United States technical assistance in Haiti

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Title:
United States technical assistance in Haiti report of Mike Mansfield on a study mission to Haiti
Physical Description:
1 online resource (ix, 6 p.) : maps. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Mansfield, Mike, 1903-2001
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Foreign Relations
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U.S. G.P.O.
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Washington
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Technical assistance, American -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Assistance technique américaine -- Haïti   ( ram )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Title from PDF t.p. (LLMC Digital, viewed on Nov. 23, 2010)
General Note:
At head of title: 83d Congress, 2d session, Committee print.
General Note:
"Printed for the use of the Senate Committee on Foreigh Relations."

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Columbia Law Library
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Columbia Law Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 682920434
System ID:
AA00001177:00001


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83d Congress1
2d Session J


COMMITTEE PRINT


UNITED STATES TECHNICAL

.-A DISTANCE IN HAITI





REPORT

OF

SENATOR MIKE MANSFIELD

ON A STUDY MISSION TO HAITI












JUNE 1954






Printed for the use of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1954


48105


































COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin, Chairman
H. ALEXANDER SMITH, New Jersey WALTER F. GEORGE, Georgia
BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, Iowa THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, Arkansas
HOMER FERGUSON, Michigan JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama
WILLIAM F. KNOWLAND, California GUY M. GILLETTE, Iowa
GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota
HOMER E. CAPEHART, Indiana MIKE MANSFIELD, Montana
FRANCIS 0. WILCOX, Chief of Staff
CARL M. MARCY, Consultant
JULIUS N. CAHN, Counsel
PAT M. HOLT, Consultant
ALWYN V. FREEMAN, Consultant
C. C. O'DAY, Chief Clerk
DORIS COVINGTON, Assistant Clerk
II



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,
February 19, 1954.
Hon. ALEXANDER WILEY,
Chairman, Senate Foreign Relations Committee,
United States Senate.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: In response to your request, I am enclosing
for your consideration a report on technical assistance to the Republic
of Haiti.
It is my hope that this report will be of value to the committee in
understanding the problems connected with technical assistance to
Haiti and that our Government will be able to do what it can through
this program to help the Haitians to help themselves in raising their
living and health standards and bettering their economic security.
With best personal wishes, I am,
Sincerely yours,
MIKE MANSFIELD.
m


















PREFACE
This study on United States technical assistance to Haiti, which
was prepared by Senator Mansfield at my request, should be helpful to
the Committee on Foreign Relations and to the Senate during their
consideration of the foreign-aid program. It is a case study of the
problems of one of the countries to which we give modest assistance.
It shows how the technical-assistance program helps the people of
Haiti to meet these problems. The study points out the need in Haiti
for foreign private capital to assist in the creation of small industries
to back up its agricultural economy.
It is my hope that other members of the Committee on Foreign
Relations will be able to make similar studies of countries we are
assisting. Such studies serve to check on the United States adminis-
tration of the programs. They also enable members of this committee
to become familiar with the problems with which they must cope in
enacting foreign-aid legislation.
It will be noted from the report that the ratio of Haitian contri-
butions to United States contributions has gradually but consistently
moved upward. Thus, in 1944, Haiti contributed only about $1.50
for each $30 contributed by the United States. For fiscal year 1954,
however, the Haitian Government is to contribute about $8 for every
$6 given by the United States. The intent of the programs is thus
being carried out by increasing the local contributions to programs
which are in the interests of Haiti as well as in the interests of the
United States.
The Haitian people and their Government are to be commended for
their steady advance, thus contributing to the economic and defensive
military strength of this hemisphere.
ALEXANDER WILEY,
Chairman, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.
JUNE 15, 1954.
































CONTENTS

Page
Preface--.......----................-----------.. ......-----.......--...----............-
1. Introduction .---.......-----------------------------...............---.---------.--........... 1
2. Contributions to technical aid in Haiti ....................----------------------------.... 2
3. Agricultural and natural resources-----------------------------.-- 2
4. Health ----------- ---------------- ------------------------- 3
5. Education, public administration, housing--------------.----------- 4
6. Artibonite project --------------------------------------------- 5
7. United Nations program --------------------------------------- 5
8. Conclusion.-------------..-----------------.--.---------------- 6
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REPUBLIQUE D'WAITI


CURREMHT ?ROEC.TS OF ThE. Cool
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_ LEGEND -


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- HEALTH CENTER
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A RIVIERE
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REPUBLIC OF HAITI

SCIPA'S PRoJECTS
1954
Current Projects of the Cooperative Program in Agriculture
ea WELL DRILLING (COUNTRY BAS,5)
SEXTENSION OFFICES
I-lRRIGATION PROJECTS











UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI


1. INTRODUCTION
Haiti is the oldest Latin American Republic, having celebrated on
January 1, 1954, the 150th anniversary of its bitterly won independ-
ence from France. It is a Negro Republic and it is one of the world's
poorest and least developed countries.
Too many people are on too little land-about 3,500,000 in an area
the size of Maryland. Four-fifths of the island is mountainous, much
of it eroded and barren. Within the limits of a $30 million annual
budget, President Paul Eugene Magloire has started programs to
attract tourists, build roads, improve agriculture, and reduce illiteracy
which is extensive.
Both the United Nations Technical Assistance Bureau and the
United States, through point 4, are helping. This country has fos-
tered a technical assistance program for more than 10 years in Latin
America and Haiti shares in the undertaking. It is a cooperative
program in which the United States and the countries in -need of
technical assistance work together, each assuming a share of the
costs involved. Haiti is an excellent example of how the technical
assistance program can help to raise standards of living, create new
sources of wealth, increase productivity, and expand purchasing
power.
Haiti, which has potentially arable land of 2.5 million acres, has only
1 million acres under cultivation. On these acres it produces primarily
coffee, sisal, fiber, sugar, and bananas. It possesses certain valuable
forest resources and probably important mineral resources, as yet
unproved, which include copper, bauxite, and petroleum.
The important immediate needs of the island are for modern prac-
tices in agriculture, the extension of irrigation, and greater utilization
of land. Land rehabilitation and increased food production are-
probably more necessary in Haiti than in any other independent
American Republic.
Extreme pressure of population has already stripped the steep
mountain slopes of most of their forest cover. The use of so much
wood for charcoal and uncontrolled burning and overgrazing have
further aggravated the serious soil-erosion problem.
Lack of adequately trained Haitian technicians, impoverished soil,
poor roads, inadequate transportation, lack of marketing and proc-
essing facilities, lack of proper land surveys and registration of titles,
and high agricultural credit rates tend to keep small farmers in con-
stant poverty. Lack of opportunities for vocational training and
common school education are great handicaps as the Nation strives
for a more efficient health program for the people. The prevalence
of tuberculosis, malaria, yaws, parasitic infections, malnutrition, and
anemia constitute major health problems. The lack of an adequate
program of preventive medicine, shortage of water, the absence of





2 UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI

basic sanitary facilities and the poverty of the people complicate
the difficulties.
In cooperation with the United States Institute of Inter-American
Affairs, an instrument of the point 4 program, the Haitians have been
making progress against some of the toughest and most complex
problems on earth.
The Institute of Inter-American Affairs began its program of
cooperative technical assistance in the basic fields of health and
sanitation, agriculture and education, in cooperation with Latin
American countries on March 31, 1942.
In the fiscal year 1952 significant changes were made in the Insti-
tute's activities and in the organization of the Institute itself. The
Act of International Development in 1950 and the Mutual Security
Act of 1951 centralized technical assistance for Latin America in the
Technical Cooperation Administration (Department of State) within
the framework of the Mutual Security program. Direct appropria-
tions to the Institute were discontinued after 1951. The Institute's
funds for 1952 consisted of a grant-in-aid from TCA made from the
appropriations for the Mutual Security program.
During the early years of technical aid to Haiti the United States
provided the larger portion of funds for the projects. As a comparison
shows, the Haitian contributions have steadily grown until now they
contribute approximately 60 percent of the funds for this program.
These figures do not apply to any other independent agencies operating
in the country. After 1951 they apply only to the Institute of Inter-
American Affairs, point 4, and the Mutual Security Agency.

2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO TECHNICAL AID IN HAITI

1944 1948 1951 1953
United States...................................---------------------------........ $300,637 $463,343 $469, 065 $598, 900
Haiti..................................................------------------------- 16,666 316, 892 644, 903 895, 400

The proposed United States contribution for the fiscal year 1954
is $943,900 and the Haitian contribution is estimated at $1,029,000.
During the 1953 fiscal year there were 30 technicians employed by the
United States, the proposed number for 1954 is 52. Most of the
budget increase is in agriculture, with a smaller increase allowed in
health. A new technical assistance program is in process of being
planned for rural education and one technician in public administra-
tion is helping improve the Haitian customs service.

3. AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Since Haiti has one of the heaviest population pressures on agri-
culture in the Western Hemisphere, improvement in this field is the
most important activity of the technical aid program. Projects are
of two different types: Extension education in improved farm practices
and better methods of utilizing existing resources and the develop-
ment of additional land resources through irrigation.
The 30 Haitian extension agents working with the American staff
do not permit full countrywide coverage, so extension work has been
concentrated around irrigation projects. Through farm visits, meet-




UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI


ings, and demonstrations farmers have been assisted in becoming
more productive by being taught how to seed and plant and to improve
the quality of their vegetables. Work has continued in spreading the
use of improved varieties of field crops and vegetables, in teaching
irrigation methods, in 4-H work, in helping eradicate insect pests,
rodents, and plant diseases, in soil conservation, and even in teaching
a few farmers the use of the plow.
One of the most important results during the past year has been the
progress made in helping farmers organize study clubs and the start
they have made through these clubs in analyzing their own problems.
Another significant development was the initiation of a home-econom-
ics program during the past year. Six home-economics extension
agents, all of them Haitians who work with our American home econ-
omist, are now at work in the field helping farm families with home-
making and community problems, including nutrition, cooking, cloth-
ing, health, gardening, home management, and 4-H Club work.
In order to relieve the population pressure, additional land resources
are being developed by putting old irrigation systems back into use
and building new ones. Such projects are in operation at St. Raphael,
Torbeck, Fonds Parisien, Camp Perrin, and Cavaillon which will
eventually add about 16,500 additional acres to the land in production.
The pilot irrigation project developed in the Artibonite Valley has
resulted in a real start being made this year on construction work
which is designed to irrigate 74,000 acres in this valley as well as to
develop power. We are now providing technical assistance in the
agricultural development of the whole valley. Although the full
results of the irrigation projects are not yet apparent, new crops of
irrigated rice have added to the nation's food supply. A few wells
were drilled during the year to provide underground water for irriga-
tion and domestic use.
In addition to continuing its experimental work in developing a
supply of high-yielding, disease-free seed stock, the Marfranc Rubber
Station, located near Jeremie, also carried on extension work with
farmers on rubber production and furnished technical assistance to
SHADA (Societe Haitiano Am6ricaine de Development Agricole)
which has approximately 200,000 rubber tress that have reached the
stage of production.
The forestry technician recently assigned to the Pine Forest of
SHADA has given advice on the marking of trees for cutting, the
preferable areas for selective cutting, improved logging practices and
lumber-marketing information. He was responsible for SHADA's
entering into an agreement with a private construction company to
purchase approximately 120,000 board feet of short-length lumber
which had heretofore been wasted.

4. HEALTH
In the field of health, the technical-aid program initially made its
principal contribution in reducing yaws and is now broadening its
attack to include other diseases. It is the long-range objective of
this cooperative undertaking to assist in the development of a country-
wide health program. The work has no doubt already relieved con-
siderable suffering and has improved the productivity of the labor
force to some extent. Through reducing the death rate slightly, it
may also have increased the rate of population growth.





4 UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI

Progress has been made in converting from a program restricted
largely to the treatment of yaws to a general health program which
provides facilities for preventive as well as curative medicine and for
sanitation measures. A health center was completed at Mierbalais,
which has clinical facilities for the treatment of various communicable
diseases. In all, during the first year of operation some 33,392 clinic
visits were made by 16,785 patients coming from more than 50 towns.
A domestic water-supply system was finished and placed in opera-
tion in the town of Croix-des-Bouquets. This village of 1,500 persons,
which grows to around 7,000 on market days, contributed approxi-
mately one-third of the cost of the project. Water-supply projects were
initiated in Ouanaminthe, Terrier Rouge, and Corail. At the end of
the year arrangements will be made for the establishment of a public-
health nursing program in connection with the rural health-center
operations. Continued assistance has been given to the National
School of Nursing. Work in assisting the Haitian Government with
vital statistics was begun toward the end of last year.

5. EDUCATION, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, HOUSING
A cooperative rural-education program is now being established.
If this actually can be worked it should be the most significant aspect
of this year's activity since the difficulty at the root of many of the
most serious problems in Haiti is the lack of education. Most of the
population is illiterate not only in the sense of not knowing how to
read and write, but also in the sense of not understanding economic
development. Many have participated in a money economy for only a
short time.
Another improvement resulting in part from United States assist-
ance affects the customs service. The examination and control of
passenger baggage is already proceeding on a more realistic basis.
A housing technician is being recruited whose problem will be to
help the Haitian farmer construct a better house at less cost and with
a minimum use of scarce materials. Rural houses and other buildings
in Haiti are now made with a crude wattle and daub technique that
was brought from Africa in colonial times.
The program developed for fiscal year 1955 will continue to operate
in agriculture, health, education, aid to customs, and housing. There
should be an expansion of special assistance to the Artibonite project
where a small increase in the number of technicians is necessary if
our responsibilities are to be carried out. American officials in Haiti
envisage a broadening of the program in fiscal year 1955 if requested
by the Haitian Government to include certain new functions, such
as more careful planning of projects, improving public administration,
giving technical advice on farm-to-market roads, and helping stimu-
late industrial development and private investment.
Although it is of the utmost importance to bring about a better
balance in the economy through industrial development, at the same
time that agriculture is being made more efficient, it will take con-
siderable work before we can be of much help in this field. Ameri-
can officials expect, however, that eventually a start can be made in
the small agricultural processing industries. Haitians especially need
assistance with production and marketing problems in sisal, mahog-
any, oils, and other commodities. There are a great many difficulties





UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI


in the way of the development of small manufacturing industries in
Haiti, but there is hope that a start can be made in this field in fiscal
year 1955 if the Haitian Government requests such cooperation.
6. ARTIBONITE PROJECT
The successful pilot irrigation project that the technical aid pro-
gram developed a few years ago in the Artibonite Valley has almost
started a chain reaction. The Haitian officials have become enthusi-
astic about developing the entire valley, the possibility of which has
been debated for 200 years. The Haitian Government voted $8 mil-
lion and induced our Export-Import Bank to approve a loan of $14
million. Haiti now intends to go ahead with the full development of
the project on which it has already pledged itself over a period of a
few years to spend the equivalent of more than 1 full year's income,
a sum far greater in relation to the resources of Haiti than that spent
by most other countries for economic development. Within the last
6 months operations have gotten underway in building dams, access
roads, and major canals. The early stages of the work are planned
to tie in land preparation and drainage with the construction activ-
ities of the dams, so that some new irrigable land can be put into early
production and start yielding income while the rest of the project is
being finished.
The prospective market for cement opened up by the proposed dam
construction probably was one important factor in Haiti's getting a
new industry, a much needed cement factory. This factory, as well
as job opportunities in the dam and canal construction work, increased
the purchasing power of hundreds of people which in turn stimulated
business. The purchase of materials, both in Haiti and in the United
States, helped business in both countries. The eventual development
of power at the big dam will relieve one of the present bottlenecks in
industrial development and contribute greatly to the success of the
project.
This accomplishment in stimulating Haiti's economy and trade
with the United States was to a large extent, the result of the preap-
plication of technical assistance rather than as a direct consequence
of the encouragement of trade and investment. It illustrated the
potentially widespread effect of technical assistance as applied
through the "servicio." The approach is more than simply technical
assistance. It involves the expenditure by the "servicio" of grant
funds contributed by both governments to help assure that the work
of the technicians will be effective

7. UNITED NATIONS PROGRAM
Contributions in the way of technical assistance in the fields of
health and agriculture are also being made in Haiti by the United
Nations and the specialized agencies of that organization.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is
operating in the agricultural and natural resources field, having
specialists in forestry, soil erosion, fish farming, and animal husbandry.
Other United Nations' technicians are engaged in such activities
as furnishing fiscal advice to the National Bank, conducting a school
for hotel employees, organizing cooperatives, developing rural indus-





6 UNITED STATES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN HAITI

tries and giving advice on economic and financial statistics. The
International Labor Office of the United Nations will assist in the
local training of garage mechanics, electricians, artisans for the
building industry, and help in the development of cottage industries
using such materials as leather and fibers.
UNESCO has had a project in fundamental education for adults and
is considering the possibility of going into the field of rural education.
If they do enter this field the United States will change its plans since
it is the declared policy of the mission not to duplicate work carried
on by the U. N. groups.
8. CONCLUSION
Under President Magloire, Haiti has achieved, for the time being at
least, the political stability indispensable to economic and social de-
velopment. The pace forward may be excruciatingly slow but it is
in the right direction.
President Magloire emphasizes that Haiti is not seeking charity.
He would like foreign capital to establish small industrial plants as
a buttress for what is essentially an agricultural economy. To attract
foreign capital, the Haitian Government passed a law reducing taxes
and eliminating certain duties on new industries. The lack of response
from foreign private capital has built up a suspicion that, as the Presi-
dent put it, the United States "is not interested in helping us to
industrialize."
This suspicion is held by many Haitians and, observers believe, it
may well be the wedge used eventually by the Communists to try to
gain entry here. They have made no serious effort yet, perhaps
because Haiti is a land of small farms-too small in the opinion of most
experts-and the Communists cannot use land reform as a rallying
cry.
Our technical assistance program is faced with many difficulties
in Haiti. Presumably if there were no such difficulties, we would not
be in Haiti. But the need for the program is great and the people
generally seem to appreciate this fact, particularly the thousands of
families who are cooperating in our programs. There is reason for
optimism about the opportunity for future accomplishment when one
becomes acquainted with the Haitian people. Most of them are very
cooperative, very industrious and very eager to learn. They have,
moreover, as a President, an able and energetic executive who com-
prehends the problems of economic progress and is eager to tackle
them.