Moving forward on Haiti

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Moving forward on Haiti how the U.S. and the international community can help : hearing before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, second session, September 28, 2006
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United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on International Relations. -- Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere
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Subjects / Keywords:
Humanitarian assistance -- International cooperation -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Humanitarian assistance, American -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Internal security -- International cooperation -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Peacekeeping forces -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Aide humanitaire -- Coopération internationale -- Haïti   ( ram )
Aide humanitaire américaine -- Haïti   ( ram )
Sûreté de l'État -- Coopération internationale -- Haïti   ( ram )
Maintien de la paix -- Haïti   ( ram )
Politics and government -- Haiti -- 1986-   ( lcsh )
Politique et gouvernement -- Haïti -- 1986-   ( ram )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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3 5005 01308 541Z VARD ON HAITI: HOW THE U.S.
AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN HELP


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
LAW LIBRARY

FEB 0 2 2007 HEARING
U.S. DEPOSITORY BEFORE THE
COPY
SUBCOMMITTEE ON
THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
ONE HUNDRED NINTH CONGRESS
S COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
SECOND SESSION LAW LIBRARY


SEPTEMBER 28, 2006

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COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois, Chairman


JAMES A. LEACH, Iowa
CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey,
Vice Chairman
DAN BURTON, Indiana
ELTON GALLEGLY, California
ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida
DANA ROHRABACHER, California
EDWARD R. ROYCE, California
PETER T. KING, New York
STEVE CHABOT, Ohio
THOMAS G. TANCREDO, Colorado
RON PAUL, Texas
DARRELL ISSA, California
JEFF FLAKE, Arizona
JO ANN DAVIS, Virginia
MARK GREEN, Wisconsin
JERRY WELLER, Illinois
MIKE PENCE, Indiana
THADDEUS G. McCOTITER, Michigan
KATHERINE HARRIS, Florida
JOE WILSON, South Carolina
JOHN BOOZMAN, Arkansas
J. GRESHAM BARRETT, South Carolina
CONNIE MACK, Florida
JEFF FORTENBERRY, Nebraska
MICHAEL McCAUL, Texas
TED POE, Texas


TOM LANTOS, California
HOWARD L. BERMAN, California
GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York
ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American
Samoa
DONALD M. PAYNE, New Jersey
SHERROD BROWN, Ohio
BRAD SHERMAN, California
ROBERT WEXLER, Florida
ELIOT L. ENGEL, New York
WILLIAM D. DELAHUNT, Massachusetts
GREGORY W. MEEKS, New York
BARBARA LEE, California
JOSEPH CROWLEY, New York
EARL BLUMENAUER, Oregon
SHELLEY BERKLEY, Nevada
GRACE F. NAPOLITANO, California
ADAM B. SCHIFF, California
DIANE E. WATSON, California
ADAM SMITH, Washington
BETTY McCOLLUM, Minnesota
BEN CHANDLER, Kentucky
DENNIS A. CARDOZA, California
RUSS CARNAHAN, Missouri


THOMAS E. MOONEY, SR., Staff Director/General Counsel
ROBERT R. KING, Democratic Staff Director


SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
DAN BURTON, Indiana, Chairman
RON PAUL, Texas ELIOT L. ENGEL, New York
JERRY WELLER, Illinois, Vice Chairman GRACE NAPOLITANO, California
KATHERINE HARRIS, Florida ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American
JAMES A. LEACH, Iowa Samoa
CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey DONALD M. PAYNE, New Jersey
ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida WILLIAM D. DELAHUNT, Massachusetts
CONNIE MACK, Florida GREGORY W. MEEKS, New York
MICHAEL McCAUL, Texas BARBARA LEE, California
MARK WALKER, Subcommittee Staff Director
JASON STEINBAUM, Democratic Professional Staff Member
BRIAN WANKO, Professional Staff Member


jc 1I


#, 5 q T















CONTENTS

Page
WITNESSES
Mr. Patrick D. Duddy, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Western Hemi-
sphere Affairs, United States Department of State ....................................... 11
The Honorable Adolfo A. Franco, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean, United States Agency for International Devel-
opm ent ........................................................................................................... 18
The Honorable Mark L. Schneider, Senior Vice President and Special Adviser
on Latin America, International Crisis Group ............................................... 38
LETTERS, STATEMENTS, ETC., SUBMITTED FOR THE HEARING
The Honorable Dan Burton, a Representative in Congress from the State
of Indiana, and Chairman, Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere:
Prepared state ent ........................................................................................... 3
Mr. Patrick D. Duddy: Prepared statement ....................................................... 14
The Honorable Adolfo A. Franco: Prepared statement ...................................... 20
The Honorable Mark L. Schneider: Prepared statement .................................. 41





The Arthur W. Diamond
Law Library










p 3












MOVING FORWARD ON HAITI: HOW THE U.S.
AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
CAN HELP


THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 2006
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE,
COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS,
Washington, DC.
The Subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2:15 p.m. in room
2172, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Dan Burton (Chairman
of the Subcommittee) presiding.
Mr. BURTON. Good afternoon. A quorum being present, the Sub-
committee on the Western Hemisphere will come to order. I ask
unanimous consent that all Members' and witnesses' written and
printed statements be included in the record. Without objection, so
ordered.
I ask unanimous consent that all articles, exhibits, and extra-
neous or tabular material referred to by'Members or witnesses be
included in the record. Without objection, so ordered.
I ask unanimous consent that any Member who may attend to-
day's hearing be considered a Member of the Subcommittee for pur-
poses of receiving testimony and questioning witnesses after Sub-
committee Members have been given the opportunity to do so.
Without objection, so ordered.
Today, we convene a hearing on Moving Forward in Haiti and
how the United States and international community can help. This
fragile country, generally recognized as being the poorest in the
Western Hemisphere and one of the poorest in the world, has been
through tumultuous times.
In recent decades, it has survived natural disasters that brought
hurricane winds and terrible mud slides, taking lives and dev-
astating crops; well-established gangs control city streets and
spread fear among the population; economic growth is dismally low,
and the people lack the most basic of needs, such as housing, edu-
cation, and access to health care; and its democracy has been
shocked by years of corruption and poor, misguided leadership.
Today, Haiti has some forward momentum in its newly elected gov-
ernment, but the situation still remains fragile, and Haiti is clearly
at a critical juncture in its path away from poverty.
First, ensuring peace and security for all of her people remains
one of Haiti's biggest hurdles. Gangs and crime inhibit the growth
of the economy and hinder many aspects of the developmental proc-
ess. The national police force lacks the basic operating needs and








requires extensive training assistance and equipment for it to func-
tion effectively. It is impossible for businesses to take root and to
make the economy grow, providing good jobs for the Haitian people,
while armed and organized bands of criminals roam neighborhoods
unchecked.
Programs aimed at disarming these rogue elements need to be
expanded, and a culture of lawfulness needs to be instilled into the
minds of the Haitian people. The presence of United Nations peace-
keepers has helped stabilize the security situation to some degree.
Currently, the MINUSTAH mission is providing 6,700 peace-
keeping personnel from more than a dozen countries, and it ap-
pears to be helping to provide a more secure and stable environ-
ment, build support for the ongoing political process, and pro-
moting and protecting fundamental human rights, but a lot more
needs to be done.
In addition to a stabilizing force, Haiti is in dire need of inter-
national assistance in a host of areas. For example, Haitian schools
lack the proper supplies to effectively teach the children, and the
quality of educational instruction in general needs to be dramati-
cally increased at all levels. Furthermore, Haitians have limited ac-
cess to health care and suffer from many treatable diseases, such
as malaria and elephantitis, but they are unable to obtain the
proper medication and treatment. The people even lack access to
the most basic infrastructure, such as electricity and sanitation.
I am encouraged to see many nongovernmental organizations
working in Haiti to help resolve the problems that have been men-
tioned, as well as many other challenges. Results are being seen in
the rebuilding of the infrastructure, agriculture sector, and overall
welfare of the people. These are critical steps in the right direction,
but NGO resources are limited, and the steps are small. Much
more can and needs to be done, and I hope more NGOs will be in-
volved.
The United States, primarily through USAID, is the largest
international donor to Haiti. Programs in child survival and health,
HIV/AIDS, and improving the rule of law are some of the many
areas that the United States is getting involved in, and this Con-
gress, in the last emergency supplemental, provided Haiti with an
additional $5 million in child survival and health funds and $17.5
million in economic support funds.
In addition, this Committee, in a bipartisan effort supported by
many Members of this Subcommittee, recently passed H.R. 611, the
Haiti Economic and Infrastructure Reconstruction Act. This bill es-
tablishes an entirely new and innovative program designed to re-
cruit and send Haitian-Americans back to the Republic of Haiti to
help reclaim their heritage by helping to rebuild the country's econ-
omy and its infrastructure. As a proud co-sponsor of the bill, I am
working closely with other Subcommittee Members, Members of
the Full Committee and leadership to hopefully bring this bill to
the Floor by the end of the year and get it passed by the whole
House.
The United States is doing its share. The international commu-
nity also needs to step up and do its part. That is why the Admin-
istration is working closely with the United Nations and other
donor countries to bring more funding to the table. It is encour-








aging to see other countries, such as Canada, take a large role in
helping the people of this struggling nation. In 2004, Canada
pledged over $180 million to Haiti over 2 years, and, so far, they
have come through with more than $130 million of that pledge. In
July of this year, international donors pledged another $750 million
to help the people of Haiti.
So the international community is moving in the right direction,
but we must stay committed to the Haitian people, and we must
ensure that donors follow through on their promises, which does
not happen all of the time.
President Ren6 Preval was inaugurated in May 2006 after a free
and fair election. In the months since taking office, he has tried to
build a government that is inclusive of many of the political parties
in the country, and it is seen by the people of Haiti and the inter-
national community as having really great promise. Municipal elec-
tions will take place in November, and it is hoped that this will
provide an even larger platform upon which to build a positive fu-
ture.
There are many challenges still ahead, but I am very optimistic
about the future of Haiti, and I am looking forward to hearing the
comments of our witnesses on the direction of United States and
international policy toward Haiti. Thank you.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Burton follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT OF THE HONORABLE DAN BURTON, A REPRESENTATIVE IN CON-
GRESS FROM THE STATE OF INDIANA, AND CHAIRMAN, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE
Today, we convene a hearing on Moving Forward in Haiti and how the United
States and international community can help. This fragile country, generally recog-
nized as being the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has been through
tumultuous times. In recent decades, it has survived natural disasters that brought
hurricane winds and terrible mudslides, taking lives and devastating crops; well es-
tablished gangs control city streets arid spread fear among the population; economic
growth is dismally low and the people lack the most basic of needs, such as housing,
education and access to healthcare; and its democracy has been shocked by years
of corruption and poor, misguided leadership. Today, Haiti has some forward mo-
mentum in its newly elected government, but the situation still remains fragile, and
Haiti, is clearly at a critical juncture in its path away from poverty.
First, ensuring peace and security for all of her people remains one of Haiti's big-
gest hurdles. Gangs and crime inhibit the growth of the economy and hinder many
aspects of the development process. The national police force lacks the basic oper-
ating needs, and requires extensive training assistance and equipment for it to func-
tion effectively. It's impossible for businesses to take root and the economy to grow,
providing good jobs for the Haitian people while armed and organized bands of
criminals roam neighborhoods unchecked. Programs aimed at disarming these rogue
elements need to be expanded and a culture of lawfulness needs to be instilled into
the minds of the Haitian people. The presence of United Nations peacekeepers has
helped stabilize the security situation to some degree; currently the MINUSTAH
mission is providing 6,700 peacekeeping personnel from more than a dozen countries
and it appears to be helping to provide a more secure and stable environment, build
support for the ongoing political process, and promoting and protecting fundamental
human rights; but more needs to be done.
In addition to a stabilizing force, Haiti is in dire need of international assistance
in a host of areas. For example, Haitian schools lack the proper supplies to effec-
tively teach the children and the quality of educational instruction in general needs
to be dramatically increased at all levels. Furthermore, Haitians have limited access
to healthcare and suffer from many treatable diseases, such as malaria and
elephantitis, but they are unable to obtain the proper medication and treatment.
The people even lack access to the most basic infrastructure such as access to elec-
tricity and sanitation.








I am encouraged to see many Non-Governmental Organizations working in Haiti
to help resolve the problems I mentioned, as well as many other challenges. Results
are being seen in the rebuilding of the infrastructure, agriculture sector, and overall
welfare of the people. These are critical steps in the right direction. But NGO re-
sources are limited and the steps are small. Much more can and needs to be done
and I hope more NGOs will become involved.
The United States, primarily through USAID, is the largest international donor
to Haiti. Programs in Child Survival and Health, HIV/AIDS, and in improving Rule
of Law are some of the many areas that the United States is getting involved in.
And this Congress, in the last Emergency Supplemental, provided Haiti with an ad-
ditional $5 million in Child Survival and Health funds and $17.5 million in Eco-
nomic Support Funds. In addition, this Committee, in a bipartisan effort supported
by many Members of this Subcommittee, recently passed H.R. 611, the Haiti Eco-
nomic and Infrastructure Reconstruction Act. This bill establishes an entirely new
and innovative program designed to recruit and send Haitian-Americans back to the
Republic of Haiti to help reclaim their heritage by helping to rebuild the country's
economy and infrastructure. As a proud co-sponsor of the bill I am working closely
with other Subcommittee Members, Members of the full Committee and Leadership
to hopefully, bring this bill to floor by the end of the year and get it passed by the
whole house.
The United States is doing its share. The international community also needs to
step up and do its part. That is why the Administration is working closely with the
United Nations and other Donor Countries to bring more funding to the table. It
is encouraging to see other countries, such as Canada, take a large role in helping
the people of this struggling nation. In 2004, Canada pledged over $180 million to
Haiti over two years and so far they have come through with more than $130 mil-
lion of that pledge. In July of this year, international donors pledged another $750
million to help the people of Haiti. So, the international community is moving in
the right direction, but we must stay committed to the Haitian people and we must
ensure that donors follow through on our promises.
President Rene Preval was inaugurated in May of 2006 after a free and fair elec-
tion. In the months since taking office, he has tried to build a government that is
inclusive of many of the political parties of the country; and it is seen by the people
of Haiti and the international community as having great promise. Municipal elec-
tions will take place in November and it is hoped that this will provide an even larg-
er platform upon which to build a positive future. There are many challenges still
ahead but I am very optimistic about the future of Haiti and I am looking forward
to hearing the comments of our witnesses on the direction of U.S. and international
policy towards Haiti. Thank you.
Mr. BURTON. Mr. Franco, you ought to buy a cot and just stay
in this chamber. I see you every time we have a hearing. I know
you worked here at one time. Do you just miss this place or what?
Mr. FRANCO. It is always home here. You know that, Mr. Chair-
man.
Mr. BURTON. Okay. Well, I will take that. That is good.
And, Mr. Duddy, we really appreciate you being here. We know
the Deputy Secretary of State could not be here, so we really ap-
preciate you being here in his place.
Before we get to you, however, I would like to let my Ranking
Member, Mr. Engel, who is a good friend and does a great job say
a few words.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Chair-
man, colleagues, and friends, before I turn to this afternoon's hear-
ing, I note that today marks the last Western Hemisphere Sub-
committee hearing of the congressional session, so I want to extend
my sincere thanks and appreciation to Chairman Burton, with
whom I have enjoyed working so closely this past year.
I truly appreciate the gracious and fair manner in which the
Chairman has run the Subcommittee, and it has been a distinct
personal pleasure to collaborate with him on so many important
and ambitious legislative efforts.








