Am. Constitutions; A comp. of the political constitutions of the ind. Nats. of New World, by Jose Rodriguez, V.1-2 + 192...

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Am. Constitutions; A comp. of the political constitutions of the ind. Nats. of New World, by Jose Rodriguez, V.1-2 + 1926 supp. (A Haiti extract appears on LLMC-Digital as Haiti Constitu., 1905)
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Pan Am. Union, Intl.Bur. Of Am. Republics, Wash., DC.

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INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONS
A COMPILATION OF THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTIONS OF THE INDEPENDENT NATIONS OF THE NEW WORLD & WITH SHORT HISTORICAL NOTES AND VARIOUS APPENDIXES
By
JOSE IGNACIO RODRIGUEZ
Chief Translator and Librarian
VOLUME II JULY, 1905
WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1907


While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications of the International Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniary responsibility is assumed on account of errors which may be found in them.
Aunque se pone el mayor cuidado en que todo lo que se diga en las publicaciones de la Oficina Internacional de las Repiiblicas Americanas sea perfectamente correcto, no se asume responsabilidad pecuniaria por raz6n de los errores que puedan encon-trarse en ellas. 2


CONTENTS.
PART THIRD.THE REPUBLICS ON THE CARIBBEAN SEA.
Page.
1. The Dominican Republic:
Historical notes.................................................... 7
Constitution....................................................... 10
2. The Republic of Haiti:
Historical notes................................................... 49
Constitution (French-English)..................................... 52
Constitution (Spanish)............................................. 89
3. The Republic of Cuba:
Historical notes.................................................... 109
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the constitution of Cuba..............'....................................... Ill
Constitution....................................................... 112
4. Treaty of Relations between the United States of America and the Republic
of Cuba............................................................. 149
PART FOURTH__THE REPUBLICS OF SOUTH AMERICA.
1. The Republic of Uruguay:
Historical notes................................................... 157
Constitution...................................................... 158
2. The Republic of Chile:
Historical notes.................................................... 203
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the constitution of Chile.................................................... 206
Constitution....................................................... 207
fZ. The Republic of Peru:
Historical notes.................................................... 253
Constitution....................................................... 254
4. The Republic of Ecuador:
Historical notes................................................ 277
Constitution.................................................. 278
5. The Republic of Colombia:
Historical notes................................................... 317
Constitution....................................................... 318
6. The Republic of Paraguay:
Historical notes.................................................... 379
Constitution........................................................ 381
7. The Republic of Bolivia:
Historical notes....-............................................... / 411
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the constitution of Bolivia..............................-..................... 412
Constitution....................................................... 413
3




PART THIRD
THE REPUBLICS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA
THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA
5




DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC.
HISTORICAL, NOTES.
Peculiar interest attaches to the Dominican Republic for the reason that the territory upon which it-stands was the first upon which Christian civilization was established this side of the Atlantic. The island of Santo Domingo, called by Columbus, as if by way of distinction, La Isla Espanola, "The Spanish Island," discovered on December 6, 1492, thirty-nine days after Cuba and fifty-five after Guanahanee, or San Salvador, was from the beginning, and continued to be for a long time, the metropolis of the vast colonial empire founded by Spain in the New World, a noble and magnificent capital, which resisted for not less than four centuries the inevitable destruction to which all things human are doomed.
In addition to the fact that this island was, as might be said, historically, as well as legally, the foundation upon which that ponderous empire was built, there is another fact which attracts to it most intensely the attention of the student and arouses his sympathies. The history of Santo Domingo will bring him face to face with interesting problems of the philosophy of history, causing him to meditate with more than usual reverence over the ways of Providence, should he endeavor to inquire, in the proper spirit, into the trials and calamities to which the Dominican people have been so long subjected.
During the whole of the sixteenth century and for a considerable part of the seventeenth Spain retained without opposition the undivided control of the island; but in 1630 French adventurers and pirates, afterwards called "buccaneers," who escaped the persecution of the Spanish fleet commanded by Don Fedeeico Alvarez de Toledo, which in those days policed with marked success the waters of the Caribbean Sea, took refuge in the island of Tortuga, where they settled, and from where not long afterwards they sent expeditions, more or less predatory, and more or less irresistible under the circumstances of the times and localities, against the neighboring coast of Santo Domingo.
This Tortuga settlement, and the other settlements, most of them very small, which were established on the above-mentioned coast, became the nucleus of a French colony, which grew little by little in
7


8
dominican republic.
importance, until attracting the attention of the Governor-General of the French Antilles, who put it under the immediate control of one of his officers, whom he appointed its Governor. This was in 1641.
A period of constant clash between the French invaders and the Spanish settlers of the island was then inaugurated. But in the summer of 1680, under an arrangement entered into between the Spanish Governor of the island (Don Francisco de Segura) and the French Governor of Tortuga (Captain Levasseur), the Rebouc River became the dividing line between the two territories, and peace was established among the inhabitants of the bordering localities. The learned Dominican historian Don Jose Gabriel Garcia remarks, with reason, that this instrument," the first one of official character on the subject, implied the acknowledgment of the French sovereignty over the territory on the west side of the dividing line.
Later on, under the new situation created in the world in 1697 by the "Peace of Riswick," this French title to the western part of the island became perfect, by virtue of the formal cession of that territory made then by treaty in favor of the King of France by the King of Spain.
Ninety years thereafter, another treaty concluded at Basle on July 22, 1795, between Spain and the French Republic, made the whole island French,and through it Spain ceded to France "the whole of the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo in the Antilles." But the situation thus created was almost ephemeral, because in 1809, when Spain rose in arms against France and allied herself with Great Britain, a combined force of British and Spaniards besieged and captured (July 11) the city of Santo Domingo, and the Spanish rule was reestablished in the ceded territory.
Later, on December 1, 1821, the inhabitants of that territory proclaimed their independence of Spain, and established a provisional Government, republican in form, under a temporary constitution, to which they gave trie name of Acta con.stitv.tiva del Gobierno provisional del Estado (an Act for the establishment of a State provisional constitutional government), article 4 of which provided that the new State should be.annexed to Colombia and become a State of the Union created under this name by Simon Bolivar.
. As this movement did not meet with favor in the neighboring Republic of Haiti, where the President proclaimed that the existence in the island of two different Governments endangered the preservation of the liberty of both, a period of open hostility was at once inaugurated, which ended in the Haitian occupation of the whole island on February 9, 1822.
Twenty-two years thereafter (February 27, 1844) the people of the eastern part of the island asserted again their independence and established the Dominican Republic. A constitutional convention (Soberano Congreso Constituyente) met at San Cristobal on September 21 of the same year, and framed a Constitution, which was promulgated on November 6,1844. From that date to the present time the two political divisions of the island have been maintained.
Subsequent to the promulgation of the Constitution of November 6, 1844, and during the period intervening between this date and March 18, 1861, at which time the Dominican Republic ceased to exist and became
Compendio de la Historia de Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, 1896, vol. 1, p. 173


historical notes.
9
again a Spanish colony, three different Constitutions were promulgated, namely:
1. The Constitution of February 27, 1854.
2. The Constitution of December 23, 1854.
3. The Constitution of February 19, 1858.
The period of Spanish rule lasted from March 18, 1861, to May 1, 1865, when the Queen of Spain approved the law passed by the Spanish Cortes, by which all former laws authorizing the reincorporation of the territory of the Dominican Republic to the Spanish Monarchy were repealed. But this "abandonment" of Santo Domingo was not made until two years after the Dominican people had started at Capotillo (August 16, 1863) the revolution which ended in the restoration of the Republic. Hence the Dominicans celebrate the day of their "independence" (February 27,1844) and the day of the restoration" (August 16, 1863).
The Constitution now in force was promulgated on June 20, 1896.


CONSTITUTION.
(Promulgated June 20, 1896.)
El Congreso National, en nom-bre de la Republica, bajo la invocation del Supremo Autor y Le-gislador del Universo, declara en su fuerza y vigor la actual Constitution Politica de la Republica Dominicana, revisada en la Legislature de 1896.
tIttjlo i. secci6n i. De la Nation y su Gobierno.
ARTfcuLO 1. La Nation dominicana es la reunion de todos los do-minicanos asociados bajo un mismo pacto politico.
Art. 2. Su Gobierno es' esen-cialmente'civil, republicano, demo-cratico, representativo, alterna-tivo y responsable; y para su ejercicio se divide en Poder Legislative, Ejecutivo y Judicial. Es-tos poderes son independientes, y sus encargados no pueden salir de los limites que les fija la Constitution.
secci6n ii.
Del Territorio.
Art. 3. El territorio de la Republica es y sera inajenable. Sus limites, que comprenden todo lo que antes se denominaba Parte es-10
The National Congress, in the name of the Republic, after invoking the assistance of the Supreme Author and Legislator of the Universe, declares the present Political Constitution of the Dominican Republic, revised by the Legislature of 1896, to be in full force.
title i. section i.
The Nation and its Government.
Article 1. The Dominican Nation is the reunion of all Dominicans associated under one and the same political compact.
Art. 2. The Dominican Government is essentially civil, republican, democratic, representative, alternative, and responsible. Its administration shall be divided into three powers, namely, legislative, executive, and judicial. These powers are independent of each other, and the employees thereof can not go beyond the limits established by the Consti-tion.
section ii.
The Territory.
Art. 3. The territory of the Republic is and shall be inalienable. Its limits, comprising all that anciently constituted the


constitution.
11
pafiola de la isla de Santo Domingo y sus islas adyacentes, son, por tanto, los mismos que en virtud del Tratado de Aranjuez de 1777, la dividian en 1793 de la Parte francesa, por el lado de occidente; y no podran sufrir otras modifica-eiones sino las autorizadas por el plebiscite del 1 y 2 de junio de 1895 y que se deriven de la Convention de Arbitraje Dominico-Haitiano del 3 de Julio de 1895.
Art. 4. Para su meior administration, el territorio de la Republica Dominicana se divide enPro-vincias y Distritos.
Las primeras son: Santo Domingo, Azua, Seybo, Santiago, La Vega y Espaillat. *
Los Distritos son: Puerto Plata, Samana, Monte Cristy, Barahona, San Pedro de Macoris y Pacifica-dor.
Podran erigirse nuevas Provin-cias y Distritos.
Art. 5. Una ley determinara los limites de las Provincias y Distritos, asi como tambien su division en Comunes y Cantones.
Art. 6. La ciudad de Santo Domingo es la Capital de la Republica y el asiento del Gobierno.
TfTUXO II. DE LOS DOMINICANOS.
Art. 7. Son dominicanos: 1. Todaslaspersonasquehayan nacido 6 nacieren en el territorio de la Republica, cualquiera que sea la nacionalidad de sus padres.
2. Los hijos de padres 6 madres dominicanos quo hayan nacido en otro territorio, si vinieren al pais y se domiciliaren en el.
3. Todos los hijos de las Re-publicas Hispano-americanas, y los de las vecinas Antillas espano-
Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo and the islands adjacent thereto, are, therefore, the same which under the provisions of the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777 separated it in 1793 from the French part on the western side, and they can not be changed, except as agreed upon by the plebiscite of the first and second of June, eighteen hundred and ninety-five, or as may be hereafter determined by the arbitration under the Dominican-Haitian Convention of Arbitration of July third, eighteen hundred and ninety-five.
Art. 4. For the better administration of the Government of the Dominican Republic, its territory shall be divided into Provinces and Districts.
The Provinces are: Santo Domingo, Azua, Seybo, Santiago, La Vega, and Espaillat.
The Districts are: Puerto Plata, Samana, Monte Cristi, Barahona, San Pedro de Macoris, and Pacifi-cador.
New Provinces and Districts may be created.
Art. 5. The limits of the Provinces and Districts, and the division of the latter into communes and cantons shall be determined by law.
Art. 6. The city of Santo Domingo is the capital of the Republic and the seat of Government.
TITLE II.
DOMINICANS.
Art. 7. Dominicans are:
1. All persons born, or who should hereafter be born, within the territory of the Republic, irrespective of the nationality of their parents.
2. All persons born abroad of Dominican fathers or mothers, if they come to the country and acquire a domicile in the same.
3. All persons born in any of the Spanish-American Republics, or the neighboring Spanisn West In-


12
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
las que quieran gozar de esta cuali-dad, despues de haber residido un ano en el territorio de la Repti-blica y siempre que manifiesten este querer, prestando el juramento de defender los intereses de la Republica, ante el Gobernador de la Provincia 6 Distrito donde residan y hayan obtenido cartas de naturalization.
4. Todos los naturalizados se-gun las leyes.
5. Todos los extranjerosde cual-quiera nacion amiga, siempre que fijen su domicilio en el territorio de la Republica, declaren querer gozar de esta cualidad, tengan dos afios de residencia- a lo menos, y renuncien expresamente su nacio-nalidad ante quien sea de derecho.
Parraf o. Para los ef ectos de este articulo no se consideraran como nacidos en el territorio de la Republica los hijos legitimos do los extranjeros que residan en ella, en representacion 6 servicio de su patria.
Art. 8. A ningiin dominicano se le reconocera otra nacionalidad sino la dominicana, mientras re-sida en la Republica.
Art. 9. Todos los dominicanos tiencn el deber de servir a la patria, conforme lo dispongan las leyes, haciendo el sacrificio do sus bienes y de la vida si necesario fuere, para defenderla.
Art. 10. La ley determinant los derechos que correspondan a la condition de extranjei'os.
tittjlo iii.
GARANTIAS DE LOS DOMINICANOS.
Art. 11. La Nacion garantiza a los dominicanos:
1. La inviolabilidad de la vida por causas politicas.
2. La libertad del pensamiento expresado de palabra o por medio de la prensa, sin previa censura pero con sujecion a las leyes.
3. La propiedad con todos sus derechos; esta solo estara sujeta a las contribuciones decretadas por
dies, who, desiring to become Dominicans, after having resided one year in the territory of the Republic, make a declaration of their desire and upon being taken before the governor of the Province or Districtwherethey reside and have applied for naturalization, take the oath to defend the interests of the Republic.
4. All persons naturalized according to law.
5. All foreigners belonging to a friendly nation, domiciled in the Republic, who have declared their intention to become Dominicans, resided in the county for at least two years, and who expressly renounce their nationality before competent authority.
Paragraph. For the purposes of this article the legitimate children of foreigners residing in the Republic, in representation or in the service of their country, shall not be considered as natives.
Art. 8. No Dominican shall be recognized as vested with foreign nationality while residing in the Republic.
Art. 9. All Dominicans are in duty bound to serve their country, as the law may provide, and make the sacrifice of their property and life if needed to defend it.
Art. 10. The law shall determine the rights of foreigners.
title iii.
GUARANTIES OF DOMINICANS.
Art. 11. The Nation guarantees to all Dominicans:
1. Inviolability of life for political causes.
2. Freedom of thought, expressed orally or through the press, without previous censorship, but subject to law.
3. Security of property with flll its rights. Property shall be subject only to taxation ordered


constitution.
13
la autoridad legislative, a. la decision judicial y a ser tomada por causa de utilidad piiblica, previa indemnizacion y juicio contradic-torio.
4. La inviolabilidad y secreto do la correspondencia y demas papeles.
5. El hogar domestico, que no podra ser allanado sino para impe-dir la perpetration de un delito y con arreglo a la ley.
6. La libertad personal, y por ella:
(1) Queda proscrita para siempre la esclavitud.
(2) Son libres los esclavos que pisen el territorio de la Republica.
(3) Todos los ciudadanos tienen el derecho de hacer y ejecutar lo que no perjudique a otro.
7. La libertad del sufragio en las elecciones populares, sin mas restriction que la menor edad de diez y ocho aiios.
8. La libertad de industria.
9. La propiedad de los descu-brimientos, producciones cientifi-cas, artisticas y literarias.
10. La libertad de reunion y asociacion, sin armas, piiblica y privadamente.
11. La libertad de petition yel derecho de obtener resolution. Aquella podra ser ante cualquier funcionario, autoridad 6 corporation. Si la petition fuere de varios, los cinco primeros respondent de la autenticidad de las firmas, y todos de la verdad de los hechos.
12. La libertad de ensenanza que sera protegida en toda su extension. El Gobierno quedaobligado a establecer gratuitamente la instruction primaria y de artcs y otieios.
13. La tolerancia de cultos. La religion catolica apostolica y ro-mana es la religion del Estado. Los demas cultos se ejerceran li-bremente en sus respectivos tem-plos. .
by legislative authority, to judicial action, and to condemnation for public use, upon previous indemnization and proper hearing.
4. Inviolability of the secrecy of correspondence and private papers.
5. Inviolability of the home, which can not be entered except to prevent a crime from being perpetrated, or according to law.
6. Personal liberty, and consequently:
(1) Slavery is forever forbidden.
(2) Slaves stepping upon the territory of the Republic shall be free.
(3) All citizens have the right to do what does not injure others.
7. Liberty of suffrage in popular elections, with no other restrictions than minority under eighteen years of age.
8. Freedom of industry.
9. Exclusive ownership of discoveries, and scientific, artistic and literary productions.
10. Liberty of reunion and association without arms, publicly and privately.
11. Liberty of petition and the right to have the petition acted upon. Petitions may be addressed to any functionary, authority or corporation whatever. If a petition is made by several parties, the first five signers shall respond for the authenticity of the signatures and all of them for the truth of the facts.
12. Freedom of teaching which shall be protected to its whole extent. The Government shall be bound to furnish primary instruction and the teaching of arts and trades gratuitously.
13. Religious toleration. The Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State; but all other forms of worship shall be allowed inside of their respective temples.


14
DOMINICAN BEPUBLIC.
14. La seguridad individual, y por ella:
(1) Ningun dominicano podra ser arrestado en apremio por deu-da que no provenga de fraude 6 delito.
(2) Ni ser obligado a recibir en su casa militares en clase de alo-jados 6 acuartelados.
(3) Ni ser juzgado por tribunals ni comisiones especiales, sino por sus jueces naturales, y en vir-tud de leyes dictadas antes del delito 6 action que deba juzgarse.
(4) Ni ser preso ni arrestado sin que preceda orden escrita del fun-cionario que decrete la prision, con expresion del delito que la cause, a menos que sea cogido in fraganti.
(5) A* todo preso se le comuni-cara la causa de su prision, y se le tomara declaration, a mas tardar, a las cuarenta y ocho horas des-pues de habersele privado de la libertad; y a ninguno se le puede tener incomunicado por mas tiem-po que aquel que el juez de instruction crea indispensable para que no se impida la averiguacion del delito; tampoco podra tener-sele en prision por mas tiempo que el que la ley determine.
(6) Ni condenado a, sufrir nin-guna pena en materia criminal, sino despues que haya sido oido y condenado legalmente.
15. La igualdad, en virtud de la cual:
(1) Todos deben ser juzgados por unas mismas leyes y someti-dos a unos mismos deberes y con-tribuciones.
(2) No se concederan titulos de nobleza, honores y distinciones he-reditarios.
(3) No se dara otro tratamiento oficial a los empleados que el de ciudadano y usted.
Art. 12. Los que expidieren, firmaren y ejecutaren 6 mandaren
14. Individual safety, and in consequence thereof:
(1) No Dominican shall be arrested for debts not arising out of fraud or criminal offense.
(2) Or compelled to quarter in his house any soldier, or person belonging to the army.
(3) Or tried by special tribunals or commissions. Dominicans shall be tried by their natural judges, and according to and by virtue of laws enacted before the commission of the offense for which they are tried.
(4) Or arrested or imprisoned without previous written order of a competent authority, naming the offense for which the arrest is made, unless the offender has been caught in flagrante delicto.
(5) Every prisoner shall be informed of the cause of his imprisonment and examined at the latest forty-eight hours after he was deprived of his liberty, and no one shall be kept in close confinement without communication with the rest of the world for a longer time than that which in the opinion of the court is indispensable not to render the investigation of the offense fruitless. Nor shall he be detained in prison for a time longer than that established by law.
(6) Nor shall anyone be condemned to suffer punishment in criminal cases without having been first legally heard and convicted.
15. Equality, and by virtue, thereof:
(1) Every one shall be tried according to the same laws and shall also be bound to perform the same duties and pay the same taxes.
(2) No titles of nobility or hereditary honors and distinctions shall be granted.
(3) No functionary shall be addressed under any other official title than citizen and you.
Art. 12. All those who should issue, sign, comply with, or cause


CONSTITUTION.
15
a ejecutar ordenes, decretos y reso-luciones que violen 6 infrinjan cualquiera de las garantias acor-dadas a los dominicanos, son cul-pables y deben ser castigados con-forme lo determina la ley.
Parrafo. Todo ciudadano es ha-bil para acusarlos.
tittjlo iv. DE LA CIUDADANIA.
Art. 13. Todos los ciudadanos que esten en el goce de los derechos de ciudadano pueden elegir y ser elegidos para los destinos publicos, siempre que tengan las cualidades requeridas por la ley.
Art. 14. Para gozar de los derechos de ciudadano se requiere:
1. Ser dominicano.
2. Ser casado 6 mayor de diez y ocho anos.
Art. 15. Los derechos de ciudadano se pierden:
1. Por servir 6 comprometerse a servir contra la Republica.
2. Por haber sido condenado a penas aflictivas 6 infamantes.
3. Por admitir en territorio dominicano empleo de un Gobierno extranjero, sin consentimiento del Congreso National.
4. Por quiebra comercial frau-dulenta.
Art. 16. Pueden obtener rehabilitation en estos derechos, aque-llos dominicanos que no los hayan perdido por las causas determina-das en el primer inciso del articulo precedente.
titulo v.
DE LA SOBERANIA.
Art. 17. Solo el pueblo es so-berano.
others to comply with, orders, decrees or decisions issued in violation of the guarantees herein insured to Dominicans, shall be guilty of a criminal offense and punished according to law.
Paragraph. Every citizen shall have the right to accuse said offenders.
TITLE IV. CITIZENSHIP.
Art. 13. All citizens in the full enjoyment of the rights of citizenship shall have the right to elect and be elected to public positions, provided that they have the qualifications required by law.
Art. 14. To enjoy the rights of citizenship the following shall be required:
1. To be a Dominican.
2. To be married, or over eighteen j^ears of age.
Art. 15. The rights of citizenship shall be lost:
1. By serving, or becoming engaged to serve, against the Republic.
2. By having been condemned to suffer corporal or infamous punishments.
3. By accepting while in Dominican territory, without the consent of the National Congress, any foreign appointments.
4. By being guilty of fraudulent commercial bankruptcy.
Art. 16. The restoration of the rights of citizenship can be obtained 'in all cases, except in the one set forth in section 1 of the preceding article.
title v.
SOVEREIGNTY.
Art. 17. The people alone are sovereign.


16
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
tittjlo vi. secci6n i. Del Poder Legislative-.
Art. 18. El Poder Legislativo se ejerce por un Congreso, compuesto de veinte y cuatro diputados nom-brados por election indirecta, a razon de dos por cada Provincia y dos por cada Distrito.
El cargo de diputado se ejercera por cuatro anos.
Estos se renovaran integramente y podran ser reelectos.
Parrafo 1. El cargo de diputado es incompatible, durante las se-siones, con cualquier otro empleo, cargo 6 destino publico, asalariado 6 no.
Parrafo 2. No podran ser diputados: el Presidente y Vicepresi: dente de la Republica, los Secretaries de Estado, el Presidente, Ministros y Fiscal de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, ni los Goberna-dores de Provincias y Distritos.
Art. 19. Adomas de estos diputados, se nombrara igual numero do suplentes, elegidos del mismo modo que aquellos, para que los reemplacen en caso de muerte, renuncia, destitution 6 inhabilita-cion.
Parrafo. Los suplentes reem-plazaran a los diputados de sus respectivas Provincias 6 distritos, en el -orden que les senale el numero de votos que hayan obtenido.
Art. 20. Para ser diputado se requiere:
1. Ser dominicano en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y po-liticos.
2. Tener a lo menos veintiun afios de edad.
3. Ser natural de la Provincia 6 distrito que lo elija, 6 residir alii 6 haber residido un ano.
title vi. section i.
The legislative power.
Art. 18. The legislative power is vested in a Congress consisting of twenty-four deputies indirectly elected at the rate of two for each Province and two for each District.
Deputies shall serve for four years.
Deputies shall be renewed each term and may be reelected.
Paragraph 1. The position of deputy is incompatible during the sessions of Congress with any other public position or office with or without salary.
Paragraph 2. The following shall not be deputies: The President and Vice-President of the Republic, the Secretaries of state, the Chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court, the Attorney General, and the Governors of the Provinces and Districts.
Art. 19. In addition to the deputies, substitutes shall be elected in equal number and in the same manner, who shall replace them in case of death, removal, or inability.
Paragraph. The substitutes shall fill the positions of the deputies of their respective Provinces or Districts in the order determined by the number of votes respectively cast in their favor.
Art. 20. To be a deputy the following qualifications shall be required:
1. To be a Dominican in the full enjoyment of civil and political rights.
2. To be at least twenty-one years of age.
3. To be a native of the Province or District which elected him, or to reside or have resided therein one year.


constitution.
17
Parrafo. En el caso de que una Provincia 6 Distrito quede sin representation, el Congreso, sin ce-nirse a este ultimo requisite, precedent a reemplazar a sus diputados respectivos.
Akt. 21. El Congreso se reu-nira, de pleno derecho, el 27 de febrero de cada ano,y se instalara cuando esten presentes las dos ter-ceras partes de sus miembros. Sus sesiones duraran noventa dias, y podran prorrogarse por treinta mas, a pedimento del Poder Ejecu-tivo, 6 por disposici6n del mismo Congreso.
Parrafo. En circunstancias ex-traordinarias el Poder Legislativo podra decretar su reunion en cual-quier otro punto de la Eepublica, 6 su traslacion a e"l, si se hubiese reunido ya en la Capital.
Art. 22. El Congreso no podra constituirse sin que esten presentes las dos terceras partes de sus miembros. Para todo acuerdo concerniente a las leyes y demas asuntos de importancia, haran mayoria las dos terceras partes de los miembros presentes.
Art. 23. Las sesiones seran pu-blicas, y solo podran ser secretas cuando lo acuerde el Congreso.
Art. 24. Los miembros del Congreso son irresponsables por las opiniones que manifiesten en el e]ercicio de sus funciones, sin que jamas puedan ser, por ellas, proce-sados ni molestados. Tampoco pueden ser arrestados ni detenidos sino por crimenes para cuyo castigo este impuesta pena aflictiva, previa autorizacion del Congreso, a quien se dara cuenta con la information sumaria del hecho. En los demas casos en que los diputados cometie-ren un delito que merezca otrapena corporal, seguira el juez la information sumaria, no pudiendo pro-
36U07-2
Paragraph. In case that a Province or District is left without representation in Congress, the latter shall proceed to fill the vacancy without strictly adhering to the requisite of nativity or residence above stated.
Art. 21. Congress shall meet every year, on the twenty-seventh of February, and begin to do business, as soon as two-thirds of its members are present. The sessions of Congress shall last ninety days; but this period may be extended thirty days longer at the request of the Executive power or by resolution of Congress.
Paragraph. Under extraordinary circumstances the legislative power, after having met in the capital, may resolve to hold its sessions in any other part of the Republic.
Art. 22. Congress shall not transact business without a quorum consisting of two-thirds of its members. A majority of two-thirds of the members present shall be required to pass any act or resolution of importance.
Art. 23. The sessions of Congress shall be public, unless Congress resolves to hold them in secret.
Art. 24. Members of Congress shall not be held responsible for the opinions set forth by them in the exercise of their functions, nor can they be arrested or imprisoned except for offenses punishable with corporal penalties, and upon previous permission of Congress, to which summary information in regard to the case shall be communicated. In all other cases of offenses committed by deputies, and deserving corporal punishment, the court shall complete the investigation, but the guilty party shall not be arrested until after a


18
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
ceder al arresto del culpable hasta tanto que recaiga sentencia defini-tiva en ultimo recurso.
Art. 25. Es atributivo del Congreso:
1. Examinar las actas de election del Presidente y Vicepresi-dente de la Republica, computar los votos, perfeccionar la election que resulte del escrutinio electoral, proclamarles, recibirles juramen-to, y en su caso, admitirles sus renuncias.
2. Elegir de las ternas que les presenten los respectivos Colegios Electorales, los Magistrados de la Suprema Corte de Justicia y los jueces de los tribunales do pri-mera instancia, y admitirles sus renuncias.
3. Nombrar igualmente los miembros de la Camara de cuentas y admitirles sus renuncias.
4. Decretar en estado de acusa-cion a sus propios miembros, al Presidente y Vicepresidente de la Republica, si los Secretarios de Estado y Magistrados de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, cuando sean acu-sados legalmente y halle fundada dicha acusacion.
5. Establecer los impuestos y contribuciones generales.
6. Decretar los gastos publicos, con vista de los datos que le pre-sente el Poder Ejecutivo.
7. Votar, antes de cerrar sus sesiones, la ley anual de presu-puesto. Cuando por cualquier mo-tivo dejo de votarse el presupuesto correspondiente a un periodo fiscal, continuant rigiendo el ultimo votado.
8. Aprobar 6 desaprobar, con vista del informe de la Camara de Cuentas, la recaudacion e inversion de las rentas piiblicas que debe presentarle anualmente el Poder Ejecutivo.
final decision in the last resort is rendered.
Art. 25. Congress shall have the following exclusive powers:
1. To be the judge of the election of President and Vice-President of the Republic, count the votes, perfect the election resulting from the electoral vote, proclaim the election of said functionaries, administer to them the oath of office, and, should occasion arise therefor, to accept their resignations.
2. To select out of the three names submitted to it by the respective electoral colleges, the Chief Justice and the associate justices of the supreme court and the Judges of the tribunals of first instance, and accept their resignations.
3. To appoint the members of the Court of accounts and accept their resignations.
4. To permit, upon good legal grounds, the impeachment of its own members, the President and vice-president of the Republic, the secretaries of state, the Chief Justice and the associate justices of the supreme court.
5. To levy general taxes and imposts.
6. To authorize the payment of the public expenses, according to the estimates submitted by the Executive.
7. To pass, before adjourning, the annual appropriation law. When for any reason whatever this can not be done, the appropriations of the preceding year shall become available.
8. To approve or disapprove, upon the proper report of the Court of accounts, the management and disposition by the Executive power, of the public moneys.


