,000 333 6.4 202
1990 2,196,000 323 8.2 259
1995 2,858,000 325 10.8 239
2000 3,637,000 333 14.0 442
*LPCI>. Liters per capita per day.
could be severely affected by the poor watershed conditions in the case of the surface water and overpumping and/or pollution ir. the case of the groundwater resources.
Resource Management
INDRHI, CDE, INAPA, CAASD, CORAASAN, FORESTA, TIERRAS Y AGUA and SEA's Meteorology Department are Dominican institutions involved in water resources. FORESTA is discussed in Chapter III, Tierras y Aguas is discussed Chapter IV and INAPA and CAASD are discussed in Chapter X.
National Hydraulic Resources Institute (INDRHI)
INDRHI was created as an autonomous institution by Law 6 (1965) with the following principal functions:
a. To serve as the authority for surface and groundwaters and to regulate their use.
b. To study, protect, and program all the energy and hydraulic works necessary for the integral development of the hydrographic watersheds in coordination with national development plans.
c. To organize and manage the utilization and conservation of national irrigation systems.
d. To administer use of watersheds, reservoirs, springs, and national waters.
e. To organize, direct, and regulate works involving water use with the Corporation of Industrial Development, with CDE concerning energy aspects, and with INAPA for water supply.
f. To organize, direct and regulate works concerning watershed hydrology, springs, and national v/aters, both superficial and underground.
g. To take part in the conservation of stream flows, lakes, lagoons and watershed protection, including environmental and erosion control.
Some of INDRHI's regulations have become inoperative because it was never able to gain full control of all its legal functions due to the inertia of previously existing institutions such as INAPA and CDE and overlapping mandates of newer institutions such as CAASD and Tierras y Agua. Lack of technical capability, funding and political support also make it difficult for INDRHI to fulfill its legal mandate.
The institution has grown both in human resources and responsibilitiesby 1979 INDRHI had some 1650 employees, including 160 agronomy and civil engineers (Febrille, pers. comm.). Though the financial situation was critical during 19^8 and 1979 with INDRHI receiving funds to pay only its acquired commitments and counterpart programs with its DR$21 million budget, during 1980 it was expected to operate on a DR$77 million budget (Febrille, pers. comm.). This new support allows INDRHI to plan projects and manpower needs.
Important concerns at INDRHI include sedimentation rates of water storage dams, irrigation efficiencies, silting of canals, salinity and drainage problems, and in general, the operation and maintenance of large irrigation canals under their control. Reservoir sedimentation is one of the most serious environmental problems in the Dominican Republic. INDRHI has been undertaking soil conservation programs in the Sabana Yegua watershed since 1977. A recognizance study and a technical watershed management plan for the Hatillo watershed have been conducted with Chinese cooperation (Gonzalez 1980). Political pressures cause expensive canal systems to be inaugurated prior to completion, lading measuring devices and drainage systems, and in several occasions without access to farms (Reynoso & Enarnacion, pers. comm.). Farmers must construct their own feeder canals which leads to a chaotic canal system plus erosion, sedimentation, and drainage problems. Cultural practices and the very low costs for irrigation water have led to inefficiencies and excessive irrigation, in many cases accentuating the drainage, leaching, and salinity problems. Lack of funds and of qualified personnel lead to difficult situations such as in the Yaque del Norte region where five engineers administer 50,000 hectares under irrigation.
INDRHI's offical magazine (La Gaceta) shows well how great expectations can lead to big calamities within a year when inappropriate planning, incomplete construction and poor operation, management and cultural practices take place. A DR$33 million investment to irrigate 25,000 ha, and benefitting 10,000 families by transporting 24 m'/second from the Yaque de! Sur River was expected to transform the Azua Valley into a garden (Ventura 1978).
Perez (1979) describes the severe problem and side effects of this Azua Valley irrigation project. The plain that was previously irrigated from a groundwater aquifer is now inundated by irrigation water and the old wells are serving as artesian outlets for the high groundwater. The combined effect of decreased pumping and excessive infiltration has raised the groundwater table eight meters. Today, extensive areas previously cultivated are ruined (Fig. V-6b), a concrete lateral of the canal damaged hy high groundwater pressure, roads and a town have been inundated (Fig. V-6a), and drinking water supplies are contaminated.
Poor irrigation practices and designs should be given priority status among remedial solutions. Though irrigation engineers in INDRHI are aware of existing problems, they must urgently solve them. A map of irrigated lands by district at a 1:50,000 scale indicating the main canals ?nd problem areas would help. Priorities to upgrade irrigation systems and educate farmers are necessary.
Recently signed cooperative agreements with IICA and with Colorado State University (CSU) should greatly strengthen INDRHI's technical capability. The IICA objective is to strengthen INDRHI's role in the development and administration of water resources, with special emphasis on the agricultural sector (INDRHI 1980a). The major objectives of the CSU agreement include: 1) Formulation of a national plan for water resources management; 2) Improvement in the gathering and analysis of hydro-logic data; 3) Planning for the creation of a research hydraulic laboratory in the Dominican Republic; and 4) Administration and operation of hydraulic systems with emphasis on irrigation optimization (INDRHI 1980b).
The flCA and CSU cooperative agreements have already brought in experts to assist INDRHI in diagnosing the multitude of problems associated with Dominican water resources. In analyzing problems related to quality, collection, processing, and retrieval of hydrologic information, Salas (1980) found considerable duplication of activities between the Hydrologic division of INDRHI and the Meteorological Department of SEA. Fuentes (1980) analyzes the lack of water measuring devices at all water transmission levels in most of the important irrigation projects, a
42


Figure V-6a. Main sheet of El Rosario inundated by irrigation water that has nowhere to go due to Ihe lack of drainage canals. (Pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
severe problem that INDRH must face due to the negative effects of over-irrigation.
Since INDRHI does not have an educational program to upgrade the technical capabilities of its personnel, the IICA and CSU agreements should help strengthen the professional training of INDRHI's engineers and technicians. The small number of INDRHI personnel with graduate studies or degrees is a serious limiting factor to INDRHI's professional capabilities. Problems in evaluation, control, optimization and upgrading the water resources of the Dominican Republic require the expertise of well-trained individuals.
Dominican Electricity Corporation (CDE)
CDE was created as an autonomous institution by Law 4115 (1955) to provide for the production, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. A section of Article 8 of the CDE enabling legislation explicitly assigns responsibility to CDE for national electrification. CDE's autonomous status and financial independence allow it to plan on a longer term basis and with more stability than institutions such as INDRHI.
Rapid growth in national demand for electricity has produced comparable institutional growth of CDE. Approximately 200 engineers work at CDE in six different divisions (E. Garcia, pers. comm.); however, few CDE engineers have completed giaduate studies or degrees. Those with higher degrees often become saddled with administrative duties.
Escalating cosls of imported petroleum are forcing the Dominican Republic to quickly develop her considerable hydroelectric potential by constructing several major dams. Most CDE hydroelectric projects are contracted to foreign or private consultants for feasibility and design studies. CDE then forms a specific corporation to construct a dam. Upon completion of the construction project the corporation is dissovled.
Although it may have administrative and financial advantages, CDE's creation of a separate corporation for each dam construction has some serious consequences. CDE has traditionally ignored the condition of the watershed and any interest or effort in watershed management. The construction corporation is only interested in completing the dam, thus puts no money into studies or actions in the watershed above the hydroelectric project. The creation of a separate construction corporation for each project effectively excludes CDE engineers from substantive involvement in a hydroelectric project. Experience in Costa Rica shows that competent national engineers working closely with consultants, coupled with foreign training for national engineers, leads to a gradual build-up of professional knowledge and expe-
Figure V-6b. An irrigation canal near El Rosario that literally ends by flooding Ihe area due to a lack of drainage canals. Saliniiation has destroyed ihe usefulness of Ihe adjoining fields. (Pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
rience that allows a developing country to handle most of its own projects.
Friction between INDRFII and CDE and lack of communication seem to exist. Apparent mutual distrust for the quality of work and policies of each institution is shown by lack of knowledge and indifference at the technical level regarding the activities in which each institution is involved, and the maps of locations of future dams being considered separately by each institution that do not show the projected dams of the other.
The signing of the INDRHI-CDE inter-institutional cooperation agreement (August 1980), though the result of the vision, good will, and responsibility of a few motivated officials, has apparently not brought about the commitment of the leaders to work together. Indifference and distrust during the signing of the INDRHI, IICA, and CSU cgreement, nevertheless, did not dismay the participants because they see no other way out. As an INDRHI official puts it, "Coordination or death."
It is important to stress die effort of CDE to meet the demand for power and energy under very difficult conditions such as increasing oil prices, and watershed problems causing heavy sedimentation rates and large risks for major flooding. Given the interrelationship and competition between land cultivation, highway projects, and multiple uses for v/a'.er, the need for coordination between the government agencies dealing with water is absolutely necessary, especially so in the case of INDRHI and CDE. It is extremely important that all efforts must be made in order to make this inter-institutional cooperation work.
CDE receives technical assistance from the University of Texas for the establishment of a microseismic network. A consultant on Watershed Management recently came to the Dominican Republic in order to establish a protection plan for the Rio Blanco Watershed (Dourojeanni 1980). CDE has a hydrology department and its emphasis seems concentrated in the area of mathematical modelling and computer simulation of hydrologic phenomena. This type of work is not being currently pursued by any hydrologic divisions of other institutions. However, implementation of software technology and procedures seem basically the efforts of a few individuals.
General Comments
Competition rather than cooperation has resulted from the similarities in mandates to institutions. Each institution desires control though funds or human resources may not be available to fulfill the objectives. Where overlapping activities occur, it is common to hear officials openly criticize each other. It appears that politics and funding often override legal mandates.
43


Although centralization with good leadership may lead to unification and eliminate duplication, it can also be dangerous since it usually leads to very powerful institutions where politics may become more important than technical aspects (e.g. Guatemala). Large government institutions may lead to a dilution of responsibilities and loss of motivation to get things done; this could take place because of loss of personal communication, and identification of the workers wjth their working units and superiors.
When dealing with multiple institutions, it is very important to clearly define realistic activities in which each institution can most effectively work. The alternative seems to call for a systemic integration through institutional coordination. The proposal to create the Consejo Nacional de Recursos Naturales is an excellent effort in this direction.
Major Problems and Issues
Environmental problems with water resources and watershed management in the Dominican Republic intimately involve the small farmer, specifically the "conuquero", in that he is a major factor inducing environmental degradation as well as the unintended recipient of several negative consequences. Land and water degradation are the first order consequences of his slash and burn agricultural activities.
Traditional agriclutural practices on steep mountain environments in the upper watersheds cause a series of negative consequences both on the land the farmer uses for subsistence and in the water resources projects developed downstream as incentives for economic development and social well-being. The high rates of erosion reported in the literature and observed in the fields in the Dominican Republic indicate that the productivity of these lands is decreasing due to more intensive use and shorter fallow periods (see Chapter VI), partly because of the population pressures on scarce land resources and poor agricultural practices. Regional and national developments including irrigation systems hydroelectric projects, and aqueducts, are being severely affected by rapid siltation, poor water quality, and/or changes in the streamflow regimes. The social and economic costs of sedimentation and changes in streamflow characteristics such as increases in peak flows and lower base flows may severely affect the design and operation of existing and projected engineering works, increasing therefore noi only the cost of initial investments but also the maintenance and operating costs, to say nothing about the potential for drastic reduction in the economic and/or useful life of the projects (Quesada 1979). In some instances (e.g. a silt-
Figure V-7a. Severe gully erosion of unconsolidated sediments in Ihe semi-arid lower Sabana-Yegua watershed. The lack of runoff control from construction of a rural road is Ihe primary cause of this rapidly advancing gully. (Pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
filled reservoir), the consequences are irreversible since a dam site is a non-renewable resource (Koelzer 1969).
Serious watershed degradation probably began in earnest during the 1961-67 timber boom (see Chapter III) when loggers and campesinos made massive advances into the pine forests of the Cordillera Central. Although the forced clorure of all sawmills in 1967 brought an abrupt halt to logging, it did not lessen the campesino demand for new land. The continued high rate of population growth and unequal land tenure paiierns have pushed the small farmers even higher in ihe Cordillera Central watersheds, almost invariably onto steep, highly erodable slopes incapable of supporting annual cropping. Pressure for land has taken small farmers up to the boundary of the two national parks (see Chapter VIII) in the Cordillera Central, thus there is literally no more unoccupied land available for colonization in the Cordillera Central.
The two major reservoirs, Tavera and Valdesia, have accumulated considerable quantities of sediments in less than one decade. Tavera has lost 40% of the dead storage and the sediment accumulation at the heel of the dam is about 18 meters; in the upper reaches the reservoir has lost 10-14 m of active storage. It is estimated that 6% of the area round the reservoir contributes 30% of the sediments reaching the lake. The Valdesia restrvioir has 22 m of sediments at the heel of the dam, only 8 meters away from the intakes (CDE, pers. comm.). Hurricanes David and Frederic caused devastating floods that destroyed the spillway gates of Valdesia and flooded the powerhouse at Tavera. The substantial reductions in active storage capacity greatly decrease the useful life of the Tavera and Valdesia reservoirs (Fig. V-7b). The nearly complete disinterest of CDE and INDRHI in a watershed protection and management leads to a very pessimistic prognosis on the useful life of existing and future hydroelectric projects.
Inadequate road-building practices also contribute enormous quantities of sediments to the nation's river systems. Field observations vividly demonstrate the lack of concern by road engineers about erodability, runoff and sediment loads. North of Padre las Casas, a simple rural road through very fragile, unconsolidated soil contributes to an enormous gully (Fig. V-7a) carrying tons of sediments downstreamin this case into the recently completed Sabana-Yegua reservoir. Penetration roads into the upper watersheds of the Cordillera Central cause frequent landslides and seldom are effectively stabilized (Fig. V-8a).
Watershed degradation has serious downstream consequences. High sediment loads contribute to riverbed aggrading, which causes changes in river basin morphology and higher flood levels
Figure V-7b. Sediment load (center left) of the major tributary to ihe Tavera reservoir. In only 8 years, Ihe reservoir has lost 10-14 m of active storage. (Hand-held aerial photo, Gary Hartshorn.)
44


Figure V-8a. Lanslides caused by road building and deforestation on sleep slopes between Manobao and Loma de la Sal in the Cordillera Central. (Hand-held aerial photo, Carlos Quesaiia.)
(e.g. lower Rio Yuna). Although hurricanes David and Frederic were the prime cause of major floods and significant changes in basin morphology (e.g. Rio Las Cuevas, Rio Ocoa), natural disasters exacerbate man-induced problems. Theis is a tendency in the Dominican Republic to blame all natural resources problems (e.g. Tavera, Valdesia) on hurricanes David and Frederic. The Cordillera Central watersheds were already seriously degraded before the 1980 hurricanes struck, hence man's destruction of the watersheds amplified the catastrophic consequences of natural disasters. The resilience of natural vegetation clearly demonstrates that inappropriate land use dramatically increases watershed degradation (Fig. V-8b).
High contents of silt and clay in potable water not only cause a visual nuisance, but increase health hazards (see Chapter X). The sediments also contribute to internal corroding of the water system. High turbidity requires large amounts of coagulating agents to remove the sediments. Watershed deterioration has increased the need for water treatment in systems that initially did not require treatment.
Watershed deterioration has also changed the magnitude of floodwaters, causing considerable damage to intakes, derivation structures, and anchored structures. High sediment loads carried from degraded watersheds also cause problems to irrigation systems by rapidly filling canals with sediments, thus reducing canal capacity. When deposited on fields, the high silt load in irrigation waters reduces soil infiltration capacity.
Poor irrigation planning and practices, including over-irrigation, incomplete canal systems, lack of integrated irrigation and drainage systems, water logged soils and salinization, abuse the country's water and soil resources. Numerous examples exist: high salinity is a problem west of La Esperanza in the Yaque del Norte River Basin; in Villa Vasquez farmers dam irrigation canals to divert saline water to their fields, accentuating their soil salinity problems; lack of maintenance allows the canals to fill with sediments and weeds (Fig V-9a), reducing irrigation potential and in some cases precluding the possibility of growing two crops per year; lack of drainage of irrigation waters causes soil salinization and even flooding (Fig. V-9b).
Some efforts are being made to lessen soil erosion and upgrade irrigation systems, but they are woefully inadequate to significantly reduce the severity of water resources problems in the Dominican Republic. The chaotic, independent, and usually competitive approach to irrational use and management of Dominican water resources continues to degrade this valuable renewable natural resource. The decreasing potential of Dominican water resources will only be reversed through a united an J integrated national effort in watershed protection and rehabilitation.
Conclusions
The Dominican Republic is richly endowed with water resources, particularly those river systems originating in the Cordillera Central. The three important river basins, Yaque del Norte, Yuna, and Yaque del Sur, cover about 35% of the country. This renewable natural resource is only modestly developed to provide 15% of the nation's power and to irrigate less than 200,000 ha (4% of the country). Government projects are expected to substantially increase these values during the 1980's.
Institutional responsibilities for water resources development and administration are fragmented among several overlapping and competing agencies. Development projects such as irrigation systems were poorly planned, designed and implemented with the consequence that extensive areas of productive agricultural land are being lost due to poor drainage, salinization, or inconsistent delivery of irrigation water. Planning of development projects ignores existing or planned developments pertaining to other institutions.
Watershed degradation is a national catastrophe posing grave threats to costly development projects. Irrigation systems, hydroelectric dams, and aqueducts are rapidly losing functional capacity due to massive siltation, poor water quality and changes in streamflow regimes.
Slash and burn agriculturalists are intimately involved in watershed deterioration, not only as causative agents with their traditional techniques and crops, but as recipients, as they rapidly deplete the productive capacity of their small farms. The absence of new frontiers for traditional agriculturalists precludes evacuation of critical watersheds. The "conuquero" must be an integral component in watershed rehabilitation.
Inadequate road-building practices and natural disasters such as hurricanes also contribute enormous quantities of sediments to. the nation's river systems. There is a tendency to blame the 1979 hurricanes for the sorry condition of Domincan watersheds. Natural disasters only exacerbate the serious environmental problems caused by man.
The modest efforts in watershed rehabilitation and protection are usually directed at the consequences of watershed degradation (e.g. gully control) rather than to the causes (inappropriate land use). Given the serious and pervasive deterioration of watersheds, the institutional conflicts and unwillingness to address the problem in an integrated effort, and the increasing human pressure for land, one can only conclude that Dominican watersheds will continue to deteriorate in the near future. The lack of a massive and priority program in watershed protection
Figure V-8b. Landslide activity increased by deforestation. Although many of these landslides in Ihe eastern Cordillera Central between Manobao and Loma de la Sal were probably caused by the 1979 hurricanes, note Ihe appreciably lower frequency of landslides in the upper forest (Hand-held aerial pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
45


Figure V-9a. inoperative irrigation canal near San Jose de Ocoa filled with sediments from Ihe 1979 hurricanes. (Pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
and rehabilitation will continue to allow Dominican watersheds to deteriorate, converting a renewable natural resource to a nonrenewable or increasingly costly resource.
Recommendations
Declare Watershed Degradation a National Emergency
The seriousness and extent of watershed deterioration in the Dominican Republic merits emergency measures analagous to those taken in 1967 to halt deforestation. However, slowing of Watershed degradation will not be nearly as simple as closing all sawmills. Specific actions could include:
create an inter-agency task force to assess the capabilities and responsibilities of institutions involved in water resources
develop integrated watershed management plans for major river basins such as the Yaque del Norte, Yuna, and Yaque del Sur
implement watershed protection and rehabilitation programs on a sub-watershed basis rather than as roadside demonstrations
halt all hydroelectric, irrigation, and reservoir projects until specific watershed management plans are prepared, accepted and initiated
include an environmental assessment in the economic feasibility analysis of proposed water resources projects
analyze existing projects to determine which ones can be improved or rehabilitated before starting new projects.
Institutional Collaboration and Coordination Is Imperative
Duplication and jealously must be minimized if the Dominican Republic is to effectively develop and administer her water resources. The proposal to establish CONARENA could be an effective means of increasing cooperation and coordination of the numerous agencies involved in Dominican water resources.
Figure V-9b. Excellent agricultural land near El Rosario. This field formerly produced 90 m lons/ha of industrial lomaloes, bill poor irrigation management has flooded Ihe area and increased soil salinity. (Pholo, Gary Harlshom.)
46


VI
Soils
Resource Base
Introduction
The most important farmlands are in two main regions, the Cibao, which is a geomorphic region composed of the valleys of the Yuna and Yaque del Norte Rivers, and the Caribbean oastal plain, a region devoted mainly to sugarcane and livesto k production. The latter area has a complex distribution of residual soils derived from limestone or calcareous materials deposited under lacustrine conditions.
The eastern Cibao, Between Santiago and San Francisco de Macoris, has the country's largest area of highly productive soils. The climate of eastern Cibao is excellent for the almost continuous cultivation of the dark brown, granular calcareous clays and of the alluvial soils. The main crops of the densely populated eastern Cibao are tobacco, com and plantains. Rice is grown under irrigation in the compact clays farther to the east in the Yuna basin.
Arid conditions in the western Cibao make irrigation indispen-sible for farming the alluvial soils of the Yaque del Norte Valley. The western Cibao has about 8-9,000 ha of irrigated rice, along with considerable areas of tobacco, plus some sorghum and tomatoes. Some of these soils have fairly light surface texture. Free salt in the profile coupled with poor quality and inept management of irrigation water has caused some salinity problems in the area.
Another important agricultural area is the arid basin of the Yaque del Sur River. The clay soils of the valley of its main tributary, the San Juan River, are suitable for irrigated rice. The lower part of the Yaque del Sur Valley, which is part of the Enriquillo Basin, is an extensive plain with deep, light-textured, alluvial soils, mostly devoted to sugarcane and plantains. Saline soils occur close to Lake Enriquillo as well as in the lowlands near the mouth of the Yaque del Norte River.
The only agricultural soils not used are in the sub-humid or arid areas of the country lacking irrigation. In other areas, wherever there is enough precipitation for crops or pasture, the land has been cleared of forest for crop or livestock production, ignoring the fact that there are areas of steep slopes or poor drainage. Throughout the mountain areas there are small valleys with areas of productive soils.
The eulogy to the "rich soils of the Dominican Republic" found in literary works is mostly a myth. While there are some areas of good and productive soils in the country, most of the
country's farmers eke out a living on marginal and sub-marginal lands not fit for annual food crops. A reconnaissance through major parts of the country reveals a predominance of very shallow soil situated on extremely steep slopes, mostly stoney and subject to severe erosion, either because of topography or the soil materials involved, or both. Some additional discussion of soil quality and erosion follows.
Description of Major Soils
The Dominican Republic has a great diversity of soils. They range from sands to clays, acid to alkaline, fertile to infertile, no-saline to saline, and include well-developed soils and younger ones. The Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System (CRIES) project identified 37 soil map units which are briefly described in Table VI-1 in the order of -irea covered. More detailed descriptions are available in SIEDRA publications.
Current and Projected Land Use
Farm Size Distribution
Recent data indicate 57% of the country's land area is in farms. Land in farms expanded from 47% of the country in 1960 to 57% in 1971 and remained at an almost identical level in 1977 (Table VI-2). regional percentages reflect the abundance of good soils in the northeast, east and central regions, as well as the dominance of sub-marginal land, inimical climatic conditions and inaccessibility in the southwest and south regions.
While only about 13% of Dominican farmland is not in use, the bulk of the farmland is divided almost equally between crops and pasture. Four regionsnorth, northeast, central and eastaccount for 76% of the national croplands and 85% of the pastures.
Farm size distribution in 1971 (Table VI-3) is remarkably uniform across regions. Nearly 70% of all farms are less than 5 ha in size, yet they occupy less than 14% of the country's farmland. Only 3.4% of the farms exceed 50 ha, but they occupy over half of the national farmland. The many large sugarcane estates have a strong impact on the farm size statistics. Nevertheless, the data indicate there are a large number of subsistence farmers that probably include many part-time farmers who earn additional income in off-farm activities.
47


Table VI-1. U.S. soil taxonomy names, their map symbol and CRIES (SIEDRA) number, the total area in the Dominican Republic (often in many separate parcels in different parts of the country) and a brief description of some of their main characteristics involving erosiveness or productive use of Dominican soils.
Name (subgroups)
Map Symbol
Brief Description of Area Character and/or
km2 Potential
Name (subgroups)
Map Symbol
Brief Description of Area Character and/or
km2 Potential
Dystropepts (typic)
Ustropepts (typic)
ITYs
M/RB (4431)
ITUa
KH/LSS(4322)
Ustropepts ITUs (shallow typic) M/LSS(432S)
Eutropepts ITEs (shallow typic) M/LSS(4220)
8223 Steep slopes, acid,
mostly shallow, stony, erosive; some coffee, some food crops
4661 Medium to steep
slopes, mostly shallow, stony, slightly alkaline, very erosive, some are droughty; mostly grazing land, some food crops
3474 Mostly on very steep
slopes, shallow, stony, slightly alkaline, mostly droughty, free carbonates, very erosive; small areas in f jod crsps
3548 Very steep slopes,
mostly shallow, stony, slightly alkaline, high base saturation, erosive because of slope; some in coffee, plantains, food crops
Ustropepts (typic)
Dystropepts (lithic)
Tropaquepts (Aerie) and Tropofluvents (typic)
Eutropepts (typic, shallow)
ITUa URM (4324)
ITYf S/T (4430)
IAId T/M EFTa FP/A (4114)
ITEs RH/LSS
1329 Moderate erosion hazard,
some mechanization possible, would have potential for crops with irrigation, no water sources apparent; grazing lands
1272 High erosion hazard due to topography, shallow, very acid; pasture, some food crops with hand labor
1083 Coastal terraces, flood plains, beaches, dunes; slight erosion hazard from water, some areas susceptible to wind erosion; some are flooded or poorly drained; used for sugarcane, pasture, rice, cacao and food crops
1079 Some calcareous, high base saturation, most are shallow; some ir coffee, plantains and food crops
Camborthids DOAaFA (typic) DOAa (1102)
2479 Alluvial material, low water holding capacity, erosive; too dry for agriculture, no available water sources
Pellusterts VUPg T/A 1059 No erosion hazard, fairly
(Udic) (6137) level, suitable foi mechaniza-
tion; productive agricultural soils used for cacao, coffee, plantains, and seasonal crops
Ustorthents EOUdK 2173 (skeletal UR/LS92409) lithic)
Dystropepts ITYs 1502 (shallow typic) S/RB(4432)
Eutropepts ITEg 1471 (lithic) K/L3(4219)
Ustropepts ITUa 1460 (typic) U/LS(4323)
Tropaquepts IATb L/M 1408
(Plinthic) and iTYc U/M
Dystropepts (4113) (Aquic)
Over coraline material, shallow, extremely stony, droughty; almost no agricultural potential
Mostly on very steep topography, very erosive, very acid, stony; some of the better areas are used for coffee, cacao, food crops
Mostly on extremely steep topography, karst ovi limestone, droughty, inaccessible; scattered plots in agricultural use, no potential
Slight erosion hazard, fine texture, some waterlogging; suitable for reclamation; used for sugarcane without irrigation
Slight to moderate erosion hazard, very acid, slow permeability, non-stony, suitable for mechanization; mostly in pasture, but better drained sections suitable for crops, increasingly used for sugarcane
Torrifluvents (Ustic)
Ustropepts (shallow typic)
EFHf FP/A (2105)
ITUs RH/T (4326)
Torrisorthents (Skeletal lithic)
Pellusterts (iypic)
Uslorthents (shallow typic)
EOHck
UR/LS
(2307)
VUPa L/LS (6135)
EOU RH/LS (2410)
1050 Floodplains, need irrigation for full production; slightly saline due to improper irrigation practices; produce rice, bananas and other crops
1045 Erosional valleys and uplands over tuff; steeper and shallower areas used for pasture and small plots of food crops; gentler slopes can be used for sugarcane, food crops or pasture
1015 Undulating and rolling plains ovjr limestone; no agricultural potential; native thom scrub used in charcoal production
1007 Little erosion hazard, suited for mechanization, vetncss and heavy texture are limiting factors; used for sugarcane and some pasture
816 Rolling and hilly uplands with erosional slopes, shallow, some stones, droughty; used for papaya, citrus, pasture, some food crops
48


Tible VT-1. (Continued)
Name (subgroups)
Map Symbol
Brief Description of Area Character and/or
km1 Potential
Name
(subgroups)
Map Symbol
Brief Description of Area Character and/or
km2 Potential
Pellusterts and Ustropepts (typic)
Ustolfic Hapiargids
VUPa T/A 682 Stream and lacustrine terraces
(6136) over alluvium, some erosion
hazard on slopes; suitable for many corps with irrigation; otherwise, pasture, rice, vegetables
DRHn UR/A 633 Moderate erosion hazard, (1204) arid; too steep for irrigation
and no water source
Dystropepts ITYc U/M-
(Aquic) ITEs RH/LS
Eutropepts (4429) (f,vie shallow)
Dystropepts (Aquic) Dystropepts (fluvic)
ITYc T/A ITYd FP/A (4427)
285 Very fine marine clays, slight erosion hazard; used for pasture, sugarcane, cacao, coffee, and food crops
282 Slight erosion hazard; at
Constanza used for temperate region vegetables; at Banao for irrigated rice and other crops
Terriorthents EOHj IVLA 567 Level for mechanization, but Eutropepts ITEc U/LS-
(Ustic) (2308) difficult to irrigate due to (Aquic and ITEs RH/LS
salinity; better parts in sugar- shallow typic) (4217)
cane and plantains
252 Slight erosion hazard; can be reclaimed for sugarcane
Tropaqucpts lARs T/M 506 Marine terrace over marine
(Aerie) and -VDCb T/M clay; wet soils for rice and
Chromuderts (4116) pasture; others for cacao, cof-
(Aquic) fee and food crops
Ustifluvents (lypic) Ustifluvents (aerie tropic)
EFUa FP/A 242 Slight erosion hazard; suit-(2206) able for irrigated sugarcane
also food crops
Tropaquepts lATd T/M- 446 Coastal marine terrace over
(aerie) and ITUs RH/LS marine sediments interspersed
Ustropupts (4115) with shallow erosional rolling
(typic) and hilly uplands; level lands
for sugarcane and food crops
Tropudults UDTa RH/T- 436 Erosion hazard, mostly deep
(typic) ITYp S/T red clays, very acid; pasture
Dystropepts and food crops
(lithic)
Eutropepts (Fluventic)
Tropaquepts (lypic)
Chromuderts (Aquic)
ITEe FP/A 180 Fine silts or fine loams;
(4218) suitable for cacao, coffee, and
food crops
lATa FP/A 172 Use limited by wetness;
VDCb FP/A used for irrigated rice,
pasture, food crops and cacao
Camborthids (typic)
DOAa F/A 410 (1101)
Camborthids (typic)
Tropudults (typic) Dystropepts (fluventic)
Tropohemisrs (typic) Sulfihemists (typic)
Dystropepts
(Aquic)
Dystropepts
(shallow to
paralithic
contact)
DOAa RH/LSS 407
UDTa DT/A 379 (5133)
FiHTa WS/A 325 (31i:)
ITYc T/A- 312 ITYs RH/RB (4428)
Alluvial, slight erosion hazard, suited for mechanization, needs irrigation; produce irrigated bananas, plantains, sugarcane, could produce othw crops
Erosion hazard, steep, no agricultrual use
Floodplain, fine texture, acid; used for sugarcane
Mostly tidal level, strongly saline; mangrove swamp; almost no agricultural value
Slight to moderate erosion hazard, shallow; crop growth limited by wetness, acidity, clayey texture; used for pasture, cacjo, sugarcane and food crops
Abbreviated use symbols (from Map):
Land form /
DT dissected terrace F Fans at base of mountain
Underlying material
A Alluvium, unconsolidated LA Lacustrine alluvium, unconsolidated LS Limestone LSS Limestone and shale M Marine, unconsolidated rocks RB Mixed acid and basic meta-
morphic rocks T Tuff
FP Floodplain L Level plain M Mountains K Karst topography
RH Rolling and hilly terrain S Steep hilly T Terrace U Undulating pl=un UR Undulating and rolling plain WS Swamp
Names (subgroups) according to the U.S. Soil Taxonomy, USDA Handbook No. 436, Washington, D.C.
For a detailed description the handbook would have to be consulted. The various publications of SIEDRA (CRIES)* also give more information on these soils than is contained in the very brief descriptions above.
* from which the above list and descriptions are adapted
49


Table VI-2. Regional distribution of land in farms in I960,1971 and 1977. Base data from CRIES project.
I II m rv v vi VII
North Northeast Northwest Central Southwest South East TOTAL
Total Land Area" (km2) 9,065 5,324 4,769 6,983 7,503 6,890 7,745 48,297*
1960 Farmland (km2) 5,532 3,646 1,880 4,436 1,240 1,152 4,690 22,576
% 61 66 39 64 17 17 61 47
1971 Farmland (km2) 6,049 4,695 1,953 5,090 2,031 1,368 6,176 27,362
% 67 66 41 73 27 20 80 57
1977 Farmland (km2) 6,049 4,796 1,952 5,127 2,031 1,321 6,176 27,452
% 67 90 41 73 27 19 60 57
1977 Crops (km2) 2,011 2,294 846 2,649 1,336 757 2,169 12,064
1977 Pastures (km2) 3,126 2,113 845 1,605 511 367 3,301 11,868
1977 Other** 912 389 259 873 184 197 706 3,520
'Excludes 163 km2 of islands
"Uncultivated and non-pastured land on farms
Table VT-3. Percentage distribution of land use by farm size and regions; base data from the 1971 Agricultural Census. 'Denotes
no data available.
I II m rv v vi vn National
North Northeast Northwest Central Southwest South East Average
Percentage of farms 69.2
0.5-4.9 ha 73.9 69.6 62.1 73.0 78.2 58.7
5.0-9.9 ha 11.5 12.9 13.6 10.3 13.9 11.3 12.2
10.0-49.9 ha 11.8 15.2 20.5 14.3 7.0 22.3 15.2
50 ha 2.7 3.0 3.8 2.4 0.9 7.7 3.4
Percentage of farmland 13.8
0.5-4.9 ha 13.6 12.3 10.5 13.9 28.6 3.5
5.0-9.9 ha 8.4 6.1 8.2 7.1 17.1 2.7 8.6
10.9-49.9 ha 26.5 28.7 39.9 28.4 22.8 16.4 27.1
50 ha 56.5 50.9 41.4 50.6 31.5 77.4 51.5
Percentage in Crops 87.4 66.6
0.5-4.9 ha 65.0 68.4 49.6 61.8 67.3
5.0-9.9 ha 46.2 54.5 32.2 38.0 58.6 41.1 45.4
10.0-49.9 ha 27.9 35.3 32.2 38.0 38.6 20.8 26.8
50.0-99.9 ha 7.9 12.4 10.4 14.7 12.5 10.5 11.4
100 ha 18.0 32.3 43.5 53.6 53.8 34.3 39.3
Percentage in Fallow 10.0
0.5-4.9 ha 6.7 16.2 11.0 7.0 16.5 2.5
5.0-9.9 ha 7.3 21.0 6.5 7.3 12.0 6.5 10.1
10.0-49.9 ha 6.0 11.8 6.5 5.8 11.5 4.2 4.6
50-99 ha 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4
100 ha 2.4 3.6 7.6 3.1 5.1 4.2 4.3
Percentage in Pasture 18.3
0.5-4.9 ha 22.6 12.0 34.0 24.1 10.0 7.2
5.0-9.9 ha 37.8 19.2 52.8 38.9 19.3 39.7 34.6
10.0-49.9 ha 57.9 39.4 69.3 50.7 35.9 63.5 52.8
50 ha * *
Percentage in Other
0.5-4.9 ha 5.7 3.4 5.4 7.1 6.2 2.9 5.1
5.0-9.9 ha 6.7 5.3 8.5 15.8 10.1 12.7 9.9
10.0-49.9 8.2 3.5 10.7 19.0 14.3 11.5 11.2
50-99 ha 8.1 3.9 10.2 0.7 9.6 2.5 5.8
100 ha 14.6 19.1 51.8 27.3 43.1 10.5 27.8
50


Table VI-3 also shows the regional distribution of land use by size of farm. The highest percentage of land in crops consistently occurs on the smallest farms. Land devoted to crops decreases with increasing farm size to 100 ha, above which there is an appreciable increase in crops due to sugarcane estates. Farms smaller than 10 ha average 10% in fallow, which is an indicator of the prevalence of shifting cultivation for subsistence crops on small farms.
The strong increase in percentage of land in pasture as farm size increases is no surprise; however, the average of 18% pasture on the smallest farms is unusually high; fallow land used for grazing may account for the high percentage of pasture.
Land is put into fallow either for lack of managerial skill in organized harvesting, or because the farmer believes the soil is so exhausted it will not produce an acceptable return. In both cases, improved technology, including proper conservation measures on marginal lands, would keep these lands productive.
Pasture is either a managerial choice, because it seems to yield the best return, or it is a measure applied by the small farmer on land too exhausted to produce a crop. Most good pasture is a cropland reserve, while poor pasture generally yields very little return, and this land would probably be better under trees.
We were unable to obtain national data on land tenure. In our conversations with technicians in the field, it was learned there is substantial absentee ownership of farmland. The widespread practice of sharecropping and frequent changes in the sharecropper on a particular field make it very difficult to encourage soil conservation measures or even general land stewardship.
It appears that the Dominican Republic has virtually no land reserves under the conditions of rain-fed agriculture as can be seen by the extensive areas of marginal and sub-marginal cultivated lands. However, thanks to orographic rainfall it has many areas where irrigation projects are in existence, are being developed and still can be developed.
A reconnaissance indicated large tracts of land with xerophitic brush cover, probably on most maps appearing as low grade forest or brush cover. Some of these lands, like those in the San Juan-Azua area, will be irrigated by projects now being developed.
Agricultural Productivity
Table VI-4 shows the area and production of important crops harvested in 1979. Rice, red beans, cassava, and plantains are the major food crops. National averages of these crops are fairly low,
Table VI-4.1979 area and production data for important crops in the Dominican Republic; data from URPE.
Area Total Average
Harvested Production Yield
Crop (hectares) (metric tons) (kg/ha)
Rice 106,408 245,437 2,307
Red Beans 54,853 37,927 691
Black Beans 10,355 11,883 1,148
Com 36,581 48,177 1,317
Cassava 22,933 119,556 1,317
Sweet Potatoes 6,659 59,495 8,934
Yams 6,402 41,320 6,454
Plantains 30,580 204,250 6,679
Pigeon Peas 11,205 9,928 877
Bananas 7,058 71,926 10,191
Name Root 2,707 17,274 6,382
Potatoes 897 8,987 10,019
Onions 1,447 10,248 7,082
Table Tomatoes 615 7,131 11,595
Industrial Tomatoes 5,082 100,969 19,868
Hot Peppers 911 3,624 3,978
Garlic 651 3,452 5,302
Tobacco 29,402 33931 1,154
as should be expected since a large part of this production comes from marginal and sub-marginal lands. Table VI-4 does not include sugarcane, the principal export crop of the Dominican Republic.
The country had a total of about 212,000 ha of sugarcane in 1978. Sugarcane iand is divided among three major producers: Gulf & Western Company, the Vincini family, and the government's Consejo Estatal de Azucar (CEA). Gulf & Western harvests about 71,200 ha, with a mill capacity of about 400,000 tons/year of sugar, or 28% of the national production. They are located in the eastern region of the country, and grow their cane without irrigation on land mostly considered average for agricultural (Class III). The Vicini family owns 3 sugar estates in the central region with a sugar capacity of 80,000 tons/year, accounting for 7% of the national production. CEA owns 12 estates, mostly in the eastern part of the country. Two of the CEA estates are irrigatedEsperanza in the north, and Barahona, near the city with the same name in the south. In addition there are about 156 small producers who sell their cane to the CEA and the Vincini group. Estate yield without irrigation is about 45-46 tons/ha, with the small producers getting about 20% less. Irrigated production has dropped to around 95 tons/ha due to salinity problems and poor management.
Coffee covered about 207,000 ha in 1960 on some 43,000 farms in many parts of the country, mostly at middle elevations. The present area in coffee (about 155,000 ha) is expected to increase substantially due to recent efforts to use it as a soil conserving crop. However, some of its is interplanted with cacao, which will only thrive under hot humid conditions. Cacao is concentrated in the northeastern area of the country, where 94,000 ha (1979) are in production on some 50,000 small farms. Other crops include coconut palm (28,548 ha), sorghum (2,702 ha), ginger (659 ha), and grapes (108 ha).
Resource Management
Legal Basis
No specific laws exist to protect the soils of the country. A considerable number of laws protecting forest and water resources have an indirect effect on soil resources and conservation. The Departmento de Tierras y Aguas (DTA) in the Secretariat of Agriculture (SEA) is preparing a draft law based on existing laws in Puerto Rico for the formation of soil conservation districts. Also a draft law before the Legislature proposes Committees for Conservation of Natural Resources (COCORENA) at the grass roots level. COCORENA could greatly help government efforts in soil and water conservation.
Institutions
Soils are dealt with by several departments. The DTA conducts taxonomic inventories at reconnaissance, semi-detailed and detailed levels, tests soil fertility in relation to plant growth by means of fertilizer experiments using various nutrient combinations on a number of agricultural and horticultural crops. It also determines fertility level by soil and leaf analyses in the laboratory. According to the department's spokesman it is sufficiently staffed and will carry out its program on a reasonable schedule to have all areas with agricultural potential mapped within the next 3-4 years. It seems to have little interest in the marginal areas in the mountains.
The Instituto Agrario Dominicano (IAD) has no soils staff, but uses the DTA to appraise lands before acquiring them, and uses the department to organize farming activities of their settlers on a national basis.
The DTA originated as the soil conservation section of the Department of Soils. It has been a separate department for about two years and comes under SURENA instead of the Secretariat
51


for Research, Extension and Agricultural Training. DTA is trying to transform itself into a general soil conservation service. While it has some well-trained and enthusiastic people, it appears that it is much too small in relation to the task it faces.
INDRHI possesses a soils section to appraise the irrigation capability of lands within potential reach of its irrigation canals.
FORESTA is concerned with soil conservation through some reforestation programs and has the responsibility to reduce soil erosion in the Tavera reservoir watershed. The latter task, which should have been done prior to construction, is now being pursued with some vigor; however, the results so far are very unsatisfactory.
The Departamento de Inventarios, Evaluation y Ordenamiento de Recursos Naturales uses soils information as one of the basic factors to determine the Resources Planning Units (SIEDRA project). They use existing soils information and that provided through LandSat imagery.
There appears to exist some rivalry between departments and an occasional duplication of effort. The major deficiency seems to be the size of the DTA in relation to its tabic. The mission did not have a ch.jnce to contact and appraise the regular agricultural extension service, which comes under the Subsecretariat for Research, Extension and Agriculture Training. It appears to be one of the most essential tasks for the DTA to enlist the services of the extension service to make its members fully aware of the problems of soil and water conservation and to train them properly to assist the program country-wide.
To feet maximum cooperation in the field between the different agencies it might be well to consider setting up coordinating offices on a regional basis, i.e., irrigation districts in the various watershed areas, soil conservation districts in others. These offices would have primary responsibility for the work in their area, and would draw on the services of the other departments as needed. To facilitate setting up a soil conservation district and to assure it grass roots support and cooperation, the DTA proposes the formation of "Comites de Conservacion de los Recursos Naturales" (COCORENA). These would be local family groups, who could then be enlisted in the carrying out and planning of programs for the conservation of soils and waters.
The office in Azua "Oficina para el Desarrollo Integral Agro-pecuario del Valle de Azua" seems a right step in this direction, it would be most imortant that such offices are headed by dynamic well-qualified individuals with medium to long range tenure in this position. Unfortunately it has been reported that the person heading the office in Azua has already been transferred to other responsibilities.
According to Gonzalez (1978) there are two basic problems which hamper the effective coordination of policies between institutions in the agricultural sector. One, many activities are duplicates: Banco Agricola; IDECOOP; IAD, and SEA all have agricultural credit programs. SEA, IAD, and IDECOOP all have agricultural extension functions. INDRHI and IAD both duplicate functions in respect to irrigation. All of these organization; collect agricultural statistics. Second, the long term priorities are not well defined. Plans are developed and programs are carried out in response to immediate needs. Inter-institutional relations between government agencies are defined by laws and decrees, but these relations do not function in private. From Gonzalez' experience, it is essential that agencies not only coordinate to avoid duplication, but work together and share resonsibility.
A Section of Soil Conservation was founded in June 1973 as part of the Subsecretariat of Research and Agricultural Extension. Together with the Section of Soil Fertility, the Section of Soil Classifications and the Section of Soil Laboratories, they formed the Department of Soils. This section did considerable work in the northwest Cibao "Linea Noroeste" including 31 km of terraces, and 52 small reservoirs and dams. It also did a semi-detailed soil survey of about 60,000 ha in this area.
Land and Water Department (DTA). Since August 1978 the DTA operates in its present form as a dependency of SURENA. The section of Soil Conservation of the Department of Soils was incorporated into DTA at the same time. The DTA is currently organized into the three sections: Basic Studies, Soil Conservation and the Unit for Programs and Progress Control. The DTA has made a considerable effort during the last two years to train its staff through short courses both within and outside the country. The DTA has 77 employees of which about one half work in a technical capacity. The technical staff includes four with M.Sc. degrees and 25 more with an Ingeniero Agronomia or equivalent degree. The DTA expects a regular budget of DR$500,000 for 1981 from SEA and an equal amount of support from AID. In addition it receives technical assistance from the local of the In-terAmerican Institute of Agricultural Cooperation (IICA-OAS). It also seems to have a good working relationship with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in Puerto Rico.
The DTA has accumulated a considerable amount of technical information about the erosiveness of rainfall in the country and the potential loss of different soils under various conditions of surface cover, rotations, degree and Ungth of slope. In a study of the relative soil ioss under different crops on a given soil in the San Jose de Ocoa area, coffee produced a loss of about 32 tons/ha per acre, whereas potatoes, peanuts and beans produced losses 65-75 times greater than the coffee.
The DTA established a priority list for selecting watersheds based on population density and locality patterns, the watershed area, area irrigated, value of the infrastructure (electrical, irrigation, etc.), estimated erosion losses, and local interest in soil conservation. On this basis priority watersheds include the Bao, Ocoa, Nizao, Sabana Yegua, Masuacis, Chacuey and Guayubin. The watershed of the Tavera reservoir was not included as it is the responsibility of FORESTA.
The Bao watershed has served as a training ground for the DTA durir.g the past two years, which will spread out efficiency in the future. Work includes demonstrations in soil conservation, planting fruit trees ri the contour, channel tei races, small sedimentation dams costructed wi^h bags filled with soil, grassed waterways and vegetation barriers. Similar work has been going on in the San Jose de Ocoa watershed, where the cooperation of the populations is considered to be better.
The Departamento de Suelos comes under the Subsecretariat de Investigation, Extension y Capacitacion Agropecuarla within the Secretariat of Agriculture (SEA). This Subsecretariat has the following departments: soils, plant protection (Sanidad Vegetal), technical information, research, extensions and training, and rural organizations. It is physically locatec the premises of "Centro Sur de Desarrollo Agropecuario" (CESDA) in San Cristobal, but is not a part of it.
The soils laboratory provides all soil and leaf analyses needed by research workers within the ministry. Furthermore it supplies the analytical needs for soil fertility research and for soil mapping. It also analyzes farmers' samples and makes fertilizer recommendations. It is the only laboratory in the country providing this service free. There is a similar one in Santiago, which, however, charges a fee.
The soil fertility section does traditional fertilizer experiments using major and trace elements on 16 major crops of the region, i.e. corn, plantains, yuca, tomatoes, onions, hot peppers, eggplant and othtr vegetables. Fertilizer work on coffee and cacao is carried out by CENDA (Centro Norte de Desarrollo Agropecuario) in Santiago.
The Soil Survey Section follows the U.S. Taxonomy in preparing its soil maps. They prepare land capability maps, as well as carry out reconnaissance surveys and catastral studies for the IAD or other government entities. They also do detailed soils surveys for farm plans in the settlements of the IAD. They carry out semi-detailed soil surveys in areas of potential development.
82


Table VI-5. Commentary on major Resource Production Units (RPU); from SIEDRA1977.
Agricultural Limiting Agricultural Limiting
RPU# Remarks Potential Factors RPU# Remarks Potential Factors
1 Highly Productive Moderately High 60% Clayey, 20% Slope, Shallow 20 Pasture; Sugar (rain); Subsistance Moderate to High Slope; Gay
2 Forest None None 21 Intensive Production, Moderately High Drainage
3 Pasture Low/Subsistence None Valley Rice and Sugar to High
4 Generally Productive: Rice, Coconuts, Moderately High Clayey; Flooding 22 Best for Pasture; Some Sugar Moderate to Moderately High & Low Acid; Slope; Wet; Shallow
Pasture 23 Little Potential Very Low Rock
5 Unproductive Very Low Rock; Slopes; Shallow 24 No Potential Very Low Rock
6 Good for Cotton Moderately High Clay; Slope, 25 Has Most of Major Low to Moderately Droughty;
Shallow Irrigated Crops High w'th Irrigation Coarse; Slope
7 Sugarcane; Pasture Moderate to Moderately High Wet; Acid; Slope 26 Vegetables Mof/'.-rately High to Hib'n Drainage
8 Sugarcane; Rice; Moderately High to Wet; Some Sandy 27 Some Poor Farming Low to Very Low Slope; Shallow
Coconuts; Cocoa High and Unsuited None 28 Saline; Needs Moderately to Droughty; Saline
9 Valueless Very Low Irrigation Moderately High
10 Limited Potential Unsuited Wet; Acid 29 Little Value Low Slope; Dry
II Sugarcane Now, but Moderate Slope; Shallow Bad Low
Better for Pasture 30 Slope; Dry
12 Sugar, Pasture; Steep Moderately High Clay; Shallow; 31 Highly Variable, Moderately Low Slope; Dry;
Slope Farming by Slope Needs Irrigation Shallow
Poor 32 Good Perennial; Moderately Low Slope; Dry;
13 Suited for Perennials Low Slope; Shallow Annuals Without Shallow
14 Best for Watershed Very Low Slope; Shallow Irrigation
15 Floods Moderately High to High Flooding 33 Lack of Rain Throughout Year; Seasonally Moderate to Moderately High Clay, Slope; Dry
16 Periodic Flooding Moderately High Wet; Saline Variable
to Moderate 34 Intensive Agriculture Moderate to Clay; Slope
17 Most Productive in High Clay Moderately High
Dominican Republic 35 Variable Rain Moderate Dry; Slope
18 Present Use Optimum Moderate to High Wet; Slope- 36 Naturally Low to Moderate Dry; Slope
Shallow Unproductive With Irrigation
19 Sugar (rain) but Best Moderately High Wet; Slope- 37 Hijjhly mixed Moderately High & Wet; Slope;
for Pasture & Low Shallow Low Shallow
The department plans to complete semi-detailed soil surveys for the Caribbean coastal plain by 1982. This is to be followed by the coastal plains in the north, so that semi-detailed maps for all level lands should be available by 1983.
The department has 65 employees, of which about two-thirds work in a technical capacity. The budget request for 1981 is DR$900,000. The department receives funds from AID under PPA-II (Programa para pequena agricultura). The Department of Land and Waters (DTA) in SURENA, was formed from personnel originating in this department, where at one time a soil conservation section existed.
Plan Sierra (Plan de Desarrollo Integral "La Sierra"). Plan Sierra covers an area of approximately 2,000 km 2 in the municipalities of San Jose de las Matas and Janico in Santiago Province and in Moncion municipality in Santiago Rodriguez Province. Fourteen rivers, -ncluding the Rios Bao and Mao, originate in or above the Plan SL/ra area, making it one of the most important catchments in the country. Population is estimated at over 20,000 families or 100-200,000 people.
The Plan Sierra program is comprehensive, including agricultura! diversification, reforestation, forest management, social services and artisanal crafts. From agricultural and soil conservation perspectives, the objective to change existing farming systems from seasonal to perennial crops is extremely important. The crop conversion system attempts to replace beans with coffee through credit and technical assistance to small farmers. Partici-
pating farmers plant lnga vera, a nitrogen-fixing leguminous tree used for coffee shade, at the same time the beans are planted. After establishment, beans are interplanted with yuca. As soon as the yuca starts to grow vigorously, bananas or plantains are in-terplarted to provide temporary coffee shade. Coffee is planted as the beans mature and yuca and bananas are growing vigorously. The credit program enables the small farmer to weather the intervals between bean, yuca and banana production prior to coffee production in year i. Valuable fruit trees, such as avocado, macadamia and apple, are also being considered, though no local market currently exists. Where fertile, level land occurs in small intermountain valleys, annual food crops can be grown with irrigation.
Plan Sierra has been in operation less than two years. Its staff appears to be competent and enthusiastic. Except for some assistance from the Dutch government for their nutrition program with 104 clubs of housewives, the government-financed program operates without foreign assistance. While it is a little early to evaluate any results of the programs, it definitely seems to be aimed in the right direction. One minor criticism is that the program seems to lack a research component. For example, it was stated that attempts to improve pasture land failed; however, varieties of grasses and fodder plants that are deep rooted, soil conserving and adapted to the area undoubtedly exist.
Foreign Assistance. The Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System (CRIES) has been carried out in the Domini-
3


Table VI-6. Estimated area (km2) of Resource Production Units by region; from SIEDRA, 1977. Region RPU#
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1. North 4,283 212 _ _ 213
2. Northeast 730 589 633 223 917
3. Northwest 867 93
4. Central 337 2,740 22 1,171 567 358 28
5. Southwest 3,236
6. South 1,189 104 22 131
7. East 525 1,269 438 174 1,715 19 237 98 271 1,407 1,432
National Total 862 14,314 438 975 1,715 145 1,408 98 1,471 338 1,896 1.460 1,130
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
1. North 1,359 253 580 27 227 _ 27
2. Northeast 561 351 494 422 285 69 55
3. Northwest 756 -
4. Central 99 183 324 28 285 290 8 543
5. Southwest 419 1,254
6. South 1,389 191 1,188
7. Edsi 125 35
National Total 3,728 351 1,793 1,002 312 252 379 255 285 415 43 2,985 27
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Water Reg.T
I. North _ 781 693 _ 410 9,065
2. Northeast 5,329
3. Northwest 1,004 655 725 633 36 4,769
4. Central 6,983
5. Southwest 198 478 806 340 342 430 '/,503
6. South 567 287 1,135 347 335 6,885
7. East 7,745
National Total 198 567 287 1,135 2,263 2,501 340 342 1,155 633 446 335 48,279
can Republic with the cooperation of the USD A, AID, and Michigan State University since 1976. It is now a permanent component of SURENA in the Departamento de Inventarios, Evaluation y Ordenamiento de Recursos Naturales.
SIEDRA has used CRIES LandSat imagry, aerial photographs and relevant information on soils, climate, ecological life zones, major land use, crops, agricultural production, techniques, crop yields, production inputs and cost:, and social institutional factors to define 45 Resource Production Units (RPU) for the Dominican Republic (Table Vl-5). Table Vl-6 indicates the regional distribution of RPU's for the whole country.
There is no specific foreign assistance program directed solely to soils. 11CA is a fairly small hemispheric institution that includes one soil scientist, who has been very effective in assisting the DTA in technical matters and policy concepts.
AID has supported a variety of programs in the soils and natural resources fields, including assistance to the Soils Department of SEA at San Cristobal. Furthemore, AID has assisted with money and technical advice to the SIEDRA and CRIES programs. The Inter-American Development Bank (1DB), besides financing the construction of irrigation works and other infrastructure developments, is presently financing a consortium of Canadian (SNC-Montreal) and national consultants to conduct the Sabana-Yegua Influences Project. This v/crk is done in cooperation with INDRHI and has a distinct soils component.
The World Bank plans to finance a sugar rehabilitation project that includes components in soil survey, land suitability and aerial photography. The World Bank with UNDP has also financed studies of the development possibilities of the Yaque del Sur and Yaque del Norte Rivers, which contain extensive soil studies.
Principal Problems and Needs
Erosion
Even the casual visitor would notice that accelerated soil erosion is occurring in the Dominican Republic (Fig. Vl-1). Small mountain streams are brown with sediments; actively cutting gullies are characteristic of fields and road-sides.
Erosion caused by water has these effects: 1) reduces agricultural productivity of the fields affected; 2) forms gullies that destroy fields and change the landscape; 3) produces sediment loads in streams and rivers that fill reservoirs, clog irrigation canals and ruin turbines in power plants. In areas bare of protective plant cover, eroding water will run off faster rather than infiltrate into soil with the consequence that less water will be available for the aquifer recharge as well as plant growth, streams will carry more water during periods of precipitation and less during dry periods, and the more concentrated runoff wi!I be more destructive on soils, river channels, and infrastructure and carry heavier sediment loads over longer distances.
In the conuco type of agriculture practiced in the Dominican Republic, the small farmer plants beans as his major food crop, and then switches after 2 or 3 years to a new area, because the original field has become exhausted. While the crop will have used some of the nutrient capital accumulated under forest protection, a much stronger reason for abandonment is insidious sheet erosion which the farmer may barely realize. As the soils are shallow in the first place, the thin topsoil may have been washed away even if no gullies are visible. In many fields incipient gullies are visible after a few years of use; gullies may appear after one heavy downpour it conditions are right.
54


Figure Vl-la. Erosion is converting Ihe Cordilhra Ctnlral from renewable lo nonrenewable natural resources. Massive lands ties from sleep, deforested slopes fill the narrow valley floor with sediments (upper lefl a,'d lower center). Tlte larve, dark splotch (lower lefl) was reicilly burned. (Pholo, Italo Russo.)
The amount of erosion is a function of several factors such as amount and intensity of rain, percent of slope and its length, certain inheient soil characteristics like the type and amount of clay, and vegetative cover. While each crop has its specific erosion or soil protecting factor, land mangement practices also influence susceptibility to erosion.
The main problem lands as far as erosion is concerned are those with rather low agricultural potential. Under standard classification systms, these lands have been generally classified as "unsuitable for agriculture, should be under forest cover." A few exceptional zones might be adapted for perennial crops.
Steep, forested hillsides in the Dominican Republic show occasional landslides (see Fig. II-3 and V-8). One can see the effect on such lands when the forest is removed and people try to raise crops on them. Unfortunately a visual reconnaissance shows that only small areas, and some have been declared National Parks, are still under forest. In many other areas farming is attempted up to the mountain top (Fig. VI-2), with the result of erosion discussed elsewhere. The end result is that many of these lands are totally stripped of any soil they may have had, and expose the base parent material, producing an almost moon-like landscape, empty of people (Fig. VI-3). Of course not all the damage was done by the small farmer. Some of the bare lower hillsides of to-
F'gure Vl-lb. Complete deforestation in Ihe Rio Las Cuevas watershed lefl Ihe shallow soils unprotected from Ihe heavy rains of Ihe 1979 hurricanes. (Pholo, Halo Russo.)
Figure VI-2a. Denuded landscape in Ihe Rio Las Cuevas watershed. Wlial appear as forests (right center) are shaded coffee plantations. (Hand-held aerial pholo, Gary Hartshorn.)
day were deforested and simply abandoned. Once the soil is gone, attempts to reestablish protective vegetative cover will be slow and costly.
Standard rules of soil conservation practices dictate that very steep lands should be under permanent forest cover, and lands less steep under permanent pasture. Unfortunately, in the Dominican Republic one cannot apply these rules as population pressure has led farmers to cultivate ever-steeper slopes for subsistence food crops.
It is not politically feasible to move these farmers out of these lands as there are no suitable reserves where they could be settled. Thus the only alternative is to find a system which will reduce the damage to the minimum possible, and permit the farm families to live, preferably on a higher standard than at the present.
The Dominican Republic reportedly has a population of 5.6 million today with a population growth rate of 2.6 to 3.0% per year. Predictions are for 10 million inhabitants by the year 2000. There are efforts to reduce the rate of population increase. However, even under the most optimistic prediction, population pressure on the available land will increase. Even the suggestion to convert some of the sugarcane lands away from export production to the use of food crops would not substantially change the soil erosion problem.
Figure VI-2b. Serious deforestation of upper slopes in Ihe southern Cordillera Central The forested area (center) is a shaded coffee plantation. Nole Ihe gully erosion (upper left) and landslides. (Pholo, Halo Russo.)
55


"Conuco" fanning on many of the steep lands involves the growing of a food crop, like beans, for 2-3 years on newly cleared land. When yields go down, the land is shifted to a low grade pasture which later is planted to fruit trees on an extensive basis. Food crop cultivation as now practiced, as well as pasture, produce a high amount of erosion.
As it is impossible to return the lands to their original state or reforest all the steep lands occupied by small farmers growing food crops, the only alterntive is to minimize erosion. This would involve improving small farm agriculture through standard soil conserving measures like contour planting, terraces, grassed waterways, gully repair, etc.
Improved farming systems should involve the use of fruit and forest trees, close-growing soil conserving crops and improved deep rooting forage plants. The farming system has to fulfill these tasks: feed ;he farmer; provide an adequate income for him; be acceptable to the small farmer; i.e. he must be able to manage it with a minimum of technical assistance; and conserve the soil.
Some imaginative beginnings have been made in the Dominican Republic in this respect through the "Plan Sierra" and the "Project Bao" of the Departamento de Tierras y Aguas. However, it appears that more research and planning is needed. "Plan Sierra" and other projects, if successful with their changeover from annual food crops like beans to perennial crops like coffee, may well improve the lot of these farmers through higher income. At the same time it would likely produce a shortage of beans, the main food staple. Also, while coffee may work well in some places, it may not be suitable for some other climatic or soil conditions, especially if erosion has progressed too far. Research on suitable pasture grasses seems indicated. It does not seem reasonable for "Plan Sierra" to declare a failure so early on its efforts to improve pastures in the area. There are thousands of pasture grasses and fodder plants world-wide, some of which are excellent soil conserving crops. Some <">f these should be suited for the Dominican Republic's reclamation areas. However, more effort is needed to introduce and test them under different soil-slope conditions, as well as climatic regimes.
No data were collected on land tenancy and ownership. However, one complaint of soil conservation technicians was that they might obtain a tenant farmer's cooperation to establish soil conservation practices on a certain farm this year, but the successive tenant farmers might not cooperate. It is obvious that owner-operated farms, regardless of their size, use the most desirable conservation techniques for many reasons, and greatly help any soil conservation efforts.
The dam sites and reservoirs of Las Cuevas, Nizao, Ocoa, Tavera, Bao, Buayubin, Chacuey and Maguaca represent an investment of at least $500 million, just for the hydroelectric and irrigation infrastructure. There are many additional costs such as access roads, additional canals, power lines, and the loss of possible farmlands and communities flooded by the reservoir.
Such an investment has to be protected if it is to help national development. Nevertheless, data calculated for these watersheds indicate that accelerated erosion is dumping millions of tons of sediments into reservoirs. Based on the "Universal Soil Loss Equation" it has been estimated that the soil loss above the previously listed reservoirs ranges from 95 tons/ha/yr in the Chacuey reservoir to 507 tons/ha/yr in the Ocoa watershed. Almost all of this will end up in the reservoir, which after a number of years will store sediments instead of water. Table VI-7 gives the soil losses in 7 watersheds.
An example: The Tavera reservoir receives about 275 tons/ha/ yr from its, 7,370 ha watershed. This reservoir is new, and represents an investment of $141 million. It has been stated that its 50 year lifetime (used in cost/benefit analyses) has been reduced by the avalanche of sediments to less than half this time. A visual inspection of the reservoir reveals the heavy sediment load en-
Figure VI-3a. Massive gully and rill erosion in degraded "ditropkal dry forest in the Rio Ocoa watershed caused by the 1979 hurricanes. (Pho.o, Halo Russo.)
tering it, even on days without rain. Agriculture, including clean cultivation, has been practiced and still is being practiced to the waterline, although a 5 m strip just above the expected water level is being reforested. FORESTA, in charge of soil conservation in this watershed, belatedly launched a major effort in tree plantings, terracing, vegetative strips and other soil conservation measures. Their effort is handicapped, as farmer cooperation is strictly voluntary. Furthermore, the land tenancy situation is such that much land is not owner-operated, but cultivated by tenants. Changes are frequentwhile this year's tenant may cooperate, next year's may refuse to do so, nullifying past efforts on a parcel of land.
The situation has been aggravated by highways built around reservoirs. In many piares water collecting on or along the highway is passed underneath the highway through a culvert. The water is permitted to descend frcm the culvert on its own, thus producing a solid stream of water during lainy periods. As a result many newly formed gullies can be observed producing tremendous amounts of sediments, ruining the mountainside, and which in time, if not controlled will cut the highway by advancing right throught it. In the entire Tavera reservoir area, only one waterway was observed carrying the water down in steps to level land, thus dissipating its energy and preventing erosion.
One other factor aggravating erosion into the Tavera reservoir is that farmers who were located on land flooded by the reser-
Figure VI-3b. Sleep slopes stripped of soil by the 1979 hurricanes. Tliis is subtropical lower montane moist with sparse pine forest on shallow soils in the upper Rio Las Qievas watershed. (Hand-held aerial photo, Carlos Quesada.)
56


Table VI-7. Soil loss by watershed: Adapted from AID Project
517-012*.
Erosion Surface Layer
Watershed Area(ha) (tons/ha/yr) Erosion (cm/yr)
'-as Cuevas 5,690 275 1.8
Tavera 7,370 275 1.8
Bao 9,330 346 2.3
Nizao 9,920 125 0.8
Ocoa 5,630 507 3.4
Guayubi'n 7,340 111 0.7
Chacuey 3,860 95 0.6
voir, were relocated on the higher lands above the reservoir. While this decision is understandable in view of the population pressure in general, the difficulty of finding new land, and the reluctance to move people far away form their former houses, it certainly has helped to increase the sediment load arriving in the reservoir. Former settlers of the reservoir area complain that the new land supplied is very inferior to their old farmland.
Wind erosion is a problem in some dune areas and along some beaches on the north coast. While some wind erosion may also take placp on denuded fields in the mountains, the damage caused by this type of erosion is insignificant when compared to water erosion.
Land Capability
Nc comprehensive appraisal of the natural resources of the country was attempted prior to the OAS study in 1965-196' Some of the pre-investment studies in the OAS report have been followed up. However, it seems that the data presented in the land capability classification did not impress any decision making authorities.
According to the OAS study (Table VI-8) only 53,700 ha or 1.1% of the national territory is excellent agricultural land. This land is in a strip east of Santiago to San Francisco de Macoris. Other good agricultural land (Classes II and III) covers 547,000 ha or 11.5% of national territory. The Class II lands are mostly alluvial lands along rivers. While of good quality for crop production, some of the Class II land is exposed to flooding. Class III land occupies large areas in the eastern region in topographically higher and less level positions than Class II land. Much r the sugarcane is apparently on Class III lands.
Class IV lands occupy 363,900 ha, covering 7.7% of the national territory, mostly along the Caribbean coast from about
Tabic VI-8. land capability classification. Source: National Statistics Office and OAS Survey of the Natural Resources of the Dominican Republic (taken from W. B. Report No. 1705-DO, 1977).
Class Km2 % Production Capacity
1 537 1.1 Excellent for cultivation
II 2,350 4.9 Very good for cultivation
ni 3,122 6.6 Good for cultivation
IV 3,639 7.7 Limited or marginal for cultivation
V 6,071 12.7 Pasture; no erosion hazard
VI 5,611 11.8 Pasture; erosion hazard
VII 25,161 52.7 Forest
VIII 1,202 2.5 Wildlands
Totala 47,693 100.0
aDoes not include 588 km2 in islands, lakes and other unclassified areas.
Punta Catalina through the area in and around San*o Domingo to Rio Chavon. There are also large pieces of Class IV land south of the Class I, II, and III land in the north and along Lake Enriquillo and scattered patches throughout the mountains. This class includes soils with free salts in the profile in the western part of the Cibao valley and around Lake Enriquillo. These soils are all marginal for crop production, i.e. they will not produce good yields, or only certain crops can be grown, or they require very special and skilled management. Depending on slope, they could be highly erosive or quite shallow.
Lands in Classes V and VI, or slightly less than one million hectares covering almost a quarter of the national territory, have been classified as grazing lands, almost half of them (Class VI) with a definite erosion hazard. Most of the Class V lands are in a fairly solid block in San Cristobal Province, and portions of El Seibo and Altagracia Provinces.
Class VII lands, only suitable for forests and forest exploitation, include practically all the mountainous areas of the country, as well as limestone areas around Barahona and south of Higuey, and the karst area of Los Haitises. Many of these mountain areas are densely populated, and little forest is left.
There is some Class VIII land, mostly in the high mountains, covering 120,200 ha or 2.5% of the country's territory. These have been classified as wildland, i.e. they should be left untouched.
It should be noted the SIEDRA project provides data on the potential land use on a more de.ailed base, i.e. done to the various Resource Planning Units (RPU). However, they have only published data for some regions, though the rest of the data is forthcoming. As their soils data are essentially the same as those of the OAS study, it will not change the overall picture.
Summary data available from the SIEDRA project are shown in Table VI-9 which summarizes these data by regions, indicating total land, low quality lands and land unsuitable for agriculture, land of moderate or high quality, land in farms, and land in farms as a percentage of high or moderate quality land. Table VI-9 indicates that the northwest, southwest and south are regions with a potential for expansion ir. agriculture, while the other regions are largely marginal and sub-marginal lands that probably should be taken out of production and placed under a permanent tree cover.
Land Rehabilitation
Many eroded soils can be restored to productivity, but it is a costly and slow process. Where only the topsoil has been eroded from a moderately deep profile, it is often possible to plant green manure crops, fertilize the crop, then burn it all into the soil to produce a new surface layer with organic material, improved physical condition and nutrients in more accessible and longer lasting form. This may be possible with many of the soils used for "conuco" agriculture. Small gullies can be stabilized by establishing protective vegetation with well-developed root systems.
A more serious problem is the denuded mountainsides in many parts of the country. Unfortunately these were observed only from the air. The appearance of only a slight coloration of green even in the rainy season, and the absence of signs of life, suggest that bare bedrock is exposed. The soil-forming process continues even over bedrock. The balance between soil formation and erosion is generally disrupted by human activity.
Salinity
Salinity destroys soil for agricultural use. The sources of saline soils are either salts located in the soil profile, or irrigation water with a high salt content. The main areas where salinity problems have been observed are the rice growing area and the sugarcane estate of CEA Ingenio Esperanza in the northwest and Igenio Barahona in the southwest. It its also known that the area west
57


Table VI-9. Agricultural land and its potential by regions in the Dominican Republic; base data recalculated from SIEDRA (1977).
Lands of
Lands of low moderate
quality or or high
Total Land unsulted to agricultural
land in (arms agriculture a potential b
No. Region km2 km 2 km2 km2
I North 9,065 6,049 5,855 3,210
II Northeast 5,329 4,796 3,064 2,265
III Northwest 4,769 1,952 960 3,809
IV Central 6,983 5,127 3,963 3,020
V Southwest 7,503 2,031 3,853 3,650
VI South 6,885 1,321 4,488 2,397
VII East 7,745 6,176 5,260 2,485
Total 48,279 27,452 27,443 20,836
a!ncludes RPU's 2. 3. 5, 9. 10, 13, 14, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30, 38. includes all other RPU's.
of Ingenio Barahona, i.e. the area between Sierra de Neiba and Sierra Baoruca, which includes the depression around Lake Enri-quillo, has some saline soils.
In the case of the Ingenio Barahona about 2,000 ha out of 11,500 ha had to be taken out of production because of high salinity. It is estimated that 70% of the plantation's sugarcane area is affected by salinity. Production on remaining lands has decreased from 130-140 tons/ha a few years ago to about 95 tons/ha. The only other irrigated sugarcane estate is Ingenio Esperanza in the Cibao valley. It is about 2,200 ha in size, and does have minor salinity problems, but all areas planted to sugarcane continue in production.
The study done by F.- O in the Cibao region show: that many of the soils contain free salts somewhere in the profile. If these soils are improperly irrigated, evaporation will bring these salts into the root zone and reduce yields at first, and, if the accumulation is sufficient, will prevent plant growth.
It should be noted that one of the principal causes of bringing salinity to the surface, i.e. into the root zones of crops, is poor water memgement. In many soils where salinity exists below the root zone, overirrigating will dissolve the salts and move I hem upward. Overirrigation also raises the water table and therefore affects root growth, Education for improved technical management of irrigation will help; also water users fees based on quantity will reduce tht temptation to use excess water.
Conclusions and Recommendations
1) The GODR should delay any additional projects that involve the construction of reservoirs, and concentrate its efforts on protecting and operating those already in existence, regardless of attractiveness of the project under consideration and easy terms offered by international financing organizations.
2) The GODR should instruct its highway department to form a commission consisting of engineers and soil conservation specialists to review all recent highway construction to determine where highways cause erosion problems, as is definitely the case around the Tavera reservoir.
3) The GODR should present to the legislative branch a draft law which permits the formation of soil conservation-irrigation districts. Some of the principal requirements contained in this law should be provisions which require farmers to cooperate with the soil conserving efforts of the government. Perhaps it should contain a graduated level tax, which may be nil for farmers conducting good soil conservation practices, but take the form of a fine for non-cooperative farmers. Furthermore, the law should provide a basis for collecting fees from irrigation water users on the basis of quantity used.
4) The GODR should initiate a country-wide research program through the research facilities of SEA and in close cooperation with "Plan Sierra" to determine farming systems that will permit farmers on steep lands to survive, and if possible, to improve their living, and at the same time minimize soil erosion.
5) The GODR should conduct a parallel research program to introduce grasses or forage plants that have a soil conserving effect and will produce under the different soil-slope and climatic conditions of the DR.
6) The GODR should strengthen the DTA and give its program the highest priority as it is an investment in the future prosperity and stability cf this country.
7) In the same vein as above, the GODR should consider, if other areas would b. suitable to launch a program similar to "Plan Sierra".
8) The GODR should continue and amplify its efforts to determine what to do with lands having soils with free salts in their profile and to reclaim those previously productive soils.
9) The GODR, through the DTA and possibly other agencies, should set up a comprehensive system of monitoring stations to determine the extent of the country's soil losses, the sediments in its water courses and the effectiveness of its soil conservation measures.
10) The GODR, possibly with assistance of outside agencies, should st.rt a program of soil rehabilitation (which goes beyond soil con? vation) in areas completely ruined for agriculture and forestn.