In that vein, I would like to extend my deepest appreciation and
gratitude for his agreeing to hold today's hearing on Haiti. I also
want, on a personal note, to congratulate Chairman Burton on his
recent marriage. I know, if you notice, he is smiling a lot these
dates and has a much better look. I think his wife has already
made a better man out of him.
Mr. BURTON. I am working out more and losing weight, all that
good stuff, and if you saw her, guys, you would know why.
Mr. ENGEL. He has a picture, in case you would like to see.
I want to also thank my fellow Subcommittee colleagues for their
efforts to raise the profile of the Western Hemisphere region and
help ensure that its numerous pressing issues receive the attention
they deserve. It has been an honor and a pleasure to serve along-
side you this year as Ranking Member.
Finally, tomorrow is the last day for my legislative fellow, Lisa
Kaplan. Lisa came on board just as I assumed the. Ranking Mem-
ber position of this Subcommittee, and since then she has been a
great help to me as I prepare for hearings and meetings related to
the hemisphere. I extend my sincere gratitude to Lisa for her excel-
lent work and professionalism, and I want to also offer my best
wishes to Lisa, who has some major changes coming in her life.
Lisa is returning to the State Department, where she is assum-
ing the position of deputy director at the Office of the Special
Envoy for Anti-Semitism. As anti-Semitism rears its ugly head,
that is a very important endeavor.
More importantly, she recently became engaged to our colleague,
Brad Sherman, and they will be married later this year. So I would
like to extend to Brad and Lisa my best wishes for their life to-
gether.
So we have lots of good things happening in this Subcommittee.
Now, as we begin our last Western Hemisphere hearing of the
year, let me say that I cannot think of a country or subject more
deserving of Congress's full and sustained attention than our
neighbor, Haiti. Friends, I am proud to share that Haiti has, and
continues to be, a primary and key focus of mine in the region.
As we all recall, earlier this year, after a history of instability,
poverty, and democratic setbacks, Haitians poured onto the streets
of their country to cast their votes, demonstrating a desire- for a
better future. After a contested vote counting period, the front run-
ner in the Presidential election, Ren6 Preval, was declared the win-
ner, with a wide margin of victory over his closest contender.
Such a large victory gave Preval a strong mandate and legit-
imacy to reform and rebuild Haiti's institutions and fractured soci-
ety; yet with the same massive, underlying problems still plaguing
Haiti, the challenges remain vast. Now is the time for the United
States to demonstrate tangibly that it stands with the Haitian peo-
ple in their quest for democracy and stability, and I have worked
steadfastly this year to ensure that Haiti gets the support that it
needs and deserves.
Just to recap, since elections signaled the beginning of a transi-
tion, not an end, immediately after Preval's election, together with
Chairman Burton and other Subcommittee colleagues, I sought Fis-
cal Year 2006 supplemental assistance for Haiti. Through our bi-
partisan efforts this year, the Congress provided an additional







$22.5 million for Haiti, and I have been proud to support colleagues
on both sides of the aisle, on this Subcommittee and off, who seek
resources, policies, and programs to help Haiti.
Friends, Haiti deserves the kind of bipartisan, unwavering con-
gressional support that we demonstrated this past year, and it is
important that we sustain our commitment. At this time of broad
agreement, let us continue to do all we can to help Haiti rebuild
its social fabric, end the violence and gang brutality, develop its
economy, and educate and care for its people.
I congratulate the Haitian people on their successful elections
earlier this year. I had hoped to attend the inauguration of Presi-
dent Ren6 Preval to extend the best wishes of the United States
Congress but was unable. As Ms. Lee and I have discussed many
times, it was difficult to do it on Mother's Day.
So I am, therefore, pleased to announce that I will be leading a
codel to Haiti, as well as the Dominican Republic and, hopefully,
Jamaica, between December 8th and 13th, and I warmly invite
both my Democratic and Republican colleagues to join me.
But, working together, much more needs to be done for Haiti.
The Haitian education system is failing the young people of Haiti.
Like all other countries, Haiti's future rests with its youth. The
world needs to find a way to help the Haitian educational system.
There is an environmental crisis in Haiti: Deforestation. Accord-
ing to the Associated Press, more than 90 percent of Haitian trees
have been cut down for fuel, heating, and other purposes, desta-
bilizing the soil and hillsides around the country. I would like to
know what is being done to deal with this problem.
Security remains a continuing serious problem. From gangs to
inadequate numbers of fully vetted and trained police, Haitians are
dealing with the dangerous consequences on a daily basis. I know
the international community in the United States is trying to re-
constitute the Haitian police. I would like to know today if our ef-
forts are succeeding, if we have the resources we need to address
the challenge, and if there is anything we can do to move faster.
I have heard so many times that Haitian political leaders and
parties often talk past one another. Haiti needs leaders who will
recognize the enormity of the crisis which has befallen the country.
Common ground must be reached to repair the social breach in
Haiti's social fabric. It is my understanding that President Preval
has been reaching out across the Haitian political spectrum to
build new bridges. If this continues to be the case, he has my full
support, and the U.S. should do whatever we can to facilitate his
outreach. I look forward to our witnesses' comments on the work
of the Preval Government.
We must all seize the moment to help Haiti address its numer-
ous, pressing needs. Thus, today, I am interested in hearing what
the Administration is doing to work with the citizens of Haiti, their
newly elected government, and the international community to
help Haiti advance on its path of freedom and prosperity. Among
my many questions, I am curious to learn about the Administra-
tion's efforts to help Haiti move beyond the chaos and despair of
the past, including by protecting human rights, combatting poverty,
and attracting investment.







As someone who proudly represents one of the largest Haitian
communities in the United States, I am always interested in identi-
fying ways that the tremendous talents of the Haitian diaspora re-
siding in Spring Valley, New York, and elsewhere can be tapped
into so that they can contribute to Haiti's democratic path toward
peace, prosperity, security, and stability.
After all, the Haitian people in government have the ultimate re-
sponsibility for ensuring their future. We have a duty to assist in
every aspect of Haiti's political, economic, and social state-building
tasks. Moreover, given Haiti's proximity to our borders, we have an
additional interest in doing so.
So I thank you again, Mr. Chairman, for holding today's Haiti
hearing, and I look forward to the testimony.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you very much, Mr. Engel. You have been
a good friend, and congratulations from the Republican side as
well. We wish you well over there. When are you getting married?
When is the date? December 3rd. Well, Merry Christmas.
Let us see. Do any of our other colleagues have any opening
statements they would like to make? Mr. Meeks? Anybody? Mr.
Delahunt, the "Silver Fox"? Anyone? Mr. Meeks?
Mr. MEEKS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to thank both you
and the Ranking Member, Mr. Engel, for having this hearing. As
we are about to go on break, there is no more important issue
which we could deal with in the Western 'Hemisphere than dealing
with Haiti. I want to thank our two witnesses, who, I know, have
been focused on this area, and with whom we have been working
closely together and would like to continue working with and await
your testimony on moving forward in Haiti.
I acknowledge in the audience a good friend of mine, who has
been, from the. time that I have known him, working and caring
about Haiti and fighting and making sacrifices, his own personal
sacrifices, and that is Ron.Daniels, who is here, a strong supporter
of Haiti for a longtime .who recognizes the fact that Haiti was the.
first free black republic in the world, at least in the Western Hemi-
sphere, and recently celebrated its 200 years of independence just
2 years ago.
The international community has been doing a number of things,
and sometimes it has been with the best of intentions, but every-
thing has not worked. Haiti needs so much that, number one, it
cannot be just for the short term; it has to be for the long term.
We have got to think of new ways of getting things done.
I am a big proponent of the bill that my colleague, Maxine Wa-
ters, passed to make sure that, in fact, Haiti received a cancellation
of its debt. I am for that, and we need to make sure that the can-
cellation of Haiti's debt occurs so they could do certain important
things.
But I want to take another step, and I think it is important be-
cause I had a hearing in my district, a meeting with a number of
individuals, about remittances, and remittances is a real form of in-
come for many of the Haitians in Haiti, but yet it does not count
as income.
Now, why is this important? In my estimation, it is important be-
cause when we try to really economically redevelop a country, you







have to do that also from within, and so as people want to become
entrepreneurs and open up businesses, they need to have credit.
Well, they cannot have any credit if there is no income, but if,
in fact, the remittances count as income, then individuals who
might ordinarily have not been eligible for credit, are eligible to get
the kind of credit that is necessary so that they can open their
businesses and do certain things from within to begin to help them-
selves. It is about what we call in many of the states "developing
wealth," and this is a mechanism that we need to utilize in order
to develop that wealth.
I was in hopes that this week we would have passed the HOPE
bill. It looked like it was going to hit the Floor this week, but it
did not. But we need the HOPE bill.
I know that there is a number of individuals in my district who
are Haitians who have descended from Haiti and would love to
come back to Haiti to utilize their expertise to help with the Haiti
Economic Infrastructure Reconstruction Act. I have heard this act
is controversial, but I think that is absolutely key and important
also because it would give individuals an opportunity to educate
Haitians further how to run a fair judiciary, creating institutions,
police department; how to rebuild and pave and maintain roads to
provide access to rural and urban areas and for health clinics.
This is really beginning to connect the whole country together,
and that is what it needs. This country is divided up. So it needs
expertise, not only from the international community in general
but from many individuals who have come to America or other
places, Canada, et cetera, who are willing to go back and give that
expertise to make a difference.
I think that we need to do that and everything that we can to
strengthen the Preval Government. I think that that would make
a difference, and it has got to be a commitment that is not for 1
year, not for 5 years, not for 10 years, but we are talking about 20-
25 years, so we are talking about a real marriage-no dating
here-a marriage that is really embedded. No divorces can be al-
lowed. This is a lifetime marriage we have to make. I yield back,
Mr. Chair.
Mr. BURTON. It seems like marriage is a major topic of discussion
today in one form or another.
Mr. MEEKS. Love is in the air.
Mr. BURTON. Love is in the air. Mr. Delahunt?
Mr. DELAHUNT. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I will restate, in my
own words, what everyone else has already said.
First, congratulations, Mr. Chairman. You have been an extraor-
dinarily fair and patient Chair of the Western Hemisphere Sub-
committee.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you.
Mr. DELAHUNT. It has been enjoyable and, I think, productive
working for you, and that same kudos is extended to the Ranking
Member, Eliot Engel.
You know, I spent an awful lot of time in Haiti in my first 4 or
5 years. I really had no hope, even with the elections coming. I only
have a little now, but I have some, and there have been some
changes, not just changes in Haiti but changes here in Washington,
where we, meaning Democrats and Republicans, are not at odds,







where there is no particular sponsorship of any faction, and that
is as a result of your leadership.
We have come together, and we have unequivocally stated that
we will support the Preval Government and keep at a distance
those who would factionalize Haiti, and I am speaking about Hai-
tians. I think that has been an extraordinary legacy on your part.
I would also want to commend the Administration. Both of you,
Mr. Shannon, Mr. Duddy, and my good friend, Mr. Franco, have
done also yeoman service. We have a long, long way to go. I think
there are two key words that I heard that might have been from
the Ranking Member, and it was echoed by Greg Meeks, about sus-
tained and substantial commitment. It is not just a year or 5 years;
it is maybe more than 10. But I think we have a moral imperative
to make that sustained and substantial commitment because, as
you know quite well, the Haitian people are a beautiful people.
They deserve so much more.
I also want to congratulate the United Nations and the Depart-
ment of State working with the United Nations. That force is abso-
lutely essential to maintain security so that the other initiatives
that hopefully will create a society and not a failed state will pre-
vail and will be successful.
So, again, I am not euphoric, but I have some hope. I will work
at it, and we pledge our cooperation. Thank you.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you, Mr. Delahunt. You know, both you and
Mr. Meeks and I have worked together on some other issues, and
I will tell you that I really believe that the Caribbean, the entire
Caribbean, but especially Haiti, has issues that need to be resolved
or, at least, helped a great deal in the years to come. So no matter
if we are all on the same Subcommittee after this political year or
not, I will work with you to try to help solve some of these prob-
lems. Mr. Meek?
Mr. MEEK. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to thank you and
the Ranking Member for having this hearing, and I want to thank
you for welcoming me to this hearing today.
I can tell you that, hearing the opening comments of my col-
leagues and also speaking with some of the Members of the Ways
and Means Committee and speaking with some of our senators in
a bipartisan way, whether it be Senator Dewyne of Ohio or Senator
Kennedy, who comes from the same state as Mr. Delahunt, or Sen-
ator Nelson in Florida or Senator Martinez in Florida or individ-
uals that are in the White House that deal with the issues of the
Western Hemisphere and Haiti or, as I spoke with Secretary Rice
today earlier this morning regarding the issue of the HERO bill
being basically, as Congressman Meeks said earlier, we thought
the bill was going to drop this week; we just did not know it was
going to drop through the floor.
We have been told now that this economic bill is a desperate
need right now, to help Haiti's economy and to help people get back
to work because of the kind of thuggery that we are seeing now,
especially in Port-au-Prince and in Ganoese and Cap Haitian. The
guys and the gals that are running illegal activity through the
southern claw of Haiti are winning right now, and we are allowing
them to win.







Being a Member of the Armed Services Committee, I can tell
you, I have traveled across the world to talk to the Netherlands
about going to Afghanistan to assist in the effort against terrorism
there. I do not see the same availability of travel or assistance or
forward lean of seeing happening for Haiti. Like many of us up
here, we represent a number of Haitian-Americans that are very
concerned about their loved ones in Haiti.
I would hope, today, some of the testimony that we hear would
help us help some individuals understand, within the halls of Con-
gress, that we need a greater push, to not just talk about it but
actually do it. I have watched HERO and HOPE, those two bills,
die two sessions in a row of individuals that are saying, ready, set,
go.
I watched CAFTA get a rose garden press conference, and folks
running around here from Government Affairs, from the State De-
partment and other agencies, knocking on doors, getting people to
vote for the DR CAFTA when I know full well, by voting for DR
CAFTA, it was going to suck jobs out of Haiti, hundreds and thou-
sands of jobs.
Mr. Chairman, as I close, it happens every day in the City of
Watermen. Haitians go across the Dominican Republic to work for
companies that are there that have subsidies to be there, and they
ran back over, and they have to pay a poll tax every time they pass
by.
So I think it is important that we look at these issues. Secretary
Rice told me this morning that we need to help call other countries
to get them to pay what they said they would pay as it relates to
Haiti's Government through the UN. I asked to follow up with her
and her staff, and I will make the phone calls and write the letters.
Mr. Chairman, I am glad to be here and looking forward to the
testimony. Thank you for allowing me to speak.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you, Mr. Meek.
Mr. Fortenberry, I am sorry. I missed you a while ago. It is not
because you are not young and good looking and nice; I screwed up.
Mr. Fortenberry.
Mr. FORTENBERRY. Very well said. I appreciate the opportunity
to be here. Thank you so much for letting me sit in on your Sub-
committee, even though I am not a Member.
I did want to add one thing briefly. I am a Member of the House
Democracy Assistance Commission, and it is a bipartisan effort to
assist countries around the world who are in the midst of reform
or who have previously had parliamentary structures of govern-
ment, principles of self-determination, if you will, and who are ei-
ther reviving those or forming them for the first time.
Haiti is one of the 11 countries that we have chosen to try to give
technical assistance to. As you all know, the concept of democra-
tization and the concept of civil institutions takes a lot of infra-
structure, and so I am very pleased that the Commission, the bi-
partisan Commission, has chosen Haiti because of all the reasons
that have been given here.
There is a complex history there. It is a scandal in many ways
to us that this country that is so proximate to us has been sub-
jected to so much complex history, all the while mired in abject
poverty and the suffering that comes about because of that. I do







not have any Haitian people, per se, in my district, yet, at the same
time, I have always had a heartfelt concern about his particular
country, and I want to commend you and the rest of the Sub-
committee for bringing, in an ongoing fashion, attention to the
needs there.
But I did simply want to add that, on the other side of the Con-
gress, just a few minutes ago, we concluded our meeting and our
assessment of our ability to provide some technical assistance to
Haiti, and we are proceeding in that direction.
Thank you so much, Mr. Chairman, for letting me sit on the
panel today.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you, Mr. Fortenberry.
Let me just say to all of my colleagues on the Subcommittee that
it is nice that you all made these statements today because the
people that are going to be helping make the decisions are sitting
here in front of us, and I think it is important that they are getting
a bipartisan message that we think Haiti should be a priority.
You know, Haiti is at the crossroads right now, and I will tell
you, after having been Chairman of this Committee for a long time
before and now, the problems in South America and the Caribbean
are going to expand dramatically if we do not really pay more at-
tention to them. I understand the problems on the other side of the
world are very important, and I support the President and the Ad-
ministration on what we are doing, but,I will tell you, we ignore
Central and South America and the Caribbean at our own peril.
I am telling you that right now. I cannot say that more force-
fully. We really need to pay attention to what is going on in Cen-
tral America, South America, and the Caribbean because if we do
not, the void is going to be filled by people that we do not want
to fill it. I can see it coming. I know all of my colleagues feel the
same way. We have been down there, and I know you guys did as
well, but that message has to get through loud and clear to the
leadership in the Administration.
With that, Mr. Duddy and Mr. Franco, if you would stand so I
can swear you in.
[Witnesses sworn.]
Mr. BURTON. Mr. Duddy, I guess we will start with you. Mr.
Franco has been here so often, you know, we will just let you take
off first this time.

