A fresh start for Haiti?


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A fresh start for Haiti? charting the future of U.S.-Haitian relations : hearing before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace Corps, and Narcotics Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, second session, March 10, 2004
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S. hrg. ;
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Charting the future of U.S.-Haitian relations
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United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Foreign Relations. -- Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace Corps, and Narcotics Affairs
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Subjects / Keywords:
Economic assistance, American -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Democratization -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Democracy -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Aide économique américaine -- Haïti   ( ram )
Transition démocratique -- Haïti   ( ram )
Démocratie -- Haïti   ( ram )
Foreign relations -- United States -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- Haiti -- United States   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Haiti -- 1986-   ( lcsh )
Relations extérieures -- Haïti -- États-Unis   ( ram )
Relations extérieures -- États-Unis -- Haïti   ( ram )
Politique et gouvernement -- Haïti -- 1986-   ( ram )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


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3 5005 01308 539% _.ESH START FOR HAITI?


2nd Flo

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S. HRG. 108-544




MARCH 10, 2004

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OCT 3 2005

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RICHARD G. LUGAR, Indiana, Chairman

JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire

JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware
JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
JON S. CORZINE, New Jersey

KENNETH A. MYERS, JR., Staff Director
ANTONY J. BLINKEN, Democratic Staff Director

NORM COLEMAN, Minnesota, Chairman
JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware
JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts


1C?- g44


Boxer, Hon. Barbara, U.S. Senator from California ......................................... 4
Coleman, Hon. Norm, U.S. Senator from Minnesota, Chairman of the Sub-
com m ittee .............................................................................................................. 1
Cummings, Hon. Elijah, U.S. Representative from Maryland ............................ 12
DeWine, Hon. Mike, U.S. Senator from Ohio .................................................... 5
Dobbins, Hon. James, Director, International Security and Defense Policy
C enter, R A N D ................................................................................................... 67
Prepared state ent ........................................................................................ 70
Dodd, Hon. Christopher J., U.S. Senator from Connecticut .............................. 18
Franco, Hon. Adolfo, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Latin America and
the Caribbean, U.S. Agency for International Development ......................... 27
Prepared state ent ......................................................................................... 28
Graham, Hon. Bob, U.S. Senator from Florida .................................................... 7
Prepared state ent ....................................................................................... 10
Heinl, Michael, Co-Author, "Written in Blood, The Story of the Haitian People
1492-1995, W ashington, DC ............................................................................. 75
Maguire, Robert, Director, Programs in International Affairs, Trinity College,
W ashington, D .C ............................................................................................... 77
Prepared state ent ........................................................................................ 79
Noriega, Hon. Roger, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Western Hemisphere
Affairs, Departm ent of State ............................................................................... 21
Prepared state ent ........................................................................................ 23
Pezzullo, Hon. Lawrence, Former U.S. Special Envoy to Haiti (Retired), Wash-
ington D .C ........................................................................................................... 72
Prepared state ent ........................................................................................ 73
Waters, Hon. Maxine, U.S. Representative from California ............................. 14
Prepared state ent ......................................... ............................................... 16


Responses to Additional Questions Submitted for the Record by Members
of the C om m ittee ............................................................................................... 101
Responses to Questions Submitted by Senator Dodd to Assistant Sec-
retary of State Roger Noriega ....................................... ......................... 101
Responses to Questions Submitted by Senator DeWine to Assistant Sec-
retary of State Roger Noriega ........................................ ........................ 103
Responses to Questions Submitted by Senator DeWine to Assistant Ad-
ministrator Adolfo Franco, USAID ........................................................ 104
Additional Information Submitted for the Record ................................................ 106
Joint Proposal & Position Paper: The Haiti Reconstruction Fund, pre-
pared March 2, 2004 by The National Organization for The Advance-
m ent of H aitians ................................................................ ........................ 106



Wednesday, March 10, 2004
Washington, D.C.
The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2:31 p.m. in Room
SD-419, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Hon. Norm Coleman,
Chairman of the subcommittee, presiding. Present: Senators Cole-
man, Dodd, Boxer, and Bill Nelson.
Senator COLEMAN. This hearing of the Senate Foreign Relations
Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace Corps, and Narcotics
Affairs will come to order.
I'd like to thank our witnesses for coming to this important hear-
ing, and Congressman Cummings, for being so on time. And I cer-
tainly would like to acknowledge the tremendous interest in this
Haiti is the second-oldest republic in the hemisphere, a country
of great promise. Unfortunately, that promise has not yet borne
fruit. Haiti is the most impoverished nation in our hemisphere, has
the highest AIDS rate, and a very, very troubled 200-year history.
The title of this hearing, "A Fresh Start for Haiti? Charting the
Future of U.S.-Haitian Relations," was chosen very carefully. I be-
lieve there is a moment of opportunity here to come together to
think about lending a hand to Haiti to support a future that is an
improvement over Haiti's past. I look forward to hearing, from our
witnesses, practical and specific ideas to put Haiti on track for a
more promising future.
I know there has been considerable debate in Washington over
the issue of Haiti, and with Aristide's departure, that division has
only intensified. Let me lay out my own view on President Aristide.
He may have come to office through elections that had the
trappings of democracy, but that does not mean he governed like
a democrat. Aristide broke and politicized the Haitian police, chose
to rely instead on a paramilitary group of supporters to harass and
even kill opponents. He has been accused of drug trafficking and
corruption. Rigged parliamentary elections in 2000 were never re-

solved. Having lost the trust of the Haitian people, Aristide decided
to resign from the Haitian presidency. I trust the statements of
Secretary of State Powell, and I do not believe Aristide was kid-
napped or overthrown by a coup d'6tat.
There is an important point here. Fair elections are very impor-
tant, but democracy has got to mean something more than just
periodic elections. Democracy needs honest governance, freedom of
expression and assembly, protection of human rights. President
Aristide fell short in all these measures, and I believe the people
of Haiti can do better.
There is a legitimate concern regarding U.S. policy toward a fal-
tering democracy, such as Haiti. What is our international respon-
sibility to stand with democratically elected governments that have
lost the trust of their people? But our challenge and focus now is,
how do we meet the needs of the Haitian people today and tomor-
row? While Congress has an essential role in holding the adminis-
tration accountable on foreign and domestic policy, I believe we do
a disservice to the people of Haiti if we spend too much time turn-
ing their latest crisis into a political rallying cry in this country.
I think there is an incredible moment of opportunity here for the
U.S. and the international community to join together to make a
sustained and long-term investment in Haiti. Haiti needs our help.
It does not need our bickering.
The deployment of international forces and the distribution of
emergency humanitarian aid is a good start to deal with Haiti's
short-term crisis. I hope the witnesses will shed some light on how
many troops are going to be needed and what is going to be the
role of the U.N., CARICOM, and other multilateral groups. I also
hope the witnesses will discuss efforts to get food and medical sup-
plies to Haiti's neediest hospitals and orphanages. I also want to
express my hope that our embassy will get to work on the many
pending international adoption cases.
There is a political process unfolding in Haiti. As stipulated in
Haiti's constitution, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court became
interim President upon Aristide's departure. And according to the
principles set out in the CARICOM plan yesterday, a council of
seven Haitians appointed former Minister Gerard Latortue as in-
terim President.
In the long term, I believe the U.S. needs to make an investment
in the new Haitian Government. We must, however, keep this gov-
ernment accountable to put our assistance to good use and to up-
hold the principles of human rights and good governance that mat-
ter to Americans. I was proud to work with Senator Nelson on an
amendment that sends a message about this financial commitment,
but I believe we need to begin to develop specific plans. To that
end, I will have some specific questions for our witnesses.
I would like to place into the record an op-ed, which appeared in
the Minneapolis Star Tribune today, by Brian Atwood, former di-
rector of USAID and now dean of the Humphrey Institute of Public
Afairs at the University of Minnesota, someone my colleagues may
remember well. Mr. Atwood appeals to us to work in a bipartisan
way, rather than finger-pointing, to give Haiti a better future.
[The information referred to follows:]

Even an optimist has a hard time being positive about Haiti's future. After more
than a decade of experimentation with democracy, Haiti is today a failed state. Hai-
ti's elected president is once again seeking asylum, forced out by armed thugs and
major international powers who lost patience with him.
The controversy today is whether the United States forced President Jean-
Bertrand Aristide out of power, participating in what he has called a "coup d'6tat."
One can only believe the denials the Bush administration has offered, though for
reasons unrelated to Haiti, many will not. No, if Aristide was forced out, it was not
at the end of an American gun. He was instead the victim of longstanding American
It may be a very long while before Aristide ever sees Haiti again. But that is less
important than knowing whether Haiti will ever again be a viable nation state. Will
this island, just off the coast of Florida, end up being an inhospitable prison for its
8 million inhabitants? Will it become a safe-haven for drug traffickers or terrorists?
Or will it become a stable, functioning polity with an economy viable enough to sat-
isfy its people's needs?
These are vital questions for our political leaders, for the answers have serious
national security implications-and not just for the people of Florida. A policy of
treating Haiti as if it were Alcatraz prison may satisfy our need to protect Florida
from a huge influx of refugees, but it will not protect our Nation from the threats
that could emanate from a failed state.
We never did give Haiti's democratic government the support it needed. We in the
Clinton administration tried very hard to support the new democracy. We made
choices that seemed reasonable given the constraints in Washington, but in retro-
spect some of those choices came to undermine that goal.
We insisted, for example, that Aristide serve out the remaining part of his term
rather than staying in office long enough to compensate for his years of asylum. The
consequence was that a popular president had to leave office after about a year. The
subsequent election placed in office a man widely believed to be an Aristide puppet.
This served neither the new government nor Aristide, as it undercut confidence in
the new president and made Aristide look like a behind-the-scenes manipulator.
We offered $100 million a year in foreign assistance-a generous amount-but the
needs were closer to $1 billion. Our expectation was that the World Bank would pro-
vide large soft loans to help repair and create much-needed infrastructure. These
resources were never forthcoming. The great dividend democracy was to provide
never became a reality and disillusionment set in.
Aristide was reelected in 2001 and took office just after President Bush entered
the White House. The Bush administration made it clear from the beginning that
it would not be very friendly. Aristide, after all, was the president that Bill Clinton
restored to power. The Aristide election was messy. His Lavalas Party claimed na-
tional assembly seats that it most likely stole through ballot-box fraud. While
Aristide's margin of victory put his popular election beyond dispute, opposition com-
plaints about stolen assembly seats soured the relationship with the new U.S. ad-
ministration. Soon, direct aid to the Haitian government was cut off; the adminis-
tration used Haiti's political stalemate as an excuse to do nothing.
It is often said in the democracy-promotion business that elections do not make
a democracy. The institutions and values of democracy take years to build. When
the backdrop is abject poverty, the challenge becomes immense. New leaders are ex-
pected to change these conditions overnight. In the case of Haiti, the international
community, with the United States in the lead, provided too little help at first and
then turned its back.
Thus, Aristide, an imperfect leader but a man thoroughly capable of empathy for
the poor, was denied the wherewithal to respond to their plight. It was only a mat-
ter of time before the clash between warlords would fill the political vacuum. This
is not unique to Haiti. Conflict is common in the world's poorest nations.
Yet, there is always hope, even for failed states. Uganda is a perfect example of
a nation that resurrected itself after two civil wars and years of despotic leadership.
Uganda is halfway around the world, Haiti is not.
There is no question that our leaders in Washington have played politics with
Haiti. Republicans criticized Clinton for sending in the military and then abandoned
a democratically elected president because they did not like his politics. Democrats
saw the constraints more clearly than the opportunities and were too quick to ex-
cuse Aristide's failures of governance.

It is time to stop playing partisan politics with Haiti and to start seeing it as a
potential national security threat. If our political parties can work together on this
problem, the United States can help turn Haiti around. It may take a large invest-
ment and a generation, but one thing is certain: We cannot afford a failed state of
8 million people just off our shore.
Senator COLEMAN. We have a lot of people who want to speak
this afternoon, so I must ask the panelists to keep their remarks
to just five minutes. Logistics dictate that we need to be strict on
this point if we're ever going to make it through these three panels
and 11 witnesses.
With that, I would acknowledge that my good friend and col-
league, Senator Dodd, will be here later; at that time he will have
an opportunity to make opening remarks.
I would, then, defer to my colleague, Senator Boxer, if she has
any opening remarks.

Senator BOXER. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
I am just so pleased to see the Honorable Elijah Cummings here,
the Honorable Maxine Waters here, because I've spoken to them,
I've heard from them on this issue. Mr. Chairman, I think we're
going to benefit from their wisdom. Congresswoman Maxine Wa-
ters was in Haiti.
And I'm just going to make a few statements here, observations.
And I hear, in your remarks, that you're looking ahead, and you're
saying we need to help the people, and I'm with you a hundred per-
cent. But I have to tell you, we'd better spend a couple of minutes
looking back, because the ramifications of what has happened, I
think, are huge.
And let me start by saying, I have great respect for Secretary of
State Colin Powell. And before the U.S. helped Aristide flee the
country-or some would say, told him if he didn't flee, he's a dead
man, in so many words-Colin Powell said the following, "Aristide
is the democratically elected President of Haiti, and we cannot
allow a situation to come about where he is thrown out of power
by thugs or by some rebel movement or the opposition." This is
what he said. That was February 18th.
The next day, this is what he said, "In many cases, it's just a few
thugs that are dominating a particular town or city, and so what
we have to try to do now is stand with President Aristide-he is
the elected President of Haiti-and do what we can to help him."
He was still with Aristide on that next day.
But by February 28th, the administration changed its tune. This
is ten days later. An official White House statement that Aristide's,
"failure to adhere to democratic principles has contributed to the
deep polarization and violent unrest that we are witnessing in
Haiti today. His own actions have called into question his fitness
to continue to govern Haiti. We urge him to examine his position
carefully," whatever that means, "to accept responsibility, and to
act in the best interest of the people of Haiti."
So, Mr. Chairman, ten days before, Colin Powell is saying, he's
the elected President and we stand by him. We're going to do what
we can to help him. And ten days later, a signal is being sent-

a very clear signal-that he's got to get out of the country, obvi-
ously calling for his resignation.
Now, my understanding is, Aristide had agreed to power-sharing
plans, he agreed to political compromise. So I need to understand,
from this administration-and I know the witnesses before us, at
this panel, can't answer for the administration-but I want to
know what, in ten days, changed that they would say, on one day,
you're the democratically elected President, and then, ten days
later, send a signal to the thugs there, don't worry, the United
States is with you. And why do I say that? We have people, like
Guy Philippe and Louis Jodel Chamblain-and I know that our
witnesses here know them better than I. My understanding is-and
they've been called murderous thugs. They've been called mur-
derous thugs. And according to news reports, Mr. Chamblain
shouted, "We're grateful to the United States." And Mr. Philippe
said, "The United States soldiers are like us. We're brothers. We're
grateful for their service to our nation and against the terrorists
of Aristide."
So, here we have this situation. Now, who's suffering the most?
The people of Haiti. And that's where I join in with your comments,
that clearly we have to help the people of Haiti. But we cannot
allow what has occurred to go by as if it was just nothing. Because
it was something, something that makes me very confused about
whether we believe it when we tell countries in the world that if
you're democratically elected, you'll have us to stand with you, and
then, all of a sudden, send these signals out. Whether Aristide was
good, bad, indifferent, he was elected. And the question is, What
made that ten-day change? And that's why I'm really here-two
reasons-to find out what happened that we made this U-turn, and
to see what can we do now to make sure that thugs and murderers
don't take over this country?
Thank you.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, very, very much, Senator Boxer.
I've asked my colleagues, Senator DeWine and Senator Graham,
to participate. This is the first opportunity the Senate has had to
explore this issue, and I felt it important to get their perspectives.
With that, I would turn to my colleague, Senator DeWine.
Senator DEWINE. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much for allow-
ing me to be here today. And I congratulate you for holding this
hearing, as well as Senator Dodd.
I don't pretend to be an expert on Haiti. I've had the opportunity
to travel there, I think, 13 times in the last 10 years, since I have
been in the Senate. There is really no other nation like Haiti in our
hemisphere. Haiti is different. Haiti is unique. No other nation in
our hemisphere is as impoverished. Today, at least 80 percent of
all Haitians live in dire poverty, with at least 75, 85 percent either
unemployed or under-employed. Per capital annual income is less
than $400, although those figures are really, frankly, irrelevant
when you travel to Haiti, see the unbelievable poverty.
No other nation in our hemisphere has a higher rate of HIV/
AIDS. AIDS is the number-one cause of all adult deaths in Haiti,

killing at least 30,000 Haitians annually, and orphaning 200,000
children. No other nation in our hemisphere has a higher infant-
mortality rate or a lower life-expectancy rate. No other nation in
our hemisphere is as environmentally strapped. Haiti is really an
ecological disaster today, with a 98 percent deforestation rate and
extreme topsoil erosion.
But despite its radical differences from other countries in this
hemisphere, Haiti remains in our backyard. It is intrinsically
linked to the United States by history, by geography, by humani-
tarian concerns, by the illicit drug trade, and by the ever-present
possibility of waves of incoming refugees.
Haiti's problems, Mr. Chairman, are our problems, and we aren't
going to be able to do anything about any of these problems unless
Haiti, the United States, and the international community are all
willing to, today, take bold and radical steps. Business as usual in
regard to how we deal with Haiti is just not going to get it any-
more. If we do not want to be in a position, Mr. Chairman and my
colleagues, where we see marines back on the shores of Haiti every
two or three years from now on, we're going to have to do things
I have several ideas I'd like to share with the subcommittee.
First, I believe the international community must help Haiti to
restore a democratically elected government, one free of corruption
and the influence and involvement of violent human-rights-abusing
thugs and killers. That obviously means that the rebels, who we've
already heard referenced today by some of my colleagues, simply
cannot be part of this new government.
Second, I believe that the international community must free
Haiti of its $1.17 billion in foreign debt. And I think the United
States should take the lead in that. That is a debt that has been
passed down from government to- government. It is a debt that
burns the Haitian people, that will continue to keep them in pov-
erty. And it should be done away with, and we should take the lead
in that. I believe that we can set conditions on that, that we can
set conditions of good governance, and set that over a period of
time. But we should make it clear that that debt should be done
away with, and we should go and work with the international com-
munity to do that.
Third, we must increase trade and create jobs, and help the Hai-
tians work. These are people, Mr. Chairman, who are very ener-
getic people. They're a hardworking people. They want nothing
more than what we want, and that is to feed their families. I have
introduced, along with Congressman Clay Shaw, in the House, a
trade bill. In the Senate, it is S. 489. If this bill were enacted, it
would help restore jobs and create new ones. Haiti, at one time in
the not-too-distant past, had at least 100,000 assembly jobs, very
simple assembly jobs that people could take pride in and that fed
many, many families. Today, Haiti has less than 30,000 of these
assembly jobs. The passage of this bill would lead to, very quickly,
the creation of at least another 70,000 to 80,000 of these jobs.
Fourth, we must help Haiti develop a self-sufficient system of ag-
riculture, and stop the influx of people into Cap-Haitien and Port-
au-Prince, into the slums of these two cities, where they cannot
make a living.

Fifth, we must help Haiti restore the rule of law. The inter-
national community needs to resume programs for mentoring mag-
istrates and judges, and the new Haitian Government needs to cre-
ate a functioning disciplinary body to oversee the entire judiciary.
Sixth, we must help Haiti establish an independent, professional
national police force, one capable of quelling the violence of the
armed thugs who threaten the streets of Haiti with abandon.
And, seventh, and finally, the international community should
immediately restore the direct aid to the government that was sus-
pended under President Aristide so Haiti can rebuild much-needed
institutions and infrastructure for the delivery of food, humani-
tarian aid, and healthcare.
Just to put this in perspective, in 1994, prior to Aristide's rein-
statement of power during a time of military dictatorship under
Cedras, our assistance to Haiti was far greater than it is today. In
1994, we provided, Mr. Chairman, $69 million. The current budget
is for $54 million. We have, at one time, provided up to $235 mil-
lion. If we are to make a real difference-and I don't want to sug-
gest any particular figure, but we're going to have to be at, at least,
the $150 million that the Foreign Relations Committee reported
out last week.
Finally-and I know the bell has rung; let me just make one
final, if I could, comment, and that pertains to the current situa-
tion in Haiti. It is abundantly clear, from the people that I talk to
in Haiti today, both in Port-au-Prince and outside Port-au-Prince,
that while our troops are doing a tremendous job there, it is abun-
dantly clear to me that there are not enough troops in Haiti today.
And it is a danger to those troops by not having enough troops, and
it is also clear to me that unless more troops are put into Haiti by
the United States, that we are not going to be able to stabilize the
situation, and that this crucial period of three months before the
U.N. moves in is a very, very delicate timetable, very delicate pe-
riod of time, and it's essential that more U.S. troops be put in.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you very, very much, Senator DeWine.
I noted that I specifically asked my colleagues, Senator DeWine
and Senator Graham, to participate in this discussion today. This
is the first time the Senate has had a chance to visit this issue.
Senator Graham, I defer to you for any opening comments.
Senator GRAHAM. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I appre-
ciate your holding this hearing today on an issue that is extremely
important to a near neighbor of the United States, but also raises
issues about U.S. policy in similar circumstances around the world.
Mr. Chairman, I'd like to ask that my prepared testimony be
placed in the committee record, and I will speak from a somewhat
shortened version.
Senator COLEMAN. Without objection.
Senator GRAHAM. Mr. Chairman, the departure of former Presi-
dent Aristide, just ten days ago, caused the people of Haiti to enter
a new phase of their efforts to build a democracy. There has been,
there will be, much discussion about the nature of that departure
and the characteristics that surrounded it. I have spoken and writ-

ten on those in the past. Today, I want to talk about what we need
to be doing immediately in order to be of maximum assistance.
I want to associate myself with the comments of a man who has
shown the deepest commitment and compassion to the people of
Haiti, Senator DeWine. I would characterize his remarks as par-
ticularly focused on the mid-range issues in Haiti. I'm going to
focus more on the short-range. What do we do in-starting with the
circumstances that existed-that exist on the streets today?
The question I'm here to discuss is, What should be the role of
the United States, as a good neighbor, to the 8 million people living
in one of the poorest and, currently, one of the most violent coun-
tries on earth? From firsthand experience over the past three dec-
ades, I know the Haitian people to be hardworking, to be com-
mitted to improving their lives, even in the face of unimaginable
Tens of thousands of Haitian refugees have resettled in my home
state. I have come to appreciate their strong commitment to family,
their religious values, the understanding of the benefits of edu-
cation to themselves and their children, and to an entrepreneurial
spirit that would improve any community in America. I know that
the United States and the international community have a strong
desire to see Haiti succeed.
We also have the lessons of the past decade to learn from as we
try once again to help the Haitian people build governmental insti-
tutions and a growing economy. The road ahead will not be easy,
nor is the outcome assured. That is why it is imperative that the
United States takes a strong and constructive role in Haiti at this
Let me quote from some statements that were made just yester-
day by the CIA director, George Tenet, relative to the cir-
cumstances in Haiti. Director Tenet said, "What concerns me is the
possibility that the interim government, backed by international
forces, will have trouble establishing order. A humanitarian dis-
aster or mass migration remains possible. Anti-Aristide rebels still
exert de facto control over many parts of the country and have yet
to make good on promises to lay down their arms."
I am here today to call on the administration and the Congress
to take immediate action to fulfill our responsibilities and to act in
our national interest to stabilize the situation in Haiti, and to
begin to build a long-term stable, democratic state. I would pose
four steps to do this immediately, and a fifth that has longer-range
First is security. The tragic events of recent days indicate that
the security forces that we've sent to Haiti, along with the French,
the Canadian, and the Chilean forces who are there, are not suffi-
cient to maintain order and security. I would join in the remarks
that Senator DeWine has made to that effect. Additional forces are
needed immediately to provide a level of security that will allow
the democratic institutions to develop, a broad-based provisional
government to be organized, and commercial activity to restart. I
happened to meet a man, in the Miami Airport on Monday, who
runs a small manufacturing plant near the airport in Port-au-
Prince. He says his business has been shut down because the cus-
toms service in Haiti is shut down and they can't clear either mate-

rials coming in or exiting the country. And that put several hun-
dred people, who earn their living at his plant, in jeopardy of losing
their jobs.
Mr. Chairman, I see and hear that the red light is on, so if I
could just limit myself to one sentence?
Senator COLEMAN. If you could sum up, Senator Graham, that
would be fine. Thank you.
Senator GRAHAM. Humanitarian assistance-there clearly is a
threat of a humanitarian crisis of catastrophic proportions. And ac-
cording to today's news reports, we are engaged in an urgent ap-
peal to raise $35 million for six months of humanitarian aid. If nec-
essary, the United States is going to have to step in and front-load
that assistance, particularly food and medical facilities.
The United States, third, should have a permanent senior per-
son, who has the respect of the President, the Congress, and the
American people, to serve on a full-time basis as the President's
representative in Haiti.
And, fourth, the political transition, the task of putting together
a broad-based transitional government is going to be very chal-
lenging, yet I see this as a rare opportunity. Success in Haiti will
require a sustained political effort led by the United States, sup-
ported by the international community, that moves towards free
and fair elections and the other components of a functioning democ-
And let me just conclude, Mr. Chairman, with a final comment
about the long term. What we have seen now twice in Haiti-we've
seen it in Bosnia, we've seen it in Somalia, we've seen it in Kosovo,
we've seen it Afghanistan, and we've seen it in Iraq. What have we
seen? We've seen the United States military be called to action,
and, with great professionalism and expedition of time and, in most
instances, limited or no casualties, they've carried out their mili-
tary mission. And then what happens? We move to the occupation
phase, and everything seems to collapse. The fact that we had an
occupation in Haiti for the better part of two years just ten years
ago, and now we're back with a Haiti that many would argue is
worse off than it was in 1994, is one illustration of that.
I think we need to accept the fact that the United States will
have a role in nation-building, in nation-sustaining efforts. And
rather than attempt to deny that fact, let's get prepared to do it.
As an example, there should be a reserve force of at least 50,000
people, selected from the law enforcement agencies of the world,
who are prepared and trained to do specifically the kind of work
that the streets of Cap-Haitien and Port-au-Prince require today,
and they should be distributed in terms of their linguistic and cul-
tural backgrounds so that they can effectively move in and provide
assistance. A similar reserve corps of civil engineers should be on
hand, so we don't have the situation we did in Iraq, of where Sad-
dam Hussein was able to restore the electric system more quickly
in 1991 after the war, than we were able to restore it in 2003.
Senator COLEMAN. Senator Graham, if you could finalize your
Senator GRAHAM. I would just finalize by saying, I look forward
to working with this committee on all of these issues, particularly

this development of a permanent capability to respond to the chal-
lenges of occupation.
And I thank you, again, for your interest in this very important
[The prepared statement of Senator Graham follows:]

With the departure of former President Aristide 10 days ago, the people of Haiti
have entered a new phase in their efforts to build a prosperous democracy. I am
hopeful that the next chapter on Haiti will have a better ending than the chapter
that was just concluded.
There is a need to determine the exact circumstances surrounding President
Aristide's departure, but that is not our undertaking at this hearing. The question
we should be addressing is, What should be our role as a good neighbor to 8 million
people living in one of the poorest and, currently, most violent countries on the
From firsthand experience over the past three decades, I know the Haitian people
to be hard working and committed to improving their lives even in the face of un-
imaginable hardship. Tens of thousands of Haitian refugees have resettled in my
home state, and I have come to appreciate their strong commitments to family, to
religious values, to the benefits of education for themselves and their children, and
to an entrepreneurial spirit that would benefit any community in America.
And I know that the United States and the international community have a
strong desire to see Haiti succeed.
We also have the lessons of the past decade to learn from as we try again to help
the Haitian people build governmental institutions and a growing economy.
But the road ahead will not be easy, nor is the outcome assured. That is why it
is imperative that the United States takes a strong and constructive role in rebuild-
ing Haiti.
To do this right is our responsibility and is in our national security interest. If
we shy away from our responsibilities or fail to maintain our commitment long
enough, we will find ourselves back again in Haiti in 2014, just where we are today,
10 years after our last half-hearted effort to bring democracy there-forced to start
rebuilding from scratch.
As CIA Director George Tenet testified before the Armed Services Committee on
In this hemisphere, of course, the situation in HAITI is very fluid. The
process of setting up an interim government and moving toward new elec-
tions has just begun. Selection of a consensus prime minister this week
would be an important next step. What concerns me is the possibility that
the interim government, backed by international forces, will have trouble
establishing order. A humanitarian disaster or mass migration remains pos-
sible. Anti Aristide rebels still exert de facto control over many parts of the
country and have yet to make good on promises to lay down their arms.
Those forces include armed gangs, former Haitian Army officers, and mem-
bers of irregular forces who allegedly killed Aristide supporters during his
A cycle of clashes and revenge killings could easily be set off, given the
large number of angry, well-armed people on both sides. Improving security
will require the difficult task of disarming armed groups and augmenting
and retraining a national security force.
The interim government's nascent consensus could also run aground if
hardline Lavalas (pro-Aristide) or Democratic Platform (anti-Aristide) ele-
ments break ranks and seek to exert control.
I am here to today to call on the administration and Congress to take immediate
action to fulfill our responsibilities and to act in our national interests to stabilize
the situation in Haiti and to begin to build a stable democratic state.
I would propose a five-point plan that needs to be put into action immediately:
1. Security
The tragic events of recent days indicate that the security force that we have sent
to Haiti, along with French troops, are not sufficient to maintain order and security.

Additional forces are needed immediately to provide a level of security that will
allow the democratic institutions to develop, a broad-based provisional government
to be organized, and commercial activity to restart.
The forces currently in Haiti are obviously not sufficient for the task. One lesson
of our past involvements in nation building is that you need to use maximum, not
minimum, military presence at the outset. The current incremental approach is a
proven recipe for failure. Already we see the armed groups threatening to re-emerge
if international forces cannot protect the people.
2. Humanitarian Assistance
Haiti is the poorest nation in our hemisphere. The current political unrest has
halted humanitarian shipments to some parts of the country for weeks.
We all saw news footage of warehouses full of humanitarian supplies being looted
during the unrest. A more vigorous effort to provide humanitarian food and medical
supplies throughout the country needs to be implemented immediately.
The United Nations on Tuesday issued an appeal for $35 million for six months'
worth of humanitarian aid, but given the desperate circumstances there, that may
prove to be too little, especially if it arrives too late.
3. Leadership
A project as big as rebuilding Haiti is not a part time job. The President needs
to appoint a senior person to lead this effort on a full-time basis. This person needs
to be experienced in the problems associated with nation-building and the particular
problems of Haiti.
This person needs to be respected by both parties so that they will be able to ef-
fectively argue for the resources that will be required to accomplish the task at
hand. Finally, this person must be of sufficient stature in the administration that
their voice will be heard when needed.
4. Political Transition
The task of putting together a broad-based transitional government is very chal-
lenging, yet I believe a rare opportunity exists at this time. Success in Haiti will
require a sustained political effort, led by the United States, supported by the inter-
national community, that moves towards free and fair elections.
This is a particularly challenging task given the history of elections in Haiti. Nev-
ertheless, it is a prerequisite to building self-sustaining governmental institutions
and a growing economy.
We have recognized the importance of this type of effort in Iraq. I hope we will
recognize its importance just a few hundred miles from our shores.
5. Nation-Building Capacity
Finally, let me say that there is one lesson that we must take from our experi-
ences in the past decade or so, not just from Haiti but from Somalia, Kosovo, Bos-
nia, Afghanistan, Iraq-and now from Haiti again.
Some have denied that the United States should have any interest in "nation
building" or "nation sustaining" efforts, but I would describe that as being a su-
preme state of denial. It is inescapable that the United States, as the sole super-
power in the world, is going to have a responsibility-once a dictator has been de-
posed or another action taken-to lead the international community in helping
countries such as Haiti get back on their feet and move forward.
In each instance over the past 10 or 11 years, we find ourselves virtually rein-
venting the wheel once the military phase ends and the occupation and rebuilding
phase begins. We largely task the Department of Defense with managing the recon-
struction, when that is not their assigned or chosen mission. And sad to say, while
the military phase is usually a glowing success in which all Americans can right-
fully take pride, the rebuilding phase proves to be much less successful.
But we should emulate the military's ability to recruit, train, plan and exercise
skilled personnel to develop an international capacity for restoring order and forging
a new future for occupied countries. That capacity must include several key ele-
An international police reserve force with diverse linguistic and cultural skills
that can be called in to restore and maintain order.
Humanitarian aid coordinators with plans to pull together both public sector
and non-governmental organizations to address urgent needs for food, medicine
and shelter.
Teams of civil engineers to lead the rebuilding of shattered water, sewer and
telecommunications systems and other essential infrastructure.
Legal and political experts to laws, establish justice system reforms.

Such a capacity should reside within the United Nations, but the United States
must be the leader in assuring that it is a real and meaningful capacity-or we will
find ourselves repeatedly asking our taxpayers to bear the greatest burden, as we
have in Iraq.
And we need to see such an effort launched soon in Haiti. Or, I fear that we will
find ourselves going back in with a military force in another 10 years.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you very much, Senator Graham.
And, with that, I will turn to our panel and thank them for their
patience. We are honored to have our colleagues from the House
here today. We have with us the Honorable Congressman Elijah
Cummings, Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus, and the
Honorable Congresswoman Maxine Waters, from California.
Congressman Cummings, would you please begin?

