Haiti. Bureau de représentant fiscal; Annual report of the fiscal representative for the fiscal year ….: publ., 18th, 19...

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Title:
Haiti. Bureau de représentant fiscal; Annual report of the fiscal representative for the fiscal year ….: publ., 18th, 1933.34 to 24th, 1939-40; 7 vols.,
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Mixed Material
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Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de l’Etat, 1935-.

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General Note:
4-trUS-1933-40
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Hollis 005938280

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University of Florida
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ILLMC
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LLMC31883
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HAITI



ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE


FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER, 1939- SEPTEMBER, 1940,




SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE,
AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF
THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, AND THE SECRETARY
OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.






S. DE LA RUE
Fiscal Representative.

REX A. PIXL4Y
Deputy Fiscal Representative.,

J. C. CRADDOCK
Inspector General of Internal Revenue.







Imprimerie de I'Etat
PORT-AU-PRINCE. HAITI


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CONTENTS



Paps
Foreign Commerce..................................................... ............................... ...... 6
Origin of Imports and Principal Commodities Imported.................................... 8
Destination of Exports and Commodities Exported......................................... 16
Coffee .................................................................................................... 21
Cotton ............ ................................................................................ 24
Sugar ........................................................................................................ 25
Sisal ................................................................................................... 27
Bidans ................................................................................................. 27
Other Exports.................................................................................... 30
Balance of Trade............................................................................................. 32
Shipping ..................................................... ............................................... ....... 33
Tourist Trade.......................................................................................... ........... 3
Foreign Commerce by Months.............................................. ..... ................. 37
Commercial Convention...........:...................................................................... 40
Customs Administration........................................................................................... 41
Government Revenues....................................................................................... 41
Total Revenues........................................................................................... 41
Customs Receipts................................................................................... 43
Internal Revenue Receipts..... .................................................................. 44
Miscellaneous Receipts...................................... ... ................. ....... 45
Government Expenditures...................................................................................... 46
Customs Service......................................................................................... 50
Internal Revenue Service........................ ... ............... 51
Public Works Progiam.............................................. ..... .......................... 5
Treasury Position................................................................................................. 61
Public Debt.......................................... ..... ............ ....63
Service of Payments........................................................................................... 65
Supplies .................................................................................................... 66
The Budget...................................................................................................... 66
Banking and Currency..................................................................................... 68
Conclusion ......... .............................................................. ......................... 69
Tables .......................................... ........ ....... ..................... ............................*.... 75
Annex: Report of the Inspection General, Internal Revenue Inspection Service.... 119
Expenditures .......................................................................................... 119
Personnel ...................................... ........................................................ 120
Internal Revenue Receipts.................................................................... 120
Conclusion ........................................................................... ...... .......... 122
Tables .......................................................................... ........................ ..... 125
Appendice: Schedules ............................... ......... ... .................... 131

III





IV STATISTICAL EXHIBITS
CHARTS
Pages
1. Value of Imports and Exports, and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1939-40.................................................................. 77
2. Value of Imports showing countries of origin in percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1939-40................................................................................ 77
3. Value of Exports showing countries of destination in percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1939-40 ........................................................ 78
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by countries in percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1939-40 ................................................. .............................. 78
5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by countries, fiscal year 1939-40....................... .......... 79
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40........ 80
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1938-40 80
8. Valueand Percentage of Yalue.of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by. ports, fiscal year. 1939-40........................ ...................... 81
9. Net tonnage of Steam and Moter Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1939-40................................ 82
10. Net Tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered by Registry
and Months, fiscal year 1939-40............................................................ 83
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1939-40.... 84
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1939-40.... 85
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 1939-40
compared with 1938-39...................................................................... 8
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year 1939-40
compared with 1938-39............................................................................ 87
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal year 1916-17 to 1939-40............ 8
16. Quantity of Imports by Commodities, fiscal year 1916-17 to 1939-40........ 89
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40........ 90
18. Quantity of Exports by Commodities, fiscal yeard 1916-17 to 1939-40.... 90
19. Quantity and Value of Five Principal Exports by ports, fiscal year 1939-40
compared with 1938-39................................ ....................................... 91
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17
to 1939-40..................................................................... .............. 92
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17
to 1939-40...... ......... .............................. ........... ............. 93
22. Operating Fund of the Fiscal Representative, fiscal years 1916-17
to 1939-40 .................................................................................................. 94
23. Expense of Fiscal Representative by objects of Expenditures, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1939-40 ............... ..................................................... 95
24. Classification of. Total Expenditures of the Fiscal Representative, fiscal
year 1939-40........................... ........................................................... 93
25. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the Fiscal
Representative, fiscal years 1939-40............................................... 96





APPENDIX: SCHEDULES


Pages
26. Distribution of Expenditures from the Operating Fund of the Fiscal
Representative, fiscal year 1939-40........................ ........ 96
27. Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Cost of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property, and Fixed Charges, fiscal
year 1919-20 to 1939-40................................................................... 97
28. Total Cost of Collecting each gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1939-40 ................................................... ........................ 98"
29. Operating Allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24
to 1939-40................................................................. ....... 98
30. Revenues of Haiti by Sources, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1939-40............ 99
31. Relation between Imports and Export Values and Customs Receipts, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1939-40.................................................... 100
32. Customs Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40............... 101
33. Customs Receipts by Ports, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40................ 102
34. Customs Receipts by Sources and Ports, fiscal year 1939-40.................... 103
35. Customs Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1939-40............ 103
36. Distribution of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40............ 104
37. Miscellaneous Receipts by Sources and Months, fiscal year 1939-40........ 104
38. Total Receipts of Haitian Government by Sources, Months and Ports,
fiscal year 1939-40................................................................................ 105
39. Ordinary, Supplementary and Extraordinary Appropriations from Revenue,
fiscal years 1937-38 to 1939-40.......................................................... 106
40. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal years 1937-38 to 1939-40.................... 107
41. Functional Classification of Expenditures, fiscal year 1939-40.............. 10S
42. Classification of Total Expenditures by Departments and Services, fiscal
year 1933-40................................. ...................................................... 109
434 Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures by De-
partments and Services, fiscal year 1939-40............................... 110
44. Reimbursements to Appropriations, fiscal year 1936-37 to 1939-40........ 111
45. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal year 1939-40....................................... 112
46. Revenues and Expenditures and Excess of Revenues or Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1939-40............................................................ 113
47. Treasury Assets and Liabilities............................. 113
48. Public D ebt................................................................................................. 114
49. Expenditures from Revenue for the Public Debt and Relation of such
Expenditures to Revenue Receipts, fiscal years 1938-39 to 1939-40.... 114
50. Profit and Loss Statement, Bureau of Supplies, fiscal year 1939-40............ 115
51. Balance sheet, Bureau of Supplies........................................................ 115
52. Notes of the Banque Nationale in Circulation by Months, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1939-40............................................ 116
53. Loans and Deposits of Banks in Haiti by Months, fiscal year 1939-40.... 116
1. Quantities of Leading Commodities Exported and imported, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1939-40................................................................... 17
2. Average Coffee Prices, F. O. B. Haitian ports, fiscal years 1916-17
to 1939-40........................................................ A........... .................... 21
3. Quantities of Bananas Exported by Months, fiscal years 1933-34 to
1939-40 .................................... ... ......... .................................. 2
4. Value of Total Imports and Total Exports, by Months, fiscal years 1931-32
to 1939-40.......................... .......................................... ................... 38
5. Total Revenue Receipts of Haiti and Expenditures from Revenues, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1939-40..................................... ...................... 42
ANNEX: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
TABLES
1. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, fiscal years 1937-38 to 1939-40.... 127
2. Internal Revenue Receipts by Collection Prefectures, fiscal years 1937-38
to 1939-40.................. ..**********.........***** ***........... ....................... 12
3. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Prefectures, fiscal year 1939-40 129
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Months, fiscal year 1939-40.... 130
APPENDIX: SCHEDULES
1. Quantity and Value of Imports into Haiti by Countries of Origin........... 133
2. Quantity and Value of Exports from Haiti by Countries of Destination.... 159
3. Customs Receipts by Sources by Ports and by Months, fiscal year 1939-40 167






















HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
OCTOBER, 1939-SEPTEMBER, 1940.









HAITI

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER 1939- SEPTEMBER 1940

OFFICE OF THE FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, March 5, 1941.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF
HAITI.

Sirs:
I have the honor to transmit herewith the twenty-fourth annual report
on the commerce and finance of the Republic of Haiti. The report covers
the fiscal year ending September 30, 1940, supplementing and enlarging
upon the monthly reports required by Article VIII of the Agreement of
August 7, 1933, between the United States of America and the Republic
of Haiti.
The fiscal period covered by this report has been one of adjustment to
conditions brought about by the present European war. Needless to say
the war has had its effects upon the commerce and finance of Haiti as it
has upon commerce and finance everywhere. In Haiti: this effect has been
wholly adverse since Haiti has no war industries nor does it furnish
vital war supplies. Furthermore, to the extent that the national economy of
Haiti is more dependent than that of most countries upon the value of
export products the adverse effect of the interruption 6f normal world
trade has been correspondingly greater.
The basic problem in Haitian economy has been, and remains, that of
producing and marketing sufficient agricultural products to create exchange
for the purchase abroad of those things essential in a country where
manufacturing is negligible. The war has not changed the fundamental
problem, but by cutting off the European market has accentuated the
difficulty of obtaining adequate revenue to resume full service of the public
debt while maintaining the essential services of the government. Any
attempt to do so would involve lowering a standard of living which is
already far below what it should be.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The decline during recent years in world prices for agricultural products
particularly those produced in Haiti coffee, cotton, sugar, cacao, etc.,
is now history. The extent of this decline was such that, in the five years
preceding the present war, the value of Haiti's exports dropped to less
than half of the average amount Haiti was receiving a decade ago.
Difficult as Haiti's position had been made by the decreased value of
its exports, when the new war broke out in Europe in September 1939
Haiti was faced with the loss wholly or in part of markets to which over
60 per cent of its production had been moving. During 1939-40 Haiti
fortunately has been able to sell its products other than coffee. Only
16.187,765 kilos of coffee were sold abroad during the fiscal year.
In addition to 16,187,765 kilos of coffee exported, it is estimated that
about 6,400,000 kilos were harvested and remained in the country at
September 30, indicating a crop of approximately 22,600,000 kilos for
the year. Few smaller crops have been reported during the past quarter
of a century and at no time since the period of the first world war has
the amount received from coffee exports been lower.
The decrease in Government revenue receipts and consequent failure to
reach estimates of revenue is due to the low returns from coffee. During
the preceding year export duties on coffee returned directly to the treasury
Gdes. 4,326,792; while sales of coffee brought Gdes. 18,728,054 to the
country in purchasing power. Since the burden of import duties ap-
proximated fifty per cent that year, it follows that some Gdes. 13,500,000
(about 50 per cent of Gdes.- 18,728,054 plus Gdes. 4,326,792) of
Government revenues for the preceding year can be traced directly or
indirectly to coffee. In contrast therewith during 1939-40 only Gdes.
10,243,491 to sustain foreign purchases were received from the sale
abroad of coffee and only Gdes. 2,424,676 were paid in direct duties.
It follows that during the past year not more than Gdes. 7,500,000 in
Government revenues, or Gdes. 6,000,000 less than in the preceding
year, were accounted for by coffee. The decline in Government revenues
derived from coffee was therefore greater than the total revenue decline.
Why this was possible will be explained more fully in the chapter on
Balance of Trade where the effect of government expenditures under the
public works program on importation will be considered'.
A comparison of government revenues derived during the year directly
and indirectly from coffee with previously established averages helps in
no small measure to clarify Haiti's present economic and financial position.
In contrast with direct returns to the treasury from coffee export duties
of Gdes. 2,424,676 during the past year, prior to the past few years
direct annual returns were in the neighborhood of Gdes. 10,000,000 and
even higher if we go back to the better than average crop years. In
comparison with purchasing power of Gdes. 10,243,491 brought to the






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


country from coffee sales during the fiscal year, statistics show that from
1916-17 through 1938-39, the average was Gdes. 45,241,553. This
decrease of Gdes. 35,000,000 in purchasing power gains in significance
when the figure is placed alongside of some other financial statistics. The
burden of the import tariff in recent years has been between 45 and 50 per
cent. At these rates thirty-five million gourdes going into the purchase of
imports would have resulted in revenues of some fifteen to seventeen million
gourdes; or it might be pointed out that over a period of several years
preceding the decline in coffee prices in 1937 the budget was balanced at
approximately thirty-four million gourdes each year. This amount was
considered then as adequate to meet all usual annual expenses of the Go-
vernment including full payment of interest and amortization on the
Public Debt.
Turning from coffee to other export products we find that the value
of Haitian exports other than coffee amounted to Gdes. 16,751,709 during
the year, against an average annual value since 1916-17 of Gdes. 18,424,562,
indicating a downward drift in the value of the other exports, as well as
decreased value of the coffee crop. A comparison of total volume of
exports where the make-up of the export list is constantly changed is
obviously meaningless since a weight unit of one product cannot be treated
as bearing the same significance as a weight unit of another product. If,
however, we determine what the average annual value of Haiti's volume
of production, at the beginning of the twenty-three year period, would
have been had the price level been the same as during the year just finished,
or if conversely we apply former price levels to recent production volumes
we find that in either case the recent years have shown better comparative
results than the earlier years of the period; and this indicates progress is
being made in replacing those products such as cotton, logwood, cacao,
etc., which have declined in volume by new products such as bananas and
sisal. That these gains have been nullified by low world commodity
prices has been something beyond Haiti's control.
Since the decline in volume and value of coffee exports, products other
than coffee are assuming a growing relative importance. Prior to 1930
coffee represented well over seventy per cent of total export values. This
preponderance has been decreasing and in the years just preceding the
war in Europe coffee had declined-to fifty per cent of 'the total. In the fiscal
year just ended the exact percentage was 37.95 for coffee and 62.05 for
products other than coffee. While the year 1939-40 is of course ex-
ceptional, in that part of the coffee harvest was not sold it is still in
accordance with a trend which may continue.
Bananas head the list of products which are growing in im-
portance although bananas are not yet second to coffee in export value.
Banana exports were twelve per cent above the preceding year in






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


volume and in value. A new record has been set each year in banana
production, and it is expected that production in the present year will
continue the advance barring unusual winds or unseasonable weather.
The production for 1939-40 was 2,268,387 stems.
Volume of sisal exports again reached a new record level when
7,871,118 kilos were exported. There was improvement in the unit
value. The year's production sold for an average of Gde. .428 per kilo
against Gde. .360 per kilo received for the previous year's crop.
Raw sugar exports reached 29,856,208 kilos during the year. This
was a decrease of 20 per cent from the quantity (37,144,990 kilos)
shipped in the previous year. In explanation it might be said that sugar
quotas were relaxed during 1939 and a very considerable quantity of
sugar was shipped in the late months of 1938-39 which normally would
have been exported in 1939-40.
Cotton exportation decreased by 34 per cent from the previous year's
level. This downward trend has existed ever since 1936-37, after annual
production had reached nearly 8,000,000 kilos. Exports of cotton for the
fiscal year 1939-40, amounted to 3,105,003 kilos, which were valued at
Gdes. 3,048,302. During the previous fiscal year 4,671,839 kilos of
cotton, valued at Gdes. 4,416,524 were exported.
The total value of all Haitian exports during the past year amounted
to Gdes. 26,995,200. Imports did not decline in proportion for reasons
to be noted later but even so the decline in export value was so drastic
that the total for all foreign commerce (i. e. imports plus exports) touched
a new record low.
That Government revenues did not drop by the full sum of
Gdes. 6,000,000 or more (the amount lost through coffee declines) can
be attributed to the fact that purchasing power which is reflected in imports
and revenues therefrom was sustained by expenditures under the public
works contract. The progress made in the construction of public works
will be noted in detail under Government Expenditures but the fact
should be here recorded that expenditures under the contract have been
even of greater importance in sustaining imports and Government revenues
during 1939-40 than they were in 1938-39.
The budget for 1939-40 was promulgated October 2, 1939. Based
upon estimated revenue of Gdes. 29,189,000, the budget authorized
expenditures in the amount of Gdes. 29,188,991.81. This amount varied
but slightly from expenditures authorized in the previous year's budget.
Forecasts of revenues both from the import and export tariffs are based
upon a study of the expected volume and value of Haitian exports and
the expected purchasing power derived from exports and other known
sources. The size and value of the coffee crop is always the greatest
variable to be taken into account in such a forecast. At the beginning






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


of the fiscal year 1939-40 the question of the extent to which Haitian
exports of coffee to Europe would be decreased by war conditions made a
reasonably accurate forecast of revenues more difficult than usual.
The proportion of the Haitian coffee crop marketed in Europe had been
decreasing while that portion sold in the United States was progressively
increasing. It was expected that shipments to Europe would suffer a
further decline and the American market would take up some, perhaps
nearly all, of the loss. This was in fact the trend as it developed during
the early months of the fiscal year and up to the time of the invasion of
Norway, the Low Countries, and France. The invasion of those countries
eliminated further marketing of Haitian coffee in Europe, and Haiti was
left with the American market only. Unfortunately producers in other
coffee countries were likewise cut off from their European customers and
competition among producers in the one important market remaining -
that of the United States resulted in the glutting of that market and
the lowest coffee prices in history. A substantial part of the Haitian coffee
crop was not sold at all.
As we have seen above, the amount of revenue derived directly or
indirectly from coffee was at least six million gourdes less than in the
previous year. Under these conditions it became evident that revenues in
the closing months of the year would not be sufficient to meet the full
amount of expenditures authorized in the budget. To bring expenditures
within available amounts, reductions were made in the salaries of govern-
ment employees during July, August, and September. Another measure
taken was the cancellation in September of unused balances of authorized
expenditures. Such balances are normally used near the end of the fiscal
year by the Services and Departments to which they are opened to
purchase supplies for the succeeding fiscal year.
Completed returns showed revenues for the year were Gdes. 2,315,590
less than estimated; while expenditures were Gdes. 710,354.44 less than.
authorized by the original budget of expenditures. :The Government
completed the fiscal year with a treasury surplus of Gdes. 355,933.12.
The yield from the import tariff was Gdes. 18,291,270.51 while
export duties returned Gdes. 2,861,940.36. Miscellaneous customs receipts
brought the total for customs to Gdes. 21,227,287.42. Internal revenues
for the fifth year in succession recorded an increase over the preceding year.
The total collected during the fiscal year was Gdes. 5,245,954, as
compared with Gdes. 5,022,019 in 1938-39.
Total government revenue receipts for the year being Gourdes
26,873,410.55 and expenditures Gourdes 28,478,637.37, an operating
deficit of Gdes. 1,605,226.82 for the fiscal year was recorded.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the gross public debt was Gdes.
52,137,491.99 and at the year end was Gdes. 60,871,550.33. Amorti-






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


nation payments during the year slightly exceeded Gdes. 100,000, the
amount called for by the Agreement of July 8, 1939 extending the period
of reduced amortization payments to September 30, 1940. The increase
in the public debt during the fiscal year was wholly due to expenditures
.under the public works contract.
It would be more satisfactory to report a decrease in the public debt,
.but factors beyond the country's control have made that temporarily
impossible. Loss of the European markets, combined with the drop before
the war in the prices on world markets for coffee and other Haitian
.products has more than halved the normal returns from exports. Although
there are no ready statistics to show the exact effect on the national income,
all considerations indicate that the decrease in national income has been
drastic perhaps to the extent of fifty per cent or more. In this emergency
it is believed that the national economy can be much better served by
efforts to restore the national income even though this increases the public
debt.
In considering the present increase in the public debt there are two
important considerations to be kept in mind. In the first place, under
normal conditions, the country has successfully met all the obligations
of a much larger public debt. Between 1924 and 1938 the public debt
was reduced from Gdes. 121,048,501.20 to Gdes. 43,950,094,29. In
.the second place the money borrowed abroad is being used to finance a
program of public works designed to increase the country's production
and by increasing the volume of production to restore former export
,values.
Foreign Commerce
The shadow of war darkening the European continent at the beginning
of the fiscal year 1939-1940 effectively dimmed all hope that during the
months to come Haiti's economic and financial position would be bettered
by any marked increase in foreign trade.
The situation had crystalized. The doubt, uncertainty and speculation
of the last few years were replaced by the knowledge that, as the war
progressed, trade with Europe would increasingly become more difficult,
and with some countries of that continent, perhaps impossible.
Britain announced her intention of purchasing, as far as possible, from
countries within the sterling bloc. Import restrictions on some of the
products Haiti exports were applied and others already in effect were
tightened in most of the belligerent countries. To the quota systems,
exchange restrictions, and barter methods hampering the free flow of
trade for the past few years were added the conservation of exchange for
the purchase of war materials and the British blockade, as well as greatly
increased freight and insurance rates and the evergrowing scarcity of
shipping space.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


One after the other the three principal elements noted in the long peace,
prior to 1914 had shrunken to the point of extinction by the fall of 1939;-
gold no longer provided the universal currency; the freedom of the seasi
was denied in many areas; customs import charges for revenue largely had
been replaced by barriers inspired by nationalist aims. Thus, the prospects
for a prosperous fiscal year were few. Nevertheless, it was felt that if,
France continued to carry out the terms of her commercial treaty with
Haiti, and if the scope of war were restricted, Haiti might end the year
with no unmarketable surpluses on hand.
France, however, in her emergency felt obliged to diregard her previous
plans regarding commerce with Haiti and no substantial purchases were
made in Haiti up to the time France was invaded. The invasion and
subsequent occupation by the German armies of course cut off all trade
with that country.
Tirade relations with Belgium, Holland, Norway and Denmark have
during the past few years been growing in importance. In 1938-1939,
these countries purchased, in terms of value, 17.68 per cent of Haiti's total
exports. Exports to them were proceeding, more or less normally, until
they were overrun by Germany. Their invasion and the collapse of
France, shut off Haiti from trade with five countries which together in
1938-1939 took 38.64 per cent of the value of Haiti's total production
for export.
The all time low in coffee prices following the declaration of war
further accentuated the downward trend of foreign trade. Fortunately
prices of other Haitian export products remained fairly stable, and in
the case of cotton and sugar slightly increased. Coffee is, however, Haiti's
most important export product and any decline from the low price levels
of the past few years is sharply felt.
Decreased export values result in decreased purchasing power, reflected
in decreased imports. During the fiscal year just closed foreign commerce
values were the lowest since the present system of recording statistics was
established in 1916, totaling Gdes. 66,695,774. Imports accounted for
Gdes. 39,700,574 of this amount and exports Gdes. 26,995,200.
The United States purchased in Haiti during 1939-1940 commodities
valued at Gdes. 13,937,185, representing 51.63 per cent of total exports,
and sold to Haiti merchandise valued at Gdes. 28,836,476. These sales
represent 72.64 per cent of Haiti's imports for the year. Exports to and
imports from the United States amounted to 64.13 per cent of Haiti's
total trade.
Trade with the United Kingdom this year was valued at Gdes.
10,909,346, representing 16.36 per cent of total foreign commerce.
Imports from that country were 9.15 per cent of the total and were
valued at Gdes. 3,629,924. Exports to the United Kingdom were valued






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


at Gdes. 7,279,422 and amounted to 26.97 per cent of total export
values. The United Kingdom was the second in order of importance in
Haiti's foreign trade.
Belgium took third place, occupied by France last year, with 4.74
per cent of total trade, valued at Gdes. 3,159,474. Purchases in Belgium
represented 1.57 per cent of total imports and were valued at Gdes.
623,556. Exports to that country were valued at Gdes. 2,535,918 and
accounted for 9.39 per cent of the total.
Fourth in Haiti's foreign trade this year was France whose share was
4.16 per cent, valued at Gdes. 2,773,280. Of this amount Gdes.
1,686,236 were credited to imports, accounting for 4.25 per cent of total
import values, and Gdes. 1,087,044 to exports, representing 4.03 per
cent of the total.
Cut off by the war during part of the fiscal year from many of its
usual sources of supply Haiti purchased in the United States many of the
articles furnished in normal times by Europe. This fact accounts, at least
in part, for the sudden rise in imports from the United States to 72.64
per cent of the total in 1939-1940 from 62.26 per cent in the fiscal
year 1938-1939.
Haiti's purchases from the United States have been steadily rising both
in volume and value for many years past. Present conditions in Europe
have given added impetus to this trend.
When and if normal trade relations with the countries now involved
in the war in Europe are reestablished it may well be that American
exporters will continue to hold a substantial part of the markets for their
products they have gained and will gain as a result of the war.
Export values were the lowest recorded since this office was established
in 1916. Low commodity prices contributed in part, but the principal
reason was the failure to market nearly a third of the coffee crop, due to
the closing of European markets, and the flooding of the American market
with the surplus coffees of other countries.

Origin of Imports and Principal Commodities Imported
During the fiscal year 1938-39, the United States furnished 62.26 per
cent of total imports. Haiti's purchases in that country during the fiscal
year 1939-40, were valued at Gdes. 28,836,476, and represented 72.64
per cent of all imports for that year. The United Kingdom (Great Britain
and Northern Ireland) took the second place as a source of supply with
9.15 per cent. Imports from that country were valued at Gdes. 3,629,924,
France which was in fourth place during the year 1938-39 took third
place during the year under study, having furnished 4.25 per cent of all
imports valued at Gdes. 1,686,236.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


, Other countries from which Haiti purchased more then one per cent of
its imports were Japan (2.79 per cent); China (1.67 per cent); Belgium
(1.57 per cent); Curacao (1.46 per cent) and Canada (1.39 per cent).
The balance of Haiti's purchases abroad (5.10) was distributed among
sixty other countries.
Imports from the United States again took a marked upward turn,
being valued at 13.2 per cent over the 1938-39 figure of Gdes. 25,464,010.
Imports from the United Kingdom declined in value from Gdes. 4,552,097
in 1938-39, to Gdes. 3,629,924 in the year under study, a decrease of
20.3 per cent.
France's share of total imports was also below the 1938-39 figure,
having fallen from Gdes. 2,095,663 in that year to Gdes. 1,686,236 in
1939-40. The decrease in value was 19.5 per cent.
Imports from Japan increased from Gdes. 972,768 in 1938-39 to
Gdes. 1,107,716 in 1939-40, an increase of 13.9 per cent. Sales by the
British Commonwealth (all countries and colonies of the British Empire)
to Haiti were valued at Gdes. 5,639,115, in 1938-39, representing 13.78
per cent of total imports. They fell during the year under review to 11.78
per cent and were valued at Gdes. 4,674,286. Germany whose sales to
Haiti in 1938-39 were valued at Gdes. 2,311,611, shipped to Haiti during
1939-40 only 0.14 per cent of total imports, valued at Gdes. 54,925.
The relative importance, expressed in percentages, of leading import
groups in each of the last two years, measured by values is shown below:
1939-40 1938-39
Per cent Per cent
Textiles, clothing................................................. 30.8 32.1
Foodstuffs ........................................................... 13.5 13.7
Gasoline, kerosine, etc....................................... 3.5 4.1
Iron and steel products....................................... 6.9 5.2
Soap ................................................................... 5.1 4.5
Automobiles and trucks.................................... 3.5 3.8
Lumber ........................................ ..... 2.1 2.2
Chemical and pharmaceutical products.............. 2.0 2.7
Household utensils.............................................. 1.3 1.7
Agricultural implements, etc............................. 1.0 1.3
Jute bags, etc................................................. 1.8 1.4
Tobacco products............................... .............. 1.8 1.5
Liquors and beverages........................................ 1.0 1.8
All other imports................................ 25.7 24.0
100.0 100.0

Automobiles and Trucks.-Imports of automobiles during 1939-40.
came chiefly .from the United States, 221 of the 225 automobiles im-
ported having been purchased there. The value of automobiles im-
ported was Gdes. 968,478 an increase of Gdes. 256,704 or 36.06 per
cent over the values recorded for 1938-39. There were 107 automobile
trucks imported into Haiti during the fiscal year and they were valued at
Gdes. 436,813. All trucks were purchased in the United States. There






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


was a substantial decrease in the importation of trucks. During the
preceding year 176 trucks were imported. All but one of them came from
the United States. They were valued at Gdes. 853,483.

Cement.-European countries usually furnished the greater part of
cement imported into Haiti. However, as will be seen from the table
given below the greater part of the cement received during 1939-40 was
purchased from the United States. Total imports of cement during the
fiscal year under study were valued at Gdes. 928,958, an increase of
Gdes. 152,256, or 19.61 per cent over the value of imports of this com-
modity during 1938-39. Principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 814,523 87.72 347,814 44.80
Belgium ........................ 68,200 7.34 139,482 17.97
United Kingdom............. 45,875 4.94 ............ ............
Germany ........................ ........... ............ 289,046 37.23

Chemical and pharmaceutical products.-Imports of this category were
valued at Gdes. 670,205, and came chiefly from the United States. There
was a decrease of Gdes. 273,416, or 28.97 per cent from the 1938-39
values. Principal countries of origin, values, and percentage of total values
Were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 401,442 59.89 288,421 30,57
France ......................... 215,311 32.12 356,686 37.80
Italy ............................ 16,514 2.46 3,029 0.32
Switzerland .................. 11,828 1.76 8,061 0.85
Germany ........................ 10,847 1.62 270,642 28.68

Cotton and manufactures of cotton.-Articles grouped under this
heading form a substantial part of total Haitian imports. The value of
all cotton and cotton goods imported in 1939-40 was Gdes. 10,914,059
or 27.5 per cent of Haiti's total imports.

