AE 621 Proposed Course Schedule
I Jan..6 Orientation to the Course and to the Law Library
Perimeters of the study; library resources and their location
II 13 Philosophies & Background of the Preservation Movement
Definition of terms & discourse on the history of the preserva-tion movement to the present. Increasing importance of preservation law.
Ill 20 Federal State & Local Law Systems
1. Their jurisdictional standing; 2. Their relationship to each other; 3. how they work; 4. How they differ.
IV 27 Eminent Domain
What it is; why it exists; when it can and should Or should not be applied; its effectiveness & use as a preservation tool.
V Feb. 3 Historic Districts
What they are; why they have developed; how they are achieved legally & otherwise, where they have been created; their success; their failure.
VI 10 Zoning and Anti-Neglect Ordinances
What they are; why they exist; their usefulness, strength and weaknesses; their applicability to preservation problems.
VII 17 Easements
Definition; how they operate; longevity; public benefit; tax implications & other owner effects; past uses; problems in application; proposed national government program - precedents in conservation; applicability to preservation.
VIII 24 Assessment, Taxation & Land Use
Existing Assessment practices; real property value & relationship to assessment & taxation; Historic Structures Tax Act of 1975; real property tax abatement and rehabilitation; public benefit; accelerated depreciation tax policy effects on preservation.
IX Mar. 2 Current Legislation & Needs
Discussion & commentary on existing legal mechanisms, then strengths & weaknesses; future needs; prognosis for achievability
X 9 Student Reports: Plenary Session
Discussion of student reports, review of content; improvement proposals.
AE 621 - Jan. 1 AE 581 - Jan. 1
Preservation for Architects and Lawyers
I. Why Such a Course? - Orientation
1. Quote Eileen Powers, Medieval People, London 1963, P. 155-6.
2. Quote F.L.W. on Architecture, N.Y. 1941, P. 59.
3. Quote A.W. Raitt-Prosper Merimer, Scribners N.Y. 1970.
Commentary on the state of the art and uniqueness of U. of Fla. proposed architecture-law dialogue.
a. Change of direction of preservation movement since 1966.
b. Increase in legislation
c. Interrelatedness of responsibilities
d. Broadening of concept
e. need for trained personnel
4. Emphasize exploratory nature of proposed course of study
II. History of the Preservation Movement A. Historical Societies
1. Earliest agencies interested in history of the U.S. 1791 - Mass. H. S. founded 1804 - N.Y. H. S. founded 1812 - Worcester, Mass. 1824 - Pa. 1831 - Va. 1833 - N. Car. 1846 - Wisconsin
1876 - 78 Historical Societies in the U.S.
Jan 12, 13, 1976 Murtagh Lecture - Page 2
1. Limited membership
2. Genealogically oriented
3. Bibliographically oriented
a. 1756 - British museum founded - London
b. 1773 - Charleston, S. Car. museum founded
c. c. 1784 - Chas. Wilson Peale museums
3. Mew York
d. Napoleonic period - Louvre founded - Paris
2. Historic House Museums
a. 1850 - Hasbrouck House, Newbergh, N.Y.
1. First State supported H. H. M.
2. $8,391.02 legislatively appropriated for acq. cost.
b. 1859 - Mt. Vernon, Va. opened
1. First privately supported museum
2. Effort begun in 1853
3. Mt. Vernon Ladies Assoc. of the Union Chartered 1856.
c. 1876 - Independence Hall 1st opened as a
1. Has been used to exhibit relics and art
d. 1895 - 20 Hist. House museums open in U.S.
e. 1945 - c. 700
f. 1965 - over 2,000
g. 1975 - ? but one presumes more than 2000.
Jan. 12, 13, 1976 - Murtagh Lecture - Page 3 AE 621, AE 581
3. Outdoor Museums
a. 1891 - Skansen, Sweden opened
1. Dr. Artur Hazelius began assembly in Stockholm park
a. Moved old Bldgs.
b. Interpreters in costume
c. Craft demonstrations
b. Philadelphia Museum of Art Rooms
d. 1926 - Williamsburg, Va. 0. M. begun
1. 609 later bldgs. destroyed
2. 231 reconstructed
3. 84 18th C. bldgs. restored
e. Greenfield Village, Dearborne, Mich.
f. Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Mass.