Mr. CUMMINGS. Mr. Chairman, and to the entire committee, it is
certainly a pleasure to be here today, and I'm pleased that your
subcommittee is having this important hearing on Haiti. But, more
important, after this hearing today, I hope that we will move to
take constructive steps to help the Haitian people.
I also associate myself with the words of Senator Graham, Sen-
ator Boxer, and Senator DeWine.
While I realize that the title of today's hearing asks the question,
"A Fresh Start for Haiti? Charting the Future of U.S.-Haitian Rela-
tions," I believe that it is extremely important that we, the United
States Congress, get to the bottom of what has transpired over the
last few weeks-indeed, years-in Haiti.
Mr. Chairman and members of this committee, almost since the
creation of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) in 1969, we've
had a Haiti Task Force on issues facing the people of Haiti. I might
add that that task force is headed by, at this time, John Conyers,
who is with us, Congressman Conyers, of Michigan, and certainly
Congresswoman Barbara Lee, of California.
As you all know, Haiti is about 700 miles off the coast, our coast,
and about 80 percent of the 8 million citizens of Haiti live in dire
poverty. The truth is, Mr. Chairman, the people of Haiti des-
perately need our help. People are literally dying every day, not be-
cause of gunshots, but because they do not have clean water, ade-
quate food, or medical supplies readily available. But as we address
this issue of helping the Haitian people with the basic necessities
of everyday life, we also have to gain their trust. Trust will be an
important key to our success or failure in Haiti.
As we look back at what has transpired in Haiti over the last few
weeks and, as I mentioned earlier, the last few years, I believe that
we must clear up and find out how did we get to where we are
today. Our looking back at the past is not meant to be an indict-
ment of anyone in particular; however, I believe that we must and
can learn from the past.
As the committee members are well aware, the United States, for
all intent and purposes, pulled out of Haiti in 1996. Our military
pull-out was accompanied by our government suspending or block-
ing humanitarian loans from going to Haiti. Mr. Chairman, quite
frankly, the United States and the international community have

a trust and credibility problem with the Haitian people that must
be fixed if we are to effectively and efficiently move forward.
There is a question of trust, and, unfortunately, whether it is
true or not, there is a former democratically elected president of
Haiti saying to the world that he was forcibly removed from office.
This issue must be addressed, and that is why several members of
Congress-not just some members of the CBC, which I am honored
to chair-have called on Congress for an independent commission
to uncover the facts-and I underscore the facts-which led to
President Aristide's departure from Haiti.
But bigger than the question of President Aristide and how he
came to leave Haiti, we need to know what specific steps the
United States took to defend this democracy.
Members of the committee, as you are well aware, several coun-
tries in the Caribbean, specifically CARICOM countries, are ex-
tremely troubled by the recent turn of events in Haiti, and hold the
United States responsible. So as we move forward, we need to en-
sure that we begin to mend fences and fix our damaged relation-
ships with our Caribbean neighbors. This CARICOM issue is one
of the many issues that Members of the Congressional Black Cau-
cus discussed in our meeting last week at the United Nations, with
U.N. Ambassador to the U.N., John Negroponte, and U.N. Sec-
retary General Kofi Annan.
Mr. Chairman, my reason for discussing this recent history with
the committee today is because I do not believe that the Haitian
people are just going to forget it and look to the future without
some answers. But as we look to the future, after answering these
critical questions, I believe that the United States must be Haiti's
partner and make a long-term commitment, and sustained commit-
ment, to the people of Haiti.
The reason I'm emphasizing the long-term and sustained com-
mitment, which Senator Graham referenced, is because we went
through this with Haiti in the mid 1990s, and then we pulled out.
And as a result, we now have to send U.S. troops in again.
One word about our troops, Mr. Chairman, and I know that you
and all of the committee members join me in saying this, I want
to commend them and thank them for their service to our country.
We all owe them a great debt of gratitude.
Mr. Chairman, as this recent crisis was reaching a critical point
two weeks ago, 18 members of the CBC met with President Bush,
Secretary Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, and
White House Chief of Staff Andy Card. When we met with the
President, our message was clear and focused on three main points
that are still salient today.
May I just briefly summarize?
Senator COLEMAN. Please.
Mr. CUMMINGS. First, we told the President that we must defend
democracy in Haiti. The people of Haiti must have the final say in
their government. It cannot be a puppet government. Second, the
rule of law must be adhered to in Haiti. Third, and perhaps most
important, we must get humanitarian assistance to the people who
need it most in Haiti.
And so, Mr. Chairman, again, we emphasize that, while we are
extremely concerned about President Aristide and his departure

and the way it was done, we also want to make sure that the peo-
ple who are living in dire poverty in Haiti receive the kind of hu-
manitarian assistance that they need, and we want the rule of law
restored. And the other thing is that we want a democracy, the
type of democracy that we stand up for in this country over and
over again, traveling around the world defending, that it be de-
fended there in Haiti.
Thank you.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Congressman Cummings.
With that, Congresswoman Waters.

Ms. WATERS. Thank you very much. Senator Coleman, I'd like to
thank you for holding this hearing and allowing us to participate
here today.
I'm very appreciative for the comments I've heard from my own
Senator, Senator Barbara Boxer, and I absolutely love the rec-
ommendations that were given by Senator DeWine here today. I've
worked with Senator Dodd for many years, and I respect all of the
work that he, too, has done on this issue.
I would like to say that it is clear that a coup d'6tat took place
in Haiti. We've learned that our government made the departure
of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the democratically elected
leader of Haiti, a precondition to introducing United States forces
to restore order. At the very least, despite our government's claims
to support democratically elected governments, this administration
was unwilling to take any real steps to prevent President Aristide's
overthrow. Uncovering the truth about our government's role in
President Aristide's departure is critical to any attempt to chart
the future of U.S.-Haitian relations.
I've been involved in U.S. policy towards Haiti since shortly after
President Aristide was ousted in a coup d'etat in 1991. I became
acquainted with President Aristide while he was in exile here in
the United States following the 1991 coup. I joined with other
members of Congress to convince President Clinton to intervene to
allow President Aristide to return to Haiti and resume his position
as the democratically elected President of Haiti. As a result of our
efforts, President Aristide was able to return to Haiti in 1994. Let
me just say that Mr. Randall Robinson was then the executive di-
rector of TransAfrica, an organization that took the lead. He went
on a hunger strike, and almost died, to try and make the return
possible. And many of us were arrested in our attempts to get the
attention of the White House at that time.
Mr. Chairman, the sad reality is that the same people who sup-
ported the 1991 coup were involved in planning this year's coup.
Mr. Andre Apaid is a factory owner in Haiti, born in New York.
He owns 15 factories in Haiti. He holds an American passport, and
he supported the 1991 coup. And he's now a leader of the Group
of 184, who posture themselves as the legitimate protesters against
this government. He has been accused of not wanting to pay any
taxes, angry with President Aristide not only because he was being
forced to pay taxes, but because President Aristide was insisting on

decent wages for the people who work in the 15 factories that he
owns there.
Many of the thugs that were involved in this coup d'6tat are
former members of the Haitian military, are members of the feared
death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress
of Haiti, commonly referred to as FRAPH, which was responsible
for numerous human rights violations during the three years fol-
lowing the 1991 coup. Mr. Louis-Jodel Chamblain was second in
command of FRAPH and was convicted in absentia for his role in
the 1994 Raboteau massacre and the 1993 assassination of Antoine
Izmery. Jean Tatoune was a local FRAP leader, who was also con-
victed of involvement in the Raboteau massacre. Mr. Guy Philippe
is a former police chief and military officer, who led several coup
attempts between 2001 and 2003, and is a big, well-known drug
I'm convinced that the recent coup involved not only Mr. Andre
Apaid and the armed thugs, but I'm very concerned about the role
that our own ambassador, Mr. Roger Noriega played. Ambassador
Noriega's history is replete with actions against Haiti, both as Sen-
ator Jesse Helms' chief of staff and now as the Bush administra-
tion's Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs.
I've been to Haiti three times since the beginning of the year. I
first went to celebrate the 200-year independence of Haiti, January
1. While I was in Haiti, I met with President Aristide and members
of the Lavalas Party, as well as Mr. Andre Apaid and other mem-
bers of the Group of 184. I was also present when the international
community-where the United States, France, Canada, the OES,
and the U.N. all were represented, and members of CARICOM-
presented the CARICOM proposal to President Aristide. The
CARICOM proposal was designed to limit President Aristide's
power, and provide for the selection of a new prime minister who
would be acceptable to the opposition and able to exercise more
independent power in Haiti. President Aristide signed off on and
accepted CARICOM's proposal. As you know by now, the opposi-
tion, led by Mr. Andre Apaid, refused to accept the proposal and
sign up.
Meanwhile, while they were holding out, not coming to the peace
table, they were giving covert aid to the thugs who had taken over
the cities of Gonaives and the city of Cap-Haitien. This was led by
Mr. Guy Philippe, the drug dealer and the killer. And they got
stronger and stronger as the days went on, and they openly said,
through the press, that they were coming into Port-au-Prince, and
they were going to kill President Aristide.
In Port-au-Prince, you had what is known as the Chimeres and
Lavalas and the OPs, poor people, gathering to protect Port-au-
Prince. They were gathering with machetes and weapons, and you
could see the confrontation drawing near. We begged Colin Pow-
ell-we begged him-to please send some troops in-we didn't care
if they were United States or international-to stop what we
thought was going to be this confrontation.
Then we learned that President Aristide had been visited in the
wee hours of the morning and told that he had to leave, that there
was about to be a blood-bath, that he would be killed, many Hai-
tians would be killed. And he maintains that he was literally kid-

napped and put on a plane and made to leave. Now, he's sitting
up in C.A.R., the Central African Republic, under guard by the Af-
ricans and the French.
I said to Colin Powell, just today, as I caught up with him in
committee, they're guarding them, and they said they will not do
anything unless they are told by the United States and France
what they can do. He's ready to leave. He has found a place that's
acceptable to him. What will the United States do to say to him,
"You're free to go wherever you have been accepted?" Now, I think
it's very important for the members of Congress to find out why the
United States is holding him captive and why they won't allow the
Central Africa Republic to release him. I think if they do that and
let him go wherever he has been accepted, and we move with an
aggressive program, such as that which has been described by Mr.
DeWine, then we'll be on our way to restoring government to Haiti.
I would simply say this, and I will wind up-and I know you
would like me to get over with this-I think you're right about the
humanitarian aid, but I think there are some other things that
must be done. The American citizen, Mr. Apaid, who's not only re-
sponsible for being involved in this coup, but the previous one,
should be made to come home, and he should be put out of Haiti.
The killers-Mr. Guy Philippe, Mr. Louis Chamblain-they
should be jailed. They were already convicted in absentia, and they
are running around now having said that they would put down
their arms, and they're thumbing their nose at the United States.
They don't intend to go anywhere. They want to reestablish the
military, such as they had under Mr. Cedras.
I believe that the constitution of Haiti should be respected. I be-
lieve that there should be elections. And I think we have to resolve
this question of how President Aristide was made to leave. I think
that we have to give assistance to Haiti to deal with the big drug
dealers that's up on the Dominican Republic border. President
Aristide has given the United States the ability to interdict drugs
in Haitian waters, that's not being used. But that's one of the prob-
lems. It is being used as a trans-shipment point for drugs, and we
are doing nothing to relieve them of the responsibility.
And, lastly, let me just say this. In this aid that we're talking
about-because we were not giving money to the government, they
had no money for infrastructure; they have literally no water sys-
tem. Children are dying because the water is polluted. They die
from the bacteria, from diarrhea. The first thing we must do is help
to construct a water system for clean and potable water in Haiti.
And, with that, I thank you very much for allowing me this time.
[The prepared statement of Congresswoman Waters follows:]

Senator Lugar, Senator Coleman, Senator Biden, Senator Dodd, members of the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, thank you for allowing me to testify here
today. It is clear that a coup d'6tat took place in Haiti. We have learned that our
government made the departure of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the democrat-
ically-elected leader of Haiti, a pre-condition to introducing United States forces to
restore order. At the very least, despite our government's claims to support demo-
cratically-elected governments, the Bush administration was unwilling to take any
real steps to prevent President Aristide's overthrow.

Uncovering the truth about our Government's role in President Aristide's depar-
ture is critical to any attempt to chart the future of U.S.-Haitian relations.
I have been involved in U.S. policy towards Haiti since shortly after President
Aristide was ousted in a coup d'etat in 1991. I became acquainted with President
Aristide while he was in exile here in the United States following the 1991 coup.
I joined with other members of Congress to convince the Clinton administration to
intervene to allow President Aristide to return to Haiti and resume his position as
the democratically-elected President of Haiti. As a result of our efforts, President
Aristide was able to return to Haiti in 1994.
Mr. Chairman, the sad reality is that the same people who supported the 1991
coup were involved in planning this year's coup. Andre Apaid, a factory-owner who
holds an American passport, supported the 1991 coup and is now the leader of the
Group of 184. Many of the thugs are former members of the Haitian military or
members of the feared death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and
Progress of Haiti (FRAPH), which was responsible for numerous human rights viola-
tions during the three years following the 1991 coup. Louis Jodel Chamblain was
the second-in-command of FRAPH and was convicted in abstentia for his role in the
1994 Raboteau massacre and the 1993 assassination of Antoine Izmery. Jean
Tatoune was a local FRAPH leader, who was also convicted of involvement in the
Raboteau massacre. Guy Philippe is a former police chief and military officer, who
led several coup attempts between 2001 and 2003.
I am convinced that the recent coup involved not only Andre Apaid and the armed
thugs but also our own Ambassador Roger Noriega. Ambassador Noriega's history
is replete with actions against Haiti, both as Senator Jesse Helms' chief of staff and
now as the Bush administration's Assistant Secretary for Western Hemisphere Af-
I have been to Haiti three times since the beginning of this year. While I was
in Haiti, I met with President Aristide and Lavalas party members as well as Andre
Apaid and other members of the Group of 184. I was also present when the inter-
national community and the members of CARICOM presented the CARICOM pro-
posal to President Aristide. The CARICOM proposal was designed to limit President
Aristide's power and provide for the selection of a new prime minister, who would
be acceptable to the opposition and able to exercise more independent power in
I believe the demonstrations organized by Andre Apaid and the Group of 184 were
designed to provoke the Haitian police into retaliating against the demonstrators,
who routinely threw rocks, spat in the face of police officers and defied government
orders establishing permissible parade routes for protests. In the beginning, these
tactics worked and the police responded. However, when President Aristide learned
what was happening, he was able to control the police and prevent them from car-
rying out acts of retaliation.
When the police stopped responding to provocations by the demonstrators, I be-
lieve the U.S. Government and the French Government became involved in exerting
increasing pressure on President Aristide, by refusing to fully support the
CARICOM proposal and covertly supporting the thugs, who were taking over cities
and cutting off supplies of food and water. Meanwhile, the thugs became bolder and
bolder, threatening to carry out a bloodbath if President Aristide did not leave Haiti.
Yet neither Andre Apaid nor the U.S. government ever admitted they knew who
these thugs were or denounced their invasion of Haiti.
I repeatedly appealed to Secretary of State Cohn Powell to assist the government
of Haiti,- yet the Bush administration refused to provide any assistance whatsoever
to stop the violence until after President Aristide's departure. It is clear that Presi-
dent Aristide's departure was a precondition to any U.S. efforts to stop the violence.
President Aristide told me that he was forced to leave Haiti on February 29, 2004,
after U.S. officials told him that he and many other Haitians would be killed if he
refused. President Aristide apparently is being held against his will in the Central
African Republic.
I urge the members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to investigate the
circumstances under which President Aristide and his wife are being held in order
to ensure that they are not being held against their will. The United States should
inform the government of the Central African Republic that President Aristide
should be allowed to leave the Central African Republic whenever he is ready to
do so. Furthermore, the United States should make certain that he is allowed to
travel to any country of his own choosing that will receive him and offer him assist-
ance in doing so.
The members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee must determine the
truth about our Government's role in the organization and execution of the coup
d'6tat that led to President Aristide's departure. The American people deserve to

know how and why this administration allowed a democratically-elected government
to be overthrown by a group of heavily-armed thugs.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you very, very much, Congresswoman
We'll turn to, at this point, unless Senator Dodd has any follow-
up questions, I would dismiss the panel.
Senator DODD. No, let me join my colleagues on the committee
in thanking our two witnesses here, and also our two colleagues in
the Senate who spoke. I'm sorry I missed hearing their direct com-
ments. But I thank both our colleagues in the House, who have
been deeply involved in these issues. As Maxine pointed out, Con-
gresswoman Waters has pointed out, we've spent a lot of time over
the years working on this issue, going back more than a decade
now. And Elijah Cummings, we thank you immensely, as chair of
the Black Caucus, for being here and expressing your views on this
subject matter.
Mr. Chairman, I thank both of our witnesses for being here and
Senator COLEMAN. I share in that thanks. I do note that Con-
gresswoman Jackson Lee intended to be here. I believe that she's,
obviously, unable to make it.
Again, I want to thank my colleagues from the House for being
here. With that, this panel is dismissed.
Before we begin with the second panel, I would turn to my col-
league and distinguished Ranking Member, Senator Dodd, for any
comments that he may have.
Senator DODD. Well, thank you, Mr. Chairman. Again, you've got
a lot of witnesses here, and I don't want to take a lot of time on
this, but I do want to express some opening thoughts, if I can, on
the subject matter.
First of all, let me, again, thank Bob Graham and Mike DeWine
for their participation. And, let me underscore, I gather the sugges-
tions that Senator DeWine made-and I want to second them; I
think they are very sound suggestions. He's been a terrific advocate
on trying to get this straight in Haiti, and I thank him immensely
and thank him for being here.
Bob Graham, of course, has been involved in these issues. This
isn't just a foreign-policy issue for Senator Graham; it's a local
issue, as well, obviously, given the tremendous impact that his
state of Florida feels. Every time there is a disruption in the nor-
mal course of events in Haiti, Florida feels it very directly. So we
appreciate, immensely, his work.
And I want to thank you, Mr. Chairman, for holding this hear-
ing. Often, we'll have a hearing weeks after events, rather the in
the midst of them, to get some sense of it. And I appreciate, im-
mensely, the fact that this subcommittee is looking into this issue
to find out what went wrong, or, perhaps even more important, to
give us an opportunity to look forward. Because not only is it im-
portant that we analyze what happened over these last few weeks,
but critically important for the 8 million people who call Haiti their
home, they want to know what can be done to get this right, both

from a security standpoint, as well as economic opportunities, to
put it mildly.
So we're all well aware, obviously, that on Sunday, the 29th of
February, a democratically elected government, a head of govern-
ment in our own hemisphere, was forced out of office. An armed in-
surrection led by former members of the disbanded Haitian Army
and its paramilitary wing, FRAPH, made it impossible for the
Aristide government to maintain public order.
Now, I know there's been an effort ongoing for-in fact, for
months, for years-to smear President Aristide, and to denounce
him in every way possible. I think those accusations have gone way
beyond the reality. That's not to suggest that President Aristide did
not have serious problems in terms of his governance of Haiti. I'm
not going to excuse his misbehavior at all. But to suggest somehow
that his behavior constituted a decision that would cause us not to
stand up to support an elected government, I think, is wrong; not-
withstanding the fact that, in 2001, the United States, Haiti, and
32 other nations, as members of the Organization of American
States, adopted something called the American Democratic Charter
and, therein, pledged to, "Respond rapidly and collectively in the
defense of democracy." Virtually nothing was done by the United
States or other OAS members, in my view, to come to the aid of
the beleaguered Aristide administration, a democratically elected
government. Either these documents mean something or they don't.
And if they mean something, we ought to be able to stand up and
do what we can to defend these democratic processes. Frankly, it
makes me wonder whether the Inter-American Democratic Charter
is worth the paper it was printed on. I suspect others throughout
the hemisphere do, as well.
I give credit to members of CARICOM who valiantly attempted
to rescue one of their own. Sadly, their urgent entreaties to the
United Nations Security Council to take up the cause of Haiti fell
on deaf ears. President Aristide found himself with two
unpalatable alternatives: to remain in Haiti and face certain death
at the hands of armed thugs advancing on Port-au-Prince, and like-
ly the deaths of many of his supporters or others, as well, or resign
and accept exile. Now, whatever the specifics of his Sunday-morn-
ing departure from Haiti, I can't blame him for holding the belief
that his departure was involuntary, nor do I quite fathom how
those in the so-called democratic opposition, who summarily re-
jected the U.S.-backed CARICOM power-sharing proposal on three
different occasions-which, I might add, would have diffused the
political crisis-are still at the table with U.S. officials and others
discussing the future of Haiti, while individuals-or the indi-
vidual-who signed on to the CARICOM effort is not and is living
in exile.
At the appropriate time, I'm going to ask witnesses this after-
noon what the U.S. response has been to CARICOM's request for
an independent international investigation surrounding President
Aristide's resignation. Whatever the specific circumstances of Presi-
dent Aristide's departure, it is indisputable, in my view, that the
United States played a direct and very public role in pressuring
him to leave office. There was no question that President Aristide
made mistakes, and serious ones, during his most recent three

years in office. All of us here recognize that. Poverty, desperation,
and opportunism bred government corruption. As head of state,
President Aristide must assume responsibility for those things that
occurred on his watch. But there is plenty of blame to go around
for the mess in Haiti.
The United States and other members of the international com-
munity must assume, in my view, a heavy responsibility for what
they did not do in Haiti; namely, help Haitians lift themselves from
the desperate poverty and ignorance and despair which is gripping
their country, empowering their government to serve them. This is
the 21st century, and yet 80 percent of the 8 million people, who
live on the western wing of the island of Hispanola, live in abject
poverty. Eight out of every ten people, per-capita earnings of $440
a year in 2002. To give you some measure of the comparison, the
per-capita income for all of the rest of Latin American and the Car-
ibbean was $3,280 a year during the same period of time. Not sur-
prisingly, in such circumstances only half of Haiti's children attend
school. Only about 40, 45 percent can read or write-less than in
Iraq, I might add.
A scarcity of resources has also contributed to the public-health
crisis in that nation. More than 15 percent of the children don't live
past the age of five, and the average life expectancy is under 50.
Haitians also suffer from the highest rate of HIV/AIDS in the
Western Hemisphere. Roughly 6 percent of the Haitians are in-
Mr. Chairman, U.S. foreign assistance in Haiti has fallen far, far
short of the needs that I have just mentioned. The lion's share of
U.S. assistance over the last three years has been P.L. 480 food as-
sistance, daily feeding programs for thousands of Haitians, mothers
and children, to help them stave off starvation. Child survival and
HIV/AID programs administered through the NGOs have also been
a part of the U.S. aid initiative.
At the moment, Haiti is slated to receive $52 million in FY 2004
assistance. Put that in perspective for you, that the U.S. military
intervention back in the mid 1990s cost us $2 billion to go in. And
I've heard estimates that the protracted cost of this recent effort in
Haiti is going to cost us somewhere in the neighborhood of a billion
dollars. Mr. Noriega, I think, may take issue with that number,
and certainly when he's testifying, he can do so. But, nonetheless,
when you consider $52 million is all we can come up with to assist
this impoverished country, and yet it's certainly going to cost us
factors 10 or 20 times that amount in order to bring stability there,
which could have been avoided, in my view.
Over the past three years, the administration virtually zeroed
out all direct U.S. economic assistance programs to the Govern-
ment of Haiti, zeroed out all-all-domestic assistance programs.
We're kidding ourselves if we think the institutional incompetence
and corruption in that nation is ever going to be seriously ad-
dressed, in Haiti or elsewhere, without direct assistance.
Official international financial institutions have acted no better,
in my view. The poorest nation in this hemisphere has been denied
access to their resources. The Inter-American Development Bank
and the World Bank virtually turned off their aid spigot to Haiti
for the last three years. Four hundred million dollars already ap-

proved by the IDB loans were withheld, with annual Federal reve-
nues of only $273 million in expenses, while 361 million-clearly
the withholding of these funds had a huge consequence on the Hai-
tian economy.
Finally, under pressure, the IDB relented last July, and began
the process of restarting its assistance programs to Haiti, albeit at
a pace that has been inexcusably slow. Under less-than-ideal cir-
cumstances, there is now underway an effort to organize an interim
government to govern until elections can be organized, as we all
know. It is very important, in my view, Mr. Chairman, that we all
understand that no matter how honorable the individuals chosen to
serve in this government are, they lack electoral legitimacy. It is,
therefore, also important that any interim government does not
overreach its mandate by attempting to make fundamental changes
to the Haitian political landscape, such as the restoration of the
Haitian armed forces.
The principal responsibility of this temporary governing body
must be, in my view, to organize and to conduct presidential and
parliamentary elections, obviously, with significant international
assistance and supervision, within the next 10 to 12 months. No in-
terim government is going to be able to succeed unless lawlessness
is brought to an end, and order restored. At a minimum, that is
not going to happen unless armed gangs are disarmed, and quickly.
To that end, I look forward to hearing how the administration in-
tends to respond to those who took up arms against the Haitian
Government-dangerous individuals, like Guy Philippe, a former
member of the disbanded Haitian Army, and other notorious
human rights abusers-who have taken public credit for murdering
policemen and burning public buildings, yet continue to move freely
and very publicly throughout Port-au-Prince.
As I mentioned earlier, recent events in Haiti call into question
the administration's commitment to the Inter-American Democratic
Charter, specifically its obligation to come to the collective defense
of struggling democracies like Haiti. The United States fell far
short in recent weeks; others did, as well. The question for today's
hearing is whether that was a temporary lapse or not.
Our hearing this afternoon, Mr. Chairman, should give the ad-
ministration the opportunity to answer this and important ques-
tions related to continued involvement in Haiti. And I appreciate
your indulgence in listening to those opening remarks. I have some
other suggestions I'll make at a later point in the hearing.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Senator Dodd.
With that, I will introduce the second panel: Mr. Roger Noriega,
Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, and
Mr. Adolfo Franco, Assistant Administrator for Latin America and
the Caribbean, USAID.
Secretary Noriega, you may proceed first.
Mr. NORIEGA. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. It's a pleas-
ure to be here to speak to the subcommittee about the topic of

Mr. Chairman, Senator Dodd, Senator DeWine, Senator Graham,
a chapter in the history of Haiti has just come to a close, and the
Haitian people are preparing to write a new one. The resignation
of President Aristide, on February 29th, marked the end of a proc-
ess that, in its early days, held out a bright promise to free Haiti
from the violence and confrontation that has plagued that country
since its inception 200 years ago. Sadly, that hope remains unreal-
ized. Responsibility for this failure resides largely with President
Aristide, himself. But the task before the United States, working
with the international community, is to help the 8 million people
of Haiti break the cycle of political misrule that has caused so
much misery.
Mr. Chairman, let me be clear, the history of Mr. Aristide's mis-
rule in Haiti proves what we all know to be true, that a democrat-
ically elected government can undermine its democratic legitimacy
by the manner in which it governs. Nowhere is that principle more
firmly enshrined in the hemisphere than in the Inter-American
Democratic Charter itself. That charter is not an a la carte menu,
where a constitutional government can pick and choose which of
the essential rights they will honor, and which they will violate,
which it will respect, and which it will ignore, and then call on the
solidarity of the international community to bail them out when
they foul things up so badly that they cannot hold onto power. By
his actions and his failures to act, Mr. Aristide undermined his
own ability to govern Haiti.
I don't want to dwell on Mr. Aristide's legacy, which is a very sad
one, but I would like to discuss it thoroughly in my written state-
ment, which I'll submit for the record.
Suffice it to say, however, that after all the broken promises, it
is no wonder that when one of the largest pro-Aristide gangs
turned against him and rose up in rebellion last month, the govern-
ment of Haiti had no effective, let alone legitimate, means with
which to respond.
The message to the hemisphere, when the rest of the world did
not respond to Aristide's demands for international support, is that
we will work together to help good leaders govern well, but we're
not under any obligation to help bad leaders govern badly. In the
end, no country, the United States included, was inclined to send
forces to sustain the failed political status quo in Haiti. President
Aristide decided, of his own free will, to resign, initiating a con-
stitutional process that transferred power to the President of the
Supreme Court.
There are several key points that I wish to make regarding U.S.
policy toward Haiti as we move forward with our international
partners to help the Haitian people. Number one, the United
States has been, and will continue to be, a firm supporter of democ-
racy in Haiti. That is a cornerstone of our policy.
The United States has been, and will almost certainly remain,
Haiti's leading provider of economic aid. This aid was never sus-
pended or cut off, as some have claimed. Between 1995 and the
year 2003, the United States provided over $850 million in assist-
ance in Haiti. This was channeled mostly through non-govern-
mental organizations because of the corruption that's rampant in
the government's system under President Aristide.

Third point, our leadership at the OAS in negotiating Resolution
822, in September 2002, helped open a door to the normalized rela-
tions between Haiti and international financial institutions. And
since then, IDB loans have begun to flow. We will continue to sup-
port IFI, international financial institution, lending to Haiti based
on technical merits.
Looking forward, our goal is, first, to stabilize the security situa-
tion and provide emergency humanitarian assistance to Haitians,
promote the formation of an independent government that enjoys
broad popular support, and work with that government to restore
the rule of law and other key democratic institutions in Haiti,
while encouraging steps to improve the difficult economic condi-
tions of the Haitian people.
The United States is not alone in this process. There are about
2,400 troops on the ground, mostly U.S., but including France,
Chile-the Canadians are also on their way. Under the terms of
the U.N. resolution approved unanimously by the Security Council
on February 29th, U.S. forces are already there as part of this mul-
tinational interim force to contribute to a secure and stable envi-
The key elements of the international plan that was initiated by
CARICOM are, as we speak, being carried out, to name a Prime
Minister, who will, in turn, form a consensus government to lead
Haiti forward. This rapid progress is a positive sign of a commit-
ment on the part of Haiti's political leadership to a constitutional
transition and the full return of democracy.
As the multinational interim force ends its mission, we will sup-
port the U.N. stabilization force called for by the U.N. Security
Council, and we will work with the United Nations and the Organi-
zation of American States to help the Haitian people begin to re-
build their institutions, starting with the Haitian National Police.
As I speak, the administration is engaged in intensive efforts to
achieve these goals.
Senator COLEMAN. If you would summarize the rest of your testi-
mony, Mr. Noriega, your entire statement will be entered into the
Mr. NORIEGA. I sure will, sir.
My colleague, Adolfo Franco, of USAID, will testify about the
varied and comprehensive actions that his agency has taken to sup-
port this transition effort.
President Bush has called for a break from the past in Haiti. In-
deed, we must have a break from the past if Haiti is to go forward.
That break will not come in the form of a new autocrat or dema-
gogue, but by unleashing the incredible potential of the Haitian
people in a positive and productive direction.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Noriega follows:]

Mr. Chairman, distinguished members, it is a pleasure to appear and to speak
before this subcommittee today on the topic of Haiti.
A chapter in the history of Haiti has just come to a close and the Haitian people
are preparing to write a new one. The resignation of President Aristide on February
29 marked the end of a process that in its early days held out a bright promise to

free Haiti from the violence, authoritarianism, and confrontation that has plagued
that country since its independence two hundred years ago. Sadly, that hope re-
mains unrealized. While responsibility for this failure resides largely with Aristide
himself, the task before the United States, working with the international commu-
nity, is to help the people of Haiti break the cycle of political misrule that has
caused so much misery.
As we move ahead, it is important that we understand where the problems lie.
The Haitian people are not to blame for the country's poverty and lack of develop-
ment. Rather, the absence of good government, even the will to govern fairly and
effectively, lies at the heart of the problem. Aristide's legacy of frustrated hope was
caused as much by what he did not do as by the steps he took. At the end, even
his supporters in the international community realized that his rule had under-
mined democracy and economic development in Haiti rather than strengthened it.
Mr. Chairman, let me be clear. The history of Mr. Aristide's misrule in Haiti
proves what we all know to be true-that a democratically elected government can
forfeit its democratic legitimacy by the manner in which it governs. Said another
way, being democratically elected does not give a leader free license to rule as he
sees fit. Nowhere is that principle more firmly enshrined in this Hemisphere than
in the Inter-American Democratic Charter itself. By his actions and failures to act,
Mr. Aristide undermined his own ability to govern Haiti.
Let's be very clear. U.S. policy in Haiti and throughout the Western Hemi-
sphere-indeed the world-is to support democracy and the strengthening of demo-
cratic institutions. On September 11, 2001, the United States joined the 33 other
members of the Organization of American States-including Haiti-in signing the
Inter-American Democratic Charter. The creation of the Democratic Charter owed
much to the hemispheric concern against the undermining of democratic institutions
in Peru-by an elected government. It acknowledges that the essential elements of
representative democracy go well beyond merely holding elections, and that govern-
ments have the obligation to promote and defend democratic principles and institu-
The commitment to strengthening democracy has been the cornerstone of our pol-
icy in Haiti since the restoration of Aristide to power-by the international commu-
nity led by the United States-in 1994. This process was set back by the highly
flawed parliamentary elections of June 1995, badly run local elections in April 1997,
and fraudulent parliamentary elections once again in May 2000. This series of bogus
electoral exercises, and the Haitian government's unwillingness to govern fairly,
opened the door to many subsequent acts of political violence and intimidation by
Aristide against his opponents. Our approach in encouraging respect for constitu-
tional processes and good governance in. Haiti focused on working with our hemi-
spheric partners through the OAS and with other friends of Haiti. In June 2001,
the OAS General Assembly approved Resolution 1831 calling on the Government of
Haiti to take steps to create an environment conducive to free and fair elections as
a means of resolving the political crisis created by the tainted elections of 2000.
On December 17, 2001, the Government of Haiti lashed out at its opponents with
a series of brutal attacks by pro-Aristide thugs on persons and property. This led
to OAS Resolution 806, which called for the creation of an OAS Special Mission to
Strengthen Democracy in Haiti and for the Aristide regime to take vigorous steps
to restore a climate of security.
When the Government of Haiti failed to comply with the terms of Resolution 806,
the OAS responded with another resolution-822-in September 2002. In this reso-
lution, the Government of Haiti again committed itself to take a series of actions
to promote a climate of security and confidence leading to free and fair elections in
2003. I was Chairman of the OAS Permanent Council when Resolution 822 was ap-
proved, and the U.S. delegation did the heavy lifting in negotiating the document.
Resolution 822 took the key step of calling for the normalization of economic co-
operation between the GOH and the international financial institutions-as a
means of providing Haiti with further incentive to develop its institutions and pro-
mote sustainable development.
In the face of the Haitian Government's non-compliance with the terms of these
resolutions, the Caribbean Community-CARICOM-and the OAS sent a high-level
delegation, which included President Bush's Special Envoy for Western Hemisphere
Affairs, to Haiti in March 2003. In September 2003, the United States facilitated
the OAS effort to send another special envoy to Haiti, Ambassador Terence Todman,
to help broker a breakthrough in the political stalemate. While all this was taking
place, the United States donated $3.5M to the OAS Special Mission in Haiti to sup-
port its work.
These impressive efforts came to naught. Rather than taking steps to build polit-
ical consensus, reign in the rampant corruption that robbed Haitians of their al-