Purchases of the more important classes of cotton piece goods totalled
Gdes. 9,596,194 during the fiscal year under review. This was a decrease
of Gdes. 788,740 or 7.60 per cent from the value recorded in 1938-39.
The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 6,894,128 71.84 7,191,277 69.25
Japan .......................... 996,401 10.38 840,985 8.10
United Kingdom............. 908,868 9.47 1,780,703 17.24
China ........................... 644,435 6.71 265,366 2.56






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE 11'

Imports of bleached and unbleached, plain woven cotton piece goods
'during the year 1939-40 were valued at Gdes. 2,254,225, an increase
of Gdes. 261,675, or 13.13 per cent over imports for the fiscal year
1938-39. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 1,477,271 65.53 1,235,761 62.02
China ............................. 531,553 23.58 265,366 12.32
Japan ............................ 137,642 6.11 226,721 11.38

Imports of dyed and printed, plain woven cotton piece goods during
the year were valued at Gdes. 5,053,564, a decrease of Gdes. 345,828,'
or 6.40 per cent from the value recorded in 1938-39. The principal
countries of origin were:
1939-40 193839
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 3,785,897 74.91 3,821,403 70.77
Japan ............................. 809,579 16.01 531,750 9.85
United Kingdom............. 442,943 8.76 991,269 18.36

Import values of cloth bleached, unbleached, twilled or figured in the
loom for 1939-40 were Gdes. 459,612, a decrease of Gdes. 74,113, or.
13.88 per cent from the values recorded during the previous fiscal year.
The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 219,267 47.70 375,108 70.28
United Kingdom............. 113,222 24.63 151,600 28.40
China ............................ 110,770 24.10 ............ ............

Imports of dyed and printed cloth twilled or figured in the loom during
the year under study were valued at Gdes. 1,828,793. This was a decrease
of Gdes. 630,474, or 25.64 per cent from the 1938-39. The principal
countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States................ 1,411,693 77.19 1,759,006 71.52
United Kingdom............ 252,323 13.80 397,619 16.17
Italy .............................. 56,991 3.12 82,703 3.36

The values of imports under the heading of belts, hosiery, clothing and
knit goods for 1939-40 totalled Gdes. 559,585, a decrease of Gdes. 9,055,
or 1.64 per cent from the values of imports during the previous fiscal year.
The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States................ 371,780 66.43 334,978 60.84
Japan ............................ 75,939 13.57 89,405 16.24
Italy .............................. 58,281 10.41 75,519 13.72
Hong-Kong ................. 35,250 6.30 6,499 1.18






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


A considerable decrease in imports of thread was noted. Imports of
this commodity during the year under review were valued at Gdes.
530,565, a decrease of Gdes. 197,795, or 27.16 per cent from those of
1938-39. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39


United Kingdom.............
United States.................
Belgium ......................
France .........................


Value
Gourdes
349,483
105,481
52,328
22,216


Per cent
65.86
19.88
9.86
4.19


Value
Gourdes
409,675
76,952
94,695
90,9}81


Per cent
56.25
10.57
13.00
12.49


Jute bags.-There was an upward turn in value of jute bags imported
of Gdes. 156,842, or 30.33 per cent over the 1938-39 values. Total
imports of jute bags of 1939-40 were valued at Gdes. 673,934. The
principal countries of origin, values, and percentages of total values, were:
1939-40 1938-39


British India...................
United States.................
France .........................
Belgium .........................


Value
Gourdes
330,285
268,006
36,365
14,341


Per cent
49.00
39.76
5.39
2.13


Value
Gourdes
188,823
65,467
.56,194
132,651


Per cent
36.52
12.66
10.87
25.85


Foodstuffs.-The importation of foodstuffs has been declining in recent
years. The most important foodstuffs imported are wheat flour, fish, lard
and butter.
Imports of flour increased during the year sharply in value totalling
Gdes. 2,196,643, an increase of Gdes. 92,891, or 4.41 per cent, over the
value recorded during the previous fiscal year. The principal countries
of origin were:


Value
Gourdes
United States................. 2,168,565
Canada ......................... 28,078


Per cent
98.72
1.28


Value
Gourdes
2,064,146
39,597


Pet cent
98.12
1.88


The United States led all the countries as a source of supply for pickled
and smoked fish during the year under review. Total imports in this
category, valued at Gdes. 498,700, diminished in value by Gdes. 64,849,
or 11.51 per cent from those of 1938-39. The principal countries of
origin were:


Value
Gourdes
United States.................. 313,862
Canada ......................... 184,820
Norway .................................


Per cent Value
Gourdes
62.93 259,633
37.06 299,536
............ 4,380


Per cent
46.07
53.15
0.78


Total import values of salted and dried fish were Gdes. 335,894. This
was a decrease of Gdes. 31,806, or 8.65 per cent from those of 1938-39.
Th'2 principal countries of origin were:


1939-40
Value
Gourdes
Canada .......................... 242,035
United States.................. 81,003
Bahama Islands.............. 12,822


1938-39
Per cent Value
Gourdes
72.05 290,549
24.11 61,553
3.82 15,576


Pc- cent
79.02
16.74
4.24


o -


38-39


?





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


As was the case last year, the United States sold Haiti all the lard
imported. However, imports during 1939-1940, valued at Gdes. 424,909,
declined in value by Gdes. 28,940, or 6.38 per cent of the 1938-39
figures.
There was a slight increase of Gdes. 4,420, or 1.34 per cent in the
value of butter imported. Imports of butter for 1939-40 were valued at
Gdes. 335,063. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
Cuba ............................ 118,257 35.29 55,028 16.64
United States................. 75,806 22.62 59,786 18.08
Argentine ...................... 40,069 11.96 31,031 9.39
Denmark ...................... 34,620 10.33 67,414 20.39

If local production of rice continues to increase in the same proportion
as it has during the past few years, that commodity will vanish from
Haiti's import list. During 1937-38, Haiti imported 6,894,258 kilos
of rice, valued at Gdes. 2,643,401. For the fiscal year 1938-39, imports
of rice dropped to 601,189 kilos, valued at Gdes. 166,440, and for the
year under review only 231,451 kilos of rice, valued at Gdes. 89,164,
were imported. The decrease in value from the prior fiscal year was Gdes.
77,276, or 46.43 per cent. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 76,969 86.82 7
Guiana Dutch.................. 7,770 8.71 .7,994 4.80
Netherlands ................ 4,413 4.95 158,257 95.08

Glass and glassware.-Imports of glass and glassware were received
chiefly from the United States, as was the case during the previous fiscal
year. Imports under this heading during the year were valued at Gdes.
254,455, a decrease of Gdes. 4,003, or 1.55 per cent from the values
recorded during 1938-39. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value ?er crnt
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 231,004 90.78 135,581 52.46
Belgium ........................ 10,347 4.07 12,377 4.79
France ........................... 6,981 2.74 15,637 6.05
Germany ........................ 2,304 0.91 87,628 33.90

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances.-A decided upward turn
was noticed in imports of this class of merchandise, valued at Gdes.
1,231,331, representing an increase of Gdes. 686,698 or 126.08 per cent
over those of 1938-39. The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Va'l-e P.rr c'nt J.i'le Per c-"r
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 692,897 56.27 519,009 95.30
France ......................... 531,358 43.15 2,660 0.49
Italy .............................. 50 ............ 7,940 1.46





14 HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

Miscellaneous machinery and apparatus.-Imports in this class remained
on about the same level as those of the previous year, being valued at
Gdes. 1,356,790. This was an increase of Gdes. 13,694, or 1.02 per
cent. The principal countries of origin were:

1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States................ 1,297,827 95.65 1,166,009 86.82
France .......................... 29,325 2.16 62,267 4.64
Germany ........................ 5,664 0.42 77,108 5.74


Gasoline.-United States was again the largest source of supply for
gasoline. Total imports of this product were valued at Gdes. 876,986.
A decrease of Gdes. 228,714, or 20.68 per cent from the 1938-39 values.
'The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
V'o Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States................. 440,117 50.18 521,676 47.18
Curacao ........................ 270,594 30.85 343,618 31.08
,Puerto-Rico ................... 165,082 18.82 168,729 15.26
Cuba ............................ ............ ............ 71,518 6.47


Kerosine.-Imports during 1939-40 increased in value by Gdes.
29,575, or 5.38 per cent over 1938-39. Imports during the year under
review were valued at Gdes. 522,458. The principal countries of origin
were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 441,076 84.42 451,542 81.80
Curacao ......................... 59,199 11.33 77,114 13.97
Puerto-Rico ................... 22,181 4.25 23,260 4.21


Paper and its manufactures.-There was a slight decline in imports of
paper and its manufactures of Gdes. 44,450, or 6.54 per cent from the
value recorded in 1938-39. Imports during 1939-40 of this class of
merchandise were valued at Gdes. 635,517. The principal countries of
origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value- Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 496,396 78.10 352,271 51.81
France ........................... 69,237 10.89 107,326 15.78
Belgium ........................ 14,516 2.28 45,442 6.68
Finland ......................... 14,169 2.23 24,607 3.62
Canada ......................... 11,477 1.81 7,119 1.05


Perfumery, cosmetics and other toilet preparations.-The United States
replaced France this year as the most important source of supply for
perfumery, cosmetics and other toilet preparations. Total imports in this





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


group were valued at Gdes. 519,018. This was a decrease of Gdes.
122,695, or 19.12 per cent from the value recorded for imports in this
group during 1938-39. The principal countries of origin were:

1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 278,704 53.69 232,361 36.21
France ........................ 198,115 38.17 337,007 52.52
United Kingdom........... 31,362 6.04 29,434 4.59

Soap.-In spite of the war, Great Britain continued to furnish the
greater part of the soap imported into Haiti. Total imports in this
category amounted to Gdes. 2,010,902, an increase of Gdes. 148,444, or
7.97 per cent over the value recorded during the previous fiscal year. The
principal countries of origin were:

1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Per ctnt
Gourdes Gourdes
United Kingdom............ 1,421,157 71.16 1,335,212 71.67
United States.................. 529,801 26.35 111,410 5.98
Netherlands .................. 32,978 1.64 192,928 10.36

Cigarettes.-Practically all cigarettes imported came from the United
States. Imports of cigarettes were valued at Gdes. 440,128. This was
a decrease of Gdes. 15,066, or 3.63 per cent from the value of the ci-
garettes imported during 1938-39.

Lumber imports during the year were valued at Gdes. 835,050,
a decrease of Gdes. 82,514, or 8.99 per cent from the 1938-39 values.
The principal countries of origin were:
1939-40 1938-39
Value Per cent Value Pe: cent
Gourdes Gourdes
United States.................. 825,991 98.91 917,564 100
Belgium .......................... 8,449 1.01 ............ ............
Cuba ............................. 610 0.08 ............ ............

In the foregoing discussion of imports over the past two years, com-
parison has been on the basis of the value, not the quantity of merchan-
dise imported. Total imports on the basis of value dropped by Gdes.
1,202,911 from the total recorded in the previous year. Since there has
been a general increase in the prices paid for leading commodities it
follows that a comparison of imports on the basis of quantity would show
wider decreases for many commodities. Table 16 of this report shows
the quantity of leading commodities imported during the fiscal year and
the corresponding quantities in previous years.





16 HAITI: REPC ." OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

The table below shows C. I. F. prices as computed from customs
records for leading commodities during the past four years:
Unit 1939-40 1938-39 1937-38 1936-37
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Cement..................................... kilo 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.05
Fish......................................... kilo 0.43 0.39 0.42 0.38
Wheat flour.............................kilo 0.29 0.24 0.37 0.39
M eats....................................... kilo 1.31 1.27 1.35 1.35
Rice......................................... kilo 0.38 0.27 0.31 0.28
Liquors.................................... liter 1.28 1.22 1.22 1.25
Lumber....................................cubic meter 105.58 102.17 94.52 106.66
Gasoline................................... liter 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.10
Kerosene.................................liter 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.17
Soap............................ ..........kilo 0.56 0.54 0.56 0.56
Cotton textiles.........................kilo 3.53 3.52 4.04 4.08

The principal port of entry for imports during the fiscal year 1939-40,
was Port-au-Prince, through which passed 79.68 per cent of total imports.
During the fiscal year 1938-39, 78.03 per cent of all imports were
entered at Port-au-Prince.
Cap-Haitien was second in importance with 5.78 per cent; St.-Marc
was third with 3.94 per cent; Cayes, fourth with 2.85 per cent, and Go-
naives fifth with 2.41 per cent. The remaining 6.99 per cent of total
imports was distributed among the ten other ports of entry.


Destination of Exports and Commodities Exported

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939, just before the
beginning of the fiscal year 1939-1940, made it possible to forsee the
limitation of shipping space, the lack of foreign exchange, government
control of imports and the other factors inevitably resulting which would
have an adverse effect on the export trade of Haiti. It was evident that
exports to Europe would be sharply restricted, but it was not possible at
that time to anticipate that most of Haiti's European markets would be
closed as was the case when Norway, Denmark, Holland and Belgium
were invaded and France collapsed.
However, this occurred. The far reaching effect these events have had
on Haiti's export trade and economic situation are fully discussed in other
sections of this report.
During the fiscal year under review the United States was the country
of destination for 51.63 per cent, in terms of value, of Haiti's total exports.
In second place was the United Kingdom with 26.97 per cent, followed
by Belgium with 9.39 per cent. France this year dropped to fourth
place, having taken but 4.03 per cent of all exports. Canada took 2.60
per cent of Haiti's exports and was fifth in importance, while Denmark
stood in sixth place with 1.76 per cent. All other countries of destination
for exports each took less than one per cent of the total.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


CHART No. 1

QUANTITIES OF LEADING COMMODITIES EXPORTED AND IMPORTED
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


EXPORT


MILLIONS OF HILOS
50 cor-oEE
40

30

20


MILLIONS OF KILOS


4
COTTON




0 1 i i i i i i i i iI I I
MILLIONS OF KILOS
SISAL

4



MILLIONS OF KILOS
SUGAR

20



MILLIONS OF STEMS

2 BANANA.5






MILLIONS OF KILOS
COCOA
I ^^ ^ OCA A


IMPORTSS


MILLIONS OF KILOS
S ^ TEXTILES
4







MILLIONS OF KILOS
z4c A A -O.uR


S I.llI I I III tI I I I I II I


NUMBER
AUTO AND
TRUCKS &/\I


0 ,,, \- / ,.,
'~-JUNWUl R


I





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The United States purchased from Haiti during the year 9,182,270
kilos of coffee, which were valued at Gdes. 5,687,297. This represented'
56.72 per cent of the volume exported and 55.52 per cent of the total
value. Both the quantity of coffee purchased and the value were slightly
less than for the fiscal year 1938-1939 when Haiti sold to the United'
States 9,370,116 kilos of coffee valued at Gdes. 5,889,791, representing
32 per cent of the value of this crop.
The bananas sold to the United States were valued at Gdes. 3,147.878.
In 1938-1939, shipments of bananas to that country were valued at
Gdes. 2,820,697. In both years this was over 99.99 per cent of the total
value of the bananas exported.
During the year under review the United States also purchased 100
per cent, in terms of value, of the cacao exported, 21.73 per cent of cotton-
seed cake and meal exported, 100 per cent of logwood shipments, 57.83
per cent of Haiti's exports of molasses, 99.82 per cent of the total of the
sisal shipped, 31.48 per cent of exports of refined' sugar, and 100 per cent
of the goatskins sold.
Values of exports to the United States by principal commodities for
the last three years, are shown below:
1939-1940 1938-1939 1937-1938
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Coffee ...................................... 5,687,297 5,889,791 6,077,349
Sisal ....................................... 3,360,597 2,591,222 3,049,468
Bananas .................................. 3,147,878 2,820,320 2,001,051
Cacao ...................................... 488,718 383,006 613,152
Goatskins ............................... 391,980 395,099 452,785
Sugar (raw and refined)........... 58,954 283,373 1,731,866
Logwood ................................. 125,819 43,253 217,454
M olasses .........................:......... 233,354 ................ 596,756
Rum ....................................... 16,376 16,5917 25,964
All other................................... 426,212 88,372 94,771
13,937,185 12,511,033 14,860,616
Export trade with the United Kingdom was valued in 1939-1940 at
Gdes. 7,279,422 (26.97 per cent of total exports). In 1938-1939,
Haiti's export trade with the United Kingdom was valued at Gdes.
6,862,156. This represented 18.88 per cent of total exports for that year.
Raw sugar, as was the case last year, was the most important item
purchased by the United Kingdom in Haiti. Exports of this product to
that country amounted to 26,335,409 kilos, valued at Gdes. 4,155,078,
representing 87.93 per cent of total value of this crop.
During the previous fiscal year the United Kingdom purchased 71.60
per cent of the raw sugar exported, valued at Gdes. 3,493,097. The
second product in importance exported to the United Kingdom during
the year under review was raw cotton, that country taking, in terms of
value, 96.68 per cent of the year's crop, valued at Gdes. 2,947,237. In
1938-1939, Britain purchased 59.85 per cent of the cotton crop, valued
at Gdes. 2,643,237.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Usually the principal outlet for Haiti's cottonseed cake and' meal,
Britain, during 1939-1940, made no purchases of this commodity. Other
exports to the United Kingdom were valued at Gdes. 177,107.
Values of exports to the United Kingdom, by principal commodities,
for the last three years, are shown below:
1939-1940 1938-1939 1937-1938
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Raw cotton.............................. 2,947,237 2,643,237 2,360,817
Raw sugar................................ 4,155,078 3,493,097 1,943,834
Cottonseed cake........................ ................ 267,428 352,920
All other................................... 177,107 458,394 62,851
7,279,422 6,862,156 4,720,422

Other countries of the British Empire absorbed a larger part of Haiti's
export products than was the case during the previous fiscal year. They
accounted for 3.24 per cent of the total export trade. Canada took the
greater part with purchases valued at Gdes. 701,828, representing 2.60
per cent of the total. This compares with sales to Canada valued at
Gdes. 221,463 (0.61 per cent) in 1938-1939. The principal item
imported by Canada was raw sugar, valued at Gdes. 520,021.
Sales to Belgium were valued at Gdes. 2,535,918, during the fiscal year
just closed. Of this amount Gdes. 2,455,255 represented the value of the
coffee shipped to that country, which purchased, in terms of value, 23.97
per cent of all the coffee exported during the year. Shipments of coffee to
Belgian importers in 1938-1939, were valued at Gdes. 3,697,667, repre-
senting 19.74 per cent of the crop for that year.
Other products shipped to Belgium during the year were of minor
importance both in quantity and value.
Belgian purchases of Haitian commodities during each of the last three
fiscal years, are shown below:
1939-1940 1938-1939 1937-1938
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Coffee ...................................... 2,455,255 3,697,667 4,182,994
Cottonseed cake......................... 76,750 ................ 30,246
Logwood ................................. ................ 23,266 32,264
Honey ..................................... 2,049 10,335 21,772
All other.................................... 1,864 7,144 62,470
2,535,918 3,738,412 4,329,746

From Gdes. 7,614,544 in value for the fiscal year 1938-1939, Haiti's
export trade with France dropped to Gdes 1,087,044 in 1939-1940.
Thz largest item purchased by France was coffee valued at Gdes.
966,645. This compares with coffee valued at Gdes. 4.673,862, shipped
to that country during the previous fiscal year.
Cotton valued at Gdes. 95,248 was the second' product in importance
and miscellaneous minor export products shipped to French importers were
valued at Gdes. 25,151.





20 HAi fl: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

French purchases of Haitian commodities during each of the last three
fiscal years, are shown below:


1939-1940
Gourdes
Coffee ....................................... 966,645
Cotton ...................................... 95,248
Logwood ............................ ................
Honey ..................................... ................
All other.................................... 25,151

1,087,044


1938-1939
Gourdes
4,673,862
1,619,905
121,447
18,672
1,180,658

7,614,544


1937-1938
Gourdes
1,877,387
1,982,292
84,747
15,133
51,237

4,010,7916


The value of the Haitian products purchased by Denmark fell from
Gdes. 1,887,232 (5.19 per cent) in 1938-1939, to Gdes. 475,394 (1.76
per cent) in 1939-1940. Coffee was the only product exported to that
country.

Trade with the Netherlands also declined sharply. Exports to that
country were valued in 1939-1940 at Gdes. 137,616 (0.51 per cent),
and in 1938-1939 at Gdes. 561,471 (1.55 per cent). Coffee accounted
for Gdes. 133,060 of total export values in the trade with Holland.

The relative importance of the leading export commodities for 1938-
1939 and 1939-1940, is shown in the table below:


Coffee ....................
Cotton .....................
Sugar ........................
Sisal .....................
Bananas ..................
Cacao ......................
Goatskins ..................
Cottonseed cake..........
Logwood ........ ...........
Molasses ..................
All other..................


1939-1940
Gourdes Per cent


10,243,491
3,048,302
4,725,427
3,366,685
3,148,294
488,718
391,980
280,439
125,819
403,548
772,49'7


26,995,200


37.95
11.29
17.51
12.47
11.66
1.81
1.45
1.04
0.47
1.49
2.86

100.00


1938-1939
Gourdes Per cent
18,728,054 51.54
4,416,524 12.15
4,878,536 13.43
2,702,274 7.44
2,820,679 7.76
613,780 1.69
396,313 1.09
309,916 0.85
287,133 0.79
389,960 1.07
795,006 2.19

36,338,175 100.00


Port-au-Prince handled 48.36 per cent of total exports during the year,
as compared with 40.66 per cent in 1938-1939. This sudden rise in the
relative importance of Port-au-Prince may be attributed largely to war
conditions. Lack of shipping has tended to concentrate exports usually
passing through neighboring ports at Port-au-Prince.

The remaining 51.64 per cent of exports was handled through other
ports as follows: Fort-Liberte, 11.25 per cent; Cayes, 8.03 per cent; Cap-
Haitien, 7.65 per cent; Jacmel, 5.82 per cent; St.-Marc, 5.35 per cent;
Petit-Goave, 3.98 per cent; Gonaives, 3.69 per cent; Port-de-Paix, 3.29
per cent; Jeremie, 1.76 per cent: Miragoane, 0.69 per cent, and Aquin,
0.13 per cent.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Coffee

The 1939-1940 coffee harvest is estimated to have been 22,600,000
kilos. Of this amount only 16,187,765 kilos were exported. During
1938-1939, exports of coffee amounted to 29,283,933 kilos.
The decrease in production was due largely to unusual and unfavorable
climatic conditions. Lack of rainfall in some coffee producing centers and
excessive rainfall in others at the time of flowering resulted in a much
smaller yield than during the previous crop year.
The small quantity of coffee exported, was due to the closing of Haiti's
markets in Europe. The closing of these markets combined with the fact


CHART No. 2
AVERAGE COFFEES PRICES. F. O. B. HAITIAN PORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1910-17 TO 1939-40
OUROOC PER KILO















M6* 17 f 1.922-2 2Z3-24 E.4- 6 26-Z 2T 'Z-B.29 29-30 3Jot 31-" 3233 33-34 .34.35 M- 3I7 37 -398 3s 3 40


that other coffee producing countries were attempting to sell in the
American market surplus coffee usually disposed of in Europe, left Haiti
at the end of the fiscal year with a substantial part of the 1939-1940
coffee crop unsold.
Latin American countries normally export about 10,000,000 bags of
coffee to countries in Europe. When the war made European markets
inaccessible this large increase in the available supply of coffee forced prices
on the American market to a new low.
Coffee producers and exporters alike were faced with difficulties due to
these conditions and in many Latin American countries where the national
economy is largely based upon coffee exports the Government and National
Banks were equally embarrassed.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Representatives of the coffee producing countries of the Western Hemi-
sphere conferred as to the best course to pursue. Haiti actively participated
in the conference which drafted the Inter-American Coffee Quota
Agreement. This agreement was signed in Washington, November 28,
1940, by representatives of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, The
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, The United States, and Venezuela.
The signatory countries agreed to allocate equitably the United States
market among the various producing countries. Each country further
undertook to limit its exports to markets outside the United States to
avoid the dumping of accumulated stocks on these markets when and if
they become open again. The United States on its part undertook to
limit the total entry for consumption from non signatory countries to
350,000 bags of 60 kilograms (132 pounds) each and to take all the
measures necessary within the United States of America for the operation
of the agreement, including the limiting of entries into the United States
to the quot as ignedeach signatory country. The quotas' allocated are
as follows:
S. Owo' Outside Quota
U. S. A. U. S. A. Totals
Bags of 60 K. Bags of 60 K. Bags of 60 K.
Brazil .................................. 9,300,000 7,813,000 17,113,000
Colombia ............................. 3,150,000 1,079,000 4,229,000
Costa Rica............................ 200,000 242,000 442,000
Cuba ................................... 80,000 62,000 142,000
Dominican Republic................ 120,000 138,000 258,000
Ecuador .............................. 150,000 89,000 239,000
El Salvador.......................... 600,000 527,000 1,127,000
Guatemala ......................... 535,000 312,000 847,000
Haiti ................................... 275,000 327,000 602,000
Honduras ............................ 20,000 21,000 41,000
Mexico ................................ 475,000 239,000 714,000
Nicaragua ........................... 195,000 114,000 309,000
Peru ................................... 25,000 43,000 68,000
Venezuela ............................ 420,000 606,000 1,026,000
Non-signatory ...................... 355,000 ................ 355,000
Total ............................ 15,900,000 11,612,000 27,512,000

This agreement, it is hoped, will stabilize the coffee market, restore
reasonable prices, and prevent ruinous competition among the various
producing countries.
Under normal conditions exports of Haitian coffee' to the United
States during 1939-1940 should have shown a substantial increase over
those of the previous fiscal year. Exports to that country in 1938-1939,
were 9,370,000 kilos and in 1939-1940, were 9,182,000 kilos. That
exports to the United States, in a year when high grade coffees were sold
on the American market at the lowest prices in history, declined by only
188,000 kilos, was striking evidence that efforts to improve the quality of
Haitian coffee had met with success. Haitian coffees faced the most severe
competition in coffee history with success.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The quantities of coffee exported during the last two fiscal years, by
countries of destination, are given below:
1939-1940 1938-1939
Kilos (000's) Per cent Kilos (000's) Per cent
Belgium ............................ 3,663 22.6 5,583 19.0
France ............................... 1,624 10.6 7,677 26.2
United States..................... 9,182 56.7 9,370 32.0
Italy .................................. 50 0.3 211 0.7
Denmark ........................... 676 4.2 2,868 9.8
Netherlands ........................ 192 1.2 772 2.6
Sweden ............................. 48 0.3 318 1.1
Germany ........................... ....... ........ 564i 2.0
All other............................ 752 4.7 1,921 6.6
16,187 100.00 29,284 100.00

As will be noted from the above table, the United States was. the only
country of destination to which exports of coffee remained on the
approximate level of those of 1938-1939. Reduced: total volume,
increased sharply the percentage taken by the United States.
Exports of coffee to France dropped from 7,677,000 kilos or 26.20
per cent of the total in 1938-1939 to 1,624,000 kilos or 10.00 per cent
of the total in 1939-1940. In spite of the fact that France was at war
at the beginning of the fiscal year, it was believed and' expected that exports
of toffee to that country would increase rather than decrease. Unhappily,
importers in France were unable to obtain" during the early months of
the war either the foreign exchange necessary for the purchase or the
licenses necessary for the importation of any appreciable amount of Haitian
coffee. The extension of the war and subsequent occupation of part of
France by German troops effectively stopped all further exports to that
country.
Greatly reduced exports of coffee to Belgium, Denmark, the Nether-
lands and Sweden were also a direct result of the war in Europe. Since
efforts to diversify markets for Haitian coffee were undertaken a few
years ago, and less reliance placed upon the few large European distributing
centers a steadily increasing amount of coffee has been sold each year
directly to these countries. When peace comes, if something approaching
freedom of commerce is reestablished in the world, shipments of coffee to
these countries may be resumed in volume but what plan or system then
will serve to control international marketing and whether exchange
conditions will again be favorable to Haitian sales abroad are so uncertain
that any expression of opinion at this time could not be justified.
There was no lessening of effort in the campaign to improve the quality
of Haitian coffee. If the extraordinary progress of the past few years in
this respect is to continue, educational work relating to better methods
in production and preparation of coffee must be continued.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


As in 1938-1939, some hundreds of permanent coffee drying platforms
were added to the number already existing, the capacity of coffee processing
plants was considerably increased and new methods of preparation were
successfully introduced. The instruction of small producers in proper
methods of shading and pruning coffee trees was kept up and the use of
mechanical depulpers was greatly extended.
The progress already made in the preparation of Haitian coffee justifies
the prediction that the bulk of the 1940-1941 crop will meet the
requirements of the most discriminating markets.
Under normal conditions Haiti has always sold annually all of the
coffee it produced and presumably much more could have been sold since
under the normal conditions of the pre-war period it has been no more
difficult to sell a 40,000,000 kilo crop than it has been to sell a
20,000,000, kilo crop.