CONSTITUTION.
19
9. Decretar la legislation civil y criminal, modificarla y refor-marla.
10. Decretar lo conveniente para la conservation, administration, fructification y enajenacion de los bienes nacionales.
11. Decretar la contratacion de emprestitos, sobre el credito de la Nation. Ninguno sera votado sin la previa declaratoria de ser de utilidad publica.
12. Determinar y uniformar el valor, peso, cufio, tipo, ley y nombre de la moneda nacional, y resolver sobre la admision do la extranjera. En ningiin caso la moneda nacional llevara el busto de persona alguna.
13. Fijar y uniformar el tipo de las pesas y medidas.
14. Crear 6 suprimir los em-pleos piiblicos no determinados por la Constitution, senalarles suel-dos, disminuirlos 6 aumentarlos.
15. Interpretar las leyes y de-cretos y, en caso de duda u oscu-ridad, suspenderlas 6 revocarlas.
16. Declararlaguerraofcnsiva, en vista de las causas que le pre-sente el Poder Ejecutivo, y reque-rirle para que negocie la paz cuando lo crea necesario.
17. Dar 6 negar su consenti-miento a los tratadados de paz, de alianza, de amistad, de neutrali-dad, de comercio, y a cualesquiera otros que celebre el Poder Ejecutivo. Ninguno tendra efecto sino en virtud de su aprobacion.
18. Promover la instruction publica, el progreso de las cioncias, de las artes, de establecimientos de utilidad comiin y, cuando lo juzgue oportuno, decretar que la ensefianza elemental sea obliga-tioria, y exigir cuenta circuns-
9. To pass all civil and criminal laws, and the modifications and amendments thereof which may be required.
10. To provide all that may be necessary for the preservation, administration, profitable use, and alienation of the national property.
11. To order loans to be contracted, and pledge for their payment the credit of the Nation. No loan shall be voted without previous declaration that public utility requires it to be contracted.
12. To determine and cause the value, weight, form,type, fineness, and denomination of the national coin to be uniform, and to resolve on the admission of foreign coins. In no case shall the national coin be stamped on any of its faces with the image of any person.
13. To fix and make the standards of weights and measures uniform.
14. To create or abolish public offices not provided for in this Constitution, and to fix, increase or decrease their compensation.
15. To interpret the laws and decrees, and in case of doubt or obscurity to suspend their execution or repeal them.
16. To declare war upon examination of the causes set forth by the Executive, and direct the latter to negotiate peace when necessary.
17. To grant or refuse its consent to the ti-eaties of peace, alliance, friendship, neutrality, commerce, or any other concluded by the Executive. No treaty of any kind shall go into effect except after it is approved by Congress.
18. To promote public instruction, the progress of science and art, the foundation of establishments of common utility, and when deemed proper to decree elementary education to be compulsory. The Executive power shall be


20
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
tanciada y anualmente al Poder Ejecutivo del estado de los esta-blecimientos de instruction pii-blicos y privados.
19. Conceder indultos y amnis-tias generales.
20. Decretar el estado de sitio y suspender por tiempo limitado las garantias 2a, 4% y 10a del articulo 11, y los numeros 4 y 5 de la garantia 14a del mismo articulo quedicenasi: 2a. La libertad del pensamiento, expresado de palabra 6 por medio de la prensa, sin previa censura, pero con sujecion a las leyes;" 4a. La inviolabili-dad y secreto de la c'orrespondencia y demas papeles;".- 10a. La libertad de reunion y asociacion, sin armas, publica y privadamente;" 4. Ni ser preso ni arrestado sin que preceda orden escrita del f uncionario que decrete la prision, con expresion del delito que la cause, a menos que sea cogido in fraganti;" 5. "A" todo preso se le comunicara la causa de su prision, y se le tomara declaration a mas tardar a las cuarenta y ocho horas despues de haberseleprivado de la libertad; a ninguno se le puede tener incomunicado por mas tiempo que aquel que el juez de instruccion crea indispensable para que no se impida la averiguacion del delito; tampoco podra tenersele en prision mas tiempo que el que la ley determina."
21. Reglamentar todo lo rela-tivo a las aduanas, cuyas rentas formaran el Tesoro de la Republica, lo mismo que las demas que se decreten.
22. Poner a sus miembros en estado de acusacion, por crimenes contra la seguridad del Estado.
23. Dirimir definitivamente las diferencias que puedan suscitarse entre dos 6 mas Provincias 6 distritos, entre estos y las coma-
bound to give Congress every year a detailed account of the condition of the public and private educational establishments.
19. To grant general pardons and amnesties.
20. To proclaim a state of siege and suspend for a limited time guarantees 2, 4, and 10 of article 11, and numbers 4 and 5 of guarantee 14, in the same article, which read respectively as follows: "2. Freedom of thought, expressed orally or through the press, without previous censorship, but subject to law." 4. Inviolability of the secrecy of correspondence and private papers." "10. Liberty of reunion and association without arms, publicly and privately." "4. Or arrested or imprisoned without previous written order of a competent authority naming the offense for which the arrest is made, unless the offender has been caught in flagrante delicto.'" 5. Every prisoner shall be informed of the cause of his imprisonment, and examined at the latest forty-eight hours after he was deprived of his liberty; and no one shall be kept in close confinement without communication with the rest of the world for a longer time than that which in the opinion of the court is indispensable not to render the investigation of the offense fruitless. Nor shall he be detained in prison for a time longer than that established by law."
21. To make rules for the government of the custom-houses, the revenues of which, together with all other revenues, shall form the treasure of the Republic.
22. To permit its members to be tried for crimes against the safety of the State.
23. To finally settle all differences between two or more Provinces or Districts, between the latter and the communes, between


constitution.
21
nes, entre los Gobernadores y los Ayuntaminetos 6 estos entre si.
24. Decretar todo lo relativo a los deslindes de las Provincias, distritos, comunes y cantones.
25.. Decretar todo lo relativo al coniercio maritimo y terrestre, y al de lagos y rios.
26. Decretar cuanto tenga relation con la apertura de las grandes vias, concesiones de ferrocarriles, apertura de canales, empresas te-legraficas y navegacion de rios.
27. Determinar lo conveniente sobre la formation periodica de la estadistica general de la Republica.
2S. Decretar todo lo relativo a la inmigracion.
29. Decretar la erection de nue-vas Provincias y distritos, asi como de comunes y cantones.
30. Decretar la creation de tribunals y juzgados, en los lugares en que no se hayan establecido por esta Constitution, y la supresion de ellos cuando fuere necesario.
31. Decretar la movilizacion y servicio de las guardias naciona-les.
32. Enviar al Ejecutivo ternas de sacerdotes aptos para los arzo-bispados y obispados vacantes en la Republica, mientras tanto que un concordato no modifique la manera de hacer esta presentation, a fin de que el Poder Ejecutivo la proponga a la Santa Sede del modo mas conveniente. Estas ternas no podran formarse sino de sacerdotes que scan dominicanos de nacimiento ii origen, y que residan en la Republica.
33. Determinar todo lo concer-niente a la deuda nacional.
31. Cuando las Provincias 6 distritos, por organo de sus Ayunta-mientos, soliciten establecer en su respectivo territorio legislatu-
re governors and the city and municipal corporations, and between municipal corporations among themselves.
24. To decree everj'thing relating to the limits of the Provinces, Districts, communes, and cantons.
25. To decree everything relating to commerce by land and sea, and on the lakes and rivers.
26. To decree everything relating to the concession and opening of railroads, the opening of canals, telegraphic lines, and navigation of the rivers.
27. To decree what may be necessary for the compilation from time to time of general statistics of the Republic.
28. To decree everything relating to immigration.
29. To provide for the erection of new Provinces, Districts, communes, and cantons.
30. To create tribunals and courts where none has been established by the Constitution, and to abolish them, when necessary.
31. To decree the mobilization of the national guard.
32. To send to the Executive the names of three priests qualified to fill any vacant archiepiscopal or episcopal see in the Republic, in order that they may be transmitted by it to the Holy See. The three priests to be nominated under this provision shall be Dominicans by birth or origin and residents of the Republic. This provision shall cease to be in force as soon as a different arrangement is agreed upon with the head of the church by means of a concordat.
33. To determine everything concerning the national debt.
34. To establish in the Provinces or Districts, when so requested by the municipal corporations of the same, local legislatures, create and


22
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
ras locales, decretar la creation de estas y darles sus atribuciones por medio de una ley especial.
35. Decretar la reforma de la Constitution del Estado, en la forma y manera que ella previene.
36. Aprobar 6 desaprobar las concesiones 6 contratos que hagan el Poder Ejecutivo 6 los Ayunta-mientos, siempre que afecten ren-tas generales 6 comunales. Aprobar 6 desaprobar los arbitrios mu-nicipales que tengan caracter de impuestos no establecidos por la ley.
37. Decretar, en circumstancias excepcionales y apremiantes, la traslacion del Ejecutivo a otro lugar.
38. Determinar sobre todo lo relativo a la habilitacion de los puertos y costas maritimas.
39. Fijar anualmente el pie del ejercito permanente en la Republica, y dictar las ordenanzas de la fuerza armada de mar y tierra.
40. Expedir la ley electoral.
41. Dictar las leyes de responsa-bilidad de todos los empleados, por mal desempeno en el ejercicio de sus funciones.
42. Determinar la manera de conceder grados 6 ascensos mili-tares.
43. Dictar los reglamentos que deban observarse en las sesiones 6 debates.
44. Expedir todas las leyes que sean necesarias para la buena mar-cha y administration de la Republica.
45. Interpelar k los Secretarios de Estado sobre todos los asuntos de interes publico.
46. Examinar, al fin de cada periodo constitucional, los actos administrativos del Poder Ejecutivo, y aprobarlos si fueren con-formes a la Constitution y a las leyes, y en caso contrario, desa-probarlos, y si ha lugar, decretar la acusacion de sus miembros individual 6 colectivamente.
abolish them, and give them by means of a special law the proper powers and duties.
35. To decree the amendment of the Constitution in the manner and form established by law.
36. To approve or disapprove the concessions or contracts made or entered into by the Executive power or by the municipal corporations, when affecting general or municipal revenue. To approve or disapprove municipal taxes not established by law.
37. To decree under exceptional and urgent circumstances the moving of the Executive to another place.
38. To provide for the opening of ports of entry and the custody of the seacoast.
39. To fix every year the force of the standing army of the Republic, and promulgate ordinances for the armed forces on land and sea.
40. To enact the electoral law.
41. To enact laws fixing the responsibility of all public officials for malfeasance in the exercise of their functions.
42. To determine the manner of granting military ranks or promotions.
43. To make rules to be observed in the congressional debates.
44. To enact all laws necessary for the proper administration of the government of the Republic.
45. To make interpellations to the secretaries of state on all subjects of public interest.
46. To examine at the end of each constitutional period all the acts of the Executive power, and approve them if they are in accordance with the Constitution and the laws; and if not, disapprove them. Itshall also decree whether the members of the Executive should or should not be impeached, either individually or collectively.


CONSTITUTION.
23
Art. 26. El Congreso podra co-nocer y resolver en todo negocio que no sea de la competencia de otro Poder del Estado, 6 contrario al texto constitucional.
secci6n ii. 'De la formation de las leyes.
Art. 26. Congress shall take cognizance and pass upon every matter of business not belonging to the jurisdiction of the other powers of the State, or excluded from its action by the text of the Constitution.
section ii.
Enactment of laws.
Art. 27. Tienen derecho de ini- Art. 27. The initiative in the
ciativa en la formation de las leyes: enactment of laws shall belong:
1. El Congreso, a propuesta de 1. To Congress at the request
uno 6 mas de sus miembros. of one or more of its members.
2. El Poder Ejecutivo. 2. To the Executive power.
3. La Suprema Corte de Jus- 3. To the supreme court of justicia, en asuntos judiciales. tice in judicial matters.
Art. 28. Todo proyecto de ley, Art. 28. Every bill introduced
6 decreto tornado en consideration in Congress shall be submitted to
por el Congreso, se sometera a, tres three different discussions, with an
discusiones distintas, con intervalo interval of one day at least between
de un dia por lo menos entre una one and another, y otra discusion.
Parrafo. En caso que el pro- Paragraph. In case that a bill is
yecto de ley 6 decreto fuere decla- declared urgent, it may be dis-
rado de urgencia, podra ser discu- cussed in three consecutive meet-
tido en tres sesiones consecutivas, ings, without the interval of one
aunque no haya entre una y otra day above stated being required, el dia de intervalo indicado.
Art. 29. Los proyectos de leyes Art. 29. Bills failing to be
y decretos que no hayan sido to- passed by Congress can not bo re-
mados en consideration por el Con- introduced until the next ordinary
greso no podran volver a propo- session. Nevertheless, one or sev-
nerse hasta la siguiente reunion oral articles of a rejected bill may
ordinaria; sin embargo, alguno 6 be made part of new bills, muchos de sus articulos podran formal- parte de otros proyectos.
Art. 30. Ningun proyecto de Art. 30. No bill or resolution
ley 6 decreto aprobado por el Con- passed by Congress shall become
greso tendra fuerza de ley, mien- a law until it is promulgated by
tras no sea promulgado por el the Executive power. If not ob-
Poder Ejecutivo. Este, si no le jected to by the latter, it shall be
hiciere observaciones, lo mandara ordered to be published and obeyed
a publicar y ejecutar como ley; as law; but if objected to it shall
pero si hallare inconvenientes para bo returned to Congress together
su ejecucion, lo devolvera con sus with the objections of the Execu-
observaciones al Congreso, en el tive, within eight days, to be count-
preciso termino de ocho dias a con- ed from'the date on which it was
tar de la fecha en que se le remita. sent to the latter.
Art. 31. Cuando el Poder Ejocu- Art. 31. When the Executive
tivo tenga que hacer observaciones power objects to acts of Congress
a las leyes y decretos declarados de declared to bo urgent, the objec-


24
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
urgencia por el Congreso, las hara en el termino de tres dias, y en caso contrario, los mandara pu-bhcar en el mismo tiempo, sin dis-cutir la urgencia.
Art. 32. Si el Congreso eneon-trare fundadas las observaciones del Poder Ejecutivo, reformara el proj'ecto, 6 lo archivara dado el caso que aquellas versaren sobre la totalidad de el; miis si a juicio de las dos terceras partes de los miembros presentes no las hallare fundadas, en viarade nuevo al Poder Ejecutivo la le\r 6 decreto para su promulgation, sin que pueda por ningiin motivo negarse a hacerlo en este caso.
Art. 33. No podra hacerse nin-guna ley contraria al espiritu ni a la letra de la Constitution. En caso de duda el texto de esta debe siempre prevalecer.
Art. 34. La ley que reforme otra se redactara integramente y se derogara la anterior en todas sus partes; exceptuandose de esta disposition las que formen parte de un cuerpo de codigos.
Art. 35. Las leyes no estaran en observancia sino despues de publicadas con la solemnidad que se establezca.
Parrafo'. Tampoco tendran fuerza de ley, mientras no sean promulgadas en el periodico oficial, las concesiones otorgadas por el Poder Ejecutivo y apro-badas por el Congreso.
Art. 36. Las leyes no tienen efecto retroactivo sino en el caso de que sean favorables al que este sub judice, 6 cumpliendo condena.
Art. 37. En todas las leyes se usara de esta formula: "El Congreso Nacional, en nombre de la Republica, decreta."
tions shall be sent within three days. If no objection is found, the approval of the act shall be made within the same period, without discussing its urgency.
Art. 32. Should Congress find that the objections of the Executive are good and valid, it shall either amend the bill, or send it to the archives, if the remarks refer to the whole of it. But if, in the judgment of two-thirds of the members present, the objections of the Executive are not well founded, the bill shall be again sent to it for its promulgation, and the Executive shall under no circumstances refuse to do so.
Art. 33. No law can be enacted against the spirit or the letter of the Constitution. In case of doubt the textual language of the latter shall always prevail.
Art. 34. Amendments to laws shall be made in the shape of an entirely new law, which shall repeal in toto the amended statute, and take its place. Amended articles or clauses of a code are excepted from these rules.
Art. 35. No laws shall be in force until after published with the prescribed solemnity.
Paragraph. Nor shall the concessions granted by the Executive power and approved by Congress be in force until after they are published in the official newspaper.
Art. 36. Laws shall have no retroactive effect, except in case that they are favorable to the one who is on trial or serving a sentence.
Art. 37. The enacting clause of all laws shall be: "The National Congress in the name of the Republic decrees."


CONSTITUTION.
25
TfTTTLO VII.
secci6n i. Del Poder Ejecutivo.
Art. 38. El Poder Ejecutivo se ejerce por el Presidente de la Republica, en union de los Secretaries de Estado en los respectivos despachos, como sus organos in-mediatos.
Art. 39. El Presidente de la Republica es el jefe nato de la administration general, y no tiene msis facultades que las que expresa-mente le confieren la Constitution y las leyes.
Art. 40. Para ser Presidente de la Republica se requiere:
1. Ser dominicano de nacimien-to u origen y residir en la Republica.
2. Tener por lo menos treinta anos de edad.
3. Estar en el goce de los derechos civiles y politicos.
Art. 41. La election de Presidente se hara por el voto indirecto y en la forma que esta Constitution y la ley determinan.
Art. 42. El Presidente de la Republica se elige en la forma si-guiente: Cada elector vota por el ciudadano de su preferencia. Los procesos verbales de election se remiten cerrados y sellados al Presidente del Congreso. Cuando el Presidente reuna los pliegos de todos los Colegios Electorates, los abrira en sesion piiblica y verifi-cara los votos. Si alguno de los candidates reuniere la maj'oria ab-soluta de sufragios, sera procla-mado Presidente de la Republica. Siempre que falto la niaj'oria indi-cada, el Congreso separarii los tres quo reunan mas sufragios, y pro-cedeni ii elegir uno de entre ellos. Si en este primer escrutinio ninguno obtuviere la mayoria abso-
title vii. section i.
The Executive power.
Art. 38. The Executive power is vested in the President of the Republic in union with the secretaries of state of the respective departments as his immediate organs.
Art. 39. The President of the Republic is the head, ex officio, of the general administration of the Government, but has no other powers than those expressly vested in him by the Constitution and the laws.
Art. 40. To be President of the Republic the following qualifications are necessary:
1. To be a Dominican by birth or origin and a resident of the Republic.
2. To be over thirty years of age.
3. To be in the full enjoyment of the civil and political rights.
Art. 41. The election of the President shall be made by indirect vote in the form established by the Constitution and the laws.
Art. 42. The President of the Republic shall be elected in the following manner. Each elector shall vote for the citizen whom he may prefer. The minutes of the election shall be sent in a sealed envelop to the President of the Congress. When the President of the Congress has in his possession all the min utes sent by the electoral colleges, he shall unseal the envelops in public session and count the votes. The candidate having an absolute majority of votes shall bo proclaimed President of the Republic. If no absolute majority is obtained, Congress shall choose the names of the three candidates having the highest number of votes, and from among them shall


26
dominican republic.
luta, se procedera a nueva votacion entre los dos candidates que mas sufragios obtuvieron en el primero, y en caso de empate la election se decidira por la suerte.
Todas estas operaciones deberan efectuarse en una sola sesion per-manente, durante la cual ningun diputado podra ausentarse de ella ni eximirse de votar.
Art. 43. Si veinte dias despues del ultimo seiTalado para la election no se hubieren recibido todas las actas de los Colegios Electorales, podra efectuarse el compute con las que se hallen en poder del Congreso, siempre que no bajen de las tres cuartas partes.
Art. 44. El Presidente de la Republica durara en sus f unciones cuatro afios, a con tar del dia que tome posesion de su cargo, y podra ser reelecto.
Art. 45. Habra un Vicepresi-dente, que debera reunir las mis-mas cualidades que se requieren para ser Presidente, y sera elegido en el mismo tiempo y con las mis-mas formalidades que aquel.
Art. 46. En caso de muerte, renuncia oinhabilitacion del Presidente, el Vicepresidente ejercera la presidencia de la Republica hasta cumplirse el periodo; y en caso do acusacion u otro impedi-mento temporal, la ejercera sola-mente mientras dure la causa que lo motive.
Art. 47. A falta del Presidente y Vicepresidente de la Republica, el Consejo de Secrctariosde Estado ejercera el Poder Ejecutivo, de-biendo convocar los Colegios Electorales en el termino do cuarenta y ocho horas para el nombramiento de dichos funcionarios, y al Congreso para que cumplimente lo que
select the President. If on this first vote no candidate secures absolute majority, another vote shall be taken to elect one from among the two candidates having had the highest number of votes; and if the vote-is equally divided the election shall bo decided by lot.
All these operations shall be performed in one session, which shall be permanent and during which no deputy shall be permitted to absent himself or abstain from voting.
Art. 43. If twenty days after the expiration of the time prescribed for the election, the minutes of all the electoral colleges have not been received, the counting of the votes shall be made with only those which are in the possession of Congress, provided that they are not less in number than three-fourths of the total.
Art. 44. The President of the Republic shall serve for four years, to be counted from the day of his inauguration; and he may be reelected.
Art. 45. There shall be a Vice-president who shall have the same qualifications as are required to be President, and he shall be elected at the same time and with the same formalities as the President.
Art. 46. In case of death, resignation, or inability of the President, the Vice-president shall act only during the time of the suspension; and in impeachment proceedings or other temporary impediment, the Vice-president shall act oi\\y during the trial or while said impediment exists.
Art. 47. If there is no President or Vice-president of the Republic, the Council of secretaries of state shall act as Executive. It'shall within forty-eight hours call the electoral colleges to convene for the appointment of said functionaries, and Congress to meet also for the purposes of sec-


CONSTITUTION.
27
establece el apartado priniero del articulo 25 de esta Constitution.
Parrafo. Si dado el caso de que al renunciar el Presidente de la Republica no se hallare reunido el Congreso, la renuncia deberii ha-cerse por ante el Consejo de Secretaries de Estado, despues de haberlo manifestado a la Nacion.
En tal caso el Consejo ejercera el Poder Ejecutivo, llamando sin perdida de tiempo al Vicepresidente ii ejercer la Presidencia.
Art. 48. En las elecciones ordi-narias de Presiden te de la Republica entrara este a ejercer sus funciones el dia que venza el periodo del saliente; y en las extraordinarias, ocho dias a mas tardar despues de habersele comunicado oficialmente su nombramiento si estuviese en la Capital, y treinta dias si estuviese fuera.
Art. 49. El Presidente de la Republica, antes de entrar a ejercer sus funciones, prestara ante el Congreso el siguiente juramento: Juro por Dios y los Santos Evan-gelios cumplir y hacer cuniplir la Constitution y las leyes del pueblo dominicano, respetar sus derechos y libertades, y mantener la inde-pendencia y la integridad nacional."
secci6n ii.
Atribuciones del Presidente de la Republica.
Art. 50. Son atribuciones del Presidente de la Republica:
Nombrar los Secretarios de Estado, aceptarles sus renuncias, y removerlos cuando lo juzgue conveniente.
tion 1 of article 25 of the present Constitution.
Paragraph. If the President should happen to resign his position when Congress is not in session, the resignation shall be tendered to the council of secretaries of state after having been made the subject of a manifest to the nation.
In this case the council shall act as Executive and without loss of time shall call the Vice-president to act as President.
Art. 48. In the ordinary elections for President of the Republic the newly elected President shall begin to serve his term on the day on which the term of his predecessor expires. In extraordinary elections the beginning of the term shall be at the latest eight days after he has been officially informed of his appointment if he is in the capital and thirty days if he is somewhere else.
Art. 49. Before entering on the discharge of his functions the President of the Republic shall take the following oath before the Congress: "I swear before God and the Holy Gospels to comply and cause others to comply with the Constitution and the laws of the Dominican people, respect the rights and liberties of the latter, and maintain the national independence and territorial integrity."
section ii.
Powers of the President of the Republic.
Art. 50. The following are the powers of the President of the Republic:
To appoint the secretaries of state, accept their resignations, and remove them whenever deemed advisable.


28
dominican republic.
SECCI6N iii.
Atribuciones del Poder Ejecutivo.
Art. 51. Son atribuciones del Poder Ejecutivo:
la. Preservar la Nacion de todo ataquc exterior.
2". Mandar ejecutar y cuidar de la ejecucion de las leyes y decretos del Poder Legislativo, con la si-guiente formula: "Ejecutese, co-muniquese por la Secretaria co-rrespondiente, publicandose en todo el territorio de la Republica para su cumplimiento."
3a. Cuidar y vigilar la recauda-cion de las rentas nacionales.
4a. Administrar los terrenos baldios conforme a la ley.
5a. Convocar el Poder Legislativo para sus reuniones extraordi-narias, cuando lo exija la gravedad de algun asunto.
6a. Nombrar consules genera-les, particulares y vriceconsules.
7a. Nombrar enviados extraor-dinarios, ministros plenipotencia-rios, ministros residentes, encar-gados de negocios y agentes eonfi-denciales.
8a. Recibir los ministros publi-cos extranjeros.
9a. Dirigir las negociaciones di-plomaticas y" celebrar toda espe-cie de tratados con otras naciones, sometiendo estos al Poder Legislativo.
10\ Dar a las bulas y breves que traten dodisposiciones generales el pase correspondiente, siempre que no sean contrarias si la Constitution y si las leyes, si las prorogati-vas de la Nacion, 6 la jurisdiction temporal.
lla. Solicitarde la Santa Sede la celebration de un concordato para el arreglo de los negocios de la Iglesia, impetrando a la vez la confirmation del patronato.
section iii.
Powers of the Executive.
Art. 51. The following are the powers of the Executive:
1. To preserve the Nation against all foreign attack.
2. To order the laws and legislative resolutions to be complied with. This shall be done by means of the following form: "Let it be executed, communicated by the corresponding department, and published in the .whole territory of the Republic for its observance."
3. To watch over the proper collection of the national revenue.
4. To provide for the management and disposition, according to law, of the Government lands.
5. To call the legislative power to meet in extra session when required by the gravity of the case.
6. To appoint consuls-general, consuls, and vice-consuls.
7. To appoint envoys extraordinary, ministers plenipotentiary, ministers resident, charges d'affaires, and confidential agents.
8. To receive foreign public ministers.
9. To conduct diplomatic negotiations and conclude all kinds of treaties with foreign nations, submitting them afterwards to the legislativo power.
10. To grant the corresponding passage to Pontificial bulls and briefs containing general provisions, if they are not contrary to the Constitution and the laws, the prerogatives of the Nation, or the temporal jurisdiction.
11. To request the Holy See to enter into a concordat with the Republic for the arrangement of the affairs of the church, requesting at the same time the confirmation of the ecclesiastical patronage.


CONSTITUTION.
29
12a. Celebrar contratos do in-teres general, con arreglo a, la ley, y someterlos al Poder Legislative para su aprobacion.
13a. Nombrar, cuando lo creyere necesario para el mejor servicio publico, delegados que ejerzan funciones ejecutivas en las Provincias y distritos, ajustandose estric-tamente a la Constitution y a las leyes, los cuales, en caso de extra-limitation ii otras faltas, seran juz-gados por la Suprema Corte de J us-ticia.
14\ Nombrar los gobernadores civiles y militares, los jefes co-munales y cantonales, y aceptarles sus renuncias.
15a. Nombrar los procuradores fiscales, }raceptarles sus renuncias.
16\ Nombrai1, en comisi6n, ministros de la corte y jueces de los tribunales y juzgados inferiores, cuando ocurran vracancias de dichos funconarios durante el receso del Congreso.
17\ Nombrar los alcaldes de comunes 3T cantones y sus respec-tivos suplentes, y aceptarles sus renuncias.
18a. Nombrar los empleados de hacienda, cuyo nombramiento no se atribuya si otro poder 6 funcio-nario.
19". Remover y suspender si los empleados de nombramiento suyo, y mandarles enjuiciar si hubiere motivo para ello.
20a. Expedir patente de navega-cion si los buques nacionales.
21a. Declarar la guerra en nom-bre de la Republica, cuando la haya decretado el Poder Legislativo.
22a. Conceder licencias y retiros si los militares.
23a. Conceder amnistias 6 indul-tosparticularesporcausas politicas.
12. To enter into contracts of general interest, according to law, and submit them for their approval to the legislative power.
13. To appoint, whenever deemed necessary for the good of the public service, delegates exercising executive functions in the Provinces and Districts, provided that the}' should act in strict compliance with the Constitution and the laws, and provided further that if they go beyond the limits of their powers or commit any other unlawful acts they shall be prosecuted and tried before the supreme court of justice.
14. To appoint the civil and military governors, the chiefs of the communes and cantons, and accept their resignations.
15. To appoint the prosecuting attorneys and accept their resignations.
16. To appoint temporarily the justices of the Supreme Court, and the Judges of the inferior courts when a vacancy occurs during the recess of Congress.
17. To appoint the mayors of the communes and cantons and their respective substitutes and accept their resignations.
18. To appoint those employees of the treasury, whose appointment does not belong to any other power or functionary.
19. To remove or suspend the officials appointed by it and cause them to be prosecuted and tried when there is reason therefor.
20. To issue patents of navigation to the national vessels.
21. To declare war in the name of the Republic when so decreed by the legislative power.
22. To grant leaves of absence to military officers and place them on the retired list.
23. To grant general or special amnesties for political causes.


