Fact sheet

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Fact sheet
Physical Description:
1 online resource (unpaged) : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Foreign Operations Administration
United States -- International Cooperation Administration
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Technical assistance, American -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Assistance technique américaine -- Amérique latine   ( ram )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from PDF caption (LLMC Digital, viewed on Dec. 6, 2010)
General Note:
"Country series."
General Note:
Fact sheet for the Dominican Republic issued by: International Cooperation Administration.
Statement of Responsibility:
Foreign Operations Administration.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Columbia Law Library
Holding Location:
Columbia Law Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 690031308
System ID:
AA00001180:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
















This volume was donated to LLMC
to enrich its on-line offerings and
for purposes of long-term preservation by

Columbia University Law Library




\A .1 FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION i
I


FA Country
) FST Series:




BOLIVIA



The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world 'is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States.
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with 'individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries tobuildup
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners 'in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...'it is humanitarian...it helps others to help themselves...'it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It 'is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world," with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war."
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...

BOLIVIA

Bolivia is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
program. Through this cooperative program the U.S. is encouraging and assisting economic devel-
opment in the Western Hemisphere, recognizing the prime importance of these countries to our foreign
commerce and the significant part these nations play as our partners in the free world alignment
against the menace of international communism.
Bolivia, fifth largest country of South America, has an area of 419,470 square miles, about three
times that of Montana.
Bolivia has three well-defined regions:
1. The altiplano, or high plateau, one of the world's highest inhabited regions with an average
height of 12,000 feet above sea level. This region produces little food, but the minerals that are
Bolivia's chief export are found here.
2. The yungas, or values (valleys), that separate the altiplano from the lowland plains. Corn,
wheat, barley, oats, coffee, cacao, and sugarcane are grown here.
3. The llanos, or lowland plains. Though sparsely populated and little developed, this region
is more than half the total area of Bolivia, and it has large tracts of fertile land on which could be
grown the basic foodstuffs that now have to be imported.
Bolivia is governed by a President and a two-chamber legislature. It is a member of the United
Nations.
The People: Bolivia's population was estimated at more than 3 million in 1952. Although Span-
ish is the official language, several Indian languages are spoken also. Almost 85 percent of Boliv-
ia's people are engaged in some phase of agriculture, yet they do not raise enough food for them-
selves. Only 4 percent of the people work in mining, yet this small group produces the foreign
exchange to pay for imported food.

U.$.-Bolivian Trade: In 1953, U.S. imports from Bolivia totaled $62.4 million. They were
chiefly tin, crude rubber, copper, and lead, zinc, tungsten, and antimony ores. U.S. exports to







Bolivia, which totaled $18.7 million, were chiefly foodstuffs, cotton, medicinals and pharmaceu-
ticals, and machinery and vehicles.

The Development Problem: Bolivia's standard of living is generally low. Much land is unfit for
cultivation, and transport facilities are lacking to move food where it is needed most. Food worth
S$20 million is imported annually. The general health level is also low, life expectancy being about
S" 38 years. The country does not have enough rural elementary schools. In those that exist, teach-
ing methods need modernizing.
S (/ Bolivia's economy is largely dependent on tin. Late in 1953, because of falling tin prices, many
Bolivians faced starvation. After appeals to President Eisenhower, $12.4 million was authorized
for Bolivia in economic aid. Chief items in this emergency aid are wheat and flour, which are being
sold to Bolivians. The counterpart funds (Bolivian money raised in this fashion) are being used in
an economic development program designed primarily to increase Bolivian food production. The
emergency economic aid given Bolivia in fiscal 1954 is in addition to the regular program of tech-
nical cooperation that has operated in Bolivia since 1942.


FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

Program Objectives: The joint program of technical cooperation has sought to help the Govern-
ment of Bolivia to raise the standard of living of the Bolivian people. It includes activities in
agriculture, health and sanitation, education, and transportation.
Objectives of the program are:
1. To improve agricultural techniques and expand production of foodstuffs that can be grown
economically in Bolivia but have not been produced in sufficient quantity.
2. To raise the general level of health and thus increase the efficiency of workers.
3. To improve rural elementary schools and provide industrial and vocational training.

Agriculture and Natural Resources: This program, begun in 1943, has improved cultivation
methods, encouraged use of better seeds, introduced fertilizers and insecticides, improved produc-
tion and quality of beef and milk, improved irrigation facilities, established nurseries, and intro-
duced simple mechanized farm equipment.
Some results:
Four extension offices and three experiment stations have been established. Research and ex-
perimentation are being done on potatoes, quinoa (used as cereal), wheat, corn, pasture and forage
plants, beef and dairy cattle, and sheep and alpaca. The programs in extension and homemaking
are carried on by 17 rural agents and 5 home demonstration agents, all Bolivians trained in the
cooperative program. In 1953, these agents made 3,765 farm visits and held 2,600 demonstration
meetings attended by more than 60,000 people. A campaign to control white grub and cutworm in
potatoes by periodic use of insecticides has reached some 148,000 farmers.
During a single year, ended October 1953, 37 4-S Clubs, which correspond to 4-H Clubs in the
U.S.A., were organized, and almost 600 members completed projects. A large shipment of vegetable
seeds obtained from the U.S. was distributed to 4-S Club members in an effort to encourage home
gardens.
Nine tractors with agricultural and land-clearing attachments have been obtained with which to
train Bolivian farmers in the use and care of simple mechanized equipment. Other materials that
cannot be obtained by farmers locally, such as fertilizer, insecticides, and farm tools, are being
sold at cost.
A few purebred dairy sires have been imported to improve supply and quality of milk. In an
effort toproduce beef cattle that are more resistant to disease and insects, several hundred Brahman
bulls have been imported by private cattle growers.
Both a forest nursery and a rubber tree nursery have been established.
In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954, as an added weapon against threatened famine in Bolivia,
an economic development and diversification program was initiated. It emphasizes opening fertile







lands in the lowlands that have not previously been cultivated. The rich land around Santa Cruz is
being cleared to increase production of corn, sugarcane, rice, vegetable oils, and cottons. One
pound of Cuban Yellow Corn introduced into this area three years ago produced some 6,000 tons in
the last growing season. A highway recently opened between Santa Cruz and Cochabamba will fa-
cilitate transportation of food grown in the lowlands to the highlands where most of the Bolivian
people live.
In an effort to improve Bolivia's position in the world tin market, two U.S. laboratories have con-
ducted research and tests with a view to developing a more economic method of refining low-grade
tin ores and tailings (ore residues).

Health and Sanitation: The goal of this cooperative program, which began in 1942, has been to
control disease through health facilities, immunization campaigns, community sanitation and health
education.
Some results:
Thirteen health centers and four mobile health units have served more than 580,000 persons
annually in an effort to control communicable diseases such as diphtheria, typhus, and typhoid. Two
demonstration water supply systems have been installed. Twenty-two surveys have been completed
and designs made for water supply and sewage disposal systems, health centers, hospitals, and
other health facilities. /
Courses in health education have been given to more than 1,000 teachers and pupils. In one
month alone, 13 health films were shown to 2,000 spectators, and 172 different health pamphlets
were distributed in large numbers.

Education: The cooperative education program, which began in 1944, has concentrated on im-
proving rural elementary schools.
Some results:
More than 1,000 elementary schools have been reorganized into 52 groups, each with a trained
director and three supervisors to help the teachers in that group. In these schools learning by rote
has been replaced with more modem methods.
In three rural normal schools, improvements have been made in buildings, equipment, libraries,
staff, and curricula. A teacher training institute established at Warisata, high in the altiplano, is
designed to train teachers to meet the basic needs of the people of the community.
In addition to the three R's, these are health, home improvement, handicrafts, and food produc-
tion wherever possible.
The one vocational industrial school in Bolivia has been improved with better shop equipment,
laboratories, and help in preparing studyoutlines and teaching materials. Its program is now planned
to train students to take their places in the country's industries.

Transportation. Under this program, which began in 1948, technicians from the U.S. Civil Aero-
nautics Authority have surveyed and made plans for 21 Bolivian airports, which the Government of
Bolivia will construct. Some progress has been made in carrying out these plans. One administra-
tion building has been completed; another is under construction. New runways or extension to ex-
isting ones have been completed at four airports, and another runway is under construction. Boliv-
ian aviation mechanics have been trained on the job to meet international aviation standards.

