American constitutions

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Material Information

Title:
American constitutions a compilation of the political constitutions of the independent nations of the New world, with short historical notes and various appendixes
Physical Description:
1 online resource (2 v.) : ;
Language:
Multiple languages
Creator:
Rodríguez, José Ignacio, 1831-1907
International Bureau of the American Republics
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Constitutional law -- America   ( lcsh )
Genre:
legislation   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

System Details:
Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Language:
Printed chiefly in the language of the originals, with Spanish or English translations, in parallel columns.
General Note:
Title from PDF t.p. (LLMC Digital, viewed on Aug. 12, 2010).
General Note:
The compilation was projected in 3 vols. Vol. III, to contain "appendix and index" was not published.
Statement of Responsibility:
by José Ignacio Rodriguez, chief translator and librarian.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Columbia Law Library
Holding Location:
Columbia Law Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 592927135
Classification:
lcc - JL951 .A3 1906
ddc - 342
System ID:
AA00001317:00001


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MEM 0 RANDUM


Since the publication of the two volumes of the "American Constitutions,"
edited and translated by Dr. Jos6 I. Rodrigues, in 1906; changes have been made
as follows:

Amendments to those of Bolivia, Colombia, Panama and the United States
Mimeographed copies of these changes are available, upca request.

ITeW Constitutions have been enacted by the following countries:

CHIT-E:
Constituci6n de la Rep6blica de Chile, (enacted September 18, 1925)o

COSTA RICA:
Constituci6n de la Republica de Costa Rica,
San Jos6, Tip. Lehmann (Sauter & Cia.) 1013. 34 P-

DOIYiICTA Constituci6n de la Republica Dcminicana, 1924.
IEPULIC: "Diario Oficial," Santo Domingo, June 21, 1924.

ECUADOR:
Constituci6n Politica de la Repnblica del Ecuador
decretada por la asamblea national de 1906-1907. Cuarta edici6n.
Quito, Imprenta y Encuadernacion Iacionales. 1913, 62 p.

GUATIAILA:
Ley Constitutiva de la Republica de Guatemala.
decretada por la Asamblea nacio6nal constituyente el
11 de diciembre de 1879 y reformada por el mismo alto cuerpo
el 5 de noviembre de 1887, 30 de agosto de 1897, 12 de Julio
de 1903 y 11 de marzo de 1921.
Guatemala, Tipografia Nacional "Ia Instrucci6n," 1921, 77 p.

HAITI:
Constitution de la R6publique D'Haiti, 1918.
Port au Prince, Imprimerie Iationale, 1918. 23 p.

HOi01URAS:
Constituci6n Politica de la Repablica de Honduras, 1924.
"La Gaceta," Tegucigalpa, Septiembre 20th, 1924.


Constituci6n Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos,
Edici6n official, Mexico, Imprenta de la Secretaria de Gobernacion,
1917, 118 p.

ITICARAGUA:
Constitution Politica de la Republica de Nicaragua,
Managua, Tip. de To Matamoros J. o111. 62 pe








Oonstitucion para la Republica del Peru dictada por la asambles
national de 1919.
Lima, Imp. Torres Aguirre, 1920. 30 Po

URUGUAY:
Constituci6n de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay.
Publicada por el ninisterio del Interior, Hlontevideo,
Imprenta Nacional, 1919. 61 po

VEEBZUEIA:
Constituci6oi enacted in 1925.

No changes have been made, so far as the records of the Pan American Union
show, in the constitutions of the Argentine Republic, Brazil, Cuba, Paraguay and
El Salvador*

A list of English translations of the newer constitutions are as follows:

HAITI AID HIIOARAGUA:

In, The Constitutions of the States at War 1914-1918. Edited by
Herbert F. Wright, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1919,
vii, 679 p.

DOINICAN IREPUBCLIC:
Pan American Union, 1925.


Supplement to the Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science, Hay, 1917.
IT IC ARAGUA:
In, Foreign Relations ofthe United States, 1912. p. 997.

URUGUAY:
In, The Southwestern Political Science Quarterly, Austin, Texas.
June, 1920. p. 95.

HOIDURAS:
Pan American Union, 1925.

CHIL3:
Pan American Union, 1926.


Note: The Pan American Union has no record of English translations of the Constitutions
of Costa Rica and Venezuela.


March, 1926.













INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF
THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS
WASHINGTON, D. C.


AMERICAN


CONSTITUTIONS



A COMPILATION OF THE
POLITICAL CONSTITUTIONS OF
THE INDEPENDENT NATIONS
OF THE NEW WORLD WITH
SHORT HISTORICAL NOTES
AND VARIOUS APPENDIXES



By
JOSE IGNACIO RODRIGUEZ
Chief Translator and Librarian


VOLUME I


JULY, 1905


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1906






























L'a;- Labna>vyj

While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications pf the Inter-
national Bureau of the American Republics, no pecuniary responsibility is assumed
on account of errors which may be found in them.


Aunque se pone el mayor cuidado en que todo lo que se diga en las publicaciones
de la Oficina Internacional de las Repiblicas Americanas sea perfectamente correct,
no se asume responsabilidad pecuniaria por raz6n de los errors que puedan encon-
trarse en ellas.



2

















INTRODUCTORY.


The present compilation has been distributed, for convenience of the
student, into four parts and an Appendix. The first and second parts
constitute Volume I. The third and fourth parts form Volume II.
-The Appendix and the Index are contained in Volume III.
Part Eirst comprises the Constitutions of those countries, five at
present, which are Unions of States or Provinces organized under a
federal compact. These Constitutions are given in the order of their
respective promulgation. Each one appears in its original language,
with its translation into Spanish or English, as the case may be, the
two texts being printed in parallel columns to facilitate comparison.
The Constitution of Brazil is given in Portuguese and English, and
also in Spanish.
Part Second contains the Constitutions of Guatemala, El Salvador,
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Panama, in Spanish and English.
Part TUird is made up of the Constitutions of the Dominican Repub-
lic, Haiti, and Cuba. The Constitution of Haiti is given in French and
English, and also in Spanish.
Part Fourth embraces the Constitutions of all the South American
Republics, exopting the Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Venezuela,
which are included in Part First. All of these are given in Spanish
and English.
The Appendix will present to the student's consideration the "Arti-
cles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" which preceded the Con-
stitution of the United States of America, the Constitution of the
great Colombia, a Confederation which by its dissolution gave rise to
the Republics of Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador,-the Consti-
tution of the United Provinces of Central America (Las Provincias
Unidas de Centro America), a Confederation which was created in 1824,
and some other documents of not less important character, illustrating
the development of political life in the nations of the New World.






















CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.


PART FIRST.-FEDERAL UNIONS.
1. The United States of America: Page.
Historical notes..--.......---------...-..--..---....---------------.......-----.....-...-.....--------.... 9
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of the United States of America --....-..-..--------..--.--..--.......--.--.....---------.. 12
Constitution and amendments .----...........-..-...-........--.-----...---..-......---- 13
2. The United Mexican States:
Historical notes ..--..-.....------......................-------------....----..-..-.....-..-.. 37
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of the United Mexican States.......-..------.--....--------........-----...-----...-.... ---38
Constitution and amendments ...................................... 39
3. The Argentine Nation:
Historical notes .-.....-.....-....---------....-----------...-..-...............----------.....-----------. 97
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of the Argentine Nation..........--..------..................---.------..----------..---- 98
Constitution and amendments --------....-..--------...--.--....------......--......-..... 99
4. The United States of Brazil:
Historical notes-.......-----------......-..------------.......---------..---..-..--..-...........-------. 133
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of Brazil ............-..................----------..-------------.--.....--....----..---------...--... 133
Constitution (Portuguese-English)..---.........------..---.....--......--.....-------------------. 134
Constitution (Spanish) ..------...-........-.....--...--..-........--.-------.......... 171
5. The United States of Venezuela:
Historical notes....-.....-....-......---------------..........-------.---.---..------..................---. 191
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of the United States of Venezuela ..---............------..-.....--..-..-..---------- -----191
Constitution........................................--------------------------....----------.......-------------.... 192
PART SECONI).-THE REPUBLICS OF CENTRAL AMERICA.
1. Republic of Guatemala:
Historical notes-----------------------------------------------................................................... 235
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of Guatemala..----...........................---------------.....-.....----.--.----........--.. 235
Constitution as amended.....-..-----....-....----..............----------.......-.--..--... 236
2. Republic of Salvador:
Historical notes..-----------........-..-...-----....-....--...-...-........------.....--......-. 259
Constitution.......................................................------------------------------------------------- 260
3. Republic of Nicaragua:
Historical notes.................................................... 299
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of Nicaragua .......-----....---........----------------.....------....--...--.....-------..-..--.------- 299
Constitution as amended ..-..---------..--.--.--.---...--...---------...--.--..-......-. 300
4. Republic of Costa Rica:
Historical notes...-..---------------------..........-......--.--.----.--..-............---..-.. --325
List of important books to be consulted in reference to the Constitution
of Costa Rica...........---------....----......-.........------..-----.........----.....-----------325
Constitution as amended ........--..---.......-----....---------------............-...----....-..-- 326
5. Republic of Honduras:
Historical notes...-..-........--------------...------......-...--.----...-.........----.----.----... 359
Constitution.......................---------------................------..----------........-.. ----360
6. Republic of Panama:
Historical notes...-..-...-......................----------------------------....--..--..-........---.....-----. 391
Constitution................--------------.......--.......-....-----...-------.........--------..--. 392



















I'
























PART FIRST



FEDERAL UNIONS

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES
THE ARGENTINE NATION
THE UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL
THE UNITED STATES OF VENEZUELA

7



















I


















THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



HISTORICAL NOTES.

The unanimous declaration made at Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776,
by duly elected representatives of the Colonies of New Hampshire,
Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence plantations, Con-
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, in General
Congress assembled, after explaining the causes which impelled the
people of said Colonies to shake off their allegiance to the British
Crown, stated as follows:
"We, therefore, appealing to the Supreme Judge of
the World for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and
by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish
and declare: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be,
free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegi-
ance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dis-
solved; and that as free and independent States, they have full power
to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce,
and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of
right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance
on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each
other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."
The "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the
States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Penn-
sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro-
lina, and Georgia" were agreed upon by duly elected delegates of the
said States on November 15, 1777.a
This compact having been approved and ratified in due form by the
different States, a solemn proclamation thereof was made at Phila-
delphia on the 9th of July, 1778.
Article 1 of the instrument reads as follows:
"ARTICLE 1. The stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United
States of America.' "
By the provisional articles between the United States of America and
His Britannic Majesty, concluded at Paris, on November 30, 1782, and
the Definitive Treaty of Peace between the United States of America
a See Appendix 1.









THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


and His Britannic Majesty, concluded also at Paris, on September 3,
1783, the recognition of the new political entities was made in the
following language:
"His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz,
New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Del-
aware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Georgia, to be free, sovereign, and independent States; that he treats
with them as such, and for himself, his heirs and successors, relin-
quishes all claims to the government propriety and territorial rights
of the same and every part thereof."
The imperfections of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual
Union between the States having become every day more and more
apparent and serious, the necessity was felt to call for a convention,
where the said imperfections should be properly cured or corrected.
This convention, which met at Philadelphia and held its first meeting
on May 25, 1787, succeeded in framing, after considerable debate and
through a series of compromises, the Constitution of the United States
of America, such as was signed on September 17 of the same year and
submitted for their assent and ratification to the different States.
This ratification was made by conventions held to that effect, in the
following way:
Delaware, by unanimous vote, on December 7, 1787.
Pennsylvania, by a vote of 46 to 23, on December 12, 1787.
New Jersey, by unanimous vote, on December 18, 1787.
Georgia, by unanimous vote, on January 2, 1788.
Connecticut, by a vote of 128 to 40, on January 9, 1788.
Massachusetts, by a vote of 187 to 168, on February 6, 1788.
Maryland, by a vote of 63 to 12, on April 28, 1788.
South Carolina, by a vote of 149 to 73, on May 23, 1788.
New Hampshire, by a vote of 57 to 46, on June 21, 1788.
Virginia, by a vote of 89 to 79, on June 26, 1788.
New York, by a vote of 30 to 28, on July 26, 1788.
The two remaining States, namely, North Carolina and Rhode Island,
did not ratify the Constitution until November 21, 1789, and May 29,
1789, respectively, the former by a vote of 193 to 75, and the latter
by a vote of 34 to 32.
A resolution passed by Congress on September 13, 1788, declared
the Constitution ratified; and the Government under its new form was
started at once.
GEORGE WASHINGTON was elected by the unanimous vote of his coun-
trymen President of the United States. The House of Representa-
tives organized on the 1st of April, 1789, the Senate secured a quorum
on the 6th following, and President Washington was inaugurated on
the 30th.
The city of New York was then the seat of the Government.
On the 25th of September, 1789, the First Congress of the United
States of America, in use of the power vested in it by Article V of
the Constitution, passed a resolution directing twelve "articles to be
proposed to the legislatures of the several -lit.-, as amendments to
the Constitution of the United Stir,.-, all or any of which articles,
when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislatures, to be valid to
all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution."








HISTORICAL NOTES.


The first two were rejected, the last ten were adopted, and on the
15th of December, 1791, they were proclaimed to be in force.a
The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Third
Congress, on the 5th of September, 1794, and was declared in a message
from the President to Congress dated the 8th of January, 1798, to
have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States.
The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of theUnited States was
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eighth Con-
gress, on the 12th of December, 1803, in lieu of the original third
paragraph of the first section of the second article, and was declared
in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of Septem-
ber, 1804, to have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fo'urths of
the States.
A new amendment (Article XIII), forbidding slavery, was proposed
by Congress on February 1, 1865, and declared to be in force on
December 18 of the same year.
It was ratified by 31 States out of 36. Alabama and Mississippi rati-
fied it conditionally. Delaware and Kentucky rejected it. Texas did
not take any action on it.
The fourteenth amendment (Article XIV) was proposed by Con-
gress on June 16, 1866, and declared to be in force on July 28, 1868.
It was ratified by 33 States out of 37, but the States of New Jersey
and Ohio rescinded their ratification..
Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland rejected it. "
California took no final action on it.
The fifteenth amendment (Article XV) was proposed by Congress
on February 27, 1869, and declared to be in force on March 30, 1870.
It was ratified by 30 States out of 37; but the State of New York
rescinded its ratification. California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland,
New Jersey, and Oregon rejected it.
No final action was taken by Tennessee.
The States forming the Union are now 45. Their names, alpha-
betically arranged, are as follows: Alabama, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mas-
sachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North
Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
In addition to these States there are now 6 Territories, as fol-
lows: Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Indian Territory, New Mexico, and
Oklahoma.
a The two rejected articles were as follows:
I. After the first enumeration required by the First Article of the Constitution,
there shall be 1 Representative for every 30,000 persons until the number shall
amount to 100, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress that
there shall not be less than 100 Representatives, nor less than 1 Representative for
every 40,000 persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to 200, after
which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress that there shall not be less
than 200 Representatives, nor more than 1 Representative for every 50,000 persons.
II. No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Repre-
sentatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.










THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


There is also the District of Columbia, organized under section VIII
of the Constitution, the capital of which (Washington) is the seat of
the Government.
The Union now possesses Porto Rico, Guam, the Philippine Islands,
and the Tutuila Group of the Samoan Islands.

LIST OF IMPORTANT BOOKS TO IE CONSULTED IN REFERENCE TO THE CON-
STITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

Journal, acts, and proceedings of the convention assembled at Philadelphia, Monday,
May 14, and dissolved Monday, September 17, 1787, which formed the Consti-
tution of the United States. Published under the direction of the President of
the United States, conformably to a resolution of Congress of March 27, 1818.
Boston, 1819.
ELLIOT, JONATHAN. Debates in the several State Conventions on the adoption of the
Federal Constitution.
TUCKER, JOHN RANDOLPH. The History of the Federal Convention of 1787 and of
its work.
MARSHALL, JOHN. The writings of John Marshall, late Chief Justice of the United
States, upon the Federal Constitution.
STORY, JOSEPH. Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States.
COOLEY, THOMAS 3M. The general principles of constitutional law in the United
States.
Constitutional limitations.
KENT, JAMES. Commentaries to the Constitution of the United States of America.
- Comentarios di la Constituci6n de los Estados Unidos de America, por
James Kent. Obra traducida del texto original, adicionada y anotada por
J. Carlos Mexfa, abogado de los tribunales mexicanos, 1878.
MEXiA, JosE CARLOS. Manual de la Constituci6n de los Estados Unidos.
VARELA, LUIS V. Derecho constitutional positive. Constituciones vigentes en
Inglaterra, Estados Unidos y sus Estados, Suiza y sus cantones.














CONSTITUTION.


We the people of the United
States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility, pro-
vide for the common defense, pro-
mote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to
ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this Consti-
tution for the United States of
America.

ARTICLE I.

SECTION 1. All legislative pow-
ers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States,
which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives.

SEC. 2. 1. The House of Repre
sentatives shall be composed of
Members chosen every second
year by the people of the several
States, and the electors in each
State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most
numerous branch of the State
legislature.

2. No person shall bea Represent-
ative who shall not have attained
to the age of twenty-five years,
and been seven years a citizen of
the United States, and who shall
not, when elected, be an inhabi-
tant of that State in which he shall
be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct
taxes shall be apportioned among
the several States which may be in-


Nos el pueblo de los Estados
Unidos, 6 fin de hacer mis per-
fecta la Uni6n, establecer la justi-
cia, consolidar la tranquilidad do-
mistica, proveer a la defense
comhun, promover el bien general
y asegurar los beneficios de la
libertad, tanto para nosotros mis-
mos como para nuestros descen-
dientes, formamos y sancionamos
esta Constituci6n para los Estados
Unidos de Am6rica.

ARTfCULO I.

SECCI6N I. Todas las facultades
legislativas que esta Constituci6n
concede, so depositan en un Con-
greso de los Estados Unidos, que
se compondrd do un Senado y una
Cimara de Representantes.
SEC. 11. 1. La Camara de Repre-
sentantes se compondri de miem-
bros elegidos cada dos afios por el
pueblo de los Estados, y los elec-
tores en cada uno de ellos deberin
tender las mismas calidades que se
requieren do los llamados A cons-
tituir por sus sufragios la CA-
mara mas numerosa de la Legisla-
tura del Estado.
2. Nadie podri ser Represen-
tante antes de tener cumplidos
veinticinco afios de edad, y siete
do ciudadano de los Estados Uni-
dos, debiendo ademis ser habitante
del Estado que lo elige, al tiempo
de la election.

3. Los Representantes y las con-
tribuciones directs se repartirin
entire todos los Estados que com-







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


eluded within this Union, accord-
ing to their respective numbers,
which shall be determined by
adding to the whole number of
free persons, including those
bound to service for a term of
years, and excluding Indians not
taxed, three-fifths of all other
persons. The actual enumeration
shall be made within three years
after the first meeting of the
Congress of the United States,
and within every subsequent term
of ten years, in 'such manner as
they shall by law direct. The
number of RepresentatiVes shall
not exceed one for every thirty
thousand, but each State shall
have at least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall
be made, the State of New Ilamp-
shire shall be entitled to chuse
three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode
Island and Providence plantations
one, Connecticut five, New York
six, New Jersey four, Pennsyl-
vania eight, Delaware one, Mary-
land six, Virginia ten, North Car-
olina five, South Carolina five,
and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the
representation from any State, the
Executive authority thereof shall
issue writs of election to fill such
vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives
shall chuse their Speaker and
other officers, and shall have the
sole power of impeachment.

SEC. 3. 1. The Senate of the
United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State,
chosen by the legislature thereof,
for six years, and each Senator
shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall
be assembled in consequence of the
first election, they shall be divided
as equally as may be into three


pongan la Uni6n en proporcion al
numero respective de sus habitan-
tes, el cual se determinari agre-
gando al nuimero total de personas
libres, entire las que se comprende
a las que estin obligadas al servi-
cio por cierto niimero de afos, y
se excluye a los indios que no pa-
gan contribuciones, las tres quin-
tas parties de todas las demis. El
censo efectivo so levantara ai los
tres aibos contados desde la pri-
mera sesi6n del Cohgreso de los
Estados Unidos, y en lo sucesivo
de diez en diez afios, en la forma
que el mismo Congreso dispusiere
por medio de leyes. El numero
do Representantes no podrti ex-
ceder de uno por cada treinta mil
habitantes, pero cada Estado ten-
dra cuando menos un Represen-
tante. Mientras no se levante el
censo, el Estado de New IIamp-
shire tendra: derecho At elegir tres,
Massachusetts ocho, Rhode Island
y Providence Plantations uno,
Connecticut cinco, New York seis,
New Jersey cuatro, Pennsylvania
ocho, Delaware uno, Maryland
seis, Virginia diez, North Carolina
cinco, South Carolina cinco, y
Georgia tres.
4. Cuando-ocurrieren vacantes
en la representaci6n de algin Es-
tado, el Ejecutivo del mismo expe-
diri las 6rdenes necesarias para
que se haga la elecci6n de las per-
sonas que deban llenarlas.
5. La Cilmara de Representantes
elegir~i su Presidente y demas em-
pleados. X ella toca exclusiva-
mente la facultad de iniciar causes
por delitos oficiales.
SEC. III. 1. El Senado de los Es-
tados Unidos se compondr6 de dos
Senadores por cada Estado, clegi-
dos por sus respectivas Legislatu-
ras, por seis anos, y cada Senador
tendrat un voto.
2. Inmediatamente despu6s de
que se reunan, en virtud do la pri-
mera elecci6n, so dividiran sus
miembros en tres classes, con toda







CONSTITUTION.


classes. The seats of the Senators
of the first class shall be vacated
at the expiration of the second
year, of the second class at the
expiration of the fourth year, and
of the third class at the expiration
of the sixth year, so that one-third
may be chosen every second year;
and if vacancies happen by resig-
nation, or otherwise, during the
recess of the legislature of any
State, the Executive thereof may
make temporary appointments
until the next meeting of the leg-
islature, which shall then fill such
vacancies.
3. No person shall be a Senator
who shall not have attained to the
age of thirty years and been nine
years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when
elected, be an inhabitant of that
State for which he shall be chosen.
4. The Vice-President of the
United States shall be President of
the Senate, but shall have no vote,
unless they be equally divided.
5. The Senate shall chuse their
other officers, and also a President
pro tempore, in the absence of the
Vice-President, or when he shall
exercise the office of President of
the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole
power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose
they shall be on oath or affirma-
tion. When the President of the
United States is tried the Chief
Justice shall preside; and no per-
son shall be convicted without the
concurrence of two-thirds of the
members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeach-
ment shall not extend further than
to removal from office, and dis-
qualification to hold and enjoy any
office of honor, trust, or profit,
under the United States; but the
party convicted shall nevertheless


la igualdad possible. Los puestos
de los Senadores de la primera claso
vacaran a los dos ainos, los de la se-
gunda A los cuatro, y los de la ter-
cera a los seis, de manera que cada
dos afios so clija una tercera parte.
Si por renuncia u otras causes re-
sultare alguna vacant estando en
receso la Legislatura del Estado
respective, podra el Ejecutivo del
mismo hacer nombraimientos pro-
visionales hasta quo so vuelva ti
reunir la Legislatura, la cual pro-
veera entonces dichas vacantes.

3. Para ser Senador so require
tender treinta afios cumplidos, habor
sido nueve afios ciudadano do los
Estados Unidos, y ser habitantoe
del Estado que hace la clecci6n al
tiempo de verificarse 6sta.

4. El Vicepresidente de los Es-
tados Unidos seri Presidente del
Senado; pero no tendr-i voto sino
en los casos do empate.
5. El Senado elegirit sus em-
pleados y tambien un Presidente
pro tem i)ore que funcionarA en an-
sencia del Vicepresidente, 6 cuan-
do 4ste so halle desempefiando el
cargo de Presidente do los Estados
Unidos.
6. S61o al Senado incumbe la
facultad de juzgar por responsa-
bilidades oficiales; y cuando se
reuniere con este objeto, los Sena-
dores procederAn bajo juramento 6
promesa. Si se tratare de juzgar al
President de los Estados Unidos,
presidira el Senado el Presidente
de la Suprema Corte, y nadie sera
condenado sino por el voto de dos
terceras parties de los miembros
presents.
7. En las causes por responsa-
bilidad official la sentencia condena-
toria no podra exceder de la desti-
tuci6n del empleo y la inhabilita-
"ci6n para obtener y desempeilar
cargo alguno honorifico, 6 hicra-
tivo de la federaci6n; pero el decla-







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


be liable and subject to indict-
ment, trial, judgment, and punish-
ment according to law.

SEc. 4. 1. The times, places, and
manner of holding elections for
Senators and Representatives, shall
be prescribed in each State by the
legislature thereof; but the Con-
gress may at any time by law make
or alter such regulations, except
as to the places of chusing Sena-
tors.


2. The Congress shall assemble
at least once in every year, and such
meetings shall be on the first Mon-
day in December, unless they shall
by law appoint a different day.
SEC. 5. 1. Each House shall be
the judge of the elections, returns,
and qualifications of its own mem-
bers, and a majority of each shall
constitute a quorum to do business;
but a smaller number may adjourn
from day to day, and may be
authorized to compel the attend-
ance of absent members, in such
manner, and under such penalties
as each House may provide.
2. Each House may determine
the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly be-
haviour, and, with the concurrence
of two-thirds, expel a member.
3. Each House shall keep a jour-
nal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, ex-
cepting such parts as may in their
judgment require secrecy; and the
yeas and nays of the members of
either House on any question shall,
at the desire of one-fifth of those
present, be entered on the Journal.

4. Neither House, during the
session of Congress, shall, without
the consent of the other, adjourn
for more than three days, nor to
any other place than that in which
the two Houses shall be sitting.


rado culpable quedari, no obstante,
sujeto a ser acusado, juzgado, sen-
tenciado y castigado con arreglo a
Derecho.
SEC. IV. 1. La Legislatura de
cada Estado prescribirti el tiempo,
lugar y manera en que deban ha-
cerse las elecciones de los Senadores
y Representantes; pero en cual-
quier tiempo cl Congreso por me-
dio de una lcy podra alterar en todo
6 en part las disposiciones de las
Legislaturas sobre el particular,
except las que se refieran al lugar
de la clecci6n de los Senadores.
2. El Congreso se reunira una
vez por lo menos en cada afio, y
esa reunion se viiriN.i.:; el primer
lunes de diciembre, di no ser que
por una ley se sefiale otro dia.
SEC. V. 1. Cada Caimara sera el
juez competent acerca de las elec-
clones y requisites legales de sus
respectivos miembros; y la mayo-
ria de cada una de ellas constituirdi
el quorum para deliberar. Pero
un niumero menor puede reunirse
dia por dia, y compeler t los miem-
bros ausentes a que asistan, de la
manera y bajo las penas que cada
Camara seilalare.
2. Cada Cimara podra former su
Reglamento interior, castigar a sus
miembros por mala conduct, y
aun expulsarlos con la aprobacion
de los dos tercios.
3. Cada Camara llevarA actas
de sus sesiones, que publicarAn
de tiempo en tiemnpo, omitiendo
aquellas parties que a su juicio exi-
jan reserve; y en ellas se haran
constar los votos de los respectivos
miembros, ya sea por la afirmativa,
ya por la negative, en cualquiera
cuesti6n, cuando asi lo pidiere la
quinta parte de los miembros pre-
sentes.
4. Durante el period de las se-
siones del Congreso, ninguna de
las Climaras podri suspenderlas
por mas de tres dias sin el con-
sentimiento de la otra, ni reunirse
en lugar distinto do aquel en que
las dos esten instaladas.








CONSTITUTION.


SEC. 6. 1. The Senators and
Representatives shall receive a
compensation for their services,
to be ascertained by law, and paid
out of the Treasury of the United
States. They shall in all cases,
except treason, felony, and breach
of the peace, be privileged from
arrest during their attendance at
the session of their respective
Houses, and in going to and return-
ing from the same; and for any
speech or debate in either House
they shall not be questioned in any
other place.

2. No Senator or Representative
shall, during the time for which
he was elected, be appointed to any
civil office under the authority of
the United States, which shall
have been created, or the emolu-
ments whereof shall have been
increased during such time; and
no person holding any office under
the United States shall be a mem-
ber of either House during his
continuance in office.
SEC. 7. 1. All bills for raising
revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives; but the
Senate may propose or concur with
amendments as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have
passed the House of Representa-
tives and the Senate shall, before
it become a law, be presented to
the President of the United States;
if he approve he shall sign it, but
if not he shall return it, with his
objections to that House in which
it shall have originated, who shall
enter the objections at large on
their journal and proceed to recon-
sider it. If after such reconsid-
eration two-thirds of that House
shall agree to pass the bill, it shall
be sent, together with the ob-
jections, to the other House, by
which it shall likewise be recon-
sidered, and if approved by two-
360A-VOL 1-06--2


SEC. VI. 1. Los SenadoresyRe-
presentantes recibiran por sus ser-
vicios una remuneraci6n que so
fijard por ley y se pagara por el
Tesoro de los Estados Unidos.
Exceptuando los casos do traici6n,
delito grave 6 perturbaci6n del or-
den, tendran en todos los dcmis el
privilegio de no ser arrestados
durante el period do las sesiones
A que asistieren, 6 en su viaje de
ida 6 vuelta con motivo do cllas.
Y por ningfn discurso, 6 expression
en un debate en cualquiera de las
Camaras podra jams molestarseles
en ninguna part.
2. Ningun Senador 6 Represen-
tanto podri durante el tiempo de
su encargo, ser nombrado para
ningun empleo civil de la federa-
ci6n, que so haya creado, 6 cuyos
emolumentos se hubicran aumen-
tado, durante el mismo period;
y nadie que tuviere un emplco
de lafederaci6n podra ser miembro
de ninguna do las Camaras, mien-
tras lo descmpefiare.

SEC. VII. 1. Todo proyecto de
ley sobre creaci6n de rentas pro-
cederd do la Camara de Represen-
tantes; pero el Senado puede pro-
poner 6 ajiadir sus enmiendas como
en todos los deoms proyectos.
2. Todo proyecto que hubiere
sido aprobado por la Camara de
Representantes y el Senado, antes
de que pase a ser ley, sera enviado
al President de los Estados
Unidos. Si lo aprueba, lo firmard;
pero si no, lo devolvera con sus
observaciones, a la Camara en que
tuvo origen, la cual las harai inser-
tar en sus actas, y procederi do
nuevo a discutirlo. Si despu6s do
esta nueva discusi6n, dos tercios
de esa Camara convinieren en
aprobarlo, se remitira, juntamente
con las observaciones, a la otra
Ctimara, la que a su vez volverd a
discutirlo, y si resultare aprobado
por los dos tercios de ella, pasara







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


thirds of that House it shall be-
come a law. But in all such cases
the votes of both Houses shall be
determined by yeas and nays, and
the names of the persons voting
for and against the bill shall be
entered on the journal of each
House respectively. If any bill
shall not be returned by the Presi-
dent within ten days (Sundays ex-
cepted) after it shall have been
presented to him, the same shall
be a law in like manner as if he had
signed it, unless the Congress by
their adjournment prevent its re-
turn, in which case it shall not be
a law.
3. Every order, resolution, or
vote to which the concurrence of
the Senate and House of Represent-
atives may be necessary (except on
a question of adjournment) shall
be presented to the President of
the United States, and before the
same shall take effect shall be ap-
proved by him or, being disap-
proved by him, shall be repassed
by two-thirds of the Senate and
House of Representatives, accord-
ing to the rules and limitations
prescribed in the case of a bill.
SEC. 8. 1. The Congress shall
have power to lay and collect taxes,
duties, imposts and excises, to pay
the debts and provide for the com-
mon defence and general welfare
of the United States; but all
duties, imposts and excises shall
be uniform throughout the United
States;

2. To borrow money on the
credit of the United States;
3. To regulate commerce with
foreign nations, and among the sev-
eral States, and with the Indian
tribes;
4. To establish an uniform rule
of naturalization, and uniform laws
on the subject of bankruptcies
throughout the United States;
5. To coin money, regulate the
value thereof, and of foreign coin,


a ser ley. En todos los casos de
esta naturaleza la votaci6n en
ambas Caimaras sera nominal,
haci4ndose constar en las actas de
cada Cimara respectivamente los
nombres de las personas que han
votado por la afirmativa y por la
negative. Si el Presidente no de-
volviere un proyecto do ley al los
diez dias (exceptuando los domin-
gos) despu6s de que se le hubiere
presentado, tendri fuerza de ley
lo mismo que si lo hubiere firmado,
6 menos que no haya podido ser
devuelto al Congreso por haberse
suspendido las sesioues.