ready meager resources, or promote an atmosphere of security, Aristide continued
to recruit and arm gangs of thugs to be unleashed against his opponents. In the
process, he undermined what little legitimate law enforcement capacity remained in
the already corrupted and weakened Haitian National Police. U.S. law enforcement
assistance was essentially limited to support of the Haitian Coast Guard, a rare and
largely autonomous police unit that continued to have professional and competent
Further undermining the rule of law and the effectiveness of his government,
Aristide turned a blind eye to the rampant corruption and drug trafficking of those
within his circle of power.
It is no wonder, therefore, that when one of the largest pro-Aristide gangs turned
against him and rose in open rebellion in the city of Gonaives last month, the Gov-
ernment of Haiti had no effective, let alone legitimate means with which to respond.
The rapid collapse of Government authority throughout Haiti bore testimony not to
the strength of the thugs and gangs who sought to bring him down, but to Aristide's
own failures. By gutting respect for the rule of law and reverting to authoritarian
practices, he undermined his own legitimacy and demeaned the word "democracy."
Under these circumstances, Aristide agreed to what he had steadfastly rejected
before, a plan that would open the door to consensus government and a way forward
to resolve Haiti's political crisis. This was, of course, the CARICOM Prior Action
Plan, with its own Plan of Action and endorsement by the United States, France
and Canada. For Aristide, this change of heart came too late to save his govern-
ment. Nor did his eleventh-hour appeal for foreign military intervention garner sup-
port in the international community. No country, the United States included, was
inclined to send forces to sustain the failed political status quo in Haiti. In what
may eventually be considered his finest hour, Aristide decided to resign, initiating
a constitutional process that transferred power to the President of the Supreme
There are several key points that I wish to make regarding U.S. policy toward
Haiti-as we move forward with our international partners to help the Haitian peo-
1. The United States has been and will continue to be a firm supporter of democ-
racy in Haiti. That is a cornerstone of our policy.
2. Aristide's departure was never a U.S. demand. We continuously worked with
our international partners to break through the political impasse and allow de-
mocracy to have a chance. Even France, while calling on February 25 for
Aristide's ouster, remained supportive of our efforts to find a negotiated solu-
tion. While we were convinced that Aristide was a key obstacle in these efforts,
we sought to work with him up until the very end. These efforts were conducted
at the highest levels of the United States Government, with Secretary Powell
in the forefront.
3. The United States has been and will almost certainly remain Haiti's leading
provider of economic aid. This aid was never suspended or cut off, as some have
claimed. Between 1995 and 2003, the United States provided over $850 million
in assistance to Haiti.
4. The United States did not cut off assistance to Haiti by the International Fi-
nancial Institutions (IFIs). Our leadership at the OAS in negotiating Resolution
822 in September 2002 helped to open the door to normalized relations between
Haiti and the IFIs and since then IDB loans have begun to flow. We will con-
tinue to support IFI loans to Haiti based on their technical merits.
Looking forward, our goal is first to stabilize the security situation and provide
emergency humanitarian assistance to Haitians, promote the formation of an inde-
pendent government that enjoys broad popular support, and work with that govern-
ment to restore the rule of law and other key democratic institutions in Haiti, while
encouraging steps to improve the difficult economic condition of the Haitian people.
The United States is not alone in this process. Under the terms of a UN Resolution
approved unanimously by the Security Council on February 29, U.S. forces are al-
ready in Haiti, participating in a Multilateral Interim Force to contribute to a se-
cure and stable environment. The key elements of the international plan initiated
by CARICOM are, as we speak, being carried out to name a new Prime Minister
who will in turn form a consensus government to lead Haiti forward. A Tripartite
Council and Council of Eminent Persons, both preliminary steps to naming the new
Prime Minister under the plan, were formed within a week of Aristide's resignation.
We expect the Council of Eminent Persons to nominate the new Prime Minister
within a day or two. The Prime Minister will form a government, in consultation
with the Council of Eminent Persons and in agreement with President Alexandre,

to begin the laborious process of rebuilding Haiti's democratic institutions. This
rapid progress is a positive sign of commitment on the part of Haiti's political lead-
ership to a constitutional transition and the return of full democracy.
As the Multinational Interim Force ends its mission, we will support the UN sta-
bilization force called for by the Security Council and will work with the UN and
OAS to help the Haitian people rebuild their institutions, starting with the Haitian
National Police. As I speak, the administration is engaged in intensive efforts to
achieve these goals.
We are forming an inter-agency working group to meet 2-3 times per week to for-
ward the many policy initiatives we are pursuing:
Complete multilateral coordination to define the mission and end state of the
Multinational Interim Force (MIF) now deployed in Haiti.
Follow up with UN Member States on voluntary contributions to help defray
expenses of the MIF.
Address urgent need for disarmament by working with the new Haitian govern-
ment and the MIF or follow-on UN stabilization force (peacekeeping operation).
Set strategy for reform of police and justice institutions. An integrated approach
is the best solution-pursue simultaneous reform and strengthening of police,
justice system, and prisons.
Coordinate with and support the UN and OAS Special Mission in efforts to im-
plement reform strategies for police and justice system.
Participate in UN, OAS, and international community efforts to rebuild demo-
cratic institutions through human rights training, support of independent elec-
toral commission, political party building, development of legislative capacity.
Consider feasibility of forming a truth and reconciliation commission to examine
human rights abuses.
Continue U.S. leadership in forming Haiti's transition government.
In the shorter term, we are acting to meet the humanitarian needs of Haiti's peo-
ple. My colleague Adolfo Franco of USAID will testify about the varied and com-
prehensive actions his agency is taking. Speaking from the Department of State per-
spective, Ambassador Foley issued a disaster declaration on February 18. In re-
sponse, the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, a component part of USAID, pro-
vided approximately $487,000 to support the distribution of emergency relief sup-
plies and provide emergency medical supplies. Our total direct bilateral assistance
for the period 1995-2003 was $850 million, with $71 million for fiscal year 2003.
The administration has also acted to shore up the Haitian National Police. In a
larger sense, our participation in the Multilateral Interim Force (by far the largest
of those countries now participating) and the follow-on UN stabilization force will
serve as a security umbrella for the Haitian National Police (HNP) while we help
to reform and strengthen it. But we have also acted in the short term. President
Alexandre has appointed a new police chief, Leon Charles, a man of proven integrity
and ability, and we will continue to encourage positive change and reform within
the HNP leadership. We have provided material assistance and supplies to the Hai-
tian Coast Guard, which has proven to be a reliable partner with the U.S. Coast
Guard in conducting repatriations and cooperating on security matters.
President Bush has called for a "break from the past" in Haiti. Indeed there must
be a break from the past if Haiti is to move forward. That break will not come in
the form of a new autocrat or demagogue but by unleashing the incredible potential
of the Haitian people in positive and productive directions. Nowhere is there written
that the Haitian people must be poor or ruled by tyrants. They deserve leaders wor-
thy of their trust and respect, who favor the common good over personal gain. The
rule of law must be upheld. Those responsible for crimes and abuses must be pun-
ished. Gangs and thugs cannot be allowed to hold sway. Support from the United
States and the international community can help-and they will have it-but the
long-term job of building Haitian democracy is up to the Haitians themselves. They,
above all people in our hemisphere, deserve some success.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Secretary Noriega.
Administrator Franco.

Mr. FRANCO. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, members of the com-
mittee. It's a pleasure to appear before the Senate Committee on
Foreign Relations to discuss with you the unfolding humanitarian
situation in Haiti, and USAID's continuing efforts to help the Hai-
tian people realize their dream of peace, prosperity, and democracy.
I've submitted my complete statement for the record, Mr. Chair-
man, and, with your permission, I will summarize that statement.
Senator COLEMAN. I appreciate that; thank you.
Mr. FRANco. Mr. Chairman, the conflict in Haiti since early Feb-
ruary has severely restricted the movement of commercial goods
and relief supplies, including food, fuel, and medical stocks. This
has hindered USAID's ability to distribute food assistance to those
populations which we normally serve.
Mr. Chairman, I returned from Haiti last night, where I met
with Ambassador Foley, representatives of other donor organiza-
tions, and with major non-governmental organizations which pro-
vide relief supplies. Access and distribution remain major obstacles
for both humanitarian deliveries and regular commercial activity.
USAID and its implementing non-governmental organization part-
ners report that the primary humanitarian concern continues to be
a lack of security. This impedes safe passage for the transportation
and distribution of relief supplies that include fuel, water, and
other commodities. Enhanced security will enable USAID and its
partners to resume normal distribution of food and medical sup-
plies and implement programs to address Haiti's immediate-, me-
dium-, and long-term needs.
Mr. Chairman, USAID and its partners have now conducted as-
sessment trips to a number of places in Haiti, including Cap-
Haitien, Port-de-Paix, and Jeremie. USAID is using light aircraft
to transport its assessment teams, and, in some cases, making use
of these aircraft to deliver needed supplies to organizations outside
the capital, particularly in the rural northwest.
Based on the best information available to us and to our partner
organizations, I want to make it clear, though, Mr. Chairman, that
Haiti currently has enough food to feed its people, although vulner-
able populations, including the very young and very old are begin-
ning to feel the effects of several weeks of disruption in the food
transportation and distribution system. To meet these needs, Mr.
Chairman, USAID estimates that with the 20,000 metric tons of
food and commodities we have in Haiti, and by working with our
partner organizations, that we will be able to continue our efforts
once the security situation is fully stabilized.
You may have read that some of this food was looted during the
recent unrest, on February 29th, but I'm pleased to report to you
that I visited the port facilities yesterday, and that under 10 per-
cent of USAID's food stocks were looted. The majority of our food
remains intact and is in secure storage in Port-au-Prince, under
Marine guard.
Mr. Chairman, the interruption of basic health services, particu-
larly in the north, due to insecurity and poor road conditions, rep-
resents another point of concern. Recent assessments by USAID

have led to the conclusion that the current health situation in Haiti
is not at an emergency level, although there are acute shortages of
medical supplies, including antibiotics and oxygen tanks in many
health facilities around the country.
To meet the needs in the health sector, USAID has sent large
amounts of medical supplies to Haiti in recent days and has pro-
vided a grant to the Pan American Health Organization for addi-
tional supplies. In addition, the International Committee of the
Red Cross has increased its staff size, and is currently providing
medical services free of charge in several facilities, including Ca-
nape Vert Hospital in Port-au-Prince. Mr. Chairman, USAID has
responded quickly to the potential for a humanitarian crisis in
Haiti. Although there is a significant humanitarian concern, we do
not have a crisis in the country at the present time.
When U.S. Ambassador Foley declared a disaster, on February
18th, because of the insecurity, the USAID Office of Foreign Dis-
aster Assistance provided $50,000 to transport and distribute emer-
gency relief supplies, including 12 medical kits and 3 surgical kits.
These kits are equipped to serve 10,000 people each for approxi-
mately 3 months. In addition, USAID approved $400,000 in fund-
ing for the Pan American Health Organization to purchase addi-
tional medical supplies and to conduct emergency relief services in
In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, USAID continues to monitor the
situation in Haiti closely, and we're working to meet the most crit-
ical needs as expeditiously as we can. We're also working with
other agencies and our implementing partners to develop a post-
conflict program strategy that will ensure the continued provision
of emergency relief, which remains our paramount concern, and to
improve basic services and generate productive employment over
the immediate-, short-, and medium-term.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
[The prepared statement of Mr. Franco follows:]

Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, it is a pleasure to appear before the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace
corps and Narcotics Affairs, to discuss with you the unfolding humanitarian situa-
tion in Haiti and USAID's continuing assistance with helping the Haitian people re-
alize their dream of peace, prosperity and democracy. The central focus of my re-
marks is on what USAID is doing through our humanitarian assistance programs
to mitigate the effects of the social and political unrest on the most vulnerable seg-
ments of Haiti's population. This statement is an update of my presentation of
March 3, 2004 to the House Committee on International Relations. This testimony
reflects current events in Haiti, especially in the aftermath of President Aristide's
resignation and departure from Haiti. The political situation remains fluid and the
potential continues for further civil unrest and violence perpetrated by armed gangs.
This is evident by Sunday's recent events with the demonstrations which lead to the
deaths of four individuals including a foreign journalist, and 20 others wounded.
The ongoing political turmoil and economic deterioration in Haiti have created the
potential for a humanitarian crisis and have affected numerous aspects of develop-
ment such as food security, health and nutrition, and water and sanitation. While
sufficient food stocks are currently in-country and no immediate food crisis exists
at present, this could change quickly in coming weeks, especially in the north, due
to insecurity and disruptions in the transportation and distribution system. USAID

currently has in storage more than 11,000 metric tons of P.L. 480 Title II food com-
modities for direct food distribution to Haiti's indigent populations and children's or-
phanages throughout the country. Most of the food stocks are under secured storage
in Port-au-Prince. The World Food Program and European Union also have avail-
able for distribution, stocks of at least 5,000 metric tons, and 3,100 tons respec-
The U.S. Government through USAID is Haiti's largest bilateral donor. In FY03,
USAID contributed $71 million. Through fiscal years 1995-2003, USAID provided
a total of $850 million in direct bilateral assistance. Prior to the outbreak of vio-
lence, USAID had planned $52 million in assistance in FY04 to programs ranging
from health, democracy and governance, education and economic growth. We are
currently analyzing additional assistance options. To ensure that quality service de-
livery continues to benefit those Haitians who are most in need, USAID assistance
is channeled principally through NGOs. USAID is also the lead donor in addressing
critical transnational issues such as HIV/AIDS and other debilitating infectious dis-
eases, a seriously degraded natural resource base, respect for human rights and the
rule of law, and trafficking in persons.
USAID uses food aid both to supplement its humanitarian program and as a de-
velopment tool. P.L. 480 Title II funds account for more than one-half of USAID/
Haiti's funding. This food-assisted program promotes improvements in household
food security, nutrition, and the welfare of women, children, and poor, marginal
farmers in six out of the nine districts of Haiti-affecting the lives of 640,000 poor
Haitians. Emergency response is also critical. Last year, over $3 million in emer-
gency assistance was provided to communities affected by drought and flooding.
Lawlessness continues and the situation remains fluid following the resignation
of Aristide and the appointment of Supreme Court Justice, Boniface Alexandre as
the interim President. The presence of international security forces has already im-
proved the security situation in country. Nonetheless, there are a significant num-
ber of weapons in the hands of armed gangs in Haiti, and there have been violent
conflicts between opposition protesters and supporters of the former Aristide govern-
ment, as well as, widespread looting, and robberies of civilians at roadblocks
throughout the capital. On March 7, violence broke out during a protest in the cap-
ital city of Port-au-Prince, resulting in at least four deaths and at least 20 injuries.
Aside from this most recent indication of unrest, the situation in Port-au-Prince has
been relatively calm. According to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humani-
tarian Affairs (UNOCHA), the situation in Port-au-Prince is returning to normalcy,
as public transport has resumed and the security situation has become more sta-
bilized. However, some public services, including the provision of water, electricity,
and communications, are not functioning at normal levels. Basic health services are
also inadequate.
Increasing conflict since early February has severely restricted movement of com-
mercial goods and relief supplies, including food, fuel, and medical supplies, creating
difficult conditions in some areas, and for those normally dependent on food assist-
ance. Access and distribution remain major obstacles for both humanitarian deliv-
eries and regular consumption. USAID and its implementing partners continue to
report that the primary humanitarian concerns at present stem from limited access,
security, and unsafe passage for transporting and distributing relief supplies, fuel,
water, and food commodities. There appears to be no massive shortages of food or
other essential commodities at this time as Haiti benefited from good harvests over
the last two agricultural seasons. However, an accurate assessment of the situation
outside of Port-au-Prince has just begun.
Food Availability: USAID's NGO development food aid partners and the U.N.
World Food Program (WFP) currently have approximately 15,000 metric tons (MT)
of food stocks in country. The European Union (EU) has 2,500 MT at a warehouse
and 600 MT at the port in Port-au-Prince. There is also an additional 2,000 MT
available from other donors. Thus the total amount of food assistance available from
all donors is approximately 20,000 MT. There are no massive shortages of food or
other essential commodities in Haiti at this time. Pockets of food insecurity have
been reported, and orphanages and institutional feeding programs in urban areas
are vulnerable to prolonged food shortages; however, USAID and cooperating spon-
sors are not requesting emergency programs.
Due to poverty and chronic malnutrition in Haiti, some segments of the Haitian
population are vulnerable to severe malnutrition. However, daily reports from

USAID's four partners in Haiti-CARE, Save the Children Foundation (SCF), World
Vision International (WVI), and Catholic Relief Services (CRS)-indicate that none
believe the situation requires re-programming of planned food assistance. Region-
specific reports from food aid organizations are summarized as follows:
WVI does not anticipate a food crisis erupting in its targeted areas of Central
Plateau and Ile de la Gonave, even if distributions stop for a short time because
of the strong coping mechanisms among the populations and the good December
harvest. WVI is currently operating at 100 percent on Ile de la Gonave.
CRS reported that food supplies for orphanages in Haiti are limited and some
orphanages have begun to run out of food. CRS is considering using existing
funds to purchase food on the local market for vulnerable orphanages.
On February 22, looters broke into a WFP warehouse in Cap-Haitien and took
800 metric tons (MT) of food stocks, mainly vegetable oil and pulses. Despite
the loss of food stocks, WFP estimates that it still has sufficient stocks either
in Haiti or en route to the country to provide assistance to 373,000 people.
WFP reported that the shipment of 1,200 MT of rice scheduled to arrive at the
Cap-Haitien port is on hold until the security situation improves. According to
WFP, a total of 268,000 people are in need of food in the north and northeast,
where prices have increased since early February.
USAID and WFP have undertaken a rapid assessment in Cap-Haitien to iden-
tify current needs in schools and health centers. WFP is also preparing a six-
month Emergency Operation (EMOP) to provide assistance to the most affected
people in the north areas of the country. WFP's assistance, in partnership with
other agencies, aims to ensure that children and their families meet daily nutri-
tional needs in order to prevent a decline in their nutritional status.
Fuel Availability: Fuel is vital not only for transport, but also for the continued
operation of facilities and equipment such as hospitals, bakeries, and freight moving
equipment at ports. According to the fuel companies, there is currently enough fuel
in storage in Port-au-Prince to supply the country for two to three weeks, but the
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) are con-
cerned that fuel shortages may lead to the shutdown of the Capital's electrical plant
and water treatment station. CARE reported that there is a potable water crisis in
Gonaives due to a lack of fuel. Although CARE has food stocks in Port-au-Prince,
the organization lacks fuel for transportation, particularly for food distributions in
the north.
Medical Supplies: A major humanitarian concern at present is the interruption of
basic health services, particularly in the north. The ability to purchase and trans-
port drugs and fuel to health facilities nationwide has been disrupted in major popu-
lation centers due to the sporadic access to banks and insecure travel on the roads.
The ICRC has been organizing regular convoys to both Gonaives and Cap-Haitien
in cooperation with the Haitian Red Cross, and ICRC medical teams have also been
stationed at facilities in these cities.
It is not clear at this time how many medical facilities have been affected by the
recent unrest. Reports from the Hopital Communaut6 Haitienne in the Capital indi-
cate that there is an increase in the number of trauma patients at the hospital and
care is hindered by fuel shortages for generator power and lack of surgical and med-
ical kits. Similar disruptions of supplies are occurring in Gonaives and other areas.
Currently there are no reports of an outbreak of the six major childhood vaccine-
preventable diseases. However, increased cases of diarrhea and fever have been re-
ported throughout the country. The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has
sentinel sites in Haiti, of which 30 percent to 40 percent are still functional and op-
A Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) epidemiologist recently arrived in
Haiti to reactivate the health surveillance system, as Haiti lacks adequate surveil-
lance data from health facilities throughout the country. PAHO will monitor data
on measles outbreaks, polio, diphtheria, typhoid, and violence, as well as acute mal-
nutrition. According to PAHO, there is a shortage of tuberculosis (TB) drugs and
a disruption of TB programs in the north. M6dicins Sans Frontieres-Belgium is re-
questing TB drugs from PAHO.
Port-de-Paix Assessment: On March 5, representatives of USAID/OFDA, USAID/
FFP, U.N. World Food Program (WFP), U.N. Children's Education Fund (UNICEF),
and CARE conducted an assessment of the humanitarian situation in the city of
Port-de-Paix, located on the northwestern coast. The assessment indicated that
looters broke into the city's Department of Health office, and the vaccines in the cold
chain may have been compromised. There have been no reports of measles or any
other disease outbreak in Port-de-Paix. Access to food is also becoming difficult for

the poorest segments of the population, particularly since the suspension of WFP
food distributions. Food prices have reportedly increased from 25 to 100 percent.
Some fuel is available on the market, though the cost of one gallon has increased
from approximately 23 Haitian dollars to 80 Haitian dollars. Lack of fuel has af-
fected the city's electricity supply and hindered the local hospital's ability to sterilize
equipment and thereby perform major surgeries.
Les Cayes Assessment: On March 5, representatives from USAID/OFDA, USAID/
Haiti, CRS, and UNICEF conducted an assessment of the humanitarian situation
in the southwestern town of Les Cayes. The humanitarian situation has not deterio-
rated significantly as a result of the recent political unrest, and the only sector cur-
rently affected appears to be fuel.
Displaced Populations: USAID and its NGO partners continue to report very lim-
ited displacement and no "sites" with concentrations of internally displaced persons
(IDPs). According to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(UNOCHA), numbers of IDPs cannot be accurately assessed at present. However,
UNOCHA notes that significant numbers of residents are moving from insecure cit-
ies to other areas or returning to their places of birth in the mountains. Movements
have also been reported from rural areas to main cities.
On February 23, the Government of the Dominican Republic (GODR) indicated
that the Dominican Republic does not have structures in place to manage a migra-
tory wave of refugees. The GODR also noted that Dominican authorities have closed
the border with Haiti along critical points. On February 24, the GODR sent 1,200
additional troops to patrol its border with Haiti. The GODR has declined to state
the total number of troops along the 225-mile border. According to the U.N. High
Commissioner for Refugees, approximately 400 Haitians have fled to the DR, Ja-
maica, and Cuba since early February 2004.
On February 18, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti James B. Foley issued a disaster
declaration due to the ongoing complex emergency in Haiti. As an initial re-
sponse to the situation, OFDA has provided $50,000 through USAID/Haiti to
support the transport and distribution of emergency relief supplies, including 12
medical kits and three surgical kits, valued at approximately $87,000. Each
medical kit is equipped to serve 10,000 people for approximately three months.
On February 26, the medical kits arrived in Port-au-Prince. In addition, OFDA
approved $400,000 in funding for PAHO to purchase additional medical supplies
and to conduct emergency relief activities in Haiti.
On February 24, OFDA deployed a three-person team to Port-au-Prince, includ-
ing a Senior Regional Advisor as Team Leader, a Health Officer, and an Infor-
mation Officer.
OFDA has contracted with Airserve for two to three aircraft to move relief per-
sonnel and light cargo around Haiti if required in the coming days and weeks.
USAID/Food For Peace has significant amounts of additional food stocks which
can be transported to Haiti by sea for food assistance within 7-14 days if need-
OFDA has awarded a grant in the amount of $400,000 to CRS for local procure-
ment and emergency cash grants to institutions serving vulnerable populations
such as orphanages and hospitals.
The U.S. Embassy in Port-au-Prince is currently developing a security asset
plan that will address protection of people and USG buildings, transport of
goods and people, and security of NGO partners, such as CRS, WVI, CARE, and
Save the Children. A top priority of the security asset plan is to secure and pro-
tect the airport and port in the Capital.
There are approximately 15,000 MT of USG-procured food commodities imme-
diately available for distribution in Haiti. USAID will continue to work with
other members of the donor community to mobilize the additional resources re-
quired for the Haiti post-conflict effort.
In sum, the United States and the international community continue to stand
with the people of Haiti. USAID is closely monitoring the humanitarian impact of
the current political crisis in Haiti. With the presence of international forces in
Haiti, the security situation has improved significantly, and normalcy is slowly re-
turning to the Capital, Port-au-Prince, and other affected areas. Also, the delivery
of humanitarian assistance has improved. USAID/Haiti and OFDA personnel are
continuing to assess the situation, in order to deploy assistance where it is most ur-

gently needed. Further, USAID is collaborating with the interim government of
Haiti, other USG Agencies, donors, and implementing partners to develop a post-
conflict program strategy that will ensure the continued provision of emergency re-
lief and improved basic services, and generate productive employment over the im-
mediate, short and medium-term. In addition, USAID is working with other donors
to jointly identify long-term priorities in Haiti.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my testimony.
[Additional information submitted by Mr. Franco follows:]


Haiti's 200-year history has been marked by political instability and weak insti-
tutional capacity, resulting in a severely debilitated economy and an impover-
ished population. The current complex emergency is rooted in the country's in-
ability to resolve a four-year political impasse. Following a military coup that
ousted elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1991, the international com-
munity intervened militarily to restore Aristide to power in 1994. In May 2000,
Aristide's party, Lavalas Family, claimed an overall victory in disputed legisla-
tive and municipal elections. In November 2000, the opposition boycotted the
presidential election that Aristide won unopposed with low voter turnout. On
December 17, 2001, the crisis escalated as armed commandos stormed the presi-
dential palace in Port-au-Prince in an assault that the Government of Haiti
(GOH) characterized as an attempted coup d'etat.
The electoral controversy paralyzed the Aristide administration, and Aristide
lost popular support due to the inability of the government to attract invest-
ment to the country, create jobs, or reduce poverty. As a result, growing law-
lessness, instability, and politically-motivated violence began to overwhelm the
country in 2002.
In late 2003, anti-government demonstrations in Port-au-Prince, Gonaives,
Petit-GoAve, and other towns began to increase in size, frequency, and violence.
The most recent surge in conflict and violence began on February 5, 2004, when
members of armed opposition groups seized control of Gonaives, Haiti's fourth-
largest city. Armed groups opposed to former President Aristide expanded their
control throughout parts of the Central, North, Artibonite, Northeast, and
South departments. The democratic opposition has distanced itself from the
armed groups. Since the takeover of Gonaives, approximately 130 people have
been killed in the violence.
On February 29, Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigned from the presidency. In ac-
cordance with the Haitian constitution, Supreme Court Chief Justice Boniface
Alexandre was sworn in as President of an interim government. Prime Minister
Yvon Neptune will retain his post until a new Prime Minister is selected.
Situation Overview
Structural and institutional weaknesses in Haiti, closely linked to the country's
historical, socio-economic, and agricultural development, have had long-term ef-
fects on numerous aspects of Haiti's development, such as food security, water
and sanitation, health, and nutrition. For many years, Haiti has been the poor-
est country in the Western Hemisphere, and is currently the only Least Devel-
oped Country in the Western Hemisphere. The country was ranked 150th out
of 173 countries in the 2003 United Nations (U.N.) Development Program
Human Development Report.
Due to the ongoing and chronic nature of Haiti's underdevelopment, the country
is vulnerable to rapid deterioration of humanitarian indicators in a complex
emergency. However, certain impacts of a complex emergency, such as mal-
nutrition, are not sudden-onset situations and typically require several months
to develop. Two important factors may contribute to food insecurity in Haiti: ris-

ing or unstable prices, and a drop in remittances. Haiti is heavily dependent
on remittances, receiving an estimated $800 million on average annually. In ad-
dition to food insecurity, the rising incidence of disease and displacement may
also contribute to a humanitarian crisis. USAID and its implementing partners
are monitoring all of these indicators as closely as possible.
The U.S. Government (USG), through USAID, is Haiti's largest bilateral donor.
In FY 2003, USAID contributed $71 million. From FY 1995 to 2003, USAID pro-
vided a total of $850 million in direct bilateral assistance. For FY 2004, USAID
has planned $52 million in assistance for programs including health, democracy
and governance, education, and economic growth. To ensure the provision of as-
sistance to Haitians most in need, USAID assistance is channeled principally
through non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The USG provides food and
food-related assistance directly and indirectly to 640,000 Haitians.
Current Situation
On February 29, the U.N. Security Council authorized the immediate deploy-
ment of an international military force to restore order in Haiti. The U.S. has
assumed initial control of the multinational force. Troops from other countries
will support the military force, followed by a longer-term U.N. peacekeeping
mission. There are approximately 1,750 U.S. troops, 600 French troops, 400
Chilean troops, and a small contingent of Canadian troops in Haiti. The troops
have spread out throughout Port-au-Prince to secure key areas and facilities, in-
cluding the presidential palace, the airport, and foreign embassies. On March
5, U.S. troops in Haiti moved for the first time beyond the capital to Gonaives
and Cap-Haitien. The troops will assess the needs of the Haitian national police
in the two cities and determine the possible scope of future international troop
On March 4, the Organization of American States (OAS) announced the estab-
lishment of the Tripartite Council, appointed by the GOH, the Democratic Plat-
form coalition, and the international community. Council members include Les-
lie Voltaire, the Minister of Haitians Living Abroad; former Senator Paul Denis,
a member of the Democratic Platform coalition; and Adama Guindo, the U.N.
Resident Representative in Haiti. The Tripartite Council has selected the seven
members of the Council of Wise Men, which in turn will propose a new Prime
Minister to interim President Alexandre.
On March 7, violence broke out during a protest in Port-au-Prince, resulting in
at least six deaths and at least 30 injuries. On March 8, hundreds of looters
targeted an industrial park near the Port-au-Prince airport and threatened
passing cars with machetes. International media reported that multinational se-
curity forces were not stationed in the vicinity during the disturbance. Armed
opposition leader Guy Philippe stated on March 8 that armed combatants would
take up arms if the multinational security force is unable to disarm the
chimeres, or armed Aristide supporters.
On March 8, former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide declared from exile in the
Central African Republic that he was still the President of Haiti, and called for
"peaceful resistance" in Haiti. Interim President Alexandre was officially inau-
gurated on March 8.
On March 8, the U.N. announced that an assessment team is scheduled to ar-
rive in Haiti on March 9 to help prepare for the deployment of a peacekeeping
mission to the country by June 1. The team will make recommendations to U.N.
Secretary-General Kofi Annan regarding the size and composition of the mis-
Humanitarian Assessments
Port-au-Prince port assessment: On March 5, USAID/Haiti officials and a
USAID/OFDA team member conducted an assessment of the Port-au-Prince
port. There are initial indications that looters stole approximately 10 percent of
USG-funded food stocks. As of March 6, U.S. Marines have secured the port
area where P.L. 480 food commodities are stored. On the evening of March 6,
U.S. Marines exchanged gunfire with would-be looters. Warehouse officials are
attempting to conduct a full assessment of current food stockpiles; however, this
assessment could be hindered if insecurity recurs in the port area. Non-govern-
mental organizations, including CARE, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and Save
the Children-U.S. (SCF-U.S.), will attempt to move their containers out of the
port as security permits.

* Port-de-Paix assessment: On March 5, representatives of USAID/OFDA, USAID
Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP), U.N. World Food Program (WFP), U.N.
Children's Education Fund (UNICEF), and CARE conducted an assessment of
the humanitarian situation in the city of Port-de-Paix, located on the north-
western coast. The results of the assessment indicated that there is a lack of
security in the city, as eight separate armed groups are intimidating and extort-
ing money from the local population. A committee of notables acts as a liaison
between the population and the armed groups; however, this group has no legal
The Port-de-Paix assessment also indicated that looters broke into the city's
Department of Health office, and the vaccines in the cold chain may have been
compromised. There have been no reports of measles or any other disease out-
break in Port-de-Paix. Since major flooding in December 2003 destroyed Port-
de-Paix's water infrastructure, the city has had a water shortage. Access to food
is also becoming difficult for the poorest segments of the population, particu-
larly since the suspension of WFP food distributions. Food prices have report-
edly increased from 25 to 100 percent. Some fuel is available on the market,
though the cost of one gallon has increased from approximately 23 Haitian dol-
lars to 80 Haitian dollars. Lack of fuel has affected the city's electricity supply
and hindered the local hospital's ability to sterilize equipment (and thereby per-
form major surgeries).
Les Cayes assessment: On March 5, representatives from USAID/OFDA, USAID/
Haiti, CRS, and UNICEF conducted an assessment of the humanitarian situa-
tion in the southwestern town of Les Cayes. The security situation in the town
is fragile, with narcotic traffickers reportedly influencing local events. The hu-
manitarian situation has not deteriorated significantly as a result of the recent
political unrest, and the only sector currently affected appears to be fuel.
The poor water situation in Les Cayes pre-dates the current political crisis.
The water needs to be treated with chlorine, but there is a lack of public edu-
cation on water safety. CRS stated that there have been some cases of typhoid
and diarrheal diseases as a result of the lack of potable water. Health problems
in Les Cayes are also chronic and due mainly to the lack of potable water. Food
insecurity in the town appears to be primarily due to a lack of purchasing
power among some of the population, particularly in the poor area of La
Savanne. Food prices have increased in Les Cayes by approximately 30 percent.
* Cap-Haitien assessment: On March 8, the USAID/OFDA assessment team trav-
eled to Cap-Haitien with representatives of WFP, UNICEF, CRS, and CARITAS
to assess the humanitarian situation. The assessment team cited fuel as the
main concern in Cap-Haitien, as in the other towns previously assessed. Though
fuel stations remain open, the price of fuel has increased from 17 Haitian dol-
lars to between 60 and 80 Haitian dollars. Stores and schools are also open in
the city. No WFP food stocks currently remain in Cap-Haitien. Since the recent
crisis began in early February, looters have stolen 800 MT of assorted food com-
modities from the WFP warehouse, in addition to 15,000 bags of commercial
rice from the port. No major shipment of food, commercial or humanitarian, has
arrived in Cap-Haitien since the current political unrest began.
* The USAID/OFDA team met with the International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) in Cap-Haitien on March 8. According to ICRC, the priority areas for
the provision of humanitarian assistance in Cap-Haitien, and the northern de-
partment in general, are as follows: fuel, vaccines (the re-supply of vaccines as
well as fuel to maintain the cold chain), security for the "humanitarian corridor"
from Port-au-Prince to Cap-Haitien to allow for the transport of food and relief
supplies, oxygen for hospitals, and security for hospitals.
* USAID's NGO development food aid partners and WFP currently have nearly
15,000 metric tons (MT) of food stocks in country. The European Union (EU)
has 2,500 MT of food at a warehouse and 600 MT at the port in Port-au-Prince.
Other donors have an estimated 2,000 MT available. Thus, the total amount of
food assistance available from all donors is approximately 20,000 MT.
* WFP is preparing a six-month Emergency Operation (EMOP) to provide assist-
ance to the most affected people in the north areas of the country. WFP's assist-
ance, in partnership with other agencies, aims to ensure that children and their
families meet daily nutritional needs in order to prevent a decline in their nu-
tritional status. WFP is also preparing a Special Operation (SO) to increase lo-
gistics and communications capacity.