30
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
24\ Perdonar 6 conniutar la pena capital, cuando hubiere re-curso en gratia.
25a. Disponer de la fuerza per-manente de mar y tierra; asi en tiempo de paz como de conmocion a niano armada, 6 de invasion ex-tranjera.
26a. Disponer de las guardias nacionales para la seguridad interior de las Provincias y distritos.
27a. Conceder cartas de nacio-nalidad conforme ii las leyes.
28a. En los casos de guerra ex-tranjera podra:
(1) Arrestar 6 expulsar a los in-dividuos que pertenezcan ii la nacion con la cual se este en guerra.
(2) Pedir al Congreso los credi-tos necesarios para sostenerla.
(3) Someter a juicio, por trai-cion ii la patria, ii los dominicanos que sean hostiles ii la dignidad y defensa nacionales.
(4) Expedir patente de corso y represalia, y dictar las reglas que hayan de seguirse en caso de apre-samiento.
Art. 52. Con el fin de restable-cer el orden constitucional,alterado por una revolucion ii mano armada, si no se hallare reunido el Congreso, podra decretar el estado de si-tio y suspender, mientras dure la perturbation piiblica, las siguien-tes garantias del Titulo 111, articulo 11, la 2", 4a y 10a, y los nu-meros 4 y 5 de la 14a garantia del mismo articulo que dice: 2a. "La libertad del pensamiento, expre-sado de palabra 6 por medio de la prensa, sin previa censura, pero con sujecion ii las leyes." 4a. "La inviolabilidad y secreto de la co-rrespondencia y demas papeles." 10a. "La libertad de reunion y asociacion, sin armas, piiblica 6 privadamente." 4. "Ni ser preso ni arrestado sin quo preceda orden escrita del funcionario que decrete
24. To grant pardons or commutations of death sentences, when Executive clemency is requested.
25. To dispose of the permanent forces of the Republic on land and sea, both in time of peace and in case of armed domestic disturbance or foreign invasion.
26. To make the proper disposition of the National Guard in order to insure tranquillity in the Provinces and Districts.
27. To grant letters of naturalization according to law.
28. In case of foreign war, the Executive shall have power:
(1) To arrest or expel individuals belonging to the Nation with which the Republic is at war.
(2) To ask Congress for the appropriation necessary to carry on the war.
(3) To cause Dominicans found to be hostile to the national dignity and defense to be tried for treason.
(4) To issue letters of marque and reprisals, and make rules to be followed in prize cases.
Art. 52. For the purpose of reestablishing the Constitutional order disturbed by a revolution, the Executive power may, if Congress is not in session, declare a state of siege, and suspend, as long as the public disturbance lasts, the guaranties enumerated in Title III, article 11, numbers 2, 4, and 10, and numbers 4 and 5 of the fourteenth guarantee in the same article, which read as follows: "2. Freedom of thought, expressed orally or through the press, without previous censorship, but subject to law." "4. Inviolability of the secrecy of correspondence and private papers." "10. Liberty of reunion and association without arms, publicly and privately." "4. Or arrested or imprisoned without previous written order of a


CONSTITUTION.
31
la prision, con expresion del mo-tivo que la cause, a, menos que no sea cogido in fraganti." 5. "A todo preso so le comunicara la causa de su prision, y se le tomara declaration a mas tardar a las cuarenta y ocho boras despues de habersele privado de la libertad; y a ninguno se lo puede tener incomunicado por mas tiempo que aqucl que el juez de instruccion crea indispensable para que no se impida la averigua-cion del delito; tampoco podra te-nersele en prision por mas tiempo que el que la ley determina."
Art. 53. En los casos de rebe-lion ii mano armada el Poder Ejecutivo, ademas de las garantias que le faculta suspender el articulo anterior, podrti decretar otras modi-das de caracter transitorio, que sean necesarias al restablecimiento del orden publico.
Art. 54. En circunstancias ex-cepcionales y apremiantes el Poder Ejecutivo podra trasladarse a otro punto cualquiera de la Republica, aunque el Congreso no se hallare reunido para decretar su traslacion.
Parrafo. El Poder Ejecutivo dara cuenta al Congreso, por medio de un mensaje, del uso que haya hecho de las facultades acor-dadas en los articulos anteriores.
Art. 55. El Poder Ejecutivo asistira el veinte y siete de febrero de cada ano a la apertura del Congreso, y prcsentara un mensaje de-tallado de su administration en el transcurso del afio anterioi*.
Parrafo. El mensaje ira acom-panado de las memorias de los Secretarios de Estado sobre los asuntos de sus respectivas carte-ras.
Art. 56. El Presidente de la Republica, al concluir su periodo,
competent authority, naming the offense for which the arrest was made, unless the offender has been caught in flagrante delicto.'''' 1 "5. Every prisoner shall be informed of the cause of his imprisonment, and shall be examined at the latest forty-eight hours after he was deprived of his liberty; and no one shall be kept in close confinement without communication with the rest of the world for a longer time than that which in the opinion of the court is indispensable not to render the investigation of the offense fruitless. Nor shall he be detained in prison for a time longer than that established by law."
Art. 53. In cases of armed rebellion the Executive power shall have in addition to the faculty of suspending the guaranties referred to in the foregoing article, the power to take other measures, of temporary character, which may be deemed necessary for the restoration of public order.
Art. 54. Under exceptional and pressing circumstances the Executive power shall be pei'mitted to move the seat of the Government to some other place of the Republic, even if Congress is not in session to decree the removal.
Paragraph. The Executive power shall report to Congress by means of a message the use made by it of the extra faculties enumerated in the foregoing articles.
Art. 55. The Executive power shall attend on the twenty-seventh day of February of each year the opening of Congress, and shall submit a message reporting all the acts of its administration during the year.
Paragraph. The message shall be accompanied by the reports of the secretaries of state on the business of their respective departments.
Art. 56. The President of the Republic shall at the end of his


32
dominican republic.
dara cuenta al Congreso de sus actos administrativos, para los efectos de la atribucion cuarenta y seis del articulo 25.
seccion iii.
De los Secretarios de Estado.
Art. 57. Habra para el despacho de todos los negocios de la Administration siete Secretarios de Estado, a saber: De Interior y Policia, de Relaciones Exteriores, de Justicia c Instruccion Piiblica, de Fomento y Obras Piiblicas, de Hacienda y Comercio, de Guerra y Marina y de Correos y Tele-grafos.
Parrafo. Cuando el servicio publico asi lo exija, el Presidente de la Republica podra nombrar los Subsecretarios de Estado que crea necesarios.
Art. 58. Para ser Secretario 6 Subsecretario de Estado se re-quiere ser dominicano de nacimi-ento ii origen, haber cumplido-veinte y cinco afios de edad y estar en el pleno goce de sus derechos civiles y pohticos.
Parrafo. Los extran jeros podran ser Secretarios 6 Subsecretarios de Estado a los ocho anos de su naturalization.
Art. 59. Todos los actos del Poder Ejecutivo seran ref rendados por los respectivos Secretarios de Estado, sin tal requisite no seran cumplidos por las autoridades, empleados 6 particulares, excepto el nombramiento de los Ministros, como acto personal del Presidente de la Republica.
Art. 60. Todos los actos de los Secretarios de Estado deben arre-
term of office give an account to Congress of all the acts of his administration, for the purposes specified in number 46 of article 25.
section iii.
The Secretaries of State.
Art. 57. There shall be for the transaction of all the business of the administration, seven secretaries of state, who shall be respectively at the head of the following departments, namely: Interior and police, Foreign relations, Justice and public instruction, Promotion of public welfare and public works, Treasury and commerce, War and navy, and Post-offices and telegraphs.
Paragraph. Whenever the public service may require it, the President of the Republic shall have the power to appoint such assistant secretaries of state as he may deem necessary.
Art. 58. The following qualifications shall bo required to be a secretary or assistant secretar}- of state, namely: to be a Dominican by birth or origin, to be over twenty-five years of age, and to be in the full enjoyment of all his civil and political rights.
Paragraph. Foreigners may be secretaries or assistant secretaries of state eight years after their naturalization.
Art. 59. All the acts of the Executive power shall be countersigned by the respective secretaries of state, and without this requisite they shall not be complied with by the authorities, functionaries, or private persons. The only exception to this rule shall be the appointment of the secretaries of state, which is considered a personal act of the President of the Republic.
Art. 60. All the acts of the secretaries of state shall be con-


CONSTITUTION.
33
glarse a esta Constitution y a las leyes, y seran responsables de ellos, aunque reciban orden escrita del Presidente, quien por este he-cho queda tambien responsable.
Art. 61. Los negocios que sean privativos de los Secretarios de
Estado se resolveran en Consejo, y la responsabilidad de ellos re-
: caera sobre el Ministro 6 Ministros que los refrenden.
Art. 62. Los Secretarios de Estado estaran obligados a dar todos los informes escritos 6 ver-bales que se les pidan por el Congreso.
Art. 63. Dentro de los ocho primeros dias de la apertura del Congreso presentaran el presu-puesto de gastos publicos y la cu-enta general del ano anterior.
Art. 64. Los Secretarios de Estado tienen derecho de usar de la palabra en el Congreso, y estan obligados ii concurrir cuando sean llamados a informal-.
titulo viii.
DEL PODEK JUDICIAL.
Art. 65. El Poder Judicial reside en la Suprema Corte de Jus-ticia y en los Tribunales y Juzga-dos inferiores.
secci6n i.
De la Suprema Corte.
Art. 66. La primera magistra-tura judicial del Estado reside en la Suprema Corte de Justicia, la cual se compondra de un Presidente y cuatro Ministros olegidos por el Congreso, y de un Ministro fiscal nombrado por el Poder Ejecutivo, con las cualidades que se expresan:
la, Ser dominicano en el ejerci-cio de sus derechos. 361a07-3
formable to the present Constitution and the laws, and said secretaries shall be held responsible for them, even if they acted in obedience to written orders of the President, who by this fact shall also be held responsible.
Art. 61. Business belonging exclusively to the secretaries of state shall be decided in Council, and the responsibility for the action taken shall belong to the secretary or secretaries who signed the resolution.
Art. 62. The secretaries of state are bound to give Congress, orally or in writing, all the information which may be requested of them.
Art. 63. Within the first eight days of the session of Congress they shall submit a general esti-timate of the public expenses, and an account of the expenditures of the preceding year.
Art. 64. The secretaries of state shall have the right to take the floor in Congress and are bound to appear before it when summoned to give information.
title viii. THE JUDICIAL POWER.
Art. 65. The judicial power is vested in the supreme court of justice, and in the inferior tribunals'and courts.
section i.
The supreme court.
Art. 66. The supreme judicial power of the State is vested in the supremo court of justice, which shall consist of a chief justice and four associate justices elected by Congress, and an attorney-general appointed by the Executive power, each of whom shall have the following qualifications:
1. To be a Dominican in the exercise of his rights.


34
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
2a. Haber cumplido treinta anos de edad, y ser abogado de los tri-bunales de la Eepiiblica.
Parrafo. Los extranjeros natu-ralizados no podran ser Magistra-"dos de la Suprema Corte, sino seis aiios despues de su naturalization.
Art. 67. Los Magistrados, cuando esten en el ejercicio de sus funciones, no podran admitir em-pleo alguno de nombramiento del Poder Ejecutivo.
Art. 68. Los Magistrados de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, dura-ran en su destino cuatro aiios, pu-diendo ser indefinidamente reelec-tos. La ley determinant las di-versas funciones* de aquellos y del Procurador General.
Parrafo. En caso de reemplazo de un Ministro de la Suprema Corte por muerte, renuncia 6 in-habilitacion, el que entrare a suce-derle ejercera sus funciones hasta la cesacion del periodo para que fue nombrado su antecesor. Esta disposition es comun a los Jueces de los Tribunales inferiores.
secci6x ir.
Atribuciones de la Suprema Corte de Justicia.
Art. 69. P^s de la competencia de la Suprema Corte de Justicia:
1. Conocer de las causas civiles y criminales que se formen a los empleados diplomaticos en los casos permitidos por el Derecho de gentes.
2. Conocer de las causas de res-ponsabilidad del Presidente y Vicepresidente do la Republica y de los Secretarios de Estado, cuando sean acusados, segun los casos previstos en esta Constitution. En el caso de ser necesaria la suspension del destino del Ministro o Ministros, la pedini al Presidente de la Republica que la concedera.
2. To be over thirty years of age, and a lawyer admitted to practice before the tribunals of the Republic.
Paragraph. Naturalized foreigners shall not be justices of the supremo court until six years after their naturalization.
Art. 67. The justices while in the exercise of their functions shall not accept any position from the Executive power.
Art. 68. The justices of the supreme court shall serve for four years, and may be indefinitely reelected. The law shall determine their functions and those of the attorney-general.
Paragraph. In case of death, resignation or inability of a justice of the supremo court, the one who may succeed him ad interim, shall serve until the end of the period. This provision is applicable to the judges of the inferior courts.
section ii.
Powers of the supreme court of justice.
Art. 69. The supreme court of justice shall have jurisdiction:
1. To take cognizance of all civil and criminal cases against diplomatic functionaries, when permitted by the law of nations.
2. To take cognizance of the impeachments of the President and vice-president of the Republic, and the secretaries of state, in the cases mentioned in this Constitution. If the suspension of the impeached secretary or secretaries becomes necessary, the tribunals shall ask the President to order it and the latter shall comply with the petition.


CONSTITUTION.
35
3. Conocer de las causas do res-ponsabilidad que, por mal desem-peilo de sus funciones, se formcn a los agentes diplomaticos, acredita-dos ante otra Nacion.
4. Conocer de las causas crimi-nales 6 de rosponsabilidad que se formen a, los delegados 6 comisio-nados, Gobernadores y Jueces de los Tribunales y Juzgados de Pri-mera Instancia de las Provincias y Distritos.
5. Dirimir lascontroversiasque se susciten entre los Gobernadores y Jueces de Primera Instancia en materia de jurisdiction y com-petencia.
0. Declara cuiil sea la ley vi-gente cuando alguna vez se hallen en colision.
7. Conocer de las .apelaciones de los Tribunales y Juzgados de de Primera Instancia.
8. Conocer de las causas de pre-sas maritimas.
9. Conocer como Suprema Corte Marcial on las apelaciones do los juicios militares.
10. Conocer do las causas con-tencioso-administrativas, durante el receso del Congreso.
11. Ejercer las demas atribuciones que determina la ley.
tituxo ix.
DE LOS TRIBUNALES INFERIORES.
Art. 70. Para la buena administration de justicia, el territorio de la Republica se dividira en distritos judicial es, que so subdividing en Comunes cuyo numero y jurisdiction determinara la ley. En aquellos se establecenin Tribunales 6 Juzgados de Primera Instancia, y estas seran regidas por alcaldes.
Parrafo 1. La ley determinara las atribuciones do estos tribunales 6 juzgados, y las que como jueces deberan ejercer los alcal-
3. To take cognizance of the impeachments of diplomatic agents accredited abroad for malfeasance in office.
4. To take cognizance of all cases, whether of impeachment or for common offenses, against delegates or commissioners, governors, and judges of the courts of first instance of the Provinces and Districts.
5. To settle all conflicts of jurisdiction between the governors and the judges of first instance.
6. To decide which law should be observed when found in conflict with others.
7. To take cognizance of appeals from the decisions of the tribunals and courts of first instance.
8. To take cognizance of prize cases.
9. To take cognizance, as supreme military court, of the appeals taken to it from the decisions of the military courts.
10. To take cognizance, during the recess of Congress, of cases or claims of private parties against the Government.
11. To exercise all the other functions determined by law.
title ix.
THE INFERIOR COURTS.
Art. 70. For the proper administration of justice the territory of the Republic shall be divided into judicial districts which shall be subdivided into communes, the number and jurisdiction of which shall be determined by law. Each judicial district shall have a court of firstinstance, and each commune shall have a Mayor.
Paragraph 1. The law shall determine the powers of these courts and those of the mayors, and also the organization to be given to the


36
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
des; asi como tambien determinara la organization de los Conse-jos de guerra, su jurisdiction y sus atribuciones.
Parrafo 2. Queda a cargo de I03 Tribunales de Primera Instancia el conocimiento de los negocios comerciales que ocurran en sus respectivas jurisdicciones, sujetan-dose en esos casos a las disposicio-nes del Codigo de Comercio.
Art. 71. Para ser juez en los Tribunales 6 Juzgados Inferiores se requiere:
1. Ser dominicano en el ejerci-cio de sus derechos.
2. Haber cumplido veinte y cinco aiios de edad por lo menos.
Parrafo 1. Los extranjeros natu-ralizados no podran ser jueces de los Tribunales 6 Juzgados de Primera Instancia, sino cuatro aiios despues de su naturalization.
Parrafo 2. Los Jueces de Primera Instancia duraran en sus funciones cuatro aiios, pudiendo ser reelectos.
tittjlo x.
DE LOS AYUNTAMIENTOS.
Art. 72. Para el gobierno eco-nomico de las Comunes y Cantones habra. Ayuntamientos en todos aquellos que lo determine la ley, y la duration de su ejercicio sera de dos aiios. Su election se hara por las respectivas Asambleas Pri-marias, y sus atribuciones seran objeto de una ley.
Art. 73. Los Ayuntamientos votaran anualmente el presupuesto do sus ingresos y egresos, y segiin la ley, tienen el derecho de regla-mentar cuanto convenga al pro-greso en todo sentido, en sus respectivas localidades, siempre que no contrarien las leyes decretadas por el Poder Legislativo, 6 las disposiciones que emanen del Poder Ejecutivo, cuando para ello este debidamente autorizado.
councils of war, and establish their jurisdiction and powers.
Paragraph 2. The courts of first instance shall take cognizance of the cases of commercial character which may occur within their respective jurisdiction, butthey shall decide them according to the provisions of the Code of Commerce.
Art. 71. To be a judge in the inferior courts, the following shall be required:
1. To be a Dominican in the exercise of the rights of citizenship.
2. To be at least twenty-five years of age.
Paragraph 1. Foreigners shall not be members of the tribunals or courts of first instance until four years after their naturalization.
Paragraph 2. The judges of first instance shall servo for four years and may be reelected.
title x.
MUNICIPAL COUNCILS. -
Art. 72. For the economical government of the communes and cantons there shall be municipal councils in all the places determined by law, and the duration of their service shall be two years. The election of these councils shall be made by the respective primary assemblies, and their power shall be regulated by law.
Art. 73. The municipal councils shall vote every year the budget of their receipts and expenditures; and enact all the Rules and Regulations necessary to secure the progress and welfare in all respects, of their respective localities, provided that nothing therein contained is in violation of the laws or of the decrees of the Executive, when duly authorized to do so.


CONSTITUTION.
37
Art. 74. Los Ayuntamientos, en lo relativo al ejercicio de sus atribuciones administrativas ordi-narias, son independientes, y solo estan sujetos a, rendir las cuentas de recaudacion e inversion de los fondos, con arreglo a la ley. Los Ayuntamientos pueden votar toda clase de arbitrios comunales, cuyo pago se reficra a usos 6 con-sumos verificados en el radio de sus Comunes. Para que sean obli-gatorios deben tener la aproba-cion del Ejecutivo. Para la imposition de los arbitrios municipales que tengan caracter do impuestos no establecidos en la ley, pediran la aprobacion del Congreso, por organo del Ministro de lo Interior.
Parrafo. La independencia de los Ayuntamientos no se refiere a los casos extraordinarios, en los cuales deben siempre regirse por las leyes.
tittjlo xi.
DEL REGIMEN DE LAS PROVINCIAS Y DISTRITOS.
Art. 75. El gobierno de cada Provincia 6 Distrito se ejercera por un ciudadano con la denomination de Gobernador Civil y Mili-tar, dependiente del Poder Ejecutivo, do quien es agente inmedia-to, y con quien se entendera por organo de los Secretarios de Estado on los Despachos do lo Interior y Policia y de Guerra y Marina.
Art. 76. Los Comunes y Can-tones seran gobernados por jefes comunales y cantonales. Estas autoridades dependen directa-mente del Gobernador de la Provincia 6 Distrito respectivo.
Parrafo. Para ser Gobernador so requiere: Tener por lo menos treinta aiios de edad, y las demas cualidades que para Diputado. La ley seiialara las atribuciones de estos f uncionarios.
Art. 74. The municipal councils shall be independent in everything relating to the exercise of their ordinary administrative functions; but they shall give an account of the collection and disbursement of the municipal funds, according to law. The municipal councils shall vote all classes of municipal taxes on property used or consumed within the limits of the municipality. Put the payment of these taxes shall not be compulsory except when approved by the Executive. When levying municipal taxes in the shape of burdens not established in the law, the councils shall ask the approval of Congress through the secretary of the interior.
Paragraph. The independence of the municipal councils is not to be understood to cover cases of extraordinary character, in which they shall always be governed by law.
TITLE XI.
THE GOVERNMENT OF PROVINCES AND DISTRICTS.
Art. 75. The government of each Province or District shall be entrusted to a citizen, under the name of civil and military governor, who shall depend on the Executive power, the immediate agent of which ho shall be and with which he shall communicate through the secretaries of the interior and police, or of war and the navy, as the caso may be.
Art. 76. Communes and cantons shall bo governed by commune and canton chiefs, who shall depend directly upon the governor of the respective Provinces or Districts.
Paragraph. No one shall be a governor who is not at least thirty years of ago and has not all the qualifications required to be a deputy. The law shall fix the powers of these functionaries.


38
dominican republic.
Art. 77. En todo lo concer-niento al orden y seguridad de las Provincias y Distritos y ii su gobierno politico estan subordinados al Gobernador todos los funcio-narios publicos quo residan en la Provincia 6 Distrito, sea cual f uero su clase y denomination.
Ti'tTJLO xii.
secci6n i.
De las Asambleas Primarias.
Art. 78. Para ser suf ragante en las Asambleas Primarias, se nece-sita: Estar en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y politicos y resi-dir en el territorio de la Republica.
Art. 79. Las Asambleas Primarias se reuniran do pleno derecho el dia primero de noviembro del ano anterior al de la expiration de los periodos constitucionales, y procederan inmediatamente a ejercer las funciones que la Constitution y la ley determinan. En los casos que sean convocadas extra-ordinariamente se reuniran treinta dias ti mas tardar despues de la fecha del decreto de convocatoria.
Art. 80. Los Ayuntamientos publicaran el primero de octubre do cada aiio en que deban reunirse las Asambleas Primarias, un aviso preventivo recordando a los su-fragantes el periodo de su reunion; y este mismo Cuerpo, constituido en bufete electoral, recibira los sufragios, de acuerdo con lo que dispone la ley electoral.
Parrafo. En los Puestos Can-tonales ejercera estas funciones el Alcalde, unido a dos vecinos nom-brados por el.
Art. 81. Son atribuciones de las Asambleas Primarias:
1". Elegir el numero de electores que ii cada Comun corresponda
Art. 77. In everything concerning public order and security in the Provinces and Districts, and the political government thereof, all the public functionaries residing in the same, whatever their rank or denomination nuiy be, shall be subordinate to thetJGovernor.
TITLE XII. SECTION I.
The primary assemblies.
Art. 78. No one shall bo a voter in the primary assemblies, who is not in the full enjoyment of his civil and political rights and does not reside in the territory of the Republic.
Art. 79. The primary assemblies shall meet, without previous convocation, on the first day of November of the year preceding the closing of each constitutional period, and shall proceed at once to exercise the functions which the Constitution and the laws have entrusted to them. In case that they are called to meet in extra session, their meeting shall take place at the latest thirty days after the date of the call.
Art. 80. The municipal councils shall publish, on the first of October of the year in which the primary assemblies should meet, a proper notice, reminding the voters of the time of their meeting; and they shall also act as electoral committees and see that the votes are cast, in accordance with the provisions of the electoral law.
Paragraph. In the cantonal subdivisions the functions ascribed to the municipal councils shall bo performed by the mayor, assisted by two citizens, selected by him.
Art. 81. The following are the powers of the primary assemblies:
1. To elect the number of electors corresponding to each com-


CONSTITUTION.
39
nombrar, para formar el Colegio Electoral do la Provincia.
2a. Elegir los Regidores y Sin-dicos que deban formar los respec-tivos Ayuntamientos.
secci6n ii.
De los Colegios Electorates.
Art. 82. Los Colegios Electo-rales se componen de los Electores nombrados por las Asambleas Primarias de las Comunes, y, a, reserva de aumentarlos progresivamente la ley en razon del incremento de la poblacion, se fijan del modo si-guiente:
Provincia de Santo Domingo.
Comunes:
Santo Domingo.................35
San Cristobal................... 10
San Carlos..................... 6
Boya.......................... 4
Bani........................... 6
Monte Plata.................... 4
La Victoria..................... 4
Guerra........................ 4
Bay aguana..................... 4
Llamasa....................... 4
Villa Duarte.................... 2
Villa Mella..................... 2
Canton:
Palenque...................... 2
87
Provincia de Azua.
Comunes:
Azua.......................... 25
San Juan...................... 10
Las Matas...................... 8
San Jose de Ocoa............... 5
Bdnica......................... 4
Cercado....................... 4
56
Distrito de Barahona.
Comunes:
Barahona...................... 20
Neyba......................... 10
Enriquillo..................... 6
Duverge....................... 6
42
mune to form the electoral college of the Province.
2. To elect the members and syndics of the respective municipal councils.
suction ii.
The electoral colleges.
Art. 82. The electoral colleges shall consist of the electors appointed by the primary assemblies of the communes and, reserving the right to increase the number of said electors in proportion to the increase of the population, they shall be at present as follows:
Province of Santo Domingo.
Communes:
Santo Domingo................. 35
San Cristobal................... 10
San Carlos..................... 6
Boyd.......................... 4
Ban!........................... 6
Monte Plata.................... 4
La Victoria..................... 4
Guerra........................ 4
Bayaguana..................... 4
Llamasa...................... 4
Villa Duarte.................... 2
Villa Mella..................... 2
Canton:
, Palenque...................... 2
87
Province of Azua.
Communes:
Azua.......................... 25
San Juan...................... 10
Las Matas...................... 8
San Jose de Ocoa............... 5
Biinioa......................... 4
Cercado........................ 4
56
District of Barahona.
Communes:
Barahona...................... 20
Neyba......................... 10
Enriquillo..................... 6
Duverge....................... 6
42


40
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
Provincia del Seybo.
Comunes:
Santa Cruz del Seybo........... 25
Higiiey........................ 16
Hato Mayor................... 10
Cantones:
Jovero......................... 3
Ramon Santana................ 2
56
Comunes:
Macoris........................ 20
Los Llanos..................... 12
32
Comunes:
Santa Barbara de Samana....... 25
Sabana de la Mar............... 8
Sanchez....................... 6
39
Comunes:
Puerto Plata................... 30
Altamira................'....... 12
Blanco......................... 10
52
Comunes:
Monte Cristi................... 25
Sabaneta....................... 10
Guayubm...................... 10
Dajab6n....................... 5
Cantones:
Guaraguano.................... 2
Restauracion................... 4
56
Provincia de Santiago.
Comunes:
Santiago....................... 35
Mao........................... 12
San Jose de las Matas........... 12
Janico......................... 9
68
Provincia Espaillat.
Comunes:
Moca.......................... 22
Salcedo........................ 6
Province of Seybo.
Communes:
Santa Cruz del Seybo........... 25
Higiiey........................ 16
Hato Mayor................... 10
Cantons:
Jovero......................... 3
Ramon Santana................ 2
56
Communes:
Macon's........................ 20
Los Llanos..................... 12
32
Communes:
Santa Barbara de Samana....... 25
Sabana de la Mar............... 8
Sanchez ....................... 6
39
Communes:
Puerto Plata................... 30
Altamira....................... 12
Blanco......................... 10
52
Communes:
Monte Cristi................... 25
Sabaneta....................... 10
Guayubi'n...................... 10
Dajab6n....................... 5
Cantons:
Guaraguano.................... 2
Restauracion................... 4
56
Province of Santiago.
Communes:
Santiago....................... 35
Mao........................... 12
San Jose de las Matas........... 12
Janico......................... 9
68
Province of Espaillat.
Communes:
Moca........................... 22
Salcedo........................ 6
Distrito de San Pedro de Macoris. District of San Pedro de Macoris.
Distrito de Samana. District of Samand.
Distrito de Puerto Plata. District of Puerto Plata.
Distrito de Monte Cristi. District of Monte Cristi.
28
28


CONSTITUTION.
41
Provincia de La Vega.
Comunes:
Conception de La Vega......... 30
Cotuy......................... 10
Jarabacoa.. ................... 10
Bonao......................... 8
Canton:
Cevicos........................ 2
60
' Distrito Paciftcador.
\ Comunes:
San Francisco de Macoris....... 20
i Villa Eiva..................... 8
\ Matanzas...................... 6
\ Cantones:
i Cabrera........................ 2
I Castillo........................ 2
Parrafo 1. Las cualidades nece-sarias para ser elector, son las siguientes:
1\ Tener por lo menos veintiiin anos, 6 ser casado.
2\ Estar en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y politicos.
3\ Tener su domicilio en la Provincia 6 Distrito en que se efectue la election.
4a. Saber leer y escribir.
Parrafo 2. Los electores dura-ran en el ejercicio de sus funciones cuatro anos.
Art. 83. Los Colegios Electo-rales se reunen de pleno derecho en la cabecera de la Provincia 6 Distrito el veinte y siete de no-viembre del ano anterior al de la expiration de los periodos consti-tucionales, y procederan inmedia-tainente a ejercer las funciones que la Constitution y la ley determinan. En los casos en que sean convo-cados extraordinariamente se reuniran ii mas tardar treinta dias despues de la fecha del decreto de convocatoria.
Art. 84. Son atribuciones de los Colegios Electorales:
la. Elegir los miembros del Congreso y sus respectivos suplentes.
Province of La Vega
Communes:
Conception de La Vega......... 30
Cotuy......................... 10
Jarabacoa...................... 10
Bonao......................... 8
Canton:
Cevicos........................ 2
60
Pacificador District.
Communes:
San Francisco de Macon's....... 20
Villa Riva..................... 8
Matanzas...................... 6
Cantons:
Cabrera........................ 2
Castillo........................ 2
38
Paragraph 1. To be an elector, the following qualifications are required:
1. To be at least twenty-one years of age, or married.
2. To be in the full enjoyment of civil and political rights.
3. To be domiciled in the Province or District in which the election takes place.
4. To know how to read and write.
Paragraph 2. Electors shall serve for four years.
Art. 83. The electoral colleges shall meet without need of being previously called to convene at the chief town of the Province or District on the twenty-seventh of November of the year previous to that of the expiration of the constitutional period, and they shall immediately proceed to perform the functions which the Constitution and the laws have vested in them. When called to convene in extra session they shall meet at the latest thirty days after the date of the decree of convocation.
Art. 84. The powers of the electoral colleges are as follows:
1. To elect the members of Congress and their respective substitutes.


