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 Table of Contents
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 Annex
 Schedules






Annual report of the [U.S.] Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Title: Annual report of the U.S. Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
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    Main
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    Annex
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    Schedules
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HAITI


ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL

RECEIVER
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER, 1932 SEPTEMBER, 1933



SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE,
AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF
THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, AND THE SECRETARY OF
STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA





S. DE LA RUE
Financial Adviser-General Receiver

REX A. PIXLEY
Deputy General Receiver

J. C. CRADDOCK
Director General of Internal Revenue




Imprimerie de I'Etat
PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI


























&/' / F. L^







CONTENTS

Pages
Foreign Commerce ................................................................................... 4
International Balance of Payments ................................................... .............. 5
Origin of Imports ............................................................................ ................. 9
Destination of Exports ........................................................................... ...... 10
Ports of Entry for Imports ................................................................ ..... 13
Ports of Shipment for Exports .................... ................ .................. 13
Shipping ............. ..................................................................................... ....... ..: 14
Foreign Commerce by Months................................................................. ..... 17
Commodities Imported .......................................................................... .... 19
Commodities Exported ................................................................................... 23
Coffee ............................................................................................. ............ 23
Cotton ........................................................... .................................... 29
Sugar ............................................................... ....... ........................... 29
Sisal ................................................................................................... 30
Logwood ..................................................... .............. .......................... 31
Other Exports ......................................................................................... 31
Banana Production ....................................................................................... 32
Tariff Modifications ............................................................................................ 34
Customs Administration ........................................... ............................. 36
Government Revenues ................................................................................... 37
Total Revenues .......................................................................................... 37
Customs Receipts ................................................................................... 38
Internal Revenue Receipts ................................................ ............ ...... 41
M miscellaneous Receipts ..................................................................... ..... 45
Receipts frohn Communes ........................................................................ ... 47
Government Expenditures ............................................................................. 48
Expenditures for Public W orks ................................................................ 51
Customs Service ....................................................................................... 53
Internal Revenue Service ............................................................................ 56
Treasury Position .......................................................................................... 57
Public Debt ........................................................... ........................................ 60
Retirement of the Series B issue ..................................... .......... .......... 62
Supplies ........................................................................................................... 64
The Budget and Financial Legislation............................................................. 64
Currency ...................................................................... ................................. 68
Banking and Credit .......................................................................................... 69
Claims .. ................................................................................... ............ 70
Personnel ....................................... ..................................... 71
Conclusion ...................................................... .................................................. 72
Tables ................ .............. ......... .. .................................................. ......... 79
Annex: Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue ......................... 121
Receipts by sources ........,....................................... 121
Receipts according to Sources and M onths,.................................... .... 123
Receipts by Financial Districts and Sources ............................................. 124
Expenditures ........................................................................................... 127
Personnel ........................................................... ...... ..... ......:..... 128
Quarters and Equipment ........................................................................... 129
Digest of Internal Revenue Taxes .................................... .......... 130
Communal Receipts ................................................. 144
Conclusion ...................................................................................... 147
Tables .................................. ................................................ ......... 149
Appendix: Schedules .................. ..... ........ ........ ................. .... 167









STATISTICAL EXHIBITS

TABLES
Pages
1. Value of Imports and Exports, and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1932-33 ................................................ ................ 81
2. Value of Imports showing Countries of Origin in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1932-33 ............................................... ........................ 81
3. Value of Exports showing Countries of Destination in Percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1932-33 .............................................. ............... 82
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by Countries in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1932-33 ................................................. ...................... 82
5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Countries, fiscal year 1932-33..................................... 83
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33........ 84
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33.... 84
8. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Ports, fiscal year 1932-33 ............................................ 84
9. Net tonnage of Steam and Motor Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and
Cleared by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1932-33........................... 85
10. Net tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1932-33....................................... 86
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1932-33........ 87
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1932-33.... 88
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 1932-33 com-
pared with 1931-32 .................................................. ....................... 89
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year 1932-33
compared with 1931-32 ............................................. ...................... 90
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33............ 91
16. Quantity of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33........ 92
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33............ 93
18. Quantity of Exports by commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33........ 93
19. Quantity and Value of Five principal Exports by Ports, fiscal year 1932-33
compared with 1931-32 ............................................. ...................... 94
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1932-33 .................................................................................................... 95
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities and Months, fiscal year
1932-33 ........................................................... ................................ 96
22. Receivership Fund, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33 ................................. 97
23. Expenses of Financial Adviser-General Receiver by Objects of Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33 ......................................................... 97
24. Classification of Total Expenditures of Financial Adviser-General Receiver,
fiscal year 1932-33 ............................................................................ .... 98
25. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the Fi-
nancial Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1932-33.......................... 98
26. Distribution of Expenditures from Receivership Fund, fiscal year 1932-33 99
27; Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Cost of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property, and Fixed Charges, fiscal
years 1919-20 to 1932-33 .................................................................... 100
28. Total cost of Collecting each Gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1919-
20 to 1932-33 .................................................. ....... 101
29. Operating allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1932-33 ...................................................................................... ... 101
30. Revenue of Haiti by Sources, fiscal years.1889-90 to 1932-33................... 102







STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


Pages
31. Relation between Import and Export Values and Customs Receipts, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1932-33 .................................................................... 103
32. Customs Receipts by Months, fiscal year 1916-17 to 1932-33 ................... 103
33. Customs Receipts by Ports, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33..................... 104
34. Customs Receipts by Sources and Ports, fiscal year 1932-33....................... 104
35. Customs Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1932-33.............. 104
36. Distribution of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1932-33............ 105
37. Miscellaneous Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1932-33........ 105
38. Total Receipts of Haitian Government by Sources, Months, and Ports, fiscal
year 1932-33 ........................................................................................... 106
39. Ordinary, Supplementary and Extraordinary appropriations from Revenue,
fiscal years 1930-31 to 1932-33 .......................................................... 107
40. Revenues and Expenditures, fiscal years 1930-31 to 1932-33................... 108
41. Functional Classification of Expenditures, fiscal year 19.32-33................... 109
42. Classification of Total Expenditures by Departments and Services, fiscal
year 1932-33 .......................................................................................... 110
43. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures by Depart-
ments and Services, fiscal year 1932-33 ............................................... 111
44. Reimbursements to Appropriations, fiscal years 1930-31 to 1932-33........ 112
45. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal year 1932-33........................................... 113
46. Revenues and Expenditures and Excess of Revenues or Expenditures, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1932-33 .................................................................... 114
47. Treasury Assets and Liabilities ........................................................ ........ 114
48. Public Debt ................................................... .......................... .. ...... 115
49. Expenditures from Revenue for the Public Debt and Relation of such Ex-
penditures to Revenue Receipts, fiscal years 1931-32 to 1932-33........ 115
50. Profit and Loss Statement, Bureau of Supplies, fiscal years 1931-32 and
1932-33 .......................................................... ................................ 116
51. Balance Sheet, Bureau of Supplies................................................................ 116
52. Notes of the Banque Nationale in Circulation by Months, fiscal years 1919-
20 to 1932-33 .......................................................................................... 117
53. Loans and Deposits of Banks in Haiti by Months, fiscal year 1931-32........ 117