On March 5, WFP delivered between 12 and 16 MT of food rations to a hospital
and orphanage in Port-au-Prince. This marked WFP's first food distribution
since the outbreak of unrest in the country in early February 2004. WFP indi-
cated that, if the security situation does not deteriorate, WFP will carry out its
planned March distributions to 66,000 people at 23 health centers in the cap-
ital. All of the 94 schools in Port-au-Prince that normally benefit from WFP food
distributions remain closed.
According to assessments by the USAID/OFDA team, the current health situa-
tion in Haiti is not at an emergency level. However, the health care system is
experiencing a rupture in supplies, due to the insecure environment that exists
for drug deliveries and a lack of health staff reporting to work due insecurity.
The poor public health infrastructure is a chronic problem that needs to be ad-
dressed as soon as possible.
The ICRC surgical team working at Canape-Vert Hospital in Port-au-Prince is
providing treatment free of charge for the wounded. The numbers of injured had
decreased, until the outbreak of violence in Port-au-Prince on March 7. On
March 4, ICRC brought in surgical supplies from the Dominican Republic to es-
tablish a supplementary operating theatre at Canape-Vert Hospital. Additional
beds have also been installed, bringing the total number to 100. ICRC has pro-
vided surgical kits (each kit contains supplies for 100 surgeries) to hospitals in
Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, and Port-au-Prince. On March 6, an ICRC con-
voy traveling from the Dominican Republic across the Dajabon-Ouanaminthe
border arrived in Gonaives with a generator for the city's public hospital. The
convoy also carried fuel for National Society ambulances and ICRC vehicles.
ICRC plans to bring a surgical team to the hospital in Gonaives, security per-
U.S. Government Response
From February 9 to 11, the USAID/OFDA Senior Regional Advisor and a
USAID/OFDA Regional Advisor traveled to Port-au-Prince to assist USAID/
Haiti and partner organizations with contingency planning for humanitarian as-
On February 18, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti James B. Foley issued a disaster
declaration due to the ongoing complex emergency in Haiti. In response,
USAID/OFDA has provided $50,000 through USAID/Haiti to support the trans-
port and distribution of emergency relief supplies including 12 medical kits and
three surgical kits, valued at approximately $87,000. Each medical kit is
equipped to serve 10,000 people for approximately three months. On March 4,
USAID/OFDA distributed one medical kit each to Medecins Sans Frontieres
(MSF), CRS, and World Vision International (WVI), and nine kits to the Pan
American Health Organization (PAHO)-supported PROMESS warehouse. The
PROMESS warehouse will store the nine kits on behalf of Management
Sciences for Health (MSH), PAHO, and USAID/OFDA. USAID/OFDA has also
approved $400,000 in funding for PAHO to purchase additional medical supplies
and to conduct emergency relief activities in Haiti. In addition, USAID/OFDA
has approved $412,287 for CRS for emergency cash grants to support local insti-
tutions and provide services for most vulnerable populations.
On February 24, USAID/OFDA deployed a three-person team to Port-au-Prince,
including a Senior Regional Advisor as Team Leader, a Health Officer, and an
Information Officer. On March 7, a Military Liaison Officer joined the team in
USAID/OFDA has provided $340,981 to Air Serv for emergency air transport.
On March 3, two light planes contracted by USAID/OFDA with Air Serv arrived
in Port-au-Prince. The planes, each with capacity for nine passengers, are avail-
able to the USAID/OFDA team to conduct assessments and deliver relief sup-
plies throughout the country as required. Various USAID implementing part-
ners, including U.N. agencies and NGOs, may accompany the USAID/OFDA
team and USAID/Haiti staff on assessment trips.
USAID/OFDA has also provided $500,026 in funding to WVI for emergency re-
lief kits and cash-for-work initiatives.
The Department of State's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
(State/PRM) has provided $20,000 to the U.S. Embassy in Port-au-Prince for as-
sistance to Haitian migrants. In addition, State/PRM will support the ICRC ap-
peal for Haiti. The final amount of funding for the appeal is pending approval.

U.S. Government Humanitarian Assistance to Haiti

Implementing Partner Activity Location Amount

USAID/OFDA Assistance 1

Pan American Health Organization
Catholic Relief Services
Air Serv

World Vision International

Transport and distribution of emergency relief sup- Port-au-Prince and other affected areas
plies; 12 emergency medical and three surgical
Medical equipment and emergency health activities Nationwide
Emergency cash grants Port-au-Prince and the southern peninsula
Emergency air transport in support of USAID/OFDA, Nationwide
NGOs, U.N. and other humanitarian organiza-
Emergency relief kits and cash-for-work initiatives North, Central Plateau, South, West, and Northwest
departments, and lie de La Gonive

State/PRM Assistance
U.S. Embassy/Port-au-Prince Assistance to Haitian migrants
Total State/PRM
Total USG Humanitarian Assistance to Haiti in FY 2004 (to Date)




$500,026 o



'USAID/OFDA funding represents committed and/or obligated amount as of March 9, 2004.

Senator COLEMAN. Thank you very much, Mr. Franco.
Mr. Franco, you indicated in your testimony that enhanced secu-
rity is necessary for the normal distribution of food and supplies,
and you also indicated some concerns about the interruption of
health services up north, again because of security issues. And I'm
not sure whether you or Secretary Noriega can answer this, but
how many troops do we need to provide the kind of security that
would allow for that distribution of food and supplies? My col-
league, Senator DeWine, has strongly suggested that what we have
now is not sufficient. Can you tell us what we need to make sure
that we can have normal distribution of food and supplies?
Mr. FRANCO. I'm not really qualified to answer the question, so
I will have Secretary Noriega answer the question, Mr. Chairman;
but I will say this, that the security issue-and I want to report
this, because I've met with all the donor organizations and also
international organizations, OAS representatives, U.N. organiza-
tions, non-governmental organizations, including CARE, CRS-and
every one of the organizations has said that the key thing is that
we have now secured installations, as I have referenced a port
where we have food, but that distribution remains a problem. The
exact number of what's needed, I have to defer to Secretary
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you.
Secretary Noriega.
Mr. NORIEGA. Mr. Chairman, the assessment of the number of
people that we need on the ground-that is to say troops-will
have to be made by the military. We have approximately-we have
an expectation that the current countries that have committed
troops will, when they have deployment in the next several days,
reach a point of 3,400-about 3,450 persons-on the ground. We're
going to have to look at what their tasks are, what the geo-
graphical coverage that that particular size force can provide, and
what missions they can carry out. And then it will be the role of
the military commanders to ask for additional resources, if they
need it.
Having said that, there are other countries that have offered sup-
port, and we have undertaken an urgent diplomatic effort to en-
courage other countries to make those troops available in the short-
run, rather than waiting for the longer-term peacekeeping mission.
So that's underway. The determination will be driven by the
commanders on the ground and what the missions are that are re-
quired. But I think that there is a political commitment to-not
just on the part of the United States, but other friends of Haiti-
to provide additional resources, if that's required.
Senator COLEMAN. We had invited a representative from
SOUTHCOM to be here, and they were not able to be here, but
that is important information. There may be sufficient food, but if
it can't get to those who need it; if there's sufficient medical sup-
plies, but it can't get to those who need it because of security con-
cerns, then it's like not having it in the first place. So we will con-
tinue to press on that issue. Time is of the essence, and we want
to make sure that there are adequate bodies on the ground to en-
sure that food can be distributed.

There was some discussion by some of the witnesses about the
CARICOM relationship. Can you describe the nature of that rela-
tionship today? Is it intact? Talk a little bit about the strains. And
where do we go with the future with CARICOM and its role in
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes. CARICOM took up the mantle of trying to
find a diplomatic solution toward the end of last year at the re-
quest of President Bush in a meeting with Prime Minister Man-
ning of Trinidad and Tobago. This was another iteration in diplo-
matic efforts, over the last three years, to try to create a more sus-
tainable political situation on the ground. They made a valiant ef-
fort, and I think that the merits of their plan are so good that we're
still implementing it, although they have formally disassociated
themselves from it.
I was personally involved in the effort to implement that plan;
I went to Haiti, spent some time convincing-trying to convince-
opposition leaders that it was a workable, feasible plan that we
were committed to. We weren't able to convince them to join in the
process because of the scar tissue-frankly, a lack of confidence in
both Aristide and the international community, which the opposi-
tion feels has been turning its back on his abuses for too long.
Right now, we have-Secretary Powell and I have communicated
with CARICOM leaders to explain the situation because some of
them actually believe that-Aristide's version of the facts that he
was kidnapped, which is, of course, ridiculous. But we need to con-
vince them that we want to go forward, and we need to convince
them, frankly, that the 8 million people in Haiti still need their
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, very, very much, Secretary
Senator Dodd.
Senator DODD. Thanks, Mr. Chairman. And thank you, again, for
holding this hearing.
Let me, if I can, begin by going back to the Inter-American
Democratic Charter, because in your testimony, Secretary Noriega,
you point out that a democratically elected government can forfeit
its democratic legitimacy by the manner in which it governs. Said
another way, being democratically elected does not give a leader
free license to rule as he sees fit. Nowhere is that principle more
firmly enshrined in this hemisphere than the Inter-American
Democratic Charter itself.
I presume you've read it-of course, you served in the OAS as an
ambassador, so you've been through the charter-and it does, in
paragraph 21, make that indication. At what point did the OAS de-
cide, by a two-thirds vote, which the charter requires, that the
standard had been met?
Mr. NORIEGA. The standard-there was a-
Senator DODD. Standard that it forfeited its democratic legit-
imacy. That's in the-you said that's-it's right, it's in the charter
Mr. NORIEGA. Right.
Senator DODD [continuing]. -but it also says that two-thirds
of the members of the OAS have to vote accordingly.
Mr. NORIEGA. Right.

Senator DODD. At what time did the OAS reach the conclusion
you did?
Mr. NORIEGA. It's interesting about the charter, sir, that the
charter has never been invoked, including its-
Senator DODD. That's not the question I have for you.
Mr. NORIEGA. Well, the charter-
Senator DODD. The charter says they should meet and vote-
Senator DODD [continuing]. to reach that conclusion. Was
this a unilateral decision we made?
Mr. NORIEGA. Every country made a decision for itself not to in-
voke the charter, not to put security-
Senator DODD. So there was no-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. forces on the ground.
Senator DODD [continuing]. vote at the OAS.
Mr. NORIEGA. I never said there was.
Senator DODD. Well, you said-no, here, you said that it had for-
feited its legitimacy.
Mr. NORIEGA. I said that a government can, and in our-
Senator DODD. Do you think-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. in our-
Senator DODD [continuing]. the Aristide government did, or
not? I assume, by your statement-you didn't make that statement
just as an abstract idea.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. The point that I was making was
that the troubles that Haiti-that President Aristide got himself
into-didn't happen overnight. It was the result of a systematic
abuse of human rights, ignoring the essential elements of democ-
racy that are laid out in the charter.
Senator DODD. But that was not an OAS determination.
Mr. NORIEGA. No, sir, it doesn't-
Senator DODD. In fact, are you familiar with what was adopted
on the 24th of February by the OAS regarding Haiti?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. --Yes, sir.
Senator DODD. The resolution?
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir.
Senator DODD. Want me to read it for you?
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, please, go ahead.
Senator DODD. Let me read it for you here. This goes on express-
ing-I won't give all the preamble stuff, but expressing its profound
regret that the opposition-speaking about the opposition in
Haiti-has not accepted the CARICOM plan, which offers the best
prospects for a peaceful resolution to the current crisis, expressing
the hope that they will reconsider. Went on to resolve that they call
upon the United Nations Security Council to take the necessary
and appropriate urgent measures, as established by the charter-
in the charter to address the crisis in Haiti-knowing that the OAS
has no ability to militarily intervene in the situation, the implica-
tion, at least for this person reading it, is that they were urging
the U.N. to take some steps five days prior to the departure of
Aristide, on the 29th, to try and step in-to try and stop this col-
lapse that was occurring, and it goes on and condemns the opposi-
tion for not embracing the CARICOM proposal. That's what the
OAS would say. Isn't that true?

Mr. NORIEGA. The OAS supported the CARICOM process at the
time. We were urgently supporting the CARICOM process to try to
convince the democratic opposition participation in the process.
Senator DODD. So it's not, then, your conclusion that the Aristide
government had lost its legitimacy.
Mr. NORIEGA. I believe that the-it was-not in a formal way,
no, sir. In the terms of the invocation of the charter, no country in-
voked the charter. No country invoked-
Senator DODD. I didn't ask-I asked you whether or not you
thought they had forfeited the-is that your conclusion-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. In my view-
Senator DODD [continuing]. -or the Bush administration's
conclusion they forfeited?
Senator DODD. Not in a formal way, sir. We don't make-we
didn't make that decision unilaterally.
Senator DODD. Obviously, it wasn't done-formally, I mean-at
that point.
Mr. NORIEGA. The decision we made was that propping up-
merely propping up the Aristide government was not worth risking
American lives.
Senator DODD. Let me jump to Aristide's departure, if I can. Dur-
ing your March 1 appearance on Nightline, you stated, and I quote,
that "President Aristide approached our ambassador. He made the
decision to resign. He chose the destination." That's your statement
on March 1.
Later last week, on March 3rd, you told the House International
Relations Committee that Mr. Aristide did not learn that the Cen-
tral African Republic was his destination until the evening of Feb-
ruary-on the evening of February 29th, until about 20 minutes be-
fore he landed.
Senator DODD. Which of those statements is accurate?
Mr. NORIEGA. They're both accurate. But I don't want to mince
words; because I think, quite frankly, almost immediately when I
said that, in the Nightline interview, I thought I needed-I should
have clarified that.
When the plane took off, at about 6:30 in the morning, all of us
thought the plane was headed for South Africa, that it was on its
way to South Africa, which is the destination that he sought. With-
in minutes, 30 minutes or so, of the plane taking off, we heard
from the South African Government that they were not able to take
him. So we immediately had to scramble to find another place. As
far as I know, his destination is still South Africa, and he can go
as far as-
Senator DODD. He didn't make the choice-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -whenever he wishes.
Senator DODD [continuing]. -to go there.
Mr. NORIEGA. He made the choice to go, and we provided a plane
for him to go to South Africa.
Senator DODD. That's my question. He didn't make the choice of
the country.
Mr. NORIEGA. We made a-he made-he decided that he wanted
to go to South Africa. We made an effort to try to get the permis-
sion of the Government of South Africa to receive him.

Senator DODD. But he did not make the choice to go to the Cen-
tral African Republic.
Mr. NORIEGA. No, and when he-
Senator DODD. Okay.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. took off, it was not-
Senator DODD. Are there any-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. our decision-it wasn't our deci-
sion not-
Senator DODD. [continuing]. ---other statements you made that
you'd like to correct at this moment? Any other contradictions?
Mr. NORIEGA. No, sir, I don't think that-I've explained my re-
sponse to that-
Senator DODD. You've explained it. I want to know if there are
any other circumstances in which an explanation-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -If you have any need for clarifica-
tion on any of my statements, Senator, please raise them with me,
and I'll be glad to clarify.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Senator Dodd.
Senator Boxer.
Senator BOXER. I want to thank Senator Dodd, because basically
the administration is essentially telling us not to look back, only
forward, and I think we have to look forward, and we have to do
two things: we have to walk and chew gum at the same time. We
have to go forward and protect the people there and make sure
things go well there, but we will have to get to the bottom of this.
Now, when I-before Senator Dodd came-I read some quotes of
Colin Powell. And Colin Powell said, on the 18th of February, es-
sentially, we're going to back Aristide; he's the democratically elect-
ed guy. The next day, he reiterated the same thing. And ten days
later, a statement comes down from the administration essentially
saying, gee, he ought to really look in his heart and ought to get
This is odd. This is odd. And then when you put together these
treaties that Senator Dodd-who spoke eloquently on the floor-
that we're looking at, the Santiago Declaration and the Inter-Amer-
ican Charter on Democracy-if we're just going to say, well, no
one's going to enforce these, what's the signal to the rest of the
world? What is it? What if we just said, one day, well, we have a
nice Constitution, but, eh, let's rip it up. I don't think that would
go over well. And since we are the leader in the world, and have
the greatest democracy in the world-
Mr. Noriega, I am exceedingly troubled. And these are the ques-
tions I'm going to ask you to answer in writing, because we do not
have enough time today. And I look forward to them. And I would
like to have them back, you know, as fast as you can.
And they're questions raised in an op-ed piece in the L.A. Times
by Jeffrey Sachs. And here's what they are:
Did the U.S. summarily deny military protection to Aristide?
And if so, why and when?
Did the U.S. supply weapons to the rebels, who showed up in
Haiti last month with sophisticated equipment that last year
reportedly had been taken by the U.S. military to the Domini-
can Republic, next door to Haiti?

Why did the U.S. abandon the call of European and Caribbean
leaders for a political compromise, a compromise that Aristide
had already accepted and, by the way, told his thugs to get out
of the streets because the U.S. asked him to? So his thugs were
taken off the streets, and the other thugs were left on the
Most important, did the U.S., in fact, bankroll a coup in Haiti,
a scenario that may be possible, given what we see? And he
[Sachs] says, "It brings to mind Groucho Marx's old line, 'Who
are you going to believe, me or your own eyes?'"
Now, this whole thing has to be answered. And this one Senator
here-and I know other Senators feel the same way-believes we're
going to get to the bottom of this, like we, in America, get to the
bottom of everything. And, to me, it's just stunning, and I don't
know how we move forward in good faith if we can't clear the air
as to what really happened.
Let me read you the New York Times editorial of March 4th,
The Bush administration's belated and ham-handed
intervention last weekend practically delivered Haiti into
the hands of an unsavory gang of convicted murderers and
former death-squad officers under the overall command of
Guy Philippe, who American and Haitian officials believe
to be a drug trafficker. Indeed, those who have benefitted
most by the administration's policy toward Haiti are the
weak and divided opposition that rejected political com-
promise, and these murderous thugs, like Guy Philippe
and Louis Jodel Chamblain. Philippe and Chamblain went
so far as to thank the U.S. for its Haiti policy.
And I mentioned this in my opening statement, Mr. Noriega. I
don't know if you were here. According to news reports, Mr.
Chamblain shouted, "We're grateful to the United States." And Mr.
Philippe said, "The United States soldiers are like us. We're broth-
ers. We're grateful for their service to their nation and against the
terrorists of Aristide."
How does it make you feel when murderers, like Philippe and
Chamblain, are thanking the United States and putting our beau-
tiful treasure of our soldiers in their category? How does it make
you feel?
Mr. NORIEGA. I would-Senator, I have all the time you need to
Senator BOXER. Well, just answer-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. --questions.
Senator BOXER [continuing]. -that question. How does it make
you feel when those two gentlemen praise this administration and
say that the American military are their brothers, when these are
the guys who are murderers and thugs and drug dealers? How does
it make you feel?
Mr. NORIEGA. I can't make-I can't put myself in their-
Senator BOXER. I didn't ask you to put your-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. ---crazy thinking.
Senator BOXER [continuing]. Well, how-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. These are-
Senator BOXER [continuing]. -does it make you feel?

Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -violent criminal thugs, who have
no place in Haiti. Contrary to what the editorial said, we are not
delivering Haiti over to these people; we're delivering Haiti over to
8 million decent Haitian-
Senator BOXER. And what are your-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. people, who finally deserve-
Senator BOXER [continuing]. what are you going-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. a chance to-
Senator BOXER [continuing]. -with those people?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -make decisions about their future,
whose rights have been violated systematically-
Senator BOXER. Okay, and what are your-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -for years.
Senator BOXER [continuing]. -plans to go after those people?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. Uh-
Senator BOXER. Those thugs?
Mr. NORIEGA. In my view, it should be the policy of the United
States that these people be-at the appropriate time, when the
Haitian National Police is prepared to incarcerate them, they
should put them in jail. They should certainly be disarmed. And
they should face criminal charges for their violations of rights over
the long haul and just recently.
Senator BOXER. So-but my point is, if we are in a situation
where we are an occupying force, along with other nations, I trust,
you said when the Haitian police-would you not move on those
people, on those thugs?
Mr. NORIEGA. The sooner the better, Senator.
Senator BOXER. Fine.
Thank you.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Senator Boxer.
Senator Nelson.
Senator NELSON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
You remember the time you used to sit on this side?
Mr. NORIEGA. Actually, I sat on that side.
Senator NELSON. Was it easier back then?
Mr. NORIEGA. Just for the record. It was-I didn't have to pay
attention when I was sitting back there.
Senator NELSON. Well, you and I have been at it now for several
sessions, and I want to look forward now. I'll just state that I think
it's been the policy of the United States Government to have a re-
gime change, and that was not only in Iraq, but it's also in Haiti.
And I think there are a lot of troubling questions because of that.
But for Senator Graham and me, who are on the receiving end of
the destabilization by people taking the flight in rickety boats, it
creates another difficult situation. And so it is clearly in these two
Senators' interest to see the place stabilized as quickly as possible.
There's an article out today that says that the Marines are going
to start disarming the militants. Perhaps you already talked about
that. But the nuts and bolts of government, I'd like to know, what
are your plans to come to the Congress for appropriations to help
you stabilize Haiti?
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes. Senator, on the migration question, I'll note
that in the week before President Aristide resigned, there were

about 900 Haitians picked up at sea in the week-yesterday, there
were none; I think in the week since, it's probably in the dozens.
On the question of resources, there are resources that are avail-
able from other countries. Our own budget is about $55 million,
$53 million. There are international financial institution loans that
are available. We have to assess what our requirements will be.
And we'll have to approach decision-makers within our administra-
tion on whether we need additional resources from what we have
available, and-that would have to be reallocated to Haiti-and a
decision by them if they wanted to come to Congress to seek addi-
tional resources.
Senator NELSON. Well, we have an authorization bill that's mov-
ing forward. And just like last week, I was raising Cain here with
representatives of the State Department with regard to the future
expenditures in Iraq, of which there is a blank line in the request
for authorization for appropriations; so, too, because of the cir-
cumstances here in Haiti, we need to know, as soon as possible, so
that we can fill in that and start to plan for these. And now that
we have a vehicle that is being considered, we need to do that.
For example, such things as: Are we going to provide assistance
for elections? When can we expect parliamentary and presidential
elections to take place? And are we serious about the commitment,
over a sustained period of time? And you've heard my comments
from this position of the committee. I have been very bipartisan in
my comments, because I think the previous administration did not
give Haiti the attention that it should have after Aristide was put
back in. But neither has this administration. And we're seeing the
result of inaction and a hands-off policy. So I want to see that sus-
tained level of commitment by this government, and that is my re-
sponsibility, as a member of this committee, not only to speak of
as a Member of the Senate .from Florida, along with Senator
I'd like to know, what is it going to cost for your plans for the
reforming of the national police, which is going to be essential for
future stability?
And then I'd like to know, Mr. Franco, about the P.L. 480 fund-
ing and what you're going to need from the United States. You're
going to find a bunch of willing Senators here that want to support
you, but we've got to have a coach that'll call the plays.
That's about it.
Mr. FRANCO. May I comment very briefly, Senator? Mr. Chair-
Senator COLEMAN. Yeah, very-please. And I appreciate-the se-
ries of questions from Senator Nelson demonstrate that there's so
much more information that we need.
Secretary Noriega, I'll allow you to respond briefly, or Mr. Fran-
co, but clearly there's a lot more information that we need, and the
record will ultimately reflect that.
Mr. Franco.
Mr. FRANCO. Just very quickly, Mr. Chairman. We share Senator
Nelson's concerns. But I can tell you that both AID and-not only
AID, but the non-governmental organizations and the other donors'
primary and paramount concern right now is to make sure that the
essential emergency food reliefs, medical reliefs get back on track.

We have plenty of food in country; we just need to get that distrib-
Simultaneously, Senator, we are doing our level best to get an
assessment as to what future requirements will be, and we'll get
that back to you. We are the largest single bilateral donor in Haiti.
We have been, and I forecast we will continue to be.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you.
Senator DeWine.
Senator DEWINE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Secretary, I want to get back to the point I made earlier, and
that is that I think we need more troops in Haiti. And I want to
discuss that with you in just a minute.
You made a point that the number of troops that are needed has
to ultimately be decided by the military, and I guess that's true,
to an extent, but I want to take issue with you a little bit. That's
true, to an extent, but really the number of troops that are needed
is determined by what we expect them to do.
We talked a little bit about-there was a dialogue a moment ago
about the problem with food distribution and movement of food.
And we know that's so essential in Haiti. You can have food there,
but if you don't move it around, you've got a problem. Schools are
not open. I know that from talking to people, a lot of the schools
are not open. The normal going about of business in Haiti, a lot of
that is not going on. Some of it is, but some of it's not. There is
what I would describe, for want of a better way of describing it, as
a fear factor and a public confidence problem; and it's a psycho-
logical thing.
I would maintain that when you try to determine the number of
U.S. troops that are needed, there's a certain number that you
have to get to before you get a critical mass. And once you reach
that critical mass, then everyone sort of figures it out. We're there.
And the thugs and the guys with the guns sort of get it figured out.
And I'm not sure we're quite there yet.
In Haiti, our brave troops face a situation which is, in some re-
spects, more dangerous and tougher than we faced the last time we
came in. Last time, we had to kind of roll up the military and deal
with them, and we did that.
This time, we've got two different groups-more than two groups,
really-that have been armed. We've got the rebels, who came in
and were marching on, moving toward Port-au-Prince, and we've
got the Aristide gangs that had been, over time, given guns by
Aristide and were armed. And these two groups, unfortunately,
still are armed, and still have guns. And that's the problem. And
they're pretty well-armed.
So that's how I see the situation. And, you know, you and I have
talked privately about it. You don't have to respond now. But I just
wanted to make the point, again. I don't think we've reached the
critical mass yet. And until we reach it, I don't think you're going
to have the security level where we need it. I don't think you're
going to have the public confidence where we need it. I think once
we get there, then things are going to calm down. And no longer
are people in City Soleil going to be describing to me what I was
told yesterday, of these gangs, these guys riding around with their
guns and terrorizing people, or the description I got yesterday from

someone up north of being shaken down, a hospital being shaken
down for money. You know, as long as that continues, the people
aren't going to be confident that they can go about their business.
I think there's a real problem.
Let me move, if I could, Mr. Franco, to where USAID goes in the
long run. And I appreciate what you say that your immediate con-
cern is, getting the food distributed. You're doing the right thing,
and we're proud of you trying to do that. But the long run, where
Haiti goes, is something I think this committee has to look at.
And my time is almost up, and I hope we have a second round.
One question. Back in 1999, there was a program in Haiti called
USAID Jobs. It's my understanding the program was pretty suc-
cessful, leading to an average of $55 per month in wages for thou-
sands of Haitians. It was a-I don't know if it was-kind of a--our
depression-era, Franklin Roosevelt-type program or not, but it put
a lot of people to work, built some roads, got some things done. Are
we going to try something like that again?
Mr. FRANCO. Well, Senator DeWine, we're certainly looking at
that. I know that you met with the Administrator-
Senator DEWINE. I did.
Mr. FRANCO [continuing]. I can tell you that that's one of the
things we're looking at. Since we're looking back a bit-I think it's
important to see what we did right and what we did wrong. I can
tell you that we will be developing a comprehensive program with
our partners, meaning the other international organizations and
other countries that are working in Haiti, in terms of how we'd re-
spond, and determining our comparative advantages. Certainly,
food for work, and these immediate jobs programs are things that
we are looking at and will be looking at as one of the immediate
responses. We will be working on something comprehensively with
our other partners, and that's certainly on the USAID agenda.
Senator DEWINE. Well, my time is up. I want to talk to you a
little later about agriculture, too.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you very much, Senator DeWine.
Senator Graham.
Senator GRAHAM. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
I'd like to ask Mr. Franco-you indicated that we have an ade-
quate quantitative supply of humanitarian items-food, medicine-
in country; the problem is one of distribution. Yesterday, the
United Nations issued, "an urgent appeal for $35 million for six
month's worth of humanitarian aid." What is the $35 million for if
the problem is distribution as opposed to quantity?
Mr. FRANCO. We just received that request. We are analyzing it
and taking a look at it. But-
Senator GRAHAM. Excuse me, the "it" being?
Mr. FRANCO [continuing]. --"it" being the request from the
United Nations.
Senator GRAHAM. We did not participate in the United Nations
decision to make such an urgent request?
Mr. FRANCO. We certainly didn't at USAID, no.
Senator GRAHAM. Was anybody in the U.S. Government involved
with this?
Mr. NORIEGA. Not that I'm aware of.

Mr. FRANCO. We haven't been involved.
Senator GRAHAM. Could you provide us with a written response
which would indicate what was the basis for the U.N. urgent ap-
peal? Who made the urgent appeal? And do you agree or disagree
with its validity?
Mr. FRANCO. I certainly will, Senator Graham. I want to see
what it is.
[At the time of publication, Assistant Administrator Franco had
not yet provided an answer to this question.]
Mr. FRANCO. I wanted to clarify a point. There are sufficient food
stocks in country, currently, for the targeted populations that have
been the recipients in the past. We do not have, nor is there, a gen-
eralized feeding program in Haiti. Because of the deteriorating sit-
uation, I haven't looked at the U.N. proposal. I have to see what
their forward thinking is on that. The medical area is very much
a concern. It is for the international community and the Red Cross;
it might be as part of the U.N. appeal, as well. So I'll take a look
at that, as well. We're responding as quickly as we can on the med-
ical front. But I'll get you a written response on that.
Senator GRAHAM. Mr. Noriega, I'd like to ask you some security
questions. What percentage of the U.S. and other nations' troops
that are in Haiti are in Port-au-Prince?
Mr. NORIEGA. Are which?
Senator GRAHAM. In Port-au-Prince, what percentage of the total-
ity-and I think you said it was approximately 3,400 troops-
Mr. NORIEGA. Are in Port-au-Prince? It's my understanding that
the vast majority of them are in Port-au-Prince. And so far, the
plan for the U.N. deployment is that most of them will stay in or
near the capital area. Other countries are beginning to look at
what their mission would look like in other provincial capitals,
which we think is important, that we start looking at deployments.
Senator GRAHAM. Given the fact that Haiti has an atrocious-
and I think that's a generous word-highway system, what's the
plan to be able-if, for instance, there's an outbreak in the north-
ern regions, as there was prior to February the 29th, to get secu-
rity personnel there?
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, I'd have to get you a more detailed an-
swer on the whole security picture-for example, what the airlift
capacity is and helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft that's part of the
current deployment. But I'd be glad to do that, sir.
[At the time of publication, Secretary Noriega had not yet pro-
vided an answer to this question.]
Mr. NORIEGA. And, of course, there are several other countries
involved in this, and they will have their own assets and logistical
Senator GRAHAM. I mean, I'll just make a comment. It sounds as
if we have an Afghanistan solution here, where we are giving some
protection to the capital, and the other 6 million Haitians, who live
outside of Port-au-Prince, are pretty much naked.
Mr. NORIEGA. I think it's fair to say, Senator, that the current
mission and the tasks for the U.S. deployment is very much cen-
tered on the capital. But I think you're raising valid points, and we

certainly have considered the importance of deploying outside the
capital, to the provincial capitals. There's a lawlessness there that's
prevailing, and we do need to address that. You're exactly right,
Senator GRAHAM. It seems to me that one thing we've learned in
the number of places that I mention in my remarks, from Haiti to
now Iraq, is that there is a correlation between the number of secu-
rity troops on the ground and the incidence of lawlessness. I think
we had our highest percentage, per capital, in Kosovo, and we had
the lowest incidence of violent actions in Kosovo, which leads you
to believe that there is some correlation between the degree of
presence and the degree of security. I think it's critical that we re-
evaluate what it is we're trying to accomplish in Haiti, insofar as
security, and then evaluate the number of people we've got on the
ground to carry out that mission.
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, the comments you've just made on secu-
rity, and that Senator DeWine made, really echo what I've heard
among decision-makers in the executive branch, that the number
depends on the mission and the tasks, and those are decisions that
are made by civilian policymakers, and then you ask your military
people to give you their best judgement about what sort of forces
need to be on the ground. And then this is a decision we have to
make with our international partners in perhaps a division of
labor. But we're into, now, I think, the tenth day of a deployment.
We've got 3,400 people on the ground, and we're-or, I'm sorry, it's
probably close to 2,800; we're going to build up to 3,400 in the days
ahead. And then we'll have-but we're also, at the same time, look-
ing for other countries that are willing to put large numbers of
forces on the ground in the very near term.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Senator Graham.
We have an outstanding third panel. We have about 50 minutes
left. I know there's a strong desire on the part of my colleagues to
continue the questioning. I'm going to ask my colleagues if they can
limit their questions in this second round. I'm going to ask one
question with just a brief statement. But, again, we have an ex-
traordinary third panel that I'd certainly like to get to, and I know
Ambassador Dobbins, who's on that panel, has some time con-
First, just a very quick statement. I hope we look forward. We
have to look forward. There are 8 million Haitians who need us to
look forward. There are a quarter of a million Haitians who are
HIV-positive that need us to look forward. And whether it's the se-
curity concerns that Senator Graham has raised or the litany of
questions that my colleague, Senator Nelson, has raised, employ-
ment concerns, infrastructure concerns, environment, et cetera, et
cetera-so we need to look forward. That has to be our focus. We
will be letting down the people of Haiti if we don't get about doing
A very narrowly focused question for some of the moms and dads
in Minnesota and, I think, throughout America, there is concern
about international adoptions. A number of our families adopt kids
from Haiti. Secretary Noriega, you and I talked about that while
some of the conflict was going on. Can you tell me what is being
done for the kids in orphanages? Is there food being provided? Can

you tell me whether the process of adoption, and adoptions, are
still ongoing? Has it been interrupted by the political turmoil? Are
families still getting the kids that they worked with and gone
through that whole process? There's a lot of fear and anxiety out
there that I have heard, and I'd just like my parents to have a bet-
ter understanding of what the current situation is.
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, the government, right now, is not func-
tioning in a normal way. It will be a number of weeks, I think, be-
fore we could say that that's happening again. And, of course, in
these adoption cases, it's very important that all of the steps be
carefully followed. So there will be a period of time, I think, where
we can't necessarily expect these-depending upon where a person
is in the process of adoption, it will be difficult to culminate some
of those adoptions. However, it is a priority for us-it has been
throughout the crisis-to identify if there are some people that we
can move the children out if they're at that stage, and we continue
to treat that as a priority. And I know that orphanages are cer-
tainly a part of our target population in terms of feeding programs.
Mr. FRANCO. If I could just add, Mr. Chairman, just to com-
plement what Secretary Noriega said, orphanages are, unfortu-
nately, one of the areas that have been most adversely affected-
I alluded to that in my testimony-and particularly in the north-
west part of the country. And they are dependent. They are part
of our targeted food programs. So that is a paramount concern. We
had a survey done yesterday, and we are taking some immediate
relief supplies to the northwest to address that concern.
Senator COLEMAN. I appreciate that, thank you.
Senator Dodd.
Senator DODD. Thanks. Thanks, Mr. Chairman. And, again,
thank you for these hearings.
Let me ask you, Mr. Noriega-I, too, I think, obviously looking
forward is going to be very important, what we do from here. But
I don't want to minimize at all, in any way, what happened here.
Because there are precedents being set. And, as such, I think they
pose some serious questions in the hemisphere. Certainly Ven-
ezuela comes to mind, Peru comes to mind.
You talk about losing political legitimacy becoming a standard by
which we would no longer support a democratically elected govern-
ment; then, I can only imagine how Alejandro Toledo must be feel-
ing this evening if that becomes the standard, since I think the lat-
est polls show him about 7 percent favorable in Peru. And I'm wor-
ried that that message being sent out-that losing political legit-
imacy means if you ask other nations to step up to your assistance
when you're being threatened, that we will not respond.
So, I think it's important we dwell on this a bit because I want
to know what happened. I want to know, for instance, whether or
not President Aristide, at any point, asked the United States to
militarily step in, since the opposition rejected any offers to accept
the CARICOM proposals. I want to know what happened here. He
[President Aristide] says, of course, he was kidnapped. We said,
"No, look, we gave him a choice," I presume, that he could stay,
with no defense from the United States, and face whatever hap-
pened to him, or we'd fly him out of the country. Now, what I want
to know is, at any point did we offer, or were suggestions made,

that we might want to use the force to bring some stability? I'm
told that we are talking about maybe two or three hundred. In fact,
I think you and I, in different settings, agreed that the number of
armed thugs who are operating in the northern part of the country
numbered no more than about two or three hundred people. Is that
Mr. NORIEGA. I think it's grown since then.
Senator DODD. Well, I mean-no, then; when the thing-
Mr. NORIEGA. At the time?
Senator DODD [continuing]. I'm talking about the-
Mr. NORIEGA. That's right, sir. I-
Senator DODD [continuing]. So we're-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -agree with that.
Senator DODD [continuing]. -talking about a relatively small
number of people, at least that was the conclusion.
Senator DODD. The suggestion that we might have been able to
respond to that with a small enough force to come in-was that
ever a possibility? Did we suggest that? Did Aristide ask us for
that? Did we reject that?
Mr. NORIEGA. Essentially, President Aristide did ask for that in
his many phone conversations with representatives of the inter-
national community. And our CARICOM partners very much ap-
pealed to us to be able to do that. We made a-Senator, I have to
say that there's a big difference between Alejandro Toledo and the
way he's governing and Aristide.
Senator DODD. Well, see, I'm just using an example. All right, I
don't accept that. You don't like that example. Forget about it. I'll
Mr. NORIEGA. But, Senator, the-
Senator DODD. But let's get back to the point. He asked for the
help, and we said no.
Mr. NORIEGA. Right. And I-but I think-yes. We were not will-
ing to put American lives on the line merely to keep him in power,
Senator DODD. We made that decision on our own.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -Each country made its decision
not to do that, and every country could have put people in.
Senator DODD. Well, clearly, the United States is a leader in all
of this. This wasn't-we're not sitting around with coequals. Obvi-
ously, the U.S. is the principal player.
Wouldn't you agree with that?
Mr. NORIEGA. We made we made a decision for ourselves that we
were not willing to do it.
Senator DODD. So we made a decision-
Mr. NORIEGA. It was a difficult decision--
Senator DODD [continuing]. That's-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. Senator. I-
Senator DODD [continuing]. about-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. I concede that. By all means.
Senator DODD. Mr. Chairman, the reason I raise that is because
I'm going to ask, tomorrow in a letter to the inspector general of
the USAID, to look into the programs of the International Repub-
lican Institute (IRI). We've raised this issue before, and I want to

go into it with you here because clearly we've been involved with
the opposition for some time. We've expended public monies on be-
half of the opposition. I want to get into some discussion with you
briefly with you here about that support because clearly we have
made, at some point here, a choice, or at least with public monies,
we've made a choice.
Now, I've raised the issue, Mr. Noriega, with you on previous oc-
casions, and I would assume that you're up to date on what the IRI
has been doing with respect to Haiti in the last ten months. Is that
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir. They've been supporting democratic oppo-
Senator DODD. As I understand it, USAID, in September 2002,
approved a two-year $1.2 million grant to IRI for its Haiti program,
is that correct?
Mr. NORIEGA. That's my understanding, yes, sir.
Senator DODD. All right. The approval of this new grant was con-
ditioned on the IRI country director, Stanley Lucas, being barred
from participating in this program for a period of time, because the
U.S. ambassador in Haiti had evidence that he was undermining
U.S. efforts to encourage Haitian opposition cooperation with the
OAS efforts to broker a political compromise. Is that not true, as
Mr. NORIEGA. I've heard that, yes, sir.
Senator DODD. Well, is that not-no-heard it-is it true?
Mr. NORIEGA. I've seen it as a record-
Senator DODD. Didn't you agree-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. --of my-
Senator DODD [continuing]. wasn't that a-didn't we reach
that agreement, that he would not be a part of it-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. The-
Senator DODD [continuing]. -as a result of the U.S. ambas-
sador's request?
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir. That's-
Senator DODD. All right.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -my understanding, yes.
Senator DODD. I'm sorry? Yeah, I know. All right.
But I want to get into what role did the Western Hemisphere Bu-
reau play in USAID officials' decision in Washington approving the
circumvention of these restrictions on IRI because I gather Mr.
Lucas is back involved. What role, if any, did your office play in
his re-involvement?
Mr. NORIEGA. None. That's a grant-management decision, and
there was a difference of opinion as to whether or not the under-
standing was violated. I wasn't a party to the decision, but AID,
which manages that grant, reached an understanding that-and
we were-we were consulted-my front-office deputy was consulted
on the decision to go ahead and go with-go forward with the pro-
gram because of the fact that there was apparent misunder-
Senator DODD. All right. Now, as I understand it, between De-
cember of 2002 and January of 2004, IRI has conducted numerous
training sessions in the Dominican Republic with more than 600
Haitian opposition figures. Is that correct?

Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir. It's my understanding-and the participa-
tion in these things is-it's very broad-based. And IRI does its
training in the DR because in 1999 its country team leader, one of
them, was threatened by the point of a gun by an Aristide thug
and was-essentially they were run out of the country. So this is
getting to a point where we're sort of blaming the victims here in
this process. I think that these people, as they do everywhere in
the world, are doing honorable, good work, promoting our values
Senator DODD. I'm not questioning-I just want to know the de-
tails of what's going on here. Is Stanley Lucas still involved?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. As far as I know, he is still part
of the program.
Senator DODD. Can you assure this committee that Mr. Lucas,
the IRI staff, and participants in the training programs have had
absolutely no involvement or contact with Guy Philippe or other
members of the Haitian armed forces of FRAPH?
Mr. NORIEGA. I have never heard that, and, to my knowledge, it
wouldn't be the case. It certainly wouldn't be acceptable.
Senator DODD. Yeah. But do you know-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. We know-
Senator DODD [continuing]. whether or not-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. we know who this-
Senator DODD [continuing]. that's the case?
Mr. NORIEGA. Pardon me, sir?
Senator DODD. So you know whether or not that's the case?
Mr. NORIEGA. I have never heard that assertion. And if it were
the case, we would certainly stop it. We knew who Guy Philippe
was and that he had a criminal background. He would have no role
in-whatsoever in-
Senator DODD. Well, I want you to inquire, if you would. I want
you to make-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -Please do. Yeah, I'll be glad
Senator DODD [continuing]. whether or not we had-whether
or not the IRI staff or people-if Stanley Lucas had any contact
with FRAPH officials or Guy Philippe.
Mr. NORIEGA. I will certainly do that.
[At the time of publication, Secretary Noriega had not yet pro-
vided an answer to this question.]
Senator DODD. Let me quickly-let me just jump-because one of
the concerns-and I'll come back to you, Mr. Franco, on this-I
want to know what discussions, if any, the U.S. Embassy in the
Dominican Republic has had about U.S. concerns with Haitians re-
siding in the DR who are plotting against the Aristide government.
Mr. NORIEGA. If we had contact with the Haitian-
Senator DODD. What discussions the U.S. Embassy and the Do-
minican Republic has had about U.S. concerns with Haitians-
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir.
Senator DODD [continuing]. residing in-
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir. We have had discussions with them, be-
cause we wanted to make sure that these people were watched.
And we believe that the Dominican authorities were taking it very

seriously, and that they were prepared to take-as I understood it,
prepared to take legal measures if these people crossed a certain
line. But I'm speaking specifically of Guy Philippe, for example.
Senator DODD. Yeah. Have there been any contacts between Do-
minican officials and Guy Philippe?
Mr. NORIEGA. Not that I'm-
Senator DODD. Or other well-known Haitian dissidents?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -not that I'm aware of.
Senator DODD. All right. And I wonder if you might-over the
last several years, the United States has given fairly significant
amounts of lethal and nonlethal defense assistance to the DR. The
committee received the following notices, and let me recite what
they are.
January 23rd, 2002, $2.7 million in a variety of defense equip-
ment and material, including communications equipment,
training aids, tents, clothing, and individual communication
January 23rd, 2002, 20,000 excess M-16s to replace older, obso-
lete, and nonfunctioning weapons, valued at $2.7 million. The
notice also stated that the older weapons would be replaced on
a one-for-one basis, and destroyed upon completion of the
May 15th, 2002, $784,000 for radios and antennas.
March 27th, 2003, one million rounds of excess ammunition for
use in M-16s, valued at $150,000.
What I want to know, Mr. Noriega, is, has the administration
verified that this defense equipment has been used for the purpose
it was intended, and, very specifically, whether or not the
verification of the 20,000 obsolete weapons that the M-16s would
replace have been destroyed, as required?
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, to the best of my knowledge-and I'll
have to get you this in writing-no transfer of weapons from the
United States Government to the Dominican Republic has taken
place since 1991.
[At the time of publication, Secretary Noriega had not yet pro-
vided an answer to this question.]
Mr. NORIEGA. And you're citing explicit notifications, and I don't
doubt-I don't doubt that you have them in front of you, but I spe-
cifically asked for an accounting of these things, and, under this-
under the U.S. program-that was in-to the best of my knowl-
edge, none of those rifles-20,000 reconditioned M-16 Al rifles has
ever been delivered. We expect that they would be delivered-the
first 2,300 of the weapons may be delivered in April or May. They
have not been delivered to date.
Senator DODD. I have another-
Senator COLEMAN. Senator Dodd, I will-
Senator DODD. Yeah.
Senator COLEMAN [continuing]. enforce this, some time limi-
tations here.
Senator DODD. Yup.
Senator COLEMAN. Senator Boxer.
Senator BOXER. Thank you.

You said that when President Aristide asked for protection from
the 200 thugs or so that you estimated were there, that you said
no, because you were fearful it wasn't worth putting American
troops on the line for him. And I'm wondering, do you think U.S.
troops have been placed in added danger because so many of
Aristide's supporters believe that the U.S. Government forced him
from office, and that's causing some instability in the country? Do
you fear a little more for our troops because of that?
Mr. NORIEGA. In light of the public statements that give credence
to that falsehood, some of which have come from-unfortunately,
from U.S. officials, including some in the Congress-in light of the
fact that those falsehoods have been given some credence, perhaps
it has caused some in Haiti to hold a grudge against the United
Senator BOXER. What falsehoods?
Mr. NORIEGA. That-
Senator BOXER. What Members of Congress said falsehoods?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. I will-
Senator BOXER. Name them.
Mr. NORIEGA. The suggestion that Aristide was kidnapped is one
that has been made in the public domain.
Senator BOXER. Well, didn't he say that?
Mr. NORIEGA. He has-
Senator BOXER. Hasn't he used that word?
Mr. NORIEGA. He has said that, and that's been-
Senator BOXER. And hasn't he been-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. that's a falsehood.
Senator BOXER [continuing]. -quoted?
Mr. NORIEGA. And it's been repeated in the public domain,
Senator BOXER. Yes, it has been repeated that he said that. But
you're accusing Members of Congress, or whomever you're accus-
ing, of spreading falsehoods, when they're quoting Aristide.
Mr. NORIEGA. I said they gave credence-
Senator BOXER. And I'm asking you-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -to those falsehoods.
Senator BOXER. So the answer to my question is yes, you think
that U.S. troops are in added danger because so many of Aristide's
supporters believe him, that the U.S. Government forced him from
Mr. NORIEGA. I'm not on the ground, but I think it's a logical con-
clusion, yes.
Senator BOXER. Okay. That's why I think it's so important to get
to the bottom of this, because you're insisting there's no truth to
any of that.
Senator BOXER. That in no way was Aristide forced out by Amer-
ica. And that's why I don't agree with my Chairman today, who I
really appreciate his holding this hearing and allowing us such lee-
way here, that you don't look back. If you're right, and there's not
a whisper of truth to the fact that we forced him out or that guns
were given to the opposition, you ought to welcome a in-depth in-
vestigation on this.

But I have to say-and, Mr. Chairman, again, we just disagree
on this point; we are in total agreement that moving forward is
crucial for the Haitian people, and we need to do it for the children,
for the women. And if we don't get, you know, an adequate request
here, I'm going to lean on my colleagues here, all of whom, I think,
have in their heart what I consider to be true compassion for the
people, and I'm going to help-be part of a coalition to get to the
Haitian people what the Haitian people need. That goes without
But whether it was Pearl Harbor, where there was an investiga-
tion as to how that happened, whether it's 9/11, where we move
forward with 100 percent agreement on going after bin Laden and
the terrorists, we still have a commission, and the President is
looking back-and he has said he will now not put a time limit on
his time spent with the commission, and I am very glad about
that-or whether it's looking into weapons of mass destruction and
that whole intelligence failure, we look back. This is America. The
truth shall set you free. And you cannot move forward in a success-
ful way if you do not figure this out.
So I would just say, Mr. Noriega, I've watched you in front of the
House, I've watched you here, and I just think, putting together all
the pieces, that the story isn't exactly as you would tell it, because
it doesn't add up. For the greatest country in the world to be fear-
ful of 200 thugs-my goodness. And to tell someone, "You can stay,
but, unfortunately, there's a group of murderous drug dealers and
thugs that are armed to the teeth who are going to get you, or you
can go," that's not a choice. That is not a choice. And if you were
honest about it, you'd know that wasn't a choice.
If I told you, Mr. Noriega, that you would have to come sit on
our side of the aisle or you might be beat up by somebody, you
might even sit on our side of the aisle.
You know what I'm saying. So I have to just say, I'm troubled
by this. I think in the long run we're going to get to the truth, and
we have to get to the truth. And I know Senator Dodd wants to
get to the truth. And I hope that Senator Lugar wants to get to
the truth because it's our job to do that. And I want to do that very
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator-
Senator COLEMAN. Senator-
Mr. NORIEGA. Mr. Chairman, I'll stay as long as necessary. If you
watched the House hearing, I was there for four hours. I wasn't
given an opportunity to answer any of these questions that might
shed some light on this, and I'm still not being given the oppor-
tunity to answer some of the questions about what our thinking
was. But we'll cooperate with any inquiry, I'll stay here as long as
you want. I'll come back up and visit. But I'll be glad to answer
any questions that you have that-
Senator BOXER. You-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -might set the record straight.
Senator BOXER. Mr. Chairman, with due respect, I know what
your answer is. You said it wasn't worth sending any military into
the country, at President Aristide's request, because it wasn't
worth putting their lives on the line. You said that. I know what
the facts are. Colin Powell, on the 18th of February, said we'll

never let thugs take over Haiti; Aristide's elected. He repeated it
twice, then, ten days later, there's a whole other-I mean, this isn't
a matter of your having X-number of minutes.
Mr. NORIEGA. Well-
Senator BOXER. It's a matter of what you have already said-
Senator COLEMAN. Let me--
Senator BOXER [continuing]. on the record.
Senator COLEMAN [continuing]. -if I may, and I'm going to en-
force time constraints on my colleagues. But, Mr. Noriega, if there's
a question you are asked that you don't have a chance to ade-
quately answer, I'd certainly give you that opportunity.
Mr. NORIEGA. Sure. Specifically to the point of what happened-
and I'm not going to abuse the opportunity, Senator-Mr. Chair-
man-specifically on the question of what happened between when
Secretary Powell made his statement, I think, on February
Senator BOXER. 17th.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. 17th-and I think he might have
said it on the 13th, because I couldn't remember-it was maybe a
Friday the 13th-where he made the statement about not allowing
these thugs to overthrow a constitutional government, there was
hope that there was a way we could do that by supporting a sus-
tainable political settlement. In the intervening weeks, that be-
came-it became clear that we weren't able to do that. And there's
a reason for that, and it's-I mentioned before, that opposition
wouldn't agree to the plan. But we also noticed other things. We
noticed that the-while the Haitian National Police was going-
Senator BOXER. I hear you.
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -we noticed that while the Haitian
National Police was going-
Senator BOXER. Senator Dodd, Secretary Powell's quote on the
17th and-
Mr. NORIEGA. Okay, 17th and 18th. We also know that in the in-
tervening time, that President Aristide's people were arming his
criminal gangs and thugs with guns, while the Haitian National
Police was going without guns. We know that the palace sent gangs
to attack the Coast Guard facility, because they wanted to be able
to preserve the migration card. The Haitian Coast Guard personnel
fought a pitched battle defending themselves from Aristide's mobs,
who had set on them because they wanted to prevent our ability
to repatriate people, because they wanted to have the migration
card, to be able to continue to play that card.
So those few elements that were-could have actually helped
maintain the rule of law were being undermined even at the very
last minute, and we had to make an assessment of whether this
was a reliable guy, and this was a reliable partner in any sort of
political process. And we-and, frankly, we reassessed that it
wasn't-he couldn't be part of any sustainable solution. We--
Senator BOXER. Even though he agreed to the deal, and the
rebels didn't, right?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. And at the same time, he was
taking these measures, most of the violence-and this was our as-
sessment-most of the violence-in Port-au-Prince, in particular-
was the result of Aristide's gangs setting on people, looting and-

Senator BOXER. Right, but-
Mr. NORIEGA. [continuing]. killing and attacking-
Senator BOXER. [continuing]. he had agreed to the plan, and
the opposition didn't. That's the point.
Mr. NORIEGA. He agreed to sign his name on another scrap of
Senator BOXER. Yes.
Mr. NORIEGA. But he continued to conduct himself in the same
way that he had for a decade. We put the man back in power in
'94 once. We did this before. And in the intervening decade, we
learned a thing or two about whether he was a reliable interloc-
utor. We were willing to try to uphold some sort of political solu-
tion if there was some sort of balanced solution. That wasn't pos-
sible. He demonstrated that he was more interested in a violent so-
lution. And, frankly, we decided not to create a doctrine where
every poor, failed, irresponsible leader can dial 911 and ask for
U.S. marines to come and surround the palace to protect them.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you.
I'm going to turn to Senator Nelson.
Senator NELSON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
This is the first that I have heard, Mr. Chairman, that Aristide's
thugs had moved on our U.S. Coast Guard facility.
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes, sir.
Senator NELSON. And what happened?
Mr. NORIEGA. They fought into the night, and eventually-
Senator NELSON. Fought with whom?
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -These mobs set on this Coast
Guard facility called Killick, which is five miles north of-
Senator NELSON. And who were they fighting, our Coast Guard
Mr. NORIEGA. They were-no, I'm sorry, they were fighting the
Haitian Coast Guard people.
Senator NELSON. Oh, it was the Haitian Coast Guard.
Mr. NORIEGA. Yeah, the Haitian thugs were-Aristide's mobs and
gangs were attacking a Haitian Coast Guard facility. These are
people that we had, earlier in the day, cooperated with to repa-
triate some people to Haiti. They're a very professional bunch,
these Coast Guard folks, very professional. They were really heroes
that night. They had to get in their boats and take to sea to avoid
the violence. And the next day, they showed up for work again.
They're heroes. And their commander has now been appointed by
the new President to be the interim chief of the Haitian National
Police. His name is Leon Charles. So it was clear that that was a
calculated effort to prevent our ability to repatriate people, so that
they could continue to throw people into the sea, to be used as a
lure to lure us to committing military in there again to save
Aristide's skin one more time. And this was-and we can show you
some information that will bear that out, Senator, in a very com-
pelling way.
Senator NELSON. I'm curious, at this time of violence, including
this-I thought you had first said that they were attacking our
U.S. Coast Guard. You're talking about the Haitian Coast Guard.
But I'm curious, at this time, you all-the policy of the government
was not to enact temporary protected status of Haitians who were

in detention in Miami, and who were going to be sent back to Haiti
at this particular time of violence. Isn't that a very poor choice of
Mr. NORIEGA. It was a very difficult decision, Senator, but it was
a decision that if we did not-if we did not demonstrate that we
were willing to put these people back, that we would, instead, have
tens of thousands risk their lives. It was a very, very difficult deci-
sion. I was personally involved in that, and I admit that it was a
very, very difficult decision. I think, in the long run, it saved lives.
And I'll note that, in the week before-as I mentioned before, in
the week before Aristide's departure or resignation, there were 900
people that took to the seas. In the weeks since, Admiral Loy said
this morning it was zero.
Senator NELSON. Now, I'm not talking about the people that
were picked up at sea, the 900.
Mr. NORIEGA. No, I-that's right, sir.
Senator NELSON. I'm talking about the ones that-
Mr. NORIEGA. That's right.
Senator NELSON [continuing]. -were in detention in Miami,
had been there for months.
Mr. NORIEGA. Yup. Yup. Yes, sir, you're right. I'm-
Senator NELSON. During that two weeks of violence, how many
of them were returned?
Mr. NORIEGA. As far as I-I don't know, sir. I'll have to get you
the number. But I remember looking into this quite explicitly to see
if there was any possibility that we could at least leave those peo-
ple were they were.
Senator NELSON. Well, that's got the Haitian community--
Mr. NORIEGA. I'll get you an answer.
Senator NELSON [continuing]. -in Miami up in arms. You can
see why. I mean, the people had been there for awhile, they're in
detention, and then all of a sudden the government policy is, we're
going to ship them back in the middle of all the bloodshed and the
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, I'll get you an answer in writing on the
numbers that were repatriated.
[At the time of publication, Secretary Noriega had not yet pro-
vided an answer to this question.]
Senator DODD. Did anyone object to that? Did anyone raise their
voice at the time about this?
Senator NELSON. In the administration.
Senator DODD. No, I know you-
Senator NELSON. The two Senators over here were raising Cain.
Senator DODD [continuing]. -But I'm curious about whether or
not anyone expressed any outrage about that.
Mr. NORIEGA. There were concerns expressed on-
Senator DODD. Was the issue-
Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. all sides.
Senator DODD [continuing]. raised with you?
Mr. NORIEGA. It was-
Senator DODD. Were you involved in the decision?
Mr. NORIEGA. In terms of the repatriate-
Senator DODD. All right.

Mr. NORIEGA [continuing]. -these persons, no, I wasn't in-
volved in the decision. There wasn't a decision; there was a policy,
a standing policy, of returning people. Now, whether they-we did
so in the last ten days, I don't really know. You probably know bet-
ter than I do, but I can get you an answer on that.
Senator NELSON. All right. A year ago, you said to me that you
were positively disposed to and would work to get the administra-
tion to move on Senator DeWine's legislation, which a number of
us here are helping him with, which is aimed at creating Haitian
jobs in the garment industry. What position has the administration
taken on this in the last year?
Mr. NORIEGA. As I-our position hasn't changed, Senator, as the
legislation hasn't moved. But as I've said in discussions with Sen-
ator DeWine, I think this is a very favorable time to be raising this
issue, and we'll work with them to try to get-be as forward-lean-
ing as we possibly can to do this because I think that creating
those jobs-restoring, really-restoring those jobs in the assembly
sector can contribute greatly to the recovery of Haiti. And there are
American investors who know those workers and want to get back
in there and open their operations up. And they may be willing to
move as quickly as anybody, to go in and start their operations
back up. So we do need to take a look at that, and that'll be part
of our strategy, Senator.
Senator NELSON. You know, a couple of years ago we passed the
Caribbean Basin Initiative, but Haiti was left out. And Senator
DeWine is trying to fill the hole. And it's beyond me that we
wouldn't be doing this long before. All you have to do is give a wink
and a nod from the White House, and that legislation will fly out
of here. I would encourage your positive promotion of that legisla-
Mr. NORIEGA. We'll certainly consult with our USTR colleagues
and-but I think you made a very good point, Senator, and we'll
continue to work with you on that.
Senator COLEMAN. I'll turn to Senator DeWine, but associate my-
self with Senator Nelson's comments regarding that-the treaty,
the trade agreement and the necessity to move forward very quick-
Senator DeWine.
Senator DEWINE. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much.
Let me first say that, Mr. Secretary, I agree with your comments
about Leon Charles. I've had the opportunity to meet him, on sev-
eral occasions, as he's head of the Coast Guard, and I was glad to
see that he was appointed the interim head of the police, and he
certainly is a professional and is someone who I'm sure will bring
credit to the current position that he is in.
I think that, as we have discussed, Haiti, for the next several
months, you know, is in an absolutely critical time, and I'm not
going to belabor my point, the point several other of my colleagues
have made, about the number of troops that we're going to need.
And I've already made that point, to get through that period of
time and bring about the stability.
But now is the time, though, also, to plan for what happens be-
yond that. And, you know, $52 million a year is just not going to
get it, from this administration, and from this government. We're

going to have to have other countries involved; there's no doubt
about it. But we're going to have to take-you know, whether we
like it or not, we're going to have to take the lead. I don't know
what the magical figure is, but, you know, the committee has come
up with-this committee has come up with authorization of, you
know, a total of $150 million. Anybody who has studied what is
going to have to take place in Haiti, I think, would come to the con-
clusion that that's, frankly, the minimum, and that's just not going
to be a one-year shot; that's going to be for a number of years.
When you're looking at humanitarian assistance, we're doing the
bare minimum now, and that's in the low 50s, and that's just hu-
manitarian assistance. That's no money going to the government.
We're going to have to deal with elections. Elections are not cheap.
We're going to have to deal with building back the police, infra-
structure for the country. We're going to have to deal with the eco-
logical disaster that is Haiti today, and get some real long-term,
sustainable agriculture programs going in that country. That abso-
lutely has to take place. We're going to have to deal with the rule
of law issue, with the courts. Those are long-term projects.
No one does them any better than the United States. We do it
the best. You know, we had good programs in there before; we can
do that again and bring in the Justice Department. So these are
long-term, sustainable programs that we're going to have to put in
place-USAID, other U.S. agencies. And so, you know, we've got to
start doing that.
But as my colleague from Florida just said, you know, the cheap-
est thing we can do is pass Senate Bill 489, which is the trade bill.
And I just really appreciate your comments. You know, now's, as
you say, a favorable time to do this. This is at no cost to the United
States. It's not going to cost us any jobs. Probably anybody who
really understands the industry would say it'd probably create
some U.S. jobs. And it's going to do something for Haiti that noth-
ing else can do, and that is create jobs down there. They had
100,000 not too many years ago, before the embargo, the well-in-
tentioned embargo, took the assembly jobs down, almost overnight,
from 100,000 assembly jobs down to now probably 30,000. And
when you go in there and talk to people, you know, these are, by
Haitian standards, jobs that people line up for, that people want.
For every worker in there who is working an assembly job, they
support, you know, 20 or 25 other people. It has a tremendous mul-
tiplier effect in the economy.
So if we're talking about bringing stability to Haiti, and if we're
talking about giving a shot in the arm to the new coalition govern-
ment that's going to emerge, bringing stability to the country, giv-
ing hope to the people, you know, passage of this trade bill is a
very, very tangible thing that we can do. And so, you know, sup-
port from this administration is certainly very, very welcome and
would be very, very much appreciated, and I think it could be part
of a package of things that will really make a difference.
So we thank you for your good comments. And I thank my col-
leagues, from Florida. And, Mr. Chairman, thank you, again, for
holding the hearing.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Senator DeWine.

Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, if I may just comment very, very briefly
on that. I would say that it's important that we-if there's any-
thing that bothers me, it's the-what we read in the newspapers,
that this is a hopeless situation and that we're going to-it's just
a waste of money. Because I don't believe that for a moment.
Senator DEWINE. Nor do I.
Mr. NORIEGA. We put hundreds of millions of dollars in there,
and people are saying we've got nothing to show for it. Well, I
think there's a reason for that. I think we do have some things to
show for it. I mean, helping people just live from year to year is
a good thing. But I think that it will be a better investment-that
it's not predicated on our simply keeping one person in office and
accommodating one person's irresponsible behavior. And you can
ask Mr. Dobbins about this. We stood up the Haitian National Po-
lice Force. It was a good investment; they were great people. But
he'll tell you that, almost immediately, Aristide dumped a bunch of
his thugs into the middle of this thing, and then he wouldn't pay
for it. And then they committed political killings in broad daylight.
And we, frankly, didn't do enough to respond to that. And you can
ask him whether he thinks we should have done more. We had far-
cical elections, one after the other, and we wouldn't let the inter-
national community condemn that, because we wanted to uphold
Aristide as some sort of a symbol of restoring democracy.
Those mistakes that we made, the original sin, really, of our en-
gagement, was that it was all about one person, and so you can ask
a little bit about the experiences they had in those days, and I can
assure you that we will have-we will learn-we have learned from
those things. We've learned from those mistakes. And this will be
based on the interests of the 8 million Haitian people, and not just
one or two individuals.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you, Mr. Noriega. And thank you, Sen-
ator DeWine.
Senator Graham.
Senator GRAHAM. Thank you, again, Mr. Chairman, for this hear-
ing and the opportunity to elucidate some issues in which the
United States might be of assistance to Haiti.
I want to associate myself with two remarks Senator DeWine has
just made. One, I have observed, for the better part of 30 years,
on a very close basis, the quality of the people who have come from
Haiti. I have to assume that the people who have stayed in Haiti
share those similar characteristics, and they are people who have
great potential if they can be liberated from this history of violence
and oppression. Second, as it relates to jobs-as I indicated in my
remarks earlier-by chance I ran into a man who employs several
Haitians, and he said that they're about to lose their job because
of the collapse of the basic commercial system, such as the customs
I wonder if you might give some attention to this. What can we
do, as we're dealing with these other security and humanitarian
issues, to get the economy, at least that which already exists, main-
Mr. NORIEGA. Senator, you've put your finger on the first part of
it; we have to get ahead of the security curve.

Senator GRAHAM. But will you give some attention and give us
a report as to what your assessment is, the requirements to get the
economy that did exist moving and what the United States is going
to do to try to get it back to pre-February 29th standards?
Mr. NORIEGA. It's a high priority. We have the port-well, I hope
we don't get back to those standards, because there was a corrupt
customs system that just sort of strangled the private sector. But
we've got the port open again. We've got to get the customs oper-
ating again, and those are high priorities, jump-starting the eco-
nomic growth.
Senator GRAHAM. Would you give us a report as to what specifi-
cally is going to happen to get the economy going?
Mr. NORIEGA. Do you want that right now, Senator?
Senator GRAHAM. No, not-
Mr. NORIEGA. Oh, okay. We'll get you-
Senator GRAHAM. I'd like to get that in writing.
Mr. NORIEGA. Absolutely. By all means.
[At the time of publication, Secretary Noriega had not yet pro-
vided an answer to this question.]
Senator GRAHAM. I'd like to move to another question, and that
is our intelligence. I'm concerned that the situation seemed to have
emerged so rapidly and at a much more intense level than appar-
ently policymakers in Washington were aware of. What is your as-
sessment of the quality and credibility of U.S. intelligence services
in Haiti to facilitate the decision-making process of policymakers in
Mr. NORIEGA. Yes. Well, Senator, it's a sensitive area, and I
probably would give you a fuller answer. But I'm satisfied that we
had access to timely intelligence. Events were fast-breaking in the
final weeks; I concede that point.
Senator GRAHAM. Are you saying that the policymakers knew
what the situation was sufficiently-that is-
Senator GRAHAM. But the question is-
Mr. NORIEGA. I think-
Senator GRAHAM [continuing]. -How did we use the informa-
Mr. NORIEGA. The real deterioration of the security situation in
Aristide's tenuous situation came with the uprising in Gonaives.
We knew that this was a relatively small band of people. What we
could not have-what we did not know was how quickly the police
would capitulate, and we did not understand, I think-and this is
not really an intelligence failure; but we did not understand how
much dissatisfaction there was with Aristide and that people would
actually welcome these people as if they were liberating territory.
And then these other folks came in from the Dominican Republic,
former members of the army and some of their small gangs. But
these are relatively small numbers of people, and I guess we didn't
really appreciate how brittle the institutions were and how they
crumbled. The Haitian National Police people disappeared almost
Senator GRAHAM. I may pursue some further questions on that
privately. But let me just conclude. I'm concerned that one of the

things that's important to the United States' credibility in Haiti
and globally is that we be consistent. And it seems to me as if, dur-
ing the crucial days leading up to February the 29th, we did not
live up to that standard. Senator Boxer gave some of the quotes.
I would just add a couple of more.
According to the New York Times, on February the 13th, Sec-
retary of State Powell stated, "The policy of this administration is
not regime change." Then on the 18th of February, in the New York
Times, Secretary Powell was quoted as saying, "We cannot buy into
a proposition that says the elected President must be forced out of
office by thugs." Then on February the 26th, we voted, in the OAS,
our delegate, our ambassador, for a resolution that resolves to call
upon the United Nations Security Council to take the necessary
and appropriate urgent measures to establish, in the Charter of the
United Nations, to address the crisis in Haiti.
Question. Did our representative of the United Nations, Mr.
Negroponte, did he urgently pursue this resolution that the United
States had voted for?
Mr. NORIEGA. The U.N. Security Council members-he met with
them, and the consensus was to issue a statement of the president
of the council, which was issued, that called for a political settle-
ment. The council did not act, at that point.
Senator GRAHAM. And then subsequent to February 29th, Sec-
retary Powell stated that the reason that the United States did not
send security in before President Aristide's departure was because
we did not want to, "prop up the regime." And that seems quite a
different statement than the ones that he made consistently
throughout earlier February and the fact that we voted, the United
States of America, for this OAS resolution.
Mr. NORIEGA. We were prepared to send folks in if it were part
of a political solution. When it became clear that that wasn't going
to be the case, we made a difficult decision that it was not sustain-
able, not an effective use of American military force, and we didn't.
Senator GRAHAM. Then what did the former chairman of our
joint chiefs of staff mean when he said, "We cannot buy into the
proposition that the elected president must be forced out of office
by thugs"?
Mr. NORIEGA. I'll be glad to ask him to clarify his statement, but
I think what he meant-
Senator GRAHAM. The fact that you have to ask the Secretary of
State for clarification is the most telling statement how uncertain
and unsustained was our statement of policy position.
Mr. NORIEGA. What you just said was a very valid point. Let me
attempt to clarify that. At the time he made that statement, it was
before we knew conclusively that the democratic opposition was not
going to join in the process, the power-sharing process. And then
we saw actions by President Aristide to resort to violence and to
continue the use of criminal gangs to intimidate opponents and to
attack even our interests, I think, if you consider the importance
of the Coast Guard facility there to be able to return people. We
saw that this-that without the-some sort of balanced approach,
that it was not sustainable to just come in and say we're going to
support Aristide.

