In the spotlight : an assessment of beachfront lighting at four hotels in Barbados, with recommendations for reducing th...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
In the spotlight : an assessment of beachfront lighting at four hotels in Barbados, with recommendations for reducing threats to sea turtles
Series Title:
WIDECAST technical reports
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Knowles, John E.
Eckert, Karen L.
Horrocks, Julia A.
Publisher:
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network ( WIDECAST )
Place of Publication:
Ballwin, MO
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
WIDECAST technical report number 12

Record Information

Source Institution:
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network
Holding Location:
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00001369:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text



1 IN UJ









































For bibliographic purposes, this document may be cited as:

Knowles, John E., Karen L. Eckert and Julia A. Horrocks. 2009. In the Spotlight: An Assessment of Beachfront Light-
ing at Four Hotels in Barbados, with Recommendations for Reducing Threats to Sea Turtles. Wider Caribbean Sea
Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) Technical Report No. 12. Ballwin, Missouri and Bridgetown, Barbados.
128 pp.


ISSN: 1930-3025

Cover Photo courtesy of John English Knowles, The Nature Conservancy

Copies of this publication may be obtained from:

Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST)
1348 Rusticview Drive
Ballwin, Missouri 63011 USA
Phone: + (314) 954-8571
Email: keckert(widecast.org

Online at www.widecast.org










IN THE SPOTLIGHT:

An Assessment of Beachfront Lighting
at Four Hotels in Barbados, with
Recommendations for Reducing
Threats to Sea Turtles


SWIDECAST
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtfe Conservation Network


John E. Knowles
Karen L. Eckert
Julia A. Horrocks


2009


ACOD BUS
AND AQUARIUM


DEVELOPMENT
CORPO RATION


"Cl PEW FELLOWS PROGRAM
IN MARINE CONSERVATION









Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


PREFACE AND INTENT


For more than two decades, the Wider Caribbean
Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with
Country Coordinators resident in more than 40 Carib-
bean nations and territories, has linked scientists,
conservationists, natural resource users and man-
agers, policy-makers, industry groups, educators, and
other stakeholders together in a collective effort to
develop a unified management framework, and to
promote a region-wide capacity to design and imple-
ment science-based sea turtle conservation actions.

As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean
Environment Programme and its Regional Pro-
gramme for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
(SPAW), WIDECAST is designed to address research
and management priorities at national and regional
levels, both for sea turtles and for the habitats upon
which they depend. We focus on bringing the best
available science to bear on contemporary manage-
ment and conservation issues, empowering stake-
holders to make effective use of that science in the
policy-making process, and providing an operational
mechanism and a framework for cooperation within
and among nations.

Network participants are committed to working collab-
oratively to develop their collective capacity to man-
age shared sea turtle populations. By bringing people
together and encouraging inclusive management
planning, WIDECAST is helping to ensure that utilize-
tion practices, whether consumptive or non-consump-
tive, do not undermine sea turtle survival in the long
term. However, the recovery of remnant populations
of Caribbean sea turtles will require more than a pre-
cautionary approach to sustainable use, it will also
require thoughtful attention to both acute and chronic
threats to important nesting and foraging habitats.

Artificial beachfront lighting is a widespread and oft-
fatal threat to sea turtle hatchlings and adult females
at the nesting grounds. Barbados, the easternmost
Caribbean island, exhibits particularly severe light pol-
lution on its south and west coasts, which also host
some of the largest hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys
imbricata, rookeries in the Caribbean Sea.

Beachfront hotels can be a significant source of arti-
ficial lighting. At a 2000 national workshop entitled,


"Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive
Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-
Makers in Barbados," the nation's hotel representa-
tives pledged to undertake lighting assessments and
to implement 'turtle friendly' lighting regimes "as soon
as practicable," with an aim to reduce the threat
posed to endangered sea turtles.

In furtherance of this commitment, four leading hotels
participated in a six-month voluntary lighting assess-
ment in 2006. The results of these assessments,
which included detailed recommendations for reduc-
ing light pollution at major nesting beaches, were pre-
sented to each hotel and, with their permission, have
been collected for publication and dissemination in
this Technical Report.

The coast-based hospitality sector in the Wider Carib-
bean Region has a large and growing impact on sea
turtle habitat. In this study we focus on artificial light-
ing, which is well known to deter or disrupt the nesting
process and confuse sea-finding behavior, but other
threats include deforestation, seawalls and other ob-
stacles to nesting, sand mining, increased erosion, in-
troduction of non-native predators, inadequate waste
disposal, and so on. Property owners must assume a
degree of responsibility for these threats. Reducing
light pollution is a straightforward exercise that yields
large dividends; therefore, involving property owners
and managers in reducing beachfront lighting is fund-
amentally important to the successful management of
Caribbean sea turtle populations. This study, and the
willingness of major beachfront hotels to participate,
provides a replicable model.

It is our hope that participating hotels will take these
recommendations to heart, and that other hotels, con-
dominiums, and villas in Barbados will follow suit,
thereby significantly reducing the impact the tourism
industry has on sea turtles nesting on the island's
beautiful beaches. In addition, we hope that Govern-
ment will incorporate a progressive national Lighting
Ordinance into the island's regulatory framework, set-
ting an example for other nations to follow.

Karen L. Eckert, Ph.D.
Executive Director
WIDECAST






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We are deeply indebted to the staff and management
of the following beachfront properties in Barbados:
Turtle Beach Resort (especially Adrian Grant,
General Manager; Woodrow Trotman, Maintenance
Supervisor; and Steven John, Assistant Maintenance
Supervisor), the Fairmont Royal Pavilion (especially
Nicholas Emery, General Manager; and Andre
Berube, Chief Engineer), the Southern Palms Beach
Club (especially Britta Pollard, General Manager;
Jenni Wilson, Activities Director; and Roger Yarde,
Electrician), and Sandy Lane Hotel (especially
Michael Pownall, Chief Executive Officer; Paula
Yarde, Chief Engineer; Lawrence Cumberbatch, Dir-
ector of Engineering; and Leo Blackman and the staff
of the engineering department) for their collaboration
in conducting formal lighting assessments of their
hotel properties. These professional managers were
extraordinarily kind in accommodating the requests of
the senior author, John E. Knowles (JEK), which,
more often than not, involved working off-hours, in-
cluding late at night.

We would also like to express our appreciation to Ms.
Jennifer Harding at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion for
accommodating trainers Erik Martin and Karen Eckert
during their 2006 visit. Equally important, this assess-
ment would not have been possible without the fore-
sight, encouragement, and financial support of the
Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados.

Finally, we would like to recognize the tireless efforts
of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), based at
the University of the West Indies, and especially Dr.
Julia Horrocks, Barry Krueger, and the 2006 seasonal
staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high
standard for biodiversity research and conservation in


Barbados and throughout the Caribbean region. With-
out their collaboration, including providing JEK with
housing, training, access to data and other technical
information, and the opportunity to contribute to their
important field work, which was so professionally and
personally enriching to him, this study and the lighting
assessments that contribute to it, could not have been
accomplished.

This WIDECAST Technical Report is based on a the-
sis (Knowles 2007) submitted to the Master of Envi-
ronmental Management degree program at Duke Uni-
versity. The senior author is grateful to Dr. Karen
Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and his aca-
demic advisor in the Duke University Nicholas School
of the Environment, for her encouragement of his ef-
forts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle con-
servation issues in general; to Mr. Erik Martin of
Ecological Associates Inc. (EAI), for his kindness and
patience in training in the protocols of professional
beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is
well-recognized; and to Dr. Julia Horrocks for hosting
his summer internship and allowing him to participate
in the work of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project.

Major funding for the study and its publication was
provided by the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and by
the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows
Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable
Trusts.

We dedicate this study and its recommendations to
the hospitality industry in Barbados, and we hope that
the initiative shown by the four properties profiled
herein will fuel both their own mitigation efforts as well
as those of other beachfront properties in the country.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface and Intent

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Introduction

Barbados in the Spotlight

Participating Hotels
Fairmont Royal Pavilion
Sandy Lane Hotel
Turtle Beach Resort
Southern Palms Beach Club

Overview of Methodology

Management Issues
Hatchling Arena Assays
Common Issues among Properties
Distinct or Unique Issues Among Properties
Lighting and Crime Misconceptions

Discussion and Next Steps
Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation
Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
Regulatory Action
Public Outreach and Participation
Responding to Disoriented Turtles
Concluding Remarks

Literature Cited


Appendix I
Appendix II
Appendix III
Appendix IV
Appendix V
Appendix VI
Appendix VII
Appendix VIII


Resolutions, Pledges, and Recommendations from Eckert and Horrocks (2002)
Lighting Evaluation Form
Sea Turtle Policy Statement
Check List of Best Management Practices
Fairmont Royal Pavilion Assessment Report
Sandy Lane Hotel Assessment Report
Southern Palms Beach Club Assessment Report
Turtle Beach Resort Assessment Report






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


INTRODUCTION


Artificial beachfront lighting contributes to the degrad-
ation of sea turtle nesting grounds because the natur-
al light intended to guide nesting females and their
young back to the sea is diminished by light pollution
from beachfront properties and other coastal infra-
structure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bear-
ings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is es-
pecially acute in the hatchling stage, and the conse-
quences can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and Carr 1967;
Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976;
Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and
Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). Working
towards a solution to this pervasive problem, we de-
scribe light pollution assessment and mitigation pro-
cedures at four hotels in Barbados, West Indies.

Over the course of the last century, human activity on
ocean shores has reduced the reproductive success
of sea turtles in the Caribbean Sea and elsewhere
(for Caribbean reviews, see Fleming 2001; Reichart
et al. 2003; Godley et al. 2004; Brautigam and Eckert
2006; for more general reviews, see Bjorndal 1982;
Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; MTSG 1995;
Lohmann et al. 1996; Lutcavage et al. 1996; UNEP/
CMS 2000; Witherington and Martin 2003; Shanker
and Choudhury 2006; Hamann et al. 2006).

As a result of coastal land use patterns, and centuries
of largely unmanaged exploitation, incidental capture,
and international trade, sea turtles are recognized as
depleted and endangered species by international law
(Frazier 2002) and are fully protected by 70% of all
Wider Caribbean governments (Dow et al. 2007), in-
cluding Barbados. Caribbean-occurring sea turtle
species are classified as Vulnerable, Endangered, or
Critically Endangered (this category includes the
hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata) on
IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species, either be-
cause of reduced range of habitat, recent declines in
population size, or both (Pritchard 1996; WWF 2004;
IUCN 2004, 2007a,b).

The hawksbill sea turtle has further been affected by
widespread over-exploitation for traditional crafting in-
dustries reliant on the animal's keratinized carapace
scutes, known as tortoiseshell (e.g., Parsons 1972;
King 1982; Mack et al. 1982; Milliken and Tokunaga
1987; Groombridge and Luxmoore 1989; Hemley


1994; Meylan and Donnelly 1999; Kemf et al. 2000;
Leon and Bjorndal 2002; Brautigam and Eckert 2006;
Reuter and Crawford 2006; IUCN 2007a). Notwith-
standing, signs of contemporary population increases
are evident at protected hawksbill nesting sites, in-
cluding Barbados (Krueger et al. 2003; Beggs et al.
2007).

In furtherance of national conservation policies in Bar-
bados, where, as in many other nations, threats per-
sist even after the adoption of protective legislation
and the ratification of international treaties (see
Brautigam and Eckert 2006 for a summary of legisla-
tion and treaty obligations in Barbados), the objective
of this study was to assess and quantify one of the
nation's dominant sea turtle survival threats (beach-
front lighting), and to offer recommendations for miti-
gation that define practical incentives and solutions.

Artificial beachfront lighting results in death to thou-
sands of sea turtle hatchlings every year in Barbados
(Horrocks 1992; Eckert and Horrocks 2002). Artificial
light is often associated with built development in-
cluding hotels, private homes, condos and villas, rec-
reational facilities, and roadways near nesting
beaches. Depending on the location, certain property
types dominate the landscape; in Barbados, large
hotels tend to have the most significant effect, with
regard to light pollution, on the beaches they abut.

Tackling light pollution in large hotels might seem
daunting due to the scale of the built environment, but
scale sometimes holds an advantage. For example,
correcting light pollution at a single large hotel can
have a positive effect along a significant portion of
coastline, as well as surrounding areas. Moreover,
the financial capacity of these hotels (e.g., see PKF
2006) may enable change in the management re-
gimes of adjacent beaches at a faster pace than is
likely to occur with similar regimes at beachside roads
and parks managed by Government (McConney et al.
2003). When hotels are organized under an industry
representative that can encourage replication of suc-
cessful mitigation, further advantages accrue. Finally,
hotels are often critiqued by third party evaluation/
certification entities, as well as by guests and clients,
and each of these can provide due recognition for
progressive policies adopted by individual hotels.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


BARBADOS IN THE SPOTLIGHT


Beachfront properties on the south and west coasts of
Barbados advertise Caribbean beaches that slope
gently to an emerald sea, attracting tourists as well as
hawksbill sea turtles. The overlap has resulted in the
degradation of turtle nesting grounds due to artificial
beachfront lighting that affects, in a negative way, the
behavior of both hatchlings and nesting females. Var-
ious problems, including light pollution and beach ero-
sion associated with highly built coastlines, have wor-
sened over time in the Caribbean region and else-
where (e.g., Horrocks and Scott 1991; Cambers
1996; Potter 1996; Fletcher et al. 1997; Bryant et al.
1998; Clark 1998; Steinitz et al. 1998; Witherington
and Martin 2003; Burke and Maidens 2004; Danielsen
et al. 2005; Choi and Eckert 2009).

In 2000, the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conserva-
tion Network (WIDECAST), the Barbados Sea Turtle
Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of
Barbados sponsored an event entitled, "Sea Turtles
and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for
Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barba-
dos" (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The workshop cul-
minated in several recommendations and pledges by
the hotel industry that demonstrated the sector's con-
cern for and commitment to the survival of vulnerable
populations of sea turtles (Appendix I).

Among the pledges made was to "undertake a lighting
assessment and investigate our individual hotel and
villa capacities to participate in 'turtle friendly' lighting
schemes; and implement, as soon as practicable,
'turtle friendly' lighting on all beaches" (Eckert and
Horrocks 2002). A formal lighting assessment pro-
vides the most effective foundation by which specific
lighting issues, recurring along the coast, can be
addressed. Lighting assessments also provide vital
information to individual property mangers seeking to
prioritize, implement, and evaluate lighting improve-
ments made over time.

Formalized lighting assessments were pioneered in
the US in response to strict laws and policies, particu-
larly along the southeast coast, that lights be prohib-
ited from shining on sea turtle nesting beaches.
Assessment techniques focus on identifying the most
serious light pollution problems and making recom-
mendations concerning the most effective means to


reduce the amount of light that reaches the beach.
Such recommendations are often articulated in three
"Golden Rules": keep it low, keep it shielded, keep it
long [referring to the wavelength emitted by the lamp]
http://www.myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/SeaTurtle inde
x.htm. The three "Golden Rules" are not substitutes
for lights that can safely be turned off at night during
the nesting season: an absence of light is always the
best policy where sea turtles are concerned.

Mitigating light pollution is sensible and straight-for-
ward, but often overlooked as a useful contributor to
healthy beach and coastal environments. As a result,
many beach communities come to recognize the neg-
ative impacts of artificial lighting only after sea turtle
nesting habitat has been degraded. Once this point
has been reached, legislative intervention is helpful
because unilateral action by one or two properties is
unlikely to be sufficient in a densely developed land-
scape. Some governments have responded by adopt-
ing and enforcing coastal lighting ordinances and
other appropriate laws. The US is a leader in this field
and, especially in Florida, many municipalities and
communities have passed lighting ordinances in com-
pliance with state mandates (see Witherington and
Martin 2003 for background and model text; see Lake
and Eckert 2009 for Caribbean-adapted text).

Like most countries in the Caribbean, Barbados does
not have specific regulations concerning beachfront
lighting. As a result, many thousands of hawksbill
hatchlings are fatally disoriented every year, posing a
serious threat to the survival of the colony and under-
mining other conservation efforts on their behalf
(Horrocks 1992; Eckert and Horrocks 2002). There
are also numerous cases of nesting females finding
their way into backyard swimming pools and drains
(Barry H. Krueger, BSTP, personal communication,
2006). As the number of these incidences grow, it is
clear that the issue must be addressed through stake-
holder-led processes whereby hotels, hospitality
industry representatives, government agencies, and
community leaders work together to effectively miti-
gate the threat on a national basis.

Our hope is that this report, including methodologies
and recommendations offered, will serve to catalyze
this much-needed effort, and will set a helpful exam-
ple for others to follow.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


PARTICIPATING HOTELS


With a view to evaluating the extent to which hotels
had implemented the pledges made at the 2000
hotelier workshop (Eckert and Horrocks 2002), the
Barbados Sea Turtle Project initiated, in 2006, a par-
tnership with WIDECAST to conduct formal lighting
assessments at four prominent beachfront hotels
located in the Caribbean island nation of Barbados.
These properties were: the Fairmont Royal Pavilion,
Sandy Lane Hotel, Turtle Beach Resort, and South-
ern Palms Beach Club (see Appendices for Lighting
Assessment Reports submitted to each property).

The four hotels were chosen because of their leader-
ship in environmental consciousness, their location on
critical sea turtle nesting habitat, and their past efforts
and/or interests in mitigating unresolved beachfront
lighting problems. The hotels differ in ownership, cli-
entele, architecture, and degree of light pollution.
Each was asked, and kindly agreed, to participate in a
voluntary lighting assessment in 2006 and to have the
results made publicly available.

The selected hotels are not to blame for the lighting
problems in Barbados, even if they do hold some de-
gree of responsibility. Also, they do not represent the
worst case scenarios, for there are many beaches
with high levels of artificial lighting. Finally, adopting
'turtle friendly' lighting alternatives at these four hotels
will not fully solve the national problem; however, their
willingness to participate in the assessment, to devote
staff time to the process, and to give explicit attention
to the challenge will contribute in significant ways to
the survival of endangered sea turtles in Barbados.

Aware that Barbados lacks a formal lighting policy, we
hope that this study and its attendant recommenda-
tions will not only spur participating hotels to make
significant progress towards more 'turtle friendly',
energy-efficient, and safe lighting alternatives, but
that it will also encourage Government to debate and
adopt a national Lighting Ordinance, and serve as a
replicable model of success in stakeholder participa-
tion in resolving important conservation issues.

Fairmont Royal Pavilion -

The Fairmont Royal Pavilion hosts 72 deluxe ocean-
front rooms along 1000 feet of beach. The cost of the
most expensive room exceeds US$1,000 per night.


The hotel is couples-oriented and will not book fami-
lies with children under the age of 13 during peak
season (November to April). The property is man-
aged under Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, "the largest
luxury hotel company in North America", ensuring
consistency to its clientele by applying strict company
standards with regard to property amenities (see
www.fairmont.com/royalpavilion).

Sandy Lane Hotel -

Preferred Hotels and Resorts certifies Sandy Lane
through their Standards of Excellence program, since
they offer only the highest quality of service. Of the
112 luxury rooms and suites, totaling about 116,000
square feet (and extending along 1000 feet of beach),
79 of these rooms view the sea. Room rates range
from US$450-$900 per night, with a luxury villa fetch-
ing US$4,000-plus per night during peak season. A
varied clientele consists of families, honeymoon
couples, and niche corporate and incentive groups
(see www.sandylane.com/introduction/index.html).

Turtle Beach Resort -

With a nightly rate upwards of US$1,000, the Turtle
Beach Resort is the only all-inclusive hotel assessed.
The property features 166 spacious suites, many with
panoramic ocean views. This four star hotel is man-
aged by Elegant Hotels Group Barbados, caters to
families, and offers a variety of activities for all ages.
The hotel extends along 1500 feet of sandy beach
(see www.turtlebeachresortbarbados.com).

Southern Palms Beach Club -

Of the four participating hotels, the Southern Palms
Beach Club offers the least expensive rooms, with the
most costly reaching US$360 per night. According to
the official website, the hotel "welcomes the young
who want to do it all, the couple that just wants to
enjoy each other's company in the tranquil beauty of
the island, or the family with children", while making
"a firm commitment to meet the highest international
standards in regards to the environment, conservation
and corporate responsibility." Southern Palms Beach
Club has 92 rooms, of which 53 view the ocean. The
property is situated along 1000 feet of sandy beach
(see www.southernpalms.net).






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY


The basic procedure for conducting a lighting assess-
ment is simple: walk the beach, identify and charac-
terize all visible light sources (during both day and
night periods), and document these sources on a
standardized Lighting Evaluation Form (Appendix II).
We adapted our data form from that used in Florida
(US) by Ecological Associates Inc. (original evaluation
form courtesy of Erik Martin, EAI).

Each Assessment Report features an introduction (re-
minding readers of the effects of beachfront lighting
on endangered sea turtles, and why hotels play such
a critical role in mitigation), a survey method section
(detailing the systematic nature and timing of the
assessment process), an explanation of the ranking
scale (based on light intensity) that was used to eval-
uate fixtures, and detailed recommendations for re-
ducing the negative effects of lighting on sea turtles.

Our ranking scale, adapted from that used by Ecologi-
cal Associates Inc., was as follows:

o Rank of "1" described indirect light visible by
an observer on the beach, but not likely to
present a strong attraction to nesting or hatch-
ing sea turtles

o Rank of "2" described direct light or a visible
globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector like-
ly to disorient sea turtles [note: neither "1" nor
"2" lights were strong enough to cast a dis-
cernible shadow on the beach on a dark night]

o Rank of "3" (most problematic to sea turtles)
described a light source strong enough to cast
a discernible shadow on the beach, regard-
less of the illumination being direct or indirect

Ideally, a sea turtle nesting beach should not have
any source of illumination to rank, revealing a score of
"0" and hence no need for mitigation. When visible
light is present, a rank of "1" is preferred over a rank
of "2", which is preferred over a rank of "3."

Three important aspects of the ranking scale are its
simplicity, objectivity, and reproducibility. The scale is
readily understood by maintenance personnel who,
most likely, will implement and evaluate any mitiga-
tion effort, and also by senior management making


lighting scheme decisions during construction or reno-
vation phases, increasing the likelihood that 'turtle
friendly' lighting options will be selected. The ranking
scale is also objective, meaning this it is designed to
maximize the probability that a particular light fixture
will receive the same ranking regardless of who con-
ducts the assessment. This consistency aids in re-
producibility, providing a baseline for hotels to track
the success of mitigation action over time.

The recommendations featured in each stand alone
Assessment Report (see Appendices V to VIII) make
use of photographs, illustrations, and standardized
icons. Each report features a different inventory of
light sources because each property is unique, but
many of the recommendations are shared. After de-
fining the various illustrations and icons, each report
offers advice for mitigating the effects) of specific fix-
ture types: a labeled photograph is followed by the
fixture's assigned rank, locationss, and icon-led
recommendations. A comment section provides addi-
tional detail.

The fixture type evaluations are ordered based on the
degree of rank (1, 2 or 3) as the primary tier. Since a
rank of "3" indicates the most problematic light, these
are listed first, followed by "2", then "1". Within the
primary tier, order is based on the number of fixtures
of that kind, color, creativity involved in resolving the
lighting problem, the attention required, and the cost
of implementation. Within the primary tier, the order
is arguably more subjective because precise quanti-
fication of the impact to sea turtles of any particular
light fixture, in isolation, is not possible.

In summary, the format of each Assessment Report is
intended to direct a hotel's focus to the most problem-
atic lights as defined by an easy-to-understand, illus-
trated suite of ranked recommendations. Each
Assessment Report concludes by commending the
hotel on past and present efforts in beachfront light
reduction, while reaffirming the importance of execu-
ting the report's recommendations. An "Internet Re-
sources" section features select industry websites
where certain bulbs or fixtures mentioned in the
Assessment Report can be reviewed and purchased.
The original Assessment Reports, as submitted to
each participating hotel, also included a CD of lighting
products, vendors, and security information.







Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


S".." pThe Fairmont Royal Pavilion has implemented several sea
turtle conservation measures, including supporting umbrellas
M. on a flat base (versus poles thrust into the sand) and stacking
S ........ beach chairs each night, reducing the chance that egg-laden
females will encounter obstacles during nesting. In addition,
S beachfront spotlights are hooded, reducing glare and empha-
... sizing the beautiful night sky. The most significant sources of
light pollution at this property are balcony lights, and lights as-
sociated with a beachfront restaurant. Photographs taken dur-
ing the day and at night (see inserts below) illustrate the chal-
lenge of reducing light spilling out onto the nesting beach
from the restaurant's open arches.


















w "* At Sandy Lane Hotel, the majority of light fixtures obscure
the bare bulb, a pleasing scenario for guests and sea turtles
alike. Other measures that aid in the conservation of sea tur-
tles include lush vegetation along the seawall (which both re-
Sduces light leakage and provides shelter to nesting females)
and the stacking of beach chairs each night, easing the over-
land journey for both egg-laden adults and their hatchlings.
The most significant threat to sea turtle survival at this proper-
ty is the presence of large, tree-mounted floodlights emitting
S- short wavelength light (e.g., violet). These lights overwhelm
the property at night, resulting in severe sea turtle disorienta-
tion on site, as well as luring hatchlings (which safely reached
the sea from nearby beaches) back to the beach!


-~ I.-







Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Southern Palms Beach Club uses yellow bulbs in its spot-
lights, which is an improvement for sea turtles. In addition,
ceramic sconces soften balcony lighting, which is very impor-
tant (from the standpoint of sea turtle conservation) in a multi-
story hotel. As with any structure built directly on the sandy
beach platform, mitigating light pollution can be a real chal-
lenge. In this case, the most significant dilemma is presented
by restaurant lighting during evening hours (below left) and
pole-mounted courtyard lighting (below right) installed to
provide ambient light for security cameras. In the Property
Assessment conducted for this property, we discuss alterna-
tives in both cases.



















The Turtle Beach Resort has some of the best lighting (for
sea turtles) of any property in Barbados. Landscaping em-
phasizes native vegetation, the watersports stand boasts no
exterior lighting at all, and certain beachfront spotlights are
left off during nesting season. 'Turtle friendly' fixtures are in-
stalled on all balconies, but guests need to remember to play
their role and draw the curtains at night during the nesting
season (compare open versus drawn, below left); common
areas (e.g., stairwells) also need to be addressed. The big
challenge to this resort is that even single lights (below right)
can have a profound effect on the nesting habitat at night.


II~1Ha~






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


MANAGEMENT ISSUES


Hatchling Arena Assays -

Hatchling arena assays can demonstrate the effect of
light on sea-finding behavior (Salmon and Wither-
ington 1995; EAI 2002). In Barbados, we performed
such an experiment on the beach in front of Hotel "A"
and Hotel "B". The assay is a staged hatching event
inside a designated circular arena defined by a 1 m
radius divided into 36 equal sections. A shallow
trench defined the arena's perimeter. Each of the 36
sections, representing 10 degrees of a circle, was
divided off using cardboard slots, each separated by
a 17.5 cm arc length (adapted from Salmon and
Witherington 1995). Two arenas were positioned dir-
ectly in front of Hotel A (Sites 1, 2) and Hotel B (Sites
1, 2). Hotel B had two additional peripheral arenas,
one 25 m north of the property (Site 3) and one 25 m
south of the property (Site 4).

Hatchlings used in the arena assays were collected
from hotels where they had emerged earlier that night
and been disoriented inland to artificial lights. Twelve
hatchlings were placed in the center of the circular
arena, facing the sea, and released one at a time (cf.
Salmon and Witherington 1995). Two rounds were
performed in each arena. The first round was per-
formed with lights on, as they would be during normal
hours of operation. The second round was carried out
with all "3" ranking lights turned off. The data re-
corded for each hatchling included its final position at
the perimeter, the length of its track, and the time
needed to reach the arena boundary.

We used a Watson-Wilson test to determine any
significant differences between the two rounds (Zar
1984). Orientation for each experiment did differ sig-
nificantly from random, and all (lights on lights off)
pairs were significantly different with the exception of
Site 2 at Hotel B (P>0.25), where one floodlight (with
a rank of "3") was unable to be turned off (see Figure
1).

The results of this analysis reinforce the importance
of reducing beachfront lighting. The results obtained
from the peripheral arenas at Hotel B demonstrate
that lights can negatively affect more than the area of
beach they directly illuminate. The broadcast of some
fixtures can affect an entire bay by drawing hatchlings


from darker sections of beach out of the water and
back to the beach (JEK, personal observation).

Common Issues among Properties -

Most beachfront hotels provide similar services; for
example, dining, entertainment, well-appointed rooms
including balconies and windows-with-a-view, secur-
ity, and so on. These services can result in unintend-
ed consequences, including negative effects on local
endangered species due to lighting, activity, and high-
ly modified landscapes.

One common problem observed at all four participat-
ing hotels was the issue of beachfront restaurants. In
most cases there was no intentional illumination of
the beach associated with the restaurants. Ceiling-
and wall-mounted fixtures were the main source of
broadcast light (recommendations focus on shielding
and concealing these, respectively), and these were
designed to illuminate the table setting and the space
where people walk. One general solution is to lower
these light fixtures behind opaque objects. Louvered
foot lights installed into restaurant walls are an ex-
cellent example of successful mitigation; creative
landscaping is another option. As for illuminating the
table area, table lamps with shades and LED candles
are an energy-efficient way to illuminate the space
without broadcasting light beyond the restaurant.

Purely decorative lighting was also an issue shared
among the featured properties. This is (or should be)
one of the easier categories of lighting to mitigate
since it serves only to enhance mood and ambiance,
providing little or no functional or security purpose.
The recommendation in this case is to eliminate the
lighting. However, this type of lighting is popular in
creating a unique or festive atmosphere, and eliminat-
ing it can be a difficult decision. One option is restrict
such lighting to non-nesting periods: managers
should contact local conservation organizations to
confirm the timing of the annual nesting effort.

We hope that, with greater awareness, hotels will be
willing to reserve decorative lighting for areas not visi-
ble from the beach, and choose to extinguish light
that is "much more harmful to sea turtles than it is
useful to people" (Witherington and Martin 2003:21).






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Figure 1. Hatchling arena assays demonstrate the effect of varying degrees on light on the sea-finding
ability of sea turtles. Two circular arenas were positioned directly in front of Hotel "A" (Sites 1, 2) and Hotel
"B" (Sites 1, 2). Hotel B had two additional peripheral arenas, one 25 m north of the property (Site 3) and
one 25 m south of the property (Site 4). Assays (staged hatching events) performed on the beach in front of
Hotel A and Hotel B clearly illustrate the negative effects of beachfront lighting on the sea-finding ability of
sea turtles, and the positive effects of turning off all rank "3" lights (the most problematic for sea turtles).
Orientation for each experiment did differ significantly from random and all (lights on lights off) pairs were
significantly different except for one. The exception was Site 2 at Hotel B (P>0.25), where one floodlight
with a rank of "3" could not be turned off. Results obtained from the peripheral arenas at Hotel B (Sites 3, 4)
demonstrate that lights can affect more than the area of beach that they directly illuminate the broadcast
of some fixtures can affect an entire shoreline, even unlit portions.


I HtlA


Lights on


Lights off


Lights on


Avge Direction


#ofhatchlings
D 0o


.3


Lights off


Site 1






Site 21


Hotel B
IHotelBI






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Mitigating light sources that serve multiple purposes
can be problematic. Two commonly paired categor-
ies security and area lighting are often served by
high intensity spotlights. Security lighting includes
lights that illuminate a perimeter or area for the sole
purpose of preventing crime. An area light is defined
as a source of illumination for spaces such as walk-
ways, patios, or steps. When it comes to mitigation,
separating light sources by function is helpful. Lights
placed primarily for security are often best handled by
the installation of motion detectors. For area lighting,
'turtle friendly' alternatives include louvered bollards
and path lighting concealed by opaque objects. Area
lighting should not include portions of sandy beach.

In addition to a plethora of multi-purpose lighting fix-
tures, the expansive length, depth, and height of a
large hotel complex can be daunting when conducting
a lighting assessment because of the number and
types of fixtures to be evaluated. The hotels partici-
pating in this study each include 1000 feet or more of
built beachfront. In addition, Sandy Lane Hotel and
Turtle Beach Resort extend significantly landward
from the beach, illustrating the complexities of the
depth factor. Difficulties arise when forward lights are
corrected, but the effects are undermined by uncor-
rected lights from behind. An accurate assessment
relies on hotel management to extinguish the brighter
forward lights so that the contribution of lights further
inland can be evaluated. Height was not a significant
issue for participating hotels. One advantage of a
comparatively low profile is that landscaping can be
an effective and pleasing option; i.e., the use of (pre-
ferably native) vegetation as a buffer between lights
and the beach.