TESTIMONY OF MR. PATRICK D. DUDDY, DEPUTY ASSISTANT
SECRETARY, BUREAU OF WESTERN HEMISPHERE AFFAIRS,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Mr. DUDDY. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Chair-
man, Assistant Secretary Shannon regrets that he could not be
here himself to do this hearing and sends his best regards. I would
also note that I have a long and more detailed statement, which
I would like to submit to the Committee for the record.
Mr. BURTON. Without objection.
Mr. DUDDY. Mr. Chairman, Members of the Subcommittee, thank
you for this opportunity to discuss moving forward in Haiti. The
United States and our international partners have made major
strides over the last 2 years to help the Haitian people create a







more stable, prosperous, and democratic nation. However, as you
have all emphasized, much work remains ahead.
The United States will continue its intense engagement with the
Haitian Government and with our partners in the region and
around the world to help Haiti break its cycle of poverty, violence,
and political impasse. U.S. assistance continues to strengthen gov-
ernance and the rule of law, improve security, foster economic
growth, and address humanitarian needs. We have taken innova-
tive approaches to Haiti's problems, targeting conflictive commu-
nities, such as Port-au-Prince's Cite Soleil neighborhood, with over
$13 million in assistance over the last 2 years.
The Department of State is increasing staffing at our Embassy
under the Secretary's Diplomatic Repositioning Initiative, creating
four new positions that will utilize the full range of United States
Government programs to improve Haitian governance and promote
stability in Haiti's most conflict-ridden areas. The President re-
quested $198 million in his Fiscal Year 2007 budget submission.
This follows assistance of over $600 million between the years 2004
and 2006.
The United States has leveraged that assistance with funds from
our international partners that brings total aid pledged to Haiti be-
tween 2004 and June 2007 to approximately $2 billion. Through
vigorous diplomatic efforts, we successfully encouraged streamlined
disbursements from the European Union and World Bank, and that
has helped assistance reach the people of Haiti more quickly.
The United States continues to coordinate closely with other na-
tions in the Western Hemisphere, the European Union, and be-
yond. Under Secretary of State Burns led a meeting of key troop
contributors and donors last week, and that meeting focused on
their efforts on supporting the Haitian Government's priorities in
security, democracy, and development. In late November, key do-
nors will meet again in Madrid with the Haitian Government.
The United States will help to complete Haiti's democratic tran-
sition by providing $4 million to assist with municipal, local, and
the remaining parliamentary elections scheduled for December 3rd.
These elections will give the Haitian people truly responsive, local
governance for the first time in 5 years.
United States assistance focuses on improving the administration
of justice, developing the Haitian National Police, known as the
"HNP", reducing the high rate of pretrial detention; and improving
conditions in Haiti's overcrowded prisons. The U.S. values the on-
going efforts of HNP Director General Mario Andresol to profes-
sionalize and grow the HNP.
The Director General himself volunteered for vetting under UN
auspices on September 26 to set an example for the integrity of the
institution.
Mr. Chairman, the release of high-profile detainees, like former
Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, represents progress on the human
rights front, yet much remains to be done there, too. The United
States will work with the Government of Haiti to strengthen judi-
cial independence, build an equitable justice system, and promote
human rights.
Security, however, remains Haiti's most significant challenge.
Beginning in September, the HMP and MINUSTAH have stepped







up their efforts to confront and disarm criminal gangs by increas-
ing patrols and checkpoints in critical areas. The United States will
continue to help the Government of Haiti bring its vision of an im-
proved security environment to fruition; that is, a country freed
from the scourge of criminal gangs through robust police develop-
ment and close coordination with the United Nations and other do-
nors.
President Preval and a majority of the Haitian people strongly
support MINUSTAH's presence in Haiti. The Haitian Government
has asked that the peacekeeping mission remain in the country
until the HNP can provide security on its own. As security im-
proves, and the HNP grows in its abilities, MINUSTAH will transi-
tion to more UN police and fewer troops. That will be a long proc-
ess, however, with MINUSTAH likely needed in Haiti for at least
the remainder of the Preval administration.
Mr. Chairman, MINUSTAH's composition evidences strong re-
gional support for this mission. Twelve of our Western Hemisphere
neighbors contribute troops or police. Special Representative Ed-
mond Mulet of Guatemala provides excellent leadership, and a Bra-
zilian general commands MINUSTAH's military forces. The U.S.
contributes police but not military units.
The fifth anniversary of the Inter-American Democratic Charter
witnesses growing interest in, and capacity for, regional coopera-
tion. The Western Hemisphere countries have assumed significant
responsibility in supporting Haiti's return to stable democracy.
With strong United States support, Haiti's reintegration into
CARICOM will allow Haiti to benefit from the support of its closest
neighbors. The United States and CARICOM have begun joint ef-
forts to provide technical training to Haitian parliamentarians and
support trade capacity building within the Haitian Government.
Haiti's future also depends upon the long-term commitment and
robust support of the international community. In this effort, the
State Department's Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction
and Stabilization has been engaged on several fronts, from leading
strategic and contingency planning, to providing sectoral expertise,
to sharpening international cooperation with the Haiti Core Group
at the UN.
An August 2005 contingency-planning exercise on election and
security issues, for instance, galvanized key international partners
to help overcome obstacles to the successful election earlier this
year.
Even with this strong international commitment, Haiti's needs
remain formidable. Haiti is the least-developed country in the
Western Hemisphere and one of the poorest in the world. Economic
disparity is acute, but we have begun to see a number of positive
developments. In 2005, the economy grew by 1.5 percent. GDP
growth is projected to reach 2.5 percent this year. Also, inflation
continues to decline. The United States welcomes the Haitian Gov-
ernment's efforts to increase revenues, successfully closing its Fis-
cal Year 2006 budget deficit.
President Preval's efforts to reach across historic divides and to
consult with political rivals, the business community, and others
constitutes one of the most constructive developments on the Hai-
tian political landscape in decades, and the United States encour-








ages the Government of Haiti to advance national reconciliation ef-
forts country-wide.
The United States and the international community still face
major challenges in our efforts to bring lasting stability and mean-
ingful economic development to Haiti.
First, MINUSTAH has to make a transition. Initially, its purpose
was to maintain order and create an environment in which elec-
tions could take place. MINUSTAH succeeded in this task. Now
MINUSTAH's purpose must be to create a security environment
that facilitates Haiti's development.
Second, international donors, especially the multilateral develop-
ment banks, cannot treat Haiti in a business-as-usual way. We
need to look for ways to accelerate disbursements and achieve
short-term impact.
Finally, we have to look for creative ways to attract private in-
vestment and create jobs in Haiti. Building a peaceful, democratic,
and prosperous Haiti will require years of intense effort. Sustained
United States engagement and robust assistance will provide a re-
alistic and achievable opportunity for Haiti to become a permanent
member of the community of democratic nations. Thank you, Mr.
Chairman.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Duddy follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT OF MR. PATRICK D. DUDDY, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY,
BUREAU OF WESTERN HEMISPHERE AFFAIRS, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Mr. Chairman, members of the Subcommittee, the United States and Haiti are
neighbors and friends, the two oldest republics in the hemisphere. Our important
links to Haiti have been forged by history and geography and tempered by the cor-
dial bonds of family and friendship.
Mr. Chairman, the United States is not alone in its perception of Haiti's regional
importance. Our friends and partners in the Western Hemisphere, in the Europe
Union and beyond coordinate closely with the United States in an interdependent,
international effort to secure a stable, democratic future for Haiti. The United Na-
tions Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) military forces are under the com-
mand of a Brazilian general. Twelve of our Western Hemisphere neighbors con-
tribute troops or police to MINUSTAH, an outstanding example of growing regional
interest in, and capacity for, mutually beneficial cooperation.
The United States also remains Haiti's largest bilateral assistance donor, allo-
cating over $600 million between 2004 and 2006. The President requested $198 mil-
lion in assistance for Haiti in his Fiscal Year 2007 budget submission. Haiti is one
of two countries in the Western Hemisphere receiving funding under the President's
Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The U.S. financial contribution to
MINUSTAH amounted to $120 million in FY 2006. While neither leading nor con-
tributing military units to the United Nations mission, the U.S. remains the driving
force in Haiti's transition to democracy.
Ninety-one direct-hire Americans work in Embassy Port-au-Prince, spread
throughout eight facilities and representing nine U.S. Government agencies. Under
the leadership of U.S. Ambassador Janet Sanderson, they are a highly talented and
dedicated team, who work under difficult circumstances to support U.S. interests in
Haiti.
Mr. Chairman, on February 7, with the support of the U.S. and their other
friends, Haitians went to the polls and voted for presidential and parliamentary
candidates in what independent observers noted was a free, fair and inclusive elec-
tion. The United States provided approximately $30 million for transparent admin-
istration of the national elections, as well for support for political parties, voter edu-
cation, civil society and local media.
The United States welcomed the reestablishment of constitutional government in
Haiti as a major step forward towards long-term stability and the rule of law. The
efforts of the Haitian Provisional Electoral Commission (CEP) and its Director Gen-
eral, Jacques Bernard, in these successful national elections deserve recognition.
The United States also welcomes the CEPs strong leadership as Haiti prepares for







its next round of elections. This is a clear indication of Haiti's increased capacity
to manage its restored democracy.
As a result of this substantial progress, Haiti, with the cooperation of its friends
in the international community, has a promising opportunity to secure a brighter
future for its people.
Mr. Chairman, the United States works closely with President Preval and the
government of Prime Minister Alexis to assist, in consolidating Haiti's democracy.
The Government of Haiti is making headway on the many obstacles to stability and
development.
Haiti must bring its democratic transition to a close by completing the cycle of
elections. The United States expects the Government of Haiti to hold remaining
elections as soon as practicable, certainly no later than this winter. Holding munic-
ipal and local elections is the next critical step to bring the benefits of democracy
to the people in the places where they live. These elections will also establish key
parts of the judiciary and the Permanent Electoral Council.
The United States has provided an additional $4 million to assist with adminis-
tration of this last set of elections. The United States will do all it can to preserve
the gains of these elections by supporting the establishment of a permanent CEP
to manage future elections once this last balloting cycle ends. The U.S. welcomes
past efforts of the Organization of American States's Special Mission to Haiti to reg-
ister voters and its continued activities aimed at establishing a modernized civil reg-
istry.
Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to note that there has been progress on human rights
in Haiti, especially in the area of high-profile detentions. In January of this year,
long-time detainee Father Gerard Jean-Juste was released from detention to seek
medical attention in the United States. In July, former Haitian Prime Minister
Yvon Neptune was also released from over two years in prison. In addition, on Au-
gust 15, a judge released from pre-trial detention Lavalas party supporters Annette
"So-Ann" Auguste, George Honor6, Paul Raymond, and Yvon "ZapZap" Antoine. Yet,
despite the progress Haiti is making, much remains to be done.
Respect and protection of human rights in Haiti remains a serious challenge. The
United States is addressing a lack of capacity and issues of integrity within the law
enforcement and judicial sectors by focusing on improving the administration of jus-
tice in Haiti, developing the. Haitian National Police, reducing the high-rate of pre-
trial detention, and working with international donor's to improve the deplorable
conditions of Haiti's over crowded prisons.
The United States has provided advisors to key government ministries. To im-
prove the justice system, the U.S. has trained 800 judges, prosecutors, and clerks.
The U.S. also works with local organizations to promote civic education and the
growth of civil society.
Mr. Chairman, security remains the most significant challenge to Haiti's develop-
ment and stability. The rampant criminality and kidnapping that currently plague
Port-au-Prince inhibit economic growth and are a disincentive to investment. This
current security climate threatens the stability of the country, and limits the ability
of the Haitian government and the international community to direct assistance to
Haiti's most desperate areas, such as Port au Prince's sprawling Cite Soleil slum.
I am pleased to report that, in recent weeks, the Haitian National Police and
MINUSTAH's international military and police units, under the direction of the
Haitian government, have stepped up their efforts to confront and disarm criminal
gangs, increasing patrols and check points in critical areas. The United States fully
supports the efforts of President Pr6val and Prime Minister Alexis to address Haiti's
gang problem aggressively and decisively.
Haiti's development and future prosperity can only be achieved in a stable and
secure environment. In order to help establish that environment, since 2004 the
United States has committed over $39 million in essential equipment and training
assistance to the Haitian National Police, including support of human rights vetting,
training and equipment for new recruits, upgrades to eight model police stations
throughout Haiti, humanitarian and security improvements to several detention fa-
cilities, and technical assistance to promote ethics and accountability within the or-
ganization. The U.S. urges other countries to join us in this effort. U.S. funding also
supports a 50-officer contribution to MINUSTAH's UN police mission. To date, over
1,500 new recruits have graduated from the restarted police academy, and almost
1,000 existing HNP officers have received refresher law enforcement and human
rights training. In addition, the U.S. has provided training and equipment to the
counter drug unit of the Haitian National Police and renovated Haitian Coast
Guard bases at Killick and Cap Haitien.
The United States applauds the efforts of HNP Director General Mario Andresol
to improve the quality of performance of the HNP. Since his arrival in August 2005,








he has actively fought to weed out corruption within the organization and even ar-
rested members of the HNP, included several high-level individuals, allegedly in-
volved in arbitrary murders of civilians. The U.S. welcomes the new government's
decision to retain Andresol as Director General of the HNP. The government's sup-
port for increased professional in the HNP bodes well for the continued reform of
this key public security force.
In addition to our police assistance programs, Under Secretary of State Joseph re-
cently approved the modification of our arms embargo to allow licensing for the com-
mercial sale of weapons and other restricted items to the Haitian government. This
decision was made after careful consideration and recognizes Haiti s return to elect-
ed democracy and the new government's efforts to promote security and stability
throughout the country. This will also facilitate MINUSTAH's ability to perform its
security functions and support the legitimate law enforcement needs of the HNP.
Mr. Chairman, on the 5th anniversary of the Inter-American Democratic charter,
Western Hemisphere countries are taking significant responsibility in supporting
Haiti's return to stable democracy.
This is particularly evident in MINUSTAH where special representative Edmond
Mulet of Guatemala is demonstrating excellent leadership, as did his Chilean prede-
cessor Juan Gabriel Valdes. Brazil and Canada are providing strong leadership to
MINUSTAH's troops and police contingents. Western hemispheric countries make
up almost 50% of the almost 9,000 MINUSTAH troops and civilian police.
On August 15, the United Nations Security Council renewed MINUSTAH's man-
date for six months, with the intention of future renewals. MINUSTAH's mandate
underscores the mission's responsibility to coordinate with the government in coun-
tering crime and violence, particularly in urban areas. MINUSTAH has the tools
necessary to support the Haitian government's efforts to tackle crime and gang ac-
tivity, and to restore order to Cite Soleil and other gang-controlled areas.
The Government of Haiti is coordinating in a program of disarmament, demobili-
zation and reintegration for gang members and has appointed a commission to over-
see the program. The government seeks to encourage 1,000 rank and file gang mem-
bers to put down their weapons using employment and assistance incentives, and
to bring to justice those gang-members with outstanding warrants.
Mr. Chairman, the U.S. and our international partners have demonstrated a
strong commitment to Haiti's short- and long-term development. Working in part-
nership with the Haitian government, the U.S. has a two-pronged strategy to trans-
form Haiti into a more stable, prosperous and democratic nation. This strategy in-
cludes both high-impact programs that provide immediate, tangible benefits for Hai-
ti's most vulnerable segments of society, coupled with long-term support and tech-
nical assistance for security, institution building, democratization, social services,
and economic development. Many of these objectives will require a long-term com-
mitment by the international community as well as the Haitian government. There
are no easy fixes. Continued external assistance, with the U.S. as a lead donor, is
critical to achieve real and sustainable development.
In July of this year, the U.S and its international partners met in Port-au-Prince
to discuss development strategy with the Haitian government. The U.S. pledged
$210 million out of a total international pledge of $750 million for the period July
2006 through June 2007. The next International Conference on Haiti's Economic
and Social Development will be held on November 30, 2006 in Madrid. The July
pledging conference was significant in that, unlike recent pledging conferences,
Haiti now has a democratically elected President and a constitutionally formed gov-
ernment. The donor coordination process has been formalized within Haiti's Interim
Cooperation Framework, which has recently been extended to September 2007. The
U.S., through USAID, has been playing a lead role in this process to ensure that
assistance is used effectively and expeditiously.
The U.S. is committed to improving the lives of average Haitians. In fiscal years
2004 and 2005, the U.S. allocated over $385 million for improving governance, secu-
rity, the rule of law, economic recovery, and critical human needs. With the addition
of over $224 million estimated for FY 2006, total U.S. assistance to Haiti is expected
to be approximately $609 million for the three-year period. As noted, the President's
budget request for FY 2007 includes over $198 million for Haiti.
U.S. Government assistance is used to foster broad-based economic recovery in
Haiti and address the critical humanitarian needs. A few programmatic highlights:
Economic growth: U.S. Government programs have distributed more than
200,000 loans to small and micro enterprises; provided $24 million to support
electricity generation; and created over 200,000 short-term jobs.
Urban Initiatives: The U.S. Government-funded urban peace building initia-
tive promotes peace in troubled neighborhoods by providing short-term job op-








portunities focused on infrastructure repair and implementing educational
and health programs.
Health: The U.S. Government provides healthcare services to 40% of the Hai-
tian population nationwide. More than 2 million infants have been vac-
cinated. Approximately $55 million has been approved for FY2006 under the
President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a $5 million increase
over 2005. Through PEPFAR, an estimated 4,300 individuals have begun
anti-retroviral therapy.
Food Aid and Disaster Relief: The food assistance program has distributed
34,000 metric tons of emergency food relief, equivalent to 850,000 food ra-
tions. Responding to the devastation of Tropical Storm Jeanne in 2004, a $34
million program repaired homes, schools, and other public buildings.
Education: U.S. Government-funded programs are improving education at 450
primary schools; 150,000 children and youth have benefited from education
programs.
Mr. Chairman, even with this strong U.S. and international commitment, Haiti's
needs remain enormous. Haiti will require long-term external support even with the
implementation of governance reforms, security, and a stable and democratic gov-
ernment.
Haiti is the least-developed country in the Western Hemisphere and one of the
poorest in the world. Economic disparity is acute: more than 80% of its 8.5 million
inhabitants live below the poverty level while 1% of the population controls 50% of
wealth. Social and economic indicators have worsened over the last 20 years, while
population growth has been dramatic. The economy remains fragile and dependent
on foreign assistance and remittances.
In spite of these enormous challenges, there are a number of positive develop-
ments. After almost 4 years of recession ending in 2004, the economy grew by 1.5%
in 2005. GDP growth is projected to reach 2.5% in 2006, though a significant im-
provement in living standards would require a doubling of the growth rate. Since
2004, the financial situation has also stabilized, though it remains extremely fragile.
Inflation has fallen from 42.7% at end-2003 to 15% by end September 2005, and is
declining further. Persistent high oil prices put at risk the 10% inflation target for
FY06. President Prdval has continued the Interim Government of Haiti's largely
sound fiscal policy.
With U.S. assistance, through the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Haitian gov-
ernment has begun to increase its traditionally low revenue collection rate, which
has previously constrained its ability to provide social services and invest in phys-
ical and human capital. In particular, the U.S. welcomes the government's success-
ful efforts to increase its revenue collection. As a result, the Government of Haiti
appears to have closed a budget deficit that had been projected for fiscal year 2006.
The IMF recently announced that Haiti is eligible for debt relief under the en-
hanced HIPC (Highly Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. Debt relief would free
critically needed resources for other developmental and humanitarian priorities. The
U.S. is Haiti's largest trade partner. In 2005, U.S./Haitian bilateral trade totaled
over $1.1 billion. And strong potential exist to expand our commercial relationship.
Within the Caribbean region, Haiti was welcomed back as a full member of
CARICOM in July.
One of Haiti's most urgent needs is large-scale job generation. In addition to fund-
ing short-term employment, U.S. activities are working to increase the productivity
and incomes of small agricultural producers, and extending credit and financial
services to artisans, small businesses, and micro entrepreneurs. Yet, Haiti will not
be able to attract critically needed private investment to create jobs unless security
is improved. Investors, as well as donors, need an environment that enables, not
hinders, development. A strong and sustained commitment by the international
community, with the U.S. in the lead, will provide Haiti with the necessary re-
sources to enhance security and build institutions that are so essential for creating
a commercial climate that can attract desperately needed investment and create in-
come generating jobs.
Mr. Chairman, President Pr6val's efforts to reach across long-standing divides and
to consult with political rivals, the business community and others, constitute one
of the most constructive developments in the Haitian political landscape in decades.
President Prdval formed a politically inclusive cabinet. In addition, the new Haitian
Parliament broadly reflects Haitian society. The U.S. expects this inclusive trend to
continue in the upcoming municipal and local elections. This development also sows
the seeds of a broader, long-awaited national reconciliation and the U.S. encourages
the Government of Haiti to advance national reconciliation efforts country-wide. For
a reconciliation process to reach all potential conflict generators in Haiti, there must







be a larger venue for the process than collegial dialogue in Parliament. The U.S.
will support efforts to extend the processes of inclusive political discussion and na-
tional reconciliation discussions throughout Port-au-Prince and to other areas such
as Gonaives and Cap Haitien.
Mr. Chairman, as Secretary Rice observed in November 2005, elections are only
the first step in Haiti's recovery and transition to stable democracy. Building Haiti's
future will require years of intense effort and sustained international commitment.
The United States must lead this endeavor to build a peaceful, democratic, and
prosperous Haiti, and the U.S. will continue to cooperate with our international
partners in this effort. On September 22, Under Secretary Nicholas Burns hosted
a meeting of representatives from key countries and international financial institu-
tions engaged in Haiti. Their discussions once again underscored the strong inter-
national commitment to long-term support for Haiti. The United States will coordi-
nate with the Government of Haiti and our international partners in this effort.
The United States will continue to make a positive difference in Haiti, even if the
road ahead is long. While the United States has helped Haiti take a huge step for-
ward by assisting the return to democratic and transparent governance, additional
resources will be required to help transform Haiti into a more stable and prosperous
nation to avoid a repetition of the familiar past cycles of intervention and neglect.
With improvements in justice and the rule of law and with establishment of a so-
cial climate attractive to investors and trade, oir sustained engagement will provide
a realistic and achievable opportunity for Haiti to become both a permanent member
of the community of democratic nations and a stable economic partner for its West-
ern Hemisphere neighbors.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you, Mr. Duddy.
Mr. Franco?