Training Program: From the beginning of the technical cooperation program through December
1953, 234 Bolivians had received training under grants awarded under the program. Most of them
trained in the United States, a few received training in other Latin American countries. The par-
ticipants were distributed as follows:
Civil aviation, 78; health and sanitation, 66; education 43; agriculture, 28; labor, 8; coast and
geodetic survey, 9; audio-visual aids, 2.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program in Bolivia: In addition to $12.4 million in economic
aid allocated for Bolivia in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954, U.S. contributions to the regular









program of technical cooperation totaled $1,333,900 and to the expanded technical cooperation pro-
gram $2,000,000, making an overall contribution of $3,333,900 for technical cooperation.
In addition to the counterpart funds generated by sale of the commodities received from U.S.
emergency economic aid, which the Bolivian Government will put into the economic development
program, the Bolivian Government contributed the equivalent of $3,651,600 to the program of tech-
nical cooperation in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954.


GPO 88048




FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION i



Country

F FACT SHfEET S




BRAZIL



The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world 'is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States.
An 'important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries 'in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners 'in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...`it -is humanitarian...-it helps others to help themselves...-it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It 'is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world, with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war."
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...

BRAZIL

Brazil is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
program. Through this cooperative program, the U.S. is encouraging and assisting economic de-
velopment in the Western Hemisphere, recognizing the prime importance of these countries to our
foreign commerce and the significant part these nations play as our partners in the free world
alignment against the menace of international communism.
Brazil, with an area of approximately 3,288,000 square miles almost half the total land area
of South America is the fourth largest country in the world, after Russia, China, and Canada.
It is larger than the United States by about 266,000 square miles, though its population is only
about a third that of the U. S.
Brazil has an Atlantic coast line of nearly 5,000 miles. The country has the world's widest
and second longest river the mighty Amazon.
Three broad geographic areas comprise Brazil:
1. The torrid basin of the Amazon in the north, a low tropical valley, sparselysettledand
covered with great forests from which come many varieties of forest products. The region's wealth
lies in its abundance of timber, rubber, Brazil nuts, and oilseeds.
2. An expanse of uplands in the northeast, half forest and half desert. In sections where the
climate is naturally humid and the soil irrigated, cacao, coffee, cotton, sugar cane and tobacco
can be grown.
3. The mountains and plateaus of the central and southern regions, containing the most fertile
and productive land in all Brazil. Most of the coffee, cotton, fruits and livestock that are among
the country's chief exports are grown here. Here, too, are the country's most valuable mineral
deposits and chief manufacturing centers, most of its highways and railways, and the bulk of its
people.
Brazil is a republic, governed by a President and a two-chamber legislature.
The country is an active member of United Nations.








U.S.-Brazilian Trade: U.S. exports to Brazil in 1953 were $293.9 million. Chief U.S. exports
were wheat, industrial machinery, electrical machinery, automobiles, chemicals, non-metallic
minerals. In the same year U.S. imports from Brazil were $766.0 million. Chief U.S. imports were
coffee, cocoa, vegetable oils, nuts, manganese ore. U.S. private investments in Brazil exceed
$1 billion.

The People: In 1953 the population of Brazil was 55,772,000, or about half of all the people
in South America. Since the original settlers were from Portugal, the language and basic racial
type are Portuguese. A few thousand descendants of the Indians found there by the Portuguese
are in the country today, chiefly in the Amazon valley.
About 70 percent of the people are engaged in agriculture and forestry.

The Development Problem: Despite the vast area of Brazil, food production has not kept pace
with population increase. Only about 4 percent of the total area is under cultivation, and agricul-
tural productivity is generally low.
Transportation and marketing services are inadequate. Power shortages are a great handicap
to development in many fields.
Largely because of the ravages of malaria and intestinal diseases caused by parasites in the
great river valley sections of Brazil, average life expectancy is only 46 years. In the valley of
the Amazon before the first cooperative health teams went in, whole communities suffered seri-
ously from malaria.
Brazil's illiteracy rate is high, about 50 percent. Fewer than half the children in rural areas
are in school, and vocational training lags far behind the need for skilled workers.
There are too few skilled supervisors; detailed administrative procedures often hamper develop-
ment planning and implementation; and, high administrative overhead costs tend to dissipate
the financial resources for some of the development programs.
Yet Brazil has tremendous prospects. The country has enormous natural resources awaiting
adequate development. Mineral reserves include iron, manganese, quartz crystals, industrial
diamonds, chromite, bauxite, mica, beryl and monazite. The country's large timber resources
are only partly exploited. Petroleum resources, too, are thought to be large, though as yet un-
explored except in small areas. The country's rivers promise much in hydroelectric development.

FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

Program Objectives: The United States technical cooperation program with Brazil was started
in 1940. Since then, U.S. technicians have been assisting the government of Brazil to develop
the country's natural resources and to raise the standard of living of great masses of the Brazilian
people.
In the beginning the cooperative program was limited to providing technical know-how in natural
resources and rubber development. It now includes activities in health and sanitation, agriculture,
education, natural resources, transportation, and public administration.
The objectives are:
1. To increase crop and livestock production and improve farm to market transportation, storage
facilities, and distribution practices.
2. To improve the health, nutrition, social welfare and education of the people.
3. To develop mineral resources.
4. To develop the skills and techniques required to support the country's economy, including
those needed for managing all forms of public and private endeavor.

Joint Economic Development Commission: In 1950 a joint U.S. Brazil economic development
commission was set up to identify, plan and recommend priorityprojects needed to develop Brazil's
total economy. U.S. and Brazilian technicians worked together in the selection and planning of
41 development projects, and in providing machinery for loan applications to the International
Bank and the Export-Import Bank for the necessary foreign currency financing, approaching $400








million, of which some $187 million has already been financed. (Brazil will supply local currency
for labor, and other local costs). The Joint Commission terminated December 1953. The newly
formed National Bank for Economic Development has been officially designated to continue the
work of the Joint Brazil U.S. Economic Development Commission.

Health and Sanitation: This program, the oldest and most comprehensive of all those in Brazil,
has been in operation since 1942. Most of its efforts have been concentrated in the valleys of the
great Amazon and the Rio Doce, and more recently in the Sao Francisco Valley. Some type of
health and sanitation service is now provided in approximately 70 percent of the land area of
Brazil.
Some results:
Four million people in northern and central Brazil have received treatment since the program
began 12 years ago.
Where the program has been most active, a dramatic rise in life expectancy has taken place.
A survey showed that in the period 1939-41 the people living in 17 cities in the Amazon valley
could expect to live only to age 37. By 1951 the average life expectancy in these same cities
had climbed to 47.7.
Malaria and intestinal diseases are now almost unknown in parts of the Amazon valley where
the cooperative program has been in operation, and 1,000 trained Brazilians are carrying the work
forward.
Eight hospitals of from 12 to 60 beds have been built and put into operation; 83 health centers
and 34 sub-posts have been established; two nursing schools have been constructed, and tech-
nical and/or financial assistance provided to many other nursing schools throughout Brazil.
Dispensaries mounted on launches travel the smaller river tributaries to reach the sick who
cannot get to medical centers.
More than 5,000 Brazilian health workers have received some type of training. Approximately
325 Brazilians have had advanced professional training in the U.S.
When the cooperative health program began in the Amazon valley in 1942 a team of 40 U.S.
technicians worked with 500 Brazilians. Today one U.S. health technician is stationed in the
valley.
Responsibility for the planning and executing of the cooperative health program rests with
the agencies' 1,500 Brazilian technicians. The U.S. technicians, presently numbering 25, serve
as consultants.
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries: The first phase of this program, rubber research, began
in 1941, and has led to development of high-yielding, blight-resistant rubber trees. A training
center for extension workers and farm machinery operators (Fazenda Ipanema) began operations in
1948. A 1951 agreement provided for assistance in home economics and extension by Purdue
University in cooperation with the Rural University of the State of Minas Gerais at Vicosa. That
same year the Joint Commission's program in agricultural and economic surveys started. In 1953,
a coordinated, country-wide Technical Cooperation Program in agriculture was initiated.
Some early results:
200 agricultural technicians and 825 farm machinery operators have been graduated from the
training center and farm at Fazenda Ipanema. Surveys have been completed for establishment of a
national food storage plan. A program to locate superior cacao trees is underway and two nurseries
have been established. An over-all survey of Brazil's agricultural colleges, the first ever made,
has been completed.

Education: The cooperative education program in Brazil, started in 1946, has emphasized
vocational training to prepare skilled workers for Brazilian industry. Chief concerns have been
industrial surveys to determine basic needs; teacher training; job analyses; preparation of in-
structional materials; training in the use of audio-visual aids; improvement of shop equipment;
student training in electrical shop, machine shop, welding, graphic arts, woodworking and occu-
pational guidance. A complete survey was made of the textile industries as a prerequisite to es-
tablishing related courses in the industrial training school. A nation-wide program for the training
of industrial foremen has been established.








Some results:
23 vocational schools with an annual enrollment of 6,000 have been upgraded.
1,500 vocational teachers and supervisors have received summer school training in Brazil, and
120 have been brought to the U.S. for training.
13,000 Brazilian workers have had training-in-industry courses.
87 vocational textbooks and other major instructional materials have been prepared.
600,000 copies of these instructional materials have been distributed to schools.