3. Todo acuerdo, resolucion, 6
votacion que requiera la concu-
rrencia del Senado y Camara de
Represcntantes excepto cuando
sea para suspender las sesiones) se
presentari al Presidente de los
Estados Unidos, y no tendra efecto
hasta que 41 lo apruebe. Si lo
desechare, sera necesaria la apro-
baci6n de los dos tercios del Se-
nado y de la CAmara de Represen-
tantes, segun las reglas y limits
prescritos para los proyectos de
ley.
SEC. VIII. 1. El Congreso ten-
dra facultad: Para establecer y
recaudar contribuciones, derechos,
impuestos y sisas 6 fin de pagar
las deudas y proveer A la defense
com6n y bien general de los
Estados Unidos; perotodaslascon-
tribuciones, derechos, impuestos y
sisas seran uniforms en todos los
Estados Unidos;
2. Contraer empristitos sobre
el crddito de los Estados Unidos;
3. Reglamentar el comercio con
las naciones extranjeras, y el que se
hace de Estado A Estado y con las
tribus do los indios;
4. Establecerunareglauniforme
do naturalizaci6n y decretar leyes
uniformes en material de quiebras
para todos los Estados Unidos;
5. Acufiar moneda, determinar
el valor de 6sta y do las extran-







CONSTITUTION.


and fix the standard of weights
and measures;
6. To provide for the punishment
of counterfeiting the securities
and current coin of the United
States;
7. To establish post-offices and
post-roads;
8. To promote the progress of
science and useful arts, by secur-
ing for limited times to authors
and inventors the exclusive right
to their respective writings and
discoveries;
9. To constitute tribunals infe-
rior to the Supreme Court;
10. To decline and punish piracies
and felonies committed on the high
seas, and offences against the law
of nations;
11. To declare war, grant letters
of marque and reprisal, and make
rules concerning captures on land
and water;
12. To raise and support armies,
but no appropriation of money to
that use shall be for a longer term
than two years;
13. To provide and maintain a
navy;
14. To make rules for the gov-
ernment and regulation of the land
and naval forces;
15. To provide for calling forth
the militia to execute the laws of
the Union, suppress insurrections,
and repel invasions;

16. To provide for organizing,
arming, and disciplining the mili-
tia, and for governing such part of
them as may be employed in the
service of the United States, re-
serving to the States, respectively,
the appointment of the officers
and the authority of training the
militia according to the discipline
prescribed by Congress:
17. To exercise exclusive legisla-
tion in all cases whatsoever, over
such district (not exceeding ten
miles square) as may, by cession of
particular States, and the accept-


jeras y los patrons de las pesas
y medidas;
6. Seijalar las penas de los falsi-
ficadores del papel do crddito v do
la moneda de los Estados Unidos;

7. Establecer Casas de correos,
y servicios do postas;
8. Promover el adelanto de las
ciencias y de las artes tiles, ase-
gurando a los autores 6 inventories
por tiempo limitado la propiedad
exclusive de sus respectivos escri-
tos 4 inventos;
9. Crear tribunales inferiores A
la Suprema Corte;
10. Definir y castigar la pirate-
ria y otros delitos graves cometidos
en alta mar, asi como los perpetra-
dos contra el Derecho de gentes;
11. Declarar la guerra, expedir
patents de corso y represalias, y
establecer reglas para las press
hechas en mar y tierra;
12. Levantar y mantener ejdrci-
tos; pero ningdin cr6dito que se
concede para este objeto deber6
durar mas de dos afios;
13. Former y mantener una
armada;
14. Decretar ordenanzas para el
gobierno y discipline del ej6rcito
y de la armada:
15. Dictar disposiciones para
llamar a las armas a la milicia
cuando fuere necesario, 4 fin de
hacer observer las leyes de la
Uni6n, sofocar insurrecciones y
repeler qualquiera invasion;
16. Proveer a la organizacion,
armamento y discipline de la mili-
cia, y al gobierno de la parte de ella
que est6 al servicio de los Estados
Unidos, quedando reservados a los
respectivos Estados el nombra-
miento de los oticiales, y el poder
de instruir practicamente a la mili-
cia, de conformidad con la disci-
plina prescrita por el Congreso;
17. Legislar exclusivamente en
todas las materials concernientes
al Distrito que por cesi6n de
uno 6 various Estados y aceptaci6n
del Congreso, haya sido elegido







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


ance of Congress, become the seat
of the Government of the United
States, and to exercise like author-
ity over all places purchased by the
consent of the legislature of the
State in which the same shall be,
for the erection of forts, maga-
zines, arsenals, dock-yards, and
other needful buildings; and

18. To make all laws which shall
be necessary and proper for carry-
ing into execution the foregoing
powers, and all other powers vested
by this Constitution in the Gov-
ernmentof the United States, or in
any Department or officer thereof.

SEC. 9. 1. The migration or im-
portation of such persons as any of
the States now existing shall think
proper to admit shall not be pro-
hibited by the Congress prior to
the year one thousand eight hun-
dred and eight, but a tax or duty
may be imposed on such importa-
tion, not exceeding ten dollars for
each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of
habeas corpus shall not be sus-
pended, unless when in cases of
rebellion or invasion the public
safety may require it.
3. No bill of attainder or ex post
facto law shall be passed.


4. No capitation or other direct
tax shall be laid, unless in propor-
tion to the census or enumeration
herein before directed to be taken.


5. No tax or duty shall be laid on
articles exported from any State.

6. No preference shall be given
by any regulation of commerce or
revenues to the ports of one State
over those of another: nor shall
vessels bound to or from one State


para residencia del Gobierno fede-
ral, distrito cuya area no podrai
exceder de diez millas cuadradas.
Ejercer la misma facultad sobre
todos los demas lugares compra-
dos, con el consentimiento de las
Legislaturas de los Estados i que
pertenecen, para la construcci6n
de fortalezas, almacenes, arsenales,
astilleros y otros edificios que so
necesitaren; y
18. Dictar todas las leyes nece-
sarias y convenientes para la ejecu-
ci6n de las facultades que prece-
den, y todas las demas que por
esta Constituci6n se confieren al
Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, 6
a cualquiera de sus Departamentos
6 funcionarios.
SEC. IX. 1. El Congreso no
podri prohibir, sino desde el afio de
mil ochocientos ocho en adelante, la
inmigracion 6 importaci6n de per-
sonas que cualquiera de los Esta-
dos, boy existentes, crea conve-
niente admitir; pero puede im-
poner una contribuci6n 6 derecho
que no excederi de diez pesos por
persona.
2. No podra suspenders el re-
curso del Riabeas Corpus, si no es
en los casos en que por rebeli6n
6 invasion sea necesario hacerlo
para la seguridad piblica.
3. No se dictara ninguna ley por
la que la infamia del delito tras-
cienda ai personas distintas del de-
lincuente, ni que tenga efecto re-
troactivo.
4. Ninguna capitaci6n 6 contri-
buci6n direct podr5a imponerse
sino en proporci6n al n6mero de
habitantes, cuyo censo deberni
levantarse como ya so dispone en
esta Constituci6n.
5. No so impondrtin contribu-
ciones 6 derechos sobre los articu-
los que se exporten de los Estados.
6. Las disposiciones que regla-
mentan el comercio y las rentas
fiscales, no podrain establecer nin-
guna preferencia en favor de los
puertos de un Estado, sobre los de








CONSTITUTION.


be obliged to enter, clear, or pay
duties in another.


7. No money shall be drawn from
the Treasury, but in consequence
of appropriations made by law;
Sand a regular statement and ac-
count of the receipts and expendi-
teres of all public money shall be
published from time to time.
8. No title of nobility shall be
granted by the United States: and
no person holding any office of
profit or trust under them shall,
without the consent of the Con-
gress, acceptofany present, emolu-
ment, police, or title of any kind
whatever, from aiiiv king, prince,
or foreign State.

SEC. 10. 1. No State shall enter
into any treaty, alliance, or con-
federation; grantlettersof marque
and reprisal; coin money; emit
bills of credit; make anything but
gold and silver coin a tender in
payment of debts; pass any bill
of attainder, ex post facto law, or
law impairing the obligation of
contracts, or grant any title of
nobility.


2. No State shall, without the
consent of the Congress, lay any
imposts or duties on imports or
exports, except what may be ab-
solutely necessary for executing
its inspection laws; and the net
produce of all duties and imposts,
laid by any State on imports or
exports, shall be for the use of the
Treasury of the United States; and
all such laws shall be subject to
the revision and control of the
Congress.

3. No State shall, without the
consent of Congress, lay any duty
of tonnage, keep troops or ships


otro. Tampoco se podri obligar
a los buques que salen de un Es-
tado, 6 van destinados a 61, ai que
abran 6 cierren su registro, 6 na-
guen derechos en otro.
7. No se podra sacar de la Teso-
reria ninguna cantidad do dinero si
no es en virtud de alguna asigna-
ci6n hecha por ley; y peri6dica-
niente se publicar4 una relaci6n y
cuenta exacta de los ingresos y
egresos del Tesoro pfiblico.
8. Los Estados Unidos no con-
cederin titulos de nobleza; y nin-
guna persona que desemperie em-
pleo lucrative 6 honorifico de la
federaci6n, podra, sin el consenti-
imiento del Congreso, aceptar pre-
sentes, emolumentos, empleos 6
titulos, cualquiera que sea su clase,
de ninguin Rey, Principe 6 Estado
extranjero.
SEC. X. 1. Los Estados no podrain
celebrar tratados, alianzas 6 coali-
cliones; expedir patentes do corso
y represalias; acuiiar moneda, ni
emitir billetes de credito; scia-
lar como do forzosa admisi6n en
el pago de las deudas otras nione-
das que las de oro y plata; aplrobar
ningun proyecto do ley sobree
infamnia trascendental, 6 dar leaves
retroactivas, 6 que desvirtuen
las obligaciones de los contratos;
ni conceder tampoco titulos de
nobleza.
2. Los Estados no podran sin el
consentimiento del Congreso es-
tablecer impuestos 6 derechos
sobre las importaciones v exporta-
ciones, salvo cuando sea absoluta-
mente necesariopara hacer cumplir
sus leyes de inspecci6n; y el pro-
ducto neto de todos los derechos 4
impuestos col)rados por un Estado
ba]o este concept, pertenecern al
Tesoro de los Estados Unidos, que-
dando sujetas todas esas leyes a la
revision y aprobaci6n del Con-
greso.
3. Tampoco podran imponer
derechos de tonelaje, mantener
tropas 6 buques de guerra en








THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


of war in time of peace, enter into
any agreement or compact with
another State, or with a foreign
power, or engage in war, unless
actually invaded, or in such im-
minent danger as will not admit of
delay.
ARTICLE II.

SECTION 1. 1. The executive
power shall be vested in a President
of the United States of America.
He shall hold his office during the
term of four years, and, together
with the Vice President, chosen
for the same term, be elected as
follows:

2. Each State shall appoint, in
such manner as the legislature
thereof may direct, a number of
electors, equal to the whole number
of Senators and Representatives to
which the State may be entitled in
the Congress: but no Senator or
Representative, or person holding
an office of trust or profit under the
United States, shall be appointed
an elector.
[The electors shall meet in their
respective .Si:i. -, and vote by bal-
lot for two persons, of whom one
at least shall not be an inhabitant
of the same State with themselves.
And they shall make a list of all the
persons voted for and of the num-
ber of votes for each; which list
they shall sign and certify, and
transmit sealed to the seat of the
Government of the United States,
directed to the President of the
Senate. The Presidentof the Sen-
ate shall, in the presence of the
Senate and House of Representa-
tives, open all the certificates, and
the votes shall then be counted.
The person having the greatest
number of votes shall be the Presi-
dent, if such number be a majority
of the whole number of electors
appointed; and if there be more
than one who have such majority
and have an equal number of votes,
then the House of Representatives


tiempo de paz, entrar en ningun
convenio 6 tratado con otro Estado
6 con potencias extranjeras, ni
entrar en guerra, except en caso
de invasion 6 de peligro tan inmi-
nente que no admita demora.

ARTicULO II.

SECCI6N 1. 1. Seo deposit elpo-
der ejecutivo en un Presidente de
los Estados Unidos de Amdrica.
Desempeilard su encargo por el
termino de cuatro ailos, y su elec-
ci6n, asf como la del Vicepresi-
dente, nombrado por el mismo
t6rmino, se verificarn de la manera
siguiente:
2. Cada Estado nombrarat del
modo que su Logislatura deter-
mine, un numero de electores igual
al del total de Senadores y Repre-
sentantes que el mismo Estado
tenga derecho i~ mandar al Con-
greso, no pudiendo ser nombrado
elector ningun Senador 6 Repre-
sentante, ni persona que desem-
pene un empleo lucrative 6 honori-
fico de la Federaci6n.
[Los electores se reuhirdn en sus
respectivos Estados, y por escru-
tinio secret, elegirin dos per-
sonas, una de las cuales, por lo
menos, deberi no ser vecino del
Estado. Formarain una lista de
todas las personas por quienes han
votado, con expresi6n del numero
de votos que obtuvo cada una, la
firmaran y certificarain, remitidn-
dola sellada a la residencia del
Gobierno de los Estados Unidos,
dirigida al Presidente del Senado.
Este, en presencia del Senado y de la
Cimara de Representantes, abrirti
todos los pliegos certificados, y pro-
cedera a contar los votos. Serai
President la persona que reuna el
mayor n6mero de votos, siempre
que este ncmmero constituya la
mayoria de electores nombrados.
Si reunieren dicha mayoria mis de
una persona, teniendoigual numero
de votos, entonces de entire ellas
elegira inmediatamente la C~mara








CONSTITUTION.


shall immediately chuse by ballot de Representantes, por escrutini
one of them for President; and if secret, unaparaPresidente; mas
no person have a majority, then nadie hubiere reunido dicha may(
from the five highest on the list ria, elegira la Camara de entire lt
the said House shall in like man- cinco personas que hubieren sacad
ner chuse the President. But in mis votos. Al hacer la elecci6n d
chusing the President, the votes Presidente, los votos se contari
shall be taken by States, the rep- por Estados, teniendo un voto la r
presentation from each State having presentaci6n de cada Estado; pai
one vote; a quorum for this pur- este objeto, el quorum se former
pose shall consist of a member or de un miembro, 6 de los miembrc
members from two-thirds of the de las dos terceras parties de lc
States and a majority of all the Estados, y sera necesaria la mayo
States shall be necessary to a ria de 4stos para decidir la elect
choice. In every case, after the ci6n. En cualquier caso, una ve
choice of the President, the per- hecha la elecei6n del Presidente
son having the greatest number of seri Vicepresidente la persona qu
votes of the electors shall be the reina el mayor numero de vote
Vice-President. But if there de los electores. Pero si resultar
should remain two or more who haber dos 6 mns que tuvieren igua
have equal votes, the Senate shall nDnmero de votos, el Senado elegir
chuse from them by ballot the de entire ellas al Vicepresident
Vice-President.]a por escrutinio secreto] a
3. The Congress may determine 3. El Congreso determinari e
the time of chusing the electors, tiempo en que han de ser elegido
and the day on which they shall los electores y el dia en que deb
give their votes; which day shall. verificarse ]a elecci6n, debiend
be the same throughout the United ser uno mismo en todos los Esta
States. dos Unidos.
4. No person except a natural- 4. Solo serAn elegibles para e
born citizen or a citizen of the cargo de Presidente los ciudadano
United States at the time of the por nacimiento, 6 los quo fuerel
adoption of this Constitution shall ciudadanos de los Estados Unido
beeligibletotheofficeof President; al tiempo do adoptarse esta Cons
neither shall any person be eligi- tituci6n. Nadie sera eligible qu
ble to that office who shall not no hubiere cumplido treinta
have attained to the age of thirty- cinco aiios de edad, y no hubier
five years and been fourteen years residido catorce aiios en los Esta
a resident within the United dos Unidos.
States.
5. In case of the removal of the 5. En caso de remoci6n, muert
President from office, or of his 6 renuncia del Presidente, 6 d
death, resignation, or inability to incapacidad para desempefiar la
discharge the powers and duties funciones de su encargo, le suce
of the said office, the same shall derii el Vicepresidente. El Con
devolve on the Vice President, greso queda facultado para dis
and the Congress may by law pro- poner por medio de una ley, er
vide for the case of removal, death, caso de remoci6n, muerte, renun
resignation, or inability both of cia 6 incapacidad, tanto del Presi-
the President and Vice President, dente como del Vicepresidente,
declaring what officer shall then qu6 funcionario entrard A desem-
act as President, and such officer peilar la presidencia; y este la

a The clause printed in brackets has been superseded by the twelfth amendment.
See page 32.


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e-
a

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-







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-




-







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


shall act accordingly until the dis-
ability be removed or a President
shall be elected.
6. The President shall, at stated
times, receive for his services a
compensation, which shall neither
be increased nor diminished dur-
ing the period for which he shall
have been elected, and he shall
not receive within that period any
other emolument from the United
States, or any of them.

7. Before he enter on the execu-
tion of his office, he shall take the
following oath or affirmation: "I
do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
will faithfully execute the office of
President of the United States,
and will, to the best of my ability,
preserve, protect, and defend the
Constitution of the United States."
SEC. 2. 1. The President shall
beCommanderinChief of theArmy
and Navy of the United States,
and of the Militia of the several
States, when called into the actual
service of the United States; he
may require the opinion, in writ-
ing, of the principal officer in each
of the Executive Departments
upon any subject relating to the
duties of their respective offices,
and he shall have power to grant
reprieves and pardons for offences
against the United States, except
in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and
with the advice and consent of the
Senate, to make treaties, provided
two-thirds of the Senators present
concur; and he shall nominate
and, by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate, shall appoint
ambassadors, other public minis-
ters and consuls, judges of the
Supreme Court, and all other
officers of the United States whose
appointments are not herein other-
wise provided for, and which shall
be established by law; but the
Congress may by law vest the ap-


desempefiar6 hasta que cese la
incapacidad, 6 se elija un nuevo
President.
6. En compensaci6n de sus ser-
vicios, el Presidente recibirai una
retribuci6n en 4pocas determina-
das, la cual no podra ser aumenta-
da ni disminuida durante el perio-
do por el que haya sido elegido;
y no recibirti durante ese period
ningun otro emolumento de la fe-
deraci6n, ni de ninguin Estado en
particular.
7. Antes de tomar posesi6n de
su encargo, prestar, el siguiente
juramento 6 promesa: "Juro (6
prometo) solemnemente que de-
sempenfare con fidelidad el cargo
de President do los Estados Uni-
dos, y que observar6, proteger4 y
defender la Constituci6n de los
Estados Unidos."
SEC. II. 1. El Presidente serai
Comandante en jefe del Ejercito y
de la Armada de los Estados Uni-
dos, asi como do la milicia de los
Estados cuando 5sta estuviere en
actual servicio de la federaci6n:
podrLi exigir la opinion por escrito
de cada uno de los Jefes d.e los De-
partamentos del Ejecutivo sobre
todos los asuntos que se relacionen
con las atribuciones de sus respec-
tivos empleos, y tendraL facultad
para mandar suspender la ejecu-
ci6n do las sentencias, y conceder
indultos por delitos cometidos con-
tra la federaci6n, menos en las
causes por responsabilidad official.
2. El Presidente, con consult y
aprobaci6n del Senado, tendrai fa-
cultad para hacer tratados. sicm-
pre que en ellos convengan las dos
terceras parties de los Senadores
presents; y nombrar con la misma
consult y aprobaci6n ai los Emba-
jadores, Ministros phblicos y C6n-
sules, ai los Alagistrados de ]a Su-
prema Corte, y 6a todos los demais
empleados de la Federaci6n que se
crearen en virtud de las leyes, cu-
yos nombramientos no estuvieren
determinados de otra manera en
esta Constituci6n. Pero el Con-







CONSTITUTION.


pointment of such inferior officers
as they think proper in the Presi-
dent alone, in the courts of law,
or in the heads of Departments.

3. The President shall have
power to fill up all vacancies that
may happen during the recess of
the Senate by granting commis-
sions which shall expire at the end
of their next session.
SEC. 3. He shall from time to
time give to the Congress infor-
mation of the state of the Union,
and recommend to their consider-
ation such measures as he shall
judge necessary and expedient;
he may, on extraordinary occa-
sions, convene both Houses, or
either of them, and in case of dis-
agreement between them with re-
spect to the time of adjournment,
he may adjourn them to such time
as he shall think proper; he shall
receive ambassadors and other
public ministers; he shall take care
that the laws be faithfully exe-
cuted, and shall commission all the
officers of the United States.

SEC. 4. The President, Vice-
President, and all civil officers of
the United States shall be removed
from office on impeachment for,
and conviction of, treason, bribery,
or other high crimes and misde-
meanors.

ARTICLE III.
SECTION 1. The judicial power
of the United States shall be vested
in one Supreme Court, and in such
inferior courts as the Congress may
from time to time ordain and es-
tablish. The judges both of the
supreme and inferior courts shall
hold their offices during good be-
haviour, and shall at stated times
receive for their services a com-
pensation which shall not be dimin-
ished during their continuance in
office.


greso puede por medio de una ley
conferir la facultad de nombrar los
empleados subalternos que estime
convenientes 4 s6lo el Presidente,
a los Tribunales de justicia 6 a los
Jefes de los Departamentos.
3. El Presidente podra proveer
todas las vacantes que ocurran
durante los recesos del Senado,
haciendo nombramientos provi-
sionales, los que vacarin al fin del
inmediato period de sesiones.
SEC. III. De tiempo en tiempo
presentar4 al Congreso un informed
del estado de la Uni6n, recomen-
dandole la adopci6n de aquellas
medidas que creyere necesarias 6
convenientes. En circunstancias
extraordinarias, podrai convocar a
sesiones las dos Camaras, 6 a cual-
quiera do ellas, v en caso de que
estuvieren en desacuerdo sore el
dia en que deban cerrar las sesiones,
61 podrai fijar el que le pareciere
convenient. Recibirti t los Em-
bajadores y demis Ministros pd-
blicos, cuidara de que las leaves
tengan su debido cumplimiento, y
expedir4 los nombramientos de
todos los empleados de la Federa-
ci6n.
Sp:c. IV. El Presidente, Vice
president y todos los demais em-
pleados civiles de la Federaci6n
sernn removidos de sus empleos,
siempre que fueren acusados y
convictos de traici6n, cohecho,
6 otros delitos y faltas graves.
ARTICULO 111.
SECCI6N I. Se deposit el poder
judicial de los Estados Unidos en
una Suprema Corte, y en los tri-
bunales inferiores que en lo suce-
sivo creare y estableciere el Con-
greso. Los Magistrados, tanto de
la Suprema Corte como de los
tribunales inferiores, desempefia-
ran sus empleos minntras observen
buena conduct, y en 6pocas fijas
recibiran por sus servicios una re-
muneracion que no podra ser dis-
ininuida mientras desempefien sus
empleos.







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


SEC. 2. 1. The judicial power
shall extend to all cases in law and
equity arising under this Constitu-
tion, the laws of the United States
and treaties made, or which shall
be made, under their authority; to
all cases affecting ambassadors,
other public ministers and consuls;
to all cases of admiralty and mari-
time jurisdiction; to controversies
to which the United States shall be
a party; to controversies between
two or more States; between a State
and citizens of another State; be-
tween citizens of different States;
between citizens of the same State
claiming lands under grants of dif-
ferent States, and between a State
or the citizens thereof and foreign
States, citizens, or subjects.


2. In all cases affecting ambassa-
dors, other public ministers and
consuls, and those in which a State
shall be party, the Supreme Court
shall have original jurisdiction.
In all the other cases before men-
tioned the Supreme Court shall
have appellate jurisdiction, both
as to law and fact, with such ex-
ceptions and under such regula-
tions as the Congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except
in cases of impeachment, shall be
by jury; and such trial shall be held
in the State where the said crimes
shall have been committed; but
when not committed within any
State, the trial shall be at such
place or places as the Congress
may by law have directed.

SEC. 3. 1. Treason against the
United States shall consist only in
levying war against them, or in
adhering to their enemies, giving
them aid and comfort. No person
shall be convicted of treason un-
less on the testimony of two wit-


SEC. II. 1. El poder judicial co-
nocera de todos los casos en Dere-
cho y Equidad que dimanen de la
Constituci6n y leyes de la federa-
ci6n, asi como de los tratados ya
celebrados 6 que puedan celebrarse
en lo sucesivo bajo su autoridad;
de todos los casos que afecten a
los Embajadores, demas Ministros
p6blicos, y a los C6nsules: de todos
los casos de la jurisdiccion de almi-
rantazgo y marina: de las contro-
versias en que la Federaci6n fuere
parte; de lasque se siguieren entree"
dos 6 mais Estados; entire un Esta-
dos y los ciudadanos de otro; entire
ciudadanos de diferentes Estados;
entire ciudadanos del mismo Estado
que reclamen terrenos bajo con-
cesiones hechas por diversos Esta-
dos; y entire un Estado 6 sus
ciudadanos, y Estados, ciudadanos,
6 s6bditos extranjeros.
2. La Suprema Corte tendri
jurisdicci6n privativa en todos los
casos que afecten a los Embaja-
dores y Ministros ptblicos, 10o
mismo que a los C6nsules, y en
aquellos en que un Estado fuere
parte interesada. En- todos los
demis ya mencionados, conocera,
en apelaci6n tanto respect -4 los
hechos como al Derecho, con las
restricciones y segun las disposi-
ciones reglamentarias que el Con-
greso estableciere.
3. Todos los juicios criminals,
con excepci6n de los que se forma-
ren por responsabilidad official, se
verificaran ante un jurado, y
deberan celebrarse en el Estado
donde se hubieren perpetrado los
delitos. Mas en caso de que no se
hubieren cometido en la jurisdic-
ci6n de ningfin Estado se seguirin
en el lugar 6 lugares que designare
el Congress por medio doe una ley.
SEC. III. 1. La traici6n contra
los Estados Unidos consistira sola-
inente, en tomar las armas contra
ellos, 6 en unirse a sus enemigos,
dandoles ayuda y socorro. Nadie
podnr ser convict de traici6n si
no es en virtud del testimonio de








CONSTITUTION.


nesses to the same overt act, or on
confession in open court.

2. The Congress shall have power
to declare the punishment of trea-
son, but no attainder of treason
shall work corruption of blood or
forfeiture except during the life
of the person attainted.



ARTICLE IV.

SECTION 1. Full faith and credit
shall be given in each State to the
public acts, records, and judicial
proceedings of every other State.
And the Congress may by general
laws prescribe the manner in which
such acts, records, and proceedings
shall be proved, and the effect
thereof.
SEC. 2. 1. The citizens of each
State shall be entitled to all privi-
leges and immunities of citizens in
the several States.

2. A person charged in any State
with treason, felony, or other
crime, who shall flee from justice,
and be found in another State,
shall on demand of the executive
authority of the State from which
he fled, be delivered up, to be re-
moved to the State having juris-
tion of the crime.

3. No person held to service or
labour in one State, under the laws
thereof, escaping into another,
shall, in consequence of any law or
regulation therein, be discharged
from such service or labour, but
shall be delivered up on claim of
the party to whom such service or
labour may be due.

SEc. 3. 1. New States may be
admitted by the Congress into this
Union; but no new State shall be
formed or erected within the juris-


dos testigos que declared sobre
el mismo hecho especifico, 6 de con-
fesi6n de parte ante el tribunal.
2. El Congreso tendra facultad
para designer el castigo del delito
de traici6n, pero la sentencia quo
se impusiere por este delito no
podra infamar a los desccendientes
de la persona sentenciada ni pro-
ducir la confiscaci6n de los bienes
que pertenezcan a esta l1tima, sino
es durante su vida.

ARTiCULO IV.

SECCI6N I. Se dari entera fe y
crddito en los Estados 4 los actos
pdblicos, registros y actuaciones
judiciales dc los demais, qucdando
facultado el Congreso para dispo-
nor por leyes generals, la manera
en que deban probarse y los efec-
tos que deban surtir.

SEC. II. 1. Los ciudadanos de
un Estado gozaran en todos los
demais, de las mismas garantias 0
inmunidades de que gozan los
ciudadanos de 6stos.
2. Toda persona que siendo
acusada en un Estado de traici6n
6i otro cualquier delito, huyere do
la justicia y fuere encontrada en
otro Estado, sert entregada a pe-
dimento de la autoridad ejecutiva
del Estado de que se fug6, 4 efecto
de ser conducida al Estado quo
tuviere jurisdicci6n para juzgar
su delito.
3. Las personas obligadas 4 ser-
vir 6 trabajar en un Estado segun
sus leyes, que se escaparen al ter-
ritorio de otro, no podran quedar
libres de ese servicio 6 trabajo en
virtud de ninguna ley 6 regla-
mento de cste, sino que seran en-
tregadas a la parte que tenga
derecho a ese servicio 6 trabajo,
cuando 6sta las reclamare.
SEC. III. 1. El Congreso podrn
admitir nuevos Estados en esta
Uni6n; pero no se formara 6 esta-
blecera un nuevo Estado dentro de








THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


diction of any other State; nor any
State be formed by the junction
of two or more States, or parts of
States, without the consent of the
legislatures of the States concerned
as well as of the Congress.
2. The Congress shall have power
to dispose of and make all needful
rules and regulations respecting
the territory or other property
belonging to the United States;
and nothing in this Constitution
shall be be so construed as to prej-
udice any claims of the United
States, or of any particular State.



SEC. 4. The United States shall
guarantee to every State in this
Union a republican form of gov-
ernment, and shall protect each of
them against invasion; and on ap-
plication of the legislature, or of
the Executive (when the legislature
can not be convened) against do-
mestic violence.

ARTICLE V.

The Congress, whenever two-
thirds of both Houses shall deem
it necessary, shall propose amend-
ments to this Constitution, or, on
the application of the legislatures
of two-thirds of the several States,
shall call a convention for propos-
ing amendments, which, in either
case shall be valid to all intents
and purposes, as part of this Consti-
tution, when ratified by the legisla-
tures of three-fourths of the several
States, or by conventions in three-
fourths thereof, as the one or the
other mode of ratification may be
proposed by the Congress; pro-
vided that no amendment which
may be made prior to the year one'
thousand eight hundred and eight
shall in any manner affect the first
and fourth clauses in the ninth sec-
tion of the first article; and that
no State without its consent shall


la jurisdieci6n de otro, ni se for-
mara ninguno por la uni6n do dos
6 mas, 6 do parties de otros, sin el
consentimiento, tanto de las Legis-
laturas de los Estados interesados,
como del Congreso.
2. El Congreso queda facultado
para disponer del territorio y de-
mas propiedades pertenecientes A
los Estados Unidos, y hacer res-
pecto do los mismos todos los
reglamentos necesarios. No so
interpretari ninguna de las dispo-.
siciones quo contiene esta Consti-
tuci6n de manera quo pueda perju-
dicar los derechos do los Estados
Unidos, 6 de algun Estado en par-
ticular.
SEC. IV. Los Estados Unido,
garantizaran a todos los Estados de
la Uni6n un gobierno do forma re-
publicana, y los protegcrnin contra
cualquiera invasion; y cuando lo
solicitaren sus Logislaturas 6 sus
Ejecutivos, en caso do que aquellas
no puedan ser convocadas, los pro-
tegeran tambidn contra disturbios
interns.

AurTICULO V.

Siempre quo las dos terceras
parties de ambas Camnaras lo crean
necesario, el Congreso propondra
enmiendas A esta Constituci6n; 6,
a pedimento de las Legislaturas
de dos tercerns parties de los Es-
tados, convocara una convenci6n
para proponer enmiendas,-y 4s-
tas, en cualquiera de los dos casos,
seran validas para todos los fines
como parties do esta Constituci6n,
luego quo fueren ratificadas por
las Legislaturas de las tries cuartas
parties de los Estados, 6 por con-
venciones reunidas en las tres cuar-
tas parties de 4stos, segfin quo el
Congress haya dispuesto uno i
otro modo de ratificar, no debiendo
ninguna enmienda que pueda ha-
cerse antes del afio do mil ochocien-
tos ocho, alterar en manera alguna
las clhiusulas prim era y cuarta do
la secci6n novena del articulo pri-







CONSTITUTION.


be deprived of its equal suffrage
in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI.