TESTIMONY OF THE HONORABLE ADOLFO A. FRANCO, ASSIST-
ANT ADMINISTRATOR, BUREAU FOR LATIN AMERICA AND
THE CARIBBEAN, UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTER-
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Mr. FRANCO. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman and Members
of the Committee. It is always an honor and a privilege to come
home to the House International Relations Committee. Mr. Chair-
man, I will be brief. I know you will appreciate a brief, concise
statement, and I believe Secretary Duddy has given a very good,
comprehensive overview of our entire United States government ef-
fort in Haiti, so I will not duplicate that.
I would like to say, though, Mr. Chairman, I want to congratu-
late you and the Committee for the title of this hearing: Haiti Mov-
ing Forward. We have really come a long way in the last 2 or 3
years to create that bipartisan spirit, which this Administration
strongly supports.
As you noted, Mr. Chairman, in your opening statement, the
United States is the largest donor in Haiti. We have provided over
$620 million from 2004 to 2006. Of that, which I want to stress in
my testimony is the USAID role as part of the U.S. Government
effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country, we have man-
aged nearly $440 million of these resources to do the following:
Number one, to restore and sustain a climate of peace and security;
secondly, to help revitalize the economy; thirdly, to provide essen-
tial social services; and, lastly, to improve the conditions for the
democratic processes in that country, including the elections that
were successfully held, as noted by Members of this Committee in
2006.
Mr. Chairman, in 2006, the United States contributed nearly
$200 million to help the newly elected Haitian Government, and
we, at USAID, managed about $156 million to do four things: Num-







ber one, to promote stability and security in Haiti. As noted by Sec-
retary Duddy, the security situation in Haiti threatens the coun-
try's stability, and as you said, Mr. Chairman, gangs and violence
undermine our development efforts. Our efforts are designed,
though, to work in conjunction in areas where we are secure to ad-
dress urban poverty, reduce political tension and violence, and we
provide that assistance to civic groups and local authorities to pro-
vide opportunities for the youth services training and employment.
Secondly, democracy building. In terms of democracy building,
Haiti's priority this year, in 2006, will be to ensure successful local
elections. We are, through USAID, providing $4 million to support
elections this winter, which will help elect 17 members of Par-
liament, 140 mayors, and establish and provide the technical sup-
port needed to make local governments function.
Following these elections, USAID plans to strengthen the capac-
ity of local governments to begin to deliver services and make de-
mocracy responsive to local citizens. In fact, USAID has already
begun a program to support the new Haitian legislature. I hope
that Ranking Member Engel will have an opportunity to see these
programs when you are in Port-au-Prince in December, as well as
our judicial reform program, which is specifically designed to ad-
dress the unacceptable detainee situation in the judicial process in
that country.
Finally, USAID will continue to provide assistance to victims of
organized violence through training, of Iaitian NGOs, advocacy
campaigns, and the documentation of human rights abuses and
continuing to address these serious issues. We will continue to
build partnerships with international and local organizations and
local communities to also combat trafficking in people.
The third area is the economy and institution building. It should
come as no surprise to the Members of this Committee that the
Preval administration is wrestling with a very low per-capita in-
come situation, high unemployment, an economy damaged by the
instability of two decades of mismanagement, and an active 2004
hurricane season that ruined local economies, particularly in the
Gonaives area.
However, since 2004, there have been improvements. United
States assistance has helped the Ministry of Finance to establish
transparent budgeting processes, meet IMF criteria for loan financ-
ing, and put in place a basic economic framework for the country.
We will continue to provide advisers, including Haitian-Americans,
that are actively recruited to help address government-reform
issues, transparency, procurement integrity, and trade and invest-
ment policies.
To address the budget gap, USAID will provide $7 million to
cover the cost of social services this year and will help to improve
the Haitian Government's capacity to respond to natural disasters.
Lastly, USAID, working with this Committee, will begin to pro-
vide scholarships to Haitian students to study in the United States
and encourage partnerships with Haitian and United States insti-
tutions of higher learning.
The. last area, Mr. Chairman, in conclusion, is the lack of eco-
nomic opportunity, which, as you know, is a key driver of insta-
bility. Therefore, we will continue to assist local farmers and rural








areas to increase productivity and incomes by broadening services
to small businesses and financial services that some of the Mem-
bers have mentioned to provide credit, particularly through micro-
enterprise activities.
We will also address the growing and continued degradation of
Haiti's environmental resource base and continue to address this
issue, and I would be happy to take questions on that, as I see my
time is limited.
In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, the in-
stallation of the Preval administration marks the resumption of
constitutional governance in Haiti. In Haiti today, there is a cli-
mate of hope. I completely share Mr. Delahunt's view. There is now
a glimmer of hope, where sustained progress is within our grasp
if we redouble our efforts.
Let me say something that President Bush has said. We are in
Haiti for the long haul. We cannot underestimate the challenges in-
volved in achieving stability and -a permanent economic turn-
around, and we share those very same concerns.
USAID and the United States Government will approach Haiti's
development with a strategy that responds to its evolving political,
social, and economic realities.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my statement. I would be happy
to answer any questions that you and the other Members of the
Subcommittee might have for me. Thank you.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Franco follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT OF THE HONORABLE ADOLFO A. FRANCO, ASSISTANT ADMINIS-
TRATOR, BUREAU FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN, UNITED STATES AGEN-
CY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Mr. Chairman, Members of the Subcommittee, it is both an honor and a privilege
to have the opportunity to appear before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemi-
sphere of the House International Relations Committee.
The United States remains Haiti's largest assistance donor. In the last three
years, from 2004-2006, the United States Government budget in Haiti was over
$600 million dollars. USAID managed nearly $440 million of these resources to help
the Haitian government restore and sustain a climate of peace and security, revi-
talize its tattered economy, provide essential social services and improve conditions
for democratic processes to take place, including free and fair elections held in 2006.
In 2006, a USG contribution of $198.8 million will support the newly elected Gov-
ernment of Haiti. USAID is managing $156.6 million of these resources.
The reestablishment of constitutional government in Haiti earlier this year marks
a turning point for Haiti's development prospects. Since taking office, President
Preval has made it clear that Haiti should be well governed and responsive to the
needs of its people. Prime Minister Alexis, in a speech to Parliament, outlined devel-
opment priorities for Haiti: first, strengthening governance and service delivery in-
stitutions at both national and local levels; second, establishing the conditions for
economic growth and encouraging investment; and third, providing basic services to
communities around the country. These priorities are USAID's priorities. Over the
coming years we will help the democratically elected government address the coun-
try's challenges through both immediate, high impact programs for Haiti's most vul-
nerable citizens, and longer term programs that lay the foundation for a sustained
turnaround in Haiti's fortunes.
Stability and Security
I would like to echo Assistant Secretary Shannon's concern that continued insecu-
rity poses the most significant challenge to Haiti's development. The current secu-
rity climate threatens the stability of the country, and Haiti requires stability to
progress. That said, where security permits, USAID will expand stabilization pro-
grams to bring lasting change to the most volatile and desperate areas of Haiti.
Our strategy aims to reduce political tensions and violence in these areas by un-
dertaking quick, visible projects that constructively engage local residents, espe-







cially youth. The focus is on empowering peaceful civic groups to work with local
authorities to play a lead role in moving the community beyond conflict. The inten-
tion is to provide young Haitians with services, vocational training and employment
opportunities. This will help alleviate the desperate and pervasive poverty of urban
"hot spots" while at the same time demonstrating to young people that there are
clear alternatives to violence and crime.
Since 2004 we have provided over 600 small grants in conflict prone, gang ridden
areas of Port-au-Prince, Cap Haitien, St. Marc, Petit Goave, and Les Cayes, valued
at over $13.0 million. This included more than 330 grants for almost $7.4 million
in the Port au Prince slums of Cite Soleil, Bel Air, and Martissant. Activities have
included roads and pedestrian walkways, canal cleaning, public lighting, market re-
habilitation, and restoration of sports fields and community centers. More than
300,000 days of short term employment were created in these areas since 2004.
These types of activities will continue.
Over the long term, Haiti's urban slums can only be transformed through sus-
tained economic opportunities and demonstration by the government that it is work-
ing to improve living conditions. USAID/Haiti's flagship community stabilization
program is the new Jobs, Opportunities, and re-Building Structures (JOBS) pro-
gram. This program is designed to finance labor intensive public works in conflict-
vulnerable urban and peri-urban areas of Haiti and to increase wage employment,
skills, and opportunities for vulnerable populations in these areas. The JOBS pro-
gram will actively engage citizen participation with local government officials in ac-
tivity selection, implementation, and monitoring.
The JOBS program has generated intense interest within Haiti from local civic,
government and private sector organizations; various line Ministries; and senior
leadership within the Pr6val administration. The program will demonstrate and
strengthen the Pr6val administration's commitment to remove some of the causes
of conflict while stimulating more employment.
Democracy Building
In terms of building democracy, we are at a turning,point in Haiti's history. Work-
ing to reinforce the institutions of a democracy will be critical over the next two to
three years. USAID plans to target our resources to facilitate lasting improvements
in key sectors of the government that will enhance government legitimacy and effec-
tiveness.
Haiti's first priority will be to complete the 2006 elections cycle. USAID supported
the transition to an elected, constitutional government through assistance to the
electoral process, political party strengthening, and media support. Haiti must still
hold municipal and local elections and the second round Parliamentary elections.
The United States expects the Government of Haiti to hold remaining elections
early this winter. These elections will fill the remaining 17 seats in Parliament,
elect the 140 mayors, and establish local government bodies. We have just provided
$4 million towards the costs of these elections.
The local elections process is vital for many reasons, including the indirect elec-
tion of Municipal Assemblies, which choose local legal officials, judges, and members
of the Permanent Electoral Council. This decentralizes executive authority, increas-
ing transparency and independence of these institutions. Following the municipal
and local elections, USAID plans to strengthen the capacity of local government in-
stitutions to deliver services with citizen input through a program of technical as-
sistance and training. Representative local governments with the authorities and
tools necessary to provide essential services will ensure responsiveness to citizens
at the local level.
We have just begun a program of support to the new Haitian legislature. This
multi-year effort will help Haiti's new legislators to reach out to citizens and func-
tion effectively. USAID assistance will include training and advice on such topics
as the roles and functions of Members of Parliament and their staff; rules and pro-
cedures; constituent outreach and relations; and accountability and transparency.
Another priority for U.S. assistance in this sector is judicial reform. USAID aims
to help Haiti build a justice system that is effective, independent, and impartial.
Since 2004, USAID has trained over 800 judges, prosecutors, and court clerks. A
pre-trial detention program provided legal assistance to detainees, including 208
correctional cases discharged by a Port au Prince court and 700 priority cases iden-
tified for follow-up action. USAID will continue to help Haiti strengthen the capacity
of courts, public defenders and prosecutors' offices, and the newly created Judicial
Council, and continue efforts to reduce pre-trial detention. Our program will also'
help to update laws and judicial procedures; improve case management; rehabilitate
deteriorated courts and judicial facilities; expand legal services; and improve legal
education.








Finally, USAID will continue to provide assistance to victims of organized violence
through training of human rights organizations, advocacy campaigns, and the docu-
mentation of abuses. USAID will build upon partnerships with multilateral, inter-
national, and civil society organizations, and local communities to combat trafficking
in persons, including children in domestic servitude. Support will continue for a
cross-border program in partnership with the Dominican Republic, which focuses on
improving the conditions of Haitian children victimized across the border.
The Economy and Institution-Building
Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. The per capital annual
income is less than $400 and 80% of the population lives in poverty. Unemployment
and underemployment remain major problems; more than two thirds of the labor
force do not have formal jobs.
The Preval administration is wrestling with an economy still affected by the polit-
ical upheavals of the past two decades, with a much-reduced manufacturing sector,
and little external investment. Compounding the economic downturn caused by the
political crises, an active hurricane season in 2004 destroyed entire communities,
leaving thousands homeless, the local economies in shambles, and the government
with little resources to respond.
On a positive note, since 2004 there has been significant improvement in the mac-
roeconomic situation. USAID-funded assistance helped the Ministry of Finance es-
tablish transparent budgets, meet IMF criteria for loan financing to meet budget
shortfalls, and put in place a basic economic policy framework. These advances have
enabled the Preval administration to begin on a positive economic footing.
These recent economic advances must be continued and economic reforms broad-
ened to build the foundation for lasting economic growth. President Preval's eco-
nomic team is committed to continuing the interim government's strong fiscal dis-
cipline, but still faces challenging budget gaps. And despite recent gains, many es-
sential Haitian government institutions are weak and need external assistance ca-
pacity to perform essential functions.
The Preval administration has asked the USG for expertise to help Haiti imple-
ment reforms. We will call upon Haitian Americans to play a central role in pro-
viding expertise to the government. In addition to continuing our support in the
area of economic governance and fiscal reform, USAID will provide advisors to work
on reforms in such areas as management efficiency, transparency and anti-corrup-
tion, procurement integrity, port security, and trade and investment friendly poli-
cies. With USAID assistance, Haiti has just opened an Investment Facilitation Cen-
ter. To help address the budget gap, this year, we are providing $7 million to help
cover the government's cost in meeting social priorities such as providing school
textbooks. We, along with other donors, will continue to assist the national disaster
preparedness unit build its capacity to respond to natural disasters.
To help Haiti address its economic and institutional development needs over the
long term, we will provide scholarships for Haitian students to study in the U.S.
and encourage partnerships between Haitian and U.S. institutions of higher learn-
ing.
Economic Opportunities and the Environment
Lack of economic opportunity is a key driver of instability in Haiti. Over the com-
ing years, USAID will continue activities to promote economic growth in Haiti by
assisting small agricultural producers to increase their productivity and incomes,
and by broadening the availability of business and financial services to artisans,
small businesses, microentrepreneurs, and the larger productive sector.
In recent years, USAID has helped small-scale farmers improve their productivity
and increase their income, while protecting the environment. For example, with
USAID assistance, mango growers identified a new market for organic mangos and
shipped 6,000 lbs to US buyers. Coffee farmers shipped three containers of Haitian
Bleu and Fair Trade coffee to the U.S., Europe, and Japan. Farmers have planted
more than 42,000 grafted citrus and mango trees and another 1.5 million forest
trees. USAID has helped to strengthen 18 micro-finance institution and 20 credit
unions; their combined loan portfolio now exceeds 100,000 clients.
USAID will continue to develop strong and sustainable microfinance institutions
to service Haitian microentrepreneurs by assisting these institutions to apply inter-
nationally accepted best practices in microfinance lending. We will also broaden
technical assistance to both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, such as handi-
craft production, where there is export potential.
This year we intend to initiate new environmental activities as part of a national
strategy to reduce the ongoing degradation of Haiti's natural resource base, expand
livelihood options, and reduce population vulnerability. We have just completed a