CHARTS

1. Balance of International Payments, fiscal years 1929-30 to 1932-33........ 8
2. Value of Total Imports, Total Exports and Coffee Exports by Months, fiscal
years 1926-27 to 1932-33 ................................................. ................ 18
3. Coffee prices, fiscal year 1932-33................................................................ 25
4. Total Revenue Receipts of Haiti, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1932-33.....'...... 38


ANNEX: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE

TABLES

1. Internal Revenue Receipts ........................................................................ 151
2. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1932-33.... 152
3. Internal Revenue Receipts by Collection Districts, fiscal years 1919-20 to
1932-33 .................................................................................................... 153
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Districts, fiscal year 1932-33.... 154
5. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Months, fiscal year 1932-33.... 155
6. Internal Revenue Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1932-33.... 156







STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


Pages
7. Operating Allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1932-33 .................................................................................................... 156
8. Cost of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditure, Fiscal years
1923-24 to 1932-33 .............................................................................. 157
9. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditure, fiscal
years 1923-24 to 1932-33 .................................................................... 158
10. Classification of total Expenditures of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal year
1932-33 .................................................................................................... 158
11. Administration and Operation Expenditures, Classified by Objects and by
Mofiths, fiscal year 1932-33 .................................................................... 158
12. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Districts, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1932-33 .................................................................................................... 159
13. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Districts and Months, fiscal year
1932-33 ................................................................................................... 160
14. Personnel ...................................................................................................... 161
15. Emigration Statistics, fiscal years 1922-23 to 1932-33............................... 161
16. Receipts from Occupational Tax on Foreigners and Speculators, fiscal year
1932-33 ................................................................................................... 161
17. Public Land Rentals, fiscal year 1932-33.................................................... 163
18. Value of Sales and Mortgage of Real Property, fiscal year 1932-33............ 163
19. Consular Fees Accruing to the State, fiscal years 1924-25 to 1932-33........ 164
20. Receipts from Steamship Passage Tax by Ports, fiscal year 1932-33........ 165'
21. Receipts from Steamship Passage Tax by Months, fiscal year 1932-33........ 165
22. Receipts from Irrigation Taxes, fiscal year 1932-33................................... 166
23. Communal Revenues Collected by Internal Revenue Service, fiscal year
1932-33 .............................. ............. .......... 166

APPENDIX: SCHEDULES
1. Quantity and Value of Imports into Haiti by Countries of Origin, October
1932- September 1933 ....................................................................... 169
2. Quantity and Value of Exports from Haiti by Countries of Destination,
October 1932-September 1933 .......................................................... 197
3. Customs Receipts by Sources, by Ports, and By Months, fiscal year 1932-33 204
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, Districts and Communes, fiscal year
1932-33 .................................................................................................. 208
5. Communal Revenues by Districts and Communes, fiscal year 1932-33........ 219




















HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-
GENERAL RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
OCTOBER, 1932 SEPTEMBER, 1933









HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL
RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR OCTOBER 1932-
SEPTEMBER 1933

OFFICE OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
Port-au-Prince, Haiti, December 30. 1933.
THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF
, HAITI.

Sirs:
I have the honor to transmit herewith the seventeenth annual report of
this office on the commerce and finances of the Republic of Haiti. The
report covers the fiscal year ending on September 30, 1933, supplementing
and enlarging upon the monthly reports required by Article VII of the
Treaty of September 16, 1915, between the United States of America and the
Republic of Haiti.
A four year period of steady decline in foreign trade and diminishing
government revenues ended in Haiti with the month of September, 1932.
During the subsequent twelve months, foreign trade recovered to a sur-
prising extent, and government revenues increased by approximately one-
third.
The 1932-33 coffee crop was the largest on record. Cotton exports in
value exceeded the value of shipments in 1931-32. Sugar and sisal exports
both made new high records.
Only logwood and cacao exports, among the more important, failed to
show signs of definite recovery.
Export commodity prices continued low, but the upturn of prices in the
latter half of the year, after a long period of declining commodity values,
gave convincing evidence of a definite change for the better. Cotton prices
in particular showed improvement. The rise in prices also gave needed
encouragement to the new sisal industry, which is increasing rapidly in
importance.
Exports exceeded imports in value by a wide margin. The excess of
exports (Gdes. 8,316,423) was the largest recorded since 1928.
At the same time, the import trade made notable gains. Trade in cotton
textiles was particularly favored. Sales of automobiles, trucks and building
materials also gave evidence of improved conditions.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


No commercial failures of any importance were recorded during the year.
The effect of trade recovery on government revenues was gratifying.
Revenues increased over those of the previous year by Gdes. 9,281,000. Of
this increase, Gdes. 1,500,000, approximately, represents the gain from new
taxation. The remaining increase is attributable to good crops, rising
prices, and general business recovery.
Internal revenues gained more than a million gourdes. Although the
increase largely was due to the new gasoline and salt taxes, and to revised
stamp and income taxes, the yield of all other important internal taxes
was as high, and in some cases higher, than during the previous year.
The excise on alcohol and rentals of state lands in particular were pro-
ductive of greater yields.
The Government evidenced its confidence in the work of the Internal
Revenue Service by entrusting to it early in the year the collection of
communal revenues in the majority of the communes of the Republic. The
assumption of this new responsibility by the Internal Revenue Service was
accompanied by a striking increase in communal receipts. Satisfaction
with.the new administration of these taxes resulted in the gradual extension
of the authority of the Internal Revenue Service into this new sphere. At
the end of the year the Internal Revenue Service had been charged with
the collection of these taxes in all communes of the Republic with the
exception of the commune of Port-au-Prince.
Budget estimates of revenues were surpassed. At the same time, ordinary
budgetary expenditures were kept close to those of the previous year.
Receipts for the fiscal year exceeded all expenditures, including extraor-
dinary disbursements, by Gdes. 4,046,490. The figure for total expenditures
included more than a million gourdes disbursed from extraordinary ap-
propriations for public works, giving added impetus to recovery.
.The unobligated treasury surplus was increased by Gdes. 2,584,000 as a
result of the year's operations.
The ordinary budget for 1933-34, promulgated in July, 1933, provided
for no increase in ordinary expenditures and maintained existing taxation.
Revenues for 1933-34, conservatively estimated, should exceed authorized
ordinary expenditures unless the new coffee crop proves to be of less than
average size. At the present time, indications are that the 1933-34 crop will
reach the yearly average of about 32,000,000 kilos. Consequently, the new
budget in all probability has been safely balanced and another good year,
favorable to commerce and to government finances, appears to be in pros-
pect.
Steps were taken during 1932-33 to consolidate the public debt by ex-
changing Series A bonds against those of the Series B issue. Holders of
Series B bonds responded quickly to the Government's offer, and at the end
of September, 1933, only $452,561 in B bonds remained in the hands of the
public. The response has indicated that the operation will be successful.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Complete retirement of the B issue will relieve the ordinary budget of
yearly obligations for interest and amortization of more than Gdes.
1,800,000. It is planned to use this yearly saving to further the Govern-
ment's extensive program for public works.
Another accomplishment was the passage in July, 1933, of the Budget
and Public Accounting Law. The new law combines the result of years of
government accounting and budgetary experience in the form of a single
law, replacing and revising many provisions formerly carried in the annual
Law of Ways and Means and in the Law of Expenditures.
In order to diversify and increase exports, important negotiations were
undertaken during the year leading toward the development of banana
cultivation on'a large scale. While negotiations at the end of the year had
not progressed to the point where extensive cultivation of bananas for
*export was assured, enough was accomplished to encourage the belief that
it is only a matter of time before bananas will become one of the leading
export products. The Government itself has led the way by starting work
on large drainage and irrigation projects in order to open up land for
banana cultivation.
On August 7, 1933, an Agreement was signed by the Haitian and Ameri-
can governments calling for the withdrawal in October, 1934, of military
forces of the United States now in Haiti, withdrawal of the American
Scientific Mission, and the complete Haitianization of the Garde d'Haiti by
October 1, 1934.
By the same Agreement, the services of the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver after January 1, 1934, are to be carried on in modified form by a
Fiscal Representative.
This report is therefore the last annual record of the work and accom-
plishments of the original organization built up under the authority of the
Treaty of September 16, 1915, and the Loan Protocol of October 3, 1919.
In the previous reports of this office, and in the chapters which follow,
there have been recorded the results of seventeen years of financial service
to the Republic of Haiti. They cover an initial period of six years when
financial order and economic stability were being established after a period
of disorganization. They cover a subsequent period of seven years begin-
ning with the recovery of credit and extending through a period of'increas-
ing world prosperity, of which Haiti obtained its full share. This period
was marked by the completion of the fiscal organization and the final es-
tablishment of Haitian finances on a solid foundation. Finally, there has
been recorded a period of unparalleled world depression during which the
fiscal organization has been tested to the utmost and its soundness demon-
strated. In spite of an economy based entirely on the production of agri-
cultural commodities for export, and hence particularly susceptible to the
extreme effects of price demoralization, there is now recorded unmistakable
evidence that if, as now is believed, the worst of the depression has passed,