Finally, a challenge held in common among beach-
front hotels, including those participating in this study,
is that lights become more disruptive to sea turtles the
closer the hotel (and its lighting regime) is to the
ocean. The Fairmont Royal Pavilion and the Southern
Palms Beach Club are closest to the beach, and most
lights at these properties scored poorly with regard to
their potential effect on sea turtles. Worth noting is
the fact that construction setbacks are an important
factor in sustainable coastal development in general,
significantly reducing the risk of property damage due
to shoreline erosion (e.g., Cambers 1997, Clark 1996,
1998, McKenna et al. 2000, Cambers et al. 2008,
Choi and Eckert 2009), in addition to minimizing the
negative effects of light pollution on sea turtles.


Distinct or Unique Issues among Properties -

Just as some lighting problems are shared broadly
among beachfront hotels, it is also the case that some
challenges are uncommon, perhaps even unique to a
particular property.

Beachfront restaurants can present a major threat to
sea turtles due to their close proximity to nesting sites
and hours of operation. The Palm Terrace Restaurant
at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion is no exception, with
evening hours of operation (1900-2145 hr) and an
advertising campaign describing the Caribbean sea
as being "so close that it almost reaches the table"
(www.fairmont.com/rovalpavilion). Moreover, an open
dining space is separated from the outside by large,
wide arches, broadcasting light to the beach.

A distinct issue for the Palm Terrace Restaurant is
that spotlights located at the wall and ceiling junc-
tions create "wall wash" (reflected light), while others
illuminate the dining space but are still highly visible
from the beach. The general recommendation for this
scenario relied on removing existing fixtures and re-
positioning their replacements. When management
was reluctant to remove them, a "next-best" solution,
tailored to the site, included lowering and shielding
these lights to help conceal their emissions from the
beach. Use of vegetation was also recommended.
Typically a buffer would be planted in the space be-
tween the restaurant and the beach, but, because no
such space exists at this site, it was suggested that
potted palms within the dining area be positioned to
block the high-mounted spotlights. Finally, we recom-
mended that the arches be "landscaped" in to reduce
the space from which light could leave the dining
area, while preserving ocean views for diners.

At Sandy Lane Hotel, which in general ranked favor-
ably with regard to its lighting regime, a distinct issue
arose with respect to four tree-mounted floodlights
designed to bathe the entire beachfront (dusk to 0200
hr) in violet-blue light. As sea turtles are most strong-
ly disoriented by bright, short-wavelength light, these
fixtures posed an extreme challenge. In addition, their
height (being tree-mounted) broadcast light across
the adjoining bay to peripheral beaches. As the lights
are purely aesthetic, we recommended their removal.
When this was rejected by management, we suggest-
ed restricting their use to non-nesting, peak tourism
months (December to April).






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Finally, at the Southern Palms Beach Club, the water-
front is lined with yellow spotlights. This particular
situation improved following the 2000 "Sea Turtle and
Beachfront Lighting Workshop" (Eckert and Horrocks
2002), when wattage was reduced and the original
white spotlights were replaced by yellow spotlights.
Notwithstanding, nearly every hatch of a sea turtle
nest on this beach is characterized by disoriented
hatchlings (JEK, personal observation). The lights
are valued by management as security assets and
are associated with security cameras. In reality, how-
ever, the light emitted by these fixtures and others is
not sufficient to provide a clear image for the camer-
as. With this in mind, we (i) recommended alternative
security measures and (ii) noted that because the
human eye readily adjusts to low ambient light (Hecht
2001), sufficient safety in navigating walkways and
steps to the beach could be provided by, for example,
tube lights with red LEDs.

Lighting and Crime Misconceptions -

The issue of lighting and crime continues to concern
the hotel sector, and "the perceived issues of guest
security have been a major impediment to light reduc-
tion on Barbados' beaches" (Eckert and Horrocks
2002). The concern is widespread, and important.
Witherington and Martin (2003:69) respond this way:

"How can the sacrifice of human safety and security
to save a few sea turtles be justified? Thankfully, no
such choice is necessary. The safety and security of
humans can be preserved without jeopardizing sea
turtles. The goal of any program to reduce sea turtle
harassment and mortality caused by lighting is to
manage light so that it performs the necessary func-
tion without reaching the nesting beach. Still, some
may contend that any inconvenience at all is too
much and that the concerns of humans should always
outweigh those for turtles. People insistent on this
generalization should not ignore the large and reso-
lute constituency that values sea turtles. Sea turtles
are valuable to people both ecologically and for pure
enjoyment. In many ways, the protection of sea tur-
tles is in our own best interests."

The ecological argument is a strong one in Barbados,
where many thousands of hawksbill sea turtle hatch-
lings are threatened by lighting every year. Indeed, an
estimated one-third of all hatchlings born on the
island are affected (Eckert and Horrocks 2002), and


with Barbados hosting one of the largest remaining
nesting colonies for this species in the Western Hemi-
sphere (Beggs et al. 2007; Dow et al. 2007), these
losses have profound implications for the survival of
the species. Fortunately, security and dark beaches
can exist in harmony. Security need not rely on con-
tinuous beachfront lighting. Efficient and cost-effec-
tive alternatives include motion detectors that provide
instant area illumination when an intruder is present,
giving shadowed security staff the advantage (e.g.,
visit www.darksky.org). Well-trained guards with
flashlights and an active patrol schedule are another
proven alternative to high-energy, broadcast light that
can lull security staff into complacency.

Witherington and Martin (2003:68) also addressed the
perception that crime will increase if the beach is unlit.
They concluded, "Generally, beaches are not areas
where there is a great need for crime prevention.
Very little valuable property is stored on beaches and
there is seldom much nighttime human activity to re-
quire security. Fortunately, areas adjacent to nesting
beaches where people reside, work, recreate, and
store valuables can be lighted for protection without
affecting turtles on the nesting beach. Where this type
of light management was legislated in Florida coastal
communities, the Florida State Attorney's Office has
found no subsequent increase in crime."

Similarly, studies by the UK Home Office Crime Pre-
vention Unit on street lighting and crime conclude that
improvements in street lighting do little to prevent
crime and criminals are less often deterred by light
(Ramsay and Newton 1991), and that increasing the
intensity of street lighting does not correspond to de-
creasing levels of criminal activity (Atkins et al. 1991).
While these crime prevention studies did not look at
beach lighting in particular, and generally examined
areas with crime rates much higher than those ob-
served in Barbados or elsewhere in the insular Carib-
bean, their results are revealing (Nuttall 2000).

Volusia County in Florida (US) provides a compelling
and relevant case study. The county has one of the
strictest coastal lighting ordinances in the state. When
the Lighting Ordinance was passed in 1989, local
businesses feared losses and worried about rising
incidents of crime. As it turns out, no such loss or rise
in crime materialized (Lelis 2003; William "Bill"
Sorrentino Sr., Zoning Compliance Division, Daytona
Beach, personal communication, 2006).






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


DISCUSSION AND NEXT STEPS


Other than recommended implementation actions at
specific properties (see Appendices V to VIII), there
are several next steps to be considered by the indus-
try and its representatives (e.g., Barbados Hotel and
Tourism Association, Tourism Development Corpor-
ation), as well as by Government, NGOs, and rele-
vant experts. These next steps include, inter alia,
regular follow-up lighting assessments, examinations
of other beachfront properties and civil infrastructure
(e.g., roadways, parking lots, tennis courts), energy
audits and economic analyses, legislative action, and
public awareness and participation campaigns.

Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation -

Each property situated on a sea turtle nesting beach
(see Dow et al. 2007; contact Prof. Julia Horrocks
for detailed loca-
tions) should conduct a formal lighting assessment
using a standardized ranking scale (see "Overview of
Methodology"), and implement recommendations.
Attention to the initial assessment should suffice in re-
solving threats to sea turtles associated with existing
lighting, but because of routine changes associated
with repair, renovation, landscaping, etc., annual
inspections should be conducted just prior to the nest-
ing season. Hotels, condominiums, and villas should
be reminded on an annual basis to evaluate lighting
regimes and to make needed adjustments.

Properties with the most significant lighting issues
should receive priority attention in terms of training
and assistance, mitigation, and evaluation. Training
is available through the Barbados Sea Turtle Project
(BSTP) at the University of the West Indies; contact
Prof. Julia Horrocks, WIDECAST Country Coordina-
tor, at .

Environmental Management Systems (EMS) -

Hotel managers participating in the 2000 forum, "Sea
Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Work-
shop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in
Barbados," pledged to adopt a Sea Turtle Policy
Statement regarding the protection of sea turtles on
hotel grounds, and to revise standard operating pro-
cedures to implement the policy (Eckert and Horrocks
2002). Choi and Eckert (2009) articulated such a pol-
icy (see Appendix III), and provided a comprehensive


"check list" of best management practices to assist
beachfront properties in doing their part to "ensure the
survival of endangered sea turtles and their young"
(see Appendix IV).

All beachfront hotels in Barbados (and elsewhere) are
encouraged to adopt a Sea Turtle Policy Statement
that includes a commitment to conduct "regular light-
ing assessments", as well as to implement a variety of
other measures aimed at improving environmental
performance. Notable is the fact that efforts to reduce
light pollution are not separate from equally neces-
sary efforts to improve energy efficiency, decrease
costs, and model sustainable architectural designs.
Lighting is the second most significant daily expen-
diture for Caribbean hotels (Tourism Global Inc.
2006), and energy-efficient lighting supports industry
goals to neutralize carbon emissions from the tourism
sector (CHA/CTO 2007).

An energy audit was not performed at the four partici-
pating hotels to demonstrate cost savings inherent in
embracing 'turtle friendly' lighting alternatives. How-
ever, reducing wattage, turning lights off, and empha-
sizing light emitting diode (LED) technologies, low
pressure sodium (LPS) and compact fluorescent
lamps, timers, motion-detectors, and fixtures that
direct light more efficiently (i.e., only where needed),
are sure to reduce operational expenditures in a
region where energy costs are high (http://climatelab.
org/Small Island Developing States). New technolo-
gies, including LED and CFL fixture types, among
others, are making energy-efficient options more
widely available and affordable than ever before. At
the same time, some analysts are suggesting that
energy efficient lighting translates into "elegance"
(www.lrc.rpi.edu) and, potentially, into increased rev-
enue since sophisticated lighting attracts a sophisti-
cated traveler (Sabedra et al. 2004; Ruffino 2007).

Sustainable policies also seek to support local pro-
ducts and vendors. For example, in Barbados, 'turtle
friendly' fixtures, including ceramic sconces and other
products that can be adapted to both shield light and
to enhance design and ambiance, are manufactured
locally by Earthworks Pottery. "Buying local" fosters
essential economic development (Witter et al. 2002;
Duval 2004; Pattullo 2005; Tourism Global Inc. 2006;
Travelwatch 2006) and delights guests with authentic






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


presentation (MacCannell 1973; Poon 2003; Tourism
Global Inc. 2006). This recommendation may be
more readily implemented by locally owned and smal-
ler hotels and resorts, while hotels owned by large
international corporations often have strict company-
wide standards that apply to architectural elements,
including lighting fixture options. Notwithstanding,
managers in every context should emphasize local
business partnerships as integral to a sustainable
business model.

The benefits of supporting locally owned businesses
are well documented and include reducing environ-
mental impact, receiving better service, creating jobs
at home, satisfying travelers' desires for distinctive
local charm, and fostering local prosperity. "Several
studies have shown that when you buy from an inde-
pendent, locally owned business, significantly more of
your money is used to make purchases from other lo-
cal businesses, service providers and farms contin-
uing to strengthen the economic base of the commun-
ity" (http://sustainableconnections.org/thinklocallwhv).

Progress toward sustainable operating procedures is
rewarded by industry certifications such as Green
Globe (http://www.greenglobeint.com/), a benchmark-
ing and certification program that promotes sustain-
able tourism worldwide by providing a framework for
environmental and social performance improvement.
Based on Agenda 21 and the principles endorsed at
the United Nations Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in
1992, Green Globe Standards provide participants
with a framework to measure their environmental im-
pact, and then develop and implement strategies to
reduce that impact. The Caribbean Alliance for Sus-
tainable Tourism (CAST) lists the "top 10 benefits of
certification" as reduced water and energy consump-
tion, lower operational costs, improved staff morale
and productivity, increased staff creativity, increased
customer satisfaction, reduced employee conflict, in-
creased employee retention, improved community re-
lationships and benefits, and improved business and
shareholder value (http://www.cha-cast.com/).

Regulatory Action -

By adopting light management legislation, govern-
ment makes a long-term commitment to protect sea
turtles from the harmful effects of light pollution. In
addition to providing a public mandate, legislation can
establish specific criteria for determining which artifi-


cial light sources constitute a problem and how these
light sources should be modified in order to solve the
problem (Witherington and Martin 2003). Lighting
legislation also helps to ensure that consistent action
is taken nationwide, strengthening the success of in-
dividual efforts that might not otherwise occur on a
scale necessary to safeguard endangered sea turtle
populations.

Effective lighting legislation should have a clearly
stated purpose, set standards for both new and
existing developments, and be mandatory. Existing
properties may be allowed to "phase in" appropriate
lighting designs, while any new construction should
be required to implement 'turtle friendly' policies from
the start. Ideally, lighting legislation should be em-
bedded in a holistic national conservation strategy,
and comprehensive coastal zone management plan.

According to Lake and Eckert (2009), several factors
are important when considering light management
legislation, and effective policies should embrace the
needs real and perceived of stakeholders, includ-
ing government agencies, property owners and man-
agers, residents, and paying guests. With this in
mind, these authors suggest that a national Lighting
Ordinance should satisfy at least the following five
criteria: increase the quality of sea turtle nesting habi-
tat; maximize cost-effectiveness for property owners
and regulators; maximize public safety and security;
maximize enforceability; and ensure flexibility to adapt
to new scientific information. Model lighting ordi-
nances are found in Witherington and Martin (2003).

Public Outreach and Participation -

The BSTP operates a 24-hour national Sea Turtle
Hotline to facilitate public involvement in the reporting
of sea turtle nesting or hatching events, including inci-
dents of turtles being disoriented inland, away from
the sea. Hotel staff, security guards, and even guests
routinely call the Hotline if turtles are disoriented due
to property lighting. BSTP staff also document hatch-
ling disorientation not reported by the Hotline but
observed during their nightly research and monitoring
efforts. The participation of hotel staff and (super-
vised) guests can meaningfully extend a nation's
capacity for monitoring and responding to sea turtles
in trouble. By paying attention to the causes) of the
disorientation, lighting problems can be identified and
resolved.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Responding to Disoriented Turtles -

According to Phelan and Eckert (2006) hatchlings
traveling away from sea, clearly entrained by artificial
lighting, should be collected and released immedi-
ately. Hatchlings have limited internal yolk stores,
which are needed to provide sufficient "fuel" for their
swim frenzy into the open ocean immediately after
departing from the nesting beach. Each day a hatch-
ling is held captive, drawing on its internal food
stores, makes it more likely that it will deplete its yolk
and be forced to stop, prematurely, to feed in preda-
tor-rich coastal waters.

If hatchlings are rescued during the heat of the day,
they should be kept until late afternoon or evening in
a lightly covered cooler or bucket. The procedure is
described by Phelan and Eckert (2006) as follows:

o Place a few inches of damp beach sand in a
cooler. If the sand is too dry, the young turtles
may desiccate (dry out); if too wet, energy will
be wasted in swimming, and weak hatchlings
may be unable to hold their heads above the
water to breathe.
o Cover the cooler or box and place it in the
shade until late afternoon or nightfall. Supervise
the container to avoid the unwanted attention of
dogs, predators, and onlookers.
o At the time of release, keep predators (e.g.,
dogs, birds, crabs) away from the hatchlings as
they cross the beach. Select an unlit stretch of
beach (preferably the beach where the eggs
were laid) to release the hatchlings; if the beach
is well lit, ask the landowner/ hotelier to turn off
the lights briefly as the hatchlings crawl to the
sea. To encourage natural sea-finding, use min-
imum light and prohibit flash photography dur-
ing hatchling releases.
o Never toss newborn hatchlings directly into the
sea, or "ferry" them into deeper water. The nat-
ural progression of the hatchling from the nest,
across the beach, through the coastal zone,
and into the open sea is important and should
not be unduly disrupted.

Remember that it is illegal to handle and possess sea
turtles, which are protected by law in Barbados. The
BSTP should be contacted for guidance in any efforts
to assist post-nesting females in orienting correctly to
the sea, or attempts to rescue and release hatchlings.


Concluding Remarks -

Widespread mortality to endangered sea turtle hatch-
lings due to bright coastal lighting, which distracts the
newborn turtles during their journey from the nest to
the sea, is well documented in Barbados (Horrocks
1992; Eckert and Horrocks 2002). In search of a sol-
ution, four prominent beachfront hotels, with support
from local (Barbados Sea Turtle Project) and regional
(WIDECAST) NGOs, as well as international experts
(Ecological Associates Inc.), voluntarily committed to
a lighting assessment of their properties and publica-
tion of the resulting recommendations. Each Assess-
ment Report (see Appendices) provides a simple and
objective ranking scheme, based on light fixture inten-
sity, which can be used to reduce the harmful effects
of artificial lighting on nesting beaches at these prop-
erties and, we hope, throughout Barbados and else-
where. The Assessment Reports also establish a
baseline for these specific properties, against which
to evaluate progress made. Finally, the reports can
be viewed as reference documents for general rec-
ommendations, products and vendors, and other
information broadly useful for addressing problematic
lighting observed at hotels, condominiums, and villas.

Hotels, condominiums, and villas are natural focal
points for efforts to reduce "light pollution" originating
on the coast, since they encompass a significant
portion of beachfront property. Their individual efforts
should be encouraged and rewarded in the context of
industry certifications, such as Green Globe, that
recognize sustainable policies. Government also has
a role to play in securing the national benefits of light
reduction, which include improving the quality of sea
turtle nesting habitat (without compromising safety
and security), lowering energy costs, and emphasiz-
ing a science-based approach to coastal zone
management issues. By enacting regulations requir-
ing 'turtle friendly' lighting schemes, the burden of
mitigation falls equally on all beachfront properties
and civil infrastructure (e.g., roadways).

Finally, residents and guests play a vital role in report-
ing sea turtle nesting and hatching events, including
disorientation and mortality; in advocating for stronger
conservation policies and reporting violations; in
obeying requests to turn lights off when not in use
and engaging in other helpful behaviors; and in taking
time to learn about sea turtles and their important role
in Caribbean ecology, economy, and culture.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Have Hatchling Turtles Come Calling At Night?
When the beachfront is dak sea turtle hatchlgs can easily locate the sea without
ur assistance Artificial lights from coastal properties and oads often confuse
hatchlngs causing them to crawl inland This can prove fatal for hatchligs since
they may be preyed upon by crabs or domestic animals, rn over by vehicles or die
from deydration


Sawwndidmoisphastiferg cal seifSaIeteraBD& I2Ull
dci ImtadBlSuu Tf -n mDetaountiCl mdcheaSdmsi,

SAzrrTpXbsilrDsBnmim&Aastdilimed.Art wDhuyrmda.


011511~






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


LITERATURE CITED


Atkins, S., S. Husain and A. Storey. 1991. The Influ-
ence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime,
p. v + 59. In: G. Laycock (Editor), Crime Prevention
Unit Paper No. 28. Home Office Crime Prevention
Unit. London, UK.

Beggs, J.A., J.A. Horrocks and B.H. Krueger. 2007.
Increase in hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata,
nesting in Barbados, West Indies. Endangered Spe-
cies Research 3:159-168.
http://www.widecast.org/What/Country/Barbados/Doc
s/Beggs et al (2007) El rising in Barbados.pdf

Bjorndal, K.A. (Editor) 1982. Biology and Conserva-
tion of Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C. 583 pp.

Brautigam, A. and K.L. Eckert. 2006. Turning the
Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine
Turtles in the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Col-
ombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC International and the
CITES Secretariat. 533 pp.
http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/Brautigam
and Eckert 2006 Exploitation Trade Mgmt of Cari
bbean Sea Turtles.pdf

Bryant, D., L. Burke, J. McManus and M. Spalding.
1998. Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of
Threats to the World's Coral Reefs. World Resources
Institute. Washington, D.C. 56 pp.
http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-risk-map-based-
indicator-potential-threats-worlds-coral-reefs

Burke, L. and J. Maidens. 2004. Reefs at Risk in the
Caribbean. World Resources Institute. Washington,
D.C. http://www.wri.org/project/reefs-caribbean

Cambers, G. 1996. Managing Beach Resources in
the Smaller Caribbean Islands. Coastal Region and
Small Island Papers No. 1. COSALC: Coast & Beach
Stability in the Caribbean Islands. UNESCO and the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayagiez.
http://www.unesco.org/csilpublpapers/papers .htm

Cambers, G. 1997. Planning for Coastline Change:
Guidelines for Construction Setbacks in the Eastern
Caribbean Islands. CSI Information Document No. 4.
UNESCO, Paris. 14 pp.


http://www.unesco.ora/csilpublinfolinfo4.pdf

Cambers, G., L. Richards and S. Roberts-Hodge.
2008. Conserving Caribbean Beaches. TIEMPO Bul-
letin on Climate and Development 66:18-24.
http://www.tiempocyberclimate.or/lportallarchive/pdflt
iempo66low.pdf

CHA/CTO. 2007. CHA-CTO Position Paper on Global
Climate Change and the Caribbean Tourism Industry:
For the EU Travel Trade. Caribbean Hotel Associa-
tion and Caribbean Tourism Organisation. 8 pp.
http://www.caribbeanhotelandtourism.com/downloads
/Pubs ClimateChange0307.pdf

Choi, G.-Y. and K.L. Eckert. 2009. Manual of Best
Practices for Safeguarding Sea Turtle Nesting Beach-
es. Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Net-
work (WIDECAST) Tech. Report No. 9. Ballwin, MO.
86 pp. http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html

Clark, J.R. 1996. Coastal Zone Management Hand-
book. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 694 pp.

Clark, J.R. 1998. Coastal Seas: The Conservation
Challenge. Blackwell Science Ltd. 134 pp.

Danielsen, F., M.K. Sorensen, M.F. Olwig, V. Selvam,
F. Parish, et al. 2005. The Asian tsunami: A protective
role for coastal vegetation. Science 310(5748):643.

Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007.
An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider
Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy.
WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC.
267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edulwidecast/

Duval, D.T. 2004. Tourism in the Caribbean: Trends,
Development, Prospects. Routledge, NY.

Eckert, K.L., and J.A. Horrocks. 2002. Proceedings of
"Sea Turtle and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive
Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-
Makers in Barbados", Glitter Bay Fairmont Hotel, 13
October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean
Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), the
Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Devel-






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


opment Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Tech-
nical Report. San Diego, CA. v + 44 pp.
http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html

EAI. 2002. Coastal Roadway Lighting Manual: A
Handbook of Practical Guidelines for Managing Street
Lighting to Minimize Impacts to Sea Turtles. Prepared
for Florida Power and Light Company by Ecological
Associates, Inc. Jensen Beach, FL. 77 pp.
http://www.flv2pbia.org/erm/permitti ng/sea-
turtles/pdf/lighting-manual.pdf

Fleming, E. 2001. Swimming Against the Tide: Re-
cent Surveys of Exploitation, Trade, and Management
of Marine Turtles in the Northern Caribbean. TRAF-
FIC North America. Washington, D.C. 183 pp.

Fletcher, C.H. et al. 1997. Beach loss along armored
shorelines on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Journal of
Coastal Research 13(1):209-215.

Frazier, J. 2002. Special Issue: International Instru-
ments and Marine Turtle Conservation. Journal of In-
ternational Wildlife Law and Policy 5(1-2):1-207.

Godley, B.J., A.C. Broderick, L.M. Campbell, S.
Ranger and P.B. Richardson. 2004. An assessment
of the status and exploitation of marine turtles in the
UK Overseas Territories in the Wider Caribbean.
Final Project Report for the Department of Environ-
ment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Commonwealth
Office, UK. 253 pp.

Groombridge, B. and R. Luxmoore. 1989. The Green
Turtle and Hawksbill (Reptilia: Cheloniidae): World
Status, Exploitation and Trade. Secretariat of the
Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Lausanne,
Switzerland. 601 pp.

Hamann, M., C. Limpus, G. Hughes, J. Mortimer and
N. Pilcher. 2006. Assessment of the Conservation
Status of the Leatherback Turtle in the Indian Ocean
and South-East Asia. IOSEA Species Assessment:
Volume I. IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU Secretariat.
Bangkok, Thailand. 166 pp.
http://www.ioseaturtles.or/acontent. php?page=Leathe
rback%20Assessment

Hecht, E. 2001. Optics, Fourth Edition. Addison
Wesley, Reading, MA.


Hemley, G. 1994. International Wildlife Trade: a CITES
Sourcebook. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Horrocks, J.A. 1992. WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery
Action Plan for Barbados (K.L. Eckert, Editor). CEP
Technical Report No. 12. UNEP Caribbean Environ-
ment Programme. Kingston, Jamaica. 61 pp.
http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/STRAP Barb
ados 1992.pdf

Horrocks, J.A., and N. McA. Scott. 1991. Nest site loca-
tion and nest success in the hawksbill sea turtle Eret-
mochelys imbricata in Barbados, West Indies. Marine
Ecology Progress Series 69:1-8.

IUCN. 2004. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature
(IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
www.iucnredlist.org.

IUCN. 2007a. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for
the Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). Asses-
sors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle
Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission.
Washington, D.C. 119 pp.
http://www.iucn-mtsq.org/red list/

IUCN. 2007b. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for
the Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). Asses-
sors: F.A. Abreu Grobois and P. Plotkin. Marine Turtle
Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission.
Washington, D.C. 39 pp.
http://www.iucn-mtsa.org/red list/

Kemf, E., B. Groombridge, A. Abreu and A. Wilson.
2000. Marine Turtles in the Wild. World Wildlife Fund
(WWF). Gland, Switzerland. 40 pp.

Knowles, J.E. 2007. In the Spotlight: An Assessment
of Beachfront Lighting at Four Hotels and Recom-
mendations for Mitigation Necessary to Safeguard
Sea Turtles Nesting in Barbados, West Indies. The-
sis, Master of Environmental Management, Nicholas
School of the Environment, Duke University. Durham,
NC. 149 pp.

King, F.W. 1982. Historic Review of the Decline of the
Green Turtle and the Hawksbill, p.183-188. In: K.A.
Bjorndal (Editor), Biology and Conservation of Sea
Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
D.C.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Krueger, B., J.A. Horrocks and J. Beggs. 2003.
Increase in nesting activity by hawksbill sea turtles
(Eretmochelys imbricata) in Barbados, p.149. In: J.A.
Seminoff (Compilers), Proc. 22nd Annual Symposium
on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Tech.
Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-503. U.S. Dept. of Commerce.
www. nmfs.noaa. ov/pr/species/turtles/symposia.htm

Lake, K.N. and K.L. Eckert. 2009. Reducing Light Pol-
lution in a Tourism-Based Economy, with Recommen-
dations for a National Lighting Ordinance. Prepared
by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Net-
work (WIDECAST) for the Department of Fisheries
and Marine Resources, Government of Anguilla.
WIDECAST Technical Report 11. Ballwin, MO. 65 pp.
http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html

Lelis, L. 2003, April 30. "Volusia County, Fla., Officials
Plan Tougher Enforcement of Beach Lighting Law".
Knight Ridder Tribune Business News, p. 1. Retrieved
May 27, 2007 from ProQuest database.

Leon, Y.M. and K.A. Bjorndal. 2002. Selective feeding
in the hawksbill turtle, an important predator in coral
reef ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series
245:249-258.

Lohmann, K.J., B.E. Witherington, C.M.F. Lohmann
and M. Salmon. 1996. Orientation, Navigation, and
Natal Beach Homing in Sea Turtles, p.107-136. In:
P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (Editors), The Biology of
Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Lutcavage, M.E., P. Plotkin, B. Witherington and P.L.
Lutz. 1996. Human Impacts on Sea Turtle Survival, p.
387-409. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (Editors), The
Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

MacCannell, D. 1973. Staged Authenticity: Arrange-
ments of Social Space in Tourist Settings. American
Journal of Sociology 79(3):589-603.

Mack, D., N. Duplaix and S. Wells. 1982. Sea Turtles:
Animals of Divisible Parts: International Trade in Sea
Turtle Products, p.545-563. In: K.A. Bjorndal (Editor),
Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Smithsoni-
an Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Meylan, A.B. and M. Donnelly. 1999. Status justifica-
tion for listing the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys
imbricata) as Critically Endangered on the 1996 IUCN


Red List of Threatened Animals. Chelonian Conser-
vation and Biology 3:200-224.

McConney, P., R. Mahon and R. Pomeroy. 2003.
Guidelines for coastal resource co-management in
the Caribbean: communicating the concepts and con-
ditions that favour success. Caribbean Coastal Co-
management Guidelines Project. Caribbean Conser-
vation Association. Bridgetown, Barbados. 41 pp.
http://infobridge.org/asp/documents/1152.pdf

McKenna, J., M. Macleod, J. Power and A. Cooper.
2000. Rural Beach Management: A Good Beach
Guide. Donegal County Council. 109 pp. (In particu-
lar, pp. 6-9, Physical Processes; and pp. 71-74, Issue:
Development in Sand Dunes)

Milliken, T. and H. Tokunaga. 1987. The Japanese
Sea Turtle Trade 1970-1986: A special report pre-
pared by TRAFFIC (Japan). Center for Environmental
Education, Washington, D.C. 171 pp

Mrosovsky, N. and A. Carr. 1967. Preference for light
of short wavelengths in hatchling green sea turtles,
Chelonia mydas, tested on their natural nesting
beaches. Behaviour 28:217-231.

Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth. 1968. Wave-
length preferences and brightness cues in the water
finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32:211-257.

MTSG. 1995. A Global Strategy for the Conservation
of Marine Turtles. Marine Turtle Specialist Group.
IUCN Species Survival Commission. Arlington, VA.
24 pp. http://www.iucn-mtsg.org/publications

Nuttall, C. 2000. Crime and Justice Bulletin 3: Crime
Against Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000. National
Task Force on Crime Prevention, Office of the Attor-
ney General. Bridgetown, Barbados. 21 pp.

Parsons, J. 1972. The hawksbill turtle and the tortoise
shell trade, p.45-60. In: Etudes de geographic tropi-
cale offertes a Pierre Gourou. Mouton, Paris.

Pattullo, P. 2005. Last Resorts: The Cost of Tourism
in the Caribbean (New Edition). Monthly Review
Press. New York, NY.

Phelan, S.M. and K.L. Eckert. 2006. Marine Turtle
Trauma Response Procedures: A Field Guide. Wider






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDE-
CAST) Technical Report No. 4. Beaufort, NC. 71 pp.
http://www.widecast.ora/What/Regional/Medicine.html

Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill turtle
hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata, by stadium lights.
Copeia 1976:824.

PKF. 2006. Caribbean Trends in the Hotel Industry.
PKF Consulting and PKF Hospitality Research. Atlan-
ta, GA. 30 pp.

Poon, A. 2003. Competitive Strategies for a 'New
Tourism', p.130-142. In: C.P. Cooper (Editor), Classic
Reviews in Tourism. Channel View Publications.
Clevedon, England, UK.

Potter, B. 1996. Tourism and Coastal Resources
Degradation in the Wider Caribbean Region. Island
Resources Foundation. St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Is-
lands. 53 pp.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1996. Evolution, Phylogeny, and
Current Status, p.1-28. In: P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick
(Editors), The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.

Ramsay, M. and R. Newton. 1991. The Effect of
Better Street Lighting on Crime and Fear: A Review,
p. v + 48. In: G. Laycock (Editor), Crime Prevention
Unit Paper No. 29. Home Office Crime Prevention
Unit, London, UK.

Reichart, H., L. Kelle, L. Laurent, H.L. van de Lande,
R. Archer, R. Charles and R. Lieveld. 2003. Regional
Sea Turtle Conservation Program and Action Plan for
the Guianas (K.L. Eckert and M. Fontaine, Editors).
World Wildlife Fund Guianas Forests and Environ-
mental Conservation Project, Paramaribo. WWF
Technical Report no. GFECP#10. 85 pp.
http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/Reichart et
al 2003 Guianas Regional Program.pdf

Reuter, A. and A. Crawford. 2006. Tourists, Turtles
and Trinkets: A Look at the Trade in Marine Turtle
Products in the Dominican Republic and Colombia. A
Report from the Field. TRAFFIC. 12 pp.
http://www.traffic.org/species-
reports/traffic species reptiles9.pdf


Ruffino, J. 2007. Brighter Days Ahead: Lighting Up-
grades can help Facility Managers Address Occupant
Needs and Reduce Energy Costs. Today's Facility
Manager. Tinton Falls, NJ.
http://www.todaysfacilitymanager.com/tfm 07 04 tre
nds.php

Sabedra, R., S. Vaziri, N. Horii and S. Tillotson. 2004.
Illuminating Design. Lodging Hospitality. Penton Pub-
lishing, Cleveland, OH. 3 pp.

Salmon, M. and B.E. Witherington. 1995. Artificial
lighting and sea-finding by loggerhead hatchlings:
evidence for lunar modulation. Copeia 1995:931-938.

Shanker, K. and B.C. Choudhury (Editors). 2006.
Marine Turtles of the Indian Subcontinent. Universi-
ties Press (India), Hyderabad. 415 pp.