Frankly, I think that where we would be today is, he would be
in the palace with his thugs, and we would be protecting him from
other thugs while other criminal gangs would be out exacting a
price, and we would be there as bodyguards for Aristide. That,
frankly, is not a particularly appealing scenario, either. And we
had to think in those terms. We had to be concerned about also cre-
ating a doctrine where we have an obligation to send U.S. military
in to support anyone that asks for it. That's just simply not a very
good policy from our standpoint. It's one thing to say that we re-
spect constitutional order; it's another thing to say that it creates
an obligation to automatically deploy U.S. forces to surround a na-
tional palace to protect a leader.
Senator GRAHAM. Well, I'll just close that-we ought to go back
and revisit the Santiago Accords and the Inter-American Demo-
cratic Charter because it seems to me, by plain English, that we
have, in effect, accepted the responsibility of coming to the protec-
tion of a democratic government that's under siege, or follow the
procedure laid out in Article 21, which is to suspend that nation
from participation in the OAS and, thus, from the OAS's responsi-
bility to protect. And we did not follow that legal procedure.
Mr. NORIEGA. Can I just comment on that, very briefly? It's a
very telling point to me that the Government of Haiti, in all of the
last several years, since that charter was approved, never invoked
the self-help mechanism of Article 17. And the reason was, we
came to understand, that it would create an obligation on their
part to respect the essential elements of democracy and, they felt,
would put them on a course toward suspension because they were
systematically violating all of the essential elements of democracy.
On several occasions-as Chairman of the Permanent Council, I
asked the Ambassador of Haiti, "Why don't you use Article 17?" I
never got an effective answer. That was 18 months ago. That was
in July of 2002, I think it was. And they never did. And the reason
was, President Aristide knew that he did not measure up to those
standards of respecting the essential elements of democracy, as laid
out in that charter.
Senator GRAHAM. Thank you.
Senator NELSON. Mr. Chairman, just before Senator DeWine
Senator DEWINE. I'll come right back. I'll come right back.
Senator NELSON. Well, I just want to say, he's getting ready to
offer-and I'm going to help him-an amendment to the budget
resolution, tonight, to take the administration's position from $50
million for Haiti to $150 million, which-it's a generally agreed-
upon figure. If you could get a signal from the White House agree-
ing to that, we could pass his amendment tonight on the budget
Mr. NORIEGA. I'll get on the phone, sir.
Senator COLEMAN. Let me-we're going to end this panel. My col-
league, Senator Dodd, assures me that he has a narrowly focused
question on a local issue. I am going to yield to him for that pur-
pose only.
Senator DODD. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.
Well, just one-I wanted to ask Mr. Franco one quick question.
There was a fellow-someone at USAID, who countermanded the

Ambassador's decision regarding Stanley Lucas, and do you know
who that is, Mr. Franco?
Mr. FRANCO. That countermanded-
Senator DODD. The decision by the American ambassador not to
have Stanley Lucas involved in the IRI program.
Mr. FRANCO. Well, the best of my recollection on this, Senator
Dodd, is-and I had conversations with Ambassador Curran at
time about this-he requested that we work out an accommodation.
It would have been his preference, I think, not to have Mr. Lucas
involved in-
Senator DODD. Who countermanded-who countermanded that?
Mr. FRANCO. I don't think anyone countermanded. I think there
were discussions and an agreement reached with Ambassador
Curran on how we would proceed with the IRI grant and what Mr.
Lucas's participation would be in that grant. Subsequent to that,
based on the agreement we had with Ambassador Curran, I think
there was a mistake made by IRI, in terms of what his participa-
tion would be, and there was a violation of that agreement that
Ambassador Curran, IRI, and we had all worked out.
Senator DODD. Well, as I mentioned, we've got the-I've asked
the Inspector General to take a look at the whole thing. Have you
examined, by the way, the $1.2 million, how that money's been ex-
pended? Have you been following that?
Mr. FRANCO. Yes, we have, sir.
Senator DODD. Okay, fine.
Mr. FRANCO. One-oh, I'm sorry.
Senator DODD. No, just-I wanted to-and I'll make a request-
I have the-there's a Haitian Health Foundation which I know
you're aware of; it's out of the Diocese of Norwich, Connecticut, Dr.
Jerry Lowney, who's been very-been living there for years-going
down-Dennis, from my old congressional district-go to Haiti on
a regular basis to perform voluntary medical services in the town
of Jeremie, way out in that far peninsula point.
Mr. FRANCO. I'm aware of that.
Senator DODD. And they've currently got a couple of grants pend-
Mr. FRANCO. Yes.
Senator DODD. And they're worried about how this is all going
to work out, and I'd appreciate it if you'd take a look at those.
And, lastly, Mr. Chairman, let me just say here, I-Senator
Graham has made the point again-aside from-and, obviously,
we're going to go forward, and I applaud what Senator DeWine and
others are doing. But the precedent-setting nature of how we han-
dle this situation-these agreements and charters must mean
something. If they don't mean anything, then what are we doing
them for, and why do we hold others to a standard that we aren't
willing to meet ourselves.
And I say this to you, Mr. Noriega, but knowing of the state-
ments made by the Secretary of State, knowing how our ambas-
sador votes on the 24th of February, knowing we turned down Mr.
Aristide, despite a request to stand in assistance, knowing we're
dealing with a small group of thugs at the time, knowing that we
have support going on for meetings with opposition groups in the
Dominican Republic, and so forth, this looks very messy, to put it

mildly. And I think it's further evidence of people's uneasiness
about the conduct of foreign policy.
Mr. Aristide wasn't in the palace in Haiti by some coup. He was
there because he was elected twice, overwhelmingly, by the people
of Haiti. Now, I know that you and others have always had a prob-
lem with Mr. Aristide. But the people of that country elected him
twice. He stepped down from office, served in private life, when Mr.
Preval was Prime Minister, ran again for election under the con-
stitution. That's the first time I know of in Haitian history that
we've had a democratic transition of government like this. And we
walked away from this.
I'm profoundly concerned that others are going to see that exam-
ple in Haiti as a further rationale to maybe engage in that sort of
conduct again if they don't like the new government that emerges
So I'm-I don't want to dwell on this particular point, but I don't
think you can just brush by it and say, well, that's history. That's
over with. We may regret certain things, but we're not going to
worry about it too much. I worry about it very, very much, because
these charters either mean something or they don't. And if we're
going to sign onto them, then we ought to be willing to stand up
and try and defend them.
Secretary Powell did that, in my view. The Secretary of State did
it for several days. For whatever reason, he was overridden by
someone else's sense of decision or sense of agenda here, and I re-
gret that deeply.
But I appreciate very much having the hearing today.
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you.
Mr. Noriega, I'm not going to actually-I'm actually going to-I'd
prefer not to debate this point. Let me close.
Mr. NORIEGA. Right.
Senator COLEMAN. Because I've heard the answer.
Mr. NORIEGA. But I have to-
Senator COLEMAN. And let me-
Mr. NORIEGA. It's not that point. I was-on IRI, but-
Senator COLEMAN. Very briefly.
Mr. NORIEGA. I just wanted to note, for the record, that George
Fauriol, who's the project director-vice president of IRI-he's
project director of IRI in Haiti, spent a great deal of time on the
phone with opposition leaders trying to convince them to join in
this power-sharing deal. I got one e-mail from him at 12:34 in the
morning, around February 24th. So he was working very hard try-
ing to get these people to buy into that deal. And that, frankly, is
the role he should have been playing. And I didn't want to leave
the impression that somehow IRI wasn't playing a bona fide role
Sorry, Mr. Chairman. Thank you very much for your indulgence.
Senator COLEMAN. Thanks. And I was going to say, and I'll say
to my friend and colleague, obviously there are some different per-
spectives on this. It's clear that there's a perspective that says
Aristide never lived up to these agreements, never wanted to live
up to these agreements, and never invoked those agreements, and
that between the time that early statements were made by Sec-
retary Powell, there was a series of actions and conducts of incite-

ment of violence that significantly changed the situation. We may
want to revisit that at some point in time, but I really do hope that
we can figure out a way to move forward.
I'm going to call the second panel. I'm going to apologize to the
second panel that they've waited so long. But the future of Haiti
is at stake.
Mr. Franco, you are compelled to say one last thing before we
move on?
Mr. FRANCO. I want it to end on a very positive note, Mr. Chair-
man, about the Haitian Health Foundation, Senator Dodd. The
president of the Haitian Health Foundation is in Port-au-Prince
today. We dispatched a plane yesterday to pick her up for consulta-
tions in Port-au-Prince, and we delivered supplies to the orphanage
Senator COLEMAN. On that very positive note, I appreciate par-
ticipation. Thank you, gentlemen.
Our second panel is made up of Ambassador Jim Dobbins, former
U.S. Ambassador to Haiti, and currently Director of International
Security & Defense Policy at RAND; Ambassador Lawrence (Larry)
Pezzullo, former U.S. Envoy to Haiti, retired; Mr. Michael Heinl,
co-author, Written in Blood, The Story of the Haitian People 1492
to 1971, and Dr. Robert (Bob) Maguire, Director of Programs in
International Affairs, Trinity College.
Senator NELSON [presiding]. Ambassador Dobbins.
Ambassador DOBBINS. Senator?
Senator NELSON. You don't have to stand. You can sit.
Ambassador DOBBINS. No, no, I'm going to. Don't worry.
Thank you.
Senator NELSON. Please.
Ambassador DOBBINS. Would you like me to start?
Senator NELSON. Please proceed.
Ambassador DOBBINS. Well, thank you.
Thank you, Senator, and thank you to the committee for inviting
me and the rest of the panel here today.
I think, for those of us who were involved in America's interven-
tion in Haiti of a decade ago, we ask ourselves, and I expect you'll
ask us what went wrong. Why wasn't this fairly significant effort
of more enduring value? And I think there's several answers to the
The easy answer is, it's President Aristide's fault. And I think
that's an accurate answer insofar as it goes. President Aristide did
fail to seize the many opportunities that were offered to him and
to Haiti to move forward. He consistently blocked necessary eco-
nomic reforms. He refused to disassociate himself from elements of
his support that were corrupt. And he never worked to ensure that
the many elections, which he was going to win in any case, were
free and fair and above-board.
I think that many people are unhappy about the manner of
President's Aristide's departure. I suspect fewer are unhappy about
the fact of his departure. And I suspect fewer still would like him

to come back. Although given Haiti's penchant for endlessly re-
peated tragedy, I don't think it's an eventuality that one could ab-
solutely exclude at this stage.
I think it's too easy, though, to blame Haiti's problems and cur-
rent plight on President Aristide, and I think we miss an oppor-
tunity to critique our own mistakes of the past decade, of which
there are numerous.
Reflecting on the decade, let me just go through the lessons that
I draw from it.
First, that exit strategies and departure deadlines are incompat-
ible with the enduring reform of failed or failing states. In the
aftermath of Somalia, the Clinton administration went in with a
very narrow political margin. It committed itself to leave within
two years. It felt constrained to make that commitment. Worse
still, it felt constrained to keep the commitment. Two years is sim-
ply too short a time to fix a society as broken as is Haiti.
Second, that institution-building in failed states required signifi-
cant resources. In the aftermath of the American intervention, U.S.
aid to Haiti went to the astronomical level of $200 million a year.
In the light of subsequent American nation-building efforts, this is
a pitifully small sum. Bosnia, only two years later, received seven
times more assistance, on a per-capita basis, despite the fact that
Haiti was much more needy than Bosnia. Kosovo received four
times more. And today Iraq is receiving 30 times more assistance,
on a per-capita basis, than Haiti did at the absolute peak of Amer-
ican interest. These sums are simply too small to underwrite the
kind of fundamental reforms that would make our interventions of
lasting significance.
Third, Haiti is too polarized to conduct its own elections. The op-
position wouldn't trust Aristide. If these elections are organized by
the new government, Aristide supporters aren't going to trust
them, will refuse to run, and then will try to discredit the process.
I believe the U.N. or the OAS needs, not only to support a Haitian-
government-run election, it needs to actually run the election and
be the ultimate arbiter when disputes arise.
Fourth, we need to provide direct assistance to the Haitian Gov-
ernment. Even the Clinton administration was disposed to put
most of its assistance through NGOs because it was worried about
accountability and possible misuse of funds. This is applying a
band-aid to the situation in Haiti. Haiti needs institutions. It's not
going to get institutions unless we help fund those institutions and
unless we use those institutions to deliver assistance to the Haitian
Fifth, we need to move quickly to push through basic economic
reforms. It's natural enough in these kinds of situations to focus on
the security and the political aspects because those seem an early
ticket out. And I think, back in the mid '90s, we didn't put enough
emphasis on doing the basic economic reforms-things like the
electric company, the telephone company, the port, the other things
that Haiti needs to become a functioning society and a magnet for
investment-until our influence had diminished to the point where
we simply couldn't push them over the barrier.
Sixth, security is more than police. We built up a good police de-
partment. But the best police department in the world, if it doesn't

have courts to try criminals, and prisons to put them in, is left
with no choice when it catches a criminal but to kill him or let him
go. And either of those ultimately corrupts the force, as it did cor-
rupt the force that we built.
Seventh, don't cut off assistance to Haiti unless you're willing to
invade. Haiti is simply too weak, its institutions too dependent on
foreign assistance, to survive a prolonged period of international
isolation. We cut off assistance to Haiti in 1991, and we had to in-
vade in 1994. We cut off assistance in 2000, we had to invade in
2004. It follows almost as the night the day. So you either have to
stomach the government that's there, and assist them, or you have
to determine that you're ultimately going to intervene once again.
And, finally, the lesson I draw is that reconciliation in Haiti has
to begin in Washington. Of all of America's nation-building mis-
sions, all of which have been controversial, none has been more
controversial than Haiti, and none has been more partisanly con-
troversial than Haiti. Haiti's leaders have learned that if you don't
like American policy, just wait until the next election. It's all too
often that Haiti's political leaders would rather listen to their pa-
trons and their champions in Washington than to the American
Ambassador. And America's not going to be able to exercise its full
influence and its potential influence in Haiti unless it does it on
the basis of a bipartisan consensus. We've had Democratic policies;
ultimately, they didn't work. We had Republican policies; they obvi-
ously didn't work. I think we should try to give a bipartisan effort
a real shot.
Now, having said we made a number of mistakes, we didn't do
everything wrong back in the early '90s, and we ought to look at
some of the things we did right and try to emulate them.
First of all, we put in a very large, capable force, and we estab-
lished security in Haiti within days. There is a danger that we're
now doing in Haiti exactly what we've done in Afghanistan and
Iraq, which is dribble forces in, fight the problem, deny that more
is necessary, never secure control of the streets, and fight a rear-
guard battle for months or years thereafter. We really ought to fol-
low the more-is-better dictum, which several Senators here have al-
ready made.
Second, we put in significant numbers of police. For the first
time ever, a thousand armed international police were put in as
part of that peacekeeping force. This was an innovation in inter-
national peacekeeping, which has been imitated since, and ought to
be imitated again in Haiti.
Third, the transition from the U.S.-led phase to the U.N.-led
phase went exceptionally smoothly in Haiti during the Clinton
intervention. We worked closely with the United Nations. It was a
seamless transition. The United States participated significantly in
the U.N. phase of the operation. The military part of the U.N.
peacekeeping effort was commanded by a U.S. general, and there
were significant U.S. troops in it serving under U.S.-under U.N.
control, without the slightest incident. And we all know that only
the United States has significant influence in Haiti. The United
Nations is an important instrumentality through which we can ap-
propriately and legitimately exercise that influence, but it's not an
alternative to a continued American engagement, and I certainly

hope that this administration will look at the very successful record
of U.N. and U.S. collaboration in the mid '90s when it looks at how
to design the next phase of our engagement there.
I think that's-those are my lessons and conclusions, Senator.
Thank you.
[The prepared statement of Ambassador Dobbins follows:]

I would like to thank you and the committee for inviting me to testify today on
Haiti. It is said that history repeats itself, first as tragedy and then as farce. Haiti,
sad to say, goes only from tragedy to tragedy. American Marines are engaged in our
fourth intervention in Haiti in ninety years. Jean Bertrand Aristide is the thirty
third Haitian President to be driven from office, in his case for the second time.
Those of us who worked to organize the last American intervention, in 1994,
thought we had given Haiti the opportunity to break this cycle of misrule, poverty
and instability. Our hopes have been disappointed. More importantly, so have those
of the Haitian people.
Even as America reluctantly launches upon another round of nation-building in
Haiti, it is worth examining what went wrong with the last effort and why those
hopes were disappointed.
The short answer is that President Aristide failed to avail himself of the multiple
opportunities he was provided, from 1994 onward, to set Haiti on the path to democ-
racy and prosperity. He blocked the economic reforms that would have made Haiti
more attractive for foreign private and public investment. He refused to disassociate
himself from supporters with records of corrupt or abusive behavior. He never
worked sufficiently to create a level electoral playing field, even when his own over-
whelming popularity would have assured him and his party ultimate victory.
President Aristide is preeminently responsible for his and Haiti's current plight.
While there may be a good number here and in Haiti that regret the manner of his
going, fewer, I expect, regret that he has gone, and even fewer would like to see
him return. Given Haiti's penchant for cyclical tragedy, however, such a turn of
events cannot be excluded.
To blame Haiti's current crisis exclusively on President Aristide is to miss an op-
portunity to learn from our own mistakes over the past decade. Even against the
background of Aristide's intractability, different American decisions at multiple
points over the past decade would have produced different and better results. Per-
sonally, I draw the following lessons from this decade.
(1) Exit strategies and departure deadlines are incompatible with endur-
ing reform of failed states. In the wake the Somalia fiasco, nation-building
became a term of derision. In 1994 the Clinton administration's political
margin for another such operation in Haiti was exceedingly narrow. Presi-
dent Clinton felt constrained to promise that the American troop commit-
ment would last no longer than two years. Worse still, when the time came,
he still felt constrained to keep that commitment. Two years is too short
a period to fix a society as profoundly broken as Haiti.
(2) Institution building in failed states requires significant resources ap-
plied over extended periods. American and international assistance to Haiti,
even at the peak of the Clinton administration's interest, was, in compari-
son with subsequent more successful efforts, very low. Only two years later
Bosnia received seven times more assistance on a per capital basis. Kosovo
received four times more. Today, Iraq is receiving more than thirty times
more American assistance, on a per capital basis, and one hundred times
more in absolute terms than Haiti received in the immediate aftermath of
the last U.S. intervention. None of these other societies is remotely as
needy as is Haiti, and none of them lies on our very doorstep.

1The opinions and conclusions expressed in this testimony are the author's alone and should
not be interpreted as representing those of RAND or any of the sponsors of its research. This
product is part of the RAND Corporation testimony series. RAND testimonies record testimony
presented by RAND associates to federal, state, or local legislative committees; government-ap-
pointed commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies. The RAND Corpora-
tion is a nonprofit research organization providing objective analysis and effective solutions that
address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. RAND's publica-
tions do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.

(3) Haiti is too polarized to conduct its own elections. Since 1995 each
Haitian election has been worse organized than the last. How much of this
was due to incompetence and how much to willful manipulation has been
hard to establish. Opposition parties were never willing to give the Haitian
electoral authorities the benefit of the doubt in these matters. One must an-
ticipate that the political forces associated with Aristide will be equally sus-
picious of any election organized by his successors. As it has done in Bos-
nia, Kosovo, Cambodia and East Timor, the international community needs
to do more than support Haitian authorities in organizing the next elec-
tions. The UN or the OAS should organize and oversee the balloting and
be the final authority in adjudicating any disputes that arise.
(4) Provide significant assistance directly to and through the Haitian gov-
ernment. Donors have long preferred to provide the bulk of their aid to
Haiti through NGO's in order to ensure accountability and appropriate use
of their funding. The result is to simply apply band-aids, as foreign experts
and organization temporarily provide what should be government services
to individual Haitians, without doing anything to build up the capacity of
the Haitian government.
(5) Push through basic economic reforms while U.S. and international le-
verage is at its maximum. It is natural to focus initially upon matters of
security and politics, which seem to offer the keys to an early exit. The
most difficult reforms to introduce in Haiti, however, will be economic ones,
putting badly mismanaged state monopolies, like the electric and telephone
monopolies, and the port on a sound commercial basis. The earlier these
steps are embarked upon, the likelier it is that progress can be made before
international interest and influence begins to wane.
(6) Security is more than police. Rebuilding the Haitian National Police
is the easiest of the reconstruction tasks before us today, because it is the
institution that was adequately funded in the mid 1990's. This time around,
equal attention and adequate funding should be given to judicial and penal
(7) Don't cut off assistance to Haiti unless you are willing to send troops.
In the early 1990s the imposition of sanctions on the Cedras regime led to
large-scale refugee flows and the 1994 U.S. intervention. A decade later the
international communities' decision to cut off assistance to the Haitian gov-
ernment again after the flawed 2000 Senate elections was perfectly justified
but quite unwise. Unable to deliver even minimally on his electoral prom-
ises, Aristide's popularity waned, and his reliance on force increased, just
as had that of the Cedras regime in similar circumstances a decade earlier.
Without formal and legitimate instruments through which to govern,
Aristide was forced to rely, even more than he otherwise might, on informal
and illegitimate sources of power. Absent international support, Haiti's al-
ready weak institutions disintegrated to the point where a few hundred
armed criminals credibly threatened to take over the country. Haiti's next
government will come to power through a similar reliance, however unwill-
ing, upon criminal and abusive elements in the society. This cycle can be
broken only through a long term U.S. and international effort to develop
Haitian institutions for governance.
(8) Reconciliation in Haiti must begin in Washington. All of America's na-
tion-building missions have been controversial at home, but none more so
than Haiti, and none in so partisan a manner. Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Af-
ghanistan and Iraq have had critics and supporters in both parties. With
Haiti, the debate has been the bitterest, and conducted most along party
lines. American influence has been less effective as a result. Haitian polit-
ical leaders have learned that if you do not like U.S. policy, just wait till
the next election. Haitian factions often listen more to their advocates in
Washington than the American Ambassador. Against the background of the
last decade, it is fair to say that neither the distinctly different Democratic
or Republican approach to Haiti have yielded great results. The time has
come to construct a bipartisan effort to help Haiti break its endless cycle
of misrule, poverty and chaos.
It would be wrong to suggest that we did nothing right in Haiti a decade ago.
There were aspects of the 1994 intervention that were successful and should be
emulated. Nearly one thousand international police were introduced in 1994 along
with the military peacekeepers, an innovation in international peace operations. The
transition from the U.S. led multinational coalition to the UN run peacekeeping

mission six months after the arrival of U.S. troops was well prepared and nearly
seamless. U.S. troops continued to serve in Haiti under UN control. An American
General commanded the UN force. The U.S. and the UN collaborated closely and
without friction.
Only the United States has real influence in Haiti. The more united we are at
home, the more decisive that influence will be. The UN is the appropriate institu-
tional framework through which the U.S. can bring that influence to bear. The UN
is in no sense an alternative to American leadership and engagement. As we look
toward the transition from U.S. to UN control over peacekeeping in Haiti, therefore,
we should not view this as an opportunity for American disengagement, but rather
a means to share the burden more broadly and to secure full international and local
legitimacy for the sustained efforts, which must ensue.
Senator NELSON. Thank you very much.
Ambassador Pezzullo.
Ambassador PEZZULLO. Let me begin with one, I think, central
issue here, and that is the question of bipartisanship.
Senator NELSON. Try it again.
Ambassador PEZZULLO. The question of bipartisanship. I mean,
we've already heard here, and at other hearings, the finger-point-
ing and the constant questioning of our role, our position, our atti-
tude. It gets to a point where we forget the Haitians. And I think,
as much as we can look at the failures of Haitians to govern them-
selves, these are a traumatized people, for good reason, and they
can't look back much to their history to find lessons. So, indeed,
their lack of confidence is basic. But when they look at a Wash-
ington, and hear a Washington, constantly questioning itself, not
necessarily Haiti-and I would question the expertise of the people
who talk about Haiti-the arrogance we show-we wouldn't be that
arrogant about our own country very often, but we're very arrogant
when it comes to making judgements about what's going on in an-
other country, what the attitudes are, who they are, what-where
they fit into-you know, detrimental to their own capacity to gov-
ern their own land. That's fundamental.
Now, as to where we are and where we go, I do think we should
be looking ahead-very clearly looking ahead. And I think several
things are basic. One, Haitians have to put this together. There's
no question in my mind that, without them, really putting this
thing together in a constitutional way is not going to work. I don't
believe you have to bring in everybody in the world to run it for
them. I do think they have to abide by, first of all, their constitu-
tion, which Aristide constantly winked at. The president of Haiti
is not the chief of government; he's the chief of state. The prime
minister is the chief of government. Aristide absorbed both those
positions. The prime minister is responsive to the parliament.
Aristide's prime ministers were never responsive to a parliament.
They considered parliament a unnecessary body. So they undercut
the very basic aspects, the basic institution of the country, they un-
dercut. And you've got to begin there.
What's promising to me is that this new democratic group has
followed a pattern already very constitutional, which ultimately, if
followed-and we should insist that they follow, and aid should be
tied to their following; no question in my mind-that constitutional
process should bring them to a point where they do have an elected

president, they do have a new elected prime minister, they do have
a new parliament. And that parliament and prime minister and
president should adhere to the tenets of their own constitution.
Without a governmental process in place, a political process in
place, foreign assistance rarely works. We constantly talk about
foreign assistance as if it's some magical thing. It's not really a
question of absorptive capacity; that's sort of a technical term peo-
ple like to use. It's really the capacity of institutions of government,
politically, to deal with intelligence. And it's not the expertise from
outside. I mean, there are a million people who have worked in as-
sistance around the world who can tell you what happened at Tur-
key ten years ago, and what happened in Vietnam, and what hap-
pened in every other country you can think of. The fact of the mat-
ter, it has to be built into the home environment, into the home
So you need a government, to begin with, that adheres to its own
laws, that has competent people in place. And after that-and this
would be my concern-you stay very, very close to it. You just don't
talk about levels of aid; you talk about implementations of aid, you
talk about the order of the aid, you talk about researching what
happened to the aid, you go back and study. There is a terrible fal-
lacy in the aid field, and you find it in the World Bank, in AID,
and everywhere. They'll spend forever studying the details of a pro-
gram-feasibility studies, study after study, expert visits, and so
on. But once the aid is finalized, forget it. Nobody ever goes back
in. They're too busy looking at the other program, and the next
one, the next one. Terrible. Terrible for the recipient because they
know nobody watches. Terrible for the process because you say it
failed. And terrible for those who say, what are we throwing our
money down a rat hole for. It's got to be followed very carefully,
by us and by other donors.
At the same time, there has to be a respect, which I'm afraid we
fail to offer to recipient countries, especially to this new, nascent
government. We should step back and give them at least the re-
spect of a new nation trying to govern itself and be very intrusive,
in the sense of wanting to know, but not going beyond that. That
takes a lot of skill and patience, and a little less over-the-shoulder
coaching from the United States.
So my cardinal concerns would be bipartisanship here, but really
bipartisanship, respect for the Haitians, but forcing them to adhere
to their own constitutional structure.
Thank you.
[The prepared statement of Ambassador Pezzullo follows:]

Mister Chairman and members of the Subcommittee, I appreciate your invitation
to testify on the subject of "A Fresh Start for Haiti. Charting the Future of U.S.-
Haitian Relations."
Once again events in Haiti have commanded the attention of the world commu-
nity and make urgent the need for the United States and other international actors
to restore public order and help Haitians build for the future.
Since Haitians have to take the lead in reconciling their differences and setting
the foundation for a viable future, let me outline first the critical steps Haitians

must take and then speak of the supportive contributions the United States and
other external actors can make.
It would be a mistake to underestimate the difficulties that lie ahead for the Hai-
tian people and those who are chosen to lead the country. They have been deeply
traumatized by recent events and draw few useful lessons from Haiti's history of
governmental failure. But staring into an abyss has a way of focusing attention. I
believe the leaders of the democratic opposition to the former government recognize
the hazards and opportunities that lie ahead and are up to the challenges.
1. The Haitians have moved quickly to initiate the CARICOM proposal by forming
a tripartite commission, which, in turn, will appoint a group of elders to select a
new Prime Minister. That process must proceed quickly. Any delay in selecting a
new Prime Minister will perpetuate the current leadership vacuum and offer oppor-
tunities to dissident elements interested in perpetuating conflict and or seeking par-
tisan gains. Any remaining rebel forces must be urged to commit themselves to sup-
port the new government and to turn in their arms to police authorities.
2. The new PM must form a broad-based interim government of "national rec-
onciliation" that commits itself to abide by the Haitian Constitution in governing
and overseeing a transition to a newly elected democratic government. National rec-
onciliation must be more than a slogan, given the polarization of Haitian society en-
gendered by the last government. The interim government would be well advised
to call upon the advice and resources of international organizations that have fo-
cused on the strengthening of "civil society."
3. The interim government must honor the international commitments and obliga-
tions of the previous government. It also must appeal to the international commu-
nity, (a) to provide peacekeepers until a revamped police force can maintain public
order, (b) to continue humanitarian assistance programs and (c) to provide technical
and economic assistance in fields ranging from job creation to executive training.
4. The interim government would be well advised to open a public dialogue with
the Haitian people to keep them informed of government activities and plans and
to seek their support and cooperation. That in itself would be an innovative depar-
ture from the paternalistic tradition of the past, especially if it incorporated a feed-
back mechanism to help the government keep its finger on the public pulse. It
would be a good way to begin making public officials accountable.
The United States has been drawn into the current Haitian crisis as it has on
many occasions in the past. This time we should try to do it right. It will take dis-
cipline and subtlety; neither of which" comes in large supply during crises and espe-
cially in a presidential election year. Already much of what passes for debate in this
country has been finger pointing. That's the worst way to start, if we hope to play
a constructive role in helping Haiti.
We need the statesmen in both political parties to come forward and set a tone
of bipartisanship: the quicker the better. Otherwise, whatever positive contribution
we might make in the Haiti situation will not have the congressional support need-
ed, and we will find ourselves debating the wrong issues, sending the wrong signals
and ultimately working at cross purposes with the democratic forces in Haiti that
desperately need our mature counsel, support and assistance.
Assuming we can attain some degree of discipline and focus on our contributions
in Haiti, the policy should be one of nonobtrusive involvement. That would require
us to be deeply involved every step of the way as the new interim government orga-
nizes itself, sets priorities and begins implementing programs. We must insist that,
inter alia, it abides by the Haitian Constitution, is broad based, is conferring with
the public, is meeting its international obligations and begins early on to make
plans and seek assistance to hold national elections. Our technical and economic as-
sistance programs should be monitored closely, audited and reviewed regularly.
(Below find suggested areas of U.S. Government Assistance.)
Involvement at the level of intensity noted requires political and social skills of
a high order. The success of our involvement hinges in large measure on the quality
of our personnel engaged in the Haiti crisis.
It is easy to lap over into obtrusiveness when involvement is as intensive as rec-
ommended. It is one thing to insist that programs be implemented effectively, quite
another to be seen as dictating. Haitians are not alone in thinking that the United
States marches to the beat of its own drum, indifferent to the interests of people
in the Third World. To be effective in helping the new Haitian leadership find its
own way that stereotype must not be given credence. After all, the prime objective
in Haiti is to build a new political culture based on the rule of law, which encour-

ages greater citizen participation and attracts self confident and capable people to
enter public service. Big Brother will not get you there.
Leadership in calling donor conference for new Haitian Government
Continued leadership in Peacekeeping
Immediately unfreeze suspended assistance program funds
Support programs that build civil society and encourage other donor's contribu-
Support electoral preparation and encourage other donors to offer assistance
Initiate job-creation programs
Encourage IFIs to invest in infrastructure projects and ecology
Reinstitute police training program
Reopen program to build independent judiciary
Consider Haiti for inclusion in "Free Trade" agreements
Senator NELSON. Thank you, Ambassador.
Ambassador Dobbins, do you need to catch a plane?
Ambassador DOBBINS. No, no, I changed my plans. But thank
you very much, Senator.
Senator NELSON. Well, thank you.
Mr. Heinl.
Mr. HEINL. I thank the committee for the invitation to speak.
I 'was asked, in the committee's invitation, to ponder three
things. First of all, is this moment an opportunity for a fresh start
in Haitian-American relations? Second, can Haiti be, quote, turned
around, unquote? And, finally, what kind of help does Haiti need?
The current situation is an opportunity to change the nature of
our engagement with Haiti. But whether all parties will or can
avail themselves of it is very much an open question. For the good
of both countries, the cycle of paying attention to Haiti only when
a crisis is brewing or when American economic or geopolitical inter-
ests are perceived as being at stake, can and must be broken.
Haiti and its problems are problems of the hemisphere. Failure
on the part of those interested in Haiti to frame and implement
short-, medium-, and long-term policies will lead to growing dan-
gers in the Western Hemisphere from disease, ever-worsening envi-
ronmental degradation, violence, unchecked drug trafficking, and
overwhelming refugee outflows.
The United States, for its part, has to evolve towards Haiti a con-
sistent, long-term policy which will bring to bear our treasure and
influence in ways which will benefit both Haiti and the United
States. Our relationship need not be a zero-sum game. We can ad-
vocate policies that protect the interests of the United States and
its citizens without acting to the detriment of Haiti and its people.
The goodwill that characterized the Haitian reception of foreign
troops in 1994 is more muted and less widespread in 2004. The for-
eign community has a narrow window to convince Haiti's urban
masses that its intentions are benign.
Woodrow Wilson said of Mexico, "I will teach the Latin Ameri-
cans to elect good men." Much of this governessy attitude towards
Haiti still prevails in the international community. Indeed, even

the framing of the question (Can Haiti be turned around?) suggests
that Haiti is some sort of barge that can be towed hither or yon
with little reference to those most affected, the Haitians. Haitians
of all classes must have a sense of ownership of the process of re-
building their country and its institutions.
Key to everything will be security. Funds must be ensured for
prompt payment of salaries to judges, teachers, and police. Foreign
troops will be required in Haiti long enough to train and mentor
police, and to instill an ethos of independence, honesty, and profes-
sionalism. At least ten years will be required for this. Emergency
job creation for the unemployed urban masses will go far to lower
the temperature while longer-term solutions are implemented. In
this process, the Haitian Government will have to be held to far
stricter standards of accountability than heretofore.
Aid to Haiti falls into three categories: short, medium, and long
term. While Haiti's needs are great, its absorptive capacity, with
all due respect to Ambassador Pezzullo, is limited. Donor nations
need not equate quality or efficacy of aid programs with amounts
funded, particularly at the outset of this process.
What follows is a short list of some of the items that need to be
Short term: one, secure the country, so interrupted feeding pro-
grams can be resumed. Reduce the number of weapons in circula-
tion. Two, get emergency generating capacity in to assure stable
electricity supply in the major cities, particularly Port-au-Prince.
Several barges from Hydro Quebec anchored in Port-au-Prince har-
bor supplying current to Port-au-Prince's poor would buy time for
other reforms. Three, start or revive public-works programs to get
cash into the economy. Four, back-salary payments should be made
immediately to police, judges, teachers, and other public-sector em-
ployees. Five, freeze payments on all Haiti's international debt.
Most new aid should be structured as grants, rather than loans.
In the medium term, Haiti's medium-terms interests have long
been apparent. First, potable water programs. Second, harbor
dredging and rebuilding in provincial ports. Only by reviving the
moribund economies of the provinces will the flight to major urban
centers diminish. Three, funding of AIDS treatment and prevention
on the lines developed by Paul Farmer in the Plateau Central.
Also, nationwide campaigns against malaria and tuberculosis need
to be undertaken. Four, preferential U.S. tariffs for products made
in Haitian assembly plants. Five, reforestation. Six, rural elec-
trification and irrigation. Seven, regularization of land titles, and
a look at ways to encourage Haiti's diaspora to invest their talents
and money in the motherland.
In the long term, addressing all of the above issues will be so
much writing on water if the foreign community does not enable
Haitians to effect a sea change in the culture that has brought
them to this point. Writing in 1929, after 14 years of American oc-
cupation, the British Minister in Port-au-Prince observed the fail-
ure of American aid programs, "with their batteries of experts in
Buicks and promises of prosperity on the Illinois model." This has
been the fate of most foreign aid to Haiti. This may be one of the
last opportunities for Haiti and the international community to get
it right.