Cotton
Haiti's exports of cotton for the fiscal year 1939-1940 amounted to
3.105,003 kilos. This was a decline of 34 per cent from the 1938-1939
figure of 4,671,839 kilos.
The cause of the steady decline in cotton exports during the past five
years, altho fully set forth in previous reports may be repeated here,
bollweevil infestation. Directly or indirectly this pest is responsible for
the diminished production of what was once Haiti's most promising crop,
second in importance only to coffee.
Efforts to introduce a type of annual cotton suitable for cultivation in
Haiti have met with little success. Low yields under Haitian conditions
preclude profitable cultivation. Experiments with an early flowering
compact type of the native perennial cotton continued throughout the
year, and there is a possibility that cultivation of this type can be
carried on successfully on a commercial scale.
Unit prices were slightly higher during 1939-1940 than during the
previous fiscal year, altho considerably lower than the average price received
from 1933-1934 to 1937-1938.
The average prices received for cotton during the last ten fiscal years
are given below:
Gourde per kilo
1939-1940 ............................................................ 0.98
1938-1939 ............................................................ 0.95
1937-1938.................. .............................. .. 1.12
1936-1937......... ... ................................................... 1.42
19135-1936..... ... ...... ............................................... 1.26
1934-1935 ............................................................ 1.24
1933-1934....................................................... 1.29
1932-1933 ............................................................ 0.79
1931-1932 ............................................................ 0.64
1930-1931 ............................................................ 1.02






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The outlook for cotton during the coming fiscal year is no more
promising than for other Haitian products usually exported to Europe. At
the moment of writing word has been received that the British Government
has refused to issue import licenses to prospective purchasers of Haitian
cotton.
During 1939-40 the United Kingdom took 95.81 per cent of total
exports of cotton amounting to 2,974,922 kilos, valued at Gdes.
2,947,237. France purchased but 116,808 kilos, (3.76 per cent) with a
value of Gdes. 95,248. The balance was shipped to the United States
(12.478 kilos) and Belgium (795 kilos).
About 90 per cent of Haiti's production of cottonseed cake and meal
is usually sold in the United Kingdom. During the fiscal year just closed
no shipments bf this commodity were made to that country.
Beligium was the most important purchaser of this product, having
taken 1,140,950 kilos, representing 35.61 per cent of total exports, valued
at Gdes. 76,750. Altho Canada purchased but slightly less cottonseed
cake and meal than Belgium (1,050,005 kilos), shipments to that country
were valued at Gdes. 116,810. Haiti's cottonseed by-products usually
find no outlet in the United States. However, during 1939-1940 that
country purchased 703,244 kilos of cake and meal, valued at Gdes.
60,927. The balance of the 3,203,601 kilos exported was placed in
Curacao (214,866 kilos), the Canal Zone (60,62-1 kilos) and Jamaica
(3,391 kilos).

Sugar
Raw sugar exports declined in volume from 37,144,990 kilos in 1938-
1939 to 29,856,208 kilos in 1939-1940, a decrease of 20 per cent.
Values, however, declined by only 3 per cent. Exports of this commodity
in, 1938-1939 were valued at Gdes. 4,878,536 and in 1939-1940 at
Gdes. 4,725,427. Unit prices rose from Gde. 0.131 per kilo in 1938-
1939 to Gde. 0.158 in 1939-1940. Average F. O. B. prices for the past
twelve years, as computed from customs records, are given below:
Gourde per hilo
1939-1940.................................................... 0.158
1938-1939 .......................................................... 0.131
1937-1938 ....................... .................................... 0.111
1936-1937....... .................................................... 0.124
1935-1936 .... ........................... ........ ........... 0.108
1934-1935 ............................................. ....... 0.106
1933-1934....................................................... 0.108
1932-1933........................................ ........... 0.090
1931-1932........................................................ 0.108
1930-1931............................... ...... ............... 0.140
1929-1930...................................... ............... 0.199
1928-1929............................ ........................... 0.326





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


There was justification for the belief that sugar prices would rise for
at least the period of the war. Had it been possible to maintain trade
relations with the countries of the European continent now invaded and
blockaded there is little doubt this would have occurred.
The turn of events in Europe, however, instead of increasing consumption
of sugar, further restricted its sale. Prices dropped far below the level
prevailing before the opening of hostilities. Estimated world production
is far above the amount for which markets can be found.
The International Sugar Council has reduced' Haiti's basic export quota
from 32,500 metric tons to 31,000 metric tons for the year beginning
September 1, 1940 and ending August 31, 1941. The amount of the
reduction was the same imposed for the previous quota year.
Decisions of the International Sugar Council under present world
conditions must be regarded as little more than gestures. Such decisions
not made by the unanimous consent of all the' original participating
countries therefore can hardly be binding except by the desire of each
country. Furthermore, unless the present purchasing policy of the British
Government is changed it is unlikely that Haiti will be able to export
anything but a fraction of its 1941 sugar crop to the British Empire
markets.
The United Kingdom has always been Haiti's chief customer for its
raw sugar. This sugar, however, in its entirety, is not consumed there, but
refined and largely reexported to other countries. (Britain's sugar needs
are to a great extent supplied from Empire sources.) The war has disrupted
this trade and unless the British purchase Haitian sugar for consumption
there is little prospect of marketing the 1941 crop. Tariff and quota
barriers preclude the possibility of selling any substantial quantity in the
United States and no other important markets are open.
As a consequence the 1941 grinding season in Haiti will probably be
sharply curtailed, and production far below Haiti's world quota limits.
Of the 1940 crop, 26,335,409 kilos, valued at Gdes. 4,155,078. were
shipped to Great Britain. This represented 88.20 per cent of the total
quantity exported and 87.93 per cent of the total value. Exports to
Canada amounted to 3,252,820 kilos, (10.89 per cent) valued at Gdes.'
520,021 (11 percent).
Refined sugar exports totalled 729,375 kilos. Of this amount 340,125
kilos, valued at Gdes. 81,000, were sold in the Virgin Islands. The
United States purchased 234,341 kilos of refined sugar, with a value of
Gdes. 58,954. The balance was exported in relatively small quantities
to nine other countries.
Exports of molasses were considerably less than during the previous
fiscal year, totalling 13,179,762 kilos, valued at Gdes. 403,584. Of this






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


amount 6,282,696 kilos valued at Gdes. 170,194 were exported to the
.United Kingdom, and 6,897,066 kilos, with a value of Gdes. 233,354
,were shipped to the United States.

Sisal
Sisal shipments again exceeded in volume those of any previous year,
totalling 7,871,118 kilos. This was an increase of 5 per cent over the
previous record year, 1938-1939. In value, exports of sisal increased
by 25 per cent over those of 1938-1939, the 1939-1940 value being
Gdes. 3,366,685, slightly less than the record value of 1936-1937,
Gdes. 3,883,109.
Sisal production has shown a steady and healthy progress in spite of
the low prices prevailing since plantation growing of this commodity
started in Haiti.
SIf and when prices of sisal reach a more or less permanent higher level
there is little doubt but that a marked extension of sisal' planting in Haiti
will get under way. Plenty of suitable land is available, climatic conditions
:are right, labor costs are low and the quality of the sisal produced is
excellent. Further expansion of this industry awaits only a return to
better conditions in the world.
Fortunately, producers of sisal are able to market most of their pro-
duction in the United States. The sisal industry, therefore, has not
'suffered from the effects of the war as have other industries dependent to
a greater extent on markets in Europe.
All the sisal exported went to the United States with the exception
of 10,264 kilos shipped to Venezuela.

Bananas

Banana exports during the year totalled 2,268,387 stems, valued at
Gdes. 3,148,294. This was an increase of 12 per cent in volume and 12
per cent in value over production in 1938-1939.
The following table shows the number, of stems of bananas exported
during the year, the values and the ports of shipments:
Stems Gourdes
Cap-Haitien .................................. 668,725 1,056,830
Cayes ............................................ 185,968 217,017
Fort-Libert .................................... 51 36
Gonaives ........................................ 95 201
Jacmel ........................................... 183,681 264,241
Miragoane .................................. 58,096 89,504
Port-au-Prince .............................. 382,769 408,450
Port-de-Paix ................................ 364,922 503,882
Saint-Marc ................................... 424,080 608,133
2,268,387 3,148,294






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


It was not anticipated at the beginning of the year that any marked
increase in the number of stems exported would be recorded for 1939-1940.
The droughts prevailing during the last months of the previous fiscal
year carried well over into the year under review. Blowdowns during
1939 accounted for many thousands of stems which would normally have
matured during the early months of this fiscal year. Towards the end of
the year, however, there was a decided increase in exports, and it is


CHART No. 3
QUANTITIES OF BANANAS EXPORTED, BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEARS 1933-34 TO 1939-40
7TOUSANDSq OF ST7ENE




M ...... .. ...... .... .. .1 11 1 ... -

2 ..ill



340 -- -
100 .. ......... .. .. .. .. .




160 ..... ... .. ....... ...... .
.60
240






340



60



to -- -
01 ..


ONCDJFMAHJJAColMDUJrPAMJJA. JF AMJJANDjrMAMPJJA50MfJrKAMDJAFONCAiMJAOM OCNDJAJ A3
1933-34 I3M-S iy9 13-3a 193-37 1937-38 1938-39 1959-40


confidently expected that during the coming year the quantity shipped
will definitely remain on this higher level.
The highest monthly shipment yet recorded was in August 1940, when
364,140 stems were exported. In no previous month had the 300,000
mark been reached. September shipments were 300,228 stem-. It is
expected, and natural, that monthly exports will drop well below these
figures during the coming winter months, but the summer and autumn
months should show a marked upward turn.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


It has been estimated that there are at least 70,000 acres of land in
Haiti suitable for the cultivation of bananas. This represents a potential
production of well over 18,000,000 stems, making due allowance for
floods, blowdownts, and droughts. Some of this land may never be
planted in bananas and it may be years before other areas are developed,
but these estimates show that expansion of the industry is possible.
Intensive and methodical development of the Artibonite Valley is now
well under way. This area has available for the production of bananas
about 10,000 acres. Of this amount nearly 2000 acres are now producing
or will produce during the next few months. Another area of over 5000
acres is under cultivation and will come into production in 1942.
When and if the Artibonite Valley is fully developed, it should produce
3,250,000 to 3,500,000 stems annually and add each year Gdes.
6,250,000 to Gdes. 7,500,000 to Haiti's national income.
The increase in banana acreage in the Artibonite Valley will require
the extension of the railroad and the bridging of the Artibonite river. This
is already under consideration and should become an accomplished fact
in the spring of 1941. Thus after many years, the Chemin de Fer
National d'Haiti will begin to serve the Valley effectively as it was
originally planned.
While development in other areas is not proceeding as rapidly as in
the Artibonite Valley there is a steady increase throughout the country in
the acreage planted to bananas.
Wind storms blew down, throughout the country during the year,
551,548 stems of bananas.
There is a great need, and a great opportunity, for the establishment
of large plantations and subsidiary plantings by peasant owners in Haiti,
at this time. Agricultural production is far below the possibilities, and
large areas of undeveloped land still exist. Haitian labor is plentiful,
productive and the cheapest in this hemisphere.
The rapid spread of Sigatoka disease throughout all banana-producing
countries has brought about divers forms of protection and control. In
Haiti, in large areas where contiguous plantings permit, the installation of
high pressure pipe lines, for the purpose of conveying spray mixtures into
the fields, has been decided upon as the most satisfactory system. This,
however, leaves the isolated small planter without adequate means of
control. At the time of writing, it must be admitted that it is doubtful
whether satisfactory control of the disease in separated peasant plantings
can be effected. It is important, therefore, that encouragement should be
given by the government and by the Standard Fruit & Steamship Company
to the development of lands sufficient in extent and so located that these
large spray systems may be installed. Only in this way is it certain
that production to the volume desired may be reached and maintained.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Other Exports
Both in volume and value exports of cacao decreased considerably from
those of the fiscal year 1938-1939. During that year, 1,805,357 kilos of
cacao, valued at Gdes. 613,780, were shipped. During 1939-1940,
exports of cacao amounted to 1,219,756 kilos, valued at Gdes. 488,718.
The decrease in quantity amounted to 52 per cent and the decrease in
value to 20 per cent.
Twenty years ago cacao held a much more important place in Haiti's
economy than it does at present. The violent price fluctuations occurring
from year to year, however, offered little incentive to producers to increase
the area planted to this crop, and the extremely low prices of the past few
years have definitely discouraged production, thus the existing plantations
have been neglected.
One of the contributing causes, and perhaps the most important, to
the low prices received for Haitian cacao is the primitive manner in which
the bulk of the crop has been prepared in the past.
Properly fermented and dried Haitian cacao will command a much
higher price on world markets. Experiments on a small scale have shown
that an excellent quality can be produced. If the bulk of the crop is
properly prepared the better prices received will enable the small producer
to give more care to his trees and to increase their number.
The successful' attempts to improve the quality of Haitian coffee have
shown that the Haitian peasant is amenable to instruction, and will adopt
modern methods of preparation of his crop once he is convinced that his
best interests are served thereby.
Training of the peasants, therefore, in the proper methods of fermenting
and drying cacao is being undertaken. Time must elapse, of course,
before substantial results are evident. There is no doubt, however, but
that the same improvement in the quality of Haitian cacao will be attained
as has been noted in Haitian coffee.
!All the cacao exported went to the United States.
The honey produced in Haiti is usually sold in European countries.
Production of ,this commodity for the past four years had been hovering
around 400,000 kilos annually. During the fiscal year just closed 16,764
kilos valued at Gdes. 6,272 were exported. Of this amount 5,005 kilos
went to the United States. Small shipments to Belgium and the Nether-
lands were made before those countries were invaded. The balance of the
estimated 400,000 kilo crop has been left unsold in the hands of producers
and exporters.
High import duties effectively prevent the marketing in the United
States, at a profit, of any large amount of Haitian honey. Fortunately,
honey, if properly stored, will keep for a considerable time, and up to a




HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


certain point improves in quality. Loss or profit on this year's crop
depends, therefore, on the duration of the war, or a tariff concession by
the United States sufficient to permit Haitian honey to enter that market
for, sale at a competitive price.
Exports of logwood again diminished in volume and value from the
6,919,200 kilos, valued at Gdes. 287,133, exported in 1938-1939 to
4,233,000 kilos with a value of Gdes. 125,819, during the fiscal year
just closed. This was a decrease of 39 per cent in quantity and of 56 per
cent in value.
The outbreak of war brought about an increased demand for castor beans.
Exports of this product rose from 164,635 kilos in 1938-1939 to
565,297 kilos in 1939-1940. Values rose from Gdes. 27,898 to Gdes.
120,231. Planting to castor beans has been carried out extensively during
the year and exports during 1940-1941 should show a decided increase.
Shipments of goatskins declined both in volume and value. Exports
during the year amounted to 164,200 kilos, valued at Gdes. 391,980.
Exports of oranges declined rather sharply in volume and slightly in
value. Grapefruit shipments, however, jumped from 87,945 kilos, valued
at Gdes. 16,983 in 1938-1939 to 444,686 kilos valued at Gdes. 74,163
in 1939-1940. Increased exports to the United States accounted for this
sudden rise.
Plantation production of sisal in Haiti brought into the market a fiber
of uniform length, color and quality, and made possible the establishment
of a new cottage industry now furnishing a livelihood to at least a
thousand people in the city of Port-au-Prince alone. Table mats, floor
rugs, and women's hand bags in attractive colors are manufactured from
sisal fiber. They find a ready sale among the tourists and transit passengers
who visit Haiti. Exports of these articles, valued at Gdes. 660 in 1938-
1939, rose to a value of Gdes. 26,481 in 1939-1940.
The style and quality of the women's hand bags, made from braided
sisal, are such as to create a demand for them in any market, provided
that they can be sold at a reasonable price. Import duties in most of the
countries to which they have been exported, however, are so high as to
render their retail price almost prohibitive. Particularly, is this true of
the United States where it was hoped they would be sold in ever increasing
quantities.
Haitian sisal bags are different from any hand bags manufactured in
the United States, and therefore do not compete with the types of hand
bag manufactured in that country. The granting of a substantial re-
duction in the present import duties by the United States it is believed
would have little or no effect upon American industry, but would provide
employment for several thousand Haitians now urgently in need of such
an opportunity.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Another small industry seeking an outlet for its products comprises the
native wood workers producing small folding tables, ash trays, cigarette
boxes and cases, foot stools and other small articles, handcarved, and
beautifully inlaid, from mahogany, lignum-vitae and other tropical woods.
These articles are also eagerly purchased by tourists visiting Haiti.

Balance of Trade
During the fiscal period foreign goods valued at Gdes. 39,700,574 were
imported into Haiti while Haitian exports were valued at Gdes.
26,995,200 creating an import balance of Gdes. 12,705,374. This is
the largest excess of imports over exports shown in any fiscal year since
1920-21, and marks the fourth successive year in which there has been an
import balance.
The last year in which there was an export balance was 1935-36 when
exports exceeded imports by over Gdes. 9,000,000. During the four
successive years since then the balance in favor of imports has been:
Fiscal Year Gourdes
1936-37.................................................... 1,221,210
1937-38 ..................................................... 3,241,937
1938-39 ..................................................... 4,565,508
1939-40....................................................... 12,705,374

The excess of imports over exports during 1936-37 and 1937-38 was
not large and can easily be explained by invisible exports and residuary
purchasing power created by the excess of exports in 1935-36; but the
importation excess of the last two years, and more particularly the
susbtantial increase in the year under review, is to be explained by ex-
penditures under the public works contract of 1938. Low returns from
exports, failure to dispose of a substantial part of the 1939-40 coffee
crop, investments of private capital, and suspension of full amortization
payments on the public debt have all been factors contributing to the
excess of imports but these were much less important in bringing about the
sudden increase than the expenditures for public works.
The present excess of imports over exports is typical of what happens
in a country where investments of foreign capital are being made. When
such investments are made they are reflected in imports by the borrowing
country, while the returns from the investment and repayment will
eventually be reflected in exports from that country. The effect on the
balance of trade is the same whether the money is invested directly from
private capital or borrowed through the government and expended on
such public works as will increase the future exportable production of
the borrowing country.
It is in the very nature of a public works program that expenditures
thereunder be for machinery, tools, materials, and labor. Since, as concerns







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE 33

Haiti, machinery including trucks, tractors, etc., and the gasoline and
oil necessary to operate them must be imported and since lumber, cement,
steel, and other construction, materials must be imported, a part of the
money spent for machinery and materials is paid directly for imports.
By September 30, 1940, approximately five million gourdes had been
spent under the public works contract for imported machinery and,
materials. Meanwhile articles of such primary necessity as clothing, shoes,
flour, soap, and in general any manufactured articles, largely come from
abroad. As a consequence the amounts spent for labor also find their way
into imports in a relatively short time. Certainly here this happens in a
shorter time than it would in a more highly industrialized country with
larger reservoirs of capital and goods. By September 30, 1940, ap-
proximately eight million gourdes had been spent for labor, under the
public works program.
The other four million gourdes spent under the program have been
for materials within the country, duties on imports, etc. These amounts
have been or will be reflected in imports, but not as immediately as amounts
spent for direct purchases of foreign goods or spent for labor.
Between October 1, 1938 and September 30, 1940, a total of Gdes.
17,176,546.29 was expended under the public works contract. It is
striking to note in connection therewith that the adverse balance of trade
accumulated between October 1, 1938 and September 30, 1940 has
been Gdes. 17,270,882. That these two amounts show a difference of
less than Gdes. 100,000 is of course a coincidence since there are other
factors involved money spent in the country by tourists, private in-
vestments, money spent abroad by Haitians, fluctuations in the length of
time elapsing between the advance of funds and the purchase of articles
abroad, and many others factors, but in a substantial way the adverse
balance is the result of the foreign borrowing.
An adverse or import balance may be expected to continue while the
foreign borrowing continues, and while Haiti is not able satisfactorily to
dispose of its exportable surpluses.
Taking everything into consideration there is little doubt that the present
period of low income from exports would be marked by suffering, distress
and lowering of the existing standard of living to a far greater extent than
at present if government expenditures under the public works contract
were not sustaining importation of articles necessary to maintenance of even
the present standard.
Shipping
During 1939-1940 the number of steam.and motor vessels calling at
Haitian ports was 498 against 657 during the previous fiscal year. The
net registered tonnage of these vessels touching Haitian ports was
1,412,023, as compared with 1,595,770 in 1938-1939. Despite this







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


decrease in the number and tonnage of vessels there was still ample cargo
space to accommodate the volume of exports and imports to be carried.
In the section on tourist trade the inadequacy of passenger boat
facilities has been discussed.
American vessels carried in terms of value, 55.36 per cent of all imports
during 1939-1940. During 1938-1939, only 45.97 per cent of total
imports were carried on American ships. Dutch vessels handled 23.40 per
cent, and ships of Norwegian nationality 14.92 per cent. Fewer calls at
Port-au-Prince by Dutch ships was largely responsible for the increased
tonnage carried on American vessels.
Exports carried by Dutch vessels increased from 31.14 per cent of the
total in 1938-1939 to 39.19 per cent in 1939-1940. American ships
shared only to the extent of 11.94 per cent in the export trade. The part
of the total carried by British ships, however, increased from 20.68 per
cent in 1938-1939 to 29.62 per cent in 1939-1940.
During the early months of the year ships of French registry carried
to Haiti 1.64 per cent of its imports and loaded 5.16 per cent of all exports.
No vessels of German nationality touched Haitian ports during 1939-
1940. In 1938-1939, German ships carried 7.60 per cent of all imports
and 9.92 per cent of all exports.
Tables have been prepared showing the value of imports from all
countries (see table 11) carried by vessels of American, British, Dutch,
French and Norwegian registry. Table 12 presents the corresponding
information relative to the carrying of Haitian exports.

Tourist Trade
Amounts spent by tourists in Haiti declined rather than increased during
1939-40. As an immediate effect of the war, twenty-two cruise ships
booked to call at Cap-Haitien in September, October, and November 1939
were cancelled because of the outbreak of the war and, of course, further
bookings were not made by those lines. In the previous year ships of the
Grace line had also stopped at Cap-Haitien to give their cruise passengers
an opportunity ,to visit the Citadelle, but Iduring December 1939 this line
dropped Cap-Haitien fro.m the list of ports visited. On the other hand the
Am'erCca of the United States line, began making Port-au-Prince a port
of call in August 1940.
The tourist trade in its present state of development in Haiti has supplied
revenue of some importance but it still returns only a fraction of the
amount which could be obtained. At this time of difficulty in marketing
its products further development of the tourist trade is one of those
directions to which Haiti could seriously look for new income.
The war which has closed European markets to Haitian coffee, has
also resulted in such a general disruption of trade and transport that many






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


of the usual routes of tourist travel are closed. Haiti could be partially
compensated for its loss of the European coffee market if it could secure
Sa share in redirected tourist travel. The amounts still spent abroad by
tourists despite the European war are enormous. Travelers from the
SUnited States alone spend hundreds of millions of dollars abroad annually,
and of course at the present time with war in Europe, Africa and the
r Orient, most of this tourist expenditure must go to South and Central
t America.
Haiti has much to offer tourists and with a certain amount of or-
ganization could become an important all the year round tourist resort.
e The Haitian climate is as healthy and agreeable as any in the world. There
Sare here none of those sudden fluctuations in temperature, the denial of
Which taxes the ingenuity of publicity agents for other highly advertised
resorts. Lacking also are those unseasonal periods of rainfall which can
and do so often mar a tourist's vacation after an expensive trip has been
Made to reach his chosen vacation place.
s.'
There is very little rain in the winter months and during all of that
Period of the year when people seek refuge from the cold of the temperate
Stones the temperature in Haiti is constant and delightful, in any part of
I1 the country. Even in summer the mountains are cool, and a short drive
will bring one to altitudes where the temperature is as comfortably low
Sas one could wish.
gi Visitors to Haiti agree upon the unsurpassed beauty of its rugged
mountains, its deep valleys, wide plains and magnificent shore line views.
SThe natural beauty of the country with its tropical and semi-tropical
vegetation, and the picturesque farms and houses of the Haitian peasants,
19 combine to create a succession of beautiful scenes which will be remembered
ps by the traveler in Haiti.
9" Nor does the country lack places of historic interest, though they have
er not been publicized and exploited. The island figures large in early
be American history. The scene of Colombus' discoveries and explorations,
rs it was one of the first parts of America to be settled by Europeans and
ne played its important part in modern history for over a century before the
he pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
,rt In contrast to Haiti's lack of effort to attract publicity one could cite-
to give a single example the manner in which other countries of the
ed Caribbean area have capitalized the history of the buccaneers of the 15th
he century. Likenesses of pirates and buccaneers feature their posters and
ng tourist advertising, while pamphlets recount piratical exploits. Yet, in
>se reaching thzse resorts, to which the tourist's interest has been attracted, he
must, unknown perhaps to himself, pass by Haiti which was the country of
las the buccaneer's origin. Ile de la Tortue, Tiburon, Ile a Vache, etc., were the
ny strongholds to which the buccaneers repaired after plundering other islands,







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


and the Spanish Main. The very word came from the s
Haitian "boucan". Against the early pirates in this part of the world a I
series of fortifications were so solidly constructed at M61e St.-Nicolas to a
provide a safe refuge in the M61e for sailing vessels that parts of these t
fortifications still exist almost intact after three centuries, even though
neglected during all that period. These interesting ruins have never been t
made accessible to tourists who go in large numbers to see places of much
less historic interest.
This report is not the place to set forth the details of Haitian history
but it can be pointed out that places of historic interest abound in Haiti
and that, with the exception of the Citadelle La Ferriere and the ruins
of King Christophe's Palace at Milot, Haiti has left the visitor to ferret
out these places for himself.
There are many potential recreational activities which have not been
organized or developed in such a manner that they can be offered as
attractions to tourists at the present time. Port-au-Prince has, for example,
a fine bay for yachting and for fishing, but there is no yacht club nor
sufficient boats available so that these sports can be advertised. Many
private yachts in recent years, however, have been returning to Haitian
waters after having made their first trip here. Golf, tennis, swimming,
riding, mountain climbing, and hunting are all excellent in Haiti and with
a minimum of organization could all be made easily available to tourists.
Under the present public works program there has been extensive
improvement to Haitian highways which makes travel safer and more
comfortable for those desiring to tour the country. Aside from im-
provements to main highways, the road from Pitionville to Kenscoff has
been greatly improved for the benefit of tourist travel, the road from
Cap-Ha'itien to Milot has been resurfaced, and in recent years notable
improvements have been made to the trail from Milot to the Citadelle.
Very important to the development of a regular and larger tourist trade
is the establishment of one or more modern tourist hotels, able to offer
service and facilities on a par with the resort hotels in other places.
It is said that tourists will not come here unless there are adequate
hotel accommodations yet the existing hotels are always crowded in the
winter months. On the other hand it is said that a tourist hotel or
-hotels would not be profitable until there are tourists to accommodate.
SLikewise development of tourist travel involves the problem of adequate
passenger boat service; but such boat service would not be profitable until
There are sufficient tourists to use it. The vicious circle can never end while
Each phase of the problem awaits solution of some other phase. To have
Sany development of the tourist trade on a scale which will appreciably
affect national income there must be worked out a coordinated prograni
:attacking the problem from all its various angles, more or less at the,







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


same time. Provisions for adequate hotel accommodations and adequate
passenger boat service must be accompanied by organization of existing,
and creation of new, recreational activities, and as important as any of
these by a program of proper publicity.
If Haiti is to take advantage of the present period of change in the usual
tourist routes caused by the war, time is of importance.
It is to be noted that the West Indies as a whole have been neglected by
shipping in the sense that with the exceptions of Cuba, Jamaica and the
Bahamas these beautiful islands have had freight boat service rather than
passenger service. Respectable inter-island service ca.n not be said to
exist even today. American vacationists in Georgia, Mississippi and
Florida can find no passenger boats for the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico,
the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, nor the Windward and Leeward
Islands unless first they go back to the North and start south through the
wintry north Atlantic to return again to within a few miles of heir
starting point in the South. This is why hotels have failed again and
again in many parts of the West Indies.