VII
Coastal and Near-shore Marine Characteristics
The Dominican Republic is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the south and separated from Puerto Rico by the Mona Passage to the east. The insular shield area of 8,130 km1 is characterized by its narrow width, averaging only 7.5 km (Guidicelli 1979). Over one half of the total shelf area is concentrated in five areas, Banco Monte Cristi, Bahia de Samana, Cabo Engano, San Pedro de Maroris and the Bani-Barahona region (Fig. VIM). The submerged banks Navidad and Plata are 70 km north and 150 km northwest, respectively, of Cabo Samana.
The current regime is dominated by the western flowing North Equatorial Current that divides at the Mona Passage into northern and southern components. Despite this permanent oceanic feature, near-shore countercurrents, primarily tidal in nature, are common. The Mona Passage, a heavy ship traffic lane, is known for its strong currents, occasionally exceeding 3 knots/hr (Van Ost and Kline 1978).
The tide on the northern coast is semidiurnal with a mean spring tide range of 90 cm. On the south coast a semidurnal tide predominates with a reduced tidal range of only 30 cm (de La Fuente 1976).
The Dominican coastal zone is characterized by reef escarpments, beaches and wetlands often with associated lagoons. (Fig. VII-2 and 3a). In the northwest from Pepillo-Salcedo to Puerto Plata extensive wetlands .and mangroves associated with the Rio Yaque del Norte continue to Luperon where a transition begins to a zone more characterized by beaches and rocky headlands. Offshore a major reef system extends from Monte Cristi to Pun-ta de Buren.
From Puerto Plata to Samana the coastline consists of sand beaches alternating with rocky escarpments. There are few extensive coral systems or wetlands with the exception of Cabareto and Rio Baqui. Coastal coconut plantations are found near Matancita, Las Terrenas and Sanchez-Samana.
To the northeast the most extensive beach system occurs from Miches to Cabo Engano. This beach system is bordered by coastal wetlands and coconut plantations near Los Ranchitos. To the south of Cabo Engano there is a coastal reef escarpment only occasionally broken by sandy beaches.
In the southeast from Isla Saona to San Pedro de Maroris the coast is low and flat with extensive escarpments and occasional sand beaches, the latter usually in proximity to rivers. A major wetland system is found on the south insular tip in Bahia Catalinita.
From San Pedro to the Bahia de Neiba the coast is relatively featureless with escarpments dominating, but with increasing occurrence of sand beaches to the west.
To the south and west the coast becomes increasingly diverse with alternating escarpments, sandy and rocky beaches and an extensive wetlands and mangrove system south of Punta Regalada to Punta Inglesa and north of Punta Bucan Base to Laguan de Manuel Matos.
Based on available information a macroscopic coastal inventory of critical areas is provided in Table VII-1. Mangrove systems are widely recognized as one of the most productive tropical ecosystems. They function as a major source of nutrients to surrounding nutrient-depleted waters, provide habitat for a diverse assemblage of animals and birds, act as sediment traps protecting delicate offshore ecosystems such as coral communities and provide nursery grounds for many marine species. To humans their value is often as storm barrier systems and critical habitats for consumable fish and shellfish. In the Dominican Republic mangroves have been used extensively for tannin, charcoal, posts and construction materials (Alvarez and Bonnelly 1978). In Puerto Viejo and the nearby coastal islands an estimated 50% of the mangroves were destroyed in the period 1919-1962 (Alvarez and Bonnelly 1978).
In the Dominican Republic, mangroves are essential to several fisheries: as habitat for the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae; as nursery grounds for many species of coral-associated fish, the major fishery in the country; and for shrimp in the Bahia de Samana. At the head of Samana Bay, the largest mangrove forest in the country may be threatened by encroaching rice cultivation.
The numerous brackish and freshwater lagoon systems throughout the country represent a major coastal resource thus far underutilized. Protected by coastal barriers, these lagoon systems are natural and accessible sources of fish. Major quantities of fish inhabit Lagunas Rincon and Redonda. In addition, the potential exists for utilizing lagoons for aquaculture, Artemia production, salt production, recreation and possibly even solar energy production. Due to a very slow rate of water turnover, lagoons are very susceptible to contaminant build-up.
Coral reefs have been compared with mangroves as representing the most diverse and productive of marine ecosystems. As such they fulfill many of the functions of mangrove systems, including provision of habitat, a nutrient source, offshore beach protection and as a tourist attraction. Though the reefs arc not as
59


Living Resource Inventory Map
Fishery Sector
Major fishing grounds (Giudicclli, 1979) 'J.*.*.'. Penaeid shrimp (INDOTEC, pers. comm.) ...... Conch grounds (Strombus gigas) (INDOTEC, pers. comm.)
I LI I Major lobster grounds (Panulirus argus) (NMES, 1977) C IDECOOP/BIA Coop locations
Major fishing ports (DRA/SEA 1979)
Major sport fishing ports \ \ v Areas of high potential utilization (INDOTEC, pers. comm.) High fish production lagoon systems


5
ATLANTIC OCEAN
CARIBBEAN SEA
Marine Endangered Species/Ci itical Habitat
-: Sea turtle nesting beaches Dermochelys (Ottcnwalder, pers. comm.)
Eretmochelys Chelonia
Caretta only known locality
Manati sightings
\ \ \ \ Humpback whale mating and calving grounds (Ottenwalder, pers. comm.)
Vital Areas
High production areas
Mangroves (Ottenwalder, pers. comm.)
Lagoon systems (Joint Operations Map, 1970)
Coral reefs (Geraldes, pers. comm.)
Grass beds (Conservacion y Ecodo-sarallo, 1978)
Island systems (overflights, 1980)
and feeding stations


WW
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Non-Living Resource Inventory Map
Mining (near coasi deposits) (Sourer: Direccion de Mincria) Sand/gravel extraction Magnetite deposits State owned concessions \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Request pending for exploration for sand/gravel Salt extraction
Pons (principal) i International ports
^ Cabotage ports
| Tourist ports
Tourism Development (Source: Secretacia de Tcu-Umo) Future development Actively developing
High Risk Zone Tor Oil Tankers (Source: Status of Oil Pollution 1979)
l\ I \ I \
Curacao, Aruba, Venezuela


Figure VII-2a. Limestone cliff, Los Haitises. (Pholo, John Shores.)
well developed as in the smaller islands in the Antillean chain, the numerous patch reefs found throughout the waters of the Dominican Republic represent habitats for the major fishery as well :is prized resources for tourism development. Until recently, corals were harvested for both local salp as souvenirs and for export. Harvesting of coral requires a license from the DRP (Law 1728, 1976). In 1975 an estimated 6,626 kg of corals were exported between January and October (Geraldes and Bonnelly 1978). There were no exports of coral in 1979, though illegally harvested corals are still sold in local markets. Coral reefs are highly susceptible to sedimentation, high levels oi turbidity and toxic substances, hence protection of coral reefs should be a major consideration in any tourist development.
Grass beds in tropical waters signify the greatest concentrated source of primary productivity. As such they provide a food source fjr numerous animals, a nutrient source to surrounding waters, a source of oxygen and a means to stabilize the bottom substrate. Their distribution is very poorly known in the country despite their importance in providing habitat to the edible conch Strombus signs. Grass beds also are highly sensitive to turbidity and sedimentation.
Islands are few but significant in the Dominican Republic. As a result of their insular nature they represent unique ecosystems that must be carefully managed to protect them from degradation. In light of their pristine character, limited carr/ing capacity and lack of understanding of these areas, they should be carefully studied before any utilization is initiated.
Figure VH-2b. Coral rock coast on north shore of Isla Saona, Parque Nacional del Esle. (Pholo, John Shores).
Critical habitat for end jigered species will be covered in a separate section.
Existing or Potential Problems anchor Needs: Absence of a comprehensive coastal and near-shore marine resource inventory data base; absence of a scientific data base to facilitate the understanding of separate ecosystems and the linkages between these systems; and enforcement of existing legislation to protect critical resource areas such as coral reefs and mangroves.
Marine Fisheries
In contrast to highly productive northern temperate fisheries, tropical and subtropical fish resources generally are considered low in productivity. Low productivity of the waters combined with a narrow continental shelf and the lack of a true fishing tradition explain the necessity for the Dominican Republic to import approximately 60% of the fish consumed.
The major fishing zones are associated with the wider shelf areas and submerged banks including Banco Monte Cristi (892 km2), Bahia de Samana (858 km2), Cabo Engano (772 km2), San Pedro de Macoris (463 km2), Bani-Barahona (858 km2), Banco Navidad (772 km2) and Banco Plata (1,955 km2).
Figure VII-3a. While sand beach and coconut palms, Parqu Nacional del Esle. (Photo, John Shores.)
Data on landings are estimates at best, but production over the past five years appears to be near 7,000 m tons/year. Though specific fish identification data are not collected, landings appear to be dominated by demersal species. Landings of pelagic species were estimated to be only 16% of total landings over the same period of time (INDOTEC, per. comm.).
In addition to the finfish resource there are valuable shellfish resources, including the spiny lobster Panulirus argus, several species of shrimpthe most important being Ptnaeus schmilli, and the Wee'. Indian fighting conch. Strombus gigas.
The major lobster fishing grounds are the west and south coast of Isla Saona and areas adjacent to Salinas, Cabo Rojo and Samana (NMFS 1977). The penaeid shrimp fishery is concentrated in the Bahia de Samana and extends to the eastern bank. Major collecting grounds for conch include the northern offshore banks and areas adjacent to Isla Beata (INDOTEC, pers. comm.).
The fishing effort in the Dominican Republic is at an artisanal level. Giudicelli (1979) estimated there were 1,826 professional and 1,648 part-time fishermen in 1978. The fishing fleet is estimated to be 1,400, dominated by dugout-canoes"cayucos" (420) measuring 3-5 meters in ltnglh and "yolas" (830) between 4-6 meters in length. The majority of boats larger than the "yola"
63


Table VII-1 Macroscopic coastal classification of critical areas. Sources: Joint Operations Map (1970), Geraldes (pers. comm.), Bonnelly (1978).
Geographical Area
Mangroves and Associated Wetlands
Lagoon System
Grass Beds
Coral Reefs
Islands
North West
Pcpillo-Salcedo-Puerto Plata
Pepillo-Salcedo Bahia de Icaquitos
Laguna la Salina Laguan de Marigo Laguna de la Piedra Laguna Corto Pies
Bahia de Monte Cristi
Bahia de Icaquitos
Extensive from Monte Cristi-Punta de Buren, Cabo Isabela, Puerto Plata
Siete Hermanos
North Central
Puerto Plata-Samana
North East
Samana-Isla Saona
South East
Isla Saona-S.P. de Macon's
Arroyo Honda Rib Yuna-Rib Barracote Bahi'a de San Lorenzo Bahia de La Jina
Laguna Redonda Laguna de Limon Cienaga La Majaqua Punte Macao-Cabo Engano
Las Calderas Rib Soco Rio Higuamo Rib Ocoa
Laguan Cabarete
Laguna Redonda Laguna del Limon Laguna Bavuro
Laguna Secucho
Bahi'a Catalinita
Scattered Patch Reefs
Scattered Patch Reefs
Scattered Patch Reefs
Isla Saona lsla Catalina
South Central
S.P. de Macrofs-Bahfa de Neiba
Punta Palenque Puerto Viejo
Bahia Las Calderas Bahia Este de Ocoa Puerto Vicjo
Scattered Patch
Reefs Bahia de Andres Bahia de Ocoa
South West
Bahia de Neiba-Pedernales
Rfo Yaque del Sur Punta San Luis Punta Bucan Base-Laguna Manuel Matos
Laguna Oviedo Laguna Salda Laguna Manuel Matos
Developed system Near Barahona
Scattered Patch Reefs
Isla Beata Isla Alto Velo
are located in the north and fih the offshore banks. Approximately half of the 1,400 boats are motorL-?d. The predominant fishing gear used are pots and handlines (Wi _'AF 1978).
Based on URP/SEA (19/9) statistics, Table VII-2 shows the most important ports in number of fishermen and Table VII-3 gives regions in percentage of total national landings.
The Dominican Republic fishery sector relies heavily on fish imports mostly in the form salted fish from Norway (Table VII-4). The 1989 estimated deficit in the balance of payments in fish production based on import-export figures was calculated to be approximately RD$19 million. Based on an estimate of 7,000 M tons local production (which includes exports) and total consumption of about 21,000 M tons, about 70% of marine fish products consumed in the country is imported.
Preliminary results from a recently completed survey of the country's fishing potential, funded by Bid, estimate that the insular platform and submerged banks of the Dominican Republic could support on a sustained basis a production level of 800 kg/km'/year. By multiplying this value by the area of platform and banks considered accessible (85%), INDOTEC calculated a total potential production of 10,454 M tons. This level of production would more than meet the present national demand. The areas capable of supporting the greatest increase in fishing effort are Monte Cristi, Zona del Este, the offshore banks, and the eastern shelf area of the Bahia de Samana.
Primary administrative responsibility in fisheries lies in the Fishery Resource Department in the Agriculture Secretariat. The Department's primary mandate as outlined in Law 5914 (1962), is to protect and regulate all marine and freshwater fish stocks.
Table VII-2. Important ports and number of fishermen. Source: DRP 1979.
Port Licensed Fishermen
Santo Domingo 514
Puerto Plata 407
Sanchez 391
La Romana 371
Bani 298
Barahona 273
Samana 264
Azua 243
Palmar de Ocoa 198
Manzanillo 157
Subtotal 3,116
Others 1,273
TOTAL 4,389
(71%)
64


Table VII-3. Major regional ports based on landings. Source: DRP 1979.
Region
Altagracia Santo Domingo Puerto Plata Samana Pedernales
National Total
% Landings
14 12 12 10 8
56
Registration of fishermen is required. The only landings data being collected are estimated total volume; thus no figures exist to determine the status of the resource. Despite the existence of numerous laws regulating the capture of living marine resources such as turtle, lobster, and crab, there appears to be widespread abuse of existing legislation.
Activities in the mariculture field have been insignificant. A large facility near Boca Chica went bankrupt in an attempt to culture pompano, Trachinalus carolinus. Juvenile marine eels, An-guilla sp., are being captured near Puerto Plata, raised in Dajabon, and exported to Japan by a small Japanese firm. There has been interest expressed in the potential for mariculture of the indigenous mangrove oyster, Crssostrea rhizophorac.
Fxisting or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Inadequate data collection system to assess status of fish stocks; inadequate enforcement of existing fishery legislation; possible over-fishing of lobster stocks (TNDOTEC, pers. comm.); possible uneven distribution of fishing effort on Samana shrimp stocks (INDOTEC, pers. comm.).
Fresh Water Fisheries
As a result of a government mandate to the former Department of Hunting and Fishing to increase the production of the country's waters (Law 5914, 1962), the major native edible fresh water species have been displaced by introduced species. The dominant fresh-water fish included carp (Cyprinus sp.), THapia, and
to a lesser extent Micropterus sp. Geraldcs et al. (1^/9) estimate that during the period 1970-1977 the Fishery Resources Department (DRP) released 456,132 carp, 2 million Tilapia and 260,000 bass fingerlings. The ecological ramifications of this program will be discussed in the section entitled Exotic Species Introduction.
In addition to the finfishes, frech-water Macrobrachium shrimp, including M. carcinus, and two species of fresh-water turtle, Chryscmys, are widely fished. With the exception of fresh-water shrimp, the fish resources are consumed locally. These resources are distributed throughout the country's rivers and in more than 250 ponds and lagoons. Most important are the Lagunas Rincon, Redonda and Limon (INDOTEC, pers. comm.), of which only Redonda h brackish. Two other high production areas are the enclosed estuary in the Rio Baqui-Boba area and the large Tavera reservoir.
Very little documentation is available related to fresh-water fishermen. In the INDOTEC-administered survey three types of fishermen were classified in the Laguan Rincon area: professional, artesanal and subsistence, totaling about 300 fishermen. The dominant boat used is the small dugout or cayuco. The dominant type gear used is the fishing pot, but hook and line and gill nets are also used.
Estimated production in the INDOTEC study from freshwater resources was 2,000 m tons/year. One half was harvested from two lagoons (i.e. L. Rincon, 715 m tons; L. Redonda, 380 m tons). An estimated 100 m tons were harvested from the Baqui-Boba estuary and Tavera reservoir. Estimated 1979 production was 80 m tons of fresh-water shrimp and six m tons of turtle (DRP 1979).
The number and diversity of fresh and brackish water systems suggest substantial and thus far underutilized resources. This appears to have been recognized as resources are being inventoried in these water bodies by DRP. CIBIMA (Marine Biology Research Center) and INDRHI (Water Resources Institute) have initiated a joint project for stocking the 23 reservoirs planned by INDRHI. Artcmia production, oyster mariculture and solar radiation collectors (similar to experimental projects in Israel) may be potential resources.
The responsibil!'y for managing the fresh and brackish water resources as well as increasing their production and utilization
Table VIM. Fish imports, exports, value and country of origin or destination; data from CEDOPEX1980 and Estadistica Dominicana 1979.
Product Exports kg Value RD$ Destination
Fresh fish (chilled/frozen) 329,560 339,559 Puerto Rico
Salted fish 28,367 26,032 Puerto Rico
Shell'ish
Turtle (chilled/frozen) 1,554 1,535 Puerto Rico
Shrimp (chilled/frozen) 4,277 13,933 Puerto Rico
Lobster tails (chilled/frozen) 40,427 151,141 Puerto Rico
Conch (chilled/frozen) 138,462 164,306 Puerto Rico
Oysters (chilled/frozen) 87 62 Curacao
Octopus (chilled/frozen) 24 30 PR, Aruba
Makey 2,437 789 U.S.A.
Subtotal 187,268 331,796
Processed
Crab 23,438 55,080 Puert? Rico
Conch 44,297 46,794 Puerto Rico
Lobster 1,188 9,640 Puerto Rico
Shrimp 1,007 3,175 Puerto Rico
Subtotal 69,930 114,689 Puerto Rico
Total 615,125 812,076
Imports kg
33,103 8,736,128
17,180
6,034,569 14,820,980
Value RD$
24,118 14,585,037
Origin
Canada Norway
23,025
U.S.A.
Balance of Payments
4,927,452 19,559,632 -18,747,556
Japan
68


also rerts with the Fishery Resources Department (Law 5915, 1962). Major emphasis has been directed toward stocking ponds with fmgerlings produced at the Nigua hatchery. Though production figures exist for the respective water bodies, there are no species/time/size data being collected to calculate population parameters for stock management.
Aquaculture projects, species introduction and available freshwater resources are interrelated. In 1953, FAO-sponsored programs helped develop the government's fish hatchery in Nigua. The first fish species introduced was Tilapia mossambica. Since that time, in accord with DRPs legal mandate, incentives have been provided to both private and public sectors to expand fish culture. The larger aquaculture projects currently being developed or now in production are shown in Table VII-5. hi addition to these large projects there are an estimated 160 private and commercial ponds in the country (Brullon, pers. comm.).
Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Absence of a clearly defined and coordinated policy in aquaculture and fish stocking act'vities; absence of data collection sy:tems to assess current status of stocks; and absence of effort to manage the country's fresh-water fish stocks.
Exotic- Species Introduction
The introduction of exotic aquatic species has had a long history in the Dominican Republic. Based on a brief literature review the known species introduced into the country are listed in
Table VII-5. Major aquaculture projects currently being developed or now in production in the Dominican Republic (excludes most private and commercial ventures).
Table VII-6. List of aquatic species introduced into the Dominican Republic.
Lead
Agency Assistance*
DRP/SEA IDB
Taiwan Israel
Site
Nigua
Pond Principal Ponds Surface Species
16 7.6 ha Tihpiu
mosnunbica
Micropenis
salmoidts Cyprinus carpio Cltnopharingodon
idtlla Hiphoitahnichthys
molitrix Arichlichlhys
nobilis
Church World Service
CIBIMA/ INDRHI
AID Peace
Corps INDRHI Engombe
INDOTEC Central Bank
20 1+ha Tilapia hybrids
24 1.8 ha Not in
production
Sto. TiLpia Domingo 6 0.1 ha mossambica
Macrobrachium rostnbtrgii
Save the Children
Church World Service
Federation for Community Development
"Technical or Financial.
Species Year Introduced Country of Origii
Tilapia mossambica 1953 Haiti
Cyprinus carpio 1954 Haiti
Micropenis >almoidts 1954 Haiti
Iclalurus punclalus 1970 USA
Tilapia rtndalli 1974 Mexico
Ciclda octllaiis 1976 Colombia
Tilapia nilolica 1979 Puerto Rico
Tilapia r.urta 1980 Puerto Rko
Cltiwharingodon idtlla 1980 Taiwan
Hiphoitalmichthys molitrix 1980 Taiwan
Arichlichlhys nobilis 1980 Taiwan
Macrobrachium
rostnbtrgii 1980 USA
0.05 ha
Table VII-6. As a result of these introductions few if any "natural" fresh or brackish water environments are left in the country. Tilapia mcssambica is now found in most fresh and brackish water bodies. Other species such as carp, Cyprinus Carpio, and the bass, Mkropterus ialmoides, have been less successful in replacing native species and remain restricted to a few fresh-water coastal lakes and lagoons (Lovshin 1979;.
It is surprising that the carnivorous peacock bass, Chichla ocellaris, was introduced into the country in 1976 after the negative results following its introduction into Panama and Nicaragua. In the former country, Zaret and Paine (1973) documented that within 15 years local native populdtions, including a second introduced fish, were completely decimated by the exotic carnivore. In the Dominican Republic the peacock bass was introduced to control a previously introduced Tilapia sp., but apparently failed to survive.
At present, the greatest concern is the introduction of the fresh-water shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Because of the known life cycle of this exotic species it is preferred over the culture of indigenous species of Macrobrachium. Potential impact from introduction on native species is not known or being studied.
Importation of exotic species requires a permit from DRP/SEA. Review of the application is internal and does not require any preliminary impact study. Apparently there are no guidelines to minimize problems related to the release of exotic species into the environment. Communication and restrictions appear to be lax between customs officials and the DRP in this area.
Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Already existing populations have been or will be replaced by introduced species; absence of a joint review process to assess the ramifications of species introduction by competent personnel from public, private and academic sectors; absence of a requirement for preliminary impact study prior to species introduction; absence of safety requirements to minimize exotic species escape into the environment; absence of monitoring program' to assess the stability of existing populations and success of introduced species; and absence of a training program for customs inspectors to become familiar with exotic aquatic species as well the possible environmental ramifications of species introductions.
Endangered Species and Critical Habitats
Threatened or endangered animal species inhabiting coastal wetlands and marine areas include birds, reptiles, and marine mammals (Table VII-7; also see Table VIII-1). Many of the water-
66


Table VII-7. Threatened and endangered species in coastal and marine habitats in the Dominican Republic.
Species
Podictps dominkus Dkhromanassa ruftsctns
Phoenkoplerus ruber'
Ajaiaajaja1
Dendrocygna arborca
Porzana flavivenler Hacmatepus ostralegus Cdumba leucocephala 1
Eretmochelys imbricala 2 Chelonia mydas 2 Carelia carella Dermochclys coriacea Trichechus manalus 1 Megaplera novaiangliat
Common Name
Least Grebe Reddish Egret
Flamingo
Spoonbill
West Indian Whistling Duck
Yellow-breasted Crake Oyster Catcher White-crowned Pigeon
Hawksbill Green Turtle Loggerhead Leatherback Manatee
Humpback Whale
Habitat
Lagoons, wetlands, lakes Coast, saline lagoons
Coastal lagoons, lakes, wetlands
Coastal lagoons, wetlands, mangroves
Lakes, wetlands
Lakes, wetlands
Rocky beach
Coastal areas, mangroves
Marine, sand beaches larine, sand beaches Marine, sand beaches Marine, sand beaches Marine coastal areas, bays Offshore banks, (seasonal)
Known Distribution Status
Guerra, Payaguara, Tres Ojos Endangered
Tortuguero, Estero Balsa, Endangered Boca del Yaque del Norte
Isla Saona, Beata, Azua, Threatened Enriquillo
Lago Enriquillo, Lago Limon Rare
Bahia San Lorenzo, Sanchez, Endangered Enriquillo, Monte Cristi
Unknown Unknown
Playa Azul Rare
Monte Cristi-Higuey, Isla Beata, Unknown Saona
See map Endangered
See map Endangered
See map Endangered
See map Endangered
Endangered
Bancos de Playa and Navidad Endangered
'Protected by law;2Partially protected by law.
fowl threatened with extinction have lost habitat due to draining and clearing of wetlands or harvesting of mangroves for wood and charcoal. Flamingos and spoonbills are hunted for their eggs and feathers, and the white-crowned pigeon is hunted for sport (Ottenwalder 1973). There are an estimated 1,000-1,500 resident flamingos and an additional 2,000 that migrate yearly to the Dominican Republic. Two other migratory birds, both boobies Sterna fuscata and Anous stolidus, nest on two cays in the Siete Her-manos off Monte Cristi (Alvarez 1980).
The four species of sea turtles recognized by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) as in dinger of extinction in the Caribbean are reposed for the Dominican Republic. Of these four the hawksbill and green are still legally hunted for food (eggs and meat) and the shell for jewelry putposes. Jewelry is made from turtle shell for local sales and ase, as well as the tourist trade and export. Though in less demand, the green turtle is also hunted as a substitute for the more highly-prized hawksbill (Ottenwalder 1978). Until recently it was thought the remaining two species, the loggerhead and the leatherback, were relatively scarce. Based on beach surveys, however, Ross and Ottenwalder (1980) calculate that approximately 300 leatherbacks nest per year on the country's beaches. Primary nesting season occurs from mid April through June, favoring beaches with undeveloped hinterland and the absence of an offshore fringing reef. These latter two species are also hunted, though illegally, fcr food and the shell.
Of the marine mammals, the West Indian manatee is in danger of extinction. Despite government protection in the Dominican Republic, manatees are still widely hunted for meat and bones. Based on aerial surveys, Belitsky and Belitsky (1980) conclude that two separate populations exist with higher concentration
around the Monte Crisit area and more dispersed populations in Ocoa and Neiba bays. Abundance appears correlated with presence of grassbeds in an around areas of freshwater discharge.
The northern offshore banks of Plata and Navidad appear to be significant for several species of whales. An estimated 85% of the world's population of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, concentrate in the area during the winter months for mating and calving purposes (Ottenwalder, pers. comm.). In addition to the humpback whale, other marine mammals observed in Dominican waters include Slenella coerulealba, Tursiops tntncatus, Mesoplodon europaeus, Ziphius cavirostris, Physeter catadon, Orcinus orca, and Balaenoplera borealis. Based on current information critical areas for these groups have been mapped (Fig. VII-l).
The DRP/SEA is responsible for enforcement of existing legislation for marine reptiles and mammals. Responsibility for protection of avifauna lies with the DVS/SEA (Wildlife Department). Based on available information, enforcement is lax and there is little coordination between the two departments.
Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Legislation to protect all endangered and threatened species (that are only partially protected or currently unprotected), with highest priority given the actively hunted turtles; initiate a conservation education campaign to make existing legislation more effective; stimulate enforcement inspectors through workshops; increase the penalties for abuses of endangered species, and request increased assistance from the navy; prohibit export of any product from an endangered or threatened species; require a review process for all proposed national and private projects to assess potential for damage to critical habitat; increase activities calling for parks and preserves, establish qualifing criteria for protection or production, review candidate areas for protection and submit for legislation.
87


Examine the potential for marine park designation for one or more of the following sites: (1) Siete Hermanos cays near Monte Cristi due to their pristine quality, isolation and critical habitat for several endangered species; (2) the offshore banks of Navidad and Plata due to their use as mating and calving grounds by the humpback whale; and (3) the beaches extending approximately from Laguan Limon to Cabo Engano due to their importance as turtle nesting beaches.
Mining
Very little mining occurs in or near the coastal zone. Sand, gravel and sandstone are extracted, mostly concentrated in the Nigua River basin and mouth, with apparent disregard for habitat and coastal degradation. Other coastal areas damaged by sand extraction are Juan Esteban, Playa Estero, and Cuello y Cuello (Bonnelly 1978). Marine salt extraction through evaporation occurs principally in the Monte Cristi area near Lagunas de Marigo, Salina and Piedra and near Las Salinas in the Bahia Las Calderas.
There are three areas in the country being considered for future mining exploration. Five requests have been represented by private companies for exploratory mining concessions for sand and sandstone in a near-coast strip between Barahona and Enri-quillo. In the Samana peninsula the government owns two marble reserves, one adjacent to Sanchez and a second at the easternmost point of the peninsula. A third government reserve in Bahia de Manzanillo between Punta Luna and Punta Pozo has potential for magnetite ore.
There are no petroleum wells in the country. The possibility exists for State-financed petroleum exploration to begin in 1981 on the south insular platform and/or northern offshore banks (Madera, pers. comm.).
Sand extraction has been singled out as the "worst case" example of coastal destruction observed in the country (Fig VII-3b). The Nigua river basin and delta have been the traditional area for obtaining construction aggregate for the metropolitan area. The area has suffered from ineffective administration due to overlapping jurisdiction among the Nigua Municipality, the Secretariat of Public Works and the Government Mining Office. Scars from past extractions remain throughout the basin area, resulting in serious erosion and high sediment loads. Coastal protection has been lost due to sand extraction, especially from dunes near the mouth of the river. Loss of these coastal barriers was noticed during the passage of Hurricane alien when the storm surge crossed the wide delta area and damaged some of the housing on a raised escarpment overlooking the delta Despite acknowledgement of the problem and establishment of a coordinating group, dune destruction continues.
Figure VII-3b. Scars of uncontrolltd txtraction of btach sand near Iht Nigua Rivtr, the traditional source area for iht Santo Domingo construction industry. (Photo, Rundon DuBois.)
The Government Mining Office created in 1971 (Law 146) was a very small dependent organization of the Secretariat of Industry and Commerce until 1978. Since that time it has grown in budget and staff and is now attempting to carry out its legal mandate to safeguard, through effective management, the national interest in the mining and metallurgy industries. Sand and gravel extraction is an exception to the law as an interministerial council was formed in 1971 to coordinate overlapping jurisdiction (Law 123). A second exception is salt extraction administered by CORDE, formerly a Trujillo-owned industry.
Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Interinstitutional bodies have failed to coordinate activities causing environmental degradation; inadequate enforcement of existing legislation to protect the environment; and need for environmental guidelines for future mining in or near the coastal zone.
Ports
Depending on the interests served, ports are classified as international, cabotage, or tourist. On the north coast where there are few sheltered roadsteads, four of the six ports are siti:ated i-. l!ie Bahia de Samana. On the Caribbean coast with fewer reefs and submerged rocks and several large estuarine systems, nine ports are utilized. In addition to these ports some private loading facilities (ALCOA, Gulf & Western) and a number of anchorages also occur (Fig. VII-1).
In general, most of the ports have been neglected over the past 20-30 years. An example is the port of Sanchez where high sediment rates from the Rio Yun.i and the failure to maintain channel clearance have led to its abandonment as a conventional port; it is presently utilized by fishing and yachting boats (ONAP 1980). However, modernization efforts are being undertaken in Puerto Plata, Punta Botado, San Pedro de Macoris, and Puerto Haina.
The major emphasis in port modernization and expansion is in Puerto Haina with government and IDB funds. Already the most important of three ports serving the Santo Domingo area, it is being expanded to meet future needs. Improvements include channel dredging to 11 m, removal of a sunken dock, renovations and improvements to the eastern pier area, enlarging the storage area for containerized cargo, construction of the Port Authority building, and the installation of a moveable derrick system. These improvements will expand annual handling capacity from the current three million m tons to an estimated 4.5 million m tons (Pena, pers. comm.).
Management of port facilities is split primarily between the Navy with responsibility for naval facilities and port security, and the newly activated Port Authority, responsible for administration and management of the various ports. The Authority, created by law in 1970, did not become functional until early 1979. It is an autonomous agency directed by an Executive Council composed of three members from the private sector and three Secretaries of State. The Authority is divided into Divisions of Operations, Engineering and Materials, Personnel and Finance. There is no capability for pollution monitoring or clean-up in the Authority structure; nor does a mechanism exist for chain-of-command response to contamination accidents.
Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Establish a contaminant-monitoring mechanism for major ports and the development of a toxic spill emergency plan to coordinte the utilization of all necessary human and physical resources.
Tourism
In many smaller islands in the eastern Caribbean tourism is being examined as a plentiful and clean export in an area of limited natural resources. Since the signing of Executive Decree 2536
68


1968), the Dominican Republic has developed tourism as a high priority income resource.
In 1968 a UNESCO consultant identified four zones for potential tourist development. This was followed by creation of the Tourist Office in 1971 (Law 103) and the declaration of two priority zones for development, Puerto Plata and its immediate surroundings (Decree 2125, 1972) and the zone between La Caleta and the Rio Higuamo (Decree 3133, 1973). In 1980 modifications were made to Law 153 designating seven priority areas for development, six of which border the coastal zone. They are Santo Domingo-La Romana, Luperon-Cabrera, Macao-Punta Cana, Samana-las Terrenas, Barahona-Enriquillo, and Monte Cristi-Pepillo Salcedo. These tourism development "strips" surround the respective cities and extend 5 km landward from the littoral zone.
In the short term, major activity will be concentrated in the Luperon-Cabrera or "Costa Ambar" area with the projects Costa Ambar, Playa Dorado, and Playa Grande, and in the Santo Domingo-La Romana or "Costa Caribe" strip with proposed projects Complejo Turistico Rio Mar, Estancias Las Cabuyas and Los Kapriles.
Incentives for development are provided in Law 153. They are only applicable to the tourist zones and provide for the government paying for all infrastructure, exemption from all taxes for 10 years from completion of construction for any project tnat ". .would foment tourism or increase accommodations for the visiting tourist".
During the period 1966-1976 the estimated government investments for tourism infrastructure were RD$82 million (or Puerto Plata and RD$41 million for Samana, mostly oriented to tourist development (Secretariado Tecnico de la Presidencia 1978). In addition, the Central Bank has or will invest funds in hotel development in the Playa Dorado and Playa Grande projects totalling RDSlll million (Plan CIBAO 1980). Government funds have also been invested in hotel development in Santo Domingo and La Romana through INFRATUR, an institution of the Central Bank charged -:ih tourism development.
The return of these investments calculated for 1977 compared with visible exports was RD$91 million gross revenues or 12.7% of all foreign income. The National balance of payments deficit was RD$244 million. Direct and indirect tourist employment was estimated at 11,000 jobs (UNEP 1979b).
In December, 1979, the Tourism Office was converted to a Secretariat position. The new duties are to plan, stimulate and coordinate the country's activities related to tourism. As a result of these recently expanded responsibilities the Tourism Secretariat appears understaffed, underbudgeted and only beginning to address the government mandate.
Existing or Potential problems and/or Needs: Inadeq''.-te administration to effectively control a rapidly developing tourism sector; potential for serious infrastructure and related ecological problems with the already approved concentration of densely inhabited structures on the coast; absence of a comprehensive coastal resource inventory and review process to determine degree of ecological impact of a proposed project; and absence of a permit process tor coastal construction that would require an analysis of infrastructure needs, waste disposal and physical constraints.
Recreation
The presence of sport fish such as tuna, kingfish and marlin in the nearshore pelagic water provided the incentive for the establishment of three fishing clubs (Club Nauticos) on the south shore. Many sport fishing boats are available for charter and cater to winter tourists. Boca Chica, approximately 32 km east of Santo Domingo, La Romana and Boca de Yuma all have large
recreational boating fleets. The richness of nearby waters and the proximity to the Mon2 Passage have contributed to an annual international billfish tournament in Boca de Yuma (Van Ost and Kline 1978).
Heavy urban use of the beaches east of Santo Domingo has contributed to the deterioration jf some beaches such as at Boca Chica where litter is left and seagrape trees are used for firewood. The potential for conflict exists between increasing public use of the eastern beaches stretching to La Romana and the development of tourist hotels impeding access to public beaches
High praise is to be given for the utilization of the coastal coral escarpment for urban parks in Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata. A beach-front park in Sosua is also very attractive.
Diving clubs exist but do not appear to be numerous. One club from Santo Domingo dives mainly among the Boca Chica reefs.
Present and/or Potential Problems and Needs: Initiate data collecting procedures for sport fishing; and plan tourist developments without impeding public access to beaches.
Natural Disasters
Tropical storms and hurricanes originating in the tropical Atlantic or Caribbean during August to October have repeatedly wreaked havoc and destruction on Hispaniola. Serious damage and loss of life are primarily due to high winds (greater than 230 kph) and storm surges, the latter ranging from 1 to 3 m (Poke 1977). In addition to direct damages caused by wind and sur&e, there is secondary damage associated with severe beach erosion and the undermining of near-shore structures. Between the period 1887-1975, 46 tropical storms or hurricanes have passed near or over the Dominican Republic (UNEP 1979c). In most cases they have entered the island on the sourthern coast, though occasionally storms originating to the east have affected the northern coast (de la Fuente 1975). Ten tropical storms or hurricanes have hit the country directly, the most recent being Hurricane David in 1979.
Hispaniola is also situated in an area of periodic seismic activity resulting from a series of fault systems that pass either adjacent to or through the country. This has resulted in a series of 25 recorded tremors ranging in magnitude on the Richter Scale between 5 and 6.5 during the period 1964-1976 (UNEP 1979c).
There are few precautions to protect an area from a "worst case" situation, except for advanced evacuation. In less severe cases safety precautions can significantly lower property damage and life losses. In the Dominican Republic civil defense corps and facilities exist, though it is difficult to determine their effectiveness. However, building codes for even less than "worst case" conditions do not exist. Hurricane damage could be of major consequence to the rapidly developing tourist-oriented southeastern coast. Other factors than need to be considered before allowing the construction of near-shore facilities are the offshore platform characteristics that may aggravate storm surge, the presence or absence of natural coastal protection such as mangroves, a requirement for artificial breakwalls, and the land configuration as it relates to storm drainage.
Existing and/or Potential Problems and Needs: Incorporation of a variable stress level requirement in the building code based on size, location of structure, and frequency and magnitude of past storms or earthquakes.
Institutional Analysis
Research Center for Marine Biology (CIBIMA)
CIBIMA is a small research center operating semi-independently in the Department of Biology at UASD
69


(Autonomous University of Santo Domingo). In 1980 staff composition was 8 full time and 2 part time professionals. Distribution of professional degrees include 2 Ph.D., 1 M.S., and 4 B.S. CIMIBA's 1980 budget was RD$228,400, with more than half of the budget coming from funding sources outside the University (OAS and INDRHI).
CIBIMA was formed in 1962 with one biologist as the director of the Insitute of Marine Biology at UASD. The principal objectives of CIBIMA are education and scientific research. CIBIMA is the only educational institution (through the UASD Department of Biology) in the Dominican Republic that trains marine scientists. Several graduates of the CIBIMA program are currently in positions of responsibility in government institutions such as INDOTEC and the Fishery Resources Department. CIBIMA has participated in the PPA program through the professional education project. Four of the present staff have received some degree of foreign technical training through USAID sponsored fellowships.
Research projecis include inventories of mangrove, coral reef and beach systems of the south coast and a study of the Lago Enriquillo ecosystem (Bonnelly 1978). In addition to these research projects CIBIMA hosted an international conference on conservation in 1978, the first of its kind in the country.
Current projects include a coastal lagoon survey with the intent to determine fishery potential, a study to determine the potential of crabs as a fishery resource, both funded by OAS, and the development of an aquaculture facility in collaboration with INDRHI.
Prior to 1979, the facilities of CIBIMA were located in a seaside converted casino on Santo Domingo's "Malecon". The spacious area included offices, laboratories, library, reference collections, otudent facilities and experimental marine tanks. The physical facility was irreparable damaged by Hurricane David (estimated cost of repair by UASD was RD$326,000) with associated damage to the equipment, library and boats estimated at RD$100,000. CIBIMA is temporarily located in a small house with inadequate facilities for either educational purposes or scientific investigation. A proposal to construct facilities in Boca Chica offers a sea-side location, proximity to high production areas such as mangroves and coral reefs, and ready access to Santo Domingo, but lacks funding.
Fishery Resources Department (DRP)
The DRP is a dependency of the Subsecretariat of Natural Resources within the Secretariat of Agriculture. DRP is the lead government agency in management of both fresh-water and marine fisheries. DRP is the lead government agency in management of both fresh-water and marine fisheries. DRP ha; recently been restructured removing the Hunting Section and creating new divisions of aquaculture and fishing. This restructuring prompted the hiring of 22 new technicans, which more than triples the size of the department. The present staff level is estimated at 120the majority are enforcement inspectors. The 1980 budget is an estimated RD$3,000,000.
In addition to management of the country's marine and freshwater fishery resources, DRP plays a major role in both direct and indirect encouragement of aquaculture. The government aquaculture facility at Nigua provides fingerlings to stock public and private lakes and ponds as well as a facility for scientific investigation into polyculture and exotic species introduction. In addition to supplying the private sector with fish stock, technical advice is provided upon request. Future projects include the development of a mariculture facility and a regional approach to fingerling production with facilities planned for Azua and La Vega.
The Department appears to be suffering from the recent expansion to facilities inadequate to accommodate additional personnel and from an inadequate human resource base from which
to draw talent necessary to efficient administration and technical competence.
Development and Cooperative Credit Institute (IDECOOP)
IDECOOP is an autonomous government organization created in 1963 to aid in the formation of cooperatives, coordinate the actions of cooperatives with the national Federation of Dominican Cooperatives and contribute to the improvement of existing cooperatives.
In 1974, through a loan from IDB, a fisheries project was initiated to provide the national consumer with lower priced fish while increasing the standard of living of the arlisanal fisherman. The program consisted of the constttction of six facilities located in Monte Cristi, Puerto Plata, Miches, San Pedro de Macoris, Azua and Barahona, and a central facility in the capital. The central facility coordinates activities and serves as a commercial clearinghouse. The importation of 64 fiberglass boats complete with electronic fishing gear for the six cooperatives and two 22 meter steel hull boats to provide fish for the facility were included in the project.
An estimated 20% of the national fishermen participate in the fishing program (Lima dos Santos and Brownell 1978). Inadequate administration in the formative years of the program created a certain feeling of distrust among the fishermen. Lack of technical expertise at IDECOOP has been cited for the importation of fiberglass boats equipped with air-cooled engines rather than water-cooled engines. As air-cooled engines proved to run too hot for Dominican waters, they are now being replaced with the latter type.
Dominican Industrial Technology Institute (INDOTEC)
INDOTEC is a semi-autonomous institution associated with the Central Bank. Its primary function is to stimulate industrial development by providing technical capabilities. In 1978 an agreement was reached between IDB and INDOTEC to analyze the Dominican fisheries sector. IDB financed the project through a US$1.05 million non-reimbursable loan. The major objectives were to identify productive fishing zones, recommend methods, boats, ports, and processing and marketing facilities to assure the most efficient use of the resources, as well as institutional analysis with associated recommendations for a sector policy development. However, the INDOTEC report had not yet been released when the environmental profile was conducted. In addition to the above project, INDOTEC maintains a small aquaculture facility on the same grounds. Emphasis is directed towards culture of Tilapia and shrimp.
Conclusions
Ineffective management of the country's coastal and marine resources is due to five major causative factors: 1) Non-traditional utilization of the resources; 3) A rapidly growing and still inexperienced set of administrative organizations; 3) Absence of coordinating mechanisms between administrative agencies required for an integrated approach; 4) Shortage of skilled multidiscipli-nary professionals; and 5) Unclear legislative mandate.
The Dominican Republic has traditionally looked inland for development of natural resources, as indicated by its dependence on the sugar and mineral industries as principal sources of foreign exchange. This focus on development of the hinterland has, until recently, largely protected the coastal zone from many of the problems associated with development. Unfortunately this period of grace is rapidly coming to an end as development of marine fisheries and the tourist sectors become high priority areas.
70


As a holdover from the Trujillo era, many executive finctions were administered directly from the president's office during the Balaguer administration. Consequently, most administrative departments were small, understaffed, and largely ineffective. Only since 1978 have these offices started to expand. The Fishery Resources Department staff increased from four technicians to 22. The Tourism Office was elevated to a Secretariat position. The Mining Office increased from one office to an entire floor in the central government building. The Port Authority created by law in 1971, did not start functioning until early 1978. One of the consequences of such rapid expansions of many administrative bodies is that they are now struggling to meet legislative mandates.
Though several institutions have overlapping legislation, few mechanisms exist for integrated and ecologically sound development of the coastal zone. In some cases these mandates result in very nebulous areas of authority, hampering efforts for effective management and coordination; more commonly they produce adversary positions between administrators, usually at the expense of the environment (e.g. Nigua sand extraction).
There is a serious shortage of professionals trained in coastal zone and marine resource management. The only institution at the USAD preparing marine scientists suffers from professional and financial constraints, and since Hurricane David, infrastructure problems. This leaves the burden of integrated management largely with planners, who may lack the technical expertise to deal with the complex issues of coastal zone management.
Substantial increases in administrative staff have generated numerous interagency conflicts, largely because of unclear, poor or redundant legislation. The best example is the administration of aquaculture in the country. At present there are three government institutions working in parallel in aquaculture with little evidence of coordination. Few countries can afford the luxury of expending limited resources, both human and financial, on independent efforts to achieve a common objective.
There is urgent need to integrate the management of coastal zone and marine areas. The most significant impinging factors include the priority the government has givent o tourism, the priority that is expected to be given to development of marine fisheries and the threat of a major oil spill in the Mona Passage.
Despite the high priority the government has given to development of the tourism sector, the Tourism Secreatariat appears unable to examine the ramifications concentrated development will have on the environoment. In addition to the location of tourist developments on pristine beaches serious questions must be asked about public access to beaches, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, hurricane protection, sources of food for the tourists, shell and coral collecting, and preservation of critical habitat for protecting endangered species.
At present the fishing sector is at an artesanal level, with imports accounting for 60% of all fish consumed. Results of a recent survey indicate that the potential exists in Dominican waters to meet local demand. The administrative body in the sector is not yet at the level capable of meeting the demand required of industrial level fishing efforts nor to maintain sustained yields.
Despite the responsibility of the Navy and Air Force for patrolling the country's waters and coasts, there is no emergency plan to handle toxic substance spills. This is especially critical in the easter portion of the country adjacent to the high traffic area of the Mona Passage. Ship traffic through the Mona Passage is likely to climb as recent cutoffs from some Mid-eastern oil field may result in greater hemispheric dependence on Venzuelan oil. In a recent Puerto Rican EPA-sponsored oil pollution conference a trajectory model of a theoretical oil spill of 6,000 barrels of crude to the east of Mona Island indicated that the oil would reach the eastern shore of the Dominican Republic in three days and spread as far as La Romana and Laguan I.imon in five days.
Emergency plans for toxic spills are also needed for each of the country's major ports.
Two existing agencies function to meet environmental emergencies. Presidential decree 2011 recently created a commission charged with the conservation of marine flora and fauna. The commission is composed of the directors of Civil Defense (president of the commission), customs, the Navy chief of staff, the director of migration, the administrator of the Las Americas International Airport and the director of Fishery Resources. The primary function of the commission is to facilitate the arrival of oil clean-up equipment from areas outside the country.
The Environmental Department, a dependency of the Technical Secreatariat of the Presidency, is to provide environmental evaluation of proposed projects. At present it is severely understaffed and may not have the technical expertise required to evaluate coastal zone management (see Arellano for an institutional analysis).
It may be necessary to create a commission that would function as a "review and permit institution" for development affecting the coastal zone. Its composition should include high level, qualified staff from the Navy, Fishery Resources, Civil Defense, Commerce and Industry, Tourism, CIBIMA, and the Enviorn-ment Department. In the latter case the representative should serve as the primary liaison between the commission and other government institutions involved in upland activities with potential impact in the coastal zone. Review and approval would be required prior to any coastal development. In the same legislation to modify existing laws in order to create the new commission, there should be a requirement for an ecological assessment of projected activities in the coastal zone. The assessment should be completed "in house" and accompany the application document to the review committee. This committee should have the power to approve the project document, require modification in the proposed activity or reject it. In addition, the law should provide for inspection, review and interruption or termination of coastal projects which conflict with national goals.
Recommendations
CIBIMA is the only academic institution with a focus on basic marine research and the training of marine technicians and scientists. The government depends on CIBIMA's production of qualified marine scientists to fulfill the goals of marine legislation. Hurricane David damaged CIBIMA's educational facility which will provoke a shortage of people trained in marine sciences and resource management.
CIBIMA and the government recognize that the numerous fresh-water and brackish coastal lagoons and ponds are underutilized, and both have launched projects to undertake basic physical descriptions. To permit rational utilization, a thorough inventory must include salinity-termperature-oxygen fluctuations, both diurnal and seasonal, rate of overturn of waters, presence and status of native species, and solar radiation. Provided with a sound ecological baseline and knowledge of external factors, such as potential for local use or demand in the export market, pilot projects should be initiated to explore the feasibility of these resources for aquaculture/mariculture, e.g. raising Arlemia gimlinas for export, and potential for so'ar energy utilization.
As pressures continue to increase for Jevelopment and use of resources in the coastal zone, guidelines art 'irgently needed for reviewing specific activities and projects and coordinating action between agenices. The review process should Save two components: in-house assessment of a project's envronmental impacts including endangered species, critical habitat, infrastructure needs and associated wastes; and a required review {.rocess at the level of ONAPLAN, the Environmental Department or newly created commission before action could be taken. This would
71


have the added advantage of integrating separate initiatives in administration of the coastal zone as well as providing a "watch dog" function. This would only succeed with dear legislation and adequate resources.
The Dominican Republic needs a national emergency plan to control toxic substance spills. The Marine Flora and Fauna Conservation Commission and the captain of the Port Authority could design the plan and regulations to facilitate arrival and use of spill clean-up equipment. The plan could be expanded to include coastal zone characterization and a coastal zone vulnerability index.
Due to parallel and rival administrations of the fishery sector, a national policy should be defined. The formation of a commission composed of heads of DRP/SEA INDRHI, INDOTEC, INDECOOP and the Navy might be effective. The commission
would set national priorities in the fishery sector, outline the most effective strategies to meet the objectives and coordinate efforts and share resources to attain those objectives.
Marine parks represent a priority area due to the fragility of many marine resources in the country. The creation of a park or parks would receive positive international publicity associated with the preservation of these areas. A marine resource inventory and criteria for park designation are needed. Three potential areas to be examined are the Siete Hermanos cays off Monte Cristi due to their pristine quality, isolation, and habitat for several endangered species; the offshore banks of Navidad and Plata due to their use as mating and calving grounds for the humpback whale; and the beaches extending approximately from Laguna Limon to Cabo Engano because of their importance as turtle nesting beaches.
72


VIII
Wildlands and Wildlife
In this report the term "wildlands" is uxed in a new broad sense. Our definition goes beyond the popular notion of wilderness which has come to mean an area basically unaltered by human intervention where man is a temporary visitor at most. Wildland as used here will include these areas, but will cover a much wider range of areas and land uses. In the development literature, wildlands traditionally have been those areas available for population expansion, agriculture, lumbering, and exploitation of natural resources. These areas have also been viewed as areas where landless peasants, driven from place to place by social and economic conditions, could acquire a piece of land (Miller 1978).
Much of the continuing problem with the human factor in wildlands management today is probably due to this confusion of wildlands with nonproductive lands. The failure to distinguish between wildlands and potentially exploitable but currently un-exploited agricultural lands has resulted in serious problems both within the government and among Uie general public.
Wildlands in this report are defined as those areas that are not capable of maintaining permanent agriculture, livestock, or intensive forest production (Morell 1978) plus analogous aquatic areas, both freshwater and marine. This definition is broad enough to include areas that are managed for purposes of production or recuperation of natural biotic comm unties. A more restrictive definition used elsewhere (Freeman et al. 1980) included only "land and waters which have been little affected by modern man, where natural processes such as evolution, native plant and animal reproduction and natural nutrient cycling continue in dynamic equilibrium". For an island such as Hispaniola, where the Dominican Republic has less than 50,000 km* of territory and a history of almost 500 years of European settlements, this definition would be much too exclusive. We feel that the broader definition will better serve the needs of the Dominican Republic and the island of Hispaniola.
It is tempting to subdivide the wildlands management sector into flora, fauna, and geographic subunits, but one can quickly lose sight of the importance of considering wildlands as an interacting complex of necessary subparts. Flora, fauna, aquatic and terrestial subunits are arbitrary categories and give the impression that these characters exist separately. While they can be considered separately for the sake of analysis, they do not exist alone but rather they interact to form complex natural ecosystems. The wildland resource includes all of the characteristics and components of the natural ecosystem. Attempts to protect or manage only one aspect of the flora, fauna, or the territory, will
not succeed. Wildlands must be protected and managed as interactive natural systems composed of diverse but necessary sub-units.
Status of Native Wildlife
Of all the Greater and Lesser Antillean Islands, Hispaniola has perhaps the greatest variety of different environments. Pico Durate, the highest point in the Antilles (3,087 meters) and Lake Enriquillo, the lowest point (40 m below sea level) are both found within the Dominican Republic. Nine life zones exist within the national territory (see Chapter III), but this expands to 16 if the various transition zones are included (OAS 1967). Climate differences are impressive for such a limited land area (less than 50,000 km*). Dry, near desertic conditions are found in the southwest and northwest, while areas of heavy rainfall are located in the mountainous regions of the central and northern portions. In addition, a rich assortment of coastal, near-shore, reef and platform environments exists in the marine sector. An inventory of the coastal and near-shore marine environments is currently underway by the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Ottenwalder, pers. comm.).
In spite of its insular situation, relatively small size, and almost 500 year history of European settlement, the Dominican fauna is still only partially known. New species for the country, for the island, and for science continue to be found. A high degree of endemism exists which raises the prospects of discovering unique new species in any field trip to the remaining remnants of natural ecosystems. A total of 139 resident and 90 migratory bird species are known in the country, of which 34 are endemic. One family, the Dulidae, is represented by a single species Dulus dominicus which will be declared the national bird in the proposed Fauna Law.
Useful field guides to the ornithological fauna are published in English (Bond 1971) and in Spanish (Dod 1978). Both works are useful for identifications and genera! species distributions.
Beyond taxonomic identification of most of the native fauna, there has been little published in the way of ecological or behavioral monographs. Some species are now receiving a great deal of attention, but this interest seems to be associated with the actual or potential commercial value of the species. White crowned pigeon, Columba Itucoctphalus, American crocodile, Crocodylus ittulus, and Hawksbill turtle, Eretmochtlys imbricala, are some examples.
73


Some attention is also paid to rare or endangered species with no known commercial value, such as the hutia, Plagiodontia atdium, and the solenodonte,Soltnodon paradoxus.
Basic information on populations, distributions, and food habits of fauna is not available. Human and financial resources have not been made available, in large part because the study and management of wildlife populations have never been a priority theme for the Dominican government. Only in the last decade have the major Dominican universities added biology with an emphasis on wildlife to their curricula. The field of wildlife biology is just now beginning to attract students as government positions are being generated.
Behavioral studies of captive animals have been made on several species of native fauna including two endangered mammals, Platiodonita sidium and Soltnodon paradoxus. The Parque Zoologoco Nacional (ZOODOM) is conducting studies on these animals as well as raising captive iguanas Cyclura comuta and C. ricordi. ZOODOM has also had success with reproducing Crocodylus Acutus (Duval, pers. comm.). These studies add to the growing base of knowledge about reproduction in these species and their behavior in captivity, but cannot substitute for field research on the behavior, reproduction, and ecological role of these animals in their natural habitat.
The Dominican Republic is not a signatory member of the CITES agreement (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), but final efforts are being made to have the nation subscribe to this international convention. The convention and supporting documentation are now in the office of the legal advisor to the Office of the Presidency. In anticipation of the eventual signing of this agreement, thet Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS) has established close lines of cooperation with the Division for the Prevention of Commercialization of Protected Flora and Fauna of the U.S. Department of the Interior. For all practical purposes the DVS is proceeding as if the Dominican Republic were a signatory member to CITES.
Lists of endangered and threatened species officially recognized by the government do not exist, but the major wildlife research and management institutions have been compiling lists of species that they consider should be on such an official list (Table VIII-1). Comprehensive inventories to establish the presence or absence of these species in all areas of the national territory have not been made. The evaluations of population status represent professional estimates, but the data base is quite incomplete.
Status of Wildlands
Existing Uses of Wildland Resources
Quantitative data on current uses of wildland resources in the Dominican Republic are generally unavailable. Flora and fauna are both exploited in consumptive and non-consumptive ways. Live plants and plant products are harvested and collected for a variety of uses. Forest exploitation for timber production is dealt with elsewhere in this report (see Chapters III and IV). Other plant uses include food, medicines, beverages, ointments, ornamentals, dyes, perfumes and scents, flavors and teas (Liogier 1974). With the exception of fiber and charcoal production, most exploitation of wildlands flora appears to be for subsistence uses or by small-scale commercial concerns. Very little of what could be considered wildlands flora or its by-products finds its way into external markets with the exception of beeswax and honey. Over RD$B00,000 worth of wax and RD$500,000 worth of honey were exported in 1979, with substantial amounts produced in areas of native vegetation (Marcano 1973, CEDOPEX 1900). Some ornamental plants and flowers are also reaching external markets, but in general the consumption of non-timber flora from wildlands areas is internal subsistence or small-scale
and largely unrecorded. Socio-cultural uses, including medicinal and religious needs, are recognized but not quantified.
Faunal resources from wildlands appear to be exploited mainly for food. Native and introduced pigeons and doves, plus migratory ducks are hunted legally. Some ducks, pigeons, doves and other game birds are killed illegally. Eggs are regularly taken from the nests of many nesting birds, particularly social species like gulls or white-cowned pigeons. Exploitation by man in conjunction with habitat destruction is considered a main threat to the continued survival of certain species (Table VIII-1). Exotic species including rabbit, white-tailed deer, ring necked pheasant, quail, and wild pig are also hunted. The role these species play in the nutrition of the human population, however, is unknown. For some rural families, wild game may be a significant source of high-quality protein. Subsistence harvesting of terrestrial and aquatic fauna is common but no quantitative data exist. The dispersed nature of the practice and the marginal legality of some of the methods and prey make the acquisition of meaningful data very difficult. Many Dominicans, both urban and rural, have told the author of eating protected wildlife or out-of-season wildlife. Harvesting methods include the use of dynamite, poison, snares, illegal implements, poaching, failure to observe size or bag limits, failure to respect gravid females or resting areas, etc. The magnitude of the enforcement problem is not clearly known.
Except for a few products such as honey and beeswax, most wildlands products are consumed locally and may never be recorded in the marketplace. Consumption is difficult to estimate and reliable statistics are non-existent. Comprehensive nationwide surveys of wildlife have not been conducted. Basic data such as population, distribution, and annual harvest are unknown.
Non-consumptive uses which include recreation, study and appreciation, inspiration, and similar cultural and religious uses are also unqualified. Non-consumptive uses of non-national parks areas are unrecorded. The Dominican Republic has many fine beaches in its 1,500 km coastline and those near major poulation centers are heavih' used, particularly on weekends and holidays.
Potential Uses of Wildland Resources
Outdoor recreation and tourism are two key non-consumptive uses of wildland resources that should gain importance in the future if conservation efforts continue. National Park use is expected to increase, particularly as the development of visitor facilities in the Parque Nacional del Este proceeds. Beach and coastal resources on the one hand and cool mountain resources on the other are also expected to receive greater use by visitors. (For a discussion of recreational uses of large water control facilities such as the lakes created by hydroelectric dams, see section on hydrological resources).
Research and other scientific uses which are generally non-consumptive are also expected to increase. The flora and fauna of the Dominican Republic are incompletely known and much work remains to be done concerning the complex interactions in natural ecosystems.
Consumptive uses will continue. While enforcement efforts are increasing, and some control over exploitation has been established, much harvesting of plant and animal products continues unchecked. Effective enforcement has been achieved only in the national parks and even there manpower shortages have limited the success of enforcement efforts.
As protection of the wildland resources in the national park system becomes more complete, repopulation of adjacent areas will become possible. The populations of white-crowned pigeons and other game birds are already showing signs of recovery due to extraordinary efforts by the Direccion Nacional de Parques to protect nesting sites in the national parks (Vargas, pers. comm.).
74


Table VIII-1. Status of selected fauna species in the Dominican Republic. Source data compiled from Bautista 1980, Belitsky and Belltsky 1980, C. Hernandez 1980, Hidalgo 1980, and Ottenwalder 1978. (Explanatory Notes: Population Status: E= endangered; R=rare; T-threatened; 1= indeterminate; e= endemic; c= listed in CITES. Information Status: A adequate; 1= incomplete; U= unknown. Legal Status: P-protected; N= not protected. X= contributory factor.
I 2 | i -5
b o s n
3 a, o h
B a a fti ? ^3
35 -s 5 "3
b tc S
- .5 e
" s '8 .5
S. I S S E
JS K B
b o
n
V
i *
b V o > 3 o
60
V
a E
d
o
3 a

2 1
b o
"3 a
b o
a
I 3
"a I
i 1 b5
g S 2 & b 6
S b }c o >
3 5 "3 2
E 3 E n
w y o o
h s u i2 (2
5 o
b
Turtles
Carella carella Ec A N X Geotrygon nwntana E I P X X
Chelonk mydas Ec A N X X Haemalopus pallialus R A N
Cbrysemis decorala I V N X Hyelomis rufigularis Re I P X X
Chrysemis decussala I U N X Loxia Itucoplera T I P X
Dermochelys coriactu Ec A N X Mycleria americana E I P X X
Eretmodulus imbricala Ec A N X X Nyctibeus griseus Nyctibtus jamaicensis E I U U N P
Reptiles Oxyura dominica T I P X X
Alsop'ms spp. E U P Oxyura jamaicensis T I P X X X
Crocodylas aculus Ec A P Pardirallus maculutus R U N
Cyclura spp. Eec I P X X X Pelecanus occidenlalis I U P X
Darlinglonia haeliana E U P Plmelon lepiurus I U N X
Diploglossiis spp. E U P Phalacrocornx aurihts R I P X
Epkrales spp. Ec I P Phoenicoplerus ruber Tc A P X
Mabuyu mabouya E U P Plerodroma hasilala Podiceps dominicus E E U I P N X X
Birds Pdiolinmas flavivenler R U P
A join ajaja R I P X X X Porzana flavivenler R U N
Anutzomi ventralis Ee A P X X X Rallus longiroslris R U P X
Anas bahamensis I I P X X X Siphonorhis breivsleri T I P X X
Anous stolidtts / ; N X Slema fuscala I I N X
Aralinga cldoroptera Ee A P X X X Sula leucogasler T U P X
Asio stygius E I P X X Tachybaptus dominicus E A P X X
Burhimis bislrialus I I P X X Temnotrogon roseigaster Te I P X
Buleo jamaicensis T u N Tardus swalesi Re I P X
Buleo ridgwayi Ee I P X
Calyplophilus frugivorus Te I P X Mammals
Caprimidgus cubanensis R 1 P X X Eplesicus fuscus hispaniolae I I N
Columla inornaia 1 I P X X Lasiurus borealis minor I I N
Columba leucocephala E A P X X Nalalus major 1 I N
Columkti squamosa E I P X X Noclilio leoporinus I I N
Corvus leucognaphalus i A N X X Piagiodonlia aedium E I P X X X
Dtndrocygna arborea Ec I P A X X Plagiodonlia hylaeum E I P X X X
Dichronumassa rufescens E A P X Solenodon paradoxus E I P X X X
Geotrygon caniceps E I P X X Slenodenna hailiensis I I N X
Geotrygon chrysia R I N X X Trichechus manalus manalus Ec A P X
X X
Plans are being developed to study the possibilities of commercial or semi-captive production of the American crocodile, Crocodylus aculus, for hides, oil and other products, and the local iguanas, Cyclura spp., for meat. These projects would have the double benefit of reducing pressure on endangered wild populations while at the same time encouraging rationally managed exploitation of a natural resource.
A great deal of interest exists in the Dominican Republic to introduce new species as free-roaming populations or for commercial propagation. Doves, pigeons, wild pigs, white-tail deer, rab-
bits, pheasants, quail, guinea hens, and some non-game species have been introduced. Aquatic systems are also involved. Tilapia, crayfish, carp, freshwater shrimp, and a host of other game and ornamental species are now found in Dominican streams, rive :s and lakes. The introduction of exotic species is a precarious gaf ie of chance. The intentional introduction of the mongoose has devastated terrestrial vertebrate populations, particularly ground-nesting birds. Tilapia may have been responsible for the reduction in some native fish species. Particularly in insular situations, the introduction of exotics is unwise due to the high endemism in native flora and fauna.
75


Wildlands Management Categories
Existing Dominican laws establish at least nine categories of areas that would apparently form the units of a wildlands system. Law 67 (Parks) creates eijit categories and the Forestry Law repeats the National Park category and adds Forest Reserve for a total of nine (Table VIII-2).
Law 67 creates some categories that arc better left to other institutions since they now operate these areas or are better suited to manage them in the future. Zoological gardens, botanical gardens, and national aquariums can operate independently or can be attached to a research or educational institution. National monuments of a historical nature should be left to the Oficina de Patrimonio Cultural or to one of the museums dealing with these areas (Museo del Hombre Dominicano or Museo de las Casas Reales). Wildlands institutions should concentrate mainly on areas that are unaltered by man, not areas that are created or manipulated by man. Under this philosophy, recreation areas would be administered by the tourism office rather than the DNP.
The mission of the DNP should be narrowed to managing and protecting resource areas of national importance. The Director has expressed interest in a slightly expanded set of categories for the Dominican National Park System (Morell 1980, see Table VIII-2). This set greatly improves on the original categories created by Law 67. Major emphasis is placed on natural systems. Highly manipulated research and educational areas are excluded.
The proposed Fauna Law would create four categories under the administration of the DVS. Assuming continued emphasis on the production of exotic an native game species, it would seem more d" xable to locate the mctions of comprehensive resource and ecosystem protection in the DNP and place wildlife management functions in the DVS. This would suggest the need for only two categories for DVS administration, Wildlife Sanctuaries and the wildlife aspects of Multiple Use Management Areas. The distinction between Faunal Refuge and Faunal Sanctuary is unclear. There are two basic functions to be performed: the protection and study of native fauna and the production of wild game for harvest. A sanctuary satisfies the first need, and areas established for multiple use management would satisfy the second. The other areas that would be established by the Proposed Fauna Law are more global in scope and fall well within the mandate of the DNP instead of DVS.
No management categories for marine resources appear in the legislation. Categories could be created de facto by using broad definitions and not limiting the descriptions of existing categories to terrestrial environments. Parks, monuments, reserves, and management areas can be aquatic as easily as they can be terrestrial. It is advisable, however, to expand the legal .nandates to include the creation, protection, and management of aquatic areas.
A list of suggested wildlands categories appears in Table VIII-2. This list should be considered a minimum but adequate starting point for a Comprehensive Wildlands System for the Dominican Republic. As currently envisioned, the System would include DNP, DRP, DVS, and DGF lands. National Parks, Scientific Reserves and National Monuments v.ould be the responsibility of DNP and in some cases DRP. Wildlife Sanctuaries would be administered by DVS. Resource Reserves are essentially protected natural storehouses. They ~.ou\d be managed by any of the four agencies or by an outside institution, depending on the nature of the reserve. Forestry and fishery resources would be managed under the Multiple Use Management Area category Biosphere Reserves frequency include several agencies working together, though a lead -gency would need to be identified. World Heritage Sites wou. d be managed according to the purpose of the individual sites. Scenic Corridors, v.hethir highway or riverine, would be managed on an individual bash.
Under this system, cultural, historical and archaeological sites would be managed by the appropriate museum. In those instances where the sites are within or near larger wildlands areas,
Table VIII-2. Wildlanus tategories used or proposed in the Dominican Republic.
I. Law 67 for the Direccion Nacional de Parques
Recreation Areas
National Recreation Parks
National Zoological Gardens
Aquariums
Panoramic Highways Historical Areas
National Monuments Natural Areas
National Parks
Botijiic?' GaHens
Natural Scientific Reserves
II. Proposed Fauna Law for the Departamento de Vida Silvestre
Zones of Biological Interest Faunal Refuge Faunal Sanctuary Biological Reserve
III. Suggested by IUCN (1978)
National Parks
Scientific Reserves
Natural Monuments
Wildlife Sanctuaries
Resource Reserves
Multiple Use Management Arjas
Biosphere Reserves
World Heritage Sites
Scenic Corridors
IV. Proposed for the Dominican National Parks System (Morell 1980)
National Parks Natural Monuments Cultural Monuments Scientific Reserves Wildlife Sanctuaries Wildlife Refuges Recreation Areas Scenic Highways Scenic Rivers Ecological Reserves
the agency with responsibility for the larger area could assume the protection of the smaller site, but the museum would remain as the expert agency and would retain final decision-making authority
In a similar way, small Scientific Reserves might be located under DNP for protection services, but could be managed by another expert agency which might have a particular interest in the specific resource being conserved. These suggested modifications would entail changes in existing wildlands laws. Congressional ,md executive action would be required. Remedial legislation is rarely a popular issue. Interim management using these categories de facto would probably be adequate for years. The important objective is to develop cooperation among the four principal agencies. The first order of business is to agree on a system of categories for wildlands management in the Dominican Republic.
National Parks
J. Armando Bermudez and Jose del Carmen Ramirez National Parks Size (combined): 1,530 km2 Created: JAB 1956; JRC 1958 Staff: 2 administrators; 35 rangers
Vegetation: Extensive stands of native pines, Pinus occidentalis, with sheltered areas of broadleaf forest (Fig. VIII-1, also see rig. II-2a).
Important fauna: Very poorly known. 51 birds have been identified in the park, including 13 endemics to Hispaniola and 11
76


Figure VIII-1. Sabana Vitja Valley surrounded by beautiful pine forests in the Jose del Carmen Rodriguez National Park. Tlie cabin (lower center) is one of several FORESTA guard stations in Ihe Cordillera Central. (Hand-held aerial pholo, Curios Qucsada.)
endemics to the Caribbean. Unconfirmed reports of Soltnodon, Plagiodontia, and many of the 18 Dominican bats have been made.
Important resources: The two parks are the headwaters of almost a dozen of the country's major rivers. Water for industrial, domestic, and agricultural uses comes from these mountains. The hydroelectric potential of many of these streams can only be realized if the watersheds are properly managed. The stands of pine and the broadleaf forests are important genetic resources for reforestation in other parts of the mountains.
Facilities: 17 ranger cabins are located in the eastern portions of the two parks where enforcement is currently concentrated. All are short of household items like bedding and raincoats, and some are in need of repairs. Equipment includes a four wheel-drive truck and a string of old pack mules. DGF supplies fire-fighting hand equipment. Visitor facilities include a shelter and a cabin on the trail to Pico Durate, and a camping area that is under construction.
Past Uses: Many areas of the parks have been significantly altered by human use. Coffee plantations exist inside the parks along some of the borders. Slash and burn agriculture has cleared the natural vegetation off many of the slopes at lower elevations. Deliberate burning and vandalism has damaged vast expanses of the forests. In the past, DGF has placed more empf^sis on protecting the pine trees to the point of ignoring the rest of the system of which the trees are only a part. Hunting and grazing occurred in many areas of the parks.
Existing problems: The problem of shared authority in the parks by both DGF and DNP personnel must be resolved. Con-
trol must be established over the entire area of both parks. Resettlement of settlers must proceed as soon as possible. The proposed trans-mountain highway could set back park protection significantly. More than 90% of all forest fires are deliberately set by local people. Until the park is seen as a beneficial reserve, this problem will continue.
Los Haitises Naitonal Park
Area: old 208 km*; new 120 km1
Created: 1968; new boundary modification proposed 1980
Staff: 1 administrator; 1 boat captain, 1 deckhand, 1 carpenter, 2 area supervisors, 13 park rangers
Vegetation: Lowland broadleaf forest developed on karst formations; plus coastal mangroves
Important fauna: Solenodnn, Plagiodontia, many bats, avifauna poorly studied, but at least 50 species identified, trigate bird and pelican nesting areas on off-shore islands, marine near-shore environments shelter a wide variety of fauna from Samana Bay.
Important Resources: Outstanding example of karst formations. Caves in abundance, possessing geological, ecological and archaeological importance.
Facilities: Three ranger cabins with an additional one under construction. Equipmei.l consists of a four-wheel-drive truck, a 7.38 m inboard cabin cruiser, and a woodworking shop where signs and materials are prepared for all units in the park system.
Past Uses: Nearly all of the original park area has been grossly altered by rural invasions of landless peasants seeking agricultural lands. Slash and burn clearing practices and indiscriminate use of fire have destroyed much of the value of the older park area. The boundary modification will return to park status the role remaining area with adequate natural areas or the potential to recover.
Existing Problems: New boundary must by approved so the DNP may establish firm control over the area. Banco Agricola continues to provide loans to settlers invading park lands. Mobility within area is very difficult given the rough terrain. Sediment load carried by Barracote River disturbs the near-shore areas of the park.
Isla Cabritos National Park
Size: 26 km1
Created: 1974
Staff: 1 administrator, 1 area chief, 6 park rangers Vegetation: Semi-desertic dry forest (Fig. VIII-2a) Important fauna: Crocodylus oculus, Cyclura comuta, C. ricordii,
Phoenicopterus ruler, total of approximately 50 resident and
migratory birds
Important Resources: Lacustrine saltwater environment below sea-level; insular semi-desertic environment; crocodile nesting areas; flamingo nesting areas; protected habitat of endemic rock iguanas
Facilities: Administrative compound plus pickup truck and inflatable boat
Past Uses: Extensive grazing on the island by domestic livestock has severely affected the native vegetation. Recovery has been good since the removal of dogs, cats, goats, burros, and cattle. Heavy hunting pressure on crocodiles and egg collection has reduced the population. Tilapia introduced to lake may have hastened extinction of native fish population. Diversion of water for irrigation means salinity of lake increases, possibly endangering even the introduced Tilapia upon which the crocodiles depend for food. Hurricanes in 1960's and recently in 1978 and 1979 brought enough water into the watershed to delay this problem at least for the moment.
Existing problems: Irrigation development in the Neiba Valley continues, meaning further withdrawals of water from streams and wells that would have supplied the lake with water for dilution. Park area is too small to protect the nesting and rearing areas for young crocodiles. Adequate water to assure salinity control in the lake must be guaranteed to the park ecosystem.
77