1. All old fabric moved to empty site - 200 acres +
g. Farmers Museum - Cooperstown, N.Y.
1. Combines outdoor m. with gallery re. 19th C. N.Y. Clarke family life
h. Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Conn.
1. Similar to Cooperstown for N.E. water oriented culture
i. Old Salem, Salem, N. Car. Homes, Grey, Horton
1. Mostly all orig. bldgs. on orig. sites
2. Less than 10 reconstruction & few bldgs moved in j. Shelburne, Vt.
1. Continues Sturbridge approach with new bldgs.
2. Electra Webb, patron
AE 581 - Jan. , 1976
AE 621 - Jan. , 1976 Murtagh Lecture - Page 4
k. Plimouth Plantation
1. Total reconstruction on wrong site
2. Educational raison d'etre
C. Old and Historic Districts
1931 - Charleston Ordinance
1946 - Alexandria, Va.
1947 - Williamsburg, Va.
1948 - Winston-Salem, N.C.
1950 - Georgetown, D.C.
1951 - Natchez, Miss.
1952 - Annapolis, Md. 1955 - Boston, Mass. 1955 - Nantucket, Mass.
1976 - Approximately half of the 50 states have passed state enabling legislation which allows any municipality to zone for historic district purposes at the discretion of the municipality.
D. Preservation Agencies 1. Private Sector
a. 1889 - Assoc. for Pres. of Va. Antiquities
1. Owns prop, in state - & Powder Mag. Williamsburg
b. 1891 - Trustees for Public Reserverations, Mass.
1. Concerned for disappearance of open space
2. Inspired Eng. Nat'l Trust
3. Trustees visited Eng. - Eng. N.T. resulted
4. c.1900 - Eng. visited U.S. to found U.S. N.T. - failed
AE 581 - Jan. , 1976
AE 621 - Jan. , 1976 Murtagh Lecture - Page 5"
c. 1895 - Amer. Scenic & Hist. Pres. Soc.
1. Founded to admin, hist, props, for state of N.Y.-not own them
2. 1901 - charter amended to give Soc. National coverage
3. 1926 - administered 2 houses
a. Phil ipse Manor Hall, Yonkers
b. Hamilton Grange, Manhattan
4. Has annual meeting; gives medal for pres. work
1. D.A.R., U.D.C., Col. Dames, Sons of Nev.
1. SPNEA - Incorporated April 23, 1910
f. 1946 - Nat'l Council of Sites & Bldgs. Washington, D.C. 1. N.T. forerunner
g. 1949 - N.T. founded
1. Has developed as chief private pres. agency
2. Since 1966 - a quasi-public agency 2. Public Sector
a. 1872 - Yellowstone Nat'l Park opened - Sets conservation basis and space thrust of Gov't concern.
b. U.S. Army administering Arlington Nat'l Cemetary ( on Lee family estate of same name.
c. 1906 - Antiquities Act
1. Gave Pres. of the U.S. authority to establish nat'l monuments on federally owned land.
AE 581 - Jan. AE 621 - Jan.
Murtagh Lecture - Page (p
d. 1916 - N.P.S. created in Dept. of Interior
1. a bureau
2. By Ex. Ord. (?) Army responsibilities of an historical nature come to N.P.S.
e. 1935 - Hist. Sites Act.
1. Created a national policy to preserve sites, bldgs, objects of national Lig.
2. HABS begun in 30's as work program for architects WPA
f. May 1965 - White House Conf. on Nat. Beauty - Mrs. L. B. Johnson
1. 1000 invited; prop. pres. + bus. exec's.
2. Confrontation re. man made environment
g. Early 1966 - Exec. Comm. on Hist. Pres. (Rains Com.)