42
dominican republic.
2a. Elegir el Presidente y Vicepresidente de la Republica, segiin las reglas establecidas en el articulo 42.
3a. Reemplazar a todos los fun-cionarios cuyo nombramiento les pertenece en los casos y segiin las reglas establecidas por la Constitution y la ley.
4a. Formar separadamente las listas de los individuos que en sus respectivas Provincias reunan las cualidades exigidas, tanto para ser Magistrados de la Suprema Corte de Justicia como Jueces de los Tribunales Inferiores.
Art. 85. Los Colegios Electorates no tendran-" correspondencia unos con otros, ni ejerceran atri-bucionalguna sin que so encuentre presento la mayoria absoluta de sus miembros; haran sus elecciones una a una y en sesiones perma-nentes.
secckJn iii.
Disposiciones comunes a las Asambleas Primarias y Colegios Elec-torales.
Art. 86. Todas las elecciones se haran por mayoria absoluta de votos y por escrutinio secreto.
Art. 87. Ni las Asambleas Primarias ni los Colegios Elcctorales pueden ocuparse en otro objetoque el de ejercer las atribuciones que les estan designadas por la Constitution y la lej\ Deben disol-verso tan pronto como hayan ter-minado susoperaciones, cuya duration seni fijada por la ley.
TITULO XIII. DE LA FUERZA ARMADA.
Art. 88. La fuerza armada es esencialmente obediente, y notiene en ningiin caso la facultad de de-liberar. El objeto de su creation es defender la independencia y
2. To elect the President and Vice-president of the Republic, according to the rules established in article 42.
3. To fill the places left vacant by functionaries whose appointment belongs to them in the cases and according to the rules established by the Constitution and the laws.
4. To form separately the lists of the individuals who in their respective Provinces have the qualifications required to be justices of the supreme court and judges of the inferior courts.
Art. 85. The electoral colleges shall not correspond with each other nor shall they exercise functions of any kind without a quorum consisting of an absolute majority of their members. They shall make their elections one by one in permanent sessions.
section iii.
Provisions common to the primary assemblies and the electoral colleges.
Art. 86. All elections shall be hy absolute majority of votes, and by secret ballot.
Art. 87. Neither the primary assemblies nor the electoral colleges shall undertake anything different from the exercise of the functions ascribed to them by the Constitution and the laws. They shall adjourn as soon as they have finished their work, the duration of which shall be fixed by law.
TITLE XIII.
THE ARMED FORCE.
Art. 88. The armed force is essentially obedient, and in no case has the power to deliberate. The object of its creation is to defend the independence and liberty


constitution.
43
libertad de la Republica, mantener el orden publico, la Constitution y las leyes.
Parrafo 1. El Congreso fijani anualmente, ii propuesta del Ejecutivo, la fuerza permanente de mar y tierra en tiempo de paz.
Parrafo 2. En ningiin caso podran crearse cuerpos privilegia-dos.
Art. 89. La ley establocera, las reglas de reclutamiento y ascenso de la fuerza armada. En ningiin caso podran crearse otros empleos militares que los que sean indis-pensablemente necesarios, y no se concedera ningiin grado ni emploo sino para llenar una plaza vacante ereada por la ley.
Parrafo. Habra ademas en la Republica una militia nacional, cuya organization y servicios seran determinados por la ley. La de cada Provincia 6 Distrito esta-ra bajo las inmediatas ordenes del Gobernador 6 de quien haga sus veces y no podra ser movilizada sino en los casos y de la manera previstos por la ley. Los grados en ella seran electivos y tempo-rales.
Art. 90. Los militares seran juzgados por Consejos de Guerra, segiin las l'eglas establecidas en el Codigo Penal Militar, cuando los delitos que bayan cometido esten comprendidos en los casos previstos por dicho Codigo; pero en los demas, 6 cuando tengan por coacusados a uno 6 muchos indivi-duos de la clase civil, seran juzgados por los tribunales ordinarios.
TITT7LO xiv.
DISPOSICIONES GENERATES.
Art. 91. Ningiin impuesto general se establocera sino en virtud de una ley, ni podra imponerse
of the Republic, preserve public order, and maintain the Constitution and the laws.
Paragraph 1. Congress shall fix every year, upon recommendation of the Executive, the permanent force on land and sea in time of peace.
Paragraph 2. In no case shall privileged bodies'be created.
Art. 89. The law shall make the proper rules for recruiting and for promotion in the army. In no case military positions which are not indispensably necessary shall be created; and no promotion or increase of rank shall be made or granted, except to fill vacant places created by law which have become vacant.
Paragraph. There shall bo in the Republic, in addition to the army, a militia, the organization and services of which shall be the subject of a law. The militia of each Province or District shall be under the immediate orders of the governor, or of the functionary acting in his place, and it shall not be mobilized, except in the cases and in the manner provided by law. The positions and ranks in the militia shall be elective and temporary.
Art. 90. Military men shall be tried by councils of war, according to the rules established in the Penal Military Code, when the offenses committed by them are included in the provisions of said code; but in all the other cases, or when the charges made against them refer also to other persons of the civil class, the trials shall be held before the ordinary courts.
title xiv.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
Art. 91. No general tax shall be levied, unless by virtue of a law, nor shall any communal tax be


44
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
contribution comunal sino por el Ayuntamiento respectivo y con arreglo a la ley.
Parrafo. Los fondos que proce-dan de estos impuestos, y cuantos formen el haber de las Comunes son sagrados, y no seran aplicados a otra atencion que a aquella que la ley les seiiala.
En el caso que, por una circuns-tancia cualquiera, fuesen distrai-dos de este objeto indebidamente, seran reintegrados por quien los haya distraido, sin perjuicio de las demas responsabilidades lega-les.
Art. 92. Queda para siempre prohibida la emision de papel moneda.
Art. 93. No se extraera del Te-soro publico cantidad alguna para otros usos sino para los determi-nados por la ley, y conforme a los presupuestos que, aprobados por el Congreso, se publicaran preci samente todos los anos. Tampoco podran depositarse fuera de las areas piiblicas los caudales perte-necientes a la Nacion.
Art. 94. El presupuesto de cada Secretaria de Estado se dividira en capitulos. No podran trasladarse sumas do un ramo a otro, ni dis-traerso los fondos de su objeto especial, sino en virtud de una ley.
Art. 95. Habra una Camara de Cuentas permanente, compuesta de cinco ciudadanos nombrados por el Congreso, para examinar las cuentas generales y particulares de la Republica, ydar a aquel, al prin-cipio de cada sesion legislativa, el informe correspondiente respecto de las del aiTo anterior.
Parrafo 1. Los miembros de la Camara de Cuentas duraran cuatro aiios en el ejercicio de sus funciones, y no podran ser redupidos
levied, except by the respective municipal council and according to law.
Paragraph. The funds resulting from these taxes and all others belonging to the communes are sacred, and shall not be used for any other purposes than those determined by law.
In case that owing to some circumstance they are applied to a different purpose, they shall be restored by the party who unduly used them, and said partjT shall incur in addition the proper legal responsibility.
Art. 92. The issuing of paper money is forever prohibited.
Art. 93. No sum of money shall be taken out of the treasury for any other purposes than those determined by law, and according to the Budget approved by Congress, which shall be published every year. The funds belonging to the Nation shall not be deposited outside of the treasury.
Art. 94. The Budget of each department shall be divided into chapters. No item shall be transferred from one branch to another branch of the service, nor shall any money be used in othei* things different from the special object for which it was appropriated, unless by virtue of a law.
Art. 95. There shall be a permanent Court of accounts, consisting of five citizens appointed by Congress, whose duty it shall be to examine the general and special accounts of the Republic, and report to Congress at the beginning of each session the result of the examination of those of the previous year.
Paragraph 1. The members of the Court of accounts shall serve for four years and shall not be arrested or imprisoned without being


constitution.
45
a prision sin previa acusacion ante el Congreso, y en su receso, ante la Suprema Corte de Justicia.
Parrafo 2. La ley determinara las atribuciones de esta Camara.
Art. 96. Se prohibe la funda-cion de toda clase de censos a per-petuidad, tributos, capellanias, mayorazgos y toda clase de vincu-laciones.
Art. 97. Se celebraran anual-mente, con la mayor solemnidad, en toda la Republica, los dias vein-tisiete de febrero, aniversario de la Independencia, y diez y sois de agosto, aniversario de la Restauracion, unicas fiestas nacionales.
Art. 98. El pabellon de la Republica se compone de los colores azul y rojo colocados en cuarteles esquinados, y divididos en el cen-tro por una cruz blanca del ancho de la mitad de uno de los otros colores, y lleva en el centro el es-cudo de armas de la Republica.
Parrafo. El pabellon mercante es el mismo que el del Estado sin llevar el escudo.
Art. 99. El escudo de armas de la Republica es una cruz, a cuyo pie esta abierto el libro de fos Evangelios, y ambos sobresalen de entre un trofeo de armas en que se ve el simbolo de la libertad, enla-zado con una cinta en que va el siguiente lema: Dios, Patria y Libertad."
Art. 100. Todo juramento debe ser exigido en virtud de la Constitution y la ley, y ningiin funcio-nario ni empleado publico podra entrar en el ejercicio de sus funciones, si no lo hubiere prestado ante la autoridad competente.
Art. 101. Los poderes encar-gados por esta Constitution de declarar la guerra, no deberan ha-
previously arraigned before Congress, and when Congress is not in session, before the supreme court of justice.
Paragraph 2. The law shall determine the powers of this court.
Art. 96. The creation of perpetual trusts or mortgages, for ecclesiastical or other purposes, and all kinds of entailments of property are forbidden.
Art. 97. Only the twenty-seventh of February, anniversary of the independence, and the sixteenth of August, anniversary of the restoration, shall be national holidays, and they shall be celebrated annually with the greatest solemnity in all the Republic.
Art. 98. The flag of the Republic shall be divided into four quarters, two blue and two red, those of the same color to be placed diagonally with each other, and divided in the center by a white cross of a width equal to half of either of the other colors, having in its center the coat of arms of the Republic.
Paragraph. The merchant flag shall be the same without the coat of arms.
Art. 99. The coat of arms of the Republic shall consist of a cross, having at its foot the book of the Gospels opened, the cross and the book coming out of a trophy in which the symbol of liberty is seen surrounded by a ribbon with the following legend: "Dios, Patria y Libertad.." (God, Country and Liberty.)
Art. 100. Oaths of office shall be required in all cases, under the Constitution and the laws, and no public functionary shall enter into the discharge of his duties without said oath having been administered to him by competent authority.
Art. 101. The powers entrusted by this Constitution with the declaration of war shall not make that


46
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
cerlo sin antes proponer el arbi-tramiento de una 6 mas potoncias amigas.
Parrafo. Paraafianzaresteprin-cipio, debera introducirse en todos los Tratados internacionales que celebre la Republica esta clausula: 'Todas las dif erenciasque pudiesen suscitarse entre las partes contra-tantes deberan ser sometidas al arbitramiento de una 6 mas na-ciones amigas, antes de apelar a la guerra."
Art. 102. Toda autoridad usur-pada es ineficaz y sus actos son nulos. Toda decision acordada por requisition de la fuerza armada 6 de reunion de individuos en actitud subversive, es nula de derecho y carece de eficacia.
Art. 103. Se prohibe a toda corporation 6 autoridad el ejercicio de cualquiera funcion quo no le este conferida por la Constitution y las leyes.
Art. 104. Todo ciudadano podra acusar a cualquier funcionario 6 empleado publico, ante sus respec-tivos superiores 6 ante las autori-dades que determine la ley.
Art. 105. Los empleados de la Republica no deberan admitir dadi-vas, cargos, honores 6 recompensas do nacion extranjera, sin permiso del Congreso.
Art. 106. El Derecho de gentes hace parte do la legislation de la Republica; en consecuencia, puede ponerse termino a la guerra civil por medio de tratados entre los beligerantes, reconocidT' romo tales, quienes deberan respitar las practices humanitarias de los pueblos cristianos y civilizados.
Art. 107. A ninguno se le puede obligar ii hacer lo que la ley no manda, ni impedirle lo que la ley no prohibe.
declaration without first proposing arbitration by one or more friend^' nations.
Paragraph. To reaffirm this principle all international treaties concluded by this Republic shall contain the following clause: "All the differences which may arise between the contracting parties shall be submitted to arbitration by one or more friendly nations before appealing to war."
Art. 102. Usurped authority is inefficient and the acts thereof shall be void. Every decision reached under the pressure of the armed-forces or of a reunion of individuals in riotous attitude is null in law and lacks efficiency.
Art. 103. The exercise by any f corporation or individual author- I ity of any functions which are not I conferred on them by the Consti-1: tution and the laws is forbidden.
Art. 104. Every citizen shall have the power to accuse any public functionary or employee before their respective superiors in rank, or before the authorities designated by law.
Art. 105. The employees of the Republ ic shall not accept any gifts, employment, honors, or rewards from a foreign nation without permission of Congress.
Art. 106. The Law of nations is < made a part of the Law of the Republic; therefore, civil war may be terminated by means of treaties between belligerents recognized as such, and said belligerents shall be bound to respect the humanita-practices of Christian and civilized nations.
Art. 107. None shall be compelled to do what is not ordered by law, or prevented from doing what is not forbidden by the same.


constitution.
47
T1TTJLO XV.
DE LA REFORMA DE LA CONSTITUCION.
Art. 108. Esta Constitucion podra ser reformada, si lo solicitare la mayoria absoluta del Congreso, y aprobaren la reforma las tres cuartas partes de sus miembros.
Parrafo. Los puntos cuya modification, adicion 6 supresion se pidan, seran los unicos que deberan discutirse.
Art. 109. Para proceder ii la reforma se hace indispensable que en tres sesiones distintas, con intervalo de tres dias por lo menos entre una y otra sesion, reconozcan la necesidad de la reforma las dos terceras partes de los veinticuatro miembros del Congreso.
Art. 110. Declarada por el Congreso la necesidad de la reforma, se redactara el proyecto corres-pondiente y se discutira en tres sesiones, como las demsis leyes.
Art. 111. La facultad que tiene el Congreso para reformar la Constitucion, no se extiende a la forma de gobierno, que sera siempre republicano, democratico, bajo la forma representativa, alternative y responsable.
Art. 112. La presente Constitucion empezara a regir desde el dia de su promulgation oficial en la Republica.
TITULO XVI.
DISPOSICIONES TRANSITORIAS.
Art. 113. Todas las leyes actuates no contrarias ii la presente Constitucion, continuaran en vigor mientras no sean abrogadas por otras nuevas.
Art. 114. La presente Constitution serii promulgada por el Poder Ejecutivo de la Republica.
TITLE xv.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
Art. 108. The present Constitution may be amended, if so requested, by an absolute majority of Congress, and if three-fourths of its members approve the amendment.
Paragraph. The only points to be discussed in this case shall bo those whose modification, addition, or suppression has been requested.
Art. 109. No amendment to the Constitution shall be undertaken unless a majority, consisting of two-thirds of the twenty-four members of Congress, recognize the necessity of the amendment, this recognition to be made in three different meetings with an interval of three daj's at least be- tween each of them.
Art. 110. The necessity of the amendment having been recognized by Congress, the proper draft shall be drawn and discussed in three meetings, as all other laws.
Art. 111. The power of Congress to amend the Constitution shall not be understood to go as far as to amend the form of government, which shall be always republican, democratic, representative, alternative, and responsible.
Art. 112. The present Constitution shall go into effect on the day of its official promulgation in the Republic.
TITLE XVI. TRANSIENT PROVISIONS.
Art. 113. All the laws now in force which are not contrary to the present Constitution shall remain in existence until abrogated by new laws.
Art. 114. The present Constitution shall be promulgated by the Executive power of the Republic.


48
dominican republic.
Art. 115. El Presidente de la Republica jurara la presente Constitucion ante el Congreso Nacional, en la presente Legislatura.
Dada en la ciudad de Santo Domingo, Capital de la Republica, a los doce dias del mes de junio del aiio de mil ochocientos noventa y seis; cincuenta y tres de lalnde-pendencia y treinta y tres de la Restauracion.
Art. 115. The President of the Republic shall take the oath to observe the present Constitution before the National Congress in the present session.
Given at the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Republic, on the twelfth day of the month of June, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-six, fifty-third of the independence and thirty-third of the restoration.


REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
HISTORICAL NOTES.
The recognized authority of the French in the western part of the island, which the natives called Haiti, and the Spaniards named La Espaiiola and afterwards Santo Domingo, dates, as stated in the chapter relating to the Dominican Republic, from 1641, at which time, under the arrangement entered into by Governors Seguka and Levassetjr, a limit was fixed between the territory belonging to Spain and the territory occupied by French settlersand much more officially, if that can be saidand with much more legal force, from 1697, when, in conformity with one of the treaties signed at Riswick, the King of Spain formally ceded that territory to the King of France.
The French part or the island succeeded, for various reasons, in attaining a condition of extreme prosperity. The colony was often cited as being one of the most favored places in the world. The importation of African slaves, by which many thousands of laborers were annually brought to its fertile soil, caused the resources of that
fiortion of the island to be developed to an almost incredible extent, n 1789, when the French revolution broke out, and an era of disturbances and dire calamities began in what was up to that time the most precious jewel of the Crown of France, the population of Haiti consisted of about 40,000 white inhabitants and over 640,000 negroes, most of them African slaves. In fact, according to Ardodin," the number of free colored people at that time in the colony did not exceed 40,000. Referring to the 600,000 slaves, the same writer remarks that the number should have been much larger, because the Haitian censuses of those days "disguised" as much as possible "the numerical force" of the slave element.
The clash between the doctrines of most radical character proclaimed in France with respect to liberty, equality, and fraternity, and the conservative attempts of the French planters in Haiti, could not possibly be postponed, or deprived of unusual violence. But neither is this the proper place to refer, except by a passing remark, to the horrors of what is called "The Negro Insurrection in Santo Domingo," or "The Massacre of the Whites," which put the country in the hands of the ex-slaves, or, better to say, of their leaders, nor is that reference indispensable for the intelligent study, which is intended in these "Notes," of the origin and development of constitutional law and doctrine among the Haitian people.
"Etudes sur l'Histoire d'Haiti, vol. 1, p. 23. 361a07-1 49


50
republic of haiti.
It is necessary, however, to state that on January 1, 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines, Commander in Chief of the Haitian Army, associated with other generals serving under him, issued at Gonaives a proclamation, which is usually known as the Declaration of Independence of Haiti," by which it was said and proclaimed to the whole world and to posterity" that the signers of that document renounced forever their allegiance to France, and were ready to die sooner than submit to and live under her domination."
Exactly on the same date, and signed by the same generals except the Commander in Chief, another proclamation was issued, announcing to the world that they, the said generals, had appointed Jean Jacques Dessalines Governor of Haiti for life, and that they bound themselves to blindly obey the laws emanating from his authority."
Dessalines accepted the position, but no later than six weeks thereafter, February 15, 1804, he issued an "Address to the Generals of the Army and to the Civil and Military Authorities, Organs of the People," informing them that Haiti had become an Empire, and that the august title of Emperor had been bestowed upon him.
A Constitution of the Empire of Haiti, framed by the generals, "as faithful organs and"interpreters of the will of the Haitian people," was approved by the Emperor and promulgated on May 20, 1805.a
Dessalines was killed by Haitian troops in rebellion against his authority, on October 17, 1806, and a Provisional Government was then established upon the ruins of the Empire. Gen. Henri Christopiie was placed at the head of this Government. A Constitutional Assembly was called to convene, at Port au Prince, and framed a Constitution, which bears the date of December 27, 1806, and changed the Empire into a Republic. This Constitution was based to a great extent upon the French one which had created the Directory. The President was not given by it any power of importance; but whatever it was, the election held by the Assembly on December 28 vested it in Christopiie.
After different vicissitudes, which need not be mentioned here, civil war-broke out in the country, and caused it to be divided into a Republic in the southern part and a Monarchy in the northern. Petion (Alexandre) was made President of the former, and exercised his authority as such until 1818, when he was succeeded by Boyer (Jean Pierre), the seat of the Government being Port au Prince; and Christophe was made King, and exercised his authority as Henry I, "King of Haiti and Sovereign of the Islands of Tortuga, Gonaive, and others adjacent thereto," until October 16, 1820, when he committed suicide at his fortified palace at Sans Souci, the seat of his Government being Cape Haitien. The death of Christopiie brought about the reunion of the two sections as one Republic, the Presidency of which was given to Boyer, who retained it until 1843, when he was compelled to emigrate. During his occupancy of the position of Chief Magistrate of the Republic, the French Government formally recognized (1825) the independence of Haiti.
Boyer was succeeded by Soulouque (Faustine), who in 1849 reestablished the Empire and became an Emperor under the name and title of Faustine I. Nine years thereafter (1858) he was dethroned and driven out of the country.
Ardouin: Etudes, etc., Vol. VI, pp. 30,31,98,146,147.


HISTORICAL NOTES.
51
The restoration of the Republic brought Geffrard (Fabre Nicholas) to the Presidency, and he remained in office until 1866, when he was exiled and replaced by Salnave, who also became an Emperor, was dethroned, condemned to death, and executed in 1870.
Between the latter date and the date of the Constitution, the text of which follows these "Notes"that is to say, for a period of nineteen yearsHaiti has passed through further trials and disturbances, but everything seems now to indicate that peace and order, under the beneficent influence of that well-meditated instrument, will finally prevail in that country.


CONSTITUTION.
(October 9, 1889.)
Le peuple ha'itien proclame la presente Constitution pour consa-crer ses droits, ses garanties civiles et politiques, sa souverainete et son independance nationales.
tithe puemiek. chapitre i.
Du territoire de la Republique.
Article 1. La Republique d'Haiti estuneet indivisible, essen-tiellement libre, souveraine, et independante.
: Son territoire et les iles qui en dependent sont inviolables et ne peuvent etre alienes par aucun ou aucune convention.
Cee iles adjacentes sont: La Tortue, la Gonave, Pile a Vaches, les Cayemittes, la Navase, la Grande Caye, et toutes autres qui se trouvent placees dans le rayon des limites consacrees par le Droit des gens.
Art. 2. Le territoire de la Republique est diivise en Departe-ments.
Chaque Departement est sub-divise en arrondissements, et chaque arrondissement en communes.
Le nombre et les limites de ces divisions et subdivisions sont determines par la loi.
52
The Haitian people proclaim the present Constitution to consecrate their rights, their civil and political guaranties, their sovereignty, and their national independence.
title first. chapter I.
The territory of the Republic.
Article 1. The Republic of Haiti is one and indivisible, essentially free, sovereign, and independent.
Its territory and the islands adjacent thereto are inviolable, and can not be alienated by any person or through any convention.
These islands adjacent are: La Tortue, La Gonave, L'Isle a Vaches, Les Cayemittes, La Navase, la Grande Caye, and all the others to be found within the limits of the zone established by the Law of nations.
Art. 2. The territory of the Republic is divided into Departments.
Each Department is subdivided into districts (arrondissements), and each district into communes.
The number and limits of these divisions and subdivisions shall be determined by law.


CONSTITUTION.
53
titre second. chapitre i.
Des haitiens et de leurs droits.
Art. 3. Sont Haitiens:
1. Tout individu ne en Hai'ti, ou ailleurs, de pere haitien.
2. Tout individu ne egalement en Haiti, ou ailleurs, de mere hai-tienne, sans etre reconnu par son pere.
3. Tout individu ne en Hai'ti, de pere etranger, ou, s'il n'est pas reconnu par son pere, de mere etrangere, pourvu qu'il descende de la race afrieaine.
4. Tous ceux qui jusqu'a ce jour ont ete reconnus comme hai-tiens.
Art. 4. Tout etranger est habile a, devenir haitien suivant les regies etablies par la loi.
Art. 5. L'etrangere mariee a un haitien suit la condition de son mari.
La femme hai'tienne mariee a un Stranger perd sa qualite d'ha'f-tienne.
En cas de dissolution du mariage, elle pourra recouvrer sa qualite d'hai'tienne, en remplissant les f or-malites voulues par la loi.
L'hai'tienne qui aura perdu sa qualite par le fait de son mariage ayec l'etranger, ne pourra posseder ni acquerir d'immeubles en Haiti, a quelque titre que ce soit.
Une loi reglera le mode d'expro-priation des immeubles qu'elle possedait avant son mariage.
Art. 6. Nul, s'il n'est haitien, ne peut etre proprietaire de biens fonciers en Haiti, a. quelque titre que ce soit, ni acquerir aucun immeuble.
Art. 7. Tout haitien qui se fait naturaliser etranger en due forme, ne pourra revenir dans le pays qu'apres cinq anees; et s'il veut redevenir haitien, il sera tenu de remplir toutes les conditions et
title second. chapter i.
Haitians and their rights.
Art. 3. Haitians are:
1. All those born in Haiti or elsewhere of a Haitian father.
2. All those born in Haiti or elsewhere of a Haitian mother, and not recognized by their father.
3. All those born in Haiti of a foreign father, or, if not recognized by their father, of a foreign mother, provided that they belong to the African race.
4. All those who up to the present date have been recognized as Haitians.
Art. 4. All foreigners may become Haitians by following the rules established by law.
Art. 5. A foreign woman married to a Haitian shall follow the condition of her husband.
A Haitian woman married to a foreigner shall lose her Haitian character.
In case of dissolution of the marriage she may recover her Haitian nationality by complying with the requisites established by law.
A Haitian woman who has lost her national character by her marriage to a foreigner shall be disqualified from holding or acquiring by any reason whatever real property in Haiti.
The law shall provide for the condemnation of the property owned by her before her marriage.
Art. 6. Haitians alone can be owners of real property in Haiti or acquire it by any means whatever.
Art. 7. Haitians after being naturalized in due form in a foreign country shall bo disqualified from returning to Haiti before the lapse of five years; and if they wish to reacquire their original


54
REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
formalites imposees a l'etranger par la loi.
chapitre ii.
Des droits civils et politiques.
Art. 8. La reunion des droits civiles et politiques constitue la qualite de citoyen.
L'exercice des droits civiles independants des droits politiques, est regie par la loi.
Art. 9. Tout citoyen age de vingt.-et-un ans accomplis exerce les droits politiques, s'il re"unit d'ailleurs les autres conditions de-terminees par la Constitution.
Les haitiens naturalises ne sont admis a cet exercice qu'apres cinq annees de residence dans la Republique.
Art. 10. La qualite de citoyen d'Haiti se perd:
1. Par la naturalisation acquise en pays etranger.
2. Par l'abandon do la patrie au moment d'un danger imminent.
3. Par l'acceptation non auto-risee de fonctions publiques, ou de pension, conferees par un gou-vernement etranger.
4. Par tous services rendus aux ennemis de la Republique, ou par transactions faites avec eux.
5. Par la condamnation contra-dictoire et definitive a des peines perpetuelles a, la fois afflictives et infamantes.
Art. 11. L'exercice des droits politiques est suspendu:
1. Parl'etat de banqueroutier simple on frauduleux.
2. Parl'etatd, interdiction judi-ciaire, d'accusation, ou de con-tumace.
3. Par suite de condamnation judiciaire emportant la suspension des droits civiles.
nationality they shall be bound to fulfill all the requisites and formalities imposed by law on foreigners.
chapter ii.
Civil and political rights.
Art. 8. The reunion of civil and political rights constitutes the quality of citizen.
The exercise of the civil rights, independent of the political rights, shall be regulated by law.
Art. 9. Every citizen over twenty-one years of age is entitled to exercise his political rights if he has the other qualifications required by the Constitution.
Haitians by naturalization shall not be admitted to the exercise of political rights until after they have resided five years in the territory of the Republic.
Art. 10. Haitian citizenship shall be lost:
1. By naturalization in a foreign county.
2. By the abandonment of the country at a moment of imminent danger.
3. By the unauthorized acceptance of public functions or pensions from a foreign Government.
4. By any kind of service rendered to the enemies of the Republic or by doing business with them.
5. By final sentence rendered upon proper trial and conviction, imposing penalties perpetual, corporal and infamatory.
Art. 11. The exercise of political rights shall be suspended:
1. By the condition of bankruptcy, whether ordinary or fraudulent.
2. By judicial decree, or by the fact that the party concerned has been indicted or declared to be in contumacy.
3. By virtue of a judicial condemnation carrying with it the suspension of civil rights.