Figure Vffl-2a. Isla Cabrilas National Park stvertly dcgrnled (1977) by charcoal-making and goat browsing. Strict control by DNP has eliminated feral livestock, allowing the ratural vegetation to recover. (Photo John Shores.)
Parque Nacional Del Este Size: 434 kir2 Created: 1975
Staff: 1 administrator, 1 supervisor, 6 area supervisors, 1C park rangers
Vegetation: Lowland broadleaf forest, mangrove swamps (Fig. VIII-2b).
Important fauna: Solenodon paradoxus, Plagiodontia aedium, Cyclurn coniula, Columba leucocephala, visiting manatee and sea turtles, 112 bird species, including 8 endemics to Hispaniola and 11 endemics to the Caribbean.
Important Resources: Manatee feed are-s, turtle nesting beaches, white-crowned pigeon nesting areas, coastal lagoons, marine ecosysims, numerous caves with archaeological sites.
Facilities: At the present time, facilities are limited to administrative and protection facilities, consisting of three ranger cabins. Equipment includes a four-wheel-drive truck, two launches, and three pack mules. The fi'st park managment plan in the Dominican Republic has been w.itten for the PNE (DNP 1980). Visitor facilities are expected in the near future.
Past Use: In the past many valuable tropical hardwood trees were cut from the lands of the park in a selective-cutting or high-grading process. Small agricultural plots were scattered throughout the park, but the thinness of the soil meant that shifting agriculture had to be used. Free-roaming goats and burros and feral pigs wandered throughout the area. Large-scale coconut plantations are still operated along the west coast of the mainland.
Existing Problems: A large settlement exists on Saona Island as part of the Marina de Guerra outpost there (Mano Juan, pop. ap-prox. 350). Marine areas not included in original declaration of park limits. Resettlement of remaining families from southeast portion of mainland has been delayed. Park lacks surface drainage, water a critical resource. Conflicts with fishing interests like-
ly.
Resource Management
Wildland management is divided among three principo. istitu-tions, each in a separate superlevel of government. The Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP) is a semi-autonomous agency directly under the Presidency. The Direccion General Forestal (DGF) is located in the Secretaria de Estado de las Fuerzas Armadas y Po-licia Nacional. The Departamento de ^"da Silvestre (DVS) 's part of the Subsecretaria de Recursos Naturales (SURENA) of the Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura (SEA).
The Departmento de Recursos Pesqueros (DRP) is a sister agency to DVS in SURENA. The Museo del Hombre Dominicano (MHD) and Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) are both under the umbrella of the Presidency. The Parque Zoologico Nacional, usually called ZOODOM, is now under the administrative control of the Universidad Nacional Pedro Henri-quez Urena (UNPHU), while the Jardin Botanico is an autonomous institution but receives major funding from the government.
Legal and Historical Bases
The legal basis for resource management in the Dominican Republic is relatively ambiguous. Legislation has been created to deal with problems on a piece-by-piece basis, resulting in overlaps, gaps, and moderate confusion among and within institutions.
The first piece of institutional legislation was the Hunting Law, dating from 1931 and desperately in need of modification or replacement. Although a new Fauna Law has been proposed and is expected to pass both houses of the Congress and to receive presidential approval without any problems, it has apparently not received priority status at the legislative level. The new DVS is forced to operate under a law almost 50 years old, created in a time of major econ^ >mic depression worldwide, and clearly meant to encourage sport and commerce! hunting. As its name implies, it is a hunting law, not wildlife management legislation. The existing wildlife law is outdated. It lacks any mention of endangered species or the need to control the introduction of exotic species to the island. A detailed analysis of the law is not warranted here. The Dominican government has demonstrated its awareness of the inadequacy of the old law by proposing the new legislation.
The pr 'posed wildlife legislation takes a much-needed global approach to the problems of protecting and exploiting native fauna; recognition of the need to control faunal imports as well as exports; regulation r captive reproduction with exotic and native species; contro of all types of hunting, including subsistence, commercial, sport, and research. Categories for wildlife refuges and management areas are also established. The proposed law will be the first attempt to establish wildlife management as a legally recognized national goal. Unfortunately, it is not yet law.
In chronological order, the next major piece of wildland legislation is Lav/ 5856 (1962) which is called the Forestry Law. This law created the Direccion General Forestal (DGF or FORFCTA). (For a discussion of this legislation and of the institution, st the sections on natural vegetation and on plantation forestry.) Rather surprisingly, the Forestry Law does not mention native fauna, lis
Figure Vul-2b. Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este. (Photo, John Shores.)
78


stated objective is to regulate the concentration, restoration, development and exploitation of forest vegetation (Law 5856, Title I, Article I, 1962). Provisions are made for Forestry Reserves and National Parks, both of which will be managed by DGF, but no reference to wildlife is made, nor is much notice given to plant species not exploited for wood or other major forest products such as resins, gums, etc. The focus of the legislation is on commercial forest production and watershed protection. The Direction Nacional de Parques (DNP) was created by Law 67 (1974). Three groupings of areas and reserves were established, including eight specific categories for protected areas. This was the first piece of comprehensive wildlands legislation because it acknowledges the importance of all the factors that interact to form a functioning natural system instead of concentrating on just the timber or just the wildlife, as in the case of the two preceeding laws.
None of the three laws (or four if we include the proposed Fauna Law) includes the power of expropriation of land for the purposes of implementing the legislation. The DGF and DNP are given land management responsibilities, in the first case for Forestry Reserves and National iParks, of which National Parks would be a part. An apparent conflict exists between the Parks Law and the Forestry Law. Both laws charge their respective institutions with the administration of national parks. Article 12 of Law 67, however, states that institutions holding state lands that become parks or reserves should transfo iliose lands to the DNP without any remuneration of any kird. This would seem to imply that the national parks currently under joint DGF/DNP administration should pass to DNP. The cooperation between these two institutions, particularly with respect to prevention of forest fires in the Cordillera Central, is laudable. It is to be hoped that this close cooperation continues as each institution develops independent programs in its own management specialty.
A potential conflirl also exists between the DNP legislation and the proposed DVS legislation. Both institutions will have the responsibility to limit researc1. projects which include collecting and harvesting of wildlife for scientific purposes. Chapter III, Article 10 of the proposed Fauna Law states that all types of hunting licenses will be issued by DVS/SEA. Article 13, Section 2 of Law 67 states that the hunting or capture of animals in parks or reserves can only be done for scientific purposes, with DNP authorization. The problem could arise that the DNP, to conduct its own research within a national park, must first apply for permission from DVS. While it is proper that DNP personnel should have valid collecting licenses, there should be no confusion as to which institution is responsible for research and management within the National Parks System. This responsibility should belong to the DNP alone.
The greatest problem with respect to fauna is not legal, but rather an institutional problem. The Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros was formed from the fisheries division of Caza y Pesca (See discussion in the Marine Resource Section). The DVS took over the responsibility of the hunting division. The DRP has emphasized fish and shellfish in their programs, while the DVS has concentrated mainly on terrestrial fauna. Endangered marine fauna such as the manatee, Trichcchus manalus, ^r.d (nur species of marine turtles have been largely ignored. Their populations are extremely low, yet neither institution has been able to come to grips with the problem. The DVS has a strong interest in these species, but lacks the mandate and the resources to develop anything other than c small program to protect one turtle nesting beach. The DRP has a clearer mandate, but that institution is oriented more toward production than to protection of endangered species.
Institutional Framework
Four Dominican institutions have major responsibilities in the wildlands sector: the Direccion Nacional de Parques; the Departa-
mento de Vida Silvestre; the Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros, and the Direccion General Forestal. The former two, DNP and DVS, are treated here. DGF is discussed in chapter IV and the DRP in chapter VII.
Secondary institutions in the wildlands sector are considered to be those with significant impacts on wildlands through activities, programs, or projects directed at the wildlands resources. Not included here are the institutions that affect wildlands through their activities, but which are not mandated by law to recognize wildlands as part of their concerns (Table VTI-3). Secondary institutions fall into three basic categories, policy, registration, and research/education.
Table VIII-3. Government institutions affecting wildlands in the Dominican Republic.
Primary Institutions (management)
Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP) Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS/SEA) Direccioi. General Forestal (DGF) Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros (DRP/SEA) Secondary Institutions (policy) Congreso Presidencia Cancilleria
Secondary Institutions (research/education)
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) Museo del Hombre Dominicano (MHD) Parque Zoologico Nacional (ZOODOM) Jardih Botanico Nacional (JBN) Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena (UNPHU) Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra (UCMM) Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina (CIBIMA) Secondary Institutions (registration)
Centro Dominicano de Promocion de Exportaciones (CEDOPEX) Departamento de Ganaderfa (SEA) Departamento de Sanida J Vegetal (DSV/SEA)
Wildlands policies at the national level are established by the Congress, the Presidency, and on international affairs, by the Chancery. Actual management responsibilities, however, are delegated to the individual agencies. Registration responsibilities are the task of CEDOPEX, Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, and Departamento de Ganaderia. Their functions to date have been much more in the realm of registering introductions and exports of fauna and their products rather than examining the advisability of trade in a species itself. Little control has been exercised. CEDOPEX is charged with registering all exports of Dominican products. While this offers the potential to control the international trade of threatened or endangered species, to date it has been less than effective. The mechanism exists, but the Dominican government has not moved to restrict trade in these species. Agreerr. jnts to protect certain species only exist as memoranda between the heads of these agencies, and do not carry the weight of law. Greatly needed is the passage of the proposed Fauna Law and subscription to the CITES international agreement.
Research and education functions are performed by a large number of institutions. The museums, zoo, botanical garden and universities are traditional research institutions. The universities have major responsibilities for biological sciences education, but wildlands management training has not been offered. Expansion of wildlands training at these institutions is necessary if professional needs are to be met in the future.
Important support functions in research and education could be carried out by secondary wildlands institutions. Currently,
79


however, the activities of each of these institutions have been conducted independently and with only minimal cooperation.
In addition, the three national universities play a major role in training the students who become agency staff. Qose linkages are maintained between each agency and the two universities in Santo Domingo. The DGF is also :ied to UCMM programs. Most of these linkages are due to the sharing of personnel. Top agency officials are also professors at the various universities. While somewhat effective at keeping the various officials informed as to what current activities each institution is pursuing, this system depends to i great ded on the ii .dividual holding the position. A great need exists for institutionalizing this kind of communication. It could raise the overall level of effectiveness of all the agencies and reduce duplication of efforts.
Wildlife Department (DVS) is composed of five divisions plus an administrative unit. The Department was formed in 1978 with an original staff of six. It has grown rapidly to a current staff of 41, not counting honorary inspectors. The emphasis of existing and future programs is clearly or. wildlife production and control of vertebrate pests (Table VIII-4). Threatened and endangered species are receiving less attention.
Table VIII-4. Completed and planned programs of the Departamento de Vida Silvestre. Programs Completed
1. Ecological baseline study of bio-physical factors of the Lake Enriquillo watershed.
2. Ecological baseline study of bio-physical factors in the Rincon Lake watershed.
3. Ecological baseline study of flora and fauna in the area of the Bao hydroelectric project.
4. National survey of damages caused by vertebrate pests to agriculture.
5. Construction of a nursery to supply plants used by wildlife.
6. Preparation of the proposed Fauna Law.
7. Study of 11 potentially commercial species for food production including doves, pigeons, quail, and other game birds.
Future Programs Proposed
1. Inventory and evaluation of selected ecosystems i.i the country. Designed for international funding at RD $1,159,812 covering two years.
2. Mongoose control program in suburban and rural areas. This is a cooperative project and would involve the anti-rabies center as well as DVS.
3. Proposal to bring "o German volunteers to work in the ecosystem evaluation program.
4. Proposal to study the raising of frogs, Kcmtt otlcsbitma, for commercial uses.
5. Proposal to study ways to raise Japanese quail for rural consumption and commercial sale, cooperating with ALCOA and Partners of Michigan.
6. Proposal to study damage to cacao by endemic woodpecker, Melanirpts strialus.
7. Proposal to begin acquiring equipment and establishing laboratory for use in the vertebrate control program in cooperation with Denver Wildlife Center of U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and USAID/DR.
8. Quail production program by rural youth on a national level.
9. Proposal to develop a conference entitled Seminar on the Study, Management, and Conservation of Columbidat in the West Indies.
The DVS has remained a centralized agency in spite of the Director's stated goal of delegating authority and responsibility to the Section heads (Pena, pers. comm.). In part, this is a result of the confined office space and the small staff. The close proximity of one office to the next, and the Director's office to all the rest, imposes a certain amount of centralization and control. The small staff size facilitates the exchange of ideas and a strict separation of functions among Sections is the focus of all Department activities. Once the DVS becomes a lind management agency with responsibility for administering wildlife sanctuaries and management areas, a certain amount of decentralization will by necessity take place.
A common problem for new or reorganizid agencies is a lack of public identity. The DVS has not been immune to this problem, but has recognized it and designed a series of public education programs to remedy it while at the same time explaining the mission of the DVS and the existing wildlife laws to the public. Daily newspapers, weekly supplements, and other prated materials such as posters are used to reach a broad audience. Radio and television are used to reach other sectors of the population as well.
In part because of this need to build public support, and in response to deliberate SEA emphasis on food production, the DVS has moved heavily into the production of gamebirds as sources of meat and eggs for rural populations. While programs ''sing pigeons, quail, and partridges do increase public awareness of he Department and are legitimate efforts aimed at increasing rural incomes and consumption of protein, their placement within DVS is questionable. Building a public image as an action agency is one- goal, but creating a wildlife institution with an identity closely linked to introduced and exotic species could be a mistake.
The mission of the Departmento de Vida Silvestre should be redefined to be the conservation and production of native fauna with top priority on the preservation of existing genetic resources. The restoration and management of native wildlife, the preservation of threatened and endangered species, and the control of vertebrate pests should be trie major goals for the DVS.
Training has been an integral part of DVS staff development from the beginning. Seminars, short courses, and workshops have been used to broaden st expertise. Most of the training programs have been in-country, but an effort has been made to have DVS personnel attend regional and Caribbean meetings. In general the approach has been to organize workshops or short courses in Santo Domingo and bring in expert help from an international agency to conduct the program. Most of this training has been of a practical, field-oriented nature.
Most of the advanced wildlife training must come from abroad. Local universities do not have the faculty nor facilities to offer courses beyond the standard biological sciences curriculum. The goal of much of the international assistance received to d=.ite has been to boost the technical level of DVS programs. Information, consulting, and training have been the principal inputs. To develop its programs and achieve its goals, the DVS maintains direct contacts with a broad range of foreign institutions. The institutions and the nature of their contacts with DVS are shown in Table VIII-5. It is important to note that the DVS is attempting to rebuild interest in the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Committee that was set up in the Dominican Republic but is not currently operating. The MAB program can be another important link between national and international efforts to reintegrate economic development and wildlands management in regional ecodevelopment.
Foreign technical assistance has involved the Denver Wildlife Research Center in vortebrate pest control, the United States Peace Corps in quail production, and a plan to use German Volunteer Services in the ecosystem evaluation program. Partners of Michigan have backed a major expansion of the quail production scheme. OAS, RARE, WWF, and CCA funds are being sought for the expansion of programs addressing the problems of threatened and endangered species, but these sources for funds have not been developed to date.
National Parks Directorate (DNP) was created by Law 67 (1974) as a dependency of the President's office and actually began functioning in 1976. Its principal objective is the conservation and study of the biota and environment in areas termed "national parks" located in rural, urban and recreational areas as well as historic sites. The most important functions of DNP are: (a) to guarantee the public access to recreational areas and the opportunity to enjoy contact with nature in its pristine state; (b)
80


Table V1II-5. Institutions in contact with the Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Secretaria de Estado de Agricul-tura, Dominican Republic.
& S 8 S
Partners of Michigan
Denver Wildlife Research Center
International Affairs/USDI
Migratory Species/USDI
Endangered Speci/USDI
Enforcement/USDI
German Volunteer Services
United States Peace Corps
Organization of American States
RARE
IUCN
CITES
World Wildlife Fund
Caribbean Conservation Association
!CBP
MAB
New York Zoological Society National Audubon Society CATIE/rurrialba, Costa Rica Dept. of Natural Resources/Puerto Riro Instituto Mexicapj de Recursos Naturales

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X N X X X X X
to
5
3
m
c
6
F X F
X X
g
6
IN
X X
X X
Notes: X operating N not functioning, F future plans.
to provide study areas where management techniques can be tested and directed to achieve stability in natural ecosystems; and (c) to set aside areas where the populace can participate in direct observations of nature and complement those observations with environmental educationboth directed to increasing public awareness of their relationship with the environment and their responsibilities to nature.
Early emphasis was on urban and historical areas, but with a change in priorities since 1978, the immediate goals of the DNP have been to establish protection of the five existing national parks and to begin the task of explaining the importance of national parks to the public. The agency has four departments, but the largest by far is the Department of National Parks with a staff of approximately 82 in five national parks, plus the department chief and a staff biologist in the national office. The remaining three departments have a total j rofessional-technical staff of five. The priority of the DNP in the last two years has clearly been to establish an effective presence in the national parks.
Decentralization is a primary objective in the DNP. Considerable responsibility for decision-making has been delegated to the individual park administrators. All park administrators meet once a month with the national director and the financial administrator to stimulate interchange of ideas and to coordinte activities.
Six or seven field managers have received special training overseas in national park planning or administration. Because the national university system does not offer specialization in national parks, recruitment has been from agronomy and forestry degree programs. Though one might expect graduates to be more interested in working within their curriculum areas, the DNP has not experienced a high turnover rate at the upper levels. Delega-
tion of authority and responsibility has been effective in fostering a high level of interest in the job. In spite of rustic conditions in the parks, the administrator lives in the park and there have been few resignations. The DNP has expanded rapidly with most of the growth occurring in the last two years. Between 60-70% of the total DNP budget is allocated to the national parks. The 1980 budget is roughly RD$600,000 but this is expected to increase to nearly RD$900,000 for 1981 (Morell, pers. comm.). The problem facing the DNP now is how to raise the experience level of the field personnel. It is the hope of the Director that eventually all park guards will have completed their secondary education. His goal for the second stage of staff development is to have a ranger corps composed of unmarried high school graduates from outside the region in which they are patrolling. Currently, most park guards are local peasants without diplomas (Morell, pers. comm.), but low salaries deter involvement of educated persons. International financial institutions may be asked to supply interim grants to support DNP operational expenses while the parks are being developed. Once better facilities are available to park staff and visitors, the problem of maintaining mid-level staff should decrease.
Training requirements are considerable. Putney (1980) states that parks ale te will need 12 professionals and 48 technicians. Local universities do not have wildlife or wildlands management degree programs. Current estimates are 12 biologists and 90 agronomists graduated per year, with perhaps four having specializations in forestry. The biologists tend to have a stronger laboratory orientation than field orientation (Putney 1980). Clearly if DNP and other wildlands programs (DVS, DGF, DRP) are to expand and develop, foreign training will have to continue. Seminars, short courses, workshops, and advanced degre programs must be included in any training program.
Current DNP projects include the management and protection of five national parks; environmental education through publications, media articles, interviews, and other means; maintenance of urban parks under DNP supervision; and staff training. Projects include the modification of the boundaries of Los Haitises National Park, the protection of pigeon nesting areas within the parks (not a shot was fired in the Parque Nacional del Este this yearMorell, pers. comm.), an inventory of national wildland areas, and the development of infrastructure in the National Park of the East. This last area has been chosen as a pilot project for training DNP staff.
Equipment is barely adequate to provide minimal support to DNP efforts. Ranger cabins are sorely needed to establish a permanent presence of the DNP in all regions of the parks.
Foreign assistance at the present time is mostly in the form of cooperation and information exchange. Recent collaborative efforts have involved Alvaro Ugalde, Director of the National Park Service of Costa Rica (1978), Craig MacFarland from CATIE Wildlands Management Unit, Turrialba, Cosla Rica (1980), and Allen Putney from the Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program, St. Croix, Vigin Islands. A longer-term consultancy in 1979 by Edmundo Fahrenkrog, OAS, led the management planning effort for the National Paik of the East. A wildlife biologist currently works as advisor to the Chief of the National Parks Department. The biologist is a United States Peace Corps Volunteer completing his tour of service. From 1976 to the pre ent, a total of six Peace Corps Volunteers have worked in the DNP.
Future consulting needs include a park management specialist to train the park staff, a marine ecologist to guide the inventory of potential marine parks, and an advisor for :'ie national wild-lands inventory.
The DNP maintains close contacts with CATiE, WWF, IUCN, TNC, University of Michigan Wildlands Program, Caribbean Conservation Association, and other groups and individuals with conservation interests.
81


National Zoological Park (ZOODOM) was created in January 1975 by law 114, as a dependency of the administrative secretariat of the Presidency. (Flora and fauna in the area surrounding the zoological park rereived protection ten days earlier by Decree 451.) Its principal functions are (a) to study the ecology and behavior of indigenous species of vertebrates in the different habitats of the island: (b) to develop biological research on indigenous species and use that knowledge to promote public awareness of the importance of conserving native biological resources; (c) to maintain adequate numbers of native and exotic species in captivity to facilitate scientific research to help preserve endangered species; (d) to contribute to the establishment of ecological reserves suitable for basic research on "-^ural populations; (e) to contribute to the appropriate adminr ,trahon of the faunal resources of Hispaniola and the Caribbean; (f) to preDare publications on native and exotic fauna exhibited in the zoo; (g) to serve as a practical laboratory for research and educational programs (ONAP198C).
The zoo's major activities focus on education and research, including captive breeding of native fauna, reintroduction of progeny to native habitats, and field studies on wild populations of rare, threatened, or endangered species. Newly constructed, modem facilities permit ZOODOM to develop program activities. ZOODOM receives adequate budgetary support from the Presidency, as well as close collaboration with the local universities.
Anthropological Museum (MHD) was created in 1972 by Law 318 as a dependency of the administrative secretariat of the Presidency. Its principal functions are: (a) to conduct research on Pre-Colombian anthropology, enthnology and archaeology; (b) to maintain and conserve exhibitions of representative artifacts; (c) to maintain an inventory of museum collections; (d) to advise the government on the purchase of artifacts from private collections; (e) to publish research results. Major emphasis is given to prehistoric man. MHD collaborates closely with DNP on speleological studies in or near national parks. A major effort is urgently needed to determine the best methods for protecting important cave resources, particularly cave art.
National History Museum (MNHN) is also a dependency of the administrative secretariat of the Presidency. Its major goal is to conduct basic research, especially on birds, molluscs, and crocodiles. MNHN is nearing completion of a detailed inventory of the entire coastline. Though housed in a large and impressive building, it is not yet open to the public as displays are still being prepared. Serious pest problems are damaging some of the reference collections maintained by the MNHN. Unless the collections are adequately curated and protected, the MNHN cannot function as a national repository.
Principal Problems and Needs
Several problems exist at the legal level which impede adequate wildlands conservation and management efforts: 1) Management categories are not unified but very fragmented; 2) Management responsibility is sometimes unclear and lacks the proper emphasis that should be placed on threatened and endangered resources and their critical habitats; 3) Control of exotics is not firm enough (this will improve with proposed Fauna Law); and 4) Exports are not controlled by international convention (GODR is not a signatory member of CITES).
Institutional problems are of two types, inter- and intra-. Inter-institutional cooperation is sadly lacking. A few projjets (e.g. management plan for Parque Nacional del Este) are carried out by interinstitutional, interdisciplinary groups. The traditional accounting system used by the government makes projects with shared budgets almost impossible, thus reducing the incentive to work with an outside institution. Some individuals and their institutions do manage to conduct cooperative projects, but these
succeed in spite of institutional structures, not because of them. Usually a person with charisma is responsible for much of the success. Interinstitutional interfaces are also problematic fronts. Fortunately most of these are bi-institutional interactions and should therefore be easier to solve than multi-institution problems. The man problems are between DGF and DNP over ultimate control of the nation.il parks in the Cordillera Central, and between DVS and DRP over the agency to manage and protect sea turtle, manatee, and other seemingly forgotten species.
A major problem is developing between DVS and DNP over the methods and criteria to use in a nationwide survey. Because of the broader mandate given to the DNP, it is suggested that the national wildlands survey be managed with DNP as the lead agency, and that a parallel national wildlife survey be managed with DVS as the lead agency. The DNP orientation should be toward complete, functioning ecosystems largely unaltered by man. The DVS orientation should be to identify critical areas for individual species of wildlife. Once the DNP program has selected appropriate areas in the national park and wildland system, the DVS program should be ready to select wildlife refuges, sanctuaries and management areas from the remainder. That way a needless duplication of effort is avoided, and in addition first priority is given to functioning natural ecosystems. Because of the management inherent in the wildlife approach, it seems logical to select candidate parks first on the basis of naturalness, and select range and management areas from the remaining areas that can then be manipulated to favor certain species.
A major institutional need is to develop mechanisms and structures for encouraging multi-institutional cooperation. An incentive and reward system is needed to facilitate coordinated interrelations. An authority structure is needed to guide the efforts of various collaborating institutions so that a common goal or objective is achieved.
Currently, the best cooperative efforts occur when funding and guidance come from an exogenous source. An expert consultant with external funding can often get higher levels of cooperation on multi-institutional projects than can an internal coordinator using national funds. Apparent sources of difficulty include: 1) Administrative/accounting procedures that inhibit sharing funds and budgets; 2) Institutional jealousy with respect to territory, control, and credit for efforts; 3) Reward/incentive system that tends to ignore non-traditional achievements; and 4) Reluctance to divert resources from traditional projects to new, untested, or innovative projects.
Foreign expert consultants with external funding can avoid many of these pitfalls, but what is needed is the institutionalization of inter-agency cooperation. This problem area is important enough to warrant careful study.
Educational capacities for advanced wildlands training are essentially non-existent in the Dominican Republic. The source of both expert consultants and advanced education must be external (Putney 1980). A two-pronged approach is suggested where consultants should be brought in to train host country nationals in a leam-by-doing context, and selected Dominicans should be sent to foreign training facilities, including institutions of higher learning where th n pursue advanced degrees.
It might hi jssible to arrange exchange programs or visiting protir :.>; ; 'rams to strengthen certain curricula in the national univ is the demand for wildlands personnel is felt in the market, u.-. shortage in supply may bring out competition among agencies for qualified personnel. It would be more productive to have training programs planned and in progress to supply adequately trained resource professionals as they are needed.
Conflicts between wildlands and essentially all other land uses will increase as development proceeds. Even with an adequate system of wildland reserves the future of the living natural resources of the Dominican Republic would still be in jeopardy
83


from spillover effects generated in adjacent or even distant areas. The effects of an oil tanker accident in the Mona Passage could be devastating to some wildlands resources (see chapter 'II). Wildlands cannot be left to stand alone. An integrated system of wildlands, forest production lands, watershed protection areas, agricultural lands, and more developed land use areas must be devised if the country is to minimize the irrevocable loss of wildlands nd natural resources.
Recommendations
Highest Levels of Government
1.1 Develop comprehensive legislation establishing GODR's dedication to the conservation and management of natural resources and the environment. While not a subsector of wildlands, comprehensive, uniform environmental legislation is of critical importance to the effective protection for the natural resource base of the Dominican Republic.
1.2 Become a signatory nation to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS) currently cooperates on CITES matters, but the legal mandate is lacking. This should be considered a top priority for congressional and presidential action.
1.3 Approve and implement the proposed Fauna Law. The effectiveness of the DVS is seriously compromised by the outdated Hunting Law. The proposed new law would add needed force to the programs which aim to protect and conserve endangered species, among other needed modifications.
1.4 Declare all islands and keys in the Dominican territorial waters to be Natural Resource Reserves, and establish interim protection for local flora and fauna. The importance of the coastal islands and keys is so high that an immediate step is warranted to protect the populations on these small land areas, particularly nesting birds and turtles. Protection should be established as soon as possible, and studies begun to determine the proper resource management category for each area.
1.5 Revise and modify existing laws which create wildlands managment categories. Existing laws have created a jumble of categories, groupings, and agency responsibilities. A uniform set of categories and selection criteria is needed with clear determination as to the management priorities in each area, plus an unambiguous assignment of each category to an agency or institution.
1.6 Continue supporting environmental education. The Government of the Dominican Republic is to be congratulated on its efforts to establish environmental education as an integral part of the national education system. These efforts must be continued and expanded.
Inter-institutional Level
2.1 Clarify borders between DVS aid the Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros (DRP) with respect to marine fauna. Certain threatened or endangered marine fauna have not received proper attention. The DRP should either increase emphasis on sea turtles and marine mammals, or pass this responsibility to the DVS.
2.2 Define role of the Direccion General Forestal (DGF) with respect to National Parks. Article 12 of Law 67 charges all other institutions with the responsibility to transfer National Park lands to the Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP). Complete control of the National Park System should rest in this institution. The cooperating arrangement between DGF and DNP should continue with regard to forest fire prevention and control.
2.3 Establish a clear mandate for one institution to be responsible for protecting caves and caverns. Effective protection of the rich cave resources of the Dominican Republic does not exist. While Law 492 (1969) declares a large number of caves throughout the country to be National Monuments under the
control or protection of the Oficina de Patrimonio Cultural, Law 67 would appear to assign this responsibility to the DNP. Current cave research efforts are carried out by the Museo del Hom-bre Dominicano and the private Sociedad Dominicana de Espeleologia.
2.4 Expand environmental education programs at all levels. Every institution interviewed in the wildlands sector has some sort of environmental education program. These should be encouraged. A careful evaluation of the different programs might reveal some key characteristics that help determine the success or failure of a particular method or media. An evaluation of experiences gained to date should be made.
2.5 Encourage integrated development schemes applying ecode-velopment priciples. Carefully integrated, multi-disciplinary programs to develop land use techniques applicable to hillside farming must be assembled. By developing productive resource exploitation methods, the government can help relieve the pressure on national parks and equivalent reserves while at the same time stemming the rural-to-urban migrations.
2.6 Establish guidelines and effective controls over the introduction of exotic species. The proposed Fauna Law would establish this as a responsibility of the DVS, but clear cooperative agreements will be needed among the various agencies involved including DVS, Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, Departamento de Ganaderia, and DRP. At the present time, international organizations are able to bring exotic fauna, both terrestrial and aquatic, into the country with apparently no restrictions or even inspections. Published guidelines would greatly facilitate cooperation in and control of exotic introductions.
2.7 Modify accounting and evaluation procedures to encourage inter-institutional cooperation and projsct sharing.
2.8 Develop national data base for natural resources. A comprehensive data base of natural resources would be a great planning aid and would help identify potential impacts at an early stage in project formulation. Special emphasis should be placed on threatened and endangered species.
Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS)
3.1 Increase emphasis on the protection and management of threatened and endangered species. Too much emphasis is placed on commercial production. While control of pest species is important, the top priority should be research and management efforts aimed at preserving the existing genetic resources. A separate section in the Department should be created for this purpose. It is difficult to accept the argument that a wildlife department should be involved in the study of exotic species for commercial applications. These tasks could better be handled by departments experienced in raising chickens, turkeys, and other fowl and small livestock. It would be more logical to dedicate wildlife department resources to conservation and repopulation with native species and to the control of vertebtate pests.
3.2 Establish the DVS as a land management agency. Wildlife management areas, sanctuaries, and refuges do not exist under the DVS control. These areas should be established to permit a directed management program by the responsible agency.
3.3 Conduct comprehensive national wildlife surveys. It is of prime importance that coordinated national surveys of wildlife populations be begun. Compilation of baseline population and distribution data is the first step in establishing an accurate picture of the faunal resource and its condition.
Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP)
4.1 Conduct a nationwide wildlands survey. This is the first step in evaluating the appropriateness of existing units of the national park system, and also the first step in identifying new areas that should be evaluated for possible inclusion. Useful aerial photography may be forthcoming from the SIEDRA/CRIES project. This would supply an effective way of determining the level of hu-
83


man impact on selected areas as a first-cut approximation of wildness.
4.2 Adjust boundaries of Los Haitises National Park. It is of extreme importance that the boundaries of this park be clarified so that effective control of the area can be established.
4.3 Conduct a coastal survey to identify marine park candidates. The Museo de Historia Natural is currently conducting a program of coastal inventories and their experience should be included in a comprehensive marine park survey. Lead agency responsibility, however, must remain with the DNP.
4.4 Expand Isla Cabritos National Park. While the goal of a complete self-regulating ecosystem may never be possible for Isla Cabritos National Park, at the very least the park area should be expanded to include crocodile nesting areas and other critical habitat areas.
4.5 Include marine areas in the Parque Nacional del Este. The management plan (DNP 1980) contemplates a 500 m marine zone around the park plus the canal between the mainland and Isla Saona. All of this area should be included in the park.
84


IX
Small Farmers
Introduction
This chapter deals with some of the environmental problems and agrarian trends concerning small farmers in the Dominican Republic. In any study of the relationship between man and natural resources, the role of the small farmer is extremely important for he is a food producer. Moreover, he constitutes the bulk of the rural population of what essentially still is an agrarian country. It is the small farmer with simple technology who produces the bulk of the food for national consumption.
A survey of official government literature lpads to the conclusion that it is the small farmer who is implicitly viewed as the main agent of irrational use of such resources as soils and forests. Regardless of the validity of the accusations, the rmall farmer is an important agent in ecological transformations, a part of the problem, and a necessary component of any solution.
Although the main concern of this chapter is the specific ways in which the peasant's productive systems affect natural resources, first we must consider some broader societal issues that are deemed crucial to the resolution of the ecological problems existing at the level of peasant society. These societal issues will confront Dominican society during the 1980's with some of its most trying challenges. These challenges can only be met successfully by a concerted national effort involving the manner of dealing with the issues, a massive marshalling of resources, and strong political determination. The Dominican people must determine how they will meet these important challenges.
Some Trends of the Agrarian Structure and their Ecological Implications
Land Tenure
There is an ongoing dual trend toward fragmentation and concentration of land, the key resource in agriculture. Fragmentation brings about a continuous rise in the number of "minifundios" or small farm units. According to the Agrarian Reform Institute (IAD 1979), out of 495,000 farms in 1970, some 300,000 had less than two hectares (also see Table VT-3). Furthermore, within this broad strata of minifundia a substantial number of landholder's plots are as small as Vi or even Vt hectare. These two latter types of tiny land holdings are termed "microfundios". During the
1980's the numbers of minifundia and landless peasants are expected to increase (S. Moquete, pers. comm.), though considerable efforts to provide land lo the landless will continue under the agrarian reform programs. Minifundia are particularly widespread in the Cibao, while in La V:ga and San Francisco de Macoris, minifundia coexist with latifundia. The eastern coastal plain is dominated by latifundia in sugarcane and cattle production.
The reasons behind the fragmentation of property have not been clearly Identified. However, laws of property inheritance of the Dominican peasantry give siblings equal shares of the parents' property upon their deaths. /, generation ago, when mortality rates were high, the number of surviving descendants was much smaller and life txpectancy was shorter.
Socio-economic and ecological issues logically spring from an increase in minifundia. What is the relationship between the very small landholder and natural resources? To answer this question we need to study the production systems of the farmers of small Iandholdings. While farmers from the Cibao and the Central Cordillera have been studied to learn their agricurural and economic techniques, the peasants of the southwest remain largely a socio-economic unknown.
Small farmers and agribusiness operations have divergent productive orientations. The small farmer has small plots for fruits and staples including plantains, dry beans, yucca, sweet potatoes, pigeon peas, and in some areas, tomatoes. Very few small farmers grow rice, a crop grown by farmers with more capital and machinery. Most larger farms have a concentration of the more profitable export cash products such as sugarcane, tobacco, cacao or beef.
The small farmer still relies on rudimentary agricultural technology. He uses basic tools and little if any mechanization or fertilizer. In the Dominican Republic fertilizers are used primarily by the cash crop export sector (SEA/IICA 1977). At the same time several studies have shown a positive and open attitude of small farmers to modem technology, including fertilizer, but they do not use it because they cannot afford it (Tejada and de Moya 1977). Loaning institutions generally consider the small farmers a risky credit subject; hence they have a hard time acquiring credit for production.
With his rudimentary technology the small farmer is forced to extract as much as possible from his land; this can easily lead to overutilization and soil degradation and as soils deteriorate productivity decreases. The rudimentary technology the peasants use
88


does not necessarily lead to a deterioration of the soil and/or other natural resources. The regions where peasant technology is causing the greatest ecological damage are the steep slopes of the Cordillera Central unsuitable for seasonal crops, particularly beans (M. Paulet and B. Santos, pers. comm.). Even if a peasant is in a position to take soil conservation measures, his individual effort is lost when the problems are widespread and affect whole regions (Moquete 1979). In areas such as the watersheds of Sabana-yegua, San Jose de Ocoa and Tavera, the solution to the deterioration of natural resources requires intersectorial planning that transcends the level of the family farmer.
The concentration of land into larger farms is another significant aspect of the agrarian structure. Serious socio-politicail as well as ecological issues must be considered. Though latifundia can be productive, large farms in the Dominican Republic tend to be inefficient and their practices frequently lead to natural resources degradation, especially for beef cattle ranching and sugarcane production, specifically in the case of the government lands.
Concentration of the land usually involves peasants selling their land to mass producers. Agricultural real estate value in the Dominican Republic is amongst the highest in Latin America. In the Cibao, the cost of a hectare of agricultural land is DR$2,000 to 4,000 or more (A. Abreu, pers. comm.).
"Professional cattlemen" purchase a significant portion of the land sold by small farmers. City dwelling professionals (lawyers, doctors, dentists, engineers, military officers, etc.) make up a new sociological strata investing in land and cattle. This represents sound economic behavior as well as prestige. These entrepreneurs prefer to rear cattle because, unlike modern mechanized crops, livestock does not require their continuous physical presence; a manager can be hired to run the farm.
Total cattle stock stands at 1.9 million head grazing on about 1.4 million hectares of land, roughly 55% of the land in agricultural use (Ecol. Cons. 1980). The ecological problems associated with ranching are well known in the country: overgrazing is common. Cattlemen remove most trees because they believe cattle prefer sunlight to shade; the elimination of trees from the pasturelands contributes to the desertification of the countryside (Ecologia 1979).
The Dominican Government is a very large landholder and iand user. Currently it runs 11 sugar mills and it owns about 187,000 hectares dedicated to sugarcane and pasture. The State Sugar Council (CEA) has a poor record for land use and is a money losing enterprize. According to knowledgeable Dominican technicians, the CEA has severe administrative and planning limitations.
In a visit to a CEA sugar mill the first impression one has is of general decay of the infrastructure and the equipment: the mill appears old and deteriorated, the workers' housing is in poor condition and the raillines, irrigation and drainage canals unkempt, etc. In the case of Central B.irahona, the CEA's largest mill, the poor maintenance of the irrigation canals has led to widespread loss of good agricultural soils due to salinization. Obviously, if the government is going to be a fundamental institution in the struggle to preserve and manage the natural resources it would do well to start by putting its own house in order.
Employment and Income
Another feature of the agrarian structure is the scarcity of employment opportunities and the concentration of income. Unemployment is not so much a threat as is underemployment. Official figures usually report that underemployment affects 40% of the rural labor force. More recent studies, however, indicate that these official statistics may be underestimating underemployment in the countryside. Juan Diaz (1978) found that even in places like Moca, one of the most productive sectors of the Cibao, underemployment stands at 46%
Given the low productivity of small farms and widespread phenomenon of underemployment, rural income is very low. According to IAD (1979) the number of families below the "poverty line" is increasing. This same report concludes, pessimistically, that the present trend is towards a greater concentration of income rather than towards a fairer distribution of it.
The Rural Exodus
The combination of forces acting upon the peasantry has led to a significant rural exodus. This exodus away from the countryside is visible in all rural areas but it is more intense in the Cibao and in the southwest (Breton et al 1977).
The migratory movement is in fact made of several currents, the widest running toward large urban centers such as Santo Domingo and Satiago de Los Caballeros. Peasants sometimes migrate directly from their areas of origin to these large cities, other times they migrate in stages, moving first to small cities or large towns, then to Santo Domingo or Santiago.
Ramirez (1981) found that in Santiago and Santo Domingo half the population is made up of immigrants. Furthermore, 80% of the people over 35 years old are immigrants from rural areas. Twenty-five percent of the immigrants interviewed said that they were looking for employment, while another 23% wanted to improve their economic condition. Needless to say, the massive arrival of thousands of peasant households into these and other cities has strained the capacity of the municipalities to provide basic public services as electricity, water, sewage. <;tc. (see Chapter X).
During the last 20 years peasints have also migrated abroad. Ther are no reliable statistics on the number of Dominicans living abroad as figures fluctuate quite widely. Researchers of the National Population Council (CNVP) believe that a minimum of 400,000 Dominicans live in New York City, at least 50,000 are in Puerto Rico, and several thousands live in Venezuela, Severe unemployment problems and strong internal pressures within the aforementioned countries will probably stop or substantially reduce the arrival of more Dominican immigrants.
Problems in rural areas have brought about an increase of squatters to both national and private lands (IAD 1980). While in 1979 there were only five invasions of private property, 30 invasions had taken place in the first nine months of 1980. Invasion of land is not a minor disorder, but an organized confrontation involving hundreds of squatter families; some 5000 peasant households were involved in 1980. The invasion of private land raises serious socio-political issues. The government must inevitably take sidesit can either remove the squatters or it can expropriate the land from its owner to allow the squatters to keep the land. Either way, serious conflict always ensues with one of the parties in dispute. If the present trend in land invasions continues, it will pose a serious potential for political confrontation within Dominican society.
The Production System of the Small Farmers in the Southwest
Given the limited time available, it was only feasible to look with some degree of detail at the production systems of the peasantry of two ecologically critical areas: those of the southwest and the Cordillera Central. While the small farmers of the Cordillera Central have been the subject of several sociological studies, those of the southwest have been largely ignored. For this reason our attention will be focused on the latter.
Both the Cordillera Central and the southwest are critical regions because the struggle to transform the country into a self-sufficient food producer will be largely determined by what occurs in these regions. While the battle for food production will
86


be fought in the dry and fertile but still largely uncultivated plains of Azua, the war will be won in the Cordillera Central where all of the country's major river systems are bom. Thus the destiny of the lowland plains and the highlands is intimately linked by the major rivers.
In the last 30 years the Dominican peasantry has undergone substantial changes. Although they might not agree upon the causes of these changes, Dominican writers who have explored the subject tend to agree on the broad pattern of these changes Bosch 1980; ISA 1979). Until the recent past peasant households were largely self sufficient in food staples; their participation in the market economy was peripheral so they hardly needed any cash. Three decades ago the countryside had half the population it has now and the natural resources base had not been seriously depleted. Today the peasant has been largely integrated into the market economy as both producer and consumer. He has become a consumer of a wide variety of manufactured goods and services that require cash. He acquires by selling his product or labor.
As their cash needs have grown, peasants have had to intensify their productive efforts but higher productivity can only be achieved with the introduction of expensive modern inputs like machinery, fertilizers, weed killers, etc. The majority still rely on traditional production systems such as slash and burn agriculture; however, these can very easily degrade the natural resources base, particularly if the expanding need for cash is accompanied by a population explosion.
How do peasants of the southwest make a living? What technology do they employ, and what effect does this technology have on the local natural resources are some of the questions we shall address next.
The Southwest is formed by seven provinces: Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Independencia, Elias Pina, Pedemales and San Juan de la Maguana. This large area covers 14,500 km* or 30% of the national territory. In 1989 its population was estimated at 692,000 or 13% of the nation's total (ONAP 1980). Its population density is 38/km2, much lower than the national average of 100/kml.
The Southwest is the poorest area of the country and least developed agriculturally. Nonetheless, the Southwest has the potential to become the main agricultural frontier of the Dominican Republic. Only 27% of the region is distributed into farms (see Table VI-2). A substantial amount of the land is still government or community owned. If water is made available through irrigation projects under construction or being planned, as much as 78% of the region could be put to agricultural use (ONAP 1978). Howe/er, SIEDRA (177) reporst only 49% of the Southwest has soils of moderate or high agricultural potential (see Table VI-9).
The natural resources of the dry Southwest are being rapidly depleted by deforestation for charcoal, the destruction of the dry forest, salinization of the soil, and desertification. Although not all these changes can be attributed to the small farmers, they are an important agent because they constitute the bulk of the agricultural producers and their productive system remains largely unchanged.
The economic base of most peasant households is sustained by three main activities: slash and burn agriculture, the making of charcoal, and the rearing of goats. Each of these activities is important for the sustenance of the household economy, but all of them, given the rudimentary methods employed, strain the existing natural resources particularly with increasing monetary inflation.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
According to the 1971 census there were 54,300 farms in the Southwest. Of these farms, 76% or 41,400 had less than five hectares. Small farmers grow numerous crops because of the range of microclimates found in this generally dry area, which has, nonetheless, marked differences in precipitation and altitude.
Coffee is cultivated in the higher areas, plantains are grown on the plains where irrigation is available, and beans, chick peas, and yucca seem to be grown everywhere. Rice and sugarcane are also grown but usually on the laige farms.
In the parched Southwest where water determines agriculture, those peasants who have access to it can successfully cultivate a crop. Most small farmers, however, depend on the vagaries of the weather and rudimentary farming skills for dry-land farming.
Families raise most of their yearly food needs by slash and burn agriculture (Fig. IX-1). The tools and techniques of this type of productive system in the Southwest are remarkably similar to those used by the peasants of the Cordillera Central (Werge 1974). Of all the different activities carried out by the peasants of the Southwest it is slash and burn agriculture that has the broadest negative impact on local resources. Damage is particularly noticeable on the steep hillsides of the Sierra de Martin Grande, Sierra de Baoruco and the southern slopes of the Cordillera Central, and also in crucial watersheds such as the Rio Yaque del Sur, Rio del Medio and Rio Ocoa.
During the year a peasant cultivates several types of crops in a number of plots that are usually widely separated from one another and distant from the household site. As peasants frequently state, this production is for household consi mption and for sale. The manner in which household productio \ is split between home consumption and the market varies widely. There are no reliable figures that would allow one to place a small farmer along the continuum ranging from those who hardly market any produce to those who sell most of their production. Nonetheless, the fact that in the Southwest the small farmers tend to market very small amounts reflects not their desires or attitudes but that low productivity barely provides the yearly sustenance for their families.
In the Southwest, as in the case of the Cordillera Central (FAO 1971), the peasant does not normally own all the different plots he cultivates. He gains access to them using a variety of land tenure arrangements varying from full ownership to rent and share-cropping.
Elpidio Ramierez is a typical "conuquero" from Las Yayas, near Padre Las Casas, who cultivated two plots under different tenure arrangements in 1980. On the steep hillsides with thin, rocky soil that surround his community he cultivates a two hectare plot that he owns. He plants yearly crops of beans and yucca for household consumption, plus com for his chickens. Since his children are too small to help with field chores and he does not have money to pay for laborers, Elpidio has incorporated a partner, his brother, to share in the risks and the costs. Elpidio contributes with the land and the seed while his brother supplies
Figure LX-la. Slash and bum agriculture opening Ihe subtropical dry [crest near Padre las Casas. Small farmers are now entering the dry lowlands where the vagaries of rainfall reduce the probability of a successful harvest. (Photo, Gary Hartshorn.)
87


Figure IX-lb. Slash and hum agriculture on shallow, rocky soil in degraded subtropical dry forest in Ihe lower Sabana Yegim watershed. (Pholo, Gary Harslhom.)
Figure IX-2a. Carrying branches and small stems lo make charcoal. (Pholo, John Shores.)
most of the labor. This tenure arrangement is known as "halves" because at harvest the crop will be split into two shares, not necessarily equal. From his share Elpidio first sets aside 136 kg of beans to cover the annual family needs, plus an additional 91 kg as seed for next year's crop. Any remaining beans from his share are sold in the market.
Four years ago Elpidio became the physical owner of this plot by clearing the dry forest on the government land. He cleared the land by relying on another widespread peasant labor exchange known as "el convite". In this particular case, Elpidio re-payed the labor contributed by his neighbors, relatives and friends by offering them food on the day of the "convite" and later with his own labor. "Conviies" seem to be called also for the heavier agricultural tasks such as weeding and harvesting. It is interesting to note the Elpidio did not abandon his plot after cultivating it for one year; rather, he has planted crops for four years and manifests that he has not noticed a significant decrease in yields. The common assumption is that peasants abandon their plots after only one year of cultivation.
In the fertile valley Elpidio cultivates a 1.0 hectare plot that he rents for DR$10 for a two-crop agricultural year. In this plot he produces commercial crops that can find a ready market: tobacco, peanuts, and, if the price is right, beans. To prepare the land he rents a pair of oxen at DR$5 per day. It is in this plot where he uses whatever modern inputs he can afford such as fertilizers and weed killers.
Besides cultivating his own plot for household consumption and a rented one for commercial purposes, Elpidio also engages in another occupation common among the small farmers of the Southwest. He makes charcoal in his spare time as a cash upple-ment. The demand of Azua truckers for charcoal is good ind the truckers haul it to the main market in Santo Domingo. Elpidio makes charcoal about once every two or three months. In the Southwest most of the peasants occasionally make charcoal but. only the very poor do it as a full time occupation.
The Making of Charcoal
Charcoal production is one of the most widespread and important sources of cash for the poorer economic strata of the arid Southwest (Fig. IX-2). Virtually all charcoal produced by the poor peasants goes to the cities and small towns where it is the main cooking fuel of the poor, who cannot afford liquified gas or electricity.
It is difficult to establish how many households are engaged either full or part time in the charcoal industiy. One can infer that the number of households involved in the charcoal business must run into the thousands by the fact that in the town of Azua
there are 100 trucks working full time hauling charcoal to the markets. These truckers make a formidable political pressure group as shown by their threats to block the main highway of the Southwest if FORESTA proceeds to reduce their charcor' hauling perrr its from the present level of two trips per week.
The Southwest is the largest charcoal producing region in the Dominican Republic. Jennings and Ferreira (1979) estimated the region's output at an average of 200,00 sacks per month. This would represent a early total of 2.4 million sacks, aboul half the estimated national production The sack is a large hemp bag which is not a standard measure: all sacks vary and the average weight of one of these fully-loaded sacks is unknown. Charcoal sacks, like goats, are sold on sight without weighing the product. Truckers currently pay producers about DR$3 per sack.
Charcoal, as previously mentioned, is basically consumed in the towns and cities by the poor, but the middle income strata use it as well. It is used not only for cooking but also for the very energy wasteful practice of boiling clothes. For some mysterious cultural reason the people consider that garments have not been washed properly if they have not been boiled. Wood is too precious to bt consumed in such a manner. The Dominican government should carry out a widespread campaign to discourage such a wasteful p'artice particularly now when there are many cold water detergents on the market.
All three daily meals .'.re cooked with charcoal but it is the midday meal when the g.eatest amount of charcoal is consumed. A family of fh'e or six members requires about one five gallon
Figure IX-2b. Slack of slicks ready lo be converted into charcoal. (Pholo, Stanley Heckadon.)
88


can of charcoal per day, which is worth DR$0.70. The major midday meal requres a half tin can. Of the different foods prepared, beans require the greatest amount of energy. Native beans, according to housewives, are notoriously hard a..-', require long cooking. American beans, on the contrary, are setter and cook faster. A natural suggestion which comes to mind is the need for further research within the Dominican Republic's research centers to produce several varieties of beans that will cook with less energy than those now available in the market.
Characteristic circular patches of burned ground mark the site where a temporary charcoal kiln has been constructed and fired. Most peasants of the Southwest prefer to construct kilns that will produce 20 to 25 sacks of charcoal. Making a kiln is strictly a family or household activity. Sr. Conce near Neyba makes charcoal of a full time basis. It takes his six young sons and himself fi' f. days to cut the wood and make the 25 sack kiln covered w..u :arth. Next comes the firing of the kiln and the delicate process of burning the wooda process that takes about five days. Then it takes another two days to sack the charcoal and transport it on burros to their house. The distance between the charcoal making areas and inhabited areas is progressively greater. As the "charcoal front" advances the prime woods bayahonda (Prosopis juliflora) and cambron (Acacia farnesiana) become scarcer. Sr. Conce, like many other charcoal makers, also faces serious problems du" to erosion of the soft loose topsoil necessary to cover the kilns. In the areas where charcoal is being intensively produced, the destruction of the dry forest has led to erosion of the thin soil leaving it barren and rocky.
Charcoa. demand increases every time the price of fossil fuels increases. This perhaps accounts for f'r.e rapid expansion of the "charcoal front" in the Southwest and in the Southeast; many peasant families now find it a profitable commercial activity. Roads facilitate the movement of the product to the market. Dry forests are being seriously depleted (Fig. IX-3). There is no reforestation, the trees that have been cut for charcoal are either totally dstioyhid or left as short stumps that will take a long time to regenerate. Stump sprouts face a further threat: the thousands of voracious goats browsing freely across the disappearing dry forests of the region.
The Rearing of Goats
The third important component of the peasant's production system is the rearing of goats. Peasants refer to goats the poor man's cow. In the Southwest most families raise gouts because they do not have the economic capacity to have cattle.
Many households have between four and five goats that are an occasional source of milk and meat, but mainly function as a
Figure IX-3. Subtropical dry fortsl seriously depleted by cutting for charcoal. The few emergent trees (right skyline) give an indication of the former height of the forest. (Photo, Halo Russo.)
Figure IX-3b. Woodcutter in the Parquc Nacional del Este. (Photo, John Shores.)
hedge against economic insecurity. In an emergency they can easily be sold for cash jecause of the significant (780 m ton) gap between production and demand (SEA 1978). The tendency is for the gap to widen with the elimination of pigs due to swine fever.
If it were not for its I ickwardness, the goat industry could make a much greater economic contribution to the peasant economy and cause less environmental damage. Goat production has not changed in generations. Peasants give their goats minimal care; goats survive by foraging on extensive communal and government lands. Goats will eat practically any type of vegetation; it is common to see bark peeled from trees. Allowing goats to roam freely is quite detrimental to the animal's development: no control or care can be given to the young born in the bush, resulting in as much as a 40% juvenile mortality rate (Jose Alvarez, pers. comm.), due to disease, dog attacks and accidents. Peasants do not vaccinate the animals or take measures to control parasites. There is no supplementary feeding with minerals or vitamins and consequently the Creole goats take up to two years to reach a marketable weight of 20 to 25 kg. Improved breeds of goats reach 50 kg in the same time span. Most peasants, however, cannot afford to w->it and generally sell their goats when they are 6-12 months old.
Creole goats have low milk output, seldom surpassing one liter per day. Though peasants should increase their milk consumption, they prefer not to milk the female goats so that the young kids can reach a marketable size faster. Creole goats are hardy animals capable of surviving with minimal care under adverse conditions. However, peasant-reired goats destroy the dry forests of the Southwest. Goats not only chew on the bark of "rees but uproot the thin grasses and chew on the tender sprouts of trees that have been cut by man to produce charcoal.
Though Creole goats ha"e a negative impact on the South-west's natural resources, the goat could become a dynamic pillar of the peasant economy by increasing their income and protein nutrition. A growing unfulfilled demand exists for goat meat. The generations of rearing goats make the peasants of the Southwest the most viable source of manpower to be trained in efficient resourceful modern techniques. Though credit has not been available for raising goats, especially to peasants, responsible government agencies must facilitate the transition into a more modern and efficient industry, especially with education and financial aid.
Slash and burn agriculture, charcoal and goat rearing all contribute to the deterioration of the Southwast's natural resources, particularly under the present context of a rapidly expanding population and a growing need for cash. Of the different natural resources threatened by the intensification of the traditional sub-
89


sistence systems it is the dry forests and the fragile, loose and erosion-prone soils that are most affected by man's activities. In the case of slash and burn agriculture, the main agent of erosion is the short cycle crop (e.g. beans) planted on the steepest terr^i.-i.
As a final note it is necessary to mention the recent blow sustained by the small producers. African swine fever caused the elimination of all pigs from the Dominican Republic. According to the SEA the number of pigs in the country was about 800,000 before the disease and the subsequent elimination of the animals. This industry was predominantly in the hands of small peasant producers for whom it represented "the poor man's money box". The rearing of pigs was more profitable than goats for the peasants. A study of the effects of the elimination of pigs on the peasant economy is sorely needed.
The Impact of Natural Catastrophoes on the Peasants
In the last two years peasants of the Southwest have been stricken by hurricane Pavid, Frederic and Allen. In a matter of hours thousands of peasants saw their houses shattered, crops destroyed and animals drowned. Many human lives also were lost. Those who began to rebuild did so in vain because the following catastrophe destroyed their efforts.
Material damages in the Southwest were enormous. ONA-PLAN, in a patent underestimation, calculated thv economic costs of David a/id Frederic at DR$130 million in the Southwest. The psychological costs of thes? disasters have not been taken into consideration but they seem to be substantial and will influence future attitudes of these rural communities.
Psychologists and sociologists have pointed out that people who survive great catastrophes (wars, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.) undergo subtle changes in their personalities and attitudes towards the future. When one speaks to peasants of the Southwest, one senses the presence of a strong undercurrent of insecurity. Peasants feel unsure about tomorrow and that agriculture is becoming too unpredictable as a livelihood. In the immediate aftermath of hurricane David, Dominican psychologists stated that peasants in the shattered communities were dazed, afraid of the future, and somewhat unable to plan ahead. Today these attitudes continue, albeit somewhat attenuated by the passage of time. Nevertheless, memory of these disasters affects their planning and attitudes toward agriculture.
Before the hurricanes many peasants were abandoning the countryside for the cities because agriculture is a hard, demanding and marginally profitable endeavor. City life, on the other hand, seems more exciting and somewhat easier. As a result of these natural disasters the peasants' mistrust of agriculture has risen and many have decided to leave their farms because they do not have resources to rebuild and are afraid to rebuild because they fear the next catastiophe.
Institutional Analysis
Agriculture Bank (Banco Agrlcola)
After the Secretariat of Agriculture, the official institution that reaches the largest number of small farmers is the Apiculture Bank (Reinoso and Hidalgo 1978; Castillo et al 1977;. For the small farmers the Agriculture Bank is the main source of credit for crop production. Therefore, it is relevant to look at the credit policies of the bank in the light of their environmental impact.
Although the Agriculture Bank loans money for a wide range of agricultural activities, ecological considerations are seldom taken into account when a line of credit is being extended. The Bank gives priority to insuring a safe return for the capital invested, just like any other bank.
Bank officials are aware of the ecological consequences of the Bank's actions; they have known for quite a while that they are in many cases financing productive activities that are not the
most suitable for the soils in which they are being carried out. This happens, for example, in the case of ranching which occupies steep terrain leading to overgrazing and soil erosion. The same applies to rice, beans and sugarcane.
For many years bark technicians have discussed the need to employ credit as a too,' to zone land in the Dominican Republic, that is, to use land according to its optimal capabilities by growing only those crops it is best suited to produce. Regionalization, however, has proven a very difficult concept to implement, due to administrative, cultural and political reasons. The Agriculture Bank depends upon SEA mandate but the SEA has not taken a firm stand on regionaliziition of credit availability. Interest in improving the quality of Dominican export tobacco stimulated the National Tobacco Institute to define land use parameters for determining access to credit. The Agriculture Bank has negligible control over the two largest uses of land in the country, sugarcane and ranching. For example, cattlemen go directly to the; private banking sector to finance their operations. Private banks do not have ecological guidelines to follow and they can loan money in accordance with their own rules. Since ranching occupies slightly over half of the agricultural land and the credit used by this industry comes from private banks, it is of utmost importance for thf government to institute some ecological guidelines to be used by the private banking sector. However, it may not be easy to introduce these ecological guidelines into the actions of private banks.
Private banks are reticent toward any attempt to change the productive orientation of the farmers. Banks consider that it is very risky to make a producer shift from an activity he has been performing well for years to one with which he is unfamiliar.
There are also powerful cultural reasons against zoning. In traditional ranching ar^as, such as the Cibao and the eastern coastal plains, ranching is a centuries old occupation with great social P 'estige attached to the industry.
Given the previously discussed considerations it would seem that the use of credit as a means of zoning the coun'rv's agricultural activities would be easier to implement first in the large irrigation projects planned for the Southwest especially since the government owns most of the land and provides both credit and water. In the dry southwest water is a more powerful zoning tool than credit will ever be (Fco. Checo, pers. comm.).
The Dominican Agrarian Institute (IAD)
The IAD is in charge of government agrarian refo.m programs. This institutional analysis reviews IAD's activities from an ecological viewpoint. Tie goals of the IAD are very broad. Besides providing land f >r the landless peasants and helping them become efficient food producers, IAD also attempts to increase rural employment. Raising the productivity of new landholders has preoccupied IAD's technicians while trying to meet national food demands. Ecologkal considerations have received little if any attention. The lov priority given to IAD agrarian reform can be ascertained from ti;c different activities of colonization programs and farmer organizations.
Colonies of ind.vidua] farmers were the first stage in the agrarian reform process during the 1950s and 1960's. Land was distributed on an individual basis and little support was given to the farmers who employed traditional subsistence techniques. The relationship of the new landholders to their land differed little with traditional slash and burn agriculturalists. Traditional farming techniques contributed to deterioration of natural resources.
The more recent farm colonies, especially with better soils and guidance, have been more successful with their land. The prosperous irrigated rice projects of Bonao are an example where farmers have actively participated in the application of good crop production and conservation techniques. Unlike individual colonists, the cooperative farmers have had access to technology, fer-
90


tilizer, etc. The outright granting of land to landless farmer does not motivate him to induce sound land management techniques because he does not have th.it knowledge; he has to be supplied with other types of inputs including eduction,credit, water, marketing and technical assistance, especially in a community atmosphere.
Community Development Office (ODC)
This institution reaches many rur?l communities via its community development workers. Altogether the ODC has some 400 social promoters throughout the country; 25 are currently assigned to the Southwest.
The task of the community development workers is essentially political, i.e. to orgnaize the community so that local goals can be achieved. Community organization has a two stage process whereby the people first identify their principal socio-economic problems and then the people are organized to solve the identified problems. A school, bridge, sports field, water supply system, etc., may be among the objectives of the community. It is assumed that when the community acts together, with some governmental help, to solve one of these problems, it will learn to organize itself more effectively to tackle other local problems.
Ecological principles play no role whatsoever in the Community Development Office. When officials of the ODC were queried about what ecological message was being delivered to the communities or if the social promoters received any training in ecological principles, the answer was always negative. Indeed, it would seem that a very good opportunity to create some degree of ecological awareness at community level is being neglected by not using the mechanism al-eady existing here in the form of several hundred community development workers throughout the nation.
Crucial Challenges for Dominican Society During the 1980s
"The tragedy of the Regina Express caused great commotion in the conscience of the Dominicans. If 22 persons die asphyxiated in a ship's bilge trying to leave their own country, the country itself is subject to judgement. What occurs that so many people try to leave their own country at great risk, great cost and deceiving the law7"
El Listin Diario, Santo Domingo IX 1980 Today in the Dominican Republic one senses a growing awareness that the country is standing at a historical crossroad. It faces daunting interrelated challenges of almost unprecedented magnitude concerning population, food and energy.
Population
As one of the smallest countries in Latin American (barely 48,000 km1) and already one of the most densely populated (100 persons per km*), one of the critical problems of the Dominican Republic is its fast rate of population growth. The country's present population is estimated at 5.6 i lillion with an annual increase near 3.0%one of the highest growth rates in the world. If present growth trends continue it is likely the population will double within the next two decades. Substantial and irreversible damage to the natural resources base has occurred with the present population; doubling the population in the near future has alarmed some members of the local scientific and technical community. Pena Franjul (1979) has recently pointed out: "Neither the country nor the land can afford the luxury of a doubling of the population before the end of the present century." Franjul believes uncontrolled population growth is the country's princi-
pal socio-economic problem, that will have serious negative consequences on the quality of life of the Dominican people. Though the alarm has been voiced by a few local scientists most government policy makers do not yet seem aware of the repercussions of uncontrolled population growth. The voluminous planning literature produced by the government does not include substantive consideration for family planning or a population policy. It is perhaps to these upper level policy makers that Fernando Russell (1980) recently and somberly warned: ". .it is not true that the country can continue, to increase its population indefinitely and at the same time supply it with its basic needs without provoking negative ecological damage."
Food Production
The Dominican Republic is a net food importer. The country produces about 260,000 m tons of food but requires an additional 100,000 tons of food (World Bank 1978). The urgency to achieve food self-sufficiency is fueled by the fact that malnutrition Lis become a chronic national problem. The diet of 75% of the people has calorie and protein deficiencies (B. Defillo, pers. comm.). Moreover, child mortality seems to be increasing (El Caribe 1980)a fact Defil'o links to a downturn in agricultural production with a concomitant steep rise in the cost of essential foods and the general decrease in the purchasing power of the Dominican peso due tn inflation.
The Dominican Government has adopted a food policy to quickly raise the nutritional standards of the lower income groups (ONAP 1976). It has been estimated that 65% of the population is below the 'poverty level'. If a food policy is to be successful, a massive production effort including a program to minimize damage to the natural resources base will be required. According to Lopez (1980) the poor performance of Dominican agriculture is closely connected to the "quantitative and qualitative degradation of our non-renewable resources".
While the task of producing cash exports (i.e. sugarcane, coffee, cacao, cattle, etc.) will largely remain in the hands of large private and government farms, the burden of providing the nation with food will be mainly dependent upon the farmers of small and medium-sized landholdings.
Energy
Like many developing nations, the Dominican Republic is a net importer of fossil fuels. Seventy percent of the energy demands come from increasingly more expensive fossil fuels. In 1978 the country's main cash export, sugarcane, was barely sufficient to pay for imported fue!.
The energy crisis has deep seated ecological implications: to pay for fossil fuels the country will hwe to intensify the production of traditional cash crops at a time when more land will also have to be dedicated to food crops to feed a rapidly expanding population. Thus one can envision in the near future a serious potential for conflict in the allocation of land for export and for food crops, while placing unprecedt. ted demands on the natural resources of the island. Some of these natural resources have already been severely degraded where they are no longer capable of sustained productivity (see Chapter VI). Thus, the success of meeting the food and energy challenges is inescapably linked to a judicious use of the remaining non-renewable resources.
One of the many disturbing results of dearer energy is that wood from the dry forests of the parched southwest and northwest regions of the country will be extracted for charcoal production. Charcoal is the principal cooking fuel of the urban poor. The rural poor, on the other hand, rely almost exclusively on firewood. Dominican households have recently had to face steep cost increases for liquified gas and electricity. It is likely the cost of liquid gas and electricity will continue to rise which will intensify the demand for charcoal and firewood.
91


Full Text

PAGE 1

P plJ .. FI 11 J" C('Iuntry Environmental A Field Study Profile

PAGE 2

The Dominican Republic Country Environmental Profile A Field Study by: Gary Hartshorn Gustavo Antonini Random DuBois David Harcharik Stanley Heckar!on Harvey Newton Carlos Quesada John Shores George Staples AID Contract No. AID I SODI PDC-C-0247 July, 1981 JRB Associates 8400 Westpark Drive Mclean, Virginia 22102

PAGE 3

Preface This environmental profile of the Dominican Republic is one of a series of country environmental profiles (CEPs) sponsored by the u.s. Age!lcy for International Development, Office of Devel opment Resources, Bureau for Latin America iilld the Caribbean (AID/DR/LAC). The sc')pe of work for this in-country study was developed jointly by the AID mission in thf: Dominican Republic: and Robert OtlO, the environmental officer for LAC. Contractual arrar.gements for the prolile, including publication, were handled by JRB .4.ssociates, 8400 Westpark Drive, McLean, Virignia 22102 (IQC: The following individuals con tributed to the field study and preparation of this CEP: PJJI J. Campanella, Ph.D., Ecologist, JRB Project Manager Gary Hartshorn, Ph.D, Ecologist and Team Leader/Editor TlOpical Science Center Apartado San Jose, Costa Rica Gustavo Antonini, Ph.D., Geographer Center for Latin American Studies University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Random DuBois, M.s., Marine Ecologist 3546 Alton Place Washington, D.C. 20008 David Harcharik, Ph.D., Forester School cf Forest Resources North Carolin .. State University Stanley Heckadon, Ph.D., Rural Anthropologist Apartado 1462 Panama 1, Panami, Harvey Newton, Ph.D., Soil Scientist-Agronomist Apartad06.3 Escazu, Costa Rica Carlos Quesada, Ph.D., I..'ivil Engin'!er Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Universidad de Costa Rica Ciudad Universitaria, Costa Rica John Shores, Wildlands Management Specialist School of Natural Resources University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 George Staples Engineer JRB Associate .. 8400 Westpark Drive McLean, VA 22102 The CEP team was ably assisted by a team of Dominican coun terparts organized and coordinated by Uc. !talv Russo, technical advisor of SURENA. The active participation of excellent coun terparts not only provided valuable input to this CEP, but added 3 new component to the CEP process. Superb 10gistir.a1 was provided L y the local AID mission, SURENA, DNP, FORESTA and .'\LCOA. Special apprer:iation and gratitude is warmly extended to Andy Abreu, Orlando Almargoz, Fa:Jsto Glisanti, Gary Ke;;tph, Cesar Lopez, Merilio Morell, Manuel Paulet, Ernesto Reyna, !talo Russo and BIas Santos, who went be yond their official duties to assist the CEP team. Many other Do minicans, tot' numerous to mention here, provided information and assistance thJt is greatly appreciated. These source persons are listed in an appendix. The CEP team wishes to publicly ac warm hospitality and professional comraderie re ceived during their stay in the Dominican Republic. III

PAGE 4

PREVIOUS PAGE .. BLANK Table of Contents PP..EFACE ..................................................................................... LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................. L1ST OF TABLES ................................................................................ LIST OF ACRON':fMS AND ABBRIlVIATlONS ............................. '" ........................ I. SUMMARY .................................................................................. Natur'll Vegetation ......................................................................... Plantation Forestry ......................................................................... Water ....................... ........... .............................................. Soils .................................................................................... Coastal and Marine Resources ................................................................. Wildlands i!I1d Wildlife ...................................................................... Small Farmers ............................................................................. Pollution ................................................................................. Linkages ................................................................... Human Resources .......................................................................... II. INmODUCTlON ............................................................................ Objectives and ....................................................................... Principal Environment.u Characteristics .......................................................... Development P'Jlici'!S an.:l Natural Resources Management. ........................................... Demographic and Economic Aspects ............................................................ UI. NATUDALVEGETATION ..................................................................... Gp;leral Description ......................................................................... Status of Major Forest Types .................................................................. Bora ................................................. ....................... .......... IV. PLANTATION FORESTRY .................................................................... Introduction .............................................................................. Status of Plantation ................................................................... Tr.r:hlllcal Evaluation of Forest Pldlltations ......................................................... The Need for Forest Plantations. . . . . . . . . . ...................... Constraints on Progress ...................................................................... Institutional Analysis of the Direccion General Forestal ............................................... Other Governn,enl Institutions Involved in Forestry ................................................. Recommendations .......................................................................... V. WATER RESOURCES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMHNT .......................................... Introduction .............................................................................. The Role of Water Resources .................. : ............................................... iii vii ix xi 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 7 7 7 10 11 13 13 18 14 23 2', 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 31 31 v

PAGE 5

Table of Contents (continued) Resour.:e Base . . . . . . . . . . .................................. Current and Projected Demands ................................................................ Resource Management. ...................................................................... Major Problems and Issues .................................................................... Conclusions ............................................................................... Recommendations .......................................................................... VI. SOILS ..................................................................................... Resource Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. Current and Projected Land Use ................................................................ Resource Management. ...................................................................... Principa! Problems and Needs . . . . . .. ....................................... Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................. VB. COASTAL AND NEARSHORE MARINE RESOURCnS ............................................ Marine Fisheries ........................................................................... Fresh Water Fisheries ........................................................................ Exotic Species Introduction ................................................................... Endangered Species and Critical Habitats ......................................................... Mining .................................................................................. Ports .................................................................................... Tourism ................................................................................. Recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ Natural Disasters ........................................................................... Institutional Analysis ........................................................................ Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....................... Relorr.mendations .......................................................................... VIII. WILDLAND" AND WILDLIFE ................................................................ Status of Native Wildlife ............... ...................................................... Status of Wildlands ......................................................................... Resource M.mazement ....................................................................... Principal Prc,l"lems and Needs ................................................................. .......................................................................... IX. SMALL ........................................................................... IntroductiLn . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........................... Ecologicallr;lplications of Agrarian Trends. . . . . . . . . .. .................. Production System in the Southwest ............................................................. Institutional Analysis ........................................................................ Crucial Challenges During the 1980's ............................................................ X. POLLUTION ................................................................................ Introduction .............................................................................. Water and Water-Related Diseases ....................................................... Industrial Pollution ......................................................................... Rural Environmental Problems ................................................................. Urban Environmental Problems ................................................................ Summary ................................................................................. XI. INSTlruTIONALASPECTS ................................................................... Major Institutions .......................................................................... Inter-Insti!utional Linkages .................................................................... Human Resources .......................................................................... Budgeting and Financing ..................................................................... Conclusions anu Roecommendations ............................................................. IlIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................ APPENDiX .................................................................................... 32 37 42 44 45 46 47 47 47 51 54 58 59 63 65 66 66 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 71 73 73 74 78 82 82 85 85 85 86 90 91 93 93 94 95 97 99 101 103 103 104 105 108 108 111 115

PAGE 6

List of Figures Figure II-I. Figure 11-2a. Figure 11-2b. Figure 11-3a. Figure n-3b. Figure 11-4. figure III-I. III-2. Figure III-3a. Figure III-3b. Figure III-4a. Figure III-4b. Figure III-5a. Figure III-Sb. Figure IV-la. Figure IV-lb. Figure V-lao Figure V-lb. Figure V-2. Figure V-3. FlgureV-4. Figure V-5. Figure V -6a. Figure V-6b. Figure V-7a. Figure V-7b. Figure V -8a. Figure V -8b. Figure V -9a. FlgureV-9b. Figure VI-la. Figure VI-lb. Political divisions and geographic features of the Dominican Republic ........................... Pico Durate, highest point in the Antilles and La Pelona, second highest. Pure pine forest of native Pinus occidenlalis. ................................................................. Convoluted karst topography of limestone hills and sinks, Los Haitises .......................... The effects of Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979 on the deforested hills in the Rio Ocoa watershed .......................................................................... Abuncl:l,"t landslides in a deforested area with unstable soils between Manobao and Lorna de la Sal. .... Rainfall isohyets for the Dominican Republic ............................................. Life Zone diagram for the Holdridge Classification of World Plant Formations ..................... Location of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic. ................................ Subtropical dry forest between Barahona and Azua ........................................ Subtropical dry forest overlooking Lake Enriquillo ......................................... Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este ........................................ Subtropical moist forest ncar La Vega converted to seasonal crops and pasture .................... Deforested karst topography, Los Haitises ............................................... Denuded landscape in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed ....................................... Reforestation in Manobao withPilllls occidenlalis ................................... Subtropical wet pine (orest near La Vega ................................................ Watershed degradation on the southern flank of the Cordillera Central .......................... Complete deforestation at the margin of the Sabana Yegua reservoir.. .. ................... The Saban eta reservoir and its deforested watershed ....................................... Hydrogeographic divisions and watersheds .............................................. Isc,ercsivity map for the Dominican Republic ............................................. Power balance projections "f energy demands to 1982 ...................................... Main street of EI Rosario inundated by irrigation water ...................................... Irrigation canal near EI Rosario that ends by flooding the area ................................. Severe gully erosion the semi-arid lower Sabana-Yegua watershed ............................. Sediment load of the major tributary to the Tavera reservoir .................................. Landslide caused by road building and deforestation in the Cordillera Central .................... Landslide activity increased by deforestation ............................................. Inoperative irrigation canal near San Jose de Ocoa ......................................... Excellent ;.griculturalland near EI Rosario lost to poor irrigation management. .................... Erosion is converting the Cordillera Central from renewable to non-renewable natural resources ....... Complete deforestation in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed .................................... 8 9 9 10 10 12 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 25 27 32 32 34 35 36 40 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 55 55 vII

PAGE 7

List of Figures (continued) Figure VI-2a. Figure VI-2b. Figure VI-3a. Figure VI-lb. Figure VII-I. Figure VTI-2a. Figure VII-2b. Figure VII-la. Figure VIl-3b. Figure VIU-I. Figure VIn-2a. Figure VIII-2b. Figure IX-Ia. Figure IX-lb. Figure IX-2a. Figure IX-2b. Figure IX-la. Figure IX-lb. Figure X-I. viii Denuded landscape in the Rio Las Cuevas watershed .......................... ............. Serious deforestation of upper slopes in the southern Cordiller" Central ........... ............. Massive gully and rill erosion ir. the Rio Ocoa watershed ............ ....................... Steep slopes strippp.d of soil by the 1979 hurricanes ........................................ [jving and non-living coaztal resources maps ............................................. [jmestone cliff, Los Haitises .......................................................... Coral rock coast on north shore of Isla Saona, Parquf' Nacional de; Este .......................... White sand beach and coconut palms, Parque N'acional del Este ................................ Scars of uncontrolled extraction of beach sand near the Nigua ............................ Saban a Vieja Valley surrounded by beautiful pine forests in the del Carmen Rodriguez National Park ........... .. ............................................. ............ Isla Cabritas National Park severely degraded (1977) hy charcoal-making a/ld goat browsing .......... Subtropical moist forest in Parque Nacional del Este ........................................ Slash and burn agriculture orening the subtropical dry forest near Padre las Casas .................. Slash and burn agriculture 0,) shallow, rocky soil in degraded subtropical dry forEst in the lower Saban a Yegua watershed ............................................................ Carrying branches and small stems to make charcoal ........................................ Stack of sticks ready to be converted into charcoal ......................................... Subtropical dry forest seriously depleted by cutting for charcoal ............................... Woodcutter in the Parque Nacional del Este .............................................. Falconbridge open pit mining and smelting operations in the Sierra de YamclSa .................... SS SS S6 56 60 63 63 63 68 77 78 78 87 88 88 88 89 89 97