Foreign Commerce by Months

Total import values during the year under review declined from the
1938-1939 figures by Gdes. 1,203,109. However, during the first four
months of 1939-1940, imports were almost Gdes. 2,000,000 greater
than during the corresponding months of 1938-1939. Importers probably
anticipated, as a result of the war, price increases in most of the com-
modities which Haiti usually purchases abroad, and endeavored to build up


inventories ahead of price advances.
The following table shows monthly
1939-1940 and 1938-1939:
1939-1940
Imports Exports
October ............... 4,150,412 1,513,843
November ............ 3,371,175 1,405,545
December ........... 4,051,796 2,117,987
January ............. 4,347,295 1,754,186
February ............. 3,502,146 3,042,020
March ................ 3,199,988 5,450,208
April .................. 3,733,871 2,256,343
May ................... 3,202,353 2,477,651
June .............. 2,553,317 2,451,226
July .................... 2,597,474 1,760,109
August ............ 2,355,092 1,501,362
September ............ 2,635,655 1,264,720

39,700,574 26,99'5,200


foreign commerce values for

1938-1939
Imports Exports
3,152,451 1,688,118
3,372,504 1,658,542
4,093,670 2,832,140
3,261,562 2,813,086
3,217,908 3,669,633
3,753,756 5,781,602
3,267,675 4,385,485
3,514,9:30 4,479,861
2,816,804 2,443,095
3,064,053 3,081,138
3,777,041 2,166,674
3,611,329 1,338,801
40,903,683 36,338,175


Coffee exports reached their peak in February when 3,186,394 kilos
of this product, valued at Gdes. 1,979,430 were exported. In 1938-1939,
the peak month was May, during which exports of coffee amounted to







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


4,065,650 kilos, valued at Gdes. 2,551,083. The monthly average from
October to April was 2,037,369 kilos. From May to September the
average fell to 385,236 kilos. This low level during the last five months
of the year was due to the closing of Haiti's European markets by the
extension of the war.
In March shipments of coffee amounted to 2,358,732 kilos, valued
at Gdes. 1,529,533. February and March shipments accounted for
slightly more than one third of the coffee shipped during the year.
December was the only other month in which shipments of over 2,000,000
kilos were recorded, the exact figure for that month being 2,291,630


CHART No. 4
VALUE OF TOTAL IMPORTS AND TOTAL EXPORTS, BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEARS 1931-32 TO 1939-40
MILLIOsN OFr0URDes3



;r^---I-----
IIi


XPOTa I


,, ,. 4 \ gl \j .j ,






kilos. August was the low month for shipments of coffee, with exports
of only 123,432 kilos.
Shipments of cotton in February were considerably less than in the
corresponding month of the previous fiscal year. Exports of that com-
modity in February, 1938-1939, totalled 814,329 kilos, valued at Gdes.
784,317. In February, 1939-1940, exports of cotton were 546,713 kilos,
with a value of Gdes. 516,260. Exports in March were higher than in
any other month of the year, amounting to 1,144,287 kilos, valued at
Gdes. 1,173,373. April shipments were 743,448 kilos (Gdes. 723,186)
and in May 275,806 kilos, valued at Gdes. 255,407, were exported. June
closedd the year as far as exports of cotton were concerned with the
shipment of 394,021 kilos (Gdes. 379,259).







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Sisal was exported throughout the year, the peak month being July
during which 1,625,586 kilos, valued at Gdes. 826,809, were shipped.
Other high months were June with 886,243 kilos (Gdes. 469,531),
December, 881,653 kilos (Gdes. 329,909), May, 767,538 kilos (Gdes.!
337,847) and January, 717,392 kilos. The balance of the crop was
exported during the remaining months of the year in amounts ranging
from 170,981 kilos in November to 640,507 kilos in September.
During the first five months of the fiscal year 267,987 kilos of raw'
and refined sugar were exported. This was a carry over from the previous
crop. The grinding season starts in January.
Sugar exports in March amounted to 13,230,411 kilos, valued at Gdes.
2,048,390. Shipments in no other month approached these figures, the
nearest being 8,152,467 kilos, valued at Gdes. 1,297,325 in May. June
exports of sugar were valued at Gdes 853,776, and those of August at
Gdes. 549,997. The value of sugar exported during the four months
mentioned, March, May, June and August was Gdes. 4,749,588. The
total value of the sugar exported for the whole year was Gdes. 4,912,687.
Banana exports for the first eight months of 1939-1940 were below
the level recorded for the corresponding period of the previous fiscal' year.
Nevertheless, during the last four months of the year, banana exports
were sufficiently high to set a new record for annual exportation of
bananas. More bananas were shipped in August 1940 than had ever
before been shipped in a single month, the figures being 364,140 stems,
valued at Gdes. 534,251. September was the second month in importance
with exports of 300,228 stems, valued at Gdes. 427,472.
In the spring months of March, April and May total export values
usually reach their peak. During the year under review March
was the leading month with total exports valued at Gdes. 5,450,208,
followed by February which recorded export values in the amount of
Gdes. 3,042,020.
The following table shows, in terms of value, by percentages, monthly
exports of coffee and total monthly exports:
Coffee All exports
Per cent Per cent
October, 1939........................ 9.63 3.15
November ..... ................ 9.97 2.29
December ............................. 14.12 4.01
January, 1940........................ 11.48 3.45
February ............................... 19.32 6.34
March ................................... 14.93 23.41
April ..................................... 9.78 7.49
M ay ...................................... 1.45 13.90
June ...................................... 3.20 12.68
July ...................................... 0.91 9.95
August .................................. 0.62 8.58
September ............................. 4.59 4.75
100.00 100.00






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Commercial Conventions
In the sense that no new commercial conventions or trade treaties became
effective, and none were abrogated, Haiti's trade relationships with other
countries did not change during the fiscal year. As a practical result of
the European war, however, there were important changes in the
movement of Haiti's commerce, both as to the origin of imports, and the
destination of its exports.
Because of the changes the war brought in Haitian commerce, some of
its existing conventions operated to the detriment of Haiti during the year.
This office recommended that treaty relationships with countries with
whom trade had become impossible be reexamined in the light of the
present world situation with a view to terminating or at least suspending
those, which were found to be detrimental to the Haitian revenues.
The details of the convention entered into with France June 24,1938
were discussed in the last annual report. Briefly, that convention provided
that France would accord Haiti a normal quota of not less than 12,000,000
kilos of coffee per year and certain other Haitian products listed in the
convention were to enjoy most-favored-nation treatment upon im-
portation into France. In addition to most-favored-nation treatment for
products of France, the convention provided for a reduction of duties to
specifically stated amounts on certain other French products. There were
other provisions but these were the most important to Haiti.
France took 1,624,390 kilos of coffee from October 1, 1939 up to
May 1940, and practically none thereafter.
With trade between the two countries virtually at a standstill there
was no advantage to be obtained from the treaty by either Haiti or France.
On the other hand, with the reduced duties accorded France by the
convention applicable to similar products of nations having most-favored-
nation treaties with Haiti, it followed that returns from the import tariff
were lower than they would otherwise have been. It has been estimated
that revenues of more than Gdes. 200,000 were so lost to the treasury
during the fiscal year.
Although it was found impossible to correct this situation during the
fiscal year, since the close of the year the convention has been suspended
by an exchange of letters between the two governments.
Hailvian delegates attended the Pan American conference held during the
year at Havana. The coffee quota plan whereby the United States agrees
to limit its annual imports of coffee over the next three years, and the
coffee producing countries signatory to the agreement agree to limit their
exports of coffee, grew out of this conference.
This agreement and in general, the extension of the principle of
cooperation among nations of the Western Hemisphere, which was dealt
with at the Havana conference, may have far reaching effects upon Haiti's







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


foreign trade relations in the future. The conference was held late in
the fiscal year. Therefore its effect, and in particular the operation of the
quota agreement, can not be measured until the coming year.

Customs Administration

Administration and operation of the customs service within the five per
cent fund is discussed in the section on Customs Service.
There were no changes of, importance in the personnel during the
past fiscal year. Keeping expenditures within availabilities necessitated a
ten per cent cut in the salaries of all officials and employees of the service
during the last three months of the fiscal year. Despite the salary sacrifices
required of the customs personnel, officials and employees with the few
exceptions mentioned below have carried out their duties in an efficient
and commendatory manner.
It was discovered during the year that several importing concerns in
Port-au-Prince were practising fraud upon the customs. This was
accomplished by collusion with one or more customs employees and
consisted of falsification and substitution of documents. Most of the
importations involved silk.goods or jewelry. The necessary action was
taken-against the offenders through the appropriate tribunals.
Following discovery of this fraud a law was enacted which clarified the
definition of contraband and made possible collection of customs duties
through the issuance of contraints, and seizure of the offenders property,
whether in the custody of the customs or elsewhere.
There were no modifications of importance in either the import or
export tariffs during the fiscal year.

Government Revenues

Total Revenues
Unless the context denotes otherwise, where "total reverlues", or "total
revenue receipts" are referred to in this report the amount to be understood
includes receipts of the government from customs duties, internal revenue
taxes, and receipts from miscellaneous sources (for the most part interest
received on government deposits or bond investments).
The amounts not included in "total revenue receipts" are referred to
as non-fiscal or non-revenue receipts. One of the non-fiscal items covers
those sums of money received under the Public Works Contract. The
public works program is financed from a revolving fund, which is re-
plenished by the proceeds of notes discounted from time to time after
expenditures have reached an amount which renders it desirable. During
the fiscal year 1939-40 expenditures under the public works program were








42 HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

Gdes. 8,855,385.69 and exactly that amount figures as non-revenue
receipts under "Public Works Contract 1938". Non-fiscal receipts also
cover deposits in the government treasury of surety bonds and guarantees
or cash in lieu thereof, trust funds, payment into revolving funds, and
receipts by bureaux of the government operating certain public services.
These receipts are separately accounted for, and, with the exception of
amounts received and expended under the Public Works Contract, only
the net disbursements appear in the monthly and yearly listing of receipts
and expenditures. Non-fiscal amounts do not appear in the total revenue


CHART No. 5
TOTAL REVENUE RECEIPTS OF HAITI AND EXPENDITURES FROM REVENUES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40
MILLIONS O O 6URDRC5


i 1 I S- U it-rtnu-t zo k U n
UM SURPLUS


DEFICIT '


receipts shown on Chart No. 5: nor do disbursements from these non-
fiscal accounts appear in expenditures as shown on the same chart.
Government receipts from all revenue sources totalled Gdes.
26,873,410.55 during 1939-40. This amount is 13.7 per cent less than
the sum of Gdes. 31,145,584.29 collected in 1938-39.
Government revenues in 1939-40 classified by sources reflect the lowered
returns from export duties on coffee:


Sources: Gourdes
Customs :
Imports ...................................... 18,291,270.51
Exports ...................................... 2,861,940.36
Miscellaneous ..................... 74,076.55
Internal Revenues............................... 5,245,953.95
Miscellaneous Government Receipts.... 183,473,34
Receipts from Communes................... 216,695.84

26,873,410.55


1939-40 1938-39
Per cent Per cent


68.1
10.6
0.3
19.5
0.7
0.8
100.0


66.7
15.4
0.2
16.2
0.8
0.7

100.0






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The change worthy of note in the foregoing classification is the sharp
decline in the percentage of total government revenues which came from
export taxes and the increase in the percentage of the total derived from
import duties and from internal revenues.
Returns from export duties have never been so low during the period
covered by the records either in percentage of the total or in amount in
gourdes. Internal revenue receipts have been higher in amount but not in
percentage of total.

Customs Receipts

Total receipts from customs sources amounted to Gdes. 21,227,287.42
during the fiscal year. Of that amount 86.4 per cent was derived from
the import tariff.
Returns from the import duties held up remarkably well during the
fiscal year. It is true that there was a:decline of Gdes. 2,475,207.19 from
the amount collected in the previous year, but as pointed out in last years
annual report there was increased importation prior to the close of the
year because of approaching war. It was estimated that at least a million
Gourdes were collected on imports which would normally have arrived
during the fiscal year under review. Import revenues have been compara-
tively constant over the past three years: Gdes. 17,607,360.82 in 1937-38;
Gdes. 20, 766,477.70 in 1938-39, and Gdes. 18,291,270.51 in 1939-40.
That import revenues have held up so well during the past fiscal year despite
the decrease in purchasing power derived from coffee exports, is due to
expenditure by the government during the past two years of Gdes.
17,176,546.29 on the public works program.
The principal sources of import revenue in order of yield and compared
to the yield in the previous year, were:


Cotton goods.........................................
Gasoline and kerosene..........................
Flour ................................................
Other foodstuffs and beverages............
Iron and steel products, machinery and
apparatus .....................................
Soap ......................................... ..........
Chemical and pharmaceutical products
Cigarettes and tobacco...........................
W ool, linen, silk goods, jute bags, etc.....
Cement, lumber, etc.............................
Paper, etc..................................... .........
Leather, shoes, and leather goods..........
Rubber goods........................................
Autos and trucks..................................
Glassware .............................................
Earthenware, etc...................................
All other................................ .........


1939-40
Gourdes
5,730,562.78
2,027,040.71
2,272,859.55
1,646,389.65

835,244.15
1,038,884.62
704,580.41
1,052,599.07
902,178.54
564,323.05
228,931.33
172,246.70
223,101.14
198,391.19
86,234.23
24,646.48
583,056.91


Total ............................................ 18,291,270.51


1938-39
Gourdes
6,381,2 8 3.02
3,160,356.46
2,512,424.12
2,031,013.91

1,091,841.67
1,001,288.02
883,624.86
881,278.66
820,552.67
555,057.47
266,551.46
243,397.48
241,902.05
202,260.46
93,457.89
69,919.22
330,268.28

20,766,477.70





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Returns from the export tariff declined from Gdes. 4,789,876.20 in
the preceding year to Gdes. 2,861,940.36 in the fiscal year 1939-40.
There is no record in the reports of returns from this source of revenue
being lower than the sum of Gdes. 2,861,940.36 collected in the year just
ended. It might here be recalled that prior to 1937-38 expected returns
from export duties were from eight to eleven million gourdes. There were
better returns in good coffee years. In 1938 the export duty on coffee was
cut to half of the former rate and returns from export duties dropped
below Gdes. 5,000,000. There have been no further decreases in duty
rates and the low returns of the past year reflect the smaller quantity of
coffee exported.
Export revenues over the past two years have been derived as follows:.
1939-40 1938-39 1939-40
Gourdes Gourdes Per cent
Coffee ..................................... 2,424,677 4,326,796 84.22
Bananas ................................. 157,366 140,634 5.50
Sisal ....................................... 112,589 107,190 3.93
Cotton ..................................... 65,091 98,885 2.28
All other................................... 102,217 116,374 3.57
2,861,940 4,789,875 100.00

Internal Revenue Receipts
There have been but two years since the organization of the present
Internal Revenue Service in 1924 in which internal revenue receipts have
been higher than Gdes. 5,245,953.95, the amount reached during the fiscal
year 1939-40. The amount collected in the preceding year was Gdes.
5,022,019.59. It is interesting to note internal revenues have been less
sensitive to a very poor coffee year than they have usually been. The
explanation is the same as for receipts from the import tariff. Government
expenditures on public works has sustained purchasing power and offset
the lack of returns from coffee sales. The employment of labor on a wide
range of projects has distributed money in all parts of the country. The
immediate needs of the workers are imported articles, such as clothing
which is not manufactured in Haiti. Supplying these needs has kept the
small retail businesses of the country alive. If internal revenue returns
serve as a critoriron, small business throughout the country has not been
depressed to the extent which might have been expected in a year in which
returns from coffee exports have been so exceptionally low.
Returns from excise taxes turned upward in contrast to the two
preceding years. Excise is levied on alcohol and tobacco products and on
salt, vegetable oil, lard substitutes and soap. Nearly forty per cent of
excise receipts came from taxes on cigarettes, while nearly twenty-five
per cent came from taxes on alcohol distilled from cane juice. Both of
these categories of excise showed increased returns over the preceding fiscal
year.





HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Early in the fiscal year the alcohol law of 1931 was revised and the
monthly tax on distilling apparatus, payable during those months a
distillery is not closed with permission of the Internal Revenue Service,
was doubled. License fees for distillers were likewise increased. Returns
from alcohol taxes were Gdes. 318,087.09 compared with Gdes.
257,905.05 in the previous fiscal year.
The extent to which there were increases or decreases in important
sources of internal revenue other than excise is shown by the following
comparative statement:
1939-40 1938-39
Gourdes Gourdes
Registration fees.......................................... 488,358.65 359,315.08
Income taxes................................................ 468,929.50 395,730.37
Telegraph & Telephone receipts.................... 424,478.17 493,613.77
Documentary stamps.................................... 402,159.79 419,305.98
Public land rentals...................................... 339,511.27 351,291.18
Identity cards................................................ 321,818.19 212,173.70
Water service charges......................... 290,628.75 277,004.00
Postage stamps............................................ 242,433.41 257,044.92
Occupational licenses.................................. 231,710.35 273,315.45
Automobile licenses........................................ 137,420.86 135,611.44
Vital statistics fees...................................... 130,074.35 140,080.38

There are over forty separate categories of internal revenue taxes, but
no category other than those listed above returned more than Gdes.
100,000 during the fiscal year. Further detailed discussion of internal
revenue receipts will be found in the report of the Inspector General of
the Internal Revenue Inspection Service which is annexed to this report.

Miscellaneous Receipts
Miscellaneous receipts of the government totalled Gdes. 183,473.34 in
1939-40 compared with Gdes. 254,342.07 in 1938-39, the difference
being a decline of Gdes. 70,868.73, or 27.8 per cent.
Miscellaneous receipts may be classified (see Table 37) in three groups
as follows:
Gourdes
Returns on investments.................................. 101,631.05
Conversion of francs...................................... 21,357.05
Other miscellaneous.......................................... 60,485.24
183,473.34

Returns on investments include: (a) interest on government deposits
in New York funds, (b) returns on bond investments, and (c) dividends
from the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti.
Interest on government deposits in New York funds amounted to Gdes.
21,698.40 during the fiscal year.
Dividends declared by the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti
and credited as miscellaneous receipts amounted to Gdes. 50,000.00.





46 !\iAT:: REPORT CF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

The amount of interest received from bond investments during ,the se
fiscal year was Gdes. 29,932.65. The value of bonds held by the go- a,
vernment calculated at cost prices, on which interest was taken up as g,
miscellaneous investments stood at Gdes. 337,386.90 on September 30, b
1940. It should be noted that in addition to the foregoing bonds held for c'
the treasury investment account, some bonds are held by the Garde d'Haiti, tl
and other bonds are held for the benefit of the Caisse d'Assistance Sociale.
The latter acquired, during the fiscal year, those bonds which formerly
were held for the benefit of the Agricultural colonies. Total government
investments in bonds calculated at cost was Gdes. 532,737.25 on Sep-
tember 30, 1940. The corresponding amount on September 30, 1939
was Gdes, 531,292.50. There was no change during the year in the total
number of bonds held by the government. The difference in the valuation
resulted from the transfer above mentioned between the Agricultural
Colonies and the Caisse d'Assistance Sociale. The bonds were valued at
the prevailing price at the time of sale and the difference Gdes.
1,444.75 between the cost to the Agricultural Colonies and the
prevailing price, was credited to the account of the Agricultural Colonies.
Under the second category above (conversion of francs) receipts
declined from Gdes. 86,164.00 in, 1938-39 to Gdes. 21,357.05 in
1939-40. Receipts from this source consist of interest on funds held in
trust by the National City Bank of New York, for the benefit of the t
remaining bondholders of the 1910 loan, when, as, and if they choose to
redeem their bonds. Interest on the fund at the rate of 2-1/2 per cent per
annum is paid to the Haitian Government in francs and converted monthly
into dollars. There was a balance of Frs. 6,984,243.75 in the redemption
fund at September 30, 1940, as compared with Frs. 7,880,931.35 at
September 30, 1939.
Other miscellaneous receipts consist of interest and amortization
payments on treasury loans to communes, and funds reverting to the
treasury through prescription of unpaid treasury checks. Returns from
"Other miscellaneous" sources decreased from Gdes. 82,404.66 in 1938-
39 to Gdes. 60,485.24 in 1939-40.

Government Expenditures
Government expenditures from revenues during the fiscal year were
Gdes. 28,478,637.37. In the preceding year total expenditures from
revenue were Gdes. 29,584,799.38. In the appropriate sections of this,
and prior reports, the decrease in revenues during recent years brought
about by the decline in coffee prices and, during the past year by the
suspension of coffee shipments to Europe, has been discussed fully.
Expenditures from revenue have not been so low since the fiscal year
1919-20. Beginning with 1920-21 there was a period stretching over






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


e, seventeen years or until 1936-37 when revenues were sufficient to allow
Average annual expenditures from revenue of over thirty-seven million
(s gourdes. The drop in coffee prices in the opening months of 1937-38
brought such a sharp decline in revenues that expenditures had to be
Curtailed during that fiscal year to Gdes. 28,940,782. Expenditures over
Sthe past five years have been:
Year Gourdes
1935-36................................................ 36,631,574.03
t 19,36-37 ................................................ 35,033,437.11
1937-38................................................. 28,940,782.51
1938-39......................................... 29,584,799.38
9 1939-40 ............................................... 28,478,637.37

n To be particularly noted is the drop in expenditures from the amount
of Gdes. 35,033,473.11 in 1936-37 to Gdes. 28,940,782 in 1937-38.
The amounts spent in 1935-36 and in 1936-37 are somewhat below
the average previous to 1937, but still fairly indicative of amounts available
for expenditures from revenue.
S. The reduction from that level to the level of expenditures of the past
s three years was effected for the most part by reduction in amortization
n payments on the public debt, and by a reduction in the amounts expended
from revenue on public works. There have been some other decreases but
le these were the most important.
o The budget for 1939-40 authorized expenditures to the extent of
:r Gdes. 29,188,991.18. With government revenues- failing to reach the
y estimated amounts it was apparent that actual receipts even when assisted
n by withdrawals from the slender treasury surplus would be insufficient
it to meet the expenditures authorized. It was not believed practicable to
attempt an increase of the tax burden at this time for without the im-
n position-of new taxes, the recent drastic reduction in the national income
ie had made the present tax burden relatively heavier than it was previously.
n The only course left was curtailment of expenditures. An Arret6 of
S August 6, 1940 provided for salary reductions of 10 per cent on all salaries
of government employees over Gdes. 100.00 per month and 5 per cent
on all salaries of less than Gdes. 100.00 per month. Another Arrete taken
September 16, provided that unused balances in appropriations authorized
in the budget should revert to the general treasury. These measures and
*e other economies effected during the year by various Services and De-
n apartments to keep expenditures within available funds, resulted in a de-
s, crease of Gdes. 1,106,162.01 from the amount of Gdes. 29,584,799.38
it' expended in the preceding year.
e A year-to-year comparison of expenditures from revenue, with the re-
venue receipts, over the period from 1916-17 to the fiscal year just ended
S is shown on Chart No. 5. Only expenditures from revenue are shown on
r the chart. Non-fiscal expenditures are not included. The sum of Gdes.







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


8,855,385.69 spent on the public works program was made available
under the contract for public works and as this amount, like other non-
fiscal receipts, is not available for ordinary operating expenses of the go-
vernment, the accounting is kept separately from revenue receipts and re-
venue expenditures.

Total Government expenditures from revenue during 1939-40 by de-
partments and services, are given in the table which follows. Each item
includes all disbursements from ordinary, supplementary (or deficiency),
and extraordinary appropriations together with amounts by which ex-
penditures increased, over, or decreased from, expenditures in the previous
year:


Department or Service


Department of the Interior.....................
G. Guard ...........................................
National Public Health Service........
Department of Public Instruction............
Department of Finance .......................
Department of Foreign Relations............
Department of Commerce ....................
Internal Revenue Service.......................
Department of Public Works................
Public Works Administration..............
Department of Justice............................
Office of the Fiscal Representative........
International Institutions........................
Department of Religion.........................
Department of Agriculture & Labor........
.National Service of Agriculture............
Public Debt...........................................


Total .
Expenditures
1939-40
Gourdes
1,967,734.44
7,465,651.53
2,542,050.64
2,624,835.34
622,773.10
879,773.37
366,923.51
1,003,672.58
34,974.36
3,326,874.68
1,303,745.58
982,434.44
75,162.30
406,145.43
59,108.06
1,722,162.18
3,094,815.83


28,478,637.37


Decrease or
Increase (*) from
previous year
Gourdes
48,441.06
343,633.8 0
89,671.90
25,117.90
293,514.04
7,79'6.9g
47,774.73
5,871.61*
1,546.83
359,488.25
20,402.50
272,274.63
14,837.70
25,485.06
21,402.21
12,573.25
456,333.25*

1,106,162.01
Net decrease


Supplementary (or deficiency) credits totalling Gdes. 469,955.00 were
voted during the fiscal year, and extraordinary appropriations totalled
'Gdes. 72,500.00. Against these increases in total appropriations, there
were concellations of credits to the extent of Gdes. 1,097,092.64.
The Departments and Services in whose favor credits were opened, and
the amounts made available were:


Department or Service Supplementary credit
Gourdes
Foreign Relations............................... 89,000
Interior ............................................. 130,825
Public Instruction............................ 18,880
Guard ............................................... 156,250
Public Works Service....................... 75,000
Agricultural Service........................... ..........

469,955


Extraordinary credit
Gourdes
46,600
.. .........

15,900
............
10,000

72,500


By supplementary credits opened to the Department of Foreign Affairs,
Gdes. 89,000 were made available under articles covering exp-nses of






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


diplomatic missions and official receptions. Extraordinary credits opened
to this department were for exceptional police measures (Gdes. 15,000)
and expenses in connection with participation in the Interamerican Fi-
nancial and Economic Advisory Committee, Pan American Union
(Gdes. 21,900).
Of the total Gdes. 130,825 opened as supplementary credits to the
Department of the Interior, Gdes. 110,000 were made available in the
article to cover Presidential traveling expenses, and Gdes. 20,825 for
national celebrations.
A supplementary credit was opened to the Department of Public
Instruction in the sum of Gdes. 18,800.
The supplementary credit in the amount of Gdes. 156,250 opened to
the Guard was for the purpose of making additional amounts available
for the purchase of Guard equipment. The extraordinary credit in favor
of the Guard, in the amount of Gdes. 15,900 was opened to cover expenses
of three Guard officers and one officer of the Military School while in the
United'States.
An extraordinary appropriation in the amount of Gdes. 10,000 was
made in favor of the National Agricultural Service for the purchase of
anti-anthrax vaccine.
Table 41 gives a functional classification of expenditures for the fiscal
year, and shows the percentage of total expended on each function.
Included in this table are all disbursements of the government with the
exception of trust fund repayments, or payments from revolving funds,
for which only the net is shown. In the year under review payments from
revolving funds were less than amounts paid in, resulting in a net credit.
Expenditures under the public works contract are included in total
disbursements.
Total disbursements were Gdes. 37,974,137.62. Of this total 23.32
per cent (Gdes. 8,855,385.69) was disbursed under the public works
contract. The next highest percentage of the total was expended by the
Guard. This amount (Gdes. 7,465,651.53) was 19.66 per cent in
comparison with 21.24 per cent in the previous year. Amounts expended
for educational purposes (Gdes. 3,697,043.41) represented 9.74 per cent
of the total as compared with 10.00 per cent in the previous year. The
percentage of the total expended on public debt was 8.15 in comparison
with 7.17 per cent in the previous year. The amount spent on public
health decreased from 7.24 per cent to 6.79 per cent. The percentage of
the total absorbed by financial administration was 5.82 per cent against
7.28 per cent in the previous year. The percentage of the total expended
in carrying out the legislative and judicial functions dropped from 6.31
per cent to 5.90 per cent.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Customs Service
Expenses of the customs service are paid out of the operating fund of
the Fiscal Representative. This fund consists of five per cent of customs
receipts. At the close of the preceding year there was a balance of Gdes.
26,872.14 in the fund. Accruals during the year amounted to Gdes.
1,061,364.37. Expenditures from the fund were Gdes. 982,434.44
leaving a balance of Gdes. 105,802.07 at the close of the fiscal year.
In previous years the commission amounting to one per cent of customs
revenues, contractually payable by the government to the Banque Na-
tionale de la Rdpublique d'Ha'iti for the treasury service rendered by the
bank, has been paid in whole or in part from the balance in the five
per cent fund, as of the close of the fiscal year. No part of the bank
commission was charged to the five per cent fund in the past fiscal year.
However, it should be added that a payment of Gdes. 47,540.46 was
made after the close of the fiscal year.
The expenses of the Fiscal Representative classified by objects of ex-
penditures in 1939-40, and in the preceding year were as follows:
1939-40 1938-39
Gourdes Gourdes
Administration ........................... 521,173.21 535,819.80
Customs Operation...................... 451,254.44 466,283.12
Repair & Maintenance................. 7,574.66 9,509.01
Acquisition of property............. 2,432.13 7,755.90
Fixed Charges............................ ................ 235,341.24
Total .................................... 982,434.44 1,254,709.07

From the foregoing table it will be noted that expenditures for ad-
ministration, customs operation, repairs and maintenance, and acquisition
of property all declined from amounts expended for the same objects in
1938-39. Expenses classified as "Fixed charges" include only the part
of the bank commission paid from the five per cent fund in 1938-39.
Expenses of administration and operation absorbed 98.98 per cent of
total expenditures from the fund, while 0.77 per cent was spent on repairs
and maintenance, and 0.25 per cent for acquisition of property.
Expenditures for administration and operation may be broken down
into the following items:
Gourdes Per cent
Salaries and wages........................... 833,693.81 85.86
Supplies and materials.......................... 51,766.33 5.32
Transportation .................................... 77,346.21 7.95
Communications .............................. 4,818.05 .50
Rents .............. ................................. 1,840.00* .18*
Special and miscellaneous............... 6,643.25 .68
972,427.65 100.00

*Credit.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


In the preceding year expenditures for the above items and the percent-
age of total administration and operation cost of each was: Salaries and
wages, Gdes. 860,432.77 (85.86 per cent); supplies and materials, Gdes.
57,389.33 (5.72 per cent); transportation, Gdes. 81,747.68 (8.16 per
cent); rents Gdes. 1,345.00 (0.13 per cent*); special and miscellaneous,
Gdes. 1,973.09 (0.20 per cent); and communications. Gdes. 1,905.05
(0.19 per cent).
Table 23 of this report shows expenditures from the five per cent fund
by objects of expenditure since 1916. During the past fiscal year total ex-
penditures dropped below a million gourdes for the first time since 1918-
19. Since no fixed charges were paid from the five per cent fund during
the fiscal year 1939-40, it will be necessary for purposes of comparison
to deduct fixed charges from total expenditures of prior years. Excluding
fixed charges, 1920-21 was the last fiscal year in which expenditures had
been below a million gourdes.
The peak in expenditures was reached during the fiscal year 1926-27.
In that year total expenditures amounted to Gdes. 2,278,241.30, of
which amount Gdes. 336,618.76 covered fixed charges. The period of
declining revenues has been also a period of curtailment in expenditures
from the five per cent fund. Not only have expenditures for acquisition
of customs property for which substantial amounts were available when
receipts were high been curtailed; but other expenditures, including salaries
have been reduced as well.
Total expenditures (exclusive of fixed charges) over the last five years
from the five per cent fund have been:
Period Gourdes
1935-36................................................. 1,119,837.28
1936-37.................................................... 1,123,419.08
1937-38.................................................. 1,048,371.74
1938-39................................................... 1,019,367.83
1939-40.................................................... 982,434.44
It is estimated that expenditures from the five per cent fund during
1940-41 will be approximately Gdes. 900,000.