Natural Resources: Since 1940 Brazil has had advice from U.S. technicians in developing
mineral and other resources, Chief objectives of the present cooperative program are exploration,
area mapping, and development of Brazil's resources, with emphasis on surveys of iron ore and
related deposits, on mining of phosphates, and on control of water resources for power and irrigation.
Some results:
Aerial photographs, topographic maps, and reports essential preliminaries to development
have been completed.
Geological investigations have aided in the investment of private U.S. capital in Brazil. One
U.S. firm is developing manganese deposits; another is working magnesite deposits.
Special attention has been given to assisting in the development of a phosphate deposit near
Recife, source of a badly needed low-cost fertilizer.

Public Administration: To help Brazil overcome its shortage of trained administrative per-
sonnel, a cooperative program in public administration was begun in 1952. A Brazilian Board of
Advisors on Public Administration, consisting of 11 leaders in federal, state, local, and univer-
sity affairs, has been organized.
Some results:
Withthe advice of the AdvisoryBoard, a substantial program is in operation fortraining Brazilian
public officials in Brazil and the United States.
The U.S. has supplied advice in the establishment of the first School of Public Administration
at the University of Minas Gerais.
Professors from Michigan State College are helping to establish the first university level School
of Business Administration in Brazil at Sao Paulo, the fastest growing industrial city in South
America.
Assistance has been given the Federal Government in development of a position classification
and pay plan covering some 250,000 employees. Similar plans are being prepared for the State and
and City of Sao Paulo.

The Over-All Training Program: An important phase of the cooperative program has been to
train Brazilian technicians. To carry out this work, 437 Brazilians have received U.S. training
grants since 1950 in the following fields: Health and sanitation, 60; education, 6; agriculture,
137; public administration, 107; transportation, 58; labor, 15; industry, 40; mining, 4; others, 10.
As of Sept. 30, 1954, Brazilians working in the cooperative program numbered 2,492, compared
with 89 U.S. technicians.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program in Brazil: For the 1954 fiscal year, the U.S.
contribution to the joint program of technical cooperation was $3,106,000 while Brazil's contribu-
tion was almost nine times as large, $27,906,400. At the beginning of the program, the U.S. share
was proportionately higher.

Mutual Defense Assistance Program: In June, 1953, the U.S. and Brazil signed a mutual as-
sistance agreement entitling Brazil to military aid. The program administered, by the Department
of Defense, calls for materiel and training for Brazil's Army, Navy, and Air Force.


Office of Public Reports
January, 1955 GPO 887 232




FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION |


Country

FACT SHEET Series:




COSTA RICA


The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States."
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the worldwhich can be seen and under-
stood...it is humanitarian... it helps others to help themselves... it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world," with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war.'
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...

COSTA RICA

Costa Rica is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical co-
operation programs through which the U.S. encourages and assists in economic development in the
Western Hemisphere. This is in recognition of the importance of these countries to our foreign
commerce and the part they play as partners in the free world alignment against the menace of
international communism.
Costa Rica, one of the smallest Latin American republics, has an area of about 20,000 square
miles, less than that of West Virginia.
Costa Rica has three well-defined areas:
1. The hot area, made up of coastal lands less than 3,200 feet above sea level. Temperatures
range from 77 degrees to 100 degrees. The Caribbean Sea coast has as many as 300 days of rain
a year. On the Pacific coast the rainy season extends from April to November. The rest of the
year is dry. Bananas are raised in this area for commercial use, along with beef cattle, cacao, rice,
cotton and some sugar cane.
2. The temperate area, consisting of the central plateau, ranges from 3,200 to 6,500 feet
above sea level. This area has alternating wet and dry seasons with temperatures from 59
degrees to 77 degrees. Most of Costa Rica's population lives in this area, which produces some
of the chief crops, including coffee.
3. The cool area, consisting of mountains 6,500 feet or more above sea level. Individual
peaks rise as high as 12,000 feet. With a temperature range of from 41 degrees to 59 degrees,
this area has few agricultural crops but is suitable for cattle-raising, particularly dairying, and
lumber production.
Costa Rica also produces corn, tobacco, beans, potatoes, vegetables, citrus fruits, rubber,
and abaca fibers used to make rope. Many horses, pigs, poultry and goats are raised. Gold,
silver and manganese are mined. Deposits of copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc have
been discovered but have not been mined extensively. Test drilling for oil is now in progress.
Costa Rica has a President and a one-chamber legislature.
The country is a member of the United Nations.







The People: Costa Rica's population is estimated at 915,000. The rural areas account for
66.5 percent of the people, most of them engaged in farming. About 95 percent of the people
are of Spanish descent, with a very slight percentage of Indian blood. Spanish is the official
language.
U.S. Costa Rican Trade: U.S. imports from Costa Rica, which totaled $34.9 million in 1953,
are chiefly coffee, bananas, cacao, and abaca. U.S. exports to Costa Rica, which totaled $37.9
million in 1953, are chiefly machinery and vehicles, chemicals and related products, textiles
and grains.

The Development Problem: The economy of Costa Rica is largely dependent on coffee and
bananas. Some basic foodstuffs such as flour and fats and oils have to be imported. Some
areas with high potentials for food production lack rainfall; others lack transportation facilities
to carry food to market. However, Costa Rica's program for agricultural development, spearheaded
by an extension service pioneered under the cooperative technical assistance program and now
manned by Costa Ricans, is rapidly introducing modern methods in Costa Rican agriculture.
Costa Rica has extensive forest resources, most of which are undeveloped, and rivers enough
to provide needed power when developed.
Various diseases that result from inadequate sanitary facilities reduce human efficiency and
make for a low standard of living.




FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

Program Objectives: Costa Rica and the United States are cooperating in a program of tech-
nical aid to improve the country's economic stability and increase its productivity.
The objectives are:
1. To help establish a stable economy and better standard of living by modernization of
agricultural production and continued support of health and sanitation projects.
2. To advise on improvement and development of irrigation, water power, and transportation
facilities.
3. To assist in the strengthening of administrative techniques and procedures.
Agriculture and Natural Resources: This program, started in 1942 with an emergency food
supply program, has sought to expand food production and decrease cost per unit of production
by encouraging farmers to introduce modern, more efficient methods in soil conservation, land
clearing and preparation, irrigation and drainage; to diversify crops; to use better seeds and
more fertilizers; to improve cultural practices; to control insects and diseases in crops and
livestock; and to mechanize their operations.
Some results:
Since much of Costa Rica's foreign exchange comes from coffee sales, special efforts have
been made to increase yields and control crop-damaging diseases. These measures have in-
creased coffee production by 15 percent, without appreciably increasing acreage in coffee. Costa
Rica's coffee is a premium quality that is mixed into some of the better brands reaching U.S.
tables.
Livestock production has been increased through better water facilities, improved pastures,
and the growing of more hay. Although Costa Rican per capital consumption of beef had increased
by 1952, domestic production was enough to meet the demand, and imports of cattle ceased. In
fact, exportation of beef cattle to South America started in late 1954, and is expected to increase
substantially in future years.
Milk supplies have been increased by 25 percent.
Irrigation systems have been installed on 10,000 acres of farmland, and erosion control meas-
ures have been initiated on 20,000 acres. An irrigation project planned for the Tempisque River
in Guanacaste Province, a region with great agricultural potentialities, will improve another
25,000 to 40,000 acres of arable land.








Many Costa Rican farms are too small and the owners have too little capital to make economi-
cal use of mechanized equipment, but greater use of animal-drawn equipment has improved tillage
methods. Owners of large farms began to increase their use of mechanized equipment and perform
clearing and seed-bed preparation on a cost contract basis through tractor pools operated by the
cooperative program. Now an increasing number are buying their own tractors and machinery,
much of which is imported from the United States.
Since 1942, when the cooperative agricultural program began in Costa Rica, a regional research
and experimentation program to serve Latin American countries and FOA missions has been
carried on to develop high-yielding, disease-resistant varieties of rubber.
Assistance by U.S. technicians has greatly advanced the research and experimental program
of the Ministry of Agriculture, particularly in relation to disease control and fertilization of
coffee, livestock nutrition, and improved corn varieties. This phase of the program will be
enhanced during the next three years through a contract recentlyexecuted between the agricultural
Servicio STICA and the University of Florida, which provides for assistance to local research
workers by technicians from the University Agricultural Experiment Station.