Thank you very much.
Senator Coleman [presiding]: Thank you, Mr. Heinl.
Dr. Maguire.
Dr. MAGUIRE. Yes, Mr. Chairman. Thank you very much for hav-
ing me here today.
I did submit a statement, which I would like put into the record,
please, and I'll summarize.
Senator COLEMAN. Without objection.
Dr. MAGUIRE. I've kind of been waiting 25 years to talk to you
guys. So here's the chance.
We've heard a lot about Secretary Powell's comments, back and
forth, on Haiti, and I would say that two weeks ago, one thing he
said is that he was disappointed in Mr. Aristide. And I believe we
are all very disappointed in Mr. Aristide. There was much to be
disappointed about.
But I think as we've heard today in some of the back and forth
that has occurred, we also need to express our disappointment in
the opposition to Mr. Aristide, for their intransigence, their failure
to engage over time, and their determined objective to broker their
way into power. I think it was quite shocking that they rejected
Secretary Powell's pleadings to come to the table, to accept the
CARICOM solution, and to avoid what has happened today.
In sum, I think we're not seeing, in the past years in Haiti, a
struggle over issues, ideas, and principles, but more a matter of
power struggle and a power grab. Hopefully, however, the process
that's underway now will lead Haiti to a new political future, with
fresh faces, and maybe some old faces that earn democratic creden-
I also think that Secretary Powell's disappointment should be ex-
tended to the policies and practices that were enacted on his watch,
especially over the past three years.
As I have outlined in this briefing paper of my Haiti program at
Trinity College, our policies toward Haiti have evolved from ones
of engagement to ones of estrangement, where we have been work-
ing assiduously to isolate the government, withhold resources from
it, and punish it. And, in so doing, we have been sacrificing our le-
verage and influence over the government.
I would echo a comment that I just heard on the panel here, that
governments do merit some respect, especially if they're democrat-
ically elected. Haiti is not going to be Switzerland overnight. We
have to accept that Haiti is going to have fits and starts and many
mistakes. And when we sacrifice our leverage and influence, we
turn our back on that government.
Concurrently, I think we've been seeing in Washington a parallel
presumptive policy working to strengthen the opposition,
emboldening it, and suggesting that there are signals from Wash-
ington that its zero-option policy had Washington support. This is
not my analysis alone. This analysis comes also from our former
ambassador in Port-au-Prince, who said, at his July 2003 speech to
the Haitian American Chamber of Commerce, that:

There's an incoherence in Haiti that has troubled me,
the incoherence of the way Washington's views are inter-
preted here. Those of you who know me will realize that
since I arrived here as President Clinton's ambassador,
and then President Bush's, I've always talked straight
about U.S. policy and what might and might not be new
policy directions. But there were many in Haiti who pre-
ferred not to listen to me, the President's representative,
but to their own friends in Washington, sirens of extre-
mism or revanchism on one hand, or apologists on the
other hand. They don't hold official positions. I call them
the chimere of Washington.
I think it's very important that we look into this. Who are these
chimere in Washington, and what were they doing, and what were
they saying, and what signals were they sending to Haiti? I think
we need to respect this concern that our ambassador had.
It seems to me that-over the years, we've seen a kind of gradual
strangulation of the Government of Haiti, pushing Mr. Aristide and
his government more and more into a corner, with predictable re-
sults. As your maneuvering space shrinks, sometimes you make
bad decisions, sometimes you strike out and harm yourself. And
with fewer and fewer resources, the government was left managing
I do disagree with Mr. Noriega, in the sense that we did cut off
assistance to the Government of Haiti. As I understand it, all we
have assisted has been the Haitian Coast Guard.
With fewer and fewer resources, the government was left man-
aging scarcity. And in the Haiti political reality, regardless of who
you are, this means managing power, and it means turning to the
We've seen, now, the departure of Mr. Aristide. I think the
phrase that comes to my mind right now is a pyrrhic victory. As
the country has descended into lawlessness, gunmen, revenge, and
the settling of scores throughout the countryside, the infrastructure
has also deteriorated. As bad as it was, it's gotten worse. We hear
about the humanitarian crisis that is emerging. I spoke yesterday
with Dr. Paul Farmer, and he has tremendous concerns about this,
and attacks that have occurred on his hospital in the Central Pla-
teau by the so-called rebels. We've seen the virtual Balkanization
of the country into competing gang fiefdoms, and they're all well-
armed. I'm very concerned that Haiti is vulnerable right now to be-
come much more engaged in narco-trafficking. We've heard in past
years that 9 to 13 percent of the cocaine that comes in to the U.S.
goes through Haiti. Yesterday, I saw a citation that it was 25 per-
I have five recommendations, but I'm just going to mention a
couple of them, because several have already been mentioned.
I would agree with the bipartisan approach, but I think one of
the things we need to do to make sure we have a bipartisan ap-
proach is to attend our own wink-and-nod tendency toward Haiti.
And if we're going to disarm the chimeres in Port-au-Prince and in
Haiti, I think, figuratively, we must disarm the chimeres of Wash-
ington, as well. We need to talk straight with Haiti.

I think, as well, in terms of the issue of disarmament, while I
applaud the initiative taken yesterday by the multi-national force
to go out and disarm, this is going to be very tough, because Haiti
is much better armed now than it was ten years ago, when there
were 21,000 troops and the Aristide government was asking for dis-
armament. It didn't happen then because our mandate was force
One thing I would point out, Haiti does not manufacture guns.
Not a single gun is manufactured in Haiti. They all have to come
from somewhere. Where do they come from? If we're going to dis-
arm, we also have to move to stop the illicit flow of guns into Haiti,
and there's just so much out there about the Dominican Republic
that I think we really do have to get to the bottom of this.
I'll just stop there, gentlemen, and close.
[The prepared statement of Dr. Maguire follows:]

Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for inviting me to speak before you and other members
of the subcommittee. I am happy to have this opportunity to share my insights and
analysis on Haiti. I have followed Haiti and Haiti-US policy issues for 25 years.
Over that time I have come to know the country both from the "bottom-up" through
work at the Inter-American Foundation, a U.S. government agency, where I held
responsibility for its grassroots development programs in Haiti, and from the "top
down" through work at the U.S. Department of State in the Bureau of Western
Hemisphere Affairs and scholarly activities at Johns Hopkins, Georgetown, and
Brown Universities. I continue my involvement with Haiti as the Director of the
Trinity College Haiti Program in Washington, DC, a program that has been sup-
ported by the Ford and the Rockefeller Foundations.
Today, in the streets of Port-au-Prince and throughout the Haitian countryside,
we have been seeing the kind of murder and mayhem that characterized the country
between 1991 and 1994, following a violent coup d'6tat carried out by Haiti's army,
leading to three years of brutal de facto military rule. Gunmen roam with impunity.
Civilians are fired upon by armed thugs and snipers. Bodies mysteriously appear,
some of them face down with hands bound and bullet holes in their backs. Ram-
paging mobs of civilians and erstwhile soldiers and members of paramilitary death
squads attack public and private property, looting, burning and destroying in a
practice that Haitians call dechoukaj, or uprooting. U.S. and other international
troops, hustled into Haiti to protect the lives of their nationals and to try to stabilize
this situation find themselves drawn increasingly into the middle of Haiti's muddled
environment of anger, frustration, and fear, as their mission "creeps" to include dis-
arming the multitudes of Haitians with weapons.
From the Central African Republic, Haiti's suddenly exiled President, Jean-
Bertrand Aristide, insists that his removal was a coercive one while, concurrently,
in Port-au-Prince a new, provisional President is sworn in under the watchful eyes
of ambassadors and envoys, and a new Prime Minister is named by a group of citi-
zens who now form a national political advisory board. All of this has this veteran
Haiti-watcher thinking, Mr. Chairman, that we are seeing a case of "deja vu all over
Two weeks ago, Secretary of State Cohn L. Powell stated that he had been "dis-
appointed" with Haiti's now-deposed President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Secretary
Powell is correct in this statement, as there is no doubt that Mr. Aristide provided
much to be disappointed about. I will not elaborate here, as Mr. Aristide's detractors
have already undertaken that task with much gusto.
I wonder, however, if Mr. Powell has also been disappointed in Haiti's self-pro-
claimed democratic opposition, a group of political and economic leaders who have
also given us much to criticize and regret. The single-minded intransigence of this
largely ad hoc. group toward achieving its one, unifying objective-the removal of
Mr. Aristide from office-has motivated it to behave rather undemocratically. Its

leaders failed to engage in true democratic process as measured by elections and by
negotiated solutions to political problems. Instead, particularly in recent months,
they have appeared to practice that deeply rooted Haitian political practice of giving
a "wink and a nod" to violence in the street if you believe it furthers your political
objectives, emulating, unfortunately, a strategy amply employed by Mr. Aristide in
recent years.
And, over the past three years, they have acted with a veto from an empty chair
at the negotiating table, repeatedly undermining or thwarting internationally-led at-
tempts to find a solution to Haiti's political crisis. This included their rejection in
late February of the urgings of Secretary Powell to accept the plan presented by
CARICOM to achieve a peaceful, mediated solution to Haiti's longstanding crisis
that would have permitted Haiti's elected President to serve out his term, while pro-
viding them with a shared role in the country's governance.
This failure of U.S. influence when push came to shove in late February is doubly
distressing since the personalities who comprise this opposition have been widely
perceived as allies-even sycophants-of Washington. Among these personalities are
individuals who have participated for years in an array of political strategy meet-
ings organized by the International Republican Institute using U.S. Government
funds, and who have repeatedly visited Washington over the past three years. And,
at least one of the highest profile leaders of this faction, Mr. Andre Apaid, is a U.S.
As I scan this political landscape, Mr. Chairman, I get a strong sense of deja vu
all over again, as self-styled and unelected political chiefs broker their way into
power. In their mind's eye, again taking a page from deeply rooted Haitian political
practice, the means justify the ends. And what are those ends? Allow me to state,
Mr. Chairman, that what we have been seeing in Haiti over the past years is not
a political struggle of competing issues, ideas, and principals. It is nothing more
than a struggle among the political class and its allies, and the now-unseated gov-
ernment and its allies to seize, and/or to hold on to, power.
Let us hope that the dust of confrontation and violence settles in Haiti and that
moderate, reasonable voices, with viable ideas, will emerge from among those strug-
gling for power, and that some true democratic credentials will begin to be earned.
Let us hope, also, that new democratic voices, less tainted by participation in the
tragic political confrontations of the past, will come forth to relieve the country of
its largely failed leadership on both sides of the current political equation. Hope-
fully, the process currently underway to lead Haiti through to new parliamentary
and then presidential elections will provide that opportunity.
In terms of disappointment, Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I
also wonder whether this sense of Mr. Powell has extended to those who have been
largely responsible for the conduct of U.S. policy toward Haiti since January 2001.
As I have outlined in Trinity College Haiti Program Briefing Paper Number 8, U.S.
Policy Toward Haiti: Engagement or Estrangement, published last November, over
the past ten years, U.S. policy toward Haiti has evolved from one where our govern-
ment was constructively engaged with the government of Haiti in an attempt to
nurture democratic institutions and democratic practice in this country trying to
find its way out of 200 years of bad and mostly authoritarian governance, to a policy
that worked to isolate the Haitian government, withhold resources from it, punish
it, and push it into a corner.
Concurrently, as we constantly chastised that government, our efforts focused
more and more exclusively on working with Haiti's opposition groups. In following
this path, we sacrificed carefully constructed leverage and influence with Haitian
elected political actors, many of whom are already pre-disposed to be distrustful of
the United States as a dominant force in Haitian political reality that has not al-
ways made choices that have worked toward the benefit of Haiti's people.
If I may, Mr. Chairman, I would like to submit Briefing Paper Number 8 as a
part of my written testimony since it elaborates this analysis in much greater detail
than I have an opportunity to do in this testimony today.
Not all in Washington abandoned that leverage and influence we worked to
achieve over many years. As I reminded the Honorable Cass Ballenger of North
Carolina, at a hearing on Haiti called by his subcommittee last week, in March
2001, I escorted to his office several high Haitian government officials who had trav-
eled to Washington only a month after the inauguration of Mr. Aristide to his sec-
ond term in office to participate in a symposium on Haiti at Trinity College. Among
them were Mr. Yvon Neptune, who at that time was the President of Haiti's Senate,
and Mr. Leslie Voltaire, then the Minister for Haitians Living Overseas and cur-

rently the government's representative on the new tripartite commission established
last week in Haiti. Also a part of the Haitian government delegation were two min-
isters who, even though members of the opposition, had accepted Mr. Aristide's invi-
tation to join his government's cabinet. One of these ministers was Mr. Marc Louis
Bazin, Mr. Aristide's principal opponent in the 1990 election who, subsequently,
briefly served as the Prime Minister of the 1991-1994 de facto military regime.
What better example could we have had of the potential for political reconciliation
in Haiti than Mr. Aristide and Mr. Bazin working together. Sadly, because Mr.
Bazin had rejected participation in the bitter opposition to Mr. Aristide (at that time
called the "Democratic Convergence"), his credentials as a member of the opposition
working within the Lavalas government were not accepted by Aristide's opponents
in Haiti and in Washington.
On that same day, I escorted this high level Haitian delegation to the office of
one of the members of this committee, Senator Dodd. Much to the credit of both Mr.
Ballenger and Senator Dodd, they were open to meeting these Haitian government
officials and engaging them in constructive conversation. And the Haitian officials
were anxious to engage them and others.
Sadly, Executive Branch officials in Washington reacted quite differently to this
March 2001 opportunity for dialogue. Not only did ranking officials choose not to
engage these Haitian government officials, but, in the run-up to the symposium,
they urged me not to invite them to Washington. This, Mr. Chairman, is my own
personal story of a golden opportunity the Bush administration lost to maintain and
strengthen U.S. influence and leverage in Haiti, and to assist Haiti emerge from its
dark political past. Surely, this is not the only time that this kind of opportunity
was lost.
Rather than taking advantage of this and similar opportunities, it seems to me
that our government was not only busy isolating Haiti s elected government, but,
through various intermediaries and political operatives in Washington, it was allow-
ing signals to travel to Port-au-Prince that emboldened the opposition and its "zero
option" policy of intransigence by suggesting that the opposition had Washington's
This is not my assessment alone. This concern that presumptive policy signals
were being sent to Port-au-Prince from Washington, and that those signals were
highly damaging to efforts to resolve what was, back then, a relatively reparable
political crisis, was shared by none other than the U.S. Ambassador to Haiti. In his
farewell address in Port-au-Prince last summer to HAMCHAM, the Haitian-Amer-
ican Chamber of Commerce, the career diplomat who headed our embassy in Haiti,
the Honorable Brian Dean Curran, reflected on Haiti's long-standing political crisis
There is an incoherence (in Haiti) that has troubled me: the incoherence
of the way Washington's views are interpreted here. Those of you who know
me will realize that since I arrived here as President Clinton's Ambassador
and then President Bush's, I have always talked straight about U.S. policy
and what might and might not be new policy directions. But there were
many in Haiti who preferred not to listen to me, the president's representa-
tive, but to their own friends in Washington, sirens of extremism or
revanchism on the one hand or apologists on the other. They don't hold offi-
cial positions. I call then the chimeres of Washington.
And who, pray tell, might these irregular actors be? I would suggest, Mr. Chair-
man, that this subcommittee takes steps to get to the bottom of this. It might begin
by heeding the supposition of the Washington Post that the International Repub-
lican Institute has played an important role in the "wink and nod" messages from
Washington sent to the opposition. In its February 19th edition, the Post editorial-
In particular, it (the administration) has declined to exercise its consider-
able leverage on the civilian opposition parties, some of which have been
supported by such U.S. groups as the International Republican Institute
and which have rejected any political solution short of Mr. Aristide's imme-
diate resignation.
In sum, Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that our policy-and practices-toward
Haiti in recent years have been driven, unfortunately, by a deeply rooted animosity
to one man-Jean-Bertrand Aristide-that has been held among a relatively small
but powerful group of actors in Washington. Policies rigorously enacted under the

auspices of this zealous group in order either to emasculate Mr. Aristide politically
or to force him out of office, as we are witnessing today, have put the country and
its citizens at grave risk, while concurrently creating potential spill-over effects both
in the Caribbean and on to our shores.
To achieve the narrow political goal of getting Mr. Aristide, the chimeres of Wash-
ington have, in essence, enacted policies that have devastated Haiti. What better
example can one identify of being willing to throw out the bathwater in order to
get the baby.
As I reflect on the result of these policies of isolation, non-engagement, constant
criticism and punitive action I get the sense of the gradual strangulation of an elect-
ed government. As the noose around its neck tightened, it was pushed increasingly
toward ill-advised and desperate acts. The suspension of international assistance
was a particularly key element of strangulation. The government of Mr. Aristide,
like all governments in this tragically poor and resource-starved country, was deeply
dependent on external assistance in order to enact government programs. During
his inaugural address of February 7, 2001, Mr. Aristide took a quite unusual-per-
haps even unprecedented-step for a Haitian President when he outlined a series
of social welfare, infrastructure development and investment goals of his govern-
ment, suggesting that his term in office be judged according to his ability to meet
these goals. These plans were derived from the Lavalas Family party's "White
Paper" for Haiti, an unusual attempt-for Haitian political parties-to set forth a
platform that directed itself toward the country's multitude of social, economic and
environmental problems.
Sadly, following the virtual complete suspension of bilateral and multilateral aid
to his government as a result of the May 2000 election's eight flawed senatorial vote
counts and the Haitian government's bewildering failure to address this issue, few
resources were available to the government to work toward these goals. As Mr.
Aristide and his government were pushed more and more into a corner, predictable
results emerged. With fewer and fewer resources to manage, the government was
left to manage scarcity and, became increasingly desperate and corrupt. And, in
Haiti's political reality, managing scarcity means managing power, with equally pre-
dictable results. Mr. Aristide, presiding over a resource starved government under
constant assault from political opponents both in and beyond Haiti, took to the
streets, aligning his government with impoverished urban youth-the now infamous
chimeres of Haiti-who, by way of organized gangs, served as a means of managing
the maintenance of power.
Mr. Chairman, when I was a boy growing up in the New Jersey suburbs in an
area that had just recently been farmland, I occasionally encountered a rabbit that
had found its way into my back yard that was enclosed with a chain link fence.
Sometimes, I attempted to catch the rabbit, gradually backing it into a corner of
the fence as what I perceived as the best strategy to do that. I never did manage
to catch one of those elusive critters, but I remember how the rabbits that I man-
aged to back into the corner of the fence became increasingly desperate as their ma-
neuvering space shrank. In fact, I recall vividly on one occasion how a panicked rab-
bit that I had edged into the corner acted with such desperation that bashed itself
against the fence, injuring itself in its attempts to elude my grasp. Aghast at the
blood streaming from the animal, I quickly backed away. This was the last time I
tried cornering a rabbit in order to capture it. It was not my goal to force self-in-
flicted damage.
I relate this story, Mr. Chairman, because I think of it when I reflect on what
has happened in Haiti over the past several years. As the government of Haiti was
increasingly backed into that corner, it acted more and more like that panicked rab-
bit of my youth, injuring itself in desperation. Ultimately, as its maneuvering space
shrank, the government, in its increasing desperation to escape the trap, inflicted
many wounds on itself. What a tragedy of huge proportions.
The departure of Mr. Aristide, at least for now, has been achieved. Those who
have sought it for quite some time are now rejoicing in their political victory. But
their victory is proving to be a Pyrrhic one as Haiti has descended deeper and deep-
er on the slippery slope of lawlessness. Revenge killing and settling scores-in Port-
au-Prince and elsewhere in the country-have become the new ordre du jour. Pris-
ons throughout the country have been emptied, reinforcing the unfortunate reality
of criminal impunity. Secondary cities, towns and villages across the land have be-
come the domain of gang leaders establishing fiefdoms in what is now a balkanized

country. And, with the descent into lawlessness comes the prospect of Haiti's emer-
gence as a kind of narco-trafficking free state, as the countryside's runways and
ports fall within the domain of the local warlords, many of whom already have a
history of involvement in drug trafficking.
The victory is Pyrrhic also, Mr. Chairman, because it was achieved through the
slow strangulation of Haiti's capacity to respond to the humanitarian, social and en-
vironmental challenges and crises before it. And, in recent weeks, we have seen in
particular a rash of significant damage to the country's already weak humanitarian
and development infrastructure, as roads and ports have been severely damaged
and destroyed, and public and private buildings looted and burned. This destruction
has included attacks by marauding armed rebels on such medical installations as
the highly-respected hospital in central Haiti operated by Dr. Paul Farmer's Part-
ners in Health organization, where two members of the staff have been murdered,
the hospital's only ambulance has been commandeered, and medical staff and pa-
tients have been constantly threatened by the bandits.
Perhaps the most Pyrrhic element of this victory, however, has been its achieve-
ment at the expense of the Haitian population's faith in democracy. This is illus-
trated most vividly by the enthusiastic welcome given by some to the return of the
gunmen. While there should be no doubt that this welcome has been fueled by a
realistic sense of self-preservation by those who do not have the guns, by the grati-
tude of those released from Haiti's jails and their families, and by former military
and paramilitary figures who have been waiting patiently for such an opening to
occur, this welcome is also fueled by another factor. Haiti's citizens are deeply dis-
appointed, indeed, disgusted, with the comportment of all of the country's political
leaders who, over the past decade, have been so intent on their own, personal strug-
gles to maintain or attain power that they have sacrificed their country. To coin a
phrase, Haiti's politicians have been fiddling while Rome has been burning.
This disenchantment with democracy is an enormously tragic and dangerous de-
velopment. Haitians have harbored "dreams of democracy" since the 1986 ouster of
the Duvalier dictatorship. Their dreams have repeatedly been turned into night-
mares. It is in everyone's interest in this room that we work together to deflect that
disenchantment and restore faith in the resolution of disputes through participation,
engagement, the peaceful mediation of differences, rule of law, and the rejection of
all forms of political intimidation, violence and recidivism.
So, where do we go from here?
I will leave to others the debate and the necessary investigation over the cir-
cumstances of Mr. Aristide's abrupt departure from Haiti on February 29th, 2004.
Surely, the removal-regardless of how it occurred-of a democratically-elected lead-
er prior to the completion of his term is a set-back to Haiti's democratic process and
a threat to other nations in the hemisphere; indeed around the world. Regardless
of whether or not Mr. Aristide is restored to the presidency to complete his term
of office ending on February 7, 2006, however, there are several steps we can take,
actions we can support, and principles that can guide us that will contribute toward
a sustained resolution of Haiti's seemingly unending internal and external political
Bipartisanship in Washington
First, from a Washington and U.S. perspective, we must forge a bi-partisan ap-
proach toward Haiti. Of course, this being Washington and ours being a democracy,
we will agree to disagree over certain specifics. But, even amid our disagreements,
we must be prepared to examine our role in Haiti's affairs in a more even-handed
manner that does not chose sides, stem from deeply rooted personal animosities, or
seek to profit from Haiti's misfortunes.
In this regard, it is of great necessity that the chimeres of Washington be removed
from any real or perceived role in the future of U.S. policy toward Haiti. We must
put an end to "wink and nod" messages coming out of Washington. These mes-
sages-and actions that reinforced them-have caused considerable damage not only
to Haiti, but also to the credibility of Washington's leadership on Haiti and around
the world. I would urge you, Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, to
examine the roles of these chimeres, who, as the U.S. Ambassador suggested, were
aiding and abetting Haiti's tragedies.
Specifically, I would urge you to clarify the validity of various allegations that
have been leveled at the International Republican Institute for its role in exacer-
bating and reinforcing an atmosphere of political intransigence and violence in
Haiti. I would urge you, also, to explore alleged links among Haiti's resurgent gun-


men once based in the Dominican Republic and drug trafficking, weapons smug-
gling, and money laundering.
Political Inclusion in Haiti
Second, I would urge us to support policies and practices that will reinforce the
notion of political inclusion in Haiti. Let us work-successfully this time-not to
play favorites, but rather to get all the legitimate political actors in Haiti under its
political tent. It is of vital importance that Haiti's once and future political actors
all participate in the governance of their country and accept the responsibilities that
come along with it. To this end, the framework offered by CARICOM that is now
moving forward is an excellent one. Acts of dechoukaj and political intimidation
aimed at politicians and their supporters, including appointed and elected officials
of the Aristide government and the Lavalas party, and the urgent flight from the
country of these political actors, is not.
Ending the Political Culture of "Winner Takes All"
Third, and directly related to the need to have all legitimate political actors gain
inclusion in governance, we must support steps to put an end to Haiti's tried and
true political practices of "winner takes all" and "loser undermines the winner." In
this regard, Haiti's electoral laws that prescribe a winner takes all approach toward
each and every elective office should be re-examined. In my view, Mr. Chairman,
this approach, particularly in a country that has had one dominant party (Fanmi
Lavalas-FL) competing with many smaller ones, and that may now have a weak-
ened FL competing with a newly fragmented political opposition, has only exacer-
bated polarization and confrontation. Some form of proportional national representa-
tion, perhaps in Haiti's Chamber of Deputies, would help to ensure broader political
participation. A party that captures, say, 10 percent of the votes nationwide, could
be awarded 10 percent of the seats in that parliamentary body. This would both
bring that element into the process and force upon it the responsibilities of govern-
Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle
Fourth, there is an immediate need to move against the armed thugs and convicts
who have been freed from prison, as well as against armed street gangs of all
stripes, and to reestablish some semblance of rule of law. In this regard, Haiti's ci-
vilian-led police will require immediate and long-term strengthening and support,
while the country's judicial system requires the same. The thugs must not find their
way into the police force. Putting this genie back into the bottle will be a difficult,
but necessary element not only to allow the country to move forward, but to provide
a needed push toward ending impunity. The return of the army and of the FRAPH
gunmen and criminals is in the best interests of only those particular individuals,
not of the Haiti, its citizens, and the international community.
In this regard, Mr. Chairman, the announcement made yesterday that inter-
national forces already in Haiti will actively undertake disarming of the Haitian
population is a welcome one. This task, of course, will be an elusive one, fraught
with problems and may even lead to spates of violence and bloodshed, but it is a
necessary one. It is quite unfortunate that disarmament did not take place in 1994/
95, when there were 21,000 troops in Haiti and the restored government was asking
for it. At that time, narrowly defined rules of engagement focused on force protec-
tion inhibited effective disarmament of Haiti's soldiers, paramilitary members and
others in the population with guns. Sadly, in the intervening 10 years, more weap-
ons have entered the country, making today's task-to be undertaken by 5,000
troops-a much more difficult one.
For effective disarming to occur, Mr. Chairman, and for Haiti not to become im-
mediately re-armed once it does, we must also pay attention to the sources of Haiti's
weapons. Not a single gun is manufactured in Haiti. They all must come from some-
where. In this regard, it is important that we get to the bottom of allegations that
illicitly acquired weapons have been flowing into Haiti from the neighboring Domin-
ican Republic, as well as "rebel commandos."
Stay The Course
Fifth, we need to be prepared to stick with Haiti over the long haul. Staying the
course will mean that our attention to Haiti can not be merely intense and short
term, as it was in 1994/95, and then leaving the country to its own devices, while
enacting partisan-driven policies in Washington that harmed gains that had been
made. In this regard, I wholeheartedly agree with the statement made yesterday by
UN Secretary General Kofi Annan that Haiti will require a decade (or even more)
of intense international community commitment in order to avoid the repeat of the
"band-aid" scenario of 10 years ago.

If the term nation-building gives some of this subcommittee a case of heartburn,
perhaps it would help to think of it another way-say, "nation-nurturing"-where
we provide active and sustained support to the non-governmental-and govern-
mental-bodies in Haiti that will develop the country and its required institutions.
In other words, we do not have to build Haiti, but we should have a long term com-
mitment to all Haitians to help them rebuild their own country.
Mr. Chairman, the tragic developments in Haiti, some of which are still unfolding,
are to some considerable extent the result of U.S. policies and practices that have
sacrificed the well-being of Haiti to achieve a narrow political goal-the removal of
one man from elected office. These policies and practices have not served Secretary
Powell; they have not served President Bush; they have not served the United
States Congress, they have not served the American people, and they have surely
not served the long-suffering people of Haiti.
Again, I thank you for this opportunity to share my thoughts and analysis with
you, and I stand ready to work with all of you to help improve the way the govern-
ment of the United States relates to and works with its Caribbean neighbor.
Thank you.

Inquiry into the size of a country, usually elicits a straight-forward answer. In the
case of Haiti, that answer, from a US point of reference, is generally something like,
"about the same size as the state of Maryland." The question of Haiti's size, how-
ever, when posed two decades ago to a wizened Haitian community leader, evoked
an intriguing, figurative answer. "Haiti," the old man stated, gesturing with his
hands and arms, "is like an accordion. Sometimes it is large and sometimes it is
small." 2
From the perspective of U.S. foreign policy, Haiti over the past 200 years has fit
this pattern of a metaphorical accordion: sometimes large and sometimes small.
And, without doubt, there have been times when the accordion's bellows have
opened very wide. If nothing else, geography-that is, Haiti's proximate location to
the U.S.-demands that American policy-makers watch their southern neighbor
closely and maintain at least a minimal engagement.
At times, American policy makers have watched Haiti with deep concern over the
impact of developments there on the U.S. Certainly this was the case in the after-
math of Haiti's independence in 1804, when American leaders, particularly in its
plantation South, feared that the Caribbean country's "virus of freedom" would
spread to the slave plantations in the Carolinas, Georgia, Maryland and Virginia.
Other times, American engagement in Haiti has evolved far beyond observation to
direct intervention, most notably during the 19-year U.S. military occupation of
1915 to 1934.
Had U.S. policy makers in the late 1980s and 1990s used the accordion metaphor,
they would have proclaimed its bellows to be wide-open. Great 'attention was paid
to Haiti in the period leading up to and following the demise of the Duvalier family
dictatorship in 1986, and then again in the period following the 1990 presidential
election of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, his subsequent removal from office in 1991 as
a result of a violent military coup d'6tat, and his later restoration to office as a re-
sult of a UN-sanctioned and U.S.-led military intervention. Today, Haiti's geo-
graphical proximity, a variety of developments there linked to ongoing U.S. policy
interests, and the presence in the United States of a large and growing Haitian-born
and Haitian-American population combine to keep the bellows of that metaphorical
accordion open.
As much as U.S. officials and policy makers at times may have wanted those bel-
lows to close tightly so Haiti would "just go away," this simply does not happen.
And it will not happen short of a highly improbable geological episode that will ei-
ther physically displace, or submerge, the island that Haiti shares with the Domini-
can Republic!

'A publication of the Haiti Program, a unit of Programs in International Affairs at Trinity
College, Washington, DC.
2"Haiti: Dreams of Democracy," 1987, a documentary film produced by Jonathan Demme.