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Haiti began to recover long before most other nations. Budgets have been
balanced, all debt service has been fulfilled uninterruptedly, essential
government services have been maintained, funds have been made available,
even in the period of greatest stress, for the continuation of public works
and further agricultural development. Throughout this period the treasury
has retained its essentially sound and liquid condition. With a return of
confidence abroad, it will be found that the credit of the country has been
unimpaired.

Foreign Commerce

Haiti is predominantly an agricultural community, with nearly every
phase of its economic life dependent for prosperity upon the quantity of
coffee, cotton, sugar, sisal, and a small number of other products which
it can sell abroad. With the exception of a few relatively unimportant
articles which are manufactured locally, nearly every important group of
commodities required for domestic consumption is obtained from foreign
countries. This reliance on imports extends even to a large part of the
food requirements of the country, as well as to textiles, clothing, manu-
factured articles of all kinds, gasoline, building materials and many other
products which Haiti now is not equipped to produce.
When.export crops are small, or when the prices paid in foreign markets
for these crops decline, it is inevitable that domestic prosperity must suffer.
In the fiscal year prior to that under review, not only were export crops
sub-normal, but the prices offered for these exports continued the decline
recorded during the three previous years. The value of imports fell off
because of the lessened ability of the country to purchase from abroad.
Lowered prices for imports. even though they allow consumers to purchase
required quantities for less money, from the merchant's point of view
signify a smaller turnover in terms of value and bring diminished profits.
Foreign commerce, including both exports and imports, declined in each
successive year from a high of Gdes. 214,577,513 in 1927-28 to a low of
Gdes. 73,411,945 in 1931-32. Business prosperity, which in Haiti is measur-
ed exclusively in terms of foreign trade, may be said to have fallen off in
the same proportion.
I In the fiscal year 1932-33, however, for the first time in four years, foreign
commerce and business have shown improvement. From the low level of
the previous year, foreign trade values advanced in 1932-33 by Gdes.
11,572,364, or by 15.76 per cent. The rise was due partly to strengthening
prices in the case of some commodities, both exports and imports, but more
particularly to the bumper coffee crop. In spite of the fact that coffee prices
declined to lower levels than in the previous year, the increase in quantities
of coffee exported contributed nearly ten million gourdes to the rise in
.foreign commerce values.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 5

Total exports in 1932-33 were valued at Gdes. 46,650,366. During the
previous year they amounted to Gdes. 36,106,394, indicating an increase in
1932-33 of Gdes. 10,543,972, or 29.22 per cent. In addition to the effect of
the large coffee crop on exports, the greater value of cotton, sisal, and
canned pineapple shipments during the year contributed to the increase in
export values.
Import values also registered an increase. In 1931-32 the value of all
merchandise imported was Gdes. 37,305,551. The stimulus of a greater
export trade carried this figure to Gdes. 38,333,943 in 1932-33, indicating
an increase of Gdes. 1,028,392, or 2.76 per cent. This is a relatively small
increase in imports, considering the fact that exports increased in value by
nearly thirty per cent, but price uncertainties and the obviously temporary
nature of the benefits accruing from the exceptional coffee crop tended tc
restrict imports. Monthly import values showed little of the seasonal
increase which usually precedes the shipment of a large coffee crop, and
except for some speculative accumulation of inventories during the months
when American merchandise was rising rapidly in price, purchases by
importers during the year remained from month to month at a remarkably
uniform level.
While the 1932-33 figure of Gdes. 84,984,309, representing the total value
of all foreign trade during the year, indicates an advance over the previous
year's figure, commerce is still below the level recorded in any year of the
Receivership with the exception of 1931-32. Even in 1920-21, when com-
modity prices suffered marked declines, the value of total trade reached
Gdes. 92,738,074 and in the nine years of relative prosperity which followed,
the average value of exports and imports exceeded Gdes. 164,000,000, or
approximately double the value of foreign trade in 1932-33. It is evident
that the continued low value of Haiti's foreign commerce is due principally
to the price factor rather than to the quantities of commodities traded, and
that any improvement in foreign commerce values largely will be dependent
upon the recovery of commodity prices abroad.

International Balance of Payments

In spite of price deflation, the dislocation of world trade, and the many
other unfavorable factors concomitant of the world business depression,
Haiti's commerce with foreign countries in 1932-33 resulted in a favorable
balance of trade amounting to Gdes. 8,316,423.
This figure is the largest favorable balance of trade recorded in any year
of the Receivership with the exception of 1918-19 and 1927-28. It is more
than double the amount of exchange required to pay yearly interest on the
Government's public debt. It is nearly twice the total of the unfavorable
balance of trade recorded in 1930-31 and 1931-32. During the past four
years of declining trade, exports have exceeded imports by Gdes. 10,567,471.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