Steinitz, M.J. et al. 1998. Beach renourishment and
loggerhead turtle reproduction: a seven year study at
Jupiter Island, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research
14(3):1000-1013.

Tourism Global, Inc. 2006. The Caribbean Accommo-
dation Sector as a Consumer of Locally Produced
Goods and Services and Contributor to Government
Revenues. Caribbean Hotel Association. San Juan,
Puerto Rico. 42 pp.

Travelwatch. 2006. Increasing Local Economic Ben-
efits from the Accommodation Sector in the Eastern
Caribbean. The Travel Foundation. 12 pp.

Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive in-
teractions between artificial lighting and natural cues
during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biologi-
cal Conservation 121(2):311-316.

UNEP/ CMS. 2000. Conservation measures for mar-
ine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa. CMS Tech-
nical Series 5:1-157. UNEP/ CMS [Convention on the
Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals]
Secretariat. Bonn, Germany.

Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influ-
ences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea
turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior.
Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influ-
ences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation
of hatchling loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). Bio-
logical Conservation 55:139-149.

Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Under-
standing, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution
Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edi-
tion, Revised. Florida Marine Research Institute Tech-
nical Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp.
http://research.myfwc.com/publications/publication inf
o.asp?id=39080

Witter, M., L. Briguglio and A. Bhuglah. 2002. Meas-
uring and Managing the Economic Vulnerability of


Small Island Development States, p.24. In: Vulnera-
bility and Small Island Development States: Exploring
Mechanisms for Partnership. United Nations Develop-
ment Programme, Montego Bay, Jamaica.
http://www.sidsnet.oraldocshare/otherleconomic vuln
erability paper.pdf

WWF. 2004. Conserving Marine Turtles on a Global
Scale, Second Edition. World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
Gland, Switzerland. 30 pp.
http://assets.panda.org/downloads/0304turtlereport2n
ded.pdf

Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall,
Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.







Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12



APPENDIX I: RESOLUTIONS, PLEDGES & RECOMMENDATIONS
Source: Eckert and Horrocks (2002)


RESOLUTION OF THE MEETING


RECOGNISING that Caribbean sea turtles species are
classified either as Endangered or Critically Endangered by
international authorities, and are fully protected in Barbados
under the Fisheries (Management) Regulations, 1997;

CONCERNED that sea turtle populations in Barbados have
declined dramatically over the course of the 20th century, due
to threats both domestic and foreign;

AWARE that natural sandy beach habitat is essential to the
survival of the tourism industry in Barbados, as well as to the
survival of our sea turtles;

ALARMED that the majority of sea turtle hatchlings emerg-
ing from the beaches of Barbados are confused and dis-
oriented by artificial lighting and that, as a result, thousands
of them die every year;

SENSITIVE to the impact the modern tourism industry, in-
cluding coastal construction and artificial beachfront lighting,
has on the plight of sea turtles;

ENLIGHTENED, based on the results of this workshop,
about how the coast-based tourism industry can participate
in sea turtle conservation and protection; and

COMMITTED to taking effective action, both as individuals
and as an industry, to ensure the survival of sea turtles in
Barbados -


WE PLEDGE To:

ADOPT a Policy Statement regarding the protection of sea
turtles on hotel grounds;

REVISE Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to imple-
ment the Sea Turtle Policy Statement and further encourage
reporting and protecting nesting turtles and hatchlings by
hotels and other beachfront properties;


SEEK to ensure that funding is available to support annual
training (by the Barbados Sea Turtle Project) of support staff
in those departments that are responsible for actualisation of
the Sea Turtle Policy Statement;

UNDERTAKE a lighting assessment (following the guid-
ance of Witherington and Martin, 2000) and investigate our
individual hotel and villa capacities to participate in "turtle
friendly" lighting schemes; and

IMPLEMENT, as soon as practicable, "turtle friendly" light-
ing on all beaches (e.g., replace HPS lights with LPS alter-
natives, install motion-sensitive security lights, turn off
purely aesthetic lights at 9:00 PM during peak nesting and
hatching seasons).


RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE MEETING:

TO PROMOTE full implementation of the RESOLUTION,
we recommend that the Tourism Development Corporation,
in consultation with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project and
the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network
(WIDECAST) and in collaboration with other local (BHTA)
and regional (CAST) industry coalitions:

PROVIDE the hoteliers, villa rental agencies, Ministries and
other relevant agencies in Barbados with a draft to be
adopted and implemented by the hotel and villa rental
community nation-wide, with each establishment ensuring
that its SOPs are revised as necessary;

PROVIDE the hoteliers and villa rental agencies in Barba-
dos with standard guidelines and criteria for implementing
the Sea Turtle Policy Statement; and

PROVIDE coastal hoteliers and landowners with emergen-
cy numbers for reporting sea turtle sightings and violations,
and a calendar noting the nesting and hatching months of
local sea turtle species.






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


APPENDIX II: LIGHTING EVALUATION FORM

Facility Name/Address:

Light Location:

Type of Observation (Circle):
Daytime Early Nighttime Late Nighttime Follow-up Nighttime

Date/Time of Observation:

Observer(s):

General Comments:


Light Visible From Beach: YES NO

Fixture Type: Photo #:

Rank: 1 2 3 OFF NOB

Comments:






Recommended Modifications:







Observed Modifications:


Additional Modifications Required:


YES NO






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Enhance Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


APPENDIX III: SEA TURTLE POLICY STATEMENT
Source: Choi and Eckert (2009)

Aware that sea turtles contribute in significant ways to the ecology, culture, and economy of the
Wider Caribbean Region;

^ Concerned that sea turtles are severely depleted from their historical abundance; and

SAcknowledging that while the large majority of Caribbean nations protect sea turtles, population
recovery will not be possible without greater attention to the conservation of essential nesting and
feeding habitats,


We Pte~de To:

SEncourage a commitment to environmental responsibility among employees and guests;
SView sea turtle protection as an opportunity for civic engagement in biodiversity issues;
SBe vigilant and aware of any risks to the environment which may occur within or outside our development
area as a result of our activities;
SAssess environmental impacts of all activities, planned and ongoing, as they relate to the conservation of
sea turtles and their habitats;
SProvide employees and contractors with information and instruction to enhance their awareness of relevant
environmental issues, and to ensure effective management of environmental impacts, including impacts on
sea turtles and their habitats;
SIdentify and collaborate with local experts in designing, implementing and evaluating our sea turtle program
to ensure that it fits within national sea turtle conservation priorities, policies, and ongoing initiatives;
SMake continual improvements in operations and management oversight to increase the effectiveness and
reliability of our sea turtle conservation program;
SComply with environmental legislation and local best practice policies related to turtles and their habitats
(sandy beaches, seagrass, coral reefs) and encourage others to do so;
SPromote setbacks, and maintain vegetated buffer zones between sandy beaches and all buildings, patios,
and other built structures;
SImplement measures to minimize waste, including applying monitoring procedures to ensure that the
nesting beach and nearshore waters remain free of debris and pollution;
SConduct regular (at least annual) lighting assessments to identify sources of light pollution, and strive to
eliminate artificial light visible from the beach during nesting season;
SImplement a system that removes potential obstacles to sea turtle nesting, including sun beds and
recreational equipment, from the beach each night during nesting season;
SDiscourage vehicles on the nesting beach, require hand-raking of debris and seaweed;
SSupport local sea turtle conservation and research, including offering financial or in-kind support, as
practicable; and
SReport all incidents of sea turtle harassment or harm to the proper authorities.




L WIDECAST CAST
Wider Carinf .ea Sea Tiwttf Co servation Nnor / "






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


APPENDIX IV: CHECK LIST OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Sea turtles are ancient creatures, living mostly unseen in the world's oceans. At certain times of the year, egg-
bearing females must come ashore to lay eggs deep in the warm sand of tropical beaches. The nesting process can
be threatened by various aspects (e.g., deforestation, lights, sand mining, roads and construction, noise, activity,
recreation) associated with beachfront development. Fortunately, an informed property manager can help ensure
the survival of endangered sea turtles by implementing the following check list, including committing to reducing light
pollution that can be fatal to nesting females and their young. Source: Choi and Eckert (2009).


AcivtySe T Poetn I.


Pre-Construction
Phase


Construction
Setbacks


Exterior Lighting


>Know whether (and when) sea turtles nest on beaches near your property
>Be aware of laws and policies protecting sea turtles and their eggs
>Support the development and implementation of an independent Environment
Impact Assessment
>Evaluate and commit to minimizing impacts to the nesting beach from access
roads, vegetation removal/burning, excavation, erosion, lights and activity
associated with work crews, etc.
>Schedule construction during non-nesting periods
identifyy and collaborate with local sea turtle experts to monitor the effects of
construction
>Support formation of a local Advisory Board for transparency, information-
exchange, oversight
>Adopt a Sea Turtle Policy Statement (see Appendix III)

>Do not construct permanent buildings, snack bars, pools, etc. on the sandy beach
platform
>To protect both the nesting beach and coastal infrastructure, establish reasonable
setbacks between the ocean and any permanent buildings
informm contractors and partners of the importance of these setbacks, and of
preserving native vegetation within a buffer zone

>Commit to reducing "light pollution" that can be fatal to nesting females and their
young
>Conduct lighting inspections, at least annually, and respond promptly to
recommended corrective measures
>All exterior fixtures anywhere on the property that produce light visible from the
nesting beach should be shielded, directed only where light is needed, generally
placed as low as practicable, and use long wavelength lamps (e.g., red/amber
LEDs, low pressure sodium) and black baffles
>Avoid bright white light, such as metal halide, halogen, fluorescent, mercury vapor,
and incandescent lamps and never use where such light could be visible from the
beach
>Turn off balcony lights when not in use
>Use ornamental vegetation to block and reduce light leakage to the nesting beach
>Emphasize timers and motion sensitive lights to reduce beachfront lighting and
operational costs
>Prohibit bonfires or fire pits on the beach or in line-of-sight of the beach during
nesting season






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Acivt S


Glass Windows
and Doors Visible
from the Beach


>Commit to reducing the amount of light that reaches the nesting beach from hotel
rooms, restaurants, and other interior spaces
>When possible, use blackout curtains or shade-screens if glass tinting is an
option, apply film with a visible light transmittance value of 45% or less to all
windows and doors within line-of-sight of the beach
>Turn off lights when not in use!


>Know the law with regard to sourcing construction aggregate
Beach Sand >Avoid using sand mined from coastal beaches
Mining >Report violations of sand mining laws

>Remove furniture and recreational equipment (kayaks, small sailboats) from the
beach nightly
>Stack and arrange furniture off-beach
Obstacles on the >Use a permanent umbrella holder or sleeve never thrust an umbrella (or other
Nesting Beach penetrating object) into a nesting beach
>Consider signage (if egg poaching is not a problem) alerting visitors to nest
locations and asking that they stay 2m (6ft) from the nest site


)Implement policies to keep grounds and adjoining beach areas clean
>Hand-rake beach debris (vs. using a tractor) to avoid harming eggs incubating
below the surface
Litter and Debris below the surface
>Partner with local youth or conservation groups to conduct Beach Clean-Ups,
especially just prior to the nesting season


>Seek alternatives to coastal armoring/seawalls
>Protect beachfront property through enforced construction setbacks, mixed-species
Beach (preferably native) vegetation buffers, and dune protection
Stabilization and >lf beach restoration/rebuilding is unavoidable, replacement sand should be similar
Restoration (grain size, organic content) to the original beach sand, thereby maintaining the
suitability of the beach for egg incubation
>Beach restoration should never take place during the nesting/hatching season
>With the exception of authorized patrol or emergency vehicles (which should drive
below the high tide line), motorized vehicles should be prohibited from driving on
Vehicles on the sandy beaches
Beach >Smooth-out tire tracks ruts trap emerging hatchlings, prevent them from reaching
the sea

> Know the law regarding removal and restoration of coastal vegetation and maritime
forest
> Incorporate established vegetation into architectural plans minimize removal of
Protectibeachfront vegetation, restore what has been lost
tetin > Emphasize the use of native plant/tree species
Vegetation
Vn Construct raised walkways over sensitive areas
> Consider planting "beach gardens" to help restore nesting habitat for hawksbill sea
turtles






Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12


Acivt S


Protecting
Seagrass and
Coral


Boats, Personal
Watercraft


Educating Staff
and Guests


>Prohibit actions that damage seagrass or coral
>Require all marine vessels be moored or docked
>Restrict anchoring to non-sensitive marine areas
>Demarcate a no-wake Swim Zone offshore the nesting beach
>Eliminate sedimentation and pollution e.g., manage wastewater effluent, recycle
graywater, maintain high standards for sewage treatment, emphasize low doses of
landscape chemicals
>Educate divers and snorkelers about appropriate behavior underwater

>Commit to reducing the impact of recreational boating on sensitive marine
ecosystems
>Enforce a slow speed or no-wake zone offshore the nesting beach
>Encourage the use of propeller guards to reduce injury to marine life, including sea
turtles
>Ensure that staff and guests know and understand all relevant rules and restrictions

>Regularly train/evaluate staff in environmental management systems and sea turtle
protocols
involvee guests in sea turtle protocols; e.g., close curtains at night when interior
lights are lit
>Make conservation fun! Host a Sea Turtle Summer Camp or Story Hour, sponsor a
Beach Clean-Up, invite a local expert to give a Sea Turtle Talk, organize Nature
Tours, recognize staff efforts
>Partner with a local conservation group to offer professionally guided Turtle
Watches, if sea turtle species and habitats are conducive to viewing
>Use signage/in-room materials to inform guests of sea turtle (and other conserva-
tion) issues
>Always report nesting and hatching events


















APPENDIX V: FAIRMONT ROYAL PAVILION ASSESSMENT REPORT











Property Assessment:

The Fairmont Royal Pavilion

Respectfully submitted
John English Knowles


SWIDECAST
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network


DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION


National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its
Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles
in Barbados, West Indies











INTRODUCTION

In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Car-
ibbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism
Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was
conducted at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion as part of a follow-up initiative to
implement recommendations made at a national "Sea Turtles and Beach-
front Lighting" workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks
2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Fairmont Royal Pavilion
property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its repre-
sentatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation's
sandy beaches.

Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles
and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles
back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties
and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bear-
ings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the
hatchling stage, and the consequences can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and
Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b;
Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005).

The Fairmont Royal Pavilion has identified itself as a leader in addressing
the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The
property along with three other beachfront hotels was chosen because it
plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The
intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to
propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contri-
buting to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds.

Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival
of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, a critically endangered
species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important
role in the survival of this species, as the island's western coast is identified


as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider
Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007).

Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as "light pollution"
by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat
to the survival of sea turtles in Barbados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea
turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally
see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright
white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best avail-
able science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights
as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or
intensity:

"We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how
much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, how-
ever, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity
will reduce effects, and if intensities are similar, substituting less
attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce
effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on
sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights
as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential,
long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light
sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal
wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down
and away from the beach."

In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult
sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching
the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives.

Where eliminating light sources either by turning them off or by removing
the fixtures altogether is not practical, alternatives are available which
direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.











In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington
and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that "luminaires should not be directed onto
... any object visible from the beach," including walls, ceilings, and vegeta-
tion. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting,
which "has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement
[and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles
than it is useful to people" (Witherington and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures
are available that will minimize or eliminate "wall wash" (the illumination of
the side or facade of a building); see "Internet Resources".

Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin
(2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor
lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor
lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach.

"Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very
tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem
for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light
the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be
eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light."

Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from
residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests
at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to
close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on.

In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a
brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken
to implement recommendations associated with rank "3" lights; in other
words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative
effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted
over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 "Sea Turtles and Beach-
front Lighting" workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and
current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003).


METHODS

Daytime Lighting Survey -

A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 3 June 2006 by
observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach.
The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count)
each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor
[John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and loca-
tion. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor;
however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that
the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps
(light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or
positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to
be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a night-
time survey.

Nighttime Lighting Survey -

In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was con-
ducted on foot on 23 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light
identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect
to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible
when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored
on a scale of "1" to "3" (see "Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps").

The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr)
and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual
light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting con-
ditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly
bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind
them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal
operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspect-
tions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.











Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps -


The most disruptive lamps received a rank of "3"; whereas the least dis-
ruptive, a rank of "1". Specifically, a rank of "1" described indirect light
visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a
strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of "2" described a
visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle,
but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of "3" described
a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on
the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect.

Even the smallest light could rank "3" if it cast a shadow on the beach
because its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning
could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away.

The "3" ranking lights are placed first in the assessment because of
their potentially more serious effects) on sea turtles. The focus of cor-
rective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will
have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat.

Within each rank 1, 2, 3 fixtures listed first are expected to require the
greatest attention either in number, financial expense, or creativity. The list
continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expen-
sive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach,
the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and
pertinent recommendations are documented.

Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one
or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying
the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the
fixture with an alternative. "Recommendations" refer to fixes that will address
the more serious issuess, but in some cases may not completely eliminate
the problem. "Ultimate Recommendations" refer to the best possible ap-
proach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether.


Illustrations and Icons -

Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of
fixtures.


Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object.





Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach.


Seaward Landward

,<"; v-; 1
f,~r'/l \7


or


Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is
positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach.


RECOMMENDATIONS











Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional bollard with
external louvers.


Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb.


Install compact fluorescent "Turtle Safe Lighting" lamps (light bulbs). See
"Internet Resources".







Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight
(e.g., http://www.thomasliahtina.com/catalo/lproddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8)


Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light
positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach.


Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage.


Plant, landscape, or improve native vegetation buffer so that light is effect-
tively screened (i.e., not directly visible) from the beach.








Install a hood, aim the light away from the nesting beach, and connect the
fixture to a motion detector.


Seaward Landward
Motion detector











Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform
guests via "table tents", door hangers, or other educational, advertising or
informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control.


ON


OFF


Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 1800 on the
ocean side. Note: This recommendation is associated with broadcast light
(generally in restaurants or porches) spilling out onto the nesting beach. The
shield is intended to maintain the diffuse broadcast light effect, but eliminate
any spillover. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any
distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach.


Install a Hubbell Skycap, or similar shield.







For security, install a motion detector to turn the fixture on only when an in-
truder is on the beach. Note: a motion detector can be disengaged when
not needed.


Eliminate fixtures and use low table lamps (e.g., Aurelle LED Candle Series or
Maxxima MLC-01 LED Flameless Candle) or candles to illuminate the table
without unintended broadcast from the restaurant.


Shade arches; this recommendation refers to installing drop-down shades
from the arches in the restaurant.
^> 4











Rank: 3
Light Location: Coconut palm at the Water Sports Centre (southern end of
property)
Number of fixtures: 2
Comments: Currently, the light is directed toward the boat ramp and steps. A
much better alternative in illuminating these steps would be to install small
foot/ step lights emitting a pure red light and connected to a motion detector
(so they only come on when needed). If these lights are needed for security,
low-profile, louvered bollards with beach-side shields would be an accept-
able alternative. To minimize the effects of these lights on sea turtles, the
bollards could be connected to a motion detector and feature low-pressure
sodium (LPS) vapor lamps or yellow bug lights.

Recommendation:





Ultior with

Ultimate recommendation:











RarA qnntlinht (view 11


Rank: 3
Light Location: On the roof of the Water Sports Centre
Number of fixtures: 2

Recommendation:


Ultimate recommendation:












Rank: 3
Light Location: North beach by the vender stalls
Number of fixtures: 1

Recommendation:


- a



















Smaller. Dalm-mounted soot


Rank: 3
Light Location: Palm Terrace Restaurant
Number of fixtures: 4 larger spotlights for stage (2 orange, 2 white) and 21
smaller spotlights
Comments: The restaurant presents a unique challenge because it is direct-
ly on the beach. Using wall-mounted downlights, step lights, and/or other
directional fixtures in combination with small, low-level table lights will mini-
mize the amount of light leaving the restaurant. The downlights should be
mounted low enough so that they do not illuminate the nesting beach. Con-
sideration should be given to planting vegetation inside the arches in such a
way as to limit the amount of light passing through them, but, ideally, not
obstructing the view of seated guests (a schematic is presented on the next
page). Some fixtures also contribute to "wall wash," but because wall wash
from a pure yellow or pure red light is less disruptive than wall wash from a
full-spectrum white light, yellow bug lights or other 'turtle friendly' lamps
should be used. By following these recommendations, neither this unique
dining experience nor the behavior of sea turtle hatchlings will be comprom-
ised.
Recommendations on existing fixtures:





Ultimate recommendations:




I'd











With regard to the recommendation (above) that planting vegetation inside
the arches could limit the amount of light reaching the beach, while at the
same time preserving the ocean view for seated guests, the following land-
scaping options may be effective









Wall-mounted candle holder fixture


Rank: 3
Light Location: Cafe Taboras
Number of fixtures: 6
Comments: Cafe Taboras presents a unique case that can be easily mitigat-
ed. Because the current fixtures are a source of direct light shining on the
beach, a replacement fixture that shields the light bulb from the beach (as
well as eliminates the unsightly glare that currently greets customers) is pre-
ferred. One option would be to replace the glass chimney with an opaque
one, concealing the bulb. Earthworks Pottery could possibly design such a
fixture, thereby increasing the quality of the nesting beach, the ambiance of
the restaurant, and strengthening a local vendor.
Recommendation on existing fixtures:




Ultimate recommendations:


b











Rank: 3
Light Location: First, second, and third floor balconies of North and South
buildings
Number of fixtures: 138
Comments: Pending installation of 'turtle friendly' fixtures, the detrimental ef-
fects of these lights can be reduced (but not eliminated) by shielding or tint-
ing the glass on the current fixtures. Because the shell sconce helps shield
the bare bulb from the beach, it is preferred to the period light; however,
considerable light from the sconce is reflected off the balcony wall towards
the beach ("wall wash"). The bulbs should be replaced with a low-wattage
yellow bug lights or Turtle Safe Lighting lamps. Small, portable book lights
could be provided in every room for guests that prefer to read on the balcony
at night.

Recommendations on the existing fixtures, especially the period light:

<'< 50WO




Ultimate recommendation:

S550W N


OFF










Rank: 3
Light Location: Cafe Taboras
Number of fixtures: 13

Recommendations:


ON

OFF
IlElI











Rank: 3
Light Location: North Beach
Number of fixtures: 10
Comments: These spotlights, located directly on the beach, exemplify the
worst possible conditions for endangered sea turtles nesting at this location.
Ideally, these fixtures would be removed or timed to turn off after sunset, at
least during nesting and hatching season. If they are required for dining or
entertainment events, then having them on for short durations on random
nights is preferred over having them on all the time. If all of these lights can-
not be removed or turned off, the number of lights (currently 10) should be
reduced as practicable and the wattage of each lamp reduced (e.g. through
the use of low pressure sodium (LPS) or yellow bug light bulbs). A 'turtle
friendly' CF PAR-38 filter is available (see "Internet Resources").

Recommendation:






Recommendations for the remaining fixtures:


<50W ON

Seaward Lan ward
o I d OFF
Motion detector -


Ultimate recommendation:











Rank: 3
Light Location: North Beach
Number of fixtures: 1
Comments: The best recommendation and preferred option is to eliminate
this fixture. If its necessary purpose is to illuminate dining or entertainment,
then it should be shielded (aiming light downward) and turned off when not
needed. If its purpose is to illuminate the beach so that security staff can
view potential trespassers, then a more effective and economical means
might be to install a motion detector so that security staff are alerted only
when someone approaches the property. Provide security staff with flash-
lights. Studies show (see "Management Issues: Lighting and Crime Consid-
erations") that such changes do not result in higher crime rates.

Recommendations on existing fixture:


Ultimate recommendation:





























Tree-mounted. down-directed, hooded s


Rank: 3
Light Location: "Garden area" in front of the Palm Terrace Restaurant, where
two upward-directed spotlights at secured at the base of a coconut palm and
one downward-directed spotlight is mounted high in the palm tree.
Number of fixtures: 3
Comments: The high-mounted, downward directed fixture casts a great deal
of direct light onto the nesting beach and, of these three spotlights, would
certainly be the most disruptive to the sea-finding behavior of sea turtles. To
retain the ambiance of this lighting, the tree-mounted spotlight could be
directed inland and upward, with the wattage reduced by a low pressure
sodium (LPS) or yellow bug light bulb.

Recommendation (low-mounted):








Recommendation (high-mounted):




Seaward Land ward
Motion detector


Ultimate recommendation:











Palm-mnmonted hnnded qnntli


Rank: 3
Light Location: Coconut palm and mahogany trees between Cafe Taboras
and South building
Number of fixtures: 2
Comments: A common recommendation to correct lighting problems is to
lower the light fixture to the point where its light is not visible from the beach.
In this situation, the purpose of the lights is to illuminate the terrace/patio of
Cafe Taboras. This purpose can be achieved without high-mounted tree fix-
tures, which increase stray light reaching the beach. The preferred alterna-
tive is to lower and shield these lights, such as by placing the fixtures behind
an opaque object. In this case, simply repositioning the lights on the land-
ward side of wall might be sufficient. Vegetation can also be useful in mini-
mizing the light that reaches the beach. Both options (lowering the fixtures
and more creative use of landscaping) would be expected to increase the
quality of the environment for sea turtles on the beach and dinning guests on
the terrace.

Recommendations:


04 nf %
LiV An\ X /x ini^ 4 -.-










Palm-mnmonted hnnodd qnontli


it closest to beach


Rank: Off at the time of assessment (3?)
Light Location: Coconut palm just south of North building
Number 1
Comments: This light was not operational during the assessment, and there-
fore could be not evaluated directly. However, given its height and location,
it would be expected to be very disruptive to the sea-finding behavior of sea
turtles.


Recommendation:


it furthest from beach


Rank: 2
Light Location: Coconut palm just south of North building
Number 2
Comments: This light should be repositioned away from the beach, directed
away from the beach, and turned off when not in use.


Recommendations:



c00^











SUMMARY

The improvements already made by the Fairmont Royal Pavilion do not go
unnoticed. The hotel constantly strives for a more suitable nesting beach
environment, which only increases its quality as a luxury resort. Fairmont
Royal Pavilion is praised for supporting umbrellas with a flat base, instead of
models that spike the post directly into the sand. This, as well as the pro-
perty's commitment to stacking beach chairs each night, help to ensure that
incubating eggs are not damaged and nesting females are not obstructed
from crawling on the beach. Another obvious consideration in seaside ambi-
ence is the hooding of beachfront spotlights to reduce glare and improve the
stunning night sky for guests and other visitors.

Improvement can still be made with regard to the impact of evaluated light
fixtures, including spotlights. This is a challenge for management, but one
which we believe can be met. The Fairmont Royal Pavilion beach side prop-
erty is elongated, and situated directly on the beach with little or no setback.
The result is that even a small light bulb can be problematic, and this is also
why nearly all fixtures are categorized as being potentially very disruptive to
sea turtles (= rank "3").

Even when directed inland and shielded, such as with a hood, a spotlight
situated directly on the nesting beach can cause an egg-bearing female to
turn away from suitable nesting habitat and, if eggs are successfully laid,
fatally disorient her young (see "Barbados in the Spotlight").

The cumulative effect of multiple balcony lights also has a significant and
negative impact on sea turtles. Ideally, sea-facing balcony lights should be
off at all times during the nesting season. A more practical recommendation
may be to shield the bulbs (to minimize both direct light and wall wash), uti-
lize 'turtle friendly' lamps, lower the wattage, and/or provide guests with can-
dles or small reading lights for use on the balconies. Information available at
Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the importance of
these changes, and encourage them to do their part.


The two on-site restaurants also pose a challenge in reducing light pollu-
tion, since they, too, are situated directly on the nesting beach. Any solution
must meet the needs both of dining guests and of sea turtles, since the res-
taurants' evening hours of operation overlap with the emergence of most
hatchlings. Mitigation options require commitment and creativity, and a clear
understanding of the principles of light mitigation with regard to sea turtles.
We hope that, in involving managers directly in this assessment, the requi-
site technical knowledge has been imparted.

By taking full advantage of creative landscaping and 'turtle friendly' lighting
schemes, as well as diligence in turning lights off when they are not in use,
we are confident that this beautiful property can coexist more harmoniously
with egg-laying sea turtles.

These recommendations, once implemented, will not only improve beach
conditions for sea turtles, but will contribute to the existing sophisticated
theme of the resort's lighting ambiance while, at the same time, reducing
operational expenses (lower energy use).

To encourage lighting improvements and assist in implementation, the Tour-
ism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures
and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk, re-
ducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation.

Along with an improved beachfront (in terms of light pollution), comes a par-
allel responsibility for conservation-minded coastal management in general.
Fairmont Royal Pavilion plays an essential role in the survival of the endan-
gered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a
model for "sea turtle friendly" environmental management systems else-
where in Barbados and beyond.











INTERNET RESOURCES


'Turtle Friendly' Lighting Products -

FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs -
http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conservation LivingWith Wildlifelighting fixt
ures.htm

Turtle Safe Lighting www.turtlesafelighting.com

Turtle Safe Products www.turtlesafeproducts.com

Starry Night Lights http://store.starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html

International Dark-Sky Association http://www.darksky.oral

www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins >
Compact Fluorescent

CF PAR 38 -

www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search
"212407" [product number]

www.gelighting.comlnal > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent >
Self-Ballasted > PAR38

R30 Amber Bug Light -

Lighting Science http://www.laminaceramics.com (e.g.,
http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm r30/)


Ruud Lighting -
http://www.ruudlighting.com/literaturellandscape family. asp?mscssid=&coni
d=&dc=9&vt=12

FX Luminaire www.fxl.com

Architectural Bollards -

LSI Industries http://www.lsi-industries.com/lighting product.asp?lD=5777

Lithonia Lighting -
http://www.acuitybrandslighting.com/library/PSG/LL/Outdoor%20Lighting/Sit
e%20Liqhting/Bollards/KBD.pdf


LITERATURE CITED

Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea
Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST
Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app.
http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/

Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of "Sea Turtles
and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals
and Policy-Makers in Barbados", 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider
Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project,
and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Tech-
nical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/ResourceslPubs.html

IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union
for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org


Amber Gold 3.5 www.turtleslighting.com


Path and Landscape Lighting -











IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle
(Eretmochelys imbricata). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine
Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp.
www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007 IUCN Red List Global Status As
sessment Hawksbill turtle.pdf

Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth. 1968. Wavelength preferences and
brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32:
211-257.

Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eret-
mochelys imbricata, by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824.

Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between arti-
ficial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles.
Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316.

Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and
intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding be-
havior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069.

Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting
on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).
Biological Conservation 55:139-149.

Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Re-
solving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edi-
tion, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL.
73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publications/publication info.asp?id=39080


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of the Fairmont Royal
Pavilion, including Nicholas Emery (General Manager) and Andre Berube
(Chief Engineer), for their collaboration in this assessment. They were ex-
traordinarily kind in accommodating my requests, which often involved their
working off-hours, including late at night.

Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the
foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of
Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collabor-
ative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The
Pew Charitable Trusts.

I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle
Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Horrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006
seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard
for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Carib-
bean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with hous-
ing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the oppor-
tunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been profession-
ally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have
been accomplished.

Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST
and my academic advisor at Duke University's Nicholas School of the Envi-
ronment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Carib-
bean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecologi-
cal Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his
kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beach-
front lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.


















APPENDIX VI: SANDY LANE HOTEL ASSESSMENT REPORT











Property Assessment:
Sandy Lane Hotel

Respectfully submitted
John English Knowles


L WIDECAST
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtfe Conservation Network


7zflamt
DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION


National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its
Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles
in Barbados, West Indies











INTRODUCTION

In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Car-
ibbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism
Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was
conducted at the Sandy Lane Hotel as part of a follow-up initiative to im-
plement recommendations made at a national "Sea Turtles and Beachfront
Lighting" workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks 2002).
The evaluation of lighting associated with the Sandy Lane property attests to
the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its representatives, and the
BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation's sandy beaches.

Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles
and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles
back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties
and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bear-
ings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the
hatchling stage, and the consequences can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and
Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b;
Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005).

The Sandy Lane Hotel has identified itself as a leader in addressing the
lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The property
- along with three other beachfront hotels was chosen because it plays a
crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The intent
of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to pro-
pose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contributing
to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds.

Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival
of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, a critically endangered
species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important
role in the survival of this species, as the island's western coast is identified


as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider
Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007).

Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as "light pollution"
by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat
to the survival of sea turtles in Barbados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea
turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally
see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright
white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best avail-
able science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights
as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or
intensity:

"We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how
much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, how-
ever, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity
will reduce effects, and if intensities are similar, substituting less
attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce
effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on
sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights
as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential,
long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light
sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal
wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down
and away from the beach."

In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult
sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching
the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives.

Where eliminating light sources either by turning them off or by removing
the fixtures altogether is not practical, alternatives are available which
direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.











In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington
and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that "luminaires should not be directed onto
... any object visible from the beach," including walls, ceilings, and vegeta-
tion. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting,
which "has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement
[and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles
than it is useful to people" (Witherington and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures
are available that will minimize or eliminate "wall wash" (the illumination of
the side or facade of a building); see "Internet Resources".

Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin
(2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor
lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor
lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach.

"Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very
tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem
for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light
the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be
eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light."

Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from
residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests
at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to
close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on.

In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a
brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken
to implement recommendations associated with rank "3" lights; in other
words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative
effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted
over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 "Sea Turtles and Beach-
front Lighting" workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and
current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003).


METHODS

Daytime Lighting Survey -

A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 23 July 2006
by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach.
The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count)
each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor
[John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and
location. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the
Assessor; however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff
ensured that the correct function was documented in every case. Light
fixtures with lamps (light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that
were designed or positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach,
were considered to be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and
scored during a night-time survey.

Nighttime Lighting Survey -

In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was con-
ducted on foot on 23 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light
identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect
to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible
when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored
on a scale of "1" to "3" (see "Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps").

The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr)
and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual
light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting con-
ditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly
bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind
them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal
operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspect-
tions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.











Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps -


The most disruptive lamps received a rank of "3"; whereas the least dis-
ruptive, a rank of "1". Specifically, a rank of "1" described indirect light
visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a
strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of "2" described a
visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle,
but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of "3" described
a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on
the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect.

Even the smallest light could rank "3" if it cast a shadow on the beach be-
cause its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning
could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away.

The "3" ranking lights are placed first in the assessment because of
their potentially more serious effects) on sea turtles. The focus of cor-
rective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will
have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat.

Within each rank 1, 2, 3 fixtures listed first are expected to require the
greatest attention either in number, financial expense, or creativity. The list
continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expen-
sive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach,
the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and
pertinent recommendations are documented.

Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one
or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying
the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the
fixture with an alternative. "Recommendations" refer to fixes that will address
the more serious issuess, but in some cases may not completely eliminate
the problem. "Ultimate Recommendations" refer to the best possible ap-
proach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether.


Illustrations and Icons -

Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of
fixtures.


Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object


Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach.
Seaward Landward

-'A


Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 1800 on the
ocean side. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any
distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach.


RECOMMENDATIONS










Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb.


Az


Install hood of sufficient depth and width.




Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage.




Shield seaward side of fixtures that are visible from the beach.


Position lip over rope lighting to conceal bare bulbs.


Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light
positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach.


Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform
guests via "table tents", door hangers, or other educational, advertising or
informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control.

ON

OFF

Remove light when not in use.


Replace with red LED rope lighting.









Extinguish when not in use.





Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight
(e.g., http://www.thomasliahtina.com/catalo/lproddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8)


Install red LED bulb.


Use dimmer to lessen the effect of indirect light leaving the dining area.


Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is
positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach.


Install compact fluorescent "Turtle Safe Lighting" lamps (light bulbs). See
"Internet Resources".


Eliminate fixtures and use low table lamps (e.g., Aurelle LED Candle Series or
Maxxima MLC-01 LED Flameless Candle) or candles to illuminate the table
without unintended broadcast from the restaurant.


Place a small lamp shade over bare bulbs to prevent their being visible from
the beach.



cr











Cap or cover top of fixture to prevent up-lighting and "wall wash."


Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional bollard with
external louvers.


Install a filter that emits a pure red wavelength (this is different from a filter
that simply appears red to the human eye).


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 4
Light Location: Trees along the beachfront
Comments: These high intensity blue floodlights are extremely disruptive to
sea-finding behavior in turtles, so much so that they attract hatchlings (which
had successfully entered the sea from darker stretches of beach) back to
land (personal observation, JEK). These lights should be turned off during
the nesting and hatching season (May to November).


Recommendations:


Verv larae tree-mounted flooc
























Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 14
Light Location: Beachside trees along property
Comments: To light walking paths, use low-profile lights or bollards.


Recommendations:

Seaward Landward

-- irW~


<50W ON


wp "fft


Ultimate recommendation:


Rank: 3
Number of fixture: 7
Light Location: Tree on north end of property (pictured tree near the north
gazebo, Bajan Blue Restaurant tree
Comments: These lights are used on special occasions. Installing a hood
over the bulbs will increase the aesthetics for guests, while at the same time
directing the light in a more efficient manner.

Recommendations:

<50WFF

V~ftftaa









Rank: 3
Length of rope lighting: 233 meters
Light Location: Along beachside wall
Comments: Although less intense than some floodlights, continuous strings
of small white lights placed low on the horizon represent a real obstacle to
sea turtle hatchlings, especially on dark nights. Even short strips emit
enough light to lead hatchlings inland, away from the sea (personal observa-
tion, JEK).
Recommendation on location of rope lighting:







Recommendation for existing fixtures:
Wall Wall
"Light Light
with Lip


Replacement Recommendation:




Az









Large torch with open flame


Tree-mounted hooded spotlight
i .w II'E..


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 2
Light Location: On beach, center property


Recommendation:


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 2
Light Location: Trees in lower terrace


Recommendation:
Seaward Landward
A--


lB







Wall-mniintpd randlp-hnldir


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 176
Light Location: Balconies of north and south wings
Recommendations for existing fixtures:
<50W


Ultimate recommendation:


L I











Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 20
Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant
Comments: Even though these rank as moderate ("2") for potentially dis-
rupting sea-finding behavior, these lights cause a significant broadcast of
indirect light. Bouncing light off the umbrella illuminates the dining area ...
and beyond, including the nesting beach. Highly directed, low-profile lights
could be used to effectively illuminate the beachfront dining area.

Recommendations for existing fixtures:




lIme retOFFn

Ultimate recommendation:

ON

OFF








Column-mounted candle lights
m :


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 14
Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant
Comments: The Bajan Blue Restaurant presents a unique case that can be
easily mitigated. The current lights are a source of direct light on the nesting
beach, and their replacement with a progressive alternative is highly recom-
mended. A fixture, such a decorative sconce, that successfully shields the
light bulb from the beach (as well as from restaurant guests) would be much
preferred over the existing bare bulb lights.
Recommendations:



fL7










ht (in lawn, groundcover)
SU -X I


Up-directed, hooded spotlight (tree base)


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 16
Light Location: Grassy lawns in front of the first floor rooms (north and south
wings)
Comments: Luminaires should not be directed onto any object visible from
the beach. Glowing beachfront vegetation is highly disruptive to the sea-
finding behavior of sea turtle hatchlings, especially on moonless nights.
These lights have only an aesthetic purpose; consideration should be given
to removing (at least during nesting season) or redirecting the light such that
it is not visible from the beach.

Recommendations on the number of fixtures:





Recommendations on remaining fixtures:

<50W

*^ A


Ultimate recommendation:









Wall-mniintpd randle


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 2
Light Location: Upper terrace,


just outside lobby


Recommendations:


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 28
Light Location: L'acajou


Recommendation:


Examples of acceptable fixtures:


'7


ILr/HoDor









ChandAlipr (with harp hihlbh


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 52
Light Location: Terrace stairway
Comments: Use of a 'turtle friendly' wavelength (e.g., yellow or red LED)
would be helpful here.


Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 1 (including 3 bulbs)
Light Location: Lobby
Comments: Visible from the beach, it would be helpful to try and conceal or
shade these bare bulbs in some way.


Recommendations:


Recommendations:


J-\"-

Cr











Small c ilinn-mnintpd qnntlinht


Rank: 2 Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 2 Number of fixtures: 11
Light Location: Lobby Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant


Recommendations:


Recommendations:


Seaward Landward
.- ,"A.
_w0


Seaward Landward
_0 0':











Rank: 2
Number of fixtures: 13
Light Location: On beach, in front of Bajan Blue Restaurant, Lower terrace

Recommendations:
I-











Balcony up-light
: '" ;t "


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 344
Light Location: Balconies
Comments: The balcony rooms at Sandy Lane have three different fixture
types on each balcony: (i) candle-type fixtures have the greatest potential to
disrupt sea-finding behavior in sea turtles if these fixtures are replaced
with a 'turtle friendly' alternative, they become less problematic; (ii) up-lit
fixtures (pictured) are moderately disruptive, mainly because of "wall wash"
which occurs despite the concealed bulb these fixtures should be installed
with low wattage bug lights or 'turtle friendly' lamps, and if other lighting is
made available (e.g., opaque globes, mounted low to the floor), up-lights on
beachfront balconies can be eliminated; (iii) finally, lamps are used but these
are minimally disruptive to sea turtles.

Recommendations on the existing fixtures:


Ultimate recommendation when other adequate lighting is installed:


, 0 .










Wall-mounted clay covered fixture
Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 18
Light Location: Upper and lower terrace

Recommendations:

-r <50WQ











Up-directed, hooded spotlight on













< ,


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 13
Light Location: Lower terrace (below trees in natural area)

Recommendations on the number of fixtures:





Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures:

<50W




Ultimate recommendation:










Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 10
Light Location: Beachside grassy areas
Comments: Luminaires should not be directed onto any object visible from
the beach. Glowing beachfront vegetation is highly disruptive to the sea-
finding behavior of sea turtle hatchlings, especially on moonless nights.
These lights have only an aesthetic purpose; consideration should be given
to removing (at least during nesting season) or redirecting the light such that
it is not visible from the beach.

Recommendations on the number of fixtures:






Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures:
<50W

^t^ I


Ultimate recommendation:


5










Tahip lamn


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 75
Light Location: Balcony tables, north and south wings

Recommendations:

<50WO










Wall-mnontpd iin-dirrActPed crnnrc


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 4
Light Location: Upper and lower terrace
Comments: Fixture contributes to "wall wash".

Recommendations on the existing fixtures:
!50W 7
4 ~l ON A

IIa


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 6
Light Location: Lower terrace
Comments: Fixture contributes to "wall wash

Recommendations on the existing fixtures:
<50W
LoL


Ultimate recommendation (when other adequate lighting is installed):


Ultimate recommendation (when other adequate lighting is installed):


Wall-mounted up-light
,i1 i












Recessed ceiling light (restaurant)


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 70
Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach.

Recommendations:


ON

OFF


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 59
Light Location: North wing stairwell; third floor of both north and south wings
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach.

Recommendations:


ION

OFF












Recessed circular light


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 55
Light Location: Ceiling of L'acajou Restaurant
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach.

Recommendations:


eawar ON
side
OFF


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 21
Light Location: Ceiling of owner's penthouse
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach.

Recommendations:


Sd ON
side
OFF





























Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 6
Light Location: Lobby
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. The number given is the
number of fixtures visible from the beach


Recommendations:


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 24
Light Location: Ceiling of both gazebos
Comments: Gazebo employees claim that these spotlights are too hot, sug-
gesting that lower wattage or other alternative would be acceptable.


Recommendations:


ON
HH~1/7p11

+>L// i


ONI

OFF


...ir~ ....... .... '....iii



........ ... .. .... .. ...
... ...











Chandelier


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 2
Light Location: Above the rafters in both gazebos
Comments: Minimally disruptive to sea turtles; filtering would be ideal.


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 5
Light Location: Lower terrace
Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach.


Recommendations:


Recommendations:











I nderwatpr rpcnAnpprd qnn


(base of the fountain)


Rank: 1
Number of fixtures: 2
Light Location: North wing fountain

Recommendation:


ON


OFF











SUMMARY

As a premier luxury establishment, it is not coincidental that most of the
lights at the Sandy Lane Hotel rank comparatively low in terms of their
potential to disrupt and disorient endangered marine turtles.

The majority of fixtures conceal the actual luminaire or bulb. A bare bulb
can be jarring and garish for humans and sea turtles alike, but the majority
of the conditions at Sandy Lane are nothing less than very pleasing. The at-
mosphere of low light levels and tasteful fixtures only enhances the tourism
experience one receives at Sandy Lane, and the resort is commended for its
architectural design.

Sandy Lane Hotel also contributes directly to the survival of marine turtles in
other ways, including stacking beach chairs at night, in an effort to prevent
the entanglement of egg-bearing female turtles crawling on the beach.


That said, the relatively few rank "3" lights are present at very high and dis-
turbing intensities. Removing tree-mounted floodlights (see photo insert)
and string lighting along the beachfront will greatly improve the survival
success of sea turtles nesting on the adjoining beach, as well as improve
reproductive success on nearby beaches, as hatchlings already at sea are
attracted back to land as a result of Sandy Lane's shoreline floodlights.
Acting on this recommendation, and letting guests know why the lights were
removed (at least during nesting season, which, quite fortuitously, does not
coincide with high holiday visitation), will only increase Sandy Lane's quality,
providing it yet another competitive edge against other privately owned
luxury hotels in the Caribbean and elsewhere.

The recommendations described in this assessment, when implemented,
will not only improve beach conditions for sea turtles, but will enhance the
sophisticated and elegant theme of the resort's lighting ambiance while
reducing operational expenses (lower energy use). Information available at
Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the importance of
these changes, and encourage them to do their part.

To encourage lighting improvements and assist in implementation, the Tour-
ism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures
and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk,
reducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation.

Along with an improved beachfront (in terms of light pollution), comes a par-
allel responsibility for conservation-minded coastal management in general.
The Sandy Lane Hotel plays an essential role in the survival of the endan-
gered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a
model for "sea turtle friendly" environmental management systems else-
where in Barbados and beyond.











INTERNET RESOURCES


'Turtle Friendly' Lighting Products -

FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs -
http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conservation LivingWith Wildlifelighting fixt
ures.htm

Turtle Safe Lighting www.turtlesafelighting.com

Turtle Safe Products www.turtlesafeproducts.com

Starry Night Lights http://store.starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html

International Dark-Sky Association http://www.darksky.oral

www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins >
Compact Fluorescent

CF PAR 38 -

www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search
"212407" [product number]

www.gelighting.comlnal > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent >
Self-Ballasted > PAR38

R30 Amber Bug Light -

Lighting Science http://www.laminaceramics.com (e.g.,
http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm r30/)


Ruud Lighting -
http://www.ruudlighting.com/literaturellandscape family. asp?mscssid=&coni
d=&dc=9&vt=12

FX Luminaire www.fxl.com

Architectural Bollards -

LSI Industries http://www.lsi-industries.com/lighting product.asp?lD=5777

Lithonia Lighting -
http://www.acuitybrandslighting.com/library/PSG/LL/Outdoor%20Lighting/Sit
e%20Liqhting/Bollards/KBD.pdf


LITERATURE CITED

Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea
Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST
Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app.
http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/

Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of "Sea Turtles
and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals
and Policy-Makers in Barbados", 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider
Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project,
and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Tech-
nical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/ResourceslPubs.html

IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union
for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org


Amber Gold 3.5 www.turtleslighting.com


Path and Landscape Lighting -











IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle
(Eretmochelys imbricata). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine
Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp.
www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007 IUCN Red List Global Status As
sessment Hawksbill turtle.pdf

Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth. 1968. Wavelength preferences and
brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32:
211-257.

Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eret-
mochelys imbricata, by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824.

Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between arti-
ficial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles.
Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316.

Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and
intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding be-
havior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069.

Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting
on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).
Biological Conservation 55:139-149.

Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Re-
solving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edi-
tion, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL.
73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publications/publication info.asp?id=39080


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of Sandy Lane Hotel,
including Michael Pownall (Chief Executive Officer), Paula Yarde (Chief
Engineer), Lawrence Cumberbatch (Director of Engineering), and Leo
Blackman and the rest of the engineering department for their collaboration
in this assessment. They were extraordinarily kind in accommodating my re-
quests, which often involved their working off-hours, including late at night.

Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the
foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of
Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collabor-
ative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The
Pew Charitable Trusts.

I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle
Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Horrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006
seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard
for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Carib-
bean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with hous-
ing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the oppor-
tunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been profession-
ally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have
been accomplished.

Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST
and my academic advisor at Duke University's Nicholas School of the Envi-
ronment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Carib-
bean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecologi-
cal Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his
kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beach-
front lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.


















APPENDIX VII: SOUTHERN PALMS BEACH CLUB
ASSESSMENT REPORT











Property Assessment:

Southern Palms Beach Club

Respectfully submitted
John English Knowles


/ WIDECAST
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network


DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION


National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its
Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles
in Barbados, West Indies











INTRODUCTION

In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Car-
ibbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism
Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was
conducted at the Southern Palms Beach Club as part of a follow-up initiative
to implement recommendations made at a national "Sea Turtles and Beach-
front Lighting" workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks
2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Southern Palms Beach
Club property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its
representatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the na-
tion's sandy beaches.

Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles
and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles
back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties
and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bear-
ings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the
hatchling stage, and the consequences can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and
Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b;
Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005).

Southern Palms Beach Club has identified itself as a leader in addressing
the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The
property along with three other beachfront hotels was chosen because it
plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The
intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to
propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contribu-
ting to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds.

Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival
of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, a critically endangered
species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important
role in the survival of this species, as the island's western coast is identified


as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider
Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007).

Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as "light pollution"
by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat
to the survival of sea turtles in Barbados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea
turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally
see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright
white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best avail-
able science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights
as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or
intensity:

"We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how
much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, how-
ever, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity
will reduce effects, and if intensities are similar, substituting less
attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce
effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on
sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights
as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential,
long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light
sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal
wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down
and away from the beach."

In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult
sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching
the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives.

Where eliminating light sources either by turning them off or by removing
the fixtures altogether is not practical, alternatives are available which
direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.











In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington
and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that "luminaires should not be directed onto
... any object visible from the beach," including walls, ceilings, and vegeta-
tion. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting,
which "has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement
[and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles
than it is useful to people" (Witherington and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures
are available that will minimize or eliminate "wall wash" (the illumination of
the side or facade of a building); see "Internet Resources".

Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin
(2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor
lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor
lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach.

"Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very
tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem
for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light
the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be
eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light."

Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from
residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests
at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to
close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on.

In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a
brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken
to implement recommendations associated with rank "3" lights; in other
words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative
effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted
over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 "Sea Turtles and Beach-
front Lighting" workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and
current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003).


METHODS

Daytime Lighting Survey -

A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 25 July 2006
by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach.
The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count)
each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor
[John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and loca-
tion. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor;
however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that
the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps
(light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or
positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to
be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a night-
time survey.

Nighttime Lighting Survey -

In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was con-
ducted on foot on 25 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light
identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect
to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible
when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored
on a scale of "1" to "3" (see "Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps").

The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr)
and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual
light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting con-
ditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly
bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind
them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal
operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspect-
tions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.











Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps -


The most disruptive lamps received a rank of "3"; whereas the least dis-
ruptive, a rank of "1". Specifically, a rank of "1" described indirect light
visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a
strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of "2" described a
visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle,
but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of "3" described
a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on
the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect.

Even the smallest light could rank "3" if it cast a shadow on the beach be-
cause its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning
could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away.

The "3" ranking lights are placed first in the assessment because of
their potentially more serious effects) on sea turtles. The focus of cor-
rective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will
have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat

Within each rank 1, 2, 3 fixtures listed first are expected to require the
greatest attention either in number, financial expense, or creativity. The list
continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expen-
sive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach,
the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and
pertinent recommendations are documented.

Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one
or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying
the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the
fixture with an alternative. "Recommendations" refer to fixes that will address
the more serious issuess, but in some cases may not completely eliminate
the problem. "Ultimate Recommendations" refer to the best possible ap-
proach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether.


Illustrations and Icons -

Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of
fixtures.


Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object.


Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach.
Seaward Landward

I-- 0



Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb.


RECOMMENDATIONS









Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 1800 on the
ocean side. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any
distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach.


Replace the existing fixture with a bollard with external louvers.


Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight
(e.g., http://www.thomaslightina.com/catalo/lproddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8)


Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light
positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach.


Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is
positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach.


Install covers or filters across beach-facing sides of fixture to eliminate any
direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach.


Install compact fluorescent "Turtle Safe Lighting" lamps (light bulbs). See
"Internet Resources".



Ii


Install hood of sufficient depth and width.











Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage.








Shield the seaward side of fixtures visible from the beach.


Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform
guests via "table tents", door hangers, or other educational, advertising or
informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control.




IOFF


Plant, landscape, or improve native vegetation buffer so that light is effect-
tively screened (i.e., not directly visible) from the beach.







Install a hood, aim the light away from the nesting beach, and connect the
fixture to a motion detector.


Seaward Lan ard
Motion detector










White, un-hooded spotlight


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 17
Light Location: Coconut palms from just east of Capri to the eastern end of
the property; Lady Smith; Khus Khus Bar (roof); Garden Terrace; off the bar
in the main pool area
Comments: These lights serve to illuminate the beach for security cameras


Recommendations on the number of fixtures:


Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures:

7i 5 <50W

S4N&Wr7t
*'""' ln~er ^ ^* ^


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 16
Light Location: Seaward side of trees located from the western end to the
center of the property



Recommendations on the number of fixtures:


Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures:
-"-4 Seaward Landward


L waV / rd,
fwnl Li'^aI '.^ ^^*t\_- ^










Post-mounted quadruple globe


,pb1 Ii


4*I r


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 15
Light Location: Landward side of the beach wall; beach side of the Carlisle
rooms; Palm Court and around the main pool area in front of the lobby. One
is visible between Lady Smith and the Banyan Court Building
Comments: These fixtures attempt (largely unsuccessfully) to provide suffi-
cient light for security cameras located on the property during the evening
hours (see "Summary"). Our recommendations address only the secondary
purpose of these lights, which is to illuminate the courtyard during the even-
ing for crossing on foot. This purpose is easily served with lower levels of
light, and the seawall provides an excellent opaque object to conceal more
energy-efficient and 'turtle friendly" low-profile lighting.

Recommendations:








Wall-mounted ceramic sconce
^^ ^^^y^


r "- i


A


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 70
Light Location: Present on most balconies
Comments: These ceramic fixtures shield their bare bulbs from the beach,
which is preferred over all other balcony lights and wall-mounted lights on
the property. Of these 70 fixtures, those with rain shields are the most 'turtle
friendly' because wall-wash above the fixture is eliminated.
Recommendations:
550W

1 OFF


Wall-mounted ceramic sconce (side view)


Wall-mniintpd qrannrp with rain shiprld









Wall-miintAd dnwnlinht


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 4
Light Location: Second floor balcony rooms, eastern portion of the Carlisle
Rooms Building

Recommendations for existing fixtures:

<50W ON



Ultimate recommendation:
<50W o I

OFF
( ]~ -^"** ___ ^ ___ ^


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 4
Light Location: First floor rooms, eastern end of the Carlisle Rooms Building

Recommendations for existing fixtures:

<50W ON

OFF

Ultimate recommendation:

/50W oN

OFF





























Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 3
Light Location: Coconut palms in main pool area, east face of Banyan Court
Building
Comments: An orange wavelength is less disruptive than a pure white light
(white light emits all wavelengths, including those most disruptive to turtles).


Recommendation:


Rank: 3
Number of fixtures: 1
Light Location: Hedge on the beach side of the Palm Court Building


Recommendation:




Full Text

PAGE 1

IN THE SPOTLIGHT: An Assessment of Beachfront Lighting at Four Hotels in Barbados, with Recommendations for R educing Threats to Sea Turtles John E. Knowles, Karen L. Eckert and Julia A. Horrocks WIDECAST Technical Report No. 12 2009

PAGE 2

For bibliographic purposes, this document may be cited as: Knowles, John E., Karen L. Eckert and Julia A. Horrocks. 2009. In the Spotlight: An Assessment of Beachfront Lighting at Four Hotels in Barbados, with Recommendations fo r Reducing Threats to Sea Turtles. Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Networ k (WIDECAST) Technical Report No. 12. Ball win, Missouri and Bridgetown, Barbados. 128 pp. ISSN: 1930-3025 Cover Photo courtesy of John Englis h Knowles, The Nature Conservancy Copies of this publication may be obtained from: Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) 1348 Rusticview Drive Ballwin, Missouri 63011 USA Phone: + (314) 954-8571 Email: keckert@widecast.org Online at www.widecast.org

PAGE 3

IN THE SPOTLIGHT: An Assessment of Beachfront Lighting at Four Hotels in Barbados, with Recommendations for Reducing Threats to Sea Turtles John E. Knowles Karen L. Eckert Julia A. Horrocks 2009

PAGE 5

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 1 PREFACE AND INTENT For more than two decades, the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with Country Coordinators resident in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, has linked scientists, conservationists, natural resource users and managers, policy-makers, industry groups, educators, and other stakeholders together in a collective effort to develop a unified management framework, and to promote a region-wide capacity to design and implement science-based sea turtle conservation actions. As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme and its Regional Programme for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), WIDECAST is designed to address research and management priorities at national and regional levels, both for sea turtles and for the habitats upon which they depend. We focus on bringing the best available science to bear on contemporary management and conservation issues, empowering stakeholders to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing an operational mechanism and a framework for cooperation within and among nations. Network participants are committed to working collaboratively to develop their collective capacity to manage shared sea turtle populations. By bringing people together and encouraging inclusive management planning, WIDECAST is helping to ensure that utilizetion practices, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival in the long term. However, the recove ry of remnant populations of Caribbean sea turtles will require more than a precautionary approach to sustainable use, it will also require thoughtful attention to both acute and chronic threats to important nesting and foraging habitats. Artificial beachfront lighting is a widespread and oftfatal threat to sea turtle hatchlings and adult females at the nesting grounds. Barbados, the easternmost Caribbean island, exhibits pa rticularly severe light pollution on its south and west coasts, which also host some of the largest hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, rookeries in the Caribbean Sea. Beachfront hotels can be a significant source of artificial lighting. At a 2000 national workshop entitled, “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and PolicyMakers in Barbados,” the nation’s hotel representatives pledged to undertake lighting assessments and to implement ‘turtle friendly’ lighting regimes “as soon as practicable,” with an aim to reduce the threat posed to endangered sea turtles. In furtherance of this comm itment, four leading hotels participated in a six-month voluntary lighting assessment in 2006. The results of these assessments, which included detailed recommendations for reducing light pollution at major nesting beaches, were presented to each hotel and, with their permission, have been collected for publication and dissemination in this Technical Report. The coast-based hospitality sector in the Wider Caribbean Region has a large and growing impact on sea turtle habitat. In this stud y we focus on artificial lighting, which is well known to deter or disrupt the nesting process and confuse sea-finding behavior, but other threats include deforestation, seawalls and other obstacles to nesting, sand mining, increased erosion, introduction of non-native predators, inadequate waste disposal, and so on. Property owners must assume a degree of responsibility for these threats. Reducing light pollution is a straightfo rward exercise that yields large dividends; therefore, involving property owners and managers in reducing beachfront lighting is fundamentally important to the successful management of Caribbean sea turtle populations. This study, and the willingness of major beachfront hotels to participate, provides a replicable model. It is our hope that participating hotels will take these recommendations to heart, and that other hotels, condominiums, and villas in Barbados will follow suit, thereby significantly reducing the impact the tourism industry has on sea turtles nesting on the island’s beautiful beaches. In addition, we hope that Government will incorporate a progressive national Lighting Ordinance into the island’s regulatory framework, setting an example for other nations to follow. Karen L. Eckert, Ph.D. Executive Director WIDECAST

PAGE 6

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are deeply indebted to the staff and management of the following beachfront properties in Barbados: Turtle Beach Resort (especially Adrian Grant, General Manager; Woodrow Trotman, Maintenance Supervisor; and Steven John, Assistant Maintenance Supervisor), the Fairmont Royal Pavilion (especially Nicholas Emery, General Manager; and Andre Berube, Chief Engineer), the Southern Palms Beach Club (especially Britta Pollard, General Manager; Jenni Wilson, Activities Director; and Roger Yarde, Electrician), and Sandy Lane Hotel (especially Michael Pownall, Chief Executive Officer; Paula Yarde, Chief Engineer; Lawrence Cumberbatch, Director of Engineering; and Leo Blackman and the staff of the engineering department) for their collaboration in conducting formal lighting assessments of their hotel properties. These professional managers were extraordinarily kind in accommodating the requests of the senior author, John E. Knowles (JEK), which, more often than not, involved working off-hours, including late at night. We would also like to express our appreciation to Ms. Jennifer Harding at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion for accommodating trainers Erik Martin and Karen Eckert during their 2006 visit. Equally important, this assessment would not have been possible without the foresight, encouragement, and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. Finally, we would like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), based at the University of the West Indies, and especially Dr. Julia Horrocks, Barry Krueger, and the 2006 seasonal staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard for biodiversity research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Caribbean region. Without their collaboration, including providing JEK with housing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the opportunity to contribute to their important field work, which was so professionally and personally enriching to him, this study and the lighting assessments that contribute to it, could not have been accomplished. This WIDECAST Technical Report is based on a thesis (Knowles 2007) submitted to the Master of Environmental Management degree program at Duke University. The senior author is grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and his academic advisor in the Duke Un iversity Nicholas School of the Environment, for her encouragement of his efforts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle conservation issues in general; to Mr. Erik Martin of Ecological Associates Inc. (EAI), for his kindness and patience in training in the protocols of professional beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized; and to Dr. Julia Horrocks for hosting his summer internship and allowing him to participate in the work of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project. Major funding for the study and its publication was provided by the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and by the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable Trusts. We dedicate this study and its recommendations to the hospitality industry in Barbados, and we hope that the initiative shown by the four properties profiled herein will fuel both their own mitigation efforts as well as those of other beachfront properties in the country.

PAGE 7

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface and Intent 1 Acknowledgements 2 Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Barbados in the Spotlight 5 Participating Hotels 6 Fairmont Royal Pavilion 6 Sandy Lane Hotel 6 Turtle Beach Resort 6 Southern Palms Beach Club 6 Overview of Methodology 7 Management Issues 10 Hatchling Arena Assays 10 Common Issues among Properties 10 Distinct or Unique Issues Among Properties 12 Lighting and Crime Misconceptions 13 Discussion and Next Steps 14 Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation 14 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) 14 Regulatory Action 15 Public Outreach and Participation 15 Responding to Disoriented Turtles 16 Concluding Remarks 16 Literature Cited 18 Appendix I Resolutions, Pledges, and Recommendations from Eckert and Horrocks (2002) 23 Appendix II Lighting Evaluation Form 24 Appendix III Sea Turtle Policy Statement 25 Appendix IV Check List of Best Management Practices 26 Appendix V Fairmont Royal Pavilion Assessment Report 29 Appendix VI Sandy Lane Hotel Assessment Report 53 Appendix VII Southern Palms Beach Club Assessment Report 87 Appendix VIII Turtle Beach Resort Assessment Report 111

PAGE 8

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 4 INTRODUCTION Artificial beachfront lighting contributes to the degradation of sea turtle nesting grounds because the natural light intended to guide nesting females and their young back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bearings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the hatchling stage, and the consequences can be fatal (e.g ., Mrosovsky and Carr 1967; Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). Working towards a solution to this pervasive problem, we describe light pollution assessment and mitigation procedures at four hotels in Barb ados, West Indies. Over the course of the last century, human activity on ocean shores has reduced the reproductive success of sea turtles in the Caribbean Sea and elsewhere (for Caribbean reviews, see Fleming 2001; Reichart et al. 2003; Godley et al. 2004; Brutigam and Eckert 2006; for more general reviews, see Bjorndal 1982; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; MTSG 1995; Lohmann et al. 1996; Lutcavage et al. 1996; UNEP/ CMS 2000; Witherington and Martin 2003; Shanker and Choudhury 2006; Hamann et al. 2006). As a result of coastal land use patterns, and centuries of largely unmanaged exploitation, incidental capture, and international trade, sea turtles are recognized as depleted and endangered species by international law (Frazier 2002) and are fully protected by 70% of all Wider Caribbean governments (Dow et al. 2007), including Barbados. Caribbean-occurring sea turtle species are classified as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (this category includes the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata ) on IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species either because of reduced range of habitat, recent declines in population size, or both (Pritchard 1996; WWF 2004; IUCN 2004, 2007a,b). The hawksbill sea turtle has further been affected by widespread over-exploitation for traditional crafting industries reliant on the animal’s keratinized carapace scutes, known as tortoiseshell (e.g., Parsons 1972; King 1982; Mack et al. 1982; Milliken and Tokunaga 1987; Groombridge and Luxmoore 1989; Hemley 1994; Meylan and Donnelly 1999; Kemf et al. 2000; Len and Bjorndal 2002; Brutigam and Eckert 2006; Reuter and Crawford 2006; IUCN 2007a). Notwithstanding, signs of contemporary population increases are evident at protected hawksbill nesting sites, including Barbados (Krueger et al. 2003; Beggs et al. 2007). In furtherance of national conservation policies in Barbados, where, as in many other nations, threats persist even after the adoption of protective legislation and the ratification of international treaties (see Brutigam and Eckert 2006 for a summary of legislation and treaty obligations in Barbados), the objective of this study was to assess and quantify one of the nation’s dominant sea turtle survival threats (beachfront lighting), and to offe r recommendations for mitigation that define practical incentives and solutions. Artificial beachfront lighting results in death to thousands of sea turtle hatchlings every year in Barbados (Horrocks 1992; Eckert and Horr ocks 2002). Artificial light is often associated with built development – including hotels, private homes, condos and villas, recreational facilities, and roadways – near nesting beaches. Depending on the location, certain property types dominate the landscape; in Barbados, large hotels tend to have the most significant effect, with regard to light pollution, on the beaches they abut. Tackling light pollution in large hotels might seem daunting due to the scale of the built environment, but scale sometimes holds an advantage. For example, correcting light pollution at a single large hotel can have a positive effect along a significant portion of coastline, as well as surrounding areas. Moreover, the financial capacity of these hotels (e.g., see PKF 2006) may enable change in the management regimes of adjacent beaches at a faster pace than is likely to occur with similar regimes at beachside roads and parks managed by Government (McConney et al. 2003). When hotels are organized under an industry representative that can encourage replication of successful mitigation, further advantages accrue. Finally, hotels are often critiqued by third party evaluation/ certification entities, as well as by guests and clients, and each of these can provide due recognition for progressive policies adopted by individual hotels.