1. All debts contracted and en-
gagements entered into before the
adoption of this Constitution shall
be as valid against the United
States under this Constitution as
under the Confederation.
2. This Constitution, and the
laws of the United States which
shall be made in pursuance thereof,
and all treaties made or which shall
be made under the authority of the
United States, shall be the supreme
law of the land; and the judges in
every State shall be bound thereby,
any thing in the constitution or
laws of any State to the contrary
notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Represent-
atives before mentioned, and the
members of the several State leg-
islatures, and all executive and
judicial officers, both of the United
States and of the several States,
shall be bound by oath or affirma-
tion to support this Constitution;
but no religious test shall ever be
required as a qualification to any
office or public trust under the
United States.

ARTICLE VII.
The ratification of the conven-
tions of nine States shall be suffi-
cient for the establishment of this
Constitution between the States so
ratifying the same.
Done in Convention by the
unanimous consent of the States
present the seventeenth day of
September, in the year of our
Lord one thousand seven hundred
and eighty-seven, and of the Inde-
pendance of the United States of
America the twelfth.


mero, ni privar a ningun Estado,
sin su consentimiento, de la igual-
dad de votos en el Senado.

ARTfCULO VI.

1. Todas las deudas y compro-
misos contraidos antes de haberse
adoptado esta Constituci6n serin
tan validos contra los Estados
Unidos bajo ella, como lo eran bajo
la Confederaci6n.
2. Esta Constituci6n, las leyes de
los Estados Unidos, que en virtud
de ella se dictaren, y todos los
tratados celebrados 6 que se celc-
braren bajo la autoridad de los
Estados Unidos, seran la ley su-
prema del pals. Los juices de
cada Estado estaran sujetos 6 lo
que ella disponga, sin que obsten
las Constituciones 6 leyes de los
Estados.
3. Los Senadores y Represen-
tantes ya mencionados, los miem-
bros do las Legislaturas de los
Estados, y todos los funcionarios
de los departamentos ejecutivo y
judicial, tanto do la Federacion
como de los Estados en particular,
se obligaran por juramento 6 pro-
mesa a sostener esta Constituci6n;
pero jamfas se exigirA profesi6n de
fe religiosa para ningun empleo
6 cargo public de los Estados
Unidos.

ARTfCULO VII.

Bastarf la ratificaci6n de las con-
venciones do nueve Estados para
el establecimiento de esta Consti-
tuci6n entire los que la ratifiquen.

Fecho en convencion por el
unanime consentimiento de los
Estados presents el dia diez y
siete de Setiembre del ailo de
Nuestro Senior, mil setecientos
ochenta y siete, duodecimo de la
independencia do los Estados Uni-
dos de America.










AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


[ARTICLE I.]

Congress shall make no law re-
specting an establishment of re-
ligion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof; or abridging the
freedom of speech, or of the press;
or the right of the people peace-
ably to assemble, and to petition
the Government for a redress of
grievances.

[ARTICLE II.]

A well-regulated militia, being
necessary to the security of a free
State, the right of the people to
keep and bear arms, shall not be
infringed.

[ARTICLE III.]

No soldier shall in time of
peace be quartered in any house,
without the consent of the owner,
nor in time of war, but in a man-
ner to be prescribed by law.

[ARTICLE IV.]

The right of the people to be
secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects against un-
reasonable searches and seizures
shall not be violated, and no war-
rants shall issue but upon probable
cause, supported by oath or affirm-
ation, and particularly describing
the place to be searched and the
persons or things to be seized.


[ARTICLE V.]

No person shall be held to an-
swer for a capital or otherwise
infamous crime unless on a pre-
sentment or indictment of a grand
jury, except in cases arising in the


[ARTfCULO I.]

El Congress no podra dictar
eyes relatives al establecimiento
de una religion, 6 que prohiban el
libre ejercicio do alguna do ellas,
coarten la libertad do la palabra, 6
de laprensa, 6 restrinjan el derecho
del pueblo para reunirse pacifica-
mente, 6 pedir al Gobierno la
reparacion de cualquier agravio..

[ARTICULO 11.]

Siendo indispensable una milicia
bien reglamentada para la seguri-
dad do un Estado libre, no podri
coartarse al pueblo el derecho do
tener y portar armas.

[ARTiCULO III.]

En tiempo do paz, los soldados
no scran alojados en las casas sin
el consentimiento de sus duefios;
y en tiempo do guerra, solo lo
seorn en la manera que prescribe
la ley.

[ARTiCULr IV.]

No so violara el derecho del
pueblo que pone ~ cubierto sus
personas, habitaciones, papeles y
efectos, contra todo registro y
aprehensi6n que carezcan de fun-
damento; y no se expedira ninguna
6rden sobre esto sin causa capaz
de probarse, apoyada en un jura-
mento 6 afirmaci6n, que design
claramente el lugar que ha de
registrars, y las personas 6 cosas
que hayan do ser aprehendidas.

[ARTiCULO V.]

A nadie so obligara a que con-
tcste cargos por delito grave 6
infamante bajo cualquier concept,
si no es mediante aeusaci6n escrita
presentada por un gran jurado,







AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


land or naval forces, or in the mi-
litia, when in actual service in
time of war or public danger; nor
shall any person be subject for the
same offence to be twice put in
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall
be compelled in any criminal case
to be a witness against himself,
nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
property without due process of
law; nor shall private property be
taken for public use without just
compensation.



[ARTICLE VI.]

In all criminal prosecutions, the
accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an im-
partial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been
committed, which district shall
have been previously ascertained
by law, and to be informed of the
nature and cause of the accusation;
to be confronted with the wit-
nesses against him; to have com-
pulsory process for obtaining wit-
nesses in his favor, and to have the
assistance of counsel for his
defense.

[ARTICLE VII.]

In suits at common law, where
the value in controversy shall ex-
ceed twenty dollars, the right of
trial by jury shall be preserved,
and no fact tried by a jury shall
be otherwise reexamined in any
court of the United States. than
according to the rules of the com-
mon law.


[ARTICLE VIII.]
Excessive bail shall not be re-
quired, nor excessive fines im-
posed, nor cruel and unusual pun-
ishments inflicted.


except en casos que occurrieren
en el Ejercito, 6 la Armada, 6
en la milicia, estando on servicio
activo en tiempo do guerra, 6
de peligro p6blico. No se pondrd
a nadic dos veces en peligro de
perder la vida 6 algun miembro
por un mismo delito; no podra
obligarsele a declarar contra si
mismo en una causa criminal; no
se le podra quitar la vida, la li-
bertad 6 los biones, sin el debido
procedimiento legal, ni se podrai
tomar la propiedad particular para
objetos do utilidad p6blica, sin la
debida componsaci6n.

[ARTiCULO VI.]

En todas las causes criminals,
el acusado tendra derecho 6. ser
j uzgado pronta y p6blicamente por
un jurado imparcial del Estado y
distrito donde se hubiera cometido
el delito, cuyo distrito sera el pre-
viamente reconocido por la ley;
tambidn se le informara de la na-
turaleza y causa de la acusaci6n,
so le careara con los testigos que
declared en contra suya; podra
obtener provid6ncias compulsorias
para conseguir testigos en su
favor, y toner un abogado que lo
defienda.

[ARTiCULO VII.]

En los pleitos civiles, se respe-
tara el derecho de ventilar ante
el jurado aquellos negocios en que
la cantidad disputada exceda de
veinte pesos; y los hechos fallados
por un jurado no podran ser exa-
minados de nuevo en 'ninghn tri-
bunal de los Estados Unidos, sino
de conformidad con los principios
del Derecho com6n.

[ARTICULO VIII.]

No se exigiran fianzas carceleras
desproporcionadas, ni se impon-
dran multas desmedidas, ni se apli-
caran penas crueles y desusadas.







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


[ARTICLE IX.]
The enumeration in the Consti-
tution of certain rights shall not
be construed to deny or disparage
others retained by the people.


[ARTICLE X.]
The powers not delegated to the
United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States,
are reserved to the States respec-
tively, or to the people.

[ARTICLE XI.]
The judicial power of the United
States shall not be construed to
extend to any suit in law or equity,
commenced or prosecuted against
one of the United States by citi-
zens of another State, or by citi-
zens or subjects of any foreign
State.

[ARTICLE XII.]
The electors shall meet in their
respective States, and vote by bal-
lot for President and Vice-Presi-
dent, one of whom at least shall
not be an inhabitant of the same
State with themselves; they shall
name in their ballots the person
voted for as President, and in dis-
tinct ballots the person voted for
as Vice-President, and they shall
make distinct lists of all persons
voted for as President, and of all
persons voted for as Vice-Presi-
dent, and of the number of votes
for each, which lists they shall
sign and certify and transmit sealed
to the seat of the Government
of the United States, directed to
the President of the Senate. The
President of the Senate shall, in
the presence of the Senate and
House of Representatives, open
all the certificates and the votes
shall then be counted. The per-
son having the greatest number of


[ARTiCULO IX.]
La enumeraci6n de ciertos de-
rechos hecha en esta Constituci6n,
no deberi interpretarse como si
importara ]a negaci6n 6 restric-
ci6n do otros que conserve el
pueblo.
[ARTfCULO X.]
Las facultades que la Constitu-
cion no delega a la Federaci6n y no
niega 6 los Estados, quedan reser-
vadas a los Estados respectiva-
mente, 6 al pueblo.

[ARTfCULO XI.]
No podrA entenderse que el po-
der judicial de los Estados Unidos
se extiende I hacerle conocer de
litigios de estricto Derecho 6 de
Equidad, comenzados 6 prosegui-
dos contra uno de los Estados
Unidos por ciudadanos do otro
Estado, 6 por ciudadanos 6 suibdi-
tos de un Estado extranjero.

[ARTICULO XII.]
Los electores so reunirin en sus
respectivos Estados, y por escruti-
nio secret elegiran al Presidente
y Vicepresidente, unode los cuales
por lo menos debera no ser habi-
tante del Estado: en una de sus
c6dulas de votaci6n expresaran el
nombre de la persona que desig-
nan para Presidente, y en otra
distinta, el de la que quieran elegir
Vicepresidente. Formaian listas
separadas de todas las personas que
hubieren obtenido votos para
President y Vice-presidente, con
expresi6n del n6mero de votos que
obtuvo cada una; firmaran y cer-
tificarin las listas, remiti6ndolas
selladas d la capital de los Estados
Unidos, dirigidas al Presidente del
Senado. Este en presencia del
Senado y de la Camara do Repre-
sentantes, abrira todos los certifi-
cados, y en seguida se contain los
votos. Sera Presidente el que
reuna mayor nfmero de votos para








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION


votes for President shall be the
President, if such number be a
majority of the whole number of
electors appointed; and if no per-
son have such majority, then from
the persons having the highest
numbers, not exceeding three on
the list of those voted for as Presi-
dent, the House of Representa-
tives shall choose immediately, by
ballot, the President. But in
choosing the President the votes
shall be taken by States, the rep-
resentation from each State hav-
ing one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member
or members from two-thirds of
the States, and a majority of all
the States shall be necessary to
a choice. And if the House of
Representatives shall not choose
a President whenever the right of
choice shall devolve upon them,
before the fourth day of March
next following, then the Vice-
President shall act as President,
as in the case of the death or other
constitutional disability of the
President.
The person having the greatest
number of votes as Vice-President
shall be the Vice-President, if such
number be a majority of the whole
number of electors appointed, and
if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on
the list the Senate shall choose the
Vice-President; a quorum for the
purpose shall consist of two-thirds
of the whole number of Senators,
and a majority of the whole num-
ber shall be necessary to a choice.

But no person constitutionally
ineligible to the office of President
shall be eligible to that of Vice-
President of the United States.


ARTICLE XIII.
SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the
360A-VOL 1-06---3


este cargo, siempre que dicho
nfmero sea la mayoria del total de
electores nombrados; y si nadie
hubiere reunido esa mayorfa, la
Cimara de Representantes hari
inmediatamente por escrutinio
secret la elecci6n de Presidente
de entire las personas,no excediendo
de tres, que hubieren obtenido miis
votos. En la elecci6n del Presi-
dente se votari por Estados, te-
niendo la representaci6n do cada
Estado un voto. El quorum para
este objeto se formari de un miem-
bro 6 grupo de miembros de las dos
terceras parties de los Estados, y
para que haya elecei6n sera nece-
saria una mayoria de todos los Es-
tados. Si antes del cuatro de Marzo
subsiguiente, la Camara de Repre-
sentantes, cuando le tocare el de-
recho de elegir, no hubiere elegido
President, entrar centonces el
Vicepresidente i funcionar como
President, lo mismo que en caso
de muerte, 6 impedimento consti-
tucional de 6ste.

Serd Vicepresidente la persona
que reuna el mayor nimero de
votos para este cargo, con tal
que este n6mero sea la mayoria del
total de electores nombrados; y si
ninguna obtuviere esa mayoria,
entonces el Senado elegird al Vice-
presidente de entree los dos que
re6nan mis votos. Para este ob-
jeto el quorum se formari de las
dos terceras parties del n6mero
total de Senadores, y para la elec-
ci6n se necesita la mayoria de
todos ellos.
La persona que constitucional-
mente no pueda ser elegida para
President de los Estados Unidos,
tampoco podra serlo para Vice-
presidente.
ARTfCULO XIII.

SECCI6N I. Ni la esclavitud, ni el
trabajo forzado, que no sea impues-
to por sentencia do los tribunales







THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


party shall have deen duly con-
victed, shall exist within the
United States, or any place sub-
ject to their jurisdiction.
SEC. 2. Congress shall have
power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV.
SECTION 1. All persons born or
naturalized in the United States,
and subject to the jurisdiction
thereof, are citizens of the United
States and of the State wherein
they reside. No State shall make
or enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or immuni-
ties of citizens of the United States;
nor shall any State deprive any
person of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor
deny to any person within its juris-
diction the equal protection of the
laws.

SEC. 2. Representatives shall be
apportioned among the several
States according to their respec-
tive numbers, counting the whole
number of persons in each State,
excluding Indians not taxed. But
when the right to vote at any elec-
tion for the choice of electors for
President and Vice-President of
the United States, Representatives
in Congress, the executive and
judicial officers of a State, or the
members of the legislature thereof,
is denied to any of the male in-
habitants of such State, being
twenty-one years of age, and citi-
zens of the United States, or in
any way abridged, except for par-
ticipation in rebellion, or other
crime, the basis of representation
therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of
such male citizens shall bear to
the whole number of male citizens
twenty-one years of age in such
State.

SEC. 3. No person shall be a
Senator or Representative in Con-


podr~n existir en los Estados Un-
idos, ni en ning6n lugar sujeto a su
jurisdicci6n.
SEC. 11. El Congreso queda fa-
cultado para hacer cumplir este
articulo por medio de leyes opor-
tunas.
AnTICULO XIV.
SECCI6N I. Todas las personas
nacidas 6 naturalizadas en los Es-
tados Unidos, sujetas 6i su juris-
dicci6n, son ciudadanos de los
Estados Unidos y del Estado en
que resident. Los Estados no
podran dictar ni hacer cumplir
ninguna ley que restrinja las pre-
rogativas 6 inmunidades de los
ciudadanos do los Estados Unidos;
tampoco podrain privar ai ninguna
persona de la vida, la libertad 6
los bienes do fortune, sin el debido
procedimiento legal, ni negar ma
nadie en su jurisdicci6n la igual
protecci6n de las leyes.
SEC. 11. Los rcpresentantes se
distribuiran proporcionalmente
entree los Estados segtin sus respec-
tivoscensos, contandosc ericada Es-
tado el nfimero total de personas,
con exclusion do los indios que no
pagan contribuciones. Pero si so
negare el derecho do votar en las
elecciones de Presidente, Vice-
presidente 6 Representantes en el
Congress de los Estados Unidos, 6
en las do los funcionarios del ramo
ejecutivo 6 judicial de un Estado,
6 miembros do su Legislatura, ai
cualquier habitante varon do dicho
Estado, siendo de veinti6n afios
do edad y ciudadano de los Esta-
dos Unidos, 6 so restringiere de
cualquier modo ese derecho, a
menos que sea por complicidad en
la rebeli6n, fi otro delito, se redu-
cirtl entonces la base de la repre-
sentaci6n del Estado en la propor-
ci6n que guard el n6mero de esos
ciudadanos, con cl total de ciuda-
danos varones de veintifn afios de
edad que haya en el mismo Estado.
SEC. III. Las personas que ha-
biendo prestado juramento de sos-







AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


gress, or elector of President and
Vice-President, or hold any office,
civil or military, under the United
States, or under any State, who,
having. previoulsy taken an oath,
as a member of Congress, or as an
officer of the United t.i. -, or as a
member of any State legislature,
or as an executive or judicial offi-
cer of any State, to support the
Constitution of the United States,
shall have engaged in insurrection
or rebellion against the same, or
given aid or comfort to the ene-
mies thereof. But Congress may,
by a vote of two-thirds of each
House, remove such disability.

SEC. 4. The validity of the pub-
lic debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts
incurred for payment of pensions
and bounties for services in sup-
pressing insurrection or rebellion,
shall not be questioned. But
neither the United States nor any
State shall assume or pay any debt
or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against
the United States, or any claim
for the loss or emancipation of
any slave; but all such debts,
obligations, and claims shall be
held illegal and void.


SEC. 5. The Congress shall have
power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this
article.
ARTICLE XV.
SECTION 1. The right of citizens
of the United States to vote shall
not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on
account of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.

SEC. 2. The Congress shall have
power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


tener la Constituci6n federal, sea
como miembros del Congreso, como
empleados de los Estados Unidos,
como miembros de alguna Legisla-
tura, 6 como funcionarios ejecuti-
vos 6 judiciales de un Estado, hu-
bieren tornado parte despu&s en
alguna insurrecci6n 6 rebeli6n con-
tra los mismos Estados Unidos, 6
hubieren dadoayuday socorro.sus
enemigos, no podrAn ser Senadores
6 Representantes en el Congreso, 6
Electores del Presidente y Vice-
presidente, ni obtener ninguin em-
pleo civil 6 military de la federaci6n,
ni deningIn Estado. Pero elCon-
greso por el voto de las dos terce-
ras parties de cada Camara, puede
remover esa incapacidad.
SEC. IV. No podri cuestionarse
la validez de la deuda p6blica de
los Estados Unidos autorizada por
ley, comprendidndose en ella las
deudas contrafdas para pagar pen-
siones y premios por servicios
prestados para sofocar la insurrec-
ci6n 6 rebeli6n. Pero ni los Esta-
dos Unidos, ni ningun Estado en
particular, reconoceran 6 pagarain
ninguna deuda o6bligacion con-
traida para fomenter la insurrec-
ci6n 6 rebeli6n contra los Estados
Unidos, ni ninguna reclamaci6n
por la p6rdida 6 emancipaci6n do
los esclavos, debi6ndose tener to-
das las deudas, obligaciones 6 re-
clamaciones do esa procedencia
como ilegales y nulas.
SEC. V. El Congreso queda fa-
cultado para hacer cumplir las dis-
posiciones de este articulo por
medio de leyes oportunas.
ARTfCULO XV.
SECCI6N I. Ni los Estados Uni-
dos, ni ningun Estado en particu-
lar podran desconocer 6 cercenar
el derecho de votar de los ciudada-
nos de los Estados Unidos, por ra-
z6n de raza, color 6 previa condi-
ci6n do esclavitud.
SEC. II. El Congreso queda fa-
cultado para hacer cumplir este
articulo por medio do leyes opor-
tunas.


















THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


HISTORICAL NOTES.
Mexico, also called the Republic of Mexico and the Mexican Repub-
lic, is a union of States, Districts, and Territories, organized on the
same plan as that of the United States of America.
Its official name in Spanish is "Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos,"
usually translated into English as "The United Mexican States."
The States are twenty-seven, the names of which, alphabetically
arranged, are: Aguascalientes, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coa-
huila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,
Mexico, MichoacAn, Morelos, Nuevo Le6n, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quer&-
taro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz, Yucatain, Zacatecas.
The Territories are two, respectively named: Tepic and Lower
California (?., aliUfornia in Spanish).
The Federal District comprises, as the District of Columbia does in
the United States of America, that portion of the Mexican territory
where the seat of the national government is established. The city of
Mexico, the capital of this District, is also the capital of the Union.

The uprising on the night of the 16th of September, 1810, at the
town of Dolores, under the leadership of the town's curate, Don
MIGUEL HIIDALGO, against the authority of Spain in Mexico, at the
cry of "Long live Religion! Long live our Most Holy Mother of
Guadalupe! Long live America! Death to bad governments!" was
the first serious movement in the list of events which culminated in
the independence of Mexico.
The first Mexican Congress (G-.... .. de Ana/quac) met at Chil-
pancingo on the 14th of September, 1813, and on the 6th of November
following solemnly proclaimed the independence of Mexico.
On October 22,1814, the first Mexican Constitution was promulgated.
It created a Republic, and vested the executive power in three persons
to be elected by Congress. It was called "the Apatzingdin Constitu-
tion," from the name of the place where it was signed and proclaimed.
The triumvirs elected were Don Jos6 Maria Liceaga, Don Jos4 Maria
Morelos, and Don Jose Maria Cos.
On February 24, 1821, the Iguala platform (plan de ]quala) was
proclaimed; It provided that Mexico (New Spain) should be an inde-
pendent monarchy under an Emperor, the crown to be offered first
to King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and then, if he failed to accept it, to
some other princes. Seventeen months afterwards Don AGUSTIN DE
ITURBIDE, who was the commander in chief of the army created by
this "plan," became Emperor of Mexico, and was crowned on Sunday,
the 21st of July, 1822.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


On the 2d of December following a revolutionary movement at Vera-
cruz, headed by Gen. Don ANTONIO L6PEZ DE SANTA ANA, proclaimed
a republican form of government, and compelled ITURBIDE to abdicate
and leave the country.
The ex-Emperor, having returned to Mexico, was arrested, con-
demned to death, and executed July 19, 1824, just five days after
landing.
The second Constitution of Mexico (Constitucidn de los stados Uni-
dos ,lxicanos), promulgated on October 4, 1824, established a Federal
Republic similar to the United States of America.
The first President under this Constitution was Gen. Don GUADALUPE
VICTORIA, who took the oath of office on October 10, 1824.
Great Britain and the United States of America recognized Mexico
as an independent Republic in 1825. Spain delayed its recognition
until the 28th of December, 1836.
On the 1st of January, 1837, a new Constitution was promulgated.
It rejected the federal principle, and reduced the States to the condition
of provinces or departmentsos" subject to the central government;
but the republican form of government was preserved.
On May 15, 1856, President COMOxFORT, acting under the provisions
of the Ayutla platform (plan deAyutla), as amended at Acapulco, pro-
mulgated the Constitution which was called "Provisional Organic
Statute of the Mexican Republic" (Estatuto Orgdnico Provisional de
la I'eyibllica i[lexican a).
This statute was superseded on February 5, 1857, by the present
"Political Constitution of the Mexican Republic" (Constitucidn Poli-
tica de la Reypablica 3fexicana).


LIST OF IMPORTANT BOOKS TO BE CONSULTED IN IEFEIIRENCE TO TIlE CON-
STITUTION OF THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.
AROSEMENA, JrSTO. Studios constitucionales sobre los Gobiernos de la Amirica
latina. Paris, 1878.
CASTILLO DE VELAZO, JOSE DEL. Derecho constitutional. Mexico, 1871.
CORONADO, )LARIANO. Derecho constitutional. Guadalaxara, 1899.
GA.Mio.A, J. 1M. Leyes constitucionales.
MONTIEL Y DUARITE. Derecho piblico mexicano. 31Mxico, 1871.
MoRENxo CORA, SILVESTRE. El juicio de amparo.
RODIGorEZ, F. Derecho constitutional.
Rcuz, EDnARDO. Derecho constitutional. M3Ixico. 1888.
ToiRE, J.AN DE LA. Constituci6n mexicana. Mdxico, 1904.
ToVAR, PANTALE6N. Historia parlamentaria del cuarto congress constituyente.
31Mxico, 1872.
VALLARTA, IoNACIO L. Juicio de amparo y Votos. MIxico, 1895.
ZARCO, FRANCISCO. HIistoria del Congreso constituyente. Mixico, 1857.















CONSTITUTION.


(Promulgated February 5, 1857.)


PREAMBULO. PREAMBLE.


En el nombre de Dios y con la
autoridad del pueblo mexicano.
Los representantes de los dife-
rentesEstados,del DistritoyTerri-
torios que component la Repfiblica
de Mexico, llamados por el plan
proclamado en Ayutla el primero
do Marzo do mil ochocientos cin-
cuenta y cuatro, reformado en Aca-
pulco el dia once del mismo imes y
anio, y por la convocatoria expe-
dida el diecisicte de Octubre deo
miil ochocientos cincuenta y cinco,
para constituir i la Naci6n bajo la
forma de Repfiblica democratic,
representative, popular, poniendo
en ( i. ,. los poderes con qune es-
tan investidos, cumplen con su alto
encarg-o decretando la siguiente
Constituci6n polftica do la Repui-
blica ]\lexicana, sobre la indestruc-
tible base do su legitima indepen-
dencia, proclamada el diecisdis do
Septiembre de mil ochocientos
diez, y consumada el veintisiete
de Septiembre do mil ochocientos
veintiuno.



TITUTLO I.
SECCI6N I.

De los derecaos del hombre.

ARTiCULO 1. El pueblo mexi-
cano reconoce que los derechos del
hombre son la base y el objeto de
las instituciones sociales. En con-


In the name of God and by the
authority of the Mexican people.
The representatives of the dif-
ferent States, of the District and of
the Territories which compose the
Republic of Mexico, called upon by
the provisions of the plan" pro-
claimed in Ayutla the first of
March, eighteen hundred and fifty-
four, amended in Acapulco the
eleventh day of the same month
and year, and by the summons
issued the seventeenth of October,
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, to
convene for the purpose of framing
a constitution for the nation and
making it a popular representative,
democratic republic, exercising the
powers with which they are vested,
do hereby comply with the require-
ments of their high office, by decree-
ing the following political Consti-
tution of the Mexican Republic,
on the indestructible basis of its
legitimate independence, pro-
claimed the sixteenth of Septem-
ber, eighteen hundred and ten, and
consummated the twenty-seventh
of September, eighteen hundred
and twenty-one.
TITLE I.
SECTION I.

The rights of man.

ARTICLE 1. The Mexican people
recognize that the rights of man
are the basis and the object of
social institutions. Consequently







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


secuencia, declara que todas las
leyes y todas las autoridades del
pais deben respetar y sostener las
garantias quo otorga la present
Constitucion.
ART. 2. En la Republica todos
nacen libres. Los esclavos que
pisen el territorio national, reco-
bran por s6lo ese hecho su libertad
y tienen derecho a la protecci6n de
las leyes.
ART. 3. La enseiianza es libre.
La ley dcterminara qu6 profesiones
necesitan titulo para su ejercicio,
y con qud requisitos se deben ex-
pedir.
ART. 4. Todo hombre es libre
para abrazar la profesi6n, indus-
tria 6 trabajo que le acomode,
siondo 6til y honest, y para apro-
vecharso do sus products. Ni
lo uno ni lo otro se le podri impedir
sino por sentencia judicial, cuando
ataque los derechos do tercero, 6
por resoluci6n gubernativa, dic-
tada on los terminos que marque
la ley, cuando ofenda los de la
sociedad.
(ART. 5. Nadie puede ser obli-
gado a prestar trabajos personals
sin la justa retribuci6n y sin su
pleno consentimiento. La ley no
puede autorizar ningfin contrato
que tenga por objeto la p6rdida 6
el irrevocable sacrificio de la liber-
tad del hombre, ya sea por causa
de trabajo, de educaci6n 6 de voto
religioso. Tampoco puede auto-
rizar convenios en quo el hombre
pact su proscripci6n 6 su des-
tierro.")
ART. 6. La manifestaci6n de
las ideas no puede ser objeto do
ninguna inquisici6n judicial 6 ad-
ministrativa, sino en el caso de
que ataque la moral, los derechos
de tercero, provoque algin crime
6 delito, 6 perturbo el orden
public.
(ART. 7. Es inviolable la liber-
tad de escribir y publicar escritos
sobre cualquiera material. Nin-


they declare that all the laws and
all the authorities of the country
must respect and maintain the
guaranties which the present Con-
stitution establishes.
ART. 2. In the Republic all are
born free. S.1:hI\' who set foot
upon the national territory re-
cover, by that act alone, their
liberty, and have a right to the
protection of the laws.
ART. 3. Instruction is free. The
law shall determine what profes-
sions require a diploma for their
exercise, and what requisites are
necessary to obtain said diplomas.
ART. 4. Every man is free to
engage in any honorable and use-
ful profession, industrial pursuit,
or occupation suitable to him, and
to avail himself of its products.
The exercise of this liberty shall
not be hindered except by judicial
sentence when such exercise at-
tacks the rights of a third party,
or by executive order issued in the
manner specified by law, when it
offends the rights of society.
(ART.5. Nooneshallbecompelled
to render personal services without
just compensation, and without his
full consent. The law shall not
permit any contract, compact, or
agreement to be entered into hav-
ing for its object the loss, or irre-
vocable sacrifice of the liberty of
man, whether it be in relation to
labor, education, or a religious
vow. Nor shall it allow any agree-
ment by which a man stipulates
his proscription or banishment.,)
ART. 6. The expression of ideas
shall not be the object of any judi-
cial or executive investigation, ex-
cept in case it attacks morality, the
rights of a third party, provokes
crime or misdemeanor, or disturbs
public order.

(ART. 7. The liberty to write and
to publish writings on any subject
is inviolable. No law or authority


a Amended September 25, 1873, see page 71.







CONSTITUTION.


guna ley ni autoridad puede esta-
blecer la previa censura, ni exigir
tianza a los autores 6 impresores,
ni coartar la libertad do imprenta,
que no tiene mas mites que el
respeto a la vida privada, a la
moral y a la paz puiblica. Los de-
litos de imprenta serin juzgados
por un jurado que califique el hocho
y por otro quo aplique la ley y
design la pena.")

ART. S. Es inviolable el derecho
do petici6n ejorcido por escrito,
do una manera pacifica y respe-
tuosa; poro en materials political
solo pueden ejercerlo los ciudada-
nos do la Reptublica. A toda peti-
ci6n debe recaer un acuerdo es-
crito de la autoridad 6 quien se
haya dirigido, y 6sta tiono obliga-
ci6n do hacker conocer el resultado
al poticionario.

ART. 9. .A nadio se le puede
coartar el derecho do asociarse 6
do rounirse pacificamente con cual-
quier objeto licito; pero solamente
los ciudadanos do la Repfiblica
pueden hacerlo para tomar part
on los asuntos politicos del pais.
Ninguna reuni6n armada tiene
derecho de deliberar.
ART. 10. Todo hombre tiene de-
recho de poseer y portar armas
para su seguridad y legitima de-
fensa. La ley seiialari cuales son
las prohibidas y la pena on (quIo in-
curren los que las portaren.

ART. 11. Todo hombre tiene
derecho para entrar y salir de la
Reptiblica, viajar por el territorio
y mudar de residencia, sin necesi-
dad de carta do seguridad, pasa-
porte, salvoconducto 6 otro re-
quisito semejante. El ejercicio
do este derecho no perjudica las
legitimas facultades de la autoridad
judicial 6 administrative, on los
casos do responsabilidad criminal
6 civil.


shall establish previous censorship,
or require authors or printers to
give bond, or restrict the liberty of
the press, which has no other limits
than respect of private life, moral-
ity, and the public peace. Trials
for offenses committed through the
press shall be held before a jury
which shall pass upon the facts
and another jury which shall ap-
ply the law and fix the penalty to
be imposed.a)
ART. 8. The right of petition,
exercised in writing in a peaceful
and respectful manner, is inviola-
ble; but in political matters only
citizens of the Republic may ex-
ercise it. To every petition an
answer shall be given in writing, in
the form of a decree, by the offi-
cial to whom it may have been
addressed, and the said official is
bound to make the petitioner ac-
quainted with the result.
ART. 9. No one shall be deprived
of the right to peaceably associate
or unite with others for any lawful
purpose; but only citizens of the
Republic are permitted to take
part in the political affairs of the
country. No armed reunion has
the right to deliberate.