Internal Revenue Service
The operating fund of the Internal Revenue Service is derived from an
allowance of 10 per cent of all-internal revenue collected, and 15 per cent
of the communal taxes collected by the internal revenue service. During
the fiscal year ten per cent of Internal Revenue amounted to Gdes.
524,595.40, and 15 per cent of those communal revenues collected by the
Internal Revenue Service amounted to Gdes. .216,695.84. Other accruals
to the Internal Revenue Service amounting to Gdes. 6,503.71 brought the
total to Gdes. 747,794.95.

*Credit.







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


The Internal Revenue Inspection Service, under the Agreement of August
7, 1933 between the government of the United States and the government
of Haiti has the duty of inspecting the collection of internal revenues. To
carry out this duty the Service may expend an amount not to exceed five
per cent of internal revenue receipts.
Expenditures of the Internal Revenue Inspection Service during each
of the last two years were:


1939-40
Gourdes
Salaries ......................................... 108,495.24
Supplies ..........:............................. 4,050.59
Transportation ................................ 88,614.12
Equipment .................................... 6,406.41
Repairs ..................................... 26.00
M miscellaneous ........................... 1,746.00

Total ...................................... 209,338.36


1938-39
Gourdes
111,797.50
7,351.56
77,293.68
1,859.15
1,764.95
2,421.09

202,487.93


During 1939-40 expenditures by the Inspection Service amounted to
3.99 per cent of total internal revenues. In the previous fiscal year ex-
penditures were covered by 4.0 per cent of internal revenue receipts. In
no.year since its inception has the inspection service spent the full five per
cent. Five per cent of internal revenue receipts in 1939-40 amounted to
Gdes. 262,297.69. Expenses of the Inspection Service were Gdes.
209,338.38. The balance of the fund unused, to wit, Gdes. 52,959.31
was made available for expenditure by the Internal Revenue Service.
Combined expenditures of the two services during the past two years
have been:


Salaries and wages......................................
Supplies and materials................................
Transportation ...........................................
Miscellaneous ..........................................

Total Administration and operation..............
Repairs ...... ...............................
Acquisition of Property.............................
Bank Commission....................................


1939-40
Gourdes
681,909.16
76,106.15
176,217.30
1,856.75

936,089.36
5,374.57
9,749.11
52,459.54


Total expenditures................................ 1,003,672.58


1938-39
Gourdes
730,663.48
81,779.91
148,339.87
17,561.38

978,344.64
3,932.33
4,328.80
11,195.20

997,800.97


Public Works Program

In the annual report for 1937-38 the nature of the contract entered
into between the Haitian State and the J. G. White Engineering Corpora-
tion was discussed and the arrangements for financing a program of public
works were fully explained.
In brief, the contract called for execution, by the J. G. White En-
gineering Corporation, of a series of public works projects which would
include improved roads and trails, construction of wharves and bridges,






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


construction of and repairs to irrigation and drainage systems, extension
of municipal water supply systems, projects of agricultural development,
and other projects of a productive nature. The contract became operative
in 1938 and contemplated completion of the program in three to four
years. Arrangements were made to finance this-program of public works
to the extent of Gdes. 25,000,000.
The contract was signed and published together with the sanctioning
decree-law in the official Moniteur of July 7, 1938. Work on a number
of projects was well under way by September 30, 1938. Up to that time
expenditures under the contract had amounted to Gdes. 317,117.69.
Expenditures during 1938-39 were Gdes. 8,321,160.60. The progress
made during 1938-39 was discussed in the last annual report.
During the fiscal year ending September 30, 1940, expenditures under
the program amounted to Gdes. 8,855,385.69 bringing the total to Gdes.
17,493,663.98.
Since work on most of the larger projects has extended over both fiscal
years it will be necessary in some cases to repeat the descriptions of projects
contained in the last annual report. In this report the progress under the
program to date-will be described rather than an attempt made to record
the status of each project at the beginning and then again at the end of
the year.
The order in which projects will be reviewed will be governed by their
location rather than their relative importance. First those projects will be
discussed which involved improvement to the main highway and feeder
roads in the southern peninsula followed by road projects north of Port-
au-Prince, trails in each department, the irrigation, drainage, and water
supply projects, and finally the agricultural program.
Going from Port-au-Prince south the main highway crosses the southern
Peninsula to Cayes on the southern coast then crosses the peninsula again
to Jirimie. In the last report mention was made of the completion of
the asphalt paving project at Portail LUogane where the southern highway
enters Port-au-Prince. After the avenue was completed several blocks of
streets adjacent to it were paved. Another project extended the paving to
Carrefour. The road over the Tapion mountain was improved.
Continuing along the southern highway. The installation of the 180-
foot single span bridge over the Cavaillon river has been completed and
the bridge was formally opened March 31, 1940. Between Cayes and
Camp Perrin twenty-three kilometers of road were reconstructed. Beyond
Camp Perrin, improvements to the main road included surfacing bad
portions of the road with crushed rock, removing overhanging rocks,
eliminating some of the sharp curves which made travel dangerous, and
constructing culverts and fords where necessary. A concrete ford five






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


meters wide and 78 meters long with cobblestone approaches has been
constructed through the Voldrogue river. Another ford six meters wide
and 171 meters long has been constructed through the Roseaux river.
Projects of feeder road construction on the southern peninsula, include a
road from Moron to Chambellan, and a road from Rousselin to Anse
d'Hainault. The first project, now completed, consisted of rebuilding and
resurfacing the road between Moron and Chambellan a distance of
eight kilometers. Under the Rousselin-Anse d'Hainault project a new
road 12 kilometers in length and six meters wide was constructed on the
extreme west coast of the island. Both of these projects were necessary to
permit the peasant farmers to market bananas since otherwise it was im-
possible to transport these to the seacoast. A project ito improve the road
from Moron to J&rimie was started during the year. On the southern
peninsula also, a new project covers improvements to the 17 kilometers of
road from Miragoane to Petite-Riviire de Nippes and construction of a
bridge over the Anse-a-Veau river.
An existing road from Cayes to Acul was reconstructed. Work on this
project included construction of concrete fords thru the Torbeck and Acul
rivers. Another project in the Cayes region is the rebuilding, to a width
of five meters, of the thirteen kilometer road from Carrefour Kanze to
Maniche.
On the main road leading north from Port-au-Prince the first project
involved asphalt paving. Approximately five and one half kilometers of
road at the northern entrance to Port-au-Prince were graded and asphalted
during the previous fiscal year. The project was reopened to extend the
asphalt surfacing another 1,200 meters. The reopened project is now
complete.
The next project on the main highway going north is the extensive
reconstruction, between Cabaret and Mont Rouis, involving relocation of
a considerable portion of the main road. Under this project 32 kilometers
of road were reconstructed or newly built. New bridges were built over
the Torcelle, Manegue, Pois, Bretelle, and Courjol rivers. A very large
number of new culverts, and a concrete ford through the Matheux river
at Vign6 were constructed. At September 30, 1940, sea walls to protect
a portion of the rebuilt highway were nearly completed, and little work
remained to place this project on the completed list. It was one of the
most extensive undertaken.
Three kilometers beyond Saint-Ma:rc reconstruction of a bridge over the
Leocand ravine is in progress. Between Gonaives and Ennery, im-
provements which included widening, grading, draining and surfacing
the main highway have been completed. A portion of this road follows
the.bank of the Ennery river. New river channels have been excavated
to divert the course of the river and keep it from cutting away the road.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Improvement of the road from the summit of Puilboreau mountain to
the town of Plaisance, a distance of fourteen kilometers, has been
completed. The existing road was widened to a standard of six meters
and resurfaced and sharp curves were eased. A bridge was constructed over
the Bois d'Orme ravine. Basic improvements have been undertaken and
completed on the section of the main highway between Plaisance and
Camp Coq.
On the main highway beyond Cap-Ha'itien two important river
crossings have been constructed. A single-span steel bridge over the Trou
river was constructed and has been opened to traffic since May 1940.
Another obstacle to transportation between Fort-Libert6 and Cap--Haitien
was removed by construction of a concrete ford through the river at Ter-
rier-Rouge. Feeder road projects covering the construction of new roads
or extensive improvements to existing road's in the Department of the
North are: the road from Cap-Haitien to Dondon; Plaisance to Pilate
(completed); Limbe to Port Margot; Puilboreau to Marmelade; Mari-
baroux to the Cap-Ha'tien Ouanaminthe highway; Gros-Morne to Pi-
late; Dondon to St.-RaphaEl, etc. These roads branch from the main
highway into productive areas. In addition to opening up coffee and
banana areas the completion of the Plaisance to Pilate, and Pilate to
Gros-Morne projects, will form an important link in, the transportation
system of the northern part of the island, saving many miles of travel for
traffic between the Port-de-Paix and Cap-Haitien regions and avoiding
the crossing of Puiliboreau mountain. Improvement of the old colonial
road from Maribaroux to the National Highway has been completed.
On the road from Gros-Morne to Port-de-Paix, in the Department of
the Northwest, the relocation of several sections of road was begun during
the previous fiscal year and work still continues. The scope of this project
included grade improvements, road alignment, improved stream crossings,
road drainage, installation of culverts and bridges and, at various
points, road surfacing. Construction of a reinforced concrete bridge over
La Platte river has been completed. When all the work now in progress
has been completed the 29 kilometers of road from Bassin Bleu to Port-
de-Paix will be an all weather road. Improvements to the road from Jean
Rabel to M6le St. Nicolas are under way.
Improvements to the road from Cap-Haitien to Dondon and Dondon
to Hinche in conjunction with improvements under way on river crossings
and surfacing of sections of the Port-au-Prince Hinche road will make
possible an alternative and shorter route from Port-au-Prince to Cap-
Ha'itien.
Improvements to the road from Cap-Ha'tien to Milot have been of
benefit to tourists going from Cap-Haitien to the Citadelle. Likewise of






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


benefit to tourist travel have been the extensive improvements to the
Kenscoff Petionvi'lle road.
In the Saint-Marc region a road from Pont Sond6 to Desarmes will be
a valuable asset in the marketing of bananas from the extensive banana
developments in the Artibonite valley. At the year-end this project was
nearing completion. Another project in the same Department is the
improvement of the road from Petite-Riviere de l'Artibonite to Carrefour
Grosse Chaudiire.
A causeway was constructed over the Saint-Marc river at Pivert opening
up the valley for banana development. In addition to the foregoing road
projects various improvements to streets in Port-au-Prince involving
installation of sewer drains and gutters, as well as some asphalting have
been, carried out as sanitation work.
Under the program, the many systems of trails throughout the country
have been examined with a view to improving rural transportation. As
noted in the last report, one type of project, particularly suited to Haiti,
has been the construction of roads or trails sufficiently wide for a small
truck to use, as far as the beginning of .rough mountain terrain, and from
there on into the mountain region the building of a narrower trail, suitable
for transportation by pack animals. One of the first of these projects
undertaken, now completed, is the Moliire trail in the Petit-Goive region
where three kilometers of road, four meters in width, lead from the town
to the beginning of rough and steep terrain. From there a two-meter trail
extends about eleven kilometers into the mountains. The same sort of
trail was built to facilitate the movement of coffee from Goyavier to Saint-
Marc. This trail is about ten kilometers long and connects with two
kilometers of road four meter wide. The Goyavier plateau in the Saint-
Marc region covers an area of about 2,000 hectares of coffee producing
lands. A similar trail from Cayes-Jacmel to Cap-Rouge has been
constructed. A trail from Cayes to Maniche primarily for pack animals
but wide enough for an auto or small truck has been constructed. In the
region of Miragoine a road four meters wide was constructed from Carre-
four Deronceray to Carrefour Dent, and several trails two meters wide
connecting with the four-meter road, or with each other, have been
completed. Improvements to other trails which have been completed are:
Grenier Springs La Boule; Source La Plaine to the Jean Rabel Port-de-
Paix road; the Riviire Froide trail; Barrage Roseaux trail near Saint-Marc;
Bois Neuf trail also in the Saint-,Marc region; La Montagne trail near
Jacmel; a trail three meters wide and four kilometers long from Port-au-
Prince to Petionville through Canap vert. The last mentioned trail was
built to divert pack animals traffic from the main highway.
In the foregoing discussion of roads and trails many of the roads were
referred to as having been or or






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


rather than as new road construction where roads did not formerly exist.
This suggests that many of these projects restore roads which hadpreviously
been built. This is precisely the case. Lack of adequate road maintenance,
failure to restore bridges when they were washed away, etc., brought the
country's road system to the point where large expenditures were necessary
to restore it to usefulness. This brings up the question of adequate
maintenance of these roads after they have been once more rebuilt. The
benefit otherwise obtainable from execution of a program of public works
will be lost unless provision is made for adequate and uninterrupted
maintenance in the future. The same problem presents itself in connection
with irrigation projects. Many of Haiti's plains have been previously
irrigated, and a large number of the projects involve the restoration of
systems of canals previously existing but fallen into neglect and disuse,
at times when public money was not used for their upkeep. Many projects
have been completed by the Engineering Company and the problem of
maintenance has now become immediate and vital.
One of the first and smaller irrigation projects undertaken was reha-
bilitation of an old system in the Ennery valley. We have mentioned in
the last report that two diversion dams were constructed, one on the Mar-
tineau river, and one on the Marmelade, a short distance above the junction
of these rivers which forms the Ennery river. The still existing colonial
canals were cleaned and new canals were constructed on both the right and
left banks of the Ennery. These canals irrigate a considerable area of the
agricultural land in the Ennery valley.
Two irrigation systems in the vicinity of Jacmel have been likewise
rehabilitated and extended to irrigategreatly increased areas of banana lands.
An existing canal at Marigot has been enlarged and lengthened. Another
larger canal has been constructed to traverse a section of that region
heretofore unimrigated. These canals supply water to the Marigot valley
for banana cultivation.
Extensive improvements to the existing d'Avezac irrigation system in
the Cayes Plain have been completed. This is another colonial canal, but
one which has not been allowed to fall into disuse to the same extent as
some of the others which have been mentioned. Under study is the
construction of a dam on the Grande Ravine du Sud near Camp Perrin
which should double the flow of water into the system. Another
completed project in this region was the construction of an irrigation
system and a trail. in the Gallois valley.
Improvements have been made to the small irrigation systems in the
Saint-Marc region. A project mentioned as completed in the last annual
report was a diversion dam on the Roseaux river to turn water into the
old Bois Neuf irrigation canal, which has been cleaned and enlarged. This
project was reopened to include further work. This fifteen-kilometer canal






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


is now supplying water to many acres of banana lands. Two colonial
canals were reconstructed and dams built to turn water into them from
the Grande Riviere de Saint-Marc.
A smaller irrigation project has been completed at Chansolme in the
Port-de-Paix region.
Irrigation projects in process of construction at the end of the fiscal
year were: improvement to the small irrigation systems in the Artibonite
valley; extending irrigation in the Les Anglais valley; irrigation of the
upper Cavaillon Plain; and establishing the Grace irrigation, system in the
Port-de-Paix region.
Some of the more important irrigation projects under study were:
irrigation of the western part of the Leogane Plain; irrigation from Grande
Riviere du Nord; irrigation from Riviere Bayonnais; construction of an
irrigation system in the Torbeck Plain; irrigation of the Port Margot
Plain; development of an irrigation system in the region of Bas-Lmbe;
exploration for underground water with a view to irrigating from wells
the plains around Gonaives, and the Arcahaie plain.
Several drainage projects undertaken for the purpose of reclaiming lands,
or improving health conditions, or both, are in progress or completed. A
region known as Mare Breman in the vicinity of Jacmel was drained. In
the Leogane Plain two drainage projects, the Cormier drainage canal and
the Rouyonne canal, have been undertaken. A drainage canal was cons-
tructed in the region of Quartier-Morin to drain several low-lying
habitations.
Construction of a canal designed to lower and control the level of
a lake in the Cul de Sac plain known as Trou CaYman made it possible
to lower the water table of the region by about two meters and reclaim
approximately 10,000 acres of land. This lake could be completely drained
but the remaining undrained portion of the lake has greater value as a place
to hunt and as an, attraction to tourists interested in tropical life. An im-
portant project to widen and deepen 18 kilometers of an old canal and
to construct lateral canals to improve surface water drainage in the Cul-
de-Sac region was undertaken during the fiscal year.
A completed project at Pe.tit-Goave diverts the Caiman river above the
town of Petit-Goive and the silt, stones and' &dtritus brought down by the
flow should within two years fill up a large swamp which is adjacent to'
the town and which has been a breeding place for mosquitos, contributing
in no small measure to the malaria prevalent in the region.
For sanitation purposes a study is being made of drainage of the area
southwest of Port-au-Prince. Still another project undertaken for sanitary
reasons is drainage of the swamp west of the town of Gros-Morne. The






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


construction of a dike for a distance of three kilometers along the North
Bank of 'the Artibonite river to protect the village of Grande Saline from
flood water has been started.
One of the early projects undertaken under the program has as its
object the augmentation of the water supply of Port-au-Prince by means
of tunnels driven in the mountain south of the city. Drilling was
undertaken at Morne S&ivre and at Diquini Springs. The flow of water
from the Diquini tunnel, about 1,600,000 gallons per day was turned into
the city mains on December 30, 1939. Morne severe tunnel with a constant
flow of 1,250,000 gallons per day is being connected to the city mains.
A further increase in the city's water supply was made by improving the
captation at Turgeau. A plant was constructed for calgon chemical
treatment to reduce encrustation of water pipes and is producing
exceptionally good results.
The hydraulic system at Gonaives had become inadequate in recent
years ito meet the present water needs of the city. The project undertaken
to increase the supply of that city included the purchase and installation
of a new six-inch main pipe line, improvement to the principal captation
sources, and the laying of a line to a, new spring.
At Cap-Haitien improvements to the captation springs and existing
supply lines, and the development of two deep wells with pumping
installations have increased the city's water supply.
A J&rmie the water supply had become so inadequate that the users
were allowed water for a daily period of only two houts. Installation of
new captation works, installation of new pipes, and lowering the supply
line to a proper level have increased the supply. A chlorinator has been
installed to purify the water. Fire hydrants were also installed'.
A gravity well water supply system has been developed for Port-de-
Paix.
The growing resort town of Kenscoff, located in the mountains near
Port-au-Prince has no water system and this problem has been studied.
Development of a water supply sufficient for the needs of the town at
last reports awaited the acquisition of land.
A number of projects having the most direct bearing upon increased
production of agricultural products have been grouped together for
convenient reference, as the cAgricultural Programs. The program aims
to increase the volume and improve the quality of export products, and
to encourage the production of certain crops which will increase the
domestic food supply. The introduction of new crops suitable to pro-
duction in Haiti and for which there is a market, is also one of the ob-
jectives of the Agricultural program.
A project has been set up to restore the coffee crop to its former volume
through: the maintenance of ten coffee plant nurseries located in the best






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


coffee areas of the country; distribution of plants from these nurseries;
platforms; aid in the dissemination of information regarding care of
plants, proper elevation, type of soil, etc. adapted to the production of
the highest quality coffee.
Another project aims to increase banana production through establish-
ment of banana plant nurseries and distribution of plants therefrom;
assistance in the control of Panama and Sigatoka disease; and plant failure
studies.
Another project looks to improvement and increase in the cacao crop
through pest control, thinning and pruning trees, and better preparation
methods.
A comprehensive plan for handling and distribution of improved seed
rice was put into effect. In the Artibonite valley, particularly, planters
were furnished with seed rice and with tools, and the work of draining and
irrigating rice lands, and planting rice was supervised. In other regions
suitable to rice production seed rice has been distributed.
Extension of the production of citrus fruits is the objective of another
project. Six limes nurseries from which plants are distributed have been de-
veloped. Six nurseries have also been established for sour oranges.
Another project aims to increase the coconut crop through the establish-
ment of coconut nurseries and distribution of plants.
Attempts are being made to encourage reforestation through controlled
reforestation areas, and the general distribution of reforestation plants,
and by erosion control demonstrations.
Other activities being carried out under this part of the program
include the construction of small irrigation and drainage systems not
large enough to be set up as separate projects; the demonstration of possi-
bilities of various crops and agricultural methods; aiding the established
agricultural colonies by repairs to trails, construction of coffee drying
platforms, etc.
To aid in the solution of agricultural problems the United States go-
vernment has lent to the Haitian government Mr. T. A. Fennell an
agricultural engineer of the United States Department of Agriculture. Mr.
Fennell, now Agricultural Advisor to the. Haitian government is a
specialist in tropical agriculture. It will be recalled that Mr. Atherton
Lee was similarly lent by the United States government a few years ago,
and made a survey of the agricultural resources of Haiti.
The foregoing will show the variety and extent of projects undertaken
to increase production in Haiti. The irrigation projects, coupled with the
various projects under the agricultural part of the program to distribute
improved varieties of seeds and plants will affect production directly. Many
of the road projects have a direct bearing on banana production, an
industry comparatively new to Haiti and one in which dependable trans-






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


portation facilities are of the utmost importance. Improved roads and
trails will, generally speaking, cut transportation costs for all other
products and improve the position of Haitian producers in competitive
markets.
There is scarcely a section of this report dealing with government finance
where it has not been necessary to touch upon the incidental benefit to
the country of the expenditures under the contract at this time of emergency.
These benefits originate with the employment of workers. At the
beginning of the year 9,700 men were employed under the contract. There
was a gradual decrease in .the number employed until the summer
months when employment was again increased and at the year end there
were 10,234 employed.

Treasury Position

Since government expenditures from revenue exceeded revenue receipts
during the fiscal year, the treasury surplus declined. The unobligated
surplus was Gdes. 2,094,530.48 at the beginning of the year and Gdes.
355,933.12 at the close.
Table'47 presents a detailed statement of treasury assets and liabilities
as of September 30, 1940. The same statement in simplified form showing
the position of the treasury at the end of each of the last two years would
be:
Sept. 30, 1940 Sept. 30, 1939
Assets Gourdes Gourdes
Current Assets.............................. 2,740,251,91 5,251,725.94
Investments ................................. 5,532,737.25 5,531,292.50
Other Assets................................ 4,183,636.14 4,151,318.24
12,456,625.30 14,9'34,336.68
Liabilities
Current Liabilities....... ............. 2,826,989.82 3,533,168.71
Reserves ........................................ 9,273,702.36 9,306,637.49
Surplus ....................................... 355,933.12 2,094,530.48
12,456,625.30 14,9'34,336.68

The separate items making up the total current assets of Gdes.
2,740,251.91 were: the cash balance amounting to Gdes. 2,188,516.46
in the Government gourde account with the Banque Nationale de la R&-
publique d'Haiti; the cash balance in the government current account in
New York totalling Gdes. 202,201.20; government receipts, amounting
to Gdes. 550.03, which had been collected before September 30, but not
yet deposited at that date; cash in the hands of disbursing officers,
amounting to Gdes. 96,224.91; and finally an amount to cover payment
of checks outstanding at September 30 which had been issued under the
public works contract, such checks totalled Gdes. 252,759.31 at the year
end.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Investments cover but two items; the purchase price (Gdes. 5,000,000)
of the capital stock of the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti
owned by the government; and bonds of the Series A and C issues of
the Republic totalling Gdes. 532,737.25. Of the total Series A and C
bonds held, the amount of Gdes. 337,386.90 is held for the treasury
account; while bonds in the amount of Gdes. 121,165.00 are held for the
Garde d'Haiti, and bonds to the extent of Gdes. 74,185.35 are held for
the benefit of the Social Assistance Fund. All amounts given above are
cost prices of the bonds.
Two items, the fiduciary currency reserve (Gdes. 3,532,433.78) and
advances to communes (Gdes. 651,203.36), make up the total of "other
assets".
Current liabilities cover: outstanding checks in the amount of
Gdes. 653,588.90; unexpended balances of extraordinary appropriations
totalling Gdes. 14,523.06; balances in non-revenue accounts, Gdes.
1,552,776.02; outstanding checks issued in connection with the public
works contract in the amount of Gdes. 252,759.31; the balance in the
operating fund of the Fiscal Representative (Gdes. 105,802.07); and the
amount of Gdes. 247,540.46 due the Banque Nationale de la Republique
d'Ha'iti for treasury service during the fiscal year.
These current liabilities are all self-explanatory except perhaps the
balances in non-revenue accounts. The non-revenue accounts include cash
deposits and bonds of various kinds such as notaries bonds, postal
contractors' bonds, and other similar deposits and bonds generally for
the purpose of guaranteeing faithful performance of official duties or
contractual obligations. Also included in non-revenue accounts are the
balances in the revolving funds of the Bureau of Supplies, Public Works
Administration, and the State Printing Office. The Garde d'Haiti savings
account and pension fund are similar accounts. At September 30, 1939,
the balance in non-revenue accounts stood at Gdes. 2,192,890.59 as
compared with Gdes. 1,552,776.02 at September 30, 1940. Expenditures
from one account that held for the benefit of the agricultural colonies
established during 1938 under the terms of the settlement with the
Dominican Republic were largely responsible for the unusually large
decline in the balance in non-revenue accounts. The balance held for the
benefit of these agricultural colonies decreased from Gdes. 1,023,563.47
at the beginning of the year to Gdes. 495,804.51 at September 30, 1940.
There are three items included as reserves: the fiduciary currency reserve
(Gdes. 3,622,500); the purchase price of the capital stock of the Banque
National de la Republique d'Ha'iti (Gdes. 5,000,000); and advances
to communes (Gdes. 651,202.36).
The treasury surplus on September 30, 1940, was Gdes. 355,933.12.







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Public Debt

The Republic of Haiti continued throughout the fiscal year to make
full interest payments on all of the outstanding obligations which cons-
titute its funded debt. The gross public debt was increased to Gdes.
60,871,550.33 during the year through issuance of notes under the public
works contract of 1938.

Table No. 48 presents a statement of the public debt at the end of each
fiscal year since 1915. For convenient comparison the portion of that
table which shows the debt at September 30 of each year since 1924 is
reproduced here:


Year
1924................................
1925................................
1926................................
1927...............................
1928...............................
1929...............................
1930...............................
1931...............................