PAGE 9

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 5 BARBADOS IN THE SPOTLIGHT Beachfront properties on the south and west coasts of Barbados advertise Caribbean beaches that slope gently to an emerald sea, attracting tourists as well as hawksbill sea turtles. The overlap has resulted in the degradation of turtle nesting grounds due to artificial beachfront lighting that affects, in a negative way, the behavior of both hatchlings and nesting females. Various problems, including light pollution and beach erosion associated with highly built coastlines, have worsened over time in the Caribbean region and elsewhere (e.g., Horrocks and Scott 1991; Cambers 1996; Potter 1996; Fletcher et al. 1997; Bryant et al. 1998; Clark 1998; Steinitz et al. 1998; Witherington and Martin 2003; Burke and Maidens 2004; Danielsen et al. 2005; Choi and Eckert 2009). In 2000, the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), the Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados sponsored an event entitled, “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados” (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The workshop culminated in several recommendations and pledges by the hotel industry that demonstrated the sector’s concern for and commitment to the survival of vulnerable populations of sea turtles (Appendix I). Among the pledges made was to “undertake a lighting assessment and investigate our individual hotel and villa capacities to participate in ‘turtle friendly’ lighting schemes; and implement, as soon as practicable, ’ turtle friendly’ lighting on all beaches” (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). A formal lighting assessment provides the most effective foundation by which specific lighting issues, recurring along the coast, can be addressed. Lighting assessments also provide vital information to individual property mangers seeking to prioritize, implement, and evaluate lighting improvements made over time. Formalized lighting assessments were pioneered in the US in response to strict laws and policies, particularly along the southeast coast, that lights be prohibited from shining on sea turtle nesting beaches. Assessment techniques focus on identifying the most serious light pollution problems and making recommendations concerning the most effective means to reduce the amount of light that reaches the beach. Such recommendations are often articulated in three “Golden Rules”: keep it low keep it shielded keep it long [referring to the wavel ength emitted by the lamp] http://www.myfwc.com/wildlif ehabitats/SeaTurtle_inde x.htm The three “Golden Rules” are not substitutes for lights that can safely be turned off at night during the nesting season: an absence of light is always the best policy where sea turtles are concerned. Mitigating light pollution is sensible and straight-forward, but often overlooked as a useful contributor to healthy beach and coastal environments. As a result, many beach communities come to recognize the negative impacts of artificial lighting only after sea turtle nesting habitat has been degraded. Once this point has been reached, legislative intervention is helpful because unilateral action by one or two properties is unlikely to be sufficient in a densely developed landscape. Some governments have responded by adopting and enforcing coastal lighting ordinances and other appropriate laws. The US is a leader in this field and, especially in Florida, many municipalities and communities have passed lighting ordinances in compliance with state mandates (see Witherington and Martin 2003 for background and model text; see Lake and Eckert 2009 for Caribbean-adapted text). Like most countries in the Caribbean, Barbados does not have specific regulations concerning beachfront lighting. As a result, many thousands of hawksbill hatchlings are fatally disoriented every year, posing a serious threat to the survival of the colony and undermining other conservation efforts on their behalf (Horrocks 1992; Eckert an d Horrocks 2002). There are also numerous cases of nesting females finding their way into backyard swimming pools and drains (Barry H. Krueger, BSTP, personal communication, 2006). As the number of these incidences grow, it is clear that the issue must be addressed through stakeholder-led processes whereby hotels, hospitality industry representatives, government agencies, and community leaders work together to effectively mitigate the threat on a national basis. Our hope is that this report, including methodologies and recommendations offered, will serve to catalyze this much-needed effort, and will set a helpful example for others to follow.

PAGE 10

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 6 PARTICIPATING HOTELS With a view to evaluating the extent to which hotels had implemented the pledges made at the 2000 hotelier workshop (Eckert and Horrocks 2002), the Barbados Sea Turtle Project initiated, in 2006, a partnership with WIDECAST to conduct formal lighting assessments at four prominent beachfront hotels located in the Caribbean island nation of Barbados. These properties were: the Fairmont Royal Pavilion, Sandy Lane Hotel, Turtle Beach Resort, and Southern Palms Beach Club (see Appendices for Lighting Assessment Reports submitted to each property). The four hotels were chosen because of their leadership in environmental con sciousness, their location on critical sea turtle nesting habitat, and their past efforts and/or interests in mitigating unresolved beachfront lighting problems. The hotels differ in ownership, clientele, architecture, and degree of light pollution. Each was asked, and kindly agreed, to participate in a voluntary lighting assessment in 2006 and to have the results made publicly available. The selected hotels are not to blame for the lighting problems in Barbados, even if they do hold some degree of responsibility. Also, they do not represent the worst case scenarios, for there are many beaches with high levels of artificial lighting. Finally, adopting ‘turtle friendly’ lighting alternatives at these four hotels will not fully solve the national problem; however, their willingness to participate in the assessment, to devote staff time to the process, and to give explicit attention to the challenge will contribute in significant ways to the survival of endangered sea turtles in Barbados. Aware that Barbados lacks a formal lighting policy, we hope that this study and its attendant recommendations will not only spur participating hotels to make significant progress towards more ‘turtle friendly’, energy-efficient, and safe lighting alternatives, but that it will also encourage Government to debate and adopt a national Lighting Ordinance, and serve as a replicable model of success in stakeholder participation in resolving important conservation issues. Fairmont Royal Pavilion – The Fairmont Royal Pavilion hosts 72 deluxe oceanfront rooms along 1000 feet of beach. The cost of the most expensive room exceeds US$1,000 per night. The hotel is couples-oriented and will not book families with children under the age of 13 during peak season (November to April). The property is managed under Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, “the largest luxury hotel company in North America”, ensuring consistency to its clientele by applying strict company standards with regard to property amenities (see www.fairmont.com/royalpavilion ). Sandy Lane Hotel – Preferred Hotels and Resorts certifies Sandy Lane through their Standards of Excellence program, since they offer only the highest quality of service. Of the 112 luxury rooms and suites, totaling about 116,000 square feet (and extending along 1000 feet of beach), 79 of these rooms view the sea. Room rates range from US$450-$900 per night, with a luxury villa fetching US$4,000-plus per night during peak season. A varied clientele consists of families, honeymoon couples, and niche corporate and incentive groups (see www.sandylane.com/introduction/index.html ). Turtle Beach Resort – With a nightly rate upwards of US$1,000, the Turtle Beach Resort is the only all-inclusive hotel assessed. The property features 166 spacious suites, many with panoramic ocean views. This four star hotel is managed by Elegant Hotels Group Barbados, caters to families, and offers a variety of activities for all ages. The hotel extends along 1500 feet of sandy beach (see www.turtlebeachresortbarbados.com ). Southern Palms Beach Club – Of the four participating hotels, the Southern Palms Beach Club offers the least expensive rooms, with the most costly reaching US$360 per night. According to the official website, the hotel “welcomes the young who want to do it all, the couple that just wants to enjoy each other’s company in the tranquil beauty of the island, or the family with children”, while making “a firm commitment to meet the highest international standards in regards to the environment, conservation and corporate responsibility.” Southern Palms Beach Club has 92 rooms, of which 53 view the ocean. The property is situated along 1000 feet of sandy beach (see www.southernpalms.net ).

PAGE 11

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 7 OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY The basic procedure for conducting a lighting assessment is simple: walk the beach, identify and characterize all visible light sources (during both day and night periods), and document these sources on a standardized Lighting Evaluation Form (Appendix II). We adapted our data form from that used in Florida (US) by Ecological Associates Inc. (original evaluation form courtesy of Erik Martin, EAI). Each Assessment Report features an introduction (reminding readers of the effects of beachfront lighting on endangered sea turtles, and why hotels play such a critical role in mitigation), a survey method section (detailing the systematic nature and timing of the assessment process), an explanation of the ranking scale (based on light intensity) that was used to evaluate fixtures, and detailed recommendations for reducing the negative effects of lighting on sea turtles. Our ranking scale, adapted from that used by Ecological Associates Inc., was as follows: o Rank of “1” described indirect light visible by an observer on the beach, but not likely to present a strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles o Rank of “2” described direct light or a visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient sea turtles [ note : neither “1” nor “2” lights were strong enough to cast a discernible shadow on the beach on a dark night] o Rank of “3” (most problematic to sea turtles) described a light source strong enough to cast a discernible shadow on the beach, regardless of the illumination being direct or indirect Ideally, a sea turtle nesting beach should not have any source of illumination to rank, revealing a score of “0” and hence no need for mitigation. When visible light is present, a rank of “1” is preferred over a rank of “2”, which is preferred over a rank of “3.” Three important aspects of the ranking scale are its simplicity, objectivity, and r eproducibility. The scale is readily understood by maintenance personnel who, most likely, will implement and evaluate any mitigation effort, and also by senior management making lighting scheme decisions during construction or renovation phases, increasing the likelihood that ‘turtle friendly’ lighting options will be selected. The ranking scale is also objective, meaning this it is designed to maximize the probability that a particular light fixture will receive the same ranking regardless of who conducts the assessment. This consistency aids in reproducibility, providing a baseline for hotels to track the success of mitigation action over time. The recommendations featured in each stand alone Assessment Report (see A ppendices V to VIII) make use of photographs, illustrations, and standardized icons. Each report features a different inventory of light sources because each property is unique, but many of the recommendations are shared. After defining the various illustrations and icons, each report offers advice for mitigating th e effect(s) of specific fixture types: a labeled photograph is followed by the fixture’s assigned rank, location(s), and icon-led recommendations. A comment section provides additional detail. The fixture type evaluations are ordered based on the degree of rank (1, 2 or 3) as the primary tier. Since a rank of “3” indicates the most problematic light, these are listed first, followed by “2”, then “1”. Within the primary tier, order is based on the number of fixtures of that kind, color, creativity involved in resolving the lighting problem, the attention required, and the cost of implementation. Within the primary tier, the order is arguably more subjective because precise quantification of the impact to sea turtles of any particular light fixture, in isolation, is not possible. In summary, the format of each Assessment Report is intended to direct a hotel’s focus to the most problematic lights as defined by an easy-to-understand, illustrated suite of ranked recommendations. Each Assessment Report concludes by commending the hotel on past and present efforts in beachfront light reduction, while reaffirming the importance of executing the report’s recommendations. An “Internet Resources” section features select industry websites where certain bulbs or fixtures mentioned in the Assessment Report can be reviewed and purchased. The original Assessment Reports, as submitted to each participating hotel, also included a CD of lighting products, vendors, and security information.

PAGE 12

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 8 The Fairmont Royal Pavilion has implemented several sea turtle conservation measures, including supporting umbrellas on a flat base ( versus poles thrust into the sand) and stacking beach chairs each night, reducing the chance that egg-laden females will encounter obstacles during nesting. In addition, beachfront spotlights are hooded, reducing glare and emphasizing the beautiful night sky. The most significant sources of light pollution at this property are balcony lights, and lights associated with a beachfront restaurant. Photographs taken during the day and at night (see inserts below) illustrate the challenge of reducing light spilling out onto the nesting beach from the restaurant’s open arches. At Sandy Lane Hotel the majority of light fixtures obscure the bare bulb, a pleasing scenario for guests and sea turtles alike. Other measures that aid in the conservation of sea turtles include lush vegetation along the seawall (which both reduces light leakage and provides shelter to nesting females) and the stacking of beach chairs each night, easing the overland journey for both egg-laden adults and their hatchlings. The most significant threat to sea turtle survival at this property is the presence of large, tree-mounted floodlights emitting short wavelength light (e.g., violet). These lights overwhelm the property at night, resulting in severe sea turtle disorientation on site, as well as luring hatchlings (which safely reached the sea from nearby beaches) back to the beach!

PAGE 13

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 9 Southern Palms Beach Club uses yellow bulbs in its spotlights, which is an improvement for sea turtles. In addition, ceramic sconces soften balcony lighting, which is very important (from the standpoint of sea turtle conservation) in a multistory hotel. As with any structure built directly on the sandy beach platform, mitigating light pollution can be a real challenge. In this case, the most significant dilemma is presented by restaurant lighting during evening hours (below left) and pole-mounted courtyard lighting (below right) installed to provide ambient light for security cameras. In the Property Assessment conducted for this property, we discuss alternatives in both cases. The Turtle Beach Resort has some of the best lighting (for sea turtles) of any property in Barbados. Landscaping emphasizes native vegetation, the watersports stand boasts no exterior lighting at all, and certain beachfront spotlights are left off during nesting season. ‘Turtle friendly’ fixtures are installed on all balconies, but guests need to remember to play their role and draw the curtains at night during the nesting season (compare open versus drawn, below left); common areas (e.g., stairwells) also need to be addressed. The big challenge to this resort is that even single lights (below right) can have a profound effect on the nesting habitat at night.

PAGE 14

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 10 MANAGEMENT ISSUES Hatchling Arena Assays – Hatchling arena assays can demonstrate the effect of light on sea-finding behavior (Salmon and Witherington 1995; EAI 2002). In Barbados, we performed such an experiment on the beach in front of Hotel “A” and Hotel “B”. The assay is a staged hatching event inside a designated circular arena defined by a 1 m radius divided into 36 equal sections. A shallow trench defined the arena’s perimeter. Each of the 36 sections, representing 10 degrees of a circle, was divided off using cardboard slots, each separated by a 17.5 cm arc length (adapted from Salmon and Witherington 1995). Two arenas were positioned directly in front of Hotel A (Sites 1, 2) and Hotel B (Sites 1, 2). Hotel B had two additional peripheral arenas, one 25 m north of the property (Site 3) and one 25 m south of the property (Site 4). Hatchlings used in the arena assays were collected from hotels where they had emerged earlier that night and been disoriented inland to artificial lights. Twelve hatchlings were placed in the center of the circular arena, facing the sea, and released one at a time (cf. Salmon and Witherington 1995). Two rounds were performed in each arena. The first round was performed with lights on, as they would be during normal hours of operation. The second round was carried out with all “3” ranking lights turned off. The data recorded for each hatchling included its final position at the perimeter, the length of its track, and the time needed to reach the arena boundary. We used a Watson-Wilson test to determine any significant differences between the two rounds (Zar 1984). Orientation for each experiment did differ significantly from random, and all (lights on – lights off) pairs were significantly different with the exception of Site 2 at Hotel B (P>0.25), where one floodlight (with a rank of “3”) was unable to be turned off (see Figure 1). The results of this analysis reinforce the importance of reducing beachfront lighting. The results obtained from the peripheral arenas at Hotel B demonstrate that lights can negatively affect more than the area of beach they directly illuminate. The broadcast of some fixtures can affect an entire bay by drawing hatchlings from darker sections of beach out of the water and back to the beach (JEK, personal observation). Common Issues among Properties – Most beachfront hotels provide similar services; for example, dining, entertainment, well-appointed rooms including balconies and windows-with-a-view, security, and so on. These services can result in unintended consequences, including negative effects on local endangered species due to lighting, activity, and highly modified landscapes. One common problem observed at all four participating hotels was the issue of be achfront restaurants. In most cases there was no intentional illumination of the beach associated with the restaurants. Ceilingand wall-mounted fixtures were the main source of broadcast light (recommendations focus on shielding and concealing these, respectively), and these were designed to illuminate the table setting and the space where people walk. One general solution is to lower these light fixtures behind opaque objects. Louvered foot lights installed into restaurant walls are an excellent example of successful mitigation; creative landscaping is another option. As for illuminating the table area, table lamps with shades and LED candles are an energy-efficient way to illuminate the space without broadcasting light beyond the restaurant. Purely decorative lighting was also an issue shared among the featured properties. This is (or should be) one of the easier categories of lighting to mitigate since it serves only to enhance mood and ambiance, providing little or no functional or security purpose. The recommendation in this case is to eliminate the lighting. However, this type of lighting is popular in creating a unique or festive atmosphere, and eliminating it can be a difficult decision. One option is restrict such lighting to non-nesting periods: managers should contact local conservation organizations to confirm the timing of the annual nesting effort. We hope that, with greater awareness, hotels will be willing to reserve decorative lighting for areas not visible from the beach, and choose to extinguish light that is “much more harmful to sea turtles than it is useful to people” (Witherington and Martin 2003:21).

PAGE 15

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 11 Figure 1 Hatchling arena assays demonstrate the effect of varying degrees on light on the sea-finding ability of sea turtles. Two circular arenas were position ed directly in front of Hotel “A” (Sites 1, 2) and Hotel “B” (Sites 1, 2). Hotel B had two additional peripheral arenas, one 25 m north of the property (Site 3) and one 25 m south of the property (Site 4). Assays (st aged hatching events) performed on the beach in front of Hotel A and Hotel B clearly illustrate the negative effect s of beachfront lighting on the sea-finding ability of sea turtles, and the positive effects of turning off all ra nk “3” lights (the most problematic for sea turtles). Orientation for each experiment did differ significantly from random and all (lights on – lights off) pairs were significantly different except for one. The exception was Site 2 at Hotel B (P>0.25), where one floodlight with a rank of “3” could not be turned off. Results obtained from the peripheral arenas at Hotel B (Sites 3, 4) demonstrate that lights can affect more than the area of beach that they directly illuminate – the broadcast of some fixtures can affect an entire shoreline, even unlit portions. Lights on Lights off Hotel Sea P<0.0005 0.00250.25 P<0.0005 0.005 < P < 0.0

PAGE 16

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 12 Mitigating light sources that serve multiple purposes can be problematic. Two commonly paired categories – security and area lighting – are often served by high intensity spotlights. Security lighting includes lights that illuminate a perimeter or area for the sole purpose of preventing crime. An area light is defined as a source of illumination for spaces such as walkways, patios, or steps. When it comes to mitigation, separating light sources by function is helpful. Lights placed primarily for security are often best handled by the installation of motion detectors. For area lighting, ‘turtle friendly’ alternatives include louvered bollards and path lighting concealed by opaque objects. Area lighting should not include portions of sandy beach. In addition to a plethora of multi-purpose lighting fixtures, the expansive length, depth, and height of a large hotel complex can be daunting when conducting a lighting assessment because of the number and types of fixtures to be evaluated. The hotels participating in this study each include 1000 feet or more of built beachfront. In addition, Sandy Lane Hotel and Turtle Beach Resort extend significantly landward from the beach, illustrating the complexities of the depth factor. Difficulties arise when forward lights are corrected, but the effects are undermined by uncorrected lights from behind. An accurate assessment relies on hotel management to extinguish the brighter forward lights so that the contribution of lights further inland can be evaluated. Height was not a significant issue for participating hotels. One advantage of a comparatively low profile is that landscaping can be an effective and pleasing option; i.e., the use of (preferably native) vegetation as a buffer between lights and the beach. Finally, a challenge held in common among beachfront hotels, including those participating in this study, is that lights become more disruptive to sea turtles the closer the hotel (and its lighting regime) is to the ocean. The Fairmont Royal Pavilion and the Southern Palms Beach Club are closest to the beach, and most lights at these properties scored poorly with regard to their potential effect on sea turtles. Worth noting is the fact that construction setbacks are an important factor in sustainable coastal development in general, significantly reducing the risk of property damage due to shoreline erosion (e.g., Cambers 1997, Clark 1996, 1998, McKenna et al. 2000, Cambers et al. 2008, Choi and Eckert 2009), in addition to minimizing the negative effects of light pollution on sea turtles. Distinct or Unique Issues among Properties – Just as some lighting problems are shared broadly among beachfront hotels, it is also the case that some challenges are uncommon, perhaps even unique to a particular property. Beachfront restaurants can present a major threat to sea turtles due to their close proximity to nesting sites and hours of operation. The Palm Terrace Restaurant at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion is no exception, with evening hours of operation (1900-2145 hr) and an advertising campaign describing the Caribbean sea as being “so close that it almost reaches the table” (www.fairmont.com/royalpavilion ). Moreover, an open dining space is separated from the outside by large, wide arches, broadcasting light to the beach. A distinct issue for the Palm Terrace Restaurant is that spotlights located at the wall and ceiling junctions create “wall wash” (reflected light), while others illuminate the dining space but are still highly visible from the beach. The general recommendation for this scenario relied on removing existing fixtures and repositioning their replacements. When management was reluctant to re move them, a “next-best” solution, tailored to the site, included lowering and shielding these lights to help conceal their emissions from the beach. Use of vegetation was also recommended. Typically a buffer would be planted in the space between the restaurant and the beach, but, because no such space exists at this site, it was suggested that potted palms within the dining area be positioned to block the high-mounted spotlights. Finally, we recommended that the arches be “landscaped” in to reduce the space from which light could leave the dining area, while preserving ocean views for diners. At Sandy Lane Hotel, which in general ranked favorably with regard to its lighting regime, a distinct issue arose with respect to four tree-mounted floodlights designed to bathe the entire beachfront (dusk to 0200 hr) in violet-blue light. As sea turtles are most strongly disoriented by bright, short-wavelength light, these fixtures posed an extreme challenge. In addition, their height (being tree-mounted) broadcast light across the adjoining bay to peripheral beaches. As the lights are purely aesthetic, we recommended their removal. When this was rejected by management, we suggested restricting their use to non-nesting peak tourism months (December to April).

PAGE 17

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 13 Finally, at the Southern Palms Beach Club, the waterfront is lined with yellow spotlights. This particular situation improved following the 2000 “Sea Turtle and Beachfront Lighting Workshop” (Eckert and Horrocks 2002), when wattage was reduced and the original white spotlights were replaced by yellow spotlights. Notwithstanding, nearly every hatch of a sea turtle nest on this beach is characterized by disoriented hatchlings (JEK, personal observation). The lights are valued by management as security assets and are associated with security cameras. In reality, however, the light emitted by these fixtures and others is not sufficient to provide a clear image for the cameras. With this in mind, we (i) recommended alternative security measures and (ii) noted that because the human eye readily adjusts to low ambient light (Hecht 2001), sufficient safety in navigating walkways and steps to the beach could be provided by, for example, tube lights with red LEDs. Lighting and Crime Misconceptions – The issue of lighting and crime continues to concern the hotel sector, and “the perceived issues of guest security have been a major impediment to light reduction on Barbados’ beaches” (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The concern is widespread, and important. Witherington and Martin (2003:69) respond this way: “How can the sacrifice of human safety and security to save a few sea tu rtles be justified? Thankfully, no such choice is necessary. The safety and security of humans can be preserved without jeopardizing sea turtles. The goal of any program to reduce sea turtle harassment and mortality caused by lighting is to manage light so that it performs the necessary function without reaching the nesting beach. Still, some may contend that any inconvenience at all is too much and that the concerns of humans should always outweigh those for turtles. People insistent on this generalization should not ignore the large and resolute constituency that values sea turtles. Sea turtles are valuable to people both ecologically and for pure enjoyment. In many ways, the protection of sea turtles is in our own best interests.” The ecological argument is a strong one in Barbados, where many thousands of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings are threatened by lighting every year. Indeed, an estimated one-third of all hatchlings born on the island are affected (Eckert and Horrocks 2002), and with Barbados hosting one of the largest remaining nesting colonies for this species in the Western Hemisphere (Beggs et al. 2007; Dow et al. 2007), these losses have profound implications for the survival of the species. Fortunately, security and dark beaches can exist in harmony. Security need not rely on continuous beachfront lighting Efficient and cost-effective alternatives include motion detectors that provide instant area illumination when an intruder is present, giving shadowed security staff the advantage (e.g., visit www.darksky.org ). Well-trained guards with flashlights and an active patrol schedule are another proven alternative to high-energy, broadcast light that can lull security staff into complacency. Witherington and Martin (2003:68) also addressed the perception that crime will increase if the beach is unlit. They concluded, “Generally, beaches are not areas where there is a great need for crime prevention. Very little valuable property is stored on beaches and there is seldom much nighttime human activity to require security. Fortunately, areas adjacent to nesting beaches where people reside, work, recreate, and store valuables can be lighted for protection without affecting turtles on the nesting beach. Where this type of light management was legislated in Florida coastal communities, the Florida State Attorney’s Office has found no subsequent increase in crime.” Similarly, studies by the UK Home Office Crime Prevention Unit on street lighting and crime conclude that improvements in street lighting do little to prevent crime and criminals are less often deterred by light (Ramsay and Newton 1991), and that increasing the intensity of street lighting does not correspond to decreasing levels of criminal activity (Atkins et al. 1991). While these crime prevention studies did not look at beach lighting in particular, and generally examined areas with crime rates much higher than those observed in Barbados or elsewhere in the insular Caribbean, their results are revealing (Nuttall 2000). Volusia County in Florida (US) provides a compelling and relevant case study. The county has one of the strictest coastal lighting ordinances in the state. When the Lighting Ordinance was passed in 1989, local businesses feared losses and worried about rising incidents of crime. As it turns out, no such loss or rise in crime materialized (Lelis 2003; William “Bill” Sorrentino Sr., Zoning Compliance Division, Daytona Beach, personal communication, 2006).

PAGE 18

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 14 DISCUSSION AND NEXT STEPS Other than recommended implementation actions at specific properties (see Appendices V to VIII), there are several next steps to be considered by the industry and its representatives (e.g., Barbados Hotel and Tourism Association, Tourism Development Corporation), as well as by Government, NGOs, and relevant experts. These next steps include, inter alia regular follow-up lighting assessments, examinations of other beachfront properties and civil infrastructure (e.g., roadways, parking lots, tennis courts), energy audits and economic analyses, legislative action, and public awareness and participation campaigns. Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation – Each property situated on a sea turtle nesting beach (see Dow et al. 2007; contact Prof. Julia Horrocks for detailed locations) should conduct a formal lighting assessment using a standardized ranking scale (see “Overview of Methodology”), and implement recommendations. Attention to the initial asse ssment should suffice in resolving threats to sea turtles associated with existing lighting, but because of routine changes associated with repair, renovation, landscaping, etc., annual inspections should be conducted just prior to the nesting season. Hotels, condominiums, and villas should be reminded on an annual basis to evaluate lighting regimes and to make needed adjustments. Properties with the most significant lighting issues should receive priority attention in terms of training and assistance, mitigation, and evaluation. Training is available through the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP) at the University of the West Indies; contact Prof. Julia Horrocks, WIDE CAST Country Coordinator, at . Environmental Management Systems (EMS) – Hotel managers participating in the 2000 forum, “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados,” pledged to adopt a Sea Turtle Policy Statement regarding the protection of sea turtles on hotel grounds, and to revise standard operating procedures to implement the policy (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). Choi and Eckert (2009) articulated such a policy (see Appendix III), and provided a comprehensive “check list” of best management practices to assist beachfront properties in doing their part to “ensure the survival of endangered sea turtles and their young” (see Appendix IV). All beachfront hotels in Barbados (and elsewhere) are encouraged to adopt a Sea Turtle Policy Statement that includes a commitment to conduct “regular lighting assessments”, as well as to implement a variety of other measures aimed at improving environmental performance. Notable is the fact that efforts to reduce light pollution are not separate from equally necessary efforts to improve energy efficiency, decrease costs, and model sustainable architectural designs. Lighting is the second most significant daily expenditure for Caribbean hotels (Tourism Global Inc. 2006), and energy-efficient lighting supports industry goals to neutralize carbon emissions from the tourism sector (CHA/CTO 2007). An energy audit was not performed at the four participating hotels to demonstrate cost savings inherent in embracing ‘turtle friendly’ lighting alternatives. However, reducing wattage, tu rning lights off, and emphasizing light emitting diode (LED) technologies, low pressure sodium (LPS) and compact fluorescent lamps, timers, motion-detectors, and fixtures that direct light more efficiently (i.e., only where needed), are sure to reduce operational expenditures in a region where ener gy costs are high (http://climatelab. org/Small_Island_Developing_States ). New technologies, including LED and CFL fixture types, among others, are making energy-efficient options more widely available and affordable than ever before. At the same time, some analysts are suggesting that energy efficient lighting translates into “elegance” (www.lrc.rpi.edu ) and, potentially, into increased revenue since sophisticated lighting attracts a sophisticated traveler (Sabedra et al. 2004; Ruffino 2007). Sustainable policies also seek to support local products and vendors. For example, in Barbados, ‘turtle friendly’ fixtures, including ceramic sconces and other products that can be adapted to both shield light and to enhance design and ambiance, are manufactured locally by Earthworks Pottery. “Buying local” fosters essential economic development (Witter et al. 2002; Duval 2004; Pattullo 2005; Tourism Global Inc. 2006; Travelwatch 2006) and delights guests with authentic

PAGE 19

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 15 presentation (MacCannell 1973; Poon 2003; Tourism Global Inc. 2006). This recommendation may be more readily implemented by locally owned and smaller hotels and resorts, while hotels owned by large international corporations often have strict companywide standards that apply to architectural elements, including lighting fixture options. Notwithstanding, managers in every context should emphasize local business partnerships as integral to a sustainable business model. The benefits of supporting locally owned businesses are well documented and include reducing environmental impact, receiving better service, creating jobs at home, satisfying travelers' desires for distinctive local charm, and fostering local prosperity. “Several studies have shown that when you buy from an independent, locally owned business, significantly more of your money is used to make purchases from other local businesses, service providers and farms – continuing to strengthen the economic base of the community” (http://sustain ableconnections.or g/thinklocal/why ). Progress toward sustainable operating procedures is rewarded by industry certifications such as Green Globe (http://www.gr eenglobeint.com/ ), a benchmarking and certification progra m that promotes sustainable tourism worldwide by providing a framework for environmental and social performance improvement. Based on Agenda 21 and the principles endorsed at the United Nations Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992, Green Globe Standards provide participants with a framework to measure their environmental impact, and then develop and implement strategies to reduce that impact. The Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST) list s the “top 10 benefits of certification” as reduced water and energy consumption, lower operational costs, improved staff morale and productivity, increased staff creativity, increased customer satisfaction, reduced employee conflict, increased employee retention, improved community relationships and benefits, and improved business and shareholder value (h ttp://www.cha-cast.com/ ). Regulatory Action – By adopting light management legislation, government makes a long-term commitment to protect sea turtles from the harmful effects of light pollution. In addition to providing a public mandate, legislation can establish specific criteria for determining which artificial light sources constitute a problem and how these light sources should be modified in order to solve the problem (Witherington and Martin 2003). Lighting legislation also helps to ensure that consistent action is taken nationwide, strengthening the success of individual efforts that might not otherwise occur on a scale necessary to safeguard endangered sea turtle populations. Effective lighting legislation should have a clearly stated purpose, set standards for both new and existing developments, and be mandatory. Existing properties may be allowed to “phase in” appropriate lighting designs, while any new construction should be required to implement ‘turtle friendly’ policies from the start. Ideally, lighting legislation should be embedded in a holistic national conservation strategy, and comprehensive coastal zone management plan. According to Lake and Eckert (2009), several factors are important when considering light management legislation, and effective policies should embrace the needs – real and perceived – of stakeholders, including government agencies, property owners and managers, residents, and paying guests. With this in mind, these authors suggest that a national Lighting Ordinance should satisfy at least the following five criteria: increase the quality of sea turtle nesting habitat; maximize cost -effectiveness for property owners and regulators; maximize public safety and security; maximize enforceability; and ensure flexibility to adapt to new scientific information. Model lighting ordinances are found in Witherington and Martin (2003). Public Outreach and Participation – The BSTP operates a 24-hour national Sea Turtle Hotline to facilitate public in volvement in the reporting of sea turtle nesting or hatching events, including incidents of turtles being disoriented inland, away from the sea. Hotel staff, securi ty guards, and even guests routinely call the Hotline if turtles are disoriented due to property lighting. BSTP staff also document hatchling disorientation not reported by the Hotline but observed during their nightly research and monitoring efforts. The participation of hotel staff and (supervised) guests can meaningfully extend a nation’s capacity for monitoring and responding to sea turtles in trouble. By paying attention to the cause(s) of the disorientation, lighting problems can be identified and resolved.