ART. 10. Every man has the right
to possess and carry arms for his
security and legitimate defense.
The law shall designate what arms
are prohibited, and the punish-
ment to be incurred by those who
carry them.
ART. 11. Every man has the right
to enter and leave the Republic,
to travel through its territory,
and change his residence, with-
out the necessity of a letter of
security, passport, safe conduct,
or other similar requisite. The
exercise of this right shall not
affect the legitimate faculties of
the judicial or executive author-
ities in cases of criminal or civil
responsibility.


a Amended May 15, 1883. See page 87.







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ART. 12. No hay,.ni so recono-
cen en la Rephblica, titulos de
nobleza, ni prerrogativas, ni ho-
nores hereditarios. S61o el pue-
blo, legitimamente representado,
puede decretar recompensas en
honor de los que hayan prestado
6 prestaren servicios eminentes
A la patria 6 6 la humanidad.
ART. 13. En la Republica Mexi-
cana nadie puede ser juzgado por
l:v. *privativas, ni por tribunales
especiales. Ninguna persona ni
corporaci6n puede tener fueros, ni
gozar emolumentos que no sean
compensaci6n do un servicio pu-
blico y est6n fijados por la ley.
Subsiste el fuero de guerra sola-
mente para los delitos y faltas que
tengan exacta conexion con la
discipline military. La loy fijard
con toda claridad los casos de esta
excepci6n.
Air. 14. No so podrd expedir
ninguna ley retroactive. Nadie
puede ser juzgado ni sentenciado
sino por ]eyes dadas con anteriori-
dad al hecho y exactamente apli-
cadas 161, por el tribunal que pre-
viamente haya establecido la ley.
ART. 15. iNunca se celebrarin
tratados para la extradici6n do reos
politicos, ni para la de aquellos
delincuentes del orden comfin que
hayan tenido on el pals en done
cometieron el delito, la condici6n
do esclavos; ni convenios 6 trata-
dos en virtud do los que so alteren
las garantias y derechos que esta
Constituci6n otorga al hombre
y al ciudadano.
ART. 16. Nadie puede ser moles-
tado on su persona, familiar, domi-
cilio, papeles y posesiones, sino en
virtud de mandamiento escrito do
la autoridad competent, que funded
y motive la causa legal del procedi-
iniento. En el caso de delito in
fraganti, toda persona puede apre-
bender al delincuente y a sus c6m-
plices, ponidndolos sin demora a
disposicion de la autoridad inme-
diata.


ART. 12. No titles of nobility,
or prerogatives, or hereditary
honors, are, or shall be recognized
in the Republic. Only the people,
legitimately represented, may de-
cree recompeilses in honor of
those who have rendered or may
render eminent services to the
country or to humanity.
ART. 13. In the Mexican Repub-
lic no one shall be tried according to
special laws, or by special tribunals.
No person or corporation shall have
privileges or enjoy emoluments'
which are not in compensation for
a public service and established
bylaw. Military jurisdiction shall
be recognized only for the trial of
criminal cases having strict con-
nection with military discipline.
The law shall clearly set forth the
cases included in this exception.

ART. 14. No retroactive law
shall be enacted. No person shall
be tried or sentenced except under
laws previously enacted, exactly
applicable to the case, and by a
tribunal previously established by
law.
ART. 15. No treaty shall be made
for the extradition of political of-
fenders, or of offenders of the
common class, who have been
slaves in the country where the
offense was committed; nor shall
any agreement or treaty be entered
into which abridges or modifies
the guaranties and rights which
this Constitution grants to the man
and to the citizen.
ART. 16. No one shall be mo-
lested in his person, family, domi-
cile, papers or possessions, except
by virtue of an order in writing of
the competent authority, setting
forth the legal grounds upon which
the measure is taken. In cases of
in /... delicto any person may
apprehend the offender and his
accomplices, placing them without
delay at the disposal of the nearest
authorities.







CONSTITUTION.


ART. 17. Nadie puede ser preso
por deudas de un character pura-
mente civil. Nadie puede ejercer
violencia para reclamarsuderecho.
Los tribunales estarin siempre ex-
peditos para administrar justicia.
!Esta sera gratuita, quedando en
consecuencia abolidas las costas
judiciales.
ART. 18. S61o habra lugar a pri-
si6n por delito que minerezca pena
corporal. En cualquier estado del
process en que aparezca que al
acusado no se le puede imponer tal
pena, se le pondrt en libertad bajo
fianza. En ningfn caso podra pro-
longarse la prisi6n 6 detenci6n
por falta do pago de honorarios 6
de cualquiera otra ministraci6n de
dinero.
ART. 19. Ninguna detenci6n po-
dra exceder del tdrmino de tres
dias, sin que so justifique con un
auto motivado do prisi6n y los
demis requisitos que establezca la
ley. El solo lapso de este tcrmino
constitute responsables a la autori-
dad que la ordena 6 consiente, y i
los agents, ministros, alcaides 6
carceleros que la ejecutan. Todo
maltratamiento en la aprehensi6n
6 en las prisiones, toda molestia
que se infiera sin motivo legal,
toda gabela 6 contribuci6n en las
cerceles, es un abuso que deben
corregir las leaves v castigar seve-
ramente las autoridades.

ART. 20. En todo juicio crimi-
nal el acusado tendri las siguientes
garantias:
I. Quo se le haga saber el mo-
tivo del procedimiento y el nom-
bre del acusador, si lo hubiere.

II. Que se le tome su declara-
ci6n preparatoria dentro de cua-
renta y ocho horas, contadas desde
que est6d a disposici6n de su juez.

III. Que se le career con los
testigos que depongan en su con-
tra.


ART. 17. No one shall be arrested
for debts of a purely civil char-
acter. No one shall exercise vio-
lence in order to enforce his rights.
The tribunals shall always be
open for the administration of
justice, which shall be gratuitous,
judicial costs being consequently
abolished.
ART. 18. Imprisonment shall
take place only for crimes deserv-
ing corporal punishment. In any
stage of the case in which it shall
appear that such a punishment can
not be imposed upon the accused,
he shall be set at liberty on bail.
In no case shall the imprisonment
or detention be prolonged for fail-
ure to pay fees, or any other pe-
cuniary charge.
ART. 19. No detention shall ex-
ceed the term of three days, unless
justified by a warrant, issued in
accordance to law, and giving the
grounds for the imprisonment.
The mere lapse of said time shall
render the authority that orders or
consents to it and the agents, min-
isters, wardens, or jailers who exe-
cute it, responsible therefore. Any
maltreatment in the apprehension
or in the confinement of the prison-
ers, any molestation which may be
inflicted without legal ground, or
any tax or contribution in the
prisons, is an abuse which the laws
must correct and the authorities
severely punish.
ART. 20. In every criminal trial
the accused shall have the follow-
ing guaranties:
I. That the grounds of the pro-
ceedings and the name of the ac-
cuser, if there shall be one, be
made known to him.
II. That his preliminary exam-
ination bo made within forty-eight
hours, to be counted from the time
he may be placed at the disposal
of the judge.
III. That he be confronted with
the witnesses who testify against
him.







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


IV. Que se le faciliten los datos
que necesite y consten en el pro-
ceso, para preparar sus descargos.

V. Que so le oiga en defense
por si 6 por persona de su con-
fianza, 6 por ambos, segun'su vo-
luntad. En caso de no tener quien
lo defienda, se le presentaril list
de los defensores do oficio, para
que elija el que, 6 los que le con-
vengan.
ART. 21. La aplicacion do las
penas, propiamente tales, es ex-
clusiva de la autoridad judicial.
La political y administrative s6lo
podri: irnponer, como correcci6n,
hasta quinientos pesos do multa 6
hasta un mes de reclusi6n, en los
casos y modo que expresamente
determine la ley.


ART. 22. Quedan para sieinpre
prohibidas las penas de mutilaci6on
y do infamia, la marca, los azotes,
los palos, el tormento de cual-
quiera especie, la multa excesiva,
la confiscaci6n de bienes v cuales-
quiera otras penas inusitadas 6
trascendentales.
ART. 23. Para la abolici6n de la
pena de muerte, queda a cargo del
poder administrative el establecer,
a la mayor brevedad, el regimen
penitenciario. Entretanto, queda
abolida para los delitos politicos,
y no podra extenderse ti otros
casos mias que al traidor a la patria
en guerra extranjera, al salteador
de caminos, al incendiario, al pa-
rricida, al homicide con alevosia,
premeditaci6n 6 ventaja, a los de-
litos graves del orden military y 6
los do pirateria que definicre la
lcy.
ART. 24. Ningfin juicio criminal
puede tener mais do tres instancias.
Nadie puede ser juzgado dos veces
por el mismo delito, ya sea que en
el juicio se le absuelva 6 se le
condone. Queda abolida la praic-
tica de absolver de la instancia.


IV. That he be furnished with
all the information on record,
which he may need for his de-
fense.
V. That lie be heard in his de-
fense, either personally or by
counsel, or by both, as lie may de-
sire. In case he should have no
one to defend him, a list of official
counselors shall be shown to him,
in order that he may choose one or
more to act as his counsel.
APT. 21. The imposition of pen-
alties properly so called belongs ek-
clusively to the judicial authority.
The political or executive authori-
ties shall only have power to im-
pose fines and imprisonment, as
disciplinary measures, the former
of no more than five hundred dol-
lars, and the latter for no more
than one month, in the cases and in
the manner which the law shall ex-
pressly determine.
ART. 22. Punishments by muti-
lation and infamy, by branding,
fl ._.-i b-', beating with sticks, tor-
ture of whatever kind, excessive
lines, confiscation of property, or
any other penalties, unusual, or
working corruption of blood, shall
be forever prohibited.
ART. 23. In order to abolish
the penalty of death, the execu-
tive power shall establish, as soon
as possible, a penitentiary system.
In the meantime the penalty of
death shall be abolished for polit-
ical offenses, and shall not be im-
posed except in cases of treason
during a foreign war, highway
robbery, arson, parricide, murder
in the first degree, grave offenses
of military character, and piracy
as defined by law.

ART. 24. No criminal case shall
have more than three instances.
No person, whether acquitted or
condemned, shall be tried again
for the same offense. Verdicts of
not proven are abolished.








CONSTITUTION.


ART. 25. La correspondencia
quo bajo cubierta circle por las
estafetas esti libre de todo regis-
tro. La violaci6n do esta ga-
rantia es un atentado quo la ley
castigarti soveranmente.
ART. 26. En tiempo do paz nin-
gun military puede exigir aloja-
miento, bagaje, ni otro servicio
real 6 personal, sin el consentimien-
to del propietario. En tiompo do
guerra solo podra hacerlo en los
tdrminos que establezca la ley.
ART. 27. La propiedad de las
personas no puede scr ocupada sin
suit consentimiento, sino por causa
do utilidad pfiblica y previa indem-
nizaci6n. La ley determinard la
autoridad quo debe hacoer la expro-
piaci6n y los requisites con quo
6sta haya do verificarse.

(Ninguna corporaci6n civil 6 ecle-
sidstica, cualquiera quo sea su ca-
racter, donominaci6n f objoeto, ten-
dra capacidad legal para adquirir
en propiedad 6 administrar por si
bicnes races, con la imnica excep-
ci6n de los edificios destinados
inmediata y directamente al servi-
cio if objeto do la instituci6n.")
AIRT. 28. No habra monopolios
ni estancos de ninguna claso, ni
prohibiciones 6 titulo de protecci6n
a la industrial. Exceptuanse fini-
camente los relatives a la acuniaci6n
de moneda, 6 los correos y a los
privilegios que, por tiempo limi-
tado, conceda la ley a los invento-
res 6 perfeccionadores de alguna
mejora.


ART. 29. En los casos de inva-
si6n, perturbaci6n grave de la paz
pfiblica 6 cualesquiera otros que
pongan a la sociedad en grande
peligro 6 conflict, solamente el
President de la Repfiblica, de
acuerdo con el Consejo de Minis-
tros y con aprobaci6n del Con-
greso de la Uni6n, y on los recesos


AnT. 25. Correspondence sent
through the mails is inviolable.
The violation of this guaranty is
an offense which the law shall pun-
ish severely.

ART. 26. In time of peace no
soldier may demand quarters, sup-
plies, or other real or personal
service, without the consent of the
proprietor. In time of war he
may do so, but only in the manner
prescribed by tio law.
ART. 27. Private property shall
not be condemned without the
consent of the owner, except for
public use, and upon previous
indemnification. The law shall
determine the authority which may
make the condemnation and the
conditions on which it may be
carried out.
(No corporation, civil or eccle-
siastical, whatever its character,
denomination, or object may be,
shall have legal capacity to acquire
the ownership or administration
of real estate, excepting only the
buildings destined immediately
and directly to the service and
object of the institution.")
ART. 28. There shall be no mo-
nopolies of any kind, whether gov-
ernmental or private, nor prohibi-
tions whatever even if under
cover of protection to industry.
The Government's exclusive right
to coin money, and manage the
postal service, and the privileges
which, for a limited time, the law
may concede to inventors or im-
provers of inventions, are excep-
tions to this rule.
ART. 29. In cases of invasion,
grave disturbance of the public
peace, or any other emergency
which may place society in grave
danger, the President of the Re-
public, and no one else, shall have
the power to suspend, with the
advice of the council of ministers
and with the approval of the Con-


a Amended September 25, 1873, see page 71.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


Ido este, de la Diputaci6n perma-
nento, puede suspender las garan-
tfas otorgadas en esta Constitucion,
con excepci6n do las que aseguran
la vida del hombre; pero deberni
hacerlo por un tiempo limitado,
por medio de prevenciones gene-
rales y sin que la suspension pueda
contraerse al determinado indivi-
duo.

Si la suspension tuviere lugar
hallandose el Congreso reunido;
este concedenr las autorizaciones
que estime necesarias para que el
Ejecutivo haga frente ~ la situa-
ci6n. Si la suspension se verifi-
care en tiempo de receso, la Dipu-
taci6n permanent convocari sin
demora al Congreso para que las
acuorde.


SECCI6N II.


.De los nex'icanos.


ART. 30. Son mexicanos:
I. Todos los nacidos, dentro 6
fuera del territorio de la Repti-
blica, de padres mexicanos.
II. Los extranjeros que se natu-
ralicen conforme a las leyes de la
Federaci6n.
III. Los extranjeros que ad-
quieran bienes races en la Repti-
blica, 6 tengan hijos inexicanos,
siempre que no manifiesten resolu-
ci6n de conservar su nacionalidad.
ART. 31. Es obligaci6n de todo
mexicano:
I. Defender la independencia, el
territorio, el honor, los derechos 4
intercses do su patria.
II. Contribuir para los gastos
publicos, asi do la Federaci6n como
del Estado y municipio en que re-
sida, de la manera proporcional y
equitativa que dispongan las leyes.

AnT. 32. Los mexicanos seran
preferidos a los extranjeros, en
igualdad de circunstancias, para
todos los empleos, cargos 6 comi-


gress of the Union, and, in the
recess thereof, of the Permanent
Committee, the guaranties estab-
lished by this Constitution, ex-
cepting those relating to the life
of man; but such suspension,
which in no case shall be confined
in its effects to a particular in-
dividual, shall be made by means
of a general order, or decree, and
only for a limited time.
If the suspension takes place
during the session of Congress,.
this body shall concede the author-
izations which it may deem neces-
sary in order that the Executive
may properly meet the situation.
If the suspension takes place
during the recess, the Permanent
Committee shall, without delay,
call Congress to assemble in order
that it may make the concession.

SECTION II.

_llerican,.

ART. 30. Mexicans are:
I. All those born, within or
without the Republic, o'f Mexican
parents.
II. Foreigners naturalized in
conformity with the laws of the
Federation.
III. Foreigners who acquire real
estate in the Republic, or have
Mexican children, if they do not
declare their intention to retain
their nationality of origin.
AuT. 31. It is the duty of every
Mexican:
I. To defend the independence,
the territory, the honor, the rights
and interests of his country.
II. To contribute in the propor-
tional and equitable manner pro-
vided by law, to meet the public
expenses of the Federation, the
State and the municipality in which
he resides.
ART. 32. Mexicans shall be pro-
ferred under equal circumstances
to foreigners, for all public employ-
ments, charges, or commissions,








CONSTITUTION


siones de nombramiento de las au-
toridades, en que no sea indispen-
sable la calidad de ciudadano. Se
expedirin leyes para mejorar la
condici6n de los mexicanos labo-
riosos, promiando a los que se dis-
tingan en cualquier ciencia 6 arte,
estimulando al trabajo y fundando
colegios y escuelas pricticas de
artes y oficios.

SECTION III.

_1)( lo.0 8 .. .

ART. 33. Son extranjeros losque
no posean las calidades determina-
das en el articulo 30. Tienen de-
recho t las garantias otorgadas en
la seccei6n I, titulo I, de la pre-
sente Constituci6n, salva en todo
caso la facultad que el Gobierno
tiene para expeler al extranjero
pernicioso. Tienen obligaci6n de
contribuir para los gastos pcibli-
cos, do la maneora que dispongan
las leyes, y do obedecer y res-
petar las instituciones, leyes y
autoridades del pais, sujetandose ai
los fallos y sentencias do los tribu-
nales, sin poder intentar otros re-
cursos que los que las leyes conce-
den 6 los mexicanos.


SECTION IV.

D lo cildadanos mexicanos.

ART. 34. Son ciudadanos de la
Repiblica todos los que, teniendo
la calidad do mexicanos, re6nan
ademfis las siguientes:
I. Haber cumplido diez y ocho
afios siendo casados, 6 veintiuno si
no 10o son.
II. Tener un modo honest do
vivir.
ART. 35. Son prerrogativas del
ciudadano:
I. Votar en las elecciones popu-
lares.
II. Poder ser votado para todos
las cargos de elecci6n popular y


when the citizenship is liot indis-
pensable. Laws shall be enacted
to improve the condition of indus-
trious Mexicans, by rewarding
those who distinguish themselves
in any science or art, promoting
labor, and founding colleges and
manual training schools.



SECTION III.


ART. 33. Foreigners are those
who do not possess the qualifica-
tions determined in article 30.
They have a right to the guaran-
ties established by Section I, Title
I, of the present Constitution, ex-
cept that in all cases the Govern-
ment has the right to expel perni-
cious foreigners. They are under
obligation to contribute to the pub-
lic expenses in the manner which
the laws may provide, and to obey
and respect the institutions, laws,
and authorities of the country,
subjecting themselves to the de-
cisions of the tribunals, without
power to seek other protection
than that which the laws concede
to Mexican citizens.

SECTION IV.

Jfexican citizens.

ART. 34. Citizens of the Repub-
lic are all those who, in addition to
the quality of Mexicans, have the
following qualifications:
1. To have completed the age of
eighteen years if they are married,
or of twenty-one if not married.
II. To have an honest means of
livelihood.
ART. 35. The prerogatives of
the citizen are:
I. To vote at popular elections.

II. To be eligible for any office
or position of popular election,








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


nombrado para cualquier otro em-
pleo 6 comisi6n, teniendo las cali-
dades que la ley establezca.
III. Asociarse para tratar los
asuntos politicos del pais.

IV. Tomar las armas en el ej6r-
cito 6 en la guardia national, para
la defense de la Rep6blica y de sus
instituciones.
V. Ejercer en toda clase de ne-
gocios el derecho do petici6n.
ART. 36. Son obligaciones del
ciudadano de la Reptiblica:
I. Inscribirse on el padr6n de su
municipalidad, manifestando la
propiedad que tiene, 6 la indus-
tria, profesi6n 6 trabajo do que
subsiste.

II. Alistarse en la guardia na-
cional.
III. Votar en las elecciones po-
pulares, en el distrito que le co-
rresponda.
IV. Desemperiar los cargos de
elecci6n popular de la Federaci6n,
que en ningun caso seran gratuitos.
ART. 37. La calidad de ciuda-
dano so pierde:
I. Por naturalizaci6n en pais
extranjero.
II. For servir oficialmente al
gobierno de otro pais, 6 admitir de
41 condecoraciones, titulos 6 fun-
ciones, sin previa licencia del Con-
greso Federal. Exceptfianse los
titulos literarios, cientificos y hu-
manitarios, que pueden aceptarse
librcmente.
ART. 38. La ley fijarAi los casos
y la forma en que se pierden, 6 sus-
penden los derechos de ciudadano,
y la manera de hacer la rehabilita-
ci6n.
TITULO II.
SECCI6N I.


and be qualified for serving offices
of other kinds, if having the other
qualities required by law.
III. To associate with others to
discuss the political affairs of the
country.
IV. To enlist in the army or in
the national guard for the defense
of the Republic and its institu-
tions.
V. To exercise in all kinds of
business the right of petition.
ART. 36. It shall be the duty of-
every citizen of the Republic:
I. To register in the list of the
inhabitants of the municipality in
which he lives, stating the prop-
erty which he owns, if any, or
the industry, profession, or labor
by which he subsists.
II. To enlist in the national
guard.
II. To vote at popular elections
in the district to which he belongs.

IV. To fill the federal offices to
which he may be elected, and which
in no case shall be gratuitous.
ART. 37. The character of citi-
zen is lost:
I. By naturalization in a foreign
country.
II. By officially serving the gov-
ernment of another country or
accepting its decorations, titles, or
employment without previous
permission from the Federal Con-
gress; excepting literary, scien-
tific, and humanitarian titles, which
may be accepted freely.
ART. 38. The law shall determine
the cases and the form in which
the rights of citizenship may be
lost or suspended, and the manner
in which they may be regained.
TITLE II.
SECTION I.


De la soberania national y de la National sovereignty and form of
forma de gobierno. government.
ART. 39. La soberania national ART. 39. The national sover-
reside esencial y originariamente eignty is vested essentially and







CONSTITUTION.


en el pueblo. Todo poder pfiblico
dimana del pueblo y se institute
para su beneticio. El pueblo tiene
en todo tiempo el inalienable de-
recho de alterar 6 modificar la
fornma de su gobierno.
ART. 40. Es voluntad del pueblo
mexicano constituirse en una Re-
pub)lica representative, democrni-
tica, federal, compuesta de Estados
libres y soberanos en todo lo con-
cerniente a su regimen interior,
pero unidos en una Federaci6n es-
tablecida seguln los principios de
esta lev fundamental.
ART. 41. El pueblo ejerce su
soberania por medio de los poderes
de la Uni6n en los casos de su comn-
petencia, y por los de los Estados
para lo que toca 6 su regimen inte-
rior en los t6rminos respectiva-
mente establecidos por esta Cons-
tituci6n federal y las particulares
de los Estados, las que en ninghn
caso podrin contravenir at las esti-
pulaciones del pacto federal.

SECCI6N II.


originally in the people. All public
power emanates from the people,
and is instituted for their benefit.
The people have at all times the
inalienable right to alter or modify
the form of their government.
ART. 40. It is the will of the Mexi-
can people to constitute themselves
into a democratic, Federal, repre-
sentative Republic, consisting of
States, free and sovereign in all
that concerns their internal gov-
ernment, but united in a federation
according to the principles of this
fundamental law.
ART. 41. The people exercise
their sovereignty through the Fed-
eralpowers inthemattersbelonging
to the Union, and through those of
the States in the matters relating
to the internal regime of the latter.
This power shall be exercised in
the manner respectively estab-
lished by the Constitutions, both
Federal and State. The latter
shall in no case contravene the stip-
ulations of the Federal Compact.
SECTION II.


De las parties integrantes de la Fede- btegralparts qoft teFederation and
racion y del territorio national. national territory.


ART. 42. El territorio national
comprende el de las parties inte-
grantes de la Federaci6n, y ademiis
el de las islas adyacentes en ambos
nmalres.
(ART. 43. Las parties integrantes
(de la Federaci6n son: los Estados
de Aguascalientes, Colima, Chia-
pas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guana-
Juato, Guerrero, Jalisco, M6xico,
Michoacan, Nuevo Le6n y Coa-
huila, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querktaro,
San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora,
Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Valle de M6xico, Veracruz, Yuca-
tan, Zacatecas v Territorio de la
Baja California.a)
ART. 44. Los Estados de Aguas-
calientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua,
SAmended April 29, 1863; November 18
December 12, 1884. See correct list page
360A-VOL 1-06---4


ART. 42. The national territory
comprises the integral parts of the
Federation and the adjacent islands
in both oceans.

(ART. 43. The integral parts of
the Federation are : the States of
Aguascalientes, Colima, Chiapas,
Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato,
Guerrero, Jalisco, Mdxico, Mi-
choacin, Nuevo Le6n and Coa-
huila, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quer6taro,
San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora,
Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tiaxcala,
Valle de Mexico, Vera Cruz, Yu-
catan, Zacatecas, and the Territory
of Lower California.a)
ART. 44. The States of Aguas-
calientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua,
1868; January 15 and April 16, 1869, and







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


Durango, Guerrero, M4xico, Pue-
bla, Querktaro, Sinaloa, Sonora,
Tamaulipas y Territorio de la Baja
California, conservaran los limits
que actualmente tienen.
ART. 45. Los Estados de Colima
y T1axcala conservaran, en su nuevo
caracter de Estados, los limits quo
han tenido como Territorios de la
Federaci6n.
ART. 46. El Estado del Valle de
M4xico so formar4 del territorio
que en la actualidad comprende el
Distrito Federal; pero la erecci6n'
s6lo tendra efecto cuando los Su-
premos Poderes federales se trasla-
den t otro lugar.
ART. 47. El Estado do Nuevo
Le6n y Coahuila comprendera el
territorio que ha pertenecido 4 los
dos distintos Estados que hoy lo
forman, separandose la part de la
Hacienda de Bonanza, quo se re-
incorporara a Zacatecas, en los
mismos terminos en que estaba
antes do su incorporaci6n A Coa-
huila.
ART. 48. Los Estados de Guana-
juato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Oaxaca,
San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Vera-
cruz, Yucat4n y Zacatecas, re-
cobraran la extension y limits que
tenian en treinta y uno doDiciem-
bre de rmil ochocientos cincuenta y
dos, con las alteraciones que esta-
blece el articulo siguiente.
ART. 49. El pueblo de Conte-
pec, que ha pertenecido a Guana-
juato, se incorporar4 4 Michoacan.
La municipalidad de Ahualulco,
que ha pertenecido a Zacatecas, se
incorporara a San Luis Potosi.
Las municipalidades de Ojo Ca-
liente y San Francisco de los Ada-
mes, que ban pertenecido 4 San
Luis, asi como los pueblos de Nueva
Tiaxcala y San Andr6s del Teul,
que han pertenecido 4 Jalisco, se
incorporaran 6 Zacatecas. El de-
partamento de Tuxpam continuar4i
formando part de Veracruz. El
canton de Huimanguillo, que ha
pertenecido 4 Veracruz, so incor-
porara 4 Tabasco.


Durango, Guerrero, M1xico, Puc-
bla, Queretaro, Sinaloa, Sonora,
Tamaulipas, and the Territory of
Lower California shall preserve
the limits which they now have.
ART. 45. The States of Colima
and Tlaxcala shall preserve in their
new character of Iir.*h, the limits
which they had as Territories of
the Federation.
ART. 46. The State of the Val-
ley of Mexico shall consist of the
territory constituting at present
the Federal District, but it shall
not be a State until after the su-
preme Federal Powers move to
some other place.
ART. 47. The State of Nuevo
Le6n and Coahuila shall comprise
the territory formerly belonging
to the two separate States of which
it now consists, except a part of the
Bonanza Hacienda, which shall be
added to Zacatecas, exactly as it
was before its annexation to Coa-
huila.

ART. 48. The States of Guana-
juato, Jalisco, iMichoacan, Oaxaca,
San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Vera
Cruz, Yucatan, and Zadatecas shall
recover the extent and limits which
they had on the thirty-first of De-
cember,eighteen hundred and fifty-
two, with the alterations estab-
lished in the following article.
ART. 49. The town of Conte-
pec, now belonging to Guanajuato,
shall be annexed to Michoacan.
The municipality of Ahualulco,
belonging to Zacatecas, shall be
annexed to San Luis Potosi. The
municipalities of Ojo Caliente and
San Francisco de los Adames, be-
longing to San Luis, as well as
the towns of Nueva Tlaxcala and
San Andrds del Teul, belonging
to Jalisco, shall be annexed to
Zacatecas. The department of
T6xpam shall continue to form a
part of Vera Cruz. The canton of
Huimanguillo, belonging to Vera
Cruz, shall be annexed to Tabasco.







CONSTITUTION.


TfITULO III.
DE LA DIVISION DE PODERES.

ART. 50. El Supremo Poder de
la Federacion se divide, para su
ejercicio, en Legislativo, Ejecu-
tivo y Judicial. Nunca podrin
reunirse dos 6 mss doe estos Poderes
en una persona 6 corporaci6n, ni
depositarse el Legislativo en un
individuo.

SECCI6N I.

Del Poder Legislativo.

(ART. 51. Sedepositael ejercicio
del Supremo Poder Legislativo en
una asamblea que so denominarai
Congress de la Uni6n.a)

PARRAFO I.
De la eleccion i instalacidn del Congreso.

(ART. 52. El Congreso de la
Uni6n so compondra de repre-
sentantes, elegidos en su totalidad
cada dos afios por los ciudadanos
mexicanos.a)
ART. 53. Se nombrara un Di-
putado por cada cuarenta mil ha-
bitantes, 6 por una fracci6n que
pase de veinte mil. El territorio
on que la poblaci6n sea menor do
la que so fija en este articulo, nom-
brard sin embargo un Diputado.


ART. 54. Por cada Diputado
proprietario so nombrard un su-
plente.
ART. 55. La elecci6n para Di-
putados seri indirecta on primer
grado y on escrutinio secret, en
los terminos que disponga la ley
electoral.
ART. 56. Para ser Diputado so
require: ser ciudadano mexicano
en ejercicio do sus derechos, tener
veinticinco afios cumplidos el dia
de la apertnra de las sesiones, ser
vecino del Estado 6 Territorio que


TITLE III.
DIVISION OF POWERS.

ART. 50. The supreme power of
the Federation is divided for its
exercise into legislative, executive,
and judicial. Two or more of
these powers shall never be united
in one person or corporation, nor
shall the legislative power be
vested in one individual.

SECTION I.

Legislative Power.

(ART. 51. The supreme legisla-
tive power of the nation is vested
in an assembly to be called The
Congress of the Union.""a)
PARAGRAPH I.
Election and installation of Congress.

(ART. 52. The Congress of the
Union shall consist of representa-
tives, all of whom are to be elected
every two years by the Mexican
citizens.")
ART. 53. One representative
shall be elected for each forty
thousand inhabitants, or for a frac-
tion thereof which exceeds twenty
thousand. The territory in which
the population is less than that
determined in this article shall,
nevertheless, elect one represent-
ative.
ART. 54. For each representa-
tive there shall be elected one
substitute.
ART. 55. The election of repre-
sentatives shall be indirect in the
first degree, and by secret ballot,
in the manner which the electoral
law shall provide.
ART. 50. Representatives shall
have the following qualifications:
To be Mexican citizens in the en-
joyment of their rights; to be
twenty-five years of age on the
day of the opening of the session;


aAmended November 13, 1874. See page 72.







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


hace la elecci6n y no pertenecer al
estado eclesiastico. La vecindad
no so pierde por ausencia en de-
sempefio do cargo pdblico de elec-
ci6n popular.


(ART. 57. El cargo de Diputado
es incompatible con cualquiera co-
misi6n 6 destino de la Uni6n en
que se disfrute sueldo.")
(ART. 58. Los Diputados pro-
prietarios, desde el dia de su elec-
ci6n hasta el dia en que concluyan
su encargo, no pueden aceptar
ningun empleo do nombramiento
del Ejecutivo de la Uni6n por el
que se disfrute sueldo, sin previa
licencia del Congreso. El mismo
requisito es necesario para los
Diputados suplentes que est6n en
el ejercicio de sus funciones.a)
(ART. 59. Los Diputados son in-
violables por sus opinions mani-
festadas en el desempefio do su en-
cargo, y jams podrin ser recon-
venidos por ellas.a)

(ART. 60. El Congreso califica
las elecciones do sus miembros y
resuelve las dudas que ocurran
sobre ellas. ')

(ART. 61. El Congreso no puede
abrir sus sesiones, ni ejorcer su
encargo, sin la concurrencia do
mias de ]a mitad del nfimero total
do sus miembros; pero los pre-
sentes deberin reunirse el dia
sciialado por la ley y compeler a
los ausentes, bajo las penas que
ella designa.a)

(ART. 62. El Congreso tendri
cada aiio dos periodos do sesiones
ordinarias: el primero comenzari el
diecis6is de Septiembre y terminarai
el quince de Diciembre; y el se-
gundo, improrrogable, comenzara
el primero de Abril y terminal
el 61timo de Mavo.a)


to b)e residents of the State or
Territory in which the election
is held, and not to belong to the
ecclesiastical state. Residence is
not lost by absence in the dis-
charge of a public office of popu-
lar election.)
(ART. 57. The position of repre-
sentative is incompatible with any
salaried commission or office of
the Union.a)
(ART. 58. Representatives shall
be disqualified, from the day of
their election to the day on which
their trust is concluded, from ac-
cepting any salaried commission or
office from the Federal Executive,
except with previous permission of
the Congress. The same requisite is
necessary for the substitutes, when
in the exercise of their functions.")