1. Sponsored by U.S. Conf. of mayors
a. Albert Rains, Ch., former ch. Housing Sub- com. U.S. House of Reps.
b. E. Muskie - Senator, Me.
c. Wm. B. Widnall - Rep. N.J.
d. Phil. H. Hoff - Gov. Vt.
e. Raymond R. Tucker - Prof. Urban Studies, Wash. U. for Mayor of St. Louis
f. G. Grey, ch. N.T.
g. Laurance G. Henderson, Dir. Joint Council on Housing & Urban Dev.
h. Ex. off.
1. Stew. L. Udall - Sec. Int.
Walt Pozen - Spec. Asst. Geo. Hartzog - Dir. N.P.S.
2. John T. Conner - Sec. Commerce
Rex Whitton, FHA, B. of Rds.
AE 581 - Jan. , 1976
AE 621 - Jan. , 1976 Murtagh Lecture - Page 7
Ex. Off. 3. Robert C. Weaver - Sec. HUD
Wm. SI ayton, Com of U. Renewal
4. Lawson B. Knott - Ad. GSA
Wm. Schmidt, Dept. Pub.
i. Tech. Dir. - Carl Feiss - FAIA, AIP h. Oct. 15, 1966 - 89th Congress passed
1. Nat. Hist. Pres. Act.
a. Authorized Sec. Int. to Expand N.R. of H. Places
b. Created Advisory Council on H.P.
2. Demonstration Cities Act
a. Put the Sec. of HUD in the pres. business
3. Transportation Act
a. Gave new responsibilities to Sec. D.O.T. to avoid waterfowl-
i. Environmental Quality Act 1969
1. Set up Council on Environmental Quality to review impact of fed. expenditures & planning on the environment, j. 1971, May 13th - Ex. Ord. 11593
1. Directs fed. Agencies to survey their cult, property & submit to N.R.
2. Consider it before it is sold, transfered or destroyed
3. When in doubt ask Sec. Int. for a determination of eligibility, k. Spate of leg, in 1975 weaves concern for cult. prop, further into
decision making process of fed. planning process. 1. Amtrak Act - DOT if eligible for N.R.
AE 581 - Jan. , 1976
AE 621 - Jan. , 1976 Murtagh Lecture - Page 8
2. Community Devel. Act.
a. $3 Billion + to 1500+ communities 50 thousand pop. or over and/or those with urban renewal process.
1. Permissive use in acq. & dev. of cultural property.
2. Survey $
3. Home Purchase Assistance Act
a. $15,000 loan for 15 years, 32 days rather than $10,000 loan rf eligible for the N.R.
4. New thrust of Sec. DOT to retain and rehab, rather than acquire and destroy.
Conclusion: 1. Pres. is becoming more planning oriented 2. Planning is becoming more pres. oriented Need: 1. a common language to communicate
2. Tax relief to take econ. pressures off cult. prop.
3. Land use planning to control way in which land develops.
4. Lawyers to handle the change legally.
AE 621 Preservation for Architects and Lawyers
Reports already given
1. Bessette - * Tallahassee & Boca Raton
2. Dessauer - * Key West
3. Ferro - St. Augustine
4. Ross - * Pensacola
5. Knott - Brennan report on easements
6. Vaughn - Strategy
Note * 1. None had gotten any response from their Communities.
2. Suggested they write another letter for co-signature with Roy Hunt to the legal counsel of each community for Roy's approval on return from Panama. Roy agreed. Useful for another year.
3. Students should have had more direction in their letter writing. None of them put in a date, for example, when the information was needed.
Reports to be given or pending
1. Warner - Comparing Federal legislation
2. Rigney - New Orleans
3. Petrucha - Louisville
4. Conway - Nantucket
5. Cangelosi - Santa Fe
6. Brito - Advisory Council Cases
7. Mills - Gainesville
Note: Students agreed to meet on Thurs. at 2:30 pm. Any reports not given during period on Thurs. will be given following Tues. 2:30 on agreement of students.