PAGE 20

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 16 Responding to Disoriented Turtles – According to Phelan and Eckert (2006) hatchlings traveling away from sea, clearly entrained by artificial lighting, should be collected and released immediately. Hatchlings have limited internal yolk stores, which are needed to provide sufficient “fuel” for their swim frenzy into the open ocean immediately after departing from the nesting beach. Each day a hatchling is held captive, drawing on its internal food stores, makes it more likely that it will deplete its yolk and be forced to stop, prematurely, to feed in predator-rich coastal waters. If hatchlings are rescued during the heat of the day, they should be kept until late afternoon or evening in a lightly covered cooler or bucket. The procedure is described by Phelan and Eckert (2006) as follows: o Place a few inches of damp beach sand in a cooler. If the sand is too dry, the young turtles may desiccate (dry out); if too wet, energy will be wasted in swimming, and weak hatchlings may be unable to hold their heads above the water to breathe. o Cover the cooler or box and place it in the shade until late afternoon or nightfall. Supervise the container to avoid the unwanted attention of dogs, predators, and onlookers. o At the time of release, keep predators (e.g., dogs, birds, crabs) away from the hatchlings as they cross the beach. Select an unlit stretch of beach (preferably the beach where the eggs were laid) to release the hatchlings; if the beach is well lit, ask the landowner/ hotelier to turn off the lights briefly as the hatchlings crawl to the sea. To encourage natural sea-finding, use minimum light and prohibit flash photography during hatchling releases. o Never toss newborn hatchlings directly into the sea, or “ferry” them into deeper water. The natural progression of the hatchling from the nest, across the beach, through the coastal zone, and into the open sea is important and should not be unduly disrupted. Remember that it is illegal to handle and possess sea turtles, which are protected by law in Barbados. The BSTP should be contacted for guidance in any efforts to assist post-nesting females in orienting correctly to the sea, or attempts to rescue and release hatchlings. Concluding Remarks – Widespread mortality to endangered sea turtle hatchlings due to bright coastal lighting, which distracts the newborn turtles during their journey from the nest to the sea, is well documented in Barbados (Horrocks 1992; Eckert and Horrocks 2002). In search of a solution, four prominent beachfront hotels, with support from local (Barbados Sea Turtle Project) and regional (WIDECAST) NGOs, as well as international experts (Ecological Associates Inc.), voluntarily committed to a lighting assessment of their properties and publication of the resulting recommendations. Each Assessment Report (see Appendices) provides a simple and objective ranking scheme, based on light fixture intensity, which can be used to reduce the harmful effects of artificial lighting on nesting beaches at these properties and, we hope, throughout Barbados and elsewhere. The Assessment Reports also establish a baseline for these specific properties, against which to evaluate progress made. Finally, the reports can be viewed as reference documents for general recommendations, products and vendors, and other information broadly useful for addressing problematic lighting observed at hotels, condominiums, and villas. Hotels, condominiums, and villas are natural focal points for efforts to reduce “light pollution” originating on the coast, since they encompass a significant portion of beachfront property. Their individual efforts should be encouraged and rewarded in the context of industry certifications, such as Green Globe, that recognize sustainable policies. Government also has a role to play in securing the national benefits of light reduction, which include improving the quality of sea turtle nesting habitat (w ithout compromising safety and security), lowering energy costs, and emphasizing a science-based approach to coastal zone management issues. By enacting regulations requiring ‘turtle friendly’ lighting schemes, the burden of mitigation falls equally on all beachfront properties and civil infrastructu re (e.g., roadways). Finally, residents and guests play a vital role in reporting sea turtle nesting and hatching events, including disorientation and mortality; in advocating for stronger conservation policies and reporting violations; in obeying requests to turn lights off when not in use and engaging in other helpful behaviors; and in taking time to learn about sea turtles and their important role in Caribbean ecology, economy, and culture.

PAGE 21

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 17

PAGE 22

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 18 LITERATURE CITED Atkins, S., S. Husain and A. Storey. 1991. The Influence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime, p. v + 59. In : G. Laycock (Editor), Crime Prevention Unit Paper No. 28. Home Office Crime Prevention Unit. London, UK. Beggs, J.A., J.A. Horrocks and B.H. Krueger. 2007. Increase in hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata nesting in Barbados, West Indies. Endangered Species Research 3:159-168. http://www.widecast.org/W hat/Country/Barbados/Doc s/Beggs_et_al_(2007)_EI_rising_in_Barbados.pdf Bjorndal, K.A. (Editor) 1982. Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 583 pp. Brutigam, A. and K.L. Eckert. 2006. Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles in the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC International and the CITES Secretariat. 533 pp. http://www.widecas t.org/Resources/Docs/Brautigam_ and_Eckert_2006_Exploitation_Trade_Mgmt_of_Cari bbean_Sea_Turtles.pdf Bryant, D., L. Burke, J. McManus and M. Spalding. 1998. Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World’s Coral Reefs. World Resources Institute. Washington, D.C. 56 pp. http://www.wri.org/publica tion/reefs-risk-map-basedindicator-potential-threats-worlds-coral-reefs Burke, L. and J. Maidens. 2004. Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean. World Resources Institute. Washington, D.C. http://www.wri.org /project/reefs-caribbean Cambers, G. 1996. Managing Beach Resources in the Smaller Caribbean Islands. Coastal Region and Small Island Papers No. 1. COSALC: Coast & Beach Stability in the Caribbean Islands. UNESCO and the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagez. http://www.unesco.o rg/csi/pub/papers/papers1.htm Cambers, G. 1997. Planning for Coastline Change: Guidelines for Construction Setbacks in the Eastern Caribbean Islands. CSI Info rmation Document No. 4. UNESCO, Paris. 14 pp. http://www.unesco .org/csi/pub/info/info4.pdf Cambers, G., L. Richards and S. Roberts-Hodge. 2008. Conserving Caribbean Beaches. TIEMPO Bulletin on Climate and Development 66:18-24. http://www.tiempocyberclimate. org/portal/archive/pdf/t iempo66low.pdf CHA/CTO. 2007. CHA-CTO Position Paper on Global Climate Change and the Caribbean Tourism Industry: For the EU Travel Trade. Caribbean Hotel Association and Caribbean Tourism Organisation. 8 pp. http://www.caribbeanhotela ndtourism.com/downloads /Pubs_ClimateChange0307.pdf Choi, G.-Y. and K.L. Eckert. 2009. Manual of Best Practices for Safeguarding Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) Tech. Repo rt No. 9. Ballwin, MO. 86 pp. http://www.widecast.o rg/Resources/Pubs.html Clark, J.R. 1996. Coastal Zone Management Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 694 pp. Clark, J.R. 1998. Coastal Seas: The Conservation Challenge. Blackwell Science Ltd. 134 pp. Danielsen, F., M.K. Sorensen, M.F. Olwig, V. Selvam, F. Parish, et al. 2005. The Asian tsunami: A protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310(5748):643. Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Pa lmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/ Duval, D.T. 2004. Tourism in the Caribbean: Trends, Development, Prospects. Routledge, NY. Eckert, K.L., and J.A. Horrocks. 2002. Proceedings of "Sea Turtle and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and PolicyMakers in Barbados", Gli tter Bay Fairmont Hotel, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), the Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Devel-

PAGE 23

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 19 opment Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report. San Diego, CA. v + 44 pp. http://www.widecast.org /Resources/Pubs.html EAI. 2002. Coastal Roadway Lighting Manual: A Handbook of Practical Guidelines for Managing Street Lighting to Minimize Impacts to Sea Turtles. Prepared for Florida Power and Light Company by Ecological Associates, Inc. Jensen Beach, FL. 77 pp. http://www.fly2pbia.org/erm/permitting/seaturtles/pdf/lighting-manual.pdf Fleming, E. 2001. Swimming Against the Tide: Recent Surveys of Exploitation, Trade, and Management of Marine Turtles in the Northern Caribbean. TRAFFIC North America. Washington, D.C. 183 pp. Fletcher, C.H. et al. 1997. Beach loss along armored shorelines on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Coastal Research 13(1):209-215. Frazier, J. 2002. Special Issue: International Instruments and Marine Turtle Conservation. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 5(1-2):1-207. Godley, B.J., A.C. Broderick, L.M. Campbell, S. Ranger and P.B. Richardson. 2004. An assessment of the status and exploitation of marine turtles in the UK Overseas Territories in the Wider Caribbean. Final Project Report for the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Commonwealth Office, UK. 253 pp. Groombridge, B. and R. Luxmoore. 1989. The Green Turtle and Hawksbill (Reptilia: Cheloniidae): World Status, Exploitation and Trade. Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Lausanne, Switzerland. 601 pp. Hamann, M., C. Limpus, G. Hughes, J. Mortimer and N. Pilcher. 2006. Assessment of the Conservation Status of the Leatherback Turtle in the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia. IOSEA Species Assessment: Volume I. IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU Secretariat. Bangkok, Thailand. 166 pp. http://www.ioseaturtles.or g/content.php?page=Leathe rback%20Assessment Hecht, E. 2001. Optics, Fourth Edition. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA. Hemley, G. 1994. International Wildlife Trade: a CITES Sourcebook. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Horrocks, J.A. 1992. WIDEC AST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Barbados (K .L. Eckert, Editor). CEP Technical Report No. 12. UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme. Kingston, Jamaica. 61 pp. http://www.widecas t.org/Resources/Docs/STRAP_Barb ados_1992.pdf Horrocks, J.A., and N. McA. Scott. 1991. Nest site location and nest success in the hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata in Barbados, West Indies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 69:1-8. IUCN. 2004. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. www.iucnredlist.org IUCN. 2007a. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission. Washington, D.C. 119 pp. http://www.iucn-mt sg.org/red_list/ IUCN. 2007b. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). Assessors: F.A. Abreu Grobois and P. Plotkin. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission. Washington, D.C. 39 pp. http://www.iucn-mt sg.org/red_list/ Kemf, E., B. Groombridge, A. Abreu and A. Wilson. 2000. Marine Turtles in the Wild. World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Gland, Switzerland. 40 pp. Knowles, J.E. 2007. In the Spotlight: An Assessment of Beachfront Lighting at Four Hotels and Recommendations for Mitigation Necessary to Safeguard Sea Turtles Nesting in Barbados, West Indies. Thesis, Master of Environmental Management, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. Durham, NC. 149 pp. King, F.W. 1982. Historic Review of the Decline of the Green Turtle and the Hawksbill, p.183-188. In : K.A. Bjorndal (Editor), Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

PAGE 24

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 20 Krueger, B., J.A. Horrocks and J. Beggs. 2003. Increase in nesting activity by hawksbill sea turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) in Barbados, p.149. In : J.A. Seminoff (Compilers), Proc. 22nd Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-503. U. S. Dept. of Commerce. www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/symposia.htm Lake, K.N. and K.L. Eckert. 2009. Reducing Light Pollution in a Tourism-Based Economy, with Recommendations for a National Lighting Ordinance. Prepared by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) for the Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Government of Anguilla. WIDECAST Technical Report 11. Ballwin, MO. 65 pp. http://www.widecast.org /Resources/Pubs.html Lelis, L. 2003, April 30. “Volusia County, Fla., Officials Plan Tougher Enforcement of Beach Lighting Law”. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News, p. 1. Retrieved May 27, 2007 from ProQuest database. Len, Y.M. and K.A. Bjorndal. 2002. Selective feeding in the hawksbill turtle, an important predator in coral reef ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245:249-258. Lohmann, K.J., B.E. Wit herington, C.M.F. Lohmann and M. Salmon. 1996. Orientation, Navigation, and Natal Beach Homing in Sea Turtles, p.107-136. In : P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (Editors), The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Lutcavage, M.E., P. Plotkin, B. Witherington and P.L. Lutz. 1996. Human Impacts on Sea Turtle Survival, p. 387-409. In : P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (Editors), The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. MacCannell, D. 1973. Sta ged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings. American Journal of Sociology 79(3):589-603. Mack, D., N. Duplaix and S. Wells. 1982. Sea Turtles: Animals of Divisible Parts: International Trade in Sea Turtle Products, p.545-563. In : K.A. Bjorndal (Editor), Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Meylan, A.B. and M. Donnelly. 1999. Status justification for listing the hawksbill turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) as Critically Endangered on the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:200-224. McConney, P., R. Mahon and R. Pomeroy. 2003. Guidelines for coastal resource co-management in the Caribbean: communicating the concepts and conditions that favour success. Caribbean Coastal Comanagement Guidelines Project. Caribbean Conservation Association. Bridge town, Barbados. 41 pp. http://infobridge.org/a sp/documents/1152.pdf McKenna, J., M. Macleod, J. Power and A. Cooper. 2000. Rural Beach Management: A Good Beach Guide. Donegal County Council. 109 pp. ( In particular, pp.6-9, Physical Processes; and pp.71-74, Issue: Development in Sand Dunes ) Milliken, T. and H. Tokunaga. 1987. The Japanese Sea Turtle Trade 1970-1986: A special report prepared by TRAFFIC (Japan). Center for Environmental Education, Washington, D.C. 171 pp Mrosovsky, N. and A. Carr. 1967. Preference for light of short wavelengths in hatchling green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas tested on their natural nesting beaches. Behaviour 28:217-231. Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth. 1968. Wavelength preferences and brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32:211-257. MTSG. 1995. A Global Strategy for the Conservation of Marine Turtles. Marine Turtle Specialist Group. IUCN Species Survival Commission. Arlington, VA. 24 pp. http://www.iucn-mtsg.org/publications Nuttall, C. 2000. Crime and Ju stice Bulletin 3: Crime Against Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000. National Task Force on Crime Prevention, Office of the Attorney General. Bridgetown, Barbados. 21 pp. Parsons, J. 1972. The hawksbill turtle and the tortoise shell trade, p.45-60. In : tudes de gographie tropicale offertes Pierre Gourou. Mouton, Paris. Pattullo, P. 2005. Last Resorts: The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean (New Edition). Monthly Review Press. New York, NY. Phelan, S.M. and K.L. Eckert. 2006. Marine Turtle Trauma Response Procedures: A Field Guide. Wider

PAGE 25

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 21 Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) Technical Report No. 4. Beaufort, NC. 71 pp. http://www.widecast.org/What /Regional/Me dicine.html Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill turtle hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824. PKF. 2006. Caribbean Trends in the Hotel Industry. PKF Consulting and PKF Hospitality Research. Atlanta, GA. 30 pp. Poon, A. 2003. Competitive Strategies for a ‘New Tourism’, p.130-142. In : C.P. Cooper (Editor), Classic Reviews in Tourism. Chann el View Publications. Clevedon, England, UK. Potter, B. 1996. Tourism and Coastal Resources Degradation in the Wider Caribbean Region. Island Resources Foundation. St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. 53 pp. Pritchard, P.C.H. 1996. Evolution, Phylogeny, and Current Status, p.1-28. In : P.L. Lutz and J.A. Musick (Editors), The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Ramsay, M. and R. Newton 1991. The Effect of Better Street Lighting on Crime and Fear: A Review, p. v + 48. In : G. Laycock (Editor), Crime Prevention Unit Paper No. 29. Home Office Crime Prevention Unit, London, UK. Reichart, H., L. Kelle, L. Laurent, H.L. van de Lande, R. Archer, R. Charles and R. Lieveld. 2003. Regional Sea Turtle Conservation Program and Action Plan for the Guianas (K.L. Eckert and M. Fontaine, Editors). World Wildlife Fund – Guianas Forests and Environmental Conservation Project, Paramaribo. WWF Technical Report no. GFECP#10. 85 pp. http://www.widecas t.org/Resources/Docs/Reichart_et _al_2003_Guianas_Regional_Program.pdf Reuter, A. and A. Crawford. 2006. Tourists, Turtles and Trinkets: A Look at the Trade in Marine Turtle Products in the Dominican Republic and Colombia. A Report from the Field. TRAFFIC. 12 pp. http://www.traffic.org/speciesreports/traffic_species_reptiles9.pdf Ruffino, J. 2007. Brighter Days Ahead: Lighting Upgrades can help Facility Managers Address Occupant Needs and Reduce Energy Costs. Today’s Facility Manager. Tinton Falls, NJ. http://www.todaysfacilitym anager.com/tfm_07_04_tre nds.php Sabedra, R., S. Vaziri, N. Horii and S. Tillotson. 2004. Illuminating Design. Lodging Hospitality. Penton Publishing, Cleveland, OH. 3 pp. Salmon, M. and B.E. Witherington. 1995. Artificial lighting and sea-finding by loggerhead hatchlings: evidence for lunar modulation. Copeia 1995:931-938. Shanker, K. and B.C. Choudhury (Editors). 2006. Marine Turtles of the Indian Subcontinent. Universities Press (India), Hyderabad. 415 pp. Steinitz, M.J. et al. 1998. Beach renourishment and loggerhead turtle reproduction: a seven year study at Jupiter Island, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 14(3):1000-1013. Tourism Global, Inc. 2006. The Caribbean Accommodation Sector as a Consumer of Locally Produced Goods and Services and Contributor to Government Revenues. Caribbean Hotel Association. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 42 pp. Travelwatch. 2006. Increasing Local Economic Benefits from the Accommodation Sector in the Eastern Caribbean. The Travel Foundation. 12 pp. Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316. UNEP/ CMS. 2000. Conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa. CMS Technical Series 5:1-157. UNEP/ CMS [Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals] Secretariat. Bonn, Germany. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069.

PAGE 26

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 22 Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Biological Conservation 55:139-149. Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edition, Revised. Florida Marine Research Institute Technical Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/pub lications/publ ication_inf o.asp?id=39080 Witter, M., L. Briguglio and A. Bhuglah. 2002. Measuring and Managing the Ec onomic Vulnerability of Small Island Development States, p.24. In : Vulnerability and Small Island Development States: Exploring Mechanisms for Partnership. United Nations Development Programme, Montego Bay, Jamaica. http://www.sidsne t.org/docshare/other/economic_vuln erability_paper.pdf WWF. 2004. Conserving Marine Turtles on a Global Scale, Second Edition. World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Gland, Switzerland. 30 pp. http://assets.panda.o rg/downloads/0304turtlereport2n ded.pdf Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

PAGE 27

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 23 APPENDIX I: RESOLUTIONS, PLEDGES & RE COMMENDATIONS Source : Eckert and Horrocks (2002) RESOLUTION OF THE MEETING RECOGNISING that Caribbean sea turtles species are classified either as Endangered or Critically Endangered by international authorities, and are fully protected in Barbados under the Fisheries (Management) Regulations, 1997; CONCERNED that sea turtle populations in Barbados have declined dramatically over the course of the 20th century, due to threats both domestic and foreign; AWARE that natural sandy beach habitat is essential to the survival of the tourism industry in Barbados, as well as to the survival of our sea turtles; ALARMED that the majority of sea turtle hatchlings emerging from the beaches of Barbados are confused and disoriented by artificial lighting and that, as a result, thousands of them die every year; SENSITIVE to the impact the modern tourism industry, including coastal construction and artificial beachfront lighting, has on the plight of sea turtles; ENLIGHTENED based on the results of this workshop, about how the coast-based tourism industry can participate in sea turtle conservation and protection; and COMMITTED to taking effective action, both as individuals and as an industry, to ensure the survival of sea turtles in Barbados – WE PLEDGE TO: ADOPT a Policy Statement regarding the protection of sea turtles on hotel grounds; REVISE Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to implement the Sea Turtle Policy Statement and further encourage reporting and protecting nesting turtles and hatchlings by hotels and other beachfront properties; SEEK to ensure that funding is available to support annual training (by the Barbados Sea Turtle Project) of support staff in those departments that are responsible for actualisation of the Sea Turtle Policy Statement; UNDERTAKE a lighting assessment (following the guidance of Witherington and Martin, 2000) and investigate our individual hotel and villa capacities to participate in “turtle friendly” lighting schemes; and IMPLEMENT as soon as practicable, “ turtle friendly” lighting on all beaches (e.g., replace HPS lights with LPS alternatives, install motion-sensitive security lights, turn off purely aesthetic lights at 9:00 PM during peak nesting and hatching seasons). RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE MEETING: TO PROMOTE full implementation of the RESOLUTION, we recommend that the Tourism Development Corporation, in consultation with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project and the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) and in collaboration with other local (BHTA) and regional (CAST) industry coalitions: PROVIDE the hoteliers, villa rental agencies, Ministries and other relevant agencies in Barbados with a draft to be adopted and implemented by the hotel and villa rental community nation-wide, with each establishment ensuring that its SOPs are revised as necessary; PROVIDE the hoteliers and villa rental agencies in Barbados with standard guidelines and criteria for implementing the Sea Turtle Policy Statement; and PROVIDE coastal hoteliers and landowners with emergency numbers for reporting sea turtle sightings and violations, and a calendar noting the nesting and hatching months of local sea turtle species.

PAGE 28

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 24 APPENDIX II: LIGHTING EVALUATION FORM Facility Name/Address: Light Location: Type of Observation (Circle): Daytime Early Nighttime Late Nighttime Follow-up Nighttime Date/Time of Observation: Observer(s): General Comments: Light Visible From Beach: YES NO Fixture Type: Photo #: Rank: 1 2 3 OFF NOB Comments: Recommended Modifications: Observed Modifications: Additional Modifications Required: YES NO

PAGE 29

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Enhance Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 25 APPENDIX III: SEA TURTLE POLICY STATEMENT Source : Choi and Eckert (2009) Aware that sea turtles contribute in significant wa ys to the ecology, culture, and economy of the Wider Caribbean Region; Concerned that sea turtles are severely depl eted from their historical abundance; and Acknowledging that while the large majority of Caribbean nations protect sea turtles, population recovery will not be possible without greater attent ion to the conservation of essential nesting and feeding habitats, We Pledge To : Encourage a commitment to environmental responsibility among employees and guests; View sea turtle protection as an opportunity for civic engagement in biodiversity issues; Be vigilant and aware of any risks to the environment which may occur within or outside our development area as a result of our activities; Assess environmental impacts of all activities, planned and ongoing, as they relate to the conservation of sea turtles and their habitats; Provide employees and contractors with information and instruction to enhance their awareness of relevant environmental issues, and to ensure effective management of environmental impacts, including impacts on sea turtles and their habitats; Identify and collaborate with local experts in designing, implementing and evaluating our sea turtle program to ensure that it fits wi thin national sea turtle conservation priorities, policies, and ongoing initiatives; Make continual improvements in operations and management oversight to increase the effectiveness and reliability of our sea turtle conservation program; Comply with environmental legislation and local best practice policies related to turtles and their habitats (sandy beaches, seagrass, coral reefs) and encourage others to do so; Promote setbacks, and maintain vegetated buffer zones between sandy beaches an d all building s, patios, and other built structures; Implement measures to minimize waste, including applying monitoring procedures to ensure that the nesting beach and nearshore waters remain free of debris and pollution; Conduct regular (at least annual) lighting assessments to identify sources of light pollution, and strive to eliminate artificial light visible from the beach during nesting season; Implement a system that removes potential obstacles to sea turtle nesting, including sun beds and recreational equipment, from the beach each night during nesting season; Discourage vehicles on the nesting beach, require hand-raking of debris and seaweed; Support local sea turtle conservation and research, including offering financial or in-kind support, as practicable; and Report all incidents of sea turtle harassment or harm to the proper authorities.

PAGE 30

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 26 APPENDIX IV: CHECK LIST OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Sea turtles are ancient creatures, living mostly unseen in the world’s oceans. At certain times of the year, eggbearing females must come ashore to lay eggs deep in the warm sand of tropical beaches. The nesting process can be threatened by various aspects (e.g., deforestation, lights, sand mining, roads and construction, noise, activity, recreation) associated with beachfront development. Fortunately, an informed property manager can help ensure the survival of endangered sea turtles by implementing the following check list, including committing to reducing light pollution that can be fatal to nesting females and their young. Source : Choi and Eckert (2009). Activity Sea Turtle Protection BMPs Pre-Construction Phase Know whether (and when) sea turtles nest on beaches near your property Be aware of laws and policies protecting sea turtles and their eggs Support the development and implementation of an independent Environment Impact Assessment Evaluate – and commit to minimizing – impacts to the nesting beach from access roads, vegetation removal/burning, excavation, erosion, lights and activity associated with work crews, etc. Schedule construction during non-nesting periods Identify and collaborate with local sea turtle experts to monitor the effects of construction Support formation of a local Advisory Board for transparency, informationexchange, oversight Adopt a Sea Turtle Policy Statement (see Appendix III) Construction Setbacks Do not construct permanent buildings, snack bars, pools, etc. on the sandy beach platform To protect both the nesting beach and coastal infrastructure, establish reasonable setbacks between the ocean an d any permanent buildings Inform contractors and partners of t he importance of these setbacks, and of preserving native vegeta tion within a buffer zone Exterior Lighting Commit to reducing “light pollution” that can be fatal to nesting females and their young Conduct lighting inspections, at least annually, and respond promptly to recommended corrective measures All exterior fixtures – anywhere on the property – that produce light visible from the nesting beach should be shielded, directed only where light is needed, generally placed as low as practicable, and use long wavelength lamps (e.g., red/amber LEDs, low pressure sodium) and black baffles Avoid bright white light, such as metal halide, halogen, fluorescent, mercury vapor, and incandescent lamps – and never use where such light could be visible from the beach Turn off balcony lights when not in use Use ornamental vegetation to block and reduce light leakage to the nesting beach Emphasize timers and motion sensitive lights to reduce beachfront lighting and operational costs Prohibit bonfires or fire pits on the beac h or in line-of-sight of the beach during nesting season

PAGE 31

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 27 Activity Sea Turtle Protection BMPs Glass Windows and Doors Visible from the Beach Commit to reducing the amount of light that reaches the nesting beach from hotel rooms, restaurants, and other interior spaces When possible, use blackout curtains or shade-screens – if glass tinting is an option, apply film with a visible light transmittance value of 45% or less to all windows and doors within line-of-sight of the beach Turn off lights when not in use! Beach Sand Mining Know the law with regard to sourcing construction aggregate Avoid using sand mined from coastal beaches Report violations of sand mining laws Obstacles on the Nesting Beach Remove furniture and recreational equipment (kayaks, small sailboats) from the beach nightly Stack and arrange furniture off-beach Use a permanent umbrella holder or sleeve – never thrust an umbrella (or other penetrating object) into a nesting beach Consider signage (if egg poaching is not a problem) alerting visitors to nest locations and asking that they st ay 2m (6ft) from the nest site Litter and Debris Implement policies to keep grounds and adjoining beach areas clean Hand-rake beach debris (vs. using a tractor) to avoid harming eggs incubating below the surface Partner with local youth or conservation groups to conduct Beach Clean-Ups, especially just prior to the nesting season Beach Stabilization and Restoration Seek alternatives to coastal armoring/seawalls Protect beachfront property through enforced construction setbacks, mixed-species (preferably native) vegetation buffers, and dune protection If beach restoration/rebuilding is unavoidable, replacement sand should be similar (grain size, organic content) to the original beach sand, thereby maintaining the suitability of the beac h for egg incubation Beach restoration should never take place during the nesting/hatching season Vehicles on the Beach With the exception of authorized patrol or emergency vehicles (which should drive below the high tide line), motorized vehicles should be prohibited from driving on sandy beaches Smooth-out tire tracks – ruts trap emerging hatchlings, prevent them from reaching the sea Protecting Beach Vegetation Know the law regarding removal and restoration of coastal vegetation and maritime forest Incorporate established vegetation into architectural plans – minimize removal of beachfront vegetation, restore what has been lost Emphasize the use of native plant/tree species Construct raised walkways over sensitive areas Consider planting “beach gardens” to help restore nesting habitat for hawksbill sea turtles

PAGE 32

Knowles et al. (2009) ~ Reducing Beach Lighting in Barbados to Increase Sea Turtle Survival ~ WIDECAST Technical Report 12 28 Activity Sea Turtle Protection BMPs Protecting Seagrass and Coral Prohibit actions that damage seagrass or coral Require all marine vessels be moored or docked Restrict anchoring to non-sensitive marine areas Demarcate a no-wake Swim Zone offshore the nesting beach Eliminate sedimentation and pollution – e.g., manage wastewater effluent, recycle graywater, maintain high standards for sewage treatment, emphasize low doses of landscape chemicals Educate divers and snorkelers about appropriate behavior underwater Boats, Personal Watercraft Commit to reducing the impact of recreational boating on sensitive marine ecosystems Enforce a slow speed or no-wake zone offshore the nesting beach Encourage the use of propeller guards to reduce injury to marine life, including sea turtles Ensure that staff and guests know and understand all relevant rules and restrictions Educating Staff and Guests Regularly train/evaluate staff in enviro nmental management systems and sea turtle protocols Involve guests in sea turtle protocols; e.g., close curtains at night when interior lights are lit Make conservation fun! Host a Sea Turtle Summer Camp or Story Hour, sponsor a Beach Clean-Up, invite a local expert to give a Sea Turtle Talk, organize Nature Tours, recognize staff efforts Partner with a local conservation group to offer professionally guided Turtle Watches, if sea turtle species and habitats are conducive to viewing Use signage/in-room materials to inform guests of sea turtle (and other conservation) issues Always report nesting and hatching events

PAGE 33

29 APPENDIX V: FAIRMONT ROYA L PAVILION ASSESSMENT REPORT

PAGE 34

National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles in Barbados, West Indies Property Assessment: The Fairmont Royal Pavilion Respectfully submitted John English Knowles

PAGE 35

INTRODUCTION In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was conducted at the Fairmont Royal Pavilion as part of a follow-up initiative to implement recommendations made at a national “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Fairmont Royal Pavilion property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its representatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation’s sandy beaches. Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bearings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the hatchling stage, and the consequence s can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). The Fairmont Royal Pavilion has identified itself as a leader in addressing the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The property – along with three other beachfront hotels – was chosen because it plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contributing to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds. Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata a critically endangered species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species, as the island’s western coast is identified as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007). Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as “light pollution” by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat to the survival of sea turtles in Bar bados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best available science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or intensity: “We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, however, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity will reduce effects, and if intens ities are similar, substituting less attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential, long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down and away from the beach.” In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives. Where eliminating light sources – either by turning them off or by removing the fixtures altogether – is not practical, alternatives are available which direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.

PAGE 36

In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that “luminaires should not be directed onto … any object visible from the beach,” including walls, ceilings, and vegetation. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting, which “has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement [and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles than it is useful to people” (Witheringt on and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures are available that will minimize or eliminate “wall wash” (the illumination of the side or faade of a building); see “Internet Resources”. Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin (2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach. “Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light.” Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on. In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken to implement recommendations associated with rank “3” lights; in other words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003). METHODS Daytime Lighting Survey – A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 3 June 2006 by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach. The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count) each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor [John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and location. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor; however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps (light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a nighttime survey. Nighttime Lighting Survey – In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 23 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored on a scale of “1” to “3” (see “Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps”). The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr) and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting conditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspecttions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.

PAGE 37

Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps – The most disruptive lamps received a ra nk of “3”; whereas the least disruptive, a rank of “1”. Specifically, a rank of “1” described indirect light visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of “2” described a visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle, but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of “3” described a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect. Even the smallest light could rank “3” if it cast a shadow on the beach because its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away. The “3” ranking lights are placed fi rst in the assessment because of their potentially more serious effect(s ) on sea turtles. The focus of corrective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat. Within each rank – 1, 2, 3 – fixtures listed first are expected to require the greatest attention either in number, fina ncial expense, or creativity. The list continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expensive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach, the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and pertinent recommendations are documented. Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the fixture with an alternative. “ Recommendations ” refer to fixes th at will address the more serious issue(s), but in some cases may not completely eliminate the problem. “ Ultimate Recommendations ” refer to the best possible approach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether. RECOMMENDATIONS Illustrations and Icons – Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of fixtures. Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object. Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach. Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach. or

PAGE 38

Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional bollard with external louvers. Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb. Install compact fluorescent “Turtle Safe Lighting” lamps (light bulbs). See “Internet Resources”. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight (e.g., http://www.thomasli ghting.com/catalog/proddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8 ) Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach. Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage. Plant, landscape, or improve native vegetation buffer so that light is effecttively screened (i.e., not directly visible) from the beach. Install a hood, aim the light away from the nesting beach, and connect the fixture to a motion detector.

PAGE 39

Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform guests via “table tents”, door hangers, or other educational, advertising or informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control. Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 180 on the ocean side. Note : This recommendation is associated with broadcast light (generally in restaurants or porches) spilling out onto the nesting beach. The shield is intended to maintain the diffuse broadcast light effect, but eliminate any spillover. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach. Shade arches; this recommendation refers to installing drop-down shades from the arches in the restaurant. Install a Hubbell Skycap or similar shield. For security, install a motion detector to turn the fixture on only when an intruder is on the beach. Note : a motion detector can be disengaged when not needed. Eliminate fixtures and use low table lamps (e.g., Aurelle LED Candle Series or Maxxima MLC-01 LED Flameless Candle) or candles to illuminate the table without unintended broadcast from the restaurant.