(ART. 59. Representatives shall
be inviolable for their opinions
manifested in the performance of
their duties, and shall never be
liable to be called to account for
them.a)
(ART. 60. The Congress shall be
the judge of the election of its mem-
bers, and shall pass upon any ques-
tion which may arise concerning
the same.")
(ART. 61. The Congress shall not
open its sessions nor perform its
functions without the presence of a
quorum consisting of more than
one-half of the whole number of its
members; but those present shall
meet on the day fixed by the law
and compel the attendance of the
absentees under the penalties es-
tablished for that purpose.a)
(ART. 62. The Congress shall
have each year two periods of or-
dinary sessions: the first shall
begin on the sixteenth of Septem-
ber and end on the fifteenth of
December, and the second, which
can not be extended, shall begin on
the first of April and end on the
last day of May.a)


a Amended November 13, 1874. See pages 72, 73.







CONSTITUTION


ART. 63. X la apertura do se-
siones del Congreso asistira el Pre-
sidente de la Uni6n y pronunciar4i
un discurso en que manifieste el
estado que guard el pals. El Pre-
sidente del Congreso contestara en
tdrminos generates.

(ART. 64. Toda resoluci6n del
Congress no tendri otro caricter
que el de ley 6 acuerdo econ6mico.
Las leyes se comunicaran al Eje-
cutivo firmadas por el president
y dos secretaries, y los acuerdos
econ6micos por s6lo dos secreta-
rios. a)
PARRAFO 11.
De la iniciatira y formaci6n de las leyes.

ART. 65. El derecho deo iniciar
eyes compete:
I. Al Presidente de la Uni6n.

II. A los Diputados at Congreso
Federal.
III. A las Legislaturas de los
Estados. a
ART. 66. Las iniciativas pre-
sentadas por el Presidente do la
Republica, las Legislaturas de los
Estados 6 las Diputaciones do los
nnisnios, pasarln desde luego a
comisi6n. Las que presentaren
los Diputados se sujetaran i los
triamites que design el Reglamnon-
to de debates."
AlIT. 67. Todo provecto de ley
que fuere desechado 'por el Con-
greso, no podri volver a presen-
tarse en las sesiones del anio."
ART. 68. El segundo period de
sesiones se destinara, do toda pre-
ferencia, al examen y votaci6n de
los presupuestos del aflo fiscal
siguiente, i decretar las contribu-
clones para cubrirlos, y a la revi-
si6n de la cuenta del afio anterior
que present el Ejecutivo.


ART. 63. At the opening of the
sessions of the Congress the Presi-
dent of the Union shall be present
and make a speech in which he
shall give information of the state
of the country. The president of
the Congress shall reply in general
terms.
(ART. 64. All acts of the Con-
gress shall have the character
either of laws or of economical
resolutions. When transmitted to
the Executive, the laws shall be
signed by the president and two
secretaries, and the economical res-
olutions by only two secretaries.")
PARAGRAPH II.
Origin and formattion of the laws.

ART. 65. The right to originate
legislation belongs:
I. To the President of the
Union.
II. To the members of Con-
gress.
III. To the legislatures of the
States."
ART. 66. Bills introduced by the
President of the Republic, or by
the legislatures or deputations of
the States, shall inunediately be
referred to the proper committee.
Those introduced by members of
Congress shall be subject to the
procedure established by the
rules.,
ART. 67. Bills rejected by the
Congress shall not be reintroduced
during the sessions of that year.1

ART. 68. The second period of
sessions shall be devoted with pref-
erence over all other matters, to the
making of the necessary appropri-
ations for the support of the Gov-
ernment in the following fiscal
year, the levying of the taxes nec-
essary to meet the expenses, and
the examination of the accounts
of the past year submitted by the
Executive.


a Amended November 13, 1874. See page 74.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


(ARIT. 69. El dia peniltimo del
primer period de sesiones pre-
sentara el Ejecutivo al Congreso
el proyecto do presupuesto del ano
pr6ximo venidero y la cuenta del
afio anterior. Uno y otra pasarin
ai una comisi6n compuesta de cinco
representantes nombrados en el
mismo dia, la cual tendra obliga-
ci6n de examiner ambos documen-
tos y presentar dictamen sobre
ellos en la segunda sesi6n del se-
gundo periodo.a)
(ART. 70. Las iniciativas 6 pro-
yeetos de ley deberain sujetarse ai
los tramites siguientes:
J. Dictamoen de la comisi6n.

II. Una 6 dos discusiones en los
t6rminos que expresan las frac-
ciones siguientes.
III. La primera discusi6n so
verificari en el dia que design el
president del Congreso, conforme
a Reglamento.
IV. Concluida esta discusi6n se
pasari al Ejecutivo copia del ex-
pediente, para que en el t6rmino
de sieto dias manifieste su opinion
6 express que no usa de esa
facultad.
V. Si la opinion del Ejecutivo
fuere conforme, se proceder4 sin
mis discusi6n 6i la votaci6n de la
ley.
VI. Si dicha opinion discrepare
en todo 6 en parte, volvera el ex-
pediente A la comision, para que,
con presencia de las observaciones
del Gobierno, examine de nuevo
el negocio.
VII. El nuevo dictamen sufrirat
nueva discussion, y concluida 6sta
se procederai la votaci6n.

VIII. Aprobaci6n de la mayorfa
absolute de los Diputados pre-
sentes.a)
(ART. 71. En el caso de urgencia
notoria, calificada por el voto de
dos tercios de los Diputados pre-
sentes, el Congreso puede estrechar


(ART. 69. The Executive shall
send to the Congress on the last
day but one of the first period of
its sessions an estimate of expenses
for the following year and the
accounts of the preceding year.
Both documents shall be referred
to a committee of five representa-
tives appointed on the same day,
which shall examine them, and re-
port at the second meeting of the
second period.a)

(ART. 70. All bills shall go
through the following stages:

I. Examination and report by a
committee.
II. One or two debates, in the
manner to be set forth in the fol-
lowing clauses.
III. The first debate shall take
place on the day set apart for that
purpose by the president of the
Congress, according to the rules.
IV. When the debate is closed
a copy of the record thereof shall
be sent to the Executive, in order
that within the period of seven
days it may express its opinion or
waive the right to express it.
V. If the opinion of the Execu-
tive is in favor of the bill a vote
shall be taken on it without further
debate.
VI. If the opinion of the Exec-
utive is not in favor of the bill,
whether wholly or in part, the bill
shall be recommitted, in order that
the observations made against it
may be taken into consideration.
VII. The new report of the
committee shall then be discussed,
and when the debate is closed a
vote shall be taken upon it.
VIII. Approval by absolute
majority of the representatives
present.a)
(ART. 71. In case of notorious
urgency, declared by a vote of
two-thirds of the members present,
the Congress can suspend the rules


a Amended November 13, 1874. See pages 74 and 75.








CONSTITUTION.


6 dispensar los tramites estableci- and proceed without the formali-
dos en el articulo 70.a) ties established in article 70.a)


PARRAFO III.
De las facultades del Congreso.
ART. 72. El Congreso tiene fa-
cultad:
I. Para admitir nuevos Estados
6 Territories a la Uni6n federal,
incorporindolos a la Naci6n.
11. Para crigir los Territorios
en Estados cuando tengan una
poblaci6n do ochenta mil habitan-
tes y los elements necesarios para
proveer a su existencia political.

(III. Para former nuevos Esta-
dos dentro de los limits de los
existentes, siempre que lo pida
una poblaci6n de ochenta mil habi-
tantes, justificando tener los ele-
mentos necesarios para proveer a
su existencia political. Oira en
todo caso i las Legislaturas de
cuyo territorio se trate, y su
acuerdo s6lo tendra efecto si lo
ratifica la mayoria de las Legisla-
turas de los Estados.a)

IV. Para arreglar definitiva-
mente los limits de los Estados,
terminando las diferencias que
entire ellos se susciten sobre de-
marcaci6n de sus respectivos te-
rritorios, menos cuando esas dife-
rencias tengan un cardcter conten-
cioso.
V. Para cambiar la residencia
de los Supremos Poderes de la
Federaci6n.
VI. Para el arreglo interior del
Distrito Federal y Territorios,
teniendo por base el que los ciuda-
danos elijan popularmente las au-
toridades political, municipales y
judiciales, designandoles rentas
para cubrir sus atenciones locales.


VII. Para aprobar el presu-
puesto de los gastos de la Federa-


PARAGRAPH III.
Powers of Congress.
ART. 72. The Congress has
power:
I. To admit new States or Ter-
ritories into the Federal Union,
incorporating them in the nation.
II. To turn Territories into
States when they shall have a
population of eighty thousand in-
habitants and the necessary ele-
ments to provide for their political
existence.
(III. To form new States within
the limits of those now existing,
when so requested by eighty thou-
sand of their inhabitants, and upon
proof that they have the necessary
elements to meet the exigencies
of their political existence. In all
cases the Congress shall hear the
opinion of the legislatures of the
States to which the measure refers,
and its decision shall be carried into
effect only if ratified by a majority
of the State legislatures.")
IV. To settle finally the limits
of the States, terminating the dif-
ferences which may arise between
them relative to the demarcation
of their respective territories, ex-
cept when the differences are of
judicial character.

V. To change the residence of
the supreme powers of the Fed-
eration.
VI. To provide for the internal
organization of the Federal Dis-
trict and Territories, upon the
basis that the citizens shall choose
by popular election the political,
municipal, and judicial authorities,
and endow them with the revenue
necessary to cover their local ex-
penses.
VII. To approve the estimates
of the Federal expenses, which the


a Amended November 13, 1874. See pages 75 and 77.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ci6n que anualmente debe presen-
tarle el Ejecutivo, 4 imponer las
contribuciones necesarias para
cubrirlo.
VIII. Para dar las bases bajo
las cuales el Ejecutivo pueda cele-
brar emprestitos sobre el cr6dito
de la Naci6n; para aprobar esos
mismos emprestitos y para reco-
nocer y mandar pagar la deuda
national.
IX. Para expedir aranceles
sobre el comercio extranjero y
para impedir, por medio de bases
generals, que en el comercio de
Estado i Estado se establezcan
restricciones oncrosas.
(X. Para establecer las bases
generals de la legislaci6n mer-
cantil.1")
XI. Para crear y suprimir em-
pleos piblicos de la Federaci6n,
sefialar, aumentar 6 disminuir sus
dotaciones.
XII. Para ratificar los nombra-
mientos que haga cl Ejecutivo, do
los Ministros, Agentes diplomiati-
cos y C6nsules, deo empleados su-
periores de Hacienda, de los coro-
neles y demais oficiales superiors
del Ejdrcito y Armada national.
XIII. Para aprobar los tratados,
convcnios 6 convenciones diplo-
maiticas que celebre el Ejecutivo.
XIV. Para declarar la guerra,
en vista de los datos que le pre-
sente el Ejecutivo.
XV. Para reglamentar el modo
en que deban expedirse las pa-
tentes de corso; para dictar leyes
seg(in las cuales deban dcclararse
buenas 6 malas las press deo mar v
tierra, y para expedir las relatives
al derecho maritime de paz y
guerra.
XVI. Para conceder 6 negar
la entrada de tropas extranjeras
en el territorio de la Federaci6n,
y consentir la estaci6n de escua-
dras de otra potencia, por mais de
un mes, en las aguas de la Repu-
blica.


Executive shall annually submit
to it, and order the taxes neces-
sary to meet said expenses to be
levied and collected.
VIII. To establish the bases upon
which the Executive may make
loans on the credit of the nation;
to approve said loans and to recog-
nize and order the payment of the
national debt.

IX. To enact laws fixing the
duties to be levied on foreign com-
merce, and prevent, by general
provisions, onerous restrictions
from being established on the com-
merce between the States.
(X. To establish the general
bases of commercial legislation.,)
XI. To create or abolish Fed-
eral offices, and to fix, increase, or
decrease their salaries.

XII. To confirm the nomina-
tions, made by the Executive, of
ministers, diplomatic agents, and
consuls, superior officers of the
treasury, colonels and other su-
perior officers of the national
army and navy.
XIII. To approve the treaties.
agreements, or diplomatic conven-
tions which the Executive may
make.
XIV. To declare war, upon ex-
amination of the facts submitted
by the Executive.
XV. To regulate the manner in
which letters of marque may be
issued; to enact laws according to
which the prizes on sea and land
shall be adjudged good or bad;
and to frame the maritime law of
peace and war.

XVI. To grant or refuse per-
mission to foreign troops to enter
the territory of the Republic, and
to allow fleets of other powers to
remain for more than one month
in the waters of the Republic.


aAmended December 14, 1883. See page 87.








CONSTITUTION


(XVII. Para permitir la salida
de tropas nacionales fuera de los
limits de la Repibhlica.")
XVIII. Para levantar y sos-
tener el Ej4rcito y la Armada de la
Uni6n y para reglamentar su or-
ganizacion y serviclo.
XIX. Para dar reglamentos con
el objeto de organizer, armar y
disciplinary la guardia national,
reservando a los ciudadanos que
la formen el nombramiento respec-
tivo de jefes y oficiales, y a los
Estados la facultad do instruirla
conform a la discipline prescrita
por dichos reglamentos.

XX. Para dar su consenti-
miento a fin de que el Ejecutivo
pueda disponer-de la guardia na-
cional fuera de sus respectivos
Estados 6 Territorios, fijando la
fuerza necesaria.
XXI. Para dictar leyes sobre
naturalizaci6n, colonizaci6n y ciu-
dadania.
XXII. Para dictar leyes sobre
vias generals de comunicaci6n
y sobre postas y correos.
XXIII. Para establecer casas de
moneda, fijar las condiciones que
debe 4sta tener, determinar el
valor de la extranjera y adoptar
el sistema general de pesos y me-
didas.
XXIV. Para fijar las reglas i
que debe sujetarse la ocupacion y
enajenamiento de terrenos baldfos
y el precio de 6stos.
XXV. Para conceder amnistias
por delitos cuyo conocimiento per-
tenezca a los tribunales de la Fede-
raci6n.
(XXVI. Paraconceder premios
6 recompensas por servicios emi-
nentes prestados i la patria 6 a la
humanidad, y privilegios por
tiempo limitado it los inventories y
perfeccionadores de alguna me-
jora. )
XXVII. Para prorrogar por
treintadias tiles el primerperiodo
de sus sesiones ordinarias.


(XVII. To permit national
troops to go beyond the limits of
the Republic.")
XVIII. To raise and maintain
the army and navy of the Union,
and regulate their organization
and service.
XIX. To make rules for the
organization, armament, and dis-
cipline of the national guard, re-
serving respectively to the citizens
who compose it the appointment of
the commanders and officers, and
to the States the power of instruct-
ing it in conformity with the dis-
cipline prescribed by said regula-
tions.
XX. To consent to the use by
the Executive of the national guard
outside of its respective States
and Territories, determining the
strength of the force required.

XXI. To enact laws on natu-
ralization, colonization, and citi-
zenship.
XXII. To enact laws on the
general means of communication
and on post-roads and post-offices.
XXIII. To establish mints, reg-
ulate the value and kinds of the
national coin, determine the value
of foreign coins, and adopt a gen-
eral system of weights and meas-
ures.
XXIV. To make rules for the
occupation and sale of public lands
and the prices thereof.

XXV. To grant pardons for
offenses subject to federal jurisdic-
tion.

(XXVI. To grant rewards for
eminent services rendered to the
country or to humanity, and priv-
ileges for a limited time to invent-
ors and improvers of industrial
devises. )

XXVII. To extend for thirty
working days the first period of
its ordinary sessions.


aAmended November 13, 1874. See page 79. b Amended June 2, 1882. See page 84.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


XXVIII. Para former su regla-
mento interior y tomar las provi-
dencias necesarias para haccr con-
currir a los Diputados ausentes y
corregir las faltas 6 omisiones de
los presented.
XXIX. Para nombrar y remo-
ver libremente ai los empleados de
su Secretaria y a los de la Conta-
duria Mayor, que so organizard
seguin lo disponga la ley.
(XXX. Para expedir todas las
leyes quo scan necesarias y propias
para hacer efectivas las facultades
antecedentes y todas las otras con-
cedidas por esta Constituci6n A los
Poderes de la Uni6n.1")
PAIhRAFO IV.
De la Diputaci6n permanent.

(ART. 73. Durante los recesos
del Congreso de la Uni6n habrii
una Diputaci6n permanent, com-
puesta de un Diputado por cada
Estado y Territorio, que nombrar6
el Congress la vispera de la clau-
sura de sus sesiones.1)
ART. 74. Las atribuciones de la
Diputaci6n permanent serdn las
siguientes:
I. Prestar su consentimiento
para el uso do la guardia national,
en los casos de que habla el arti-
culo 72, fracci6n XX.
(II. Acordar por si sola, 6 A peti-
ci6n del Ejecutivo, la convocaci6n
del Congreso a sesiones extraordi-
narias. )
III. Aprobar oen su caso los nom-
bramientos i que se refiere el ar-
ticulo 85, fracci6n III.
(IV. Recibir el juramento al
President de la Rep6blica y a los
TMinistros de la Suprema Corte de
Justicia, en los casos prevenidos
por esta Constituci6n.c)
V. Dictaminar sobre todos los
asuntos que queden sin resoluci6n
en los expedientes, ai fin de que la


XXVIII. To make rules for its
internal government and take the
necessary measures to compel the
attendance of absent members, and
punish the faults or omissions of
those present.
XXIX. To appoint and remove
freely the employees in the offices
of its secretary, and paymaster,
which lh ....- shall be organized as
the law may provide.
(XXX. To enact all laws which
may be necessary and proper to.
enforce the foregoing powers and
all others granted by this Consti-
tution to the authorities of the
Union.a)
PARAGRAPH IV.
The permanent committee.

(ART. 73. During the recesses of
Congress there shall be a per-
manent committee consisting of a
representative for each State and
Territory, appointed by the Con-
gress on the eve of the close of its
sessions.6)
ART. 74. The powers of the
permanent committee shall be the
following:
I. To give its consent to the use
of the national guard in the cases
mentioned in article 72, Clause
XX.
(II. To call, on its own motion,
or at the request of the Executive,
an extra session of Congress.')

III. To approve the appoint-
ments referred to in article 85,
Clause III.
(IV. To administer the oath of
office to the President of the Re-
public, and to the justices of the
supreme court in the cases pro-
vided for by this Constitution.c)
V. To prepare a report upon all
pending matters, in order that the
next legislature may immediately


a Amended April 24, 1896. See page 91.
b Amended November 13, 1874. See pages 80, 81.
c Amended September 25, 1873. See page 71.








CONSTITUTION.


Legislature que sigue tenga desde take them up as unfinished busi-
luego de que ocuparse. ness.


SECCI6N II.
Del Poder Ejecutivo.
ART. 75. Se deposit el ejercicio
del Supremo Poder Ejecutivo do
la Uni6n en un solo individuo, quo
se denominar. "Presidente de los
Estados Unidos Mexicanos."
ART. 70. La elecci6n de Presi-
dente sera indirecta en primer
grado y en escrutinio secret, on
los tdrminos quo disponga la ley
electoral.
ART 77. Para ser Presidente so
require: ser ciudadano mexicano
por nacimiento, on ejercicio do sus
derechos, do treinta y cinco afios
cumplidos al tiempo de ]a elecci6n,
no pertenecer al estado eclesiastico
y residir en el pais al tiempo de
verificarse la clecci6n.

(ART. 78. El Presidente entrara
a ejercer sus funciones el primero
de Diciembre y durara en su en-
cargo cuatro aiios.a)

(ART. 79. En las faltas tempo-
rales del Presidente de la Repiu-
blica, y en la absolute, mientras se
present el nuevamente electo,
entrard a ejercer el poder el Presi-
dente de la Suprema Corte de
Justicia.b)
(ART. 80. Si la falta de Presi-
dente fuere absolute, se procederai
a nueva elecci6n, con arreglo a lo
dispuesto en el articulo 76, y el
nuevamente electo ejercera sus
funciones hasta el dia filtimo de
Noviembre del cuarto afio siguiente
al de su elecei6n.c)

ART. 81. El cargo de Presidente
de la Uni6n s61o es renunciable
por causa grave, calificada por el
Congress, ante quien se presen-
tara la renuncia.


SECTION II.
Executive power.
ART. 75. The exercise of the
supreme executive power of the
Union is vested in a single individ-
ual, who shall be called President
of the United Mexican States."
ART. 76. The election of Presi-
dent shall be indirect in the first
degree, and by secret ballot, in
such manner as may be prescribed
by the electoral law.
ART. 77. No person shall be
eligible to the position of Presi-
dent who is not a Mexican citizen
by birth, in the exercise of his
rights, thirty-five years old at the
time of the election, not belonging
-to the ecclesiastical state, and a
resident of the country at the time
in which the election is held.
(ART. 78. The President shall
enter upon the performance of
. the duties of his office on the
first of December, and shall con-
tinue in office four years.")
(ART. 79. In the temporary va-
cancies of the office of President of
the Republic, and in the absolute
vacancy until the inauguration of
the newly elected President, the
chief justice of the supreme court
shall act as President.*)
(ART. 80. In case of absolute
vacancy of the office of President
a new election shall be held in ac-
cordance with the provisions of
article 76, and the newly elected
President shall perform his func-
tions until the last day of Novem-
ber of the fourth year following
his election.c)
ART. 81. The President of the
Union can not resign his position,
except for grave cause, approved
by Congress, to which the resig-
nation shall be tendered.


"Amended May 5, 1878, October 21, 1887. See pages 82 and 90. Reenacted
December 20, 1890. See pace 90.
bAmended October 3, 1--.', and April 24, 1896. See pages 84 and 91.
c Amended April 24, 1896. See page 94.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


(ART. 82. Si por cualquier mo-
tivo la election de Presidente no es-
tuviere hecha y publicada para el
primero de Diciembre, en que debe
verificarse el reemplazo, 6 el electo
no estuviere pronto i entrar on el
ejercicio de sus funciones, cesar'd
sin embargo el antiguo, y el Su-
premo Poder Ejecutivo se depo-
sitar4 interinamente en el Presi-
dente de la Suprema Corte de Jus-
ticia. a)
(ART. 83. El Presidente, al to-
mar posesi6n de su encargo, jurara
ante el Congreso, y en su receso
ante la Diputaci6n permamente,
bajo la formula siguiente: "Juro
desempeliar leal y patri6ticamente
el encargo de Presidente de los
Estados Unidos Mexicanos, con-
forme a la Constituci6n, y mirando
en todo por el bien y la prosperi-
dad de la Uni6n."b)
ART. 84. ElPresidentenopuede
separarse del lugar de la residen-
cia de los Poderes federales, ni
del ejercicio de sus funciones, sin
motivo grave, calificado por el
Congress, y on sus recesos por la
Diputaci6n permanent.
ART. 85. Las facultades y obli-
gaciones del Presidente son las
siguientes:
I. Promulgar y ejecutar las
leyes que expida el Congreso de
la Uni6n, proveyendo en la esfera
administrative t su exacta obser-
vancia.
II. Nombrar v remover libre-
mente a los Secretarios del despa-
cho; remover a los agents diplo-
maticos y empleados superiores
de Hacienda, y nombrar y remover
libremente i los demils empleados
de la Uni6n cuyo nombramiento 6
remoci6n no estin determinados
de otro modo en la Constituci6n 6
en las eyes.
III. Nombrar los Ministros,
Agentes diplomaticos y C6nsules
generals, con aprobacion ~ecl Con-
aAmended October 3, 1882. See page 86.


(ART. 82. If for any reason what-
ever the election of President is
not made and published by the
first of December, on which day
the transfer of the office should be
made, or if the President-elect is
not then ready to enter upon the
discharge of his duties, the former
President shall cease, nevertheless,
and the executive power shall be
vested ad interim in the chief jus-
tice of the supreme court.a)
(ArT. 83. The President, on tak-
ing possession of his office, shall
take before Congress, and in its
recess before the permanent com-
mittee, the following oath: I
swear to perform loyally and
patriotically the duties of Presi-
dent of the United Mexican States,
according to the Constitution, hav-
ing always in view the welfare and
prosperity of the Union."')
ART. 84. The President shall
not leave the place of residence of
the Federal powers, nor lay aside
the exercise of his functions, with-
out grave cause, approved by the
Congress, and in its recesses by
the permanent committee:
ART. 85. The powers and duties
of the President are the following:

1. To promulgate and execute
the laws passed by the Congress
of the Union, providing, within
the Executive sphere, for their
exact observance.
II. To appoint and remove
freely the secretaries of state, to
remove the diplomatic agents and
superior officers of the treasury,
and to appoint and remove freely
the other federal officials whose
appointment or removal is not
otherwise provided for in the Con-
stitution or the laws.

III. To appoint, with the appro-
val of Congress, and, in its recess,
of the permanent committee, min-
b Amended April 24, 1896. See page 94.







CONSTITUTION.


greso, y en su receso de la Diputa-
ci6n permanent.
IV. Nombrar, con aprobaci6n
del Congreso, los Coroneles y
demis oficiales superiores .del
Ejdrcito y Armada national y los
empleados superiors de Hacienda.
V. Nombrar los demais oficiales
del Ej6rcito yArmada national, con
arreglo a las leyes.
VI. Disponer de la fuerza ar-
mada permanent de mar y tierra
para la seguridad interior y defen-
sa exterior de la Federaci6n.
VII. Disponer de la guardia na-
cional para los mismos objetos, en
los t6rminos que previene la frac-
ci6n XX del articulo 72.
VIII. Declarar la guerra en
nombre de los Estados Unidos Me-
xicanos, previa ley del Congreso
de la Uni6n.
IX. Conceder patentes de corso,
con sujeci6n a las bases fijadas por
el Congress.
X. Dirigir las negociaciones di-
plomiticas y celebrar tratados con
las potencias extranjeras, some-
ti6ndolos a la ratificaci6n del Con-
greso Federal.
XI. Recibir Ministros y otros
enviados de las potencias extran-
jeras.
XII. Convocar al Congreso 6
sesiones extraordinarias cuando lo
acuerde la Diputaci6n permanent.
XIII. Facilitar al Poder Judi-
cial los auxilios que necesite para
el ejercicio expedito de sus fun-
ciones.
XIV. Habilitar toda clase de
puertos, establecer aduanas mari-
timas y fronterizas y designer su
ubicacion.
(XV. Conceder, conform i las
leyes, indultos 1i los reos senten-
ciados por delitos de la competen-
cia de los tribunales federales.a)
ART. 86. Para el despacho do
los negocios del orden administra-
tivo do la Federaci6n, liabrd el
numero de Secretarios que esta-


sisters, diplomatic agents, and con-
suls-general.
IV. To appoint, with the ap-
proval of Congress, colonels and
other superior officers of the
national army and navy, and supe-
rior officers of the treasury.
V. To appoint all other officers
of the national army and navy,
according to the laws.
VI. To dispose of the perma-
nent land and sea forces for the
security and defense of the Fed-
eration.
VII. To dispose of the national
guard for the same purposes, in
the manner provided by article 72,
clause XX.
VIII. To declare war in the name
of the United Mexican States, after
the passage of the necessary law by
the Congress of the Union.
IX. To grant letters of marque,
upon the bases fixed by the Con-
gress.
X. To conduct diplomatic nego
tiations and to make treaties with
foreign powers, submitting them
for ratification to the Federal Con-
gress.
XI. To receive ministers and
other envoys from foreign powers.

XII. To call, upon resolution of
the permanent committee, an extra
session of Congress.
XIII. To give the judicial power
the assistance which may be nec-
essary for the free exercise of its
functions.
XIV. To open all classes of
ports, establish maritime and fron-
tier custom-houses and designate
their location.
(XV. To grant, according to
law. pardons to criminals sen-
tenced for offenses within the juris-
diction of the Federal tribunals.a)
ART. 86. For the transaction of
the business of the executive de-
partment of the Federation there
shall be the number of secretaries


a Amended June 2, 1882. See page 84.







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


blezca el Congreso por una ley, la
que hari la distribuci6n de los
negocios que han do star a cargo
de cada Secretaria.
ART. 87. Para ser Secretario
del despacho so require: ser ciu-
dadano mexicano por nacimiento,
star en ejercicio do sus derechos y
tenor veinticineo aieos cumplidos.
ART. 88. Todos los reglamen-
tos, decretos v 6rdenes del Presi-
dente deberin ir firmados por el
Secretario del despacho encargado
del ramo ai que el asunto corres-
ponde. Sin este requisite no serin
obedecidos.
ART. 89. Los Secretarios del
despacho, luego que estin abiertas
las sesiones del primer period,
darin cuenta al Congreso del
estado de sus respectivos ramos.

SECCI6N III.

Del Poder Judicial.

ART. 90. Se deposit el ejercicio
del Poder Judicial de la Federa-
ci6n en una Corte Suprema do
Justicia y en los tribunales de Dis-
trito y de Circuito.
ART. 91. La Suprema Corte de
Justicia so compondri de once
Ministros propietarios, cuatro su-
pernumerarios, un Fiscal y un Pro-
curador general.
ART. 92. Cada uno de los indi-
viduos de la Suprema Corte de
Justicia durarn on su encargo seis
afios, v su eleeei6n serai indirect
en primer g-rado, en los t4rminos
que disponga la loy electoral.
ART. 93. Para ser electo indi-
viduo de la Suprema Corte de Jus-
ticia so necesita: estar instruido
en la ciencia del derecho, i juicio
de los electores; ser mayor de
treinta v cinco anos v ciudadano
mexicano por nacimiento, en ejer-
cicio de sus derechos.
(ART. 94. Los individuos de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia, al en-
trar a ejercer su encargo, presta-
ran juramento ante el Congreso, y
en sus recesos ante la Diputaci6n


which the Congress may fix by law,
said law to provide also for the
distribution of business among the
different secretaries.
ART. 87. No person shall be ap-
pointed Secretary who is not a
Mexican citizen by birth, in the
exercise of his rights, and twenty-
five years old.
ART. 88. All rules, decrees, and
orders of the President shall be
signed by the secretary of the
department to which the subject
belongs. Without this requisite
they shall not be obeyed.

ART. 89. The Secretaries shall,
as soon as the sessions of the first
period are opened, render an ac-
count to the Congress of the state
of their respective departments.

SECTION III.

Judicial power.

ART. 90. The judicial power of
the Federation is vested in a su-
preme court and in the district and
circuit courts.

ART. 91. The supreme court
shall consist of eleven justices, four
supernumerary justices, one attor-
ney-general, and one solicitor-
general.
ART. 92. The justices of the su-
preme court shall serve for six
years, and their election shall be
indirect in the first degree, in the
manner established by the elec-
toral law.
ART. 93. No person shall be
eligible to the position of justice
of the supreme court who, in the
judgment of the electors, is not
learned in the science of law,
thirty-five years of age, and a
Mexican citizen by birth, in the
exercise of his rights.
(ART. 94. The justices of the
supreme court shall, on enter-
ing upon the exercise of their
functions, take an oath before
Congress, and, in its recesses,







CONSTITUTION.


permanent, en la forma siguiente:
" Jurdis desempeiiar leal y patri6-
ticamento cl cargo de Magistrado
de la Suprema Corte do Justicia
quo os ha conferido el pueblo, con-
forme i la Constituci6n y mirando
en todo por el bien v prosperidad
de la Uni6n ?"a)


ART. 95. El cargo de individuo
de la Supremna Corte de Justicia
s6lo es renunciable por causa grave,
calificada por el Congreso, ante
quien so presentara la renuncia.
En los recesos de 6ste la califica-
ci6n se hard por la Diputaci6n per-
mancnte.