SAlthough the exchange of merchandise is predominant in Haiti's inter-
national transactions, there are important invisible items which enter into
Haiti's international balance of payments. Many of these invisible items
can be accurately determined from existing records. Others, such as the
international outflow and inflow of private capital, tourist expenditures here
and abroad, and various classes of private remittances, can be estimated
with reasonable accuracy. The items which are most difficult to determine
accurately are among the least important on the international balance sheet,
with the result that compilation of existing data combined with careful
estimates of the invisible items which are more difficult to determine give
figures setting forth clearly the way by which Haiti through four years of
depression has been able to meet its international obligations.
These obligations first and foremost are the amounts which Haiti pays
for the merchandise which it must import from abroad. These payments,
which include freight and insurance, comprise by far the greater part of
the remittances which must be made abroad. Ordinarily, such payments,
disregarding capital items, constitute more than 80 per cent of total re-
mittances.
Interest on foreign debt constitutes another 8 to 10 per cent of total
payments. The greater part of these payments are for account of 'the
government's public debt abroad, the balance being the yield to foreigners
of private long-term and short-term investments in Haiti.
Payments for some ten or a dozen "other services" make up the balance
of the account. Of these the most important individual item is the amount
taken out of the country annually by Haitians and residents of Haiti when
travelling abroad. Payments by the Government for the maintenance of its
diplomatic and consular service abroad, diplomatic missions, remittances
for international postal service and miscellaneous payments of the same
nature reach a sizeable total. Money leaves the country because the coast-
wise traffic is largely in the hands of foreign shipowners. Passenger fares
paid by persons travelling abroad are collected by foreign shipowners.
Communication by airplane comes under this classification. Cable company
earnings are remitted abroad. Commissions, brokerage, fire and life in-
surance and similar services provided by foreign companies result in a net
outflow of funds. Private remittances abroad by persons residing in Haiti,
gifts, subscriptions to foreign periodicals, correspondence schools, funds
taken out by returning immigrants, payments for various miscellaneous
services rendered abroad, all account for comparatively small items on the
debit side.
To meet these obligations Haiti receives from abroad the F.O.B. value of
the coffee, cotton, sugar, sisal and other merchandise which it ships to
foreign countries. As in the case of imports, merchandise transactions on
the credit side constitute between 80 and 90 per cent of total receipts other
than capital items.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Items covering interest and dividends are relatively unimportant on the
credit side of the balance sheet. The yield of private long-term and short-.
term investments abroad has declined in recent years. Receipts of interest
by the Government on investments in its own bonds constitute a large part
of this item.
By far the larger part of miscellaneous receipts have been composed of
the net inflow of funds due to the presence in Haiti of American government
services. Approximately half of the amount representing the inflow of
funds other than through the sale of exported merchandise has been com-
posed of net receipts from the United States government. To this should be
added important contributions of other governments for the maintenance of
their diplomatic and consular offices in Haiti.
Foreign ships contribute substantial amounts for the purchase of ship's
stores and similar payments. Returning emigrants in former years have
brought in large amounts, but income from this source has become almost
negligible. The income from tourists and travellers visiting Haiti recently
has increased, but this item still is comparatively unimportant. Cash gifts
and contributions received from abroad by religious organizations reach
a sizeable figure each year. Payments from abroad for various other
services rendered in Haiti together constitute a small part of the total.
Generally speaking, the total of interest and dividends, combined with
receipts for "other services" appearing on the credit, or export, side of the
balance sheet during the past four years have closely approximated the
corresponding items on the debit side of the account. Consequently, the
balance of trade alone has been sufficient to indicate the movement of capital
in and out of the country. Gross capital movements have been found
difficult to estimate, but the net inflow or outflow of capital can be de-
termined from the movement of trade and the amounts received and paid
out each year under the various items in the invisible account. So long
as the invisible items on both sides of the balance sheet are approximately
equal, as during the past four years, the balance of trade alone is sufficient
to indicate the flow of capital and hence the degree of prosperity.
Chart No. 1 shows graphically over the four years of the depression the
movement of foreign trade, the gross amounts comprising the invisible
items of export and import, and the net inward and outward flow of capital.
The favorable results recorded in '1929-30, when the decline in trade had
just begun, were surpassed in 1932-33. Invisible items on both sides of the
account have contracted along with the decline in trade. Much less money
is moving abroad now in the form of miscellaneous invisible items repre-
sented by "other services" than was the case at the end of the boom period.
In particular the large amounts formerly taken out of the country by Hai-
tians and other residents travelling or residing abroad have diminished.
On the credit side, the most important invisible items, as already noted,
have been the figures representing expenditures of the American govern-






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


ment in Haiti. These are net figures compiled from payrolls, rentals, ex-
penditures for supplies purchased from Haitian commerce, after deducting
allotments, remittances abroad, purchases from United States government
supplies, and after making all necessary adjustments to arrive at figures

CHART No. 1
BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS FISCAL YEARS 1929-30 TO 1932-33
MILLIONS OrF GOUtOL.


I Mrch1andis"


lItertat and Dividands

U.&. dGoa rnmcnt Lxpanditure&

Lxper7ditura~ Abroad (TravvlTers,ctc


tar Services
Irtward or Outward
leritnt of Capital


Eli



IZI


CREsDIT O
1935-33


- OC





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


representing the actual amounts. received from the American government
and entering in one way or another into Haitian commerce. The net figures
include expenditures of the United States scouting fleet at Gonaives during
the years when manoeuvres were conducted in the Bay of Gonaives, as well
as payments to American officers serving in the Garde d'Haiti.
The combined figures show a net outlay of Gdes. 3,000,000 in 1932-33
compared with Gdes. 5,530,000 in 1929-30. Gradual retrenchment in the
operations of the United States military and naval forces, together with the
absence of the fleet at Gonaives in 1932-33 have brought about a gradual
reduction in receipts from this source.
With the complete withdrawal of American military forces in October,
1934, this credit item of Gdes. 3,000,000 will disappear. While the removal
of this important source of revenue will leave a gap in the credit side of
the account, this change should present no particular problem if mer-
chandise exports in the meantime can be increased permanently by an
equivalent amount. Already sisal exports each year are bringing new money
into the country in increasing amounts. Exports of alcohol and rum to the
United States present another possibility. Active negotiations already are
under way for the development of banana plantations, and there appear to
be good prospects that by 1935 the income received from banana exports
will become an important item on the credit side of the international balance
sheet. :
Origin of Imports

The United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany ordinarily supply
between 80 and 90 per cent of Haiti's requirements of imported merchandise.
In 1932-33 the share of total imported merchandise supplied by these four
countries amounted to 85.54 per cent of total import values compared with
86.85 per cent in 1931-32. The entrance of Japanese cotton goods in the
domestic market during 1932-33 accounted for the declining importance of
the four countries which supply the greater part of the Haitian import
trade.
The share of total imports supplied by the United States declined for the
fourth year in succession, following the. downward trend which has been
recorded for the past seven years. American merchandise comprised 62.22
per cent of total imports in 1932-33, compared with 67.58 per cent in 1931-
1932.
In value, American merchandise declined to Gdes. 23,850,935 in 1932-33
from Gdes. 25,212,282 in 1931-32. The United States still supplies a large
part of Haiti's purchases of textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles,
and various manufactured metal products.
Other countries are becoming increasingly important as competitors of
American commerce in most of these lines. The United Kingdom, for
example, increased its share of the import trade from 9.20 per cent in 1931-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