PAGE 40

Palm-mounted hooded spotlight Rank: 3 Light Location: Coconut palm at the Water Sports Centre (southern end of property) Number of fixtures: 2 Comments: Currently, the light is directed toward the boat ramp and steps. A much better alternative in illuminating these steps would be to install small foot/ step lights emitting a pure red light and connected to a motion detector (so they only come on when needed). If these lights are needed for security, low-profile, louvered bollards with beach-side shields would be an acceptable alternative. To minimize the effects of these lights on sea turtles, the bollards could be connected to a motion detector and feature low-pressure sodium (LPS) vapor lamps or yellow bug lights. Recommendation: or with Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 41

Bare spotlight (view 1) Bare spotlight (view 2) Rank: 3 Light Location: On the roof of the Water Sports Centre Number of fixtures: 2 Recommendation: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 42

Floodlight Rank: 3 Light Location: North beach by the vender stalls Number of fixtures: 1 Recommendation:

PAGE 43

Large spotlights for the stage Smaller, palm-mounted spotlight Smaller, ceiling-mounted spotlight Rank: 3 Light Location: Palm Terrace Restaurant Number of fixtures: 4 larger spotlights for stage (2 orange, 2 white) and 21 smaller spotlights Comments: The restaurant presents a unique challenge because it is directly on the beach. Using wall-mounted downlights, step lights, and/or other directional fixtures in combination with small, low-level table lights will minimize the amount of light leaving the restaurant. The downlights should be mounted low enough so that they do not illuminate the nesting beach. Consideration should be given to planting vegetation inside the arches in such a way as to limit the amount of light passing through them, but, ideally, not obstructing the view of seated guests (a schematic is presented on the next page). Some fixtures also contribute to “wall wash,” but because wall wash from a pure yellow or pure red light is less disruptive than wall wash from a full-spectrum white light, yellow bug lights or other ‘turtle friendly’ lamps should be used. By following these recommendations, neither this unique dining experience nor the behavior of sea turtle hatchlings will be compromised. Recommendations on existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendations:

PAGE 44

With regard to the recommendation (above) that planting vegetation inside the arches could limit the amount of li ght reaching the beach, while at the same time preserving the ocean view for seated guests, the following landscaping options may be effective

PAGE 45

Wall-mounted candle holder fixture Rank: 3 Light Location: Caf Taboras Number of fixtures: 6 Comments: Caf Taboras presents a unique case that can be easily mitigated. Because the current fixtures are a source of direct light shining on the beach, a replacement fixture that shields the light bulb from the beach (as well as eliminates the unsightly glare that currently greets customers) is preferred. One option would be to replace the glass chimney with an opaque one, concealing the bulb. Earthworks Pottery could possibly design such a fixture, thereby increasing the quality of the nesting beach, the ambiance of the restaurant, and strengthening a local vendor. Recommendation on existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendations:

PAGE 46

Wall-mounted, shell-shaped balcony sconce Balcony light, period style Rank: 3 Light Location: First, second, and third floor balconies of North and South buildings Number of fixtures: 138 Comments: Pending installation of ‘turtle friendly’ fixtures, the detrimental effects of these lights can be reduced (but not eliminated) by shielding or tinting the glass on the current fixtures. Because the shell sconce helps shield the bare bulb from the beach, it is preferred to the period light; however, considerable light from the sconce is reflected off the balcony wall towards the beach (“wall wash”). The bulbs should be replaced with a low-wattage yellow bug lights or Turtle Safe Lighting lamps. Small, portable book lights could be provided in every room for guests that prefer to read on the balcony at night. Recommendations on the existing fixtures, especially the period light: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 47

Small spotlights (view 1) Small spotlights (view 2) Rank: 3 Light Location: Caf Taboras Number of fixtures: 13 Recommendations:

PAGE 48

Palm-mounted hooded spotlight North Beach illuminated at night Rank: 3 Light Location: North Beach Number of fixtures: 10 Comments: These spotlights, located directly on the beach, exemplify the worst possible conditions for endangered sea turtles nesting at this location. Ideally, these fixtures would be removed or timed to turn off after sunset, at least during nesting and hatching season. If they are required for dining or entertainment events, then having them on for short durations on random nights is preferred over having them on all the time. If all of these lights cannot be removed or turned off, the number of lights (currently 10) should be reduced as practicable and the wattage of each lamp reduced (e.g. through the use of low pressure sodium (LPS) or yellow bug light bulbs). A ‘turtle friendly’ CF PAR-38 filter is available (see “Internet Resources”). Recommendation: Recommendations for the remaining fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 49

Dusk-to-dawn security light Rank: 3 Light Location: North Beach Number of fixtures: 1 Comments: The best recommendation and preferred option is to eliminate this fixture. If its necessary purpose is to illuminate dining or entertainment, then it should be shielded (aiming light downward) and turned off when not needed. If its purpose is to illuminate the beach so that security staff can view potential trespassers, then a more effective and economical means might be to install a motion detector so that security staff are alerted only when someone approaches the property. Provide security staff with flashlights. Studies show (see “Management Issues: Lighting and Crime Considerations”) that such changes do not result in higher crime rates. Recommendations on existing fixture: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 50

Up-directed hooded spotlight at palm tree base Tree-mounted, down-directed, hooded spotlight Rank: 3 Light Location: “Garden area” in front of the Palm Terrace Restaurant, where two upward-directed spotlights at secured at the base of a coconut palm and one downward-directed spotlight is mounted high in the palm tree. Number of fixtures: 3 Comments: The high-mounted, downward directed fixture casts a great deal of direct light onto the nesting beach and, of these three spotlights, would certainly be the most disruptive to the sea-finding behavior of sea turtles. To retain the ambiance of this lighting, the tree-mounted spotlight could be directed inland and upward, with the wattage reduced by a low pressure sodium (LPS) or yellow bug light bulb. Recommendation (low-mounted): Recommendation (high-mounted): Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 51

Palm-mounted, hooded spotlight Mahogany tree-mounted, hooded spotlight Rank: 3 Light Location: Coconut palm and mahogany trees between Caf Taboras and South building Number of fixtures: 2 Comments: A common recommendation to correct lighting problems is to lower the light fixture to the point where it s light is not visible from the beach. In this situation, the purpose of the li ghts is to illuminate the terrace/patio of Caf Taboras. This purpose can be achieved without high-mounted tree fixtures, which increase stray light reaching the beach. The preferred alternative is to lower and shield these lights, such as by placing the fixtures behind an opaque object. In this case, simply repositioning the lights on the landward side of wall might be sufficient. Vegetation can also be useful in minimizing the light that reaches the beach. Both options (lowering the fixtures and more creative use of landscaping) would be expected to increase the quality of the environment for sea turtles on the beach and dinning guests on the terrace. Recommendations:

PAGE 52

Palm-mounted, hooded spotlight closest to beach Palm-mounted, hooded spotlight furthest from beach Rank: Off at the time of assessment (3?) Light Location: Coconut palm just south of North building Number: 1 Comments: This light was not operational during the assessment, and therefore could be not evaluated directly. However, given its height and location, it would be expected to be very disruptive to the sea-finding behavior of sea turtles. Recommendation: Rank: 2 Light Location: Coconut palm just south of North building Number: 2 Comments: This light should be repositioned away from the beach, directed away from the beach, and turned off when not in use. Recommendations:

PAGE 53

SUMMARY The improvements already made by the Fairmont Royal Pavilion do not go unnoticed. The hotel constantly strives for a more suitable nesting beach environment, which only increases its quality as a luxury resort. Fairmont Royal Pavilion is praised for supporting umbrellas with a flat base, instead of models that spike the post directly into the sand. This, as well as the property’s commitment to stacking beach chairs each night, help to ensure that incubating eggs are not damaged and nesting females are not obstructed from crawling on the beach. Another obvious consideration in seaside ambience is the hooding of beachfront spotlights to reduce glare and improve the stunning night sky for guests and other visitors. Improvement can still be made with regard to the impact of evaluated light fixtures, including spotlights This is a challenge for management, but one which we believe can be met. The Fairmont Royal Pavilion beach side property is elongated, and situated directly on the beach with little or no setback. The result is that even a small light bulb can be problematic, and this is also why nearly all fixtures are categorized as being potentially very disruptive to sea turtles (= rank “3”). Even when directed inland and shielded, such as with a hood, a spotlight situated directly on the nesting beach can cause an egg-bearing female to turn away from suitable nesting habitat and, if eggs are successfully laid, fatally disorient her young (see “Barbados in the Spotlight”). The cumulative effect of multiple balcony lights also has a significant and negative impact on sea turtles. Ideally, sea-facing balcony lights should be off at all times during the nesting season. A more practical recommendation may be to shield the bulbs (to minimize both direct light and wall wash), utilize ‘turtle friendly’ lamps, lower the wattage, and/or provide guests with candles or small reading lights for use on the balconies. Information available at Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the importance of these changes, and encourage them to do their part. The two on-site restaurants also pose a challenge in reducing light pollution, since they, too, are situated directly on the nesting beach. Any solution must meet the needs both of dining guests and of sea turtles, since the restaurants’ evening hours of operation overlap with the emergence of most hatchlings. Mitigation options require commitment and creativity, and a clear understanding of the principles of light mitigation with regard to sea turtles. We hope that, in involving managers directly in this assessment, the requisite technical knowledge has been imparted. By taking full advantage of creative landscaping and ‘turtle friendly’ lighting schemes, as well as diligence in turning lights off when they are not in use, we are confident that this beautiful property can coexist more harmoniously with egg-laying sea turtles. These recommendations, once implemented, will not only improve beach conditions for sea turtles, but will co ntribute to the existing sophisticated theme of the resort’s lighting ambiance while, at the same time, reducing operational expenses (lower energy use). To encourage lighting improvements and assist in implementation, the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk, reducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation. Along with an improved beachfront (in terms of light pollution), comes a parallel responsibility for conservation-minded coastal management in general. Fairmont Royal Pavilion plays an essential role in the survival of the endangered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a model for “sea turtle friendly” env ironmental management systems elsewhere in Barbados and beyond.

PAGE 54

INTERNET RESOURCES ‘Turtle Friendly’ Lighting Products – FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs – http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conserva tion_LivingWith_W ildlifelighting_fixt ures.htm Turtle Safe Lighting – www.turtlesafelighting.com Turtle Safe Products – www.turtlesafeproducts.com Starry Night Lights – http://store .starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html International Dark-Sky Associ ation – http://w ww.darksky.org/ www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins > Compact Fluorescent CF PAR 38 – www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search "212407" [product number] www.gelighting.com/na/ > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent > Self-Ballasted > PAR38 R30 Amber Bug Light – Lighting Science – http://w ww.laminaceramics.com (e.g., http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm_r30/ ) Amber Gold 3.5 – www.turtleslighting.com Path and Landscape Lighting – Ruud Lighting – http://www.ruudlighti ng.com/literature/landscap e_family.asp?mscssid=&coni d=&dc=9&vt=12 FX Luminaire – www.fxl.com Architectural Bollards – LSI Industries – http://www.lsi-industr ies.com/lighting_product.asp?ID=5777 Lithonia Lighting – http://www.acuitybra ndslighting.com/li brary/PSG/LL/Outd oor%20Lighting/Sit e%20Lighting/Bollards/KBD.pdf LITERATURE CITED Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/ Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados”, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org

PAGE 55

IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp. www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007_IUCN_Red_List_Global_Status_As sessment_Hawksbill_turtle.pdf Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth 1968. Wavelength preferences and brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32: 211-257. Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824. Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Biological Conservation 55:139-149. Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edition, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publi cations/publicatio n_info.asp?id=39080 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of the Fairmont Royal Pavilion, including Nicholas Emery (General Manager) and Andre Berube (Chief Engineer), for their collaboration in this assessment. They were extraordinarily kind in accommodating my requests, which often involved their working off-hours, including late at night. Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable Trusts. I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Ho rrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006 seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with housing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the opportunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been professionally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have been accomplished. Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and my academic advisor at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecological Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.

PAGE 56

52 APPENDIX VI: SANDY LANE HOTEL ASSESSMENT REPORT

PAGE 57

National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles in Barbados, West Indies Property Assessment: Sandy Lane Hotel Respectfully submitted John English Knowles

PAGE 58

INTRODUCTION In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was conducted at the Sandy Lane Hotel as part of a follow-up initiative to implement recommendations made at a national “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Sandy Lane property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its representatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation’s sandy beaches. Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bearings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the hatchling stage, and the consequence s can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). The Sandy Lane Hotel has identified itself as a leader in addressing the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The property – along with three other beachfront hotels – was chosen because it plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contributing to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds. Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata a critically endangered species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species, as the island’s western coast is identified as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007). Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as “light pollution” by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat to the survival of sea turtles in Bar bados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best available science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or intensity: “We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, however, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity will reduce effects, and if intens ities are similar, substituting less attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential, long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down and away from the beach.” In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives. Where eliminating light sources – either by turning them off or by removing the fixtures altogether – is not practical, alternatives are available which direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.

PAGE 59

In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that “luminaires should not be directed onto … any object visible from the beach,” including walls, ceilings, and vegetation. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting, which “has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement [and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles than it is useful to people” (Witheringt on and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures are available that will minimize or eliminate “wall wash” (the illumination of the side or faade of a building); see “Internet Resources”. Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin (2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach. “Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light.” Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on. In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken to implement recommendations associated with rank “3” lights; in other words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003). METHODS Daytime Lighting Survey – A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 23 July 2006 by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach. The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count) each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor [John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and location. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor; however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps (light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a night-time survey. Nighttime Lighting Survey – In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 23 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored on a scale of “1” to “3” (see “Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps”). The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr) and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting conditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspecttions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.

PAGE 60

Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps – The most disruptive lamps received a ra nk of “3”; whereas the least disruptive, a rank of “1”. Specifically, a rank of “1” described indirect light visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of “2” described a visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle, but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of “3” described a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect. Even the smallest light could rank “3” if it cast a shadow on the beach because its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away. The “3” ranking lights are placed fi rst in the assessment because of their potentially more serious effect(s ) on sea turtles. The focus of corrective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat. Within each rank – 1, 2, 3 – fixtures listed first are expected to require the greatest attention either in number, fina ncial expense, or creativity. The list continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expensive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach, the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and pertinent recommendations are documented. Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the fixture with an alternative. “ Recommendations ” refer to fixes th at will address the more serious issue(s), but in some cases may not completely eliminate the problem. “ Ultimate Recommendations ” refer to the best possible approach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether. RECOMMENDATIONS Illustrations and Icons – Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of fixtures. Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach. Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 180 on the ocean side. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach.

PAGE 61

Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb. Install hood of sufficient depth and width. Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage. Shield seaward side of fixtures that are visible from the beach. Position lip over rope lighting to conceal bare bulbs. Replace with red LED rope lighting. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach. Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform guests via “table tents”, door hangers, or other educational, advertising or informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control. Remove light when not in use.

PAGE 62

Extinguish when not in use. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight (e.g., http://www.thomasli ghting.com/catalog/proddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8 ) Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach. Install compact fluorescent “Turtle Safe Lighting” lamps (light bulbs). See “Internet Resources”. Install red LED bulb. Use dimmer to lessen the effect of indirect light leaving the dining area. Eliminate fixtures and use low table lamps (e.g., Aurelle LED Candle Series or Maxxima MLC-01 LED Flameless Candle) or candles to illuminate the table without unintended broadcast from the restaurant. Place a small lamp shade over bare bulbs to prevent their being visibile from the beach

PAGE 63

Cap or cover top of fixture to prevent up-lighting and “wall wash.” Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional bollard with external louvers. Install a filter that emits a pure red wavelength (this is different from a filter that simply appears red to the human eye). Very large tree-mounted floodlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: Trees along the beachfront Comments: These high intensity blue floodl ights are extremely disruptive to sea-finding behavior in turtles, so much so that they attract hatchlings (which had successfully entered the sea from darker stretches of beach) back to land (personal observation, JEK). These lights should be turned off during the nesting and hatching season (May to November). Recommendations: or

PAGE 64

Tree-mounted, hooded spotlight Rank: 3 Number of fixtures: 14 Light Location: Beachside trees along property Comments: To light walking paths, use low-profile lights or bollards. Recommendations: Ultimate reco mmendation: : Bare spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixture: 7 Light Location: Tree on north end of property (pictured tree near the north gazebo, Bajan Blue Restaurant tree Comments: These lights are used on special occasions. Installing a hood over the bulbs will increase the aesthetics for guests, while at the same time directing the light in a more efficient manner. Recommendations:

PAGE 65

Rope lighting along the beachfront Rank : 3 Length of rope lighting: 233 meters Light Location: Along beachside wall Comments: Although less intense than some floodlights, continuous strings of small white lights placed low on the horizon represent a real obstacle to sea turtle hatchlings, especially on dark nights. Even short strips emit enough light to lead hatchlings inland away from the sea (personal observation, JEK). Recommendation on location of rope lighting: Recommendation for existing fixtures: Replacement Recommendation:

PAGE 66

Large torch with open flame Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: On beach, center property Recommendation: Tree-mounted hooded spotlight Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Trees in lower terrace Recommendation:

PAGE 67

Wall-mounted candle-holding fixture Rank: 2 Number of fixtures: 176 Light Location: Balconies of north and south wings Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate re commendation :

PAGE 68

Umbrella-mounted spotlights Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 20 Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant Comments: Even though these rank as moderate (“2”) for potentially disrupting sea-finding behavior, these lights cause a significant broadcast of indirect light. Bouncing light off the umbrella illuminates the dining area … and beyond, including the nesting beach. Highly directed, low-profile lights could be used to effectively illuminate the beachfront dining area. Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 69

Column-mounted candle lights Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 14 Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant Comments: The Bajan Blue Restaurant presents a unique case that can be easily mitigated. The current lights are a source of direct light on the nesting beach, and their replacement with a progressive alternative is highly recommended. A fixture, such a decorative sconce, that succe ssfully shields the light bulb from the beach (as well as from restaurant guests) would be much preferred over the existing bare bulb lights. Recommendations:

PAGE 70

Up-directed, hooded spotlight (in lawn, groundcover) Up-directed, hooded spotlight (tree base) Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 16 Light Location: Grassy lawns in front of the first floor rooms (north and south wings) Comments: Luminaires should not be directed onto any object visible from the beach. Glowing beachfront vegetation is highly disruptive to the seafinding behavior of sea turtle hatchlings, especially on moonless nights. These lights have only an aesthetic purpose; consideration should be given to removing (at least during nesting season) or redirecting the light such that it is not visible from the beach. Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on remaining fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 71

Wall-mounted candle light Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Upper terrace, just outside lobby Recommendations: Examples of acceptable fixtures: Wall-mounted wick Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 28 Light Location: L’acajou Recommendation:

PAGE 72

Recessed step lights Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 52 Light Location: Terrace stairway Comments: Use of a ‘turtle friendly’ wavelength (e.g., yellow or red LED) would be helpful here. Recommendations: Chandelier (with bare bulbs) Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 1 (including 3 bulbs) Light Location: Lobby Comments: Visible from the beach, it would be helpful to try and conceal or shade these bare bulbs in some way. Recommendations:

PAGE 73

Ceiling-mounted spotlight (lobby front desk) Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Lobby Recommendations: Small, ceiling-mounted spotlight Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 11 Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant Recommendations:

PAGE 74

Tiki torch with open flame Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 13 Light Location: On beach, in front of Bajan Blue Restaurant, Lower terrace Recommendations :

PAGE 75

Balcony up-light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 344 Light Location: Balconies Comments: The balcony rooms at Sandy Lane have three different fixture types on each balcony: (i) candle-type fixtures have the greatest potential to disrupt sea-finding behavior in sea turtles – if these fixtures are replaced with a ‘turtle friendly’ alternative, they become less problematic; (ii) up-lit fixtures (pictured) are moderately disruptive, mainly because of “wall wash” which occurs despite the concealed bulb – these fixtures should be installed with low wattage bug lights or ‘turtle friendly’ lamps, and if other lighting is made available (e.g., opaque globes, mounted low to the floor), up-lights on beachfront balconies can be eliminated; (iii) finally, lamps are used but these are minimally disruptive to sea turtles. Recommendations on the existing fixtures: Ultimate recommendation when other adequate lighting is installed:

PAGE 76

Wall-mounted clay covered fixture (bottom view) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 18 Light Location: Upper and lower terrace Recommendations:

PAGE 77

Up-directed, hooded spotlight on ground Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 13 Light Location: Lower terrace (below trees in natural area) Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 78

Ground-recessed spotlight Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 10 Light Location: Beachside grassy areas Comments: Luminaires should not be directed onto any object visible from the beach. Glowing beachfront vegetation is highly disruptive to the seafinding behavior of sea turtle hatchlings, especially on moonless nights. These lights have only an aesthetic purpose; consideration should be given to removing (at least during nesting season) or redirecting the light such that it is not visible from the beach. Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 79

Table lamp Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 75 Light Location: Balcony tables, north and south wings Recommendations:

PAGE 80

Wall-mounted, up-directed sconce Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: Upper and lower terrace Comments: Fixture contributes to “wall wash”. Recommendations on the existing fixtures: Ultimate recommendation (when other adequate lighting is installed): Wall-mounted up-light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 6 Light Location: Lower terrace Comments: Fixture contributes to “wall wash Recommendations on the existing fixtures: Ultimate recommendation (when othe r adequate lighting is installed):

PAGE 81

Recessed ceiling light (restaurant) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 70 Light Location: Bajan Blue Restaurant Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. Recommendations: Recessed ceiling light (stairwell) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 59 Light Location: North wing stairwell; third floor of both north and south wings Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. Recommendations:

PAGE 82

Recessed ceiling spotlight (square fixture) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 55 Light Location: Ceiling of L’acajou Restaurant Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach. Recommendations: Recessed circular light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 21 Light Location: Ceiling of owner’s penthouse Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. Recommendations:

PAGE 83

Large recessed ceiling light (lobby) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 6 Light Location: Lobby Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. The number given is the number of fixtures visible from the beach Recommendations: Recessed ceiling spotlights (gazebos) Rank: 1 Number of fixtures: 24 Light Location: Ceiling of both gazebos Comments: Gazebo employees claim that these spotlights are too hot, suggesting that lower wattage or other alternative would be acceptable. Recommendations:

PAGE 84

Floodlight (gazebo) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Above the rafters in both gazebos Comments: Minimally disruptive to sea turtles; filtering would be ideal. Recommendations: Chandelier Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 5 Light Location: Lower terrace Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach. Recommendations:

PAGE 85

Underwater recessed spotlight (base of the fountain) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: North wing fountain Recommendation:

PAGE 86

SUMMARY As a premier luxury establishment, it is not coincidental that most of the lights at the Sandy Lane Hotel rank comparatively low in terms of their potential to disrupt and disorient endangered marine turtles. The majority of fixtures conceal the actual luminaire or bulb. A bare bulb can be jarring and garish for humans and sea turtles alike, but the majority of the conditions at Sandy Lane are noth ing less than very pleasing. The atmosphere of low light levels and tasteful fixtures only enhances the tourism experience one receives at Sandy Lane, and the resort is commended for its architectural design. Sandy Lane Hotel also contributes directly to the survival of marine turtles in other ways, including stacking beach chairs at night, in an effort to prevent the entanglement of egg-bearing female turtles crawling on the beach. That said, the relatively few rank “3” lights are present at very high and disturbing intensities. Removing tree-mounted floodlights (see photo insert) and string lighting along the beachfront will greatly improve the survival success of sea turtles nesting on the adjoining beach, as well as improve reproductive success on nearby beaches, as hatchlings already at sea are attracted back to land as a result of Sandy Lane’s shoreline floodlights. Acting on this recommendation, and letti ng guests know why the lights were removed (at least during nesting season, which, quite fortuitously, does not coincide with high holiday visitation), will only increase Sandy Lane’s quality, providing it yet another competitive edge against other privately owned luxury hotels in the Caribbean and elsewhere. The recommendations described in this assessment, when implemented, will not only improve beach conditions for sea turtles, but will enhance the sophisticated and elegant theme of th e resort’s lighting ambiance while reducing operational expenses (lower energy use). Information available at Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the importance of these changes, and encourage them to do their part. To encourage lighting improvements and assist in implementation, the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk, reducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation. Along with an improved beachfront (in terms of light pollution), comes a parallel responsibility for conservation-minded coastal management in general. The Sandy Lane Hotel plays an essential role in the survival of the endangered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a model for “sea turtle friendly” env ironmental management systems elsewhere in Barbados and beyond.

PAGE 87

INTERNET RESOURCES ‘Turtle Friendly’ Lighting Products – FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs – http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conserva tion_LivingWith_W ildlifelighting_fixt ures.htm Turtle Safe Lighting – www.turtlesafelighting.com Turtle Safe Products – www.turtlesafeproducts.com Starry Night Lights – http://store .starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html International Dark-Sky Associ ation – http://w ww.darksky.org/ www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins > Compact Fluorescent CF PAR 38 – www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search "212407" [product number] www.gelighting.com/na/ > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent > Self-Ballasted > PAR38 R30 Amber Bug Light – Lighting Science – http://w ww.laminaceramics.com (e.g., http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm_r30/ ) Amber Gold 3.5 – www.turtleslighting.com Path and Landscape Lighting – Ruud Lighting – http://www.ruudlighti ng.com/literature/landscap e_family.asp?mscssid=&coni d=&dc=9&vt=12 FX Luminaire – www.fxl.com Architectural Bollards – LSI Industries – http://www.lsi-industr ies.com/lighting_product.asp?ID=5777 Lithonia Lighting – http://www.acuitybra ndslighting.com/li brary/PSG/LL/Outd oor%20Lighting/Sit e%20Lighting/Bollards/KBD.pdf LITERATURE CITED Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/ Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados”, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org

PAGE 88

IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp. www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007_IUCN_Red_List_Global_Status_As sessment_Hawksbill_turtle.pdf Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth 1968. Wavelength preferences and brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32: 211-257. Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824. Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Biological Conservation 55:139-149. Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edition, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publi cations/publicatio n_info.asp?id=39080 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of Sandy Lane Hotel, including Michael Pownall (Chief Executive Officer), Paula Yarde (Chief Engineer), Lawrence Cumberbatch (Director of Engineering), and Leo Blackman and the rest of the engineering department for their collaboration in this assessment. They were extraordinarily kind in accommodating my requests, which often involved their working off-hours, including late at night. Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable Trusts. I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Ho rrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006 seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with housing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the opportunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been professionally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have been accomplished. Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and my academic advisor at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecological Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.

PAGE 89

85 APPENDIX VII: SOUTHERN PALM S BEACH CLUB ASSESSMENT REPORT

PAGE 90

National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles in Barbados, West Indies Property Assessment: Southern Palms Beach Club Respectfully submitted John English Knowles

PAGE 91

INTRODUCTION In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was conducted at the Southern Palms Beach Club as part of a follow-up initiative to implement recommendations made at a national “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Southern Palms Beach Club property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, its representatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation’s sandy beaches. Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bearings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the hatchling stage, and the consequence s can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). Southern Palms Beach Club has identified itself as a leader in addressing the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The property – along with three other beachfront hotels – was chosen because it plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contributing to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds. Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata a critically endangered species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species, as the island’s western coast is identified as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007). Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as “light pollution” by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat to the survival of sea turtles in Bar bados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best available science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or intensity: “We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, however, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity will reduce effects, and if intens ities are similar, substituting less attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential, long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down and away from the beach.” In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives. Where eliminating light sources – either by turning them off or by removing the fixtures altogether – is not practical, alternatives are available which direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.

PAGE 92

In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that “luminaires should not be directed onto … any object visible from the beach,” including walls, ceilings, and vegetation. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting, which “has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement [and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles than it is useful to people” (Witheringt on and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures are available that will minimize or eliminate “wall wash” (the illumination of the side or faade of a building); see “Internet Resources”. Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin (2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach. “Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light.” Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on. In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken to implement recommendations associated with rank “3” lights; in other words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003). METHODS Daytime Lighting Survey – A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 25 July 2006 by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach. The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count) each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor [John English Knowles] were described with respect to fixture type and location. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor; however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps (light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a nighttime survey. Nighttime Lighting Survey – In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 25 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored on a scale of “1” to “3” (see “Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps”). The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr) and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting conditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspecttions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.

PAGE 93

Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps – The most disruptive lamps received a ra nk of “3”; whereas the least disruptive, a rank of “1”. Specifically, a rank of “1” described indirect light visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of “2” described a visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle, but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of “3” described a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect. Even the smallest light could rank “3” if it cast a shadow on the beach because its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away. The “3” ranking lights are placed fi rst in the assessment because of their potentially more serious effect(s ) on sea turtles. The focus of corrective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat Within each rank – 1, 2, 3 – fixtures listed first are expected to require the greatest attention either in number, fina ncial expense, or creativity. The list continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expensive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach, the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and pertinent recommendations are documented. Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the fixture with an alternative. “ Recommendations ” refer to fixes th at will address the more serious issue(s), but in some cases may not completely eliminate the problem. “ Ultimate Recommendations ” refer to the best possible approach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether. RECOMMENDATIONS Illustrations and Icons – Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of fixtures. Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object. Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach. Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb.

PAGE 94

Install a shield or mask of sufficient size to cover an arc of 180 on the ocean side. The shield can be anything placed in front of the light at any distance, as long as it blocks light from reaching the beach. Replace the existing fixture with a bollard with external louvers. Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach. Install compact fluorescent “Turtle Safe Lighting” lamps (light bulbs). See “Internet Resources”. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight (e.g., http://www.thomasli ghting.com/catalog/proddetail.asp?cno=SL9270-8 ) Replace the existing fixture with a more directed, more functional step light positioned to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach. Install covers or filters across beachfacing sides of fixture to eliminate any direct (or indirect) illumination of the beach. Install hood of sufficient depth and width.

PAGE 95

Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage. Shield the seaward side of fixtures visible from the beach. Plant, landscape, or improve native vegetation buffer so that light is effecttively screened (i.e., not directly visible) from the beach. Install a hood, aim the light away from the nesting beach, and connect the fixture to a motion detector. Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform guests via “table tents”, door hangers, or other educational, advertising or informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control.

PAGE 96

White, un-hooded spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 17 Light Location: Coconut palms from just east of Capri to the eastern end of the property; Lady Smith; Khus Khus Bar (roof); Garden Terrace; off the bar in the main pool area Comments: These lights serve to illuminate the beach for security cameras Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures: Yellow, un-hooded spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 16 Light Location: Seaward side of trees located from the western end to the center of the property Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures:

PAGE 97

Post-mounted quadruple globe Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 15 Light Location: Landward side of the beach wall; beach side of the Carlisle rooms; Palm Court and around the main pool area in front of the lobby. One is visible between Lady Smith and the Banyan Court Building Comments: These fixtures attempt (largely unsuccessfully) to provide sufficient light for security cameras located on the property during the evening hours (see “Summary”). Our recommendations address only the secondary purpose of these lights, which is to illuminate the courtyard during the evening for crossing on foot. This purpose is easily served with lower levels of light, and the seawall provides an excellent opaque object to conceal more energy-efficient and ‘turtle friendly” low-profile lighting. Recommendations:

PAGE 98

Wall-mounted ceramic sconce Wall-mounted ceramic sconce (side view) Wall-mounted sconce with rain shield Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 70 Light Location: Present on most balconies Comments: These ceramic fixtures shield their bare bulbs from the beach, which is preferred over all other balcony lights and wall-mounted lights on the property. Of these 70 fixtures, those with rain shields are the most ‘turtle friendly’ because wall-wash above the fixture is eliminated. Recommendations:

PAGE 99

Wall-mounted downlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: Second floor balcony rooms, eastern portion of the Carlisle Rooms Building Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation: Wall-mounted uplight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: First floor rooms, eastern end of the Carlisle Rooms Building Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 100

Orange, un-hooded spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: Coconut palms in main pool area, east face of Banyan Court Building Comments: An orange wavelength is less disruptive than a pure white light (white light emits all wavelengths, including those most disruptive to turtles). Recommendation: Single globe Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 1 Light Location: Hedge on the beach side of the Palm Court Building Recommendation:

PAGE 101

Arch-mounted incandescent light Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 1 Light Location: Walkway arch between Lady Smith and Banyan Court buildings Recommendation: Column-mounted clay fixture (incandescent bulb) Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Circle Terrace Comments: Recessed bulbs are preferred over bare and fully visible bulbs in beachfront lighting fixtures. Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 102

White, un-hooded incandescent spotlights Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 7 Light Location: Jasmine Court Building; tree-mount just west of Banyan Court Building; Sundecks of Crescent Beach Building; Lady Smith; Hairdressing Salon Building Recommendations: Ceramic sconce uplight Ceramic sconce downlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 9 Light Location: Balconies on the west fa ce of Palm Court Building Comments: The current position of these fixtures creates wall wash. It would be an improvement if the fixtures were to be reversed (directed downward). Recommendations:

PAGE 103

Small recessed ceiling spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 100 Light Location: Lobby ceiling; Khus Khus Bar; Rondelle Restaurant; Garden Terrace Restaurant; off the Bar area Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach, the ones that are visible are so at sharp angles from high up on the beach. Recommendations: Small recessed ceiling fixture (incandescent bulb) Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 17 Light Location: Terrace Restauran t; Khus Khus Bar Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from the beach. Fixtures at the Khus Khus Bar are visible only at sharp angles from high up on the beach; a low overhang on the roof provides good cover. Recommendations:

PAGE 104

Larger recessed ceiling fixt ure (incandescent bulb) Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: West end of Khus Khus Bar Comments: These lights are on three nights each week (i.e., during performances). Recommendations: Wall mounted globe light Rank : Lights were off, but probabl y rank as a “3” when illuminated Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: Second floor beachfront balcony of Carlisle Rooms Building; third floor of Jasmine Court Building Comments: 25 watt (yellow ‘bug light’) to 40 watt bulbs are encouraged Recommendations for existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 105

Room lights (interior) Rank : 3 (rooms closest to the beach); 2 (other beachfront rooms) Number of rooms visible from the beach: 53 Light Location: Beach-facing rooms The following recommendations are from Witherington and Martin (2003) on the subject of “Minimizing beach lighting from indoor sources” – 1. Turn off lights in rooms that are not in use. Reminder notices should be placed on light switches in oceanfront rooms. 2. Relocate moveable lamps away from windows that are visible from the beach. 3. Tint or apply window treatments to windows that are visible from the beach so that light passing from inside to outside is substantially reduced. A good tinted glass or window-tinting treatment will reduce visible light from the inside to 45% or less (transmittance 45%). Window glass may be either tinted during its manufacture, or tinted later with an applied film. Window treatments (shading materials) are less permanent and can reduce light transmittance more than tints and films. A complete blocking of light is ideal. 4. Close opaque curtains or blinds after dark to completely cover windows that are visible from the beach. This is an inexpensive solution because most windows already have curtains or blinds to provide privacy to occupants.