major assessment of Environmental Vulnerability in Haiti and are reviewing its
findings and recommendations as the basis for this new strategy. We are looking
at such areas as better management of critical watersheds and sustainable natural
resource management. We are also exploring new ways to further improve rural
livelihoods, including production and marketing of high value crops using a market-
driven approach. The activity would involve strong collaboration with the Ministries
of Environment and Agriculture, other donors, and, very importantly, the private
sector. This will be USAID's most important and significant intervention in the en-
vironment.
Health and Welfare of the Haitian People
Haiti's health indicators are the worst in the Western Hemisphere, with roughly
523 women dying in childbirth per year per every 100,000 live births. Sentinel sur-
veillance data from 2003 indicate nationwide HIV prevalence among women attend-
ing antenatal clinics has declined over the past 10 years to roughly 3.4%, but this
is still high. Under-five and infant mortality have also declined since the 1990s, but
80 of 1,000 children still do not live to their first birthday, largely as a result of
vaccine-preventable diseases and other basic health and hygiene factors.
With an adult literacy rate of 52% and a primary school enrollment rate of 65%,
education remains a key obstacle to economic and social advancement in Haiti. Less
than 30% of the children who enter primary school will complete 6th grade. Nearly
90% of the 12,000 Haitian primary schools are run by the private sector, including
schools managed by religious organizations.
The need to improve Haiti's dismal social indicators is paralleled by the impera-
tive to help the new government provide visible, high value services to the poor.
USAID and its implementing partners will help the government improve their man-
agement and oversight of health and education services both at national and at de-
centralized, departmental levels. We are actively supporting Haitian and Haitian-
American NGOs working in the education and health sectors.
Through a USAID-funded network of health service providers, 40% of Haitians
have access to a basic health care package that includes: child immunization; res-
piratory infection detection and treatment; immunizations for pregnant women; nu-
trition, food supplementation, and growth monitoring; natural and modern family
planning methods; maternal health care; prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS (in-
cluding mother-to-child transmission prevention) and other sexually transmitted dis-
eases; tuberculosis detection and treatment; reinforcement of policy norms and pro-
cedures; health information systems; and advocacy. We will continue to support this
network over the next few years, and work to expand it to underserved urban
slums.
USAID assists the Ministry of Health and non-governmental organizations to sup-
port persons affected by HIV/AIDS. Over 125,000 persons have been tested for HIV;
45,000 people are receiving basic care and support; and nearly 9,000 people are re-
ceiving anti-retroviral treatment. This program will continue.
USAID/Haiti education programs focus on improving the quality of primary edu-
cation, promoting parental involvement in local schools, and strengthening the insti-
tutional capacities of Haitian non-governmental organizations active in the sector.
U.S. Government-funded programs are improving education at 450 primary schools;
150,000 children and youth have benefited from education programs. Activities aim
to improve local school-support organizations, reduce grade repetition, and enhance
learning. USAID is helping the Ministry of Education to strengthen its capacity to
regulate and license 11,000 non-public schools. We implement programs that offer
children in the poorest neighborhoods help with tuition payments, provision of
books, and other school fees. We will continue these types of programs. We are also
planning a non-formal education program for out-of-school youth emphasizing lit-
eracy, numeracy, life skills, and workforce behavior and attitudes, and will empha-
size education opportunities for young children in the urban slums.
USAID directs food assistance to the most vulnerable. USAID provides approxi-
mately 18,750 tons of food assistance to over 150,000 pregnant and lactating moth-
ers; 100,000 children under the age of two; and 65,000 primary school children an-
nually. This program will continue.
Conclusion
Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, the installation of the Pr6val adminis-
tration marks the resumption of constitutional governance in Haiti. In Haiti today
there is a climate of hope, where sustained progress is within our grasp. We cannot
underestimate the challenges involved in achieving stability and a permanent eco-
nomic turnaround. It will take time and patience, and sustained USG assistance.







USAID will approach Haiti's development with a strategy that responds to evolving
political, social, and economic realities.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my statement. I welcome any questions that you
and other Members of the Subcommittee may have. Thank you.
Mr. BURTON. I appreciate your opening statements, and I appre-
ciate the statements of all of the Members of the Committee.
One of the things that concerns me is I know that we are putting
money into Haiti. I know that we are trying to provide loans for
small businesses and other entrepreneurs and agriculture, but
without investment from the private sector and the training that
goes with that, I do not see how there will be long-term economic
stability.
You can get the Federal Government, our Government, to pour
money in there for microenterprises, and that will help some peo-
ple, but as far as major job creation, and there are a lot of people
down there that need jobs since the poverty rate is horrible down
there-they are going to need training, they are going to need a
place to work, and they are going to need some job stability. I do
not see any real encouragement for the private sector to make in-
frastructure and plant investment down there and training to cre-
ate these jobs over the long haul.
The reason I have become so much concerned about it is because
there are other forces in our hemisphere that are trying to take ad-
vantage of this poverty, even in Puerto Rico, which is one of our
territorial possessions, to try to destabilize, make them into leftist
regimes.
Mr. Chavez in Venezuela, in my opinion, and all of my colleagues
do not share this, is pouring money into Nicaragua, he did it in Bo-
livia, he did it in Peru, he did it in Mexico, and he is doing it, we
understand, in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and other places in the Carib-
bean, and that is going to have to be met. That challenge is going
to have to be met, not just by our Government funds but by some
maybe tax encouragements, tax incentives, to get the private sector
to invest down there because they will invest where labor costs are
low, but they will not invest where labor costs are low but there
is nobody that can do the job. They have got to be trained. They
have to know how to do the job.
So we need to have some kind of an encouragement for people
who are going to go offshore anyhow to do it in our hemisphere and
do it, in particular, in Haiti.
Along with that, can you give me some additional information on
the donor countries that are providing investment or money down
there to help out, and are they encouraging private investment in
their private companies to go in there and try to help out and cre-
ate jobs?
Mr. DUDDY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I will take a first whack
at answering some parts of your question. Let me say, first of all,
that another necessary precondition for improving economic envi-
ronment is security, and certainly one of the key requirements for
private investors is that there be an atmosphere conducive to mak-
ing serious investments with some reasonable expectation of suc-
cess. That is one of the reasons why we have looked so intently at
the issue of improving the Haitian National Police, working with
the international community, and encouraging MINUSTAH and







the HMP to work to disarm the most crime-ridden neighborhoods
within, particularly, the City of Port-au-Prince.
Mr. BURTON. If I might interrupt, I agree with you. I think that
that is a very laudable thing, but with the poverty rate in Haiti or
anyplace else, you could put tremendous amounts of law enforce-
ment in there, but unless those people have some hope with a job
or some money coming in to put food on the table, they are going
to continue in their old ways, no matter if they have to risk being
shot by a huge police force.
So what I would like to know is, in addition to the money coming
in and the security you are talking about to stabilize the crime
problem, what is being done from other countries and the United
States to really get the private sector to go in there and train and
create jobs for these people?
Mr. FRANCO. The first thing, Mr. Chairman, that we are doing
involves excellent coordination. You mentioned Canada and CETA
and the EU. We have excellent coordination on the ground with the
international community and up here as well. We have tried to en-
gage, first, the Canadian and U.S. Haitian-American community
very directly.
I did an event a couple of years ago with Mr. Meeks in his dis-
trict. I attended and arranged six of these conferences throughout
the United States and Canada. I mention this because they have
a keen interest in investment and actually know the opportunities
and the market linkages that are necessary to get things done.
I have to, though, echo what Secretary Duddy said about in
terms of the private sector people telling me first it is the security
situation. Secondarily are the right economic policies in place, and
I am very pleased that this Preval administration has continued
what I thought was, and think, were very sound economic policies.
The government is creating that climate for investment, which is,
first, security and then the right fiscal policies.
The fact is-it is not something to brag about, but for the first
time in 4 years, we had 1.5 percent economic growth in Haiti this
year, and we provided 200,000, not make jobs but real jobs, for peo-
ple in Haiti.
So beyond the security situation, which is paramount, are cre-
ating those right policies in place to attract investment.
At the end of the day, and I can say this because I am the guy
that is charged with dispensing the goodies sometimes, there are
not enough foreign aid dollars to transform the society. The only
way we can stimulate a country's economy is private sector invest-
ment, period. There is just not enough money, and that is not the
way you create wealth.
So the notion that we have had, particularly working with the
Canadians, since we are government advisers, and we have a pub-
lic role, what are the policies that need to be in place in Haiti to
attract investment? Someone mentioned legislation pending on
Capitol Hill that might also contribute to these efforts, but what
are the policies that we can attract investment beyond security?
We are making progress in that direction. As you know, earlier
this year, which is also a good relief for the Haitian Government,
they were now HIPC qualified in early September. So there are ef-
forts afoot to make the climate there far more conducive.







Mr. BURTON. Okay. Mr. Engel?
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Duddy, I would like to ask you, and my staff, I apologize for
having to run out for a few minutes-I had to speak on the House
Floor-that always happens the minute you sit down, but my staff
has briefed me as to what you said.
I want to ask you about the donors conference. The Chairman,
quite rightly, in my opinion, was talking about economic develop-
ment in Haiti, and until that happens, people are going to revert
back to the old ways. What can you tell us about the July donors
meeting? I know Secretary Shannon was there July 25th. What
were the requests of the Haitian Government? What commitments
did we make? Are donors following through on their pledges? Those
types of questions. How does our financial commitment- to Haiti
compare to the other donors, including Canada? What needs are
being funded, and what are the goals and expectations? I under-
stand there was a November donors meeting of that as well.
I have mentioned several things, and I would like you to expand
on that.
Mr. DUDDY. Let me give you a couple of bullets. Going into the
Donors Conference in July, the target that the Haitian Government
had come up with was a request for $540 million. Eventually, $750
million was pledged, of which we pledged $210 million. We are the
largest bilateral donor, but the Canadians and the European Union
are also very, very substantial donors.
Numbers per year. Our FY 2007 request is for $198 million, but
our pledge at the July conference was for $210 million, but it cov-
ers a period of a little bit more than a year. Nevertheless, clearly,
it was the largest single pledge for that period of 14 months, and
we are using that money to leverage further donations from others
interested in what is going on in Haiti.
We have also been working diligently throughout the year to ac-
celerate and facilitate disbursements, particularly from Europe,
which has a somewhat different process for disbursements, and we
think we have had some success there. As of, I think, some point
this spring, prior to the July conference, there was a point at which
somewhat over $1 billion had been pledged and over $900 million
from 2004 to just before that conference, over $900 million had, in
fact, been disbursed. So as these things go, it was a very encour-
aging rate of disbursement.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you. Let me ask you about another problem
which we always hear about with Haiti, and that is the armed
gangs roaming around, the security. Obviously, urgent action is
needed to disarm and dismantle urban and rural armed gangs, and
there is a program there to refocus, we hope, disarmament, demobi-
lization, and reintegration called the "DDR program." Could you
please describe the current DDR program, how effective it has
been, what challenges are you facing, and, again, what is the na-
ture of the U.S. contribution and the international contribution?
Mr. DUDDY. I will have to check my notes for the exact numbers,
but, in general, the DDR efforts were slow in getting off the
ground. The clear preference of the Haitian Government is that the
disarmament of the conflicted neighborhoods, such as Cit6 Soleil







and, to a somewhat lesser degree, Cit6 Militaire, and other areas,
be done as specifically as possible.
Initially, it was a difficult process. At present, MINUSTAH, and
particularly the Brazilian contingent working with the HMP, are
working in those areas. They have established a new network of
checkpoints along Route Nacionale No. 1, and the Brazilians, since
taking over responsibility for that sector, have increased foot pa-
trols and their presence.
They have also worked with our own agencies and others in the
international community to assure that as government presence
into these problematical areas is extended, that presence is accom-
panied by immediate, high-impact, and short-fuse projects to de-
velop work and to deliver either services or improvements in serv-
ices which are measurable and will be immediately felt by the resi-
dents.
The clear effort is to make an association between life getting
better and cooperation with the authorities.
[Further information follows:]
ADDITIONAL WRITTEN INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM MR. PATRICK D. DUDDY TO
QUESTION ASKED DURING THE HEARING BY THE HONORABLE ELIOT L. ENGEL
President Pr6val revived Haiti's disarmament and gang reintegration program in
August of this year, creating a national committee headed by Presidential Advisor
Alix Fils-Amie to oversee the process. Program participation is limited to rank and
file gang members who turn in weapons in exchange for participation in vocational
training and access to microfinance. Gang-leaders and those with outstanding war-
rants may not participate. MINUSTAH implements the program, registering and
ballistics testing the weapons, conducting training and managing the orientation
and training facility. The program focuses on the gang-stronghold area of Cite
Soleil. MINUSTAH has established a continuing presence in this key area and the
HNP is conducting regular patrols there for the first time in three years. To date,
approximately 109 gang-members have entered the program and turned in approxi-
mately 50 weapons. The Government's DDR commission, with the support of
MINUSTAH and the international community, is also exploring complementary
community development and violence suppression programs targeting other resi-
dents of gang-controlled areas, particularly women and children.
The U.S. fully supports the efforts of the government of Haiti and MINUSTAH
to reduce gang-violence and kidnapping and restore order to Cite Soleil. Between
2004 and 2006, we provided over $40 million to train, equip, vet for human rights
abuses, and transform the HNP into a responsible law enforcement organization.
The United States also provides 50 officers to the UN police contingent, many of
whom are Haitian- American and Creole-speaking. Canada also contributes signifi-
cantly to the MINUSTAH's police contingent. Since 2004, the United States has al-
located over $600 million for Haiti, and the President requested $198 million in
funding for Haiti in his FY 2007 budget submission.
Haiti's other international partners pledged over $540 million at the July 25 Do-
nors' conference in Part-au-Prince, making a significant, long-term commitment to
Haiti's future development and stability. The United Stats and other donors will
meet again in Spain on November 29-30 to assess Haiti's progress.
Mr. ENGEL. Mr. Franco, did you want to add anything?
Mr. FRANCO. Yes. If I could add to that just a couple of things.
I think we had a very significant development on September 5 with
MINUSTAH and the Government of Haiti actually announcing the
implementation of the DDR program, with a goal of reaching 1,000
members of gangs to lay down their arms for, just as Secretary
Duddy said, an exchange of an economic, food, and employment as-
sistance. This is a very significant development because, for a pe-
riod of time, we needed to marry up MINUSTAH and the Govern-
ment of Haiti on these efforts.







Also, the same week, the Government of Haiti announced the
creation of the Presidential commission on this effort, which will be
led by Felise Amin, to oversee the program. So we are at a startup
phase on this, but it is, just as Secretary Duddy said, a very com-
prehensive package that ties in the security, the government, and
the assistance programs with us.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BURTON. Ms. Ros-Lehtinen?
Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN. Thank you so much, Mr. Chairman, and
thank you to the panelists for their testimony.
The future of Haiti has always been a concern to me. Just over
a year ago, I had the honor of accompanying Secretary Rice on a
fact-finding mission to Haiti where our delegation was able to wit-
ness the conditions and the political atmosphere there. As you
know, in our home districts of south Florida, many of us have Hai-
tian constituents who take a very keen interest in the growth and
the development of Haiti and how Haiti interacts with the rest of
the international community.
It has made great strides in building the foundation for a bright-
er future, and it certainly took a large step forward with its elec-
tions in February, when 2 million Haitians voted democratically to
elect its President, but, sadly, as all of us know, Haiti has been
plagued for many years by poverty, political insecurity, and that is
why all of us must be working together to ensure that this strug-
gling nation receives a helping hand from the United States from
the international community to begin once again its path to eco-
nomic security and domestic stability.
But we know that it has been very difficult to get United States
businesses fully involved in investing in Haiti due to corruption.
We have got to do all we can to make sure that Haiti does not fol-
low in the footsteps of countries like Venezuela and Cuba. How can
we help Haiti promote a clean business practice so that we can get
more U.S. businesses involved there? We have spent so much
money in Haiti already. If corruption is not rooted out, the Haitian
economy will continue in a downward spiral. The stability of the
government will never be assured.
So security, noncorruption, transparency-all of these issues are
key to the economic survival of Haiti, and in order to increase its
market access, what can we do to help Haiti root out corruption
and induce United States businesses to invest there?
Mr. FRANCO. If I can, Congresswoman, very, very generally on it,
let me just state that we are extraordinarily encouraged by the
Preval administration's efforts in terms of fiscal reform and its eco-
nomic policies, and I think that those, number one, will be key.
One of the things that we often hear on any Haiti briefing when
we are in Port-au-Prince from anyone in government and outside
government is the problem of lack of human resources, and to that
end, I want to tie in with your comments about the Haitian-Amer-
ican community. The diaspora in the United States and Canada
and elsewhere can play a pivotal role in addressing those issues of
corruption, of having the right economic policies, and encourage-
ment.
Their commitment to reengage, to invest in their country is not
only genuine but enthusiastic, particularly in the Miami area,







which you represent. So having those linkages and having their in-
volvement and capacity of advisers, as even authorized by the bill
that this Committee reported out last week, I think, will be very,
very important.
I think there is also a growing realization that the only way that
Haiti can move forward, because there are encouraging, albeit
small, data about economic growth that I mentioned earlier-infla-
tion is down in the country, and there has been economic activity-
is by bringing in that foreign investment and keeping in national
investments.
So we intend to stay the course, and, frankly, one of the things
we did 2 or 3 years ago is we took stock of what went wrong in
the 1990s, and that was this engagement of the international com-
munity, bringing us all on the same page-Europeans, Canadians,
and Latin Americans-on these issues and seeking to provide, as
we have done through a number of donor conferences, the nec-
essary support, moral and otherwise and technical, to the Govern-
ment of Haiti.
Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN. If I could ask a question related to the health
issue, HIV/AIDS and other diseases in Haiti; how much cooperation
and integration is there in the health services of Haiti that agen-
cies are working together with other organizations, and what can
we do, as partners of Haiti, because we want Haiti's citizens to be
healthy?
They come to south Florida, and we want our tourists to come
to Haiti and tourism to thrive, and the health situation is of para-
mount concern. How much cooperation is there between the gov-
ernment and different agencies, and what can we do to improve
that delivery of services?
Mr. FRANCO. Well, this is one of, I think, our strongest success
stories, this story and the story of the maternal health care and the
food programs that we administer, but the HIV/AIDS program, let
me say, first, Haiti is one of two countries in the hemisphere that
are part of the PEPFAR, the President's emergency response to the
HIV/AIDS crisis, the other one being Guyana.
It has been a very successful program with the Ministry of
Health. It has been one of the programs that have been, more than
anything else, designed to provide prevention, education, which is
lacking in the country, attacking questions of stigma, discrimina-
tion. We have had former Secretary of State Powell visit the facili-
ties that we provide care and testing in the country, so they have
been extremely successful. We work very closely with the CDC and,
again, with the ministry on reenforcing these issues.
So I can tell you that that is one area that we need to, as in any
high-prevalence country, continue to monitor and redouble our ef-
forts. I would not say the situation there is completely under con-
trol. I just returned yesterday from a Caribbean chief of missions
conference on HIV/AIDS, meeting with Ambassador Sanderson on
how much progress we have made in that field.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you, Ms. Ros-Lehtinen.
Mr. Delahunt?
Mr. DELAHUNT. You know, I am listening to the questions that
were being posed by the Chairman relative to the economy and
your response being you have to have security first, and this is the