PAGE 8

List of Tables Table 10-1. T.blclO-2. Table 10-3. .... ble 10-4. T.bleV-I. C.ble V-2. TableV-3. T.bleV-4. t.bleV-S. T.ble V-6. T.bleV. T.bleV-B. T.bleV-9. Table VI-I. T.bleVI-2. r.bleVI-3. VI-4. T.bleVI-S. T.ble VI-6. TableVI-7. l'.bleVI-B. T.bleVI-9. Table VII-I. T.bleW:. T&ble VII-3. T.ble VII-4. Table VIIs. T.bleVD-6. Tlable VII -'I. T.bleVID-I. T.bleVDI-2. Area of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic. ............................... .. Classes of actual land use or cover in the Dominican Republic ................................. Comparative estimates of major forest types in the Dominican Republic ......................... Threatened and endangered !Jlant species in the Dominican Republic ........................... Estimated areas and locations of government forest plantations established in the Dominican Republic through 1978 .................................................................... Projected investments in water resources and energy related projects for the 1980-82 period .......... Characteristics of the hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic ...................... Surface water resources by hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic .................. zones, water demand and water resources in the Dominican Republic ............... Actuai and pocentialland for irrigation .................................................. Installed electrical 1980 ...................................................... Projected population served with potilole water and sewage systems in the Dominicill1 Republic ....... Projected urbw, rural. and industrial demands for 1995 (mcm/y,ear) in C:iffercnt hydrogeologic zones .... Total water demand under CAASD administration for the Santo Domingo region .............. U.S. soil taxonomy names, map symbols and CRIES {SIt,C'RA) number; total area and main characteristics ................................................................... Reg;onal distribution of land in farms in 1960, 1971, and 1977 ................................. Percentage distribution of land use by farm size and regions .................................. 1979 area and production data for important crops in the Dominican Republic .................... on major Resource Production Units (RPU) .................................... &.tirr.ated area (km') of Resource Production by region ................................. Soil loss by watershed .............................................................. Land capability classification ......................................................... Agricultural land and its potential by regions. . . . . . . . . . .. .. Macroscopic coastal classification of critical areas .......................................... Important ports and number of fishermen. . . . . . . . . . .. ..... Major regional ports based on landings. .............................................. Fish imports, exports, value and country of oIigin or destination ............................... Major aquaculture projects currently bemg developed or now in production.. . . . .. .. Ust of aquatic species introduced into the Dominican Republic ................................ Threatened and endangered species in coastal and marine habitats. ........................... Status of selected fauna species in the Dominican Republic ................................... Wildlands categories used or in the Dominican Republic ............................. 13 18 19 20 23 32 33 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 48 50 50 51 53 54 57 57 58 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 75 76

PAGE 9

List of Tables (cxmtinued) TableVIU-3. TableVIU-4. Table VITI-s. Table X-I. TableX-2. TableX-3. Table XI-I. TableXI-2. TableXI-3. Tab:eXI-4. TableXI-S. Government institutions affecting wildlands ir. Dominican Republic ......................... Completed and pl. ".Ied programs of the Dep.Jl'tafTlento de Vida Silvestre ........................ Institutions in contact with the de Vida Silvestre ................................ Percentage of national population served by potable water and sanitary sewerage systems ............ Characterization of the major industries in the Dominican Republic. .., ........................ Estimates of amount; of active ingredients Jnd value of pesticides used in 1979 .................... Summary listing of ('urrent levels and projected increases in professional-technical staffing by field of specialization .................................................................... Levels of professional and staffing by work-related activities in Dominican institutions ....... '. Comparison of expenditures by programs in SEA, 1978-80 ................................... Comparison of expenditures by programs in SURENA, 19711-80 ............................... Expenditures for the forest protection and control program of the Armed Forces, 1978-80 ............ 79 6(', 81 94 96 98 106 107 108 108 109

PAGE 10

of Acronyms and Abbreviations Ayuntamientr) del Distrito N:.cionaJ Pl.an de Desarrollo AGropecuario SEA Banco lntelamericano de Desarrollo (-IDB) Jardin Botanico National Or Rafael M Moscoso" Corporadon de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Santo Domingo Direccion General del Catastro Nadonal Corporacion Domlnicana de E1edricidad Consele Estatal de Azucar Centro Domlnlcano de Promocion d\! Exportaciones Centro Norte de Desarrollo Agropecuarlo, SEA Centro Sur de De!'MJ'ollo Agropecuario SEA Centro de Investigacion Agricola en Zonas Aridas, SEA Centro de Investigaclon de Biologia Marina. UASD Cansejo Nadonal de Poblacion y Vivienda Camejo Nadonal de Recursos Nadonales Corporacion de Aquedudo y A1cantarillado de Santiago Corporad6n OomlnJcana de Empresas Estatales Comprehensive Resource In'lentory and Evaluation System. SEA EscueJa Agricola de DaJabOn Direccibn General Forestal Direcc:Um National de Parques Departamento de Recur50S Pesqueros, SEA Departamento de nerras y Aguas, SEA Departamento de Vida Silvestre, SEA Food and Agriculturt Organization of the United Nations FIShery Development Ud. Federadon Naclonal de Cooperativas Pesqueras Direcclon General Forestal Government of the Dominican Republic Insutulo Agrarlo Dominicano Inter-American Development Bank Instltuto de Desarrollo y Credito Cooperatlvo Inter-American InstiMe of Agricultural Cooperation Instituto Nadonal de Recunos HldrauJJcos Instituto de Desarrollo del Suroeste h15tituto Domlnicano de Temologia Industrial Instituto Nadonal de Aguas Potables y }.lcantarillados Instituto TemoJ6g1co de Santo Domingo InsHtuto Superior de AgricuJtura. Santiago Instituto Politemico Loyola Departamento del Medlo Ambiente y Re<:ursos Museo del Hombre Domlnicano (. Museo de las Casas Reales) Museo Nadonal de Historia Natural OrganluHon of American States .1

PAGE 11

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations (continued) ONAP ONAPLAN ONAPRES OSISA PlDAGRO PLANSIERRA PNUMA PRYN SALESIAN A SEA SEAPLA.N SEICA SESPAS STP SURENA UASD UCE UCMM UNDP UNEP UNPHU USAID USDA ZOODOM xII Oficina Nacional de Administracion y Personal Oficina Nacional de Planificacion Oficina Nacional de Pf(.'Supuesto Oficina c:le Integracion Agropecuaria de Azua. SEA Programa Integrado de Desarrollo Agrop-ecuario Plan de Desarrollo Integral "La Sierra", SEA Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (. UNEP) Proyedo Riego Yaque del Norte Escuela Agricola Salesiana Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura Subsecretaria de F1anificacion Agropecuaria, SEA Subsecretaria de Investigacion, Extension e Investigacion, SEA Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social Secretariado Tecnico de la Presidencia Subsecretaria de Estado de Rccursos Naturales, SEA Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo Universidad Central del Este Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Santiago United Nations Development Program United Nations Environmental Program Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena Agencia de los Estados Unidos par el Desarrollo Internacional United States Department of Agriculture Parque Zoologico Nacional

PAGE 12

I SUlDDlary This environmental profile of the Dominican Republic was car : ried out in a five week period during September-October, 1980, \ by a nine-man team of specialists in ecology, geography, marine ecology, forestry, rural anthropology, soils, hydrology, wilde lands/wildlife, and pollution controls. Dominican counterparts ar : ranged by SURENA contributed significantly to the sectorial i analyses. The Dominican Republic faces very serious challenges involv '; ing food, energy, and population that have already caused sub ; environmental degradation and portend a bleak future ;not only for her natural resources but for the country as well. the expansion of agriculture through major irrigation the country is a net importer of food. Even though the ?80vernment is aggressively developing the country's substantial :hydroelectric potential, imported petroleum provides 85% of the :national power needs. The Cordillera Central watersheds, that are ;absolutely fundamental to irrigated cropland and hydroelectric have been and continue to be severely degraded by slash and burn agriculture. Protection and rehabilitation of critical ;watersheds merit emergency measures similar to the 1967 closure sawmills and prohibition of tree cutting. With a projected of population within 26 years and no traditional agri!cLlltural frontiers remaining, watershed protection and rehabilita ;tion must involve the hillside farmers who have nowhere to go. { In this decade the Dominican Republic must accomplish what ,she has b'en unable or unwilling to do in the recent past: be 'come self-sufficient in food, increase agricultural exports, gener i,iate more energy from local renewable resources and implement a [realistic population polky. Only a fundamentally and qualitative :iy different relationship between the Dominican people and the i,country's natural resources will enable the Dominican Republic :to meet essential goals. Major conclusions and recommendations for each sector of iDominican natural resources are summarized bdow. I. Natural Vegetation !Ecologically, nine Holdridge Life Zones occur in the Dominican Republic. Two Life Zones-Subtropical Moist and Subtropical Dry-cover 68% of the COUll try, yet Subtropical Lower Montane ,Wet is [he most critical Life Zone as a SOL:fce of water for irriga tion and hydropower. The latter Life Zone covers about 7% of .the country, primarily in the Cordillera Central. where the major 'rivers originate. The recent CRIES inventory of land rover indicates only 14% of the country remains in forest, plimarily broad-leaved for ests in the arid southwest and Some also remain in La A1tagracia province and in Los Haitises. Due to low stand densi ty, most pine forests were classified as limited rangeland. The extensive pine forests in the Bermudez and del Carmen Ramirez national parks appear in excellent condition due to the protective efforts of FORESTA and DNP. The same cannot be said, however, for the lowland broad-leaved forests that are re ceiving intense pressure from slash and burn agriculturalists and from charcoal makers. FORESTA has largely ignored the non pine forests in enforcing the 1967 law closing sawmills and protree cutting. Although different criteria and classification techniques make it difficult to compare forest area statistics in the OAS, FAO and CRIES studies, observations and interviews indicate considerable deforestation continues largely unabated in the broad-leaved forests. Active protection by FORESTA and DNP of the two Cordillera Central national parks seems to have slowed the agricultural advance in the upper valleys. Slash and burn agriculturalists are active in western dry forests as well as the humid forcsts of Los Haitises and La A1tagracia. Increasing demand for charcoal is largely dirccted to the dry forests of the southwest. FORESTA's token control of charcoal transport monitors only about 20% of the estimated ann_a1 pro duction of 4.8 million sacks. Control and management of tree cutting for charcoal is non-existent. Charcoal making and goat browsing are causing substantial site degradation to the dry for ests. The national flora is estimated at 5,600 species, of which about 36% are endemic. A preliminary listing indicates '2.77 plant spe cies threatened or in danger of extinction. The national botanical garden is very impressive, with an active botanical program. Major Recommendations: Differentiate specific forest types in the national land cover illventory Identify the portions of SubtropicL'1 Lower Montane Wet Life Zone not already included in national parks and assure their proteciton Investigate management techniques for improving sus tained use of the dry forests for goat browsing and char coal production \I Evaluate unique ecological areas such as minor Life Zones and transitional areas for vegetation remnants or plant 1

PAGE 13

species not already protected in the existing nationi'l parks and ensure their survival Change the status of existing nationed parks from reserves to legitim.ate national p3l'ks. Plantation Forestry There is a serious need in the Dominican Republic to expand forest plant'ltions in order to slow soil erosion, to provide fuel wood, and to the $30 million annual bill for imported wood products. 1969 only some 3,200 ha of forest pla.,ta tions have been established, of which about 70% were govern ment sponsored. Wood products and site stabilization are the major plantation objedives. The native Pinlls occidmlalis and the exotic P. cribaw var. hondllrmsis are the dominant plantation trees. FORESTA is the principal government agency involved in plantation forestry, with assistance from FAO (1969)1792) and IDB (since 1977). TIle Secretariat of Agriculture also has a refor estation component in the Plan Sierra rural development projed and in the Bao watershed projed. Private reforestation programs involve the multinational firms ALCOA, Gulf & Western, and Falconbridge, with the latter having planted slightly less than 1,000 ha. Species trials and provenance studies are virtually non-existent in the Dominican Republic. Nursery practices appear to produce acceptable planting stock, but both the vigor of planthlg stock and the efficiency of operation could iJe improved. No local data is available on grov/th and yields. Despite rampant deforestation and the obvious need for tree plantations in order to reduce rrosion and aid in site rehabilita tion, a massive reforestation program is nol a worki.ble solution at the present time. Major constrair.ts to plantation forestry in clude a serious lack of technical expertise, little or poorly defined government land needing reforestation, absence of incentives and guarantees for private efforts in reforestation, and lack of a for estry consciousness. Both traditional plantations and tree planting as a component of agroforestry can play an important role in erosion control and site rehabilitation; however, they must be in corporated in integ"ated land management programs such as the Plan Sierra. Plantations of fast-growing trees of high calorific value could Jppreciably lessen the abusive cutting of dry forests for charcoal. Only a few, small studies of the potentials and needs for fuel wood plantations are under wa.y. Due to the ecological impor tance of the remaining pine forests as critical watershed catch ments for the country's major rivers, they should not be ,:omid ered to be a significant source of industrial wood. Any substant:al redudion in Dominican imports of wood produds should only come abOUt b!, plantation forestry. Primary responsibility for Dominican forests and reforestation is in FORESTA. headed by" military diredor who is appointed by the President. Most of FOREST A's personnel are field ori ented, particularly in forest protection and fire control. The role of the military in FORESTA is politically however, FORF5T A has done a fine job proteding the pine forests of the Cordillera Central. Transferal of FOREST A back to the Secre tariat of Agriculture would probably not improve FORESTA's organizational strudure, technical expertise or forest vigilance, but would greatly increase the poliHcal dist?nce from the Presidency. Major Recommendations: Substantially upgrade professional and technical staff of FORESTA Create a small research unit in rOREST A wi:h initial em phasis on species-site seledions, growth and yield data, and economic returns of plantation forestry c. Cooperate with other governm';!nt agencies to begin pilot scale integrated land managment projects in critical water sheds Expand reforestation programs Permit silvicultural treatment of non-critical private forests with the objedive of scientific mal.agement for sustained timber yield Educate the public in the values of forest conservation. Water Water resources play fundamental roles in Dominican agricui energy and public health. Reservoirs on major rivers provldp. water to generate 15% of Dominican energy and to irrigate about 170,000 ha. Current projeds will double installed hydro eledric capacity by 1983 and bring an additional 100,000 ha under irrigation by 1985. Many other projects and plans will continue to increase the use of water for hydropower and irrigation. Inland water resources refled precipitation on the watershed. Many fadors influence response, but land-use often has overriding and dired effeds on watershed output. Domini can watersheds are in very poor condition due to pervasive con version of natural fore:t vegetation to agricultural uses. Slash and burn agriculture, a complete absence of soil conservation tech niques, and major hurricanes have devastated several important Massive watershed erosion on the order of 100-500 tons/hal year is literally drowning the reservoir with sediments. The Val desia reservoir has 22 m of sediments at the heel of the dam, only 8 m from the intake; the Tavera reservoir, completed in 1973, already hilS 18 m of sediments the dam causing. 40% reduction in dead storage capacity and a 10-14 m loss of ac tive storage. The deterioration of Cordillera Central watersheds is so critical that the situation requires emergency measures and drastic ac tions comparable to the 1967 closl.lre of sawmills and prohibitir,g of tree cutting. But watershed protedion and/or rehabilitation is not as simple as closing sawmills. Watersheds are literally full of small farmers eking out a subsistence on their small parcels. Mas sive re:ettlement is impossible because there simply is no new frontier for traditional agriculture in the Dominican Republic. In tegrated land management involving small farmers is the only vi able solution to sustaining watershed produdivity. INDRHI is a.fI autonomous government institution for controlled development of all surface and groundwaters. Al though INDRHI has actively developed major irrigation works, its legal mandate is complicated by interinstitutional conflids and duplications over potable water with INAPA and CAASD and with CDE hydroeledric projeds. Several national government agencies independently plan, develop and operate water projects. The consequent duplication and jealousy substantially increase the real costs at a time when the Dominican Republic has in creasingly less money available for capital developments. Major Recommendations: Declare watershed protedion and rehabilitation a national emergency Require that each watershed be treated as an integrated system Develop and implement an integrated land and water management plan for each major watershec Coordinate irrigation and drainage projeds so as to maxi mize efficiency and eliminate redundancy Minimize inter-institutional conflids and duplications Include the costs of watershed rehabilitation and protec tion in the dam construdion cost estimates. Solis The fertile and productive soils of the Cibao misrepresent the abundance of poor, shallow soils on steep slopes, mostly stony and subject to severe erosion throughout much of the (')untry.

PAGE 14

Most small farmers eke out a living on marginal and sub-margin al lands unsuitable for annual crops. Of the 37 major soil map ping units identified by CRIES, 24 soil types covering about 21,000 kmz have moderate to high agricuHural potential for spe cific crops. Yet, 27,000 kmz are already in farms: only in the arid northwest, southwest and south are there substantial aleas of po tential lands for agriculture, but they will require irrigation. Farmland is divided almost equally between crops and pasture, with only about 13% in fallow or not used. Exports crops include coffee and cacao, while rice, beans, plantains, and yucca are national staples. The bulk of basic food staples is produced on small or medium sized farms; nearly 70% of the farms are less than 5 ha, occupying less than 14% of the total farmland. Only 3.4% of the farms exceed 50 ha, but these farms occupy more than half of the total farmland. Soil erosion is the most serious problem affecting the natural resources of the Dominican Republic due to the preponderance of shallow soils on steep slopes and the widespread prevalence of slash and burn agriculture for annual crops. Substantial loss of topsoil due to poor practices of hillside farming has greatly re duced soil fertility and crop productivity. The consequences are extensive areas of and burn agricultural based on a few years of annual crops followed by several years of poor pasture and, finally, abandonment. Soil' erosion also deposits enormous quantities of sediments in reservoirs. The aggraded river beds also accentuate lower valley floods. Salinity problems exist primarily in the dry southwest and northwest, where appreciable areas of irrigat(:d land have been lost to crop production. Poor water management, including lack of drainage, is the primary cause of salinization. TIle government-sponsored Plan Sierra is attempting to help small farmers convert from annual to perennial crops, in addition to promoting reforestation, forest management, social services and artisanal crafts. Although project area soils are relatively good compared to other critical watersheds in the Cordillera Central, Plan Sierra is an impressive national effort that can serve as a valuable model for seriously degraded watersheds. Major Recommendations: Delay additbnal reservoir projects so as to concentrate protection and rehabilitation efforts above existing reser voirs Incorporate soil conservation measures into highway con struction design Create soil conservation or irrigation oistricts to facilitate la!1d and water m;magement as well as soil rehabilitation Initiate research on more appropriate farming syst':!ms and soil conservation for hillside farmers. CoaNtal and Marine Resource8 The Dominican Republic has traditionally looked inland for of natural resources, as shown by the dependence on sugar and minerals fer export e.1l'nings. Land-oriented devel opment has, until recently, largely protected the coastal zone from environmental problems associated with develo!,ment, but current governme.,t priorities to develop tourism and marine fisheries indicate that the grace period is over. However, few mechanisms exist for integrated and ecologically sound develop,ment of coastal areas. Major constraints (1) non-tradi : tional utilization 'J[ the resources; (2) a rapidly growing and still inexperienced group of administrative organizations; (3) an ab sence of coordinating mech.:misms for an integrated approach; (4) a shortage of skilled, multidisciplinary and (5) an I unclear I
PAGE 15

exotic species such as the mongoose have depleted most native populations. Threatened or endangered fauna include 6 turtle species, at least 11 reptiles, 44 bird species, and 9 mammal spe cies. The wildlife department (DVS) emphasizes commercial pro duction of wildlife and control of vertebrate pests. Endangered fauna receive only minor attention, while marine fauna seem to have been completely ignored. Major problems include: (1) antiquated or unclear legislation; (2) fragmented and confused management categories; (3) poorly defined or misdirected management responsibilities; (4) lack of control over exotic species introduction; (5) lack of control over export of endangered species (the governl1'ent is not a signatory member of CITES, hence expc;;ts are not controlled by interna tional convention); and (6) almost complete absence of interinsti tution cooperation. Major Recommendations. Develop enviror,mental policy and the corresponding leg islation that would establish government commitment to the conservation and rational management of natural resources Revise existing laws to consJlidate wildlands management categories Become a signatory member of CITES Approve and implement the proposed Fauna Law Declare all island and keys as interim reserver until their natural resources are inventoried and evaluated Clarify the status of the two Cordillera Central national parks by placing them under the absolute jurisdiction of DNP. Small Farmers Not only do small fc'iJ'mers constitute the uulk of the rural pop ulation of what is essentially still an agrarian country, but they also produce most of the country's staple foods. Because of tradi tional slash and bum agriculture and rudimentary technology, smali farmers are important of ecological transformations, part of the environmental proiLms and a necessary component of any solution. There is .:." ongoing dual trend in land tenure towards frag mentation and concentration-the former creating ever more mini or microfarms and the lat;er to large estates dedicated to export The dominant crops raised by small farmers are plantains, yucca, beans, sweet and pigeon peas. Another agrarian feature is the scarcity of jobs and the concen tration of income, with the of widespread underem ployment (46%). The Agrarian Institute (lAD) estimates 60% of rural households survive on less than DR$450/year. Burgeoning population on marginal or submarginal lands causes significant rural emi8"ation. Rural population problems have caused a drastic increase in invasions of national and private lands. Special emphasis was given the small farmer production sys tems in the southwest-an area largely ignored by government agencies. During the past three decades subtle but significant changes have moved the Dominican peasants away from subsis tence farminf an increasing involvement in the m",;'ket econo m'l. In order ') satisfy his family's needs, the Dominican farmer Clnlst continua 'f increase oroduction with the concomitant disas trous con sequel :b now so' noticeable on Dominican hillsides. Small farmel s ill the southwest depend on slash and burn agri culture, charcoal making and goats. After the family's food and seed needs are met, excess crop production is sold. Charcoal making has tradition;l)ly been a sporadic activity, but now with increasing urban demand, cnarcoal making is a full-time activity for many families. Goats are known as the poor man's cow, yet they are seldom milkeJ in the southwest because peasants prefer that it go to the juvenile goats. Traditional goat rearing involves virtually no care and open range browsing. Though goats are an occasional source of milk and meat, they fundion primarily as a hedge against economic insecurity. Goats are especially important to small farmers now that pigs have been eradicated due to African swine fever. Major Recommendations: Incorporate small farmers in any attempt to develop inte grated land management and watershed rehabilitation Provide to small farmer production systems more govern ment response, ranging from technical assistance with soil conservation to credit assistance Employ the P!J." Sierra model to reach the small farmers and improve crop systems, charCOal making. and goat rear ing. .. !lutlon Three insitutions, INAP A. CAASD and C( )RAASAN are re sponsible for controlling municipal pollution, b It none is respon sible for controlling industrial or agricultural po:lution. Mining is currently the only industry subject to environuental controls. Fisheries legislation requires that industry control v. lstewater dis charge, but little attention is paid to this law. Nearly 70% of the manufacturing dollar is produced by agri culture-primarily sugar, r ,dural, molasses, tobacco, food and beverages. The only heavy 'dustries are mining (b:Juxite, ferro nickel. gold and silver), cel steel. petroleum refining and electric power generation. Although the data base is weak, the dominant trends on water use, supply, potable water and sewer service do not appear en couraging. Only 10% of rural residences and 54% of urban homes have potable water service. The respective figures for community centers are also very low-23% and 32% urban. Only 15-25% of urban homes are connected to sewage systems, while these sanitary systems don't occur in rural areas. Potable water is periodically contaminated with bacteria and often with sediments. Industries generate minor water and air pollution, have minor safety and few noise problems. Specific pollution comes from particulaf;? or smoke emissions from the FDC Lement plant and from Metaldom; suspended solids and sulfur oxide emissions from steam electric power generation using high sulfur bunker fuel oil; and the majority of waste waters from food processing. soap and detergent production and similar operations with mini mal waste recovery operations. Major polluters are usually gov ernment-owned industries that are under capitalized and use old technology. Multinational companies, ;n contrast, have effective, state-of-the-art technology for control of emissions and wastes. Rural pollution and health problems are rooted in poor educa tion. Poor personal hygiene, contaminated water, rack of sanita tion facilities, poor nutrition and high density in rural communi ties have increased the incidence of disease. The increasing abuse of pesticides causes chronic or acute poisoning, r:ontaminates pro duce, and stimulates resistant pests. Urban environme"idl problems are manifest in the slums that surround most urban centers. The location and expansion of slums is largely uncontrolled, hence they stretch or exceed the government capacity to provide service facilities. Major Recommendations: Give priorit!' status to quality of potable water Require that citizens pay full-user charges for potable water al'd sewer services; it will be necessary to subsidize these service:; t() the poor Improve the p'Jllution control efforts of government owned Educate small ill fhe uses and abuses of pesticides

PAGE 16

and fertilizers, as well as the need for personal hygiene and sanitation Institute a serious urban planning effort; urban sprawl through unplanned slums and residential areas is pladn:; enormous strain on service facilities. Ir .:erlnstltutlonal Linkages There are 18 public sector agencies and 9 private institutions in volved with the environment and natural resources in the Domini can Republic. That there are problems of division of interest and in stitutional conflicts is due as much to the diverse responsibilities assigned each public agency, as it is to the absence of a natural resources policy. Virtually every natural resources sector has more than one primary government agency, hence there is considerable duplication of efforts and programs, as well as jealousy. Even worse, some institutions with similar programs have little substan tive interchange of information. There is little participation of the private sector in the public arena and no real coordination. Several international agencies are actively involved in technical assistance programs. Major Recommendations: cooperation replace the current com petition and duplication if the Dominican Republic is to come to grips with the serious environmental crises con fronting most natural resources Passage .md implementation of CON ARENA could playa leading ro:e in coordinating natural resources action pro grams Public agencies take the lead in enlisting private sector assistance SURENA must continue to be strengtpened in order to de velop more fully its mandate to plan, impiement and super vise national polic}' for natural resources Other key such as FORESTA. !NDRHI. and Na tional Parks must be strengthened and they must coordinate more closely with SURENA in attailli'lg common goals. Human Resources As part of this environmental profile, were made of 26 public, semi-autonomolls and private agencies involved in ing, research, planning and implemental:ion in natural resources. j\Jthough several educational institutions offer undergraduate training in natural resources, graduate degree programs are not offereJ. In natura! resources 321 professionals and 127 techni cians are employed. Project implementation accounts for 6'% (298) of the work force. researchers total 140, while only 10 work entirely in planninl'l. Implementing institutions with a large professional/techincal staff are FOREST A (53). INDRHI (47), Land and Water (34), Fish eries (30), and Meteorological Service (21). The best staffed re search institutions are INDOTEC (47) and CENDA (39). Human resource needs and additions to 1985 are detailed. Most new staff should be with masters' degree (82) or with a bachelor's degree (85). The doubling of the number of technicians by 1985 is a direct response to the consensus that lack of qualified technicians is a primary impediment to project implementation. The greatest need for additional technicians is in SURENA. FORESTA and INDRHI. Major Recommendations: Strengthen the Department of Natural Resources at UNPHU Initiate a professional training program to satisfy middle management and intermediate professional daff needs Define sectorial research priorities for each public institu tion so that scholarship students are aware of potential theses topics. II

PAGE 17

PREVIOUS PAGE BLANI{ II Introduction Objectives and Scope The general objedive of a Country Environmental Pr ,file (CEP) is to identify major existing and potential problems and areas of concern for natural resources and environmental man agement. including an analysis of the social and economic impads of these problems, and to develop an overview of govern ment institutions, policies and resources related to natural re source conservation and environmental management. Specific purposes of this CEP are: 1. to define environmental problems and trends, especially those that relate to the small farmer; 2. to compile in one def'nitive document the information, data iilld analyses concerning environmental problems; 3. to develop em analytic framework for better understanding of and taking adion on environmental problems; 4. to provide a detailed analysis of the constraints hindering more effective action on environmental problems; 5. to prepare a document that will stimulate greater public and private sedor debate on rroblems; 6. to provide an environmental assessment that wW facilitate the eff"rts and cooperation of international development agencies in dealing with environmental problems; 7. to make recommendations on futllre public and private sedor adions for environmental improvement; B. to identify environmental improvement projects that could be financed by the government and/or private sedor with financial assistance from international agencies. The scope of wcrk for this CEP included a review of existing reports, environmental legislation, :-:onditions and trends of the natural resource base, natural reS(1l1rce management, and an as sessment of the demographic, social ,d economic fadors a;ect ing the environment. Specific areas addressed in this CEP include deforestafion; soil erosion; watershed dP.6IdJ.,tion; loss of wildlife .:md wildlands; contamination of air dnd wakr resources; natural resources development projeds in hydropower, irrigation and marine fisheries; and institutional capabilities and constraints to natural resource m"! .Iagement and environmental protection. Sectoi' analyses ,vele conducted during a three-to-five week period in Septemi' :r-October, 1980, by a nine-man team of inde pendent consultaJ. ts. The team included specialists in tropical ecology (G. Hartsh.:-rr.l, forestry (D. Harcharik), soils (H. New ton), water rtsJurces (c. Quesada), marine and coustal resources (R. DuBois), wildlife and wildlands O. Shores), rural anthropology (S. Heckadon), pollution (G. and Dominican geogrilphy anrl institutions (G. Antonini). Each consultant worked closely with one or more Dominican counterparts, who provided ex tremely valuable assistance with literature, field trips and a rapid introduction to Dominican natural resources. NlJmerous field trips by car, jeep and one by mule provided an excellent rec::mnaissance of the country that was further enhanced by aerial flights to Cabo Rojo, over Parque Nacio:lal del Este and Los Haitises and around the Cord,i:era Central. The extensive field reconnaissance by the consl'!tanls, augmented appreciably by the competence and knowledge of the Dominican counterparts com bine to provide in this CEP the r:to,! detailed analyses of natural resources and the environment offered to date by a CEP. Each consuHant prepared a sector report that was reviewed and edited by the team leader into a draft CEP. The draft CEP was submitted to the local AID mission and to the Dominican counterparts for review before the team leader prepared the final draft of this CEP of the Dominican Republic. Principal Environmental Characteristics The Dominican Republic shares with Haiti the island of Hispaniola; the second largest (77,914 km2) of the Antilles. Oc cupying the eastern portior, of Hispaniola, the Domincan Repub lic covers 48,442 km2, with 1,575 km of coastline, and maximum distances of 390 km east-west arid 265 km more or less north south. With geographical coordinates 17'-19"58' N and 68'-72' W, the Dominican Republic lies in the subtropical hurricane belt. Its insularity and relatively small area permit a strong maritime influence to control the general dimatic patterns. An excellent overview of Dominir."n geograpl:y can he found in de la Fuente (1976). The physiographic complexity of the Dominican Republic adds considerable heterogeneity and voll'iability to local climatic re gimes. Four major mountain ranges lie in a more or less parallel northwest-southeast trend (Fig. II-I). The three intervening val leys, but particularly the Cibao, are major agricultrual regions. The northernmost Cordillera Septentrional extends pari1l1el to tile Atlantic Coast from MO!'lte Cristi to Nagua, with small areas of narrow coastal plain squeezed between the hills and the Atlantic Ocean. Major fault zones on the southern flank result in most ,irainages flowing north. Exposure to northeasterly tradewinds '1

PAGE 18

CARIBBEAN SEA ATLANTIC OCEAJI; lc:0 Samoa Provhices: I. Distrito Nacional 2. Altl!.gracia 3. Azua 4. Baoruco S. Barahona 6. Dajaboll 7. Duane 8. Espaillat 9. Estrelleta 10. lodependencia II. Mari:i Trinidad Sanchez 12. Montecristi 13. Pedernales 14. Peravia IS. Puerto Plata 16. La Romana 17. Salc:::do 18. Sarnana 19. San Crist:>bal 21). S. Juan de la Maguana 21. San Pedro de Macoris 22. Sanchez Ramirez 23. Santiago 24. Santiago Rodriguez 25. EI Seibo 26. Valverde 27. La Vega

PAGE 19

for more than half of the year causes abundant orographic rain fall to fallon the north tlank of the Cordillera Septentrional, an important coffee producing region. Due to widespread deforesta tion, no significant blocks of undisturbed forest remain on this cordillera. It is of interest that tile Cordillera Septentrional is the primary source of amber, a fossilized pin!' resin of Miocene age, however, pines are not found naturally in these mountains. The Cordillera Central is the principal mountain system in the Dominican Republic, extending from Haiti almost to Santo Domingo. The central massif contains the highest point, Pico Duarte (3,807 m), in lhe Antilles. In addition to Pico Duarte (Fig. 11-2a), two other peaks t:xcede .3,000 ,n and 22 are over 2,000 m. The lengthy Cordillera Central has a maximum width of 80 km, occupying much Gf the central region of the country. Its central location, ample width and considerable height make it the of all the important rivers in the country. It a geo logically and &eomorphologically complex mountain range. The highlands are characterized by poor, shallow suils dominated by the natin Pinus occidmlalis. The J. Armcmdo Bermudez and Jose del Carmen Ramirez Parks contain the mO!:t extensive pine forests in the country. The southeastern flanks of the Cor dillera Central received direct hits from Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979, causing massive floods and landslides (Fig. 11-3a). A major branch of the Cordillera Central extends eastward, forming two sections-Sierra Yamasa and Cordillera Oriental. Both are low ranges, with no exceeding 1000 m. The Sier ra Yamasa. which separates the Yuna VaI!ey and Los Haitises from the Caribbec;n coastal plain, is the ma;or source area of fer ronickel (Falconbridge) and gold (Rosario). The Cordillera Orien tal (Sierra del is a series of low hills south and east of Samana Bay. Two lesser ranges, Sierra de Neiba and Sierra de Baoruca, oc cur in the southwest as continuations of major Haitian ranges. The Sierra de Nt::iba 05cillates between 1,000 and 1,500 m, with a few peaks over 2,000 m. The Sierra de Baoruco also exceeds 2,000 m, but is more irregular with numerous block faults on the nor1h flank and ,vide marine terraces bordering the Caribbean. Both ran Res still have pine forests .:overing the higher and less accessible slopes. Prior to development of ferronic/.el and gold mining in the Sierra de YamasJ, the Sierra de Boaruco was the most imporiant mining region, producing bauxite, gypsum and salt. The aforementioned mountain ranges delimit three m<:jor \'a11eys>-Cibao, San Juan and the Enriquillo Basin. The Cibao Valley lies between the Cordilleras Septentrional and Central, exfIt. D-la. Pice DurRit (ltfO, hightsl poinl (3,087 m) in iht AHlillts and LA Ptlona, stcond hightsl. Purt pint fortsl of nalivt Pinus occider.talis is mJurally sparst on Iht shallow soils. Thtst forts Is in Iht Iwo nrJional parrs s/raddling Iht Cordill"a un/raJ Wtrt only slighlly by Hurricants David and Frtdtric in 1!179. (Handhtld lItrial pholo, Gili'!{ Harts/10m.) FIgure n-lb. Convolultd Karsl lopography of limtslont hills and sinks, Los Hailim. Tht whilt artas lacK soil. (Phnlo, John ShortS.) tending from Monte Cristi in the northwest to Samana Bay. The Cibao actually consists of two valleys: the Santiago Valley (or Western Goao) drained by the Rio YaquI! del Norte and the Vega Real (or EastErn Cibao) drained by the Rio Yuna. The drainage divide is at Licey al Medio (175 rn) near Santiago. Both valleys are very flat, with 1-2% slopes to sea level. The Cibao Valley is the most important agricultural region of the country. Thert: is a pronounced rainfall gradient from the wet eastern Cibao to the xeric western Cibao. Aridity and salini ty are limiting factors in the western half of the Santiago Valley. The eastern Santiago Valley is the primary production area for tobacco. The Vega Real c('ntain"> the best agricultural soils, with impressive production of plantains, cacao and rice. The San Juan Valley lies between the Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Neiba, extending from the Haitian border to Ocoa Bay. Physiographically similar to Ire Cibao with a low drainage divide into two subvalleys, the San Juan Valley is relatively arid but lacks the extremes of the Cibao. With excellent soils and irri gation, the San Juan Valley is a major rice growing region. Farther to the south between the Sierras de Neiba and Baoruco is the Enriquilio Basin extending from the Haitian border to N,eiba Bay. The saline I.ake Enriquillo is 40 m below sea level. Due to the general aridity of the badn, saline soils are abundant. ,\ few intermountain valleys occur in the Cordillera Central: COllstanza (30 km2), Jarabacoa (23 km2), and Bonao-Altogracia (12,S km2). The higher Constanza and Jarabacoa Valleys have be come important tourist and vacation attractions. The low Bonao and Altograci, Valleys are primarily in rice and sugarcane. Although patches of coastal plain occur along the north coast, the Caribbean coastal plain is the most extensive and important. It e>:tends south of the Cordillera Oriental-Sierra de Yamasa from Ocoa Bay to the eastern tip of the island. The Caribbean coast.ill plain CClnsbts of a series of limestone terJ'i'ces and varies in width 10-40 km. It is the principal sugarcane area of the coun try, as well as the major pasture zone for beef cattle. the only undisturbed natural forests are protected in the Parque Nacional del Esle. The Peninsula de S .. rnana is an isolated low mountain range and contains one of the WEttest areas of the country. Some marble is quarried frorn the northeastern part of the Los Haitises is the most striking region of the country due to the extensive karst topography (1,(,00 km'). Differential dissolu tion of the Miocene limestone has produced the characteristic "cockpit" or "egg-carton" country (Fig. 11-2b), with innumerable sinks among rounded hills. Other karst areas occur in the Sierra de Baoruco, Peninsula de Samana, and south of Sosua. 9

PAGE 20

F1sure D-Ja. TIrt tfftcls of dimt hits by Hurricants David and Frtdmc in 1979 OT/ tnt dtfomttd hills in tht Rio Ocaa watmhtd. TIrt ftw tretS in tht fortground art nativt Pinus occidentalis. Nott tht Ulldt sco:uing of tht valley floor by tht major flooding of tht Kio Ocaa. (Hand-htld atrial photo, ltalo Russo.) The insularity and heterogeneous topography of the Domini can Republic determine local climatic regimes that vary markedly from arid to wet. Although frost is common at high elevations and snow is occasional on the highest peaks, temperatures vary regularly and predictably. Even in the lowlands, polar air masses can push surprisingly cool air over the Dominican Republic dur the winter. moisture and wind conditions can accentuate local temperaturp. differences. The amount and dbtribution of rainfall playa much more ir., portant role in determIning natural vegetation (Chapter III) and agricultural crops (Chapter VI). Not only does rainfall vary appreciJbly in the country (from 350 mm in the Neiba Valley to 2,750 mm at Laguna Limon), it also v
PAGE 21

Unfortunately, a number of serious obstacles surfaced that im peded development. These obstacles included: (a) inherent wl?ak ness of the Republic's single crop I?Xport sector; (b) weakness of the country's industri.JIization process; (c) extemally c.aused price fluctuations; (d) regidity and fragility of the demand func tion; and (e) excessive increases in the country's import bill due to the spiraling cost of fossil fuels. Collapse of the price of sugar along with drart'atic increases in the cost of imported petroleum in 1976 called for immediate actions to diversify the economy and improve the rational use of the country's natural resources. Over the past two years, the government has reoriented economic policy by placing major emphasis on the agricultural and mining sectors. Current Policies The present national development policy not only reasserts the previous administration's goal to improve the social and econom ic well-being of the population, but in addition it places emphasis on providing for imrroving the conditions of the poore'St segments of society. To'achieve these gOal8, the medium range Agricultural Development Plan (ADP) for the 1980-82 pe riod cont(mplates adivities with the following objectives: (a) im prove the nutritional level of the population, especially the two lowest income levels; (b) increase food production; (c) improve income distribution in the rural areas; (d) reduce agricultural im ports; (3) increase the exports of farm products as a means for al leviating Ihe negative effects cause by price increases of petrole um products; (f) settle new famiiies on agrarian reform projects and consolidate settlements; and (g) create new sources of salaried work in the rural areas (SEA 1979). The ADP program of activities combines direct government action to increase productivity and improve the standard of liv ing of small-holder agriculturalists with indirect incentives to stimulate greater private sector involvement in the development process. This Plan being carried out at the present time, though with some variations in the of priorities due to the dam age caused by Hurricanes David and Frederic in 1979. The Plan's basic objective ;s to eliminate the condition of mal nutrition in low income population groups. The strategy pursued is to increase food crop production to benefit both small-holders and salaried farm workers, since groups suffer from limited availability of land and low salary levels-situations that have given rise to the high rate of under-employment in the rural sec tor. The obj:!ctives to incrl!ase both food production and food sup ply go hand-in-hand with the need simultaneously to increase available farm income. The Plan does not exclud:! the role that large fArmers should play to more fully employ and better remunerate on-farm labor. Stated in another way, the Dominican Republic's principal rural development policy is to provide a more equitable distribution of the factors of production so that 'increases in agricultural and livestock yields will benefit all in come groups, but most especially the underprivileged small holders, tenants and salaried farm workers. AI.eady, a number of important steps have been taken to stimulate this change process: applied research, in-service training, institutional reorganization, credit and other extension services, construction of roads and ir rigatior. works. Future Prospects The implications of such developmental impacts on the enviror,, .:nt are unmistakable. Population pressures, the search for universal!y greater economic well-being, land restrictions imposed by the country's relatively sm'ciJl size and absence of any frontier areas awaiting colonization, (L'e factors that urgently call for the development of short and medium-term that can harmonize rural development schemes with future natural resources management policies. The ADP recognizes this need and calls for the form..uation of a :tatural resources development policy that addresses or !lving space concerns as well as factors of produdion directly related to physical landscape characteristics such as slopes, land cover, agricultural soils and water. The Plan underscores the need to formulate and propose a na tural re'lourccs management policy. Obviously, such a clearly es tablished policy does not exist at the present time. Nonetheless, there is an awareness both in governmt.nt circles and in the mind of the general public that the socioeconomic development guais of the country's growing population must be set within Ihe con text of a finite resource blSe, that use of such resources should be determint:d in a manner that does not imperil their by fu ture generations, and that natural resources management is a dynamic, constantly changing whose problems and solu tions must be within a holistic framework of relation ships between people ann the land. Demographic and Economic Aspects The Dominican Republic populalion is estimaled 5,570,000; an average density of 115 inhabitants per square kilomeh'r (Ben jamin, 1981). However, if only the good agricultural land (see Table VI-9) is considered, the density jumps to 267 inhabi tants/km'. In 1977, 21% of the gross domestic product was pro duced by agriculture. Even t."ough sugar is the top export (gold and tourism follow), the Dominican Republic is not even close to self-suffici.?ncy in basic foods. High population growth rate of approximately 3.5% per year during the 1950's and '60's contributed to the burgeoning popu lation, Governme:tt supported family planning policies dropped the annual growth rate I ., '?"o by the mid-70's. The GODR Fami ly Planning Council estimates current population growth at 2.5% per year-a very signiricant decrease in one decade. The baby boom of the '5(1's and '60's put the economically ac tive population (15-64 years of age) in the minority (49%) in 1978. In that same year 48% of the population was under 15 years of age. In the past few years the birth rate (per 1000) risen to 45-the highest for the Caribbean region. Infant mortali ty of 83 per 1000 live births is one of the highest in Latin Rapid population growth in the absence of traditional agricul tural frontiers (see Chapters -VI and IX) has caused considerable rural-urban migration. The urban j:Jopulaiion of the Dominican Republic now e;.:ceeds the rural population; one in four Domini cans lives in Santo Domingo. Urban growth rate is over 5% per year, whereas rural growth rate is only 0.75%. Even though the Dominican Republic has achieved an appre ciable lowering of the rate of population growth, a 2.6% annual rate yields a doubling of the population in 26 years. How will the GODR feed and service 10 million inhabitants by the year 20001 What will be the consequences of 10 million Dominicans on limited natural and an a1readJ stressed environ ment1 How will national enel8Y demands be met? Difficult but fundamental questions sucn as these the basis of the follow ing analyses of the natural resources and the environment of the Dominican Republic. 11

PAGE 22

... f .., = ;. r. ]; ;or e;-.. i!" :I ,,0 iO 11 0-S ;;:-..... a-:I is" if' '" ;;:-... \() U1 'A TLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA Mean Annual Interval = 400 mm

PAGE 23

III Natural Vegetation General Description The vegetation of the Dominican Republic is most easily inter pre(ed using Holdridges Life Zone System, (Fi3. III-I), a decep tively simple bioclimatic c 1.i1Ssification using (WO independent cli matic parameters, mean annual rainfall and bio-temperature. The latter paJ ameter differs from regular temperature in that it substi tutes for all unit values above 300 C and below 00 C, e.g. bio-temperature in the Dominican lowlands is lower than the standard temperature average. With normal climatic conoitions a Holdridge Life Zone will have a characteristic vegetation that will be similar in structure anywhere in the world where the same climatic conditions exist. The Ufe Zone sy3tem is not depend.?nt on floristic relations or taxon )n1Y, e.g. Hh;paniola and northern Central America have different pine species domif'lating subtropkal lower montane life zones, yet pbcs are completely absent from the same Iiie zones in the Bolivian Andes. Despite the non-floristic basis of the Holdridge Life Zone system, geographk limits to species distributiOIIS do often coincide with Life Zone boundaries. The Holciridge Life Zone system (Holdridge 1967) is actu.uly a hierarchiacal classification with the Life Zone as first order or most general level. Other hierarchical levels include (2) associa tion-grouping, (3) associations and (4) actual vegetation, whether an agricultural crop or a successional stagl? Local differences in vegetation structure caused by soil, drainage or COll ditions are rerognzied as distinctive ecological association that a particular Life Zone, any number of edaphic, hydric andJO/ atmospheric associations may also occur in that same Life Zone. First order classification can be used to produce an ecological map of Life Zcnes as was done for the Dominican Republic by OAS in 1967 (Fig. I1I-2). The intermed;lte level association grOl'ping is to the catena concept of soil science and is particularly appropriatc for regional mapping of land-use capabil ity. The more-detailed association level is useful for detailed eco logical mapping, watershed 70ning or farm planning. It is impor tant to note that the Life Zone. assocition-grouping and associa tion levels all ir.dicate potmfiai vegetation, i.e. the naturally devel oped vegetation undisturbed by man or his activities. On ly the fourth level takes into account the actual vegetation whether agricultur.:ll crops, pastures or successional vegetation. Nine Life Zones and seven transithnals occur in the Domini can Republic (Table III-I), with two basal belt (lowland) Life Table m-I. Area of Holdridge Life Zones in the Dominican Republic (OAS, 1967). ]. Subtropical Thorn Woodland :to Subtropical Dr'f Forest a. Non-transitional b. Warm-moist transition 3. Subtropical Moist rorest iI. No.,-transitional b. Warm-dry tranJition c. Warm-moist transition 4. Suhtropical Wet Forest iI. Non-transitional b. Warm-moist transition 5. Subtropical Rain Forest Unlt lun 1 (%) (20.42) 150 (lUI) 22,139 (46.0B) 500 (1.04) 155 (0.32) 6,BOi (14.17) 26 {0.05) 6. Subtr apical Lowt'r Montanf. Moist Forest a. Nor.-transitiona! 3,214 (6.69) b. Cool-dry transition 23 (0.05) C. Cool-moist transition 243 (0.51) 7. Subtropiral Lower Montane Wet Forest a. Non-transitional 3,557 (7.40) b. Cool-moist transition 20 (0.04) 8. Subtropical Lower Montane Ram Forest 9. Subtropkal Montane Wet Forest Total km%(%) ],00] (2.08) 9,962 (20.n) 22,794 (47.42) 6,834 (14.22) 56 (0.12) 3,4BO (7.24) 3,577 (7.44) 36 (0.08) 303 (0.63) Zones covering 68% of the country. The following l:ynopsis of Dominican Life Zones is taken primarily from the major OAS (1967) study of the co lin try's natural resources. Subtroplcai Thorn Woodland Life Zone This Life Zone occurs in the citiest areas of the country, partic ularly in the south-west it extends from Lake Enriquillo to Puerto Viejo, usually less than 300 m in elevation. Minor outliers fringe Bahia Honda (Cabo Rojo), Bahia de Ocoa and Bahia de las Calderas (Punta Salinas). In northwestern Cibao a small area of this Life Zone occurs at the base of the Aguacate hills. Oimatic conditions are characterized by less than SOO mm of annual rainfall and mean annual biotemperature of 18 and 24 0 C. The combination of high temperatures and little rainfall produces a potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio between 2.0 and 4.0, i.e. the evapotranspirative demand of natural vegetation exceeds rainfall by a factor of 2 to 4 times. 13

PAGE 24

f .. a .. f :;:. ., f .. -$ '" .a. 6' 3 !i.. e> '" !" '!iI. it lr. ;; 0 '" U"I '" !? ir t:l1 E ..... t)-"'-(I' LATITUDINAL REGIONS 'OlAI! SU.'OlAII BOREAL COOL TEMPEIIATE I" .... ., ..... ,..,* .,.""I,r" ...... ht.ilh, ... Itt ,II I / I of \ I \ '., I \ I \ \ / / / / /1/1/1/1/'/ /1 /1/1" / / ////111;1 l rl :. # # '\; -.. .. ALTITUDINAL 'UVAl SUBALPINE 1I0ICTANE h -'" '" -00 -00 -.. lOWEll _TAME =: l;;I -'" PRE MONTANE =,.. ..... ---". E ; '" ; ... I ... 'OJ a'l ; aU !. 'so i -& ... ; r07 t ... 5 ... 0000 .". .... .... .... coo .. ........ '.,. ".... IIrW 0-C ... DIrt lCr'-.nSIIf'Chtrit '\' .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \' \ \ \ \ \' \' \' \ \ \ \ \ In., ..... II ,,., ... ,, ,.,..-, _n .... '.) MOO SZ.oo 11.00 100 400 zeo 100 0"':. 02S 0125 0062' 00,,21) \st:MIPARCHED \ SUPE"A"'D \ PE"ARID \ ARID \ SEMIARID \ SUBHUIUD \ >lUll I 0 \ PERHUIiID \ S!\TURATD \ SUllSATUIIIT[D \ SATU .... TED 'II I. T,.,tnl Oa', HUMIDITY PROVINCES L. 258462 10}106 TROPICAL SCIENCE CENHR, Sao ""_ C.R. II., IKI

PAGE 25

A TLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA Life Zona Subt.opical Thorn Woodland m Subtropical Dry Fotest Subtropical Moist Forest 0,' -.' .... SubUopiuJ Wet Forest 1 ... :; .!... Subtropical Lower \fontaDe 0 Moist Forest Subtrcy .:a.I Lower W oDWle .rest Lower ... .!-..... Rain Forest D Subtropieal Montane Wei Forest

PAGE 26

The natural vegetaHon of Subtropical Thorn Woodland is dom inated by spiny shrubs and cacti. The latter include Opun/ia carib/lla ("quuabara") and Ntoabboffia paniculala. AIS9 common are Cupmricia btrltroana ("Yarey", Palmae), Pro:;opis julifora, ("baya hond,,", Mimosaceae) and Cnpparis spp. (tapparidaceae). Fertile alluvium in this Ufe Zone is IIsed for irrigated seasonal crops; however, salinization problems have arisen due poor ir rigation management a:id the very high PET ratio. The abundant rolling land is used as a source of firewood and as extensive rangeland ror goat browsing. The complete absence of manage ment of these limited resources has led to considerable degrada tion of the natural vegetation, including desertification. Subtropical Dry Forest Life 20ne The second most extensive Ufe Zone in the country covers most of the western Cibao (lower Vi-que del Norte "alley), San Juan and Neiba vaiieys, as well as much of the Azua and Bani plains as far as !-fato Viejo south of San Cristobal. This We Zone also covers the southen plains and foothills of the Baoruco pen insula and in the southeast it occurs around Bahia de Yuma to Caho Cuemo. Top Jgraphically, it extends from sea level to about 7oom. Subtropical Dry Forest Ufe ZDne receives 500-1000 mm of an nual rainfall with mean annuitl biotemperature of 18-24 0 C. This Ufe Zone has a PET ratio between 2.0 and 1.0. Small transiticnal areas to Moist Forec;t occur on some higher hills due to oro grap!,!ic rainfall and slightly cooler temperatures. NaturcJ vegetation in Subtropical Dry Forest Ufe Zone is a low, single-stratum forest with an abundance of sclerophyll leaved Some slow-growing tree species have exceptional '.1 hard and heavy wood, such as Guaiacum officinalt ("guayacan", Zygophyllaceae) and G. snaclum ("vera"). The most abundant species is usually Pro;opis juliflora or the invasille Acacia farntsiana ("cambron", Mimosaceae); however, Bumra simaruba ("almacigo", Burseraceae), Phy//os/ylon brasilimst ("baitoa", Ulmaceae), Acacia scltroryla ("candelon") and Plumtria alba ("alelis", Apocynace"e) may be locally abundant. In areas transitional to Moist Forest Saba! umbraculiftra ("cana", Palmae) and Swidmia mahogani ("caoba", Meliaceae) are common. Flpre m-Ja. Substropical dry [oml bclwetn ar. i Jirua dtgradtd by ovtr-grlUing and culling [or charcoaL Nolt tht Isr.gf ImuJslidts (upprr It[1) and sivt gully [omalion {cmltr} in Ihis dry rtgion. {Photo, Gulos Qutsadit} The fertile valley soils of the Subtropical Dry Forest Ufe Zone are the ni.:!jor areas used for irrigated agriculture, h.mce Virtually no natural vegetation remains in irrigated areM.. The rolling or undulating land unsuitable for irrigation and too dry for the ma jority of crops is often covered with natural vegetation (Fig. III-3b). 18 F1sure m-Jb. Subtropical dry [ortsl ovtrwoking LAkt Enriquil1o. (phoro, Slanlty Htckadon.) These dry forests are t;e major source area for firewood and charcoal, as well as the primary browse for goats. Indiscriminant and uncontrolled cutting of trees for charcoal and an open-range approach with goats has led to significant degradation wherever natural vegetation is accessible. Slash-and-burn farme.s ("conu queros") who have traditionally avoideo this Ufe Zone due to the high risk of drought-caused crop failure, are now beginning to advance the "agricultural frontier" into the dry forests. Subtropical Moist !"-!e Zone Covering almost half of the country, this Ufe Zone includes the entire Caribbean coastal plain east of San Cristobal, as well as the easlern Cibao (lower Yuna and Camu valleys) and the Cordillera Central foothills below about 850 m elevation. Substantial areas of this Ufe Zone also occur in the western San Juan valley, and on the low foothills of the Sierra de Baoruco and the Cordillera Septentrional. Mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm and biotemper ..... re of 18-24 D C characterize this We Zone. Rainfall tends to increase from west to east for this Life Zone. with the western part re ceiving less than 1500 mm, while the eastern part receives more than 1500 mm. Rainfall generally occurs in two maxima over a nine-month period, consequently the PET ratio is slightly less than 1.0, i.e. a modest excess of rainfall over evapotranspiration. Natural vegetarion for this Ufe Zone is characterized by a well-developed, heterogeneous forest of broad-leaved trees (Fig. I1I-4a). Despite its extension over nearly half of the Ffaure m-4a. Subtropical moisl {oml in Parqut Nacional dtl Eslt; nolt Iht abandoned ckaring {cmltr}. (Hand-htld atrial pholo, John Shorts.)

PAGE 27

clearing for agriculture has reduced the natural vegetation to mere remnants. Calalpa longisiliqua ("cap a, roble dominicanG", Big noniaceae) and mahogany are characteristic tree species of this Life Zone. The royal palm (Rayslon," regia) is very common on limes.one-derived sf)iis (Fig. III-4b). Other occasional trees in clude Budda buaras ("guarangu.1o", Combretaceae), Chlorphora line loria ("fustete, mora", Moraczat"), Cilharerylum frulicosum ("penda", Verbenaceae), Genipa america'l.l ("jagua", Rubiaceaf'), GIIJlZllma IIlmifolia ("guacima", Sterwiiaceae), Haemalorylum carnpechianun/ ("campeche", Caesalpiniaceae), LonchoLJlrpus domingensis (anon cie majagua", Fabaceae), Orandra lanaolal.l ("yaya", Annonaceae), Pillucellobium berleroanum ("corbano", Mimosaceae), P. glauwm ("caracoli''). Simarouba glauca ("Juan Primero", Simaroubaceae), T,/ragas/ris balsamifera ("amacey", Burseraceae). Restrictive sites such as savannas or poor, shallow soils often have Anacardium occiderrlale "cajuil", Anilcardiaceae), Coccoloba pubesans ("hojancha", Polygonaceae), Curalella americana ("pp.ralejo", Dillneiaceae), Tabehuia berleri ("aceituno", Bignoniaceae) and Trema micranlha ("memizo", Ulmaceae). Although mangrove forest is a hydric association that may oc cur in several trop;cal and subtropical life Zones it is commonlv encountered in Subtropical Moist Forest Life Zone in the Domin" ican Republic. Characteristic mangrove tree species include RhizopllOm mmlgle ("mangle colorado", Rhizophoraceac} Avimmia lIilida ("mangle prieto, Avicenni.lr.eae), Conocarpus seriaa and C. emlus ("botoncillo", Combrctaceae) and Lagunmlaria raamosa ("mangle bianco", Combretaceae). In sWilmpy areas Plerocarpus officillalis ("drago", Fabaceae) may be locally dominant. Of the nine Life Zones in the Dominican Republic, the Sub tropical Moist Forest Life ZoTte is the most suitable for agricul ture in the broadest sense. Many of the best soils (e.g. in the Vega ReI) are found in this We Zone. Less fertile, but still ade quate soils have long been converted to pasture or slash and burn agriculture. Several major population centers also are lo cated in this Life Zone, hence it is not surprising that very little natural vegetation remains. Subtropical Wet Forest Life Zone The Cordilleras Septentrional and Oriental have the most ex tensive areas of this Life Zone in the country; it also occurs on the Cabrera promGntory, Samana peninsula, Sierra de Yamasa, Los Haitises, the southea;,tern part of the Cordillera Central, as well as in a narrow ban on the northwestern flank of the Cordil lera Central. In relation to Subtropical Moist, the Wet Life Zone generally occurs in topographically higher positions, although it Figure m-4b. Subtropical moist forts/ ntar U! Vtga convtr/td /0 stasonal crops and pas/llrt. 77lt abundant Roystonea regia pldm on calcwtous soils has many local USts: /ht shta/hing Itaf bast (yagua) is still ustd as siding ma/trial for shacks; fro/it is a major food for pigs; and htar/ of palm. -. Garv Har/shorn.) Figure m-Sa. Dtforts/td karst /opograpJ,y, Los Hai/ists, primarily for stasonal crops btfort convmion /0 tx/tnsivt pas/un (Ph%, Jolin Shorts.) extends to sea level in some places between Cabrera promontory and Laguna Limon. This Life Zone has mean annual rainfall of 2000-4000 rom and biotemperature of 18-24 C. Orographic lifting of moisture laden tradewinds from thP. northeast is the primary source of the high rainfall. A small patch of warm moist transition occurs north of Villa Altagracia. The natural vegetation of Subtropical Wet Forest Life Zone is a hetergeneous multi-stratal forest usually dominated by broad leaved tree species. Characteristic trees incl ude Alclromea lalifolia ("aguacatillo", Euphorbiaceae), Buchenavia capilala ("gri-sri", Com bretaceae), Ryrsonima spiCllla ("mandrono", Malpihiaceae), Calphyllum brasiliense ("varia", Guttiferae), Cisearia a .. borea ("palo de yagua". F1acourtiaceae), DidymopantlX morolololli ("sablito", Araliaceae), Hymerraea courbaril ("algarrobo". Caesalpiniaceae), Manilkara bielenlaltl ("balatil", Sapotaceae) and Pnmnus mlf/Nolia ("almendrillo", Rosaceae). the only native pine, Pinus oCcidenialis, dominates on lateritic soils (see Fig. IV-lb). Primarily due to higher rainfall, this Wet Life Zone is not as suitable for seasonal crops as in the Moist Life Zone. The best agricultural soils (usually Certile alluvium) support perennial crors, particularly cacao, although som areas grow coffee, rub ber, or tea. The poorer hillside soils are generally for slash and burn agriculture or converted to extensive pasture. Natural vegetation has beel\ largely destroyed, leaving minor remnants only in the most inaccessible places. Even in the beautiful karstic terrain of Los Haitises, slash and burn agriculture has destroyed much of the natural vegetation (Fig. I1I-5a); uncontrolled fires often sweep up the limestone hills and degrade the uncut forest. SubtNJplcal Rain Forest Life Zone Of extremely minor occurrence in the country, this Life 7.one is found around Casabito hill and two isolated areas in the Cor dilleras Septentrional and Oriental. Rainfall in excess of 4,000 mm is due to strong orographic influences. The natural vegeta tion is broad-leaved forest festooned with epiphytes. Tree ferns are especially abundant. A characteristic broad-leaved tree is Unociera domingmsis ("lirio", O!eaceae). Subtropical Lower Montane Moist Forest Life Zone This Life Zone occurs primarily on the eastern and southern flanks of the Cordillera Central. It is less abundant in the Sierras de Neiba and Baoruco, and on the northern flank of the Cordil lera Central. This Life Zone is usually' ound above 800 m eleva tion. Mean annual rainfall varies between 1000 and 2000 mm, with average annual biotemperature of 18C. Cool-dry transitional 1'7

PAGE 28

areas to Subtropical Lower Montane Dry Forest Life Zone occur in two small patches on the south flank of the Cordillera Central and on the eastern end of the Sierra de Neiba. These cool-dry transitions are due primarily to rain-shadow reductions in rainf"ll. Cool-moist transitional areas with rainfall between 1800-2000 mm occur in two small, isolated patches on the south flank of the Cordillera Central, as well as on the Sierra de The natural vegetation is primarily open pine forest. In addi tion to P oceidmlalis, the native conifers juniprtlls graeilior ("sabina", :upr0'saceae) and Podocarpus buchii (Podocarpaceae) ,'liso occur in this Life Lone. Typical broad-leaved species include GUallUlm Illmmiosa (Stt:fculiaceae), Ganya fadymii (Garryaceae), Rapanw ferruginta (Myrsina::eae) and VlICcinium mbense (Ericaceae). The majority of the land in this Life Zone has been deforested or seriously degraded by slash and burn agriculturists (Fig. lll-Sb). Inappropriate hillside farming on poor, shallow soils has resulted in serious erosion and loss I)f fertility .. with conse'tuence of substantial abandonment of land or conversion to poor pasture. Subtropical Lower Wet Forest Life Zone 'This Life Zone covers much of the mid-elevations (8S0-2,100 m) of the Cordillera Central, Sierra de Neiba and Sierra de Baoruco. Small areas of cool-moist transition to Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest Life Zone occur on each of chese mountain ranges. The non-transitional Life Zone also occurs in a fe .... ,.latches on the Cordillera Septentrional. Mean anilual rainfall is 2000-4000 mm and biotemperature of 18-12C. With a PET ratio of 0.50-0.2S, there is a considerable excess of rainfall over evapotranspiration. The occurrence of this Life Zone over some 7% of the country in combination with steep terrain provides the bulk of the water for the major rivers. The importance of th(se rivers for irrigation and hydrof'lectricity make the Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest Life Zone the most critical ecological region of the country. The natural vegetation of this Zone is characterizcJ by a complex mixture of broad-leaved and pine forests. The former occur in valleys and lower slopes, grading to pine forest on the ridges and upper slopes. Pine is usually present in the broa:l leaved forest and regenerates well following disturbance, particu larly fire. Characteristic broad-leaved tree species include Bnmellia comociadifolia (Brunelliaceae), Didymvpmlax tremulum ("temblon", Araliaceae), Diospyros ebenasler ("eba.l\o", Ebenaceae), Garrya fadymii (Garryaceae), Oreorlmax capilaillm Pr,mus oceidenlalis ("a1mendro", Rosaceae) and Wei/mlt/nnia (Cunoniaceae). This Life Zone is receiving considerable pressure from slash and burn agriculturalists, who are advancing deeper into the ma jor mountain ranges. There are precious few patches in this Life Zone with soil suitable for permanent agriculture. Conversion of the broad-leaved forest on the lower slopes greatly reduces the water absorptive and retentive capacity of the topsoil, hence there .nuch greater fluctuation in runoff. Debris-clearing fires often escape up-slope into the pine forest where the temporary loss of groundwater results in serious erosion of the shallow soils. Natural forest vegetation is the best soil protector and regulator of runoff. The thick root-mat under broad-leaved forest func tions like a gigantic sponge absorbing enormous quantities of rainwater during the wet season and slowly releasing water dur ing the dry season. The sponge-like capacity moderates extremes-reducing pea'<. flow during floods and maximizing dis charge during droughts. Protection of natural vegetation in the Subtropical Lower Montane Wet Forest Life Zone should be a top priority of the Dominican government. Subtropical Lower Montane Rain Forest Life Zone Of very limited occurrence, this Life Zone is found only in three isolated patches in the Cordillera Central. Though mean annual rainfall exceeds 4000 mm, the total area of only 36 krn' contributes much total runoff than the Subtropical Lower 18 f .. Figure m-5b, Dtnuded landscape in Ihe Rjo Lis CUtl'l;S walmhed. The area was probably deforesled decades ago for seasonal crops slllh as beans, Nole Ihe freshly prepared field (lower an! r). (.'-lllnd-heid aerial pholo, Gary Harlshorn.) Montane Wet Forest Life Zone with lOG times more catchment :.rea. The natural vegetation of this Life Zone is characterized by the dominance of broad-leaved species, and the abundance of tree ferns and f'piphytes. Forest Life Zone This Life Zone occurs above 21(10 m and encompasses the highest peaks of the country. The most extensive representative of this Life Zone occurs around Pico Durate (3,087 m), with lesser areas in the headwaters of the Rio Nizao and on the Sierra de Baoruco. Mean annual rainfall is 1000-2000 mm ard biotemperiiture is 12-6 C. Freezing temperatures occur regularly in Life Zone. The natural vegetation is predominantly open pine stands (see Fig 1l-2a) of substantially lower height than in Lower Montan Wet Forest Life Zor.e. Typical broad-leaved species include Bllddleia domir' "/Isis (Loganiaceae), Lyonia spp. (Ericaceae), Verbmfl domingmsis (Verbenace,'e) and WeinmtllJlJia pinnala (Cunoniaceae). Status of Major F01'est Types The most recent inventory (Table 1Il-2) of land cover indicates slightly less than 7,000 km' of forest remain in the country (CRIES 1980). Unfortunately, the CRIES study defines forest as having canopy closure of at Ifast 7S%, which exludes the majority of the open pine forests. Due to low density of trees, most Table III-2. Gasses of actual land use or cover in the Domini-can Republic; Data from CRIES (1980). Code Actual Land Use or Cover Km2 (%) 1.0 Urban and Built-up 292 (0.6) 2.1 Sugarcane (75%) 4.205 (8.8) 2.2 Intensive Agriculture (75"', in crops) 6.496 (13.6) 2.3 Marginal Agriculture (25-74% in crops) 8,281 (17.4) 2.4 Pasture (planted 2.325 (4.9) 3,0 Rangeland 5,278 (J 1.1) 3.1 Limited Rangeland 12,788 (26.8) 4.1 Broadleaved Forest 6.$18 (13.7) 4.2 Pine Forest 311 (0.7) 5.0 Wetlands (excluding rice) 269 (0,6) 6.0 Barren or Open 402 (0.8) 7.u Inland Water 315 (0.7) 8,0 Goud Cover 177 (0.4) Total ,,::1,57 (100)

PAGE 29

pine forests are classified as limited rangeland by CRIES. The lack of distincition of forest types makes it impossible to compare the CRIES results with eader estimates of f{lrest cover (Table III-3). The two major forestry studies done by OAS (1967) and FAO (1973) do not permit substantive comparisons in forest cover (Table III-3). The OAS study conduded durIng the 1965 and 1966 determined 5,570 krna of forest area with commercial trees. The FAO field work done in 1968-1971 classified as forest near ly double the total area reported by OAS; FAO reports twice as much humid broadleaved forest and five times more subhumid broadleaved forest. However, there is an important caveat buried in the FAO report that states only about one-third of the nearly 11,000 krna of forest area is undislurbtd by fire "r slash and burn agriculture. FAO's figure of 3,350 krna of undisturberi forest is about 40% less than the OAS area of commercial forests. Table I1I-3. Comparative estimates of major forest types in the Dominican l\epubJic. Forest Type Pine Birnaeval Km'l (%) 2,800a (5.8) OAS 1967 FAg Km2 (%) Km (%) 2,155 (4.5) 1.962 (4.1) CRIES 1980 Km2 (%) 3I1 (0.6) Mixed Pine Broadleaved Humid Broadleaved 4,800a (9.9) 29,378b (61) 835 (1.7) 1,385 (2.9) Subhumia Broadleaved MJngroves Other (Lakes, etc.) IO,963C (23) 102 (0.2) 399 (0.8) \ (13.5) 1,8'iO (-'.9) 4,B.S 690 (1.4) 3,382 (7.0) 102 (0.2) Total 48A42 (100) 5,570 (11.5) 10,966 (22.6) 6,829 (14.1) aEstimutes based on aerial ph:Jtointrrpretation by FAD (1973). blncludes alll.!fe Zones with PET ratio less th,n 1.0, minus the FAD estimates of original pine and mixed pinebroadleaved forests. clncludes all We Zones with PET ratio greater than 1.0. FAO (1973) offers figures of the primaeval (pre-Co lombian?) extent of pine and mixpd pine-broadleaved forests (Table III-3). When compared \'/ith actual forest cover according to FAO, the pure pine forest decreased in area about 30% while the mixed pine-broadleaved forest lost over 70%. The striking difference in rates of presumed deforestation is probably due to the topoS! a"hically lower location of the mixed forest, hence it was more accf,.ible for logging. and the better soil under the mixed forest. Further extrapolations of the broad-leaved forests using We Zones (see Table 11:-1) suggests 86% of the humid broadleaved forests and 69% of the subhumid broadleaved for ests have been deforested (Table III-3). These very crude esti mates of deforestation do indicate the pressures for cO:'IVersion of lowland foresls to non-forest use, Only in the highlands are the deforestation pressures less on the pure pine forests. The 1967 law closing sawmills and prohibiting the cutting of trees certainIy is a major factor in reduced deforestation. It should be noted that pine forests occur on poor soils in remote and rugged ter rain, hence of neglibible interest to agriculturalists. Consequently the closing of sawmills took away the major threat and FOREST Jo, (Forest Sel vice) has d(ne an excellent job protecting the remaining pine forests. While concentrating on pine forest protection, FORESTA has virtually ignored the other major forest types. ThE emphasis on enforcement prohibiting harvesting of commercial timber, pri marily pine, seems to ignore the rampant and continuous defor estation for slash and burn agriculture, as well as for r:hJ/'coal production and firewood. Significant areas of Los Haitises, in cluding the national park, are currently being deforested, Slash and burn agriculturalists are rapidly advancing the agricultural &ontier in La A1togracia province, FORESTA has token control of charcoal transport on the major highways, but makes no pre tentions about regulating the cutting of wood to m;Jke inco char coal. FORESTA's (1980) report that national productior. \otals 900,000 sacks of charcoal is only about 20% of the production estimated by Jennings and Ferreira (1979). The role of charocal production in the rural economy and the need fur energy planta tions are addressed in charters IX and IV, respectively. The gov ernment, through FORESTA: clearly needs to address the charcoal economy in a much more thorough manner. FORFST A should take the lead in ensuring rational use of natural forests for charcoal, development of trial energy use of more efficient kilns and stoves; and encourage industrial and home conversion &om firewood to briquettes. Flora The ecologIcal diversity of Hispaniola is reflected by great flor istic richness, certainly the richest flora in the Antilles. Moscosa (1943) r .. oduced the first catalog of the Dominican flora; it was later expanded by Jimenez (1959), More recently, Logier (1974) compiled a dictionary of common plant names. A com prehensive systematic treatment of the flora has not been initi ated, Approximaiely 36% of the 5,600 species are thought to be endemic (Hernandez 1980). A preliminary effort (Table IIJ-4) lists 137 plant species as threate:'led or in danger of extinctiol1. The national herbarium is housed at the very impressive botan ical garden-Jardin Botanico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso". The botanical garden was created by Law 456 (1976) with modi fications in its legal base enaded under Law 921 (1978). As a de pendency of the executive branch of government, the botanicai garden receives annual government appropriations. The general administrator is appointed for an indefinite period by the Presi dent of the Republic. In addition to maintairing live collections and the national herbarium, major funcitons include (1) strength ening educational and cultural appreciation of the botanical sciences, especially with respect to preserving the national flora; (2) conducting the necessary studies of the flora to assure its preserv",tion or where necessary, restoration of green areas; collabo. Jting with the National Parks Dirt!ctorate in botanical and ecological not only in parks and reserves but in areas destined for conversion to other uses; and (4) utilizing the green areas around Isabel de Torres as a substation for botanical garden programs (ONAP 1980). 19

PAGE 30

rabJem-4. Threatened and mdanau" plant .pedes In .hoot Domin i can Repubbc Bated Ott a U t prepared b y aOIMA by Dr ,oti de JnUs Jlmenu with a f e w addJUoft1l ,u88nted b y AlaIn UosJer. Orchid prep a red b y D D D o d -Den o tes Endemic Spedes. AC"VACEAE A/"lltlt illltrmil1ll T rd. BI(;NONIACEAE Utlflllllim!Iht Iongifolill (Grlseb.) Urb. Ty"IIlI1IlhllJ clU'!/flPh!llltus (8fl1o) 80MBACACEAE e,i"" ptnJllIIIinI (L) C.iertn CAcrACEAE Dtlllirormll5 wuiuloJIIJ (DC) Brillon Rose HIllTiJu, /rwstii MarsNlI N tllllbbctill JIjZIlitulll!lI (L..m) Britton" Rose o,.lIIItili urMnUmIi Werdem portulilrilell/l ( L l H.tow CAMPANUlACEAI Lobt/ill Lam. vu. BrArhYIIIIlitl! Urb. CQMPOSITAE Agowum doming,nst Spreng. Clu!pIRIiIl tggmii Urb. Urb. Erigtron dominglnsis Urb. "Erigmlll flUrftJii Urb. Erigtril/llJ(/ltIlJU Urb. 0Erigmm psiwC/wlis Urb. ",ripron sub.upinlll ptlllfif/oril (Sw. l F &:: R RtirhtnbllthmllbllJ tmflrginlllu; Garay SpiranlbtJ mmir/..,iJu (Grist!b.) Cogn. SpirllnlhtJ domingtns;s Dod Sldis IitJmi"l:nsis Cogn. rropidill p!'/ysIwhylTcophyllll (Rchb. f.J Schltr. Rolfe CAmpylactnlrl4m CIIIISIllnUIISl G.iriY CRmpylocrnlnim mll(rorarplllll Dod Glmpyillrtlllnlm Dod CompwtlM IlIliwll Poepp." Engl. Mansf. Corym/torkis fliwa (Sw.l K unne Corymborkil forcipigtrR (R,hb. f ) l. O. W ms. Cnmiehil Wllgmm' Rchb. f. Cryplophorll1l/hllJ Cryplurllofll1llhus ilItorlllJ'WtUJ (Undl.) Rolfe GypIophorfllllhus rMIIJ Gal.lY Dcmtinglllf x SllJimtIl Dod &tryrli. Schltr. b ipr.plllllm R,hb. f. &tryrlill blrliM" Grise-b. &tryrlia booIhill1l.l (Undl.) D r ele r Enryrlill hl/{hi; (Cogn.) Dod &ttydill {h/tllIli v u lbll Dod Enryr/ill aillTllll Oacq. l SchUr.