Health and Sanitation: This program began in 1942, was discontinued in 1947, and resumed in
1951. The cooperative health service has operated continuously since that time.
Someresults:
Funds or material have been contributed toward the completion of a Children's Hospital at
Tres Ri'os, the construction of a 200-bed TB hospital at San Jose', and the purchase of a building
and equipment for a public cancer clinic at San Jose'.
New buildings have been constructed and existing ones remodeled to provide 10 health centers,
and equip, staff, and operate seven of them for about two and a half years. The seven were
later turned over to the National Health Department for operation.
Eleven water supply systems have been constructed, mostly in rural towns.
A water purification plant for San Jose' was constructed, and the city's water distribution
systems surveyed to lay the basis for remedial measures to increase the water supply.
Slaughter houses have been designed and constructed in four small towns, and one municipal
market in another.
A medical care program for rubber workers in the areas of the San Carlos and San Juan Rivers
has been financed. The medical services for this program were supplied by the U.S. Nicaragua
health service.
A malaria-controlprogram was provided for workers logging balsa wood inthe areas of Siquirres
and Gua'piles.

Transportation and Power: The cooperative program seeks to modernize facilities and opera-
tionsof Costa Rica airports, railroads and highways.
Some results:
A modern international airport is being built by Costa Rica at El Coco with the aid of U.S.
technicians, who will also help to solve problems of air traffic control, airport management, and
communications.

Public Administration: This program was begun in 1944 with technical assistance in the
development of the census and statistical program, now one of the most comprehensive in Latin
America. An expanded public administrative program was begun in 1951.
Some results:
A national bureau and system of civil service has been organized and is now functioning.
Studies have been made that resulted in substantial improvements and economies in the
administration of sanitary facilities in San Jose'and in the management of the Ministry of Health.
Work is now underway on improvements in the tax system, and requests for technical assistance
in budget and fiscal management, municipal government, and establishment of an Office of Opera-
tions and Methods have been received.








Housing: Costa Rica, with advice from U.S. consultants, seeks to start a program of low-cost
housing. A survey of housing needs in San Jose; the capital city, has been made, and a National
Institute of Housing has been established. Technical assistance has been requested to aid in
the development of the Institute's over-all program.

Education: Plans are now underway to comply with requests for technical assistance in the
establishment of vocational and rural education programs.

Training Program: During the two years from July 1, 1952, through June 30, 1954, grants for
Costa Ricans to train in the U.S. under the technical cooperation program totaled 65, distributed
as follows: agriculture and natural resources, 24; health and sanitation, 15; transportation and
power, 4; industry, mining and labor, 12; public administration, 9; and housing, 1.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program in Costa Rica: In the fiscal year ended June
30, 1954, U.S. contributions to the program of technical cooperation in Costa Rica totaled
$857,000. Costa Rican contributions for the same period totaled the equivalent of $967,000.

Office of Public Reports
April 1955

FOA PUBLICATIONS
Available on request to Office of Public Reports, Foreign Operations Administration, 806 Con-
necticut Avenue N.W., Washington 25, D.C.

General: FOA Fact Sheet; Escape to Freedom; Reports to Congress on the Mutual Security
Program; Reports to Congress on the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (the Battle
Act); FOA and U.S. Voluntary Agencies.

Technical Cooperation: Technical Cooperation in Health; American Universities in Technical
Cooperation; Technical Cooperation Programs Around the World; Technical Cooperation in Agriculture.

Country Series Fact Sheets: Bolivia; Brazil, Chile, Nicaragua; Uruguay.

Country Series Booklets: Austria, Belgium-Luxembourg; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece;
Italy; Netherlands; Norway; Thailand; Turkey; United Kingdom.
GPO 892104


FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION PENALTY POR PRIVATE SE TO
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. GP



Columzba Univorsity Law Library
Kent Hall
New York 27, N. Y.


LIBR


FIRST-CLASS MAIL




I

FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION I


_TCountry

FACT SHEET Series:





CUBA





The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States."
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...it is humanitarian... it helps others to help themselves...it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world," with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war. "
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...

CUBA

Cuba is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
programs through which the U.S. encourages and assists in economic development in the Western
Hemisphere. This is in recognition of the importance of these countries to our foreign commerce
and the part they play as partners in the free world alignment against the menace of international
communism.
Cuba has an area of 44,218 square miles, about the size of Pennsylvania. Generally Cuba
is flat and rolling except for some low mountainous country in southeast, central and western
portions. The 2,100-mile coast line is indented by many large bays but its many short rivers
are of slight importance commerically.
Cuba's economy is predominantly agricultural. Sugar cane is the most important crop and sugar
and its by-products represent over 80 percent of all exports. Cuba provides about 20 percent of
world sugar production and has a market in the United States guaranteed by our domestic legislation
for about a third of her current production. Other important exports are tobacco, food products,
and minerals.
Cuba has a President and a two-chamber Legislature.
The country is a member of United Nations.
The People: Cuba has a population of 5,900,000 of which about 55 percent is urban and 45
percent rural. Of those employed 41 percent are engaged in agriculture, 20 percent in manufacturing
and construction, 12 percent in commerce and 20 percent in services.
Spanish is the official language.
U.S. Cuban Trade: U.S. imports from Cuba, which totaled $401,337,000 in 1954, are chiefly
sugar, tobacco and minerals. U.S. exports to Cuba, totaling $428,185,000 in 1954, are chiefly
machinery and equipment, grains and grain preparations, and textiles.








The Development Problem: Although its land is generally well suited to agricultural develop-
ment with extensive areas of fertile soil, sufficient rainfall, and relative freedom from harmful
insects Cuba's concentration on sugar production has been at the expense of its other agricul-
tural and industrial resources.
A sharp reduction in the country's sugar market has increased the seriousness of unemployment,
and has pointed upthe need for increased attentionto other products of agriculture and for attention
to other resources capable of development. In the past decade Cuba has made considerable pro-
gress in developing mineral and other resources. A beginning has also been made toward agricul-
tural diversification. Research, developing technical skills, and providing credit to stimulate
development in key areas constitute the major problems which Cuba is faced with in its present
program of development.

FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM
Cuba and the U.S. are cooperating in a program of technical aid aimed at developing more
diversified agricultural and productive activities, especially during the off-season for sugar.
The objectives are:
1. To help develop diversified agriculture through a balanced agricultural program of training,
experimentation, demonstration and extension, and the improvement of credit and marketing facilities.
2. To help develop the processing enterprises needed to support a diversified agricultural
economy.
3. To help improve labor productivity and labor management relationships.
4. To help the Cuban Government develop adequate statistical data for effective resources
management.

Agriculture and Natural Resources: The FOA-Cuban agricultural program, begin in 1951, was
originally confined to Kenaf fiber production and processing. Production of Kenaf a jute sub-
stitute is expected to increase progressively each year.
The work in Kenaf provided the staff with valuable information on Cuban agricultural problems,
and this staff has become the nucleus for the larger staff needed for a broader cooperative agri-
cultural program including cacao, coffee, bananas, horticultural crops, land use, soil salinity
research, and agricultural extension.
Industry and Mining: Two technicians are helping to survey Cuba's mineral resources and
what is needed for their development. This project is being carried out under an agreement with
the U.S. Geological Survey.
A mining engineer is providing advice for putting into operation a minerals testing laboratory
and advising on the organization of mining services. Two Cubans who are working in the labora-
tory have completed a year's study in the U.S.
A technician has completed an analysis of the needs of Cuban factories for U.S. cooperation in
improving management and production techniques. Efforts are now being made to learn what would
be the most effective form for this cooperation to take.
Public Administration: To help the Cuban Government develop adequate statistical data for
effective resources management, a statistician is advising on the analysis and tabulation of data
gathered in the censuses of population and housing taken in 1953. He is also advising on the
reorganization and administration of Cuba's fact gathering services.
A technician has made a survey looking toward the development of an effective pure food ad-
ministration and the establishment and enforcement of minimum standards.
Another technician is working with the Inter-American Municipal Organization (IAMO) which
provides technical advice on public administration to municipal governments throughout Latin
America.
Labor: This program consists entirely of bringing labor leaders to the U.S. for training and
observation of productivity and management-labor relationships in order to gain their support
for increased productivity.
Twenty-two have been sent to U.S., and 13 others have been oriented preparatory to departure.
The Over-All Training Program: From 1950 through June 1954 grants made to Cubans to receive
additional training in the U.S. totaled 76, as follows: agriculture and natural resources, 39; indus-
try, mining, transportation, power, and communications, 20; education, 9; public administration,
5; and labor, 3.
Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program In Cuba: In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954,
U.S. contributions to the program of technical cooperation in Cuba totaled $157,600. In the same
period Cuban contributions totaled the equivalent of $360,000. GPo e94555


I





INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION |


FACT SHEET Country
F ACT SF T Series:





DOMINICAN REPUBLIC





The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States."
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with -individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners 'in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...it is humanitarian... it helps others to help themselves....it calls for joint participation
in projects 'initialed by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It 'is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world, with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war".
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of ICA :in one such country...





THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

The Dominican Republic is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the ICA tech-
nical cooperation program through which the U.S. encourages and assists economic development in
the Western Hemisphere. This is in recognition of the prime importance of these countries to our
foreign commerce and the significant part they play as partners in the free world alignment against
the menace of international communism.
The Dominican Republic is one of the smaller Latin American countries, with an area of about
19,000 square miles, or about half that of Kentucky. With Haiti, it forms the Caribbean island of
Hispaniola.
About 2 million acres of the country's land are cultivated with sugar, cacao, molasses, coffee,
rice, corn and tobacco the chief agricultural products.
Forest resources are fairly extensive, but development has been held back by insufficient
transportation facilities. A local forestry and lumbering industry supplies most domestic timber
needs, plus a small volume of exports.
Deposits of silver, platinum, iron, salt, coal and petroleum are believed to exist, but are as yet
undeveloped.
There are two areas of concentrated settlement, one in the south around the capital city of
Ciudad Trujillo and the other in the fertile Cibao valley in the north.
The country is governed by a President and a two-chamber legislature.
The Dominican Republic is a member of the United Nations.







The People: The population of the Dominican Republic is around 2.3 million. About 80 percent
depend on agriculture for living. Spanish is the official language.

U.S.-Dominican Republic Trade: U.S. imports from the Dominican Republic, which totaled
$72 million in 1954, are chiefly sugar and coffee. U.S. exports to that country, totaling $52 million,
were chiefly foodstuffs; machinery, including automobiles and tractors; and chemicals and
pharmaceuticals.

The Development Problenm: Living standards in the Dominican Republic are generally low.
Housing is scarce, and the diet is insufficient in proteins, calcium, and vitamins. Although the
incidence of death from controllable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and intestinal infec-
tions is high, there are few public health officials and trained nurses, and there is a great shortage
of adequate hospital facilities. The literacy rate is low about 40 percent and a high per-
centage of the employable population has had little or no vocational training.


ICA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

The program of technical cooperation between the U.S. and the Dominican Republic has been a
limited one. Major program emphasis has been in agriculture and education, and to a lesser degree
in health and natural resources exploration.
The objectives are:
1. To improve and diversify the agricultural economy and thus decrease dependence on sugar,
which normally accounts for half of all exports.
2. To raise the general level of health through improving the national diet; encouraging modern
sanitation practices and improving nursing facilities.
3. To improve vocational and rural education facilities and techniques, so as to equip the
people with skills and abilities to raise their living standards and to contribute to the country's
over-all economic development.

Agriculture and Natural Resourcei: This cooperative program, begun in 1952, seeks to increase
and diversify agricultural production and to introduce modern cultivation practices, soil conserva-
tion techniques, and methods of insect control. An agricultural servicio was created on June 30,
1955 to execute the broader program.
Some results:
Production has been increased as the result of better use of crop, lands, soil conservation and
improvement, crop diversification, insect control and improved irrigation and drainage practices.
New irrigation is bringing water to 230,000 acres, increasing crop production and providing for
cultivation of new crops, such as rice.

Education: Objectives of this program are to develop effective training in the trade schools
and industrial arts courses and to improve the rural elementary education program to meet the re-
quirements of economic development.
Some results:
The Education Servicio in the Dominican Republic was established in 1951 with all the work
during the first three years in vocational education. The National School of Arts and Crafts was
built by the host government as a result of the establishment of this agreement. U.S. technicians
have had a great influence in the development of this vocational secondary school. Additional
technical advice is needed to establish this school on a firm basis. At the present time 160 young
men between the ages of 16 and 20 are being trained in the following shop specialities: radio,
electricity, cabinet-making, general metals and automotive mechanics. There is a great need in the
Dominican Republic for the preparing of workers in the general building trades. In order to make
this cooperative project more effective such training facilities need to be incorporated in this
school. Plans are now being developed for proposals to the Secretariat of Education for estab-
lishment of shops for training workers in this speciality.






In 1953 the Dominican Secretary of Education asked that the Servicio establish projects in gen-
eral industrial arts and rural and teacher education. In February 1954 an industrial arts specialist
arrived in the Dominican Republic. A cooperative project was signed November 30, 1954, and work
was begun. A rural education survey was made during 1954. A cooperative project in rural and
teacher education was signed March 8, 1955. The active initiation of this project is awaiting the
arrival of U.S. technicians. The establishment of the two new projects has made it necessary to
develop an administrative project for the entire educational servicio.
The Chief of the Education Field Party is Director of the Servicio and works in close relation
with the Secretariat of Education. Broad policies are established between the Chief of Field
Party and the local Secretariat of Education. Progress is being made in bringing the various
"directors' in the Secretariat of Education into the work of the Servicio. The Secretary of Educa-
tion recently informed the Chief of Field Party that he has $40,000 of extra funds to construct four
industrial arts shops and asked that U.S. industrial arts specialist prepare plans for their con-
struction. The Secretariat of Education is also providing $60,000 of extra funds for the develop-
ment of rural community schools to be operated in conjunction with the rural education project.
During the 18 months period from July 1, 1954 December 31, 1955, the Secretariat of Education
will spend $87,255 of "extra funds" in connection with the vocational school project.

Health and Sanitation: The Dominican Government has requested a general type of Public
Health Program which would complement the agricultural development and educational improvement
programs. This will be done as soon as a competent medical officer can be made available. It is
expected to include the establishment of a professional nursing school; assistance in hospital
administration; general health planning and specialized training in public health.
At present the program consists only of a project called "Auxiliary Nurses Aided Training'
under a U.S. Nursing Consultant.

Power: A U.S. power and water resources technician is completing a six-month study to lay
the basis for selection of hydro-electric and irrigation projects.

The Over-All Training Program: From 1950 through June 30, 1954, a total of 23 grants were
made for Dominicans to receive training in the United States under the technical cooperation pro-
gram, as follows: agriculture, 3; health and sanitation, 2; education 3; and industry, power and
miscellaneous, 17.
The Education Servicio has sent 9 vocational teachers to Puerto Rico in addition to the training
sponsored directly by the U.S. Government.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program in the Dominican Republid: In the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1954, U.S. contributions to the program of technical cooperation in the Dominican
Republic totaled $200,000. Dominican Republic contributions for the same period totaled equivalent
of $150,000.















Office of Public Reports
July, 1955







ICA PUBLICATIONS


Available on request to Office of Public Reports, International Cooperation Ad-
ministration, 806 Connecticut Avenue N.W., Washington 25, D.C.


General
ICA Fact Sheet
Escape to Freedom
Reports to Congress on the Mutual Security Program
Reports to Congress on the Mutual Defense Assistance
Control Act of 1951 (the Battle Act)

Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation in Health
American Universities in Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation Programs Around the World
Technical Cooperation in Agriculture


Country Series
Fact Sheets
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Costa Rica
Cuba
Ecuador
El Salvador


Guatemala
Haiti
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Uruguay
Venezuela


Booklets
Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Denmark
France
Germany
Greece


Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Thailand
Turkey
United Kingdom


INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.


PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID
PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, $300
GP 0


Colu r:.bi ,, y
Kent 1all y Iaw ".lrary
New York 27, :. y.


FIRST-CLASS MAIL


LIBR


GPO




FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION I

I
_Country

FACT SHEET Series:
Jlilli I



ECUADOR




The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress 'to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States".
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...it is humanitarian... it helps others to help themselves... it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of 'serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world," with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of war".
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...


ECUADOR

Ecuador is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
program through which the U.S. encourages and assists economic development in the Western Hemi-
sphere. This is in recognition of the prime importance of these countries to our foreign commerce
and the significant part they play as partners in the free world alignment against the menace of
891 international communism.
Ecuador, with an area of about 106,000 square miles, is not quite as large as Nevada.
The country has three well-defined regions:
1. The tropical lowlands that lie on the west between the Pacific Ocean and the foothills of
the Andes Mountains. Varying growing conditions are found in this region from a humid area in the
north, where vegetation is lush, to an arid region in the south in which almost nothing grows. Most
of the country's agricultural production is centered in the northern part of this zone.
2. The mountainous zone between the two ranges of the Andes. Here are found mountain peaks
among the highest in all Latin America.
3. The densely forested jungle area of the east. Several tributaries of the Amazon River origi-
nate in this zone.
Ecuador is a source of balsa wood, and wild rubber is abundant. The country's timber wealth is
undeveloped because of lack of transportation and skilled labor.
Petroleum production averages about 3 million barrels annually. The country also has small
deposits of low grade coal, gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, sulphur, marble, and corundum.
Bananas, cacao, panama, hats, coffee, rice and balsa wood are produced in Ecuador for export.
Ecuador is governed by a President and a two-chamber Legislature.
It is a member of the United Nations.