32 to 12.70 per cent in 1932-33. Total import values of British origin
increased from Gdes. 3,433,600 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 4,869,132 in 1932-33.
Great Britain held its share of the important cotton textile trade in 1932-33
and benefited from the increase in Haitian purchases of cotton goods in the
latter fiscal year. Great Britain also continued to lead in supplying Haitian
commerce with soap and agricultural implements.
France remained third in importance in the import trade, supplying Haiti
with merchandise valued at Gdes. 2.202,832 in 1932-33 as against Gdes.
2,189,710 in 1931-32. Its share of the total import trade remained practically
the same in both years, or at 5.75 per cent in 1932-33 compared with 5.87
per cent in 1931-32. France continued to supply the bulk of imported wines
and liquors, perfumes and cosmetics and continued to hold an important
share of the trade in miscellaneous foodstuffs, chemical and pharmaceutical
products, textiles, and manufactured articles of iron and steel.
The import trade with Germany increased in value from Gdes. 1,566,891
in 1931-32 to Gdes. 1,867,206 in 1932-33. Germany's share of total imports
increased from 4.20 per cent to 4.87 per cent over the same period. Imports
from Germany in both years covered a variety of different groups of
imported commodities, chief of which were various iron and steel manu-
factures. Germany led in both years in supplying cement to Haiti.
Purchases of cotton textiles from Japan in 1932-33 put that country in
fifth place with 3.02 per cent of total import values in 1932-33. Trade with
Japan previously had been negligible. Values increased from only Gdes.
149,330 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 1,156,152 in 1932-33.
The Netherlands, in sixth place in 1932-33, supplied 2.64 per cent of total
import values compared with 3.50 per cent during the previous year. The
value of imports from the Netherlands declined by Gdes. 296,077.
The figures for imports from the Netherlands do not include the value
of merchandise received from Curaqao, which is a Dutch colony. Curaqao
supplied a large part of Haitian purchases of gasoline in both years. Im-
ports from Curacao increased in value from Gdes. 396,980 in 1931-32 to
Gdes. 750,717 in 1932-33.
Belgium remained in eighth place in both years. Imports from Belgium
increased by Gdes. 167,225 in 1932-33 compared with 1931-32.

Destination of Exports

The greater part of the Haitian export trade is with six countries. In
order of importance, they were, in 1932-33, France, the United Kingdom,
Denmark, Belgium, Italy, and the United States. These countries purchased
94.11 per cent of total exports in 1932-33, and 94.07 per cent in the previous
fiscal year.
France for years has been the principal market for Haitian coffee. While
Haitian coffee constitutes a comparatively small portion of the total coffee





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 11

requirements of France, a marked preference for the Haitian product exists
in France, and the price paid for Haitian coffee usually enjoys a premium
over other varieties.
France purchased 65 per cent of the coffee shipped from Haiti in 1932-33,
against 56 per cent in 1931-32. Since the 1932-33 crop was much larger
than the previous crop, the export trade with France, due to increased coffee
purchases, showed a substantial rise, reaching Gdes. 25,295,888 in 1932-33
compared with Gdes. 16,113,937 in 1931-32.
France in 1931-32 also purchased from Haiti the following products:
Gourdes
Cotton ....................................................... 1,394,274
Logwood ................................................. 107,702
H oney ...................................................... 69,467
Orange peel.............................................. 17,596
All others.......... ....................................... 21,588

1,610,627
The United Kingdom is second in importance as a market for Haitian
exports Cotton, cottonseed cake, sugar and canned pineapples make up
practically the entire export trade with the United Kingdom. No Haitian
coffee is shipped to Great Britain. In 1932-33, total shipments of Haitian
exports to the United Kingdom reached Gdes. 5,357,180, compared with
Gdes. 4,649,645-in 1931-32. Cotton shipped to the United Kingdom in 1932-
33 was valued at Gdes. 2,992,260, and sugar at Gdes. 1,837,047. While
values increased, the share of the export trade taken by the United Kingdom
declined from 12.88 per cent in 1931-32 to 11.48 per cent in 1932-33.
Denmark was third in importance in both years, but its share of the
export trade declined from 9.07 per cent in 1931-32 to 8.22 per cent in
1932-33. In value, however, exports to that country increased from Gdes.
3,274,270 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 3,834,834 in 1932-33. These figures represent
almost entirely shipments of coffee, and Denmark in 1932-33 was second
in importance as a market for this product.
Belgium in 1932-33 purchased from Haiti merchandise valued at Gdes.
3,463,954, compared with Gdes. 3,236,937 in 1931-32. The share of the
export trade with Belgium, however, declined from 8.96 per cent to 7.43
per cent. Belgium in 1932-33 purchased coffee valued at Gdes. 3,288,244,
and also small quantities of cottonseed cake, logwood, and canned pine-
apples.
The export trade with Italy declined from Gdes. 3,766,244 in 1931-32 to
Gdes. 3,003,323 in 1932-33. Coffee was the only product purchased by Italy
in any quantity, and shipments declined from Gdes. 3,761,750 in 1931-32,
to Gdes. 2,997,370 in 1932-33. Italy took 6.44 per cent of total exports in
1932-33, and was fifth in importance so far as concerns exports. In the
previous year, Italy took 10.43 per cent of Haitian exports, and was third
in importance as a market for Haitian products.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The United States continued in sixth place, and purchased 6.22 per cent
of Haitian exports. Shipments to the United States were valued at Gdes.
2, 919,092 in 1932-33 compared with Gdes. 2,925,762 in 1931-32. The values
of the various products shipped to the United States in 1932-33 are given
below:
Gourdes
Sisal .......................................................... 1,074,664
Logwood .................................................. 486,116
Coffee ........................................................ 379,966
Sugar, raw and refined.............................. 297,439'
Goatskins ................................................ 277,510
Cacao ........................................................ 215,278
M olasses .................................................. 113,197
Bananas .................................................... 48,266
Cashew nuts................................................ 13,466
All others.................................................. 13,190

2,919,092
With the exception of coffee and sugar, the United States purchases
practically the entire Haitian output of the above commodities. The rapidly
increasing production of sisal in Haiti before long should increase con-,
siderably the importance of the United States as a market for Haitian
products. Cacao and logwood should regain their position among the more
valuable export products as soon as prices increase to the point where they
offer an inducement to producers and exporters. Then too, if capital can be
found to begin the production of bananas on a large scale, exports of
bananas should increase to a great extent the importance of the United
States as a market for Haitian products.
Spain increased its share of the export trade from Gdes. 388,779 in
1931-32 to Gdes. 935,506 in 1932-33. Coffee constitutes practically the entire
export trade with that country.
The Netherlands also purchased more Haitian merchandise. Exports to
the Netherlands were valued at Gdes. 669,930 in 1932-33 compared with
only Gdes. 173,172 the previous year. Coffee is the principal commodity
exported to the Netherlands and increased coffee shipments in 1932-33 were
responsible for the rise in the importance of that country as a market for
Haitian exports.
The export trade with Germany, on the other hand, was nearly cut in
half. Exports to Germany in 1931-32 were valued at Gdes. 1,165,763, but
in 1932-33 they declined to Gdes. 559,524. Purchases of cotton by Germany
dropped to Gdes. 207,713, from Gdes. 694,870 in 1931-32, and coffee pur-
chases declined by Gdes. 83,663. As in the previous year, Germany in 1932-
33 continued to provide a market for comparatively small quantities of
honey, cottonseed cake, and canned pineapples.
The nine countries which have been mentioned purchased practically the
entire export production of Haiti. Merchandise valued at Gdes. 631,135 was





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


shipped to various other countries. On the other hand, practically no Hai-
tian products were purchased by Japan, Venezuela, the Dominican Re-
public, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia, although these countries have
found in Haiti a good market for their products. In 1932-33, these countries
sold to Haiti goods valued at Gdes. 1,658,435, of which amount Gdes.
1,156,152 alone represent the value of Japanese merchandise sold in Haiti.