PAGE 31

Table 10-4. (continl!
PAGE 32

PREVIOUS PAGE BLANK IV Planctation Forestry Introduction The Dominican Republic was once well-endowed with pine, hardwood and mixed pine-hardwood forests, but uncontrolled cutting, wildfire, hurricanes and conversion to agriculture have Jesh,;/:!d all but occasional stands in higher elevations, a few jJrivate forests and scattered remnant plots and strips along prop erty boundaries or water courses. Much of the low elevation, dry scrub forest also remains. Devastation of the nation's better for ests has resulted in widespread erosion and led the government to close all private mills in 1967 and to prohibit harvesting of live trees. The country has since become a net importer of about $30 million of wood products annually. Although deforestation is the root cause of most of the coun try's most critical environmental problems, a massive reforesta tion program is nut a workable solution at the present time. Re forestation of selected, controlled sites and tree planting in con junction with integrated watershed management, however, are possible and desirable. This chapter aims to describe the state of the art of plantation foratry in the Dominican Republic and the role that reforestation can play in restoring the nation's land resource to a protective and productive state. The Status of Plantation Forestry Bxtent of Exl8t1ng Plantation8 Efforts to establish forest plantations in the Dominican Repub lic have been extremely modest. Planting of ornamental has occurred fvr some time, but the first forest plantations of any significant extent were not begun until 1969. Progress has been slow since then. Statistics on forest tree plantations are rare or nonexistent. Most organizations record the number of seedlings planted, but" because of variable pia ,ting densities, some replanting of failed areas, and occasionally t:te tallying of which leave the nur sery of those actually planted, it is difficult to accurately ascertain thf' area of land in the Dominican Republic. Records of seedlings planted provided by the Dirrecion General de Foresta, converted to area, indicate that from 1969 to 1978 about 1,9000 hectares were reforested by the government. loca tions and app.oximate areas of these stands are given in Tabl-! IV-I. By 1980 the govel1lment plantations may have been in creased to about 2,200 he<. tares. In addition, private industry (es-Table IV-I. Estimated areas and locations of government forest plantations established in the Dominican Republic through 1978. location Main Species Constanza P. Glribllta, UiIJ"abacoa) P. oeddtnlalis Lorna de la Sal P. earibata Uarabacoa) P. oecidtnlalis Los Gajitos Swi"tnir mahagoni (San Juan) P. earibllta, others Manabao P. euribllta Uarabacoa) P. oecidtnlalis SabanaGara P. earinllta (DajabOn) P. occidtnlalis P. oecidwlaUs others Year rlanling Started 1975 1969 1975 1969 1976 Approximate Area (Hectares) 107 280 40 1,230 262 1,919 pecially Falconbridge Dominicana) is estimated to have planted about 1,000 hectares to mid-19BO, bringing the country-wide .:>tal to approximately 3,200 hectare, of which about 70% were government sponsored and 30% were privately established. The main species planted are Pinus occidtnlalis and P. cmiblUa var. hondlUtnsis. Most of the plantations have the objectives of site stabi lization and the future production of wOO() products. National Organlzatlon8 Active In Reforestation Direccian General de Foresta. The orgar.ization most active in plantation forestry in the country is the national forest service, the Direccion General Forestal, or FORESTA. FORESTA began planting for combined protective and productive purposes in 1969 with technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organiza tion uf the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Develop men't Program (UNDP). This assistance until 1972. Planting has continued since then at a modest scale, and planta tions now cover an estimlted 2,200 hectares, mainly in the pro vince of La Vega near Jarabacoa, but with smaller stands in San Juan and Dajabon. Since 1977 the FORESTA planting program her; benefitted from financial and technical assistance from the InteJ,american Dev'!lopment Bank (lOB). FORESTA has made .1 33

PAGE 33

start at reforestation, but the} need to expand planting on go'l ernment land and to extend it to private holdings as well. The possibilities and limitations of FORESTA doing this are covered elsewhere in this chapter. Other Government AgencilJs. Other than FORESTA. the govern ment organization most active in reforestation is the St-cretaria de de Agricultura (SEA). Two major SEA plans with reforest ation components are the Plan Sierr J, prepared by the Planning Department (SEA 1978 and 1979), and the Project Bao, prepared by the Department of Lands and Water (Tamayo 1980). With hearlquarte:s in San Jose de Las M:ltas, Plan Sierra aims to promote development and integration into the national econo my of the mountainous region covering about 2,000 square kilo meters in parts of the provinces of Santiago and Santiago Rodri guez by improving cropping systems and :'y fostering better management of natu:-a1 resources. The forestry component of PI.rn Sierl'a calls for harvesting and management of natural forests as well as reforestation. Initially, plans are to reforest by planting about 50 hectares annually to suitable species, mainly Pinus earibaea var. hondurensis. Planting is to be done on agriculturally underproductive private lands through a cropping system called taungya which encourages establishment cultivation of r.lixed plantations of trees and agricultural crops for a period of lhree to four years, after which the trees are left to take over the site. On the better soils this same taungya system is being used to convert from annual or seasonal creps to more coffee plantations, by first planting a short-term cash crop to gether with leguminous shade trees, and then by setting out cof fee seedlings "nce sufficient shade is assured. Some 40,000 hec tares are thought to be suitable for coffee production. Other components of the Plan Sierra are the devlopment of disease-re sistant, adaptable varieties of fruit trees (such as avocado) suitable (or export, as well as pasture improvement and fuel wood planta .. tions. There has been only minimal cooperation between FOREST A JJlQ Plan Sierra, due largely to the technical weakness of FORESTA. As Plan Sierra had been operational for only about 18 mor.ths prior to the profile team's visit, it was difficult to evaluate how successful it has been in meeting its objectives. It is obvious, however, fhat the Plan is off to an excellent start. It has con fronted the major problems head on and is developing local solu tions to solve them. In particular, Plan Sierra is striving to work with the rural poor, to gain their trust, and to enlist their collab oration. It is, for example, helping to teacn housewives better family nutrition, explaining to farmers' organizations the bene fits of agroforestry, and working through lending institutions to promote conversion to coffee production on suitable sites. None theless, thpse efforts will need to be intemified and expanded if Plan Sierra is to have .1 significant impact on the region. In par ficular, it will need management, and in some areas terrace con struction, on the poor, dry, and often shallow soils which exist in much of the region. Aid agencies could be of great assistance to Plan Sierra by rroviding much technical expertise as well as incentives to small farmers either in the form of cash subsidies or food. There is a real opportunity for international agencies to face the challenge of helping the rural poor by assisting Plan Sierra. The second major SEA project with a forest plarltation compo nent is Project Bao. This plan, with offices in Janico, is a soil and water conservation scheme aimed at protecting the Tavera-Bao dams and reservoirs. Geographically, it concentrates on the 864 Exolic species, such as P. are not recommended !;ere for planting in na tional parks. In addition, P. (ariba,a is unlikely to be as adaptable as the indigenous P. o(eiden/ali, at elevdions above about 800 meters, which includes most of the park. square kilometer Dao watershed which includes the rivHs Bao, Jagua and J;o.;.ico. an estimated 9,000 hectares of the project area are pub!ic lands of greater than 40% slope which are now occu pied by small farmers, and about 5,000 hectares lie Ber mudez National Park. Most of the rest of the land is in private ownership. The forestry component of Project Bao aims to change the cropping system from seasopai crops to more permanent types, such as trees, through taurgya, and to reduce forest fires. Specifi cally it proposes to plant annually some 1.6 million fruit and for est trees (about 1,000 hecta.es) outside the park and another 1.6 million trees of P. occidmla!is and possibl y P. mribtlw' inside the park. Although FORESTA has been cooperating with Project Bao, the reforesta!ion goals of the project are viewed here as be ing unrealistic. No organization in the cot.:ntry has been able to plant anywhere near 2,000 hectares annually, and in light of the seriousne,s of land tenure problems in the Bao watershed and the need (or technical assista,,,ce and incentives, Project Bao will certainly not be able to reach its goal anytime in the near future. No figures were available for the area of land actually reforested to date, but it must be remembered [hat the project is only two years old-a very young for forest plantation schemes. Proj ect Bao should be considel'ed as a candidate for bilateral and multilateral technical and financidl assistance based largely on the need for protecting the Tavera-Bao watersheds, but success in improving the lot of the rural poor is likely to be faster by sup porting Plan Sierra. Alcoa COl'poratic.'l. Although time did not allow a visit to Alcoa Corporation's bauxite mining operation in the '.:xtreme southwest of the country, the following information was obtained through an interview with a company representative. Alcoa started forest plantations in 1973 out a desire to reha bilitate mined-over land and to provide a product fO the local people. The area planted is small. but the planU!'!8 r;;te is in creasing. In 1980 about 12 hectares were afforested while another 30 were prepared for future planting. The main species used are almonds, Cllpressus arizoniea (two varieties), Ellealypills globlls, E. Cilriodora and FmrilllllS alba. A number of North Ameri can fruit trees were also tried but most were severely damaged by climatic extremes which ranged from hot, dry daytime condi tions followed by night temperatures aprroacHnf, freezing. Two technicians are employed full-time in afforestation. Falconbridge Dominicana. Falconbridge is a ferro-nickel mining firm operating a government concession of about 10,000 hectares near Bonao. In 1971. at the:r own initiative and with some tech nical advice from FAa, Falconbridge started planting cut-over lands which were not intended to be mined. They later ex panded planting to include mined land, and subsequently d pro vision calling for the rehabilitation of mine spoils was written in to the concession agreement. The company also has l govern ment permit to har\Cst natural pine forests on land scheduled for strip mining. Logs are sawn in tWO small FORESTA mills and the wood is used for government sponsored lew-income housing. Falconbridge claims to have planted about 1,000 hectares in the 1971-1980 period, but this estimate is Iike:y on the high side. Currently, planting is restricted to mine spoils and is down to about 24 hectares annual!y. About 70-75% of the plantations are of Pinus caribata var. hondurMis with seed coming largely from Belize; most of the remaining plantations are P. occidfllialis. Falconbridge appears to have an excellent overall forestry op eration. Including the five sections of 1) administration and plan ning. 2) forestry, 3) mine reclamation and rehabilitation, 4) tech nical services and 5) harvesting their woodlands division has the services of 56 full-time employees. Although the comr .y does not have a university-trained forester, the techical statf inter viewed by the profile team was knowledgeable and has devel oped appropriate site rehabilitation techniques for mine spoils. Falconbridge should be commended for its success in restoring

PAGE 34

ugly, mined-over sites to a productive and aesthetically pleasing state. Gulf and Wp.stern. This large sugar producer in the southern and southeastern part of the country was not contacted about its in terest in reforestation. It is known, however, that the firm .ecent Iy established some small plantations of Swimlmia mahagoni near La Romana. Rosario Dominicana. Rosario i'. mine operation northeast of Donao which started in 1974 on a govemment conc'mion of 758 hectares .,in -,-Oc'ober, 1979, the operation been completely govenmer,r J'VT1r,i As did other companies, Rosallu st2rted reforestation at its own initiative before a plaPting clause was added to the concession agreement. Planting began in 1973 and has covered an estimated 175 hectares through mid-1980. About 92% of the stands are composed of pines, largely Pin liS cribaea from Honduras; the rest are of eucalypts and mahogany (Swie/mia mahogani), The objective is to reforest ani, slow erosion on cut-over land not scheduled for mining, All of such available land is likely to be planted by the next couple of years, after which plarltation establishment will come to a halt. The chemical mining process used by Rosa rio does not allow planting of mine spoils. Rosario employs two technicians and 26 laborers full-time in reforestation and grounds work around the concession. A special feature of the Rosario op eration is tha 5% of the net profits are channelled to a govern ment forestry fund to finance reforestation and related forestry development projects. Foreign Assistance to Plantation Projects FOAIUNDP. ThE' Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAa) and the United Nations Special Fund, now called the United Development Program (IJNDP), were the first to provide outside assistance for reforestation to the Do minican Republic. Reforestation, however, was only o.le compo nent of a larger project (described in the chapter or the institu tional analysis of FOREST A) which was operated (rom 1968 to 1972 by FAOlUNDP together with FORESTA. TI.is project was largely responsible for initiating the reforestation .york at Mana bao near Jarabacoa. It also prepared a plan for ext refores tation to parts of country, but except for the Jarabacoa region, FORES1'A has been unable to follow the plctn. IDB. A second assistance to FORESTA's reforestation program came in 1977 when a three-year soil conservation project was begun in the watershed of the Rio Yaque del Norte to protect the Tavera dam and reservoir. The totai project budget was for $2.74 million, of whir:h $1.22 million was in the form of a soft loan at 4% interest from the Development Bank (lOB). The original objectives were 1) to reforest 2,500 hectares of public land on slopes greater than 40%, 2) to construct ter races and related conservation works on 1,500 hectares of land in the vicinity of the Tavera reservoir, 3) to build 822 check dams for torrent control. 4) to provide technical advice and training, and 5) build the required physical infrastructure (primarily of fices). In retrospect it is apparent that the plans were over-ambi tious and as a result of delays in project execution, severe dam ages to roads and watersheds by David and Frederic in 1979, and an inability to identify available public Ian'. for planting, the project was unable to meet its objectives. By the end of 1979, for example, only 10% of the reforestation goals were reached, 16% of the terraces comtructed and 17% of the check dams built (FORESTA 1980). Technical assistance, training and infrastructure goals met a similar fate. An extension was re quested and granted to continue with a revised project through 1981 whose total reforestation component (1977-81) was scaled down to 625 hectares. Whether or not this goal will be met will depend on how successful the project is in 1) finding available government land for planting. 2) convincing private landholders to plant trees and undertake conservation works, and 3) securing enough technitally trained staff. 'rechnical Evaluation of Forest Plantations For lack of time, an in-depth country-wide ev!luation of forest plantations was not pos3ible. The following cursory assessment is based largely on brief visits to Manabao (Fig IV-1 a) and Loma de la Sal near Jarabacoa and to Falconbridge and Rosario. Species The two main species planted are the indigenous Pinl/s oa"idm lalis and the introduced P. caribaf" var. hOlldllrmsis. Both are planted for the dual purposes of watershed stabilization and wood products. Where growth is good, they are well-suited to these uses. More so than most species, both of these pines can tolerate low nutrient levels and competition from grass and shrubs, and their needles produce an excellent. interwoven mat of protectiVE layer to cover exposed sites. They also have thick bark which makes them resistant to light ground fires once the trees are p,ast the juvenile stage. In addition, their wood is suitable for a variety of wood products. Although planned species-site studies have not been initated and no comparative data is available from existing plantations. it appears that P. occidmlalis is more windfirm and is the superior performer at elevations above about 800 meters, whereas P. carihaea does better in lower areas. Planting could continue with these two species on selected sites, at least in the Cordillera Cen tral. Other species in small plots, as roadside plantings, or under trial are Swimlmai mllhagoni and Lellcama /weaap/Ja/n, both of which Jl'e indigeilous, as well as Cassia siamea and uarious euca lypts, especially Ellca/ypills robllsla. Species which should be considered for initial or expanded are Pinlls oocarpa, Ellca/ypills cama/dll/ellsi[, E. Imlicomis. /llecamll lel/coaphll/II and possibly some species of Prosopis and Acacir.. The fast-growing P. oocarpa merits introdt.ction as a possible alterna tive to P. oceidenlalis, especially at elevations above 800 meters, while the eucalypts, leucaena md dry scrub spedes should be tested as possible trees f.:lr fuel.vood plantations. In addition to fuel wood plantations, leucaena may have an ex panded role to play in agroforestry schemes, particularly on moderately fertile, moist, non-acidic soils. Leucaena has a number Figure IV-la. Rtfortstalion in ManobQO with Pinus occidental is (tht unifonn darhr swath trttrrding from lowtr right up tht ridgt. aaoss tht upptr va//ry lind down tht Itft sloprs). This is thr largrst fortst plantalion in thr country and wa.s donr by FORESTA. (Hand-htld utriul photo. Gary Hartshorn.) 25

PAGE 35

of features, for example, which make it a versatile and potential ly valuable component in agroforestry programs: it is ea:;i1y propagated by seed or cuttings, grows fast, fixes nitrogen, per forms well in mixtures or intercwpped with other species, is ef fective in reducing erosion, and has wood useful for charcoal and f:rewood and leaves suitable for fodder. Caution is advised, not to view leucaena as a panacea or so-called "mira cle" species; rather, it should be tested in a scientific and rational manner on available sites and for needed uses just as other promising species. Some work has recently been started with leu caena, but it needs to be expanded. Seed Source Due primarily to the limited scope of the plantation program in the Dominican Republic, very little attention has been paid to seed source. For P. occidmialis, most seed is collected from natural stands near the planting area. This is recommended procedure <'5 long as mother trees of good phenotype are selected from a number of different stands. No seed production areas have been established. Most of the P. caribata var. Ilond"rtIJsi5 seed used has been imported from Honduras and Belize, but provenilnce tests have not been made. Other than a small, recently initidted trial of I.fucama Iel/coap/lala cultivars near Azua and Falconbridge's test of progeny from 12 controlled crosses each of Eucalypius robusia and E. grandis made in Florida, no seed source studies are u'lderway These should be started for promising species, both native and introduced. if ex panded planting for erosion control, fuel wood or industria! pro ducts is to be highly successful. Nurseries Tree nurseries in the country are small, labor intensive and poorly equipped, yet most of them apparently produce accept able planting ck; nonetheless there is room for a great deal of improvement 'JOth in efficiency of operation and in seedling vigor. The most common practice is to sow pine seed in a germina lion bed and tc' prick-out the newly emerged into soil filled polythene bags before the seed coat is dflJPped. This is ac r:eptable practice. Some nurseries, however, such as those of Plan Sierra near San Jose de las Matas, apparently delay pricking-out until new needles are formed, and illsufficient care in placing the larger root sytem into the bag has resulted in root deformation. Some of these nurseries have also experienced a problem with insufficient mycorrhizal inoculation for good pine seedling growth. This could be overcome by mixing the duff and pine straw from a natural pine forest into the soil of the germination beds. Other nurseries visited apparently received adequate natur al mycorrhizal inoculation from fungal spores from surrounding pine forests. Outplantlng lind Tending Most government reforestation has taken place on steep, cut over, but vegetated sites. Since minimization of soil erosion is a primary objective, these sites are not intensively prepared for planting. The usual practice is to clear a swath on the contour through any existing brush and to prepare a hole to recieve the seedling. In early years of the planting program, a spacing of 2 x 2 meters was used; this has since been extended to 2.5 x 2.5 me ters. Occasional weeding is done the first couple of years after planting if needed to free seedlings from overtopping competi tion, but usually the young pines are able to grow through the grass and small shrubs. Failure to is likely to result in some reduction of growth but is acceptable practice considering the jus tifiable concern over soil erosion and the need to minimize it. At Falconbridge and Alcoa very intensive site preparati':m is practiced in the rehabilitation of strip mine spoils. Prior to min ing. the tOPS'1i1 is scraped away, piled and saved. After the mineral ore is removed, the site is shaped, terra.ces are constructed, and the topsoil replaced. At Falconbridge, terraces 2-2.5 met'trs wide and spaced 3-7 meters apart, depending on slope, are b'Jilt. A grass cover, African star, is them planted, followed by pines at a 2 x 2 meter spacing. Alcoa plants Bermuda grass and prefers a wider tree spacing of 5 x 5 meters. Both firms fertilize lightly; Alcoa also spreads manure and waters from a tank truck. The keys to the success of these opertions are the saving and reusing of the topsoil, shaping and terracing to slow runoff, and rapid es tablishment of a good cover crop. Post establishment tending is generally not practiced, although some l'runing has been done at Lorna de La Sal as laboratory ex ercises by students. Thought is now being given to thinning some stands. This can be done judiciously without significantly increasing the risk of erosion. Growth and Yield N" information is available onihe growth and yield of planta tions, but some studies apparently have been initiated with the assistance of students from the forestry school at Jarabacoa. Such studies need to be expanded. There is no information on rotation length. The Need for Forest Plantations The priority need for fOi'est plantations in the Dominican Re public is as a means of slowing accelerated, water-caused soil erosion. Plantations are also viewed as a source of fuel wood and, to a lesser extent, of future industrial wood products. Eroolon Control Soil erosion has reached serious proportions in most of the watersheds visited by the profile team, and unless it is checked urgently the soil in which much of the nation's food is produced will be lost and the reservoirs so impori:ant as sources of irrigation water and hydroelectric power will soon become choked with sediment. Nonetheless, checking accelerated soil erosion is no simple matter, especially on already degraded lands which are often of unsure ownership yet which in many cases are under intensive use. Effective erosion control will require a concerted, long-term effort which must begin immedi ately. Technically, erosion can be slowed by covering the soil surface to protect it against rain drops and by breaking the flow of run off from the land. Often a vegetative cover alone is sufficient, but where erosion is severe mechanical measures will also be needed. For a given watershed, overall erosion control can best be achieved through a program of integrated land management which includes both pasture and forest management, reforesta tion, gully control measures, better road construction and main tenance, improved agricultural practices, and in some cases ter race construction and the conversion from short-term crops to more permanent types. Both reforestation in the traditional seme of establishing close ly-spaced plantations and tree planting as .1 component of agro forestry have important roles to play in I ehabilitating eroded land in the Dominican Republic. On cut-over lands unequivocal ly under government control and vigilance, re[f'lrestation can proceed almost immediately if staff and funds are All that is needed is cadastral information to locate and mark the land and an on-site soil inspection to determine whether suffi cient soil remains for adequate tree growth and anchorage. Al though generally a minimum of about two meters of soil is re quired for economic timber production, tree planting for erosion control can be done on somewhat shallower soils as long as one

PAGE 36

is willing to accept a reduction in growth and as long as the tree roots are able to anchor themselves adequately into deeper, &i able material. where little soil remains and terrain is 5teep, rehabilitation is likely to be more effective by managing for pasture or for other low forms of vegetation. Many of the upper cltchment areas of watersheds in the Central Cordillera could likely be reforested with pines using existing technology if land tenure is assured and if soils are first assessed onsite. On non-industrial. private holdings on land of contested ownership, traditional reforestation of I uge blocks of c!'lsely spaced plantations holds liUle promis(' Although plantations would be effective in erosion In many such lands, it wHl be all but impos5ible to con,:ace landowners and users to reforest. especially with pines, until such time as they can be shown that a tree crop is a superior investment to agriculture or grazing. At prf'Sent. there is no data in ihe Dominican Re public to support such an argument. Obtaining this information should be a research priority. Meanwhile, the rlantin/S of multi-purpose tree species on small holdings as components of integrated land management, or agroforestry, may have an i:nportant role to play in slowing ero sion and increasing the income of rural people. Species such as Ltl/wer.a leucocephalll, fruit and nut trees, and other versatile spedes should be promoted for interplanting with agricultural crops and for planting along proprety boundaries, terraces, gullies and water courses. In some areas, conversion to a semi-permanent tree crop by taungya may be possible, such as is now being tried by Plan Sierra. Of major importance here is that trees not be looked upon as the 50Ie solution, rather tblt they be considered as a part of a more comprehemive land management program that includes erosion control works, pasture managment and bet ter farming techniques. Even then, however, implementation of an integrated program will require public education, extension, demonstration, and mast of all financial incentivcs (and/or food aid) to landowners. In addition to Plan Sierra, such projects are urgently needed on most of the ',vater catchment areas above key dams in the Cordillera Central. Fuelwood There is a large and growing demand for fuel wood in the Do minican Rf.!public, both in the form of firewood and charcoal. FAO (1971) est:mated the consumption at about 0.45 cubic meters per person annually in 1970, or roughly 1,840,000 nl' for the country as a whole and 87% of the total use uf wundwood. Figure IV-lb. Subtropical Wil pint fortsl ntar La Vtg'l. This is Iht IlUgtsl block of in privalt ownrrship, ;,5 wtll as Iht or:/y trltnsivt pint foml rtmaining in Iht lowlands. This feml has tmlltnl poltnlial for production fom!;;;, _,ui iht 1967 c/o sur' of sawmills and prohibiting of 1m culting dots nol rniouragt privuJt tfforls in fortslry, (Hand-htld klrial pholo, Gary Hartshorn.) With a pcpulation growth rate of about 3% annually, fuel wood consumption may have reached 2,470,000 ml per year by 1980 Although data is not available, much of the fuel wood demand is apparently met by thl dry, scrub forest, with the remainder coming fron. tugh forest illegal:y cleared by shifting cultivators, private landowners or trespassers, How long the forest can con tinue to meet the fuel wood needs is unknown, but it is certain that as sites are cleared for irrigated agriculture and as land pres sure forces shiWag cultivators from the higher, wetter mountains to lower, dryer regions (both of which iIle already happening), the pressure on the natulJ forest for fuelwood will increase. In some other tropical countries, the demand for fuel wood has leJ to uncontrolled cutting of forests and the virtual denuding of forest land, which in turn has resulted in accelerated soil erosion, in some <:ases desertifiC1tion, and extreme hardships on rural people. It should be a top priority of government to ensure that this does not happen in the Dominican Republic. Among the to slow the abusive cutting of forests fm fuel wood are improve the management and utilization of na tural forests and to establish plantations of fast-growing species of high calorific value. Due to their greatcr productivity than na tural forests, plantations in particular are viewed as an important future source of fuelwood in the Dominican Republic. An esti mated 13,000 hectares of plantations, for example, could likely meet the national fuel wood demand. Plans are currently being made to test species and develop techniques fer establish ing and managing fuel wood plantations, but only a few, small studies are underway to date, These studies need to be intensi fied
PAGE 37

eration between FORESTA and other government agencies on forestry matters-in many cases, FORESTA simply not have the expert!se to lend. Unless something is done soon to upgrade the professional qualifications of personnel working on forestry projects, little can be expected on the key refor,estation priorities outlined in the previous section. Land Tenure and Control Two obivous and related constraints on reforestation are the difficulty of detem.ining land ownzrship and the problem of providing adequate vigiliance and protection to public lands. A.l though strictly speaking FORESTA is empowered to define and manage all forest land, both public arid private, in practice gov ernment-sponsored reforestation has takE'n place only 011 lands dearly under government contwl. Little public land remains arc und Manabao and Loma de la Sal and its location elsewhere in the country is unclear, except for some national parks are, for the most part, forested. Much of the so-called public land is in practice being converted to agricultural crops or pasture :"y shifting cultivators. There is a real need to define the boundary of public land in the country and to decide which lands can real istically be controlled. Starting with the high priority areas, SL'ch as critical watersheds, such land needs to be mapped, physica Iy marked on lhe grol'nd and patrolled. Unless this is done the fI al scope and potential of reforestation cannot be gauged. Thei..aw The forest law itself is a constraint on r(:forestation. Although the closing of all private sawmills and the restrictions placed on tree cutting were the salvation of existing forests, have also served as strong deterrents to reforestation. Logically, in the ab sence of other incentives, there is little intelest on the part of private landhvlders to plant when harvesting is effectively prohib ited. In theory. legal cutting permits can be obt"ined through FOREST,A but in practice few are issued. If sound management of private forest land is to be encouraged and if tree planting on small holdings is to be successfully promoted, FORESTA will need to start granting harvesting at least to landowners willinR to acce\Jt government supervision of logging. Lack of Forestry Consciousness A common affliction of many fledgling forest services is a lack of a conservation awareness on the part of rural people. In the Dominican Republic, the native forest was considered as a re source to exploit and convert to agriculture or pasture. It was not viewed as a crop, nor was its role in rural land management fully appreciated. This viewpoint continues today. If FORESTA and other government agencies are to be successful in promoting in tegrated land management which includes tree plantations, they will need to foster a conservation among the people, espe cially those in rural areas. This is no simple matter, but a start can made in the school systems, through the mass media. by setting up demonstration areas, by strengthening extension programs. Institutional Analysis of the Direccion General Forestal The Formative Period and Legal Base The primary organization charged with protecting and manag ing the nation's forest land is the Direccion General Forestal, also calk,cl the Direccion General de Foresta, but more commonly re ferred to as FOREST A. FOREST A was created in 1962 as depen dency of the Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura (SEA) with the passage of Law No. 5856. This law, as subsequently amended, entrusts FOREST A with the conservation, restoration, development and utilization of forest vegetation and the transport and commerce of forest products. It also provides for the central ad ministration of thE' previously created national forest ser"ices and the development and integralion of forest industries by FORESTA. The law to cJl forest land, both public and private, and authorizes FOkEST A to define forest land and to dictate the measures convenient for its conservation and reforest ation. Another important and salient feature of Law 5956 is Arti cle 87 which made it illegal to cut any fruit or forest tree with out a permit from SEA. Unfortunately, FORESTA lacked the resources to adequately implement the law, and in the turbulent years following the death of Trujillo in 1961. forests disappeared at an alarming rate due to uncontrolled loggmg. conversion to agriculture and wild fire. It is said, for example, that the number of sawmills incrased from about 65 in 1961 to 172 in 1967. Concern over this acceler ated destruction of the nation's forests led to the passage of Law No. 206 (1967) which transferred FORESTA from SEA to the armed forces and national police with a direct line to the presi dency. Direct (If the armed forces and national po lice in administering the forest law led to a sudden af'd sharp de crease in forest abuse. The law was tightened still further in 1969 with the adoption of Decree No. 3'177 which specified that no tree cutting permits could be autholized by FORESTA save for exceptional cases and then only with the approval of the Presi dent. Together Law 206 and Decree 3777 effectively closed all private sawmills and stopped all cutting except for the salvage of dead timber or that to be removed by mining concerns or cer tain public works projects. Organlu.tlonal Structure f'JREST A is headed by a director-general who carries the rank of brigadiel general in the armed forces and who answers direct ly to the president. The genera;'s staff and a captain who is in charge of the technician school at Jarabacoa are also involved in the administration of FORESTA. but all other personnel are civil ian. Structurally, the organization of FORESTA is in a period of change and it was difficult to secure specific information on the duties and responsibilities of some offices. The only organization chart that could be obtained shows two main divisions, one tech nical and one administrative, each answering to the director-gen eral's Each division in turn is composed of various se'.: tions, some of which are no longer operative, e.g., forest inven tories. Recently a third lid /IO( division has been nominally set up whose duties are unclear but are apparently in the area of project evaluation. AJthough details were unavailable, there apparently is also a reorganizaHon proposal pending which would place most of the day-to-day operation of FORESTA under one professional forester, who in turn would report to the director-general. At the regional level. FORESTA has eight districts and 24 sub districts. Each district has an officer-in-charge (civilian) who is re sponsible to the central office in S.mto Domingo, but the lines of communication between the districts and Headquarters are not clear. Except for minor routine matters, the district offices appar ently answer directly to the director-general. Objectives and Major Projects AJthough there is no detailed statement of forest policy, by law the basic objective of FORESTA is to manage all forest land in the country, regardless of ownership, in accordance with ac ceptable norms of protection, development and ra tional utilization. In practice, most of FORESTA's personnel are occupied with vigilance and fire control while most of the more highly trained staff work on planning and implementing projects dealing with the rehabilitation of degraded land. There is no in tegrated or sustained yield management of forest land and little utilization except for salvage operations.

PAGE 38

A major subprogram of FORESTA deals with the retoresi;:.ion and conservation of the Tavera watershed and comprises part ()f the larger PIDAGRO program (integratEd Program for Agricul tural Development) with SEA. The subprogram is financed by a soft loan of US $1.22 rrillion from IDB at 4% interest and a Do minican input of $1.5 million for a total of $2.72 million over a 3-yp.ar period from 1977 to 1980. Further details are given in a previous st:ction. Although an in-depth financial analysis was not possible, FORESTA does not seem to have the extreme monetary limita tions so prevalent in the forest services of many other develop ing countries. Most of FORESTA's operating budget comes di rectly from government funds. In fiscal 1980 this amounted to $3.9 million; some $6.4 million have be ':1 requested by POREST A for 1981. This is in addition to incidental reven ue, such as that collected from fines, and the PIDAGRO subprogram, which is budgeted separately. Approximately 70% of the budget goes to pay salaries. An additional source of revenue for the forestry sector, al though not specifically for FORESTA, is the Forestry Fund. This fund, started in 1979, takes 5% of the profits from Rosario Do minicana and makes them available as soft for forestry de velopment projects. However, until the profitability of 'Vowing trees is determined and until more harvesting r' 'tits are granted, there is likely to be little demand for forE:stry loans. In 1980 about $600,000 were lent through the Forestry Fund to Plan Sierra for coffee plantations. In the future, efforts will need to be intensified to channel this money to specific forestry proj ects instead of institutions. Human Re&Jurces A noteworthy feature of FORESTA is that it appears to be a field oriented organization with commitment to on-site vigilance and protection rather than a top-heavy, central office bureaucra cy. Although it was not possible to obtain a current breakdown of FORESTA by responsibility and locc:tion of assign ment, an accounting made in 1976 showed 840 employees, 784 (92%) of whom were assigned to district offices. The situation is not thought to have changed much since then. In terms of sheer numbers, FORESTA does not appear to be badly staffed. Eowever, there is an obvious shortage of profes sionally-trained people. In 1976 there were only two engineers, two lawyers, and one professional forester with a B.s. degree, all in the central office. At a minimum, it would be desirable to have at least one professional forester at each district office and an additional five or six for special projects and central office ad ministration of technical programs. The need for additional training at the university level was recognized by a team of two foresters from Texas A&:M Univer sity who visited the Dominican Republic recently on the behalf of AID. It is possible that a follow-up to their mission will in clude forestry training of some Dominicans in the US. The Dominican Government also recognized the need for fu ture training, and in 1980 FORESTA reopened the forestry school Escuela Nacional Forestal "Dennis Stamers Smith" at lara bacoa. The school trains guards in a few weeks and forest technicians in two years. About 18 technicians are expected to be graduated annually. In addition, twelve Dominican students will be sent to Honduras during 1981-85 to attend the three-year technical school Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Forestales at Siguatepeque. University-level training in agronomy with specialization in forestry is available at the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra in conjunction with the Instituto Superior de Agricultura in San tiago. This is a five-year program. The first forestry class was given in 1978, and in 1980, 15 students were enrolled in the forestry option. Students receive both practical and academic train ing. The program is off to an excellent start, but s:Iould not at present be considp.red as substitute for a B.S. degree in forestry. There is a need to strengthen the teaching staff and curriculum as well as a need for more equipment and lahoratcry facilities, particularly in wood technology. The program could benefit greatly from outside aid. Foreign Assistance At present the only foreign assistance to the forestry sector is that provided to FORESTA by lDB, as eulier described. Prior to this, the principal aid project was that operated by FAa and UNDP with FORESTA from 1968 to 1972. The main objectives were to 1) inventory the nation's forest resources, 2) plan the protection, development and utilization of forest resources, and 3) train FORESTA personnel. The only other assistance in forest ry was that offered by AID in the mid-sixties to help establish the forestry school, which was subsequently assisted by the FAO/UNDP project. Other Government Institutions Involved in Forestry Confllct!i and Constraints The Military. The role of the miiitary in FORESTA is an obvi ous point of political contention in the country. Recently a bill was vetoed by the president which would have removed FORESTA from the armed forces and returned it to SEA, but which would have provided for military assistance in vigilance and law enforcement. Military in the operation of forest services and uther agencies is not uniql,e to the Dominican Republic and should not be viewed with outright alarm. For one, the military has been highly effective in slowing the rate of forest destruction and must be credited with saving most of the remaining natural forests in the higher catchment areas of moun tainous regions, particularly in the Cordillera Central. Second, the direct line that the director-general of FOREST A has to the pres ident can be a decided advantage in decreasing governmental red tape and in gaining support for programs. However, for this to be a beneficial arrangement it requires 1) that the director general cultivate an active concern for the operations of FORESTA, and 2) that he receive soulld technical advice from his subordinates. A dedicated military with direct access to the presidellt and supported by well-trained civilian foresters could, in theory, be a highly effective arrangement. In practice, it ap pears that FOREST A has been more content to maintain the sin/us quo by continuing with some vigilance and only a small rehabilitation program than to engage in active forest manage ment. Whether the fault lies with the military leadership or with an undertrained staff is open to conjecture; certainly it is at least in part due to the latter and more likely than not may be due to both. Professional Staff. lhere is an obvious and u;gent need for more highly trained staff throughout FORESTA, from top to bottom, and especially for more professional, university-trained foresters. Lack of qualified staff has clearly limited the implemen tation of some programs and has probably caused fewer project proposals and suggestions to be passed to the directorship for consideration. Forester as Leader. In particular there is a need for a profes sional forester with demonstrated leadership capabiHties to direct the day-to-day operation of FORESTA. This need not be done at the expense of the military, but could be accomplished by a re organization which would make the forester responsible for tech nical and administrative programs but answerable directly to the director-general. 29

PAGE 39

Land Tenure. Poor definition of national land, as opposed to private ones, has hampered field activities. Those lands where FORESTA can operate directly and imperviously need to be physically marked on the bJ'ound, mapped and patrolled. This has been covered earlier. Public Relations Program. As covered earlier, development of conservation measures on private lands has been hampered by the lat:k of an incentive program and a promotional campaign to edu cate peopie in improved land use. Lack of Technical Information. Management of both state and private lands has been inhibited by a lack of technical informa tion. There is no research organization apd no one engaged in any form of scientific research. What little has been accomp lished to date has been done haphazardly by trial and error. With the possible exception of Pinus occidtnlalis and P. caribaeu, for example, in mcst cases there is little evidence to sUg&est which species and sources should be planted on which sites for differ ent objectives, and there is no datil on either biological or eco nomic productivity. The Law. The laws restricting the harvest and commerce of timber crops have created an environmental/developmental con flict of sizable proportions. The laws have no doubt been a boon to the general environment, but at the expense of short-term economic development which would have been fostered by for est industries. They have also resulted in the dt facio limitation of the scope of FORESTA's activities to protection and conservation and the inhibition of integrated forest management. Once FORESTA is able to build up a qualified professional and technical cadre and improve its vigilance of forest la",ds, it should be possible and desirable to loosen the controls on cutting to permit the implementation of sound forest management plans, including harvesting. where it can be done without undue damage to the environment. with confidence that forests may be harvested, private landowners would also be encouraged to engage in refor estatbn. 30 Recommendations 1. FORESTA should continue to trj to upgrade the profes sional and technical level of its staff by strengthening the forestry school at Jarabacoa and by seeking study grants for qualified students to seek professional degrees outside the country. In-ser vice refresher training should also be pursued for existing staff, especially by offering short courses. FORESTA should explore all existing channels to provide scholarships for Dominican foresters to study overseas. They should also seek teaching assistance and equipment. 2. FORESTA. with international assistance, should create a small research unit whose initial priorities would be to 1) establish species-site studieF of tree species suitable for agroforestry, erosion control. fllel wood and industrial wood, 2) obtain growth and yield data from existing plantations, and 3) determine the profitability of especinlly for fuel wood, agroforest ry, and industrial products. 3. FORESTA. with the cooperation of other government agen cies and with technical and financial assistance from international donors should immediately begin pilat-scale integrated land man agement projects on critical watersheds, espedally on private land. 4. Where cut-over government lands can be protected from trespassers and sufficient soil remains, FORESTA should expand its reforestation program to reduce erosion and to restore the land to a productive use. 5. FORESTA should launch a public relations program which would include use of extension techniques, the mass media and the school systems to educate the public on thl' value of conser vation. This should be supported with an incentive program to encourage tree planting. 6. FORESTA should continue and expand the issuing of thin ning permits and should start approving some. permits on private lands under government supervision.

PAGE 40

v Water Resources & Watershed ManageDlent Introduction In addition to environmental problems related to use of water resources and the impact of land use within watersheds there are mulHple water uses and problems related to hydropower, water supply, irrigation, draincl8e, flooding. etc. Within river basin sys tems the characteristics of water supply and demand are chang ing. Water quality and streamflow regimes are also dynamic, be ing closely linked to human activities in the river basins and to the degree of stability and protection of the watersheds. Numerous comprehensive studies, in some cases consisting of several volumes each, have been written on general aspects of Dominican water resources, e.g. OAS 1967, Boyle 1971. PLANIMEX 1978, INDRHI-BID 1978, Bromley and Crosson 1978, Figueroa 1978 and CONARENA 1979. De La Fuente (1976) sum marizes the basic information on general hydrography. Similarly, numerous specific on projects, river systems or watershed problems also exist (e.g. Italo-Consult 1972, Hanson-Rodriguez 1973, Tahal 1977, ONAPLAN 1978, Hydrocomp 1979, Douro. jeanni 1980, and Anon. 1980). This chapter does not attempt to summa.ize the voluminous technical information nor to reproduce published material. Rath er, the author wishes h.> ca:,italize mainly on his experiences de rived from several field trips throughout most of the accessible Dominican Republic, md the many hours of very productive in terviews with key people in several institutions dealing either with water resources and/or watersh
PAGE 41

figure Vola. WllImhuJ dtgriitWion 011 Iht sou/htrn f/anlc of Iht Cordilltra Ctnlral caustd by massivt dtforeslalion, trosion and hurricant-illductd landslidts. Though Ihtrt is an almosl compltlt abstnCt of housts, slash and burn agriculturalists prach"ct shifling cullivalion for stasonal crops on Ihese slttp slopts. (ph%, llalo Russo.) economic life, and if thEY will ever attain the rates of returns and other secondary benefits anticipated in their investments. The actual situation of widespread watershed destruction, high river silt loads, present instability and unpredictability of some of the most important fluvial systems, and heavy silting of existing reservoirs and canals seem to indicate that only a major effort to effectively carry out massive watershed protection and erosion control can guarantee that many of the future investments may turn out to be productive. However, even if immediate appropri ate actions are taken, the lag time needed for them to be imple mented and be effective, does not guarantee that some existing projects such as Tavera or Valdesia can In> salvaged or recuper ated. The Dominican Republic is in the pat" of destructive hurri canes .md tropical storms and many of its soils are highly eroda ble, her.ce contingency plans must be made for the probability of future destructive events. if massive watershed protection and erosion control are soon undertaken. Although immediate needs must be somehow satisfied, long term econumic and benefits, including some of H.e irrever sible social costs imposed on future generations, should be ac counted for in the planning efforts. Planning must certainly go well beyond the usual four year political promises to win an election. Some of the planning efforts should aLTI for long term watershed rehabilitation and consolidation of costly existing proj ects that are now operating well below their potential. such as several of the large irrigation systems in the Cibito and in Azua. Resource Base Hydrographic Units The physiographic characeristics and orientation of the moun tain ranges and valleys of the Dominican Republic determine hy drography and highly influence climate. Four mountain ranges run ning parallel to each other and oriented in an east-west direction with flat valleys between define drainage units of the main river systems whose headwaters originate in the mountains in the west ern and central part (see Fig. IT-I of the Dominican Republic). Between these four mountain ranges three agriculturally im portant valleys occur with different precipitation characteristics. The Cibao Valley located between the northern and central mountain ranges contains the two most important river systems in the Dominican Republic, the Yaque del Norte and the Yuna Rivers. The Cibao Valley is the richest agricultural area and, ex cept for Santo Domingo, has the highest concentration of popu32 flsure V-lb. Co;"pltlt dtforeslalioll III Iht mllTgin of Iht Sabana Ytgua dStTVoir. Tht wood is used '0 mal:t chllTcoal. Nolt Iht dtbris in Iht lal:t (fortground). 'nlt mm fis/ling for lilapia Wert fonntr small fannm displactd by Iht filling of lilt reservoir. (Ph%, Slanlty Htcl:adon.) lation. Second in importance is the San Juan Valley be tween the cordillera Central and the Sierr 1 de Neiba. This valley is irrigated by the Yaque del Sur River and its tributaries. The hot, dry Neiba Valley extends between the Sierra de Neiba and the Sierra de Bahoruco, and includl'5 the below sea level. saline Enriquillo Lake. In some parts of the such as the Azura plain and the karst topography of Los Haitises, streams actually disappear before reaching the sea. The central mountain range is by far the most important. It is the highest mountain range in the Antilles anJ from it originate the three important river systems of the Dominican Republic: The Yaque del Norte, the Yuna, and the Yaque del Sur. Running first north and then west through the Cibao, the Yaque del Norte River has a of 296 km and drains a watershed of 7044 kmJ or about 15% of the country. Precipation in this watershed ranges betwet::n 500 and 2000 mm per year, amounting to approximatply 9169 x lOS mS/year; average annu al flow is on the order of 2017 x lOS m'/year or about 64 m'/second. This river system cont:1ins the largest irrigation net work in the country and has hydroelectric potential, a small part of which is now being utilized. The Tavera-Bao proj ed will soon be completed, increasing the hydroelectric energy generated, helping to regulate mOle '-Vater for irrigation, and sup plying additional domestic and indu! water for Santiago. One of the main problems with this river system is the high sediment load eroded from seriously deteriorated, steep watersheds. The second largest river is the Yuna with a length of 209 km, draining 5498 kmJ From the Cordillera Central it runs east to Sam ana Bay, crossing one of the most humid regions of the country known as the Cibao Oriental. Average annual precipita tion of this valley ranges between 1170 mm and 2256 mm. Av erage annual flow at Villa Riva is about 91 m'/second, with maxTable V-I. Projected investments in water resources and energy related project:; Eor the 1980-82 period (thermal plants excJ," led). INSTITUTION CAASD !NAPA CDE lNDRHI (Energy) lNDRHI (Agriculture) MillIONS DRS 49.9 79.2 168.6 37.5 189.6 524.8

PAGE 42

Table V-2. Cltaracteristics of the hydrographic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic shown I., Figure V-I. (information adapted from UNEP 1979). Not studied. Hydrographic location Riven Subdivision Included 1. Sierra de Bahoruco South of the Sierra Pedemales and zone de Bahoruco Nizalto 2. Azua, Bani and San South of the Central Haina, Nigua, Nizao, Cristobal zones mountain range beOcoa and Bani tween the Yaque del Sur and the Ozama Rivers 3. Ozama River basin Santo Domingo area Ozama, Yabacao Canal 4. San Pedro Macoris San Pedro Macoris Chavon, Dulce, and La Romana zone Soco, Cumayasa, Macrois 5. Higuey zone Higuey and San Yuma Rafael del Yuma areas 6. Miches and Sabana Miches zone Small rivers de la Mar zonp. 7. Samana Peninsula S.1ITl an a (.0) zone 8. Northern coast zone Atlantic coast zone Boba, Nagua, San Juan, Yasica, Ba-jabonico 9. Yuna river basin Central mountain Jima, Camtl, Yuna rani!e to the Bay of Samana 10. Dajabon river basin Central mountain range 11. Yaque del Sur Basin Central mountain San Juan, Hijo del range. Neyba Medio, Las Cuevas and WdI'tin and Los BallS 12. Hoyo del Lago Lago Enriquillo Guayabal, Las Enriquillo Damas, Marguita, Barrero, Arro, Los Pinos 13. Artibonito River Near Haitian border Macaria basin 14. Yaque del Norte Yaque del Norte Yaque del Norte basin imum monthly flow" weraging 162 and 114 m'/second in May and November, respectively, and 57 and 42 m'/second in Janu ary and July, respecii,ely. This river experiences cyclic floods every two or three yeaJ s. Especially du:!'1;; t;le rainy season, the river carries very high lOads that obstruct the existing irriga tion canals and the river bed, accentuat:ng the flooding problems (de La Fuente 1976). Ending in Neiba Bay near Barahona, the Yaque del Sur River drains an area of 4972 kml with an approximate length of 183 km. With the highest (2707 m) headwaters in the country the Preclpltalon Atea In Km% Water Quality In mmyear 2,000 in the 2,814 Shallow or poorly developed mountains, 750 on wells may contain chlorides the plains 750-2,000 4,460 Ground waters show goc..d potential 1,400-2,250 2,706 Poor water quality because of the high concentration of solids in suspension, micro-organisms and dissolved gases. 1,000-2,250 4,626 High degree of erosion and dredging of sediments. 1,000-1,750 2,207 Good water quality; rositive potential for use. 2,000-2,700 2,265 Good ground water potential. (00) (00) (00) 1,000-2,300 4,266 Good water quality. 1,170-2,250 5,630 Problems caused by poor drain-age and !>Ainity. Good potential in deep wells. 750-2,000 858 Good for agricultural uses. 700-1,500 5,345 Good water quality but contains many solids in suspension. Very arid zone 3,048 Waters of moderate agricultural yield. 1,200-2,000 2,643 Good water quality but contains many solids in suspension. 500-2,000 7,053 Poor water qUillity; contains solids in su ,pension and numerous micro-organisms. Yaque del Sur drains the southern flank of the cordillera Central and part of the Sierra de Neiba. This river runs across an arid and semi-arid region with precipitation of 500 to 1200 mm/year. The rainfall patterns in this watershed vary greatly in the uplands and from year to year (de La Fuente 1976). Due to an abundance of shallow soils and sparse vegetation, watershed response to precipitation is rather quick, causing serious floods associated with high intensity storms. Although there are at least three different Iflaps of the hydro graphic subdivisions of the Dominican Republic, the most appro-33

PAGE 43

Figure V -2. TIu 5!lbwulu rlStnJoir WId ils dtfomltd wwmhtll. Nolt Iht stdimtnls tnltritlg tlu rmnJoir from llit quilt'!')! on Iht righl margin. (Hutld-lit/d .uria/ pholo, Carlos QlltSada.) priate for purpose of this work is the one (Fig. V-3) prepared by 0AS (1967). Table V-2 a brief description of the main characteristics of this hydrographic system (UNEP 1979). In formation on the Samana Peninsula lacking because the area is not among the priorities for hydrologic studies due to a lack of wilter demand or useful availability. The Dominican Republic possesses national and regional cli matological and networks that exceed the specifica tions and recommendations of the World Meteorological Organi zation (Salas 1980). The major Dominican Republic watersheds have probably received more attention than other Latin Ameri can countries. They have been studied extensively by PLANIMEX (1976) including basic data and regional plans at a project level, several specific studies for the YaquI" del Norte River, a peliminary study of the water resources fer the Yaque del Norte, Ca!abun, and Chacuey Rivers (PLANIMEX ] 975) and others (e.g. de La Cruz de Suazo et 011. 1972; CDE 1972). The Yuna River has also been studied dt different levels of detail, from the multiple purpose general reconnaissance study by Tahal (1967), to more specific ones such as those by Hansen-Rodriguez (1973) on the feasibility of the Alto Yuna and Hatillo dam. There is also a ten volume report by Tahal (1977) on the lower Yuna. Similarly, several general and detailed reports (e.g. a seven-vol ume study made by SOGREAH, 1978) concern the multiple de velopment of the Yaque del Norte and the Yaque del Sur water sheds. A later five-volume study by IT ALO-CONSUL T (1972) was dedicated specifically to the Yaque del Sur. Several other specific studies can be found in the literature on hydroelectric 34 projects, irrigation systems and flooding problems for 11"0st of the major river systl'ms in the Dominican Republic. Smaller river systems have also been st..idied by Parsons Cor poration (1967), and an important plan for water resources devel opment, including possible both for water supply and hydropower purposes, in the neighborhood of Santo Domingo was made by Boyle Engineering (1972). PLANIACAS (1978) and Figueroa (1978) have studied groundwater resources. Regional water quality studies both for superficial and groundwater are available (CENDA 1979). The available information on Dominican river systems has served as a good basis :or more dl'tailed studies and information syntheses now being used in the jJleparation of comprehensive water resources planning and development, such as in the re gional studies by ONAPLAN. Serious inter-insHtutionai conflicts must be solved before realistic integrated ar d comprehensive large scale watershl'd protection and rehabilitaiion prograr'1S can be started in order to guarantee the effectiveness and usefulness of the many exi;ting and future water resources projects. Hydrometeorology and Precipitation Most hydrometeorological data are collected by INDRHI, the Meteorological Department, and the CEA (State Sugitr Council). there are 96 climatological stations operated by INDRHI and 72 by the Meteoroioltical Department (PLANIACAS ]978). The INDRHI network of 7 first order climak,logical stations. 29 secondary climatological 31 no=t-recording rain gauges and 6 rt:cording cumulative rain gauges. The Meteorolog ical Service network consists of 6 agroclimatological stations and 66 stations to record daily tempt.rature and rainfall. Stream gauge measurements are conducted by INDRI at 124 stations througJ.. out the country. Fifty-three of these Me continuous recording stredm gauges and the remaining 71 are non-recording fixed gauges. Although the country's hytirometeolOlogical network exceeds the WMO standards, the quality of data has not been evaluated, thereby limiting its use. Deficiencies are found in the collectiolt, processing retrieval, publication, and analysis of data (S"las 1980). Mil:.y of these deficiencies are apparently t:le result of lack of capital and human resources, as well as inter-institutional duplication. Better trained hydrologists could the available information morl' effectively. Even though new equipment started generatiilg data in 1975, they are still basically unavailable because of lack of processing and publication. With today's computer and soft ware technology this type of infIJrmation could be easily !Jp dated every other year. Nevertheless, there are indications that corrective seeps will be 'aken in the near future (INURHI and Meteorological Departmer,t, pers. comm.). An excellent inter-iru;titutional effort produ ed an isocrosivity map (Fig. V-4) based on maximum rainfall int. nsity and erosivity of rainfall for 30 selected meteorological stations (SEA 1978). independent of its precision, this map is useful as an assessment tool regarding the relative erosivity between different locations and regions in the Dominican Republic. Surface Runoff Based on OAS (1967) data for 14 hydrographic units, de La Fuente (1976) estimated mean annual discharge of 14.8 x 109 rna/year. Howevn, PLANIACAS estimates the surface runoff to the 20 x 109 ml/year. Of the latter amount, aboUt 3.5 x 109 ..,I/year are expected to be stored in existing and projected dams. Table V-3 "resents an estimation of the surface water re sources by hydrv.;r:phic zone as vresentec by the World Bank. This value very closely with the estimates of PLANIACAS (1978). Reguliltec; surface runoff plays its most im portant rol(:: in the irrigation and hydropower, while the industrial and domestic sectors depend more on groundwater.

PAGE 44

ATLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA Hydrogeographic Divisions I. Sierra Baoruco Zone 2. Azua, Bani y S. Cristobal Zone 3. Rio Ozama Watershed 4. S. Pedro de Macoris y la Romana Zone 5. Higuey Zone 6. Miches y Sabana de la Mar Zone 7. Peninsula de Samana Zone 8. Costa Norte Zone 9. Rio Yuna Watershed 10. Rio Yaque del Norte Watershed II. Rio Dajabon Watershed 12. Rio Yaque del Sur Watershed 13. Lake Enriquillo 14. Rio Artibonito Watershed

PAGE 45

w = i < I-if tl 5: s:
PAGE 46

An important thoL undetermined number of people make direct use of stream waters, especially those in the lowest income level in rural areas not connected to any type of aqueducts (pers. observation). Many water resources projects wHl be needed in thc future to enha.'lce economic development through hydropower, irrigation, and industrial and domestic supplies. Water for recreational uses could also become somewhat important in the future. Most regu lations of important surface waters req Jire expensive works which depend, for thE:ir effective functioning, not only on water quantity but also its quality. A great deal of hope has been placed in existing or projected water resources projects, but not enough consideration has been given to the silt loads that these rivErs are carrying. At this point, it b appropriate to quote Eric Eckholm (19,'6): Engineers build one dclI1l after another, paying only modest heed to the farming practices and deforestation up stream that -.vill, by influencing river silt loads, determine the dam's life span. Groundwater An estimated 1500 x 10' mS/year of groundwater recharge the three important aquifers of the Dominican Republic (PLANIACAS 1978). Most of it circulates within the tertiary !imestones. Further studies to be carl ied out as part of the PLAl'll1ACAS pre-ject will provide more precise information on the gyoundwater resources. In general, the groundwater quality is good except in some coastal areas where saline intrusion has taken place. Low areas such as the Neiba Valley also experience groundwater salinity problems. There are 4000 to 5000 wells in the country, of which about 30% are Our of order. About 75% of the wells are estimated to be registered. Annual extraction of gruunJwater is estimated at 500 x 10' mS. About 50% of the wells have a discharge of less than 80 I/minute and 30% have a depth less than 25 meters; the deepest wells barely exceed 200 meters. As more pressures are put on surface water resources, the groundwater res0urces may play an increasing role in meeting the requir:'U nn m3 ) Sierra de Bahoruco 281,400 750-2,000 320 Azua, Bani, San Cristobal 446,000 750-2,250 1,516 Ozama River Bas'.l 270,600 1,400-2,250 1,586 San Pedro de Macon's and La Romana 462,900 1,000-2,250 2,444 Higuey 220,700 1,000-1,750 609 Miches and Sabana del Mar 226,500 2,000-2,700 1,284 Samana Peninsula n.a. Northern Coastal Zone 426,600 1,000-2,300 3,870 Yuna River Basin 563,000 1,170-2,250 2.375 Ya4ue del Norte River Basin 705,300 500-2,000 2,017 Dajabon River Basin C5,800 750-2,000 370 Yaque del Sur Pjver Basin 534,500 700-1,500 1,181 Lake Enriquillo Basin 304,800 600-1,200 312 Artibonito River Bar.in 265,300 1,200-2,000 1,190 TOTAL 4,793,400 19,074 uses (Table V-4). The substantially increasing demands for potable and agricultural uses (primarily irrigation in the latter case) are putting considerable pressure on the major aquifers and surface waters. TIlese critical water resources are the keystone to continued developmer,t and socio-economic progress of the Do minican Republic; hence they must be managed in the most ra tional and sustainable form !,ossible. Current and Projected Demands General Commenta The economy of a country, its rate of and ulti mately, the quality of its citizens' lives, are closely related to the a"ailability and of energy. With the second escalation of the oil priLes since 1977, and with the real possibility of severe shortages in the 1980's due to Middle East political instability and/or prices that could reach the fifty dollar a barrel mark in a not too distant future, it is reasonable to think that the evolving economic scenarios do not look promising at all. This situation will impose a severe burden on the less-developed oil-importing countries, not only because they may have to face the future with less energy but also because the increasing costs will keep accentuating the balance of payments deficit. On the other hand, large capital investments may be manda tory in order to build infrzstructure and develop options to Initi.... s energy/financial crisis and to decrease international de pendeng. nlis contradiction of expecting to invest more with less available income and higher costs is taking place in countries like the Domir,ican Republic, and under these circumstances it is crucial to implement a highly efficient management of resources for the projects to be successful. Many developing countries are facing economic and social pressures resulting from unsatisfied needs and wants. This dissat isfaction continues to expand because of rising expectations, ap preciable population growth, and a decrease in relative prices be tween the exported primary products and the ever-expanding cost of both imfJOrted industrial commodities and the value of borrowed capital necessary to build developmental projects. Therefore, it is important to reevaluate how realistic the projec tions made a few years back have turned out to be and what changes need to be made to adjust actual and future production and projections accordin3 to the priorities and restrictions im posed by new I:conomic and social circumstances. Regardless of accuracy, it must be realized that the more expensive the solu tions and the higher the financial, operating, and maintenance costs, the higher the burden resulting from poor, unwise use of funds and of shorter useful life of proje::ts affected by the deteri oration of the natural resources on which they depend. It is therefore necessary to make every possible effort to insure that 1) the projects will prove to be technically and economically sound; 2) that the resources on ..... hich those projects depend are, as much as possible, maintained or upgraded and 3) that the projects are efficiently operated. Irrigation There isn't a precise figure of how much land is currently irri gated in the Dominican Republic. The literature and water re sources specialists provide conflicting information for there is no updated map of the area under irrigation nor a reliable layout of the main irrigation canals. Probably the most reliable figures are those of 1f'..'DRHI indicating about 170,000 ha irrigated in 1980. An additional 100,000 ha are exrected to be irrigated by 1985, and it is estimated (depending upon soil studies) that the total potential irrigated land could be as much as 500,000 ha (Reynoso and Encarnacion 1980). Table V-5 indicates the land irrigated in 1978 as well as projec tions for 1985 and the total potential land for inigation where 3T

PAGE 47

Table V-4. Hydropologlc zones. walei' de ...... ds and water resources In the Dominican Republic (Adapted from PlANlACAS 1978). 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 Easlem CoosW Plolin l'.astem Conlillen Nomem Ccrdill ... a ondV.alIq> Cenrr.al Cordillen Sa, Juon &horuco HiUs Soulh PeninsuL. AzuaPWn Bani Pl.tin 6872 2910 1452 627 4951 6304 14S9O ... /35 2496 2012 2433 1030 564 466 ActuI PolmUal Potable (kmi) !luaZ ) 1977 1985 128 80.0 137.0 77 9.0 15.9 1.5 5.9 4 1.8 6.5 30 100 18.0 lD 615 1162 85.0 144.0 90 218 40.0 6S.5 178 298 13.0 22.6 39 120 4.7 264 13.0 23.0 1.5 2.4 10 59 0.8 55 123 6.4 11.0 80 140 5.5 9.6 TOT At 48442 1405 2995 282.0 480.9 InJllltry 1974 1985 1975 1985 6.0 10.2 210.0 8.0 OJ 0.5 4.0 10.0 17.0 4.0 10.0 10.4 16.0 425.0 780.0 8.1 13.5 5.0 11.0 120.0 200.0 3.0 12.0 4.7 7.6 160.0 280.il 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.6 2.0 5.0 OJ 0.4 60.0 88.0 0.2 0.1 55.0 95.0 41.0 67.1 701.0 1263.0 Surf_ Nizao. Holin .. Ozam .. Soco. OtilVOn. Yuma. Guamo Bajobonico, Yasica. Boba Yaque del Norle. Yuna Upper Yaque Norle Upper Yaque Sur UpperYuna Macasia. SanJuan Yaque del SUI Yaquedel Sur Pedernales, Nizailo 90 10 62 74 90 18 8 35 7 8 so so 6 6 W.ler Rna,,",," Alluvium Marine Umetone Lake sediments Alluvium Igneous Faults Tert. Umetcne Alluvium Yiarine Umestone Alluvium Marine Umestone Tori. umestone Alluvium Terl. Sediments Alluvium Tori. Sediments Igneous Faults Alluvium Terl. Sediments Alluvium Terl. umeslone Alluvium Marine U mestone Terl. umestone Alluvium A11uvium Sablerr ....... 414 5163 1258 4 2415 1415 79 106 178 250 924 14I6 1371 545 414 10551 7"" 582 43 2174 690 26 2302 1782 513 926 Well Dorth(m} SO 100 20 SO 100-500 100 20-30 SO SO 100 60 100 SO 100 SO SO SO 100 150-400 SO 25 150-300 100-200 100 SO &pomd Flow (1/m1D) 600 800 Donge:of soli"" inslrusion 40 100 lmignifianl demand ..0 Minim.al resources lJO-5OO Potential aquif ... no denW1d 20-200 Insignifianl demand 300 250 300 SO-200 100-200 100 400 SO 20 High rolinf.all Supplies loc.aI demand West is semi-Mid lnadequale surface watrrs Highrolinf.all Supplies loc.aI demand 100 Agricultur.al demands supplied SO by surface walen; 100 Potentilil supplies 800 for zone I il 300 Semi-arid 100 Inadequate surface waters 800 aquifer supplies for zones IOand 12 400 Irrigation demand Proximity 10 good aquifer 200 Demand met by W.iters 200 IrrigaHon demand

PAGE 48

Table V-5. Actual and potenHalland for Irrisation. (Source: PLANIACAS 1978). Hydrogeologic Z.,ne Actual area Total Area Expected to Adclltional Area with Total Potential Land under lrrIaatlon be Irrigated by 1985 Potential for Irrigation for Irrigation Oriental Coastal Plains 12,800 ha 42,eOO ha 50,000 ha 92,800 ha Oriental Mountain Range 7,700 10,000 17,000 Los Haitises Samana Peninsula 400 400 Northern Mountain Range 3,000 10,000 15,000 25,000 and Atlantic Coast Cibao Valley 63,500 116,200 100,000 216,7.00 Central M0untain Range 9,000 30,000 51,800 San Juan Valley 17,800 29,800 20,000 49,800 Neiba Mountain Range 3,900 12,000 12,000 Neiba Valley 15,400 26,400 20,000 46,400 Bahoruco Mountain Range 240 240 240 Barahona Southern 975 5,875 5,875 Peninsulz Awa Valley 5,500 12,310 5,000 17,310 Bani Valley 8,000 14,000 4,000 18,000 TOTAL 140,515 ha 299,525 ha 254,000 ha 552,426 ha soil conditions permit. More detailed information on irrigated land by resource procludion units (RPU's) and types of crops cul tivated is given by Bromley and Crosson (1978). ThI:Jr total of 192,000 ha of irrigateu land in 1978 differs from INDRHI's figure of 170,000 ha and the World Bank's estimate of 153,600 ha. Hydropower TIle installed electrical capacity (1980) is 683 Megawatts (mw) under CDE control plus about 367 Mw generated by several in dustries (Table V -6). Of the total installed capacity, only 15% is generated by hydropower, produced mainly from the Tavera and Valdesia reservoirs, with 80 and 54 Mw of generatin8 capacity, respectively. Both reservoirs have been subjected to heavy silting due to the poor conditions of the watersheds. The effects of hur ricanes David and Frederic on the gates of the Valdesia reservoir and the flooding of I:he Tavera powerhouse significantly reduced their original capacity and operation. -ihe electric industry has been going through a critical period of severe rationing in the last few years because of delays in the installation of additional units, lack of proper mair.tenance of the thermal units, and the excessive draw-down of the Tavera and Valdesia reservoirs (World Bank 1978). Frequent blackouts are now normal even in Santo Domingo. Projects under construction with completion planned for 1983 will almost double the existing hydropower generation capacity in the Dominican Republic. A list of these projects, their ex pected year of completion, and energy in GWH are given below: Hydroelectric Project Bao,1981 Hatillo, 1982 Sabc>neta, 1983 GWH 110 40.9 30 A recent study on energy strategies (CNPE 1980) lists 14 proj ects that could be completed by 1987 if funding of a hundred million dollars per year were available. These projects would add 450 Mw of new installed capacity, almost a threefold increase in existing hydropower capacity. Annual generation would be ap proximately 1110 GWH. This same study lists 18 additional proj ects that could be completed by 1990 with additional funding of some $1400 million. 11,ese projects would add 860.6 Mw of ad ditional installed capacity and an incre.r,e of 2586 GWH in annu al generation. The CNEP (1980) figJres should be carefully checked and taken with precaution since the Sabana Yegua dam is listed for completion by 1990 when in fact it is already built. Although many hydroelectric projects are proposed, it remains to be seen if the counlry has the capacity to undertake so mallY Table V-6. Installed electricity capacity, 1980. (Source: CNEP 1980) Corporacion Dominicana de Eledricidad (CD E) MW Hydro 159 Stearn plants (fuel oil) 377 Gas turbines (diesel) 147 TOTAL CDE 683 Irdustrial Generation Falconbridge Sugar Industry Emergency Generators TOT,\L INDUSTRIAL GEl\lERA nON 90 ca.100 177 367 39

PAGE 49

Mw 2000 1500 1000 500 + Reserve capacity I II THERMAL (coal) IIII HYDRAULIC o I 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Figure V -5. Power bnlalla projectiolls of fIIergy demalltis 10 1982. (SOFRELEC 1980.) major projects irl such a short time, since they demand a great deal of organization, human resources anJ capital availability. Despite all these, the implications are that with enough funding at hand and proper organization, thp Dominican Republic could probably increase its generation capacity tenfold in a ten year period. One aspect that must be addressed jf these expectations are to be fulfilled is the critical problem of watershed deteriora tion. Two questions must be raised: 1) Will some funding pro portional to the projected investments in hydropower generation be available for watershed protection and reh'lbilitation? 2) Will the decision m<:kers, economists, engineers, and lending institu tions rt:Jlize that silting rates, increased danger of tlocding, and decreased base-flow significantly alter the economic or technical feasibility of hydropower projects? T1-.ese must be given serious consideration in order to assure the success of the hydroelectric and irrigation projects. The number of projects either in the design process or in pre liminary study indicates that the Dominkan Republic has enough resources to hdp .nitigJce, on a short-term basis, the so-called energy crisis, at least in the electrical sedor. the existing potential hydropower estimates, the figt..res could change because of the unfea
PAGE 50

Table V-7. Projected population served wUh potable water and r.ewage systems in the Dominican Republic. (Source: INAPA 1980) Diagnoltlc 1970" 1919" No % No % Total Population 4,061,935 5,275,410 Urban Population 1,626,946 40 2,616,767 50 Rural Population 2,434,989 60 2,658,643 50 A. Potable water Population served with home connection Rural 117,568 5 273,828 10 Urban 974,893 60 1,3!'5,349 53 Population served Nith dose by conntdion Rural 257,474 11 599,683 23 IJrban 406,736 25 836,036 32 B. Sewer Systems Urban population served 258,000 16 648,271 25 "Estimat:on made by ONE, July 1 Table V-8. Projected urban, rural, and Industrial demands for 1995 (MCMlyear) in different hydrogeologic zones. Adapted from PLANIACAS 1978. Hydrogeologfc Zone Oriental Plains Oriental Mountain Range Los Haitises Samana Peninsula Northern Mountain Range and Atlantic Coast Gbao Valley Central Mountain Range San Juan Valley Neiba Mountain Range Neiba Valley Bahoruco Mountain Range Barahona Southern Peninsula Azua Valley Ban(Valley TOTAL Ur'ban and Rural Demand 1.8%" 2.8%" 142.0 181.3 16.6 21.0 6:2 7.3 6.7 8.5 32.5 41.3 150.0 190.5 68.1 86.5 23.5 29.5 4.9 6.2 24.0 30.5 2.6 3.0 1.6 2.0 11.4 14.5 9.9 12.6 500.0 635.0 Industrial Demand 16::.0 0.03 0.8 27.0 27.2 21.8 0.07 12.3 2.7 0.6 0.5 255.0 "Demand estimated at 80 m3/year/person and according to two different population growth rates: 1.8% and 2.8%. ProJection 1985 1990 No % No % 6,365,000 7,253,000 3.424,000 54 4,243,000 58 2,941,000 46 3,010,000 42 516,494 Ie 718,716 24 1,981,396 58 2,674,885 63 1,131,122 38 1,573,988 52 929,007 27 1,143,815 27 I.302,117 38 1,846,989 seven persons which implies a total of 134,000 connections. Most of the water for the Santo Domingo region comes from ground water of good quality; however, about 0.63 m'/second are taken directly frem the contaminated Haina River. The tot.)1 produc tion system for Santo Domingo is 4.39 mS/second; but with an estimated 38% loss, net production is probably about 2.74 m'/second. Since the total expected demand for 1!180 is 5.30 m'/second, there is a fresent deficit of 0.91 mS/second. Besides this deficit, there are also deficiencies in production that cause disconHnuities in the service, increasing the real deficits in rela tion to actual demand. Table V-9 provides total water demands as a function of time for Santo Domingo. This information provides evidence that ma jor investments and technical efforts should be undertaken in order to tap both the surface and groundwater resources needed' to satisfy the water requirements of a growing population. An example of these efforts is the important Madrigal project on the Haina River that will store some 400 million cubic meters, in order to regulate a supply of 8 rrt'.'second for the Santo Domin go area. In contrast, only 420 of 8646 rural communities throughout the country possess potable water. Despite the efforts of INAPA to install new service connections to the people, a growing number of rural families disconnect the services because they consider the INAPA fees are too expensive. Cost of water, however, is rather low since rural water fees have not been increased since 1960. Although the official minimum monthly fee is DR$1.50, in underpriviledged areas the monthly rate oscillates between DR$o.50 and DR$1.00. Therefore, INAPA is losing mone!' en its rural services since the average income per connection DR$o.84, while the actual cost per connectior. is DR$1.52. Fur thermore, it has been estimated that 14% of the connections are illegal. The previous aspects, plus the fact that only an urban minority possess measurement devices, make it difficult to estimate effec tive water demands. Large investments are necessary in order to upgrade, maintain, and initiate projects that will prov.! the much needed water so vital to the public and to the country's development in general. Special care must be given this precious resource, since its quality and time distribution have been and 41

PAGE 51

T.ble V-9. Total water demand under CAASD administration for the Santo Domingo region. Source: Personal communication. Population Unit Total Total to be Der..and Ik-mand Demand Year serYd (LPCD)* (m3 /sec.) 1980 U72,OOO 360 5.3 167 1,665,000 333 6.4 202 1990 2,196,000 323 8.2 259 1995 2,858,000 325 10.8 2000 3,637,000 333 14.0 442 *lPCD: Uter.; per capita per day. could be severely affected by the poor watershed conditions in the case of the surface water and overpumping and/or pollution ir. the case of the groundwater resources. Resource Management INDRHI, CDE, INAPA, CAASD, CORAASAN, FORESTA, TIERRAS Y AGUA and SEA's Meteorology Department are Do minican institutions involved in water resources. FORESTA is in Chapter III, Tierras y Aguas is discussed Chapter IV and INAPA and CAASD are discl1ssed in Chapter X. National Hydraulic Resources Institute (JNDRHI) INDRHI was created as an autonomous institution by Law 6 (1965) with the following principal functions: a. To serve as the authority for surface and groundwaters and to regulate their use. b. To study, protect, and program all the energy and hy draulic works necessary for the integral development of the hydrographic watersheds in coo(dirt.?.tion with national development plans. c. To organize and manage the utilization and conservation of nati('nal irrigation systems. d. To administer use of watersheds, reservoirs, springs, and national waters. e. To organize, direct, and regulate works involving water use with the Corporation of Industrial Development, with CDE concerning energy aspects, and with INAPA for water supply. f. To organize, direct and regulate works concerning water shd hydrology, springs, and national ':/aters, both superfi cial and underground. g. To take part in the conservation of stream flows, lakes, la goons and watershed protection, including environmental and erosion coniTol. Some of INDRHI's regulations hav!! become inoperative because it was never able to gain full control of all its legal functions due to the inertia of previously existing institutions such as INAPA and CDE and overlapping mandates of newer institutinns such as CAASD and Tierras y Agua. Lack of technical capability, fund ing and political support also make it difficult for INDRHI to ful fill its legal mandate. The institution has grown both in human resources and re sponsibilities-by 1979 INDRHI had some 1650 employees, in cluding 160 agronomy and civil engineers (Febrille, pers. comm.). Though the financial situation was critical during 19:'8 and 1979 with INDRHI receiving funds to pay only its acquired commit and counterpart programs with its DR$21 million budget, during 1980 it was expected to operate on a DR$77 million bud get (Feb rille, pers. comm.). This new support allows INDRHI to plan projects and manpower needs. Important concerns at INDRHI include sedimentation rates of water storage dams, irrigation efficiencies, silting of canals, salini ty and drainage problems, and in general. the operation and maintenance of large irrigation canals under their control. Reser voir sedimentation is one of the most serious environmental problems in the Dominican Repub!ic. INDRHI has been under taking soil conservation programs ill the Sabana Yegua watershed since 1977. A recognizance study and a technical watershed man agement plan for the Hatillo watershed have been conducted with Chinese cooperation (Gonzalez 1980). Political pressures cause expensive canal systems to be inaugurated prior to comple tion, lacUng measuring devices and drainage systems, Jnd in sev eral oce; sions without access to farms (Reynoso & Enarnacion, pers. cornm.). Farmers must construct their own feeder canals which leads to l chaotic canal system plus erosior., sedimenta tion, and drainage problems. Cultural practices and the very low costs for irrigation water have led to inefficiencies and excessive irrigation, in many cases accentuating the drainage, leaching, and salinity problems. Lack of funds and of qualified personnel lead to difficult situations such as in the Yaque del Norte region where five engineers administer 50,000 hectares under irrigation. INDRHI's offical magazine (La Gaceta) shows well how great expectations can lead to big calamities within a year when inap propriate planning. incomplete construction and poor operation, management and cultural practices take place. A DR$33 million investment to irrigate 25,000 ha, and benefitting 10,000 families by transporting 24 m"/second from the Yaque de! Sur River wa.; expected to transform the Azua Valley into a garden (Ventura 1978). Perez (1979) describes the severe problem and side effects of this Azua Valley irrigation project. The plain that was previously irrigated from a groundwater aquifer is now inundated by irriga tion water and the old wells are serving as artesian outlets for the high groundwater. The combined effect of decreased pump ing and excessive infiltration has raised the groundwater table eight meters. Today, extensive areas previously cultivated are ruined (Fig. V -6b), a concrete lateral of the canal damaged hy high groundwater pressure, roads and a town have been inur! dated (Fig. V -6a), and drinking water supplies are contaminated. Poor irrigation practices and designs should be given priority status among remedial solutions. Though irrigation engineers in INDRHI are aware of existing problems, they must urgently solve them. A map of irrigated lands by district at a 1:50,000 scale indicating the main canals i''ld problem areas would help. Priorities to upgrade irrigation systems and educate farmers are necessary. Recently signed cooperative agreements with ileA and with Colorado State University (CSU) should greatly strengthen INDRHI's technical capability. The I1CA objective is to strengthen INDRHI's role in the development and administration of water resources, with special emphasis on the agricultural sector (INDRHI 1980a). The major objectives of the CSU agreement in clude: 1) Formulation of a national plan for water resources man agement; 2) Improvement in the gathering and analysis of hydro logic data; 3) Planning for the creation of a research hydraulic laboratory in the Dominican Republic; and 4) Administration and operation of hydraulic systems with emphasis on irrigation opti mization (INDRHI 1980b). The fiCA and CSU cooperative agreements have already brought in experts to assist INDRHI in diagnosing the multitude of problems associated with Dominican water resources. In anal yzing problems related to quality, collection, processing. and re trieval of hydrologic information, Salas (1980) found considerable duplication of activities between the Hydrologic division of INDRHI and the Meteorological Department of SEA. Fuentes (1980) analyzes the lack of water measuring devices at all water transmission levels in most of the important irrigation projects, a