AnT. 96. La ley estableceri v
organizart los tribunales de Cir-
cuito y de Distrito.
ART. 97. Corresponde i los tri-
bunales do la Federaci6n conocer:
(I. Detodaslascontroversiasque
so susciten sobre el cumplimento y
aplicaci6n de las leyes federales.6)

II. De las que versen sobre De-
recho maritime.
III. Do aquellas en que la Fe-
deraci6n fuere parte.
IV. De las quo se susciten entire
dos 6 muis Estados.
V. Do las quo so susciten entire
un Estado y uno 6 mis vecinos de
otro.
VI. De las del orden civil 6
criminal quo se susciten a con-
secuencia do los tratados celebra-
dos con las potencias extranjeras.
VII. De los casos concernientes
a los agents diplommiticos y e6n-
sules.
ART. 98. Corresponde d la Su-
prema Corte de Justicia desde la
primera instancia, el conocimiento
de las controversial quo se susciten
de un Estado con otro, y de aque-
llas en que la Uni6n fuere parte.
ART. 99. Corresponde tambidnn
a la Suprema Corte do Justicia
a Amended September
b Amended May 29, 18



0


before the permanent committee,
in the following form: Do you
swear to perform loyally and
patriotically the functions of jus-
tice of the supreme court of jus-
tice, which the people have con-
ferred upon you, in conformity
with the Constitution, having al-
ways in view the welfare and pros-
perity of the Union? a)
ART. 95. No resignation of the
position of justice of the supreme
court shall be admitted, except for
grave cause, approved by the Con-
gress, to whom the resignation
shall be tendered. In the recesses
of the Congress the power to act
on this matter belongs to the per-
manent committee.
ART. 96. The law shall establish
and organize the circuit and dis-
trict courts.
ART. 97. The Federal tribunals
shall take cognizance of:
(I. All controversies which may
arise in regard to the compliance
with and application of the Federal
laws. )
II. All cases pertaining to mari-
time law.
III. All cases to which the Fed-
eration may be a party.
IV. All cases which may arise
between two or more States.
V. All cases which may arise
between a State and one or more
citizens of another State.
VI. All civil or criminal cases
that may arise out of treaties with
foreign powers.

VII. All cases concerning diplo-
matic agents and consuls.

ART. 98. The supreme court
shall have original jurisdiction
of controversies which may arise
between one State and another,
and of those to which the Union
may be a party.
ART. 99. The supreme court
shall also have power to settle
25, ,1873. See page 70.
84. See page 88.


.7//


! ] t








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


dirimir las competencias que se
susciten entire los tribunales de la
Federaci6n, entire estos y los do
los Estados, 6 entire los de un
Estado y los do otro.
ART. 100. En los demis casos
comprendidos en el articulo 97, la
Suprema Corte do Justicia sera
tribunal de apelaci6n, 6 bien do
61tima instancia, conform a la
graduaci6n que haga la ley de las
atribuciones do los tribunales de
Circuito y de Distrito.
ART. 101. Los tribunales de la
Federaci6n resolverin toda contro-
versia que se suscite:
I. Por leyes 6 actos de cual-
quiera autoridad que violent las
garantias individuals.
II. Por leyes 6 actos do la auto-
ridad federal que vulneren 6 res-
trinjan la soberania de los Estados.

II. Por leyes 6 actos de las au-
toridades de estos, que invadan la
esfera de la autoridad federal.
ART. 102. Todos los juicios de
que habla el articulo anterior se
seguiran, a petici6n de la part
agraviada, por medio do procedi-
mientos y formas del orden juri-
dico, que determinarn una ley.
La sentencia seri siempre tal, que
s6lo so ocupe do individuos par-
ticulares, limitandose i protegerlos
y ampararlos on el caso especial
sobre que verse el proceso, sin ha-
cer ninguna declaraci6n general
respect de la ley 6 acto que la
motivare.

TITULO IV.


questions of jurisdiction between
Federal tribunals, between these
tribunals and those of the States,
or between those of one State and
those of another.
ART. 100. In all the other cases
mentioned in article 97, the su-
preme court shall be either a court
of appeals, or a court of last resort,
as may be defined by the law regu-
lating the jurisdiction of the cir-
cuit and district courts.

ART. 101. The tribunals of the
Federation shall decide all ques-
tions arising out of:
I. Laws or acts of whatever au-
thority violating individual guar-
anties.
II. Laws or acts of the Federal
authority encroaching upon or re-
stricting the sovereignty of the
it.it,.-.
III. Laws or acts of the State
authorities invading the sphere of
the Federal authority.
ART. 102. All the cases referred
to in the preceding article shall be
conducted, on petition of the ag-
grieved party, according to rules
of proceedings which a special law
shall establish. The decision shall
always be rendered in such a lan-
guage as to exclusively affect the
individuals concerned in the case,
limiting itself to defend and protect
them in the special case to which
the proceedings refer, without
making any general declaration
respecting the law or the act which
gave rise to the case.
TITLE IV.


DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE LOS RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PUBLIC
FUNCIONARIOS PtJBLICOS. FUNCTIONARIES.


(ART. 103. Los Diputados al Con-
greso de la Uni6n, los individuos
de la Suprema Corte de Justicia y
los Secretarios del despacho, son
responsables por los delitos comu-
nes que cometan durante el tiem-
po do su encargo, y por los delitos,
faltas 6 omisiones en que incurran


(A RT. 103. Members of the Con-
gress of the Union, the chief jus-
tice and associate justices of the
supreme court, and the members
of the cabinet are responsible for
the common offenses which they
may commit during their terms of
office, and for the crimes, misde-








CONSTITUTION.


en el ejercicio de ese mismo encar-
go. Los Gobernadores de los Es-
tados lo son igualmente por infrac-
ci6n de la Constitucion y leyes
federales. Lo es tambien el Pre-
sidente de la Repiblica; pero du-
rante el tiempo de su encargo, s6lo
podra ser acusado por los delitos
de traici6n a la Patria, violaci6n
expresa de la Constituci6n, ataque
A la libertad electoral y delitos
graves del orden comin.a)

(ART. 104. Si el delito fuere
comin, el Congreso, erigido en
gran jurado, declarara, a mayoria
absolute de votos, si ha 6 no lugar
6 proceder contra el acusado. En
caso negative no habrA lugar a
ningun procedimiento ulterior.
En el afirmativo, el acusado queda
por el mismo hecho separado de
su encargo y sujeto a la acci6n de
los tribunales comunes.a)

(ART. 105. De los delitos oficia-
les conoceran: el Congreso como
jurado de acusaci6n y la Suprema
Corte de Justicia como jurado do
sentencia.
El jurado de acusaci6n tendra
por objeto declarar, A mayoria
absolute de votos, si el acusado es
6 no culpable. Si la declaraci6n
fuere absolutoria, el funcionario
continuara en el ejercicio de su
encargo. Si fuere condenatoria,
quedara inmediatamente separado
de dicho encargo, y sera puesto a
disposici6n de hla Suprema Corte
de Justicia. Esta, en tribunal
pleno y erigida en jurado de sen-
tencia, con audiencia del reo, del
fiscal y del acusador, si lo hubiere,
proceder' A aplicar, a mayoria
absolute de votos, la pena que la
ley designe.a)


meanors, or omissions of which
they may be guilty in the perform-
ance of their official duties. Gov-
ernors of the States are likewise
responsible for the violation of the
Constitution and Federal laws.
The President of the Republic is
also responsible; but no charge
shall be made against him, during
his term of office, except for treason
against the country, express viola-
tion of the Constitution, attack on
the freedom of election, and grave
offenses of common character.a)
(ART. 104. If the crime should
be a common one, the Congress,
acting as a grand jury, shall de-
clare, by absolute majority of votes,
whether or not there is sufficient
ground to proceed against the ac-
cused. In the negative case, there
shall be no ground for further
proceeding; in the affirmative, the
accused shall be, by the said act,
deprived of his office, and sub-
jected to the action of the ordinary
tribunals. ,)
(ART. 105. The Congress shall
take cognizance of official crimes,
as a jury of accusation, and the su-
preme court as a court of im-
peachment.
The jury of accusation shall
declare, by absolute majority of
votes, whether or not the accused
shall be impeached. If the decla-
ration is in the negative, the func-
tionary shall continue in the exer-
cise of his office; if it is in the
affirmative, he shall be immedi-
ately deprived of his office, and
placed at the disposal of the su-
preme court of justice. The lat-
ter, sitting as a court of impeach-
ment, shall, in the presence of the
accused party, and of the accuser,
if there is one, and of the attorney-
general, render by absolute major-
ity of votes, the sentence which the
law may warrant. ,)


a Amended November 13, 1874. See page 82.
360A-VOL 1-06---5








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ART. 106. Pronunciada una sen-
tencia de responsabilidad por deli-
tos oficiales, no puede concederse
al reo la gracia de indulto.
ART. 107. La responsabilidad
por delitos y faltas oficiales s6lo
podra exigirse durante el period
en que el funcionario ejerza su
encargo, y un aflo despu6s.

ART. 108. En demands del
orden civil no hay fueros ni in-
munidad para ningun funcionario
piblico.
TITULO V.
DE LOS ESTADOS DE LA
FEDERATION.
(ART. 109. Los Estados adopta-
ran, para su regimen interior, la
forma de gobierno republican,
representative, popular.")
ART. 110. Los Estados pueden
arreglar entire si, por convenios
amnistosos, sus respectivos limits;
pero no se llevarAn 6 efecto esos
arreglos sin la aprobaci6n del Con-
greso de la Uni6n.

ART. 111. Los Estados no pue-
den en ningin caso:
I. Celebrar alianza, tratado 6
coalici6n con otro Estado ni con
potencias extranjeras. Excep-
t6aase la coalici6n que pueden
celebrar los Estados fronterizos
para la guerra ofensiva 6 defen-
siva contra los barbaros.
II. Expedir patents de corso
ni de represalias.
(III. Acufiar moneda, emitir
papel moneda ni papel sellado.b)
ART. 112. Tampoco pueden, sin
consentimiento del Congreso de la
Uni6n:
I. Establecer derechos de tone-
laje ni otro alguno de puerto, ni
imponer contribuciones o derechos
sobre importaciones 6 exporta-
ciones.
II. Tener en ningmn tiempo
tropa permanent ni buques de
guerra.


ART. 106. In cases of impeach-
ment no pardon can be granted to
the offender.

ART. 107. The responsibility
for official crimes and misdemean-
ors can only be enforced during
the period in which the function-
ary remains in office, and one year
thereafter.
ART. 108. In civil cases no privi-
lege or immunity in favor of any
public functionary shall be recog-
nized.
TITLE V.
STATES OF THE FEDERATION.

(ART. 109. The States shall
adopt for their internal regime the
popular, representative, republi-
can form of government.")
ART. 110. The States shall have
the power to fix among themselves,
by friendly agreements, their re-
spective boundaries; but those
agreements shall not be carried
into effect without the approval of
the Congress of the Union.
ART. 111. The States can not in
any case:
I. Enter into alliances, treaties,
or coalitions with another State, or
with foreign powers. Coalitions
between frontier States for offen-
sive or defensive war against sav-
age Indians are excepted.

11. Grant letters of marque or
reprisal.
(III. Coin money, issue paper
money, or create stamped paper.b)
ART. 112. Neither can they,
without the consent of the Con-
gress of the Union:
I. Establish tonnage duties, or
any port duty, or impose taxes or
duties upon imports or exports.


II. Have at any time permanent
troops or vessels of war.


a Amended May 5, 1878, and October 21, 1887. See pages 83 and 90.
b Amended May 1, 1896. See page 90.








CONSTITUTION.


III. Hacer la guerra por si a
alguna potencia extranjera. Ex-
ceptianse los casos de invasion 6
de peligro tan inminente que no
admita demora. En estos casos
darin cuenta inmediatamente al
President de la Repiublica.
ART. 113. Cada Estado tiene
obligaci6n de entregar, sin de-
mora, los criminals de otros
Estados 6 la autoridad que los
reclame.
ART. 114. Los Gobernadores de
los Estados estdn obligados i pu-
blicar y hacer cumplir las leyes
federales.
Aur. 115. En cada Estado de la
Federaci6n so dara entera fe y
credito a los actos piblicos, regis-
tros y procedimientos judiciales
de todos los otros. El Congreso
puede, por medio do leyes genera-
les, prescribir la manera de pro
bar dichos actos, registros y proce-
dimientos y el efecto de ollos.
ART. 116. Los Poderes de la
Uni6n tienen el deber de protege
a los Estados contra toda invasion
6 violencia exterior. En caso de
sublevaci6n 6 trastorno interior les
prestarinigualprotecci6n,siempre
que scan excitados por la Legisla-
tura del Estado 6 por su Ejecutivo,
si aquella no estuviera reunida.

TiTUlLO Vi.
PREVENCIONES GENERALS.
ART. 117. Las facultades que no
est6n expresamente concedidas por
esta Constituci6n ~ los funciona-
rios federales, se entienden reser-
vadas i los Estados.
ART. 118. Ningiin individuo
puede desempefiar at la vez dos
cargos de la Uni6n de elecci6n
popular; pero el nombrado puede
clegir entire ambos el que quiera
desempefiar.
ART. 119. Ningfin pago podr4i
hacerse que no este comprendido
en el presupuesto 6 determinado
por ley posterior.


III. Make war by itself on any
foreign power, except in cases of
invasion or of such imminent peril
as to admit of no delay. In these
cases the State shall give notice
immediately to the President of
the Republic.
ART. 113. Each State is bound
to deliver without delay to the au-
thority which may claim them, the
fugitives from justice of other
States.
ART. 114. The governors of the
States are bound to publish and
enforce the Federal laws.

ART. 115. In each State of the
Federation entire faith and credit
shall be given to the public acts,
records, and judicial proceedings
of all the other St-it. -. The Con-
gress may, by means of general
laws, prescribe the manner of
proving said acts, records, and
proceedings, and the effect thereof.
ART. 116. The Federal Govern-
ment is bound to protect the
States against all invasion or ex-
ternal violence. In case of insur-
rection or internal disturbance it
shall give them the same protec-
tion, provided that the legislature
of the State, or the Executive, if
the legislature is not in session,
shall request it.
TITLE VI.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
ART. 117. The powers which
are not expressly granted by this
Constitution to the Federal au-
thorities are understood to be re-
served to the States.
ART. 118. No person shall hold
at the same time two Federal elec-
tive offices; but if elected to two,
he may choose the one which he
may prefer.

ART. 119. No payment shall be
made which is not included in the
budget or authorized by a law
subsequent to the same.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ART. 120. El Presidente do la
Republica, los individuos de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia, los
Diputados y demris funcionarios
publicos de la Federaci6n, de nom-
bramiento popular, recibiran una
compensaci6n por sus servicios,
quo sera determinada por la ley y
pagada por el tesoro federal. Esta
compensaci6n no es renunciable, y
la ley quo la aumente 6 disminuya
no podr6 tener efecto durante el
period en que un funcionario
ejerce el cargo.
(ART. 121. Todo funcionario p6-
blico, sin excepei6n alguna, antes
do tomar posesi6n de su encargo
prestard juramento de guardar esta
Constituci6n y las leyes quo de
ella emanen.a)
ART. 122. En tiempo de paz
ninguna autoridad military puede
ejercer mris funciones que las que
tengan exacta conexi6n con la dis-
ciplina military. Solamente habri
comandancias militares fijas y per-
manentes en los castillos, fortale-
zas y almacenes que dependan in-
mediatamente del Gobierno de la
Uni6n, 6 en los campamentos, cuar-
teles 6 dep6sitos que, fuera de las
poblaciones, estableciere para la
estaci6n de las tropas.
ART. 123. Corresponde exclusi-
vamente a los Poderes federales
ejercer, en materials de culto re-
ligioso y discipline externa, la in-
tervenci6n que designed las leyes.

(ART. 124. Para el dia primero
de Junio do mil ochocientos cin-
cuenta y ocho quedarin abolidas
las alcabalas y aduanas interiores
en toda la Repiblica.b)
ART. 125. Estarin bajo la in-
mediata inspecci6n de los Poderes
federales, los fuertes, cuarteles,
almacenes de dep6sitos v demas
edificios necesarios al Gobierno de
la Uni6n.
ART. 126. Esta Constituci6n, las
leyes del Congreso de la Uni6n


ART. 120. The President of the
Republic, the justices of the su-
preme court, the members of Con-
gress, and all other public officers
of the Federation, who are chosen
by popular election, shall receive
a compensation for their services,
which shall be determined by law
and paid by the Federal treasury.
This compensation can not be
waived, and any law which may in-
crease or decrease it shall not have
effect during the period for which
a functionary holds the office.
(ART. 121. Every public officer,
without any exception, before en-
tering on the discharge of his du-
ties, shall take an oath to maintain
this Constitution and the laws
emanating from it.")
ART. 122. In time of peace no
military authority shall exercise
other functions than those having
close connection with military dis-
cipline. No fixed and permanent
military offices shall be established
except in castles, fortresses, and
arsenals depending immediately
upon the government of the
Union, or in camps, barracks, or
depots established outside of towns
for stationing troops.

ART. 123. The Federal authori-
ties shall have exclusive power to
exercise, in matters of religious
worship and external ecclesiastic
discipline, the intervention which
the laws may authorize.
(ART. 124. On and after the first
of June, eighteen hundred and
fifty-eight, the alcabala taxes, and
the interior custom-houses shall be
abolished in the whole Republic. b)
ART. 125. The forts, barracks,
arsenals, and all other edifices nec-
essary to the government of the
Union shall be under the immedi-
ate inspection of the Federal au-
thorities.
A RT. 126. This Constitution, the
laws of the Congress of the Union


a Amended September 25, 1873. See page 71.
b Amended May 17, 1882, November 25, 1884, November 22, 1886, and May 1, 1896.
See pages 83, 88, 89, and 96.








CONSTITUTION.


quo emanen do ella y todos los
tratados hechos 6 quo se hicieren
por el Presidente de la Reptiblica
con aprobaci6n del Congreso,
serin la ley supreme do toda la
Uni6n. Los juices de cada Estado
se arreglarin a dicha Constituci6n,
leyes y tratados, a pesar de las
disposiciones en contrario que
pueda haber en las Constituciones
6 leyes de los Estados.

TITULO VII.


emanating therefrom, and all the
treaties made or to be made by the
President of the Republic, with
the approval of Congress, shall be
the supreme law of the whole
Union. The judges of each State
shall be guided by said Constitu-
tion, laws, and treaties, any pro-
vision to the contrary in the con-
stitutions or laws of the States
notwithstanding.

TITLE VII.


DE LA REFORM DE LA CONSTI- AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITU-
TUCION. TION.


ART. 127. La present Consti-
tuci6n puede ser adicionada 6 re-
formada. Para que las adiciones
6 reforms lleguen a ser parte do
la Constituci6n, se require que el
Congress do la Uni6n, por el voto
de las dos terceras parties do sus
individuos presents, acuerde las
reforms 6 adiciones, y que 4stas
scan aprobados por la mayoria de
las Legislaturas de los Estados.
El Congress de la Uni6n harA el
c6mputo de los votos de las Legis-
laturas y la declaraci6n do haber
sido aprobadas las adiciones 6 re-
formas.
TITULO VIII.
DE LA INVIOLABILIDAD DE LA
CONSTITUTION.

ART. 128. Esta Constituci6n no
perdera su fuerza y vigor, aun
cuando por alguna rebeli6n so in-
terrumpa su observancia. En caso
de que por un trastorno pdblico se
establezca un gobierno contrario 4
los principios q.ue ella sanciona,
tan luego como el pueblo recobre
su libertad se restablecer, su obser-
vancia, y con arreglo a ella y a las
leyes queo en su virtud se hubiesen
expedido, seran juzgados, asi los
que hubieren figurado en el go-
bierno emanado de la rebeli6n,
como los que hubieren cooperado
6a sta.


ART. 127. The present Consti-
tution may be amended. No
amendment shall become part of
the Constitution, if not agreed
upon by the Congress of the
Union, by a vote of two-thirds of
the members present, and approved
by a majority of the legislatures
of the States. The Congress of
the Union shall count the votes
of the legislatures and make the
declaration that the amendments
have been adopted.



TITLE VIII.
INVIOLABILITY OF THE CONSTI-
TUTION.

ART. 128. This Constitution shall
not lose its force and vigor even if
its observance is interrupted by a
rebellion. In case that by any pub-
lic disturbance a government con-
trary to the principles which it
sanctions is established, its efficien-
cy shall be restored as soon as the
people regain their liberty, and
those who shall have figured in
the government emanating from
the rebellion, or have cooperated
with it, shall be tried in accordance
with its provisions, and the pro-
visions of the laws emanating
from it.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ARTICULO TRANSITORIO.
Esta Constituci6n se publicarA
desde luego y seran jurada con la
mayor solemnidad en toda la Re-
pfilica; pero con excepci6n de las
disposiciones relatives i las elec-
ciones de los Supremos Poderes
federales y de los Estados, no
comenzaral a regir hasta el dia die-
ciseis de Septiembre pr6ximo veni-
dero, en que debe instalarse el
primer Congreso constitutional.
Desde entonces el Presidente de la
Repfblica y la Suprema Corte de
Justicia, que deben continuar en
ejercicio hasta que tomen posesi6n
los individuos electos constitu-
cionalmente, se arreglarAn, en el
desempefio de sus obligaciones y
facultades, a los preceptos de la
Constituci6n.

Dada en el sal6n de sesiones del
Congress, en Mexico, i cinco de
Febrero de mil ochocientos cin-
cuenta v siete, trig4simo-septimo
de ia independencia.


TRANSIENT PROVISION.
The present Constitution shall
be published at once and sworn
to with the greatest solemnity
throughout the whole Republic;
but its provisions, except those
relating to the election of the
supreme powers, Federal and
State, shall not go into effect until
the sixteenth of September next,
when the First Congress, under
the Constitution, shall meet. On
and after that date the President
of the Republic and the justices
of the supreme court, who shall
continue in the exercise of their
functions until their successors
are constitutionally elected and
enter into the discharge of their
duties, shall act in strict accord-
ance with the provisions of this
Constitution.
Given at the Hall of sessions of
Congress in the City of Mexico
on the fifth of February, eighteen
hundred and fifty-seven, the thirty-
seventh of the Independence.


AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


LEY DE SEPTIEMBRE 25 DE 1873.
El Congress de los Estados
Unidos Mexicanos, en ejercicio
de la facultad, que le concede el
artfculo 127 de la Constituci6n
political promulgada el doce de
Febrero de mil ochocientos cin-
cuenta y siete, y previa la aproba-
ci6n de la mayoria de las Legisla-
turas do la Reptblica, declare:
Son adiciones y reforms a la
misma Constitucion:

ARTICULO 10. El Estado v la
Iglesia son independientes entire
si. El Congreso no puede dictar
leaves estableciendo 6 prohibiendo
religion alguna.


LAW OF SEPTEMBER 25, 1873.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of the
power vested in it by article 127
of the Political Constitution pro-
mulgated on February twelfth,
eighteen hundred and fifty-seven,
and having obtained the approval
of a majority of the State legisla-
tures, does hereby decree:
That the Constitution of the
Republic be amended by adding
to it the following:
ARTICLE 1. The church and the
state are independent of each
other. Congress shall not enact
laws establishing or forbidding
any religion.







AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


ART. 2. El matrimonio es un
contrato civil. Este y los demis
actos del estado civil de las per-
sonas, son de la exclusive com-
petencia de los funcionarios y
autoridades del orden civil, en los
t6rminos prevenidos porlas leyes,
y tendran la fuerza y validez que
las mismas les atribuyan.
ART. 3. Ninguna instituci6n
religiosa puedo adquirir bienes
races, ni capitals impuestos sobre
estos, con la sola excepci6n esta-
blecida en el articulo 27 de la
Constituci6n.
ART. 4. La simple promesa de
decir verdad y de cumplir las obli-
gaciones que secontraen, sustituirni
al juramento religioso con sus
efectos y penas.
ART. 5. Nadie puede ser obli-
gado a prestar trabajos personales
sin la just retribuci6n y sin su
pleno consentimiento. El Estado
no puede permitir que sC lieve at
efecto ningt'n contrato, pacto 6
convenio quo tenga por objeto el
menoscabo, la perdida 6 el irrevo-
cable sacrificio de la libertad del
hombre, ya sea porcausa de trabajo,
de educaci6n 6 de voto religioso.
La ley, en consecuencia, no recono-
ce 6rdenes monisticas, ni puede
permitir su establecimiento, cual-
quiera quo sea la denominaci6n fi
objeto con que pretendan crigirse.
Tampoco puede admitirse con-
venio en que el hombre pacte su
proscripci6n 6 destierro.

,i.'. .'i, '... Las anteriores adi-
ciones y reforms a la Constitu-
ci6n seran publicadas desde luego
con la mayor solemnidad en toda
la Reptblica.
Palacio del Congresode la Uni6n.
Mixico, Septiembre veinticinco de
mil ochocientos setenta y tres.

II.
LEY DE NOVIEMBRE 13 DE 1874.


ART. 2. Marriage is a civil con-
tract. Marriage and all other acts
relating to the civil state of per-
sons shall fall exclusively within
the jurisdiction of the civil au-
thorities in the manner and form
provided by law, and they shall
have the force and validity given
to them by said laws.
ART. 3. No religious institu-
tions can acquire real estate or
capital secured by mortgage on
the same, except only in the case
set forth in article 27 of the Con-
stitution.
ART. 4. A simple promise to tell
the truth and to comply with obli-
gations entered into, shall take the
place of the religious oath with all
its effects and penalties.
ART. 5. No one shall be com-
pelled to do personal work with-
out just compensation and without
his full consent. The State shall
not permit any contract, covenant,
or agreement to be carried out,
having for its object the abridg-
ment, loss, or irrevocable sacrifice
of the liberty of man, whether
by reason of labor, education, or
religious vows. The law, there-
fore, does not recognize monastic
orders, nor can it allow them to
be established, whatever the de-
nomination or object may be with
which they may attempt to come
into existence. Nor shall any com-
pact be tolerated in which man
agrees to his own proscription or
exile.
Transient Article. The fore-
going amendments to the Constitu-
tion shall be published at once with
the greatest -solemnity throughout
the Republic.
Palace of Congress, Mexico,
September twenty-fifth, eighteen
hundred and seventy-three.

II.
LAW OF NOVEMBER 13, 18.74.


El Congress de la Uni6n, en The Congress of the Union, in
ejercicio de la facultad que le con- exercise of the power vested in it by


71







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


cede el artfculo 127 de la Consti-
tucion federal, declara estar apro-
badas por la mayoria de las Legis-
laturas de los Estados y ser parte
de la misma Constituci6n, las re-
formas que a continuaci6n se
expresan. Estas reforms comen-
zarin i regir el dieciseis de Sep-
tiembre del afio pr6ximo do mil
ochocientos setenta y cinco.
TITULO III.

SECCION I.

Del Poder Legislativo.

ART. 51. El Poder Legislativo
de la Naci6n so deposit en un
Congreso general, que so dividir4
en dos Camaras, una de Diputados
y otra de Senadores.
PA nAFO I.
De la elecci6n 6 instalaci6n del Congreso.

ART. 52. La Cimara de Diputa-
dos se compondri de representan-
tes de la Nacion, electos en su
totalidad cada dos aiios, por los
ciudadanos mexicanos.
ART. 57. Los cargos de Diputado
y de Senador son incompatible con
cualquiera comisi6n 6 empleo de la
Uni6n por el que se disfrute sueldo.
ART. 58. Los Diputados y Sena-
dores propietarios, desde el dia de
su elecci6n hasta el dfa en que
concluya su encargo, no pueden
adoptar ninguna comisi6n ni em-
pleo de nombramiento del Ejecu-
tivo federal, por el cual se disfrute
sueldo, sin previa licencia de su
respective Ctmara. El mismo re-
quisito es necesario para los Dipu-
tados y Senadores suplentes en
ejercicio.
A. El Senado se compondri de
dos Senadores por cada Estado y
dos por el Distrito Federal. La
election de Senadores sera indi-
recta en primer grado. La Legis-


article 127 of the Federal Consti-
tution, declares the following
amendments to have been approved
by a majority of the State legisla-
tures and be a part of the said
constitution. They shall go into
effect on September sixteenth,
eighteen hundred and seventy-five.


TITLE III.

SECTION I.

Legislative power.

ART. 51. The legislative power
of the nation is vested in a gen-
eral Congress which shall consist
of a Chamber of Deputies and a
Senate.

PARAGRAPH I.
Election and meeting of Congress.

ART. 52. The Chamber of Depu-
ties shall consist of representatives
of the nation elected by the Mexi-
can citizens every two years.

ART. 57. The positions of Dep-
uty and senator are incompatible
with any other salaried commission
or employment by the Union.
ART. 58. Deputies and senators
are disqualified, from the day of
their election until the day on
which their term expires, from
accepting from the Federal Exec-
utive without previous permission
of their respective Chamber any
salaried position. The same pro-
vision is applicable to substitutes,
when in active service.


A. The Senate shall consist of
two senators for each State and
two for the Federal District. The
election of senators shall be indi-
rect in the first degree. The leg-







AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


latura de cada Estado declarard
electo al que hubiere obtenido la
mayoria absolute do los votos emi-
tidos, 6 elegir6 entire los que hu-
bieren obtenido mayoria relative,
en los t6rminos que disponga la
ley electoral. Por cada Senador
propietario se elegira un suplente.

B. El Senado so renovara por
mitad cada dos afios. Los Sena-
dores nombrados en segundo lugar
cesarAn al fin del primer bienio, y
en lo sucesivo los mAs antiguos.


C. Para ser Senador se requie-
ren las mismas calidades que para
ser Diputado, except lade la edad,
que sera la de treinta afios cumpli-
dos el dia de la apertura de las
sesiones.

ART. 59. Los Diputados y Se-
nadores son inviolables por sus
opinions manifestadas en el de-
sempe0io de sus encargos, y jamais
podran ser reconvenidos por ellas.
AiT. 60. Cada Camara califica
las elecciones de sus miembros y
resuelve las dudas que hubiere
sobre ellas.
ART. 61. Las Camaras no pue-
den abrir sus sesiones ni ejercer
su encargo sin la concurrencia, en
la de Senadores, do las dos terceras
parties, y en la de Diputados de
mas do la mitad del numero total
do sus miembros; pero los pre-
sentes do una y otra deberan re-
unirse el dia sefialado por la ley y
compeler a los ausentes bajo las
penas que la misma ley design.

ART. 62. El Congreso tendr6
cada afio dos periods do sesiones
ordinarias: el primero, prorroga-
ble hasta por treinta dias litiles,
comenzara el dia dieciseis de Sep-
tiembre y terminari el dia quince
de Diciembre; y el segundo, pro-


islature of each State shall declare
elected the one who has obtained
absolute majority of the votes
cast, or shall choose in the manner
provided by the electoral law from
among those who obtained relative
majority. Each senator shall have
a substitute, to be elected in the
same manner.
B. The Senate shall be renewed
by half every two years. Sena-
tors occupying the second place in
the representation of each State,
shall vacate their seats at the end
of the first two years. After the
second year the withdrawal shall
be according to seniority.
C. The qualifications necessary
to be a senator are the same as
those necessary to be a Deputy,
except as to the age, which in the
case of a senator shall be at least
thirty years on the day of the
opening of the session.
ART. 59. Deputies and senators
are inviolable for the opinions ex-
pressed by them in the fulfillment
of their duties and shall never be
called to account for them.
ART. 60. Each Chamber shall be
the judge of the election of its
members, and shall decide all
questions arising therefrom.
ART. 61. The Chambers shall not
begin their sessions or exercise
their functions without a quorum,
in the Senate of two-thirds, and in
the chamber of Deputies of more
than one-half of the total number
of its members; but the members
present of either Chamber shall
meet on the appointed day and
compel through the proper penal-
ties the attendance of the absen-
tees.
ART. 62. Congress shall hold
two ordinary sessions each year;
the first one shall begin on the six-
teenth of September and end on
the fifteenth of December; but this
period may be extended for thirty
days. The second shall begin on the








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


rrogable hasta por quince dias
fitiles, comenzarai el primero de
Abril y terminara el filtimo dia del
mes de Mayo.
AnT. 64. Toda resoluci6n del
Congress tendril el caricter do ley
6 de decreto. Las leyes y decre-
tos se comunicaran al Ejecutivo
firniados por los Presidentes de
ambas Caimaras y por un Secreta-
rio de cada una de ellas, y se pro-
mulgarain en esta forma: "El Con-
greso de los Estados Unidos Me-
xicanos, decreta:" (texto de la ley
4 decreto).
PRRRAFO II.
De la iniciativa y formaci6n de las leyes.
ART. 65. El derecho de iniciar
leyes 6 decretos compete:
I. Al Presidente do la Uni6n.