CONSTITUTION.
55
4. Par suite d'un jugement constatant le refus de service de la garde nationale et celui de faire partie du jury.
La suspension cesse avec les causes qui y ont donne lieu.
Art. 12. La loi regie los cas ou 1'on peut recouvrer la qualite de citoyen, le mode et les conditions a remplir a cet effet.
chapitre iii.
Du Droit public.
Art. 13. Les haitiens sont egaux devant la loi. lis sont tous egalement admissibles aux emplois civils et militaires sans autre motif de preference que le merite personnel, ou les services rendus au pays.-
Une loi reglera les conditions d'admissibilite.
Art. 14. La liberte individuelle est garantie. Nul ne peut etre detenu que sous la prevention d'un fait puni par la loi, et sur le mandat d'un fonctionnairelegalement competent. Pour que ce mandat puisse etre execute, il faut:
1. Qu'il exprime formellement le motif de la detention et la disposition de loi qui punit le fait impute.
2. Qu'il soit notifie et qu'il en soit laisse copie a la personne de-tenue au moment de l'execution.
Hors le cas de flagrant delit, l'arrestation est soumise aux formes et conditions ci-dessus.
Toute arrestation ou detention faites contrairement a cette disposition, toute violence ou rigueur employee dans l'execution d'un mandat, sont des actes arbitraires contre lesquels les parties lesees peuvent, sans autorisation prea-lable, se pourvoir devant les tribu-
4. By virtue of a judicial decision showing that the party referred to has refused to do service in the national guard or in the jury.
The suspension shall terminate as soon as the reason out of which it arises ceases to exist.
Art. 12. The law shall fix the cases in which citizenship can be recovered andthe mannerand form in which this can be done.
chapter iii.
Public law.
Art. 13. Haitians are equal before the law. They are all admissible to civil and military employments and no one shall be preferred to another except upon personal merit or services rendered to the country.
The law shall regulate the conditions of admissibility.
Art. 14. Individual liberty is guaranteed. No one can be detained except upon probable cause relating to an act punishable by law and by order of a competent functionary. The warrant of arrest shall not be executed, unless:
1. It formally sets forth the cause of the arrest and the provision of the law which punishes the imputed fact.
2. Notice, together with a copy of the warrant, is given to the accused party at the moment of the arrest.
Only in case of flagrante delicto, the arrest shall bo exempted from the forms and conditions above stated.
All arrests or detentions made in opposition to this provision and all acts of violence or rigor accompanying the arrest are declared to be arbitrary acts, against which the aggrieved parties may, without previous authorization, complain before the competent tribunal and


56
REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
naux competents, en poursuivant soit les auteurs, soit les executeurs.
Art. 15. Nul ne peut etre distrait des juges que la Constitution ou la loi lui assigne.
Art. 16. Aucune visite domi-ciliere, aucune saisie de papiers, ne peut avoir lieu qu'en vertu de la loi et dans les formes qu'elle prescrit.
Art. 17. Aucune loi ne peut avoir d'effet retroactif.
La loi retroagit toutes les fois qu'elle ravit des droits acquis.
Art. 18. Nulle peine ne peut etre etablie que par la loi, ni ap-pliquee que dans les cas qu'elle determine.
Art. 19. La propriete est inviolable et sacre"e.
Des concessions et ventes legale-ment faites par l'Etat demeurent irrevocables.
Nul ne peut etre prive de sa propriete que pour cause d'utilite publique, dans les cas et de la maniere etablis par la loi, et moyennant une juste et prealable indemnite.
La confiscation des biens en matiere politique ne peut etre etablie.
Art. 20. La peine de mort est abolie en matiere politique. La loi determinera la peine par laquelle elle doit etre remplacee.
Art. 21. Chacun a le droit d'exprimer ses opinions en toutes matieres, d'ecriro, d'imprimer et de publier ses pensees.
Les ecrits ne peuvent etre sou-mis a, aucune censure prealable.
Les abus de ce droit sont definis et reprimes par la loi, sans qu'il puisso etre portc atteinte a. la liberte de la presse.
Art. 22. Tous les cultes sont egalement libres.
Chacun a le droit de professer sa religion et d'exercer librement son culte, pourvu qu'il ne trouble pas 1'ordre public.
cause the authors or executors of the outrage to be prosecuted.
Art. 15. No one can be tried by other judges than those established by the Constitution or the law.
Art. 16. Domiciliary visits and seizure of papers shall not be made except by virtue of law and in the manner and form provided by it.
Art. 17. No law shall have retroactive effect. A law is supposed to be retroactive when vested rights are taken away by it.
Art. 18. No penalty shall be established except by law, nor shall any penalty be imposed except in the cases which the law has determined.
Art. 19. Property is inviolable and sacred.
Concessions and sales legally made by the State shall be irrevocable.
No one shall be deprived of his property except for public use and in the cases and in the manner established by law, upon previous payment of a just indemnity.
Property shall not be confiscated for political reasons.
Art. 20. The penalty of death for political offenses is abolished. The law shall fix the penalty to be imposed in place thereof.
Art. 21. Everyone has the right to express his opinions on all matters, and to write, print, or publish what he thinks.
Writings shall not be submitted to previous censorship.
Abuses of the liberty of the press shall be defined and punished by law, without thereby abridging in any way whatever the freedom itself.
Art. 22. All kinds of worship are equally free.
Everyone has the right to profess and freely practice his religion, provided that the public order is not disturbed thereby.


CONSTITUTION.
57
Art. 23. Le Gouverncment determine la circonscription territo-riale des paroisses que desservent les ministros de la religion catho-lique, apostolique et romaine.
Art. 24. L'enseignement est libre.
L'instruction primairo est obli-gatoire. t
L'instruction est gratuite a tous les degres.
La liberte d'enseignement s'exer-ce conformement a la loi et sous la haute surveillance de l'Etat.
Art. 25. Le jury est etabli en matiere criminelle et pour delits politiques et de la presso.
Neanmoins, en cas d'etat de siege legalement declare, les crimes et delits contre la surete interieure et exterieurede l'Etat, et en general tous les delits politiques com-mis par la voie de la presse ou autrement, seront juge"s par les tribunaux criminels ou correc-tionnels competents sans assistance du jury.
Art. 26. Les haitiens out le droit de s'assembler paisiblement et sans armes, meme pour s'oc-cuper d'objets politiques, en se conformant aux lois qui peuvent regir l'exercice de ce droit, sans neanmoins le soumettre a. autori-sation prealable.
Cette disposition ne s'applique point aux rassemblements dans les lieux publics, lesquels restent en-tierementsoumisaux lois de police.
Art. 27. Les haitiens ont le droit de s'associer; ce droit ne peut etre soumis a aucune mesure preventive.
Art. 28. Le droit de petition est exerce personnellement par un ou plusieurs individus, jamais au nom d'un corps.
Les petitions peuvent &tre adressees, soit au Pouvoir Legisla-tif, soit a chacune des deux Cham-bres Legislatives.
Art. 23. The Government shall fix the territorial limits of the parishes served by the ministers of the Eoman Catholic Apostolic Religion.
Art. 24. Teaching is free.
v
Primary instruction shall be compulsory.
Instruction shall be gratuitous in all its degrees.
The' freedom of teaching is exercised under the law and the high supervision of the State.
Art. 25. Trial by jury is established in all criminal cases, and also for political offenses, and offenses committed through the press.
Nevertheless, when a state of siege has been legally proclaimed, the offenses against the interior and exterior safety of the State, and, in general, all political offenses committed through the press or otherwise, shall be tried by the competent criminal or correctional tribunals, without the assistance of a jury.
Art. 26. Haitians have the right to assemble peaceably and without arms, even for discussing political matters, provided that they comply with the laws regulating the exorcise of this right. No previous authorization shall be required for the holding of these meetings.
This provision shall not be applicable to meetings in public places, which shall bo subject in all respects to the police regulations.
Art. 27. Haitians have the right to join and form associations. The exercise of this right shall not require any previous permit.
Art. 28. The right of petition is personally exercised by one or several individuals, never in the name of a bodj'.
The petitions may be addressed either to the legislative power or to each legislative chamber.


58
republic of haiti.
Art. 29. Le secret des lettres est inviolable.
La loi determine quels sont les agents responsables de la violation des lettres confiees it la poste.
Art. 30. L'emploi des langues usitees en Hai'ti est facultatif; il ne peut etre regie que par la loi et seulement pour Pautorite publique et pour les affaires judiciaires.
Art. 31. Nulle autorisation prealable n'est necessaire pour exer-cer des poursuites contre les fonc-tionnaires publics pour faits de leur administration, sauf ce qui est statue a l'egard des Secretaires d'Etat.
Art. 32. La loi ne peut ajouter ni deroger a, la Constitution.
La lettre de la Constitution doit toujours prevaloir.
TITRE TROISIEME.
CHAPITRE I.
De la Souverainete Nationale et des Pouvoirs Auxquels E Exercice en est delegue.
Art. 33. La souverainete na-tionale reside dans l'universalite des-citoyens.
Art. 34. L'exercice de cette souverainete est delegue a, trois pou-voirs.
Ces pouvoirs sont: le Pouvoir Legislatif, le Pouvoir Executif et le Pouvoir Judiciaire.
lis forment le Gouvernement de la Republique, lequel est essen-tiellement democratique et repre-sentatif.
Art. 35. Chaque Pouvoir est in-dependant des deux autres dans ses attributions, qu'il exerce se-parement. Aucun d'eux ne peut les deleguer, ni sortir des limites qui lui sont fixees. ,
La responsabilite est attachee a chacun des actes des trois pouvoirs.
Art. 29. The secrecy of private correspondence is inviolable.
The law shall determine the responsibility to be incurred for the violation of correspondence entrusted to the mails.
Art. 30. The employment of the languages used in Haiti is optional. This employment can not.be regulated except by law, and this only for official purposes and in judicial matters.
Art. 31. No previous authorization shall be required to prosecute public functionaries for offenses committed by them during their administration; but the provisions herein made in regard to the secretaries of state shall be, nevertheless, observed.
Art. 32. Nothing shall be added to the Constitution, or taken away from it, by means of a law.
The letter of the Constitution shall always prevail.
TITLE THIRD.
CHAPTER I.
The National Sovereignty and the Powers to which the Exercise Thereof is delegated.
Art 33. The national sovereignty is vested in the universality of the citizens.
Art. 34. The exercise of this sovereignty is delegated to three powers.
These three powers are the legislative, the executive, and the judicial.
They form the Government of the Republic, which is essentially democratic and representative.
Art. 35. The three powers are independent from each other in the exercise of their own functions, which they perform separately. Neither of them can delegate its faculties, nor go beyond the limits ascribed to it.
Responsibility is involved by every act of the three powers.


CONSTITUTION.
59
Art. 36. La puissance legislative est exercee par deux Cham-bres representatives:
Une Chambre des Communes et un Senat qui forment le Corps Legislatif.
Art. 37. Les deux Cbambres se reunissent en Assemblee Nationale dans les cas prevus par la Constitution.
Les pouvoirs de 1'Assemblee Nationale sont limites et ne peuvent s'etendre a d'autres objets qu'a ceux qui lui sont specialement attributes par la Constitution.
Art. 38. La puissance executive est deleguee a, un citoyen qui prend le titre de President de la Republique d'Haiti, et ne peut recevoir aucune autre qualification.
Art. 3. La puissance judiciaire est exercee par un Tribunal de Cassation, des Tribunauxd'Appel, des Tribunaux Civils, de Commerce et de Paix.
Art. 40. La responsabilite in-dividuelle est formellement attached a toutes les fonctions publi-ques.
Une loi re"glera le mode a, suivre dans le cas de poursuites contre les fonctionnaires publics pour fait de Ieur administration.
chapitre ii.
Du Pouvoir Legislatif.
Section I. He la Chambre des Communes.
Art. 41. La Chambre des Communes se compose des Represen-tants du peuple dont Pelection se faitdirectement par les assemblies primaires de chaque Commune, suivant le mode etabli par la loi.
Art. 42. Le nombre des Repre-sentants sera fixe en raison de la population de chaque Commune.
Art. 36. The legislative power is vested in two representative chambers:
One called the Chamber of Representatives, and the other, the Senate, which form by their union the legislative body.
Art. 37. Both chambers shall meet in joint session and form the National Assembly in the cases provided by the Constitution.
The powers of the National Assembly are limited and can not embrace other subjects than those especially attributed to it by the Constitution.
Art. 38. The Executive power is vested in a citizen who takes the title of "President of the Republic of Haiti," and shall receive no other title whatever.
Art. 39. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, civil courts, tribunals of commerce, and justices of the peace.
Art. 40. Individual responsibility is formally attached to all public functions.
The law shall regulate the manner of proceedings to be followed in the prosecution,of public functionaries for the acts of their administration.
chapter ii.
The legislative power. Section I. The Chamber of Representatives.
Art. 41. The Chamber of Representatives shall consist of representatives of the people directly elected by the Primary Assemblies of each commune in the manner established by law.
Art. 42. The number of representatives shall be fixed according to the population of each commune.


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Jusqu'a ce que Petat de la population soit etabli et que la loi ait fixe le noinbre des citoyens que doit representer chaque Depute a la Chambre des Communes, il y v aura trois Representants pour la Capitale, deux pour chaque chef-lieu de departement, deux pour chacune des villes de Jacmel, de Jeremie et de Saint Marc, et un pour chacune des autres Communes.
Art. 43. Pour etre Represen-tant du peuple, il faut:
1. Etre age de vingt-cinq ans accomplis.
2. Jouir des droits civils et politiques.
3. Etre proprietaire d'immeuble en Haiti, ou exercer une industrie ou une profession.
Art. 44. Les Representants du peuple sont elus pour trois ans. lis sont indefiniment reeligibles.
Le renouvellement de la Chambre des Communes se fait inte-gralernent.
Art. 45. En cas de mort, demission, ou decheance d'un Repre-sentant du peuple, PAssembleepri-maire pourvoit a son remplace-ment-pour le temps seulement qui reste a courir.
Art. 46. Pendant la duree de la session legislative chaque Repre-sentant du peuple recoit du Tresor Public une indemnite de trois cents piastres fortes par mois.
Art. 47. LesfonctionsdeRopre-sentant du peuple sont incompati-bles avec toutes autres fonctions retributes par l'Etat.
Section II.
Du Senat.
Art. 48. Le Senat se compose de trente-neuf membres. Leurs fonctions durent six ans.
Until a census of the population is taken and the law provides the number of citizens to be represented by each deputy in the Chamber of Representatives, there shall be three representatives for the capital of the Republic, two for each chief town of Department, two for each one of the cities of Jacmel, Jeremie and Saint Marc, and one each for the other communes.
Art. 43. No one shall be a representative of the people who is not:
1. Over twenty-five years of age.
2. In the enjoyment of his civil and political rights.
3. Owner of real property in Haiti, or engaged in an industrial pursuit or in the practice of a profession.
Art. 44. The representatives of the people are elected for terms of three years. They are reeligible indefinitely.
The renewal of the Chamber of Representatives shall be complete.
Art. 45. In case of death, resignation or disqualification of a representative of the people the Primary Assembly provides for the appointment of his successor only for the rest of the term which he had to serve.
Art. 46. During the session of the Legislative Body each representative of the people shall receive from the public treasury a remuneration of three hundred dollars per month.
Art. 47. The functions of representatives of the people are inconsistent with all other functions remunerated by the State.
Section II.
The Senate.
Art. 48. The Senate shall consist of thirty-nine senators, who shall serve for six vears.


constitution.
61
Art. 49. Les Senateurs sont elus par la Chambre des Communes, sur deux listes de candi-dats, l'une presentee par les assemblies electorates reunies dans les chefs-lieux de chaque arrondisse-ment, a, l'epoque determinee par la loi; et l'autre par lo Pouvoir Executif a la session ou doit avoir lieu le renouvellementdecrete par l'article 51.
Le nombre constitutionnel de Senateurs qui doit representer chaque departement de la Republique sera tire exclusivement des listes presentees par les colleges electoraux et le Pouvoir Exdcutif pour ce departement.
Les Senateurs seront ainsi elus: Onze pour le departement de I'Ouest, neuf pour le departement du Nord, neuf pour le departement du Sud, six pour le departement de 1'Artibonite, et quatre pour le departement du Nord-Ouest.
Le Senateur sortant d'un departement ne pourra etre remplace que par un citoyen du meme departement.
Art. 50. Pour etre elu Senateur, il faut:
1. Etre age de trente ans ac-complis.
2. Jouir des droits civils et politiques.
3. Etreproprietaired'immeuble en Haiti, ou exercer une Industrie ou une profession.
Art. 51. Le Senat se renouvelle par tiers tous les deux ans.
En consequence, it se divise par la voie du sort en trois series de treize Senateurs; ceux de la premiere sorie sortent apres deux ans, ceux de la seconde apres quatre ans, et ceux de la troisieme apres six ans, de sorte qu'a chaque pe-riode de deux ans il sera proccde a Selection de treize Senateurs.
Art. 49. The senators shall be elected by the Chamber of Representatives out of two lists of candidates, one to be furnished by the electoral assemblies at meetings held in the chief towns of each district at the time fixed by law, and the other by the Executive power at the session in which the renewal decreed by article 51 should take place.
The names of the senators who should constitutionally represent each Department of the Republic shall be taken exclusively out of the two lists furnished for that Department, by the electoral colleges and the executive power.
The number of senators to be elected, as above provided, shall be as follows: Eleven for the Department of the West, nine for the Department of the South, six for the Department of Artibonite, and four for the Department of the Northwest.
Senators who have left one Department shall be replaced by citizens of the same Department and no others.
Art. 50. The following qualifications shall be required to be a Senator:
1. To be over thirty years of age.
2. To be in the full enjoyment of civil and political rights.
3. To be the owner of real property in Haiti or be engaged in industrial pursuits or in the practice of a profession.
Art. 51. The Senate shall be renewed by thirds every two years.
In consequence thereof, it shall bo divided by lot into three groups of thirteen senators each. Those of the first group shall leave the Senate after two years of service; those of the second group at the expiration of four years; and those of the third group when the six years have expired. Therefore, at the end of each period of two years an election of thirteen senators shall be held.


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Art. 52. Les Senateurs sont in-definiment reeligibles.
Art. 53. En cas de mort, demission ou decbeance d'un Sinateur, la Chambre des Communes pour-voit a son remplacement pour le temps seulement qui reste a courir.
L'election a lieu sur les dernieres listes de candidats fournies par le Pouvoir Executif et par les Assemblies electorates.
Art. 54. Le Senat ne peut s'assembler hors du temps de la session du Corps Legislatif, sauf les cas prevus dans les articles 63
Art. 55. Les fonctions de Senateur sont incompatibles avec toutes autres fonctions publiques retributes par l'Etat.
Art. 56. Lorsque le Senat s'ajourne, il laisse un comite permanent.
Ce comite sera compose de sept Senateurs et ne pourra prendre aucun arrete que pour la convocation de 1'Assembled Nationale dans le cas determine par Particle 64.
Art. 57. Chaque Senateur re-coit du Tresor Public une indemnity de cent cinquante piastres fortes par mois.
Section III. De V Assembl.ee Nationale.
Art. 58. A l'ouverture et a, la cloture de chaque session annuelle, la Chambre des Communes et le Senat se reuniront en Assembled Nationale.
Art. 59. Le President du Senat preside PAssemblee Nationale, le President de la Chambre des Communes en est le vice-president, les secretaires du Senat et de la Chambre des Communes sont lis secretaires de PAssemblee Nationale.
Art. 52. Senators are reeligible indefinitely.
Art. 53. In case of death, resignation or disqualification of a senator, the Chamber of Representatives shall proceed to fill his place for the balance of his term of office only.
The election shall take place from the last lists furnished by the Executive power and by the electoral assemblies.
Art. 54. The Senate shall not meet when the legislative body is not in session, except in the cases provided by articles 63 and 64.
Art. 55. The functions of senators are incompatible and inconsistent with all other functions remunerated by the State.
Art. 56. The Senate shall, before adjourning, appoint a permanent committee.
This committee shall consist of seven senators, and shall have no other power than that of calling the National Assembly to convene in the case set forth in article 64.
Art. 57. Each senator shall receive from the public treasury a remuneration of one hundred and fifty dollars per month.
Section III. The National Assembly.
Art. 58. At the opening and closing of each annual session the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate shall convene in joint session and constitute the National Assembly.
Art. 59. The President of the Senate shall be the President of the National Assembly. The President of the Chamber of Representatives shall be the Vice-president. The Secretaries of the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives shall be the Secretaries of the National Assembly.


CONSTITUTION.
63
Art. 60. Les attributions de PAssemblee Nationale sont:
1. D'e"lire le President de la Republique et de recevoir de lui le serment constitutionnel.
2. De declarer la guerre sur le rapport du Pouvoir Executif, et de statuer sur tous les cas y relatif s.
3. D'approuver ou de rejeter les traitts de paix.
4. De reviser la Constitution lorsqu'il y a lieu de le faire.
Section IV.
De l'exercice de la puissance legislative.
Art. 61. Le siege du Corps Legislatif est fixe dans la Capitale de la Republique, ou ailleurs, suivant les circonstances politiques.
Chaque Chambre a son local par-ticulier, sauf le cas de la reunion des deux Chambres en Assembled Nationale.
Art. 62. Le Corps Legislatif s'assemble de plein droit chaque anned, le premier lundi d'avril. La session est de trois mois. En cas de necessite, elle peut etre prolonged jusqu'a. quatre, soit par lo Corps Legislatif, soit par le Pouvoir Executif.
Art. 63. Dans Pintervalle des sessions et en cas d'urgence, le Pouvoir Executif peut convoquer les Chambres ou PAssemblee Nationale a, l'extraordinaire.
II leur rend compte alors de cette mesure par un message.
Art. 64. En cas de vacance de Poffice de President de la Republique, PAssemblee Nationale est tenue dese reunir dans les dix jours au plus tard, avec ou sans convocation du comite permanent du Senat.
Art. 65. Les membres du Corps Legislatif representent la nation entiere.
Art. 60. The powers of the National Assembly shall be:
1. To elect the President of the Republic and to administer to him the constitutional oath of office.
2. To declare war, upon the report of the Executive power, and to provide for everything relating to this matter.
3. To approve or disapprove treaties of peace.
4. To amend the Constitution when its amendment may become necessary.
Section IV. The exercise of the legislative power.
Art. 61. The residence of the legislative body shall be the capital of the Republic. It may be moved to another place according to political circumstances.
Each Chamber shall meet in its own building, except in case that they meet in joint session to constitute the National Assembly.
Art. 62. The legislative body meets every year without need of express convocation on the first Monday of April. The session lasts three months. In case of necessity this period may be extended to four months, either by the legislative body or the Executive power.
Art. 63. In the interval between the sessions, in case of urgency, the Executive power can call the Chambers or the National Assembly to meet in extra session.
The Executive power shall explain to them, by means of a message, the reason for the call,
Art. 64. In case of vacancy of the office of President of the Republic, the National Assembly is bound to meet within ten days at the latest, with or without convocation by the permanent committee of the Senate.
Art. 65. The members of the legislative body represent the whole nation.


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Art. 66. Chaque Chambre veri-fie les pouvoirs de ses membres, et juge les contestations qui s'elevent a ce sujet.
Art. 67. Les membres de chaque Chambre pre tent individuellement le serment de maintenir les droits du peuple et d'etre fideles a la Constitution.
Art. 68. Les seances des Chambres et de PAssemblee Nationale sont publiques. Neanmoins, chaque Assembled se forme en comite secret sur la demande de cinq membres.
L'Assembled decide ensuite, a la majorite absolue, si la seance doit etre reprise en public sur le meme sujet.
Art. 69. Le pouvoir legislatif fait des lois sur tous les objets d'in-teret public.
L'initiative appartient a chacune des deux Chambres et au Pouvoir Executif.
Neanmoins, les lois biidgetaires, celles concernantl'assiette, laquo-tite et le mode de perception des impots et contributions, celles ayant pour objet de creer des re-cettes oud'augmenter les depenses de l'Etat, doivont etre d'abord votees par la Chambre des Communes.
Art. 70. L'interpretation des lois par voied'autorite n'appartient qu'au Pouvoir Legislatif; elle est donned dans la forme d'une loi.
Art. 71. Aucune des deux Chambres ne peut prendre de resolution qu'autant que les deux tiers de ses membres fixes par les alleles 42 et 48 se trouvent reunis.
S'il arrive que dans les elections generates pour la formation de la Chambre, le resultat des urnes ne donne pas un nombre suffisant pour les deux tiers legaux, 1'Exe-cutif est tenu d'ordonner imme-diatement la reprise des elections dans les Communes non representees.
Art. 66. Each Chamber is the judge of the election of its members, and shall decide contests which may arise on the subject.
Art. 67. The members of each Cham ber shall individually take the oath to maintain the rights of the people and to be faithful to the Constitution.
Art. 68. The meetings of the Chambers or the National Assembly shall be public. Nevertheless, each one of these bodies may resolve itself into a secret committee at the request of five members.
The body shall decide thereafter by absolute majority whether or not the meeting should continue to bo held in public.
Art. 69. The legislative power enacts laws on all subjects of public interest.
The initiative of legislation belongs to each Chamber and to the Executive power.
Nevertheless, the appropriation laws and laws concerning the assessment, distribution and manner of pa3Tment of taxes, creation of revenue or increase of the expenses of the Government, shall be first voted by the Chamber of Representatives.
Art. 70. The authoritative interpretation of the laws belongs to the Legislative power alone. That interpretation shall be given in the shape of a law.
Art. 71. Neither Chamber shall take any measure without a quorum consisting of two-thirds of its members, as fixed by articles 42 and 48.
Should it happen that in the general elections for the formation of the Chamber the result of the vote does not give a sufficient number to make the legal two-thirds, the Executive shall be bound to order an election to be held immediately in the Communes which are not represented.


constitution.
65
Art. 72. Toute resolution n'est prise qu'a, la majorite absolue des suffrages, sauf les cas prevus par la Constitution.
Art. 73. Les votes sont emis par assis et leve.
En cas de doute, il se fait un appel nominal, et les votes sont alors donnes par oui, ou par non.
Art. 74. Chaque Chambre a le droit d'enquete sur les questions dont elle est saisie.
Art. 75. Un projet de loi ne peut etre adopte par l'une des deux Chambres qu'apres avoir ete vote article par article.
Art. 76. Chaque Chambre a le droit d'amender et de diviser les articles et amendements proposes.
Tout amendement vote par une Chambre ne peut faire partie des articles de la loi qu'autant qu'il aura ete vote par l'autre Chambre. Les organes du Pouvoir Executif ont la faculte de proposer des amendements aux projets de loi qui se discutent meme en vertu de l'initiative des Chambres; ils ont aussi la faculte de retirer de la discussion tout projet de loi presente par le Pouvoir Executif tant que ce projet n'a pas ete de-finitivement adopte par les deux Chambres.
La meme faculte appartient a, tout membre de l'une ou de l'autre Chambre qui a propose un projet de loi, tant que ce projet n'a pas e"te vote par la Chambre dont l'auteur du projet fait partie.
Art. 77. Toute loi admise par les deux Chambres est immediate-ment adressee au Pouvoir Executif, qui, avant de la promulguer, a le droit d'y faire des objections.
Dans ce cas, il renvoie la loi ii la Chambre oil elle a ete primitive-ment votee, avec ses objections. Si el les sont admises, la loi est
Art. 72. Every act of Congress shall be passed by an absolute majority of votes unless otherwise provided by the Constitution.
Art. 73. Members shall vote either by standing or remaining seated.
In case of doubt a yea and nay vote shall be taken.
Art. 74. Each Chamber has the right to investigate every subject which may come before it.
Art. 75. No bill can be adopted by one Chamber without having been voted article by article.
Art. 76. Each Chamber has the right to amend and divide the articles and the amendments proposed thereto.
The amendments voted by one Chamber shall not be made a part of the bill until after they have been voted by the other Chamber.
The organs of the Executive power have the right to propose amendments to the bills under discussion, even when they have been introduced by the members of the Chambers. They also have the power to withdraw any bill introduced by the Executive before it is finally adopted by the two Chambers.
The same power belongs to every member of either Chamber who has introduced a bill, provided' that the withdrawal of the bill is not made after it has been voted by the Chamber to which the author of the bill belongs.
Art. 77. Every bill passed by the two Chambers shall bo immediately sent to the Executive, who, before promulgating it, has the right to make such objections thereto as may be deemed proper.
In this case it shall return the bill to the Chamber in which it originated, together with the objections thereto. If the latter are
361a07-


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REPUBLIC OP HAITI.
amendee par les deux Chambres; si clles sont rejetees, la loi est de nouveau adressee au Pouvoir Executif pour etre promulguee.
Le rejet des objections est vote aux deux tiers des voix et au scru-tin secret; si ces deux tiers ne se reunissent pas pour amener ce rejet, les objections sont acceptees.
Akt. 78. Le droit d'objection doit etre exerce dans les delais suivants, savoir:
1. Dans les trois jours pour les lois d'urgence, sans que, en aucun cas, l'objection puisse porter sur l'urgence.
2. Dans les -huit jours pour les autres lois, le dimanche excepte. Toutefois, si la session est close avant l'expiration do ce dernier delai, la loi demeure ajournee.
Akt. 79. Si, dans les delais presents par Particle precedent, le Pouvoir Executif ne fait aucune objection, la loi est immediate-mente promulguee.
Akt. 80. Un projet de loi rejeto par l'une des deux Chambres ne peut etre reproduit dans la meme session.
Art. 81. Les lois et autres actes du Corps Legislatif sont rendus officiels par la voie du "Moni-teur" .et inseres dans un bulletin imprime et numerote, ayant pour titre "Bulletin des lois."
Art. 82. La loi prend date du jour ou elle a ete definitivement adoptee par les deux Chambres; mais elle ne devient obligatoire qu'apres la promulgation qui en est faite, conformement a la loi.
Art. 83. Les Chambres correspondent avec le Pouvoir Executif pour tout ce qui interesse Padmi-nistration des affaires publiques.
Elles correspondent egalement entre elles, dans les cas prevus par la Constitution.
concurred in the bill shall be amended accordingly by the two Chambers. If they are rejected the bill shall bo sent again to the Executive in order that it may bo promulgated.
The rejection of the objections shall be voted by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority. If this majority is not obtained the objections shall bo considered accepted.
Art. 78. The right to object shall be exercised within the following periods:
1. Within three days for bills of urgent character, but in no case shall the objection refer to the urgency.
2. Within eight days, Sundays excepted, for all other bills. Nevertheless, if Congress adjourns before the expiration of this period, all action on the bill shall be postponed.
Art. 79. If within the period established in the preceding article the Executive does not make any objection to the bill, it shall be immediately promulgated as law.
Art. 80. A bill rejected by one Chamber can not be reintroduced during the same session.
Art. 81. The laws and all the other acts of the legislative body become official through the publication thereof in the Moniteur," and they shall be preserved, printed each one with its respective number of order, in the '' Bulletin of Laws."
Art. 82. The date of a law is that on which it was officially adopted by the two Chambers; but no laws become obligator}' until after their promulgation, which has to be made according to law.
Art. 83. The Chambers shall correspond with the Executive power on everything affecting the administration of public business.
They shall likewise correspond with each other in all the cases set forth in the Constitution.