Ports of Entry for Imports
Port-au-Prince in 1932-33 increased its lead as the principal port of entry.
Merchandise valued at Gdes. 26,468,054 was received at Port-au-Prince in
1932-33 compared with Gdes. 25,703,610 in 1931-32, indicating an increase
of 2.98 per cent. The capital city in 1932-33 handled 69,04 per cent of the
total import trade of the Republic compared with 68.90 per cent in 1931-32.
Cap Haitien, the second city in importance so far as concerns imports,
also increased its share of the import trade. Merchandise valued at Gdes.
3,655,479 entered through this port in 1932-33 compared with Gdes.
3,475,682 the previous fiscal year. The increase amounted to 5.18 per cent,
and the share of total imports amounted to 9.54 per cent compared with,
9.32 per cent during the previous year.
Imports received at Cayes during 1932-33 declined by 7.12 per cent
compared with the previous year, and at Jacmel by 26.03 per cent. The
declining importance of Jacmel as a port of entry is particularly striking.
Jacmel lost its former position as fifth in importance to Saint Marc, at
which port the value of merchandise received in 1932-33 increased by Gdes.
319,312, or 39.8 per cent. Gonaives remained in fourth place.
Imports increased at all other ports with the exception of Petit GoAve
and Miragoane. At Fort Libert6, in particular, due to the increasing im-
portance of that district in the production of sisal, imports were more than
doubled.
Ports of Shipment for Exports
Cap Haitien and Gonaives were the principal beneficiaries of the ex-
cellent coffee crop of 1932-33. At Cap Haitien exports more than doubled
in value in 1932-33 compared with the previous year, and at Gonaives a
similar increase of 39.86 per cent was recorded. The rise in the price of
cotton also served to increase the value of exports at the latter port.
Coffee exports from Cap Haitien increased in value from Gdes. 2,606,039
in 1931-32 to Gdes. 6,140,526 in 1932-33. The total export trade at that
city during the latter year increased in value from Gdes. 3,277,992 to Gdes.
7,118,913.
Port-au-Prince in 1932-33 remained predominantly the chief port of
export with the total value of shipments reaching Gdes. 10,657,461, re-
cording an increase of 16.58 per cent over the figure for the previous year.
Twenty-two per cent of total exports were shipped from that port in 1932-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


33, compared with 25.32 per cent in 1931-32. The sharp rise in exports at
Cap Haitien put that city in second place among the principal ports of,
shipment, whereas the previous year Cap Haitien was in fifth place, after
Port-au-Prince, Jacmel, Cayes and Gonaives.
Shipments through the port of Jacmel declined in value from Gdes.
5,696,978 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 5,562,954 in 1932-33, and at Cayes from Gdes.
3,859,350 to Gdes. 3,809,457. In spite of increased foreign trade elsewhere
in the Republic, exports and imports declined in value at both of these ports
in 1932-33 compared with the previous year.
Petit Goive, J6remie, Saint Marc and Port-de-Paix all reported consider-
able increases in the export trade.
Although both exports and imports increased at Port-au-Prince in 1932-
33, the share of total foreign commerce carried on at that city declined
from 47.46 per cent in 1931-32 to 43.68 per cent in 1932-33. Comparing
the same periods, Cap Haitien in 1932-33 took the place of Jacmel as the
second city of importance in total foreign commerce, and Gonaives, in
fourth place, advanced ahead of Cayes. Foreign commerce at Jer6mie in
1932-33 exceeded that at Saint Marc and at Petit Goave, whereas in 1931-32
J6r6mie was in eighth place.
Shipping
In November, 1932, an American steamship line inaugurated a new fast
freight and passenger service between Port-au-Prince and New York. The
:hree ships which furnish this service provide weekly sailings from Port-
au-Prince and from New York, and are the fastest ships which have ever
operated on a regular schedule between the two ports. The new service
has shortened the voyage between the two ports by approximately one
day and has greatly improved communication between Haiti and the United
States.
In addition, the new service has provided regular weekly sailings to
and from Jamaica, Panama, and Colombian ports. For the first time in
recent years, steamer facilities have been provided for carrying freight,
passengers and mail on regular and frequent sailings to Jamaica. Moreover,
the new service has established an innovation in shipping facilities available
in Haiti in that it caters especially to the tourist trade, advertising Port-au-
Prince as a port of call on the itinerary of the line. Since the opening of
the new service upward of a hundred passengers, many of them tourists,
have visited Port-au-Prince weekly. While the ships of the line spend only
a few hours in port, tourists have been encouraged to stop over in Haiti
and many have taken advantage of this privilege.
Port-au-Prince already provides comfortable hotel facilities for the
comparatively small number of tourists now visiting the country. Although
the number of transient tourists is increasing appreciably, it cannot be
expected that tourists will remain in Haiti for extended visits unless ad-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