II. A los Diputados y Senadores
al Congress general.
III. ] las Legislaturas do los
Estados.
ART. 66. Las iniciativas presen-
tadas por el Presidente de la Re-
pfiblica, por las Legislaturas de
los Estados 6 por las diputaciones
de los mismos, pasardn desde luego
a comisi6n. Las que presentaren
los Diputados 6 Senadores se suje-
tarain a los trAimites que design el
Reglaniento de debates.
ART. 67. Todo proyecto de ley
6 de decreto que fuere desechado
en la Caimara de su origen, antes de
pasar a la revisora, no podri volver
a presentarse en las sesiones del
aio.
ART. 69. El dia penfiltimo del
primer period de sesiones presen-
tari el Ejecutivo a la Caimara de
Diputados el proyecto de presu-
puestos del afno pr6ximo siguiento
y las cuentas del anterior. Estas
y aquel pasarain i una comisi6n de
cinco representantes, nombrada en
el mismo dia, la cual tendrai obli-
gaci6n de examiner dichos docu-
mentos y presentar dictamen sobre
ellos en la segunda sesi6n del se-
gundo period.


first of April and end on the last
day of May, but may be extended
for fifteen days.

ART. 64. The action of Congress
shall be in the form of either laws
or resolutions, which shall be com-
municated to the Executive after
having been signed by the presi-
dents of both Chambers and by one
of the secretaries of each. When
promulgated, the enacting clause
shall be: "The Congress of the
United Mexican States decrees,"
etc.
PARAGRAPH II.
Origin and enactment of laws.
ART. 65. The right to originate
legislation belongs:
1. To the President of the
Union.
2. To the Deputies and senators
in the general Congress.
3. To the State legislatures.

ART. 66. Bills or resolutions in-
introduced by the President of the
Republic, by the State legislatures
or delegations thereof, shall be at
once referred to a committee.
Those introduced by Deputies or
senators shall be subject to the re-
quirements of the Rules of debate.

ART. 67. No bill or resolution
rejected in the Chamber of origin
before passing to the other Cham-
ber shall be reintroduced during
the sessions of that year.

ART. 69. The Executive shall
transmit to the Chamber of Depu-
ties, on the eve of the last day of
the session, the accounts of the
year and the Budget for the next.
Thev shall be referred to a special
committee, which shall be ap-
pointed that day, consisting of five
members, whose duty it shall be to
examine both documents and re-
port thereon at the second meeting
of the second period.








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


ART. 70. La formaci6n de las
leyes y de los decretos puede
comenzar indistintamente en cual-
quiera de las dos Cimaras, con
excepci6n de los proyectos que
versaren sobre empr6stitos, con-
tribuciones 6 impuestos, 6 sobre
reelutamiento do tropas, todos los
cuales debeorn discutirse primero
en la C{amara de Diputados.
ART. 71. Todo proyecto de ley
6 de decreto cuya resoluci6n no
sea exclusive de una de las Cama-
ras, se discutiri sucesivamente en
ambas, observandose el Regla-
mento de debates sobre la forma,
intervalos y modo de proceder en
las discusiones y votacioncs.
A. Aprobado un proyecto en la
Camara de su origen, pasar4 para
su discussion a la otra Camara. Si
esta lo aprobare, se remitira al
Ejecutivo, quien, si no tuviere
observaciones que hacer, lo publi-
cara inmnediatamente.

B. So reputara aprobado por el
Poder Ejecutivo todo proyecto no
devuelto con observaciones i la
Camara do su origen dentro do
diez dias tiles, 6 no ser que co-
rriendo este t6rmino hubiere el
Congress cerrado 6 suspendido sus
sesiones, en cuyo caso la devolu-
ci6n debera hacerse el primer dia
fitil en que estuviere reunido.
C. El proyecto de ley 6 de de-
creto desechado en todo 6 en part
por el Ejecutivo, debert ser do-
vuelto con sus observaciones 6 la
C4imara de su origen. Debera ser
discutido de nuevo por 6sta, y si
fuere confirmado por mavoria
absolute do votos, pasara otra vez
a la Camara revisora. Si por esta
fuere sancionado con la mi ma
mayoria, el provecto es ley 6 de-
creto y volvera al Ejecutivo para
su promulgaci6n. Las votaciones
de ley 6 do decreto scrin nomi-
nales.


ART. 70. Bills and resolutions
may be introduced indiscrimi-
nately either in the House or in the
Senate; but those providing for
loans, taxes, or recruiting of troops
shall be first discussed in the Cham-
ber of Deputies.


ART. 71. Bills and resolutions
requiring the action of both Cham-
bers shall be discussed first by one
and then by the other, according to
the Rules, and in the manner and
form provided for this purpose.


A. Bills and resolutions passed
in the Chamber of origin shall be
sent to the other Chamber. If
passed by the latter they shall be
forwarded to the Executive, which,
if having no objection to them,
shall cause them to be immediately
published.
B. Bills and resolutions not re-
turned by the Executive to the
Chamber of origin within ten
working days shall be considered
approved, unless during the said
ten days Congress has adjourned,
in which case they shall be re-
turned on the first working day
of the next session.

C. Bills and resolutions rejected
wholly or in part by the Executive
shall be returned with the objec-
tions thereto to the Chamber of ori-
gin. They shall be discussed anew
by the latter, and if passed by abso-
lute majority of votes shall be sent
to the other. If approved by it,
also by absolute majority, the bill
or resolution becomes a law, and
shall be sent to the Executive for
its promulgation. In such cases
the votes in both Chambers shall
beby yeas and nays, and the names
of the persons voting for or against
the bill shall be entered on the jour-
nal of each chamber, respectively.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


D. Si alg6n proyecto de ley 6
do decreto fuere desechado en su
totalidad por la Cdmara do revi-
si6n, volvera 6 la de su origen con
las observaciones quo aqu(lla le
hubiere hecho. Si examinado do
nuevo fuere aprobado por la ma-
yoria absolute do los miembros pre-
sentes, volvera a la Camara que lo
desech6, la cual lo tomara otra vez
en consideraci6n, y si lo aprobase
por la misma mayoria, pasard al
Ejecutivo para los efectos de la
fracci6n A; pero si lo reprobase
no podra volver 6 presentarse
hasta las sesiones siguientes.
E. Si un provecto de ley 6 de
decreto fuere s6lo desechado en
part, 6 modificado 6 adicionado
por la Camara revisora, la nueva
discusi6n en la Camara de su ori-
gen versara fnicamente sobre lo
desechado 6 sobre las reforms 6
adiciones, sin poderse alterar en
manera alguna los articulos apro-
bados. Si las adiciones 6 reforms
hechas por la Camara revisora
fueren aprobadas por la mayoria
absolute de los votos presents on
la Camara de su origen, so pasara
todo el proyecto al Ejecutivo para
los efectos de la fracci6n A. Pero
si las adiciones 6 reforms hechas
por la Camara revisora fueren de-
sechadas por la mayoria de votos
on la Cimara de su origen, vol-
veran A aqudlla para que tome en
consideraci6n las razones de 4sta;
y si por la mayoria absolute do los
votos presents se desecharen en
esta segunda revision dichas adi-
clones 6 reforms, el proyecto, en
lo que haya sido aprobado por
ambas Camaras, so pasar6 al Eje-
cutivo para los efectos de la frac-
ci6n A; mas si la Camara revisora
insistiere por la mayoria absolute
de votos presents en dichas adi-
ciones 6 reforms, todo el provecto
no podrn volver i presentarse sino
hasta las sesiones siguientes, A no
ser que ambas Camaras acuerden,
por la mayoria absolute do sus
miembros presents, que so expida


D. Bills or resolutions totally
rejected by the Chamberof revision
shall be returned with the proper
remarks to the Chamber of origin.
If examined anew and approved
by absolute majority of the mem-
bers present, they shall be returned
to the Chamber of revision, which
shall again consider them, and if
approved by it, also by absolute
majority, they shall be sent to the
Executive for the purposes of
clause A; but if rejected they shall
not be reintroduced until the next
Congress.

E. Bills or resolutions rejected
only in part or amended by the
Chamber of revision shall be dis-
cussed anew in the Chamber of
origin, but the discussion shall be
exclusively confined to the portion
rejected or to the amendments,
without the approved articles
being altered in any respect. If
the amendments made by the
Chamber of revision are approved
by absolute majority of votes in
the Chamberof origin, the billshall
be transmitted to the Executive for
the purposes of clause A. But
if the amendments made by the
Chamber of revision are rejected by
majority of votes in the Chamber
of origin, they shall be returned
to the former in order that the
reasons set forth by the latter may
be taken into consideration. If in
this second revision the said amend-
ments are rejected by absolute
majority of the members present,
the portion of the bill which has
been approved by both Chambers
shall be sent to the Executive for
the purposes of clause A. If the
Chamber of revision insists byabso-
lute majority of votes of the mem-
bers present upon the amend-
ments, no action shall be taken
upon the whole bill until the next
Congress, unless both Chambers
agree by absolute majority of the
members present to the promulga-
tion of the law or resolution with-








AMENDMENTS T(


la ley 6 decreto s6lo con los arti-
culos aprobados, y que se reserve
los adicionados o reformados para
su examen y votaci6n en las sesio-
nes siguientes.
F. En la interpretaci6n, reform
6 derogaci6n de las leyes 6 decre-
tos, se observarin los mismos
trdmites establecidos para su for-
macion.
G. Ambas Cimaras residirin en
un mismo lugar, y no podrin
trasladarse a otro sin que antes
convengan en la traslacion y en el
tiempo y modo de verificarla, de-
signando un mismo punto para la
reunion de ambas. Pero si con-
viniendo las dos en la traslaci6n
difieren en cuanto al tiempo, modo
6 lugar, el Ejecutivo terminari la
diferencia, eligiendo uno de los
extremos en cuesti6n. Ninguna
Cdmara podra suspender sus se-
siones por mais de tres dias sin
consentimiento de la otra.

H. Cuando el Congreso general
se reuna en sesiones extraordina-
rias, se ocupari exclusivamente
del objeto fi objetos designados en
la convocatoria; y si no los hubiere
Ilenado el dia en que deban abrirse
las sesiones ordinarias, cerrara sin
embargo aqu6llas, dejando los pun-
tos pendientes para ser tratados
en 6stas.

El Ejecutivo de la Uni6n no
puede hacer observaciones i las
resoluciones del Congreso, cuando
6ste prorrogue sus sesiones 6
ejerza funciones de cuerpo electo-
ral 6 de jurado.
PARRAFO III.
De las facultades del Congreso general.
ART. 72. El Congreso tiene fa-
cultad:
III. Para former nuevos Estados
dentro de los limits de los existen-
tes, siendo necesario al efecto:

1. Que la fraccion 6 fracciones
que pidan erigirse en Estado cuen-


O CONSTITUTION. 77

out the articles objected to, which
shall be left for further discussion
in the following session.


F. The same formalities re-
quired for the enactment of laws
shall be observed for their inter-
pretation, amendment, or repeal.

G. Both Chambers shall hold
their meetings at the same place,
and shall not move to another with-
out first having agreed upon the
moving and the time and manner
of accomplishing it, as well as upon
the place of meeting which shall be
the same for both Chambers. If
both Chambers agree to change
their meeting place, but disagree
as to the time, manner, or locality,
the Executive shall settle the ques-
tion by choosing between both
votes. Neither Chamber shall ad-
journ for more than three days
without the consent of the other.
H. When Congress meets in ex-
tra session it shall deal exclusively
with the matter or matters speci-
fied in the call. If the object of
the extra session has not been
accomplished at the time in which
the ordinary session begins, there
shall be, nevertheless, a formal
closing of the extra session, and
the unfinished business shall be
taken up and discussed in the ordi-
nary session.
The Executive of the Union shall
not make objections to the reso-
lutions of Congress providing for
an adjournment of its sessions, or
passed by it when sitting as an
electoral body or a court.
PARAGRAPH III.
Powers of the general Congress.
ART. 72. Congress shall have
power:
SII. To form new States within
the limits of the existing ones, if
the following requisites are com-
plied with:
1. That the section aspiring to
be erected into a State has a popu-








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ten con una poblaci6n de ciento
veinte mil habitantes por lo menos.
2. Que se compruebe ante el
Congress que tienen los elements
bastantes para proveer a su exis-
tencia political.
3. Que sean oidas las Legisla-
turas do los Estados de cuyo terri-
torio so trate, sobre la conveniencia
6 inconveniencia de la erecci6n del
nuevo Estado, quedando obligados
a dar su informed dentro de seis
meses, contados desde el dia en
que so les remita la comunicaci6n
relative.
4. Que igualmente se oiga al
Ejecutivo de la Federaci6n, el cual
enviarA su informed dentro de site
dias, contados desde la fecha en
que le sea pedido.
5. Que sea votada la erecci6n
del nuevo Estado por dos tercios
de los Diputados y Senadores pre-
sentes en sus respectivas Camaras.

6. Que la rcsoluci6n del Con-
greso sea ratificada por la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Esta-
dos, con vista de la copia del expe-
diente, siempre que hayan dado su
consentimiento las Legislaturas do
los Estados, do cuyo territorio se
trate.

7. Si las Legislaturas de los
Estados, de cuyo territorio se
trate, no hubieren dado su con-
sentimiento, la ratificaci6n do que
habla la fracci6n anterior deberi
ser hecha por los dos tercios de
las Legislaturas de los demas
Estados.
A. Son facultades exclusivas de
la Camara de Diputados:

I. Erigirse en colegio electoral
para ejercer las facultades que la
ley le sefiale, respect al nombra-
miento de Presidente constitucio-
nal do la Repiblica, Magistrados
de la Suprema Corte y Senadores
por el Distrito Federal.
II. Calificar y decidir sobre las
renuncias que hagan el Presidente
de la Reptiblica 6 los Magistrados


lation of at least one hundred and
twenty thousand inhabitants.
2. That proof is given to Con-
gress that it has sufficient elements
to provide for its political exist-
ence.
3. That the legislatures of the
States affected by the erection of
the new one, express their opinion
on the advisability, or inadvis-
ability of said erection, this opin-
ion to be given within six months
after the date of the communica-
tion addressed to them for that
purpose.
4. That the opinion of the Fed-
eral Executive be also heard on
the subject, said opinion to be
given within seven days after the
date on which it was asked.
5. That the erection of the new
State be voted upon favorably by
two-thirds of the representatives
and senators present in their re-
spective Chambers.
6. That the resolution of Con-
gress be ratified by a majority of
the state legislatures, upon exam-
ination of the copy of the record
of the case which shall be sent to
them, provided that the legisla-
tures of the States to which the sec-
tion belongs have given their con-
sent.
7. If the legislatures of the
States to which the section be-
longs have not given their consent,
the ratification referred to in the
foregoing clause shall be made by
two-thirds of the legislatures of
the other States.

A. The following are exclusive
powers of the Chamber of Dupu-
ties:
I. To resolve itself into an elec-
toral college to exercise the power
given it by law regarding the ap-
pointments of constitutional Pres-
ident of the Republic, justices of
the supreme court and senators
for the Federal District.
II. To pass upon the resignations
of the President of the Republic
and of the justices of the supreme








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


de la Suprema Corte de Justicia.
Igual atribuci6n le compete tra-
tandose de licencias solicitadas por
el primero.
III. Vigilar, p6r medio do una
Comisi6n inspector de su seno, el
exacto desempefio de las funciones
de la Contaduria Mayor.

IV. Nombrar a los jefes y demas
empleados de la misma.
V. Erigirse en jurado do acusa-
ci6n para los altos funcionarios de
que trata el articulo 103 de la Cons-
tituci6n.

VI. Examinar la cuenta que
anualmente debe presentar el
Ejecutivo, aprobar el presupuesto
annual de gastos 6 iniciar las contri-
buciones que 4 su juicio deban
decretarse para cubrir aqu6l.
B. Son facultades exclusivas del
Senado:
I. Aprobar los tratados y con-
venciones diplomaticas que celebre
el Ejecutivo con las potencias ex-
tranjeras.
II. Ratificar los nombramientos
que cl Presidente do la Reptiblica
haga do Ministros, Agentes diplo-
maticos, C6nsules generals, em-
pleados superiores de Hacienda,
Coroneles y demas jefes superiores
del Ejdrcito y Armada national, en
los t6rminos que la ley disponga.
III. Autorizar al Ejecutivo para
que pueda permitir la salida do
tropas nacionales fuera de los
limites do la Reptiblica, el paso de
tropas extranjeras por el territorio
national, y la estacion do escuadras
do otra potencia, por mas de un
mes, en las aguas de la Republica.

IV. Dar su consentimiento para
quC el Ejecutivo pueda disponer
de la guardia national fuera de sus
respectivos Estados 6 territories,
fijando la fuerza necesaria.

V. Declarar, cuandohayandesa-
parecido los Poderes constitucio-
nales Legislativos y Ejecutivo de
un Estado, que es llegado el caso


court, and to grant or refuse the
leaves of absence requested by the
President.

III. To watch, by means of a
special committee, over the faith-
ful compliance by the comptroller
of the treasury with the duties of
his office.
IV. To appoint all the em-
ployees of the comptroller's office.
V. To resolve itself into a grand
jury and formulate articles of im-
peachment against the high func-
tionaries mentioned in article 103
of the Constitution.
VI. To examine the accounts to
be rendered yearly by the Execu-
tive, approve the annual Budget,
and originate taxation for the pur-
pose of meeting the expenses of
the Government.
B. The following are exclusive
powers of the Senate:
I. To approve the treaties and
conventions concluded by the Ex-
ecutive with foreign powers.

II. To confirm the nominations
made by the President of the Re-
public, of diplomatic ministers or
agents, consuls-general, superior
officers of the treasury, colonels
and superior officers of the army
and navy, in the manner and form
established by law.
III. To authorize the Execu-
tive to allow national troops to go
beyond the limits of the Republic,
or permit foreign troops to pass
through the national territory, and
to consent to the presence of fleets
of another nation for more than
one month in the waters of the
Republic.
IV. To consent to the Execu-
tive disposing of the national
guard outside of the limits of its
respective States or Territories,
and fix the amount of the force to
be used.
V. To declare, when the consti-
tutional, legislative, and executive
powers of any State have disap-
peared, that the moment has ar-








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


do nombrarle un Gobernador pro-
visional, quien convocarA A elec-
ciones conform a las loyes consti-
tucionales del mismo Estado. El
nombramiento do Gobernador se
hard por el .Ejecutivo federal con
aprobaci6n del Senado, y en los
recesos con la de la Comisi6n per-
manente. Dicho funcionario no
podri ser electo Gobernador cons-
titucional en las elecciones que so
verifiquen en virtud de la convo-
catoria que el1 expidiere.
VI. Resolver las cuestiones po-
liticas que surjan entire los Poderes
de un Estado, cuando alguno de
ellos ocurra con ese fin al Senado,
6 cuando con motivo do dichas
cuestiones so haya interrumpido
el orden constitutional, mediando
un conflict de armas. En este
caso el Senado dictari su resolu-
ci6n, sujetandose a la Constitu-
ci6n general de la Repufblica y a
la del Estado.
La ley reglamentara el ejercicio
de esa facultad y el do la anterior.

VII. Erigirse en jurado de sen-
tencia, conform al articulo 105
de la Constituci6n.
C. Cada una de las Cimaras
puede, sin la intervenci6n de la
otra:
I. Dictar resoluciones econ6mi-
cas relatives i su regimen interior.

II. Comunicarse entire si y con
el Ejecutivo de la Uni6n por medio
de comisiones de su seno.

IlI. Nombrar los empleados de
su Secretaria y hacer el Reglamento
interior de la misma.

IV. Expedir convocatoria para
elecciones extraordinarias, con el
fin de cubrir las vacantes de sus
respectivos miembros.
PARRAFO IV.
De la Diputaci6n permanent.


rived to give the said State a pro-
visional governor, who shall order
elections to be held according to
the constitutional law of the State.
The appointment of such governor
shall be made by the Federal Ex-
ecutive with the approval of the
Senate, or in its recess of the per-
manent committee. Thesaid func-
tionary shall not be eligible for the
position of constitutional governor
in the elections to be held under
the call issued by him.
VI. To decide any political ques-
tions which may arise between the
powers of a State, if any of them
applies to it. for that purpose, or
when the constitutional order has
been interrupted by an armed con-
flict in consequence of said ques-
tions. The decision of the Senate
shall be given in accordance with
the federal Constitution and that
of the State.

The exercise of the powers speci-
fied in this clause and the preced-
ing one shall be regulated by law.
VII. To resolve itself into a
court of impeachment, under arti-
cle 105 of the Constitution.
C. Each Chamber may without
intervention of the other:

1. Pass resolutions upon mat-
ters exclusively relating to its own
interior regime.
II. Communicate with each
other and with the Executive of
the Union, by means of commit-
tees appointed for that purpose.
III. Appoint the employees in
the office of its own secretary, and
make rules and regulations for the
same office.
IV. Issue a call for extraordi-
nary elections to fill the vacancies
which may have happened in it.

PARAGRAPH IV.
The permanent committee.


ART. 73. Durante los recesos del ART. 73. During the recesses of
Congress habra una Comisi6n per- Congress there shall be a perma-








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


manente, compuesta de veintinueve
miembros, de los que quince serdn
Diputados y catorce Senadores,
nombrados por sus respectivas
Cimaras la vispera de la clausura
de las sesiones.
ART. 74. Son atribuciones de la
Comisi6n permanent:
II. Acordarpor si, 6 apropuesta
del Ejecutivo, oyendolo en el pri-
mer caso, la convocatoria del Con-
greso, 6 do una sola Camara a
sesiones extraordinarias, siendo
necesario en ambos casos el voto
de los dos terceras parties de los
individuos presents. La convo-
catoria sefialard el objeto 4 objetos
do las sesiones extraordinarias.

ART. 103. Los Senadores, los
Diputados, los individuos de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia y los
Secretarios do despacho, son res-
ponsables por los delitos comunes
que cometan durante el tiempo de
su encargo, y por los delitos, faltas
u omisiones en que incurran en el
ejercicio do ese mismo encargo.
Los Gobernadores do los Estados
lo son igualmente por infracci6n do
la Constituci6n y leaves federales.
Lo es tambien el Presidente de la
Repdblica: pero durante el tiempo
de su encargo s6lopodr4 ser acusado
por delitos de traici6n a la patria,
violaci6n expresa de la Constitu-
ci6n, ataque 6 la libertad electoral
y delitos graves del orden comuin.
No gozan do fuero constitutional
los altos funcionarios de la Fede-
raci6n, por los delitos oficiales, fal-
tas 6 omisiones en que incurran en
el desempeifo do algin empleo,
cargo 6 comisi6n publica que hayan
aceptado durante el period en que,
conform d la ley, so disfruta de
aquel fuero. Lo mismo sucederd
con respect a los delitos comunes
que cometan durante el desempeilo
de dicho empleo, cargo 6 comisi6n.
Para que la causa pueda iniciarse
cuando el alto funcionario haya
vuelto a ejercer sus funciones pro-
360A-VOL 1-06-6


nent committee, consisting of
twenty-nine members, fifteen of
whom shall be representatives and
fourteen senators, appointed by
the respective chambers on the
eve of the day of final adjournment.
ART. 74. The powers of the per-
manent committee shall be:
II. To resolve, either on its own
motion, or at the suggestion of the
Executive, giving the latter a hear-
ing in the first case, the calling of
Congress, or of one of its chambers,
to hold an extra session. In both
cases the resolution shall be passed
by a two-thirds vote of the mem-
bers present. The call shall set
forth the object or objects to be
discussed in the extra session.
ART. 103. Senators, Deputies,
members of the supreme court,
and members of the cabinet shall
be responsible for the common
offenses committed by them during
their term of office, and for their
crimes, misdemeanors, or omis-
sions in the exercise of their func-
tions. The governors of the
States shall also be responsible
for the violation of the Federal
Constitution and laws. The Pres-
ident of the Republic shall be like-
wise responsible; but during his
term he can be charged only with
treason, express violation of the
Constitution, attacks on electoral
liberty, and grave common of-
fenses.
No constitutional privilege shall
be extended to any high Federal
functionary when tried for official
offenses, misdemeanors, or omis-
sions committed by him in the
discharge of some public function
or commission, during the time in
which, according to law, the privi-
lege is enjoyed. This provision
shall be applicable to cases of com-
mon offenses committed under the
same circumstances. In order that
the proceedings may be instituted
when the high functionary returns
to the exercise of his own func-








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


pias, deberA procederse con arreglo
a lo dispuesto en el articulo 104 de
la Constituci6n.
AiT. 104. Si el delito fuere co-
mfin, la Camara de Representantes,
erigida en gran jurado, declarara, a4
mayoria absolute de votos, si ha 6
no lugar a proceder contra el acu-
sado. En caso negative no habri
lugar 4 ning6n procedimiento ul-
terior. En el afirmativo el acu-
sado queda, por el mismo hecho,
separado de su encargo y sujeto a
laacci6n de los tribunales comunes.


ART. 105. De los delitos oficiales
conocerin: la Cimara do Diputados
como jurado de acusaci6n, y la
de Senadores como jurado de sen-
tencia.
El jurado de acusaci6n tendra4
por objeto declarar, a mayoria ab-
soluta de votos, si el acusado es 6
no culpable. Si la declaraci6n
fuere absolutoria, el funcionario
continuar4 en el ejercicio de su
encargo. Si fuere condenatoria,
quedar4 inmediatamente separado
de dicho encargo y sera puesto a
disposici6n de la Camara de Sena-
dores. IEsta, erigida en jurado do
sentencia y con audiencia del reo
y del acusador, si lo hubiere, pro-
cedern 6 aplicar, a mavoria abso-
luta do votos, la pena que la ley
design.

III.

LEY DE MAYO 5 DE 1878.

El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformados los articulos
78 y 109 de la Constitucion, en
los siguientes terminos:
ART. 78. El Presidente entrara
4 ejercer su encargo el primero de


tions, the rules set forth in article
104 of the Constitution shall be
observed.
ART. 104. If the offense belongs
to the common class the Cham-
ber of Deputies, resolving itself
into a grand jury, shall declare by
absolute majority of votes whether
proceedings against the accused
should or should not be instituted.
If the resolution is negative no
further action shall be taken on
the subject. If it is affirmative
the accused shall, by the same fact,
be removed from his position, and
placed at the disposal of the ordi-
nary courts.
ART. 105. In cases of impeach-
ment the Chamber of Deputies
shall act as a grand jury and the
Senate as a tribunal.

The grand jury shall decide by
absolute majority of votes if the
accused is or is not to be impeached.
If the decision is favorable to the
accused functionary, the latter
shall continue in the exercise of
his functions. If it is adverse, the
accused official shall be immedi-
ately removed from his position
and put at the disposal of the
Senate. The Senate, resolving it-
self into a tribunal, shall, upon the
proper hearing of the defendant,
and also of the plaintiff, if there is
any, by absolute majority of votes
impose the penalty provided by
law.
III.
LAW OF MAY 5, 1878.

The Congress of the United
Mexican States in exercise of the
power vested in it by article 127
of the Federal Constitution, after
having obtained the approval of a
majority of the state legislatures,
does hereby amend articles 78 and
109 of the Constitution in the fol-
lowing terms:
ART. 78. The President shall
enter upon the duties of his office







AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


Diciembre y durar6 en e1 cuatro
afios, no pudiendo ser reelecto para
el period inmediato, ni ocupar la
presidencia por ningtn' motivo,
sino hasta pasados cuatro aiios de
haber cosado en el ejercicio de sus
funciones.

ART. 109. Los Estados adop-
tarin para su regimen interior la
forma de gobierno republican,
representative, popular, y deter-
minarin en sus respectivas Cons-
tituciones los tdrminos en que
queda prohibida la reelecci6n de
sus Gobernadores.
El caracter de Gobernador de
un Estado, cualesquiera que scan
los titulos con que ejerza cl poder,
es incompatible en todo caso con su
elecci6n para el siguiente period.
Las Constituciones locales pre-
cisarin este precepto en los termi-
nos que lasLegislaturas lo estimen
convenient.
IV.
LEY DE MAYO 17 DE 1882.
(Reformada Nov. 22, 1886.)
El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformado el articulo 124
de la misma Constituci6n, en los
siguientes terminos:
ART. 124. Para el dia primero
de Diciembre de mil ochocientos
ochenta y cuatro, a mas tardar,
quedaran abolidas las alcabalas y
aduanas interiors en el Distrito y
Territorio de la Federaci6n y en
los Estados que no las hayan
suprimido.
V.
LEY DE JUNIO 2 DE 1882.
El Congress do los Estados
Unidos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de
la facultad que le concede el articulo


on the first of December, and shall
hold the said office for four years.
He shall not be reelected for the
period immediately following, nor
shall he fill for any reason whatever
the presidential office until the said
intermediate period of four years
has elapsed.
ART. 109. The States shall adopt
for themselves the republican, rep-
resentative and popular form of
government, and they shall state
in their respective constitutions
the manner and form in which the
reelection of their governors shall
be forbidden.
The position of governor of a
State, whatever the reason may be
of his holding it, is incompatible
in all cases with his election for
the following period. The local
constitutions shall give form to this
provision in the terms and in the
manner which the respective
legislatures may deem advisable.
IV.
LAW OF MAY 17, 1882.
(Amended Nov. 22, 1886.)
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legisla-
tures, does hereby amend article
124 of the Constitution in the fol-
lowing terms:
ART. 124. On the first day of
December, eighteen hundred and
eighty-four, at the latest, the
alcabala taxes and the interior cus-
tom-houses in the Federal District
and Territory and in the States in
which they still exist, shall be
abolished.
V.
LAW OF JUNE 2, 1882.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformada la fracci6n
XXVI del articulo 72 y adicionado
el 85 de la Constituci6n, en los
siguientes tdrminos:
AI TiCULO 1. Se reform la frac-
ci6n XXVI del artuculo 72 de la
Constitucion, que quedari en los
t4rminos siguientes:
XXVI. Para conceder premios
6 recompensas por servicios emi-
nentes prestados 6 la patria 6 i la
humanidad.
ART. 2. Se reform el articulo
85 de la Constituci6n, agregando
la fracci6n siguiente:
XVI. Conceder privilegios ex-
clusivos por tiempo limitado y con
arreglo ti la ley respcctiva, "t los
descubridores, inventories 6 per-
feccionadores de algin ramo de
industrial.
VI.
LEY DE OCTUBRE 3 DE 1882.
El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas do los Estados,
declara reformados los articulos
79. 80 y 82 de la Constituci6n, en
los siguientes terminos:
AIT. 79. En las faltas tempo-
rales del Presidente de la Repiiblica
y en la absolute, mientras se pre-
sentael nucvamenteelecto, entrara
6 ejercer el Poder Ejecutivo de la
Uni6n, el ciudadano que haya de-
senipeniado el cargo de Presidente
6 Vicepresidente del Senado, 6 de
la Comisi6n permanent en los
periods de receso, durante el mes
anterior t aquel en que ocurran
dichas faltas.
A. El Presidente y Vicepresi-
dente del Senado y de la Comisi6n
permanent no podran ser reelec-
tos para esos cargo, sino despus
de un afio de haberlos desempe-
fiado.


127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legis-
latures, does hereby amend clause
XXVI of article 72 of the Consti-
tution, and article 85 of the same in
the following terms:
ARTICLE 1. Clause XXVI of
article 72 of the Constitution shall
read as follows:

XXVI. To grant rewards for
eminent services rendered to the
country or to humanity.

ART. 2. Article 85 of the Con-
stitution is hereby amended by
adding to it the following clause:
XVI, To grant exclusive
privileges, for a limited time, and
according to the respective law, to
discoverers, inventors, or improv-
ers in some branch of industry.