The People: Ecuador has an estimated population of about 3.5 million, of whom some 70 percent
are rural. About 90 percent of the total population are Indian or mixed Indian and Spanish. Although
Spanish is the official language, the rural population is largely Indian, many of whom do not speak
Spanish.

U.S. Ecuadoran Trade: U.S. imports from Ecuador, which totaled $60.9 million in 1954, are
chiefly bananas, cacao, coffee, and panama hats. Almost 13 million bunches of bananas from
Ecuador reached the U.S. during 1953, more than from any other country. Most Panamaa" hats sold
in the United States come not from Panama, but from Ecuador.
U.S. exports to Ecuador, totaling $47.5 million in 1954, are chiefly foodstuffs, textiles, metals
and manufactures, machinery and vehicles, including automobiles and trucks, and medicinals and
pharmaceuticals.

The Development Problem: Ecuador needs help in almost all phases of its economic development.
Improvement of transportation and communication facilities is especially needed for expansion of
agricultural and industrial production. Better cultivation methods and the use of more modern farm
and irrigation equipment are necessary for increasing food supplies. Public health facilities and
water supply and sewage disposal systems must be increased to improve general health and produc-
tivity levels. Housing is inadequate. Facilities for basic education and for vocational training
must be established to expedite economic progress.

FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

A program of technical cooperation has been in operation in Ecuador since 1942. The early
program emphasized activities in the basic fields of health and food supply. Now the cooperative
program embraces activities in agriculture and natural resources, health and sanitation, education,
railroad transportation, industry, handicrafts and civil aviation.
Objectives of the program are:
1. To obtain better food, health, schools, and teachers.
2. To improve transportation facilities in order to open new areas for development and to link
older areas now isolated from each other.
3. To increase industrial as well as agricultural production.

Agriculture and Natural Resources: Although Ecuador is primarily a farming country, it has a
low rate of agricultural productivity and a high rate of population growth. In an effort to increase
agricultural production for both domestic consumption and export, U.S. technicians are working with
representatives of the Ecuadoran Government to establish its extension service, its research facili-
ties, its vocational agricultural schools and to improve its beef and dairy cattle.
Some results:
Four research stations have been established. High-yielding and disease-resistant varieties of
cacao were developed after the Ecuadoran crop had been virtually wiped out by a disease that killed
the plants which had produced the greater part of the country's foreign exchange. Many cacao
plantations have been introduced, replanted with the new varieties, and cacao production is increas-
ing rapidly.
Production of pyrethrum, a source of insecticides, has also been increased and has become a
growing export crop.
Banana production has increased significantly because of the emphasis on improved methods of
cultivation and disease control and improved health conditions for the workers. Now the dread
disease, sigatoka, threatens the country's banana planations, and'cooperative research facilities
and disease control methods are being used against this threat.
Research into many varieties of cereal crops has resulted in selection of one especially adapted
to the highlands of Ecuador. High-yielding corn has been developed that is suitable for cultivation
in the lowlands. Research in coffee production and plant varieties has been promoted with promising
results.








Twelve extension offices have been set up. A pool of U.S. and Ecuadoran technicians has been
established to train extension agents. U.S. technicians periodically conduct short courses in voca-
tional agricultural schools.
Highland dairymen, profiting from advice on milk testing, herd management, feeding, and sanita-
tion, have increased production and improved the quality of their dairy products.
An oil spray that is successful in combatting insects on citrus crops has been developed. It is
now so much in demand that it is available through commercial channels.
The University of Idaho, under an FOA contract, is working with the Universities of Quito
and Guayaquil and with the agricultural Servicio to improve teaching and research in agriculture.
Projects in veterinary medicine, irrigation, poultry, soils, horticulture, and vocational agriculture
are provided for in the contract.

Health and Sanitation: This cooperative program began in 1942, when the Government of Ecuador
requested technical help to improve its hospital facilities, water supplies, sewage disposal systems,
and disease control measures.
Some results:
Twenty-eight hospitals have been remodeled or built and equipped. Seven water supply systems
have been completed, six are in various stages of construction, and studies have been made for
32 more. Studies have also been made for 22 sewage disposal systems.
Malaria, prevalent throughout many parts of Ecuador, has been virtually eliminated from the
areas in which active control campaigns have been carried on. The incidence of yaws, the dread
disease that disfigures and cripples, has been materially decreased. In one area of northern Ecuador
in which a yaws control campaign has been in progress since 1950 the incidence of this disease
has been reduced from 23.5 percent to less than 1 percent.
Ecuador's first school of nursing was established in 1942. The school is entirely supported by
the Government of Ecuador and is directed by a nurse who was trained in the United States under
the cooperative program. The school has a U.S. nurse consultant. It is now supplying graduate
nurses for service in hospitals and in Ecuador's public health program.
An active program of health education is being carried on. In one recent year more than 208,300
persons attended 1,100 health lectures and saw some 2,000 showings of health films.

Education: This program has concentrated on improving and modernizing rural teacher training
and teaching materials.
Some results:
Normal schools have received help in revising their courses of study. Teaching materials for
these schools have been cooperatively prepared by U.S. and Ecuadoran technicians.
Within the past five years, 13 educational workshops have been held at which 685 teachers from
normal schools and rural elementary schools have received intensive training. Radio courses are
being prepared to be used for in-service training. More than 200 textbooks and other pieces of
teaching material have been prepared, published, and distributed.
Normal school farms and school gardens have been started. When pupils learn to grow vegetables
in the school garden thay are likely to have a home garden and their diet and that of their families
improves.

Transportation: Since 1949 a U.S. civil aviation mission has been helping the Ecuadoran Govern-
ment improve its aviation facilities.
Some results:
Assistance was given in assembling information used as a basis for Ecuador's successful re-
quest to the Export-Import Bank for a $2V2 million loan for airport development. Layouts were pre-
pared for airports at Quito and Guayaquil. The Ecuadoran Government received advice in writing
its civil aviation regulations and setting up safety procedures.
U.S. railroad specialists in dispatching, communications, and accounting assisted the Govern-
ment of Ecuador in improving these services, and a railroad maintenance-of-way specialist, and a
master mechanic currently are on the United States Operations Mission staff.









Since July 1945, the country has used some $7 million of Export-Import Bank loans for highway
construction and maintenance, railway equipment and expansion, and rehabilitation of water supply
systems. The World Bank has granted the Province of Guayas an $8.5 million loan to build farm-to-
market roads.

Industry, Mining, and Labor: For centuries the Indians of Ecuador have been weaving rough
woolen cloth. Under the cooperative program improved looms and new methods of weaving and
design have been introduced. U.S. technicians are also investigating and developing possibilities
for new small and medium industrial enterprises.
Some results:
At Otavalo, in the highlands, a U.S. technician operates a demonstration center at which weavers
are taught to clean the wool properly, card it, dye it with vegetable dyes made from native plants,
spin, and weave it. More modern looms using a maximum of local materials have replaced the crude
ones formerly used. Fifty weavers and weaving teachers have been trained. Classes in weaving
and other handicrafts arebeing taught in other communities. Plans have been completed for a Manual
Arts Center at Cuenca to teach weaving and other handicrafts to the people of the Provinces of
Azuay and Canar, where formerly most panama hats were made.
Making panama hats formerly was the means of livelihood for some 100,000 Ecuadorans. As
a result of increased competition and a declining U.S. market many of these workers are in a dif-
ficult economic situation. A market survey indicated that colored panamas would sell. A U.S.
laboratory tested the "toquilla" straw from which panama hats are made to determine the most
suitable dyes for it. Equipment for dyeing the straw has been installed.
U.S. technicians, working with Ecuadorans, are carrying out needed services to improve pro-
ductive efficiency in existing factories, and are aiding Ecuadoran businessmen in the development
of plans and engineering data for new industries badly needed to diversify the country's economy.
They will also help the Ecuadorans attract investment capital needed for expansion of domestic
industrial production.

Training Program: From 1950 through June 30, 1954, a total of 132 grants were given Ecuadorans
for training in the United States, as follows: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, 24; health and sanita-
tion, 26; education, 21; transportation, communication, power, industry, mining, labor, 61.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program In Ecuador: In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954,
U.S. contributions to the program of technical cooperation in Ecuador totaled $1,311,400. Ecuador's
cash contributions for the same period totaled $1,167,000.


GPO 89A556




FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION I


Country

FACT SHEET Series:
qHii iii



GUATEMALA

The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States."
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood...it is humanitarian...it helps others to help themselves... it calls for joint participation
in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as soon as the host
country can operate and finance the project alone. It is part of President Eisenhower's pro-
gram of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world, with roads and schools, hos-
pitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of 'this new kind of war'.
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country...