Gourdes
121,048,501.20
115,231,263.80
108,307,079.30
99,706,855.09
94,438,115.05
88,677,396.00
82,705,649.35
78,357,576.10


Year
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940


Gourdes
72,625,870.96
66,901,412.84
60,830,435.79
54,930,599.85
49,092,715.80
44,317,295.95
43,950,094.29
52,137,491.99
60,871,550.33


The public debt of the Republic of Haiti now consists of the amounts
of the Series A and Series C bonds of the 1922 loans still outstanding;
fiduciary currency; and the five-year notes issued under the Public Works
Contract. These items at September 30, 1940, and at the end of the
preceding fiscal year were:


Sept 30, 1940
Gourdes
Series A bonds...................................... 34,242,537.40
Series C bonds...................................... 5,512,848.95
Fiduciary currency................................ 3,622,500.00
Public Works Contract 1938............... 17,493,663.98

' Total ......................................... 60,871,550.33


Sept 30, 1939
Gourdes
34,345,902.85
5,530,810.85
3,622,500.00
8,638,278.29

52,137,491.99


The figures given for Series A and C bonds are net amounts of bonds
calculated at par, after deduction of sums, remaining in the sinking fund
of each bond issue at the year-end, which had not yet been applied to
amortization. These unapplied sums at September 30, 1940, were as
follows:
Gourdes
Series A sinking fund.............................. 44,962.60
Series C sinking fund........................... 7,407.80

Total ................... ........ ...... 52,370.40

The sum of Gdes. 3,622,500 in the public debt statement under
"Fidicuary Currency" represents the amount of nickel currency not
covered by the fiduciary currency reserve.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Expenditures under the public works contract amounted to Gdes.
8,855,385.69 during the fiscal year. The public debt increased by Gdes.
8,734,058.34. That the gross public ,debt did not increase by the full
amount expended under the public works contract is due to amortization
on account of Series A and C bonds.
During the year Gdes. 86,000.00 were expended for retirement of
Series A bonds and Gdes. 14,000.00 for retirement of Series C bonds.
Since the amounts in the above table are calculated at the par value of
the bonds outstanding, the debt (in terms of par value of bonds
outstanding), was reduced by more than Gdes. 100,000.00. By the ex-
penditure on the open market of Gdes. 86,000 for the purchase of Series A
bonds the total which remained outstanding, calculated at par value was
reduced by Gdes. 103,365.45; while by the expenditure of Gdes. 14,000
the amount of Series C bonds outstanding was reduced Gdes. 17,961.90.
Total expenditures from revenue for service of the public debt amounted
to Gdes. 3,094,815.83 during the fiscal year. Expenditures for interest,
amortization and handling charges for Series A bonds, Series C bonds, and
the public works contract were, respectively:
Series A Series C Public Works Contract
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Interest ...................... 2,058,900.00 331,570.70 573,581.91
Amortization .............. 86,000.00 14,000.00 ................
Expenses ................... 8,115.16 1,303.79 21,344.27
2,153,015.16 346,874.49 594,926.18

The circumstances which led up to the reduction in amortization
payments during the past two years were discussed at length in the annual
report for 1937-38. The first accord between the two governments was
reached after consultation with the Foreign Bondholders Protective
Council, and signed January 13, 1938. It was agreed therein that during
the period from January 1, 1938 to September 30, 1938, the amounts
needed for payments in connection with execution of the loan contracts
should consist of the amounts necessary to pay the interest on all
outstanding bonds issued under the Loan Contract of October 6, 1922
and May 26, 1925; and Gdes. 100,000 on account of the amounts
required to be paid under the loan contracts for the amortization of the
bonds. On July 1, 1938 the above agreement was extended through
the fiscal year 1938-39.
On July 8, 1939, a new accord was reached between the two gov-
ernments extending the period of reduced amortization payments until
September 30, 1940, with a provision that if revenues exceeded Gdes.
29,189,000 during 1939-40 such revenues would be set aside and, in
the absence of recognized emergencies, these amounts would be available
for additional amortization. There were no amounts available for
additional amortization under this clause during the fiscal year.






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


A new Accord to cover the coming fiscal year (1940-41) was entered
Into September 27, 1940. This accord contains a provision similar to
that in the previous accord. If revenues exceed the amount of the 1938-39
budget (Gdes. 29,189,000) plus amounts deemed necessary by the
SSecretary of State for Finance in accord with the Fiscal Representative,
for extraordinary credits to meet unforeseen circumstances; such excess of
Revenues will be applied to amortization. The provision for token
payment of Gdes. 100,000 on account of amortization is not carried in
the latest accord.

s Service of Payments
The general accounting and disbursing office of the government is
known as the Comptroller's Office or as the Service of Payments. The
office operated with its usual efficiency during the year. There were no
Changes in the functions of the service during the past year.
In the last annual report mention was made of an extraordinary ap-
propriation to cover the cost of construction of a basement under that
part of the Palais des Finances occupied by the Service of Payments. This
construction was completed during the fiscal year and the problem of
filing space has been solved, for some years to come.
A brief summary of the work done by the Service of Payments was
contained in the last annual report and, since the functions of the Service
a have not changed, a part of that summary will bear repetition here.
s The office audits all government expense vouchers to determine whether
e proposed payments are legal and supported by justifying documents in due
g form. If the payment upon examination of the vouchers is found to be
s legal and properly justified, checks are prepared for signature. After
s signature, the Service of Payments oversees proper delivery of the checks.
1 Checks covering monthly payments of salaries and pensions are prepared
Sin time to be in the hands of disbursing officers throughout the country
s a few days before the end of each month.
S In addition to its work of auditing and paying expense vouchers, and
preparing payroll and pension checks, the Service of Payments tabulates
accounting data and prepares financial reports. Records are kept covering
1 budgetary, extraordinary, and non-fiscal accounts; functional nature of ex-
penditures; government receipts by ports, and by sources, and records are
a kept covering all government bank balances.
e From recapitulations of the record kept by the bookkeeping sections of
r the office covering all financial operations of the government, statistics are
compiled for publication in the Monthly Bulletin and in the Annual






HAITi: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


Report of the Fiscal Representative. A detailed financial statement covering result
all government receipts, expenditures and other financial transactions deriv
occurring during the month is prepared and made available to government indir,
officials within fifteen days following the close of each month. from
SA section of the office maintains files containing all accounting doc- sales,
ments, including payment vouchers and paid checks. Over ten thousand deiv
checks are prepared by the Service of Payments each month. evide
suffice
Tot
Supplies
the ,
The Bureau of Supplies purchases all stationery and office supplies for canc<
the Office of the Fiscal Representative and for most of the other Gov- R
ernment Services.
penc
The purpose of this Bureau is to purchase government supplies as buds
economically as possible. Many economies are realized by the go- a tre
vernment through centralization of its purchases of office supplies.
During the fiscal year purchases by the Bureau amounted to Gdes.
235,739.18. Sales were Gdes. 253,114.65. th
cent
The balance sheet and the profit and loss statement of the Bureau of ordi
Supplies are annexed to this report (See tables 50 and 51). 29,;

prol
The Budget 1,0S
The budget for 1939-40, promulgated October 2, 1939, was based sup
upon estimated revenues of Gdes. 29,189,000, and authorized expendi- 1
tures in the amount of Gdes. 29,188,991.81. This amount varied but to
slightly from expenditures authorized in the previous year's budget. pre,
Since normally over 80 per cent of the revenues of the Haitian gov- 1
ernment are derived from customs duties, a reasonably accurate forecast ind
of revenues can be based upon a study of the expected volume and value yea
of Haitian exports and the resultant purchasing power; taking into cof
account of course such other sources of purchasing power as are known, be
and the expected returns from internal revenues. At the beginning of the at
fiscal year 1939-40 the question of the extent to which Haitian exports th,
to Europe would be decreased introduced such a large variable into the thi
estimates that a reasonably accurate forecast was difficult, qu
At the beginning of the fiscal year there were still open to Haiti the dif
important markets of France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark and the lvh
Scandinavian countries. The invasion of these countries by German troops the
in the spring of 1940 cut off those markets. Competition in the im
American market reduced prices of commodities from which Haitian
purchasing power is derived, there to the lowest levels in history. The 19






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE 67

in! result was a drop of about six million gourdes in government revenues
ons derived directly or indirectly from coffee sales. Although a portion of the
ent indirect revenues which normally result from coffee sales, that is, revenues
from imports traceable ultimately to purchasing power derived from coffee
oc. sales, were replaced by revenues from imports traceable to purchasing power
and derived from expenditures under the public works contract, still it became
evident that revenues in the closing months of the year would not be
sufficient to meet the full amount of expenditures authorized in the budget.
To bring expenditures within available amounts reductions were made in
the salaries of government employees. Another measure taken was the
for cancellation in September of unused balance in authorized expenditures.
iOVi Revenues for the year were Gdes. 2,305,590 less ,than estimated. Ex-
penditures were Gdes. 710,354.44 less than authorized by the original
Sa budget of expenditures. The government completed the fiscal year with
go a treasury surplus of Gdes. 355,933.12.
,lies.
ldes. After making the necessary adjustment in the allocations in favor of
Sthe revenue collecting services whose authorized expenditures are a per-
centage of revenues rather than the amount carried in the budget, total
I of ordinary and supplementary allocations for the year amounted to Gdes.
29,781,773.82. Against this amount there were cancellations of ap-
propriations and parts of appropriations to the extent of Gdes.
1,097,092.64 reducing the net amount of appropriations for ordinary and
asked supplementary expenditures to Gdes. 28,683,861.18.
ndi Allocations during 1939-40 for extraordinary expenditures amounted
but to Gdes. 72,500.00 as compared with extraordinary expenditures in the
previous year of Gdes. 725,693.80.
gov- A survey of the sources of revenue for the coming year gives every
ecast indication that revenues will be lower in 1940-41 than during the fiscal
ralute year just closed. There is little likelihood that the continental European
into coffee market will be open again during the fiscal year, or that Haiti will
)Wf' be able to dispose abroad of its whole coffee crop. There was some hope
[ the at the beginning of the new year that a plan for financing the whole of
)orU the 1940 crop would be worked out but at the time of writing this report
the this has not been completed although contracts of sale covering the entire
quota for the American market have been entered into. In addition new
th difficulties have arisen in connection with marketing of sugar and cotton,
th which may reduce purchasing power and import revenues still further. At
the time of writing this report the outlook has worsened rather than
th improved.
itial Thz budget of ways and means for 1940-41 promulgated October 15,
Th 1940 was in the amount of Gdes. 25,200,000. The allocations of funds







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


among various budgetary chapters and in comparison with the budget of
1939-40 are as follows:


Budget of
1939-40
Gourdes
Public Debt..................... 3,292,400.00
Foreign Affairs............... 689,672.50
Finances ........................ 3,122,329.00
Commerce ..................... 432,424.001
Interior ........................ 12,085,699.80
Public Works.................. 3,295,076.00
Justice .......................... 1,336,796.60
Agriculture & Labor........ 1,806,064.11
Public Instruction............ 2,689,439.80
Religion ......................... 439,090.00

29,188,991.81


Budget of
1940-41
Gourdes
3,389,465.40
884,649.50
2,566,445.60
331,534.80
10,139,594.54
2,825,683.80
1,069,437.28
1,444,851.29
2,182,681.84
359,019.20

25,193,363.25


Increase (t) or
decrease (-)
Gourdes
97,065.40 t
194,977.00 t
555,883.40-
100,889.20 -
1,946,105.26-
469,392.20-
267,359.32-
361,212.82-
506,757.96-
80,070.80-

3,995,628.56
Net decrease


Banking and Currency

Haiti is served by two banks. During 1939-40 these institutions
reported average loans and discounts totalling Gdes. 6,537,860.83. The
corresponding average in 1938-39 was Gdes. 6,879,189.24.

Bank deposits decreased in amount from deposits in the previous year.
Excluding government accounts, deposits averaged Gdes. 14,047,562.18
as compared with an average of Gdes. 14,110,520.65 during 1938-39.

The amount of gourde notes and subsidiary coins in circulation on
September 30, 1940, and on the same date of the previous year was:


Sept 30, 1940
Gourdes
Notes of the Banque Nationale de
la Ripublique d'Haiti............... 7,928,232.00
Subsidiary currency....................... 3,297,155.39
11,225,387.39


Sept 30, 1939
Gourdes

7,991,343.00
3,439,675.33

11,431,018.33


In addition to the above amount it is estimated that approximately
Gdes. 4,500,000 in United States currency were in circulation in Haiti
September 30, 1940. This would raise the total amount of currency in
circulation to an estimated total of Gdes. 15,725,387.39 at the year end.

A word of caution should be here inserted against assuming too close
a relation between total money circulation in Haiti and business activity.
American dollars are acceptable here as currency and as a consequence
tourists and others persons coming into Haiti do not purchase gouirdes
but make use of their American money. From time to time dollars
accumulated here are reexported by the banks. When this happens total
money circulation decreases although there has been, no change in economic
activity. The high level of currency circulation at the year-end was
due to the amount of American dollars then in Haiti and should not be






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


get of taken as an indication of increased business activity. Bank deposits and
average loans and discounts decreased. These reflect the decrease in
or commercial transactions more accurately tthan currency circulation.
Money circulation at the end of each fiscal year since 1931 has been
l0t estimated as follows:
10- Date Gourdes
20- September 30, 1931........................................ 13,948,659
26- September 30, 1932........................................ 11,782,252
20- September 30, 1933........................................ 13,417,448
32- September 30, 1934........................................ 14,176,331
82- September 30, 1935........................................ 12,368,005
96- September 30, 1936........................................ 12,844,031
80- September 30, 1937........................................ 13,352,235
September 30, 1938........................................ 13,579,154
56 September 30, 1939.......................................... 14,930,918
lecreas September 30, 1940......................................... 15,725,387

Circulation of notes of the Banque Nationale de la RWpublique d'Haiti
during 1939-40 averaged Gdes. 8,297.948 as compared with an average
tutioe of Gdes. 7,593,509 in 1938-39.
Th
Conclusion
s yea6 To obtain a proper perspective of the economic and financial situation
1 of the Republic of Haiti as it existed at the close of the fiscal year 1939-40
it is helpful to examine the year's developments, first, in their relation to
"on 0o what has gone before, and secondly from the point of view of the
s: immediate, or present emergency, aspects of the situation.
Statistics covering foreign trade and government revenues point to this
year as a continuation of that period of declining export values which we
have discussed in prior reports. This period began after export values, and
consequently total Haitian trade and government revenues, had reached a
peak in the fiscal year 1927-28. The world economic depression coincided
with the earlier years of this decline, years which were characterized by
matell falling commodity prices everywhere. So far as concerns those commodities
I Hai which form the bulk of Haiti's exports the price trend has been downward
:ncy if ever since.
ar end For several years after the downward trend in export values began
o cl treasury reserves were ample, and receipts, though declining, were still
activity comparatively high (unless-compared with the two peak years, 1925-26
:quel1 and 1927-28). The treasury continued actually in a fairly satisfactory
,oaUd situation until the drop in coffee prices in November 1937. Prices had
doll been declining for years and the margin between cost of production and
s toti the price paid to producers of coffee had become very narrow when the
onovS sudden drop in 1937 occurred.
Id W After that sharp decline the country was faced with a grave emergency.
not It was necessary for the government to reduce by one half the export tax








HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENT I'A V!V


on coffee, from which for many years a substantial percentage of gov- C
ernment receipts had been collected. The decrease in purchasing power tw
derived from coffee sales was large. Revenue dropped by Gdes. 6,000,000. SI
Government expenditures had to be curtailed. Amortization payments on
the public debt were reduced. The public works program then was ini- i"
tiated to increase the productive capacity of the country, as the only be
practicable means of meeting the immediate situation and seeking to tre
provide for the future. fo
cot
Whatever increase in export values might otherwise have occurred this
past year failed to materialize when, due to the European war, coffee
exports dropped to the lowest level since the first world war. ne
an
During the period when export values have been continually dropping po
and the economic situation obviously growing worse, one may ask what slc
has been done and what effort made to check export declines and restore d,
Haiti's foreign trade, and thus bring government revenues nearer to former to
levels. at
The government has always envisaged increased agricultural production, ste
particularly of export products, as the chief economic need of the country. sy
At all times it has encouraged efforts to increase production. When the co
downward trend in export values principally coffee export values w
became evident, efforts to increase production of exportable surpluses were av
intensified. Until the present year all efforts to check or reverse the T
downward' trend have been based upon the underlying idea of increasing the th
total volume of exports to offset declines in the unit values. Efforts were
made to increase the volume of established export products, and to in- ar
troduce new products, such as bananas, for which a market could be found in
abroad. The principal exception was the attempt to secure better prices ex
for coffee by improving its preparation. The coffee quota agreement into
which Haiti has entered with other coffee producing countries aims at ef
maintaining a fair price and is a still further departure from reliance solely C,
upon increased production. The working of this agreement is matter M
for future report since it did not affect exports during the fiscal year we
are reviewing.
The more important of these attempts to check the downward trend of p
export values have been: amelioration of Haitian coffee by improving c<
preparation methods and encouraging production of higher quality coffee; P
increased cotton production; establishment of the banana industry; en- s
couragement of the investment of private capital in productive enterprises t
in Haiti; and finally execution of a program of public works to provide e
greater facilities for -production and transportation of all products. F
Although these must be discussed successively the impression should not a
be gathered that the attempts have been successively made and given up. a






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


go Coffee improvement, increased banana production, and during the past
e two years the public works program, have all been going forward
,000. simultaneously.
ts on It was expected at one time that long fiber cotton exports could be
, ini- increased and some of the ground lost by decreasing commodity prices could
only be recovered in this way. Efforts in this direction to check the downward
.g to trend were nullified by the spread of the boll weevil. Decreasing prices
for cotton have also tempered enthusiasm for increased plantations and
Cotton planting is now on the decline.
I this
coffee Development of the banana industry dates from about 1935. Starting from
near zero six years ago, shipments of bananas reached 2,268,000 stems,
and brought over three million gourdes to the country in new purchasing
)ping power, during the fiscal year 1939-40. This new export has helped to
what slow the rapidity of the general downward trend in export values, but
istole declines in the value of coffee exports have been too large and too rapid
>rrne to be offset to more than a limited extent, by the growing banana industry
at this stage of its development. The banana industry is gaining importance
:tion, steadily and there is considerable room for further expansion. Irrigation
entry, systems have been and continue to be extended, and new lands are
I thl constantly being planted in bananas. When the projects under the public
es works program have been completed irrigation water will have been made
were available by these projects to some 10,000 acres or more of banana lands.
> th This does not include lands reclaimed by drainage nor lands irrigated
g tly through private enterprise.
werl In addition to purchasing power derived from banana sales, the
) in- amounts of foreign capital invested in banana development have been
und important in offsetting the loss in purchasing power derived from coffee
rices exports.
into Before the public works program was undertaken the most intense
is at efforts of all to check the decline in export values was made with coffee.
olelf Coffee is Haiti's leading export product and its declining value was the
latter most influential item in the downward trend of export values. Both
r values and volume of coffee exports have been declining for about a decade.
Checking the decline in coffee production and increasing returns from the
Id of product afforded a promising field for government endeavor. Haitian
ving coffee had previously been poorly prepared and its poor preparation limited
)fee; prices and limited marketing possibilities. From time to time there were
ei, serious threats that the markets accepting Haitan coffee would be closed
)ris to it for one reason or another. Efforts to check the downward trend in
,ij export values through coffee, took the from of bringing about better
preparation to improve the quality and at the same time to secure accept-
ance of Haitian coffee in new markets. If better prices could be gotten
nd and more secure markets assured the declining volume of production could







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


be corrected. Particularly would this be so, if the government continued
to aid planters by distribution of coffee seedlings, and to encourage new
plantation in areas producing the highest quality of coffee.
Statistics on coffee exports fail to reflect progress under this amelior-
ation program, but progress in this case cannot be measured by export
statistics. New factors entered the situation and the measure of progress
should be, not what has been gained, but what has been saved. Haiti by
the war has lost, at least for the time being, its European coffee markets.
On the other hand, better preparation and improved quality brought
about under the coffee program have made it possible to secure a foothold
in the American market. By the quota agreement Haiti is now assured a
market for more than one half of its present annual production. A more
appropriate measure of accomplishment under the coffee improvement
program, than a comparison between present and prior exportation values
or volume, would be a comparison between this year's exportation and
the quantities sold, in other than European markets, prior to initiation
of the improvement program. Such a comparison indicates substantial
results have been obtained. The United States purchased 776 bags (of
80 kilos each) in 1934-35; 9,687 bags in 1935-36; 57,950 bags in
1936-37; 110,693 bags in 1937-38; and 117,126 bags in 1938-39; and
114,778 bags in 1939-40.
In 1938 the public works program was undertaken. Under this
program several hundred miles of roads and trails have been built or
improved, bridges have been replaced and concrete fords have been con-
structed relieving transportation difficulties throughout the country. It
is estimated that irrigation and drainage works are restoring to produc-
tivity areas of land in the neighborhood of 40,000 acres. The agricultural
part of the public works program has attacked directly the problem of
increasing production by establishment of plant nurseries and distribution
of plants and seed for those crops best produced in the country. Planters
have been aided directly and instructed in proper planting and cultivation.
Much time was spent during the summer of 1940 in presenting the
possibilities of rubber production to those who might be interested. Haiti
has good cheap agricultural labor in abundance. Few other countries in
this hemisphere can say the same. A small experimental plot of Hevea
trees has been under control for sixteen years and shows no signs of leaf
disease. Tapping reports are excellent. Finally there are two large areas
where rainfall and soil are suitable. One of these has in excess of one
hundred square miles of land. Total exports of Haiti for the fiscal yesa
1939-40 were valued at Gdes. 26,995,200 and for the previous year they
were Gdes. 36,338,175. The estimated available acreage suitable for rubber
production which could be planted and brought into bearing is ap-
proximately 48,000 acres. A conservative estimate of yield of rubber is






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


one half ton per aore. In other words 24,000 tons (of 2,000 Ibs) could
be produced from the acreage available. This should bring into the
country Gdes. 36,000,000 annually. Rubber development offers the most
promising possibility for .restoring to Haiti within a reasonably short
time the export values lost through reduction in commodity prices and
closing of foreign markets.
This is a very brief summary indeed of the efforts made in recent years
to reverse the declining value of Haitian exports. The war has postponed
the benefits which were expected to accrue and has destroyed for the time
being the hope of reversing the downward trend. On the other hand
there was much accomplished towards retarding the downward trend by
the coffee improvement program, and the establishment of the banana
industry on a firm basis. The public works program has provided a
solid foundation for a substantial increase in production and such an in-
crease should take place if the determination of the present conflict makes
it possible to again market satisfactorily agricultural products of the kind
which can be produced in Haiti.
This brings us to a consideration of the present emergency nature of
the situation resulting from the war. The war has continued eighteen
months as this report goes to press. The duration, eventual extent, and
outcome are almost as obscure now as they were at the beginning.
We have seen the effect of cutting off the Europeana market for coffee
but it is more than likely that Haiti has not yet suffered the full effect
that the war will have upon its foreign trade. Trade for one half of the
fiscal year 1939-40 was nearly normal and Haiti with the aid of money
borrowed abroad and spent on public works was able to get through
the year without seeking other aid, or further concessions in regard to
its obligations.
It is fairly certain that the coming year will witness a still greater re-
duction in exports and in government revenues. Haiti faces the new year
with a very small treasury surplus, and with revenues falling. The budget
has been substantially reduced, but with so many factors in the situation
uncertain, even unknown, it is possible that as the situation develops
further reductions in authorized expenditures may become necessary.
If this report emphasizes matters dealing with foreign trade it is because
the national economy of Haiti is so largely based upon the exchange of
HFaiti's products for foreign goods. The country has a very limited
geographical extent and lies wholly within the sub-tropics. Deficient in
many essentials for successful manufacturing, the country is almost
entirely without industrial development. Under these conditions there is
a great variety of articles articles as primarily essential as clothing, for
example, which must be imported. On the other hand Haiti has abundant
capacity for production of certain agricultural products. Hence the growth
of foreign trade and its relative importance to the Haitian people. Where






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


people occupy territories of greater extent, wider ranges in temperature,
variation in climate, in soil, in mineral deposits, etc., make a greater
variety of production possible. Some peoples can even entertain the
idea of economic self-sufficiency but this is not possible for the people of
Haiti.
Because of the ease of trade and the necessity of exports and imports
for its survival Haiti long ago chose this exchange of goods as the point at
which to impose taxes and draw its government revenues. The taxes so
imposed are indirect or hidden and presumably the people prefer it so.
Certainly proposed changes in the tax system have met stout opposition.
Life and commerce in the country have become adjusted to the existing
arrangement. Over eighty per cent of all government revenues still come
from customs duties. This explains in few words why the position of the
Haitian treasury is so very sensitive to world developments affecting
foreign trade and why the present situation is delicate, critical, and in the
nature of an grave emergency for Haiti.
To what further extent will the war cause decreases in Haiti's foreign
trade? Will extension of the war, or urgent needs of other countries in
their war efforts, destroy present shipping facilities? Will Haiti be able
to sell or even to finance its coffee production to any substantial volume
beyond the quota assured in the United States market if the war continues?
Will the present lack of markets for the complete crop influence coffee
planters so unfavorably as to lead to still further decreases in the future
volume of coffee production? Will Haiti lose its present markets for sugar
and cotton? If so for how long? Haiti has gone far under the public
works program towards becoming equipped for a real increase in produc-
tion. Will a substantial part of this benefit be lost through lack of
sufficient revenues for proper maintenance of those public works already
constructed?
These are the uncertainties and perplexities facing Haiti at the end of
the fiscal year 1939-40. Developments affecting foreign trade are Haiti's
greatest concern. The restoration of fair commodity prices and access to
markets the only hope of restoring prosperity.
The gravity of the situation can be better realized perhaps when it is
remembered that Haiti has a population estimated at not less than three
millions of people; a territory of not more than ten thousand square miles
too much of which is mountainous and infertile; that the West Indian
islands do not now accept or need emigrants. Even the maintenance of a
subsistence economy may become a grave problem if trade does not improve
in the near future.
Respectfully submitted,

S. DE LA RUE,
Fiscal Representative

















TABLES











I




HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE 77


TABLE No. 1
VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40

Excess Excess
Imports Exports Total Imports Exports


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17................................................. 43,030.428 44.664,428 87.694,866 ................... 1,634,000
1917.18............................................. 50,i03,468 38,717,650 89.621,118 12185,81 ....................
1918-19.................................... .... 85,588,041 123,811,096 209,390,137 .......... 38.223,055
191920.......................................... 136.992.056 108.104,639 245.096,694 28,887,416 ............
1920-21......................................... 59,786.029 32,952.045 92,738,074 26,833.984 .................
1921-22........................................ 61,751,355 63,561050 115,312,40 8190,305 .................
1922-2............................................... 70.789.815 72,955060 143,744.875 .................... 2.165.245
1923-2....................................... 73,480.640 70,.881610 144,362,250 2,599,030 ..................
1924-25................................ ........ 101.187.825 97,018,810 198,206,635 4,169,015 ....................
1925-26............ .............................. 94.257.030 101,241,025 195.498,055 .................. 6.983,995
1926-27.......... .................. 78,756,00 76,495,442 155,252,042 2.261.158 ...............
1927-28.................... ..... ...... 101241,283 113336230 214.577513 ............ 12.094947
1928-29......................... ........ 8619.612 83,619,167 169,808.779 2,70445 .........
1929-30........................................ 64,208,132 70,722.835 134,930,967 .............. 6.514.703
1930-31................................... 47,881.591 44,17.093 92.698,684 3,064,498 ...................
1931-32..................._.................... 37305551 36,106.394 73.411945 199.157 ...................
1932-33..................... ......... 38,333,943 46.650,366 84.984,309 ..... ....... 8,316,423
1933-34........................ ... 45.685 208 51,546,191 97.231,399 .............. 5,860.983
1934-35............................ ............ ... 41,161,621 35,629,205 76,790.826 5.532.416 ....................
1935-36....................................... 37.920.26 47,238.59 85,159,220 ................ 9,317.968
1936-37................................ .... 46.075,660 44,854,450 90,930,110 1,221.210 .............
19378............................................. 37,973.889 34,731,952 72,705,841 3.241.937 ..................
1938-39...................... ..... ................... 40,903.683 36,338.175 77,241,858 4.565,508 ..........
1939-40............................................ 39.700,574 26,995,200 66.695,774 12.705,374
Total.................................. 1.521,101,059 1,49,2988.707 3,014.093,366 119,227,271 91,111.319



TABLE No. 2

VALUE OF IMPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40

Average Average Average
Country of Origin 1916-17- 1926-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1925-26 1935-36 1939-40


Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cet Per ten, Per cent Per cent
France....................... 5.45 6.25 2.43 3.32 5.12 4.25 5.65
United Kingdom .................. ........ ....... 6.81 8.66 17.81 15.48 11.13 9.14 7.99
United States.................... ............ 82.58 64.0 50.98 5431 6.26 72.63 74.14
Japa n................................................. 4.71 6.98 6.32 2.38 2.79
Bahama Islands....................... 0.05 005 0.0 0.08 0.08
Belgium........................................................ 1.22 2.76 2.17 2.71 1.57
British India ........................................ 0.07 0.34 0.64 0.47 0.89
Canada.............................. ... ................. 0.74 2.11 2.39 1.76 1.39
Canal Zone .......... ........................ 0.14 0.16 0.03 0.12 0.07
Cuba. .................... .. ........... ......... 0.22 023 0.35 0.35 0.39
Curaiao ............................. 1.61 1.83 1.51 1.74 146
Czechoslovakia........................................... 0.15 0.03 0.95 0.48 0.06
Denmark ............... ...................... 0.30 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.11
040d.22 0 .2 02 0.2 0. 2
Dominican Repubiic. .............................. 0.48 0.22 0.3 0.28 0.1
Germany .................................................... 4.80 7.05 6.43 5.6 0.14
Guiana. British...................... ............. 5.16 0.04 0. .... ........ 12.22
Italy .................................................................. 0.87 1.06 0.94 0.91 0.87
Jamaica....................... .... ............................ 0.11 0.10 0.16 0.07 0.02
Netherlands .......................-... 2.53 2.21 1.67 1.58 0.37
Norway-............................................... 028 0.48 0.27 0.15 0.01
Puerto Rico:.....--'- .............'...... 1.42 0.43 0.75 0.58 0.61
Spain ................ .... .... .... ................ 013 0.07 0.02 ..... 0.02
Sweden ........................ 0.06 0.0 0.29 0.15 0.02
Switzerland .................................... 0.14 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.24
Trinidad....................... ............ ..... .... .... 002. ......... 0.01 0.01
Venezuela ...... ....... ... ........ 0.11 ............ ............ ..
All other.......... ::......... 0.24 1.60 1.56 1.58 2.62

Total.................................... ....................... 10000 10 100.00 100.00 10000 100.00 100.00
---dl .---------------- ---- -- ----- --------------- 0.0






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 3
VALUE OF EXPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


Country of Destination


France....... .... ....................................
United Kingdom........ .................
United States....................... ..... ..
Japan............ ...... ....... ........
Bahama Islands................................. ..
Belgium................... ............. .............
Canada....... ...............................
Canal Zone................ ..................
Cuba....... .................. ...............
Cura o...... ......... ..............................
Denmark........... .....................
Dominican Republic............... ...............
Finland................................. ..
French Africa ..................... .......
Germany....................... ...........
Italy...... ......................................
Jamaica....................... ......
Netherlands ................ ...............
N orw ay...............................................................
Puerto Rico ............................ ......
Spain....................................................................
Sw eden.................................. .............................
Sw itzerland ........................................................
V irgin Islands.................................. ............
All other.................. ........