VI.
LAW OF OCTOBER 3, 1882.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legisla-
tures, does hereby amend articles
79, 80, and 82 of the Constitution
in the following terms:
ART. 79. During the tempo-
rary vacancy of the Presidency of
the Republic, and in the absolute
one, as long as the President elect
does not put in his appearance, the
citizen who has filled the position
of president or vice-president of
the Senate or of the permanent
committee in periods of recess,
during the month preceding the
vacancy, shall act as President of
the nation.
A. The president and vice-
president of the Senate and of the
permanent committee shall not be
reelected to those offices except
after the lapse of one year.








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


B. Si el period do sesiones del
Senado 6 de la Comisi6n perma-
nente comenzare en la segunda
quincena de un mes, las faltas del
President de la Rephiblica serin
cubiertas por el Presidente 6 Vice-
presidente que haya funcionado en
el Senado 6 en la Comision perma-
nente durante la primera quincena
del propio mes.
C. El Senado y la Comisi6n
permanent renovaran, el dia filti-
mo do cada mes, su Presidente y
Vicepresidente. Para estos car-
gos la Comisi6n permanent ele-
gir'i alternativamente, en un mes
dos Diputados y en el siguiente dos
Senadores.
D. Cuando la falta del Presi-
dente de la Rep6blica sea absolute,
el funcionario que entire sustituir-
lo constitucionalmente deberi ex-
pedir, dentro del t6rmino precise
e quince dias, la convocatoria para
proceder a nueva clecci6n, que se
'.ril'.ir.a en el plazo do tres me-
ses, y con arreglo a lo dispuesto en
cl articulo 76 de esta Constituci6n.
El President interino no podra
ser electo propietario on las clec-
ciones que se verifiquen para po-
nor fin a su interinato.
E. Si por causa de nmuerte 6
cualquier otro motive no pudiesen
de un modo absolute sustituir al
President do la Reptiblica los fun-
cionarios a quienes corresponda,
segfin estas reforms, lo sustituira,
en los tdrminos prevenidos el ciu-
dadano que haya sido Presidente 6
Vicepresidente en ejercicio del Se-
nado 6 de laComisi6n permanent,
en el mes anterior al en que ellos
desempefiaron estos oficios.
F. Cuando la falta absolute del
President de la Repiblica ocurra
dentro de los seis meses iltimos
del period constitutional, termi-
nara 4ste el funcionario que susti-
tuya al Presidente.
G. Para ser Presidente 6 Vice-
presidente del Senado, 6 de la
Comisi6n permanent, so necesita


B. If the session of the Senate
or of the permanent committee
begins in the second half of the
month, the vacancy in the Presi-
dency of the Republic shall be
filled by the president or vice-
president of the Senate or of the
permanent committee during the
first half of the same month.

C. The Senate and the perma-
nent committee shall renew on the
last day of each monththieirpresi-
dent and vice-president. The per-
manent committee shall elect for
these positions alternatively two
representatives in one month and
two senators in the following.
D. When the vacancy of the
Presidency of the Republic is abso-
lute, the functionary called consti-
tutionally to act as President shall
order, within fifteen days, a new
election, to be held three months
thereafter, according to the provi-
sion of article 76 of the Constitu-
tion. The President ad interim is
not eligible to succeed himself as
President.


E. If, on account of death or
any other cause, the functionaries
who according to these provisions
are called to take the place of Presi-
dent of the Republic, can not abso-
lutely do so, the position shall then
be filled by the citizen .who was
president or vice-president of the
Senate or of the permanent com-
mittee,during the month preceding
the one in which the said function-
aries held the same.
F. When the absolute vacancy
of the Presidency of the Republic
occurs during the last six months
of the presidential term, the Act-
ting President shall complete the
term.
G. To be president or vice-
president of the Senate or of the
permanent committee it shall be








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


ser ciudadano mexicano por naci-
miento.
H. Si la falta del Presidente
de la Rep6blica ocurriese cuando
estin funcionando i la vez la Comi-
si6n permanent y el Senado en se-
siones extraordinarias, entrara A
suplirla el Presidente de la Comi-
si6n, en los terminos senalados en
este articulo.

I. El Vice president del Se-
nado 6 de la Comisi6n permanent
entrarin a desempeiiar las fun-
ciones que este articulo les con-
fiere, en las faltas absolutas del
President del Senado 6 do la
Comisi6n permanent, y en las
temporales, s61o mientras dure el
impedimento.


J. El Presidente nuevamento
electo entrara a ejercer sus fun-
ciones A mins tardar sesenta dias
despues del de la elecci6n. En
caso de no star reunida la Cimara
de Diputados, seri convocada a se-
siones extraordinarias, para hacer
la computaci6n de votos dentro
del plazo mencionado.
ART. 80. En la falta absolute del
President, al nuevamente electo se
le computari su period desde el
primero de Diciembre del ano ante-
rior al de su elecci6n, siempre que
no haya tornado posesi6n de su en-
cargo en la fecha que determine el
articulo 78.
ART. 82. Si por cualquier mo-
tivo la elecci6n de Presidente no
estuviese hecha y publicada para el
primero de Diciembre, en quedebe
verificarse el reemplazo, 6 el electo
no estuviese pronto i entrar en el
ejercicio de sus funciones, cesarat
sin embargo el antiguo, y el Su-
premo Poder Ejecutivo se deposi-
tard interinamente en el funciona-
rio a quien corresponda, seg6n lo
prevenido en el articulo 79 refor-
mado de esta Constituci6n.


necessary to be a native Mexican
citizen.
H. If the vacancy of the Pres-
idency of the Republic ocrcirs when
the permanent committee and the
Senate in extra session are holding
their meetings simultaneously, the
president of the committee shall be
the one called to act as President in
the manner and form provided by
this article.
I. The vice-president of the
Senate and of the permanent com-
mittee shall enter upon the per-
formance of the functions which
the present article confers upon
them when the vacancy of the pres-
idency of the Senate or of the per-
manent committee is absolute: in
the temporary ones they shall fill
the positions only as long as the
impediment lasts.
J. The President elect shall
enter upon the duties of his office
not later than sixty days after his
election. If the House of Repre-
sentatives is not in session at that
time, it shall be called to convene
in extra session, in order that the
counting of the votes be made with-
in the period above mentioned.
ART. 80. In cases of absolute
vacancy of the Presidency, the
time of service of the President
elect shall be computed from the
first of December of the year pre-
ceding his election, if he has not
taken possession of the office on
the date set forth in article 78.
ART. 82. If for any reason the
election of President is not made
and published on or before the first
of December, when the change of
administration is to take place,
or if the President-elect is not
ready to enter upon the discharge
of his duties, the President whose
term has expired shall cease never-
theless to hold his office, and the
supreme executive power shall be
temporarily vested in the function-
ary to whom it may belong accord-
ing to the provisions of article 79,
as amended, of the present Con-
stitution.








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


VII.
LEY DE MAYO 15 DE 1883.
El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad quo le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformado el articulo 7 de
la Constituci6n, en los siguientes
terminos:
ART. 7. Es inviolable la liber-
tad do escribir y publicar escritos
sobrecualquier material. Ninguna
ley ni autoridad puede establecer
la previa censura, ni exigir fianzas
a los autores 6 impresores, ni coar-
tar la libertad de imprenta, que
no tiene mis limits que el res-
peto ai la vida privada, a la moral
y ` la paz pfiblica. Los delitos
que se cometan por medio de la
imprenta, seran juzgados por los
tribunales competentes de la Fede-
racion, 6 por los de los Estados, los
del Distrito Federaly Territoriode
la Baja California, conforme la
legislaci6n penal.
.'VIII.
LEY DE DICIEMBRE 14 DE 1883.
El Congress do los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformada la fraccion X
del articulo 72 de la misma Consti-
tucion, en los siguientes terminos:
X. Para expedir c6digos obli-
gatorios en toda la Repfiblica, de
mineria y comercio, comprendien-
do en este 61timo las institucio-
nes bancarias.

IX.
LEY DE MAYO 29 DE 1884.


VII.
LAW OF MAY 15, 1883.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legisla-
tures, does hereby declare article
7 of the Constitution amended as
follows:
ART. 7. Freedom of writing
and publishing writings on any
subject is inviolable. No law or
authority shall have power to es-
tablish previous censorship, re-
quire bond from authors or
printers, or restrict the liberty of
the press which shall be limited
only by the respect due to private
life, morals, and public peace.
Cases of offenses committed
through the public press shall be
tried by the competent Courts
of the Union, the States, the
Federal District or the Territory
of Lower California, according
to penal law.
VIII.
LAW OF DECEMBER 14, 1883.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legisla-
tures, does hereby declare clause X
of article 72 of the said Constitu-
tion amended as follows:
X. To promulgate mining and
commercial codes, which shall be
observed throughout the whole
Republic. The banking law shall
form a part of the code of com-
merce.
IX.
LAW OF MAY 29, 1884.


El Congress de los Estados Uni- The Congress of the United
dos Mexicanos, en eiercicio de la Mexican States, in exercise of







THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformada la fracci6n I del
articulo 97 de la misma Constitu-
ci6n, en los siguientes terminos:
ART. 97. Corresponde f los tri-
bunales de la Federaci6n conocer:
I. De todas las controversial
que se susciten sobre el cumpli-
miento y aplicaci6n de las leyes
federales, except en el caso de
que la aplicaci6n s6lo afecte inte-
reses do particulares, pues enton-
ces son competentes para conocer
los jueces y tribunales locales del
orden comun de los Estados, del
Distrito Federal y Territorio do la
Baja California.

X.
LEY DE NOVIEMBRE 25 DE 1884.
(Reformada Nov. 22 de 1886.)
El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformnado el articulo 124
de la misma Constituci6n en los
siguientes terminos:
ART. 124. Para el dia primero
de Diciembre de mil ochocientos
ochenta y seis, a mlis tardar, que-
darin abolidas las alcabalas y
aduanas interiores en el Distrito
Federal y Territorios de la Fede-
racion, y en los Estados que no
las hayan suprimido.

XI.
LEY DE NOVIEMBRE 22 DE 1886.


El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformado el articulo 124


the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the state legisla-
tures, does hereby declare clause I
of article 97 of the said Constitu-
tion amended as follows:
ART. 97. The Federal tribunals
shall take cognizance of:
I. All controversies arising out
of the application and enforcement
of the Federal laws, except when
only private interests are affected
thereby, in which case the local
state courts and tribunals and the
ordinary courts of the Federal
District and of the Territory of
Lower California shall have com-
petent jurisdiction over the same.


X.
LAW OF NOVEMBER 25, 1884.
(Amended Nov. 22, 1886.)
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of the
power vested in it by article 127
of the Federal Constitution, after
having obtained the approval of a
majority of the State legislatures,
does hereby declare article 124 of
the said Constitution amended as
follows:
ART. 124. On the first of De-
cember, eighteen hundred and
eighty-six, at the latest, all the
alcabala taxes and the interior cus-
tom-houses in the Federal District,
the Territories of the Federation,
and the States in which they may
still exist, shall be abolished.

XI.
LAW OF NOVEMBER 22, 1886.


The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the State legisla-
tures, does hereby declare article








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


de la expresada Constituci6n en los
siguientes terminos:
ART. 124. Los Estados no po-
dran imponer ningin derecho por
el simple transito de mercancias
en la circulaci6n interior. Solo el
Gobierno de la Uni6n podri decre-
tar derechos de transit, pero
uinicamente respect de efectos
extranjeros quo atraviesen el pals
por lineas internacionales 4 inter-
oceanicas, sin estar en el territorio
national mas tiempo quo el necesa-
rio para la travesfa y salida al
extranjero.
No prohibiran direct ni indi-
rectamente la entrada 4 su territo-
rio, ni la salida de 41, de ninguna
mercancia, a no ser por motivo de
policia; ni gravarain los articulos
de producci6n national por su
salida para el extranjero 6 para
otro Estado.
Las exenciones de derechos que
concedan serin generals, no pu-
diendo decretarlas en favor de los
products de determinada proce-
dencia.
La cuota del impuesto para
determinada mercancia sera una
misma, sea cual fuere su proceden-
cia, sin que pueda asignarsele
mayor gravamen que el que repor-
tan los frutos similares de la enti-
dad political en que se decrete el
impuesto.
La mercancia national no podra
ser sometida A determinada ruta
ni a inspecci6n 6 registro en los
caminos, ni exigirse document
fiscal alguno para su circulaci6n
interior.

No gravaran la mercancia ex-
tranjera con mayor cuota que
aquella cuyo cobro les haya sido
consentido por la ley federal.
XII.
LEY DE OCTUBRE 21 DE 1887.
El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la


124 of the said Constitution amend-
ed as follows:
AnT. 124. The States shall not
levy any duty for the simple transit
of merchandise through their ter-
ritory. The Government of the
Union alone shall have the power
to levy transit duties, but only
on foreign merchandise crossing
the territory of the Republic by
international or interoceanic lines,
without remaining in the country
any longer than necessary to pass
through it.

They shall not forbid, directly or
indirectly, the admission into their
territory, or the exit from it, of
any kind of merchandise, unless it
is for reasons of police. Nor shall
they tax the articles of national
production when leaving for for-
eign countries, or for another State.
All exemptions from duties
granted by them shall be general,
and no discrimination shall be
made in favor of the products of
any particular origin.
The rate of taxation on any arti-
cle of merchandise shall be the
same, independently of the place of
origin, and no tax imposed on an
article shall be greater than that
imposed upon similar articles of
the State which imposes it.

Domestic merchandise shall not
be compelled to follow any speci-
fied route or be inspected or exam-
ined while on the way, nor shall
any fiscal document be required to
allow said merchandise to freely
circulate in the interior of the
country.
Foreign merchandise shall not
be burdened by the States with
heavier rates than those consented
to by the Federal law.
XII.
LAW OF OCTOBER 21, 1887.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


facultad que le concede el articulo
127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformados los articulos 78
y 109 de la misma Constituci6n en
estos t4rminos:
ART. 78. El Presidente entrarA
i ejercer su encargo el primero de
Diciembre, y durara en 41 cuatro
afios, pudiendo ser reelecto para el
period constitutional inmediato;
pero quedarA inhibil on seguida
para ocupar la Presidencia por
nueva elecci6n, 6 no ser que hubie-
sen transcurrido cuatro afios, con-
tados desde el dia en quo ces6 en
el ejercicio de sus funciones.

ART. 109. Los Estados adop-
taran, para su regimen interior, la
forma de gobierno republican, re-
presentativo, popular, y podran
establecer en sus respectivas Cons-
tituciones la reelecci6n de los Go-
bernadores, conforme a lo que
previene el articulo 78 para el
President de la Republica.

XIII.
LEY DE DICIEMBRE 20 DE 1890.

El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo
127 do la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n uninime de
las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformado el articulo 78
de la Constituci6n en estos t4rmi-
nos:
ART. 78. El Presidente en-
trari i ejercer sus funciones el
primero de Diciembre, y durari en
su encargo cuatro aiios.

XIV.
LEY DE ABRIL 24 DE 1896.

El Congress de los Estados Uni-
dos Mexicanos, en ejercicio de la
facultad que le concede el articulo


the power vested in it by artice,
127 of the Federal Constitutionl
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the State legisla-
tures, does hereby declare articles
78 and 109 of the Constitution
amended as follows:
ART. 78. The President shall
enter upon the discharge of the
duties of his office on the first of
December, and shall serve for four
years. He may be reflected for the
constitutional period immediately
following; butattheend thereof he
shall be disqualified to fill the Pres-
idency by further election, unless
four years have elapsed from the
day on which he ceased to exer-
cise his functions.
ART. 109. The States shall
adopt for their government a re-
publican, representative, and pop-
ular form, and they may embody
in their respective constitutions,
in regard to the reelection of their
governors the provisions of article
78 relating to the President of the
Republic.

XIII.
LAW OF DECEMBER 20, 1890.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of
the power vested in it by article
127 of the Federal Constitution,
after having obtained the approval
of a majority of the State legisla-
tures, does hereby declare article
78 of the Constitution amended as
follows:
ART. 78. The President shall
enter upon the duties of his office
on the first of December, and shall
serve four years.

XIV.
LAW OF APRIL 24, 1896.
The Congress of the United
Mexican States, in exercise of the
power vested in it by article 127








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


127 de la Constituci6n federal, y
previa la aprobaci6n de la mayoria
de las Legislaturas de los Estados,
declara reformados los articulos
79, 80, 82 y 83 de la Constituci6n
y adicionado el 72 de la nmisma, en
los siguientes terminos:
ART. 72. El Congreso tiene
facultad:
XXXI. Para nombrar, fun-
cionando al ofecto ambas Cimaras
reunidas, un Presidente de la Re-
pfiblica, ya con el caricter de
sustituto, ya con el de interino, en
las faltas absolutas 6 temporales
del Presidenteconstitucional. Asi-
mismo la tiene para reemplazar en
los respectivos casos y en igual
forma, tanto al sustituto como al
interino, si 6stos a suvez faltaren.
XXXII. Para calificar y deci-
dir sobre la solicitud de licencia
que hiciere el Presidente de la
Repiblica.
Es facultad exclusive de la Ca-
mara de Diputados:
11. Calificar y decidir sobre las
renuncias del Presidente de la Re-
piblica y de los Magistrados de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia.
ART. 79. I. En las faltas abso-
lutas del Presidente, con excepci6n
de la que proceda de renuncia, y en
las temporales, con excepcion de la
que proceda de licencia, se encar-
gara desde luego del Poder Ejecu-
tivo el Secretario de Relaciones
Exteriores, y si no lo hubiere, 6
estuviere impedido, el Secretario
de Gobernacion.

II. El Congreso de la Uni6n
se reunir6 en sesi6n extraordina-
ria al dia siguiente, en el local de
la Cdmara de Diputados, con asis-
tcncia de mis de la mitad del nfi-
mero total de los individuos de
ambas Camaras, fungiendo la mesa
de la Cimara de Diputados. Si
por falta de quorum fi otra causa
no pudiere verificarse la sesi6n,
los presents compelerAn diaria-
mente a los ausentes conform a
la ley, A fin de celebrar sesi6n lo
mas pronto possible.


of the Federal Constitution, after
having obtained the approval of a
majority of the State legislatures,
does hereby declare articles 72, 79,
80, 82, and 83 of the Constitution
amended as follows:

ART. 72. The Congress has
power:
XXXI. To appoint, at a joint
session of both Chambers, a Presi-
dent of the Republic, who shall act
in case of absolute, or temporary,
vacancy of the Presidency, either
as a substitute, or as a President
ad interim. This provision is ap-
plicable to the case of vacancy,
whether absolute or temporary, of
the substitute President, or of the
President ad interim.
XXXII. To grant or refuse
leave of absence to the President
of the Republic.

The Chamber of Deputies has
exclusive power:
II. To accept or refuse to accept
the resignations of the President
of the Republic or of the justices
of the supreme court.
ART. 79. I. In case of absolute
vacancy of the Presidency, except
when the same is due to resigna-
tion, and in case of a temporary
vacancy, unless when due to a leave
of absence, the executive power
shall be immediately vested in the
secretary of foreign relations, and
if there should be no such official,
or should he be ineligible, in the
secretary of government.
II. The Congress of the Union
shall assemble in extra session on
the day next following, in the hall
of the Chamber of Deputies, more
than half of the total number of
members of both Chambers being
required to be present. The Pres-
ident of the Chamber of Deputies
shall preside over the meeting, and
the clerk of the same Chamber shall
act as secretary. If, through lack
of a quorum or other cause, the
meeting can not be held, the
members present shall meet daily








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


III. En esta sesi6n se elegiri
President sustituto, por mayoria
absolute de los presents y en
votaci6n nominal y piblica, sin
que pueda discutirse en ella pro-
posici6n alguna, ni hacerse otra
cosa que recoger la votaci6n, pu-
blicarla, former el escrutinio y
declarar el nombre del electo.


IV. Si ninguin candidate hu-
biere reunido la mayoria absolute
de los votos, se repetirit la elecci6n
entire los dos que tuvieron mayor
numero, y quedar6 electo el que
hubiere obtenido dicha mayoria.
Si los competidores hubiesen teni-
do igual nimero de votos y al
repetirse la votaci6n so repitiere
el empate, la suerte decidir4 quidn
deba ser el electo.
V. Si hay igualidad do sufra-
gios en mais de dos candidates,
entire ellos se har.i la votaci6n;
pero si hubiere al mismo tiempo
otro candidate que haya obtenido
mayor numero de votos, se le ten-
dra como primer competitor, y el
segundo se sacara por votaci6n de
entire los primeros.

VI. Si no estuviere en sesiones
el Congress, se reunira, sin necesi-
dad de convocatoria, el catorceno
dia siguiente al de la falta, bajo la
direcci6n de la mesa de la Comi-
sion permanent que est6 en fun-
ciones, y procederit como queda
dicho.
VII. En caso de falta absolute
por renuncia del Presidente, el
Congress so reuniri en la forma
expresada para nombrar al susti-
tuto, y la renuncia no surtira sus
efectos sino hasta que quede hecho
el nombramiento y el sustituto
preste la protest legal.


for the purpose of compelling,
according to law, the attendance of
the absent members, as soon as
possible.
III. In this session a substitute
President shall be elected by ab-
solute majority of the members
present, the vote to be nominal
and public. No measure of any
kind shall be discussed, and no
other business shall be transacted
at this meeting than the taking,
publishing, and recording of the
vote, and the announcing of the
name of the person elected.
IV. If no candidate receives
an absolute majority of votes,
the election shall be repeated be-
tween the two having the largest
number, and the one obtaining a
majority shall be elected. Should
the two competitors receive an
equal number of votes, a second
vote shall be taken, and if it also
results in a tie, the election shall
be decided by lot.
V. If more than two candi-
dates receive the same number of
votes, the choice shall be made be-
tween them, but should there be
at the same time another candidate
having a greater number of votes.
he shall be considered the first
competitor, and the second com-
petitor shall be determined by a
vote between the other candidates.
VI. If Congress is not in ses-
sion, it shall assemble without the
necessity of being called to con-
vene, on the fourteenth day after
the date of the vacancy. It shall
then be presided over by the chair-
man of the permanent committee,
and shall proceed as aforesaid.
VII. In case of absolute va-
cancy on account of the resigna-
tion of the President, Congress
shall assemble, as indicated, for the
purpose of appointing a substitute
President, and the resignation shall
not take effect until after the ap-
pointment has been made and the
Acting President has made the
legal protestation.








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


VIII. En cuanto i las faltas
temporales, cualquiera quo sea su
causa, el Congreso nombrari un
President interino, observando
el mismo procedimiento prescrito
para los cases de falta absolute.
Si el Presidente pidiere licencia,
propondri al hacerlo al ciudadano
que deba reemplazarlo, y conce-
dida que sea, no comenzaria a surtir
sus efectos sino hasta que el inte-
rino haya protestado, siendo facul-
tativo por part del Presidente
hacer 6 no uso de ella 6 abreviar
su duraci6n. El interino ejercerdi
el cargo tan s6lo mientras dure la
falta temporal.

La solicitud de licencia so di-
rigird 6 la Camara de Diputados,
]a cual la pasara inmediatamente
al studio de su comisi6n respec-
tiva, citando a la vez i la Camara
de Senadores para el siguiente dia
4 sesi6n extraordinaria del Con-
greso, ante quien dicha comisi6n
presentara su dictamen.
La proposici6n con que este
dictamen concluya, en caso de ser
favorable, comprendera en un solo
articulo de decreto, que so resol-
veri por una sola votaci6n, el otor-
gamiento de la licencia y la apro-
baci6n del propuesto.

IX. Si el dia aseiialado por la
Constituci6n no entrare at ejercer
cl cargo de Presidente el elegido
por el pueblo, el Congreso nom-
brara desde luego Presidente in-
terino. Si la causa del impedi-
mento fuere transitoria, el interino
cesara en las funciones presidencia-
les cuando cese dicha causa y sepre-
senteadesempefiarel cargo elPresi-
dente electo. Pero si la causa fuere
de aq uellas quo produce im posibi-
lidad absolute, do tal manera que el
President electo no pudiere entrar
en ejercicio durante el cuatrienio,
el Congress, despuds do nombrar
al President interino, convocarA
sin dilaci6n :i elecciones extraordi-
narias. El Presidente interino ce-


VIII. In case of temporary va-
cancies, whatever their cause may
be, Congress shall appoint a Pres-
ident ad interim following the
methods prescribed for cases of
absolute vacancies. Should the
President request leave of absence,
he shall, on doing so, indicate the
person who shall act in his place,
and if the leave is granted, it shall
not take effect until the President
adinterim shall have made his pro-
testation; but the President shall
have the power of using or not
using the leave, or of shortening
its time. The President adinterim
shall only fill the office as long as
the absence lasts.
The request for a leave of ab-
sence shall be addressed to the
Chamber of Deputies, which shall
immediately refer it to the proper
committee, summoning at the same
time the Senate to a joint session
of Congress to be held on the fol-
lowing day, and the report shall
be submitted to the joint session.
The recommendation to be made
in this report, if favorable to the
petition, shall be drawn in the
form of a decree of one sole ar-
ticle, to be voted upon as a whole,
granting the leave and the ap-
proval of the suggested President
ad interim.
IX. If on the day appointed
by the Constitution the President
elected by the people should not
enter upon the performance of his
duties, Congress shall at once ap-
point a President ad interim. If
the cause of the vacancy is tempo-
rary, the President ad interim
shall cease to perform the duties
of President when said cause is
removed and the President-elect
appears for the purpose of serving
his office. But if the cause is one
of those which create an absolute
vacancy, preventing the President-
elect from discharging the duties
of his office during the term of four
years, Congress, after appointing
a President ad interim, shall, with-








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


sara en el cargo tan luego como
protest el nuevo Presidente electo,
quien terminard el period consti-
tucional. Si la acefalia procediere
de que la elecci6n no estuviere
hecha 6 publicada el primero do
Diciembre, se nombrard tambien
President interino, el cual desem-
pefiara la Presidencia mientras que-
dan llenados esos requisitos y pro-
teste el Presidente electo.




X. Las faltas del Presidente
sustituto y las del interino se cu-
briran tambidn de la manera pres-
crita, salvo, respect del segundo,
el caso de que el Presidente cons-
titucional, temporalmente sepa-
rado, vuelva al ejercicio de sus
funciones.
ART. 80. Si la falta del Presi-
dento fuere absolute, el sustituto
nombrado por el Congreso termi-
nara el period constitutional.

ART. 82. Tanto para ser Presi-
dente sustituto como para ser Pre-
sidente interino, son indispensa-
bles los requisitos que exige el
articulo 77.
ART. 83. El Presidente, al to-
mar posesi6n de su encargo, pro-
testart ante el Congreso bajo la
formula que sigue:

Protesto desempeiiar leal y
patri6ticamente el cargo de Presi-
dente de los Estados U nidos Mexi-
canos; guardar y hacer guardar,
sin reserve alguna, la Constituci6n
do mil ochocientos cincuenta y
site, con todas sus adiciones y
reforms, las leyes do reform y
las demis que de ella emanen, mi-
rando en todo por el bien y pros-
peridad de la Uni6n."


Queda exceptuado de este re-
quisito el Secretario del despacho
que se encargue provisionalrnente,
en su caso, del Poder Ejecutivo.


out delay, order a special election
to be held. The President ad in-
terim shall cease to fill the office as
soon as the new President makes
his protestation. The new Presi-
dent shall serve until the expira-
tion of the constitutional term.
If the vacancy happens because
the election was not made or pub-
lished on December first, a Presi-
dent ad interim shall also be
appointed, who shall fill the Presi-
dency until the aforesaid requi-
sites are complied with and the
President-elect shall have entered
his promise.
X. The vacancies of the position
of substitute President and Presi-
dent ad interim shall be filled in the
manner prescribed, except as to
the President ad interim, in case
that the Constitutional President,
temporarily absent, should return
to the exercise of his functions.
ART. 80. If the vacancy of the
Presidency should be absolute, the
substitute President appointed by
Congress shall serve until the end
of the constitutional period.
ART. 82. No one shall be substi-
tute President or President ad
interim, who has not the qualifica-
tions required in art. 77.

"ART. 83. The President, before
entering upon the discharge of the
duties of his office, shall make the
following promise in the presence
of the Congress:
"I do solemnly promise to per-
form faithfully and conscientiously
the duties of President of the
United Mexican States; to observe
and cause others to observe, with-
out any reservation whatever, the
Constitution of eighteen hundred
and fifty-seven, with all the amend-
ments thereto, the laws of reform,
and all other laws emanating there-
from, having always in view the
welfare and prosperity of the
Union."
The member of the cabinet in
whom the executive power may be
temporarily vested is excepted
from this requisite.








AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION.


XV.

LEY DE MAYO 1 DE 1896,

El Congress general de los
Estados Unidos Mexicanos, de con-
formidad con lo dispuesto en el
articulo 127 de la Constituci6n
federal, y previa la aprobaci6n
de todas las Legislaturas de los
Estados, declara adicionados y re-
formados los articulos 111 y 124
de la misma Constituci6n en los
siguientes terminos:
Primera. Se reform la frac-
ci6n III del articulo 111 de la Cons-
tituci6n federal, y se adiciona el
mismo articulo en los terminos
siguientes:
Los Estados no podrdn:


III. Acufiar moneda, emitir
papel moneda, estampillas ni papel
sellado.
IV. Gravar el trAnsito de per-
sonas 6 cosas que atraviesen su
territorio.
V. Prohibir ni gravar direct
ni indirectamente la entrada A su
territorio, ni la salida de el, a
ninguna mercancia national 6 ex-
tranjera.
VI. Gravar la circulaci6n ni el
consume de efectos nacionales 6
extranjeros, con impuestos 6 de-
rechos cuya exaccion se efectmue
por aduanas locales, requiera ins-
pecci6n 6 registro de bultos, 6 exija
documentaci6n que acompaiie 6 la
mercancia.
VII. Expedir ni mantener en
vigor leyes 6 disposiciones fiscales
que importen diferencias de im-
puestos 6 requisitos, por raz6n de
la procedencia de mercancias na-
cionales 6 extranjeras, ya sea que
esta diferencia se establezca res-
pecto a la producci6n similar de
la localidad, 6 ya entire produc-
ciones semejantes de distinta pro-
cedencia.


XV.

LAW OF MAY 1, 1896.

The general Congress of the
United Mexican States, in con-
formity with the provisions of
article 127 of the Federal Consti-
tution, and after approval by all
the legislatures of the States, here-
by declares articles 111 and 124
of said Constitution amended as
follows:

First. Section III of Article 111
of the Federal Constitution is
hereby amended in the following
terms:

The States shall have no
power-

III. To coin money, issue paper
money, stamps, or stamped paper.

IV. To levy a tax on persons or
property passing through their
territory.
V. To prohibit or tax, directly
or indirectly, the entrance into
their territory or the exit there-
from, of any merchandise, foreign
or domestic.
VI. To burden the circulation
or consumption of domestic or for-
eign merchandise with taxes or
duties to be collected by local cus-
tom-houses, or subject to inspec-
tion the said merchandise or re-
quire it to be accompanied by
special documents.
VII. To enact or maintain in
force laws or fiscal regulations
discriminating by means of taxa-
tion or otherwise, between mer-
chandise, domestic or foreign, on
account of its origin, whether
because of similarity with the
local productions or with similar
ones of different origin.








THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES.


Segunda. Se reform el articulo
124 de la Constituci6n Federal en
los tcrminos siguientes:
ART. 124. Es facultad priva-
tiva de la Federaci6n, gravar las
mercancias que se importen 6
exporten, 6 que pasen de trinsito
por el territorio national, asi como
reglamentar en todo tiempo y aun
prohibir por motives de seguridad
6 de policia, la circulaci6n en el
interior de la Repfiblica de toda
clase de efectos, cualquiera que
sea su procedencia; pero sin que
la misma Federaci6n pueda es-
tablecer ni dictar en el Distrito y
Territories federales, los impues-
tos y leyes que expresan las frac-
ciones VI y VII del articulo 111.


Second. Article 124 of the Fed-
eral Constitution is hereby amend-
ed as follows:
ART. 124. The Federation has
the exclusive power to levy duties
on merchandise imported, ex-
ported, or passing in transit
through the national territory, as
well as to regulate at all times, and
even forbid, for the sake of public
safety or for police reasons, the
circulation in the interior of the
Republic of all kinds of goods,
regardless of their origin; but the
Federation shall have no power
to establish or enact in the Federal
District and Territories the taxes
and laws referred to in clauses VI
and VII of Article 111.