CONSTITUTION.
67
Art. 84. Nul ne peut en per-sonne presenter des petitions aux Chambres.
Chaque Chambre a le droit d'en-voyer aux Secretaires d'Etat les petitions qui lui sont adressees. Les Secretaires d'Etat sont tenus de donner des explications sur leur contenu, chaque fois que la Chambre l'exige.
Art. 85. Les membres du Corps Legislatif sont inviolables du jour de leur election jusqu'a 1'expira-tion do leur mandat.
lis ne peuvent etre exclus de la Chambre dont ils forment partie, ni etre en aucun temps poursuivis et attaques pour les opinions et votes cmis par eux, soit dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions, soit a l'occasion de cet exercico.
Art. 86. Aucune contrainte par corps ne peut etre exercee contre un membro du Corps Legislatif pendant la duree de son mandat.
Art. 87. Nul membre du Corps Legislatif ne peut etre poursuivi, ni arrete", en matiere criminelle, correctionnelle, de police, meme pour delit politique, durant son mandat, qu'aprcs l'autorisation de la Chambre a laquolle il appar-tient, sauf lecas de flagrant delit et lorsqu'il s'agit de faits omportant une peine afflictive et infamante.
Dans ce cas, il en est refere a la Chambre sans delai des 1'ouver-turc de la session legislative.
Art. 88. En matiere criminelle, tout membre du Corps Legislatif est mis en etat d'accusation par la Chambre dont il fait partie et juge par ]e tribunal criminel de son domicile, avec l'assistance du jury.
Art. 89. Chaque Chambre, par son reglement, fixe sa discipline, et determine le mode suivant 1c-quel elle exerce ses attributions.
Art. 84. No one has the power to personally present petitions to the Chambers.
Each Chamber has the right to refer to the respective Secretaries of state the petitions addressed to it. The Secretaries of state are bound to give explanations of the contents of said petition whenever the Chambers may order it.
Art. 85. The members of the legislative body shall be inviolable from the day of their election until the date of the expiration of their term of office.
They can not be expelled from the Chamber of which they form a part, or prosecuted and molested at any time for their opinions and votes, whether in the exercise of their functions, or by reason of that exercise.
Art. 86. During their term of office the members of the legislative body shall be free from judicial bodily coertion. <
Art. 87. No member of the legislativo body shall be prosecuted or arrested in criminal, correctional, or police matters, even in cases of political offenses, during his term of office, without permission of the Chamber to which he belongs, except in case of flagrante delicto and when the offense is punishable hy corporal or infamatory penalty.
In the latter case the matter shall bo submitted to the Chamber without delay on the opening of the legislative session.
Art. 88. The members of the legislative body shall be indicted, in criminal matters, by the Chamber to which they belong, and the indictment shall be tried before the criminal court of their domicile with the assistance of a juiy.
Art. 89. Each Chamber shall make proper rules for the transaction of its business and the determination of the method under which it must exercise its functions.


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chapitre iii.
Du Pouvoir Executif. Section I. Du President de la Republique.
Art. 90. Le President de la Republique est elu pour sept ans; il entre en fonction le 15 mai, et il n'est rceligible qu'apres un inter-valle de sept ans.
Art. 91. L'election du President d'Hai'ti est faite par PAssemblee Nationale. Cette election se fait au scrutin secret- et a la majorite des deux tiers des membres presents.
Si, apres un premier tour de scrutin, aucun des candidate n'a obtenu le nombre de suffrages ci-dessus fixes, il est procede a un second tour de scrutin.
Si, a, ce second tour, la majorite des deux tiers n'est pas obtenue, l'election se concentre sur les trois candidats qui ont le plus de suffrages.
Si, apres trois jours de scrutin, aucun des trois ne reunit la majorite des deux tiers, il y a ballo-tage entre les deux qui ont le plus de voix, et celui qui obtient la majorite absoluo est proclame President d'Haiti.
En cas d'egalite des suffrages des deux candidats, le sort decide de l'election.
Art. 92. Pour etre elu President d'Haiti, il faut:
1. Etre ne de pei'e haitien et n'avoir jamais renonco a sa nationality.
2. Etre age de quarante ans ac-complis.
3. Jouir des droits civils et politiques.
4. Etre proprietaire d'immeuble en Haiti et y avoir son domicile.
chapter iii.
The Executive power. Section I. Tlie President of the Republic.
Art. 90. The President of the Republic is elected for seven years. He shall be inaugurated on the fifteenth of May. He can not be reelected until after an interval of seven years.
Art. 91. The election of the President of Haiti is made by the National Assembly. This election is made by secret ballot and by a majority of two-thirds of the members present.
If after the first count no candidate has secured the number of votes required, a second ballot shall be taken.
If on this second ballot a majority of two-thirds is not secured the election shall be concentrated on the three candidates who have obtained the greatest number of votes.
If after three days of balloting none of these three candidates has obtained the two-thirds majority, the election shall be made from among the two who received the greatest number of votes, and the one who secures an absolute majority shall be proclaimed President of Haiti.
If the votes for the two candidates are equally divided, the election shall be decided by lot.
Art. 92. No one shall be elected President of Haiti who has not the following qualifications:
1. To have been born of a Haitian father and to have never renounced the Haitian nationality.
2. To be over forty years of age.
3. To be in the enjoyment of his civil and political rights.
4. To be the owner of real estate and have his domicile in Haiti.


CONSTITUTION.
69
Akt. 93. En cas de mort, de demission, ou de decheance du President, celui qui le remplace est nomme pour sept ans, et ses fonctions cessent toujours au quinze mai, alors meme que la septieme annee de son cxercice ne serait pas revolue.
Pendant la vacance le Pouvoir Exdcutif^est exerce par les Secretaires d'Etat, reunis en Conseil, et sous leur responsabilite.
Akt. 94. Si le President se trouve dans l'impossibilite d'exer-cer ses fonctions, le Conseil des Secretaires d'Etat est charge de 1'autorite executive tant que dure Pempechement.
Art. 95. Avant d'entrer en fonc-tion le President prete, devant PAssemblee Nationale, le serment suivant: Je jure, devant Dieu et devant la Nation, d'observer et de faire fidelement observer la Constitution et les lois du peuple haitien, de respecter ses droits, de maintenir l'independance nationale et l'integrite du territoire."
Art. 96. Le President fait scel-ler les lois du sceau de la Republique, et les fait promulguer im-mediatement apres leur reception, aux termes de Particle 189.
II fait egalement scellor et promulguer les actes et decrets de PAssemblee Nationale.
Art. 97. II est charge do faire executer les lois, actos et decrets du Corps Legislatif et de PAssemblee Nationale. II fait tous regle-ments et arretes necessaires a, cet effet, sans pouvoir'jamais suspen-dre ou interpreter les lois, actes et decrets eux-memes, ni se dispenser de les executer.
Art. 98. Le President nomme et revoque les Secretaires d'Etat.
Art. 93. In case of death, resignation, or disability of the President, the one who takes his place shall fill it for seven years, his functions ceasing in all cases on the fifteenth of May, even if the seven years of his term have riot been completed.
During the vacancy the Executive power is vested in the Secretaries of state in council assembled, and shall be exercised by them under their responsibility.
Art. 94. If the President becomes unable to exercise his functions, the council of Secretaries of state shall take charge of the Executive authority and exercise it as long as the impediment exists.
Art. 95. The President shall, before entering upon his duties, take before the National Assembly the following oath: I swear before God and the Nation to observe and cause others to observe faithfully the Constitution and the laws of the Haitian people, to respect the rights of the latter, to maintain the national independence and the integrity of the territory."
Art. "96. The President shall cause the seal of the Republic to bo affixed to all laws, and shall promulgate them, immediately after their receipt, in the manner and form set forth in article 189.
Ho shall cause in the same way the acts and decrees of the National Assembly to be sealed and promulgated.
Art. 97. He is entrusted with the duty of enforcing the laws, acts, and decrees of the legislative body and the National Assembly. He has the power to issue all the rules and decrees necessary for that purpose, provided that nothing in said rules or decrees implies the suspension or interpretation of the laws, or interferes with their enforcement.
Art. 98. The President has the power to appoint and remove the Secretaries of state.


70
REPUBLIC OK HAITI.
Art. 99. II commando et dirige les forces de tcrre et de mer. II confere les grades dans l'armee selon le mode et les conditions d'avancement etablis par la loi.
Art. 100. II ne nomme aux em-plois ou fonctions publiques qu'en vertu de la Constitution ou de la disposition expresse d'une loi et aux conditions qu'elle present.
Art. 101. II fait les traites de paix, sauf la sanction de l'Assem-blee Nationale. II fait les traites d'alliance, de neutralite, de commerce, et autres conventions inter-nationales, sauf la sanction du Corps Legislatif.
Art. 102. LePresidentpourvoit, d'apres la loi, it la surete interieure et exterieure de l'Etat.
Art. 103. 11 a droit d'accorder toute amnistio; il oxerce le droit de grace et celui de commuer les peines en toutes les matieres, en se conformant a la loi.
Art. 104. Toutes les mesures que prend le President d'Haiti sont prealablement deliberees en Conseil des Secretaires d'Etat.
Art. 105. Aucun acte du President, autre quo l'arrete portant nomination ou revocation des Secretaires d'Etat, ne peut avoir d'eifet s'il n'est contresigne par un Secretaire d'Etat qui, par cela seul, s'en rend responsable avec lui.
Art. 106. Le President d'Haiti n'est point responsable des abus de pouvoir ou autres illegalites qui se commettent dans une des branches de l'Administratipn relevant d'un Secretaire d'Etat en fonction, et que celui-ci n'aurait pas reprimes.
Art. 107. II n'a d'autres pou-voirs que ceux qui lui attribuent f ormellement la Constitution et les lois particulieres votees en vertu de la Constitution.
Art. 99. He shall command the forces on land and sea. He shall make appointments in the army in the manner and under the conditions of promotion established by law.
Art. 100. The President makes his appointments for all public positions, only by virtue of the Constitution, or of some express provision of law, and under the conditions therein established.
Art. 101. He shall conclude treaties of peace, subject to the approval of the National Assembly. He shall conclude treaties of alliance, neutrality, commerce, and all other conventions, subject to the sanction of the legislative body.
Art. 102. The President provides, according to law, for the interior and exterior safety of the State.
Art. 103. Ho has the rig]it to grant amnesties, pardons and commutations of sentences, in all matters, subject to the provisions of law.
Art. 104. All measures taken by the President of Haiti shall lie pre-viousty discussed and considered in the council of the Secretaries of state.
Art. 105. No act of the President, except the decrees making the appointments of Secretaries of state or revoking said appointments, shall have effect of any kind whatever if it is not countersigned by one secretary of state who, by this mere fact, becomes responsible for it with the President.
Art. 106. The President of Haiti is not responsible for the abuses of power or any other illegalities in any branch of the administration depending upon a Secretary of state in the actual exercise of his functions and which the said Secretary has not repressed.
Art. 107. The President has no other powers than those formally given nim by the Constitution and the laws enacted under the authority of the same Constitution.


CONSTITUTION.
71
Akt. 108. A l'ouverture do chaque session lo President, par un message, rend compte a PAssemblee Nationale de son administration pendant l'annee expiree, et presente la situation gdnerale de la Republique, tant a l'interieur qu'ii rexterieur.
Akt. 109. La Chambre des Communes accuse le President et le traduit devant le Senat en cas d'abus d'autorite et de pouvoir, de trahison, ou de tout autre crime commis durant l'exercice de ses fonctions.
Le Senat ne peut prononcer d'autre peine que celle de la de"-cheance et de la privation du droit d'exercer toute autre fonction pu-blique pendant un an au moins et cinq ans au plus.
S'il y a lieu d'appliquer d'autres peines ou de statuer sur l'exercice de Paction civile, il y sera pro-cede devant les tribunaux ordi-naires, soit sur l'accusation admise par la Chambre des Communes, soit sur la poursuite directe des parties lesees.
La mise en accusation et la declaration de culpabilite ne pour-ront etre prononcees rcspective-ment dans chaque Chambre qu'a la majorite des deux tiers des suffrages.
Akt. 110. La loi regie le mode do proceder contre le President dans les cas de crimes ou delits commis par lui, soit dans l'exercice de ses fonctions, soit hors de cet exercice.
Art, 111. Le President d'Haiti recoit du tresor public une indemnity annuelle de vingt-quatre mille piastres fortes.
Art. 112. II reside au Palais National de la Capitale.
Art. 108. At the opening of each session the President shall transmit to the National Assembly a Message in writing, giving an account of his administration during the preceding j'ear, and explaining the general situation of the Republic, both at home and abroad.
Art. 109. The Chamber of Representatives has the right to impeach the President and cause him to be tried before the Senate, in cases of abuse of authority and power, treason, or any other crime committed during the exercise of his functions.
The Senate can not impose other penalties than removal from office, and disqualification to exercise any other functions during a period of not less than one year and not more than five.
Should there be occasion to impose other penalties or decide upon the exercise of a civil action, the matter shall be referred to the ordinary tribunals, either by accusation, admitted by the Chamber of Representatives, or by direct complaint of the wronged parties.
Neither the resolution directing the impeachment, nor the declaration of guilt, can be passed, except by a majority of two-thirds of the votes.
Art. 110. The law shall regulate the manner of proceedings against the President in the cases of crimes or offenses committed by him whether in the exercise of his functions or outside thereof.
Art. 111. The President of Haiti shall receive from the public treasury an annual salary of twenty-four thousand dollars.
Art. 112. The President shall reside in the national palace of the capital.


72
REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Section II.
Des Secretaires d'Etat.
Art. 113. II y a six Secretaires d'Etat.
Les Departements ministeriels sont: L'interieur, l'Agriculture,' les Travaux Publics, la Justice, l'instruction Publique, les Cultes, les Finances, le Commerce, les Relations Exterieures, la Guerre et la Marine.
Les Departements de chaque Secretaire d'Etat sont fixes par l'arrete du President d'Haiti por-tant sa nomination.
Art. 114. Nul ne peut etre Secretaire d'Etat, s'il n'est age de trente ans accomplis, s'il ne jouit de ses droits civils et politiques, et s'il n'est proprietaire d'immeuble en Hai'ti.
Art. 115. Les Secretaires d'Etat se forment en Conseils, sous la presidence du President d'Haiti, ou de Pun d'eux delegue par le President. Toutes les deliberations sont consignees sur un re-gistre et signees par les membres du Conseil.
Art. 116. Les Secretaires d'Etat correspondent directement avec les aut'orites qui leur sont subor-dorinees.
Art. 117. Us ont leur entree dans chacune des Chambres pour soutenir les projets de lois et les objections du Pouvoir Executif.
Les Chambres peuvent requerir la presence des Secretaires d'Etat et les interpeller sur tous les faits de leur administratioji.
Les Secretaires d'Etat interpel-les sont tenus de s'expliquer.
S'ils declarent que l'explication est compromettanto pour l'interet de l'Etat, ils demanderont a la don-ner a huis clos.
Section II. The Secretaries of state.
Art. 113. There are six Secretaries of state.
The Government departments shall be: Interior, Agriculture, Public works, Justice, Public instruction, Worship, Treasury, Commerce, Foreign relations, War, and the Navy.
The departments to be placed in charge of each Secretary of state shall be determined by the decree of the President of Haiti making the appointments.
Art. 114. No one shall be a Secretary of state if he is not over thirty years of age, does not enjoy his civil and political rights, and is not the owner of real property in Haiti.
Art. 115. The Secretaries of state shall assemble in council presided over by the President of Haiti or by'one of their number designated for that purpose by the President. All their deliberations shall be recorded in a book and shall be signed by the members of the council.
Art. 116. The Secretaries of state shall correspond directly with the authorities subordinate to them.
Art. 117. They shall have the right to the floor of each Chamber for the purpose of supporting the bills introduced by the Executive, as well as the objections made by it to any act of Congress.
The Chambers can summons to their presence the Secretaries of state and interpellate them on all the acts of their administration.
The Secretaries of state to whom the interpellation is made shall be bound to give the explanation desired.
If they declare that the explanation is incompatible with the interests of the State, they shall request that the explanation be given in secret session.


CONSTITUTION.
73
Art. 118. Les Secretaires d'Etat sont respectivement responsables tant des actes du President qu'ils contresignent, que de ceux de leur departement, ainsi que de 1'inexe-cution des lois; en aucun cas l'or-dre verbal ou ecrit du President ne peut soustraire un Secretaire d'Etat a la responsabilite.
Art 119. La Chambre des Communes accuse les Secretaires d'Etat et les traduit devant le Senat, en cas de malversation, de trahison, d'abus ou d'exces de pouvoir, et de tout auti'e crime ou delit commis dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions.
Le Senat rie peut prononcer d'autres peines que celle de la destitution et de la privation du droit d'exercer toute fonction publique, pendant un an au moins et cinq ans au plus.
S'il y a lieu d'appliquer d'autres peines ou de statuer sur l'exercice de Paction civile, il y sera procede devant les tribunaux ordinaires, soit sur Paccusation admise par la Chambre des Communes, soit sur la poursuite directe des parties lesees.
La mise en accusation et la declaration de culpabilite ne pour-ront etre prononcees, dans chaque Chambre, qu'a la majorite absolue des suffrages.
Art. 120. Chaque Secretaire d'Etat recoit du Tresor public, pour tous ses frais de traitement, une indemnite annuelle de six mille piastres fortes.
Section III.
Des institutions Art. 121. II est etabli, savoir:
Un Conseil par arrondissement.
Un Conseil Communal par chaque Commune.
Les attributions de ces administrations sont a la fois civiles et financieres.
Art. 118. The Secretaries of state are respectively responsible for the acts of the President which they have countersigned, and for all the acts of their own departments. Also for any failure in the execution of the laws. In no case shall an oral or written order of the President relieve a Secretary of state from his responsibility.
Art. 119. The Chamber of Representatives has the right to impeach, before the Senate, the Secretaries of state in case of malversation, treason, abuses, or excesses of power, and all other crimes or offenses committed by them in the exercise of their functions.
The Senate can not impose other penalties than removal from office, and disqualification from fulfilling any public function during a period of not less than one year nor more than five.
If other penalties are to be imposed, or if any decision is to be given in regard to the exercise of a civil action, the matter shall be referred to the ordinary courts, which shall act upon it, either on the indictment admitted by the Chamber of Commons, or by direct prosecution by the injured parties.
The resolution of impeachment and the declaration of guilt shall be passed by the chamber to which they belong, respectively, by absolute majority of votes.
Art. 120. Each Secretary of state shall receive from the public treasury, in full remuneration of their services, an annual salary of six thousand dollars.
Section III. District and communal institutions.
Art. 121. There shall be:
One council for each district.
One communal council for each commune.
The powers of these bodies shall be at the same time civil and financial.


74 REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Le Conseil d'arrondissement est preside par un citoyen auquel il est donne le titre de President du Conseil d'arrondissement, avec voix deliberative, et le Conseil do la Commune par un citoyen qui prend le titre de Magistrat communal.
Ces institutions sont reglees par la loi.
Art. 122. Les Conseils d'arrondissement sont elus par les assemblies electoralos d'arrondissement nominees par les assemblies pri-mairos de chaque Commune. Le nombre des ilecteurs d'arrondissement est fixi par la loi.
Art. 123. Le President d'Haiti nomme les Presidents des Conseils d'arrondissement, mais il ne peut les choisir que parmi les membres desdits Conseils.
Les Magistrats communaux et les suppliants sont ilus par les Conseils communaux et parmi les membres desdits Conseils.
Art. 124. Les principes sui-vants doivent former les bases des institutions d'arrondissement et communales:
1. L'ilection par les assemblies primaires, tous les trois ans, pour les Conseils communaux, et l'ilection au second degri, tous les quatre ans, pour les Conseils d'arrondissement.
2. L'attribution aux Conseils d'arrondissement et aux Conseils communaux de tout co qui est d'interet communal et d'arrondissement, sans prejudice de l'appro-bation de leurs actes, dans les cas et suivant le mode que la loi determine.
3. La publicite des siances des conseils dans les limites etablies par la loi.
4. La publiciti des budgets et des comptes.
5. L'intervention du President d'Haiti ou du Pouvoir Ligislatif pour cmpecher que les Conseils ne sortent de leurs.attributions et ne blessent l'intiret general.
The district council shall be presided over by a citizen to be called president of the district council, who shall take part in the deliberations, but shall have no vote; and the council of the commune shall be presided over by a citizen to be called communal magistrate.
The functions of both bodies shall be regulated by law.
Art. 122. The district councils shall be elected by the electoral district assemblies appointed hy the primary assemblies of each commune. The number of district electors shall be fixed by law.
Art. 123. The President of Haiti shall appoint the presidents of the district councils, but he shall appoint them from among the members thereof.
The communal magistrates and their substitutes shall be elected by the communal councils from among their own members.
Art. 124. The organization of the district and communal councils shall bo based upon the following principles:
1. The election by the primary assemblies for the communal councils shall be held every three years; and the election in the second degree for the district councils every four years.
2. The district and communal councils shall be respectively entrusted with all that may be of interest to the district or tho commune, subject, however, to subsequent approval of their acts in the cases and in the manner determined by law.
3. Tho publicity of the meetings of the councils, within the limits established b}' law.
4. The publicity of budgets and accounts.
5. The intervention of the President of Haiti or of the legislative power, to prevent the councils from going beyond their powers and doing injury to the geueral interests.


CONSTITUTION".
75
Art. 125. Les Presidents des Conseils d'arrondissement sont salaries par l'Etat.
Les magistrats communaux sont retribues par leurs Communes.
Art. 126. La redaction des actes de l'Etat civil et la tenue des registres sont dans les attributions de citoyens speciaux nommes par le President d'Haiti et prenant le titre d'officiers de l'Etat civil.
chapitre iv.
Du Douvoir- Judiciaire.
Art. 127. Les contestations qui ont pour objet des droits civils sont exclusivement du ressort des tribunaux.
Art. 128. Les contestations qui ont pour objet des droits politiques sont du ressort des tribunaux, sauf les exceptions etablies par la loi.
Art. 129. Nul tribunal, nulle jurisdiction contentieuso no peut etre etablie qu'en vertu de la loi.
II ne peut etre cree des tribunaux extraordinaires sous quelque denomination que ce soit, notamment sous le nom de cours martiales.
Art. 130. II ya pour toute la Republique un Tribunal de Cassation compose de deux sections au moins. Son siege est dans la Ca-pitale.
Art. 131. Ce Tribunal ne con-nait pas du fond des affaires.
Neanmoins, en toutes matieres, autres que celles soumises au jury, lorsque, sur un second recours, une meme affaire se presentera entre les memes parties, le Tribunal de Cassation, admettant le pourvoi, ne prononcera point de renvoi, et statuera sur le fond, sections reunies.
Art. 132. II sera forme un Tribunal d'appel dans chacun des Do-
Art. 125. The salaries of the presidents of the district councils shall be paid by the State.
The salaries of the communal magistrates shall be paid by their own communes.
Art. 126. The editing of the entries on the registers of the civil state and the keeping of these registers shall be in charge of special citizens appointed by the President of Haiti, to be known as officers of the civil state.
" chapter iv. The judicial poioe?'.
Art. 127. The cognizance of all disputes in regard to civil rights shall belong exclusively to the courts of justice.
Art. 128. The cognizance of all disputes in regard to political rights shall also belong to the courts of justice, except in some cases established by law.
Art. 129. No tribunal or jurisdiction of any kind shall be established, except by virtue of a law.
No extraordinary tribunals, whatever their names may be, and especially Courts-Martial, shall be established.
Art. 130. There shall be a Supreme court for the whole Republic. It shall consist of at least two chambers, and shall reside in tho capital.
Art. 131. This Tribunal shall not pass upon the merits of the cases.
Nevertheless, in all cases, except such as have been passed upon by a jury, when presented again by the very same parties before the supreme court, for a rehearing, the Tribunal may, at their request, instead of remanding the case, pass a decision upon its subject-matter, provided that this is done in full bench.
Art. 132. There shall be a Court of appeals in each one of tho De-


76 REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
partements du Nord, du Nord-Ouest, de l'Artibonite, de l'Ouest, et du Sud.
Chaque Commune a au moins un Tribunal de Paix.
Un tribunal civil est institue pour un ou plusieurs arrondissements.
La loi determine leur ressort, leurs attributions respectives, et le lieu ou ils sont etablis.
Art. 133. Les Juges de paix et leurs suppliants, les Juges des tribunaux civils et leurs suppliants, les Juges des Tribunaux d'appel et leurs suppliants, et les membres du Tribunal de Cassation, sont nommis par le President de la Republique, d'apres des conditions et suivant un ordre de candidatures qui seront riglees par les lois organiques.
Art. 134. Les Juges du Tribunal de Cassation, ceux des Tribunaux civils et d'Appel sont ina-movibles.
Ils ne peuvent passer d'un Tribunal a un autre, ou a d'autres fonctions, meme supirieures, que do leur consentcment formcl.
lis ne peuvent etre destituis que pour forfaiture, ligalement jugis ou suspendus que par une accusation admise.
Ils ne peuvent etre mis a, la retraite quo, lorsque par suite d'infirmitesgraves et permanentes, ils se trouvent hors d'itat d'exer-cer leurs fonctions.
Art. 135. Les Juges de paix sont rivocables.
Art. 136. Nul ne peut etre nommi Jugo, ou Officier du Minis-tere Public, s'il n'a trente ans ac-complis pour lo Tribunal de Cassation, et vingt-cinq ans accomplis pour les autres Tribunaux.
partments of the North, the Northwest, the Artibonite, the West, and the South.
There shall be at least a Justice of the peace in each commune.
There shall be a civil court for one or several districts.
The law shall determine the extent of the powers and jurisdiction of these Courts and Tribunals, and tho place where they shall be located.
Art. 133. The Justices of the peace and their substitutes, judges of the civil courts and their substitutes, justices of the courts of appeals and their substitutes, and the justices of the supreme court, shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, according to rules established by the respective organic laws.
Art. 134. The Justices of the Supreme court and those of the Courts of appeals, as well as the judges of tho .civil courts, shall be appointed for life.
They shall not be transferred from one court to another, or entrusted with other functions, even if superior, without their formal consent.
They shall not be removed except for cause legally proved; nor shall they be suspended, unless formally impeached.
They shall not be placed on the retired list except in case that, owing to some grave and permanent disability, they find themselves unable to exercise their functions.
Art. 135. Tho justices of the peace can be removed.
Art. 136. No one can be appointed judge or agent in the Attorney-general's office if he is not over thirty years of age when he is to serve in the Supreme court, or twenty-five years when he is to serve in an}T other court.