ditional hotel and sports facilities are provided. Moreover, it is still ex-
pensive and inconvenient for tourists landing in Port-au-Prince to visit
the points of historical interest at Cap Haitien. Port-au-Prince has much
to offer to tourists, but it is essential that the remarkable attractions at
Cap Haitien also should be made easily accessible to visitors.
Excellent passenger ship accommodations already are available. If small,
modern hotels are built, and other facilities to encourage visits to Haiti
are,carefully planned and organized, there is no reason why Haiti should
not in time derive considerable benefit from the tourist trade.
Largely because of the new steamship service, the number of vessels
arriving at Haitian ports increased from 595 in 1931-32 to 681 in 1932-33.
Vessels of American registry increased from 212 in 1931-32 to 270 in 1932-
33. Dutch ships calling at Haitian ports numbered 190 in 1932-33, one less
than the previous year. German steamship lines increased the number of
callings from 85 in 1931-32 to 96 in 1932-33, while in the case of French
ships a similar increase from 17 to 25 was recorded. Thirty British steamers
called at Haitian ports in 1932-33 compared with 33 during the previous
year. Vessels of all other registries numbered 70 in 1932-33, an increase of
13 over the previous year.
Of the 681 steamers calling at Haitian ports in 1932-33, nine were large
tourist ships on special cruises to ports in the West Indies. Four were of
German registry, three were Italiali, and two were British. The same
number of tourist ships called at Port-au-Prince the previous year. These
ships carry no freight, they do not operate on regular schedules, and they
remain in port only a few hours.
The net registered tonnage of vessels calling at Haitian ports in 1932-33
amounted to 1,467,270 tons. This is an increase of 301,042 tons, or 25.87
per cent over the corresponding figure for the previous year. In this
comparison, the tonnage of the nine large tourist ships calling in each of
the two years has been omitted. The total tonnage of American ships in-
creased by 238,425 tons or by 37.25 per cent; German ships by 11,156 tons,
or 6.99 per cent; and French ships by 26,286 tons, or 65.39 per cent. The
total tonnage of Dutch ships calling at Haitian ports remained practically
the same in both years. The tonnage of all other vessels amounted to 82,844
tons in 1932-33, an increase of 28.03 per cent over the previous year.
The new steamship service mentioned above accounted in large part for
the increased tonnage in 1932-33. Moreover, the large coffee crop brought
about a demand for increased cargo space. Although French vessels com-
prise a comparatively small part of the carrying trade, the considerable
increase in French tonnage in 1932-33 over the previous year is noteworthy.
Sailing vessels arriving from foreign ports numbered 199 in 1932-33
compared with 123 in 1931-32. Tonnage increased from 8,065 tons to 10,958
tons. Most of the sailing vessels fly the British flag and transport mer-
chandise between Haiti and various small islands in the Bahamas.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Dutch ships in 1932-33 continued to carry the greater part of the export
trade. The share of total export values carried in Dutch vessels amounted
to 30.27 per cent in 1932-33. This is a decline from 36.46 per cent recorded
the previous year.
German ships carried 21.49 per cent of the export trade in 1932-33, as
against 20.63 per cent in 1931-32. A large part of the merchandise consign-
ed to France is carried in German vessels.
American carriers were third in importance in the export trade in 1932-
33, whereas in 1931-32 British ships held that position. The British share
declined from 17.00 per cent in 1931-32 to 14.20 per cent in 1932-33, while
the American share rose from 15.09 per cent to 18.55 per cent over the same
period.
French ships retained their rank as fifth in importance in the export
trade, and increased their share from 8.45 per cent in 1931-32 to 11.93 in
1932-33.
More than half of the merchandise consigned to American ports in 1932-
33 was carried in Norwegian and Danish ships. Their share of the total
Haitian export trade in 1932-33 amounted to 3.56 per cent, compared with
2.16 per cent in 1931-32.
By far the larger part of imports into Haiti are carried in American and
Dutch bottoms. The American share increased from 51.60 per cent in
1931-32 to 54.31 per cent in 1932-33, while the Dutch share declined from
26.10 per cent to 22.95 per cent during the same period. Imports carried in
American vessels are mostly from the United States, the United Kingdom,
and Japan. Dutch ships also carry an important part of the American im-
port merchandise and practically all of the goods received from the
Netherlands.
The German share of the import trade increased from 4.74 per cent to
6.04 per cent. The French share increased fractionally to 4.94 per cent in
1932-33, while Norwegian vessels carried a somewhat smaller portion of
total imports in 1932-33. The portion carried in Norwegian ships in the
latter year amounted to 8.77 per cent of total import values, compared with
9.81 per cent the previous year. Most of the imports carried in Norwegian
bottoms are of American origin.
Freight rates for the most part moved downward during 1932-33. The
rates on fish, lard and soap imports were reduced. In July, the freight rate
on flour shipped to Haiti was reduced by 25 per cent. Coffee shipped to
Marseilles and Genoa benefited at the beginning of the fiscal year by a
reduction in the freight rate of 17 per cent. The rate on coffe shipped to
New York was reduced in March from $0.40 to $0.35 per hundred pounds.
European steamship lines found themselves handicapped by the decline
in dollar exchange beginning in April, 1933. Freight in Haiti was collected
in dollars at gold parities. As dollar exchange declined the European lines
found their freight receipts declining in terms of francs and guilders. To





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


counteract the decline, the European lines imposed a 40 per cent surcharge
on the rate applied to Haitian coffee consigned to Europe. The American
lines refused to agree to a similar increase, with the result that coffee began
to move to Europe via New York.
The increase, if it had remained in effect, would have affected the coffee
trade adversely. This office vigorously protested against the increase, and
asked steamship lines to reconsider their action.
In August the steamship lines agreed to suspend the new surcharge
during the balance of the fiscal year.
Air communication between Haiti and foreign countries was improved
in February, 1933, by the addition of a weekly service in both directions
between Kingston, Santiago (Cuba), Port-au-Prince, and Santo Domingo.
Passenger service to and from Haiti increased 20 per cent during 1932-33,
and the use of facilities for carrying express by air increased by about 200
per cent.


Foreign Commerce By Months

Wide variations in import and export values from month to month
always have been a characteristic of Haitian foreign trade. Export values
depend very largely on the size of the yearly coffee crop and the price
paid for coffee. Coffee is harvested in August and September and by Oc-
tober it begins to move out of the country in quantity. The greater part
of the coffee crop is shipped in the period from October to March of each
year, and since coffee alone represents nearly 80 per cent of total exports,
the monthly record of export values reveals wide seasonal variations which
necessarily produce corresponding fluctuations in imports and in govern-
ment revenues.
In former years import values usually increased noticeably in the months
just prior to the period when the heaviest shipments of coffee took place.
Merchants anticipated the marked increase in buying power which regularly
accompanies the seasonal shipment of coffee. This characteristic is clearly
shown on Chart No. 2, giving import and export values by months, together
with monthly values of coffee exports. It will be noticed that this anticipa-
tion of released purchasing power was especially marked during the period
of relative business and price stability from 1927 to 1930. Beginning in
1931, however, imports failed to increase in advance of coffee shipments.
Instead, imports fluctuated in remarkably close relation to the rise and fall
of export values. Restricted credit, business uncertainty, and wide varia-
tions in the prices for import commodities during the last two years have
compelled merchants to exercise greater caution in their inventory com-
mitments. To these difficulties in 1933 there was added the handicap of
fluctuating exchange rates.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Another factor in bringing a closer relationship between imports and
fluctuations in purchasing power has been the marked improvement in
communication by sea with the United States. Frequent sailings on regular
schedules and faster ships have enabled merchants to supply consumer
demand promptly. It is no longer necessary to arrange for the purchase of
American goods many weeks in advance of an anticipated demand.
This closer relationship between imports and exports continued through-
out the fiscal year 1932-33. Export values rose sharply in October, No-
vember and December, and imports responded by a proportionate increase
in the same months. When exports fell off in February, at the end of the
season when the bulk of the coffee crop is shipped, imports also registered
a distinct recession. In March, when important cotton and sugar shipments

CHART No. 2
VALUE OF TOTAL IMPORTS, TOTAL EXPORTS AND COFFEE EXPORTS, BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEARS 1926-27 TO 1932-33
MILUONS or
GOURDES






f:. I







1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33

brought the curve of export values to its peak for the year, imports re-
sponded in like fashion and touched their high point for the fiscal period.
Exports invariably fall off during the "dead season" from May to
August, and in the latter month total export values rarely exceed two
"I \ f: \ r' /i "














million gourdes. Ordinarily, imports also contract during the same period,
..' i "'..*.. -. \ .


