AE 621 Proposed Course Schedule
I Jan..6 Orientation to the Course and to the Law Library
Perimeters of the study; library resources and their location
II 13 Philosophies & Background of the Preservation Movement
Definition of terms & discourse on the history of the preserva-tion movement to the present. Increasing importance of preservation law.
Ill 20 Federal State & Local Law Systems
1. Their jurisdictional standing; 2. Their relationship to each other; 3. how they work; 4. How they differ.
IV 27 Eminent Domain
What it is; why it exists; when it can and should Or should not be applied; its effectiveness & use as a preservation tool.
V Feb. 3 Historic Districts
What they are; why they have developed; how they are achieved legally & otherwise, where they have been created; their success; their failure.
VI 10 Zoning and Anti-Neglect Ordinances
What they are; why they exist; their usefulness, strength and weaknesses; their applicability to preservation problems.
VII 17 Easements
Definition; how they operate; longevity; public benefit; tax implications & other owner effects; past uses; problems in application; proposed national government program precedents in conservation; applicability to preservation.
VIII 24 Assessment, Taxation & Land Use
Existing Assessment practices; real property value & relationship to assessment & taxation; Historic Structures Tax Act of 1975; real property tax abatement and rehabilitation; public benefit; accelerated depreciation tax policy effects on preservation.
IX Mar. 2 Current Legislation & Needs
Discussion & commentary on existing legal mechanisms, then strengths & weaknesses; future needs; prognosis for achievability
X 9 Student Reports: Plenary Session
Discussion of student reports, review of content; improvement proposals.
AE 621 Jan. 1 AE 581 Jan. 1
Preservation for Architects and Lawyers
I. Why Such a Course? Orientation
1. Quote Eileen Powers, Medieval People, London 1963, P. 155-6.
2. Quote F.L.W. on Architecture, N.Y. 1941, P. 59.
3. Quote A.W. Raitt-Prosper Merimer, Scribners N.Y. 1970.
Commentary on the state of the art and uniqueness of U. of Fla. proposed architecture-law dialogue.
a. Change of direction of preservation movement since 1966.
b. Increase in legislation
c. Interrelatedness of responsibilities
d. Broadening of concept
e. need for trained personnel
4. Emphasize exploratory nature of proposed course of study
II. History of the Preservation Movement A. Historical Societies
1. Earliest agencies interested in history of the U.S. 1791 Mass. H. S. founded 1804 N.Y. H. S. founded 1812 Worcester, Mass. 1824 Pa. 1831 Va. 1833 N. Car. 1846 Wisconsin
1876 78 Historical Societies in the U.S.
Jan 12, 13, 1976 Murtagh Lecture Page 2
1. Limited membership
2. Genealogically oriented
3. Bibliographically oriented
a. 1756 British museum founded London
b. 1773 Charleston, S. Car. museum founded
c. c. 1784 Chas. Wilson Peale museums
3. Mew York
d. Napoleonic period Louvre founded Paris
2. Historic House Museums
a. 1850 Hasbrouck House, Newbergh, N.Y.
1. First State supported H. H. M.
2. $8,391.02 legislatively appropriated for acq. cost.
b. 1859 Mt. Vernon, Va. opened
1. First privately supported museum
2. Effort begun in 1853
3. Mt. Vernon Ladies Assoc. of the Union Chartered 1856.
c. 1876 Independence Hall 1st opened as a
1. Has been used to exhibit relics and art
d. 1895 20 Hist. House museums open in U.S.
e. 1945 c. 700
f. 1965 over 2,000
g. 1975 ? but one presumes more than 2000.
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3. Outdoor Museums
a. 1891 Skansen, Sweden opened
1. Dr. Artur Hazelius began assembly in Stockholm park
a. Moved old Bldgs.
b. Interpreters in costume
c. Craft demonstrations
b. Philadelphia Museum of Art Rooms
d. 1926 Williamsburg, Va. 0. M. begun
1. 609 later bldgs. destroyed
2. 231 reconstructed
3. 84 18th C. bldgs. restored
e. Greenfield Village, Dearborne, Mich.
f. Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Mass.
1. All old fabric moved to empty site 200 acres +
g. Farmers Museum Cooperstown, N.Y.
1. Combines outdoor m. with gallery re. 19th C. N.Y. Clarke family life
h. Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Conn.
1. Similar to Cooperstown for N.E. water oriented culture
i. Old Salem, Salem, N. Car. Homes, Grey, Horton
1. Mostly all orig. bldgs. on orig. sites
2. Less than 10 reconstruction & few bldgs moved in j. Shelburne, Vt.
1. Continues Sturbridge approach with new bldgs.
2. Electra Webb, patron
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k. Plimouth Plantation
1. Total reconstruction on wrong site
2. Educational raison d'etre
C. Old and Historic Districts
1931 Charleston Ordinance
1946 Alexandria, Va.
1947 Williamsburg, Va.
1948 Winston-Salem, N.C.
1950 Georgetown, D.C.
1951 Natchez, Miss.
1952 Annapolis, Md. 1955 Boston, Mass. 1955 Nantucket, Mass.
1976 Approximately half of the 50 states have passed state enabling legislation which allows any municipality to zone for historic district purposes at the discretion of the municipality.
D. Preservation Agencies 1. Private Sector
a. 1889 Assoc. for Pres. of Va. Antiquities
1. Owns prop, in state & Powder Mag. Williamsburg
b. 1891 Trustees for Public Reserverations, Mass.