Average
1910-17
1925-26


Per cent
52.96
2.93
27.91









16.20


Total........... ..................... ........ ........ 100.00


Average
1926-27-
1935-36


Per cent
49.24
9.95
9.03
0.40
0.03
7.45
0.05
0.10
0.67
0.20
7.50
001
0.10
0.13
3.70
6.32
0.02
1.58
0.32
0.17
1.70
0.46
.... .....
0.08
0.14

100.00


1936-37


Per cent
16.31
16.15
27.87
2.09
0.08
12.54
0.65
0.03

0.34
4.65
0.02
0.13
0.07
4.17
8.13
0.09
2.14
0.92
............

............

1.11

100.00


I


Average
1916-17-
1939-40


Per cent
46.07
6.55
20.07


TABLE No. 4
VALUE OF TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40

Average Average Average
Country 1"C1t-17 1923-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
i 1923-2G 1935-36 1939-40

Percent Percent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
France........................................................... 27.78 28.35 9.27 7.28 12.57 4.16 25.67
United Kingdom............................................. 4.99 9.27 16.98 14.58 14.78 16.36 7.27
United States........................ .......... .... 53.89 36.16 39.56 48.80 49.18 64.13 47.36
Japan..................... ........ .......... 2.52 4.57 3.83 1.29 1.66
Bahama Islands................. .. .... 0.03 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.28
Belgium................ .......... 4.4 7.58 7.45 6.27 4.74
British India...................................... 0.03 0.17 0.28 0.25 0.53
Canada..................................... ................ 0.69 1.39 132 1.22 1.88
Canal Zone................-.............................. 0.11 0.10 0.03 0.09 0.11
Cuba..................................................... ........ 0.44 0.11 0.18 0.19 0.24
Cura ao......................... .............................. 089 1.09 1.10 1.21 1.01
Czechoslovakia.......................................... 0.07 0.36 0.76 0.61 0.03
Denmark.......................... ........................... 3.98 2.41 2.69 2.57 0.78
Dominican Republic............................ 0.24 0.12 0.17 0.15 0.14
Finland......... .............. 0.05 0.10 0.28 0.12 0.04
French Africa.............................. ................ 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.02
Germany.......................................................... 10.34 4.21 5.63 4.34 4.47 0.08 19.70
Guiana, British...................... ............ ... 0.05 0.02 0.01
Italy............ .............. ......... .................. 3.65 4.54 1.01 0.68 0.56
Jamaica........ ............ .............................. 006 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.02
M artinique............................................ 0.01 ...... ............ 006
Netherlands........................................... 2.0 2.17 2.18 1.56 043
Norway .................. ................ .... 0.31 0.70 0.65 0.38 0.23
Puerto Rico........................................... 0.79 0.22 0.39 0.32 0.36
Spain.. ............ ....... ...... 0.93 0.04 0.01 ............ 0.01
Sweden................................................... 0.27 1.13 0.79 0.35 0.06
Switzerland............................. ............ 0.07 0.58 0.65 0.49 0.35
T rinidad .............................. ........ .......... 0.01 .......... .......... .
V enezuela........................ .............. ............. 0.0. 001
Virgin Islands.............................. .. ... 0.03 0.16 0.14 0.10 0.12
All other............................................. 0.15 0.79 0.84 0.94 1.60

Total ................. ..... .......... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1000o0 1t0000


1937-38


Per rent
11.55
13.59
42.79
2.20
0.13
12.47
0.16
0.02

0.64
5.35

0.48
0.09
2.08
1.08
0.04
2.74
1.07


1.34
1.15
0.30
0.75

100.00


1938-39


Per '.
20.96
18.88
34.43
0.07
0.18
10.29
0.61
0.06

0.61
5.19

0.17
0.05
3.14
0.42
0.01
1.55
0.65
0.03

0.59
0.81
0.21
1.09

100.00


1939-40


Per cent
4.03
26.97
51.63

0.58
9.39
2.60
0.16
0.01
0.35
1.76

0.02
0.05

0.11
0.01
0.51
0.54


0.12
0.51
0.30
0.35

100.00







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 5
VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


-F-
eraget Country Imp

)39-40
Gourdes
S A rabi ............................................... ....... 1,051
er cent Argentina............................................................. 74,9 2
4 r Australia............ ....... ..... ............. 27, 9
Austria .................. ....... .... ... 19
S Bahama Islands....................................................... 29,778
Barbados............................ .................... ... .......
Belgium .................. ................. C23,556
Bermuda.......... ............. ...................... ..........
B razil...................................................... .....
British Africa ............................ .............. ..

Canada 555.............-. ...5 52
Canal Zone................ ............... ... .... 27,527
Caymans Isands............ ................. 5.5452
Ceyl on ............................................ ....
2731 Chil.aymans Island....... .... ..................... ..
China............................................................... .. 3
Col ombi.................................... .........
Cubha............................ ..... 1,9756
Colombia .................................................................. 130

Curaao .................. ......... .... 57.40
Czechoslovakia............ ............. ...... ....... 2
Denmark........................................................ 4,9 ra
Dominican Republic................................. ....... 94,23
Dutch East Indies......... ... ............. .. ... 151
Ecuador................................... .... ................ 5,803
Egypt .......... .......... ............ .. .............74
Filand.............................. ..... ........ 201
SFrance ....................................................................... 1,6 S 2 6
100.0 French Africa ........................ 2,050
__ French Ind-China......................... ...............
Germany............................ ........ ..
Greece .................................................................. 49
Guadeloupe .......................................................... 2,232
.Guatemala.............................. 2,202
G u i a.... B ritish .................... ......... -. .
Guiana. British...... .....1.. .
Guiana, Dutch.............. .. ................. .. 7783
Honduras ................................... 30.14
r e H ng-Kong................. ..... .. ..............................
Itala ay...y... ....... .... 34460
H ga ........... ... ................ .......... ..............34
Italy ..... ................. ........................... .. 8 44
PJam aia ........................ ................... .....................
Japan ................................................................. ..... 1,107.716
r e M adagascar.................... .. ...... ... 5,231
Martinique.................... .................-- 20
1.837
S" M exico .... ............... .... ................ 1 7
S w' Netherlands............................ ....- 1- 21
New-Zealand... ....... ................................. 3
Nicaragua..................-.--- -.- 8 34
Niara a....... ...................... ....... .... -. 5

Norway .......................................... .................. 1,
Palestine ..............................
Paraguay ...............-... .. .....- .. 9
Persia ....................... .. ................. ..
PSeru ....................... .................... .............. 5
Philippines ..................... ...... .......................... 1
Poland .......................................... ....
Portugal ............................................................... 1,441
Puerto Rico.................... ............................... ... 240 ,'
Russia................................ .
Saint M martin. French .......................................... .......
19. '0 Salvador............................................................ 10
Siam ................. ........... .. ... 12
Straits Settlements n....................................................... 4.
Switzerland ....... .. ....... .............................. 4,0 0
Syria ....... ..................................... 41
Trinidad.............................. ............................ .078
Tursrl.ey............... .. ............... o4
United Kingdom ..... ... .... .................. 3,C29924
United States ....... .......... ..... ................... 28,836.47
Uruguay ................ ....................................... 5
Venezuela ............................. .............. 5...............
Virgin Islands......... ......... ......... ..
Yugoslavia ..................... ...............................
Total ........... ........... ... ... 9.700,574


0


__ _~_


orts Exports Total


Per cent Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Per cent
0.19 16,145 0.06 91,37 0.14
0.07 ............ ............ 27.659 0.04

0.08 165,937 0.58 186.715 0.2S
.......... 55 ....... 6 ..........
1.57 2.53,918 9. 3.159.474 4.74
1.001 ......... 1,001 ...........
0.04 ............... ...... 17.364 0.03
2,339 ............
0.89 ................ 352.048 0.53
1.39 701,828 2.60 1,252.280 1.88
0.07 42.515 0.16 70,042 0.11
10.967 0.04 10,967 0.02
............ ................ 565
0.08 ................ 30,432 0.05
1.67 ..............663464 0.99
..... .. ......... .... 130
0.39 2,764 0.01 166,520 0.24
1.46 94,713 0.35 673179 1.01
0.06 ................ -.... 22.959 003
0.11 475.394 1.76 519.354 0.78
0.24 159 94392 0.14
0.05 ................ 151 003
0.01 ............ 503 0.01
.... ......74
0.05 6.258 0.02 26,379 0.04
4.25 1,087,044 4.03 2,773.230 4.16
......... 12.518 0.05 14568 0.02
.......... 21 ........
0.14 ......... --.. 54.925 0.08
2,22 ..1. ..2.2 2
Z 2202
1,1i77 ___ 1.177
0.02 2,375 0.01 10.158 0.0
0.08 409 ...... 30.558 006
0.09 ........... 36.599 0.05
05 ......... ..... 2,341 0.03
0.87 29.235 0.11 373.515 056
0.02 3,323 0.01 11,569 0.02
2.79 .......... --- 1107.716 1.06
0.01 ....... 0. 6.231 0.01
........... 4 ,078 .0.06
...... ....... .....
0.37 137.616 0.51 283.63 043
0.09 ......... 34.102 0.06
0. ..1 ............ 38
0.01 145,892 0.54 150.22 023
2.645 0.01 21,61
............ 2,845 0.01 2861 ..........
... ............ 690
726
............ I -....-- 1,574
003 .......... ......... 13,07 0.02
0.03 ........ .... 11.441 0.02
0.61 .............. 240373 0.36
... ... 2 ...........
.1.... .3.25- 0.01 1.325
00 ................ .. 1 .104 0.0
.. ...... .25 .. ..
0.02. ............ 6.696 4 05
0.02 32.708 0.12 41.741 0.6
0.24 137,405 0.51 231,496 0.35
0.01. .......... ^ -. 3.078

9.15 7,279,422 26.97 10,909,346 16.36
72.64 13.937,185 51.63 42,773,661 64.13
I~..-- 5 ........
6,088 0.02 6.183 0.01
.. 81.000 0.30 81000 012
0.01 11.675 004 16.213 O.C2

100.00 26.995,200 100.00 66,695,774 100.00






.AITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 6


VALUE OF IMPORTS BY PORTS OF ENTRY
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


Port of Entry





Aquin ...... .... ...
B elladire.......................................
Cap Haitien............................
Cayes................................
Fort Libert....................
Glore.....................................
Gonaives..................................
Jacm el.................. ........... ..........
JNrimie..........................................
Miragone..................................
Ouanaminthe ..............................
Petit Golve............................
Port-au-Prince.....................
Port-de-Paix ...............................
Saint Mar............................
Total...............................


Average
1916-17-
1925-26



Gourdes
138,469
3.211
9,140,330
6.941.638
438
40,783
3,827,411
4,181.124
1,761,355
737.298
157.025
2.378.240
43.800.513
2.073,102
2,595.702


Average
1926-27-
1935-36



Gourdes
7.801
101.408
5.562.835
3,611.826
185,259
27,538
2,427.296
2.358.491
1,493.372
525,629
88.359
1.016.732
37,570.158
1,252,321
1.639,392


1936-37




Gourdes
1,048
51,562
3,893,393
2,458,151
501,827
382
1,409,870
574.784
823.224
209.789
18.845
347,332
33.661,677
804.046
1,319,730


1937-38




Gourdes
944
89,701
2.994.654
1.779,134
310.055
17.474
1.178,769
424.991
662,095
126,794
5.800
213,944
28.649.575
669,172
850.787


77.776,669 57,888,417 46.075,660 37,973.889


1938-39




Gourdes
1.334
85,120
2,821,329
1,513.316
281,900
6,014
1,321,642
505,689
678,238
125,378
6,207
255,204
31,912,731
498,418
891,163

40.903.683


1939-40




Gourdes
780
62.532
2.296,174
1,129.643
301,969
7.967
958,205
460,779
543,484
83,347
4,221
129.898
31.634,920
524.274
1,562.381


Average
1916-17-
1939-40



Gourdes
61.117
55,642
6.626,550
4.683,954
135,530
29.794
2.808.981
2.806,766
1.468.929
548.940
103,705
1.454.004
39.148.567
1,489,590
1.957.292


TABLE No. 7

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY PORTS OF SHIPMENT
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


Port of Shipment


Average
1916-17-
1925-26


Gourdes
Aquin.............. .................. 885,740
Belladire........... ............ ......... 26
Cap Haitien......................... 10,198.117
Cayes........................................... 5,597,901
Fort Libert.............. .............. 192,902
Glore ........................................... 5,507
Gonaives.................................... 5.776.860
Jacmel.................................... 9.23.878
Jirimie. ..3.....1...................... 3,288.170
Miragolne ............................... 1.440.325
Ouanaminthe......................... 8,150
Petit Golve ......................... 7,.002,317
Port-au-Prince ....................... 21.165,030
Port-de-Paix............................... 3,994,587
Saint Marc...............- ......... 5.511.232
Total..... ................ ....... 7,390,742


Average
1926-27-
1935-36



Gourdes
230,984
5.218
7,384.037
5,048.557
956,600
109
5,661.902
7,955.531
3.585.632
1.797.392
2.111
5,810.627
14.301.396
2.915.228
4,960,828

60,616.152


1936-37




Gourdes
251.170
3.119
3,647.949
4,889,272
3,466,176

3.,637.494
3.132.108
1.547.886
1,289.519
6.220
2,150.456
14.926.543
1.581.717
4,324.821

44,854.450


1937-38




Gourdes
46,356
44
2,882,656
2.884.458
3,094,361
.... ...
2.546,864
2.048,864
737.231
969,098
107
1.738,398
13.457.669
1.576,813
2.749.033

34.731.952


1938-39


1939-40


Gourdes Gourdes
30,011 34,659
165 44
3.104,499 2.064,377
3,245,217 2.168,764
2.595.612 3.036,549
................ 106
2.387.627 995,257
2.549.574 1.570.355
624.918 476.234
836.037 186,364
......... 9
1.961.181 1,073,487
14,774.888 13,056,123
1.250,470 889.400
2.977.976 1.443.592

36.338.175 26,995,200


39,700.574 63.379.361


Average
1916-17-
1939-40



Gourdes
480.389
2,326
7,813.376
4,985,512
986.988
2,344
5.164,786
7,587.290
3.005.179
1,485,758
4.539
5.627,207
17119.978
3.099.856
4,842,336

62207,863





HAITI; REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE 81


TABLE No. 8

VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY PORTS-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


Imports



Gourdes Per cent
Aquin .......................................................................... 780 .
Bellad re ................................. 62.532 0.16
Cap Haitien.................. ........................... .......... 2,96,174 .78
Cayes......... ............................................ .............. 1,129 643 2.85
Fort Libert........................... ................ 301,969 0.76
Glore ......................... 7,967 0.02
Gonaives...................................... 95820 2.41
Jacmel................. .. ......................................... 40,779 1.16
J rmie................................................ ....... .. ...... 543,484 1.37
M irago ne.................... ............................ .. .. 83347 0 21
Ouanaminthe ...................... ....................... .............. 4,221 0.01
Petit Golve ..................... ........................................ 129,898 0.33
Port-au-Prince.................................... ..... ............ i 1,631,920 79.68
Port-de-Paix ........... ............................ I 5F24,274 1.32
Saint M arc.................................... .. ................. 15 2,3 1 3.94

Total............................................. ......... .... 39,700,574 100.00


Exports


Gourdes
34,559
44
2.064.377
2,168,764
3,036.549
106
995,257
1,570,335
476.234
186,364
9
1,073,487
13,056,123
889,400
1.443,592

26,995,200


Per cent
0.13
7.65
8.03
11.25
3.69
5.82
1.76
0.69

3.98
48.36
3.29
5.35

100.00


Total



Gourdes Per cent
35,339 0.05
62,576 0.09
4,360.551 6.54
3.298,407 4.95
3.338,518 5.01
8,073 0.01
1.953.462 2.93
2.031,114 3.05
1,019,718 1.53
269,711 0.40
4.230 ............
1,203.385 1.80
44,691.043 67.01
1,413,674 2.12
3.005,973 4.51

66,695,774 100.00














TABLE No. 9


NET TONNAGE OF STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


Steam and Motor Vessels Entered


Months


N oV 'l .......................................................... ................................................


February ..................................................................................................
March......................... ............. -... ....- .....................
April............................................ ........... ........................................
May........................ ................................................. ..
June ..................................................... .. .............................................
July .............................................................. ............... .........
A gus................................................................... .. ......................
September......................................... .............. ................ ............................

Total............... ... .......................


American




No. Tonnage



19 79.837
16 65,245
14 70,436
12 59,478
15 52,323
13 49,742
15 64,500
9 50,527
9 47,836
15 66,412
14 81.252
11 89.371

1,5 776,959


British




Tonnage



1,610
3.713
797
5,456
10,710
815
14,552
2,186
6.750
7,161
6.433

60,183


Dutch




No Tonnage



13 15.,817
13 19.99'3
17 31,170
14 29.908
14 27.163
15 22,050
18 29,26S
13 21,840
13 12,762
10 10,802
11 10.242
9 8,134

160 239,151


French




No. Tonnage



2 3,466
3 7,164
2 3,586
4 11,945
2 3.586
1 6,325


1 1,793


15 38.065


All other




No. Tonnage



9 20,526
9 21,721
10 24,150
9 15,267
7 11,506
11 25,443
9 25.579
10 28,638
8 14,631
10 27,577
12 46,225
11 36,402

115 297.665


October


Total




No. Tonnage



45 121,255
41 114.326
44 129.4S9
38 109,033
42 108.393
45 111,531
45 126,485
38 115,57
33 77,415
41 111.511
45 146,674
41 140,340

498 1.412,023


---


1939~.~~..~~~~.~~........... -


_ ---






HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 10


NET TONNAGE OF SAILING VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED
BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


Sailing Vessels Entered


Months


October 1939..-................... ...
November ,....................................
December.................... ..
January 1940 ............................
February..........................................
March.................... ... ...............
April................................. ........ ...
May.............................................
June.................................................
July.....................................................
August .......... .. ....................... ........
September .....................................

Total................................


American


Tonn.







661




661


1,322


British




No. Tonn.



14 148
8 74
11 105
9 79
13 109
12 94
15 118
19 198
33 272
32 297
21 184
17 165

206 1.843


Haitian


Tonn.



4
20
4
28
4
15
10
5
36
5
2

133


All other




No. Tonn.




..... .....

1 5





1 12
3 29

5 46


Total


No. Tonn.


152
94
109
112
774
109
123
203
308
302
859
194

3.344


I






84 HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 11

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


Merchan- Merchan-
Country dise free disc subject American British Dutch French Norwegian All other Total Per cent
of duty to duty


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes God rides Go urdes Go urde s Go urdes Goordes Gourd G rdes
Arabia. .......................... ............................ ............. 1,051 642 .............. 509 .......................... ................ 1.051 .............
Argentina.................................... ........... ..... .. .............. 74,09 2 72.06 ................ 2,386 .............. ............. .. 74.992 0.19
Australia................................................... .............. 27,659 26,297 ................ 1,362 ........ ............ ............. 27,659 0.07
A ustria ............................. .......................... ................ 19 19 .............. ............ ................ ................ ................ 19 ........
Bahama Islands ................... ...................... ................ 29,778 1.001 24.341 1.509 ................ 216 2,711 29,778 0.08
Belgium.................................. 116,619 506,937 293.569 942 127,276 108,258 16,703 76.808 623,556 1.57
Brazil................................ ..................... .. ..... 16,885 479 8,647 ............. 8,717 ................ .............. ........... 17,364 0.04
British Africa.................... ........ .. ... ............... 2,339 1,824 ............. 515 ................ ................ ............. 2339 ....
British India....................... ........ ............... ............... 352,048 152,915 ...... .. 199,133 ................ ................ ............. 352,048 0.89
Canada........................................................... 4.933 545,519 166,149 30,203 185,685 ................ 168.288 127 550.452 1.39
Canal Zone.......................................................... 1,510 26,017 27,443 ........ 8 ............... ......... .. .... 27,527 0.07
Ceylon.............. .......... ..................... ..... ........ 565 430 ............... 135 ............... .... ........ .. .. ..56 .6 .
Chile........................................................ 423 30009 27,998 ..... ......... 2,434 ........................... 30.432 0.08
China................................................... .......... 1 663.463 516,599 163 146,682 ............. ............ 20 663,464 1.67
Colombia ............. .... ...................... 9 121 130 .......,....... .............. ................ 15............. 130 ..........
Cuba ................... .. ..... 19.831 133,925 150,825 555 34 1.197 25 1,120 153.756 0.39
Curaao.................. ...................... .... .. 114.729 463,737 22.239 ................ 556,227 ............- ...... ........ 78,466 1.46
Czechoslovakia........... ............................... 3,097 19,862 9,725 ............... 10.805 .... ........... 2,429 ......... 22,959 0.06
Denmark ....... ................. ............. 31 4392 28,805 ........ 15,14 ................ ................ 1 43.960 0.11
Dominican Republic........ .................. 33.097 61,136 227 ............. ........ ................ ................ 94.006 94,233 0.24
Dutch East Indies................ ........... ............. 20,151 13.546 ........ .... 6.60 .................... 20,151 0.05
Ecuador..................................................... .. .... .. 5,803 6.408 ................ 395 ......... ....... ... .. 5,803 0.01
Egypt...................... ......... ... ..........0..... 14 60 ................ 14 ............ .............. ......- .. 74
Finland ................................................ ........ ......... .. 20.121 11,378 .... ......... 8,743 ........... ............... ............. 20.121 .005
France................................... 683,678 1,002.558 666,457 816 544,331' 465.998 339 8290 1,686,236 4.25
French Africa ...................... .......... ........ 2.050 1,327 .............. 723 ................ ............... ........... 2,050 ....
French Indo-China......... ......- ............ .. .... ........ .... 2,215 761 ................ 1,454 ............... ................ ... .... 2.215 .............
Germany ....... ................... 552 54,373 19.824 81 30.497 ................ ................ 4,33 54.925 0.14
Greece ....................................... ..... .....489 3 ............. 486 ................ ............ .... ....... 489 .............
Guadeloupe................... ........2,232 ......... .............. ............ 2,012 ................ 220 2,232
Guatemala...... .............. ... .......... 184 2,018 2202 .............. ................ ................ .......... ............ 2,202 ..........
Guiana, Dutch..................................... ........ 7.783 2,709 .............. 5,074 .......... .... ....--....... -- 7,783 0.02
Honduras............ .................................... 30,029 120 111 9............. 9 .........- .......... 30,029 30.149 0.08
Hong-Kong.................... ..... ............ 723 35876 34,237 ...... 2,362 .............. ..-.. ............. 3599 0.09
Hungary ........................... 119 20.222 20,058 283 ......... ............... .... 20,341 0.05
Italy ................... .......................... 2,667 341,713 294,003 .. .... 39,231 8,653 678 L715 344,280 0.87
Jamaica........... ......... .......... .. ... 3.701 4,345 5,444 1,480 124 .............. ............. 1,198 8,246 0.02
Japan........................................ .- 663 1,107.053 792,907 1,051 303.881 2,177 ................ 7.700 1,107,716 2.79
Madagascar................... .... .................... 5.... 6,31 2,742 ............ 2,489 ................ .............. ........ 5,231 0.01
Martinique............... ... ........ 205 140 .............. 65 ....- -...... 205 .....
M exico................................... ................... 170 1.667 58 .............. 58 ................ 463 29 1,837 ........
Netherlands................................... 7,649 138,598 75,471 1,779 67,984 1.013 ......... 146,247 0.37
New-Zealand............ --. .......-....-- .......-..... 34.102 34.102 ............ ............... ................ ...... ........1 ...... 34,10 0.09
Nicaragua......-............................3.-.. 3 338 ..... 38. -3.... ....--..... 38
Norway-.................... ......... .- 4,330 3,00 ............ 1,300 ................ .............. ...... 4,330 0.01
Palestine..................... .....-.... ...- ..-...-. .. 16 6 ...... 11 -.......... .......... ...... ...........- 16 ..
Paraguay......................... .........---- 3- ..9- ....- --- 394 1 Z 9 .............. ............... 39 ..............
Persia............................... .. .... ... 69 ............... .... 6900 ........6....
Peru............................................... 500............ 500 ....-. .................. ........ 500 .... .....
Philippines................. .......................... 1,574 1,574 .............. .............. ................ .......... .... 1.574
Poland. .................... ..... .....-- .- ... 13,087 424 ..............3 .............. ........... 13.087 0.03
P rtugal............................. ..........- -...... 11.441 7,778 -........ 3.663 ..3...... ......... ............... .............. 11,441 0.0
Puerto Rico............. ............ ...... 40137 200236 219,273 .............. ............... ................ ........... 21100 240,373 0.61
Russia,......... ................ .. ............... 232 62 ........ 170 ............. ............. ....... 232 ...........
Salvador........................................,.............---- -... 10,104 10,104 ........... ............. ......... -........... ............ 10,104 0.03
Siam ................................ ...... .............. --..... 125 ........ ............ 13 ................ .................. ........... 125
Spain.... ................__ -.. .... -- ........ .... 6.696 6,373 ............ 1 ........... ...... 1 6,696 0.02
Straits Settlements...... .........- ... .- --- 45 46 .............. ................ .... .......... ............. 4 ................
Sweden..................-.... -.............- 9,033 3,818 3.379 1,836r ............ ............... ............ 90. 3 0.02
Switzerland...........................-. ... 327 93,763 62.922 ............ 27,614 1.396 333 1,795 94,090 0.24
S7ria....................................... -- 41 7 ............ -......... 34 ........ ...... ...... 41 ............
Trinidad ..................... ..... ...... 3.078 1,344 .............. 1,734 ........ ..... .............. .......... 3,078 0.01
T urkey .. ............................. 20 20 ............... ....... ...... ......... 20 ................
United Kingdom ... .. ........ 143,867 3.486,057 2,267,644 10.346 1.190.3S 59.099 7,469 3,629,924 9.15
United States ...........---.. 2,102.588 26,733.888 15.899,155 377.056 5.773.627 1,573 5,732,985 1.052,050 28.836.476 72.64
Uruguay ............------........ 5 5 5 -........... ........ ..... ................ .... ...... ------ 5 ................
Venezuela............ ..-- .-..---- -. ....- 95 11 ..........- I 84 ................ .............. -..... .... 95 ................
Yugoslavia..............................- 243 4,295 3.973 .......... 565 ........... .............. .-...... 4,538 0.01

Total...- --.......-- .................- 3,328,922 36.37165, 21,979,685 547,22 9,288.812 651.4T7 5,92.459 1,310,921 39,700,574 100.00
Per cent......................... ... 8.9 91.61 55.36 1.38 23.40 1.64 14.92 3.30 ...........