conundrum, is that the reality of Haiti is that it needs so much,
and simultaneously, and I would just make the observation and en-
courage the Administration to think large. This could be the last
chance for Haiti, and I do not think that is hyperbole.
So with the next budget cycle, I think we have to find the money.
We, obviously, have commitments all over the world that are sub-
stantial, and when we weigh them, there are billions of dollars
going into the Middle East, and I am not saying anything about
that, but this is our neighborhood. This is a group of people that
have suffered for 200 years, and there ought to be a sense of ur-
gency about funding the infrastructure needs.
Chairman Burton is absolutely right. We have got to go to the
private sector to do those jobs, but, in addition to security, it is
schools, it is all so much, and we have really got to get past think-
ing small and thinking very large when it comes to Haiti.
I was encouraged to hear that you were pleased with the budget
process there. It seems to be" transparent. Clearly, we need the
checks and balance in the audit that is required. Either one of you
can comment on that.
Mr. DUDDY. Sir, if I may, we certainly take your point and agree
with you that Haiti's needs are extraordinary, and while I empha-
size that specifically with respect to what we are hearing from the
private sector as to what they need, security is a very big piece of
that. But we are engaging very, very broadly. Forty percent of Hai-
tians are receiving basic health care through programs that we
support.
We have invested $25 million in trying to bring up the electrical
grid, which is absolutely fundamental to rebuilding some of the key
economic areas. Clearly, we are also trying to leverage the gen-
erosity of the United States in working with allies around the
hemisphere.
Mr. DELAHUNT. I applaud those initiatives. Would more funding
help, if the funding was accelerated up front, or is there an absorp-
tion issue?
Mr. DUDDY. There is an absorption issue. The key thing, I think,
which is something you addressed as well, is we need to under-
stand that we have got to stay there and get the job done, that this
is not a short-term commitment.
Mr. DELAHUNT. How would you characterize the role of the
United Nations there? Is there any chance of squeezing maybe an-
other thousand or 1,500 peacekeepers out?
Mr. DUDDY. I am not sure, but I think what we are expecting in
the proximate future is a need to see the UN mission evolve more
in the direction of the police. In fact, when the mission was ex-
tended most recently, the ceiling for troops was lowered slightly in
order that the ceiling for police could be raised.
Mr. DELAHUNT. And what is the gossip in Haiti relative to the
former President Aristide? Are there concerns? Is there talk about
him returning? Presumably, if he did return, that could be prob-
lematic. But at this point in time, do you have any information
that you can share with us?
Mr. FRANCO. You know, I think, and we go back a long time, I
think you have got this hearing right, moving forward.







Mr. ENGEL [presiding]. Okay. The Chairman has just left for a
minute. Mr. Meek, I know you wanted to participate.
Mr. MEEK. Thank you very much, and I want to thank our wit-
nesses for sharing what is happening on the ground in Port-au-
Prince.
Mr. Secretary, I know you are familiar with what we were talk-
ing about earlier, Haiti and the Hemispheric Opportunity through
Partnership Encouragement Act. What is the State Department
doing to breathe life into the HOPE bill at this moment because
you were talking about economics, and Mr. Franco talked about
going throughout the United States and having these workshops?
But we have something right here, in the U.S. Congress, in the
House, the Chairman Thomas bill that is not moving. I have been
told that it will be maybe addressed in the lame duck session. We
have folks over in the Senate that are saying, well, if that bill is
going to move, we would like to put some things on it.
I am just really concerned, and I do commend the State Depart-
ment, and I will be in Haiti in the fourth quarter after the elec-
tions. I have already talked to the Ambassador. She is saying that
she wanted me to come back. I am looking forward to coming back.
I have been in the Ambassador's residence. We have had these big
meetings with folks on behalf of State Department, I must add.
I traveled down, too, with Secretary Rice when she went down.
I visited the USAID warehouse. I have talked to those employees.
I have met with the Embassy, those that are still left, if we are
still under evacuation orders or what have you. They have gone
through about, I think, three Ambassadors since I have been in
Congress.
To see this HOPE bill here, I do not want to be the guy that
throws water on the fire, but I am trying to put some kerosene on
it right now. Maybe I just represent too many Haitians that make
me feel the way that I feel. We can have this hearing, talking
about moving forward, and we are moving forward. Like Mr.
Delahunt said, this U.S. commitment has to be beyond our wildest
imaginations because we now have the UN on the ground, and we
have the UN on the ground to make sure that we are able to follow
through.
My main question is, what is the State Department doing to
move this legislation here in Congress?
Mr. DUDDY. Mr. Congressman, I do not believe that we have
taken a position, as I think you may be aware, on the specific legis-
lation. We are certainly trying to make the best possible use of the
resources that we have received to help that country put its econ-
omy and its institutions in a position to participate more effectively
in the region's economy, but I do not believe that we have taken
a position on the specific legislation.
Mr. MEEK. That is very interesting. You have been to the ware-
house district there in Port-au-Prince?
Mr. DUDDY. I have been to Haiti, yes, many times.
Mr. MEEK. Okay. You have, hopefully, gone into the textile sec-
tor.
Mr. DUDDY. Not recently to the warehouse district, but this time
and in the mid-90s as well.







Mr. MEEK. Okay. Well, it used to be a very vibrant area. Now
it is almost closed. There are no incentives. I know you want to say
something, but I am going to say this. There are no incentives for
anyone to be in Haiti at this moment. When we passed DR CAFTA,
that was a bullet in the head of Haiti economically. I am going to
tell you that right now.
We can go around, and we can paint all kinds of pictures here,
but I am just going to say, really, I am speechless to hear that the
State Department does not have a position on the HOPE bill. Now,
it was me, Kendrick Meek, the first guy down in Haiti when
Aristide flew off in his white plane, and you had this prime min-
ister from Boca Raton that was appointed, basically. Then you had
the head of the Supreme Court, by the Haitian Constitution, be-
come President of the United States [sic] was on the ground.
A lot of my constituents were upset, saying, why are you embrac-
ing these folks? Why are you doing this, that, and the other? A lot
of folks were upset, but I said, We must have elections ASAP.
Now, as far as I am concerned, I have no problems with the State
Department as it relates to working with the UN and pushing this
toward the elections and democracy, but for you to come here today
and say that the State Department does not have a position on the
HOPE bill, but, better yet, talk about economic success in Haiti, to
put people to work and allow them to be able to pay for their chil-
dren that go to school-97-plus percent of the kids in Haiti go to
private school. A lot of the folks that you mentioned in Cit6 Soleil,
the $13 million, or what have you, investment there; those kids
need it. That is where the main thuggery is going on.
The warehouse district that I am talking about, as it relates to
textiles, to be able to bring companies back into that area; those
individuals in that neighborhood would go to work in those areas,
and for the State Department not to have a position, I wish Sec-
retary Rice would have told me that this morning because maybe
our meeting would have been a little longer. She said it is unfortu-
nate that the bill is not moving.
But I watched, Madam Chairwoman, I watched Presidents,
White House officials, State Department legislative affairs direc-
tors-I am not talking about associates and interns-walk the prin-
cipals around of the countries that were going to be benefactors of
DR CAFTA, rose garden press conference. But you ask folks, Do
you support HOPE? Oh, yes, we support it. But the State Depart-
ment does not have a position? I mean, I am just trying to figure
out.
You know, I am just going to tell you right now. You can say
what you have to say, but I do not see the kind of effort-I am
going to yield in a minute-I do not see the kind of effort, Madam
Chairwoman, at all. This bill was shared with us, and Mr. Rangel
and Mr. Thompson have been talking about this, Chairman
Thompson, have been talking about this thing. Mr. Rangel said,
What do you mean, it is not going to be on the agenda for this
week for us?
We are hearing 66 suspension bills, Madam Chair, on the Floor
for naming a post office, designating of buildings, and I am pretty
sure these are great Americans, and we need to do it, but for us
to have this hearing and not have the paramount issue before us







that can assist the very people that we are trying to help-I guess
the reason why I am passionate about it is all of us understand the
contributions of Haiti. We would not salute one flag right now if
it was not for Haitians coming here and helping us for our inde-
pendence.
So this thing runs real deep with a lot of folk, but I just want
to make sure that we understand that this is not just a regular
piece of legislation that has been scraped to the side. This has a
lot to do, not only with our relations and the efforts that we have
ongoing. We may be the biggest person sitting at the table when
it comes down to bringing about the solution in Haiti, but we have
to. We owe Haiti that. We do, and like Mr. Delahunt said, this may
be our last chance to really be able to do something because the
UN is a part of it.
So I would ask if you would send a message back, Mr. Secretary,
to those that make the decisions on the position on where the State
Department is going to be on this bill. Someone needs to call Chair-
man Thomas or the speaker or someone and say that this will be
important to our efforts in Haiti because it will help put Haitians
to work in Port-au-Prince, mainly where you have a lot of this
thuggery going on, and it will incentivize companies to do business.
We have already sent the message to the private sector, and I
appreciate your lenience here, but I am just going to say this: We
have already sent the message to the private sector, oh, yes, we are
for the HOPE bill, and now to hear that the State Department does
not have a position on it is really something that I think is news-
worthy, okay, and that by you saying that, coming to this hearing,
the closing day of the session, something had to tell you or whisper
in your ear that this bill has been put off the agenda.
This is the Thompson compromise bill. This is not everything we
need, but it is something. So when I hear from the President of
Haiti, "Kendrick, what is going on in Congress?" I do not want to
say, "Well, Mr. President, I hate to report, but I do not know what
the State Department is telling you, but they are not here." I am
telling you from a person, a Democrat under a Republican Adminis-
tration, that went to Haiti, the first Member of Congress on the
ground to publicly meet with the new appointed prime minister,
talked to the Secretary, flew over with her, worked with the Ad-
ministration on it because I believe in progress. too.
We just need a better effort from the State Department. That is
what I am saying. That is basically what I am saying here.
So, Mr. Chairman, I want to thank you for coming to me. I will
yield. If you all have anything you want to add to it, please.
Mr. FRANCO. You know, Mr. Meek, I probably should not, but I
guess I will.
Mr. MEEK. Go ahead.
Mr. FRANCO. Nobody knows Haiti better than you do. On your
honeymoon, you went to Haiti. You have been involved in it from
the beginning. Your heart, your commitment is there. Your con-
stituents-we have met on it a number of times. Let me just say
this, though. Neither Secretary Duddy or myself are ducking any
questions on this.
We are the guys that are, I guess, charged to come up here to
tell you what we are implementing and what we are doing. When







you keep referring to the State Department position, the State De-
partment position, it is the Administration position. There is an
Administration up here.
In my old days up here, it was called the "SAP," as you know,
Statement of Administration Policy. The Administration, just as
Secretary Duddy has said, does not have a position on this bill. You
chatted with the Secretary today. These are people above our pay
grade that make these decisions.
We will do this, though, noted. Your concerns are noted. We can
certainly take the message back, but I do not want to leave the im-
pression here that somehow the State Department is out there
ducking an issue or things of that kind. It is an Administration pol-
icy that is reviewed and then is sent up and communicated through
the normal channels, as you know, to the Congress.
Lastly, and I have been around here for a while, we are not the
people who decide what goes up on suspension or how things get
on the calendar of the House or things are decided. There is cer-
tainly a role of the Administration, but that is something for the
House leadership to decide as well.
But let me just say, to conclude, I have been in the warehouse
district. I took a trip down there with the governor of Florida, and
I can tell you that there is a little more activity than there has
been in the past because the right economic policies and the right
incentives are being created. Whether we need to do more and
work on this is a subject, I think, for further discussion with high-
er-level policy-makers.
Mr. MEEK. I respect your response to that.
Mr. Chairman, while you were out, it was shared with me that
the State Department, because I was wondering-I did not see any-
one knocking on doors around here when the HOPE bill was taken
off the calendar for this week and saying that it is important, espe-
cially with Chairman Thomas, Ways and Means, and Mr. Rangel
and others, to say that this is important to the forward progress
in Haiti economically.
Mr. BURTON [presiding]. Well, I am going to talk to Mr. Thomas
about it, and I will also tell you, I think we are going to have a
special session, and we will see if we cannot resurrect that before
the end of the year. I will try.
Mr. MEEK. I hope so, Mr. Chairman. With your help, I think that
we will be moving in the right direction.
Mr. BURTON. I wish the State Department would put their two
cents' worth in on that, and, besides that, I know that there is no-
body above your pay grade. I mean, you said somebody above your
pay grade. I thought you guys were the most important people in
this town.
Mr. MEEK. They used to tell me up here, but I know better.
Mr. BURTON. Okay. Well, maybe there is somebody more impor-
tant around here than us, but, you know, I watch the House and
the Senate, and I see these guys walking. Except for me, they walk
around with their heads in the clouds, and I do not think there is
anybody more important than the 535 of us. What do you think?
Does anybody think that is humorous?
Anyhow, Ms. Jackson Lee.







Ms. JACKSON LEE. Mr. Chairman, you have been so kind to in-
dulge me and allow me, and I apologize. I am a guest of this Com-
mittee, and I was at another meeting, and I thank you so very
much. Let me associate myself with the remarks of both the Chair-
man and the Ranking Member and thank them for their leader-
ship, as well as the distinguished gentleman from Florida, on this
HOPE initiative.
I happen to think that the State Department has a very high pay
grade, and I know that if they speak, many will answer. This is
crucial.
Let me congratulate the President of Haiti in his absence-I
know his leadership is here, or some-because I think great strides
have been made. But I would just simply comment on just this
brief thought, Mr. Duddy, if you would, and let me just, of my own
accord, applaud the State Department and Secretary Rice for a
breath of fresh air.
I sat in this room about a year or so ago to experience the most
horrific presentation by a representative of the State Department
that I had ever seen, a person who shouted, a person who was
rude, a person who was uncaring, and a person who certainly con-
tributed to, I believe, the misfortune of Haiti's problems in terms
of the glue that we needed. So let me just say that it looks like we
are moving forward.
I think Haiti is moving forward, but there are great issues of
poverty, there are great issues of lack of potable water, and several
others. I know there is a stability question, but what are we doing
to be able to ensure that the people out of Port-au-Prince know
that there is a strong government, a government that can provide
security? What are we doing to help be the bridge for some of these
areas where people are probably still wondering whether their gov-
ernment has transitioned?
We really need to be a large part of it, and I would like to hear
your answer on the HOPE bill as to whether or not the State De-
partment will engage in trying to pull it out of the ashes. I yield
to Mr. Duddy. Thank you.
Mr. DUDDY. Thank you very much. Let me start with the last
point first. The U.S. does support private sector development, and
we understand that that is going to be key to long-term, broad-
based progress there, and we will take Congressman Meek's point
back with us. I note that we support development of the private
sector, and we are working in that direction. We understand your
point on the specific legislation, and we will carry that message.
Congresswoman Jackson Lee, we are engaged in a wide range of
areas. We are providing very substantial health services. Nearly 40
percent of Haitians are receiving health care through programs, as
I mentioned earlier, that we are either administering directly or
supporting. We have provided over 200,000 loans to small enter-
prises and created some 200,000 short-term jobs.
We know that for virtually all Haitians, not just security but also
improved judicial management are priorities. We have provided
over the last 2 years nearly $40 million in training and equipment
for the Haitian National Police.
We have provided some $16 million to those working on judicial
reform, and we are working collectively to leverage the assistance







the U.S. has provided to draw in and consolidate the commitment
of a wide range of international partners. Just prior to your arrival,
I noted that, in July, another $750 million was pledged, of which
we pledged $210 million, but that was still a very substantial con-
tribution from the rest of the world.
Ms. JACKSON LEE. How much money?
Mr. DUDDY. At the July conference, it was $750 million pledged,
of which we pledged $210 million, for a period that will range from
basically June to September, so for about a 15-month period. In the
2007 budget, we have asked for $198 million.
This, as I noted earlier, actually exceeds the amount targeted by
the Haitian Government for that July conference, and we will be
going to Madrid to work with our partners to see how disburse-
ments are going and to check our gauges in terms of the results
that the programs we are working on are bringing.
Ms. JACKSON LEE. Do we have an ongoing, positive relationship
with President Preval now?
Mr. DUDDY. Oh, yes, absolutely.
Ms. JACKSON LEE. And you feel comfortable, the State Depart-
ment feels comfortable, the Administration now is in a diplomatic,
equal relationship with the Government of Haiti.
Mr. DUDDY. I think we have a terrific relationship with the Gov-
ernment of Haiti. We are engaging them regularly at all levels.
Ms. JACKSON LEE. USAID, potable water, the people that are
away from Port-au-Prince.
Mr. FRANCO. Well, I think that Secretary Duddy had a very good
presentation on many of the programs that we are supporting. I
would say, statistically, just to give you the magnitude, Congress-
woman, of what we are doing, on a daily basis, 630,000 Haitians
receive either health or a combination of health, maternal, and
feeding programs from the United States. We would like to get that
to zero, but that is the safety net we have provided, meaning zero
through opportunity.
Also, you asked about the impact. Garbage, which is a measure
of a government functioning, garbage pickup and so forth has been
financed through the United States Government, through us, as
are the school uniforms and school. The functioning of a society,
Port-au-Prince and the larger cities, is very important. In the rural
areas, what we are focusing in on mostly is the mango production,
the coffee, the small-scale farmer, that we want to reinforce that
it is largely a rural society, to make those things profitable, to ad-
dress the infrastructure problems we have talked about.
So these are very important. We are talking about the engine of
the private sector really being strengthened with our assistance
and being sustainable.
Lastly, just what you said about the Preval Government; we
enjoy an excellent relationship at -every level, just as Secretary
Duddy mentioned. That means the health ministry, the ministry of
justice, the finance ministry; we work with all of the ministers. We
want to make sure this government succeeds.
Ms. JACKSON LEE. I thank the Chairman. Thank you very much
for what I think is now a lifeline to Haiti. Thank you.
Mr. BURTON. Ms. Lee, we are going to go to the next panel, if
it is okay, because we are going to have votes, I think, between 4