PAGE 52

.' ,'. .:. .. .... Figure V -6a. Main slrul of EI Rosario inllndaJed by inigalion waler Ihal has lIoll'hm 10 go .lilt 10 lire ltuk of draillage canals. (Pholo, Gary Harlshonr') severe problem that INDRH must face due to the negative ef fects of over-irrigation, Since INDRHI does not have an educational program to up grade the technical capabilities of its personnel. the I1CA and CSU agreements should help strengthen the professional training of INDRHI's engineers and technicians. The small number (If INDRHI personnel with graduate studies or degrees is a serious limiting factor to INDRHI's professional capabilities. Problems in evaluation, control. optimization and upgrading the water re sources of the Dominican Republic require the expertise of well trained individuals. Dominican Electricity Corporation (CDE) CDE was created as an autonomous institution by Law 4115 (1955) to provide for the production, transmission and distribu tion of electrical energy. A section of Article 8 of the CDE en abling legislation exp!icitly assigns responsibility to CDE for na tional electrification. CDE's autonomous status and financial inde pendence allow it to plan on a longer term basis and with more stability than institutions such as INDRHI. Rapid growth in national demand for electricity has produced comparable institutional growth of CDE. Approximately 200 en gineers work at CDE in different divisions (E. Garcia, pers. comm.); however, few CDE engineers have completed graduate stuJies or degrees. Those with higher degrees often become sad dled with administrative duties. Escalating costs of imported petroletJm are forcing the Domini can Rept:blic to quickly develop her considerable hydroelectric potential by constructing several major dams. Most CDE hydro electric projects are contracted to foreign or private consultants for feasibility and design studies. CDE then forms a ';pecific corpora tion to construct a dam. Upon completion of the ..:onstruction proj ect the corporation is dissovled. Although it may have administrative and financial advantages, CDE's creation of a separate corporation for each dam construc tion has some serious consequences. CDE has traditionally ignorrd the condition of the watershed and any interest or effort in watershed management. The construction corporation is only interested in completing the dam, thus puts no money into or actions in the watershed above the hydroelectric proj ect. The CTeation of a construction corporation for each project effectively excludes CDE engineers from substantive in volvement in a hydroelectric project. Experience in Costa Rica shows that competent national engineers working closely with consultants. coupled with foreign training for national engineers, leads to a gradual build-up of professional knowledge and expeFigure V -6b. An inigalioll callal tWIT EI Rosario 111111 lilerally wds by floodillg til( Ilr(ll dlle 10 a llU/.: of drainage callilis. Salinizatioll has destroyed lire IIsefllitrrss of lIre fields. (Pholo, Gllry Harlslronr') rience that allows a developing country to handle most of its own projects. Friction between INDRJ-I1 and CDE and lack of communication seem to exist. Apparent mutual distrust for the quality of work and policies of each institution is shown by lack of knowledge and indifference at the technical level regarding the activities in which each institution is involved, and the maps of locations of future dams being considered separately by each institution that do not show the dams of the other. The signing of the INDRHI-CDE inter-institutional cooperation agreement (August 1980). though the result of the vision, good will, and responsibility of a few motivated officials, has apparent ly not brought about the commitment of the leaders to work to gether. Indifference and distrust during the signing of the INDRHI, I1CA. and CSU
PAGE 53

Although centralization with good leadership may lead to uni fication and eliminate duplication, it can also be dangerous since it usually leads to very powerful institutions where politics may become more important than technical aspects (e.g. Guatemala). Large government institutions may lead to a dilution of responsi bilities and loss of motivation to get things done; this could take place because of loss of personal communication, and identifica tion of the workers with their working units and superiors. When dealing with multiple i'lstitutions, it is very important to clearly define realistic activities in which each institution call most effectively work. The alternative seems to call for a systemic integration through institutional coordination. The proposal to create the Consejo Nacional de Recursos Naturales is an excellent effort in this direction. Major Problems and Issues Environmental problems with water resources and watershed management in the Dominican Republic intimately involve the small farmer, specifically the "conuquero", in that he is a major factor inducing environmental degradation as well as the unin tended recipient of several negative consequences. Land and water degradation are the first order consequences of his slash and burn agricultural activities. Traditional agriclutural practices on steep mountain environ ments in the upper watersheds cause a series of negative conse quences both on the land the farmer uses for subsistence and in the water resources projects developed downstream as incentives for economic development and social well-being. The high rates of erosion reported in the literature and observed in the fields in the Dominican Republic indicate that the productivity of these lands is decreasing due to more intensive use and shorter fallow periods (see Chapter VI), partly because of the population pres sures on scarce land resources and poor agricultural practices. Re gional and national developments including irrigation systems hydroelectric projects, and aqueducts, are being severely affected by rapid siltation, poor water quality, and/or changes in the streamflow regimes. The social and economic costs of sedimenta tion and changes in streamflow characteristics such as increases in peak flows and lower base flows may severely affect the design and operation of existing and projected engineering works, in creasing therefore noi only the cost of initial investments but also the maintenance and operating costs, to say nothing about the potential for drastic reduction in the economic ancl!or useful life of the projects (Quesada 1979). In some instances (e.g. a siltFlpre V-7a. StVtTt gul/y trosion of "ncon50lidRitd stdimmls in Iht stmi-arid 10lOtr Sabana-Ytgua waltrshtd. TIlt lack of IUnoH control from construction of a IlIral road is Iht primary caust of Ihis rapidly advancing gul/y. (Pholo, Gary Hartshorn.) 44 filled reservoir), the consequ
PAGE 54

figure V-Sa. umslidrs rmmd by road building and dr,fomllllion on slap sloprs brtwan Marrobao and Loma dr III 5111 in Ihr Cordi/l(T1l Crnlml. (Hmld-hdd a(Tial pholo, Glrlos QurslUill.) (e.g. lower Rio Yuna). Although hurricanes David and Frederic were the prime cause of major Aoods and :;ignificant changes in basin morphology (e.g. Rio Las Cuevas, Rio Ocoa), natural disas ters exacerbate man-induced problems. Thele is a tendency in the Dominican Republic to blame all natural resources probkms (e.g. Tavera, Valdesia) on hurricanes David and Frederic. The Cordillera Central watersheds were already seriously degraded before the 1980 hurricanes struck, hence man's destruction of the watersheds amplified the catastrophic consequences of natural disasters. The resilience (If natural vegetation clearly demon strates that inappropriate land use dramatically increases water shed degradation (Fig. V-Bbl. High contents of silt and clay in potable water not only cause a visual nuisance, but increase health hazards (see Chapter X). The sediments also contribute to internal corroding of the water system. High turbidity requires large amounts of coagulating to remove the sediments. Watershed deterioration has in creased the need for water treatment in systems that initially did not require treatment. Watershed deterioration has also changed the magnitude of Aoodwaters, causing considerable damage to intakes, derivation st;uctures, and anchored structures. High sediment loads carried from degraded watersheds also cause problems to irrigation sys by rapidly filling canals with sediments, thus reducing canal capaci:y. When deposited on fields, the high silt load in irrigation waters reduces soil infiltration cilpacity. Poor irrigation planning and practices, including over-irrigation, incomplete canal systems, lack of integrated irrigation and drain age systems, water logged soils and salinization, abuse the coun try's water and soil resources. Numerous examples exist: high sa linity is a problem west of La Esperanza in the Yaque del Norte River Basin; in Villa Vasquez farmers dam irrigation canals to dived saline water to their fields, dccentuating their soil salinity problf!ms; lack of maintenance allows the canals to fill with sedi ments and weeds (Fig V-9a), reducing irrigation potential and in some cases precluding the possibility of growing two crops per year; lack of drainage of irrigation waters callses soil salinization and even Aooding (Fig. V-9b). Some efforts are being made to lessen soil erosion and upgrade irrigation systems, but they are woefully inadequate to signifi cantly reduce the severity of water resources problems in the Dominican Republic. The chaotic, independent, and usually com petitive approach to irrational use and management of Domini can water resources continues to degrade this valuable renewable natural resource. The decreasing potential of Dominican water resources will only be reversed through a united ard integrated national effort in watershed protection and rehabilitation. Conclusions The Dominican Republic is richly endowed with water re sources, particularly those river systems originating in the Cordi llera Central. The three important river basins, Yaque del Norte, Yuna, and Yaque del Sur, cover about 35% of the country. This renewable natural resource is only modestly developed to pro vide 15% of the nation's power and to irrigClte less than 200,000 ha (4% of the country). Government projects are expected to substantially increase these values during the 1980's. Institutional responsibiiities for water resources development and administration are fragmented among several overlapping and competing agencies. Development projects sllch as irrigation systems were poorly planned, designed and implemented with the consequence that extensive areas of productive agricultural land are being lost due to poor drainage, salinization, or inconsis tent delivery of irrigation water. Planning of development proj ects ignores existing or planned developments pertaining to other institutions. Watershed degradation is a national catastrophe posing grave threats to costly development projects. Irrigation systems, hydro electric dams, and aqueducts are rapidly losing functional capaci ty due to massive siltation, poor water quality and changes in streamAow rI>gimes. Slash and burn agriculturalists are intimately involved in water shed deterioration, not only as causative agents with their tradi tional techniques and crops, but as recipients, as they rapidly de plete the productive capacity of their small farms. The absence of new frontiers for traditional agriculturalists precludes evacuation of critical watersheds. Tht' "conuquero" must be an integral com ponent in watershed rehabilitation. Inadequate road-building practices and natural disasters such as hurricanes also contribute enormous quantities of sediments to. the nation's river systems. There is a tendency to blame the 1979 hurricanes for the 50rry condition of Domincan watersheds. Na tural disasters only exacerbate the serious environmental prob lems caused by man. The modest efforts in watershed rehabilitation and protection are usually directed at the consequences of watershed degrada tion (e.g. gully control) rather than to the causes (inappropriate land use). Given the serious and pervasive deterioration of watersheds, the institutional conAicts and unwillingness to ad dress the problem in an integrated effort, and the increasing human pressure for land, one can only conclude that Dominican watersheds will continue to deteriorate in the near future. The lack of a massive and priority progrdm in watershed protection Figure V-Sb. Lmrdslidr IIctivity inmusrd by drfomlahon. Although many of Ihm landslidrs in Ihr ruslrrn Glrdilhra Cmlral brtwun Manobao and Lorna dr la Sal wm probably rausrd by Ihr 1979 hurriranr;, nair Ihr appmiably lowrr fuqu(llry of landslidrs in Ihr upprr foml. (Hand-hdd IUrial pholo, Gary Harlshorn.) 45

PAGE 55

Figure V-9a. j'noprraJivr irrigaJion canal nrar San Josr dr Gcoa fi/lrd wilh srdi,,'mls from Ihr 1979 hurricanrs. (Pholo, Gary HlUlsNom.) and rehabilitation will continue to allow Dominican watersheds to deteriorate, converting a renewable natural resource to a non renewable or increasingly cl)stly resource. Recommendations Declare Watershed Degradation a National Emergency The seriousness and extent of watershed deterioration in the Dominican Republic merits emergency measures analagous to thoce taken in 1967 to halt deforestation. However, slowing of wutershed degradation will not be nearly as simple as dosing all sawmills. Specific actions could include, 48 create an inter-agency task force to assess the capabilities and responsibilities of institutions involved in water re sources develop integrated watershed management plans for major river basins such as the Yaque del Norte, Yuna, and Yaque del Sur implement protection and rehabilitation pro grams on a sub-watershed basis rather than as roadside demonstrations halt all hydroelectric, irrigation, and reservoir projects until specific watershed management plans are prepared, ac cepted and initiated include an environmental assessment in the economic feas ibility analysis of proposed water resources projects analyze existing projects to determine which ones can be improved or rehabilitated before starting new projects. In8tltutlonal Collaboll"atlon and Coordination 18 Imperative Duplication and jealously must be minimized if the Dominican Republic is to effectively develop and administer her water re sources. The proposal to establish CONARENA could be an ef fective means of increasing cooperation and coordination of the numerous agencies involved in Dominican water resources. Figure V-9b. &allml agriCII/tllrnl land PI",r II &sario. 71';5 firM fomrrrl!! prodllad 90 m Ions/lin of illdllslrial 10lllalors, bill poor irrigation IIInllllgunml has f/oodrd Ihr arra and inmasrd soilsalini/y. (Pholo, Gary Harlshom.)

PAGE 56

VI Soils Resource Base Introduction The most important farmlands are in two main regions, the Cibao, which is a geomorphic region composed of the valleys of the Yuna and Yaque del Norte Rivers, and the Caribbean ,.oastal plain, a region devoted mainly to sugarcane and Iivesto k pro duction. The latter area has a complex distribution of residual soils derived from limestone or calcareous materials dl!posited under lacustrine conditions. The eastern Cibao, Between Santiago and San Francisco de Macoris, has the country's largest area of highly productive soils. The climate of eastern Cibao is excellent for the almost continuous cultivation of the dark brown, granular calcareous clays and of the alluvial soils. The main crops of the densely populated eastern Cibao are tobacco, com and plantains. Rice is grown un der irrigation in the compact clays farther to the east in the Yuna basin. Arid conditions in the western Cibao make irrigation indispensible for farming the alluvial soils of the Yaque del Norte Valley. The western Cibao has about 8-9,000 ha of irrigated rice, along with considerable areas of tobacco, plus some sorghum and to matoes. Some of these soils have fairly light surface texture. Free salt in the profile coupled with poor quality and inept manage ment of irrigation water has caused some salinity problems in the area. Another important agricultural area is the arid basin of the Yaque del Sur River. The clay soils of the valley of its main trib utary, the San Juan River, are suitable for irrigated rice. The lower part of the Yaque del Sur Valley, which is part of the Enri quillo Basin, is an extensive plain with deep, light-textured, allu vial soils, mostiy devoted to sugarcane and plantains. Saline soils occur close to Lake Enriquillo as well as in the lowlands near the mouth of the Yaque del Norte River. The only agricultural soils not used are in the sub-humid or arid areas of the country lacking irrigation. In other areas, wherever there is enough precipitation for crops or pasture, the land has been cleared of forest for crop or livestock production, ignoring the fact that there are areas of steep slopes or poor drainage. Throughout the mountain areas there are small valleys with areas of productive soils. The eulogy to the "rich so;ls of the Dominican Republic" found in literary works is mostly a myth. While there are some areas of good and productive soils in the country, most of the country's farml'fs eke out a living on marginal and sub-marginal lands not fit fo. annual food crops. A reconnaissance through major parts of the country reveals a predominance of very shal low soil situated on extremely steep slopes, mostly stoney and subject to severe erosion, either because of topography or the soil materials involved, or both. Some additional discussion of soil quality and erosion follows. Description of Major Solis The Dominican Republic has a great diversity of soils. They range from sands to clays, acid to alkaline, fertile to infertile, no saline to saline, and include well-developed soils and younger ones. The Comprehensive Resource In"entory and EVilJuation System (CRIES) project identified 37 soil map units '",hich are briefly described in Table VI-I in the order of covered. More detailed descriptions are available in SIEDRA publications. Current and Projected Land Use Fann Size Distribution Recent data indicate 57% of the country's land area is in farms. Land in farms expanded from 47% of the country in 1960 to 57% in 1971 and rem lined at an almost identical level in 1977 (Table VI-2). regional percentages reflect the abundance of good soils in the northeast, east and central regions, as well as the dominance of sub-marginal land, inimical climatic conditions and inaccessibility in the southwest and south regions. While only about 13% of Dominican farmland is not in use, the bulk of the farmland is divided almost equally between crops and pasture. Four regions-north, northeast, central and east-account for 76% of the national croplands and 85% of the pastures. Farm size distribution in 1971 (Table VI-3) is remarkably uni form across regions. Nearly 70% of all farms are less than 5 ha in size, yet they occupy less than 14% of the country's farmland. Only 3.4% of the farms exceed 50 ha, but they occupy over half of the national farmland. The many large sugarcane estates have a strong impact on the farm size statistics. Nevertheless, the data indicate there are a large number of subsistence farmers that probably include many part-time farmers who earn additional in come in off-farm activities. 47

PAGE 57

Tctble VI-I. U.S. soil taxonomy names, their map symbol and CRIES (SIEDRA) number, the total area in the Dominican Republic (often in many separate parcels in parts of the country) and a brief description of some of their main characteristics involving e;:osiveness or productive use of Dominican soils. Brief Description of Brlef Description of Name Area Character and/or Name Area Character and/or (subgroups) Map Symbol km2 Potential (suhgroups) Map Symbol km2 Potential Dystropepts [TYs 8223 Steep slopes, acid, Ustropepts [TUa URIA 1329 Moderate erosion hazard, (typic) M/RB (4431) mostly shallow, stony, (typic) (4324) some mechanization possible, erosive; some coffee, some would have potential for food crops crops with irrigation, no water sources apparent; grazUstropepts lTUa 4661 Medit'm to steep ing lands (typic) t
PAGE 58

Tlble Vl-"!. (Continued) Brief Description of Brief Description of Name Area OIarader andlor Name Area OIauder andlor (5ubsroups) Map Symbol kml Potential (subgroups) Map Symbol km2 Potential Pellusterts VUPa T/A Stream and lacustrine terraces Dystropepts ITYc UIM-2S5 Very fine marine clays, slight and Ustropepts (6136) over alluvium, some erosion (Aquic) ITEs RH/LS erosion hazard; used for (typic) hazard on slopes; suitable for Eutropepts (4429) pasture, cacao, many corps with irrigation; (r."ic shallow) coffee, and food crops otherwise, pasture, rice, vege-tables Dystropepts ITYc T/A 282 Slight erosion hazard; at (Aquic) ITYd FP/A Constanza used for temperate UstolEic DRHnURIA 633 Moderate erosion hazard, Dystropepls (4427) region vegetables; at Banao HapJargids (1204) arid; too steep for ir rigation (fluvic) for irrigated rice and other and no wilter source crops Terriorthents EOHj liLA 567 Level for mechanization, but Eutropept5 ITEc U/LS-252 Slight erosion hazara; can be (Ustic) (2308) difficult to irrigate due to (Aquic and ITEs RH/LS reclaimed for sugarcane salinil y; better parts in sugar-cane and plantains shallow typic) (4217) Ustifluvents EFUa FP/A 242 Slight erosion hazard; suitTropaqw!pts lARs TIM 506 Marine terrace over marine (Iypic) (2206) able for irrigated sugarcane (Aerie) and -VDCh TIM clay; wet soils for rice and Ustifluvents also food crops Chromuderts (4116) pasture; others for cacao, cof-(aeric tropic) (Aquic) fee and food cro?S TropaqlJepts IATd T/M-446 Coastal marine terrace over Eutropepts ITEe FP/A 180 Fine silts or fine loams; (aeric) and lTUs RH/LS marine sediments interspersed (Ftuventic) (4218) suitable for cacao, coffee, and Ustropepts (4115) with shallow erosional rolling food crops (typic) and hilly uplands; level lands for sugarcane and food crops Tropaquepts lATa FP/A 172 Use limited by wetness; (Iypic) VDCb FP/A used for irrigated rice, Tropudults UDTa RH(f436 Erosion hazard, mostly deep Chromuderts pasture, food crops and cacao (typic) ITYp S(f red clays, very ,lCid; pasture (Aquic) and food crops (lithic) Camborthids DOAa F/A 410 Alluvial, slight erosion (typic) (HOI) hazard, suited for mechaniza-tion. needs irrigation; produce irrigated bananas, plantains, Abbreviated use symbols (from Map): sugarcane, could produce other crops Land form I Underlying material DT dissected terrace A Alluvium, unconsolidated Camborthids D0Aa RHlLSS 407 Erosion hazard, steep; no F Fan. at base of mountain LA Lacustrine alluvium, unmnsolidah,d (typic) agricultrual use FP floodplain LS l.imestone L Level plain LSS [jmestone and shale Troplldults UDTa DT/A 379 Aoodplain, fine texture, acid; M Mountains M Marine, unconsolidated rocks (typic) (5133) used for sugarcane K Karst topography RB Mixed acid and basic meta-Dystropepls morphic rocks (fluventic) RH Rolling and hilly terrain T Tuff S Steep hilly T Terrace Trupohemists !-.HTa WSiA 325 Mostly tidal level. strongly U Undulating pl'lin (typic) (311:) saline; mangrove swamp; UR Undulilting and rolling plain Sulfihemis!s almost no agricultural value WS Swamp (typic) Names (subgroups) according to the U.S. Soil Taxonomy, USDA Handbook No. 436, Washington, D.C. Dystropepts ITYc T/A312 Slight to moderate eros;on (Aquie) ITYs RHlRB hazard, shallow; crop growth For a detailed description the handbook would have to be consulted. The Dystropepts (4428) limited by wetness, acidity, various publications of SIEDRA (CRIES) also give more information on (shallow to clayey texture; used for these soils thJl1 is c"ntained in the very brief descriptions above. paralithic pasture, CacolO, sugarcane and contact) food crops from whkh the above list a.1d descriptions are adapted 49

PAGE 59

TableVl-2. Regional distribution of land in farms in 1960, 1971 and 1977. Base data from CItIES pr'.>ject. I n m IV V VI VII North Northeast Northwest Central Southwest South East TOTAL Total Land Area (km 2 ) 9,065 5,324 4,769 6,983 7,503 6,890 7,745 48,297 1960 Farmland (kmZ) 5,532 3,646 1,880 4.436 1,240 1,152 4,690 22,576 % 61 68 39 64 17 17 61 47 1971 Farmland (km 2 ) 6,049 4,695 1,953 5,090 2,031 1.368 6,176 27.362 % 67 88 41 73 27 20 80 57 1977 Farmland (km 2 ) 6,049 4,796 1,952 5,Il7 2,031 1,321 6,176 27.452 % 67 90 41 73 27 19 80 57 1977 Crops (km 2 ) 2,011 2,294 848 2,649 1,336 757 2,169 Il.064 1977 Pastures (km 2 ) 3,Il6 2,113 845 1,605 511 367 3,301 11,868 1977 Other" 9Il 389 259 873 184 706 3,520 Excludes 163 km 2 of islands "Uncultivated and non-pastured land on farms Table Vl-3. Percentage distribution of land use by farm size and regions; base data from the 1971 Agricultural Census. "Denotes no data available. I n m IV V VI vn National North Northeast Northwest Central Southwest South East Average Percentage of farms 0.5-4.9 ha 73.9 69.6 62.1 73.0 78.2 58.7 69.: 5.0-9.9ha 11.5 Il.9 13.6 10.3 13.9 lU 12.2 10.0-49.9 ha 11.8 15.2 20.5 14.3 7.0 22.3 15.2 50l1a 2.7 3.0 3.8 2.4 0.9 7.7 3.4 Percentage of farmland 0.5-4.9 ha 13.6 Il.3 10.5 13.9 28.6 3.5 13.8 5.0-9.9ha 8.4 8.1 8.2 7.1 17.1 2.7 8.6 10.9-49.9 ha 26.5 28.7 39.Y 28.4 22.8 16.4 27.1 50ha 56.5 50.9 41.4 50.6 31.5 77.4 51.5 Percentage in Crops 0.5-4.9 ha 65.0 68.4 49.6 61.8 67.3 87.4 66.6 5.0-9.9ha 48.2 54.5 32.2 38.0 58.6 41.1 45.4 10.0-49.9 ha 27.9 35.3 32.2 38.0 38.6 20.8 26.8 50.0-99.9 ha 7.9 12.4 10.4 14.7 12.5 10.5 11.4 l00ha 18.0 32.3 43.5 53.6 53.8 34.3 39.3 Percentage in Fallow 0.5-4.9 ha 6.7 16.2 11.0 7.0 16.5 2.5 10.0 5.0-9.9 ha 7.3 21.0 6.5 7.3 12.0 6.5 10.1 10.0-49.9 ha 6.0 11.8 6.5 5.8 11.5 4.2 4.6 50-99 ha 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.5 l00ha 2.4 3.6 7.6 3.1 5.1 4.2 4.3 Percentage In Pasture 0.5-4.9 ha 22.6 Il.O .;4.0 24.1 10.0 7.2 18.3 5.0-9.9ha 37.8 19.2 52.8 38.9 19.3 39.7 34.6 10.0-49.9 ha 57.9 39.4 69.3 50.7 35.9 63.5 52.8 50ha Percent<1gl' in Other 0.5-4.9 ha 5.7 3.4 5.4 7.1 6.2 2.9 5.1 5.0-9.9 ha 6.7 5.3 8.5 15.8 10.1 12.7 9.9 10.0-49.9 8.2 3.5 10.7 19.0 14.3 11.5 11.2 50-99ha 8.1 3.9 10.2 0.7 9.6 2.5 5.8 l00ha 14.8 19.1 51.8 27.3 43.1 10.5 27.S SO

PAGE 60

Table VI-3 also shows the regional distribution of land use by size of farm. The highest percentage of land in crops consistently occurs on the smallest farms. Land devoted to crops decreases with increasing farm size to 100 ha, above which there is an ap preciable increase in crops due to sugarcane estates. Farms smaller than 10 ha average 10% in fallow, which is an ir.dicator of the prevalence of shifting cultivation for subsistence crops on small farms. The str'mg increase in percentage of land in pasture as farm size increases is no surprise; however, the average of 18% pasture on the smallest farms is unusually high; fallow land used for grazing may account for the percentage of pasture. Land is put into fallow either for lack of managerial skill in organized harvesting. or because the farmer believes the soil is so exhausted it will not produce an acceptable return. In both cases, improved technology, including proper conservation measures on marginal lands, would keep these lands produdive. Pasture is either a managerial choice, because it seems to yield the best return, or it is a mt:asure applied by the small farmer on land too exhausted to produce a crop. Most good pasture is a cropland reserve, while poor pasture generally yields very little return, and this land would probably be better under trees. We were unable to obtain national data on land tenure. In our conversations with technicians in the field, it was learned there is substantial absentee ownership of farmland. The Widespread practice of sharecropping and frequent changes in the sharecrop per on a particular field make it very difficui( to encouragf> soil measures or even generdl land It appears that the Dominican Republic has virtually no land re serves under the conditions of rilin-fed agriculture as can be seen by the extensive areas of marginal and suu-marginal cullivated lands. However, thanks to orographic rainfall it has many areas where irrigation projects are in are being developed and still can be developed. A reconnaissance indicated large tracts of land with xerophitic brush cover, probably on most maps appearing as low grade for est or brush covt:r. Some of these lands, like those in the San Juan Azua area, will be irrigated by now being developed. Agricultural Productivity Table VI-4 shows the area and produdion of important crops harvested in 1979. Rice, red beans, cassava, and plantains are the major food crops. National averages of crops are fairly low, Table VI-4. 1979 area and production data for important crops in the Dominican Republic; data from URPE. Crop R',ce Red Beans Black l!eans Com Cassava Swet't Potatoes Yams Plantains Pigeon Peas Bananas Name Root Potatoes Onions Table Tomatoes Industrial Tomatoes Hot Peppers Garlic Tobacco Area Harvested (hectares) 106,408 54,853 10,355 36,:;81 22,933 6,659 6,402 30,580 11,205 7,058 2,707 897 1,447 615 5,082 911 651 29,402 Total Production (metric tons) 245,437 37,927 11,883 48,177 119,556 59,495 41,320 204,250 9,928 71,926 17,274 8,987 10,248 7,131 100,969 3,624 3,452 33.931 Average Yield (kglha) 2,307 691 1,148 1,317 1,317 8,934 6,454 6,679 877 10,191 6,382 10,019 7,082 11,595 19,1)68 3,978 5,302 1,154 as should be expected since a large part of this produdion comes from marginal and sub-marginal lands. Table VI-4 does not in clude sugarcane, the principal export crop of the Dominican Re public. The country had a total of about 212,000 ha of sugarcane in 1978. Sugarcane iand is divided among three major producers: Gulf & Western Company, the Vincini family, and the govern ment's Consejo Estatal de Azucar (CEA). Gulf & Western har vests about 71.200 ha, with a mill capadt!' of about 400,000 tons/year of sugar, or 28% of the national produdion. They are located in the eastern region of the cOJntry, and grow their cane without irrigation on land mostly considered average for agricul tural (Class III). The Vicini family owns 3 sugar estates in the ce'ltral region with a 5uBar capacity of 80,000 tons/year, account ing for 7% of the national produdion. CEA owns 12 estates, m'J:;tly in the eastern jJart of the country. Two of the CEA estates are irrigated-Esper'lnza in the north, and Barahona, near the city with the same name in the south. In addition there are about 156 producers who sell their cane to the CEA and the Vincini group. Esti'te yield without irrigation is about 45-46 tons/ha, with the small producers getting about 20% less. Irri gated production has dropped to around 95 tons/ha due to salinity problems and poor management. Coflee covereJ about 207,000 hQ in 1960 on some 43,000 farms in many parts of the country, mostly at middle elevations. The present area in coffee (about 155,000 hal is expeded to in crease subsrantially due to recent efforts to use it as a soil con servinf, crop. However, some of its is interplanted with cacao, which will only thrive under hot humid conditions. Cacao is concentrated in the northeasterr. area of the country, where 94,000 ha (1979) are in produdion on some 50,000 small farms. Other C.Jps include coconut palm (28,548 hal, sorghum (2,702 hal, ginger (659 hal, and grapes (l08 hal. Resource M&nagenlent Legal Basis No specific laws exist to proted the soils of the country. A considerable number of laws protecting: forest and water re sources have an indirect effect on soil resources and conserva tion. The Depa..-tmento de Tierras y Aguas (DT A) in the Secreta riat of Agriculture (SEA) is preparing a draft law based on exist ing laws in Puerto Rico for formation of soil conservation districts. Also a draft law before the Legislature proposes Com mittees for Conservation of Natural Resources (COCO RENA) at the grass roots level. COCO RENA could greatly help govern ment efforts in soil and water conservation. lostitutloos Soils are dealt with by several departments. The DT A conduds taxonomic inventories at reconnaissance, semi-detailed and de tailed levels, tests soil fertilily in relation to plant growth by means of fertilizer experiments using various nutrient combina tions on a number of agricultural and horticultural crops. It also determines fertility level by soil and leaf analyses in the labora tory. According to the department's spokesman it is sufficiently staffed and will carry out its program 011 a reasonable schedule to have all areas with agricultural potential mapped within the next 3-4 years. It seems to have little interest in the marginal areas in the mountains. The Instituto Agrario Dominicano (lAD) has no soils staff, but uses the DT A to appraise lands before acquiring them, and uses the department to organize farming activities of their settlers on a national basis. The DT A originated as the soil conservation section of the De partment of Soils. It has bep.n a separate department for about two years and comes under SURENA instead of the Secretariat lSI

PAGE 61

for Research, Extension .md Agricultural Training. DTA is trying to transform itself into a general soil conservation service. While it has some well-trained and enthusiastic people, it appears that it is much too small in relation to the task it faces. INDRHI possesses a soils sectiGil to appraise the irrigation ca pability of lands within potential reach of its irrigation canals. FORESTA is concerned with soil conservation through some reforestation programs and has the l"esponsibility to reduce soil erosion in the Tavera watershed. The latter task, which should have been done prior to construction, is now being pur sued with same vigor; however, the results so far are very unsa tisfadory. The Departamento de Inventarios, Evaluacion y Ordenamiento de Recursos Naturales uses soils information as one of the basic fadors to determine the Resources Planning Units (SIEDRA proj ed). They use existing soils information and that provided through landSat imagery. There appears to ex;st some rivalry betweeil departments and an occasional duplication of effort. The major deficiency seems to be the size of the DT A in reiation to its tab!
PAGE 62

Table VI-So Commentary on major Resource Production Units (RPU); from SIEDRA 1977. Agricultural Umltlng RPUN Remarks Potential Factors Highly Productive Moderately High 60% Clayey, 20% Slope, Shallo.v 2 Forest None None 3 Pasture LowlSubsistence None 4 Generally Productive: Moderately Hig.' Clayey; Flooding Rice, Coconuts, Pasture 5 Unproductive Very Lo"" Rock; Slopes; Shallow 6 Gllod for Lotton Moderately High Clay; Slope, Shallow 7 Sugarcane; Pasture Moderate to Wet; Acid; Slope Moderately High 8 Sugarcane; Rice; Moderately High to Wet; Some Sandy Coconuts; Cocoa High and Unsuited 9 Valueless Very Low NonE' 10 limited Potential Unsuited Wet; Acid II Sugarcane Now, but Moderate SlopE'; Shilliow Better for Pasture 12 Sugar, Pasture; Steep Moderately High Clay; Shallow; Slope Farming by Slope Poor 13 Suited for Perennials Low Slope; Shallow 14 Best for Watershed Very Low Slope; Shallow IS Floods Moderately High Flooding to High 16 Periodic Floodbg Moderately High Wet; Saline to Moderate 17 Most Pr.:xluctive in High Clay Dominican Republic 18 Present Use Optimum Moderate to High Wet; Slope; Shallow 19 Sugar (rain) but Best Moderately High Wet; Slope; for Pasture &
PAGE 63

Tabh: VI-6. Estimated area (km2 ) of Resource Production Units by region; from SIEDRA, 1977. Region 1 2 3 4 5 1. North 4,283 212 2. Northeast 730 589 3. Northwest 867 4. Central 337 2,740 5. Southwest 3,236 6. South 1,189 7. East 525 1,269 438 174 1,715 National Total 862 14,314 438 975 1,715 14 15 16 17 18 I. North 1,359 253 580 27 2. Northeast 561 351 494 422 285 3. Northwest 756 .:. Central 99 5. Southwest 419 6. South 1,389 191 7. E..si National Total 3,728 3:1 1,793 1,002 312 27 28 29 30 31 I. North 781 2. Northeast 3. Northwest 1,004 4. Central 5. Southwest 198 478 6. South 567 287 1,135 7. East National Total 198 567 287 1,135 2,263 can Republic with the cooperation of the USDA, AID, and Mich igan Slate University since 1976. It is now a permanent compo nent of SURENA in the Departamento de Inventarios. Evaluacion y Ordenamiento de Recursos Naturales, SIEDRA has used CRIES LandSat imagry. aerial photographs and relcvant information on soils, climate. ecological life zones. major land use. crops. agricultural production. techniques. crop yields. production inputs and cost:. and social institutional factors to define 4S Resource Production Units (RPU) for the Dominican Republic (Table VI-S). Table VI-6 indicates the regional distribu tion of RPU's for the whole country. There is no specific foreign assistance program directed solely to soils. IlCA is a fairly small hemispheric institution that includes one soil scientist, who has been very effective in assisting the DT A in technical matters and policy concepts. AID has supported a variety of programs in the soils and na tural resources fields. including assistance to the Soils Department of SEA at San Cristobal. Furthemore. AID has assisted with money and technical advice to the SIEDRA and CRIES programs. The Inter-American Development Bank (lDB). besides financing the construction of irrigation works and other infrastructure de velopments. is presently financing a consortium of Canadian (SNC-Montreal) and national consultants to conduct the SabanaYegua Influences Project. This wCik is done in cooperation with INDRHI alld has a distinct soils component. The World Bank plans to finance a sugar rehabilitation rro)e,t that includes components in soil survey. land suitability and aerial photography. The World Bank with UNDP has also fi nanced studies of the development possibilities of the Yaque del Sur and Yaque del Norte Rivers. which contain extensive soil studies. 54 6 22 104 19 145 19 69 183 252 32 693 655 806 347 2,501 RPUN 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 213 633 223 917 93 1,171 567 358 28 22 131 237 98 271 1.407 1,432 1.408 98 1,471 338 1,896 1,460 1,130 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 227 27 55 3201 28 285 290 8 543 1,254 U88 125 35 379 255 285 415 43 2,985 27 33 34 35 36 37 Water Reg. n' 410 9,065 5,329 72.' 633 36 4,769 6,983 340 342 430 335 6,885 7,745 340 342 1,155 633 446 335 48,279 Principal Problems and NeedB Erosion Even the casual visilor would notice that accelerated soil ero sion is occurring in the Dominican Republic (Fig. VI-I). Small mountain streams are brown with sediments; actively cutting gul lies are characteristic of fields and road-sides. Erosion caused by water has these effects: I) reduccs agricul tural productivity of the fields affected; 2} forms gullies that de stroy fields and change the landscape; 3) produces sediment loads in streams and rivers that fill reservoirs. clog irrigation canals and ruin turbines in power plants. In areas bare of protective plant cover. eroding water will run off faster rather than infiltrate into soil with the consequence that less water will be available for the aquifer recharge as well as plant grGwth. streams will carry more water during periods of precipitation and less during dry periods. and the more concentrated runoff will be more destructive on soils. river channels. and infrastructure and C.1J'ry heavier sedi ment loads over longer distances. In the conuco type of agriculture practiced in the Dominican Republic. the small farmer plants beans as his major food crop. and then switches after 2 or 3 years to a new area. because the original field has become exhausted. While the crop will have used some of the nutrient capital accumulated under forest pro tection. a much stronger reason for abandonment is insidious sheet erosion which the farmer may barely realize. As the soils are shallow in the first place. the thin topsoil may have been washed away even if no gullies are visible. In many fields inci pient gullies are visible after a few years of use; guliies may ap pear after one heavy downpour it conditions are right.

PAGE 64

Figure VI-Ia. Erosion is convtrling Iht Cordill:ra Cmlral from rmtwablt 10 nonrtntlmblt lralural rtSoums. lands:iJtS [rom slup, dlfortSltd slopts fill Iht Ilarrow va!lty floor wilh sldimmls t'upptr Itfl 11.,d lowtr (tllltr). 17lt laryt, dark sploleh (/vu>tr Itft) W,IS mr'llly bunwl. (Pholo, Ilalo R.\so.) The amount of erosion is a function of several factors such as amount and intensity of rain, percent of slope and its length, cer tain inhelent soil characteristics like the type and amount of clay, and vegetative cover. While each crop has its specific erosion or soil protecting factor, land mangement practices also influence susceptibility to erosion. The main problem lands as far as erosion is concerned are those with rather low agricultural potential. Under standard clas sification systms, these lands have been generally classified as "unsuitable for agriculture, should be under forest cover." A few exceptional zones might be adapted for perennial crops. Steep, forested hillsides in the Dominican Republic show occa sional landslides (see Fig. II-3 and V -8\ One can see the effect on such lands when the forest is removed and people try to raise crops on them. Unfortunately a visual reconnaissance shows that only small areas, and some have been declared National Parks, are still under forest. In many other areas farming is attempted up to the mOimtain top (Fig. VI-2), with the result of erosion dis cussed elsewhere. The end result is that many of these lands are totally stripped of any soil they may have had, and expose the base parent material. producing an almost moon-like landscape, empty of people (Fig. VI-3). C{ course not all the damage was done by the small farmer. Some of the bare lower hillsides of toFIgure VI-I b. Compltlt dtfortslalion in Iht Rio lAs Cuwas waltrshtd Itfl Iht soils unproltcltd from Iht heavy rains of Iht 1979 hurrieants. (Pholo, /talo Ru>IO.) Figure VI-2a. Dmudtd landscapt in Iht Rio lAs Cz;was waftrs/ltd. Wllai apptar as fortSls (righl (tnltr) art s/radtd eoffu planlations. (Hand-htld IItrial pholo, Gary Harls/lOm.) day were deforested and simply abandoned. Once the soil is gone, attempts to reestablish protective vegetative cover will I;e slow and costly. Standard rules of soil conservation practices dictate that very steep lands should be under permanent forest cover, and lands less steep under permanent pasture. Unfortunately, in the Do minican Republic one cannot apply these rules as population pres sure has led farmers to cultivate ever-steeper slopes for subsis tence food crops. It is not politically feasible to move these farmers out of these lands as there are no suitable reserves where they could be set tled. Thus the only alternative is to find a system which will re duce the damage to the minimum possible, and permit the farm families to live, preferably on a higher standard than at the pres ent. The Dominican Republic reportedly has a population of 5.6 million today with a population growth rate of 2.6 to 3.0% per year. Predictions are for 10 million inhabitants by the year 2000. There are efforts to reduce the rate of popui
PAGE 65

"Conuco" farming on many of the steep lands involves the growing of a food crop, like beans, for 2-3 years on newly cleared land. When yields go down, the land is shifted to a low grade pasture which later is planted to fruit trees on an extensive basis. Food crop cultivation as now practiced, as well as pascure, produce a high amount of erosion. As it is impossib!e t.) return the lands to their original state or reforest all the steep lands occupied by small farmers growing food crops, the only a1terntive is to minimize erosion. This would involve improving small farm agriculture through stanJard soil conserving measures like contC'ur planting, terr",ces, grassed waterways, gully repair, etc. Improved farming systems should involve the use of fruit and forest trees, close-growing soil conserving crops and improved deep rooting forage plants. The farming system has to fulfill these tasks: feed :he farmer; provide an adequate income for him; be acceptable to the small farmer; i.e. he must be able to manage it with a minimum of technical assistance; and conserve the soil. Some imaginative beginnings have been made in the Domini can Republic in this respect through the "Plan Sierra" and the "Project Bao" of the Departamento de Tierras y Aguas. How ever, it appears that more research and planning is needed. "Plan Sierra" and other projects, if successful with their changeover from annual food crops like bp.ans to perennial crops like coffee, may well improve the lot of these farlners through higher in come. At the same time it would likely produce a shortage of beans, the main food staple. Also, while coffee may work well in some places, it may not be suitable for some other climatic or soil conditions, especially if erosion has progressed too far. Re search on suitable pasture grasses seems indicated. It does not seem reasonable for "Plan Sierra" to declare a failure so early on its efforts to improve pastures in the area. There are thousands of pasture grasses and fodder plants world-wide, some of which are excellent soil conserving crops. SOITIP of these should be suited for the Dominican Republic's reclamation areas. However, more effort is needed to introduce and test them under different soil slope conditions, as well as climatic regimes. No data were collected on land tenancy and ownership. How ever, one cOr.1plaint of soil conservation technicians was that they might obtain a tenant farmer's cooperation to establish soil conservation practices on a certain farm this year, but the succes sive tenant might not cooperate. It is obvious that owner-operated farms, regardless of their size, use the most de sirable conservation techniques for many reasons, and greatly help any soil conservation efforts. The dam sites and reservoirs of Las Cuevas, Nizao, Ocoa, Ta vera, Bao, Buayubin, Chacuey and Maguaca represent an invest ment of at least $500 million, just for the hydroelectric and irri gation infrastructure. There are many additional costs such as ac cess roads, additional canals, power lines, and the loss of possible farmlands and communities flooded by the reservoir. Such an investment has to be protected if it is to help national development. Nevertheless, data calculated for these watersheds indicate that accelerated erosion is dumping millions of tons of sediments into reseiVoirs. Based f)n the "Universal Soil Loss Eqt.ation" it has been estimated that the soil loss above the pre viously listed reservoirs ranges from 95 tons/ha/yr in the Chacuey re'Jcrvoir to 507 tons/ha/yr in the Ocoa watershed. Al most all of this will end up in the reservoir, which after a num ber of years will store sediments instead of water. Table V1-7 gives the soil losses in 7 watersheds. An example: The Tavera reservoir receives about 275 tons/hal yr from its, 7,370 ha watershed. This reservoir is new, and repre sents an investment of $141 million. It has been stated that its 50 year lifetime (used in cost/benefit analyses) has been reduced by the avalanche of sediments to less than half this time. A visual inspection of the reservoir reveals the heavy sediment load en58 Figure VI-3a. MlIssive slllly 1111.1 rill nosioll ill degTII.:/ed "'/,h'o"iwl dry foml in Ilu Rio Oeoa wlllmhed callsed by Ihe 19791ll1rricanes. (PI;o.", 1111/" RII,'So') tering it, even on days without rain. Ag;icdture, including clean cultivation, has been practiced and still is being pradiced to the waterline, although a 5 m strip just above the expected water level is being reforested. FORESTA, in charge of soil conserva tion in this watershed, belatedly launched a major effort in tree plantings, terracing, vegetative strips and other soil cunservation measures. Their effort is handicapped, as farmer cooperation is strictly voluntary. Furthermore, the land tenancy situation is such that much land is not owner-operated, but cultivated by tenants. Changes are frequent-while this year's tenant may cooperate, next year's may refuse to do so, nullifying past efforts on a par cel of land. The situation has been aggravated by highways built around reservoirs. In many pia::es water collecting on or along the high way is passed underneath thp highway through a culvert. The water !s permitted to descenJ fn;rn the culvert on its own, thus producing a solid stream of water Juring lainy periods. As a re sult many newly formed gullies can be observed producing tre mendous amounts of sediments, ruining tne mountainside, and which in time, if not controlled will cut the highway by advanc ing right throught it. In the entire Tavera reservoir area, only one waterway was observed carrying the water down in steps to levelland, thus dissipating its energy and preventing erosion. One other factor aggravating erosion into the Tavera reservoir is that farmers who were located on land flooded by the reserp I Figure VI-3b. Siup slopes slripped of soil by Ihe 1979 hllrricanes. 11lis is sllbh'opical lower ilion 111m moisl wilh sparse pim foml 011 shallow soils ill Ille upper Rio lAs GUVilS walmhed. (Hand-held II(ri'll plwlo. Glrlo, Quesw/II,)

PAGE 66

Table V1-7. SoU loss by watershed: Adapted from AID Project 517-012lt. Watershed '..3 Cuevas Tavera Bao Nizao Dcoa Guayubin Chacuey Area(ha) 5,690 7,370 9,330 9,920 5,630 7.340 3,860 Erosion (tonslhalyr) 275 275 346 125 507 111 95 Surface Layer Erosion (cmlyr) 1.8 1.8 2.3 0.8 3.4 0.7 0.6 voir, were relocated on the higher lands above the reservoir. While this decision is understandable in view of the population pressure in general, the difficulty of finding new land, and the reluctance to move people far away form their former houses, it certainly has helped to increase the sediment load arriving in the reservoir. Former settlers of the reservoir area complain that the new land supplied is very inferior to their old farml":ld. \ Vind erosion is a problem in some dune areas and along some beaches on the north coast. While some wind erosion may also take placp on denuded fields in the mountains, the damage caused by this type of erosion is insignificant when compared to water erosion. Land capablllty N" comprehensive appraisal of the natural resources of the country was attempted prior to the OAS study in 1965-196/ Some of the pre-investment studies in the OAS report have been followed up. However, it seems that the data presented in the land capability classification did not impress any decision making authorities. According to the OAS study (Table VI-B) only 53,700 ha or 1.1 % of the national territory is excellent agricultural land. This land is in a strip east of Santiago to San Francisco de Macoris. Other good agricultural land (Classes II and III) covers 547,000 ha or 11.5% of national territory. The Class II lands are mostly allu vial lands along rivers. While of good quality for crop produc tion, some of the Class II land is exposed to flooding. Class III land occupies large areas in the eastern region in topographically higher and less level positions than Class II land. Much r' the sugarcane is apparently on Class III lands. Class IV lands occupy 363,900 ha, covering 7.7% of the na tional territory, mostly along the Caribbean coast from about VI-B. land capability classification. Source: National Statistics Office and OAS Survey of th.e Natural Resources of the Dominican RepubUc (taken from W. B. Report No. 1105-00, 1977). aass Km% % Production Capacity I 53i' 1.1 Excellent for cultivation II 2,350 4.9 Very good for cultivation III 3,122 6.6 Good for cultivation IV 3,639 7.7 Limited or marginal for cultivation V 6.071 12.7 Pasture; no erosion hazard VI 5,611 11.8 Pasture; erosion hazard VII 25,161 52.7 Forest VIII 1,202 2.5 Wildlands Total a 47,693 100.0 aDoes nol include 588 1on2 in islands. lakes and olher undassified areas. Punta Catalina through the area in and around Domingo to Rio Chavon. There are also large pieces of Class IV land south of the Class I, II, and III land in the north and along Lake Enri quillo and scattered patches throughout the mountains. This class includes soils with fref! salts in the profile in the western part of the Cibao valley and around Lake Enriquillo. These soils are all marginal for crop production, i.e. they will not produce good yields, or only certain crops can be grown, or they require very special and skilled management. Depending on slope, they could be highly erosive or quite shallow. Lands in Classes V and VI, or slightly less than one million hectares covering aJ.most a quarter of the national territory, have been classified as grazing lands, almost half of them (Class VI) with a definite erosion hazard. Most of the Class V lands are in a fairly solid block in San Cristobal Province, and portions of EI Seibo and A1tagracia Provinces. Class VII lands, only suitable for forests and forest exploitation, include practically all the mountainous areas of the country, as well as limestone areas around Barahona and south of Higuey, and the karst area of Los Haitises. Many of these mountain areas are densely populated, and little forest is left. There is some Class VIII land, mostly in the high mountains, covering 120,200 ha or 2.5% of the country's territory. These have been classified as wildland, i.e. they should be left un touched. It should be noted the SIEDRA project provides data on the potential land use on a more dE-ailed base, i.e. done to the vari ous Resource Planning Urits (RPU). However, they have only published data for some regions, though the rest of the data is forthcoming. As their soils data are essentially the same as those of the OAS study, it will not change the overall picture. Summary data available from the SIEDRA project are shown in Table VI-9 which summarizes these data by regions, indicating total land, low quality lands and land unsuitable for agriculture, land of moderate or high quality, land in farms, and land in farms as a percentage of high or moderate quality land. Table V1-9 indicates that the northwest, southwest and south are re gions with a potential for expansion ir. agriculture, while the other regions are largely marginal and sub-marginal lands that probably should be taken out of production and placed under a permanent tree cover. Land Rehabllltatlon Many eroded can be restored to productivity, but it is a costly and slow process. Where only the topsoil has been eroded from a moderately deep profile, it is often possible to plant green manure crops, fertilize the crop, then burn it all into the soil to produce a new surface layer with organic material. im proved physical condition and nutrients in more accessible and longer lasting form. This may be possible with many of the soils used for "conuco" agriculture. Small gullies can be stabilized by establishing protective vegetation with well-developed root sys tems. A more serious problem is the denuded mountainsides in many parts of the country. Unfortunately these were observed only from the air. The appearance of only a slight coloration of green even in the rainy season, and the absence of signs of life, suggest that bare bedrock is exposed. The soil-forming process continues even over bedrock. The balance between soil forma tion and erosion is generally disrupted by human activity. Salinity Salinity destroys soil for agricultural use. The sources of saline soils are either salts located in the soil profile, or irrigation water with a high salt content. The main areas where salinity problems have been observed are the rice growing area and the sugarcane estate of CEA Ingenio Esperanza in the northwest and Igenio Barahona in the southwest. It its also known that the area west 57

PAGE 67

Table VI-9. AgricuIturalland and its potential by regions in the Dominican Republic; base data recalculated from SIEDRA (1977). Lands of Lands of low moderate qLlalityor or high Total Land unsuited to agricultural land In farms agriculture a potential b No. Region km2 km2 km2 km2 I North 9,065 6.049 5,855 3,210 II Northeast 5,329 4,796 3,064 2,265 III Northwest 4,769 1,952 960 3,809 IV Central 6,983 5,127 3,963 3,020 V Southwest 7,503 2,031 3,853 3,650 VI South 6,885 1,321 4,488 2,397 VII East 7,745 6,176 5,260 2,485 Total 48,279 27,452 27,443 20,836 a!ncludes RPU's 2,3,5,9, 10, 13, 14,23,24,27,29,30,38. brncludes all other RPU's. of Ingenio Barahona, i.e, the area between Sierra de Neiba and Sierra Baoruca, which includes the depression around Lake Enri quillo, has some saline soils. In the case of the Ingenio Barahona about 2,000 ha out of 11,500 ha had to be taken out of produdion because of high salinity. It is that 70% of thl: plantation's sugarcane area is affected by salinity. Produdion on remaining lands has decreased from 130-140 tons/ha a few years ago to about 95 tons/ha. The only other irrigated sugarcane estate is Ingenio Esperanza in the Cibao valley, It is about 2,200 ha in size, and does have minor salinity problems, but all areas planted to sugar cane continue in produdion. The study done by in the Cibao region sho ... != that many of the soils contain free salts somewhere in the tJrofile. If these soils are improperly irrigated, evaporation will bring these salts into the root zone and reduce yields at first. and, if the accumu lation is sufficient. will prevent plant growth. It should be noted that one of the principal causes of bringing salinity to the surface, i.e. into the root zones of crops, is poor water rr,.:ngement. In many soils where salinity exists below the root zone, overirrigating will dissolve the salts and move them upward. Overirrigation also raises the water table and therefore affeds roar growth, Education for improved tedinical manage ment of irrigation will help; also water users fees based lm quan tity will reduce tht: temptation to use excess water. Conclusions and Recommr.ndations 1) The GODR should delay any additional projeds that involve the construdion of reservoirs, and concentrate its efforts on pro teding and operating those already in existence, regardless of ilt tradiveness of the projed under consideration and easy terms of fered by international financing organizations. 2) The GODR should instrud its highway department to form a commission consisting of engineers and soil conservation special ists to review all recent highway construdion to determine where highways cause erosion problems, as is definitely the case around the Tavera reservoir. 3) The GODR should present to the legislative branch a draft law which permits the formation of soil conservation-irrigation distrids. Some of the principal requirements contained in this law should be provisions which require farmers to cooperate with the soil conserving efforts of the government. Perhaps it should con tain a graduated level tax, which may be nil for farmers condud ing good soil conservation pradices, but take the form af a fine for non-cooperative farmers. Furthermore, the law should pro vide a basis for collecti'1i; from irrigation water users on the basis of quantity used. 4) The GODR should initiate a country-wide research program through the research facilities of SEA and in close cooperation with "Plan Sierra" to determine farming systems that will permit farmers nn steep lands to survive, and if possible, to improve their living, and at the same time minimize soil erosion. 5) The GODR should con dud a parallel research program to in troduce grasses or forage plants that have a soil conserving effed and will produce under the different soil-slope and climatic con ditions of the DR. 6) The GODR should strengthen the DT A and give its program the highest priority as it is an investment in the future prosperity and stability of this country. Ii In the sam!; vein as above, the GODR should consider, if other areas would suitable to launch a program similar to "Plan Sierra". B) Tht:: GODR should continue and amplify its efforts to deter mine wilat to do with lands having soils with free salts in their profile to reclaim those p:eviously produdive soils. 9) The COOR. through the DT A and possibly other agencies, should s,et up ci compreher.sive system of monitoring stations to determine the exteni u[ the country's soil losses, the sediments in its water courses and the effediveness of its soil conservation measures, 10) The GODR, possibly with assistance of outside agencies, should st:rt a program of soil rehabilitation (which goes beyond soil COl'fvation) in areas completely ruined for agriculture and forest!"

PAGE 68

VII Coastal and Near-shore Marine Characteristics The Dominican Republic is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the south and separated from Puerto Rico by the Mona Passage to the east. The insular shield area of 8,130 kml is characterized by its narrow width, averag ing only 7.5 km (Guidicelli 1979). Over one half of the total shelf area is concentrated in five areas, Banco Monte Cristi, Bahia de Samana, Cabo Engano, San Pedro de M3roris and the Bani Barahona region (Fig. VII-l). The submerged banks Navidad and Plata are 70 km north and !50 km northwest, respectively, of Cabo Sam ana. The current regime is dominated by the western flowing North Equatorial Current that divides at the Mona Passage into northern and southern components. Despite this permanent oceanic feature, near-shore countercurrents, primarily tidal in nature, are common. The Mona Passage, a heavy ship traffic lane, is known for its strong currents, occasionally exceeding 3 knots/hr (Van Ost and Kline 1978). The tide on the northern coast is semidiurnal with a mean spring tide range of 90 em. On the south coast a semidurnal tide predominates with a reduced tidal range of only 30 em (de La Fuente 1976). The Dominican coastal zone is characterized by reef escarp ments, beaches and wetlands often with associated lago.:lOs. (Fig. VII-2 and 3a). In the northwest trom Pepillo-Salcedo to Puerto Plata extensive wetlands .md mangroves associated with the Rio Yaque del Norte continue to Luperon where a transition begins to a zone more characterized by beaches and rocky headlands. Offshore a major reef system extends from Monte Cristi to Pun ta de Buren. From Puerto Plata to Samana the coastlir.e :onsists of sand beaches alternating with rocky escarpments. There are few ex tensive coral systems or wetlands with the exceptiol1 of Cabareto and Rio Baqui. Coastal coconut plantations are found near Matancita, Las Terrenas ilfId Sanchez-Samana. To the the most extensive beach system occurs from to Cabo Engano. This beach system is borden,d by coast al wetlands and coconut plantations near Los Ranchitos. To the south of Cabo Engano there is a coastal reef escarpment only oc casionally broken by sandy beaches. In the southeast from Isla Saona to San Pedro de Maroris the coast is low and flat with extensive escarpments and occasional sand beachf!:, the latter usually in proximity to rivers. A major wetland system is found on the south insular tip in Bahia Catalinita. From San Pedro to the Bahia de Neiba the coast is relatively featureless with escarpments dominating, but with increasing oc currence of sand beaches to (he west. To the south and west the coast becomes increasingly diverse with alternating escarpments, sandy and rocky beaches and an extensive wetlands and mangrove system south of Punta Regalada to Punta Inglesa and north of Punta Bucan Base to Laguan de Manuel Matos. Based on available information a macroscopic coastal inventory of critical areas is provided in Table Vll-l. Mangrove systems are widely recognized as one of the most productive tropical ecosys tems. They function as a major of nutrients to surround ing nutrient-depleted waters, provide habitat for a diverse assem blage of animals and birds, act as sediment traps protecting deli cate offshore ecosystems such as coral communities and provide nursery grounds for many marine species. To humans their value is often as storm barrier systems and critical habitats for consum able fish and shellfish. In the Dominican Republic mangroves have been used extensively for tannin, charcoal, posts and con struction materials (Alvarez and Bonnelly 1978). In Puerto Viejo and the nearby coastal islands an estimated 50% of the man groves were destroyed in the period 1919-1962 (Alvarez and Bonnelly 1978). In the Dominican Republic, mangroves are essential to several fisheries: as habitat for the mangrove oyster Crassoslrta rhizophorat; as nursery grounds for many species of coral-associated fish, the major fishery in the country; and for shrimp in the Bahia de Samana. At the of Samana Bay, the largest mangrove forest in the ccuntry may be threatened by encroachint; rice cultiva tion. The numerous brackish and freshwater lagoon systems throughout the country a major coastal resource thus far underutilized. Protected by .:oastal barriers, these lagoon sys tems are natural and accessible sources of fish. Major quantities of fish inhabit Lagunas Rincon and Redonda. In addition, the po tential exists for utilizing lagoons for aquaculture, Arftmia produc tion, salt production, recreation and possibly even solar energy production. Due to a very slow rate of water turnover, lagoons are very to contaminant build-up. Coral reefs have been compared with mangroves as represent ;ng the most diverse and productive of marine ecosystems. As such they fulfill many of the functions of mangrove systems, in cluding provision of habitat, a nutrient source, oFfshore beach protection and as a tourist attraction. Though the reefs arc not as S9

PAGE 69

A TLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA ..... ...... . . Living Resource Inventory Map Fishery Sector Major fishing grounds (Giudicelli. 1979) Penaeid shrimp (INOOTEC. pcrs. comm.) Conch grounds (Slrombus gigas) (INOOTEC. pers. comm.) Major lobster grounds (Panulirus argus) (NMES. 1977) IDECOOP/BIA -Coop locations Major fishing pons (ORA/SEA 1979) Major spurt fishing ports Areas of high potential utilization (INOOTEC. pers. comm.) High fish production lagoon systems

PAGE 70

= ... o A TLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA \ \ Marine Endangered Species/Clitical Habitat Sea tunle nesting beaches Dermochelys (Onenwalder. pers. comm.) Eretmochelys Chelonia Carena only kuown locality Manati sightings Humpb3ck whale mating and calving grounds (On en walder. pers. comm.) Vital Areas High production areas Mangroves (Onenwalder. pers. comm.) Lagoon systems (Joint Operations Map. 1970) Coral reefs (Geraldes. pers. comm.) Grass beds (Conservacion y Ecodosarallo. 1978) Island systems (overflights. 1980) and feeding stations

PAGE 71

A TLANTIC OCEAN CARIBBEAN SEA Non-Living Resource Inventory Map Mining (near coasl deposils) (Source: Direccion de Mineria) Sand/gra\el ex:raclion l\1agnetite deposits Slale owned concessions \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Reque.l pending for exploralion for sand/gra.el " " Sail eXlraclion Ports (principal) Internalional pons .& Cabolage pon, Tourisl ports Tourism De\elopmenl (Source: Secrelatia de TCu"imo) FUlure development AClively developing Wind rose approximaled from Fuentes (1976) for lhe years 1951-1%8_ High Risk Zone for Oil Tankers (Sour.:e: Slalu, of Oil POllulic" 1979) 1\ 1 \ I \ Curacao. Aruba. Venezuela N

PAGE 72

Figure VlI-2a. umrslollr cliff. Los Hlli/isrs. (Pholo. Johll Sham.) well developed as in the smaller islands in the Antillean chain. the numerous patch reefs found throughout the waters o( the Dominican Republic represent habitats for the major fishery as well ,)S prized resources (or tourism development. Until recently, corals lNere harvested for both local salp as souvenirs and for ex port. Harvesting of coral a license from the DRP (Law 1728, 1976). In 1975 an estiMated 6,626 kg of corals were ex ported between January ilnd October (Geraldes and Bonnelly 1978). There were no exports of coral in 1979. though illegally harvested corals are still sold in local markets. C0ral reefs are highly susceptible to sedimentation, high levels of turbidity and toxic substances. hence protection of coral reefs should be a ma jor collsideration in any tourist development. Grass beds in tropical waters signify the greatest concentrated source of primary proJuctivity. As such they provide a (ood source f Jr numerous animab. a nutrient source to surrounding waters, a source of oxygen and a means to stabilize the bottom substrate. Their distribution is very roorly known in tl-te cour.try despite their importance in providing habitat to the edible conch 51rombll5 Sigll5. Grass beds also are highly sensitive to turbiciity and sedil1'''ntation. Islands i..re few but significant in the DOl'!linican RejJublic. As a result of their insular nature they represent unique that must be carefully managed to protect them from degrada tion. In light of their pristine character, limited carr;ing capacity and lack of understanding of these areas, they shoulci be careful ly studied before any utilization is initiated. Figure VU-2b. Coral rock coasl on norlh shorr of Isla S'lOna. Parqllt NaciolJIII del SIt. (Pholo. John Shorts). Critical habitat for end :ngered species will be covered in a separate section. Existing or Potential Problems anc;lor Needs: Absence of a comprehensive coastal a'ld near-shore marine resource inventory data base; absence of a scientific data base to facilitate the under standing of separate ecosystems and the linkages between these systems; and enforcement of existing legislation to protect critical resource areas such as coral reefs and mangroves. Marine Fisheries In contrast to highly productive northern temperate fisheries, tropical and subtropical fish resources generally are considered low in productivity. Low productivity of the waters combined with a narrow continental shelf and the lack of a true fishing tra dition explain the necessity for the Dominican Republic to im port approximately 60% of the fish consumed. The major fishing zones are associated with the wider shelf areas and submerged banks including Banco Monte Cristi (892 km2), Bahia de Samana (858 krnZ), Cabo Engano (772 krnz), San Pedro de Macoris (463 kmz), Bani-Barahona (858 kml), Banco Navidad (772 kmZ ) and Banco Plata (1,955 kmz). -: ..: Figure VlI-la. Whilt sand btach and coconul palms, Parqlot Nada/wl del SIr. (Ph%, John Shorts.) Datil on landings are estimates at best, but production over the past five years appears to be near 7,000 m tons/year. Though specific fish identification data are not collected, landings appear to be dominated by demersal species. Landings of pelagic species were estimatcd to be only 16% of total landings over the same period of time (INDOTEC pel'. comm.). In addition to the finfish resource there are valuable shellfish resources, including the spiny lobster Panulirus argus, several species of shrimp--the most important being PCllatlls S(llIlIilli, and the Indian fighting conch. 5lrombus gigas. The major lobster fishing grounds are the west and south coast of Isla Saona and areas adjacent to Salinas, Cauo Rojo and Samana (NMFS 1977). The penaeid shrimp fishery is concen trated in the Bahia de Samana and extends to the elstern bank. Major collecting grounds for conch include the northern offshore banks and areas adjacent to Isla Beata (INDOTEC pers. comm.). The fishing effort in the Dominican Republic is at an artisanal level. Giudicelli (1979) estimated there were 1,826 professional and 1,648 part-time fishermen in 1978. The fishing fleet is esti mated to be 1,400, dominated by dugout-canoes-"cayucos" (420) measuring 3-5 meters in Il'lglh and "yo las" (830) between 4-6 meters in length. The majority of boats larger than the "yola" 83

PAGE 73

Table VII-1 Macroscopic coastal classification of critical areas. Sources: Joint Operations Map (1970), Geraldes (pers. comm.), Honnelly (1978). Geographical Mangroves and Lasoon Area AssoM.a!ed System Wetlands North West Pcpillo-Salcedo-Pepillo-Salcedo Laguna la Salina Puerto Plata Bah.'a de Icaquitos Laguan de Marigo Laguna de la Piedra Laguna Corto Pies North Central Puerto PlataArroyo Honda Laguan Cabarete Samana f{io Yuna-Rio Barracote Bahia de Silll Lorenzo Bahia de La Jina North East Samana-Isla Laguna Redonda Laguna Redonda Saona Laguna de Limon Laguna del Limon Cienaga La Majaqua Laguna Bavuro Punte Macao-Cabo Engano South East Isla Saona-S.P. Las Calderas Laguna Secucho de Macorls Rio Soco Rio Higuamo Rio Ocoa South Central S.P. de Macrols-Punta Palenque Bahia de Neiba Puerto Viejo South West Bahia de Neiba-Rio Yaque del Sur Laguna Oviedo Pedernales Punta San LUIS Laguna Salda Punta Bucan Base-Laguna Manuel Matos Laguna Manuel Matos are located in the north and fl ,h the offshore banks. Approxi mately half of the 1,400 boats are The predominant fishing gear used are pots and handlines (Wr ..:AF 1978). Based on DRP/SEA (19/9) statistics, Table VII-2 shows the most important ports in number of fishermen and Table VII-3 gives regions in percentage of total nutionallandings. The Dominican Republir. fishery sector relies heavily on fish imports mostly in the form salted fish from Norway (Table VII4). The 1989 estimated deficit in the balance of payments in fish production based on import-export figures was calculated to be approximately RD$19 miIJ:on. Based on an estimate of 7,000 M tons local production (which includes exports) and total con sumption of about 21,000 M tons, about 70% of marine fish pro ducts consumed in the country is imported. Preliminary results from a recently completed survey of the country's fishing potential. funded by Bid, estimate that the in sular platform and submerged of the Dominican Rea'ublic could suppon on a sustained basis a production level of 80Cl kglkm'/year. By multiplying this value by the area of platform and banks considered accessible (85%), INOOTEC calculated a total potential production of 10,454 M tons. This level of pro duction would more than meet the present national demand. The areas capable of supporting the increase in fishing effort are Monte Cristi, Zona del Este, offshore banks, and the east ern shelf area of the Bahia de Samana. 84 Grass Coral Islands Beds Reefs Bahia de Monte Extensive from Siete Hermanos G-isti Monte CristiPunta de Buren, Bahia de Icaquilos Cabo Isabel a, Puerto Plata Scattered Patch Reefs Scattered Patch Bahia Catalinila Scattered Patch Isla Saona Reefs Isla Catalina Bahia Las Calderas Scattered Patch Bahia Este de Ocoa Reefs Puerto Vitjo Bahia de Andres Bahia de Ocoa Developed system Near Barahona Isla Beata Scattered Patch Isla Alto Velo Reds Primary administrative responsibility in fisheries lies in the Fishery Resource Department in the Agriculture Secretariat. The Department's primary mandate as outlined in Law 5914 (1962), is to protect and regulate all marine and freshwater fish stocks. Table VII-2. Important ports and number of fishermen. Source: DRP 1979. Port Ucensed Fishermen Santo Domingo 514 Puerto Plata 407 Sanchez 391 La Romana 371 Bani 298 Barahona 273 Sam ana 264 Azua 243 Pal mar de Ocoa 198 Manzanillo 157 3,116 (71%) Others 1,273 TOTAL 4,389

PAGE 74

Table VII-3. Major regional ports based on landings. Source: DRP1979. Region A1tagracia Santo Domingo Puerto Plata Sam ana Pedernales National Total % Landings 14 12 12 10 8 56 Registration of fishermen is required. The only landings data ing collected are estimated I:otal volume; thus no figures to determine the of thf! resource. Despite the existence of numerous laws regulating the capture of living marine resources such as turtle, lobster, and ,:rab, there appears to be wid<;spread abuse of legislation. Activities in the markulture field have been insignificant. A large facility near Boca Chica went bankrupt in an attempt to culture pompano, TrachinaJus carolinus. Juvenile marine eels, Anguilla sp., are being captured near Puerto Plata, raised in Dajabon, and exported to Japan by a small Japanese firm. There has been interest expressed in the potential for mariculture of the indige nous rr.angrove oyster, Crssoslrw rhizophorat. rxisting or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Inadequate data collection system to assess status of fish stocks; hcldequate en forcement of existing fishery legislation; possible over-fishing of lobster stocks (INDOTIC pers. comm.); possible uneven distri bution of fishing effort on ';amana shrimp stocks (lNDOTEC, pers. comm.). Fresh Water Fis,heries As a result of a government mandate to the former Depart ment of Hunting and Fishing to increase the production of the country's waters (Law 5914, 1962), the major native edible fresh water species have been displaced by introduced species. The dominant fresh-water fish incluc.ed carp (Cyprinus sp.), Tilapia, and to a lesser extent MicropltrU5 sp. Geraldcs tl al. (1\,/9) estimate that during the period 1970-1977 the Fishery Resources Depart ment (DRP) released 456,132 carp, 2 million Tilapia and 200,000 bass fingerlings. The ecological ramifications of this program will be discussed in the section entitled Exotic Species Introduction. In add:tion to the finfishes, frech-water Macrobrachiurn shrimp, including M. carcinU5, and two species of fresh-water turtle, Chrystrnys, are wid'!ly fished. With the exception of fresh-water shrimp, the fish resources are consumed locally. ':ihese resources are distributed throughout the country's rivers and in more than 250 ponds and lagoons. Most important are the Lagunas Rincon, Redonda and Umon (INOOTEC, pers. (omm.)' of which only Redonda i. brackish. Two other high production areas are the enclosed estuary in the Rio Baqui-Boba area and the large Tavera reservoir. Very little documentation is available related to fresh-water fishermen. In the INOOTEC-administered survey three types of fishermen were classified in the Laguan R.:ncon area: professional, artesanal and subsistence, totaling about 300 fishermen. The dom inant boat used is ti'e small dugout or cayuco. The dominant type gear used is the fishing pot, but hook and line and gill nets are also used. Estimated production in the INOOTEC study from freshwater resources was 2,000 m tons/year. One half was harvested from two lagoons (i.e. L. Rincon, 715 m t(.!Os; L. Redonda, 380 m tons). An estimated 100 m tons were harvested from the Baqui-Boba estuary and Tavera reservoir. 1979 production was 80 m tons of fresh-water shrimp and six m tons of turtle (DRP 1979). The number and diversity of fresh and brackish water systems suggest substantial and thus far underutilized resources. This ap pears to have been recogniz/'d as resources are being inventoried in these water bodies by DRP. CIBIMA (Marine Biology Re search Center) and INORHI (Water Resources Institute) have ini tiated a joint project for stocking the 23 reservoirs planned by INOf{HI. Arltrnia production, oyster mariculture and solar radia tion collectors (similar to experimelltal projects in Israel) may be potential resources. The responsibil;', for managing the fresh and brackish water resources as well ciS increasing their production and utilization Table VII-4. Fish imports, exports, value and country of origin or destination; data from CEOOPEX 1980 and Estadistica Dominicana 1979. Product Exports kg ValueRDS Destination kg ValueRDS Origin Fresh fish (chilled/frozen) 329,560 339,559 Puerto Rico 33,103 24,118 Canada Salted fish 28,367 26.032 Puerto Rico 8,736,128 14,585,037 Norway SheWish Turlle (chilled/frozen) 1,554 1,535 Puerto Rico Shrimp (chilled/frozen) 4,277 13,933 Puerto Rico Lobster tails (chilled/frozen) 40,427 151,141 Puerto Rico Conch (chilled/frozen) 138,462 164,306 Puerto Rico Oysters (chilled/frozen) 87 62 Curacao Octopus (chilled/frozen) 24 30 PR, Aruba Makey 2,437 789 U.S.A. Subtotal 187,268 331,796 17,180 23,025 U.S.A. Processed Crab 23,438 55,OBO Puert':' Rico Conch 44,297 46,794 Puerto Rico Lobster 1,188 9,640 Puerto Rico Shrimp 1,007 3,175 Rico Subtotal 69,930 II4,689 Puerto Rico 6,034,569 4,927,452 Japan Total 615,125 812,076 14,820,980 19,559,632 Balance of Payments -18,747,556 85