PAGE 106

Green path light Architectural bollards with external louvers Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Main pool area Comments: The purpose of illuminating the walking path by these lights is compromised by brighter lights surrounding the main pool area. However, these louvered path lights are highly recommended – they are low to the ground and they efficiently direct light to where it is needed, reducing unintended broadcast. If desired, there are other styles of path lighting available with turtle friendly designs (see “Internet Resources”). Another choice of ‘turtle friendly’ lighting is a bollard with external louvers (see insert). Whether the existing path lights or new bollard-style lights are used, all path lighting should have recessed, low-wattage (e.g., buy-type) bulbs and hidden reflectors. Recommendations on existing fixture and under existing light conditions: Recommendations under darker lighting conditions:

PAGE 107

Ceiling-mounted light Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: Walkway between the kitchen building and Crescent Beach Building Comments: Only two of these fixtures are visible from the beach. Recommendations: Small black path light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 9 Light Location: Courtyard of Palm Court and Lady Smith Building. They are also present in the main pool area. In addition, two are located in front of north face of Palm Court Building. Recommendation:

PAGE 108

Spotlight Rank : Light off Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: These fixtures are placed at the base of statues in the courtyards of Palm Court, Jasmine Court, and Capri buildings Comments: Fixtures are not in use and only one bulb is present. Recommendation: White, un-hooded wall-mounted spotlight Rank : Light off Number of fixtures: 1 Light Location: North end of the wall of the hairdressing salon Recommendations:

PAGE 109

SUMMARY The efforts of the Southern Palms Beach Club to constantly improve their conservation measures are laudable. Managers are to be commended on the installation of yellow spotlights, and the placement of ceramic sconces that soften balcony lighting. These improvements increase the quality of nesting habitat for sea turtles, as well as provide a first-rate vacation destination for guests. The biggest challenge at this property, which extends along approximately 1,000 feet of shoreline, is that it is situated directly on the sandy beach platform. This places limitations on strategic landscaping, and increases the potentially negative effects of even the smallest lights. Solutions are available to meet the needs of both guests and endangered sea turtles – but implementing these solutions requires both creativity and a clear understanding of (and commitment to) reducing light pollution property-wide. The number of lights, their placement relative to the beach, and their emitted wavelength are all important. Fewer lights are preferred over many lights; low-level, directional lights are preferred over high-mounted spotlights; and long wavelengths (e.g., yellow or “bug type” lamps) are preferred over short (blue, violet) or mixed (white) wavelengths. Filters can be useful if properly chosen and installed: there are many yellow-hue lights and filters that are not monochromatic, meaning that while they might appear yellow to the human eye, sea turtles might perceive them differently. Southern Palms Beach Club is one of the few hotels in Barbados to operate beachfront cameras at night. Bright, post-mounted white lights attempt to provide sufficient lighting for the cameras to operate. These lights are highly disruptive to sea turtles. The emphasis on security and safety is important, and alternatives to the current system must be carefully considered. Because research demonstrates that more light does not necessarily correlate to more security (i.e., less crime), successful alternatives to the present scenario might include investments that give an advantage to security staff and alert them when the property line has been crossed. For example, strategic placement of motion detecting lights both startle intruders and alert security staff to the breach. Infrared sensors (see www.optexeurope.com ) can also be a potent security tool. Eliminating nighttime use of beachfront cameras and associated lighting does not mean that the areas of concern are plunged into darkness. The courtyards can be effectively lit by lo w-profile landscape lights, path lights, and/or bollards. The seawall provides the ideal opaque screen to conceal low-profile lighting from the nesting beach. According to Witherington and Martin (2003:21), it is possible to have both a ‘turtle friendly’ beach in terms of lighting and a secure property: “light illuminance levels necessary for safety and security are rather low (0.2-1.0 footcandles or 2-11 lux, are recommended for fence [or perimeter] security and parking areas).” These recommendations, once implemented, will not only improve beach conditions for sea turtles, but will enhance the sophisticated and elegant theme of the resort’s lighting ambiance while reducing operational expenses (lower energy use). Information available at Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the impo rtance of these changes, and encourage them to do their part. To encourage lighting improvements and to assist in implementation, the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk, reducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation. Along with an improved beachfront in terms of lighting comes a parallel responsibility for conservation-minded co astal management in general, including, for example, stacking beach chairs to ensure that egg-laden females are not obstructed during their crawl to and from the water. The Southern Palms Beach Club plays an essential role in the survival of the endangered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a model for “sea turtle friendly” environmental management systems elsewhere in Barbados and beyond.

PAGE 110

INTERNET RESOURCES ‘Turtle Friendly’ Lighting Products – FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs – http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conserva tion_LivingWith_W ildlifelighting_fixt ures.htm Turtle Safe Lighting – www.turtlesafelighting.com Turtle Safe Products – www.turtlesafeproducts.com Starry Night Lights – http://store .starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html International Dark-Sky Associ ation – http://w ww.darksky.org/ www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins > Compact Fluorescent CF PAR 38 – www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search "212407" [product number] www.gelighting.com/na/ > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent > Self-Ballasted > PAR38 R30 Amber Bug Light – Lighting Science – http://w ww.laminaceramics.com (e.g., http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm_r30/ ) Amber Gold 3.5 – www.turtleslighting.com Path and Landscape Lighting – Ruud Lighting – http://www.ruudlighti ng.com/literature/landscap e_family.asp?mscssid=&coni d=&dc=9&vt=12 FX Luminaire – www.fxl.com Architectural Bollards – LSI Industries – http://www.lsi-industr ies.com/lighting_product.asp?ID=5777 Lithonia Lighting – http://www.acuitybra ndslighting.com/li brary/PSG/LL/Outd oor%20Lighting/Sit e%20Lighting/Bollards/KBD.pdf LITERATURE CITED Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/ Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados”, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org

PAGE 111

IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp. www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007_IUCN_Red_List_Global_Status_As sessment_Hawksbill_turtle.pdf Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth 1968. Wavelength preferences and brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32: 211-257. Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824. Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Biological Conservation 55:139-149. Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edition, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publi cations/publicatio n_info.asp?id=39080 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of the Southern Palms Beach Club, including Britta Pollard (General Manager), Jenni Wilson (Activities Director), and Roger Yarde (E lectrician), for thei r collaboration in this assessment. They were extraordinarily kind in accommodating my requests, which often involved their working off-hours, including late at night. Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable Trusts. I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Ho rrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006 seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with housing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the opportunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been professionally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have been accomplished. Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and my academic advisor at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecological Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.

PAGE 112

108 APPENDIX VIII: TURTLE BEA CH RESORT ASSESSMENT REPORT

PAGE 113

National Assessment of Beachfront Lighting and its Effect on the Survival of Endangered Marine Turtles in Barbados, West Indies Property Assessment: Turtle Beach Resort Respectfully submitted John English Knowles

PAGE 114

INTRODUCTION In partnership with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), and the Tourism Development Corporation in Barbados, a formal lighting assessment was conducted at the Turtle Beach Resort as part of a follow-up initiative to implement recommendations made at a national “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop held in Barbados in 2000 (Eckert and Horrocks 2002). The evaluation of lighting associated with the Turtle Beach Resort property attests to the efforts and dedication of the hotel industry, it s representatives, and the BSTP in reducing artificial lighting along the nation’s sandy beaches. Artificial lighting is well known to be detrimental both to nesting sea turtles and to their hatchlings because the natural light intended to guide the turtles back to the sea is diminished by light pollution from beachfront properties and other coastal infrastructure. The resulting disorientation (loss of bearings) and misorientation (incorrect orientation) is especially acute in the hatchling stage, and the consequence s can be fatal (e.g., Mrosovsky and Shettleworth 1968; Philibosian 1976; Witherington and Bjorndal 1991a,b; Witherington and Martin 2003; Tuxbury and Salmon 2005). Turtle Beach Resort has identified itself as a leader in addressing the lighting problem by voluntarily participating in this assessment. The property – along with three other beachfront hotels – was chosen because it plays a crucial role in maintaining high quality sea turtle nesting habitat. The intent of the lighting assessment was to evaluate current conditions, and to propose solutions and recommendations for each light identified as contributing to the nocturnal illumination of adjoining nesting grounds. Reducing nocturnal illumination of nesting grounds is critical in the survival of the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata a critically endangered species worldwide (IUCN 2004, 2007). Barbados plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species, as the island’s western coast is identified as one of the most important nesting grounds remaining in the Wider Caribbean Region (Dow et al. 2007). Artificial and detrimental beachfront lighting, characterized as “light pollution” by Witherington and Martin (2003), is the most serious contemporary threat to the survival of sea turtles in Bar bados (Eckert and Horrocks, 2002). Sea turtles are most sensitive to shorter wavelengths (what humans generally see as blue and green, but these wavelengths are strongly emitted by bright white light, as well), which they use in sea-finding. Based on the best available science, Witherington and Martin (2003:23) suggest using as few lights as practicable and, for the remaining fixtures, adjusting wavelength and/or intensity: “We have no reliable formula that can be used to calculate how much each light source will affect sea turtles. We do know, however, that if spectral emissions are equivalent, reducing intensity will reduce effects, and if intens ities are similar, substituting less attractive sources (like yellow bug or red lights) will also reduce effects. A sound strategy, therefore, would be to reduce effects on sea turtles by manipulation both intensity and color. As few lights as practicable should be used and, for lighting deemed essential, long wavelength light sources should replace more disruptive light sources and intensity should be reduced by using lamps of minimal wattage that are housed within well-directed fixtures aimed down and away from the beach.” In summary, direct light on the beach can be highly disruptive to both adult sea turtles and hatchlings, and eliminating sources of direct light reaching the beach is preferred over all other light conservation alternatives. Where eliminating light sources – either by turning them off or by removing the fixtures altogether – is not practical, alternatives are available which direct light more efficiently and/or shield the source from the beach.

PAGE 115

In the case of indirect light, which can also be highly disruptive, Witherington and Martin (2003:21) reiterate that “luminaires should not be directed onto … any object visible from the beach,” including walls, ceilings, and vegetation. Intentional indirect lighting often takes the form of decorative lighting, which “has limited use for any purpose other than aesthetic enhancement [and when] near nesting beaches may be much more harmful to sea turtles than it is useful to people” (Witheringt on and Martin 2003:20-21). Fixtures are available that will minimize or eliminate “wall wash” (the illumination of the side or faade of a building); see “Internet Resources”. Interior lighting is also a source of light pollution. Witherington and Martin (2003:22) note that the criteria for identifying problems caused by indoor lighting are the same as those for identifying problems caused by outdoor lighting; i.e., indoor light is a problem if it is visible from the nesting beach. “Indoor lighting from buildings that are close to the beach, are very tall, or have large sea-side windows causes the greatest problem for sea turtles. Because indoor lighting is usually not meant to light the outdoors, the unwanted effects of indoor lighting can easily be eliminated without compromising the intended function of the light.” Reducing light broadcast from occupied rooms requires cooperation from residents and guests. Indoor hotel light can be reduced by informing guests at Check-in, and reminding them through the use of in-room materials, to close opaque curtains during evening hours when room lights are on. In the sections that follow, methods, results and recommendations, and a brief summary are provided. In general, immediate action should be taken to implement recommendations associated with rank “3” lights; in other words, light fixtures with the potential to have the most significant negative effect on endangered sea turtles. Lower priority actions can be budgeted over time. In keeping with the decisions of the 2000 “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting” workshop, recommendations are based on best practices and current science as articulated by Witherington and Martin (2003). METHODS Daytime Lighting Survey – A baseline daytime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 26 July 2006 by observing lighting fixtures and bulbs directly visible from the sandy beach. The entire property was accessed to clarify, identify, and enumerate (count) each visible fixture. All exterior lights within line-of-sight of the Assessor [John English Knowles] were described with respect to fix-ture type and location. The function of each light was preliminarily deduced by the Assessor; however, subsequent meetings with hotel management staff ensured that the correct function was documented in every case. Light fixtures with lamps (light bulbs) visible from the beach, as well as those that were designed or positioned so that they would likely illuminate the beach, were considered to be potentially problematic, and each was ranked and scored during a night-time survey. Nighttime Lighting Survey – In coordination with hotel management, a nighttime lighting survey was conducted on foot on 26 July 2006. During the nighttime survey, each light identified during the daytime survey was located and evaluated with respect to its potential effect on sea turtles. Lights unseen during the day, but visible when emitting light, were also evaluated. Each light was ranked and scored on a scale of “1” to “3” (see “Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps”). The nighttime survey involved two inspections, one before midnight (2400 hr) and one after midnight, allowing for an accurate ranking of each individual light source in the context of changing background illumination as lighting conditions and intensities change throughout the night. Because particularly bright lights lessen the degree or the actual brightness of the lights behind them, and because some lights are extinguished late at night under normal operating procedures, the Assessor was able to use the sequential inspecttions to more accurately characterize the lighting landscape.

PAGE 116

Ranking Individual Fixtures and Lamps – The most disruptive lamps received a ra nk of “3”; whereas the least disruptive, a rank of “1”. Specifically, a rank of “1” described indirect light visible to the Assessor while standing on the beach, but not likely to present a strong attraction to nesting or hatching sea turtles. A rank of “2” described a visible globe, glowing element, lamp, or reflector likely to disorient a sea turtle, but not strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach. A rank of “3” described a visible globe, glowing element, or lamp strong enough to cast a shadow on the beach regardless of whether the illumination was direct or indirect. Even the smallest light could rank “3” if it cast a shadow on the beach because its close proximity (to the beach) or its particular vertical positioning could be just as disorientating as that of a more powerful light further away. The “3” ranking lights are placed fi rst in the assessment because of their potentially more serious effect(s ) on sea turtles. The focus of corrective actions should begin with these lights, as their mitigation will have the most significant impact on the quality of nesting beach habitat. Within each rank – 1, 2, 3 – fixtures listed first are expected to require the greatest attention either in number, fina ncial expense, or creativity. The list continues through fixtures deemed progressively simpler and/or less expensive to mitigate. For each light the number of fixtures visible from the beach, the fixture type, location, rank, comments (if any), function, photograph and pertinent recommendations are documented. Each recommendation is specific to an individual light, and may include one or more explanatory remarks. Some recommendations pertain to modifying the fixture in some way, while other recommendations seek to replace the fixture with an alternative. “ Recommendations ” refer to fixes th at will address the more serious issue(s), but in some cases may not completely eliminate the problem. “ Ultimate Recommendations ” refer to the best possible approach, and often suggest replacing (or removing) the fixture altogether. RECOMMENDATIONS Illustrations and Icons – Permanently eliminate fixture; some cases are specific to the number of fixtures. Reposition fixture to the landward side of the tree or object Aim (re-direct) the fixture away from the nesting beach. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional bollard with external louvers.

PAGE 117

Replace existing fixture with a more directed and functional path light that is positioned as to not directly or indirectly illuminate the beach. Install low wattage (50 watts or less) yellow bug light bulb. Install compact fluorescent “Turtle Safe Lighting” lamps (light bulbs). See “Internet Resources”. Replace the existing fixture with a more directed and functional downlight. Install hood of sufficient depth and width. Reduce the intensity of the light, or lower the wattage. Plant, landscape, or improve native vegetation buffer so that light is effecttively screened (i.e., not directly visible) from the beach. Keep lights off when not in use, especially lights closest to the beach. Inform guests via “table tents”, door hangers, or other educational, advertising or informative hotel materials about fixtures under their control.

PAGE 118

Eliminate fixtures and use low table lamps (e.g., Aurelle LED Candle Series or Maxxima MLC-01 LED Flameless Candle) or candles to illuminate the table without unintended broadcast from the restaurant. Use dimmer to lessen the effect of indirect light leaving the dining area. Install a filter that emits a pure red wavelength (this is different from a filter that simply appears red to the human eye). Extinguish when not in use.

PAGE 119

Tree-mounted hooded spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 21 Light Location: Mounted on coconut palms/casuarinas beginning at B block and continuing east to the end of the property Comments: The best option is to eliminate the light, either by turning them all off or removing the fixtures. If all lights cannot be removed or turned off, then it is recommended that the number of lights (currently 21) and wattage of each lamp be reduced. Some lights could also be lowered. The installlation of yellow bug lights is also recommended. Lights that point directly towards the beach should be repositioned. For the purpose of illuminating the hotel grounds in this area, low profile lights are preferred. Recommendations on the number of fixtures: Recommendations on existing or remaining fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 120

Post-mounted globe light Post-mounted light without globe fixture Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 16 Light Location: Waterfront Restaurant Comments: During the few nights a week of operation, the Waterfront Restaurant presents a unique case that can be easily mitigated. The current lights are a source of direct light on the beach and their replacement with a modern alternative is encouraged. Earthworks could possibly design such a fixture thereby increasing the quality of the beach, the restaurant, and supporting the local economy. In addition, strategic landscaping can be employed to conceal the current fixtures from the beach, a task seemingly well employed by the Turtle Beach Resort with its lush hotel grounds. Recommendations on existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendations:

PAGE 121

Ceiling-mounted colored stage light Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 1 Light Location: Overhand of restaurant Comments: When the light is on (during a performance) it does reach the beach. Strategic landscaping could help conceal light; a good example of this is the native vegetation that surrounds the Jacuzzi area. Recommendations: Ceiling-mounted colored spotlight Rank : 3 Number of fixtures: 4 Light Location: Ceiling of Waterfront Restaurant Comments: These fixtures broadcast a lot of light to the nesting beach; fortunately, they are rarely used. If they are redirected away from the sea, a filter that emits a pure red wavelength (thi s filter is superficially red, but does not eliminate other wavelengths) should be employed. Recommendations: o r, with

PAGE 122

Wall-mounted downlight Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 62 Light Location: Balconies of C block Comments: The fixture offsets the bulb from the wall, reducing the amount of “wall wash” that can occur with fixtures flush to the wall. Installing a yellow bug light bulb will significantly reduce the chance of disrupting the sea-finding behavior of sea turtles, and is not visible to most insects. Guests need to be reminded to tu rn lights off when not in use. Recommendations: Fluorescent and incandescent bulbs covered by perforated wood box Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 16 Light Location: Waterfront Restaurant, Bathrooms at Waterfront Restaurant Comments: The number of fixtures given (16) is the total number on hotel grounds; however, the only fixture visi ble from the beach is the one located at the women’s bathroom. In general these fixtures are encouraged because the bare bulb is concealed and the light is directed downward; however, a yellow bug light in the women’s bathroom fixture is preferred over the existing white incandescent bulb. Recommendations:

PAGE 123

Small, bare spotlight Rank : 2 Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: Hanging above Restaurant Recommendations: or or Room lights (interior) Rank : 1 Number of balconies visible from the beach: 172 Light Location: Ocean view rooms Recommendations are adapted from Witherington and Martin (2003:22): 1. Turn off lighting in rooms that are not in use. Reminder notices placed on light switches located in oceanfront rooms are helpful. 2. Relocate, away from windows, moveable lamps visible from the beach. 3. Tint or apply window treatments to windows visible from the beach so that light passing from inside to outside is substantially reduced. A good tinted glass or window-tinting treatment will reduce visible light from the inside to 45% or less (transmittance 45%). Window glass may be tinted either during its manufacture, or later with an applied film. Window treatments (shading materials) are less permanent and can reduce light transmittance more than a tint or film. Complete blocking of light is ideal. 4. Close opaque curtains or blinds after dark to completely cover windows visible from the beach. Fortunately, most windows already have curtains or blinds to provide privacy to occupants.

PAGE 124

Wall-mounted downlight (view 1) Wall-mounted downlight (view 2) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 128 Light Location: Balconies of A, B, D and E Blocks Recommendations:

PAGE 125

Small, recessed ceiling spotlight Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 40 Light Location: Above doors in E block Comments: These lights cause a significant amount of “wall wash” in the corridor between D Block and E Block, as well as along the back of D Block. Cumulatively, they are potentially disruptive. The number of fixtures given (40) equals the number of fixtures that are causing “wall wash” clearly visible from the beach. One option is to install a R30 amber bug light, or something similar (see “Internet Re sources” for vendors). Recommendations: Pathway light (green) Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 6 Light Location: Sidewalk to E block Recommendations:

PAGE 126

Pathway light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 6 Light Location: Around pool area in front of C Block, and along the path from the kids’ pool to D Block and E Block. Comments: Not all fixtures are visible from beach. Recommendations: Hooded spotlight Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Grass area in front of E block Comments: Although the light is directed downward and its purpose appears to be for illuminating the la wn in front of E Block, it contributes to wall wash. Recommendations: or

PAGE 127

Up-directed hooded spotlight Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 3 Light Location: Ground-level, Jacuzzi area Comments: None Recommendation on existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendations: or Floodlight, green light Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 2 Light Location: Jacuzzi area Comments: Strategic landscaping could ensure that decorative lighting was not visible from the beach. Recommendation on existing fixtures: Ultimate reco mmendation:

PAGE 128

Downlight Rank : 1 Number of fixtures: 1 Light Location: Restaurant rafters Recommendations: Ultimate reco mmendation: “Tiki torch” with open flame Rank : Unable to rank, torches were not lit during the assessment Number of fixtures: 10 Light Location: Surrounding the Waterfront Restaurant at the edge of the vegetation and along the main entrance to the beach Comments: The number of fixtures given (10) was the number of torches that were posted and visible during the assessment. Recommendation:

PAGE 129

SUMMARY The Turtle Beach Resort is commended for having some of the best lighting conditions (i.e., least disruptive to endangered sea turtles) observed at any beachfront hotel in Barbados. ‘Turtle friendly’ fixtures have been installed on all balconies – these fixtures are ideal because the bare bulb is recessed and concealed, preventing direct light reaching the nesting beach. In addition, these fixtures are offset from the wall, reducing the amount “wall wash.” Other progressive features include native vegetation that screens and reduces the amount of artificial light reaching the beach; a watersports stand with no exterior lights at all; and the fact that some tree-mounted spotlights were disconnected with the specific intention of reducing the disori entation of sea turtle hatchlings. Notwithstanding, there is still room for improvement. For instance, strategic landscaping could further reduce beachfront lighting at some locations. Bug lights (which emit a wavelength that is le ss attractive both to sea turtles and to mosquitoes) should be installed in all balcony fixtures The number of tree-mounted spotlights should be reduced, and the remaining fixtures redirected and lowered with the intention of directing light only where it is needed and reducing light broadcast to the beach. The illumination of hotel grounds can easily be accomplished by low-profile pathway lighting. As far as decorative lighting is concerned, true (m onochromatic) red light is preferred over blue, green or white light (e.g., rope/tube lighting along the pool bridges). Finally, all beachfront lights should be turned off when not in use, including soda machines, televisions, and decorative lighting (e.g., lights strung over the band stand). These relative minor recommendations, once implemented, will not only improve beach conditions for sea turtles, but will enhance the sophisticated and elegant theme of the resort’s lighting ambiance while reducing operational expenses (lower energy use). Information available at Check-in and in each individual room will remind guests of the importance of these changes, and encourage them to do their part. To encourage lighting improvements and assist in implementation, the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados is available to purchase fixtures and specialty lamps (e.g., Compact Fluorescent [CF] bug lights) in bulk, reducing the cost of retrofitting and innovation. Along with an improved beachfront (in terms of light pollution), comes a parallel responsibility for conservation-minded coastal management in general, including, for example, stacking beach chairs to ensure that egg-laden adult female sea turtles are not obstructed during their crawl to and from the water. Turtle Beach Resort plays an essential role in the survival of the endangered sea turtles that use its beaches, and is well positioned to serve as a model for “sea turtle friendly” environm ental management systems elsewhere in Barbados and beyond.

PAGE 130

INTERNET RESOURCES ‘Turtle Friendly’ Lighting Products – FFWCC Wildlife Certified Fixtures and Bulbs – http://myfwc.com/Conservation/Conserva tion_LivingWith_W ildlifelighting_fixt ures.htm Turtle Safe Lighting – www.turtlesafelighting.com Turtle Safe Products – www.turtlesafeproducts.com Starry Night Lights – http://store .starrynightlights.com/tufrli.html International Dark-Sky Associ ation – http://w ww.darksky.org/ www.philips.com > Lighting > Browse Literature > Product Bulletins > Compact Fluorescent CF PAR 38 – www.philips.com > Lighting > Online Catalog > Lamps > Keyword Search "212407" [product number] www.gelighting.com/na/ > Commercial Products > Compact Fluorescent > Self-Ballasted > PAR38 R30 Amber Bug Light – Lighting Science – http://w ww.laminaceramics.com (e.g., http://products.lsgc.com/product/soltm_r30/ ) Amber Gold 3.5 – www.turtleslighting.com Path and Landscape Lighting – Ruud Lighting – http://www.ruudlighti ng.com/literature/landscap e_family.asp?mscssid=&coni d=&dc=9&vt=12 FX Luminaire – www.fxl.com Architectural Bollards – LSI Industries – http://www.lsi-industr ies.com/lighting_product.asp?ID=5777 Lithonia Lighting – http://www.acuitybra ndslighting.com/li brary/PSG/LL/Outd oor%20Lighting/Sit e%20Lighting/Bollards/KBD.pdf LITERATURE CITED Dow, W., K. Eckert, M. Palmer and P. Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, NC. 267 pp + app. http://seamap.env.duke.edu/widecast/ Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Editors). 2002. Proceedings of “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados”, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 1. 43 pp. http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Pubs.html IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org

PAGE 131

IUCN. 2007. IUCN Red List Status Assessment for the Hawksbill Sea Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ). Assessors: J.A. Mortimer and M. Donnelly. Marine Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Comm. Wash. D.C. 119 pp. www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/2007_IUCN_Red_List_Global_Status_As sessment_Hawksbill_turtle.pdf Mrosovsky, N. and S.J. Shettleworth 1968. Wavelength preferences and brightness cues in the water finding behavior of sea turtles. Behaviour 32: 211-257. Philibosian, R. 1976. Disorientation of hawksbill sea turtle hatchlings, Eretmochelys imbricata by stadium lights. Copeia 1976:824. Tuxbury, S.M. and M. Salmon. 2005. Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation 121(2):311-316. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991a. Influences of wavelength and intensity on hatchling sea turtle phototaxis: implications for sea-finding behavior. Copeia 1991(4):1060-1069. Witherington, B.E. and K.A. Bjorndal. 1991b. Influences of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Biological Conservation 55:139-149. Witherington, B.E. and R.E. Martin. 2003. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Third Edition, Rev. Florida Marine Research Inst. Tech. Report TR-2. Tallahassee, FL. 73 pp. http://research.myfwc.com/publi cations/publicatio n_info.asp?id=39080 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply indebted to the staff and management of the Turtle Beach Resort, especially Adrian Grant (General Manager), Woodrow Trotman (Maintenance Supervisor) and Steven John (Assistant Maintenance Supervisor), for their collaboration in this assessment. They were extraordinarily kind in accommodating my requests, which often involved their working offhours, including late at night. Equally important, the assessment would not have been possible without the foresight and financial support of the Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados, WIDECAST, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, and the Collaborative Project Fund of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation/ The Pew Charitable Trusts. I would also like to recognize the tireless efforts of the Barbados Sea Turtle Project (BSTP), especially Dr. Julia Ho rrocks, Barry Krueger and their 2006 seasonal field staff. The professional work of the BSTP sets a high standard for research and conservation in Barbados and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Without their collaboration, including providing me with housing, training, access to data and other technical information, and the opportunity to contribute to their important field work, which has been professionally and personally enriching for me, this lighting assessment could not have been accomplished. Finally, I am grateful to Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director of WIDECAST and my academic advisor at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment, for her encouragement of my efforts and her leadership in Caribbean sea turtle conservation issues in general, and to Erik Martin of Ecological Associates, Inc. (co-author of Witherington and Martin 2003) for his kindness and patience in training me in the protocols of professional beachfront lighting assessments, a field in which he is well-recognized.

PAGE 132

“Working together to build a fu ture where all inhabitants of the Wider Caribbean Regi on, human and sea turtle alike, can live together in balance.” The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) is a regional coalition of experts and a Partner Organization to the U.N. Environment Programme’s Caribbean Environment Programme. WIDECAST was founded in 1981 in response to a recommendation by the IUCN/CCA Meeting of Non-Governmental Caribbean Organizations on Living Resources Conservation for Sustainable Development in the Wider Caribbean (Santo Domingo, 26-29 August 1981) that a “Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan should be prepared ... consistent with the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme.” WIDECAST’s vision for achieving a regional re covery action plan has focused on bringing the best available science to bear on sea turtle management and conservation, empowering people to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing a mechanism and a framework for cooperation within and among nations. By involving stakeholders at all levels and encouraging policy-oriented research, WIDECAST puts science to practical use in conserving biodiversity and advocates for grassroots involvement in decision-making and project leadership. Emphasizing initiatives that strengthen capacity within participating countries and institutions, the network develops and replicates pilot projects, provides technical assistance, enables coordination in the collection, sharing and use of information and data, and promotes strong linkages between science, policy, and public participation in the design and implementation of conservation actions. Working closely with local communities and resource managers, the network has also developed standard management guidelines and criteria that emphasize best practices and sustainability, ensuring that current utilization practices, whether consumptive or nonconsumptive, do not undermine sea turt le survival over the long term. With Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, WIDECAST is uniquely able to facilitate complementary conservation action across range States, strengthening and harmonizing legislation, encouraging community involvement, and raising public awareness of the endangered status of the region’s six species of migratory sea turtles. As a result, most Caribbean nations have adopted a national sea turtle management plan, poaching and illegal product sales have been reduced or eliminated at key sites, many of the region’s largest breeding colonies are monitored on an annual basis, alternative livelihood models are increasingly available for rural areas, and citizens are mobilized in support of conservation action. You can join us! Visit www.widecast.org for more information. WWW.WIDECAST.ORG “Working together to build a future where all inhabitants of the Wider Caribbean Region, human and sea turtle alike, can live together in balance.” The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Netw ork (WIDECAST) is a regional coalition of experts and a Partner Organization to the U.N. Environment Programme’s Caribbean Environment Programme. WIDECAST was founded in 1981 in response to a recommendation by the IUCN/CCA Meeting of Non-Governmental Caribbean Organizations on Living Resources Conservation for Sustainable Development in the Wider Caribbean (Santo Domingo, 26-29 August 1981) that a “Wider Caribbean Se a Turtle Recovery Action Plan should be prepared ... consistent with the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme.” WIDECAST’s vision for achieving a regional recovery action plan has focused on bringing the best available science to bear on sea tu rtle management and conservation, empowering people to make effective use of that sc ience in the policy-making process, and providing a mechanism and a framework for cooperation within and among nations. By involving stakeholders at all levels and en couraging policy-oriented research, WIDECAST puts science to practical use in conserving biodiversity and advocates for grassroots involvement in decision-making and project leadership. Emphasizing initiatives that strengthen capac ity within participating countries and institutions, the network also develops and replicates pilot projects, provides technical assistance, enables coordination in the collection, sharing and use of information and data, and promotes strong linkages between science, policy, and public participation in the design and implementation of conservation actions. Finally, working closely with local communities and resource managers, WIDECAST de velops standard management guidelines and criteria that emphasize best practices a nd sustainability, ensuring that current utilization practices, whether consumptive or nonconsumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term. With Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, WIDECAST is uniquely able to facilitate complementary c onservation action across range States, including strengthening legislation, encouraging community involvement, and raising public awareness of the endangered status of the region’s six species of migratory sea turtles. As a result, most Caribbean nations have a dopted a national sea turtle management plan, poaching and illegal product sales have been dr amatically reduced or eliminated at key sites, many of the region’s largest breeding colonies are monitored on an annual basis, alternative livelihood models are increasingly available for rural areas, and citizens are mobilized in support of conservation action. You can join us! Visit www.widecast.org for more information. WWW.WIDECAST.ORG