CONSTITUTION.
77
Art. 137. Le President d'Haiti nomme etrevoque les Officiers du Ministere Public pres le Tribunal de Cassation et les autres Tribunaux.
Art. 138. Les fonctions de Juges sont incompatibles aveo toutes autres fonctions publiques.
L'incompatibilite a raison de la parente est reglee par la loi.
Art. 139. Le traitement des membres du Corps Judiciaire est fixe* par la loi.
Art. 140. II y a des Tribunaux de Commerce dans les lieux determines par la loi. Elle regie leur organisation, leurs attributions, le mode d' election de leur membres et la duree des fonctions de ces derniers.
Art. 141. Des lois particulieres reglent l'organisation des Tribunaux militaires, leurs attributions, les droits et obligations des membres de ces Tribunaux, et la dure"e de leurs fonctions.
Art. 142. Tout delit civil, commis par un militaire, it moins qu'il ne soit dans un camp, ou en cam-pagne, est juge par les Tribunaux criminels ordinaires.
II en est de meme de toute accusation contre un militaire dans laquelle un individu non militaire est compris.
Art. 143. Les audiences des tribunaux sont publiques, ii moins que cette publicite ne soit dange-reuse pour l'ordre public et les bonnes mceurs; dans ce cas le tribunal le declare par un jugement.
En matiere de delits politiques et de presse, le huis-clos ne peut etre prononce.
Art. 144. Tout arret ou jugement est motive. II est prononce en audience publique.
Art. 145. Les arrets ou juge-ments sont rendus et executes au nom de la Republique. Ils por-
Art. 137. The President of Haiti has the power to appoint and remove the agents of the attorney-general's office in the supreme court, and in all other courts.
Art. 138. Judicial functions are incompatible with all other functions.
Incompatibility resulting from relationship shall be regulated by law.
Art. 139. The salaries of the judicial functionaries shall be fixed by law.
Art. 140. There shall be Tribunals of Commerce in the places determined by law. The latter shall provide for their organization, their powers, the manner of election of their members, and the time for which the latter shall serve.
Art. 141. Special laws shall provide for the organization of militar}' tribunals, their powers, the rights and obligations of their members, and the time for which they shall serve.
Art. 142. Civil offenses committed by a military^nan, unless committed in camp or in campaign, shall be tried and punished by the ordinary criminal courts.
The same shall happen in all cases against a military man when a civilian is implicated therein.
Art. 143. The sittings of the courts shall be public, unless it is deemed that publicity is detrimental to public order or morals. In that case a declaration to that effect shall be made by the court.
The hearings in cases of political offenses, or of offenses committed through the press, shall never be secret.
Art. 144. Every judicial decree or decision shall set .forth the grounds upon which it is rendered. It shall be rendered in open court.
Art. 145. The decrees and decisions of the courts shall be rendered and enforced in the name of


78 REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
tent un mandement aux officiers du Ministere Public et aux agents de la force publique. Les actes des notaires sont mis dans la meme forme lorqu'il s'agit de leur execution forcee.
Akt. 146. Le Tribunal de Cassation prononce sur les conflicts d'at-tributions, d'apres le mode regie par la loi. II connait aussi des jugements des Conseils militaires pour cause d'incompetence.
Art. 147. Les tribunaux doivent refuser d'appliquer une loi incons-titutionelle.
Ils n'appliqueront les arretes et reglements generaux d'adminis-tration publique qu'autant qu'ils seront conformes aux lois.
Art. 148. En cas de f orfaiture, tout juge ou oflicier du Ministere Public est mis en etat d'accusation par l'une des sections du Tribunal de Cassation. S'il s'agit d'un tribunal en tier, la mise en accusation est prononcee par le Tribunal de Cassation, sections reunies.
S'il s'agit du Tribunal de Cassation, de l'une de ses sections, ou de l'un de ses membres, la mise en accusation est prononcee par la Chambre des.Communes et le jugement par le Senat. La decision de chacune des Chambres est prise il la majorite des deux tiers des membres presents, et la peine ii pro-noncer par le Senat ne peut etre que la revocation des fonctions et l'inadmissibilite pendant un certain temps ii toutes charges publiques; mais le condamne est renvoye, s'il y a lieu, par devant les tribunaux ordinaires et puni conformement aux lois.
Art. 149. La loi regie le mode de proceder contre les juges dans' les cas de crimes ou delits par eux commis, soit dans l'exercice de lours fonctions, soit hors de-cet exercice.
the Republic. They are mandates which the agents of the attorney-general's office and of the public force must obej^. Notarial acts admitting of judicial enforcement shall be in the same predicament.
Art. 146. The supreme court shall take cognizance, in the manner established by law, of all cases of jurisdictional conflicts. It has, also, the right to revise the decisions rendered by military tribunals, when objected to, for lack of jurisdiction.
Art. 147. The courts shall refuse to apply an unconstitutional law.
Neither shall they apply the Executive regulations and decrees which are not in accordance with the laws.
Art. 148. All judicial functionaries, as well as all agents of the attorney-general, may, in case of malfeasance in office, be impeached by one of the chambers of the supreme court. If the impeachment embraces all the members of a court, it has to be resolved by the supreme court in full bench.
If the party to be impeached is the supreme court itself, or any of its chambers, or any of its members, the proceedings shall be conducted by the chamber of Representatives. In this case the trial and decision belong to the Senate. Tho decision in each chamber shall be rendered by a majority of two-thirds of the members present. The penalty to be imposed by the Senate can not go beyond the removal from office and the disqualification from serving public functions for a certain time; but if any other penalty is required by law, the case shall be referred to the ordinary courts for proper action.
Art. 149. The law shall regulate tho course of proceedings to be followed in the prosecution of judges for crimes or offenses committed by them whether in the exercise of their functions or otherwise.


CONSTITUTION.
79
chapitre v.
Pes Assemblies prirnaires et electorates.
Art. 150. Tout citoyen age de vingt-et-un ans revolus ale droit de voter aux assemblies primaries, s'il est proprietaire foncier, s'il a l'exploitation d'une ferme dont la duree n'est pas moindre de cinq ans, ou s'il exerce une profession, un emploi public, ou une industrie.
Art. 151. Les assemblies pri-maires s'assemblent de plein droit, dans chaque Commune, le dix Janvier de chaque annie, selon qu'il y a lieu, et suivant le mode itabli par la loi.
Art. 152. Elles ont pour objet d'ilire aux ipoques lixies par la Constitution, les Eeprisentants du peuple, les Conseillers communaux et les membres des Assemblies electorates d'arrondissement.
Art. 153. Toutes les elections se font a la majorite des suffrages et au scrutin secret.
Art. 154. Les Assemblies ilec-torales se riunissent de plein droit le quinze fevrier de chaque annie, selon qu'il y a lieu et suivant le mode etabli par la loi.
Elles ont pour objet d'elire les membres des Conseils d'arrondissement, et les candidats fournis il la Chambre des Communes pour l'election des Senateurs.
Art. 155. Aucune itection ne peut avoir lieu dans une Assemble electorate, qu'autant que les deux tiers au moins du nombre des ilecteurs elus soient prisents.
Art. 156. Les Assemblies prirnaires et ilectorales ne peuvent s'occuper d'aucun autre objet que celui des ilections qui leur sont attributes par la Constitution.
Elles sont tenues de se dissou-dre des que cct objet est rempli.
chapter v.
Primary and electoral assemblies.
Art. 150. Every citizen over twenty-one 3Tears of age has the right to vote in the primary assemblies, if he is the owner of real property, or the lessee of some revenue of the State for a time not less than five years, or if he practices a profession or industry, or fills a public office.
Art. 151. The primary assemblies shall meet without previous convocation in their respective communes, on the tenth of January of every year, in the manner and form established by law.
Art. 152. The primary assemblies have for their object to elect at the time fixed by the Constitution the representatives of the people, the members of the communal councils, and the members of the district electoral assemblies.
Art. 153. All elections shall be made by secret ballot and by majority of votes.
Art. 154. The electoral assemblies shall meet every year, without previous convocation, on the fifteenth of February, in the manner and form established by law.
They have for their object to elect the members of the district councils and make the list of nominees for the Senate, which is to be forwarded to the chamber of Representatives.
Art. 155. No election shall take place in an electoral assembly if there is not a quorum of at least two-thirds of the electors.
Art. 156. The primary and electoral assemblies shall not do any other business than the electoral one entrusted to them by the Constitution.
They are bound to adjourn sine die, as soon as this object is accomplished.


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republic of haiti.
titre quatrieme.
Des finances.
Art. 157. Les finances de la Republique sont decentralisees.
Une loi fixera incessamment la portion des revenus publics affe-rents aux Conseils d'arrondissement ou aux Conseils communaux.
Art. 158. Aucun imp6t au profit de l'Etat no peut etre etabli que par une loi.
Aucune charge, aucune imposition, soit d'arrondissement, soit communale, ne peut etre etablie que du consentement du Conseil d'arrondissement ou du Conseil communal.
Art. 159. Les impots au profit de l'Etat sont votes annuellement.
Les lois qui les etablissent n'ont de force que pour un an si elles ne sont pas renouvelees.
Aucune emission de monnaie quelconque ne peut avoir lieu qu'en vertu d'une loi qui en determine l'emploi et en fixe le chiffre qui, en aucun cas, ne pourra etre de-passe".
Art. 160. II ne peut etre etabli de privileges en matiere d'impSts.
Aucune exception, aucune augmentation ou diminution d'impots ne peut etre etablie que par une loi.
Art. 161. Hors les cas f ormelle-ment exceptes par la loi, aucune retribution ne peut etre exigee des ei toy ens qu'a titre d'impot au profit de l'Etat, de l'arrondisse-ment, ou de la Commune.
Art. 162. Aucune pension, aucune gratification, aucune allocation, aucune subvention quelconque, a la charge du Tresor Public, ne peut Stre accordee qu'en vertu d'une loi.
Art. 163. Le cumul des fonctions publiques salariees par l'Etat est formellement interdit, excepte pour celles dans l'enseigne-ment secondaire et superieur.
title fourth.
Finances.
Art. 157. The finances of the Republic are decentralized.
A law shall fix immediately the shares of the public revenue allotted to the district and communal councils.
Art. 158. No tax for the benefit of the State shall be levied except by law.
No district or communal charge or impost shall be levied except upon consent of the respective district or municipal council.
Art. 159. The taxes for the benefit of the State shall be annually decreed or assessed.
The laws levying said taxes shall be in force for no more than one year unless they are reenacted.
No issue of money of any kind shall be made unless by virtue of a law which shall determine the use to be made of it, and its amount, which in no caso shall be exceeded.
Art. 160. No discrimination in regard to taxes shall ever be made.
No exemption, increase, or decrease of taxes shall be made ex cept by law.
Art. 161. Beyond tho cases formally specified by law no disbursement of money shall be demanded from the citizens, unless it is under the head of taxes for the benefit of the State, the district, or the commune.
Art. 162. No pension, gratuity, allowance, or subsidy of any kind, to be paid by the public treasury, shall be granted unless by law.
Art. 163. The simultaneous holding of several offices, paid by the Government, is formally forbidden. Positions in the public schools, secondary or superior, are excepted.


CONSTITUTION.
81
Akt. 101. Le budget de chaque Secretaire d'Etat est divise en chapitres.
Aucune somme allouee par un chapitre ne peut etre reportee au credit d'un autre chapitre et employee a d'autres depenses sans une loi.
Le Secretaire d'Etat des Finances est tenu, sur sa responsabilite personnelle, de ne servir chaque mois, a chaque departement minis-teriel, que le douzieme des valeurs votees dans son budget, a moins d'une decision du Conseil des Secretaires d'Etat pour cas extraordinaire.
Les comptes generaux des re-cettes et des depenses de la Republique seront terms en partie double par lo Secretaire d'Etat des Finances, qui les presentora aux Chambres dans ce systeme de compta-bilite en autant do livres qu'il sera necessaire, et avec la balance de chaque annee administrative.
Aucun objet de recettes ou de depenses ne sera omis dans les comptes generaux.
L'annee administrative commence le px'emior octobre et finit le trente septembre de l'annde suivante.
Art. 165. Aucune decision, im-pliquant une depense, ne pourra etre prise, dans l'une ou l'autre Chambre, sans consulter le Secretaire d'Etat des Finances sur la possibility d'y pourvoir, en con-servant l'equilibre du Budget. Le Secretaire d'Etat pourra demander qu'on lui donne les voies et moyens de satisfaire a cette depense avant de prendre la responsabilite de 1'executer.
Art. 166. Chaque annee les Chambres arretent:
1. Le compte des recettes et des depenses de l'annee ecoulee, ou des annees precedentes, selon le mode etabli par l'article 164.
361a07-6
Art. 164. The budget submitted by each secretary of state shall be divided into chapters.
No sum of money allowed in one chapter shall be paid out of funds belonging to another chapter, nor shall it be disbursed for any other purposes unless so provided by law.
The Secretary of the Treasury shall be bound on his personal responsibility not to disburse each month for the benefit of a Department more than one-twelfth of the amount appropriated in its own budget; but in extraordinary cases and by decision of the council of secretaries an exception may be made to this rule.
The general accounts of the Government receipts and expenditures shall be kept by double entry by the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall submit them to the Chambers, together with tho books and vouchers, and a balance sheet showing the situation of the Treasury at the end of each fiscal year.
Nothing received or expended shall be omitted in the general accounts.
The fiscal year shall commence on the first of October and end on the thirtieth of September of the following year.
Art. 165. No measure involving the expenditure of money shall be taken in either Chamber, without first consulting tho Secretary of the Treasury as to the possibility of making the payment without disturbing the equilibrium of tho budget. The Secretary of the Treasury may ask to be provided with funds to meet the expenditure, before taking upon himself the responsibility of executing the measure.
Art. 166. The Chambers shall every year pass upon:
1. The accounts of the receipts and expenditures in the preceding year, or years, in the manner and form established by article 164.


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
2. Le budget general de l'Etat contenant l'apercu et la proposition des fonds assigned pour l'annee a chaque Secretaire d'Etat.
Toutefois, aucune proposition, aucun amendement ne pourra etre introduit a l'occasion du Budget dans le but de reduire ou d'aug-menter les appointeraents des fonctionnaires publics et la solde des militaires deja fixes par des lois speciales.
Akt. 167. Les comptes generaux et les budgets prescrits par Particle precedent doivent etre soumis aux, Chambres par le Secretaire d'Etat des Finances, au plus tard dans les huit jours de Pouverture de la session legislative; et elles peuvent s'abstenir de tous travaux legislatifs tant que ces documents ne leur seront pas presentes. Elles refusent^la de-charge des Secretaires d'Etat, et memo le vote du budget lorsque les comptes presentes ne fournis-sent pas par eux-memes, ou par les pieces a, l'appui, tous les elements de verification et d'appre-ciation nedessaires.
Art. 168. La Chambre des Comptes est composed de neuf membres. lis sont nommes par le Senat sur deux listes do candidats fournis l'une par le Pouvoir Executif, l'autre par la Chambre des Communes. Cos listes porte-ront chacune deux candidats pour chaque membre a elire.
Art. 169. La Chambre des Comptes est charged de l'examen et de la liquidation des comptes de Padministration generale et do tous comptables envers le Tresor Public. Elle veille a, ce qu'aucun article de depense du budget ne soit depasse et qu'aucun transport n'ait lieu.
Elle arrete les comptes des dif7 f eVentes administrations de l'Etat,
2. The general budget of the State, and the appropriations annually made to meet the expenses of each Department.
But no resolution amending the budget to the effect of reducing or increasing the salaries of public functionaries or of military officers already fixed by special laws, shall be allowed to be introduced.
Art. 167. The general accounts and the budgets provided for in the preceding article shall be submitted to the Chambers by the Secretary of the Treasury at the latest within eight days of the opening of the legislative session; and the Chambers have the power to postpone all legislative work until the said accounts are presented to them. They shall also have the power to refuse to exonerate the Secretaries of State, and even to approve the budget, when the accounts submitted do not furnish by their own text or by the vouchers accompanying them, all the elements necessary for their being properly audited.
Art. 168. The tribunal of accounts shall consist of nine members appointed by the Senate, out of two lists of candidates, to be furnished, one by the Executive power and the other by tho Chamber of Representatives. Each list shall have two names for each seat in tho tribunal.
Art. 169. The tribunal of accounts is entrusted with tho examination and liquidation of the accounts of the employees of the General Government, and of all other offices accountable to the Treasury; and it shall see that no expense be made in excess of the appropriations and that no moneys appropriated for one purpose be expended for another.
This tribunal shall pass upon the accounts of the different adminis-


constitution.
83
et est charged de recueillir a. cet effet tous renseignements et toutes pieces necessaires.
Le compte general de l'Etat est soumis aux Chambres avec les observations de la Chambre des Comptes.
Cette chambre est organised par une loi.
Art. 170. II sera etabli un mode de comptabilite uniforme pour toutes les administrations finan-cieres de la Republique.
Art. 171. La loi regie le titre, le poids, la valeur, l'empreinte et la denomination des monnaies.
tithe cinquieme.
De la force publique.
Art. 172. La force publique est institute pour defendre l'Etat contre les ennemis du dehors et pour assurer au dedans le main-tien de l'ordre et l'execution des lois.
Art. 173. L'armee est essen-tiellement obeissante.
Nul corps arme ne peut ni ne doit deliberer.
Art. 174. L'armee sera reduite au pied de paix et son contingent est vote annuellement. La loi qui le fixe n'a de force que pour un an si elle n'est pas renouveled.
Nul ne peut recevoir de solde s'il ne fait partie du cadre de l'armee.
Art. 175. Le mode de recrute-ment de l'armee est determine par la loi.
Elle regie egalement l'avance-ment, les droits et les obligations des militaires.
II ne pourra jamais etre cree de corps privilegies; mais le President d'Haiti a une garde particu-liere soumise aumeme regime militaire que les autres corps de 1'ar-
trative bodies of the State, and shall gather for that purpose all the necessary information and evidence.
The general account of the State shall be submitted to the Chambers, together with the remarks made in regard thereto by the tribunal of accounts.
The tribunal of accounts shall be organized by special law.
Art. 170. An accounting system uniform for all the financial offices of the Republic shall be established by law. Art. 171. The law shall fix the title, weight, value, stamp and denominations of the national coins.
title fifth.
The public force.
Art. 172. The public force has been established to defend the State against foreign enemies and to assure at home the preservation of order and the execution of the laws.
Art. 173. The army is essentially obedient.
No armed corps can or should deliberate.
Art. 174. The army shall be placed on a peace footing and its strength shafl be fixed every year. The law passed to this effect shall be in force only for one year unless it is renewed.
No one can receive military salary if he does not belong to the army.
Art. 175. The manner of recruiting the army shall be determined by law.
The law shall also regulate the promotion of the respective officers and the rights and obligations of military men.
No privileged military body shall ever be created; but the President of Haiti shall have his own personal guard, which shall be submitted, nevertheless, to the same


84
REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
med, dont l'effectif est vote par les Chambres.
Art. 176. Nul ne peut etre pro-mu a un grade militaire s'il n'a ete soldat, a, moins de services emi-nents rendus a la patrie.
Art. 177. L'organisation et les attributions de la police de ville et de la campagne feront l'objet d'une loi.
Art. 178. La Garde Nationale est composed de tous les citoyens qui ne font pas partie de l'armee active, sauf les exceptions pour-vues par la loi.
Tous les grades y sont electifs, a, l'exception de ceux d'officiers superieurs quiseront conferes par le Chef de l'Etat.
La Garde Nationale est placed sous l'autorite immediate des Conseils communaux.
Art. 179. Tout haitien de 18 a 50 ans, inclusivement, qui ne sert pas dans l'armee active, doit faire partie de la Garde Nationale.
Art. 180. La Garde Nationale est organised par la loi.
Elle ne peut etre mobilised, en tout ou e'n partie, que dans les cas prevus par la loi sur son organisation. Dans lo cas de mobilisation, elle est immediatement placed sous l'autorite du commandant militaire de la Commune, et fait partie, tant que dure la mobilisation, de l'armee active.
Art. 181. Les militaires ne peuvent etre prives de leurs grades, honneurs et pensions, que de la maniere determined par la loi..
titre sixieme.
Dispositions generates.
Art. 182. Les couleurs nationals sont le bleu et le rouge places horizon talement.
military rule as the other bodies of the army. The strength of this guard shall be fixed by the Chambers.
Art. 176. No civilian shall ever be promoted to a military rank except in case that he had rendered eminent services to the country.
Art. 177. The organization and the powers of the police in the cities and the country shall be the subject of a law.
Art. 178. The national guard shall consist of all the citizens who do not belong to the regular army, except when otherwise provided by law.
All positions in the national guard shall be elective; but the superior officers shall be appointed by the chief magistrate of the Nation.
The national guard is placed under the immediate authority of the communal councils.
Art. 179. Every Haitian citizen from eighteen to fifty years of age, inclusive, not serving in the army, is bound to serve in the national guard.
Art. 180. The national guard shall be organized by law.
It can not be mobilized, either wholly, or in part, except in the cases provided by its organic law. When mobilized, it shall be immediately placed under the authority of the military commandant of tho commune, and as long as the mobilization lasts it shall be considered as a part of the army in active service.
Art. 181. Military men can not be deprived of their ranks, honors, and pensions, except in the manner determined by law.
title sixth.
General provisions.
Art. 182. The national colors shall be blue and red, horizontally placed.


constitution.
85
Les armes de la Republique sont: le Palmista surmonte du bonnet de laLiberte, orne d'un trophee, avee la legende: "L'union fait la force."
Art. 183. La ville de Port-au-Prince est la capitale de la Republique et le siege actuel du Gouv-ernement.
Dans les circonstances graves, 1'Assembled Nationale, sur la proposition du Pouvoir Executif, pourra autoriser la translation du siege du Gouvernement dans un autre lieu que la Capitale.
Art. 184. Aucun serment ne peut etre impose qu'en vertu d'une loi. Elle en determine le cas et la formul'e.
Art. 185. Tout etranger qui se trouve sur le territoire de la Republique jouit de la protection accorded aux Haitiens, quant aux personnes et aux biens, sauf les exceptions etablies par la loi.
En cas de pertes eprouvees par suite de troubles civils et politiques, nul bai'tien ou etranger ne peut pretendre a aucune indemnity.
Cependant il sera facultatif aux parties leseds dans ces troubles de poursuivre pardevant les tribunaux, conformement a la loi, les individus reconnus les auteurs des torts causes afin d'en obtenir justice et reparation legale.
Art. 186. La loi etablit un sys-teme unif orme de poids et mesures.
Art. 187. Les fetes nationales sont: celle de l'Independance d'Haiti et de ses Heros, le premier Janvier; et celle de 1'Agriculture, le premier mai. Les fetes le"gales sont determineds par la loi.
Art. 188. Une loi determine la nature des recompenses accordees annuellement, le premier mai, aux
The coat of arms of the Republic shall consist of a palm tree surmounted by a cap of liberty adorned by a trophy with the legend: L'union fait la force."
Art. 183. The city of Port au Prince is the capital of the Republic and the present seat of the Government.
Under grave circumstances the National Assembly shall, at the suggestion of the Executive power, authorize the transfer of the seat of Government to another place in the Republic.
Art. 184. No oath shall be required from anyone except by virtue of a law. The law shall determine the cases in which the oath shall be required and tho form thereof.
Art. 185. Every foreigner within tho territory of the Republic shall enjoy the same protection as is granted to Haitian citizens in regard to their persons and property, subject, however, to the exceptions established by law.
In regard to losses sustained by virtue of civil and political troubles no Haitian citizen or foreigner shall be entitled to claim indemnity.
The injured parties, however, shall have the right, if they choose, to prosecute before the courts according to law the individuals recognized as authors of the wrongs perpetrated, and seek in this way the proper legal reparation.
Art. 186. The law shall establish a uniform system of weights and measures.
Art. 187. The national festivities shall be: that of the independence and the heroes of Haiti, the first of February; and that of Agriculture, the first of May. The legal holidays shall be determined by law.
Art. 188. A law shall determine the rewards to be annually granted on the first of May to the farmers


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
cultivateurs et laboureurs, par suite de concours concernant leurs denrees et autres produits.
Ella reglera aussi le mode des concours.
Akt. 189. Aucune loi, aucun arrete ou reglement d'administra-tion publique n'est obligatoire qu'apres avoir ete public dans la forme determined par la loi.
Art. 190. Aucune place, aucune partie du territoire ne peut etre declared en etat de siege que dans le cas de troubles civils, ou dans celui d'invasion imminonte de la part d'une force etrangere.
L'acte du President d'Haiti qui declare l'etat de siege doit 'etre signt par tous les Secretaires d'Etat. II en est rendu compte a l'ouverture des Chambres par le Pouvoir Executif.
Art. 191. Les effets de l'etat de siege sont regies par une loi speciale.
Art. 192. Les Codes de lois civil, commercial, penal et destruction criminelleet toutes les lois qui s'y rattachent, sont main-tenus en tout ce qui n'est pas con-traire a la presente Constitution.
Toutes dispositions de lois, decrets, arreted, reglements et autres actes qui y sont contraires, demeurent abroges. Neanmoins, les decrets et actes rendus par le Comite central revolutionnaire de Port-au-Prince et le premier Gouvernement provisoire (vingt-quatre aout au vingt-huit septem-bre mil huit cent quatre-vingt-huit), par les Comites revolution-naires de l'Artibonite, du Nord, et du Nord-Ouest, et par le dernier Gouvernement provisoire (deux octobre mil huit cent quatre-vingt-huit au huit octobre mil huit cent quatre-vingt-neuf, inclusivement), continueront si subsister jusqu'a ce qu'il y soit ltgalement deroge.
and agricultural laborers, for the excellence of the products exhibited by them.
The law shall also regulate the manner and form of these exhibitions.
Art. 189. No law, decree, or rule of tho public administration shall be obligatory until it is published in the manner and form established by law.
Art. 190. No place or section of territory in the Republic shall be declared in a state of siege except in case of civil disturbances or of imminent foreign invasion.
The decree of the Presid.ent of Haiti proclaiming a state of siege shall be countersigned by all the Secretaries of State, and submitted to the Chambers at the opening of their session.
Art. 191. The effects of the state of siege shall be regulated by a special law.
Art. 192. The Codes of civil, commercial, and penal laws, those of criminal procedure, and those of all other classes of laws, shall be maintained in force in everything which is not contrary to the present Constitution.
All provisions of said laws, decrees, rules, and other legislative acts proving to be contrary to the Constitution, are hereby abrogated. But the decrees and resolutions passed by the central revolutionary committee of Port au Prince and the first provisional government (from August twenty-fourth to September twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight), and by the revolutionary committees of the Arti-bonite, the North and the Northwest, and by the last provisional government (from October second, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, to October eight, eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, inclusive), shall nevertheless continue to be in force until legally abrogated.


constitution.
87
Art. 193. La Constitution ne peut etre suspendue en tout ni en partie, dans aucune partie du territoire.
Elle est confiee au patriotisme, au courage des grands corps de l'Etat et de tous les citoyens.
TITRE SEPTIEME.
De la revision de la constitution.
Art. 194. Le Pouvoir Legislatif, sur la proposition de l'une des deux Chambres, ou du Pouvoir Executif, a le droit de declarer qu'il y a lieu a reviser telles dispositions constitutionnelles qu'il designe.
Cette declaration, qui ne peut etre faite que dans la derniere session d'une periode de la Chambre des Communes, est publiee imme-diatement dans toute l'ttendue de la Republique.
Art. 195. A la session suivante les deux Chambres se reuniront en Assembled Nationale et statueront sur la revision proposed.
Art. 196. L'Assemblee Nationale ne peut deliberer sur cette revision, si les deux tiers au moins de ses membres elus ne sont presents. Aucune declaration ne peut etre faite, aucun changement ne peut etre adopte dans cecas, qu'a la majorite des deux tiers des suffrages.
TITRE HUITIEME.
Dispositions transitoires.
Art. 197. Le President d'Haiti sera elu, pour la premiere f ois, par PAssemblee Constituante.
Cette Assembled recevra son ser-ment et Pinstallera dans ses fonctions.
Art. 198. L'Assemblee Nationale Constituante exercera la puissance legislative, pour tous les cas d'urgence, jusqu'a la reunion des deux Chambres.
Art. 193. The Constitution can not be suspended, either wholly, or in part, in any part of the territory.
Its preservation is entrusted to the patriotism and courage of the great bodies of the State and of all the citizens.
TITLE SEVENTH.
Reform of the constitution.
Art. 194. The legislative power has the right to resolve, at the suggestion of either Chamber, or of the Executive power, that any constitutional provision indicated in the resolution requires amendment.
This resolution, which can not be passed except at the last meeting of a session of the Chamber of Representatives, shall be published immediately afterwards throughout the whole Republic.
Art. 195. In the following session the two chambers sitting in joint session, as National Assembly, shall take up and discuss the proposed amendment.
Art. 196. The National Assembly can not take up this matter without a quorum of at least two-thirds of their members elect. No declaration or amendment shall be made except by a majority of two-thirds of the votes.
TITLE EIGHTH.
Transient provisions.
Art. 197. The President of Haiti shall be elected the first time by the Constitutional Assemby.
This Assembly shall administer to him the oath of office and place him in possession of his office.
Art. 198. The National Constitutional Assembly shall exercise the legislative powers in all cases of urgency until the reunion of the two Chambers.


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Art. 199. Le Conseil d'Etat est dissous.
Art. 200. Les Assemblies pri-maires et electorates seront con-voquees aux epoques prevues par la loi, pour la nomination des membres des Conseils communaux et d'arrondissements, des deputes des Communes, et pour le choix des candidats au Senat.
Art. 201. Apres la prestation de serment du President d'Haiti, PAssemblee Nationale Constituante se transportera a la Capitale.
Art. 202. La presente Constitution sera publiee et executed dans toute Petendue- de la Republique.
Fait aux Gonai'ves, le neuf octobre mil huit cent quatre-vingt-neuf, an quatre-vingt-sixieme de Pindependance.
Art. 199. The council of state is hereby abolished.
Art. 200. The primary and electoral assemblies shall be called to convene on the date established by law for the election of the members of the district and municipal councils, of the deputies of the communes, and of the candidates for the Senate.
Art. 201. The National Constitutional Assembly shsill move to the capital immediately after the administration by it to the President of Haiti of his oath of office.
Art. 202. The present Constitution shall be published and executed through the whole extent of the Republic.
Given at Gonaives on the ninth of October, eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, tho eighty-sixth of the independence.