GUATEMALA

Guatemala is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
program through which the U.S. encourages and assists in economic development in the Western
Hemisphere. This is in recognition of the importance of these countries to our foreign commerce
and the part they play as partners in the free world alignment against the menace of international
communism.
Guatemala, a Central American republic with an area of 42,000 square miles, is about the size of
Tennessee. It has coast lines on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
The country is mountainous except for a Pacific slope strip about 40 miles wide and for low-lying
and marshy forest land near the northeast coast. Several mountain ranges, mainly of the Antillean
chain, traverse the country.
Guatemala has three well-defined areas:
1. The mountain plateau area has the largest concentration of population and produces coffee -
Guatemala's major export crop wheat, corn, sheep, cattle, and pigs.
2. The Pacific slope area has good agricultural land and produces coffee, corn, rice, bananas,
cotton, cattle, essential oils, and some rubber.
3. The northeast area, which is sparsely populated, produces forest products, including mahogany,
dyewoods, chicle, oak, pine, and spruce.
Agriculture, the most important economic activity, employs more than three-fourths of the country's
labor force and accounts for almost half of the gross national product. Coffee, bananas, cotton,
sugar cane, corn, rice, essential oils, and potatoes are its most important crops. Much of the chicle
used in the United States for the manufacture of chewing gum comes from Guatemala.
Mineral products of Guatemala include lead, zinc, chromite, mercury, and some gold.




I








Guatemala is governed by a President and normally has a one-house legislature. A constituent
assembly is now developing a new constitution.
The country is a member of United Nations.

The People: The population of Guatemala largest of any Central American country is
estimated at 3,125,000 persons, 32 percent of whom are urban and 68 percent rural. Fifty-five
percent of the people are Indian, five percent white, and the balance of mixed race. Spanish is the
official language.

U.S.-Guatemalan Trade: U.S. imports from Guatemala, which totaled $65.5 million in 1954, are
chiefly coffee, bananas, chicle, abaca fiber, and essential oils. U.S. exports to Guatemala, totaling
$47.2 million in 1954, are chiefly grains and grain products, machinery, motor vehicles and automobile
parts and accessories, and chemicals and related products.

The Development Problem: Guatemala is almost completely dependent for its foreign exchange on
the exportation of coffee and bananas. There is a severe shortage of investment capital and medium
term credit facilities. There is no adequate paved road network nor are there adequate telecom-
munications facilities. Power facilities barely meet present requirements, and there is no existing
margin for industrial expansion. There is a lack of trained technicians and managers for new or
expanded activities. A substantial part of the population lives on the subsistence level, and the
condition of workers rural and urban poses one of the country's most pressing problems.
The Indian population mostly small landholders living on lands of marginal production is
largely illiterate, making its integration into the life of a modern state difficult.
The country is undergoing further adjustment in the transition from a highly controlled state
economy to a free enterprise economy in which private initiative can flourish and play its role in the
development of the country.




FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

Program Objectives: Guatemala and the U.S. are working together through technical cooperation
and economic development programs to create a sound basis for economic stability and advancement.
In technical cooperation, FOA's objective is to assist the Government of Guatemala to make
available to an increasing number of its citizens benefits which people in the U.S. regard as a
natural inheritance. These are mostly direct benefits to the people in such fields as agriculture,
health, and education which will help them rise above a subsistence level, and to become better
equipped to deal with the many problems associated with technical advancement.
In addition the program seeks indirect benefits resulting from projects to better public administra-
tion, improve industrial practices, and develop social and community techniques.

Agriculture and National Resources: The objectives include improving food and cash crops
through agricultural assistance and practices familiar in the U.S. Fhe program is emphasizing
extension activity, with supporting research and development. A new phase has been introduced
involving supervised agricultural credit, land use and advice on regional development.
The program is now being expanded to include extension services, and to continue a limited
cooperative program of research in basic food crops and livestock which was started in 1945.
Results of this earlier program have included development of improved seeds of wheat, beans and
rice, and better crop protection practices.
In 1941 the United States initiated developmental work in rubber and cinchona. Work on the
latter crop was stopped when synthetic drugs for treatment of malaria were developed. Rubber
research and extension have resulted in commercial quantity production for limited domestic uses
and for export.








Health and Sanitation: Current activity has been limited largely to constructing and equipping
the Roosevelt Hospital toward which the U.S. granted $500,000, with a matching contribution by
Guatemala. These funds will make the obstetric andpediatric units operative and 300 of the hospital's
eventual 1,000 beds available for use in late 1955. A nurses school and dormitory already are in
operation.
An experimental sanitation program was carried out in Guatemala from 1942 to 1946. It consisted
of projects in malaria control, health centers, basic sanitation, disease control, water supply, and
sewage systems.

Education: A cooperative program in rural elementary education, with normal school and af-
filiated demonstration schools, was developed in 1946, cancelled by the communist government in
1950, and then expanded by the present government to include more than 400 rural schools.
A new servicio has been established to assist the Guatemalan Government in carrying forward a
strong educational program.
One hundred Guatemalan school teachers were brought to the U.S. in 1954 for short courses in
teacher training at five Southwest universities. The purpose of this project was to encourage and
-strengthen the progress of free education in Guatemala, and to show the teachers, who had been
subjected to strong communist propaganda, how Americans live and work. This group was the
largest of any technical cooperation program to come to the U.S. for a single study project.

Transportation: In fiscal year 1955 FOA allowed $3 million in development assistance funds for
completion of the central and major portion of a highway to run along the Pacific slope from Mexico
to El Salvador. The road extends from Popoya about 70 miles to Coatepeque.
This two-lane asphalt road runs through the currently richest and most productive agricultural
area, where at least 60 percent of the national wealth is produced. The highway is of major im-
portance to the further development of the region.
The U.S. has also made funds available to Guatemala for further construction activity on the
Inter-American Highway.

Public Administration: In the process of moving away from communistic controlled governmental
activities, improvements in public administration have been given high priority. Experts are pres-
ently giving technical advice in organization, budgeting, taxation, and tariff administration.

Industry: An industrial economist has been retained for advice to the Government, to U.S.
technicians, and the business community.

Training Program: During fiscal year 1955 nearly 160 Guatemalans (including the 100 teachers
brought to the U.S.) participated in varied training programs. Fields of activity included poultry
industry, coffee culture, cacao culture, wheat production, control of potato virus disease, young
farmer training, agricultural marketing and processing, food and nutrition, forestry, radioisotope
techniques applied to nutrition and cancer research, nuclear reactor techniques, cartography, labor
leader training, primary, secondary and vocational education, audio-visual training, dentistry, police
administration, and public administration.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program In Guatemala: U.S. contributions authorized for
economic and technical cooperation in Guatemala in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1955 total
$5,000,000. Contributions by Guatemala are estimated at the equivalent of $2,200,000. In addition,
the United States is providing $1,425,000 for the Inter-American Highway, with contributions of
$712,500 by Guatemala.



Office of Public Reports
May, 1955







FOA PUBLICATIONS


Available on request to Office of Public Reports, Foreign Operations Adminis-
tration, 806 Connecticut Avenue N.W., Washington 25, D.C.


General
FOA Fact Sheet
Escape to Freedom The Story of the U.S. Escapee Program
Reports to Congress on the Mutual Security Program
Reports to Congress on the Mutual Defense Assistance
Control Act of 1951 (the Battle Act)

Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation in Health
American Universities in Technical Cooperation
Technical Cooperation Programs Around the World
Technical Cooperation in Agriculture


Country Series
Fact Sheets
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile


Costa Rica
Nicaragua
Uruguay


Booklets
Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Denmark
France
Germany
Greece


Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Thailand
Turkey
United Kingdom


FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.


U


(/


Colunbla Univer3ity Law Library
Kent Hall
New York 27, N. Y.


LIBR


FIRST-CLASS MAIL


GPO 892571


PENALTY FQR PRIVATE USE
PAYMENT OF POSTAGE,
GPO




FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION

_c I
Country


HO FACT SHEET Series:



HAITI




The United States Mutual Security Program of cooperation with nearly 60 countries of the free
world is authorized by Congress "to maintain the security and promote the foreign policy of
the United States."
An important phase of this effort is Technical Cooperation with individual countries in the less
developed areas joint programs of teaching and training which help countries to build up
their economic and social structures, thereby becoming more self-reliant partners in a stronger
free-world community.
Technical Cooperation provides demonstrations throughout the world which can be seen and under-
stood it is humanitarian it helps others to help themselves it calls for joint
participation in projects initiated by the host government and calls for U.S. withdrawal as
soon as the host country can operate and finance the project alone. It is part of President
Eisenhower's program of "serving the needs, rather than the fears, of the world, with roads
and schools, hospitals and homes, food and health as the monuments of "this new kind of
war.
This Fact Sheet outlines the Technical Cooperation program of FOA in one such country. .