The exact nature of the engagement the U.S. maintains with Haiti, and the rela-
tionships it spawns, has varied over time since 1804 and among differing sets of ac-
tors. Looking at the broad sweep of the U.S.-Haiti relationship over the past two
hundred years, however, the New York-based National Coalition for Haitian Rights
(NCHR) has concluded that the hemisphere's two oldest republics "share a long, sor-
did love-hate relationship," adding that "unfortunately, the last three years have fit
tragically into that pattern."3
Before exploring the nature of the U.S. relationship with Haiti over the past three
years it is useful to reflect on contemporary U.S. policy maker's views of that coun-
try as both a foreign and a domestic policy issue, particularly given its proximity
to U.S. shores. A key underlying factor of this hybrid policy focus is migration, a
phenomenon that bridges both foreign and domestic issues and that has been char-
acterized by at least one U.S. diplomat as the "third rail" of U.S.-Haiti policy. And,
as those who ride mass transit systems such as the Washington, D.C. Metrorail
know, the third rail is the hot one that threatens to burn those who touch it.
Since the late 1970's brought the first significant wave of Haitian boatpeople onto
the beaches of South Florida, migration has been a hot rail of U.S.-Haiti policy. To
keep from being burned, a succession of administrations-from that of Ronald
Reagan, through those of George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, to the current admin-
istration of George W. Bush-viewed Haitians fleeing by boat as unwelcome eco-
nomic migrants and not political refugees. Accordingly, each developed immigra-
tion-and interdiction-policies aimed specifically at keeping Haitians in Haiti, or
sending them back.4
Today, the specter of Haitian boatpeople arriving on the beaches of South Florida
puts fear not only in the minds of policy makers, but also in the hearts of politicians
seeking either elective office in Florida or the American presidency. As dem-
onstrated in November 2000, electoral victory in Florida is a political prize that
hangs by a thread. How Floridians react at the ballot box to issues surrounding Hai-
tian boatpeople, including policies in Washington toward Haiti that may be per-
ceived as either provoking their outpouring or keeping them in Haiti, could be the
difference between electoral victory or defeat-in Florida and, by extension, in a
Presidential race.5 To this end, issues linked to Haitian boatpeople have received
unrelentingly tough responses from the current Bush administration, which has
even associated the arrival of illegal Haitian migrants with U.S. terrorism vulner-
ability.6 In view of the weight of Florida in American electoral politics and of the
heat generated by Haitian migration over the past four presidential administra-
tions, it is easy to understand why migration, in terms of U.S.-Haiti policy, is
viewed in Washington as a hot rail issue.7
For the Clinton administration, neighboring Haiti was certainly a wide-open ac-
cordion, receiving attention highly disproportionate to its size and to other global

3"Yon Sel Dwet Pa Manje Kalalou: Haiti on the Eve of its Bicentennial," National Coalition
for Haitian Rights, Policy Report September 2003, p. 34.
4 For an overview of the evolution of U.S. immigration policy toward Haiti see "Haitian Migra-
tion to the U.S.: Issues and Legislation," Ruth Ellen Wasem, Congressional Research Service
(CRS) Issue Brief, February 28, 1992. See also, "Haiti and Asylum Seekers: A Chronology of
Major Events," Ruth Ellen Wasem, CRS Report for Congress, June 23, 1994.
6 In regards to the fragility of Florida's political prize, the growing population of naturalized
Haitian-Americans in South Florida-and the extent of its participation at the ballot box-is po-
tentially key as an electoral "swing vote" in the Sunshine State. According to 2000 U.S. Census
data, the number of Haitians residing in Florida is 228,949, a 117 percent increase since the
1990 census. ("Newcomers from around world set up shop in Broward," Fort Lauderdale Sun-
Sentinel. January 12, 2003.)
6 The tough response of the Bush administration to Haitian boatpeople was demonstrated in
October 2002 with the detention and subsequent removal of the 211 Haitians who washed up
near Miami Beach (a handful are still in detention). The administration has justified this tough
and ongoing response, at least in part, by linking Haitian boatpeople with the illicit arrival of
foreign terrorists on U.S. soil. For a discussion of how Haitian boatpeople have been linked with
terrorism vulnerability, see, "The War Comes Back Home: Can John Ashcroft fight terrorism on
our shores without injuring our freedoms?" Richard Lacayo, Time, May 4, 2003. For a discussion
of Haitian boatpeople policy options see, "Next Steps for U.S. Policy Toward Haiti," Robert L.
Bach and Robert Maguire, November 6, 2002, posted at http://www.trinitydc.edu/academics/
7 Given that the first significant wave of Haitian migrants arriving by boat on U.S. shores
actually occurred toward the end of the Carter administration, an argument can be made that
five successive administrations have been seized by the issue.

issues. To appreciate how large an issue Haiti was for that administration, think
back to such developments as:
the efforts-and ultimate success-of Clinton to rally international support
around United Nations Resolution 940 that sanctioned the U.S.-led multi-
national military intervention in 1994 to displace an authoritarian military re-
gime and restore democratically-elected government;
the creation within the U.S. Department of State of the ambassadorial level
post of Special Haiti Coodinator, and the post-intervention shuttle diplomacy
between Washington and Port-au-Prince of such senior officials as the U.S. Na-
tional Security Advisor, and;
the visit to Haiti by President Clinton in 1995, the first of a sitting U.S. Presi-
dent since that of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1934.8
This attention to Haiti underscores not just the country's dominance as a policy
issue, but also that the approach toward Haiti under Clinton was one of direct, and
sustained, engagement at the highest levels of the U.S. government.
The Democratic administration's high level executive branch engagement did not
play well with everyone in Washington, especially a number of key elected officials
in the U.S. Congress who sat on the other side of the political aisle and their allies
in such think tanks and political advocacy organizations in the nation's capital as
the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Heritage Foundation, and
the International Republican Institute for International Affairs. While some were
simply critical of the disproportionate attention bestowed upon Haiti by the admin-
istration vis-a-vis other global hot spots, others took issue with the administration's
approach to Haiti's problems.
These latter critics received a boost when the political balance of power in Wash-
ington shifted following the November 1994 off-year congressional elections that
brought control of the U.S. House of Representatives to Republican lawmakers.
Coming less than two months after Clinton's successful efforts to restore elective
government to the coup-ravaged Caribbean country, the shift of political power in
Washington provided an enlarged platform for critics to attack the administration's
Haiti foreign policy "success" and to place constraints on follow-up actions. Those
leading the charge against President Clinton and his Haiti policy tended also to be
relentlessly critical of the highest profile beneficiary of that policy: Jean-Bertrand
Verbal criticism evolved into congressional action aimed at constraining, stalling,
or undermining Clinton's Haiti policy initiatives. One such action was the passage
of the Dole Amendment, which set stringent conditions on the release of aid to the
Haitian government.9 Combined with continued unsettled conditions in Haiti and
reports of such post-intervention concerns as questionable legislative elections, epi-
sodic incidents of politically-linked street violence, increased drug trafficking, and
delays in economic privatization, congressional actions eventually had the effect of
limiting U.S. assistance to the Haitian government, including aid to support the
critically important, yet exceedingly fragile, newly formed Haitian National Police.
Following the controversial vote-counts that accompanied Haiti's May 2000 legis-
lative and municipal elections, there was little prospect for the Clinton administra-
tion to argue successfully before Congress for the continuation of direct bilateral as-
sistance. The failure of Haitian officials to respond to and quickly resolve the 2000
election controversy added strength to those critical of the administration's policy
and took the wind from the sails of perplexed policy makers.10
Republican-led legislative branch efforts to constrain the Clinton administration's
engagement with Haiti turned out to be a type of preseason practice in view of the
outcome of the November 2000 U.S. presidential election. Following the January
2001 transition to the administration of President George W. Bush, some individ-
uals who had been highly critical of the Clinton administration's Haiti policy moved
from legislative, advocacy organization and think tank positions into executive
branch posts with varying degrees of responsibility over policy creation and over-

8Roosevelt visited Cap Haitien in July 1934, a month prior to the end of the U.S. Occupation
of Haiti.
9 Section 583 of P.L. 104-107, the Dole Amendment, became law on January 26, 1996. It "pro-
hibited assistance to the Government of Haiti unless the President reported to Congress that
the Haitian government was conducting thorough investigations of political and extrajudicial
killings and cooperating with U.S. authorities in this respect." See, statement of Alexander F.
Watson, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, House of Representatives Ap-
propriations Committee, March 21, 1996.
1 For an analysis of the May 2000 elections see, Robert Maguire, "Haiti's Political Gridlock,"
Journal of Haitian Studies, Vol. 8 (2), Fall 2002, pp. 30-42.

sight. Others who remained in influential legislative, advocacy and think tank jobs
experienced heightened access to, and consideration from, executive branch policy
In early 2001, the U.S. approach toward Haiti began to move in a different direc-
tion. The new administration began its tenure by stating that the "Eight Steps to
Address the Post-2000 Election Political Crisis"-an agreement hammered out in
December 2000 by then-former National Security Advisor Anthony Lake during his
last "shuttle diplomacy" mission of the Clinton administration-was "an appropriate
road map to get started." 11 The administration then began to scale back direct en-
gagement with the Haitian government, abandoning the position of Special Haiti
Coordinator in the State Department and removing such senior officials as the U.S.
National Security Advisor from day-to-day involvement with Haiti.
With the discontinuance of high level, direct engagement from Washington, the
U.S. Embassy in Port-au-Prince assumed the principal role for direct contact with
the Haitian government. Concurrently, in Washington, Bush policy makers, while
maintaining support of the diplomatic efforts of the Organization of American States
to resolve the political crisis in Haiti that flowed out of the flawed 2000 elections,
intensified their use of the OAS as a forum for strenuously voicing concerns about
the Haitian government. Voicing those concerns at the OAS for the administration
was a new U.S. Representative to the hemispheric organization, appointed to this
post from the staff of Republican Senator Jesse Helms, one of the most vociferous
critics of the Clinton Haiti policy.12
By mid-2001, a definitive trend had emerged. Washington's relations with Haiti
had moved away from the direct engagement/dialogue approach of the Clinton ad-
ministration toward less direct engagement through the embassy in Port-au-Prince
and the OAS. Concurrently, several Washington-based think tanks and nongovern-
mental organizations with active ties to Republican leaders in the White House and
on Capitol Hill, most notably the International Republican Institute for Inter-
national Affairs (IRI), emerged as stronger voices addressing U.S.-Haiti policy
As these operational shifts took hold, other voices, critical of the new direction of
Haiti policy, spoke out. One such voice, the aforementioned NCHR, has character-
ized the Bush administration policy toward Haiti over the past three years as "a
policy of willful neglect and containment, a policy driven by an almost pathological
aversion to direct engagement." 13 This apparent aversion to direct engagement cre-
ated a policy dynamic in Washington that appears to be taken from a page in the
book of Haitian political strategy.
In the late nineteenth century, when successive, regionally-based, Afro-Haitian
military chieftains managed to gain power in Port-au-Prince, the capital city's own,
mixed-race (mulatre) economic and political leaders "easily manipulated their dark-
skinned puppets," a political strategy "Haitian historians have labeled ... politique
de doublure (government by understudies)." These alliances, albeit often short-lived,
between the puppets and the urban elites ensured a mutually advantageous consoli-
dation of political and economic power.14
In view of recent U.S.-Haiti policy trends, a twenty-first century politique de
doublure has emerged, only this time based principally in Washington, not in Port-
au-Prince. Two somewhat distinct sets of understudies have been active over the
past three years. One set of Washington-based U.S.-Haiti policy doublure is those
whose voices are stridently critical of the Haitian government and supportive of its
political rivals. These understudies, with apparent connections to the Bush adminis-
tration and influential Republicans in the U.S. Congress, are listened to carefully,
particularly in Port-au-Prince, where they are viewed as having significant influence
over U.S. policy and as speaking for the administration.
One Washington-based understudy that has gained particular prominence in this
regard is the aforementioned International Republican Institute (IRI). The organiza-
tion's determined, ongoing efforts to organize and support political opposition to the
Aristide government have raised eyebrows in Washington, particularly among some

11Testimony of Sec. Powell, Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Secretary of State
Nomination, Part II, January 17, 2001.
12Roger Noriega was appointed U.S. Ambassador to the OAS in 2001, a post he held until
his confirmation as U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs in July
3 Op. cit., "Yon S6I Dwht"
14Haiti: State Against Nation, The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism, Michel-Rolph Trouillot
(Monthly Review Press: New York, 1990), p. 76.


members of Congress on the Democrat side of the aisle who have expressed concerns
about the Bush administration's policy toward Haiti.15
The second set of understudies in Washington's world of Haitian doublure is those
who are less critical of the government in Haiti and less supportive of that govern-
ment's opponents. Among these understudies are eight U.S.-based consulting firms,
or lobbyists, who, during the last six months of 2002, received total representation
fees in excess of $1 million from the Government of Haiti. Their fees, tracked as
part of the Foreign Agent Registration Act (FARA), are a matter of public record.
Fees and funds exchanged between the first set of understudies and their associates
in Haiti, however, are not a matter of public record.16
This second set of voices, although not speaking from positions of power within
or aligned to the executive branch and therefore not generally viewed as successfully
influencing administration policy, contributes to a cacophony on Haiti that exists in
the U.S. capital and that bounces along a north to south axis between Washington
and Port-au-Prince. Characteristic of this cacophony is limited direct dialogue be-
tween policy protagonists and the tendency of various players-in Washington and
in Port-au-Prince-to speak at each other, not with each other.
The emergence of Washington's own brand of politique dedoublure has been noted
with considerable dismay recently by a U.S. Ambassador to Haiti. In July 2003, in
Port-au-Prince, during a farewell address to the Haitian-American Chamber of Com-
merce (HAMCHAM), the American envoy reflected on Haiti's longstanding political
crisis, stating, "There is an incoherence (in Haiti) that has troubled me: the incoher-
ence of the way Washington's views are interpreted here. Those of you who know
me will realize that since I arrived here as President Clinton's Ambassador and
then President Bush's, I have always talked straight about U.S. policy and what
might and might not be new policy directions. But there were many in Haiti who
preferred not to listen to me, the President's representative, but to their own friends
in Washington, sirens of extremism or revanchism on the one hand or apologists on
the other. They don't hold official positions. I call them the chimeres of Washington
... When you want to understand U.S. policy, you will listen to my successor, an
experienced and coherent career diplomat, and not to the chimeres." 17
The Ambassador's comments reinforce the supposition that U.S. engagement with
Haiti over the past three years increasingly has become the domain of diverse
Washington-based understudies. They also suggest that the answer to the engage-
ment-or-estrangement paradigm posed in the title of this essay is neither one nor
the other. Rather, U.S. policy toward Haiti over the past three years, viewed as part
of a continuum of a long term, sordid love-hate relationship, has devolved into a
particular admixture of "estranged engagement."
Following his reflections on Washington's chimeres the U.S. envoy to Haiti sum-
marized his country's current policy orientation, "(L)et me be clear and coherent
about U.S. policy toward Haiti. The United States accepts President Aristide as the
constitutional president of Haiti for his term of office ending in 2006. We believe
the legislative and territorial elections of May 2000 were seriously flawed and that
the government of Haiti bears the principal responsibility for rectifying them. We
strongly supported OAS efforts to bring about a negotiated compromise between the
parties leading to new elections ... We continue to support (OAS) Resolution 822
A more complete enunciation of Bush administration policy toward Haiti was
made in mid-2002 in a speech delivered in Washington by the State Department's
then-Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State. "Our objective in Haiti is clear,"
the official stated. "We desire a fully democratic Haiti-one that is more prosperous

1 See, for example, the exchange between Mr. Noriega and Senator Christopher Dodd (D-CT),
"Hearing of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, The Nomination of Roger Noriega to be
Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs," May 1, 2003.
16 p. cit., "Yon Sel Dwet," The NCHR notes that while it is possible to ascertain the amounts
paid to Washington-based agents of the Haitian government on account of FARA regulations,
it is not possible to ascertain the amount of support from Washington-and the IRI in par-
ticular-to opposition groups in Haiti (pp. 6 & 7).
17"Reflections," Brian Dean Curran, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, mid-July 2003 (unpublished). In
Haiti, Chimeres are partisan political street activists prone to taking extreme measures, includ-
ing violence, to represent their viewpoints.
"Ibid. OAS Permanent Council Resolution 822, "Support for Strengthening Democracy in
Haiti," was passed on September 4, 2002.

and more respectful of human rights. With a robust democracy, the Haitian people
will enjoy a better standard of living."19
The State Department official then elaborated that "our Haiti policy rests on four
pillars, all equally important (author's emphasis). We seek to:
"Support efforts to strengthen democracy and improve respect for human rights;
"Provide humanitarian assistance to the most vulnerable Haitians, and actively
promote sustainable economic development;
"Discourage illegal migration, which threatens maritime safety and the lives of
those who risk dangerous sea travel; and
"Stem the flow of illegal drugs through Haiti to the U.S."
Are these four policy pillars really equal? An answer to this question is suggested
by the NCHR in its recent report. "It is clear," analyzes the human rights organiza-
tion, "that, while concerned with the political gridlock and subsequent deterioration
of human rights in Haiti, the U.S.'s priorities-as judged by the areas in which it
has actually poured resources and taken concrete steps to address the problem-are
narco-trafficking and refugee flight by boat." The United States, continues the
NCHR assessment, "is quietly preparing for a potential implosion (in Haiti). In addi-
tion to making plans to build a proverbial fence around the country, in an effort
to avoid a humanitarian disaster, the U.S. has also increased its emergency food aid
program to the country." 20
Comments from U.S. government officials support this conclusion. The State De-
partment official cited above acknowledged that "mitigating humanitarian distress
is among our immediate priorities."21 The former American envoy to Haiti acknowl-
edged an impending Haitian humanitarian crisis, linking it directly to migration,
that hot rail of U.S.-Haiti relations. "In the United States," he elaborated, "we also
see the crisis in terms of a steadily increasing outward flow of illegal migrants." In
response to this crisis and the subsequent migratory flow, he told his audience in
Port-au-Prince that, "(t)he United States this year has increased its assistance to
Haiti to $70 million. The traditional migrant source zones will be particularly tar-
geted for assistance."
In view of the current U.S. approach of less-than-direct engagement with the gov-
ernment of Haiti, at issue is how this aid is delivered. The U.S. Ambassador ad-
dressed this topic in his Port-au-Prince speech when he reminded his audience, "As
you know our assistance program in Haiti reflects our ongoing unwillingness to deal
directly with the government for political reasons. U.S. assistance is delivered to the
people of Haiti through NGOs and the private sector."22 In his speech in Wash-
ington, the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere
Affairs also addressed the issue of how the United States delivers humanitarian as-
sistance to Haiti, stating that the U.S. chooses "to channel our assistance to the
Haitian people through international and local non-governmental organizations.23
Several aid-related developments, however, appear to contradict this apparent ap-
proach of engagement with the people of Haiti accompanied by estrangement from
their government, and to reinforce the supposition that all policy pillars are not cre-
ated equally. The first of these developments, direct U.S. bilateral support of the
Haitian Coast Guard, also suggests that U.S. assistance is even more strongly
linked to the migration issue than alluded to by the U.S. Ambassador in his Port-
au-Prince speech. Aid channeled to this Haitian government entity not only
strengthens its ability to curtail migrant flows but also reinforces its ability to en-
gage in surveillance and pursuit of drug traffickers.24
Second, through its support of OAS Resolution 822, the U.S. has cast its vote to
de-link Haiti's political crisis from the suspension of direct, multilateral funding of
the Haitian government. Although the U.S. maintains that its bilateral aid is not
channeled through the Haitian government, through its support of OAS Res. 822,
it now supports the resumption of multilateral assistance to that government by
way of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the World Bank, both of
which are heavily dependent on U.S. government funding. Or, as stated by the U.S.
Ambassador in Port-au Prince, "(W)e are encouraging the IDB to be prepared to

19"U.S. Haiti Policy: Remarks by Ambassador Lino Guitierrez, Principal Deputy Assistant
Secretary of State," Dinner Discussion, Inter-American Dialogue Conference "Haiti and Develop-
ment Assistance," Washington, DC, May 22, 2002.
20 Op. cit., "Yon Sel Dwet," pp. 34-35
21 Op. cit. "U.S.-Haiti Policy"
22 Op. cit., "Reflections"
23 Op. cit. "U.S. Haiti Policy"
24 Op. cit., "Yon Sel Dwet," p. 34

move quickly, but appropriately, as soon as arrears are paid. The World Bank
should not be far behind."25
In recent months, several other developments have further complicated the pic-
ture of "estranged engagement" sketched out above. Altogether, they may be indic-
ative of a gradual shift of the Bush administration away from understudies and
chimeres toward more direct engagement with its Haitian counterparts.
One development relates to the important policy pillar of narco-trafficking. In a
somewhat surprising move last June, the Aristide government arrested and expelled
the alleged, notorious Haitian drug kingpin, Jacques Ketant. Then, in mid-October,
Haitian authorities followed with the arrest and expulsion of another notorious drug
kingpin, Eliobert Jasme, a.k.a. ED1, a prominent Port-au-Prince businessman.26
Both Ketant and Jasme are in U.S. custody in South Florida. Ketant, according to
one official, is "singing like a bird." Which tunes, exactly, he is singing, are yet to
be revealed. The fact that Mr. Ketant is chirping loudly, however, poses considerable
risk to President Aristide and his government, particularly if the supposed drug
kingpin alleges, as many of his political detractors already have, that neither Presi-
dent Aristide nor his government have clean hands insofar as Haitian drug traf-
ficking and the riches it brings are concerned.
Speculation abounds in Washington and Port-au-Prince as to why Haitian au-
thorities have moved when they did to arrest and expel two notorious drug traf-
fickers that the U.S. has requested for some time. Given the great importance of
action against drug trafficking as a key U.S. interest in Haiti, much of that specula-
tion revolves around the question of whether the government of Haiti is giving the
U.S. something of great importance to set the stage for receiving something in re-
turn. Might that something be a reduction of U.S. political heat on President
Aristide and his administration, particularly in so far as it relates to allegations of
government collusion with drug traffickers, accompanied by more resolute support
from Washington of the Aristide government's stated intentions to take steps to re-
solve, at long last, the controversial results of the 2000 legislative elections? In addi-
tion to lowering the political heat, one must ask, of course, whether or not any quid
pro quo might also have something to do with lowering the heat along the dreaded
third rail of migration, especially as U.S. elections appear just over the horizon.
Concurrent with movement by the Government of Haiti on the narco-trafficking
front, are developments on the policy front linked to the arrival of Washington's new
envoy to Haiti. 27 In public statements and, reportedly, during a September 19 pri-
vate meeting with President Aristide, Washington's ambassador has enunciated sev-
eral key components of the U.S. stance vis-a-vis the current Haitian government,
along with obstacles toward heightened U.S.-Haiti political cooperation. Specifically,
the U.S. Ambassador has reiterated the legitimacy of Aristide's February 7, 2001
to February 7, 2006 term of office, while calling firmly for there to be no change
vis-a-vis the Haitian constitutional parameters that govern presidential terms in of-
fice. Also, the envoy has identified U.S. administrative and security concerns regard-
ing legislative elections in 2004, setting forth key steps to address them.28
Another recent development is linked to the involvement in Haiti of a well-re-
spected and prestigious American diplomat. In the June meeting of the OAS Gen-
eral Assembly in Santiago, Chile, U.S. Secretary of State Powell suggested that if
tangible progress had not been made soon by the Government of Haiti toward the

25 Op. cit., "Reflections" The Government of Haiti paid $32 million in arrears to the IDB in
July, thus opening the door for about $200 million in loans from that organization. In early Oc-
tober, the World Bank's private sector financing unit, the International Finance Corporation
(IFC), approved a $20 million loan for investment in a trade free zone near the Dominican Re-
public border, the bank's first loan to Haiti since 1998. ("World Bank arm OKs first loan to Haiti
since 1998," Anna Willard, Reuters, October 10, 2003.)
26"Haiti hands accused drug trafficker to U.S.," Reuters, October 16, 2003. in between the ar-
rest and expulsion of Kettant and Jasme, the Government of Haiti arrested and expelled two
other high profile drug traffickers, Eddy Aurelien and Carlos Ovalle (a Columbian resident of
Haiti). They, also, are in the hands of U.S. authorities.
27Ambassador James B. Foley arrived in Port-au-Prince in mid-September, 2003.
28 Key issues addressed by Ambassador Foley during his Sept. 19 meeting with President
Aristide, summarized in an article in Haiti's LeMonde newspaper, included changes to strength-
en the objective electoral oversight capacity of the Haitian National Police, improved election
security vis-a-vis steps toward disarmament of the civil population (i.e. "popular organizations"),
and the constitution of the long-awaited Provisional Electoral Commission required to oversee
elections. The security issue included specific concern regarding fugitive gang-leader Amiot
Metayer. Metayer was found murdered in late September. (See "Un certain 'plan americain'
dononce mais deja en marche" Haiti en Marche, 15 au 21 Octobre 2003, XVII (37).

achievement of steps set forth in OAS Resolution 822, an OAS re-assessment of the
situation should occur.29 As a result, Terence Todman, a retired U.S. diplomat, and
only one of a handful of Americans who hold the penultimate Foreign Service Offi-
cer rank of Career Ambassador, has been present in Haiti frequently since August
of this year. Mr. Todman, who is also a native of the U.S. Virgin Islands, is working
under the auspices of the Secretary General of the OAS.
Whether the designation to the OAS of this prestigious U.S. diplomat in response
to the U.S. Secretary of State's recommendation represents a shift in the Bush ad-
ministration from its understudy orientation toward more direct engagement is an-
other matter for speculation. While few in Washington believe that there will be a
return to the high-ranking Washington/Port-au-Prince shuttle diplomacy of the pre-
vious administration, there is little doubt that this involvement of a senior Amer-
ican diplomat represents a modified policy approach. One indication of the potential
impact of the retired diplomat's engagement emanates from Port-au-Prince, where
his visits have been compared in significance with that in 1978 of then-U.S. Ambas-
sador to the UN Andrew Young. Young's visit resulted in important, albeit tem-
porary, gains in the respect of human rights during the Jean-Claude Duvalier re-
gime. Hope runs strong among at least some Haitians that this new U.S.-rec-
ommended initiative will be instrumental in breaking the seemingly endless polit-
ical gridlock that is choking their country.30
As Washington and Port-au-Prince await the incorporation of Special Envoy
Todman's findings and recommendations into upcoming reports of the OAS Sec-
retary General, speculation abounds that the perspective of the West Indian native
and senior U.S. diplomat may be inclined toward breaking that gridlock through in-
creased engagement with a President Aristide and Haitian government that will
more robustly address U.S. concerns. That engagement would be paralleled by less
U.S. patience with the "zero option" political delaying tactics of Aristide's under-
study-influenced opponents. Should this be the case, the currently stalled OAS dip-
lomatic initiatives toward easing Haiti's political crisis, as written into Resolution
822, may begin to move forward.
In reference to the tenor and direction of current U.S.-Haiti relations, the NCHR
suggests that it is strikingly apt to consider the axiom that "an ounce of prevention
is worth a pound of cure." 31 In the long run, a policy of estranged engagement that
heightens the risk of implosion and humanitarian crisis in Haiti is in no one's ra-
tional interests. All this approach has accomplished is to make things worse for all
involved, especially ordinary citizens in Haiti who are already suffering tremen-
dously not just from unmet expectations, but from increased violence, insecurity,
and deprivation.
In spite of all its faults and blemishes, "Haiti," the NCHR points out, "is not near-
ly as much of a Pandora"s Box as some of the world's other hot spots. Effective, re-
spectful diplomatic engagement in Haiti," the organization states, "does not dictate
a protracted, prohibitively costly "nation-building" exercise for the U.S.32
In view of the "ineffective ... utter failure over the past three years" of the U.S.
policy of estranged engagement "to compel positive change in Haiti,"33 time is over-
due for Washington to reassess its approach toward Haiti. Developments such as
U.S. support through OAS Res. 822 of the de-linking of economic aid from the polit-
ical crisis, the engagement with the OAS of Ambassador Terence Todman, the ar-
rest and hand-off of drug traffickers, the reiteration by the new U.S. ambassador
of the legitimacy of President Aristide, and-not mentioned previously-indications
of renewed U.S. consideration to complement the current OAS effort to assist and
strengthen the Haitian National Police, all point in this direction.34
Experience as a child and a parent, a student and a teacher, and a worker and
a supervisor have all indicated to this writer that positive feedback and positive re-
inforcement are a much more effective means of getting something done-and done
well-than are negative steps that result in estrangement. In that regard, a policy

29"U.S. Commits Another $1 Million to OAS Efforts in Haiti-Colin Powell," OAS Press state-
ment GA-09-03, June 9, 2003.
30"Nouvelle configuration politico-electorate," in Haiti en Marche, XVII (30), 27 Aout, 2003.
31 Op. cit. "Yon Sel Dwet," p. 35
32Ibid, p. 36
33Ibid, p. 35
34 For an assessment of lessons learned in the creation of the Haitian National Police force,
see, "Building the Haitian National Police: A Retrospective and Prospective View," Janice M.
Stromsem and Joseph Trincellito, Trinity College Haiti Program, Haiti Papers, Number 6, April

of direct, positive and effective engagement might lead to salubrious developments
for all. Perhaps it is still not too late, especially with Haiti's bicentennial upon us,
for the perpetual U.S.-Haiti love-hate relationship to focus more on the former and
less on the latter.
Senator COLEMAN. Gentlemen, thank you very, very much.
Ambassador Dobbins, I didn't get a chance to listen, but I've read
your comments. I think you talk about the need for reconciliation
in Washington. I was wondering whether you think that's possible,
after watching the discussion that we just went through. Can we
put aside some of this, kind of, "Where were we yesterday," in
order to actually do the things that have to be. done in Haiti? Do
you have a sense for whether that's possible?
Ambassador DOBBINS. Well, I think you can answer better than
I can the degree to which one can put aside questions about the
exact manner in which President Aristide left. I suspect, based on
the discussion I heard today, that that's going to be difficult.
But the question is whether you can simultaneously move for-
ward, that issue aside, recognizing it's going to be addressed, and
that may be painful, on a program which I think should be broadly
acceptable to, you know, a wide selection of the country and the
Congress. I didn't hear much disagreement in this panel or in any
of the other panels about what we should do from here on. And so
I do think it would be worth trying to work out something that had
broad bipartisan support and was forward-looking, even as we, you
know, continue to look into, and perhaps dispute, the recent his-
Senator COLEMAN. And my sense, by the way, as we look to the
future, I think there is broad bipartisan support for those things
that have to be done.
I know there was discussion about giving direct aid to the Hai-
tian Government. And my question is, in terms of giving aid, talk
to me a little bit about accountability, and also-if we continue to
work with the government and continue to work with the NGOs-
is there a sense that we just have to do both in order to meet the
needs that are out there?
Ambassador DOBBINS. Some of my colleagues probably can give
you a more precise answer. My feeling is that if you're going to
help Haiti build the institutions it needs, you're going to have to
accept lower levels of accountability, higher levels of diversion, and
less control over how the money is spent than ideally you would
like. It doesn't mean that you put all of your money through the
Haitian Government. It's a question of proportionality. But our
preference for accountability and for avoiding politically controver-
sial outcomes when we provide assistance has, I think, led us to
starve the Haitian Government of what it needs to develop the ca-
pacity to govern well one day, in order to meet our short-term polit-
ical needs-I mean, political needs to avoid being criticized for mis-
using our resources.
Senator COLEMAN. Mr. Heinl.
Mr. HEINL. Yes, I would like to add to that, to just say that, in
the short term, the NGOs really are probably the most effective
way just to get things going; because the state of paralysis in the
Haitian Government is such, for whatever reasons, many of which
have been addressed today, that it will not be an effective instru-

meant in the immediate future to take the kinds of steps that we
need to take right now to at least stabilize the situation and pre-
vent it from getting any worse.
Senator COLEMAN. Mr. Pezzullo, do you want to respond?
Ambassador PEZZULLO. Well, I ran a large NGO, and I do think
they do marvelous work. But, by and large, NGOs cannot really
help a government reorganize itself.
Somebody mentioned, here, a change in basically the climate, the
political climate, the culture of Haiti. I think that's key. In my pre-
pared remarks, which I deviated from, you'll find them.
I do think the new Haitian government would be well advised,
early on, to open up a new dialogue with the Haitian people and
bringing them in, in a real sense. There are all kinds of programs
now developed at Inter-American Development Bank, AID-they
call them transparency, and so on. But what they do, in effect, if
you are diligent in following them, is, you start to bring the various
segments of the society into the process of governing-education,
training, participation of one sort or another. This does a lot of
things for them. First, it builds up a sense of confidence, a sense
that they're part of the process. It also eventually brings account-
ability. One of the great failures of most governments is the lack
of accountability. People get into authority, they don't have a proc-
ess to keep them accountable, and they slip off. Everybody slips off.
So I think that type of program should come right out of the gov-
ernment. And I would urge them, if they're thinking of any initial
program, to go to the World Bank or go to the Inter-American De-
velopment Bank and do that, and do it quickly.
On the institution-building, this is a long process. It's not a re-
building of police forces; it's building up the capacity within the so-
ciety to fill major positions in government. It's just not the min-
ister; it's all the people with him.
In Haiti, they have some real problems with status institutions,
which Aristide was urged very strongly to get rid of, to privatize,
because they are always the focus of graft. That's the electric com-
pany, the port facility, the airport. These were great places for peo-
ple to make money and to put in cronies. Privatize them. Let them
pay taxes. Let the government benefit from that and demand serv-
Senator COLEMAN. Thank you.
We'll have a further conversation another time-this was all
about rule of law, and we didn't touch upon that, but I'm very in-
terested in that, both in Haiti and at some other areas.
But I would turn to my colleague, Senator Dodd.
Senator DODD. Well, thank you, Mr. Chairman. Let me thank all
four of you. And, at least in the case of two you, I've known for
some time. And Larry Pezzullo, Larry, it's a pleasure to see you
again. We've dealt with each other a lot over the last 20 years. I
haven't seen you in a long time. You look wonderful.
Ambassador PEZZULLO. Thank you. Same to you.
Senator DODD. Nice to have you back before the committee. And
Jim Dobbins is someone I've admired for a long time. He's been a
real hand when it comes to the Western Hemisphere, and it's nice
to see you back. And I've had a chance to listen to you on a couple
of occasions when you've testified on Haiti and other matters.

Let me ask all four of you just one quick question. One of the
discussions going on-I mean, I-again, I mean, we're all-I think,
all-there's no question that certainly President Aristide contrib-
uted, not insignificantly, to the set of problems that we have, and
I don't want to keep on dwelling on the point, but I-maybe I'm
old-fashioned, but the idea of standing up for democracies, I
thought, was something we kind of tried to do, even-and if we
start using a standard of failed leadership in countries, and that's
going to be a reason we start undermining elected governments,
we're going to have a-going to have a lot of work on our hands,
as I look around the world.
But one of the things that President Aristide did that I think
most people applauded was to disband the army. And the only case
I know was the case of-was Pepe Figueras, in Costa Rica, back
in the early 1950s, when he successfully led a revolution there and
got rid of the military, and they have a national police force and
so forth, but, nonetheless, made the case, I thought, successfully,
and a case can be made in a lot of other places around the region,
that this is much of a rationale for it anymore.
Now, there's talk by this interim government about reconsti-
tuting a military in Haiti again. And I wonder if all four of you
would make a quick comment on the wisdom-put aside whether
or not the interim government is a legitimate government to start
making decisions like that, but just the whole idea of bringing a
military force back into Haiti, given the history of problems that
have been associated with Haitian military in years past. Obvi-
ously, I'm editorializing in my questions here how I feel about it,
but I'd be interested in your comments on it.
Why don't we begin with you, Mr. Heinl.
Mr. HEINL. I think the debate over the Haitian army is much
like the debate over the word "marriage" in this country. Every-
one's focusing on-
Senator DODD. Don't get me into that.
Mr. HEINL [continuing]. -everyone's focusing on the word
"army," and not focusing on what actually an army should or
should not be doing for a country the size of Haiti. If President
Aristide had had some sort of national force, he'd probably still be
in power. But, instead, in 1995, he disbanded the army-
Senator DODD. I don't disagree. He probably regrets it dearly.
Mr. HEINL. I'm sure. He disbanded it, because the army's role
traditionally had been in making coups, and he had been ousted
himself, of course, as we all know, in 1991. But whether you call
it a national constabulary, an army-or maybe one part of the na-
tional police force needs to be truly national, as opposed to local
law enforcement personnel-I suspect, in a country of 8 million,
that there is need for more than 5,000 keepers of the peace, and
that would be how I would view answering your question.
Senator DODD. Jim.
Ambassador DOBBINS. Well, I think I tend to agree. I do think
that it would be a mistake to try to reestablish the Haitian army,
given its reputation for abuse and the divisive nature of the insti-
tution in Haiti. It would send all the wrong signals.
On the other hand, the Clinton administration had to be per-
suaded to support Aristide's decision to disband the army. It wasn't

a decision the Clinton administration had come to on its own. Its
intent was to seek to reform and professionalize the army.
I do think-I have always had reservations about having a single
security force in a country like Haiti, or, indeed, any country. I
mean, no country that I know of, certainly not the United States,
would repose all of its authority and all armed power in a single
monopoly force, which always has the possibility of becoming abu-
sive. And, therefore, some division of labor, with a couple of what-
ever you call them, a constabulary and a local police force, or some-
thing, would certainly make sense, just from a, you know, good-gov-
ernance point of view.
The question is, Can Haiti afford it? That's the real question.
Haiti needs a decent police force. It needs law and order. You don't
want a bunch of guys with tanks and M-16s providing that. So
you've got to give them a decent police force. Then if you've got
enough money left over so that you can also give them a constabu-
lary that can do rural policing and border patrol and that sort of
thing, go ahead.
Ambassador PEZZULLO. Well, the plan that we were putting be-
fore-Aristide agreed to it-was to reduce the size of the military
and really get rid of the heavy weapons company, get rid of the in-
fantry company, both of which were silly, and turn it in, basically,
to an engineering brigade that can fix roads and take care of pub-
lic-works types of things, and rescue. Something like that, two or
three thousand people, might make sense at some point. But cer-
tainly I would think that the interim government would stay away
from this issue and tend to its-to try to put together the basis for,
first of all, an election, which, I agree, is going to be very trouble-
some and difficult, and getting very good people in place in govern-
ment ministries, so you can show that, indeed, you can govern the
Dr. MAGUIRE. I think, in part, this whole idea of restoring the
army has come about because of the celebratory way that some of
these commandos were welcomed into communities, and I think we
need to look at that for the answer, as well. Obviously, there's a
strong sense of self-preservation among Haitian people. You cele-
brate the guys coming in with the guns. And especially when they
knock down all the prisons and let all the prisoners out, I'm sure
the prisoners and their families were glad to celebrate that, as
well. As well, of course, when the Haitian army was disbanded, it
didn't go anywhere. It stayed there, and people had their guns
cached away, and they've brought them back out, and this is maybe
why we saw the numbers grow as the number of towns fell.
But I look at this in another way, as well. I look at it in a way
that I think Haitians have become very disenchanted with democ-
racy and with their so-called political leaders, of all stripes. For the
past five or six years, they've been squabbling, fighting for power,
blocking the Congress, abusing power in the palace, and, in a
sense, fiddling while Rome's burning. So I think we need to restore
the faith in democracy in the Haitian people, and it's not going to
happen through an army; it's going to happen by having leaders
who have to act responsibly when they are before the Haitian peo-
ple, not just fight over power.