o'clock and 4:30, and I would like to bring him in, but I hope you
will stick around for questions.
Thank you very much, Mr. Duddy and Mr. Franco.
Mr. FRANCO. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. DUDDY. Thank you.
Mr. BURTON. It was good seeing both of you.
Mr. FRANCO. Good to see you, sir.
Mr. BURTON. I hope you will be very vocal and take our message
back. It is very important. I just got back from Managua, Nica-
ragua. I have been to Venezuela, Colombia, Costa Rica, and I can
tell you, all over the area-Guatemala, Honduras-you have been
down there, too-I am telling you right now, we really need to pay
more attention to this hemisphere. If we do not, in about 4 or 5
years, we are going to wish we did.
I am a Republican. I am a supporter of the President. My col-
leagues may not agree with me on this, but I support what we are
doing in the Middle East, the war against terror in Iraq, and all
of that, but we need to do more in this whole hemisphere, including
Haiti. It is extremely important. From one who has been doing this
for a long time up here on the Hill, I am telling you.
With that, do you have one more question, Mr. Engel?
Mr. ENGEL. Yes. Before I do the question, first of all, I do agree
with what you said, Mr. Chairman, and before I ask a quick ques-
tion, I just want to ask unanimous consent. Ms. Lee, Barbara Lee,
had to leave, and she has her statement dnd some questions and
a chart, and I just wanted unanimous consent to insert this into
the record.
Mr. BURTON. Sure, and you will answer questions for the record.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you. In my opening statement, I mentioned
deforestation, and I am wondering if either one of you can comment
on that. Are NGOs and private forest products companies helping
with Haiti, and what can be done to halt the serious deforestation
in Haiti?
Mr. FRANCO. Well, it is an understatement to say it is a monu-
mental issue. It is extraordinarily important for us for a number
of reasons, and chiefly among them is to revitalize the rural sector
and the economy. We brought over 3,000 hectares under natural
resource management in Fiscal Year 2005. We have also been
working on providing high-yielding fruit trees so people can see the
benefit, and we have grafted over 42,000 mango and citrus fruits
that have been planted. So particularly on the mango, Congress-
man, on the citrus, because people see the value of it and know it.
It is a major exporter of it.
So we are looking at vertiver grass, which we have used in Indo-
nesia and in other areas where people actually cut the forest be-
cause there is a need for it. This grass is something that has been
proven to be very, very good for the environment, and people are
less prone to chop it down or to use it; it is a grass.
So it is a huge issue. We have commissioned, working with some
of your Democratic colleagues, actually, in the Senate, with Senator
Leahy's office, a comprehensive assessment of what it would take,
in terms of a large investment, to address all of the issues com-
prehensively.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you.







Mr. BURTON. Thank you, both, very much. I am sure we will see
you back here again, especially you, Mr. Franco. You are kind of
like wallpaper here. You are here all the time. Thank you very
much. Good seeing you again.
Mr. FRANCO. Good to see you.
Mr. BURTON. The next panel is Mr. Mark Schneider. He is the
senior vice president of the International Crisis Group, a nonprofit,
international, conflict-prevention organization, and director of its
Washington office. Mr. Schneider was director of the Peace Corps
from 1999 to 2001, and from 1993 to 1999, he headed the U.S.
Agency for International Development in Latin America and the
Caribbean. A very important guy.
Would you stand up and let me swear you in, Mr. Schneider?
[Witness sworn.]
Mr. BURTON. Okay, Mr. Schneider. Do you have an opening
statement? I think we have probably got about a half an hour be-
fore we have to run over and cast- a bunch of votes, so we would
love to hear you.
TESTIMONY OF THE HONORABLE MARK L. SCHNEIDER, SEN-
IOR VICE PRESIDENT AND SPECIAL ADVISER ON LATIN
AMERICA, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP
Mr. SCHNEIDER. First of all, Mr. Chairman, I want to thank you
and the Committee Members for holding this hearing, for being en-
gaged and staying engaged on Haiti.
This is an absolutely crucial moment, as you said. The window
of opportunity in Haiti to help that country avoid becoming a per-
manent failed state will stay open only so long as there is a con-
tinuing international commitment to help those in Haiti who are
trying to have a different future. So I thank you very much for
holding this hearing, and I thank the Committee Members for their
efforts in getting the supplemental funding for that and for the
work that you are doing in trying to get the HOPE legislation
passed.
I think I want to add one point to the discussion that just took
place on HOPE, which is that because of the passage of CAFTA
and AGOA that Haiti is in a very unequal situation with respect
to trade unless HOPE is passed. Right now, the number of jobs al-
ready in the textile industry in Haiti has been cut very sharply,
and it will be cut much further unless HOPE is passed.
I would just say that I have been in Haiti about 40 times since
1978, about four times in the last 18 months. I came back a couple
of weeks ago from my last trip. Essentially, this is one of the few
moments when it is possible to make a difference. It is possible to
give the kind of support to a new government, to President Preval's
administration, that it needs, and I think that we have an oppor-
tunity now which we really cannot afford to lose.
Let me just mention one statistic that, to me, says how poor
Haiti is and its level of need. It has the highest child mortality rate
in the hemisphere. One out of every four children dies before the
age of five. That is simply incomprehensible in the Western Hemi-
sphere. It is worse than most of sub-Saharan Africa.
Now, the Crisis Group has been in Haiti for some 2 years. We
have put out eight reports on many of the issues related to the cri-







sis. The last report was promised just before President Preval's in-
auguration, and it singled out the issues that he would face in his
first 100 days: Security, police reform, economic renewal, human
needs, political cohesion, and judicial reform. They will still be
there after the first 1,000 days. Those issues are going to be with
Haiti, and we need to stay on top of them.
With respect to security, if the foundation of a functioning state
is a monopoly on the use of force, and force is only employed to up-
hold the law, then Haiti is not yet a functioning state. There are
too many guns in the hands of too many gangs, and too many
criminals using the cover of the Haitian National Police to carry
out kidnapping, drug trafficking, and assaults.
President Preval, I think, recognized that his security challenge
is twofold. First, to manage the demobilization and disarming of
the gangs in the slums of Cit6 Soleil, Cit6 Militaire, Martissant in
Port-au-Prince, and in the other cities like Gonaives, and to rid the
HNP of the corruption and criminals embedded there. I think the
ex-FAd'H are really, at this point, more nuisance than nemesis in
terms of threats to the security of the state.
My slight tilt to optimism results from the' following. I met with
a lot of people there. First, President Preval is personally engaged
in pressing MINUSTAH and the HNP to encircle the gangs and to
essentially push them into an area in which they have one of two
choices: Disarm and demobilize or, as he said, die. In other words,
they simply cannot be permitted to continue to control the urban
areas of Port-au-Prince.
Second, he has given the green light to what I think is a very
good security team: The police commissioner, Mario Andresol; the
state secretary for security, Luc-Eucher, and his personal adviser,
Bob Manuel, who used to be the state secretary in the first term
and essentially was forced out.
He has given them the green light to clean out the police, and
working with MINUSTAH, they have got, I think, a pretty good
plan to vet existing police to get rid of the ones who need to be got-
ten rid of, to establish norms for promotion, as opposed to political
reasons, to get people promoted, and to establish a training sched-
ule and a financing schedule to rebuild the Haitian National Police.
It must move from where it is today somewhere, because they do
not know, between five and 7,000 police to 14,000 police by 2011,
who are vetted, trained, equipped, and have the kind of command
and control that a police force needs.
Here again, the message that you have given and that, I think,
has been heard, for that to happen, the international community
and the United States have to be engaged and remain engaged the
entire time. At the end of my testimony, I talked about the need
for a 10-year commitment, sort of a partnership between the
United States and Haiti, something similar to what we did to get
rid of the nuclear waste in Russia, that would essentially authorize
a cooperation program in critical areas over a 10-year period. To
be frank, that should be at the level of about $200 million a year.
Just so that you see the difference, currently, the peacekeeping cost
for 1 year in Haiti is $500 million, so it is not that outrageous at
all.







Now, I think that the new government has done much in the
area of security where the interim government did not act, and re-
forming the police is one critical area.
The other is that when you look at where the revenues come for
the gangs and for some of the organized crime, they obviously get
their revenues through drug trafficking, the transiting that takes
place, and much of it goes through the ports and through the bor-
der crossings. One of the crucial areas of security where I was told
that they want help, they plan to move, is on getting control of the
ports and establishing more effective customs mechanisms to con-
trol what comes in and what goes out and ensure that the revenues
that the state should get go to the state.
To give you an idea of the magnitudes, the estimates range from
about a low of $100 million being lost from customs and other du-
ties to a high of $240 million a year. We are not talking about in-
significant resources, and, particularly, if you think that some of
those revenues are going to the gangs, this is obviously a crucial
area.
I think that MINUSTAH -and the Preval Government have
reached an accord on both of these areas, the gangs and the police,
and they need to be supported. They are in the process, but they
have not yet developed a similar strategy for the ports and cus-
toms, and they need help in doing that.
The World Bank, the IDB, and, I believe, the U.S. could do more.
Let me just emphasize that while I have spoken about the police
a lot, judicial reform is also crucial. In this area of rule of law, re-
forming only the police is like one hand clapping. We have got an
experience over the past 10 years that if you move forward on po-
lice reform, but nothing is done on judicial reform, police reform
fails because they arrest somebody, he goes through the justice sys-
tem, and he gets freed, and frustration builds.
At the moment, some 90 percent of the current prisoners in jail
have yet to be charged, have yet to be tried, and have been in jail
for a long time. There simply needs to be an effective judicial re-
form program put into place. The Inter-American Commission on
Human Rights has put together some very good recommendations
in that regard.
Finally, on politics and governance, there was a brief mention of
the elections that have yet to be held, but what was not mentioned
is that that includes 10 percent of Haiti's senate. Three out of 30
senators were not finally elected in the last elections, and 15 per-
cent of the assembly, and all of the 140 mayors, and all of the local
governments.
Now, those elections have to be held. The question is whether
now-they just announced the 3rd of December, whether the logis-
tics and technical requirements, getting all of the candidates listed
and approved, getting the ballots printed, et cetera, can be done be-
tween now and December 3rd. I think it is very important that the
OAS and MINUSTAH be very frank with everybody about whether
this is doable.
Finally, I am going to mention two issues. One is public edu-
cation. Forty percent of Haiti's school-age children are not in
school, and of those in school, as you have heard, somewhere
around 80 percent are in private schools. Haiti needs a strategy







that says, here is where we are now, and in 10 years, this is how
we are going to get to a situation where every Haitian child that
should be in school is in school, and they need help in doing that.
They are beginning the process, but this is an area where I believe
the United States and the other countries in this hemisphere, can
play a significant role.
Latin America has taken the lead on the MINUSTAH peace-
keeping forces. I think, in the area of education, there are several
countries-Canada, Chile-that can help Haiti put together a good
strategy. The World Bank and the IDB are involved. The U.S.
should be as well. More resources are needed from everyone.
Finally, you heard about deforestation. Deforestation in Haiti be-
gins with charcoal. The cooking fuel in Haiti is charcoal. The prob-
lem is that the only way they get it is by cutting down whatever
tree they can find. Haiti needs to have subsidized a scheme that
converts from charcoal-burning stoves to noncharcoal burning.
There are biofuels that can be used. It has been done in Africa. It
has been done in Jamaica. This really is the core of helping stop
the environmental destruction.
I have made a series of specific recommendations in my state-
ment, and I am just going to mention two. One is that the United
States should do more with respect to its contribution to the United
Nations police force. Currently, 1,950 UN police are authorized.
The United States has contributed 45 American police. China has
130. We know that there are Haitian-American police in Miami, in
Philadelphia, in New York, in Boston, many of whom would like to
go. They need to be financed in order to increase the number of
U.S. police in the UN police force. I should add, by the way, that
at 1,900, the UN is some 300 shy of the total they need.
Mr. BURTON. Are you finished with your statement because I
want to ask you a question?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. I just want to make one other point.
Mr. BURTON. Well, do not let me forget what you just said be-
cause I want to make a comment about that.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Okay. The only other point that I wanted to
make is that in drug trafficking, right now, there are five DEA
slots in Haiti. Three are unfilled. There is a need for all of the U.S.
Government agencies involved in counternarcotics to work more
closely with the United Nations police on a common strategy to
deal with that problem.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Schneider follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT OF THE HONORABLE MARK L. SCHNEIDER, SENIOR VICE
PRESIDENT AND SPECIAL ADVISER ON LATIN AMERICA, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP
I am very pleased to be able to present testimony this afternoon on what needs
to be done and what the international community can do to help keep open the win-
dow of opportunity in Haiti for security and development.
Now is the time for the international community and the U.S. to be forward-lean-
ing, to provide all available resources to cooperate with the government led by Presi-
dent Ren6 Preval and the United Nations Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)-particu-
larly on disarming the gangs and cleaning out corrupt police.
The government is virtually non-existent in much of Haiti. It is vital to extend
the legitimate presence of the state in order to establish law and order, respect for
human rights, basic public services and an economic framework for investment and
job creation.
I returned from my most recent trip to Haiti two weeks ago, my fourth in the past
18 months, probably my 40th since my first visit in 1978. While the situation re-







mains grim, I am slightly more optimistic than I have been in quite some time. But
it is a limited form of optimism that Haiti may be able to avoid permanent failed
state status.
When one returns to Haiti, the reality is always so much more complex and frag-
mented and the demands and crises always much more urgent than when we see
them from Washington. Haiti remains the poorest country in the Western Hemi-
sphere with the highest child mortality rate in the region--one of every four chil-
dren dies before reaching the age of five. It has close to the highest maternal and
infant mortality rates and an estimated 40 per cent of the school-age children are
unable to attend school. Perhaps 80 per cent of the population lives in poverty, and
economic growth is stymied in part by on-going environmental destruction.
Fragile, still violent, still stagnant economically, Haiti faces the most serious
structural deficits in the hemisphere in physical infrastructure, in state institutional
capacity, in public revenues, in human development, in political cohesion and in en-
vironmental well-being.
The Crisis Group has been in Haiti for two years and we have produced eight re-
ports on the crisis. Our last report came just a few days before the swearing in of
President Rene Preval in May. We singled out the challenges he would face in his
first 100 days: Security, policing, economic renewal and human needs, political cohe-
sion and judicial reform. I suspect they will remain key issues in his first 1000 days.
Security: Our next report will be coming but in a few weeks and it will directly
focus on the security challenge facing the Preval government, the steps being taken
to confront that threat and suggest what more needs to be done.
If the foundation of a functioning state is a monopoly on the use of force, and force
is only to be employed to uphold the law, then Haiti is not yet a functioning state.
There are too many guns in the hands of too many gangs and too many criminals
using the cover of the Haitian National Police (HNP) to carry out kidnapping, drug
trafficking and assaults.
President Preval's highest visibility security challenge is two-fold: to manage the
demobilization and disarming of the illegal gangs in the Cite Soleil, CitA Militaire
and Martissant slums of Port-au-Prince and other cities such as Gonaives, and to
rid the Haitian National Police of the corruption and criminals embedded there. The
ex-FAd'H (ex-Armed Forces of Haiti) remain more nuisance than nemesis, mostly
isolated in rural towns.
My slight tilt toward optimism, following discussions with President Preval and
his security team, with the UNSRSG, the Brazilian general heading MINUSTAH
and the acting head of UNPOL, the US Ambassador and USAID mission director
and others inside and outside Haiti officialdom, was based on the following:
First, President Preval is personally engaged in pressing MINUSTAH and the
HNP to encircle the gangs and ensure their acceptance. of "voluntary demobilization
and disarmament" or face the consequences.
Second, he also has given the green light to his police commissioner, his state sec-
retary for public security and his chief advisor Bob Manuel-previously state sec-
retary for public security and justice in his first term-to clean out the police. Work-
ing with MINUSTAH experts they have developed the plans to deal both with dis-
mantling the gangs and with police reform. The plans may not be perfect but they
are rational, appear feasible, and for once, they seem actually to have begun to be
implemented. President Preval seems to be mustering the political will within his
government to initiate them.
Third, there seems to be a willingness to move on strengthening customs controls,
and rehabilitating and cleaning up ports and border crossings as a key element of
the overall security approach.
They may only be small steps forward but in contrast with the recalcitrance of
the interim government on many of these matters, they are milestones.
The interim government simply closed its eyes to the rising levels of kidnapping
and violence during its tenure and did next to nothing to combat or confront its
leaders. The levels of kidnapping rose to extraordinary levels-going over the 200
mark last December. From January until May, kidnapping dropped sharply. Then
it began to rise again in June, and by August had topped 72 "official" kidnapping
with the numbers of individuals reported kidnapped well over 100. The actual num-
ber of kidnapping was probably close to double the "official" tally as many families
avoided the police as they sought the release of their relatives.
The magnitude of the security failure can be seen in reports of rapes, murders
and kidnapping during the interim government period, including reliable studies
by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the work of the UN High
Commissioner on Human Rights. President Preval has endorsed a comprehensive vi-
olence reduction program which is designed to produce benefits for the entire com-