CONSTITUCION.
(Octubre 9 de 1889.)
El pueblo haitiano proclama la presente Constitucion para consagrar sus derechos, sus garantias civiles y politicas, su soberania, y su inde-pendencia nacional.
TITUXO PRIMERO. CAP1TULO I.
Del territorio de la Republica.
Articulo 1. La Republica de Haiti es una e indivisible, esencial-mente libre, soberana 6 independiente.
Su territorio y las islas que de el dependen son inviolables y no pueden ser enajenadas por nadie, ni por convenio alguno.
Las islas adyacentes son las llamadas: La Tortue, la Gonave, l'Isle a, Vaches, les Cayemittes, la Navase, la Grande Caye, y todas las demas que se encuentran colocadas en el radio de los limites consagrados por el Derecho de gentes.
Art. 2. El territorio de la Republica esta dividido en Departa-mentos.
Cada Departamento esta subdividido en Circumscripciones {arrondise-ments) y cada circumscription en Comunas.
El numero y los limites de estas divisiones y subdivisiones se deter-minan por la ley.
TITULO SEGUXDO. CAP1TULO I.
De los haitianos y sus derechos. Art. 3. Son haitianos:
1. Todo individuo nacido en Haiti, 6 fuera de Haiti, de padre haitiano.
2. Todo individuo nacido en Haiti, 6 fuera de Haiti, de madre haitiana, sin estar reconocido por su padre.
3. Todo individuo nacido en Haiti, de padre extranjero, 6 de madre extranjera, si no esta reconocido por su padre, a condition de que descienda de raza africana.
4. Todos los que hasta la fecha han sido reconocidos como haitianos. Art. 4. Todo extranjero puede hacerse haitiano segiin las reglas
establecidas por la ley.
Art. 5 La extranjera casada con un haitiano sigue la condition de su marido.
La mujer haitiana casada con un extranjero pierde su calidad de haitiana.
En caso de disolucion del matrimonio podra ella recobrar su calidad de haitiana, llenando las formalidades requeridas por la ley.
89


90
republic of haiti.
La haitiana que haya perdido su calidad de tal por virtud de su matrimonio con un extranjero, no podra poseer ni adquirir bienes raices en Haiti, por titulo de ninguna clase.
Una ley determinara lo quo debe hacerse para la expropriation de los bienes raices quo la haitiana poseia con anterioridad a su matrimonio.
Art. 6. Nadie, que no sea haitiano, podra ser dueiio de bienes raices en Haiti, ni adquirirlos por ningun titulo.
Art. 7. Ningun haitiano que se naturalice en debida forma en pais extranjero podra volver a su pais sino despues que hayan pasado cinco aiios. Y si quisiere volver a ser haitiano, estara obligado a someterse a todas las condiciones y formalidades impuestas por la ley a los extranjeros.
capitulo ii.
De los derechos civiles y politicos.
Art. 8. La reunion de los derechos civiles y politicos constituye la calidad de ciudadano.
El ejercicio de los derechos civiles, independientes de los politicos, esta regulado por la ley.
Art. 9. Todo ciudadano, mayor de veinte y un aiios, esta en el ejercicio de los derechos politicos, si reune las demas condiciones establecidas por la Constitucion.
Los haitianos naturalizados no son admitidos al ejercicio de estos derechos, sino despues de haber residido cinco aiios en la Republica.
Art. 10. La calidad de ciudadano de Haiti se pierde:
1. Por la naturalization en pais extranjero.
2. Por el abandono de la patria en momentos de peligro inminente.
3. Por la aceptacion no autorizada de funciones publicas, 6 de pension de un Gobierno extranjero.
4. Por cualquieu servicio prestado a los enemigos de la Republica, 6 por entrar con ellos en negocios.
5. Por la condenacion definitive, en juicio contradictorio, a sufrir penas perpetuas aflictiva e infamantes.
Art. 11. El ejercicio de los derechos politicos se suspende:
1. Por la situation de quiebra, simple 6 fraudulenta.
2. Por el estado de interdiction judicial, acusacion, 6 rebeldia.
3. Como consecuencia de una sentencia judicial que lleve consigo la suspension de osos derechos.
4. Por virtud de un fallo en que se haga constar la negativa de la persona de que se trato a servir en la Guardia Nacional, 6 en el jurado.
La suspension cesa con las causas que la produjeron. Art. 12. La ley determina los casos en que se puede recobrar la calidad de ciudadano, y el modo en quo esto tiene que hacerse, y las condi-' ciones que para ello tendran que llenarse.
CAPfTTJLO iii.
Del Derecho publico.
Art. 13. Los haitianos son iguales ante la ley. Todos son igualmente admisibles ii los empleos civiles y militares, sin mas razon de prefe-rencia que el merito personal y los servicios prestados al pais. Una ley determinara las condiciones do admisibilidad.


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Art. 14. La libertad individual esta garantizada. Nadie puede ser detenido sino en virtud de imputation de haber hecho alguna cosa castigada por la ley, y por mandamiento de una autoridad competente. Para que este mandamiento pueda ejecutarse so requiere:
1. Que en 61 se exprese formalmente el motivo de la detencion y la disposition legal que castiga el hecho imputado.
2. Que sea notificado en el acto de la ejecucion a la persona contra quien se ha expedido, dejando on su poder una copia. Fuera del caso de infragante delito, el arresto esta. sometido a las formalidades y condiciones que acaban de exponerse. Todo arresto 6 detencion que se efectue infringiendo este precepto, toda violencia 6 rigor que se emplee en la ejecucion del mandamiento, son actos arbitrarios contra los que pueden reclamar, sin necesidad de autorizacion previa, las partes per-judicadas, acudiendo a los tribunales competentes contra los autores y ejecutores.
Art. 15. Nadie puede ser juzgado por otros jueces que los que la Constitucion 6 la ley les sefiala. '
Art. 16. No podra hacerse ninguna visita domiciliaria, ni ocupa-cion de papeles, sino en virtud de la ley y con las formalidades que ella prescribe.
Art. 17. Ninguna ley puede tener efecto retroactive La retroaction se entiende efectuada cuando la ley priva a alguno de derechos que tiene adquiridos.
Art. 18. Ninguna pena puede establecerse sino en virtud de la ley, ni tampoco podra aplicarse ninguna sino en los casos que e*sta determine.
Art. 19. La propiedad es inviolable y sagrada. Las concesiones y ventas hechas lfigalmente por el Estado permane-cen irrevocables.
Nadie puede ser privado de su propiedad sino por causa de utilidad publica, en los casos y de la manera que la ley establece, y mediante el pago previo de una justa indemnizacion.
La confiscation de bienes por causas politicas no puede establecerse.
Art. 20. La pena de muerte por delitos politicos queda abolida. La ley determinara la pena que habra de sustituirla.
Art. 21. Todos tienen el derecho de expresar sus opiniones en todos los asuntos, y de escribir, imprimir y publicar sus pensamientos.
No podran someterse los escritos si censura previa. Los abusos de este derecho se definirsin y rcprimiran por la ley, sin que por ello resulte atacada la libertad de la prensa.
Art. 22. Todos los cultos son igualmente libres. Cada.uno tiene el derecho de profesar su religion y de ejercer libremente su culto, con tal que no perturbe el orden publico.
Art. 23. El Gobierno determina la circumscription territorial de las parroquias que estan a cargo de los ministros de la Religion Catolica, Apostolica Romana.
Art. 24. La ensenanza es libre. La instruccion primaria es obliga-toria. La instruccion en todos sus grados es gratuita.
La libertad de ensenanza se practica conforme a la ley y bajo la alta vigilancia del Estado.
Art. 25. Se establece el jurado en materia criminal y para los delitos de imprenta y los politicos.
Sin embargo, cuando se haya declarado legalmente el estado de sitio, los crimenes y delitos contra la seguridad interior y exterior del


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
Estado, y en general todos los delitos politicos cometidos por via de la prensa, 6 de otro modo, sersin juzgados por los tribunales criminales 6 correccionales competentes, sin intervention del jurado.
Art. 26. Los haitianos tienen el derecho de reunirse pacificamente y sin armas, aun para ocuparso de asuntos politicos, conformandose a las leyes que esten vigentes para el uso de este derecho, sin que se requiera autorizacion previa.
Esta disposition no se aplica a reuniones efectuadas en lugares publi-cos, las que quedan de todo punto sujetas a las reglas de policia.
Art. 27. Los haitianos tienen el derecho de asociarse. Este derecho no puede ser sometido a ninguna medida preventiva.
Art. 28. El derecho de petition se ejerce personalmente por uno 6 muchos individuos; nunca en nombre de un cuerpo.
Las peticiones pueden dirigirse, bien al Poder Legislativo, bien a cada una de las dos Camaras JLegislativas.
Art. 29. El secreto de las cartas es inviolable.
La ley determina cuales son los agentes responsables de la violation del secreto de las cartas contiadas ai correo.
Art. 30. El cmpleo do las lenguas usadas en Haiti es facultativo, y no puede ser regulado sino por la ley, y tan solo por la autoridad piiblica y para los asuntos judiciales.
Art. 31. No se necesitara autorizacion previa para perseguir a funcionarios piiblicos por los hechos que hubiesen cometido durante su administration, salvo, sin embargo, lo que esta establecido con respecto a los Secretarios do Estado.
Art. 32. La ley no puede anadir cosa alguna si la Constitucion, ni derogar nsida de lo que esta disponga.
La letra de la Constitucion debersi siempre prevalecer.
tittjxo tekcero. CAPtTULO i.
De la soberania nacional y de los poderes d quienes se delega su ejercicio.
Art. 33. La soberania nacional reside en la universalidad de los ciudadanos.
Art. 34. El ejercicio de esta soberania esta, delegado a tres Poderes. Estos Poderes son: El Poder Legislativo, el Poder Ejecutivo y el Poder Judicial.
Los tres forman el Gobierno de la Republica, que es esencialmente democratico'y representative
Art. 35. Cada Poder es independiente de los otros dos en el ejercicio de sus atribuciones, que pondrsi en prsictica separadamente. Ninguno de ellos podrsi delegar las que le corresponden, ni traspasar los limites que le estan seiialados.
Todo acto de cualquiera de los tres Poderes lleva imbibita la idea de la responsabilidad.
Art. 36. El Poder Legislativo se ejercita por el intermedio de las dos Camaras representativas.
Una es la Csimara de Representantes y otra es el Senado, y forman las dos juntas el Cuerpo Legislativo.
Art. 37. Las dos Camaras se reunen para formar la Asamblea Nacional en los casos previstos por la Constitucion. Los poderes de la


CONSTITUTION.
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Asamblea Nacional son limitados, y no pueden extenderse a otros objetos que los que estan expresainente seiialados por la Constitucion.
Art. 38. El Poder Ejecutivo esta delegado a un ciudadano, que toma el titulo de Presidente do la Repiiblica de Haiti y no puede recibir ninguna otra calificacion.
Art. 39. El Poder Judicial esta. ejercido por un Tribunal de Casa-cion, tribunales de apelacion, y tribunales civiles, de comercio, y de paz.
Art. 40. La responsabilidad individual esta formalinente Iigada ii toda funcion piiblica.
Una ley determinara. la forma que deba seguirse en el enjuiciamiento de los funcionarios publicos por los hechos de su administration.
capitulo ii.
Del Poder Legislativo.
Seccion I. De la Camara de liepresentantes.
Art. 41. La Camara de liepresentantes so compone de los que el pueblo eligo directamente por las Asambleas primarias de cada Comuna de la manera establecida por la ley.
Art. 42. El mimero de los Representantes se fijara en proportion ii la poblacion do cada Comuna.
Mientras no se determine esa poblacion, y la ley no haya fijado el niimero de ciudadarios que cada Diputado representara en la Camara, habra tres Representantes por la capital, dos por cada cabecera de Departamento, dos para cada una de las ciudades de Jacmel, Jeremie, y Saint Marc, y uno para cada una de las demiis Comunas.
Art. 43. Para ser Representanto del pueblo se necesita:
1. Haber cumplido la edad de veinte y cinco anos.
2. Estar en el goce de los derechos civiles y politicos.
3. Ser dueiio do bienes raices en Haiti, 6 ejercer una industria, 6 profesion.
Art. 44. Los Representantes del puelilo son elegidos por tres anos. Pueden ser reelegidos indefinidamente.
La renovation de la Camara se efectua integramente.
Art. 45. En caso de muerte, renuncia, 6 remocion de un Representanto del pueblo, la Asamblea primaria proveeni la vacante, tan solo por el tiempo que queda por transcurrir.
Art. 46. Mientras este en sesion el Cuerpo Legislativo los Representantes del pueblo recibiran del Tesoro Publico una remuneration de trescientas piastras fuertes al mes, por cabeza.
Art. 47. Las funciones de Representanto del pueblo son incompati-bles con toda otra f uncipn retribuida por el Estado.
Secci6n II. Del Senado.
Art. 48. El Senado se compone do treinta y nueve miembros, cuyas funciones duraran seis anos.
Art. 49. Los Senadores son elegidos por la Camara de Representantes, escogiendo entre dos listas de candidates que le seran presentadas,


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REFUBLIC OF HAITI.
una por las Asambleas Electorales reunidas en las cabeceras de cada circumscription en la epoca determinada por la ley, y otra por el Poder Ejecutivo, en la sesion en que debe tener lugar la renovation decretada por el articulo 51.
El mimero constitucional de Senadores que debe representor a cada Departamento de la Republica, sera sacado exclusivamente de las listas presentadas para aquel Departamento por los Colegios Electorales y el Poder Ejecutivo.
El mimero de Senadores que debe haber es el siguiente: Once por el Departmento del Oeste; nueve por el del Norte; nueve por el del Sud; seis por el del Artibonite, y cuatro por el del Noroeste.
El Senador saliente no podra ser reemplazado sino por un ciudadano del mismo Departamento.
Akt. 50. Para ser Senador se necesita:
1. Haber cumplido treinta aiios de edad.
2. Estar en el goce de los derechos civiles y politicos.
3. Ser dueiio do bienes raices en Haiti, 6 ejercer una industria 6 profesion.
Art. 51. El Senado se renueva por terceras partes cada dos anos.
En consecuencia se dividira, por suerte en tres secciones de trece Senadores. Los de la primera saldran al fin de los dos primeros aiios, los do la segunda al terminar cuatro aiios, y los de la tercera cuando se cumplan seis, de manera que cada bienio sera precedido por la election de trece Senadores.
Art. 52. Los Senadores son reelegibles indefinidamento.
Art. 53. En caso do muerte, renuncia, 6 remocion de un Senador, la Camara de Representantes proveera a su reemplazo por el tiempo que queda por transcurrir.
La election so efectuara de entro los candidates inscritos en las listas sumininistradas por el Poder Ejecutivo y por las Asambleas Electorales.
Art. 54. El Senado no podra reunirso en tiempo diferente del seiialado para las sesiones del Cuerpo Legislativo, salvo en los casos previstos en los afticulos 63 y 64.
Art. 55. Las funciones de Senador son incompatibles con toda otra do caractcr publico retribuida por el Estado.
Art. 56. Cuando el Senado termine sus sesiones dejara una comision permanente.
Esta comision se compondra de sieto Senadores, y no podra llegar a ninguna resolution, sino con el objeto de convocar la Asamblea Nacional en el caso previsto en el art. 64.
Art. 57. Los Senadores recibiran del Tesoro Publico una remuneration de ciento cincuenta piastras fuertes por mes, por cabeza.
Seccion III. De la Asamblea Nacional.
Art. 58. Para la apertura y clausura de la sesion anual del Cuerpo Legislativo, la Camara de Representantes y el Senado se reuniran en Asamblea Nacional.
Art. 59. El Presidente del Senado presidira, la Asamblea Nacional. El Presidente de la Camara de Representantes sera su Vicepresidente. Los Secretarios del Senado y de la Camara de Representantes seran tambien los Secretarios de la Asamblea Nacional.


CONSTITUTION.
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Akt. 60. Son atribuciones de la Asamblea Nacional:
1. Elegir el Presidente de la Republica y tomarle el juramento constitutional.
2. Declarar la guerra con vista del informe del Poder Ejecutivo, y proveer respecto He este asunto todo lo que proceda.
3. Aprobar 6 desaprobar los tratados de paz.
4. Revisar la Constitucion cuando haya lugar ii hacerlo.
Secci6n IV. Bel ejercicio del poder legislativo.
Akt. 61. Las sesiones del Cuerpo Legislativo se celebraran en la capital de la Republica, 6 en otro punto si lo exigen las circunstancias politicas.
Cada Camara tendra sus sesiones en su propio local, salvo el caso de que una y otra se reunan para formar la Asamblea Nacional.
Art. 62. El Cuerpo Legislativo se reunirii, sin necesidad de convocation, el primer lunes de abril de cada afio. La sesion es de tres me^es. En caso necesario podra prorrogarse un mes mas el referido-termino, bien sea por acuerdo del Cuerpo Legislativo, bien por disposition del Poder Ejecutivo.
Art. 63. El Poder Ejecutivo, 6 la Asamblea Nacional, podran con vocar las Camaras a sesion extraordinaria, en el intermedio entre una y otra de las ordinarias, y en caso de urgencia.
El Ejecutivo les dara, cuenta de su determination por medio do un mensaje especial. N
Art. 64. En caso de vacante del puesto de Presidente de la Republica, la Asamblea Nacional esta obligada a reunirse, a mas tardar dentro de diez dias, con 6 sin convocation de la Comision permanente del Senado.
Art. 65. Los miembros del Cuerpo Legislativo representan la Nacion entera.
Art. 66. Cada Camara exarninara las actas de election de sus miembros, y sera juez do las cuestioncs que ocurran respecto ii ellas.
Art. 67. Los miembros de cada Camara prestaran individualmente el juramento de mantener los derechos del pueblo y ser holes si la Constitucion.
Art. 68. Las sesiones do las Camaras y de la Asamblea Nacional seran publicas. Sin embargo, cada Asamblea podra constituirse en comision secreta cuando asi lo pidan cinco miembros.
La Asamblea decidira en seguida, por mayoria absoluta de votos, si el mismo asunto puede continuar discutiendose en sesion piiblica.
Art. 69. El Poder Legislativo dicta leyes sobre todo asunto de interes publico.
La iniciativa corresponde a cualquiera de las dos Camaras y al Poder Ejecutivo.
Sin embargo, las leyes de presupuestos, y las que se refieran a la imposition y cobranza de impuestos y contribuciones, a crear nuevos gastos del Estado, 6 aumentar los ya creados, deberan ser votadas primeramente por la Camara de Representantes.
Art. 70. La interpretation autoritativa de las leyes pertenece sola-mente al Poder Ejecutivo, y se dara en forma de ley.


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REPUBLIC OP HAITI.
Art. 71. Ninguna de las dos Camaras podra tomar resolution sobre ningun asunto si no estan presentes las dos terceras partes de sus miembros, atendiendo al numero fijado por los articulos 42 y 48.
Si aconteciere que en las elecciones generales para la formation de la Camara el resultado de las urnas no da el numero suficiente para completer los dos tercios legales, el Ejecutivo esta obligado ii disponer inmediatamente que se efectuen elecciones en las Comunas no repre-sentadas.
Art. 72. Todas las resoluciones habran de ser adoptadas por mayoria absoluta de votos, salvo en los casos previstos por la Constitucion.
Art. 73. Los miembros de las Camaras daran sus votos, poniendose en pie, 6 permaneciendo sentados.
En caso de duda, la votacion sera, nominal, y se daran los votos con-testando si, 6 no.
Art. 74. Cada Camara tiene el derecho de abrir una investigation sobre los asuntos que ocurran.
Art. 75. No puede aprobarse en ninguna Camara un proyecto de ley, sino despues de haber sido votado articulo por articulo.
Art. 76. Cada Camara tiene el derecho de hacer enmiendas y de dividir los articulos y enmiendas que se propongan.
Las enmiendas votadas por una Camara no pueden formar parte del texto de la ley sino despues de haber sido votadas por la oti-a Camara.
Los organos del Poder Ejecutivo tienen la facultad do proponer enmiendas a, los proyectos de ley que se discutan, aunque la iniciativa de dichos proyectos haya sido de las Camaras. Tambien tienen la facultad de retirar de la discusion, antes de que haya sido aceptado por las dos Camaras, todo proyecto de ley presentado por el Poder Ejecutivo.
La misma facultad coi-responde a cualquier miembro de una ii otra Camara quo haya presentado un proyecto de ley, antes do que el dicho proyecto haya sido aceptado por la Camara ii que su autor pertenece.
Art. 77. Toda ley admitida por las dos Camaras se remitirii inmediatamente al Poder Ejecutivo, el que tiene derecho, antes de pro-mulgarla, de hacer constar las objeciones que contra ella le ocurran.
En este caso, el proyecto de ley sera devuelto a la Camara en que se voto originariamente, acompafiandolo con fa exposition de las objeciones. Si estas son aceptadas, sera enmondada la ley en las dos Camaras. Si son rechazadas, volvorii la ley de nuevo al Poder Ejecutivo para que sea promulgada.
Para rechazar las objeciones se necesitara una mayoria de las dos tercei'as partes de los votos, en votacion secreta. Si eso numero de votos no se reune para rechazar las objeciones, se entenderan estas aceptadas.
Art. 78. El derecho de hacer estas objeciones habra de usarse en los siguientes plazos:
1. Dentro de tres dias, en casos de urgencia, sin que en ningun caso la objecion pueda versar sobre el hecho mismo do la urgencia.
2. Dentro do ocho dias, exceptuando el domingo, para toda otra ley. Sin embargo, si la sesion del Congreso ha terminado antes de que expire este plazo, la ley permaneccni aplazada.
Art. 79. Si dentro de los plazos prescritos en el articulo antecedente no hiciere el Poder Ejecutivo objecion alguna contra la ley, sera, esta promulgada inmediatamente.
Art. 80. Un proyecto de ley rechazado por una de las Camaras no podra ser presentado de nuevo en la misma sesion.


CONSTITUTION.
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Art. 81. Las leyes y los demas actos del Cuerpo Legislativo ad-quieren caracter oficial por su publication en el "Moniteur," y se insertaran ademas en un Roletin impreso y numerado, que se denomi-nara "Boletin de las Leyes," Bulletin des Lois.
Art. 82. La fecha de la ley es la de su adoption definitiva por las dos Camaras; pero ninguna ley tendra fuerza obligatoria sino despues de que se haga su promulgation conforme a la ley.
Art. 83. Las Camaras se corresponden con el Poder Ejecutivo para todo lo que interese a la administration de los asuntos publicos.
Ellas se correspondent tambien una con otra en los casos previstos por la Constitucion.
Art. 84. Nadie puede en persona presentar peticiones a las Camaras.
Cada Camara tiene el derecbo de enviar a los Secretarios de Estado las peticiones que se le dirijan. Los Secretarios de Estado estan obligados a, dar explicaciones sobre su contenido siempre que lo exija la Camara.
Art. 85. Los miembros del Cuerpo Legislativo son inviolables desde el dia de su election hasta el de la expiration de su mandato.
No pueden ser excluidos de la Camara de que forman parte, ni ser en tiempo alguno perseguidos y atacados por las opiniones y votos que hayan emitido, sea en el ejercicio de sus funciones, sea con ocasion de este ejercicio.
Art. 86. No podra ejecutarse contra un miembro del Cuerpo Legislativo, mientras dure su mandato, ninguna especie de apremio corporal.
Art. 87. Ningun miembro del Cuerpo Legislativo podra ser perse-guido, ni arrestado, en asunto criminal, correctional, 6 de policia, ni aun por delitos politicos, durante el periodo de su mandato, sino desputs de que la Camara a la cual pertenece haya dado antoriza-cion para hacerlo, salvo el caso de infragante delito, y tratandose de hechos que se castigan con pena aflictiva 6 infamatoria.
En este caso, el asunto es referido sin tardanza a la Camara desde la apertura de la sesion.
Art. 88. En materia criminal los miembros del Cuerpo Legislativo seran puestos en estado de acusacion por la Camara de que formen parte, y juzgados por el tribunal criminal de su domicilio, con auxilio del jurado.
Art. 89. Cada Camara determinara por su propio reglamcnto lo relativo a su disciplina, y la manera con que habra de ejercer sus atribuciones.
CAPfTULO III.
Del Poder Ejecutivo. Secci6n I. Del Presidente de la Republica.
Art. 90. El Presidente de la Republica sera elegido por siete anos. Entrara en el ejercicio de sus funciones el quince de mayo, y no podra ser reelecto sino despues de un intermedio de siete anos.
Art. 91. La election del Presidente de Haiti se efectuara por la Asamblea Nacional, en votacion secreta, y por mayoria de los dos tercios de los miembros presentes.
Si resulta del primer escrutinio que ninguno de los candidatos ha obtenido el ndmero de votos que acaba de senalarse, se procedera a 361a07-7


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REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
un segundo escrutinio, y si en el no se obtiene tampoco la mayoria de los dos tercios, se concentrara entonces la eleecion entre los tres candidates que tienen mayor numero de votos.
Si, despues de tres dias de escrutinio, ninguno de los tres candidates reune la mayoria de dos tercios, se reducira la votacion a aquellos dos que tienen mayor numero de votos, y ol quo de olios obtenga la mayoria absoluta sera proclamado Presidente do Haiti.
En caso de igualdad en el numero de los votos de los dos candidates la eleecion se decidira por la suerte.
Art. 92. Para ser elegido Presidente de Haiti se necesita:
1. Haber nacido de padre haitiano y no haber nunca renunciado su nacionalidad.
2. Ser mayor de cuarenta aiios.
3. Estar en el goce de los derechos civiles y politicos.
4. Ser dueho de bienes raices en Haiti, y estar domiciliado en el pais. Art. 93. En caso de muecte, renuncia, 6 remocion del Presidente,
el que lo reemplace sera nombrado por siete aiios; pero sus funciones cesaran el quince de mayo aun cuando el aiio septimo de su ejercicio no se haya aun completado.
Durante la vacante se desempeiiaran las funciones del Poder Ejecutivo por los Secretarios de Estado, reunidos en Consejo, y bajo su responsabilidad.
Art. 94. Si el Presidente se encontrare en la imposibilidad de ejercer sus funciones, el Consejo de Secretarios de Estado se encargara de la autoridad ejecutiva, mientras dure el impedimento.
Art. 95. Antes de entrar en el ejercicio de sus funciones el Presidente prestara ante la Asamblea Nacional el juramento que sigue: "Juro ante Dios y ante la Nacion observer y hacer observer fielmente la Constitucion y las leyes del pueblo haitiano, respetar sus derechos, ymantener la independencia nacional y la integridad del territorio."
Art. 96. El Presidente hard poner a las \eyes el sello de la Republica, y mandara promulgarlas inmediatamente despues de recibirlas, segiin lo dispuesto en el articulo 189.
Hara igualmente sellar y promulgar los acuerdos y decretos de la Asamblea Nacional.
Art. 97. Esta encargado de hacer ejecutar las leyes, acuerdos y decretos del Cuerpo Legislativo y de la Asamblea Nacional. Dictara todos los reglamentos y disposiciones necesarias para ello, sin poder jamas suspender 6 interpretar las dichas leyes, acuerdos y decretos, ni excusarse de darles cumplimiento.
Art. 98. El Presidente nombra y destituye los Secretarios de Estado.
Art. 99. Manda y dirige las fuerzas de mar y tierra. Confiere grados militares en el modo y forma, y bajo las condiciones de ascenso establecidas por la ley.
Art. 100. Sus nombramientos para empleos y funciones publicas se hacen solo por virtud de la Constitucion, 6 de dispositionexpresa de alguna ley, y bajo las condiciones que una y otra prescriban.
Art. 101. Hace tratados de paz, sujetos a la sancion de la Asamblea Nacional. Hace tratados de alianza, neutralidad, comercio y todos los demas internacionales, sujetos a, la sancion del Cuerpo Legislativo.
Art. 102. El Presidente provee, conforme a la ley, a la seguridad interior y exterior del Estado.
Art. 103. Tiene derecho de conceder amnistias de toda clase; ejercita el derecho de perdonar y conmutar sentencias, conforme a la ley.


CONSTITUTION.
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Akt. 104. Todas las medidas que tome el Presidente de Haiti tienen que ser el resultado de previa deliberation en el Consejo de Secretarios de Estado.
Art. 105. Ningiin acto del Presidente, salvo el decreto de nombramiento 6 destitution de los Secretarios de Estado, podra tener efecto si no esta refrendado por un Secretario de Estado, el cual por este solo hecho se hace responsable de la medida.
Art. 106. El Presidente de Haiti no es responsable de los abusos de poder ii otras ilegalidades que se cometan en un ramo de la Administration dependiente de un Secretario de Estado, que este ultimo no hubiere reprimido.
Art. 107. No tiene mas poderes que los que la Constitucion y las leyes particulares dictadas en virtud de la misma formalmente le confieren.
Art. 108. A la apertura de cada sesion el Presidente dara cuenta por medio de un mensaje a la Asamblea Nacional de los actos de su administration en el ano anterior, y pondra de manifiesto la situation general de la Repdblica, tanto en el interior como en el exterior.
Art. 109. La acusacion del Presidente, y su enjuiciamiento ante el Senado, en caso de abuso de autoridad y poder, de traicion, 6 de cual-quiera otro crimen cometido por 61 durante el ejercicio de sus funciones, corresponde a la Camara de Representantes.
El Senado no podra pronunciar otra pena que la de destituci6n, y privation del derecho de ejercer toda otra funcion publica durante un ano por lo menos, y cinco anos cuando mas.
Si hubiera lugar a la aplicacion de otras penas, 6 determinar respecto al ejercicio de la action civil, se procedera a ello ante los tribunales ordinarios, bien sea por virtud de haber sido admitida la acusacion
fior la Camara de Representantes, bien a virtud de action directa de as partes perjudicadas.
La declaration de haber lugar a la acusacion, y la de culpabilidad en su caso, habran de hacerse respectivamente por la Camara a quien incumbe, por mayoria de dos terceras partes de los votos.
Art. 110. La ley determinara los procedimientos que han de seguirse contra el Presidente en el caso de crimenes 6 delitos cometidos por el, bien sea en el ejercicio de sus funciones, bien fuera de el.
Art. 111. El Presidente de Haiti recibira del Tesoro Publico una compensation anual de veinte y cuatro mil piastras fuertes. Art. 112. Residira en el Palacio Nacional de la Capital.
Secci6n II.
De los Secretarios de Estado.
Art. 113. Hay seis Secretarios de Estado.
Los Departamentos ministeriales son: Interior, Agricultura, Tra-bajos Publicos, Justicia, Instruccion Publica, Cultos, Hacienda, Co-mercio, Relaciones Exteriores, Guerra y Marina.
Los Departamentos que correspondan a cada Secretario de Estado seran determinados en el decreto del Presidente de Haiti en que se haga su nombramiento.
Art. 114. Nadie puede ser Secretario de Estado, si no ha cumplido ya treinta aiios de edad, si no esta en el goce de sus derechos civiles y politicos, y si no es dueiio de bienes raices en Haiti.