TABLE No. 12

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


drhama Island s..................................
I I I~~


Dat au ........................................................................................ .........
eCanal Z ................................. ........... ....................................


Cayman... Islnd.............................................
Cubanada .............................. ...... ............. ...
Canal ZonA. ....................................................... .. ....
ayma Is... nds ......................... ............... ................
Doubainin RD pubi.. .....................................................
enm ark ................... ............... .......... ... ............................
Dominican Republic ......... .......... ............. .............. ...............
Finland ..... ................................................... ...............................
France r............................................................... ....... ..
Frenh Africa .................................................... ...................... .
Guiana, Britis.. ...................................... .. ..........
Guiana, D utch................................................................

oetrnduas ............... ....................... .
INra y .......................... ..................................... ---..-. --
Sasica d........................... .............................
Marinqu............................................................


VeNetherlands ............................................................. .


Virgin Ilands................................................... ..................
Yugoslavia.............................................................

Total...... ............-.. .
Per cent...-M tin, French .................................. .
Per cent ............ ....................................... ..... ... ............. ..........................


Merchan-
diie iree
of duty


Gourdes

40,994


520,021
5.000
3,662

13;645


3,000

1
1,125



414
68




4.323,126
394,692
81,000


5,392.748
19.98


Merchan-
dise subject
to duty


Gourdes
16,145
114,943
55
2.535,918
1.001
181,807
37,515
7,305
2.764
78,068
475,394
159
6.258
1,084,044
12,518
1,176
1,250
409
29,235
3,323
42.078
137.202
145.824
2.845
226
1,325
32,708
137,405
2,953.296
13,542,493
6,088
11.675


21.602,452 3.224.857
80.02 11.94


British I Dutch


American



Gourdes
3,531
1,668
6,860
1,001
23.292
42.515

2.659

81,783


3.029
2.402


6,578



108,847
2,845
226

78.937
909,655
1.937.454

11,675


Gourdes
12.614
3,300
55
2.529,05S
36.961


70.821
37,122
6,25;

1,177
2.375

22,418


137,616
36,883

1,325
32.708
58,463
802,779
6,780,37-S
6,083


I I


Gourdes

128,343


636.891

10,967

2.937








2,014







5.567,088
1,647.225




7,995.495
29.62


I


Total Per cent


French



Gourdes









244,508


1,084,015
10.116


239

42.078









11.500


Norwegian



Gourdes








8.000











162






473,244




481.406
1.78


I


--__111_~1_1 __ 1_ 111_ 1 _1 .._~ _~~ _.~1----~~I_~.~~ ___ .~~_E


All other



Gourdes
22,626


4.684


105
12.955
111,981
159
...........


409

1.279








3,098,884

69,500


Gourdes
16.145
155,937
55
2,535,918
1,001
701.828
42.515
10.967
2,764
94.713
475.394
159
6.258
1.087.044
12,518.
1.177
2,375
409
29.235
3.323
42.078
137.616
145,892
2,845
226
1.325
32,708
137.405
7.279.422
13,937.185
6,088
81.000
11.675


0.06
0.58
9.39

2.60
0.1l
0.04
0.01
0.35
1.76
0.02
4.03
0.05

0.01
0.11
0.01
0.16
0.51
0.54
0.01
0.01
0.12
0.51
26.97
51.63
0.02
0.30
0.01

100.00


3,32,582 26,995.200
12.31 .............


10,578.441 1,392.456
39.19 6.16


- ,niina .... ...................


. :.... .....................


I 1


1


I I I I















TABLE No. 13

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40 COMPARED WITH 1938-39


No- De-
October member member


Gourdes
20
196
290,526
125,568
33,404
154
90.811
42.216
83.127
1.492
18
12.965
2,541,094
35,123
114.456

3.371.175
3,372,504



1.329


Gourdes
71
908
266.186
122.174
6.680
1.275
117.770
97,222
59.236
2.071
3
12.115
3.116.052
103.071
141,942

4,051,796
4.093,670



41,874


January



Gourdes

9.690
101.545
150.659
18.454
190
106.377
26.241
62.004
10.636

4,627
3.722,592
36.982
97.268

4,347,295
3,261.562


February



Gourdes
96
8.637
200.579
103.132
39,767
75
77.710
33.956
56,259
14.148
2.745
12.414
2.7G3.123
61.773
122.427

3,502.146
3,217.90S


March



Gourdes
212
12.123
143,367
111.60
5.428
125
131.495
29,330
29,613
6.137
..........
23.698
2.533.571
53.713
119,516

3.199.988
3,753.756


1.085.733 2S4,238 ............

. ........................ 553.768


April



Gourdes
245
16.364
183.755
89.920
11,676
1.283
84,519
43.990
33,305
11,805
810
13.646
3,011.488
41,244
189,821

3.733,871
3,267.675

466.196

............


May



Gourdes
50
10,598
227.463
96.102
33,013
2.483
54.800
29,333
43,353
6,451
597
10.689
2.516.876
43,258
127.287

3,202.353
3.514.930


June



Gourdes
10
1,653
167.170
68.873
17.237
534
72,565
55,785
27.972
3.718

8,287
2.014,207
34,409
80.897
2.553.317
2,816.804


July



Gourdes

393
121.717
45,738
64.725
407
42.764
35.107
25.129
3.885

3.178
2.113,261
31,404
109.766

2,597,474
3.064,053


August



Gourdes

1,296
141.818
63.044
33.149
232
20,443
32,000
36,338
5.981

2.515
1.902,271
20,218
95,727

2,355,092
3.777.041


Septem-
ber



Gourdes
27
608
160,846
48,177
11.767
807
28,046
11,683
34.918
8.656

6,596
2.090.227
33,033
200.264

2,635,656
3.611.329


Gourdes
49
66
291.202
101.566
26,669
402
130,905
23.836
52,210
8.067
48
19,168
3.308,153
25.041
163.010

4.150,412
3.152,451

997.961


Total Total
1939-40 1938-39


Gourdes
780
62.532
2.296,174
1.129,643
301.969
7.967
958.205
460,779
543.484
83..47
4.221
129.898
31,634,920
524,274
1.562,381

39,700.574
................


Gourdes
1.334
85.120
2,821.329
1,513.316
281.900
6,014
1,321.642
505.689
678.238
125,378
6,207
255,204
31,912.731
498.418
891,163

40,903.683


Port of
Entry


Aquin...............
Belladire..........
Cap Haitien...
Cayes................
Fr: Liberti..
Glore ................
Gonalves..........
Jacmel..............
Jirr m ie............
Miragolne.......
Ouanaminthe.,
Petit Golve...
Pt.-au-Prince.
Port-de-Paix..
Saint Marc.....

Total 1939-40.
Total 1938-39.
Increase
1939-40........
Decrease
1939-40.......


312,577 263,487 466.579 1,421.949 975,674


Increase



Gourdes



20,069
1,953






25,856
671,218

719,096
.......


Decrease



Gourdes
554
22,588
525,155
383.673

363,437
44,910
134,754
42.031
1.98.
125.303
277.811


1.922,205













TABLE No. 14

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF SHIP.IENT-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40 COMPARED WITH 1938-39


De-
cember January February


October



Gourdes

96.349
321,885
89.865

26,311
171.054
109.474
6.132

135.704
377.474
60.030
119,565

1.513.843
1,688,118



174.275


No-
vember



Gourdes

40
1S0.441
212.614
61.373

123.936
119.342
51,460
20,080

112,758
460.537
49,143
63,821

1,405.545
1,658,542



252.997


April



Gourdes
1,640
4
198.273
202.284
47,032

64.664
144.135
32,268
7.532

89,347
1,223,190
115.267
130.707


May



Gourdes

151.431
107.958
298,888

9,059
41.9,8
11,510
6,366

17.020
1.700.167
60.812
72.462


March



Gourdes

62.478
244.003
224,092

146.037
323.777
34.791
5.828

83,659
4,066,802
121,094
137.644

5,450,208
5.781,602



331.394


Gourdes
..........

2 43.322
189,059

208.193
271.652
74.155
33.280

216,682
1,374,499
68.483
180,155

3.042,020
3,669,633



627,613


2.002.210


June July



Gourdes Gourdes

120,383 215,498
70,773 77.506
438,979 779.341
39
8.569 22.728
84,269 32.089
11,344 5,197
7,499 19,783
............ 9

1,539.475 420,860
66.633 85,476
103.296 101,583

2.451,229 1.760,109
2.443.095 3,081.138

8.131 ...........

............ 1.321.029


Septem- Total
August ber 1939-40


Gourdes


387.407
67,021
217,477
67
7.708
21.547
502
14,550

663,922
79,727
41.434

1.501.362
2.166,674



665.312


Gourdes


336,140
27,955
247,565

85.453
17.525

11,497

101,331
235.561
87,749
113,944

1.264,720
1.338,801



74,081


Gourdes
31.559
44
2.064,377
2.168,764
3,036,549
103
995,257
1,570.335
476,234
186,364
9
1,073,487
13,056,123
889,400
1.443.592


Total
1938-39



Gourdes
30,011
165
3,104,499
3,245,217
2,595,612

2,387,627
2,549.574
624.918
836.037

1.961,181
14,774,888
1.250.470
2,977,976


Increase I Decrease


Gourdes
4,548


440.937
106



9



............


26.995,200 ............... 445,00 9,788575
............. 36 338 175 ........... ..............


Port of
Shipment


Aquin....... ......
Belladire........
Cap Haitien...
Cayes..............
Fort Liberti...
Glore...............
Gonaves.........
Jacmel.............
JNrimie........
Miragoane..
Ouanaminthe.
Petit Golve....
Pt.-au-Prince.
Port-de-Paix..
Saint Marc.....

Total 1939-40.
Total 193S-39.
Ir-cpase
1939-40........
Decrease
1939-40........


Gourdes


117.859
234,432
294,219

235.062
152,891
100,368
48,359

223.182
525,800
34.412
151.403

2.117.987
2.832,140



714,153


2,256,343 2.477,651
4,385,485.483 4.479.861


Gourdes
32.919

65.872
358.698
148,659

57537
190.086
45,165 !
5,458

93.804
467,836
60,574
227,578

1.754,186
2,813,086



1.058.900


2,129.142


Gourdes

121
1,040.122
1.076,453

1,392,370
979,239
148.68'
649,673

887,694
1,718,765
361,070
1,534,384


_C__II_ ~_~_I_~_I_ __~____ ~_1____________~__11_ ______~ _I~__~_~~__ ~__~_ ~ ___ ___~_


.............. ....








88 HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 15

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40



Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1926-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1925-26 1935-36 1939-40



Gourdes Gourde s Gourdes Go:rdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Agricultural implements............... 519,459 700,687 775,911 518.285 366,552 539,709t
Books and other printed matter 304,603 190,224 236.116 162,403 111.062 267.559t
Cement................................................ 439.939 507.531 494.493 322,060 776,342 928,598 499.841
Chemical and pharmaceutical
products............................ 783,512 898,614 862.864 916,373 1,07.514 810,833 855.785
Cotton, and manufactures of,
other than textiles................. 2,683.915 2,244,350 1,925,529 1,881,399 1,703,808 2,471.017t
SFibers, vegetable, and manu-
factures of, other than cotton
and textiles.................................. 1985,766 902,308 683,436 617,420 660,522 761,816 1,316.831
Foodstuffs:
Fish.................................. 2834,858 2,421,726 1,311.661 1,128,283 965,082 868.297 2,368,298
Wheat flour.............................. 11,358.139 7,355,141 4.112,860 2,772.525 2,103,752 2,196,643 8,263.274
Meats......................................... 1.290,986 889,513 370.641 322.624 13.088 262,360 961,404
Rice........................................... 1.514.508 1,070,103 426,675 315,051 166,440 89,164 1,118,476
All other................................... 6,165,680 4,328,423 2,130.618 1,933.163 2,049,875 1,942,857 4,709,064
Household utensils: crockery,
porcelain, glassware cutlery
and kitchen utensils, of
aluminum, iron and steel... 976,787 882.203 633,766 678,437 523,997 891,8761
Iron, steel and manufactures
of, other than specified............. 3.435,862 2,589,011 1,840.463 1,687,752 2,121,388 2,736.174 2,859,689
Leather......................................... 782.971 23'.078 155,869 144.898 114,256 109,282 446,450
Liquors and beverages............... 1,331,634 767,839 325,480 315.048 719,629 403.947 948,285
Lumber............................... 1,200,249 1,185.705 924,562 462.973 917,564 835,050 1,124.987
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger......... 1.181,318 823.683 514,911 711,774 968,478 1,059,430t
Trucks...................................... 376,626 425,977 378,776 853,483 436.813 418,665t
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline .................................... 605,051 1,691.092 1.025,782 804,429 1,105,700 876,986 1,115,597
Kerosene................................... 1,021.852 1.087,209 740,922 633,140 552,033 522.458 980.797
All other................................ 268,425 621.409 809,789 475.685 637,379 602,097 475.970
Shoes................................................. 644,395 278,099 260,652 208,044 173,828 526.041t
Silk, and manufactures of,
except textiles........................... 168.961 136.889 119.705 132,596 128,389 157,514
Soap........... ............................. 3,455.115 2.163,551 1,796,442 1,753,313 1,862.458 2.010,902 2.650,407
Textiles, cotton....................... 20,429,296 11,978,376 13,676.355 10.4CS.988 10,474.034 9,669,863 15,348.581
All other.............. ...................... 2,09,320 600,655 641,710 207,794 460,044 554,908 1,186,008
Tobacco:
Leaf.............................. ....... 1,889,739 125,356 22,068 24.760 123,637 217,892 855,805
All other..... ............................ 86,087 281,891 204,924 92,688 85,337 169,524*
Cigarettes............................ 106,390 272.625 388,825 415,194 400,128 282.297*
Wool, hair and manufactures
of, except textiles.................... 171,378 134,886 103.536 116,041 120.747 156.357t
All other ............................... .. 14,920.767 9,228,856 7,351,556 7,101,959 7.912,602 8.283,308 8,353.823

Total.................................. 77,776.669 57,868,417 46,075660 37.973,889 40.903,683 39,700,574 63.379,361


*No separate figures available.


fAverage for fourteen years only.


:Average for nine years only.










TABLE No. 16

QUANTITY OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40



Average Average Average
Commodity Unit 1916-17- 1926-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1925-26 1935-36 1939-40



Cement.................................................................................... .... ...... Kilo 497,313 7,815719 9067,104 4,51.696 10.560.710 11.541.917 6,661,739
Cotton, and manufactures of, other than textiles.................................... .. ........ 341.885 275,830 459.429 500,897 362.152 358,369t
Fibers, vegetable, and manufactures of........................... .................. ....... 717,223 756,909 718,235 735,190 776.730 725,642
Foodstuffs:
Fish .............................. ... .. 3.232.765 4.447649 3.426.14S 2,709,471 2,449,120 2.032.332 3.642.551
Wheat flour .............................................................................. ........................... 20,257,680 20.554,890 10.585.006 7.40.091 8,374,975 7543.416 18,420383 0
M eats......................................................... .................................................................. 711.649 814.201 275.26 238.477 247143 200332 675822
Rice ...... ............................................................................... .. ......... ..... ......................... 1,767.490 3085040 1,501272 1013794 601189 231,451 2,161.375
Leather................................................................................................................ 15.874 10.920 22.202 8,551 6.520 14.781f
Liquors and beverages ............. ............................. ... ............ ..... iter 906193 576,101 260,921 257.269 585,677 314,655 G76.728 g
Lumber.............................................................. ...... ........................ 'hic Meter 10.545.36 11.343.14 8,673.11 4,893.67 8,981.01 7, .94 10,89.36
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger...................................................................................... Number 325 207 113 160 225 282
Trucks............................. ........................ ........................................................... 103 100 95 176 107 107t
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline.................................................................................... ........... .... .... iter 1.400.881 7,550,572 10,070,374 7.6922 7 12.663,960 7,543.566 5,311.862
Kerosene....................................................................... ........... ............................... 43,259.143 435 341 4343,90114 3,9 ,692 3.426.242 3,810.520
Shlocs.................................................................................... .................................................. Pair 128.385 54.595 53.454 44.806 28.277 104,641t
Silks, natural and artificial, and manufactures of, except textiles..................... Kilo 2943 3,210 2.538 2.754 8,751 3.334f <
Soap..................................................................................................................... ...... 3.218,001 3.421.817 3.220 S~ 3.107.8?6 3.428.668 3.592,113 3.323.653 m
Textiles. cotton. ........... ....... .. .. ................................ ................... 3,196.716 2.809.010 3,354,295 2.588,972 2,970,040 2.735,597 2.987,756
All other............................... ............ .... ....... .....-........ .". 180,894 63.257 88,037 53,111 50,797 54,936 112,016
Tobacco:
Leaf ....f.......... ...... ............. .-....... 758,446 73.003 9,312 9.108 31.753 50,450 350.630
All other ... ........ ............... .... ................ ...... ............. 16.763 51.910 31.691 14,492 13.459 31.020
Cigarettes................................................................................Number 7847730 21,226912 29444.098 30,992313 33009.060 21,461.075
Wool, hair, and manufactures of, except textiles............................................. Kilo 11,000 10,524 7,384 8,158 6,870 10,210t

*No separate figures available. tAverage for fourteen years only. SAverage for nine years only.







HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE


TABLE No. 17

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1926-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1925-26 1935-36 1939-40


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Bananas..................... 290(3) 195,641(9) 1,877,583 2,001,128 2,820.679 3.148,294 491.958(16)
Beeswax ..................... 32,024 4,428 42,918 20,633 20,603 23,707 19.683
Cacao, crude............... 1,983,464 951,342 1,001,347 693,608 613,780 488.718 1,339,396
Cashew nuts.............. 9,080 76,927 7,869 24.811 7.729 1,327 34,170(15)
Castor beans.............. 401,955 20,397 2,003 19,844 27,898 120,231 183,002
Coffee.......................... 53,718,438 44,392,313 23,392,957 17,327.215 18,728.054 10,243,491 43,783.301
Corn............................. 546,152(8) 19.599 12,458 20.243 26,298 58,615 240.630(22)
Cotton........................ 7,391.395 7,024.090 7,665.135 5,261,949 4,416,524 3,048,302 6.856,073
Cotton seed................ 594.945 108.562 ............. ................ ............. ............. 293,128
Cottonseed cake........ 55,989(7) 535,593 652.814 414,508 309,916 280,439 315,562(21)
Cowhides.................... 215,544(9) 14,457(6) 3.591 14 ................ ................ 95,984(18)
Goatskins................. 743,940 572,097 782.222 452,873 396.313 391,980 632,657
Honey......................... 569.305 311,766 143,760 144,290 146,859 6,272 385,495
Lignum vita.............. 318,458 41.450 23.842 15,921 29,241 31,790 154.162
Logwood..................... 4,215,686 1,615,158 645,180 372,833 287,133 125,819 2,489,183
Molasses...................... 852(1) 294,886(8) 392,606 506,756 389,960 403,548 197.511(13)
Pineapples, canned... ................ 1 2,099(9) 20 ................ .............. ............... 37,586(11)
Pineapples, fresh...... ......... 20,978 520 1,870 37 2,298 8.938(14)
Rum..... ....... ............. 56,923 85,394 37,475 20,010 19.146 30,470(14)
Sisal...................... 48,464 1,034,168 3,822,569 3,236,252 2,702,274 3,366,686 908,088
Sugar, raw.................. 2,140,187(9) 2,296,005 3,883,109 3,728,416 4.878,536 4,725,427 2.649,058(23)
Sugar, refined.......... ................ 165,774(8) 199,378 164,065 223,929 187,260 101,349(12)
Turtle shells.............. 78,177 35,730 16,953 27,620 26,850 1,448 50,497
All other exports..... 1,326,397 525,767 200,222 169,628 265,552 320,403 819,922
Total.................. 74,390,742 60,616,152 44,854,450 34,731,952 36.338.175 26,995,200 62,207,863

Figures in parenthesis indicate that the commodity was shipped only for that number of years instead of for
the total number indicated by the heading to the column.


TABLE No. 18

QUANTITY OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40


Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1926-27- 136-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1925-26 1935-36 1939-40


Kilos Kilos Ki'os Kiro F- ;'I Kilos Kilos
Bananas................ 144(3) '145,580(9) *1,327,106 *1.363.176 '2,029,767 *2,268,387 *351,794(16)
Beeswax................ 11,094 2,196 19.321 11.601 12,101 11,762 7.820
Cacao, crude........... 1,933,755 1,493,832 1,436,280 1,566,383 1,805,357 1,219,756 1.679,319
Cashew nuts............. 4,625(1) 51,410 6,001 30.113 7.676 1,352 23,495(15)
Castor beans............ 640,917 55,481 12,997 107,875 164.635 565,297 325,616
Coffee ........................ 30.684,024 31,311.467 24,806,858 25,062.634 29,283.933 16,187,765 29,804,004
Corn............................ 1,163.120(8) 168,643 111.118 197,507 208,927 562,437 602.901(22)
Cotton......................... 3.191,787 5,276,827 5,391,575 4,681,814 4,671,839 3.105,003 4.272,349
Cotton seed................ 4,042,471 1.076.769 .............. ................ ............... ....... ................ 2,133,016
Cottonseed cake........ S97.r89(7) 6,355.354 6,347,055 5,045,697 3,787,463 3.203.601 3,788,052(21)
Cowhides................... 66.107(9) 8,511(6) 2,371 10 ................ ............... 31.190(17)
Goatskins................... 141,206 192.393 209,376 161,830 170.813 164,220 166.343
Honey........................... 639,893 538,887 418,779 398,179 394.947 16,764 542.353
Lignum vita.............. 3.373.770 342.491 414.232 229.296 567.324 594.841 1,623.679
Logwood..................... 41.313.196 20.580,384 15,679,898 8,888,685 6,919,200 4,233,000 7.289.858
Molasses....................... 997(1) 6,375,098(8) 10,842,450 15,898.183 15.579.610 13,179,762 4,969,207(13)
Pineapples, canned... .............. 162.549(9) 27 .. ........ ............... .............. 61.230(10)
Pineapples, fresh....... ................ 57,331 3,483 7.266 304 8.010 24,682(14,
Rum.............................. ................ 1306 t20,369 t11,424 t5,153 t5,833 t7.25(14)
Sisal.............................. 2 259 2,464,029 6.197,243 7,22.2891 7,492,062 7,871.118 2,251925
Sugar, raw............... 4.637,217(9) 18,250,128 31,368.356 33,480,311 37,144,990 29,856,208 15,030,151(23)
Sugar, refined............. ................ 676,320(8) 1,036.675 908,360 1,122,061 729,375 439.862(12)
Turtle shells............. 1,557 1.031 719 1.050 1,037 34 1.197

Figures in parenthesis indicate that the commodity was shipped only for that number of years instead of for
the total number indicated by the heading to the column.
*Steme. tLiters.














TABLE No. 19


QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FIVE PRINCIPAL EXPORTS BY PORTS
FISCAL YEAR 1939-40 COMPARED WITH 1938-39


Port


C p-H a tien ...................................... ........................................................
Cayes ........................................ .............. .......................................
Fort Liberti ......................................................................... .


Pe:i- Goave.............
Prt-au-Prnce........
P; t-J,-Paix..........
S linr-M axc...............

Total 1939-40..
Total 1938-39.

Int:rase 1939-49.....
Dcrease 1939-40....


Coffee


Ki:o

814,226
2.711,520
~52
1,5 2,203
2,331.05
301,800
1'2.250
1,719.831
5.44S,41S
420,850
781,972

1;. 137.7Gj
29.283.933


13.096.168


Gourdes

473,124
1.909,008

873,366
1,211.083
190,183
89,548
1,071.738
3,651.723
2-7.862
475,856

10,243,491
18.728,054


Cotton


Kilos








3.092.539

12,464

3.105,003
4.671,839


8.484,563 1,566,836


Gourdes








3,043.302

5.000

3.048.302
4.416,524


1.368,222


Kilos

199.743

7,059,929




166,120

445.326

7,871,118
7,492,062

379.06
...............


Gourdes

134,979

3.021,394





75,328

134,984

3,366,685
2,702,274

664.411
...............


Sugar




Kilos Gourdes

701 121


66,622 14,224




.0,508.565 4,896,222
6.912 1,428
2,780 692

30.585,583 4,912.687
38.207.051 5.102.465


7,681,468 189,778


Bananas


Stems

668.725
185,968
51
95
183.681

58.096

382.769
364.922
424.080

2,268.387
2.029.767

238.620


Gourdes

1,056.830
217,017
36
201
264.241
89,504

408.450
503,882
608.133

3.148,294
2,820,679

327.615


___I I_ ~ _1 ~ _~ Ir_____~l ~__I_ ~_~_~____~1___~1~ I_~~1__~_I__ L


ona v S ................................................................................................. .


........................................................................................................


..............................................................
.......................................... ...
............. ..... ......... .. ..............................

.................................... ..............................
................ ...................................................
.......................... .......... I... ......... ..........
............................ ....... ....... ...... : ..........


~-----


J-rni-








92 HAITI: REPORT OF FISCAL REPRESENTATIVE

TABLE No. 20

PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1939-40



Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1926-27- 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1916-17-
1923-26 1935-36 1939-40



Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
Coffee............ ......................................... 72.21 71.81 52.15 49.89 51.54 37.95 70.38
Cotton........................... ................................ 9.94 12.25 17.09 15.16 12.16 11.29 11.02
Logwood......................... 5.67 2.40 1.44 1.07 0.79 0.47 4.00
Sugar. ........................... 2.88 4.95 9.10 11.21 14.04 18.20 4.42
Cacao, crude.......... ............................ 2.67 1.42 2.23 2.00 1.69 1.81 2.15
Sisal...................... ..... ...... 0.07 2.28 8.52 9.32 7.44 12.47 1.61
Cottonseed cake.................................. 0.21 0.95 1.46 1.19 0.85 1.04 0.51
Molasses... ............... ............... 0.55 0.88 1.72 1.07 1.49 0.32
oatskin............................. ............ 0.99 0.94 1.74 1.30 1.09 1.45 1.02
Bananas........... ............. .... .............. 0.46 4.19 5.76 7.76 11.66 0.79
All other. ..................... 5.36 1.99 1.20 1.39 157 2.17 3.78
Total ..........-........................... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
















TABLE No. 21


QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES AND MONTHS-FISCAL YEAR 1939-40


Month


October 1939............................................
November.................................................
December.................................................
January 1940............................ ....
February......................... ...
March...............................................
April................................ ................
M ay..............................................................
June...................................
July.......................................................
August.................. .............
September....................... ...............

Total ......................................


Ki:os
1.493.521
1.578.728
2.291,630
1,8l..037
5.186,394
2.13.732
1,517.513
238.175
515.745
186,565
123.432
8S2,262
16.1S7.765


Gourdes

986,344
1,021.393
1.445.780
1,175,710
1,979.430
1,529.533
1.001,333
148,596
328,197
93,542
63.702
469,931
10.243,491


Cotton


Kilos

13
795

546,713
1,144,207
743,448
275,806
394,021



3,105,003


Gourdes

817

516.260
1,173,373
723,186
255,407
379,259



3.048.302


Kilos
276,(
170,1
881.,
717.
552,(
542,<
280,
767,.
886.:
1,625,.
530,1
640,i
7.871,


Sisal Sau



Gourdes Kilos
)32 89,865 50,560
981 61.373 33,347
653 329,909 21,215
392 184,880 33,185
)67 202,655 121.680
052 230.9"3 13.20,411
884 115.538 94.640
538 337,847 8 .152.467
243 469.51 5.136.311
586 826.80" 319,85
183 252,319 ,; 81.931
507 264,998 1,931

118 3.366S.68 30,S5.5S3


gar



Gourdes

13,977
12,697
4,826
9,428
25,607
2.048,390'
18,972
1.297.325
853,776
77,210
549,997
482

4,912,687


Bananas



Stems Gourdes

133,647 187,352
142,096 197.614
128,626 175.501
124.725 167.997
97,410 127,062
125,985 168,602
154,344 201,607
194.385 253,577
216.671 300,318
286,230 407.041
364,140 534,251
300.228 427.472
2,268,387 3.148,294


All 0
exports Q



Gourdes
1,513,843
1.405.545
2.117,987
1,754,186
3.042,020
5.450,203
2,256,343 M
2.477.6-1 m
2,451,26
1,760,109 >
1,501,30:2 H
1,264,720 0
23,995,200


All other



Gourdes
236,305
111,751
161,971
216,171
191,006
299,347
195,707
184,899
120,145
355,507
101,093
101,839

2,275.741


_ ~~II ---- __ __ _1~___1___~_~141___*_ --.-~-~~--~- 1.__1~.--1 ~__ ~_~