PAGE 75

also rerts with the Fishery Resources Department (Law 5915, 1962). Major emphasis has been directed toward stocking ponds with fingerlings produced at the Nigua hatchery. Though rro duction figures exist for the respective water bodies, there are no species/time/size data being coUected to calculilte population pa rameters for stock !"llanagemcnt. Aquaculture projects, species introduction and available fresh water resources are interrelated. In 1953, FAD-sponsored pro grams helped develop the government's fish hatchery in Nigua. The first fish species introduced was Tilapia mossambica. Since that time, in accord with DRP's legal mandate, incentives have been provided to both private and public sectors to expalld fish cul ture. The larger aquaculture projects currently being developed or now in production are shown in Table VII-5. Lt addition to these large projects there are an estimated 160 privar" and com mercial ponds in the country (Brullon, pers. comm.). Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: of a clearly defined and coordinated policy in aquaculturp and fish act;vities; absence of data collection sy=!ems to assess current status of stocks; and absence of effort to manage the country's fresh-water fish stocks. Exoti{; Species Introduction The introduction of exotic aquatic species has had a long history in the Dominican Republic. on a brief literature review the known species introduced into the country are listed in Table VII-5. Major aquaculture protects currently being de-veloped or now in in the Domini-can Rl:pubUc (excludes most private and com-mercial ventures). Lead Pond Principal Agency Assistance' Site # Ponds Surface Species DRPISEA IDB Nigua 16 7.6 ha Tilllpill mosslllllbica Taiwan Micropltms salmoidts Israel C)/prilllIS carpio Cltllcplhlrillgodoll idtJla Hiplroilalmic/'Il,)/s molilrir Ariel,lic/'ll,)/s lIobilis Church AID World Peace Service Corps 20 Hha TillIl,i" hybrids CIB/MN INDRHI Engombe 24 1.8 ha Not in INDRHI production INDOTEC Central Sto. T':lIpili Bank Domingo 6 0.1 ha IIIOS sam bica Macrobraci,illln roswbtrgii Save the Church Chilciren World Service Federation for Community Development 3 0.05 ha 'Technical or Financial. 88 T.b:e VIJ-6. Ust of aquatic species introduced into the Dominican Republic, Species Year Introduced Country of Origin Tilapia mossambiCII 1953 Haiti Cypri'IIIS wrpio 1954 Haiti Microplmls ,almoid" 1954 Haiti 1clalllnts pllllelaills 1970 USA Tilt'pia rwdalli 1974 Mexico Geld" oct/III/is 1976 Colombia Tililpill niloli", 1979 Puerto Rico Tilllpia 1:llrt11 1980 Puerto Rilo Citllo"llIlringodoll idtJli/ 1980 Taiwan Hiplroilllimicltt")/s molilrir 1980 Taiwan Arici,lic"ll,)/s lIobilis 1980 Taiwan Mi/Crilbmcltillm rosrnbtrgii 1980 USA Table VII-6. As a result of thest: introductions few if any "natural" fres!l or brackish water environments are lea in the country. Till/pia m,'5sambica is now found in most fresh and brack ish water bodies. l.'ther :;pecies such as carp, Cyprinlls Carpio, and the bass, Microplems ,alnlOides, have been less successful in replac ing native species a:ld remain restricted to a few fresh-water coastal lakes and lagoons (Lovshin 1979;. It is surprising that the carnivorous peacock bass, Chiclr/a oal/aris, was introduced into the country in 1976 after the nega tive results following its introduction into Panama and Nicaragua. In the former country, Zaret and Paine (1973) documented that within 15 yea.!"s local ni',tive pOpu\dtions, including a second in troduced fish, were completely decimated by the e).otic carni vore. In the Dominican Republic the peacock bass was intro duced to control a previously introduced Tilapill sp., but appar ently failed to survive. At present, the greatest concern is the introduction of the fresh-water shrimp Mlicrobmclrilllll rosfllbergii, Berause of the known life cycle of this exotic species it is prefc-red over the culture of indigenous species of Macro/IYachilllll. Potential impact from introduction on native species is not krlOwn or being studied. Importation of exotic species requires a permit from DRr/SEA. Review of the application is internal and does not require any preliminary impact study. Apparently there are no guidelines to minimize problems related to the release of exotic into the envifOnment. Communication and restrictions appear to be lax between customs officials and the ORP in this area. Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Already existing populations have !:>een or will be replaced by introduced species; absence of a joint review process to assess the F.JI.:fications of species introduction by competent personnel from [lublic, private and academic sectors; absence of a requirement for preliminary impact study prior to species introduction; absence of safety re quirements to minimize exotic species escape into the environ ment; absence of monitoring to assess the stability of existing populations and success of intwduced species; and ab sencp of a training program for customs inspectors to become familiar with exotic aquatic species as well i::i the possible envi ronmental ramifications of species introductions. hndangered Species and Critical Habitats Threatened or endangered animal species inhabiting coastal wetlands and marine areas include birds, reptiles, and mar;ne mammals (Table VII-7; also see Table VIII-l\ Many (If the wat.er-

PAGE 76

Table VII-7. Threatened and endangered species in coastal and marine habitats in the Dominican Republic. Species Common Name Habitat Known DIstribution Status Podictps dominicus Least Grebe Lagoons, wetlands, lakes Guerra, Payaguara, Tres Ojos Endangered Dichromanll5sa ru{tsctn5 Reddish Egret Coast, saline lagoons Tortugl'ero, Estero Balsa, Endangered Boca del Yaque del Norte Photllicopltrus rubtr 1 Flamingo Coastal lagoons, lakes, wetlands Isla Saona, Beata, Azua, Threatened Enriquillo /i jaia ajaja 1 Spoonbill Coastal lagoons, wetlands, Lago Enriquillo, Lago Umbn Rare mangroves Dtndrocygna arborta West Indian Whistling Duck Lakes, wetlands Bahia San Lorenzo, Sanchez, Endangered Enriquillo, Monte Cristi Porzana flavivtnltr Yellow-breasted Crake Lakes, wetlands Unknown Unknown Hatmaltpus ostraltgus Oyster Catcher Rocky beach Playa Azul Rare Celumba IWCOctphala 1 White-crowned Pigeon Coastal areas, mangroves Monte Cristi-Higuey, Isla Beata, Unknown Saona &thnochtlys imbrimla 2 Hawksbill Marine, sand beache. Seem"p Endangered Clltlonia mydas 2 Green Turtle farine, sand beaches See map Endangered Cartlta cart/la Loggerhead Marine, sand beaches See map Endangered corineta Leatherback Marine, sand beaches See map Endangered Tric1It!ll11s manaJus 1 Manatee Marine coastal areas, bays Endangered Mtgapltra novatangliat Humpback Whale Offshore banks, (seasonal) Bancos de Playa and Navidad Endangered IProtected by law; 2 Partially protected by law. fowl lhreatened with extinction have lost habitat due to draining ann clearing of wetlands or harvesting of mangroves for wood and charcoal. flamingos and slJoonbills are hunted for their eggs and feathers, arid the white-crowned pigeon is hunted for sport 1973). There are an estimated 1,000-1,500 resident flamingos and an additional 2,000 that migrate yearly to the Dominican Repubk Two other migratory birds, both boobies Slmlil {uscma and Anous slolidus, nest on two cays in the Siete Herman os off Monte Cristi (Alvarez 1980). The four species of sea turtles recogrlized by the International Union for the Conservation of Ndturc and Natural Resources (JUCN) itS j" dmger of extincrion in the Caribbean are for the Dorr.inican Republic. Of th;!se four the hawksbill and green are still legally hunted for food (eggs and meat) and the shell for jewelry pUlpOSes. Jewelry is made from turtle shell for local sales and LIse, as well as the tourist trade and export. Though in less demand, the green turtle is also hWlted as a sub stitute for the more highly-prized hawksbill (Otten walder 1978). Until recenily it was thought the remaining two species, the log gerhead and the leatherback, were relatively scarce. Based on beach surveys, however, Ross and Ottenwalder (1980) calculate that approximately 300 leatherbacks nest per year on the ccun try':; beaches. Primary nesting season occurs from mid April through !une, favoring beaches with undeveloped hinterland and the absence of an offshore fringing reef. These latter two species are also hunted, though illegally, fer iood and the shell. Of the marine mammals, the West Indian manatee is in danger of extinction. Despite government in the Dominican Republic, manatees are still widely hunted for meat .II1d bones. Based on aerial surveys, Belitsky and Belitsky (1980) conclude that two separate populations exist with higher concentration around the Monte Crisit area and more dispersed populations in Ocoa and Neiba bays. Abundance appears correlated with pres ence of grassbeds in an around areas of freshwater discharge. The northern offshore banks of Plata and Navidad appear to be significant for several species of whales. An estimated 85% of the world's population of the humpback whale, Mtgapltra novillanglilll, concentrate in the area during the winter months for mating and calving purposes (Otten walder, pers. comm.). In adni tion to the humpback whale, other marine mammals observed in Dominican waters include Sitrulla cotrultalba, Tursiops inmcalus, Mtsoplodon turopatus, Ziphius caviroslris, Phystler caladon, Orcin us orca, and Balamopltra borealis. Based on current information critical areas for these groups have been mapped (Fig. VII-I). The DRPISEA is responsible for enforcement of existing legis lation for marine reptiles and mammals. Responsibility for pro tecticn of avifauna lies with the DVS/SEA (Wildlife Department). Based or. available infor:nation, enforcement is lax and there is little coordination between the two departments. Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Legislation to protect all endangered and threatened species (that are only par tially protected or currently unprotected), with highest priority given the actively hunted turtles; initiate a conservation educa tion campaign to make existing legislation more effective; stimu late enforcement inspectors through workshops; increase the penalties for abuses of endangered species, and request increased assistance from the navy; prohibit export of any product from an endangered or threatened species; require a review process for all proposed national and private projects to assess potential for damage to critical habitat; increase activities calling for parks and preserves, establish qualifing criteria for protection or production, review candidate areas for protection and submit for legislation. 8'1

PAGE 77

Examine the for marine park designation for one or more of the following sites: (1) Siete Hermanos cays near Monte Cristi due to their pristine quality, isolation and critical habitat for several endangered species; (2) the offshore banks of Navidad and Plata due to their use as mating and calving grounds by the humpback whale; and (3) the beaches extending approximately from Laguan Limon to Cabo Engano due to their importance as turtle nesting beaches. Mining Very little mining occurs in or near the coastal zone. Sand, gravel and salldstone are extracted, mostly concentrated in the Nigua River basin and mouth, with apparent disregard for habitat and coastal degradation. Other coastal aleas damaged by sand extraction are Juan Esteban, Playa Estero, and Luello y Cuet:o (Bonnelly 1978). Marine salt extraction through evaporation oc curs principally in the Monte Cristi area ne::r Lagunas de Marigo, Salina and Piedra and near Las Salinas in the Bahia Las Calderas. There are three areas in the country being considered for fu ture mining exploration. Five requests have been represented by private companies for exploratory mining concessions for sand and sandstone in a near-coast strip between Barahona and Enri quillo. In the Samana peninsula the government owns two mar ule reserves, one adjacent to Sanchez and a second at the east ernmost point of the peninsula. A third government reserve in Bahia de Manzanillo between Punta Luna and Punta Pozo has pot.?ntial for magnetite ore. There are '10 petroleum wells in the country. The possibility exists for State-financed petroleum exploration to begin in 1981 on the south insular platform and/or northern offshore banks (Madera, pers. comm.). Sand extraction has been singled out as the "worst case" exam ple of coastal destruction observed in the country (Fig VII-3b). The Nigua river basin and delta have been the traditional area for obtaining construction aggregate for the metropolitan area. The area has suffered from ineffective administration due to overlapping jurisdiction among the Nigua Municipality, the Secretariat of Public Works and the Government Mining Office. Scars from past extractions remain throughout the basin area, resulting in serious erosion and high secliment loads. Coastal pro tection has been lost due to sand extraction, especially from dunes near the mouth of the river. Loss of these coastal barriers was noticed during the passage of Hurricane allen when the storm sur3e crossed the wide delta area and damaged some of the housing on a raised escarpment overlooking the delta Despite acknowledgement of the problem and establishment of a coordinating group, dune destruction continues. Figure V11-3b. Scars of Ilncontro/lld Irtrllc/ion of hlilell sand n/llr /111 NiglUi Rivlr, /hl traditiOn/II soum arlll for /111 51111/0 Domillgo construe/ioll industry. (Ph%, ltmdon DuBois.) 88 The Government Mining Office created in 1971 (Law 146) was a very small dependent organization of the Secretariat of Indus try and Commerce until 1978. Since that time it has grown in budget and staff and is now attempting to carry out its legal mandate to safeguard, through effective management, the national interest in the mining and metallurgy industries. Sand and gravel extraction is an exception to the law as an interministerial council was formed in 1971 to courdinate overlapping jurisdic tion (Law 123). A second exception is salt extraction adminis by CORDE, formdy a Trujillo-owned industry. Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Interinstitutional uodies have failed to coordinate activities causing environmental degradation; inadequate enforcement of existing legislation to protect the environment; and need for environmental guidelines for future mining in or near the coastal zone. Ports Depending on the interests served, ports are classified as intl'r national, cabotage, or tourist. On the north coast where there are few sheltered roadsteads, four of the six ports are sih:ated ir. Bahia de Samana. On the Caribbean coast with fewer reefs and submerged rocks and several large estuarine systems, nine ports are utilized. In addition to these ports some private loading facili ties (ALCOA. Gulf & Western) and a number of anchorages also occur (Fig. VII-I). In general, most of the ports have been over the past 20-30 years. An example is the port of Sanchez where high sedi ment rates from the Rio Yun.l and the failure to maintain chan nel clearance have led to its abandor,ment as a conventional port; it is presently utilized by fishing and yachting boats (ONAP 1980). However, modernization efforts are being undertaken in Puerto Plata, Punta Botado, San Pedro de Macoris, and Puerto Haina. The major emphasis in port modernization and expansion is in Puerto Haina with government and lOB funds. Already the most important of three ports serving the Santo Domingo area, it is being expanded to meet future needs. Improvements include channel dredging to 11 m, removal of a sunken dock, renova tions and improvements to the eastern pier area, enlarging the storage area for containerized cargo, construction of the Port Authority building, and the installation of a moveable derrick systEm. These improvements will expand annual handling capacity from the current three million m tons to an estimated 4.5 mil lion m tons (Pena, pers. comm.). Management of port facilities is split prin,arily between the Navy with responsibility for naval facilities and pori security, and the newly activated Port Authority, responsible for adminis tration and management of the variolls ports. The Authority, cre ated by law in 1970, did not become functional until early 1979. It is an autonomous agency directed by an Executive Council composed of three members from the private sector and three Secretaries of State. The Authority is divided into Divisions of Operations, Engineering and Materials, Personnel and Finance. There is no capability for pollution monitoring or clean-up in the Authority structure; nor does a mechanism exist for chain-ofcommand response to contamination accidents. Existing or Potential Problems and/or Needs: Establish a con taminant-monitoring mechanism for major ports and the development of a toxic spill emergency plan to coordinte the utiliza tion of all necessary human and physical resources. Tourism In many smaller islands in the eastern Caribbean tourism is be ing examined as a plentiful and clean export in an area of limited natural resources. Since the signing of Executive Decree 2536

PAGE 78

1968), the Dominican Republic has developed tourism as a high priority income resource. In 1968 a UNESCO consultant identified four zones for poten tial development. This was followed by creation of the Tourist Office in 1971 (Law 103) and the declaration of two priority zones for development, Puerlo Plata and its immediate surroundings (Decree 2125, 1977) and the zone between La Caleta and the Rio Higuamo (Decree 3133, 1973). In 1980 modi fications were made to Law 153 designating seven priority areas for development, six of which border the coastal zone. They are Santo Domingo-La Romana, Luperon-Cabrera, Macao-Punta Cana, Sam ana-las Terrenas, Barahona-Enriquillo, and Monte Cristi-Pepillo Salcedo. These tourism development "strips" sur round the respective cities and extend 5 km landward from the littoral zone. In the short term, major activity will be concentrated in the Luperon-Cabrera or "Costa Ambar" area with the projects Costa Ambar, Playa Dorado, and Playa Grande, and in the Santo Domingo-La Romana or "Costa Caribe" strip with proposed proj ects Complejo Turistico Rio Mar, Estancias Las Cabuyas and Los Kapriles. Incentives for development are provided in Law 153. They are only applicable to the tourist zones and provide for the govern ment paying for all infrastructure, exemption from all taxes for 10 years from completion of construction for any project blat ... would foment tourism or increase accommodations for the visiting tourist". During the period 1966-1976 the estimated government invest ments for tourism infrastructure were RD$82 million (.or Puerto Plata and RD$41 million for Sam ana, mostly oriented to tourist development (Secretariado Tecnico de la Presidencia 1978). In addition, the Central Bank has or will invest funds in hotel de velopment in the Playa Dorad:) and Playa Grande projects total ling RD$111 million (Plan CIBAO 1980). Government funds have also been invested in hotel development in Santo Domingo and La Romana through INFRA TUR. an institution of the Central Bank charged tourism development. The return of these investments calculated for 1977 compared with visible exports was RD$91 million gross revenues or 12.7% of all foreign income. The National balance of payments deficit was RD$244 million. Direct and indirect tourist employment was estimated at 11,000 jobs (UNEP 1979b). In December, 1979, the Tourism Office was converted to a Secretariat position. The new duties are to plan, stimulate and coordinate the country's activities related to tourism. As a result of these recently expanded responsibilities the Tourism Secre tariat appears understaffed, underbudgeted and only beginning to address the government mandate. Existing or Potential problems and/or Needs: ad ministration to effectively control a rapidly developip6 tourism sector; pokntial for serious infrastructure and related ecological problems with the already approved concentration of densely in habited structures on the coast; absence of a comprehensive coastal resource inventory and review process to determine de gree of ecological impact of a proposed project; "nd absence of a permit process coastal construction that would require an analysis of infrastructure needs, waste disposal and physical con straints. Recreation The presence of sport fish such as tuna, kingfish and marlin in the nearshore pelagic water provided the incentive for the estab lishment of three fishing clubs (Club Nauticos) on the south shore. Many sport fishing boats are available for charter and cater to winter tourists. Boca Chica, approximately 32 km east of Santo Domingo, La Romana and Boca de Yuma all have large recreational boating fleets. The richness of nearby waters and the proximity to the Monz Passage have contributed to an annual in ternational billfish tournament ill Boca de Yuma (Van Ost and Kline 1978). Heavy urban use of the beaches east of Santo Domingo has contributed to the deterioration Jf some beaches such as at Boca Chica where litter is left and seagrape trees are used for fire wood. The potential for conflict exists between increasing public use of the beaches stretching to La Romana and the de velopment of tourist hotels impeding access to public beaches. High praise is to be given for the utilization of the coastal COi' aI escarpment for urban parks in Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata. A beach-front park in Sosua is also very attractive. Diving clubs exist but do not appear to be numerous. One club from Santo Domingo dives mainly among the Boca Chica reefs. Present and/or Potential Problems and Needs: Initiate data col lecting procedures for sport fishing; and plan tourist develop ments without impeding public access to beaches. Natural Disasters Tropical storms and hurricanes originating in the tropical At lantic or Caribbean during August to October have repeatedly wreaked havoc and destructio;l on Hispaniola. Serious damage and loss of life are primarily due to high winds (greater than 230 kph) and storm the latter ranging from 1 to 3 m (Poke 1977). In ;!ddition to direct damages caused by wind and sur!)e, there is secondary damage associated with severe beach erosion and the undermining of near-shore structures. Between the peri od 1887-1975, 46 tropical storms or hurricanes have passed near or over the Dominican Republic (UNEP 1979c). In most cases they have entered the island on the sourthern coast, though oc casionally storms originating to the east have affected the north ern coast (de la Fuente 1975). Ten tropical storms or hurricanes have hit the country directly, the most recent being Hurricane David in 1979. Hispaniola is also situated in an area of periodic seismic activity resulting from a series of fault systems that pass either adjacent to or through the country. This has resulted in a series of 25 re corded tremors ranging in magnitude on the Richter Scale be tween 5 and 6.5 during the period 1964-1976 (UNEP 1979c). There are few precautions to protect an area from a "worst case" situation, except for advanced evacuation. In less severe cases safety precautions can significanlty lower property damage and life losses. In the Dominican Republic civil defense corps and facilities exist, though it is difficult to determine their effective ness. However, building codes for even less than "worst case" conditions do not exist. Hurricane damage could be of major consequence to the rapidly developing tourist-oriented southeast ern coast. Other factors than need to be considered before allow ing the construction of near-shore facilities are the offshore plat form characteristics that may aggravate Ftorm surge, the presence or absence of natural coastal protection such as mangroves, a re quirement for artificial break walls, and the land configuration as it relates to storm drainage. Existing and/or Potential Problems and Needs: Incorporation of a varial:.le stress level requirement in the building code based on size, location of structure, and frequency and magnitude of past storms or earthquakes. Institutional Analysis Research Center for Marl ne Biology (CIBIMA) CIBIMA is a small research center operating semi independently in the Department of Biology at UASD 89

PAGE 79

(Autonomous University of Santo Do:ningo). In 1980 staff com position was 8 full time and 2 part time professionals. Distribu tion of professional degrees include 2 Ph.D., 1 M.S., and 4 B.S. ClMlBA's 1980 budget was RD$228,400, with more than half of the budget coming from funding sources outside the University (OAS and INDRHI). CIBIMA was formed in 1962 with one biologist as the director of the Insitute of Marine Biology at UASD. The principal objec tives of C1BIMA are education and scientific research. C1HIMA is the only educational insHtution (through the UASD Department of Biology) in the Dominican Republic that trains marine scien tists. Several graduates of the CIBIMA program are currently in positions of responsibility in government institutions such as INDOTEC and the Fishery Resources Department. CIBIMA has parCicipated in the PPA program through the professional educa tion project. Four of the present staff have received some degree of foreign technical training though USAJD sponsored fellowships. Research projeds include inver,tories of mangrove, coral reef and beach systen,s of the south coast and a study of the Lago Enriquillo ecosystem (B('nnelly 1978). In addition to these re search projects C1BIMA hosted an international conference on conservation in 1978, the first of its kind in the country. Current projects include a coastal lagoon survey with the in tent to determine fishery potential, a study to determine the po tential of crabs as a fishery resource, both funded by OAS, and the development of an aquaculture facility in collaboration with INDRHI. Prior to 1979, the facilities of C1BIMA were located in a sea side converted casino on Santo Domingo's "Malecon". The spa cious included offices, laboratories, library, reference collec tions, Audent facilities and experimental marine tanks. The physi cal facility was irreparable damaged by Hurricane David (esti mated cost of repair by UASD was RD$326,000) with associated damage to the equipment, library and boats estimated at RD$100,OOO. CIBIMA is temporarily located in a small house with inadequate facilities for either educational purposes or sci entific investigation. A proposal to construct facilities in Boca Chica offers a sea-side location, proximity to high production areas such as mangroves and coral reefs, and ready access to San to Domingo, but lacks funding. Fishery Resources Department (DRP) The DRP is a dependency of the Subsecretariat of Natural Re sources within the Secretariat of Agriculture. DRP is the lead government agency in management of both fresh-water and ma rine fisheries. DRP is the lead government agency in manage ment of both fresh-water and marine fisheries. DRP ha; recently been restructured removing the Hunting Section and creating new divisions of aquaculture and fishing. This restructuring prompted the hiring of 22 new technicans, which more than triples the size of the department. The present staff level is esti mated at 120-the majority are enforcement inspectors. The 1980 budget is an estimated RD$3,000,OOO. In addition to management of the country's marine and fresh water fishery resources, DRP plays a major role in both direct and indirect encouragement of aquaculture. The government aquaculture facility at Nigua provides fingerlings to stock public and private lakes and ponds as well as a facility for scientific in vestigation into polyculture and exotic species introduction. In addition to supplying the private sector with fish stock, technical advice is provided upon request. Future projects include the de velopment of a mariculture facility and a regional approach to fingerling production with facili"ies planned for Azua and La Vega. The Department appears to be suffering from the recent ex pansion to facilities inadequate to accommodate additional per sonnel and from an inadequate human resource base from which 70 to draw talent necessary to efficient administration and technical competence. Development and Cooperative Credit Institute (IDECOOP) IDECOOP is an autonomous government organization created in 1963 to aid in the formation of cooperatives, coordinate the actions of cooperatives with the national Federation of Domini can Cooperatives and contribute to the improvement of existing cooperatives. In 1974, through a loan from IDB, a fisheries project was initi ated to provide the national consumer with lower priced fish while increasing the standard of I:ving of the arlisanal fisherman. The program consisted of thl:! constlldion of six facilities located in Monte Cristi. Puerto Plata, Mic.hes, San Pedro de Macoris, Azua and Barahona, and a central facility in the capital. The cen tral facility coordinates activities and serves as a commercial clearinghouse. The importation of 64 fiberglass boats complete with electronic fishing gear for the six cooperatives and two 22 meter steel hull boats to provide fish for the facility were in cluded in the project. An estimated 20% of the national fishermen participate in the fishing program (Lima dos Santos and Brownell 1978). Inadequate administration in the formative years of the program created a certain feeling of distrust among the fishermen. Lack ot technical expertise at IDECOOP has been cited for the importation of fib erglass boats equipped with air-cooled engines rather than water cooled engines. As air-cooled engines proved to run too hot for Dominican waters, they are now being replaced with the latter type. Dominican Industrial Technology Institute (INDOTEC) INDOTEC is a semi-autonomous institution associated with the Central Bank. Its primary function is to stimulate industrial de velopment by providing technical capabilities. In 1978 an agree ment was reached between IDB and INDOTEC to analyze the Dominican fisheries sector. IDB financed the project through a US$1.05 million non-reimbursable loan. The major objectives were to identify productive fishing zones, recommend methods, boats, ports, and processing and marketing facilities to assure the most efficient use of the resources, as well as institutional analy sis with associated recommendations for a sector policy develop ment. However, the INDOTEC report had not yet been released when the environmental profile was conducted. In addition to the above project, INDOTEC maintains a small aquaculture facility on the same grounds. Emphasis is directed towards culture of Tilllpill and shrimp. Conclusions Ineffective management of the country's coastal and marine re sources is due to five major causative factors: 1) Non-traditional utilization of the resources; 3) A rapidly growing and still inex perienced set of administrative organizations; 3) of coor dinating mechanisms between administrative agencies required for an integrated approach; 4) Shortage of skilled multidiscipli nary professionals; and 5) Unclear legislative mandate. The Dominican Republit: has traditionally lookec inland for development of natural resources, as indicated by its dependence on the sugar and mineral industries as principal sources of for eign exchange. This focus on development of the hinterland has, until recently, largely protected the coastal zone from many of the problems a3sociated with development. Unfortunately this period (\f grace is rapidly coming to an end as development of marine fisheries and the tourist sectors become high priority areas.

PAGE 80

As a holdover from the Trujillo era, many executive finctions were administered directly from the president's office during the Balaguer administration. Consequently, most administrative de partments were small, understaffed, and largely ineffective. Only .. since 1978 have these offices started to expand. The Fishery Re sources Department staff increased from four technicians 22. The Tourism Office was elevated to a Secretariat position. TIle Mining Office increase'i from one office to an entire floor in the central government building. The Port Authority created by law in 1971, did not start tunctioning uniil early 1978. One of the consequences of such rapid expansions of many administrative bodies is that they are now struggling to meet legislative man dates. Though several institutions have overlapping legislation, few mechanisms exist for integrated and ecologically sound develop ment of the coastal zone. In some cases these mandates result in very nebulous areas of authority, hampering efforts for effective management and coordination; more commonly they produce adversary positions between administrators, usually at the ex pense of the environment (e.g. Nigua sand extraction). is a serious shortage of professionals trained in coastal zone and marine resource management. The only institution at the US AD preparing marine scientists suffers from professional and financial constraints, and since Hurricane David, infrastruc ture problems. This leaves the burden of integrated management largely with planners, who may lack the technical expertise to deal with the complex issues of coastal zone management. Substantial increases in administrative staff have generated nu merous conflicts, largely because of unclear, poor or redundant legislation. The best is the administration of aquaculture in the country. At present there are three govern ment institutions working in parallel in aquaculture with little evidence of coordination. Few countries can afford the luxury of expending limited resources, both human and financial. on inde pendent efforts to achieve a common objective. There is urgent need to integrate the management of coastal zone and marine areas. The most significant impinging factors in clude the priority the government has givent 0 tourism, the pri ority that is expected to be given to development of marine fish eries and the threat of a major oil spill in the Mona Passage. Despite the high priority the government has given to devel opment of the tourism sector, the Tourism Secreatariat appears unable to examine the ramifications concentrated development will have on the environoment. In addition to the location of tourist developments on pristine beaches serious questions must be asked about public access to beaches, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, hurricane protection, sources of food for the tour ists, shell and coral collzcting, and preservation of critical habitat for protecting endangered species. At present the sector IS at an artesanal level, with im ports accounting for 60% of all fish consumed. Results of a re cent survey indicate that the potential exists in Dominican waters to meet local demand. The administrative body in the sector is not yet at the level capable of meeting the demand re quired of industrial level fishing efforts nor to maintain sustained yields. Despite the respOl:sibility of the Navy and Air Force for pa trolling the country's waters and coasts, there is no emergency plan to handle toxic spills. This is critical in the easter portion of the cow;try adjacent to the high traffic area of the Mona Passage. Ship traffic through the Mona Passage is likely to climb as recent cutoffs from some Mid-eastern oil field may result in greater hemispheric dependence on Venzuelan oil. In a recent Puerto Rican EPA-sponsored oil pollution conference a trajectory model of a theoretical oil spill of 6,000 barrels of crude to the east of Mona Island indicated that the oil would reach the eastern shore of the Dominican Republic in three days and spread as far as La Romana and Laguan Umon in five days. Emergency plans for toxic spills are also needed for each of the country's major ports. Two existing agencies function to meet environmental emer gencies. Presidential decree 2011 recently created a commission charged with the conservation of marine flora and fauna. The commission is composed of the directors of Civil Defense (presi ... ent of the commission), customs, the Navy chief of staff, the di rector of migration, the administrator of the Las Americas Inter national Airport and the director of Fishery Resources. The pri mary function of the commission is to facilitate the arrival of oil clean-up equipment from areas outside the country. The Environmental Department. a dependency of the Tli!chni cal Secreatariat of the Presidency, is to provide environmental evaluation of proposed projects. At present it is severely under staffed and may not have the technical expertise required to evaluate coastal zone management (see Arellano for an institu tional analysis). It may be necessary to create a commission that would func tion as a "review and permit institution" for development affect ing the coastal zone. Its composition should include high level. qualified staff from the Navy, Fishery Resources, Civil Defense. Commerce and Industry. Tourism. CIBIMA. and the Enviorn ment Department. In the latter case the representative should serve as the primary liaison between the commission and other government institutions involved in upland activities with poten tial impact in the coastal zone. Review and approval would be required prior to any coastal devdopment. In the same legislation to modify existing laws in order to create the new commission. there should be a requirement for an ecological assessment of projected activities in the coastal zone. The assessment should be completed "in house" and accompany the application document to the review committee. This committee should have the power to approve the project document. require modification in the proposed activity or reject it. In addition. the law should providE' for inspection. review and interruption or termination of coastal projects which conflict with national30als. Recommendations CIBIMA is the only acadelT'ic institution with a focus on basic marine research and the trair.ing of marine technicians and scien tists. The government depends on CIBIMA's production of quali fied marine scientists to fulfill the goals of marine legislation. Hurricane David damaged CIBIMA's educational facility which will provoke a shortage of people tr"!.:ned in marine sciences and resource management. CIBIMA and the governmelit recognize that the numerous fresh-water and brackish coastal lagoons and ponds are underutil ized, and both have launched projects to undertake basic physical descriptions. To permit rational utilization, it thorough inventory must include salinity-termperature-oxygen fluctuations. both diurnal and seasonal. rate of overturn of waters, presence and St.ltuS of native spCCles, and solar radiation. Provided with a sound ecological baseline and knowledge of external factors. such as potential for local use or demand in the export market. pilot projects should be initiated to explore the feasibility of these resources for aql!aculture/mariculture. e.g. raising Arlemitl gllalinlls for export. and potential for energy utiliziltion. As pressures continue to increase for ,levelopment and use of resources in the coastal zone, guidelines arlo 'Irgently needed for reviewing specific activities and projects and \. "Iordinating action between agenices. TIle review process should 'lave two com ponents: in-house assessment of a project's env, onmental im pacts including endangered species. critical habitat. infrastructure needs and associated wastes; and a required review rocess at the level of ONAPLAN, the Environmental Department or newly created commission before action could be taken. This would '71

PAGE 81

have the added advantage of integrating separate initiatives in administration of the (oastal zone as well as providing a "watch dog" function. This would only succeed with clear legislation and adequate resources. The Dominican Republic needs a national emergency plan to control substance spills. The Marine Flora and Fauna Conservation Commission and the captain of the Port Authority could design the plan and regulations to facilitate arrival and use of spill clean-up equipment. The plan could be expanded to in clude coastal zone characterization and a coastal zone vulnerability index. Due to parallel and rival administrations of the fishery sector, a national policy should be defined. The formation of a commis sion composed of heads of DRP/SEA, INDRHI, INDOTEC, INDECOOP and the Navy might be effective. 1"e commission 703 would set nati"::tal prioritiel in the fishery sector, outline the most effective strategies to meet the objectives and coordinate efforts and share resources to attain those objectives. Marine parks represent a priority area due to the fragility of many marine resources in the country. The creation of a park or parks would receive positive international publicity associated with the preservation of these areas. A marine resource inven tory and criteria for park designation are needed. Three potential areas to be examined are the Siete Hermanos cays off Monte Cristi due to their pristine quality, isolation, and habitat for'sev eral endangered species; the offshore banks of Navidad and Plata due to their use as mating and calving grounds for the humpback whale; and the beaches extending approximately from Laguna wmon to Cabo Engano because of their importance as turtle nesting beaches.

PAGE 82

VIII Wildlands and Wildlife In this report the term "wildlands" is weed in a new broad sense. Our definition goes beyond the popular notion of wilder ness which has come to mean an area basically unaltered by human intervention where man is a temporary visitor at most. Wildland as used ht're will include these areas, but will cover a much wider range of areas and land uses. In the development lit erature, wildlands traditionally have been those areas available for population expansion, agriculture, lumbering. and exploitation of natural resources. These areas have also been viewed as areas where la.,dless peasants, driven from place to place by social and economic conditions, could acquire a piece of land (Miller 1978). Much of the continuing problem with the human factor in wildlands management today is probably due to this confusion of wildlands with nonproductive lands. The failure to distinguish between wildlands and potentially exploitable but currently un exploited agricultural lands has resulted in serious problems both within the government and among general public. Wildlands in this report are defined as those areas that are not capable of maintaining permanent agriculture, livestock, or inten sive forest production (Morell 1978) plus analogous aquatic areas, both freshwater and marine. This definition is broad enough to include areas that are managed for purposes of pr.Jduction or re cuperation of natural biotic communties. A more restrictive defi nition used elsewhere (Freeman et aI. 1980) included only "land and waters which have been l.ittle affected by modern man, where natural processes such as evolution, native plant and animal reproduction and natural nutrient cycling continue in dy namic equilibrium". For an island such as Hispaniola, where the Dominican Republic has less than 50,000 kmz of territory and a history of almost 500 years of European settlements, this defini tion would be much too exclusive. We feel that the broader def inition will better serve the needs of the Dominican Republic and the island of Hispaniola. It is tempting to subdivide the wildlands management sector into flora, fauna, and geographic subunits, but one can quickly lose sight of the importance of considering wildlands as an inter acting complex of necessary subparts. Flora, fauna, aquatic and terrestial subunits are arbitrary categories and give the imJjres sion that these characters exist separately. While they can be considered separately for the sake of analysis, they do not exist alone but rather they interact to form complex natural ecosys tems. The wildland resource includes all of the characteristics and components of the natural ecosystem. Attempts to protect or manage only one aspect of the flora, fauna, or the territory, will not succeed. Wildlands must be prctected and managed as inter active natural systems composed of diverse but necessary sub units. Status of Native Wildlife Of all the Greater and Lesser Antillean Islands, Hispaniola has perhaps the greatest variety of different environments. Pico Durate, the highest point in the Antilles (3,087 meters) and Lake Enriquillo, the lowest point (40 m below sea level) are both found within the Dominican Republic. Nine life zones exist with in the national territory (see Chapter III), but this expands to 16 if the various transition zones are included (OAS 1967). Climate differences are impressive for such '" limited land area (less than 50,000 kmz). Dry, near desertic conditions are found in the southwest and northwest, while areas of heavy rainfall are lo cated in the mountainous regions of the central .,md northern portions. In addition, a rich assortment of coastal, near-shore, reef and platform environments exists in the marine sector. An inven tory of the coastal and near-shore marine environments is cur rently underway by the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Otten walder, pers. comm.). In spite of its insular situation, relatively small size, and almost 500 year history of European settlement, the Dominican fauna is still only partially known. New species for the country, for the island, and for science continue to be found. A high degree of endemism exists which raises the prospects of discovering unique new species in any field trip to the remaining remnants of natural ecosystems. A total of 139 resident and 90 migratory bird species are known in the country, of which 34 are endemic. One family, the Dulidae, is represented by a single species DlIllIs dominicllS which will be declared the national bird in the proposed Fauna Law. Useful field guides to the ornithological fauna are published in English (Bond 1971) and in Spanish (Dod 1978). Both works are useful for identifications and general species distributions. Beyond taxonomic identification of most of the native fauna, there has been little published in the way of ecological or behav ioral monographs. Some species are now receiving a great deal of attention, but this interest seems to be associated with the actual or potential commercial value of the species. White crowned pigeon, Coillmba ItllCoctphalllS, American crocodile, CrocodylllS (Jell/liS, and Hawksbill turtle, Ertlmochtlys imbrica/a, are some examples. 73

PAGE 83

Some attention is also paid to rare or endangered species with no known commercial value, such as the hutia, P/agiodonlia IItdium, and the solenodunte, So/tnodon paradorus. Basic information on populations, distributions, and food habits of fauna is not available. Human and finiUlcial resources have not been made available, in large part because the study and man agement of wildlife populations have never been a priority theme for the Dominican government. Only in the last dec.::de have the major Dominican universities added biology with an emphasis on wildlife to their curricula. The field of wildlife biol ogy is just now beginning to attrad students as government po sitions are being generated. Behavioral studies of captive animals have been made on sev eral species of native fauna including two endangered mammals, P/ll/iodonilll stdillm and So/tnodon pamdorus. The Parque Zoologoco Nacional (ZOODOM) is conduding studies on these animals as well as raising capti ve iguanas Cye/ura conwla and C. rieordi. ZOODOM has also had success with reproducing Croeody/us Aeuills (Duval, pers. comm.). These studies add to the growing base of knowledge about reprodudion in these species and their behavior in captivity, but cannot substitute for field research on the behavior, reprodudion, and c::cological role of these animals in their natural habitat. The Dominican Republic is not a signatory member of the CITES agreement (Convention on International Trade in Endan gered Species), but final efforts are being made to have the na tion subscribe to this international convention. The convention and supporting documentation are now in the office of the legal advisor to the Office of the Presidency. In anticipation of the eventual signing of this agreement, the, Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS) has established close lines of cooperation with the Division for the Prevention of Commercialization of Pro tected Flora and Fauna of the U.S. Department of the Interior. For all pradical purposes the DVS is proceeding as if the Domin ican Republic were a signatory member to CITES. Lists of endangered and threatened species officially recognized by the government do not exist, but the major wildlife research and management institutions have been compiling lists of species that they consider should be on such an official list (Table VIII1). Comprehensive inventories to establish the presence or ab sence of these species in all areas of the national territory have not been made. The evaluations of population status represent professional estimates, but the data base is quite incomplete. Status of Wildlands Existing Uses of Wildland Re8Durces Quantitative data on current uses of wildland resources in the Dominican Republic are generally unavailable. Flora and fauna are both exploited in consumptive and non-consumptive ways. Live plants and plant produds are harvesteJ and colleded for a variety of uses. Forest exploitation for timber pro dud ion is dealt with elsewhere in this report (see Chapters III and IV). Other plant uses include food, medicines, beverages, ointments, orna mentals, dyes, perfumes and scents, flavors and teas (Liogier 1974). With the exception of fiber and charcoal produdion, most exploitation of wildlands flora appears to be for subsistence uses or by small-scale commercial concerns. Very little of what could be considered wildlands flora or its by-produds finds its way in to external markets with the exception of beeswax and honey. Over RD$800,OOO worth of wax and RD$SOO,OOO worth of honey were exported in 1979, with substantial amounts pro duced in areas of native vegetation (Marcano 1973, CEDOPEX I9LlO). Some ornamental plants and flowers are also reaching ex ternal markets, but in general the consumption of non-timber flora from wildlands areas is internal subsistence or small-scale 74 and largely unrecorded. Sodo-cultural uses, including medicinal and religious needs, are recognized but not quantified. Faunal resources from wildlands appear to be exploited mainly for food. Native and introduced pigeons and doves, plus migra tory ducks are hunted legally. Some ducks, pigeons, deves and other game birds are killed illegally. Egg,; are regularly taken from the nests of many nesting birds, particularly social specie; like gulls or white-r .. owned pigeons. Exploitation by man in con junction with habitat destrudion is considered a main threat to the continued survival of certain species (Table VIII-I). Exotic species including rabbit, white-tailed deer, ring necked pheasant, quail, and wild pig are also hunted. The role these species play in the nutrition of the human population, however, is unknown. For some rural families, wild game may be a significant source of high-quality protein. Subsistence harvesting of terrestrial and aquatic fauna b common but no quantitative data exist. The dis persed nat urI? of the pradice and the marginal legality of some of the methods and prey make the acquisition of meaningful data very difficult. Many Dominicans, both urban and rural, have told the author of eating protected wildlife or out-of-season wildlife. Harvesting methods include the use of dynamite, poi son, snares, illegal implements, poaching, failure to observe size or bag limit;, failure to respect gravid females or resting areas, etc. The magnitude of the enforcement problem is not clearly known. Except for a few products such as honey and beeswax, most wildlands produds are consumed locally and may never !Je re corded in the marketplace. Consumption is difficult to estimate and reliable statistics are non-existent. Comprehensive nation wide surveys of wildlife have not been conduded. Basic data such as population, distribution, and annual harvest are un known. Non-consumptive uses which include recreation, study and ap preciation, inspiration, and similar cultural and religious uses are also unquantified. Non-consumptive uses of non-national parks areas are unrecorded. The Dominican Republic has many fine beachs in its 1,500 km coastline and those near major poulation centers are heavil" used, particularly on weekends and holidays. Potential Uses of Wildland Resources Outdoor recreation and tourism are two key non-consumptive uses of wildland resources that should gain importance in the fu ture if conservation efforts continue. National Park use is ex pected to increase, particularly as the development of visitor facil ities in the Parque Nacional del Uste proceeds. Beach and coastal resources on the one hand and cool mountain resources on the other are expected to receive greater use by visitors. (For a discussion of recreational uses of large water control facilities such as the lakes created by hydroelectric dams, see sedion on hydrological resources). Research and other scientific uses which are generally non-con sumptive are also expeded to increase. The flora and fauna of the Dominican Republic are incompletely known and much work remains to be dope concerning the complex interadions in natural ecosystems. Consumptive uses will continue. While enforcement efforts are increasing, and some control over exploitation has been estab lished, much harvesting of plant and animal produds continues unchecked. Effedive enforcement has been achieved only in the national parks and even there manpower shortages have limited the success of enforcement efforts. As protedion of the wildland resources in the national park system becomes more complete, repopulation of adjacent areas will become possible. The populations of white-crowned pigeons ilJld other game birds are already showing signs of recovery due to extraordinary efforts by the Direccion Nacional de Parques to protect nesting sites in the national parks (Vargas, pers. comm.).

PAGE 84

Table V1n-1. Status of selected fauna species in the Dominican Republic. Source data ('nmpiled from Bautista 1980, BeUtsky and BeUtsky 1980, C. Hernandez H8O, Hidalgo 1980, and Ottenwalder 1978. (Explanatory Notes: Population Status: E= endangered; R .. rare; T= threatened; 1= indeterminate; e=endemic; In CITES. Information Status: A .. adequate; 1= incomplete; U= unknown. Legal Status: P= prCltected; N= not protected. X= (ontributory factor. c .9 -;; III ." j 0 3 u .g ." :!3 0 .-III ... .l! 't;; C 0 Co :: i
PAGE 85

W'IId1and8 Management Categories Existing Dominican laws establish at least nine categories )f arleas that would apparently form the units of a wildlands system. Law 67 (Parks) create: eiJtt and the Forestry Law re peats the National F'ark category and adds Forest Reserve for a total of nine (Table VIII-2). Law 67 creates some categories that ar" better left to other in stitutions since they now operate these areas or are better suiter.! to manage them in the future. Zoological gardens, botanical gar dens, and national aquariums can operate independently or can be attached t'J a research or educational institution. National monuments of a historical nature should be left to the Oficina de Patrimonio Cultural or to one of the museums dealing with these areas (Museo del Hombre Dominicano or Museo de las Casas Reales). Wildlands institutions should concentrate mainly on areas that are un3ltered by man, not areas that are created or ma nipulated by man. Under this recre.ltion areas would be administered by the tourism office rather than the DNP. The mission of the DNP should narrowed to managing and protecting resource areas of national importance. The Director has expressed interest in a slightly expanded set of categories for the Dominican National Park System (Morell 1980, see Table VIII-2). This set greatly improves on the original categories ated by Law 67. Major emphasis is placed on naturd systems. Highly manipulated research and educational areas are excluded. The pfCIposed Fauna Law would create four categories under the administration of the DVS. Assuming continued emphasis on the production of exotic an native game species, it would seem more d-' :rable to locate til: 'Jnctions of comprehensive resource and ecosystem protection in the DNP and place wildlife management functions in the DVS. This would suggest the need for only two categories for DVS administration, Wildlife Sanctuaries and the wildlife aspects of tv1ultiple Use Management Areas. The distinction between Faunal Refuge and Faunal Sanctuary is un clear. There are two basic funclions to be performed: the protec tion and study of native fauna and the production of wild game for harvest. A sanctuary satisfies the first need, and areas es tablished for multiple use management would satisfy the second. The other areas that would be established by the Proposed Fauna Law are more global in scope and fall well within the 'T,andate of the DNP of DVS. No management categories for marine resources appear in the legisl<1tion. Categories could be created de {aclo by using broad definitions and not limiting the descriptions of existing categoriC:. to terrestrial environments. Parks, reserves, and management areas can be aquatic as easily as they can be terre5trial. It is advisable, however, to expand the legal ;i1andates to in clude the creation, protection, and management of aquatic areas. A list of suggested wildlands categories appears in Tablt! VIII-2. This list should be considered a minimum but starting point for a Comprehensh'e Wildlands System fe,r the [':.>minican Republic. As turrently envisioned, the System would include DNP, DRP, DVS, and DGF lands. National Parks, Scientific Re serves and National MOl1uments ould be the responsibility of DNP and in some cases DRP. Wildlife Sanctuaries would be ad ministered by DVS. Resource Reserves are essentially protected natural storehouses. lhey ,:ould be managed by any of the four 3gencies or by an outside institution, depending on the nature of the reserve. Forestry and fisht!ry resources would be managed under the Multiple Use Area category Biosphere Reserves frequent'}' include several agencies working together, though a lead ,gency would need to be identified. World Heri tage Sites we, .. d be managed according to the purpose of the in dividual sites. Scenk Corridors, I'. highway or riverine, woulr1 be managed on an individual basi;. Under this system, cultural. historical and archaeologicai sites would be managed by the appropriate museum. In those in stances where the sites a:e within or near larger wildlands areas, 78 Table VRI-2. Wildlanus ,ategories used or proposed In the Dominican Republic. I. Law 67 Eor the DiJ,cion Nacional de Parques Areas National Recreation P.uks National Zoological Gardens Aquarium5 Panoramic Highways Historical Areas National Monuments Natural Areas National Parks Natural Scientific R.eserves n. Proposed Fauna Law EoI' the Departamento de Vida Silvestre Zones of Biological Interest Faunal Refuge Faunal Sanctuary Biological Reserve III. Suggested by JUCN (1978) National Parks Scientific Reserves Natural Monu; .1ents Wildlife Sanctuaries Resource Reserves Multiple Use Management Ar.:as Biosphere Reserves World Heritage Sites Scenic Corridors IV. Proposed Eor the Dominican Natlon.u Parks System (Morell 1980) National Parks Natural Monuments Cultural Monuments Scientific Reserves Wildlife Sanctuaries Wildlife Refuges Recreation Areas Scenic Highways Scen:c Rivers Ecological Reserves the agency with responsibility for the larger area could assume the protection of the smaller site, but the museum would remain as the expert agency and would retain final decision-making authority In a similar way, small Scientific Reserves might be located under DNP for protection services, but could be by another expert agency which might have a particular interest in the specific resource being conserved. These suggested modifica tions would entail changes in existing wildlands laws. Congres sional ,md executive actio;, would be required. Remedial legisla tion is rarely a issue. Interim management using these categories de {oc/o would probably be adequate for years. The im portant objective is to develop cooperation among the four prin cipal agencies. The first orner of business is to agree on a system of categories for wildlands management in the Dominican Re l.. blic. National Park8 J. Annando Bennudez and Jose del Carmen Ramirez National Parks Size (combined): 1,530 krnz Created: JAB 1956; JRC 1958 Staff: 2 administrators; 35 rangers Vegetation: Extensive stands of native pines, Pi"us occidm/alis, with sheltered areas of broadleaf forest (Fig. VIII-I, also see Fig. 11-2a). Important fauna: Very poorly known. 51 birds have been iden tified in the park, including 13 endemics to Hispanioia and 11

PAGE 86

Figure YIn-I. Sabana Vitja Val/ty sll1Toundtd by btallliflll pint fortsls in Iht lost dtl Camltll Rod;iglltz Nillional Park. TIlt cabin {lOWlY ((nltr) is ont of slUtral FORESTA gJ/llrd slalions in lilt Cordilltrll unlral. (Ha/ll/-Iltld IIlrial pholo, Carlos QlltSIll/a.) endemics to the Caribbean. Unconfirmed reports of So/modon, P/ilgiodolllill, and many of the 18 Dominican bats have been made. Imporbmt resources: The two parks are the headwaters of al most a dozen of the country's major rivers. Water for industrial, domestic, and agricultural uses comes from these mountains. The potential of many of these streams can only be realized if the watersheds are properly managed. The stands of pine and the broadleaf forests are important genetic resources for reforestation in other parts of the mountains. FacilitIes: 17 ranger cabins are located in the eastern portions of the two parks where enforcement b Lurrently concentrated. All are short of household items like bedding and raincoats, and some are in need of repairs. Equipment includes a four wheel drive truck and a string of old pack mules. DGF supplies fire fighting hand equii'ment. Visitor facilities include a shelter and a cabin on the trail to Pico Durate, and a camping area that is under construction. Past Uses: Many areas of the parks have been significantly al tered by human use. Coffee plantations exist inside the parks along of the borders. Slash and burn agriculture has cleared the natural vegetation off many of the slopes at lower elevations. Deliberate burning and vandalism has damaged vast expanses of the forests. In the Fast, DGF has more emphasis ,'n pro tecting the pine trees to the point of ignoring the rest of th.! sys tem of which the trees are only a part. Hunting and gnzing oc curred in many areas of the parks. Existing problems: The problem of shared authority in the parks by both DGF and DNP personnel must be resolved. Control must be established over the entire area of parks. Re settlement of settlers must proceed as soon as possible_ The pro posed trans-mountain highway could set back park protection significantly_ More than 90% of all forest fires are deliberately set by local people. Until the park is seen as a beneficial reserve, this problem will continue. Los Haitises Naitonal Park Area: old 208 krnJ ; new 120 krnz Created: 1968; new boundary modification proposed 1980 Staff: 1 administrator; 1 boat captain, 1 deckhand, 1 carpenter, 2 area supervisors, 13 park rangel's Vegetation: Lowland broadleaf forest developed on karst for mations; plus coastal mangroves Important fauna: So/modon, P/agiodonlia, many bats, avifauna poorly studied, but at least 50 species identified, trigate bird and pelican nesting areas on off-shore islands, marine near-shore en vironments shelter a wide variety of fauna from Samana Bay. Important Resources: Outstanding example of karst formations. Caves in abundance, possessing geological, ecological and archae ological importance. Facilities: Three ranger cabins with an additional one under construction. Equipmel.: consists of a four-wheel-drive truck, a 7.38 m inboard cabin cruiser, and a woodworking shop where signs and materials are prepared for all units in park Past Uses: Nearly all of the original park area has been grossly altered by rural invasions of landless peasants seeking agricultural lands. Slash and burn clearing practices and indiscriminate use of fire have destroyed much of the value of the older park area. The oound.rry modification will return to park the re maining area with adequate natural areas or the potential to re cover. Existing Problems: New boundary must by approved so the DNP may establish firm control over the area. Banco Agricola continues to provide loans to settlers invading park lands. Mobility within area is very difficult given the rough terrain. Sediment load carried by Barracote River disturbs the near-shore areas of the park. Isla Cabritos National Park Size: 26 krnz Created: 1974 Staff: 1 administrator, 1 area chief, 6 p.rrk rangers Vegetation: Semi-desertic dry forest (Fig. VIII-2a) Important fauna: CroOdyllls MIIIIIS, (yclllra com lila, C. ricordii, Phoenicoplerus ruber, total of apprOximately 50 resident and :nigratory birds Important Resources: Lacustrine saltwater environment below sea-level; insular semi-desertic environment; :rocodile nesting areas; flamingo nesting areas; protected habitat of endemic rock iguanas Facilities: Administrative compound phIS pickup truck and in flatable buat Past Uses: Ey.tensive grazing on the island by domestic live stock hilS severely affeded the native vegetation. Recovery has been good since the removal of dogs, cats, goats, burros, and cattle. Heavy hunting preS3ure on and egg collection has reduced the population. Tilapin introduced to lake may have hastened extinction of native fish population. Diversion of water for irrigation means salinity of lake increases, possibly endanger ing even the introduced Tilnpia upon whic:i, the crocodiles de pend for food. Hurricanes in 1960's and recently ill 1978 and 1979 brought enough water into the watershed to dday this problem at least for the moment. Existing problems: Irrigation development in the Neiba Valley continues, meaning further withdrawals of water from streams and wells that would have supplied the lake with water for dilu tion. Park area is too small to protect the nesting and rearing areas for young crocodiles. Adequate water to assure salinity control in the lake must be guaranteed to the park ecosystem. 77

PAGE 87

Figure VlD-2a. /sla Cabrilas Nalional Park stvtrtly dtgrdtd (1977) byelrarcoalmaking anJ goal browsing. Stricl control by DNP lias tliminaltd ftrallivtsiock. allow ing Iht rall/ral vtgtlalion 10 movtr. Jolm Shorts.) Parque Nacional Del Este Size: 434 Created: 1975 Staff: 1 administrator. 1 supervisor. 6 area supervisors. 1(' park rangers Vegetation: Lowland broad leaf forest. mangrove swamps (Fig. VIII-2b). Important fauna: Solmodon paradoxus. PllIgiodonlill lIedium. Cyelllret wnw/II. Columbll leucocephllill. visiting manatee and sea turtles. 11]. bird species. including 8 endemics to Hispaniola and 11 endemics to the Caribbean. Important Resources: Manatee feed turtle nesting beaches. whitp-crowned pigeon nesting areas. coastal lagoons. marine ecosystms. numerous caves with archaeological sites. Facilities: At the present time. facilities are limited to adminis trative and protection facilities. consisting of three ranger cabins. Equipment includes a four-wheel-drive truck. two launches. and three pack ml!\es. The fit st paJk managment plan in the Domini can RejJublic has been tv:rtten for the PNE (DNP 1980). Visitor facilities are expected in the nedT future. Past Use: In the past many valuable tropical hardwood trees were cut from the lands of the park in a selective-cutting or high-grading process. Small agricultural plots were scattered throughout the park. but the thinness of the soil meant that shifting agriculture had to be used. Free-roam;ng goats and bur ros and feral pigs wandered throughout the area. Large-scale coconut plantations are still operated along the west coast of the mainland. Existing Problems: A large settlement exists on Saona Island as part of the Marina de Guerra outpost there (Mano Juan. pop. ap prox. 350). Marine areas not included in original declaration of park limits. Resettlement of remaining families from southeast portion of mainland has been delayed. Park lacks surface drain age. water a critical resource. Conflicts with fishing interests like ly. Resource Management Wildland management is divided among three princip,,-',stitu tions. each in .:; separate superlevel of government. The Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP) is a semi-autonomous agency directly under the Presidency. The Direccion General Forestal (DGF) is located in the Secretaria de Estado de las Fuerzas Armadas y Po Iicia Nacional. The Departamento de "',ja Silvestre (DVS) part of the de Recursos Naturales (SURENA) of the Sec retaria de Estado de Agricultura (SEA). 78 The Departmento de Recursos Pesqueros (DRP) is a sister agency to DVS in SURENA. The Museo del Hombre Domini cano (MHD) and Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHI'J) are both under the umbrella of the Presidency. The Parque Zoologico Nacional. usually called ZOODOM. is now under the administrative control of the Universidad Nacional Pedro Henri quez Urena (UNPHU). while the Jardin Botanic\) is an autonomous institution but receives major funding from the g0V ernment. Legal and Historical Bases The legal basis for management in the Dominican Re public is relatively ambiguous. Legislation has been created to deal with problems on a piece-by-piece basis. resulting in over laps. gaps. and moderate confusion amJng and within institu tions. The first piece of institutional legislation was the Hunting Law. dating from 1931 and desperately in ned of modification or re placement. Although a new Fauna Law has been proposed and is expected to pass both houses of the Congress and to receive presidential approval without "ny problems. it has apparently not received priority status at the legislative level. The new DVS is forced to operate under a law almost 50 years old. created in a time of major ccon, )mic depression worldwide. and clearly meant to encourage sport and commercia! hunting. As its name implies. it is a hunting law. not wildlife management legislation. The ex isting wildlife law is outdated. It lacks any mention of endan gered species or the need to control the introduction of exotic species to the island. A detailed analysis of the law is not ranted here. The Dominican government has demonstrated Its awc:reness of the inadequacy of the old law by proposing the new legislation. The pr '?osed wildlife legislation takes a much-needed glcbal approach to the problems of protecting and exploiting native fauna; recognition of the need to control faunal imports as well as exports; regulation i captive reproduction with exotic and native species; contro of all types of hunting. including subsis tence. commercial. sport. and research. Categories for wildlife refuges and management areas are also established. The proposed law will be the first attempt to esta!llish wildlife management as a recognized national goal. Unfortunately. it is not yet law. In chronological order. the next major piece of wildland legis lation is LaV! 5856 (1962) which is called the Forestry Law. This law crt!ated the Direccion General Forestal (DGF or FORF"T A). (For a discussion of this legislation and of the institution. St the on natural vegetation and on plantation forestry.) Rather surprisingly. the Forestry Law does not menticn native fauna. lcs Figure V1U-lo. Subtropical moisl foresl in ParqUl Nacional dtl Eslt. (Pholo. John Shores.)

PAGE 88

stated objective is to regulate the concentration, restoration, de velopment and exploitation of forest vegetation (Law 5856, Title I, Article I, 1962). Provisions are milde for Forestry Reserves and National Parks, both of whkh will be managed by DGF, but no reference to wildlife is made. nor is much notice given to plant species not exploited for wClod or other major forest products such as resins, gums, etc. The focus of the legislation is on com mercial forest production and watershed protection. The Direc cion Nacional de Parques (DNP) was created by Law 67 (1974). Three groupings of areas and .reserves were established, including eight 5pecific categories for protected areas. This was the first piece of comprehensive wildlands legislation because it acknowl edges the importance of all the factors that interact to form a functioning natural system instead of concentrating on just the timber or just the wildlife, as in the of the two preceeding laws. None of the three laws (or four if we include the proposed Fauna Law) includes the rower of expropriation of land for the purposes of implementing the I,egislation. The DGF and DNP are given land management-esponsibilities, in the first case for For estry Reserves ;md Niltional Parks, of which National Parks would be a part. An apparent conflict exists between the Parks Law and the Forestry Law. Both laws charge their respedive in stitutions with the administration of national parks. Article 12 of Law 67, however, states that institutions holding state lands that become parks or reserves should transfr i;,ose lands to the DNP any remuneration of any kirJ. This would seem to im ply that the nationJ! parks currently under joint DGF/DNP ad ministration should pass to DNP. The cooperatbn between these two institutions, particularly with respect to prevention of forest fires in the Cordillera Central, is laudable. It is to be hoped that this close cooperation continues as each institution develops in dependent programs in Its own ma.'lagement specialty. A potential conflir( also exists between the DNP legislation and the proposed DVS legislation. Both institutions will have the responsibility to limit tJrojects which include collecting and harvesting of wildlife for scientific purposes. Chapter III, Ar ticle 10 of the proposed Fauna Law states that all types of hunt ing licenses will be issued by DVS/SEA. Article 13, Section 2 of Law 67 states that the hunting or capture of animals in parks or reserves can only be done for scientific purposes, with DNP au thorization. The problem could arise that the DNP, to conduct its own research within a national park. must first apply for permis sion from DVS. While it is proper that DNP personnei should have valid collecting licenses. there should be no confusion as to which institution is responsible for research and management within the National Parks System. This responsibility should be long to the DNP alone. The greatest problem with respect to fauna is not legal. but rather an institutional problem. The Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros was formed from the fisheries division of Caza y Pesca (See discussion in the Marine Resource Section). The DVS took over the responsibility of the hunting division. The DRP has em phasized fish and in thp.ir programs. while the DVS has concentrated mainly on terrestrial fauna. Endangered marine fauna such as the manatee. Trichechus fnur species of marine turtles have been largely ignored. Their populations are extremely low, yet neither institution has been able 10 come to grips with the problem. The DVS has a strong interest in these species. but lacks the mandate and the to develop any thing other than .. small progr.::m to protect one turtle nesting beach. The DRP has a clearer mandate, but that institution is oriented more toward production than to protection of endan gered species. In8t1tutlonal Framework Four Dominican institutions have major responsibilities in the wildlands sedor: the Direccion Nacional de Parques; the Departamento de Vida Silvestre; the Departamento de Recursos Pes queros. and the Direccion Forestal. The former two. DNP and DVS, are treated here. DGF is discussed in chapter IV and the DRP in chapter VII. Secondary institutions in the wildlands sedor are considered to be those with significant impacts on wildlands through activities. programs. or projects directed at the wildlands resources. Not in cluded here are the institutions that affed wildlands through their activities. but which are not mandated by law to recognize wildlands as part of their concerns (Table VII-3). Secondary insti tutions fall into three basic categories. policy. registration. and re search/education. Table VIII-3. Government institutions affecting wildlands in the Dominican Republic. Primary Institutions (management) Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP) Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVSISEA) Direcci0 General Forestal (DGF) Departamento de Recursos Pesqueros (DRP/SEA) Secondary Institutions (poUcy) Congreso Presidencia Cancilleria Secondary Institutions (research/education) Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) Museo del Hombre Dominicano (MHD) Parque Zool6gico Nacional (ZOODOM) Jardin Botanico Nacional (IBN) Universida1 Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena (UNPHU) Universidad Cat6lica Madre y Maestra (UCMM) Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina (CIBIMA) Secondary Institutions (registration) Celltro Dominicano de Promocion de Exportadones (CEDOPEX) Departamento de Ganaderra (SEA) Departamento de Sanida J Vegetal (DSV ISE,'\) Wildlands policies at the national level are established by the Congress, the Presidency. and on international affairs. by the Chancery. Actual management responsibilities. however. are del egated to the individual agencies. Registration responsibilities are the task of CEDOPEX, Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal. and Departamento de Ganaderia. Their functions to date have been much more in the realm of registering introdudions and exports of fauna and their produds rather than examining the advisability of trade in a species itself. Little control has been exercised. CEDOPEX is charged with registering all exports of Dominican products. While this offers the potential to control the interna tional trade of threatened or endangered species. to date it has been less than effective. The mechanism exists. but the Domini call government has not moved to restrict hade in these species. Agreerr. to protect certain species only exist as memoranda between the heads of these agencies. and do not carry weight of law. Greatly needed is the passage of the Fauna Law and subscription to the OTES international agree ment. Research and education functions are performed by a large number of institutions. The museums, zoo, botanical garden and universities are tradition.u research institutions. The universities have major responsibilities for biological sciences education, but wildlands management training has not been offered. Expansion of wildlands training at these institutions is necessary if profes sional needs are to be J:let in the future. Important support functions in research and education could be carried out by secondary wildlands institutions. Currently, 79

PAGE 89

however, the activities of each of these institutions have been conducted independently and with only minimal cooperation. In addition, the three national universities play a major role in training the students who become agency staff. Oose linkages arp. maintained between each agency and the two universities in Santo Domingo. The DGF is also :ied to UCMM programs. Most of these linkages are due to the sharing of personnel. Top agency officials are also professors at the various universities. While somewhat effective at keeping the various officials informed as to what current activities each institution is pursuing, this depends to ;!. great ded on the i1.dividual holding the position. A great need exists for institutionalizing tlus kind of communica tion. It could raisp the overall level of effectiveness of all the agencies and reduce duplication of efforts. Wildlife Department (DVS) is composed of five divisions plus an administrative unit. The DE:partment was formed in 1978 with an original staff of six. It has grown rapidly to a current staff of 41, not counting honorary inspectors. The emphasis of existing and future programs is clearly or. wildlife production and control of vertebrate pests (Table VIII-4). Threatened and endangered species are receiving less attention. Table VIII-4. Completed and planned programs of the De partamento de Vida Silvestre. Programs Completed 1. Ecological baseline study of bio-physical fadors of the Lake Enriquillo watershed. 2. Ecological haseline study of bin-physical fadors in the Rincon Lake watershed. 3. EcolClgical baseline study of flora and fauna in the area of the Bao hydroeledric projed. 4. National survey of damages caused by vertebrate pests tll agriculture. 5. Construdion of a nursery to supply plants used by wild!ife. 6. Preparation of the proposed Fauna Law. 7. Study of I I potentially commercial species for food produdion includ ing doves, pigeons, quail, and other game birds. Futute Programs Proposed 1. Inventory and evaluation of seleded ecosystems i.1 the country. Dedgned for international funding at RD $1,159,812 covtring two years. 2. Mongoose control program in suburban and rural areas. This is a co operative projeci and would involve the anti-rabies center as well as DVS. 3. Proposal to brin!', vo German volunteers to work in the ecosystem evaluation program. 4. Proposal to study the raising of frogs, Rann cnlcsbinnll, for commercial uses. 5. Proposal to study ways to raise Japanese quail for rural consumption and commercial sale, cooperating with ALCOA and Partners of Michigan. 6. Proposal to study damage to cacao by endemic woodpecker, Mtlanupts stria/us. 7. Proposal to begin acquiring equipment and establishing laboratory fo,' use in the vertebrate control program in cooperation with Denver Wildlife Center of U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service <:nd USAID/DR. 8. Quail produdion program by rural youth on a nationallevp.1. 9. Proposal to develop a conference entitled Seminar on the Study, Man agement, and Conservation of Columbidnt in the West Indies. The DVS hilS remained a centralized agency in spite of the Di rector's stated goal of delegating authority and responsibility to the Se-:tiO!l heads (Pena, pers. comm.). In part, this is a result of the confined office space and the small staff. The close proximity of one office to the next, and the Director's office to all the rest, imposes a certain amount of centralization and CO/itrOI. The small staff size facilitates the exchange of ideas and a strict separation of functions among Sections is the focus of all Department activ ities. Once the DVS becomes a ic.nd management agency with responsibility for administering wildlife sanctuaries and manage ment areas, a certain amount of decentrali:z<;Hon will by necessity take place. 80 A common problem for new or reorganiud agencies is a lack of public identity. The DVS has not been immune to this prob lem, but has recognized it and designed a series of public educa tion programs to remedy it while at the same time explainill6 the mission of the DVS and the existing wildlife laws to the public. Daily newspapers, weekly supplements, and other printed mate rials such as posters are used to rl?ach a broad audience. Radio and television are used to reach other sectors of the population as well. In part because of this need to build puolic support, and in re sponse to deliberate SEA emphasis on food producticn, the DVS has moved heavily the production of gamebirds as sources of meat and eggs for rural populations. While programs "sing pigeons, quail. ar.d partridges do increase public awareness of he Department and are legitimate efforts aimed at increasing rural incomes and consumption of protein, their placement within DVS is questionable. Buildir,g a public image as an action agency is goal, but creating a wildlife institution with an identity c1o'.ely linked to introduced and exotic species could be a mis tak ..... The mission of the Depi1rtmento de Vida Silvestre should be redefined to be the conservation and production of native fauna with top priority on the preservation of existing genetic re sources. The restoration and management of native wildlife, the preservation of threatened and endangered species, and the con .. trol of vertebrate pests should be the major goals for the DVS. Training has been an integral part of DVS staff deveiopment from the beginning. Seminars, short CClurses, and workshops have been used to broaden st expertise. Most of the training pro grams have beell in-country, but an effort has been made to have DVS personnel attend regional and Caribbean meetings. In general the approach has been to organize workshops or short courses in Santo Domingo and bring in expert help from an in ternational agency to conduct the program. Most of this training has been of a practical, field-oriented nature. Most of the advanced wildlife training must come from abroad. Local universities do not have the faculty nor facilities to offer courses beyond the standard biological sciences curriculum. The goal of much of the international assistance received (0 d"lte has been to boo;t the technical level of DVS programs. Inform a tion, COnsUIti;1g, and training have been the principal inputs. To develop its programs and achieve its goals, the DVS maintains direct contacts with a broad range of foreign institutions. The in stitutions and the nature of their contacts with DVS are shown in Table VIII-s. It is important to note that the DVS is attempt ing to rebuild interest in the Man and the Biosphere (MAS) Committee that was set up in the Dominican Republic but is not currently operating. The MAB program can be another impor tant link between national and international efforts to reintegral:e economic developmEnt and wildlands management in region.I1 ecodevelopment. Foreign technical assistance has involved the Denver Wildlife Research Center in v.crtebrate pest control. the United States Peace Corps in quail production, and a plan to use German Vol unteer Services in the ecosystem evaluation program. Partners of Michigan have backed a major t:xpansion of the quail production scheme. OAS, RARE, WWF, and CCA funds are being sought for the expansion of programs addressing the problems of threat ened and endangered species, but these sources for funds have not been developed to date. National Parks Directorate fDNP) was created by Law 67' (1974) as a dependency of the President's office and actually be gan functioning in 1976. Its principal objective is the conserva tion and study of the biota and environment in areas termed "national parks" in rural, urban and recreational areas as well as historic sites. The most important functions of DNP are: (a) to guarantee the public access to recreational areas and the opportunity to enjoy contact with nature in its pristine state; (b)

PAGE 90

Table VID-s. Institutions in contact with the Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura, Dominican RepubUc. Iii -5 !tl r:: i 110 i 110 110 ii e .. 1.:' .E 0:: :; .5 IS .:; Partners of Michigan X F X X X Denver Wildlife Research Center X X X X X Inlernational AffairslUSDI X F Migratory SpecieslUSDI X Endangered SpecieiUSDI X Enforcemenl/USDI X German Volunteer Services X F F F F United Slales Peace Corps X X Organization of American Slates X F RARE X F IUCN X OTES X World Wildlife Fund X F Caribbean Conservation Association X F !CBP X MAB N New York Zoological Society X National Audubon Society X CATIEffurrialba, Costa Rica X Dept. of Nalural Re ;ources/Puerto Riro X F Institulo Mexicill'J de Recursos Nalurales X Notes: X operatinb N not functioning. F future plans. to provide study areas where management techniques can be tested and directed to achieve stability in natural ecosystems; and (c) to set aside areas where the populace can participate in direct observations of nature and complement th03e observations with environmental education-both directed to increasing public awareness of their relationship with the envimnment and their responsibilities to nature. Early emphasis was on urban and historical areas, but with a change in priorities since 1978, the immediate goals of the DNP have been to protection of the five existing national parks and to begin the task of explaining the importance of na tional parks to the public. 'Jlt.e agency has four departments, but the largesl by far is the Department of National Parks with a staff of approximately 82 in five national parks, plus the depart ment chief and a staff biologist in the natirmal office. The re maining 'hree departments have a total F rofessional-technical staff of fIVe. The priority of the DNP in the last two years has c1cJ/'ly aeen to establish an effective presence in the national parks. Df.centralization is a primary objective in the DNP. Consider ab'.e respor.:.ibility for decision-making has been delegated to the individual park administrators. All park ad:ninistrators meet once a month with the national director and the financial administra tor to interchange of ideas and to coordinte activities. Six or seven field managem have received special training overseas in national park planning or administration. Because the national university system does not offer specialization in nation al parks, recruitment has been from agronomy and forestry de gree programs. Though one might expect graduates to be more interested in working within their curriculum areas, the DNP has not experienced a high turnover rate at the upper levels. Delegation of authority and responsibility has been effective in foster ing a high ievel of in the job. In spite of. rustic conditions in the parks, the administrator lives in the park and there have been few resignations. The DNP has expanded rapidly with most of the growth occurring in the last two years. Between 60-70% of the total DNP budget is allocated to the national parks. The 1980 budget is roughly RD$600,OOO but this is expected to in crease to nearly RD$900,OOO for 1981 (Morell, pers. comm.). The problem facing the DNP now is how to raise the experience lev el of the field personnel. It is the hope of the Director that even tually all park guards will have completed their secondary educa tion. His goal for the second stage of staff development is to have a ranger corps composed of unmarried high school gradu ates from outside the region in which they are patrolling. Cur rently, most park guards are local peasants without diplomas (Morell, pers. comm.), but low salaries deter involvement of edu cated persons. International financial institutions may be asked to supply interim grants to support DNP operiltional expenses while the parks are being developed. Once better facilities are available to park staff and visitors, the problem of maintaining mid-level staff should decrease. Training requirements are considerable. Putney (1980) states that parks a1c le will need 12 professionals and 48 technicians. Local universities do not have wildlife or wildlands management degree programs. Current estimates are 12 biologists and 90 agronomists graduated per year, with perhaps four having spe cializations in forestry. The biologists tend to have a stronger laboratory orientation than field orientation (Putney 1980). Clearly if DNP and other .vildlands programs (DVS, DGF, DRP) are to expand and develop, foreign training will have to con tinue. Seminars, short courses, workshops, and advanced programs must be included in any trainir.g program. Current DNP projects include the managemtnt and protection of five national parks; environmental education through publica tions, media articles, interviews, and other means; maintenance of urban parks under DNP supervision; and staff training. Projects include the modification of the boundaries of Los Haitises Na tional Park, the protection of pigeon nesting areas within the parks (not a shot was fired in the Parque Nacional del Este this ye;rr-Morell, pers. comm.), an inventory of national wildland areas, and the development of infrastructure in the National Park of the East. This last area has been chosen as a pilot project for training DNP staff. Equipment is barely adequate to provide minimal support to DNP efforts. Ranger cabins are sorely needed to establish a per manent presence of the DNP in all regions of the parks. Foreign assistance at the present time is mostly in the form of cooperation and information exchange. Recent collaborative ef forts have involved Alvaro Ugalde, Director of the National Park Service of Costa Rica (1971\), Craig MacFarland from CATIE Wildlands Management Unit. Turrialba, Costa Rica (1980), and Allen Putney from the Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Manage ment Program, St. Croix, Vigin Islands. A longer-term consultan cy in 1979 by Edmundo f;mrenkrog, OAS, led the management planning effort for the National Pa.k of the East. A wildlife biol ogist currently works as advisor to the Chief of the National Parks Department. The biologist is a United States Peace Corps Volunteer completing his tour of service. From 1976 to the prf' ent, a total of six Peace Corps Volunteers have worked in tht: DNP. Future consulting needs include a park management specialist to train the park staff, a marine ecologist to guide the inventory of potential marine parks, and an advisor for :! Ie national wild lands inventory. The DNP maintains close contacts with CA TiE, WWF, IUCN, TNC, University of Michigan Wildlands Program, Caribbean Conservation Association, and other groups and individuals with conservation interests. 81