1. Concerned for disappearance of open space
2. Inspired Eng. Nat'l Trust
3. Trustees visited Eng. Eng. N.T. resulted
4. c.1900 Eng. visited U.S. to found U.S. N.T. failed
AE 581 Jan. 1976
AE 621 Jan. 1976 Murtagh Lecture Page 5"
c. 1895 Amer. Scenic & Hist. Pres. Soc.
1. Founded to admin, hist, props, for state of N.Y.-not own them
2. 1901 charter amended to give Soc. National coverage
3. 1926 administered 2 houses
a. Phil ipse Manor Hall, Yonkers
b. Hamilton Grange, Manhattan
4. Has annual meeting; gives medal for pres. work
1. D.A.R., U.D.C., Col. Dames, Sons of Nev.
1. SPNEA Incorporated April 23, 1910
f. 1946 Nat'l Council of Sites & Bldgs. Washington, D.C. 1. N.T. forerunner
g. 1949 N.T. founded
1. Has developed as chief private pres. agency
2. Since 1966 a quasi-public agency 2. Public Sector
a. 1872 Yellowstone Nat'l Park opened Sets conservation basis and space thrust of Gov't concern.
b. U.S. Army administering Arlington Nat'l Cemetary ( on Lee family estate of same name.
c. 1906 Antiquities Act
1. Gave Pres. of the U.S. authority to establish nat'l monuments on federally owned land.
AE 581 Jan. AE 621 Jan.
Murtagh Lecture Page (p
d. 1916 N.P.S. created in Dept. of Interior
1. a bureau
2. By Ex. Ord. (?) Army responsibilities of an historical nature come to N.P.S.
e. 1935 Hist. Sites Act.
1. Created a national policy to preserve sites, bldgs, objects of national Lig.
2. HABS begun in 30's as work program for architects WPA
f. May 1965 White House Conf. on Nat. Beauty Mrs. L. B. Johnson
1. 1000 invited; prop. pres. + bus. exec's.
2. Confrontation re. man made environment
g. Early 1966 Exec. Comm. on Hist. Pres. (Rains Com.)
1. Sponsored by U.S. Conf. of mayors
a. Albert Rains, Ch., former ch. Housing Sub- com. U.S. House of Reps.
b. E. Muskie Senator, Me.
c. Wm. B. Widnall Rep. N.J.
d. Phil. H. Hoff Gov. Vt.
e. Raymond R. Tucker Prof. Urban Studies, Wash. U. for Mayor of St. Louis
f. G. Grey, ch. N.T.
g. Laurance G. Henderson, Dir. Joint Council on Housing & Urban Dev.
h. Ex. off.
1. Stew. L. Udall Sec. Int.
Walt Pozen Spec. Asst. Geo. Hartzog Dir. N.P.S.
2. John T. Conner Sec. Commerce
Rex Whitton, FHA, B. of Rds.
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Ex. Off. 3. Robert C. Weaver Sec. HUD
Wm. SI ayton, Com of U. Renewal
4. Lawson B. Knott Ad. GSA
Wm. Schmidt, Dept. Pub.
i. Tech. Dir. Carl Feiss FAIA, AIP h. Oct. 15, 1966 89th Congress passed
1. Nat. Hist. Pres. Act.
a. Authorized Sec. Int. to Expand N.R. of H. Places
b. Created Advisory Council on H.P.
2. Demonstration Cities Act
a. Put the Sec. of HUD in the pres. business
3. Transportation Act
a. Gave new responsibilities to Sec. D.O.T. to avoid waterfowl-
i. Environmental Quality Act 1969
1. Set up Council on Environmental Quality to review impact of fed. expenditures & planning on the environment, j. 1971, May 13th Ex. Ord. 11593
1. Directs fed. Agencies to survey their cult, property & submit to N.R.
2. Consider it before it is sold, transfered or destroyed
3. When in doubt ask Sec. Int. for a determination of eligibility, k. Spate of leg, in 1975 weaves concern for cult. prop, further into
decision making process of fed. planning process. 1. Amtrak Act DOT if eligible for N.R.
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2. Community Devel. Act.
a. $3 Billion + to 1500+ communities 50 thousand pop. or over and/or those with urban renewal process.
1. Permissive use in acq. & dev. of cultural property.
2. Survey $
3. Home Purchase Assistance Act
a. $15,000 loan for 15 years, 32 days rather than $10,000 loan rf eligible for the N.R.
4. New thrust of Sec. DOT to retain and rehab, rather than acquire and destroy.
Conclusion: 1. Pres. is becoming more planning oriented 2. Planning is becoming more pres. oriented Need: 1. a common language to communicate
2. Tax relief to take econ. pressures off cult. prop.
3. Land use planning to control way in which land develops.
4. Lawyers to handle the change legally.
AE 621 Preservation for Architects and Lawyers
Reports already given
1. Bessette Tallahassee & Boca Raton
2. Dessauer Key West
3. Ferro St. Augustine
4. Ross Pensacola
5. Knott Brennan report on easements
6. Vaughn Strategy
Note 1. None had gotten any response from their Communities.
2. Suggested they write another letter for co-signature with Roy Hunt to the legal counsel of each community for Roy's approval on return from Panama. Roy agreed. Useful for another year.
3. Students should have had more direction in their letter writing. None of them put in a date, for example, when the information was needed.
Reports to be given or pending
1. Warner Comparing Federal legislation
2. Rigney New Orleans
3. Petrucha Louisville
4. Conway Nantucket
5. Cangelosi Santa Fe
6. Brito Advisory Council Cases
7. Mills Gainesville
Note: Students agreed to meet on Thurs. at 2:30 pm. Any reports not given during period on Thurs. will be given following Tues. 2:30 on agreement of students.