munity with MINUSTAH's UNDP and the IOM-supported in part by USAID-
helping to design the jobs and community action activities.
While the previous government made modest increases on some customs reve-
nues, and was disposed to cooperate on port repairs, most observers still believe rev-
enues may be less than half what they could be, which translates to $100 not col-
lected, and some estimates of lost revenues reach more than $200 million. What is
evident is that the official port authority simply does not control the docks.
Ganging up on the gangs:
The gang problem is manageable in terms of numbers with some 3-8 gangs in
each of the major slum areas and perhaps 20-80 members in each of those gangs.
Advances already have been achieved by the Latin American-led MINUSTAH mili-
tary and police force to drive the gangs into smaller and smaller operating spaces.
One danger of course is that squeezing them from one end could result in some,
as already has been the case, drifting outside the center city to nearby towns or
other neighborhoods. A spate of murders and robberies in Petionville may well be
a reflection of that trend. But even that consequence is better than their maintain-
ing virtual life and death control over major urban areas of the capital. Although
the majority of the country is relatively secure, the security situation in Port-au-
Prince dictates the perception of security in the nation as a whole.
MINUSTAH also is carrying out the renewed mandate of the recent Security
Council resolution 1702 to recognize the unique character to the demobilization and
disarmament of Haiti's largely criminal gangs-but to insure they are dismantled.
The test for the U.S. Administration is to find a way to support the process appro-
priately, even if it is not completely convinced of its content. The U.S. at least
should expand its community infrastructure support with respect to electricity, pota-
ble water, health and schools in Cite Soleil and the other neighborhoods where the
gangs are being pressed to demobilize. Otherwise the gangs will continue to occupy
the void left by the absence of state security and state services.
One of the cautionary notes I would urge is that the USG lower its own public
media exposure. The public advertisement of a readiness to buy back weapons with
a phone number at the US embassy needlessly riled Haitian nationalistic senti-
ments. The same program announced by the Government of Haiti or the UN and
funded by the US would have achieved the same results without the negative flack
we now see.
Policing the police:
Now let me turn to the police. By June 2005, it was evident that the Haitian Na-
tional Police were more of the problem than the solution.
Despite the evidence of corruption within the force, including aiding one gang or
another in turf battles, and involvement in kidnapping, the interim government
steadfastly blocked efforts to clean out the police. And MINUSTAH, seeking to avoid
a confrontation with the interim government and delays in the electoral process, did
not move as forcefully as many hoped.
The Security Council took an important step forward June of 2005 in directing
the vetting of the existing force but the interim government did not cooperate and
MINUSTAH was reluctant to override them. Now the new mandate adopted in 1702
is no longer in doubt and President Preval has specifically encouraged MINUSTAH
to move forward.
Haiti needs to register its entire police, now somewhere between 5,000-7,000, and
all of their weapons. It needs to vet for corruption, crime and human rights abuse
and remove the 25 percent or more that current HNP chief Mario Andresol said are
corrupt. Then it needs to implement the new plan to grow the force to some 12,000
trained and equipped by 2011.
Justice Reform:
We all know that the Haitian justice system is broken and that a major reform
effort has to extend from vetting out corrupt judges to restructuring the prison sys-
tem. Perhaps 90 per cent of the current prisoners have yet to be charged, yet to
be tried, and have been in jail for long periods of time. The release of some high
profile prisoners who appeared to have been jailed for political reasons was positive
but does not remove the need for wholesale reform. The Preval government appears
to accept that need. Having seen previous attempts fail, I would only urge the US
government to support the new government/MINUSTAH reform program as part of
a coordinated donor partnership. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
also has made impressive recommendations in this area. But police reform without
justice reform is like one hand clapping. As we learned a decade ago, without justice
reform, police reform will fail.







Politics and Governance:
It would be nice to say that the political transition is complete in Haiti, but unfor-
tunately that is not the case. Along with the remaining 10 per cent of the Senate
and 15 per cent of the Assembly, there are some 140 towns that have to elect may-
ors and two deputies and 483 town delegates and some 570 rural districts have to
elect both councils and administrators. Clearly urgent consideration needs to be
given to an electoral plan to fill the remaining parliamentary seats and to choose
the mayors. Unless there is a legal change, the local elections are needed to name
judges and create a permanent electoral council. Now called for 3 December, there
still are grave technical and logistics issues involving candidates, printing ballots,
etc. All parties need to be sure that those issues can be resolved. A permanent and
transparent electoral council still is lacking and a professional electoral administra-
tion still needs to be established.
I will end by simply noting two permanent issues of concern: public education and
charcoal. Some 40 per cent of Haiti's school-age children are not in school. Of those
in school nearly 80 per cent are in private schools, some good, many not. Haiti des-
perately needs a comprehensive education strategy over the next ten years to fill
the gap, expanding the number of good public schools, raising the standards of pri-
vate schools and helping them meet those norms. The World Bank and the IDB are
ready to help. The U.S. should be as well. More resources need to be found to give
all Haitian children the chance to learn. -
Finally, charcoal. Charcoal is burned for cooking fuel. It is a source of income for
those who sell it in the streets and shanty towns, a source of air pollution and the
driving force behind Haiti's deforestation. Every tree in Haiti is at risk of being
turned into charcoal. Only a comprehensive scheme to subsidize the conversion to
non-charcoal burning stoves, ideally using a bio-fuel of some sort can check the
downward spiral in Haiti's continuing depletion of its trees. That program also is
needed to have any chance of protecting the higher value fruit trees that-if allowed
to survive-could produce more significant agricultural revenues for Haitian farm
families.
To summarize what needs to be done, we would urge the U.S. government, with
as little fanfare as possible, to:
Support the demobilization and disarmament efforts of the Preval administra-
tion and MINUSTAH-and emphasize rapid disbursing community infra-
structure and jobs projects concurrently with the dismantling of the gangs.
The two most popular projects perhaps would be expanding access to potable
water and electricity.
Cooperate fully with the Haitian and UN police reform action plan that fi-
nally appears ready to begin vetting current police and quickly obtain the $20
m. "1207" money from DOD to help finance that effort;
Double, at a minimum, the number of American police seconded to United
Nations Police (UNPOL) within MINUSTAH-I find it embarrassing that
only 45 U.S. police serve in a force authorized at 1951 officers when the Chi-
nese government has sent 130. I believe at least that number of Haitian-
American police who speak Creole could be made available. An extra effort
by the U.S. also might encourage other countries to increase their police con-
tribution since the UN police force remains about 300 below the authorized
levels.
Accelerate disbursement of USAID and State economic and social develop-
ment grants-on education, rural development, and boosting small farmer in-
come.
Join with the Government of Haiti to combat drug trafficking and smuggling
by ending the criminal influence in many Haitian ports, expanding US coun-
ternarcotics funding and coast guard support, ending the squabbling among
US counterdrug agencies and UNPol, and filling all authorized slots within
all USG agencies approved for Haiti. When I was there, I was told that 3 of
the 5 DEA slots remained unfilled, in a country where drug transiting is a
major problem for the U.S. and a major source of gang financing and turf
warfare. If the U.S. had all of its authorized slots filled, it also would be more
likely that the U.S. voice would carry more weight in demanding that the UN
fill all of its slots-including such senior positions as the head of the UN po-
lice.
Lead by example in the donor community by making good on pledges ahead
of time, building on the successful fast disbursing projects of OTI and using
or requesting waiver authority where needed to move resources rapidly.
Rapid action could help bolster the ministries by funding young profes-






sionals-perhaps Haitian-Americans or Haitian-Canadians from the
disaspora-to work in the ministries in policy planning and budgeting to help
strengthen a very thin government administrative capacity.
Insure that Haiti is treated at least equally to Central America under CAFTA
and African developing nations under AGOA by adopting HOPE trade legisla-
tion and debt relief. I should note that Haiti's budget and macroeconomic
strategy received the World Bank and IMF approval last week making Haiti
eligible to enter HIPIC.
Make sure that the remaining elections for 15 per cent of the Assembly and
10 per cent of the Senate are held as early as possible, along with the may-
oral elections that need to be run. The CEP demand for a 3 December date
was endorsed by President Preval two days ago. Logistics and technical ques-
tions still exist whether those elections, when combined with the more com-
plicated community elections, can be held on such short notice. Unless there
is a change in the law and/or Constitution, the local elections remain linked
to judicial reform and a permanent electoral council and both are crucial to
Haiti's governance.
I want to thank you Mr. Chairman for holding this hearing. I would hope it might
end with a bi-partisan commitment to a ten-year U.S.-Haiti cooperation plan of $200
million per year to support Haitian development. If that sounds like a lot of money,
I would just note that the cost of one year's UN peacekeeping is $500 million.
Mr. BURTON. Let me just ask you a couple of questions. You said,
out of the 1,900 police down there, and they do not have a full com-
plement of that right now-
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Right.
Mr. BURTON [continuing]. But of the 1,900 police-
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Sixteen hundred.
Mr. BURTON. What did you say, 1,600? '
Mr. SCHNEIDER. There are 1,600 of the 1,900.
Mr. BURTON. So you are missing 300.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. That is right.
Mr. BURTON. And you said we are only providing what, 45?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. 45.
Mr. BURTON. If you could give those figures, along with a rec-
ommendation, to Mr. Engel and my staff--
Mr. SCHNEIDER. I will be happy to.
Mr. BURTON [continuing]. We will see if we can write a letter
suggesting that Haitian-American policemen who might want to
volunteer to go down there should be subsidized by the Federal
Government so they can go down there and help out. Mr. Engel
and I both agree that we do that.
The last thing you were talking about was-
Mr. SCHNEIDER. On the counter-drug side, one of the prob-
lems-
Mr. BURTON. Okay. There are three DEA agent slots open. We
need to also send a letter to DEA asking why, since that is a major
transit point for drugs coming out of Colombia and Venezuela and
Peru out of the northern part of South America, that they need
more help down there to try to stop that. So we will be glad to
write a letter to both DEA and, I presume, the department we
would write to would probably be State, and we will see if we can
figure out some way to help with that.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Great.
Mr. BURTON. I just have a couple of questions, and then I will
let my colleague ask any.
You mentioned that, during the first 100 days, President Preval
would face an awful lot of crises and things that needed to be done.






Can you point out what you think is the most important thing that
has to be dealt with in those first 100 days, in your opinion?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Establishing the plan and moving on the plan
to vet existing police within the Haitian National Police and get rid
of the ones that are involved in kidnapping, drugs, and crime. That
is the single most-
Mr. BURTON. What percentage of the national police do you think
are involved in this corrupt stuff?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. The head of the police, Mario Andresol, has pub-
licly stated that he believes that 25 percent of the police force is
corrupt.
Mr. BURTON. Well, in any event, is he taking the lead in trying
to-
Mr. SCHNEIDER. He is. He is. They are moving on that, and that
is where I think that we need to offer our support.
Mr. BURTON. He has probably got a target on his back.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Exactly right. There is no question that his secu-
rity is at risk as a result of his public statements.
Mr. BURTON. Well, I wish him the very best in rooting out the
bad apples and making sure that does not happen again.
You point out in your testimony that there are only 45 police. We
are already going to address that issue.
You were speaking also about making Haiti equal to other Cen-
tral American countries under CAFTA. We want to work on that.
We are going to be working on that. This HOPE issue is one, and
I will also talk to Bill Thomas, who is the Chairman of the Ways
and Means, and others about coming up with some kind of a trade
agreement with Haiti that would encourage investment and create
jobs down there.
I do agree with you that CAFTA DR was important and that we
need to go ahead and try to find some way to help, in addition with
the economic problems of Haiti.
Would you like to ask a few questions, Mr. Engel?
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Schneider, the Chairman has mentioned that he and I would
do a letter to see if we can encourage some Haitian-Americans in
law enforcement to go down there. Isn't the problem that if some-
one picks up and leaves for a couple of years and goes down to
Haiti, there is a problem with benefits that they would lose and
things like that. Isn't that really where the problem lies?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. That is one of the problems. The first problem
is that the U.S. has essentially said, we have resources to cover
this amount of police to be participating in the UN police force.
That is one.
The second is the one you mentioned, which is that in some of
the police forces, if they leave, they lose their year pension rights
and promotion. In some instances, 10 years ago, those were waived,
and that is the kind of action which perhaps could be taken by the
individual police departments or local authorities.
Mr. ENGEL. Thank you. In its May report on Haiti, the Inter-
national Crisis Group, in which you have been very prominent,
urged the rapid implementation of high-profile interventions to
benefit the inhabitants of Port-au-Prince's worst urban districts. I
would assume that this recommendation was aimed at ensuring






that the population felt some immediate benefit from the Preval
administration. Could you elaborate on some of the interventions
that you and the report recommended?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Yes. I think it is also crucial that those kinds
of rapid-disbursing projects take place as the gangs are demobilized
so that the communities see an immediate benefit. The kinds of ac-
tivities that are possible, obviously, range from cleaning up the
streets, bringing potable water into those communities, helping to
rebuild schools in those communities, and that provides jobs for the
local residents as well; helping to bring health care into those com-
munities. Some of the clinics cannot open because of the security
problem. Those kinds of actions could take place immediately.
Mr. ENGEL. Let me talk again about the International Crisis
Group's report of May 2006, and I am quoting: "Urgent measures
are needed to help repair a social fabric badly damaged in recent
years by political polarization, deepening antipathies between the
mass of the population and the elite, worsening poverty, and a gen-
eralized sense of hopelessness." That was a quote.
Has there been progress in repairing Haiti's social fabric. Has
the Preval Government taken positive steps to lessen some of the
antipathies you discussed in your report?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. I think, to some degree. He has clearly reached
out to some members of the business class and business commu-
nity. In developing his cabinet, he reached out to some other polit-
ical parties, and in that effort, I think, engaged in wide-ranging
consultations with the new members of Parliament, and I think
that that moved in the direction of increasing social cohesion.
Mr. ENGEL. Some people have said that Haiti should have some
form of truth and reconciliation commissions to investigate past
human rights abuses. Do you agree, and what would be the bene-
fits of having such a commission? What would be the major obsta-
cles to having such a commission, and what would you recommend
overall?
Mr. SCHNEIDER. I think, at some point, there is no question that
that would be desirable. The issue truly is the timing.
My sense would be that immediately the most important thing
is to move in terms of cleaning out the existing bad apples within
the Haitian National Police, moving in the direction of demobilizing
the gangs, and beginning to create a judicial system that functions.
It is at that point, it seems to me, that you could begin to go back
in the past and look at issues of human rights abuses of the past.
The key right now is let us try and create an institutional capac-
ity to stop future human rights abuses.
Mr. ENGEL. I have a final question, and it ties in with what you
said before and a question the Chairman asked as well, and that
is the diaspora of Haiti in the United States.
It is a rich resource of human energy and talent, and this sta-
tistic: Remittances-that is the money that Haitians get paid here,
and they send back to Haiti-we have had some hearings on gen-
eral remittances in the Americas in this Subcommittee as well-re-
mittances from Haitians living abroad exceeded $1 billion and con-
stituted 24 percent-that is a quarter, essentially-of Haiti's GDP.
That is an astounding figure.







So let me ask you about the diaspora. In addition to promoting
the economy, could the diaspora also assist the government by re-
solving Haiti's enduring social conflict? Again, we talked a little bit
about this, but I want to give you an opportunity to expand. What
sort of United States programs would help facilitate assistance by
the Haitian diaspora here in the United States?
Let me make a couple of suggestions. I think that that is a very
important area where more can be done. The legislation that has
just been passed by the Committee, I understand, provides some
funding for Haitian-Americans to go back and provide some kind
of technical assistance. That seems to me a very useful avenue.
The USAID mission in Port-au-Prince has a specific request that
they have made to the Government of Haiti to identify certain pro-
fessional needs at the level of the ministries, and they will try and
meet them. The issue, then, is how do you make the contact back
to the communities here? There are a couple of associations that
they plan to go to and say, "The Ministry of Transportation has a
need for three or four planners," and they will go back to the dias-
pora and try and see if it is possible to get them and pay the dif-
ference -in salary between what those individuals were making here
and what they would have to make in Haiti. That is one.
The other is something actually that the current UN Secretary-
General's representative in Haiti, Ambassador Mulet, did when he
was Ambassador here from Guatemala. He organized, in a sense,
the expatriates community by community so that instead of simply
sending all of the remittances back to their individual families, he
urged them to form a community association here that would part-
ner with their community back home and that they would then
provide a small portion, perhaps 10 percent, into a fund for a spe-
cific kind of infrastructure need in that community, a school or
water supply, et cetera, and that became one way to, in a sense,
channel remittances into development projects. I think it is the
kind of program that might be replicated with respect to Haiti.
Mr. ENGEL. So you obviously agree, we all agree, that the Hai-
tian diaspora here in the United States can and should play a
major role in the rebuilding of Haiti.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. And in Canada.
Mr. ENGEL. In Canada as well. Thank you.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BURTON. Well, Mr. Schneider, I want to thank you and the
International Crisis Group colleagues of yours for doing such a
great job and working so hard on this issue, and if you will give
to my staff and Mr. Engel's staff the information we asked for, we
will see if we can push a little bit to get some more DEA agents
down there and also some more police.
Mr. SCHNEIDER. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BURTON. Thank you very much for being so patient and wait-
ing on us, and with that, my colleague, we stand adjourned.
[Whereupon, at 4:15 p.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]