PAGE 91

National Zoological Park (ZOODOM) was created in January 1975 by law 114, as a dependency of the administrative secreta riat of the Presidency. (Flora and fauna in the area surrounding the zoological park rc:-eived protection ten days earlier by De cree 451.) Its principal (unctions are (a) to study the ecology and behavior of indigenous species of vertebrates in the different habitats of the island: (b) to develop biological research on indig enous species and use that knowledgE' to promote public awareness of the importance of conserving native biological resources; (c) to maintain adequate numbers of native and exotic species in captivily to facilitate scientific research to help preserve endan gered species; (d) to contribute to the esr: .. l,lishment of ecological reserves suitable for basic research on populations; (e) to contribute to the appropriate admini ,trath'n of the faunal re sources of Hispaniola and the ?"''l; (f) to preoare publica tions on native and exotic fauna e;'hib:ted in the zoo; (g) to serve as a practical laboratory for resf arch and educational pro grams (ONAP 198G). The zoo's major activities focus on education and research, in cluding captive breeding of native fauna, reintroduction of pro geny to native habitats, and field studies on wild populations nf rare, threatened, or endangered species. Newly constructed, modem facilities permit ZOODOM to develop program activities. ZOODOM receives adequate budgetary support from the Presi dency, as weI! as close collaboration with the local universities. 11nthropologica! Museum (MHD) was created in 1972 by Law 318 as a dependency of the administrative secretariat of the Pres idency. Its principal functions are: (a) to conduct research on Pre-Colombian anthropology, enthnology and archaeology; (b) to maintain and conserve exhibitions of representative artifacts; (c) to maintain an inventory of museum collections; (d) to advise the government on the purchase of artifacts from private collections; (e) to publish research results. Major emphasis is given to prehis toric man. MHD collaborates closely with DNP on speleo!'Jgical studies in or near national parks. A major effort is urgently needed to determine the best methods for protecting important cave resources, particularly cave art. National History Museum (MNHN) is also a dependency of the administrative secretariat of the Presidency. Its major goal is to conduct basic research, especially on birds, molluscs, and croc odiles. MNHN is nearing completion of a detailed inventory of the entire coastline. Though housed in a large and impressive bUilding, it is not yet open to the public as displays are still be ing prepared. Serious pest problems are damaging some of the reference collections maintained by the MNHN. Unless the col lections are adequately curated and protected, the MNHN cannot function as a natiOl:a1 repository. Principal Problems and Needs Several problems exist at the legal level which impede ade quate wildlands conservation and management efforts: 1) Man agement categories are not unified but very fragmented; 2) Man agement responsibility is sometimes unclear and lacks the proper emphasis that should be placed on threatt:ned and endangered resources and their critical habitats; 3) Control of exotics is not firm e',lough (this will improve with proposed Fauna Law); and 4) E.-:ports are not controHed by international convention (GODR is no/ iI signatory of CITES). Institutional prob!ems are of two types, interand intra-. inter institutional cooperation is sadly lacking. A few projxts (e.g. management plan for Parque Nacional del Este) are carried out by interinstitutional, interdisciplinary groups. The traditional ac counting system used by the government makes projects with shared budgets almost impossible, thus reducing the incentive to work with an outside institution. Some individuals and their in stitutions do milnage to conduct cooperative projects, but these 8a succeed in spite of institutional structures, not becau3e of them. Usually a person with charisma is responsible for much of the success. Interinstitutional interfaces are also problematic fronts. Fortunately most of these are bi-institutional interactions and should therefore be easier to solve than multi institution prob lems. The man problems are between DGF and DNP over ulti mate control of the nation,lI parks in the Cordillera Central, and between DVS and DRP over the agency to manage and protect sea turtle, manatee, and other seemingly forgotten species. A major problem is developing between DVS and DNP over the methods and criteria to use in a nationwide survey. Because of the broader mandate given to the DNP, it is suggested that the national wildlands survey be ma[laged with DNP as the lead agency, and that a parallel national wildlife survey be managed with DVS as the lead agency. The DNP orientation should be to ward complete, functioning ecosystems largely unultered by man. The DVS orientation should be to identify critical areas for indi vidual species of wildlife. Once the DNP program has selected appropriate areas in thE' national park and wildland system, the DVS program should be ready to select wildlife refuges, sanctu vies and management areas from the remainder. That way a needless duplication of effort is avoided, and in addition first pri ority is given to functioning natural ecosystems. Because of the management inherent in the wildlife approach, it seems 10gi-:a1 to select candidate parks first on the basis of naturalness, and select ran3e and management areas from the remaining areas that can then be manipulated to favor certain species. A major institutional need is to develop mechanisms and struc tures for encouraging multi-institutional cooperation. An incen tive and reward system is needed to facilitate coordinated inter relations. An authority structure is needed to guide the efforts of various collaborating institutions so that a common goal or ob jective is achieved. Currently, the best cooperative efforts occur when funding and guidance come from an exogenous source. An expert consultant with externll funding can often get higher levels of cooperation on multi-institutional projects than can an internal coordinator using national funds. Apparent sources of difficulty include: 1) Administrative/accounting procedures that inhibit sharing funds and 2) Institutional jealousy with respect to territory, control, and credit for efforts; 3) Reward/incentive system that tends to ignore non-traditional achievements; and 4) Reluctance to divert resources from traditional projects to new, untested, or innovative projects. Foreign expert consultants with external funding can avoid many of these pitfalls, but what is needed is the institutionaliza tion of inter-agency cooperation. This problem area is important enough to warrant careful study. Educational capacities for advanced wildlands training are es sentially non-existent in the Dominican Republic. The source of both expert consultants and advanced education must be external (Putney 1980). A two-pronged approach is suggested where con sultants should be brought in to train host country nationals in a learn-by-doing context, and selected Dominicans should be sent to foreign training facilities, including institutions of higher learn ing where t1-'",':1 rursue advanced degrees. It might :;( ; )ssible to arrange exchange programs or vis iting ; '. : ams to strengthen certain curricula in the na tional uni,," '''c, IS the demand for wildlands personnel is felt in the mark.e(, ii.'. shortage in supply may bring out competition among agencies for qualified personnel. It would be more pro ductive to have training pmgrarns planned and in progress to supply adequately trained resource professionals as they are needed. Conflicts between wildlands and essentially all other land uses will increase as development proceeds. Even with an adequate system of wildland reserves the future of the living natural re sources of the Dominican Republic would still be in jeopardy

PAGE 92

from spillover effects generated in adjacent or even distant areas. The effects of an oil tanker accident in the Mona Passage could be devastating to some wildlands resources (see chapter 'II). Wildlands cannot be left to stand alone. An integrated system of wildlands, forest production lands, watershed protection areas, agricultural Ian cis, and more t:leveloped land use areas must be devised if the country is to minimize the irrevocable loss of wildlands natural resources. Recommendations Hlghe8t L.",els of Government 1.1 Develop comprehensive legislation establishing GODR's dedi cation to the conservation and management of natural resources and the environment. While not a subsector of wildlands, com prehensive, uniform environmental legislation is of critical impor tance to the effective protection for the natural resource base of the Dominican Republic. 1.2 Become a signatory nation to the Convention on Interna tional Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The Departamento de Vida Silvestre (DVS) currently cooperates on CITES matters, but the legal mandate is lacking. This should be considered a top priority for congressional and presidential action. 1.3 Approve and implement the proposed Fauna Law. The effec tiveness of the DVS is seriously compromised by the outdated Hur,ting Law. The proposed new law would add needed force to the programs which aim to protect and conserve endangered species, among other needed modifications. 1.4 Declare all islands and keys in the Dominican territorial waters to be Natural Resource Reserves, and establish interim protection for local flora and fauna. The importance of the coast al islands and keys is so high that an immediate step is warranted to protect the populations on these small land areas, particularly nesting birds and turtles. Protection should be established as soon as possible, and studies begun to determine the proper resource management category for each area. 1.5 Revise and modify existing laws which create wildlands managment categories. Existing laws have created a jumble of categories, groupings, and agency responsibilities. A uniform set of categories and selection criteria is needed with clear determi nation as to the management priorities in each area, plus an un ambiguous assignment of each category to an agency or institu tion. 1.6 Continue supporting environmental education. The Govern ment of the Dominican Republic is to be congratulated on its ef rorts to establish environmental education as an integral part of the national education system. These efforts must be continued and expanded. Inte .... ln8t1tutlonal Level 2.1 Clarify borders between DVS a"d the Departamento de Re cursos Pesqueros (DRP) with respect to marine fauna. Certain threatened or endangered marine fauna have not leceived proper attention. The DRP should either increase emphasis on sea turtles and marine mammals, or pass this responsibility to the DVS. 2.2 Define role of the Direccion General Forestal (DGF) with re spect to National Parks. Article 12 of Law 67 charges all other institutions with the responsibility to transfer National Park lands to the Direccion Nacional de Parques (DNP). Complete control of the National Park System should rest in this institution. The cooperating arrangement between DGF and DNP should con tinue with regard to forest fire prevention and cor.trol. 2.3 Establish a clear mandate for one institution to be responsi ble for protecting caves and caverns. Effective protection of the rich cave resources of the Dominican Republic does not exist. While Law 492 (1969) declares a large number of cave5 throughout the country to be National Monuments under the control or protection of the Oficina de Patrimonio Cultural, Law 67 would appear to assign this responsibility to the DNP. Cur rent cave research efforts are carried out by the Museo del Hom bre Dominicano and the private Sociedad Dominicana de Espeleologia. 2.4 Expand environmental education programs at all levels. Every institution interviewed in the wildlands sector has some sort of environmental education program. These should be en couraged. A careful evaluation of the different programs might reveal some key characteristics that help determine the success or failure of a particular method or media. An evaluation of experi ences gained to date should be made. 2.5 Encourage integrated development schemes applying ecode velopment priciples. Carefully integrated, multi-disciplinary pro grams to develop land use techniques applicable to hillside farm ing must be assembled. By developing productive resource ex ploitation methods, the government can help relieve the pressure on parks and equivalent reserves while at the same time stemming the rural-to-urban migrations. 2.6 Establish guidelines and effective controls over the introduc tion of exotic species. The proposed Fauna Law would establish this as a responsibility of the DVS, but clear cooperative agree ments will be needed among the various agencies involved in cluding DVS, Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, Departamento de Ganaderia, and DRP. At the present time, international orga nizations are able to bring exotic fauna, both terrestrial and aqua tic, into the country with apparently no restrictions or even in spections. Published guidelines would greatly facilitate cooppra tion in and control of exotic introductions. 2.7 Modify accounting and evaluation procedures to encourage inter-institutional cooperation and sharing. 2.8 Develop national data base for natural resources. A compre hensive data base of natural resourr.es would I:,e a great planning aid and would help identify poter.tial impacts at an early stage in project formulation. Special emphasis should be placed on threat ened and endangered species. de Vida SIlvestre (DVS) 3.1 Increase emphasis on the protection and management of threatened and endangered species. Too much emphasis is placed on commercial production. While control of pest species is im portant, the top priority should be research and management ef forts aimed at preserving the existing genetic resources. A sepa rate section in the Department should be created for this pur pose. It is difficult to accept the argument that a wildlife depart ment should be involved in the of exotic species for com mercial applications. These tasks could better be handled by de partments experienced in raising chickens, turkeys, and other fowl and small livestock. It would be more logical to dedicate wildlife department resources to conservation and repopulation with native species and to the control of vertebtate pests. 3.2 Establish the DVS as a land management agency. Wildlife management areas, sanctuaries, and refuges do not exist under the DVS control. These areas should be established to permit a directt:d management program by the responsible agency. 3.3 Conduct comprehensive national wildlife surveys. It is of prime importance that coordinated national surveys of wildlife popLilations be begun. Compilation of baseline population and distribution data is the first step in establishing an accurate picture of the faunal resource and its condition. Dlrecclon NacionaI de Parques (DNP) 4.1 Conduct a nationwide wildlands survey. This is the first step in evaluating the appropriateness of existing units of the national park system, and also the first step in identifying new areas that should be evaluated for possible inclusion. Useful aerial photog raphy may be forthcoming from the SIEDRAlCRJES project. This would supply an effective way of determining the level of hu-83

PAGE 93

man impact on selected areas as a first-cut approximation of wildness. 4.2 Adjust boundaries of Los Haitises National Park. It is of ex treme importance that the boundaries of this park be clarified so that effective control of the area can be established. 4.3 Conduct a coastal survey to identify mCd"ine park candidates. The Museo de Historia Natural is currently conducting a pro gram of coastal inventories and their experience should be in cluded in a comprehensive marine park survey. Lead agency re sponsibility. however. must remain with the DNP. 84 4.4 Expand Isla Cabritos Naticnal Park. While the goal of a com plete self-regulating ecosystem may never be possible for Isla Cabritos National Park. at the very least the park area should be expanded to include crocodile nesting areas and other critical habitat areas. 4.5 Include marine areas in the Parque Nacional del Este. The management plan (DNP 1980) contemplates a 500 m marine zone around the park plus the canal between the mainland and Isla Saona. All of this area should be included in the park.

PAGE 94

IX SDlall Farnters Introduction This chapter deals with some of the environmental problems and agrarian trp.nds concerning small farmers in the Dominican Republic. In any study of the relationship between man and na tural resources, the role of the small farmer is extremely impor tant for he is a food producer. Moreover, he constitutes the bulk of rural population of what essentially still is an agrarian country. It is the small farmer with simple technology who pro duces the bulk of the food for national consumption. A survey of official government literature Ipads to the conclu sion that it is the small farmer who is implicitly viewed as the main agent of irrational use of such resources as soils and forests. Regardless of the validity of the accusations, the rmall farmer is an important agent in ecological transformations, a part of the problem, and a necessary component of any solution. Although the main concern of this chapter is the specific ways in wnich the peasant's productive systems affect natural re sources, first we must consider some broa.der societal issues that are deemed crucial to the resolution of the ecological problems existing at the level of peasant society. These societal issues will confront Dominican society during the 1980's with some of its most trying challenges. These challenges can only be met suc cessfully by a concerted national effort involving the manner of dealing with the issues, a massive marshalling of resources, and strong political determination. The Dominican people must de termine how they will meet these important challenges. Some of the AgJrarian Stru.cture and their Ecological Implications Land Tenure There is an ongoing dual trend toward fragmentation and con centration of land, the key resource in agriculture. FrClgmentation brings about a continuous rise in the number of "minifundios" or small farm units. According to the Agrarian Reform Institute (lAD 1979), out of 495,000 farms in 1970, some 300/l00 had less than two hectares (also see Table VI-3). Furthermore, within this broad strata of minifundia a substantial number of landholder's plots are as small as liz or even '14 hectare. These two latter types of tiny land holdings are termed "microfundios". During the 1980's the numbers of minifundia and landless peasants are ex pected to increase (S. Moquete, pers. comm.), though consider able efforts to provide land Lo the landless will continue under the agrarian reform programs. Minifundia are particularly wide spread in the Cibav, while in La V!ga and San Francisco de Macoris, minifundia coexist with latiiundia. The eastern coastal plain is dominated by latifundia in sugarcane and cattle produc tion. The reasons behind the fragmentation of property have not been clearly 'Jentified. However, laws of property inheritance of the Dominican peasantry give siblings equal 5hares of the par ents' property upon their deaths. f. generation ago, when mortal ity rates were high, the number of surviving descendants was much smaller and life t::tpectancy was shorter. Socio-economic and ecological issues logically spring from an increase in minifundia. What is the relationship between the very small landholder and natural resources? To answer this question we need to study the production systems of the farmers of small landholdings. While farmers from the Cibao and the Central Cordillera have been studied to learn their and eco nomic techniques, the peasants of the southwest relT.:Un largely a socio-economic unknown. Small farmers and agribusiness operations have divergent pro ductive orientations. The small farmer has small plots for fruits and staples including plantains, dry beans, yucca, sweet potatoes, pigeon peas, and in some areas. tomatoes. Very few small farm ers grow rice, a crop grown by farmers with more capital and machinery. Most larger farms have a concentration of the mOTe profitable export cash products such as sugarcane, tobacco, cacao or beef. The small farmer still relies on rudimentary agricultural tech nology. He uses basic tools and little if any mechanization or fer tilizer. In the Dominican Republic fertilizers are used primarily by the cash crop export sector (SENHCA 1977). At the same time several studies have shown a positive and open attitude of small farmers to modem technology, including fertilizer, but they do not use it because they cannot afford it (Tejada and lie Moya 1977). Loanir.g institutions generally consider the small farmers a risky credit subject; hence they have a hard time acquiring credit for production. With his rudimentary technology the small farmer is fcrced to extract as much as possible from his land; this can easily lead to overutilization and soil degradation and as soils deteriorate pro ductivity decreases. The rudimentary technology the peasants use 8S

PAGE 95

does not necessari1y lead to a deterioration of the soil and/or other natural resources. The regions where peasant technology is causing the greatest ecological damage are the steep slopes of I:he Cordillera Central unsuitable for seasonal crops, particularly beans (M. Paulet and B. Santos, pers. comm.). Even if a peasant is in a position to take soil conservation measures, his individual ef fort is lost when the problems are widespread and affect whole regions (Moquete 1979). In areas such as the watersheds of Sabana-yegua, San Jose de Ocoa and Tavera, the solution to the deterioration of natural resources requires intersectorial planning that transcends the level of the famIly farmer. The concentration of land into larger farms is another signifi cant aspect of the agrarian structure. Serious socio-politicaJ as well as ecological issues must be considered. Though latifundia can be productive, large farms in the Dominican Republic tend to be inefficient and their practices frequently lead to lIatural re sources degradation, e!>pecially fo!' beef cattle ranching and sugar cane production, specifically in the case of the government lands. Concentration of the land usually involves peasants selling their land to mass producers. Agricultural real estate value in the Dominican Republic is amongst the highest in Latin America. In the Cibao, the cost of a hectare of agricultural land is DR$2,000 to 4,000 or more (A. Abreu, pers. comm.). "Professional cattlemen" purchase a significant portion of the land sold by small farmers. City dwelling professionals (lawyers, doctors, dentists, engineers, military officers, etc.) make up a new sociological strata investing in land and cattle. This represents economic behavior well as prestige. These entrepre neurs prefer to rear cattle because, unlike modem mechanized crops, livestock does not require their continuous physical pres ence; a manager can be hired to run the farm. Total cattle stock stands at 1.9 million head grazing on about 1.4 million hectares of land, roughly 55% of the land in agricul tural use (Ecol. Cons. 1980). The ecological problems associated with ranching are well known in the country: overgrazing is common. Cattlemen remove most trees because they believe cat tle prefer sunlight to shade; the elimination of trees from the pasturelands contributes to the desertification of the countryside (Ecologia 1979). The Dominican Government is a very large landholder and iand user. Currently it runs 11 sugar mills and it owns about 187,000 hectares dedicated to sugarcane and pasture. The State Sugar Council (CM) has a poor record for land use and is a money losing enterprize. According to knowledgeable Domini can technicians, the CM has severe administrative and planning limitations. In a visit to a CM sugar mill the first impression one has is of general decay of the infrastructure and the the mill appears old and deteriorated, the workers' housing is in poor condition and the raillines, irrigation and drainage canals un kempt, etc. In the caze of Central B,ll'ahona, the CEA's largest mill, the poor maintenance of the irrigation canals has led to widespread loss of good agricultural soils due to salinization. Ob viously, if the government is going to be a fundamental institu tion in the struggle to preserve and manage the natural resources it would do well to start by putting its own house in order. Bmployment and Income Another feature of the agrarian structure is the scarcity of em ployment opportunities and the concentration of income. Unem ployment is not so much a threat as is underemployment. Offi cial figures usually report that underemployment affects 40% of the rural labor force. More recent studies, however, indicate that these official statistics may be underestimating underemployment in the countryside. Juan Diaz (1978) found that even in places like Moca, one of the most productive sectors of the Cibao, un deremployment stands at 46% 88 Given the low productivity of small farms and widespread phenomenon of underemployment, rural income is very low. According to lAD (1979) the number of families below the "poverty line" is increasing. This same report concludes, pessi mistically, that the present trend is towards a greater concen tration of income rather than towards a fairer distribution of it. The Rural Exodus The combination of forces acting upon the peasantry has led to a significant rural exodus. This exodus away from the coun tryside is visible in all rural areas but it is more intense in the Cibao and in the southwest (Breton et a11977). 'The migratory movement is in fact made of several currents, the widest running toward urban centers such as Santo Do mingo and SatiilgO de Lc>s Caballeros. Peasants sometimes migrate directly from their areas of origin to these large cities, other times they migrate in stages, moving first to small cities or large towns, then to Santo Domingo or Santiago. Ramirez (1981) found that in Santiago and Santo Domingo half the population is made up of immigrants. Furthermore, 80% of the people over 35 years old are immigrants from rural areas. percent of the immigrants interviewed said that they were looking for employment, while another 23% wanted to improve their economic condition. Needless to say, the mas sive arrival of thousands of peasant households into these and other cities has strained the capacity of the municipalities to pro vide basic public services as electricity, water, sewage. dc. (see Chapter X). During the last 20 years have also migrated abroad. are no reliable statistics on the number of Dominicans liv ing abroad as figures fluctuate quite widely. Researchers of the National Population Council (CNVP) believe that a minimum of 400,000 Dominicans live in New York City, at least 50,000 are in Puerto Rico, and several thousands live in Venezuela, Severe un employment problems and strong internal pressures within the aforementioned countries will probably stop or substantially re duce the arrival of more Dominican immigrants. Problems in rural areas have brought about an increase of squatters to both national and private lands (lAD 1980). While in 1979 there were only five invasions of private property, 30 inva sions had taken place in the first nine months of 1980. Invasion of land is not a minor dhorder, but an organized confrontation involving hundreds of squatter families; some 5000 peasant households were involved in 1980. The invasion of private land raises serious socio-political issues. The government must inevit ably tctke sides-it can either remove the squatters or it can ex propriate the land from its owner to allow the squatters to keep the land. Either way, serious conflict always ensues with one of the parties in dispute. If the present trend in land invasions con tinues, it will pose a serious potential for political confrontation within Dominican society. The Production System of the Small Farmers in the Southwest Given the limited tirn.e available, it was only feasible to look with some degree of detail at the production of the peasantry of two critical areas: those of the south west and the Cordillera Central. While the small farmers of the Cordillera Central have been the subject of several sociological studies, those of the southwest have been largely ignored. For this reason our attention will be focused on the latter. Both the Cordillera Central and the southwest are critical re gions because the struggle to transfoi11l the country into a self sufficient food producer will be largely determined by what oc curs in these regions. While the battle for food production will

PAGE 96

be fought in the dry and fertile but still largely uncultivated plains of Azua, the war will be won in the Cordillera Central where all of the country's major river systems are born. Thus the destiny of the lowland plains and the highlands is intimately linked by the major rivers. In the last 30 years the Dominican peasantry has undergone substantial changes. Although they might not agree upon the causes of these changes, Dominican writers who have explored the subject tend to agree on the broad pattern of these changes Bosch 1980; ISA 1979). Until the recent past peasant house holds were largely self sufficient in food staples; their participa tion in the market economy was peripheral so they hardly needed any cash. Three decades ago the countryside had half the population it has now and the natural resources base had not been seriously depleted. Today the peasant has been largely inte grated into the market economy as both producer and consumer. He has become a consumer of a wide variety of manufactured goods and services that require cash. He acquires by selling his product or labor. As their cash needs have grown, peasants have had to intensify their productive efforts but higher productivity can only be achieved with the introduction of expeJ\sive modern inputs like machinery, fertilizers, weed killers, etc. The majority still rely on traditional production systems such as slash and burn agriculture; however, these can very easily degrade the natural resources base, particularly if the expanding need for cash is accompanied by a population explosion. How do peasants of the southwest make a living? What tech nology do they employ, and what effect does this technology have on the local natural resources are of the questions we shall address next. The Southwest is formed by seven provinces: Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Independencia, Elias Pina, Pedernales and San Juan de I" Maguana. This large area covers 14,500 krnz or 30% of the na tional territory. In 1989 its population was estimated at 692,000 or 13% of the nation's total (ONAP 1980). Its population density is 38/kmz much lower than the national average of loo/kmZ The Southwest is the poorest area of the country and least de veloped agriculturally. Nonetheless, the Southwest has the poten tial to become the main agricultural frontier of the Dominican Republic. Only 27% of the region is distributed into farms (see Table VI-2). A substantial amount of the land is still government or community owned. If water is made available through irriga tion projects under construction or being planned, as much as 78% of the region could be put to agricultural use (ONAP 1978). Howe .. er, SIEDRA (1Q77) reporst only 49% of the Southwest has soils of moderate or hig!: agricultural potential (see Table '11-9). The natural resources of the dry Southwest are being rapidly depleted by deforestation for charcoal, the destruction of the dry forest, salinizatinn of the soil, and desertification. Although not all these changes ,an be attributed to the small farmers, they are an important agent because they constitute thE' bulk of the agri cultural producers and their productive system remains largely unchanged. The economic base of most peasant households is sustained by three main activities: slash and burn agriculture, the making of charcoal, and the rearing of goats. Each of these activities is im portant fOI the sustenance of the household economy, but all of them, given the rudimentary methods employed, strain the exist ing natural resources particularly with increasing monetary infla tion. Slash and Burn Agriculture According to the 1971 census there were 54,300 farms in the Southwest. Of these farms, 76% or 41,400 had less than five hec tares. Small farmers grow numerous crops because of the range of microclimates found in this generally dry area, which has, nonetheless, marked differences in precipitation and altitude. Coffee is cultivated in the higher areas, plantains are grown on the plains where irrigation is available, and beans, chick peas, and YUl:ca seem to be grown everywhere. Rice and sugarcane are also grown but usually on the liUge farms. In the parched Southwest where water determines agriculture, those peasants who have access to it can successfully cultivate a crop. Most small farmers, however, depend on the vagaries of the weather and rudimentary farming skills for dry-land farming. Families raise most of their yearly food needs by slash and burn agriculture (Fig. IX-I). The tools and techniques of this type of productive system in the Southwest are remarkably similar to those used by the peasants of the Cordillera Central (Werge 1974). Of all the different activities carried out by the peasants of the Southwest it is slash and burn agriculture that has the broadest negative impact on local resources. Damage is particu larly noticeable on the steep hillsides of the S;erra de Martin Grande, Sierra de Baoruco and the southern slopes of the Cordil lera Central, and also in crucial watersheds such as the Rio Yaque del Sur, Rio del Medio and Rio Ocoa. During the year a peasant cultivates several types of crops in a number of plots that are usually widely separatec1 from one another and distad from the household site. As fre quently state, this productioi1 is for household consl.mption and for sale. The manner in which household productiol is split be tween home consumption and the market varies widely. There are no reliable figures that would allow one to place a small carmer along the continuum ranging from those who hardly mar ket any produce to those who sell most of their production. "lonetheless, the fact that in the Southwest the small farmers tend to market very small amounts reflects not their desires or attitudes but that low productivity barely provides the yearly sLlstenance for their fiUTIilies. In the Southwest, as in the case of the Cordillera Central (FAO 1971), the peasant does not normally own all the different plots he cultivates. He gains access to them using a variety of land ten ure arrangements varying from full ownErship to rent and share cropping. Elpidio Ramierez is a typical "conuquero" from Las Yayas, near Padre Las Casas, who cultivated two plots under different tenure arrangements in 1980. On the steep hillsides with thin, rocky soil that surround his community he cultivates a two hectare plot that he owns. He plants yearly crops of beans and yucca for household consumption, plus com for his chickens. Since his children are too small to help with field chores and he does not have money to pay for laborers, Elpidio has incorporated a part ner, his brother, to share in the risks and the costs. Elpidio con tributes with the land and the seed while his brother supplies Figure IX-Ia. Slash and bum opming Iht subtropical dry frrtsl ntar Padrt las Casas. Small fanntrs art now mItring Iht dry lowlands whtrt Iht vagllrirs of rainfall rtdult Iht probability of a sllCctssful harvtsl. (Pholo, Gary Harlshorn.) 8'7

PAGE 97

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Figure IX-lb. Slash tII1d bllrn agriw/tllrt on shallow, rocky soil in dtgradtd subh'"pi(1I1 dry fortsl illlht Iru'tr SlIblll/ll Ytgllll wlllmhtd. (Pholo, GillY HllrslllOm.) most of the labor. This tenure arrangement is known as "halves" because at harvest the crop will be spiit into two shares, not nec essarily equal. From his share Elpidio first sets aside 136 kg of beans to cover the annual family needs, plus an additional 91 kg as seed for next year's crop. Any remaining beans from his share are sold in the market. Four years ago Elpidio became the physical owner of this plot by clearing the dry forest on the govemment land. He cleared the land by relying on another widesp':ead peasant labor ex change known as "el com'ite". In this particular case, Elpidio re payed the labor contributed by his neighbors, relatives and friends by offering them food 001 the day of the "convite" and later with his own labor. "Convhes" seem to be called also for the heavier agricultural tasks such lS weeding and harvesting. It is interesting to note the Elpidio did not abandon his plot after cultivating it for one year; rather, he has pla'1ted crops for four years and manifests that he has not noticed a significant decrease in yields. The common assumption is that p:asants abandon their plots after only one year of cultivation. In the fertile valley Elpidio cultivates a 1.0 hectare plot that he rents for DR$10 for a two-crop agricultural year. In this plot he produce5 commercial crops that can find a ready market: tobac co, peanuts, and, if the price is right, beans. To prepare the land he rents a pair of oxen at DR$s per day. It is in this rIot where he uses whatever mcdern inputs he can afford such as fertilizers and weed killers. Besides cultivating his own plot for household consumption and a rented one for commercial purposes, Elpidio also engages in another occupation common among the small farmers of the Southwest. He makes charcoal in his spare time as a cash ':Jpple ment. The demand of Azua truckers for charcoal is good u,d the truckers haul it to the main market in Santo Domingo. Elpidio makes charcoal about once every two or months. In the Southwest most of the peasants occasionally make charcoal but. only the very poor do it as a full time occupation. The Making of Charcoal Charcoal production is one of the most widespread and impor tant sources of cash for the poorer economic strata of the arid Southwest (Fig. IX-2). Virtually all charcoal produced by the poor peasants goes to the cities and small towns where is the main cooking fuel of the poor, who cannot afford liquified gas or elec tricity. It is difficult to establish how many households are engaged either full or part time in the charcoal industry. One can infer that the number of households involved in the charcoal business must run into the thousands by the fact that in the town of Azua 88 Figure 1X-2a. Gmyillg bmllchts and smllll s/tms 10 "/Ilkt charcoal. (P/IOI", }O/III Shorts.) there are 100 trucks working full time hauling charcoal to the markets. These truckers make a formidable political pressure group as shown by their threats to block the main highway of the Southwest if FOREST A proceeds to reduce their charco.' hauling peril' its from the present level of two trips per week. The is the largest charcoal producing region in the Dominican Republic. Jennings and Ferreira (1979) estimated the, region's output at an average of 200,00 sacks per month. This would represent a early tutal of 2.4 million sacks, about half the estimated national productiOl' The sack is a large hemp bag which is not a standard measure: all sacks vary and the average weight of one of these fully-loaned sacks is unknown. Charcoal sacks, like goats, are sold on sight without weighing the product. Truckers currently pay producers about DR$3 per sack. CharcoaL as previously mentioned, is basically in the towns and cities by the poor, but the middle income strata use it as well. It is used not only for cooking but also for the very energy wasteful practice of boiling clothes. For some myste rious cultural reason the people consider that garments have not been washed properly if they have not been boiled. Wood is too precIOus to bt. consumed in such a manner. The Dominican gov ernment shoulC: carry out a widespread campaign to discourage such a v,rHce particularly now when there are many cold water detergents on tlte market. All three daily meals ;,re cooked with charcoal but it is the midday meal when the g:eatest amount of charcoal is consumed. A family of fL'e or six members requires about one five gallon Figure 1X-2b. SIIuk of ,licks rttuly 10 bt convtrltd inlo cillucoal. (Pholo, SIImity Hukiulon.)

PAGE 98

can of charcoal per day, which is worth DR$O.70. The major midday meal requres a half tin can. Of the different foods pre pared, beans require the amount of energy. Native beans, according to housev. ives, are notoriously hard a,. require long cooking. Arperican beans, on the contrary, are sulter and cook faster. A natural suggestion which comes to mind is the need for further research within the Domillican Republic's re search centers to produce several varieties of beans that will cook with less energy than those now available in the market. Characteristic circular patches of burned ground mark the site where a temporary charcoal kiln has been constructed and fired. Most peasants of the Southwest prefer to construct kilns that will produce 20 to 25 sacks of charcoal. Making a kiln is strictly a family or household activity. Sr. Conce near Neyba makes char coal of a full time basis. It takes his six young sons and himself fi days to cut the wood and make the 25 sack kiln covered \'i.... Next comes the firing of the kiln and the delicate process of burning the wood-a process that takes about five days. Then it takes another two days to sack the charcoal and transport it on burros to their house. The distance between the charcoal making areas and inhabited areas is progressively great er. As the "charcoal front" advances the prime woods bayahonda (Prosopis jlllifioTII) and cambron (Acacill farnesiana) become scarcer. Sr. Conce, Iiki? many othe. charcoal makers, also faces serious problems du" to erosion of the soft loose topsoil necessary to cover the kilns. In the areas where charcoal is being intensively producf'd, the destruction of the dry forest has led to erosion of the thin soil leaving it barren and rocky. Charco a :lemand increases every time the price of fossil fuels increases. This perhaps accounts for !;;e rapid expansion of the "charcoal front" in the Southwest and in the Southeast; many peasant families now find it a profitable commercial activity. Roads facilitate the movement of the product to the market. Dry forests are being seriously depleted (Fig. IX-3). There is no refor the trees that have been cut for charcoal are either to tally ooshoyp.d or left as short stumps that will take a long time to regenerate. Stump sprouts face a further threat: the thousands of voracious goats browsing freely across the disappearing dry forests of the region. 'r'he Rearing or Goats The third important component of the peasant's production system is the rearing of goats. Peasants refer to goats the poor man's cow. In the Southwest most families raise go .. ts because they do not have the economic capacity to have cattle. Many households have between four and five goats that are an occasional source of milk and meat, but mainly function as a Figure 1X-3a. Subtropical dry fortsl striously dtpltltd by culling for charcoal. Tht ftw tmtrgenl trw (righl skylint) giVt an indication of Iht farmtr height of Iht fortsl. (Pholo. lIalo Russo.) Figure IX-3b. Waadculltr in Iht Parql/t Nadonal dtl Eslt. (Pholo. John Shorts.) hedge against economic insecurity. In an emergeucy they can easily be sold for cash Jecause of the significant (780 m ton) gap between production and demand (SEA 1978). The tendency is for the gap to widen with the elimination ()f pigs due to swine fever. If it were not for its t Kkwardness. the goat industry could make a much greater economic contribution to the peasant econ omy and cause less environmental damage. Goat production has not changed in generations. Peasants give their goats minimal care; goats survive J:,y foraging on extensive communal and gov ernment lands. Goats will eat practically any type of vegetation; it is common to see bark peeled from trees. Allowing goats to roam freely is quite detrimental to the animal's development: no control or care can be given to the young born in the bush, re sulting in as much as a 40% juvenile mortalily rate Oose Alvarez, pers. comm.), due to disease, dog attacks and accidents. Peilsants do not vaccinate the animals or take measures to control para sites. There is no suppiementary feeding with minerals or vita mins and consequently the creole goats take up to two years to reach a marketable weight of 20 to 25 kg. Improved breeds of goats reach 50 kg in the same time span. Most peasants, how ever, cannot afford to w-'it and generally sell their goats when they are 6-12 months old. Creole goats have low milk output, seldom surpassing one liter per day. Though peasants should their milk consump tion, they prefer not to milk the female goats so that the young kids can reach a marketable size faster. Creole goats are hardy animals capable of surviving with minimal care under adverse conditions. How:!ver, peasant-re:tred goats destroy the dry for ests of the Southwest. not only chew on the bark of but uproot the thin grasses and chew on the tender sprouts of trees that have been cut by man to produce charcoal. Though creole goats ha"e a negative impact on the South west's natural resources, the goat could become a dynamic pillar of the peasant eccnomy by increasing their income and protein nutrition. A growing unfulfilled demand exists for goat meat. The generations of rearing goats make the peasants of the South west the most viable source of manpower to be trained in effi cient resourceful modern techniques. Though credit has not been available for raising goats, especially to peasants, responsible gov ernment agencies must facilitatt. the transition into a more mod ern and efficient industry, espeCIally with education and financial aid. Slash and burn agriculture, charcoal and goat rearing all con tribute to the deterioration of the Southwest's natural resources, particularly under the present context of it rapidly expanding population and a growing need for cash. Of the different natural resources threatf!ned by the intensification of the traditional sub-89

PAGE 99

sistence systems it is the dry (orests and the fragile, loose and erosion-prone soils that are most affected by man's activities. In the case of slash and burn agriculture, the main agent of erosion is the short cycle crop (e.g. beans) planted on the steepest terril;!'. As a final note it is necessary to mention the recent blow sus tained by the small producers. African swine fever caused the elimination of all pigs from the Dominican Republic. According to the SEA the number of pigs in the country was about 800,000 the disease and the subsequent elirr:inaHon of the animals. This industry was predominantly in the hands of small peasant producers for whom it represented "the poor man'; money box". The reating of pigs was mnre profitable than goats for the peas ants. A study of the effects of the elimination of pigs on the peasant economy is needed. The Impact of Natural Catastrophoes on 'he Peasants In the last two years reasants of the Southwest have been stricken by hurriCa:"1"" r ,wid, Frederic and Allen. In a of hours thousands of saw their houses shattered, crops de stroyed and animals drowned. Many human lives also were lost. Those who began to rebuild did so in vain because the following destroyed their efforts. Material damages in the Southwest were enormous. ONA in a patent underestimation, calculated th: economic costs of David a,ld Frederic at DR$130 million in the Southwest. The psychological costs of disasters have not been taken into consideration but they seem to be substantial and will influence future attitud
PAGE 100

tilizer, etc. The outright granting I)f land to landless farmer does not motivate him to induce sound Ia.,\d management techniques because he does not have th.lt knowledge; he has to be supplied with other types of inputs including eduction,credit, water, mar keting and technical assistance, especially In a community atmo sphere. Communlf.y Office (OOC) This reaches many commlmities via its com munity deveiopment workers. Altogether the ODC has some 400 sodal promoters throughout the country; 25 are currently '!S;igned to the Southwest. The task of the community development workers is essentially political, i.e. to orgnaize the community so that local goals Ci:Jl be achieved. Community orga:lization has a two stage process whereby tbc people first identify their principal socio-economic problems and then the :>eople are organized to solve tre identi Hed problems. A school. bridge, sports field, water supply sys tem, etc., may be among the objectives of the community. It is assumed that when the community acts together, with some gov ernmental help, to solve one of these problems, It will learn to organize itself more effectively to tackle other local problems. Ecological principles play no role whatsoever in the Communi ty Development Office. When officials of the ODC were queried about what ecological message was being delivered to the communities or if the social pror.loters received any training in ecological principles, the answer was always negative. Indeed, it would seem that a very good opportunity to create some de gree of ecological awareness at community level is being ne glected by not using the mechanism ahady existing here in the form of several hundred community development workers throughout the nation. Crucial Challenges for Dominican Society During the 1980's "The tragedy of the R-egina Express caused great commo tion in the conscience of the Duminicans. If 22 persons die asphyxiated in a ship's bilge trying to leave their own country, the country itself is subject to judgement. What occurs that so many people try to leave their own country at great risk, great cost a"d deceiving the law?" -EI Ustin Diario, Santo Domingo IX 1980 Today in the Dominican Republic one senses a growing aware ness that the country is standing at a crossroad. It hces daunting interrelated challenges of almost unpr'!cedented m.:gni tude concerning population, food and energy. PopulaHon As one of the smallest countries in Latin AmericJll (barely 48,000 km and c:lready one of the most densely populated (100 persons per km, one of the critical problems of the Dominican Republic is its fast rate of population growth. The country's pres ent population is estimated at 5.6 i'lillion with an annual increase near 3.0%-one of the hiShest growth rates in the world. If pre sent growth trends continue it is likely the population will dou ble within the next two decad(;'S. Substantial and irreversible damage to the natural resources base has occurred with the pres ent population; doubling the population in the near future has alarmed some members of the local scimtific and technical com munity. rena Franjul (1979) has recently point"d out: "Neither the country nor the land can afford the luxury of a doubling of the population before the end of the present century." F(anjul believes uncontrolled population growth is the country's principal socio-economic problem, that will have serious negative con sequences on the quality Jf life of the Dominican people. Though the alarm has been voiced by a few local scientists most gover:tment policy makers do not yet seem aware of the reper cussions of uncontrolled population growth. The voluminous planning literature produced by the government does not include substantive ccnsideration for family planning or a population policy. It is perhaps to these upper level policy maker.; that Fer nando Russell (1980) recently and somberly warned: n .it is not true that the country can continUl: to increase its population in definitely and at the same time supply it with its basic needs without provoking negative ecological damage." Food Production The Dominican Republic is a net food importer. The country produces about 260,000 m tons of food but requires an additional 100,000 tons of food (World Bank 1978). The urgency to achieve food self-sufficiency is fueled by the fact that malnutrition I.:\s become a chronic national problem. The diet of 75% of the people has calorie and protein deficiencies (B. Defillo, pers. comm.). Moreover, child mortality seems to be increasing (EI Caribe 1980)-a fact Defillo links to a downturn in agricultural production with a concomitant steep rise in the cost of tssential foods and the general decrease in the Durchasing pOW'2r of the Dominican peso due tn inflation. The Dominican Government has adopted a food policy to quickly raise the nutritional standarJs of the lower income groups (ONAP 1976). It has been estimated that 65% of the \101' ulation is below the 'poverty level'. If a food policy is to be suc cessfuL a massive production effort including a program to mini mize damage to the natural resources base will be required. Ac cording to Lopez (1980) the poor performance of Dominican ag riculture is closely connected to the "quantitative and qualitative degradation of our non-renewable resources". While the task of producing cash exports (i.e. sugarcane, cof fee, cacao, cattle, etc.) will largely remain in the hc!JIds of large private and government farms, the burden of providing the na tion with food will be mainly dependent upon the farmers of small and medium-sized landholdings. Energy like many developing nations, the Dominican Republic is a net importer of fossil fuels. Seventy percent of the energy demands come from increasingly more expensive fossil fuels. In 19711 the country's main cash export, sugarcane, was barely sufficient to pay for imported fue!" The energy crisis has deer seated ecological implications: to pay for fossil fuels the country will hwe to intensify the produc tion of traditional cash crops at a time when more lal.d will also have to be dedicated to food crops to feed a rapidly expanding population. Thus one can envision in the near future a serious potential for conflict in the allccati 1n of land for export and for food crops, while placing unprecent:. ted demands on the natural resources of the island. Some of these natural resources have al ready been severely degraded where they are no longer capable of sustained productivity (see Chapter VI). Thu5, the success of meeting the fClad and energy challenges is inescap;::bly linked to a judicious use of the remaining non-renewa"ole resources. One of the many disturbing results of dearer energy is that wood from the dry forests of the parched southwest and north west regions of the country will bl': extracted for charcoal pro duction. Charcoal is the principal cooking fuel of the urban poor. The rural poor, on the other hand, rely almost exclusively on firewood. Dominican households have recently had to face steep cost increases for Iiquified gas and electricity. It is likely the cost of liquid gas .md electricity will continue to rise which will in tensify the demand for charcoal and firewood. 91

PAGE 101

If the "charcoal front". that is to say the Vlood charcoal indus try, is allowed w expand in its present rudimentary fonn. the ex istence of the remaining dry forests of the Dominican Republic will be seriously threat
PAGE 102

x Pollution Introduction General Descrlpthm This chapter reviews en'/ironmental problems and the human health consequences of pollution in urban, rural, agricultural and mining areas, Water sLlpplies, air quality, solid wastes, sewer and sewage treatment, storm water drainage, industrial mining and agricultural pollution, disease vectors, pesticidES, accidents and other problems are reviewed and the impact of each is examined, Also, the response of the government to the various problems is evalllilted. Legal Basis Three institutions control municipal pollution but none con trols industrial or agricultural pollutivn. Legblation to create iNAPA, the National Water and Sewage Institute (Law 5994, 1962) mandated the provision of potable water and sewage sys tems for the nation except in the National District (Santo Domin go) and in Santiago. Potable water and sewage systems are pro vided to these two metropolitan areas under Law 498 (1969) by CAASD (Water and Sewage Corp. of Sar.to Domingo) and CORAASAN (Water and Sewage Corp. of Santiago). Municipal solid waste collection and disposal services are provided for each city by its Public Works Department, in addition to storm drains, road and street repair, traffic control and similar services. For ex ample, ADN (Municipality of the National provides solid waste management for Santo Domingo. These water and sewer a'Jthorities are mandated to :ilt use tariffs to cover operat ing and maintenance costs. The mining industry is currently the only industry subject to environmental controls as defined in Law 146 (1971). Articles 133-138 state that air, water and land may be changed in mining andlor processing operations, but they must be returned to their original states. Furthermore, contaminants harmful to faLlna, flora or MUSt not be used or released. Any government minis try findlilg such pollution shall have the Ministry of Mining close the concession until corrections have been made. Finally, the mining concession is liable for any damages caused by pollu tion. There have been recent instances of alleged pollution dam age from mining to which the concessionnaire responded with corrective measures for damages. Law 5914 (1962), covering Fisheries (Article 29), requires that industry control wastewater discharge, yet industrial pollution is apparently not legally controlled at this time. This situation prob ably results from the limited amount of industry in the nation, the nature of those industries and their tendency to be geograph ically dispersed. Nearly 70% of the manufacturing dollar value relates to agriculture, including sugar, furfural, molasses, tobacco, food and beverages. The on!y heavy industries are mining (baux ite, ferro nickel, gold and silver), cement and steelmaking, petrole um refining and electric power generation. With few ex<:eptions the individual plants are widely separated from one another, dis charge waste waters to different bodies and are remote f-om population centers. Legislative mandate is basically a response to a perceived need by the public for the protection of their general well-being which in this case includes the natural resources, air, water, :and, and public health. Institutional Framework and Capablllties The AdministraCive Secretariat of the Office of the President controls the Office of the Executive Director of INAPA. In addi tion to the Executive Director's staff, six Regional Offices and two central support divisions, one Technical and the other Ad ministrative, carry out planning, design, construction, Opp.TJting and all potable water and sewage systems in the na t;on those for the National District and for Santiago. The Regional Offices report to the Executive Subdirector whereas the Technical and Administration Divisions report to their respt!ctive Subdirectors. The Technical Division is divided into departments of Engineering, Operations and Maintenance, and Construction and Supervision. The Administrative Division is divided into de p-rtments of General Services, Finances and Accounting, and Users and Tariffs. The counterpart organizations for the National District (CAASD), and Santiago (CORAASAN), are organized along the same lines. The total manpower and support budget for lNAPA are re spectively 400 people and RD$300,OOO per year (pers. comm.). The mandate requires H.at user charges generate sufficient reve nues to cover investment in all potable water and sewer systems, their operating and maintenance costs and all administrative and coordination services performed by INAPA; thus INAPA is sup to be a financially self-supporting organization. Facilities planning calls for potable water services to private homes and community centers for both urban and rural populations, as well as sewer connections only for urban populations. Provisions for rural latrines or similar facilities are not covered by INAPA plans 93

PAGE 103

and hence are judged to be the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. Current INAPA planned potable water and sewer services are shown in Table X-I in terms of percent of population served. It can be seen that total potable water service is to be increased from the present 59% to 82% by 1990. Sewer service will be ex panded from 12% in 1979 to 26% in 1990 but wnh no credit as sistance for private latrines, septic tank/drain or other ac ceptable 5anitary systems in the rural areas. These figures illus trate the heavy work load carried by INAPA where the popula tion is growing rapidly, urban immigration is substantial, personal income and concp.rn about personal hygiene are low, and the ex isting sa'litM}' infrastructure is limited and in a poor of op eration and maintenance. Potable water supply and sewer service represent serious environmental problems. Environmental Monitoring INAPA has a central water purity laboratory with analytkal capabilities for physical, chemical and bacteriological testing by a staff of four technicians. Technical duties include testing services for 11 sewage treatment plants and many potable water facilities. The only other operational environmental monitoring systems are operated by multinational corporatioCls. The multinational environmer.tal monitoring systems are basic ally designed to meet the requirements of the parent As such the multinational plant will otten adapt the emission lim itations of the corporation's country headquarters, e.g. ALCOA would monitor and control emissions to United States standards, Falconbridge to Canadian standards and Rosario Dominicana might have adopted the standards of their design engineers. This monitoring has important implications and benefits. Of particular importance, however, that private sector environmental moni toring is a valuable to the Dominican Republic since it represents technical expertise, operational instruments and labo ratories, trained technical personnel and an environmental data base. Great care should be exercised in setting up an environmental monitoring system. The United States Envircnrnental Fh1tedion Agency wasted hundreds of millions of dollars over the last dec ade failing to apply quality assurance planning, specifications and protocols to environmental monitoring of air, water hazar dous and toxic waste streams. When the Dominican Republic un dertakes a national, multi-media (ail, water, solids) environmental monitoring program, the technical resources of the multinati,mal industrial sector can be of substantial assistance in developing costeffective environmental data. Water Supplies and Water Related Diseases Rainfall r.mges from 500 to 2700 mm/year, which results in stream flows in excess of 19 billion mS. In addition to this sub stantial surface resource, high ground water yields in e,lch of the 14 hydrographic zones (see Fig. V -3) are potentially available. The quality of surface and ground waters is generally adequate for agriculture but seawater intrusion in wells in the Azua area limits productivity of some wells, and salt content in the lower reaches of the Y'lque del Norte and Yaque del Sur rivers create use limitations. Types, Stlltistlcs, Trends and Developments Water supplies may be broaclly grouped as surface flOWing, surface impounded (lakes, reservoirs), and ground waters. The broad water uses for surface impoundments are hydroelectric power (CDE, Electricity Institute) and irrigation aNDRHI, Water Resources Institute). Flowing surface waters are iargely used for 94 Table X-to Percentage of natJunal popclaUon served by able water And sanitary sewerage systems. Source: B. Gonzalez, INAPA. 1960 1970 1979 1985 1990 Potable Water to RtsifltnctS Rural 1 5 10 18 24 Urban Z3 60 54 50 Potable Water Community Centers Rural 3 11 23 38 52 Urban 57 25 32 33 35 National 27 43 59 72 82 Sanitary Stwm for RtsidtnctS Rural Urban 13 16 25 38 44 National 4 6 12 20 26 stock or animal waler, potable water supply; industrial, mmmg and commercial uses; personal laundry and hygiene, etc. Ground waters arp. used (or potable wuter; industrial, mining and com mercial uses, some hrigltion, personal hygiene, and sundry other uses. The INAPA program for potable water will expand service and, where modem sewage collection and treatment is feasible, will increase the quality and degree of protection of those sur face waters receiving treatment plant effluents. CAASD is re questing engineering proposals on .. potable water proj ect to serve the shoet-term needs of Santo Domingo. The trends in water use should be relatively clear: "'s increas ingly expensive energy drives up the cost of water, users will be forced to use water more efficient!y. This should start with the big user, the government. Bacteriul of urban and rural surface waters (thvugh no current data is available), may be bringing about widespread use of filtered drinking to avoid water-bome diseases. This situation will not improve sig nificantly until more adequate potable water facilities oecome available. Salinity of irrigation waters in several lower river vall.:!y are,lS and siltation of reservoirs decrease the irrigation and potable water supplies. The increcl!;ing lack of concern on the part of the consumer society for the value of water, minerals and topsoil, and the rising cost of energy and labor, will becomp. ap parent when the tariffs, as required by law in this nation, must be paid. '('roblems and Issues The main potable water supply problems are currently in the water qu"lity and water cost categories. It would appear that water quantity problems will not appear in the near term except in certain isolated areas. 'me perceived prllblems are as follows: Potable water is hactp.rially cc,ntaminated periodically or continuously across thf' nation. Surface waters are reported to be baderially contaminated. Surface are reported to he heavily contaminated with sediments under a range of flow conditions. Sewage collection and treatment is available only to about 15% (25% reported by INAPA) of the urban population. Water qU.llity monitoring of both potable supplies and na tural surface wat.' appeiiJ' to be incipient, hence a general data base is non-existent. Water and sewer use charges not investigated in de tail, but appear low and based on volume, without adjust ment for pollutant loading. Ba.::terially cuntaminated water causes human alimentary diseases especially among the poor in rural and urban areas. Basen on the potable Vlater quality problems, the following are offered as recommendat:ons:

PAGE 104

Quality of rotable water delivered to urban and rural peo ple should be given priority status. e Educational programs must be undertaken to improve per sonal hygiene and sanitary facilities for the rural and urban poor. A progrillTi lo manage waiersheds and thereby reduce soil losses and siltation is needed. Water quality must be monitored to gather data to support better natural resource plannir!g al'd management. Citizens must pay full user charges for potable water and sewer services and thereby become aware of conservation measures; subsidized water to the poor will be necessary. Industrial Pollution It is traditional to look at large corporate industry with its usual smokestack and probable wastewater outfi. and to focus one's attention on correcting a large "pollution problem." In the Dominican Republic the highly visible multinational corporations, ALCOA. Falconbridge, Rosario Dominicana and Gulf & Western, have received such particular attention in the P1St. There have been a1legeu pollution problems from one or another of these firms in the past which were unfounded or have in turn been comded. There may be problems in the fut'Jre because men and machines fail. However, it should be stressed that these multina tional corporations us' headquarters-generated policies aimed at good management, energy and resource conservation, as well as good public relations. It should be noted that industry supplies only about 9% of the national "mployment compared with 55% for agriculture and 36% for services. Average worker salary in industry b iligh ,$3,883 in 1970) compared wilh agriculture ($575.20) and ser vices ($1880.30). The manufacturing productivity stimulates high er industrial wages ar.d As a result the Dominican Republic provides incentives for to locate and operate in the country. Preliminary Industl"lallnvent'uy lhe following parti:t.l inventory has assembled to help quantify the industrial poilution problem. It is basically a sam pling but has the virtue that it illustrates the nature of the prob lem. There Me slightly over 1,000 industrial plaJlts in thp. nation employing over 40,000 people. Some 475 are food and beverage that employ about 12,000. Those industries with highf!r pollution potential are sugar, mining. steam electric power generation, cement, steel. chemicals, and paper. Hence, there has been an effort to include examples of these industries in this re view. Industries in the Dorr.inican Republic (Table X-2) are generally diverse in products, capital intensive, generate substantial sales, offer 120,000 jobs when sugar is included (44,OOJ jobs without sugar), generate minor water and air pollution, have minor in dustrial safety prc...Jlems, and have few noise problems. Many have dust problems but only a few involve short-term hazards (e.g. explosions). There are several pollution problems widely recognized by the public: Particulate or smoke emissions from the FDC cement plant and the smoke emissions from Metaldom in Santo Domin g:;; suspendecJ solids and sulfur oxide emissions from steam elec tric power generation using Bunker C fuel oil with 2.5% sulfur content; and the majority of waste waters from food processing, SO
PAGE 105

T .. Characterization of the malor industries in the Dominican RepubUc. Rough estimates. Name/location Product/Capaclty Va e/yearS Employees WaterU..e Fuel Ule Impacts CEA Sugar 360,000,000 50,UOO 810,000 MT/yr Gulf Western Sugar/Furfural ,60,000,000 18,000 Central Romana 350,000 MT/yr Vicini Sugar 40,000,000 90,000 MT/yr FalconbrHge Ferronickel 110,000,000 Bonao 68,000 MT/yr ALCOA Bauxite 22,000,000 Pedernales 1,470,000 MT/yr Rosariu Dominicana Gold-Silver 72,800,000 Cotui Metaldom Steel 30,000,000 S.D. 60,000 MT/yr Refineria Dominicana Petroleum Products 550,000,000 de Petroleo, Haina BBlJday Fabrica Dominicana Cement 45,000,000 de c.emento, S.D. Industrias Lavador S.D. Soaps 14,000,000 Industrias de Asbestos Asbestos-Cement 9,000.000 Cf'mentos, S.D. 96 tons/day Carnes Dominicanas Meat Packing 35,000,000 S.D. 350 animals/day Acromax Dominicana Pharmaceuticals 6,000,000 S.D. Proteinas Nacionales Animal Feeds 88,000,000 1000MT/day Cerveceria Nac;onal Beer 38,000,000 Dominicana, S.D. 63,000 BBlJmo Industria Nacional Reclaimed Paper 4,000,000 del Pape!, Bonao 40MT/day Smaller private sector industries use more water and fuel (or energy) than necessary because of technical limitations of their staff and equipment, but some companies lack the capital to make recognized and needed improvements. These smaller firms discharge wastes to the sanitary or storm sewer or !o a drainage ditch or stream. Relatively small discharges with only moderate pollutant loads are tolerable in local rivers until stream quality standards are developed to Frotect the water resource. Problems and Issues The main industrial sector pollution problems are in the visible air pollution catego.y. Where water pollution problems exist they are masked by high sedimer,t inads, high B.o.o. (Biological Oxygen 'Demand) and bacterial contamination. It would be illogi cal to bring a portion of 44,000 jobs into jeopardy by imposing wastewater discharge limitations on industry untii improved 98 5,000 2,000 1,000 740 1,000 120 1,3('1() 300 120 ISO ISO 160 850 250 Minor Discharge 27,000 BBlJmo Soil management Closed recycle 12,000 IIBlJmo Closed recycle 3,000 BBlJmo 7., 700,000 I/d 150,000 BBlJmo Water Cry 17,000 BBlJmo Dust Closed recycle 9,000 BBlJmo Water hazard 2000,000 I/d 2,800 BBlJmo Smoke 1oo,0001/d 23,000 BBlJmo Stack sulfur emissions 100,0001/J 40,000 BBUmo Stack particulates (smokE) Oil spill controls in place 800,000 lid Untreated waste-water 200,0001/d 100,000 KWH/mo Untreated waste-water Breathing in mixing room 200,0001/d Direct discharge of blood 200,0001/d 230 BBlJmo 50,0001/d Dust explosion hazard 3,000,000 I/d 8,400 BBlJmo 1,500,000 I/d 4,300 BBlJmo Untreated waste-water watershed management techniques are utilized. Water quality monitoring efforts will not be of much value (except for baseline establishment and personnel training) until the stream sediments problem has been partially corrected. Finally, it will probably be found that most of the moderate to small urban industries will become sewer users as these services become available where their plants are located. This capacity will have to be designed into new sewer treatment plants if this pradice is accepted as public policy. The main industrial pollution issues which will need to be ad dressed are as follows: The government must repair its eledrostatic precipitators at its cement plants to control cement dust and ,;moke. The government steel plant needs smoke control equip ment for their electric furnaces. The Corporation Dominicana de Eledricidad is currently

PAGE 106

dischargil'g sulfur oxides and particulates when they are firing Bunker C fuel oil, but since conversion to coal is under consideration, emission controls for pulverized, cleaned coal should be evaluated. Falconbridge Dominicana (Eg. X-I) is a major Bunker C fuel oil user but careful shows that good natural ventilation has prevp.nted any demonstrable environmental damage. Their water uses and treatments have resulted in discharged effluent quality meeting Cana dian and showing no deleterious effects on sur face water qui'Jity in the Rio Yuna. Rosario Dominicana, S.A., which uses sodium cyanide leaching for processing gold and silver ores is a zero-dis charge operation, wasting all effluents to their tailings pond. Groundwater seepage below the dam is minimal but monitored regularly. Consideration may be warrantl!d to develop a "danger-reach" an
PAGE 107

Table X-3. Estimates of amounts of active ingredients and value of pestlddes used In the Dominican Republic in 1.979. (Data provided by R. Disono, Com paMa Qutmlca Dominlcana.) I. INSECfIOOES Monocrotophos InsecticideslNematicides Pirethroids Parathions Methomyl Metamidofos Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Other Organophosphates, Carbamates Subtotal II. HERBIODES for Rice tor Sugl.;cane Honnone (2,4-D, Dicamba, etc.) (paraquat, Diquat) for Cotton (Surfian, Karmex. etc.) Other (Monuron, Atrazine, etc.) Subtotal m. FUNGI ODES Mancozeb General Organics for Rice (Bim, Caconil, etc.) Seed Dressings Banana Spray Oil Copper Other Subtotal IV. Rudentiddt!S PGRs (Ethrel. MH-30) Molluscicides V. INDUSlRIAL DDBP Malathion Pil'ethrins Subtotal TOTAL Active Value Ingredient (kg) (RD$) 109.000 36,000 32,000 27,000 23,000 18,000 14,000 50,000 (309,000) 155,000 114,000 64,000 41,000 7,000 23,000 (404,000) 41,000 36,000 18,000 9,000 7,000 5,000 7,000 (123,000) 4,000 4,000 3,000 (11,000) 3,000 5,000 8,000 (16,000) 863,000 1,900,000 650,000 550,000 500,000 400,000 )00,000 220,000 900,000 (5,420,000) 2,700,000 1,960,000 1.100,000 700,000 120,000 420,000 (7,000,000) 720,00<.' 640,000 320,000 150,000 100,000 90,000 100,000 (2,120,000) 70,000 60,000 50,000 (180,000) 50,000 100,000 50,000 (200,000) 14,920,000 scribed to the government pesticide review agency before they can be used in the Dominican Republic; this is in tended to resist dumping of banned pestkide!: in this nation. FUilctionally, the government, the chemical industry an;:! the fmners must cooperate in training efforts to insure that pesti cides can be used sclely and their benefits t;, a&Jict!ltural produc tion and quality enjoyed for the general good of the country. A balanced program of safe user training, clinical testing to prevent toxic levels in body tissues and testing of agricultural products, soils, and water must be undertaken. These efforts should be tar geted .. t those sectors of maximwn ha2:ard, high usagl'!, high toxi city, least training. least care, etc. This problem is solvable but it will takE time and dedication. It will in fact become more complex as the nation diversifies its cropping patterns to decrease dependence on imported food and to improve nutrition. Hence it is very important to this agriculturally oriented country that a functional, cooperative and fully objective program for the safe and efficient use of pesticides be organized and implemented rapidly. 'Jhl! key ('lement in this type of program is cost. Where as a training program will take time and money, the lack of a 98 training program will be much more costly in the long run. In the long term, integrated pest control using chemicals, pest resis tant species, natural predators, sterile insect mating, etc. offer an improved system of pest control over the purely chemical route. Fertlllzcrs The excessive application of fertilizers wastes agricultural capital or credit and contaminates surface and ground waters. Fertilizer enriches surface waters to stimulate algae and aquatic plant and fish prowth, but does not benefit the farmer who ap plied it. Excessive nitrogen and other chemicals diminish the pot ability or surface .. nd ground waters. Though no reports of ex cessive fertilizer use were found, numerous small farmers with limited training create the potential for a problem in this area. However, until water quality is improved by better management practices, fertilizer runoff and ground water contamination will receive lower priority. One would suspect that the rising costs of fertilizer will focus small farmer attention on efficient application methods, amounts, frequencies and timing. Later, potable water sampling and analy sis can be used to find problem areas and serve as the basis for improvement. Water Supplies Rural water supplies from surface-riverine sources and reser voirs face problems. Surface waters require sediment removal and decontamination. Where riverine sources are used, impound ments are often required to assure quality supplies during floods and droughts. Contamination by livestock and humans, pesticides and fertililzers "up-stream" of the potable source and sediments be kept to a minimum. The cleaner the water source the less treatment required to process it to drinking standards. Rural water may be supplied by wells in areas whE're adequate quality ground water is present. The advantage of this type of water supply system is that it usually requires little or no treat ment, but a disadvantage is that it requires storage and energy to operate a pump. Electricity is preferred if avai!able, but diesel or gasoline engines (with or withr.ut electric motor) are economical; windpower, if available, may be best. Care must be ('xercised in the wdi design and construction to prevent surface water con tamination of the ground water. In coastal areas or in plOximity to saline lakes, pumping rates may need (0 be controlled to avoid saltwater intrusion into the groundwater supply zone. Data (fee Table X-I) indicate that only 10% of nJral popula tions and 23% of rur3.1 communities had potable water service in 1979. The forecast showed increases to 24% for rural residential and 52% for rural community potable water services by 1990. From informal comments, it appears that a monitoring program for potable water exists but is very limited by lack of resources. Tnese resources are analytical laboratories, trained analysts and sampling technicians, sampling team vehicles and supportive fi nancial budgets. The basic physical, chemical and bacteriological testing of routine samples is costly. When the apportioned cost of sampling, sample preservation and retrieval is added the analysis of a water sample, it can cost $25 or more. The problem arises deciding who must pay the costs and how they are to be Note also that prudent testing for fertilizers, pesticides, heavy metals from ore bodies (with or without mining) can dou ble or triple testing costs. Responsible officials should seek a practical and cost-effective policy for the supply of potable water to rural communities with its quality control responsibilities and costs. The ability to maintain a functional and expanding labor-inten sive agriculture might in part rely Oil the ability of INAPA to supply and assure the quality of rural potable water supplies. Dlscscs The Mii'listry of Health is beginning to assemb!e a modem data base of health information (0. Rivera, pers. comm.). The data re-

PAGE 108

covery system is aimed at institutional data sources, which have limited access to rural poor. An AID sponsored pilot project to place "health record keeping" technicians in small villages should correct data gap. The ph,1Tmaceutical states that ali mt!ntary diseases and respiratory infections appear to be the pri mary medical problems in rural areilS. The poorH rural people tend to seek clinical help for cnly acute illnesses; but apparE'ntly temporary wellness does not eliminate the disease organisms and recurrences are common. Infant and juvenile mortality appear to be major problems. Obviously, improvement in personal hygient: and sanitation facilities as well as availability of clinical facilities and nutrition in formation are needed. The control of insect vedors and under standing of the relation between sanitation and disease are im portant in any com!'l'1Imity health program. Urban Environmental Problems Urban environmentdl problems in developing countries seem to deriVE: from the slums which are populated by the very poor, recent immigrants. The combination of normal urban population growth plus recruitment from the hinterland is more than ex panding urban service facilities can handle. The poor immigrant finds some unoccupied land to set up a hut. These uncontrolled settlements often expand rapidly and totally !.:.ck utilities and ser vices; there are no potable water supplies, sanitary facilities, streets, storm drains, solid waste collection, fire or police protec tion, etc. Potable water must be carried in and stored. Personal hygiene and toilet facilities are initially absent and are brought in slowly. Food sanitation, storage and preparation is marginal. Storm drainage follows the natural land contours in many cases, removing some of the various wastes. Part of the slum is likely to be in a flood plain subject to damage or loss of human liie. The combination of having poor housing, lack of sanitatIOn facil ities, the presence of insect vectors, poor diet and humi'dl crowd ing result in disea'Je and mortality. Fortunately, the government recognize:; these problems and is to solve and prevent future slums. Potable water is brought to community centers. Latrine use instruction and con struction help contain wastes. Solid waste is collected from cen tral locations which are accessible by road. Insect vector erradica tion services are provided where disease problems are recognized or suspected. But resources which can be applied to these prob lems are limited. Slums face service deficiencies considered essential for the rest of the urban population. The following discussion attempts to treat those more impor tant problem areas in praciical terms as well as cost effective res olution. The government should be careful to select environmental codes and standards developed by other nations which will meet the needs of the human sedor and remain cost effective. Potable Water The potable water problem appears to be pervasive in that it cuts across all sectors of society but harms the poor in ihe slums most. For example, a variety of surface and ground water serve the Capital District through a variety of distribution sys tems, some new and some very old. Bacterial contamination of these syslems is apparently widespread. Episodes of low pressure and n('l service are frequent and often aggravated by daily elec tric pcwer outages. Many affluent residents use silver chloride disinfection f1ters to improve potability. Residential cisterns sup plied with public water are commonplace as a means of improv ing service, but many residents of the "old city" must rig tempo rary pumps to pull water to their cisterns when Fressure is low. In the slums community water systems allow poor people to draw supplies and carry the water to their respective houses The migration of the poor into the urban areas continuously expands the problems of potable water service. Simultaneously, large tracts of subsidized housing are being built with water and sewer service to proVide upward mobility and relief to excessive crowding in the slums. The combination of factors 'lttributing to potable water prob lems include lack of quality protection and reliable distribution, expanding demand, equitable cost distribution and resource con servation. Potable water quality is usually accomplished by protecting the source, supplying adequate treahl1ent with bacterial controls, pressurizing the distribution system to both provide transport and insure only outward or exfiltration leaking so that ground water contamination of the potable water ('annot occur. Unfortu nately, there are apparent problem!> in each of these three critical areas. Reliable distribution entails a rela\ively leakproof system, continuity of electric power ill,d adequate plar.ning to anticipate and thereby be prepared to meet new slum subdivisions, com mercial and industrial needs with reliable, good quality water. The expanding demand for potable water reflects lncreased pop ulation, improved standard of living and increased industrial and commerical uses. The problEm of equitable cost distribution is particularly vex ing in a developing The poor people must have potable water, but are the least able to pay for it. The cost of collecting water service fees is in itself a deterrent, hence subsidy is the fre quent ;:,nswer. In subdivisions, however, potable water charges are facilitated by metering and integration with sewer use and garbage collection charges. Th,-'Se charges also become the incen tives for resource conservation. It is difficult to envision a water conservation ethic in the slums served by the community center faucet. Sanitary (closed) Sewage The sanitary sewage problem in urban areas is widespread since only 25% of urban populations were reported to have been served in 1979 (see Table X-I). It also has two forms, collection and treatment. Collection is aimed at protecting the local population from their wastes, whereas treatment is employed to protect the surface water resource for subsequent use. Since many cities in the Dominican Republic are coastal (Santiago, San JU'Ul, La Vega and San Frandisco de Macoris excepted), the sewage dis charge to the sea has been accepted without concern. Increasing concern pul,lic health, the potential sensitivities of the ex panding tourist industry and emerging recognition of the numer ous public l:enefits to be derived from a thoughtfully planned prvgram of natural resource protection and :nanagement have started to accelerate the installation of sewage treatment systems. Since about half of the present National District's pota;Jle water supply is grocndwater, sewage collection will imprcve groundwater quality. Groundwater near the earth's surface in the same district are thoug/'.t to be responsible for contaminatiJ IS some piped potable water supplies by infiltration through pipe leaks durinB periods of low internal pipe pressure. Improved sewers will also help alleviate this suspected problem. Relatively complete sewage collection and will enhance the sur face water sources, permitting the cost-effective use of these waters for needed potable water supplies in the near f Jture. The existence and effective operation and mO::l'Itenance of sew ers and treatmenr plants should be an important .,;set to both in dustrial expansion and cost-effective wastewater 'reatment and control of industrial effluents. Where publicly-owned sewers and treatment plants are available and have unused capacity, industry should L encouraged to pretreat wastewaters prior to discharge into the sewer for the completion of the needed processing at the sewage treatment plant. The industry should pay for this ser vice and will find it more economical than most alternatives. The publicly-owned treatment works thereby provide a service, re-99

PAGE 109

ceive a fee, utilize unused capacity and can charge other priv .. users less. Finally, sewage collection and treatment, coupled with modem storm drainage and effective watershed management, will permit contact water uses such as swimming. fishing whether sport or commercial, and similar public benefits. This should contribute to improved national pride and significantly reduce the need for re mote or segregated facilities as the means for enhancing the tour ist business. It should be that large quantities of fish, shellfish and/or dried algae meal can be harvested from suitably designed and operated sewage treatment plants, creating financially attractive resource recovery potential. Tht! polishing pond that follows the extended aeration lagoon in many sewage treatment plants can produce over 100 metric tons of dried unicellular algae per year per hectare, worth about $250/m ton locally. Where this algae is recovered as food for fish culture, $22,000 worth of fish can be produced per year at $O.45/kg whole. Here is the poten tial for making sewage treatment plants financially self-sufficient and possibly even profitable. The algae recovery equipment can take the form of thickening by OAF (dissolved air flotation), de ',. '.tering with a vacumm filter and solar drying. S'ormwater Intense rainfalls create a variety of probler.ls, possibly most commonly flooding. An important collateral urban benefit is street and sidewalk flushing. But the damage to road pavements, sheet and gully erosion losses of inadequately protected soils, in flows/infiltration damage to sewage and their Clperational control. leachate damage tl) groundwater from sanitary landfills and failure to recharge the groundwater resources are the major problems. Local flooding is the first apparent result of urban de velopment as rain cannot infiltrate soils but must run off imper meable Adequte storm drain designs will control the problem in most cases, but as urban areas grow, more topographic trouble spots appear, previously adequate storm drains become overloaded. drainage ditches become clogged with debris, ponds develop which become breeding grounds for insects and in low steep valley areas which have been settled by rural farmers there is the ever-present dmger of loss of human life due to flash flooding. There is a general lack of awareness of the need for the ex pense of storm drains in an urban setting. Surface drainage is re ,!uired for areas that are paved or have a tight or non-porous soils, and it tends to be expensive, often $200 to $600 pel' capita. Consider the National District which receives about 1400 mm rainfall per year on relatively porous soils. It also recovers about half of its potable water from groundwater which is overused in certain areas ,15 evidenced by saltwater intrusions. Two technolo gies to improve storm drainage while controlling costs are avail able. Porous pavement as a porous macadam or interlocking ceramic or concrete bricks which will pass 250 mm of rainfall per hour and sand-topped concrete designed and sited to filter storm water, retain it and allow it to recharge the local aquifers. Solid Waste Collection and Disposal This important urban service is performed by the municipal government in each major city using modern packer trucks uper ating on regular collection routes. The solid is largely from food preparation and contains a minor amount of paper iUld rela tively little glass, metal, plastics or rubber. In the National Dis trict this largely biodegradeabie waste is currently being deliv ered to two sites, one a sanitary landfill and the other an uncov ered dump. Study and design programs are reported to be un derv.ay to implement a Mexican composting process as the means for managing the long-term solid waste disposal require of these subtropical urban areas. 100 The major solid wade problem will remain the collection func tion. Considering the crowding. lack of roadways and inadequate environmental sanitationlpermnal sanitation awareness of the very poor in the slums, garbage collection efficiency will be the lowest where the need is probably the greatest. Visits to several slums confirmed that the residents were generally discarding wastes in the nearest convenient open space. It is possible that the use of a central garbage pickup station (which can be ser viced by packer truck) can be added to improve the sanitation of slums. The solid waste sites observed exhibit the traditional problems of such operations: There appeared to be no leachate control measures, sites were not fenced to exclude persons and animals, vector controls (insects, birds, etc.) appeared absent, waste cell compaction and cover soil controls appeared minimal and short term disposal utility appeared to be the controlling factor. The institution of conventional sanitary landfill design criteria and op erational controls are definitely needed. On the other hand large amounts of paper, glass and metal are already being recycled which reduces significantly the municipal solid waste volume and tonnage. Compania Anonima Desperdicio recovers about 150 tons/week of paper for the National Paper Industry. The Domin ican National Brewery recovers about tVIO truck loads of broken glass bottles per day, for return to the Dominican National Glass Company. The Dominican Metalurgical Complex recovers scrap iron and steel to supplement its steel imports. Whereas composting of mU!1icipal solid waste with a high (75% or more) biodegradeable component is an attractive alterna tive to sanitary landfilling, the nonbiodegradeable component (glass, metal, plastics, rubber, ceramic and earth) is increasing. This will require either source separation or central separation fa cilities to be added with the consequence that a sanitary landfill will have to remain in operation to receive those non-recyclable residuals. A second concern is that of leachate control in existing and fu ture sanitary landfills. In areas where soils are porous and groundwaters are used for potable water supply, consideration should be given to placing an impenetrable layer between the waste cells and the groundwaters to protect the latter from any leachate that may be generated by surface waters percolating through the waste. Leachate contamination of groundwater may only be a minimal hazard at this time, but can be expected to in crease with time, income and population growth. Air Pollution The general perception is thilt minor air pollution in the 0,) minican Republic is industrially generated and that noise pollu tion is non .. existent. These matters are developed below and do represent significant if incipient problems. Numerous comments were received on smoke and particulate ('llissions from the Dominican Cement Factory and a few about the smoke and dust from the Dominican Metalurgical Complex (Meta