HAITI

Haiti is one of 19 Latin American republics participating in the FOA technical cooperation
through which the U.S. encourages and assists economic development in the Western Hemisphere.
This is in recognition of the prime importance of these countries to our foreign commerce and the
part they play as partners in the free world alignment against the menace of international
communism.
Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic the island of Hispaniola, where Columbus estab-
lished the first European settlement in the Americas. Haiti is the smaller and the more populous
of the two. With an area of less than 11,000 square miles, about the size of Maryland, Haiti has
an estimated population of 3.4 million.
The country is one of the two Negro republics in the world. It is the only French speaking
American republic.
Three mountain ranges divide Haiti into a series of more or less isolated valleys. The humid
mountain slopes and the portions of the plains that are watered, either naturally or by irrigation,
form the basis for agriculture, which is the country's chief source of income.
Principal exports are coffee, sugar, sisal, bananas, cacao and essential oils.
Haiti's largest river, the Artibonite, is not big enough to be of importance to transportation.
The delta at the mouth of the river, however, now forms one of the largest development projects
in Haiti.
Haiti is governed by a President and a two-chamber legislature.
The country is a member of United Nations.








The People: Of Haiti's 3.4 million people, about 80 percent are rural and dependent on agri-
culture for their livelihood.
French is the official language, although many of the people speak a French patois called
Creole.

U.S.-Haitian Trade: In 1954, U.S. imports from Haiti totaled $24.8 million, chiefly coffee and
sisal, a vegetable fiber used to make twine. U.S. exports to Haiti, which totaled $35.8 million,
were chiefly foodstuffs, textiles, and machinery.

The Development Problem: Because Haiti has no significant proven natural resources, the
economy of the country depends to an unusual degree on the development of agriculture and related
activities. The density of population one of the highest in Latin America makes land re-
habilitation and increased food production particularly urgent.
The small number of trained agricultural technicians, the impoverished soil, inadequate trans-
portation facilities, and high interest rates are barriers to rapid agricultural development.
Haiti has a high incidence of tuberculosis, malaria, yaws, and parasitic infections, together
with widespread malnutrition and anemia. This situation is complicated by lack of an adequate
program of preventive medicine and of basic sanitary facilities, and a shortage of safe drinking
water.


FOA'S TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAM

The joint technical cooperation program began in Haiti in 1942 with a modest program in health
and sanitation. This was followed in 1944 by a cooperative program in agriculture and recently,
in 1954, by a program in rural education.
Chief objective of the cooperative program has been to help the Government of Haiti raise the
living standards of its people, primarily by increasing agricultural productivity, improving health
conditions, and attacking the basic problem of illiteracy.
As a result of Hurricane Hazel in October 1954, emergency assistance has become part of the
FOA program. To prevent starvation and to help the Government of Haiti maintain reasonably
tranquil conditions, FOA made available $2 million worth of surplus agricultural commodities plus
$390,000 for transportation of the commodities; $350,000 for seeds and hand tools, and is providing
$750,000 in fiscal 1955 for a program of reconstruction of irrigation systems and farm-to-market
roads, and of rehabilitation of coffee, cacao, and other crops.

Agriculture: This cooperative program included the establishment of an extension system
through which 27 Haitians who have received specialized training within the program are helping
small farmers improve their cultivation practices, to use better seeds, to irrigate and fertilize
their crops, to improve their livestock, and to market their surplus food.
Some results:
In 1953, Haitian extension agents made 9,500 visits to individual farmers. They conducted
demonstrations attended by 20,000 farmers. Fifty-one thousand head of livestock were treated
for, or vaccinated against, insects and disease.
A demonstration that prepared land for rice growing increased the yield from 280 to 1,600
pounds per acre. This showing convinced the farmers who followed it that the newer practices
were more efficient than the old.
Introduction of new red bean seed almost doubled the yields of some individual farmers. Intro-
duction of new kinds of sorghum has increased yields of some growers by as much as eight times.
The cooperative agriculture program maintains four cattle breeding stations at which imported
Brown Swiss and Brahma stock have been crossed with native breeds to produce better quality
and more disease-resistant cattle. Extension agents have been trained in simple veterinary
practices so that they may better care for cattle in the country.








A pilot irrigation project carried out on 5,000 acres in the Artibonite River valley was so suc-
cessful that Haitian officials decided to expand the work to cover the entire valley of 100,000 acres.
The Haitian Government voted $8 million and obtained a loan of $14 million (recently increased to
$21million) from the Export-Import Bank for the project. Progress has been made in building dams,
major canals, and access roads.
U.S. technicians helped Haitian Government officials to plan the Artibonite Valley irrigation
project and to collect the information needed to present to the Export-Import Bank as a basis
for the loan.
Another irrigation project in the Fonds Parisien community carried out under the cooperative
program resulted in substantially increased food production. The farmers and their families are
now living more comfortably, and businesses in the community have increased their earnings.
Extension agents are using an audio-visual truck to demonstrate with posters, slides, and
films the lessons they are trying to teach. In one 6-month period more than 56,000 farmers were
reached through these teaching aids.

Health and Sanitation: This cooperative program has sought to help the Haitians combat their
most urgent health problems.
Some results:
At first the program concentrated on malaria and yaws control. Haitian technicians were trained
in malaria control and in the then current methods of yaws treatment and control, and many fixed
and mobile yaws clinics were established.
Since 1950 there has been decreasing U.S. cooperative effort on yaws as UNICEF (United
Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) and WHO (World Health Organization) inaugurated
and expanded their yaws programs. With the introduction of antibiotics at prices allowing for
mass treatment, the effectiveness of the campaign increased immeasurably. FOA now operates
only one clinic devoted primarily to yaws.
Almost all work in malaria was transferred in 1948 to the Government of Haiti, and U.S. co-
operation was then concentrated on water supply., Since then all rural and municipal water supply
systems have been operated by U.S.-trained Haitians, with U.S. technicians acting in an advisory
capacity.
A National School of Nursing, established at Port-au-Prince, now graduates Haitian nurses
and is operated by the Ministry of Health with local personnel. The nursing profession as it
exists in Haiti today is a direct result of eight years of effort by U.S. nurse educators.
Four rural health centers were constructed at Mirebalais, Anse-a-Veau, St. Raphael, and Pont
de I'Estere. The one at Anse-a-Veau has since been turned over to the Ministry of Health for
operation. The other three are being used as medical care clinics and as teaching centers in
rural public health and environmental sanitation.

Education: A rural education program, begun in 1954, is being carried out through an educational
cooperative.
Some results:
A rural normal school and a practice school have been established for pre-service teacher educa-
tion through activities in planning of the school plant, selection of equipment, recruitment of
students and staff, and the formulation of a curriculum.
A demonstration rural community-centered school program is being activated with the cooperation
of Haitian, United States, and United Nations agencies.

Housing: A U.S. technician now completing his assignment worked with the Haitian Government
on low-cost, self-help housing problems, particularly those related to areas in which people are to
be resettled. This technician and a community development technician have divided their time
between the Artibonite Valley project and assisting on general agricultural and health projects.

Public Administration: A U.S. customs adviser spent twoyears assistingthe HaitianGovernment
on customs problems.









Training Program: From 1950 through June 30, 1954, a total of 88 grants were made to Haitians
for training in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Canal Zone under the technical cooperation
program, divided as follows: Agriculture, 19; health and sanitation, 25; education, 5; audio-
visual and miscellaneous, 28; public administration, 4; labor, 7.

Funds Allocated for the Cooperative Program in Haiti: In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954,
U.S. contributions to the program of technical cooperation in Haiti totaled $1,035,000. Haiti's
contributions for the same period were $919,200.

Office of Public Reports
May 1955

FOA PUBLICATIONS
Available on request to Office of Public Reports, Foreign Operations Administration, 806
Connecticut Avenue N.W., Washington 25, D.C.

General: FOA Fact Sheet; Escape to Freedom The Story of the U.S. Escapee Program; Re-
ports to Congress on the Mutual Security Program; Reports to Congress on the Mutual Defense
Assistance Control Act of 1951 (the Battle Act); FOA and U.S. Voluntary Agencies.

Technical Cooperation: Technical Cooperation in Health; American Universities in Technical
Cooperation; Technical Cooperation Programs Around the World; Technical Cooperation in Agriculture.

Country Series Fact Sheets: Bollivia; Brazil; Chile; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala;
Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Uruguay.

Country Series Booklets: Austria; Belgium-Luxembourg; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece;
Italy; Netherlands; Norway; Thailand; Turkey; United Kingdom.

GPO 893946


FOREIGN OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.


PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO At
PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, S30
GPO


Columbia University L
Kent Hall y L Library
tew York 27, N. y.


FIRST-CLASS MAIL


LIBR