1926-27 1927-28 192_-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33




brought the curvelow point for imf export values to its peak for the caseyear, imof exports, is reached in the
sponded in likthree fashion and the fiscal their high point for the fiscal period.
Exports invariably fall off during the "dead season" from May to
August, and in the latter month total export values rarely exceed two
million gourdes. Ordinarily, imports also contract during the same period,
and the low point for imports, as in the case of exports, is reached in the
last two or three months of the fiscal year.
A marked departure from this sequence took place during the "dead
season" of 1933. The prices of most import commodities in Haitian com-
merce are quoted in United States dollars. When the American experiment
in raising prices through a controlled dollar began in April, the prices of
commodities which enter into the Haitian import trade rose from twenty





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


to thirty per cent during May, June, and July, and in August and September
they remained some thirty per cent above the former level. As a result,
imports showed a slightly rising trend during the last five months of the
fiscal year, and in September import values were actually higher than they
had been in the first month of the fiscal period, contrary to what in the past
has been almost invariably the case. Due principally to this increase in
import values during the last few months of the fiscal year, total imports
for the entire twelve months period advanced above the corresponding total
for the previous fiscal year.

Commodities Imported

Favorable crops and signs of business recovery after several years of
depression have produced a distinct change in the buying habits of the
population. During the lean years, when purchasing power was restricted,
consumers had delayed their purchases of such commodities as were not
absolutely essential. Imports of textiles had fallen off. Foodstuffs formerly
purchased abroad had been replaced by increased domestic food production.
The extent to which changing conditions have affected expenditures for
imported merchandise is shown in the following table. In this tabulation,
expenditures for the principal classes of imports are expressed as percent-
ages of total import values. Figures are given for the fiscal year 1932-33
as well as averages for the five year period from 1926-27 to 1930-31:
1932-33 1926-27 to
1930-31
Per Cent Per Cent
Textiles, etc............................................... 33.3 25.9
Foodstuffs .................................................. 20.5 30.9
Gasoline, Kerosene, etc............................... 6.5 5.7
Soap ............................................................ 3.5 4.0
Iron & Steel products.................................. 3.5 4.8
Automobiles ............................................... 2.3 2.0
Chemical and pharmaceutical products........ 2.0 1.3
Household utensils, etc................................. 1.9 2.1
Liquors and beverages................................ 1.3 1.3
All others...................................................... 23.3 20.6

100.0 100.0
Imports of textiles, and particularly of cotton piece goods, which com-
prise the bulk of textile importations, are very sensitive to changing
economic conditions. Requirements are filled largely in time of good crops
and augmented purchasing power. Purchases are restricted greatly when
crops are poor. Normally, as shown in the table, about a quarter of the
money spent for imported merchandise goes abroad for the purchase of
textiles and clothing. But after two years or more of poor crops and
lowered buying power, the ordinary requirements of the country had not
been filled. With the advent of the exceptional 1932-33 coffee crop, ac-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


cumulated demand for textiles was released in the form of greatly increased
purchases, and a third of the money spent for imports during the year
went into the purchase of textiles alone. Compared with the previous year,
29.01 per cent, and bringing improved business to the most important retail
39.70 per cent. In value, they reached a total of Gdes. 10,278,600, increasing
imports of cotton piece goods increased in quantity by 952,075 kilos, or by
trade in Haiti.
Foodstuffs and textiles together comprise more than half of the import
trade. Requirements for textiles probably always will have to be satisfied
in large part by imports from abroad. But in the case of foodstuffs there
is no good reason why domestic production cannot supplement to an im-
portant extent the large quantities of staple food products which must be
imported each year. Flour and fish always have been among the leading
imports, yet Haitian waters abound in fish, and without question the do-
mestic production of vegetables, rice, corn and other comestibles could be
augmented. Figures for food imports indicate unmistakably that an in-
crease in domestic food production already has taken place. While in the
past as high as thirty per cent of the money spent for imports has been
used for the purchase of food supplies, in 1932-33 this figure had declined
to 20.5 per cent. Compared with the previous year, imports of foodstuffs
declined in value by Gdes. 2,738,430, or by 25.83 per cent. Ordinarily, more
than half of the total imports of foodstuffs consist of wheat flour. In
1932-33, flour imports declined 8,578,433 kilos, or 43.10 per cent, in quan-
tity, and in value by Gdes. 2,099,600, or 42.44 per cent. In all probability
the new increase in flour duties, operative since the beginning of the fiscal
year, played a part in restricting imports. Providing that this restriction of
food importations has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in
domestic production as appears to have taken place the reduction in
flour imports is economically desirable.
Shipments of gasoline, kerosene and other mineral oils, comprise the
third most important group of imports. Receipts increased in quantity by
1,408,979 liters, or 23.25 per cent, in 1932-33 compared with the previous
year. This substantial increase was recorded notwithstanding the new
internal revenue tax of Gde. 0.25 per gallon on gasoline. The improvement
of existing roads and new road construction which has gone on despite the
depression has been accompanied by an increasing need for automobiles
and trucks for interior communication, and consequently sales of gasoline
have held up comparatively well. Yearly imports of gasoline averaged
7,704,611 liters in the prosperous years beginning with 1926-27. In 1932-33
gasoline imports reached 7,470,076 liters, or only slightly less than the
average, in spite of the new gasoline tax.
In value, gasoline imports declined from Gdes. 1,259,334 in 1931-32 to
Gdes. 1,167,388 in 1932-33, indicating a drop of Gdes. 91,946, or 7.30 per





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


cent. The value of gasoline imports is taken from customs documents, and
since gasoline is dutiable only on a specific basis it is quite possible that
the value set on these imports is not entirely representative.
Kerosene imports declined fractionally in quantity and value in 1932-33
compared with 1931-32.
Common laundry soap is one of the leading commodities imported.
Purchases of foreign soap exceed the value of such a common article of
domestic consumption as gasoline. Some soap is manufactured in Haiti,
but the greater part of domestic requirements is filled by imports. Quan-
tities imported in 1932-33 increased slightly over soap imports recorded in
1931-32. The value of soap imports in 1932-33 amounted to Gdes. 1,339,468,
indicating a decline of Gdes. 195,686, or 12.75 per cent .from the 1931-32
figure. Two-thirds of common soap imports came from Great Britain in
1932-33, with the balance being supplied mostly by the United States.
Cuban soap, which had been an important factor in the Haitian market in
1931-32, disappeared completely from the market in 1932-33.
Undoubtedly there exist good possibilities of developing an important
domestic soap manufacturing industry. Import duties on foreign soaps at
present amount to more than 50 per cent ad valorem, which should render
ample protection to the industry.
Imports of various iron and steel manufactures, including most of the
metal imports used in building construction, increased fractionally in value
in 1932-33. Increases of 13.48 per cent in the quantity of lumber imported,
and a similar increase of 38.16 in the case of cement give evidence of the
marked extension in building activity during the year. Work on govern-
ment public works projects accounted in part for the increase.
Automobiles and trucks imported in 1932-33 numbered 340, compared
with 214 in 1931-32. In value, an increase of 65.94 per cent was recorded.
Similarly, imports of chemical and pharmaceutical products increased in
value by Gdes. 155,465, or 25.24 per cent. Liquor imports were up in
value by 1.09 per cent and in quantity by 5.31 per cent.
All other imports, which include important miscellaneous groups such as
books, shoes, agricultural implements, and tobacco, increased in value from
Gdes. 5,847,945 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 6,682,492 in 1932-33. In particular, pur-
chases of foreign books and other printed matter in 1932-33 reached Gdes.
357,361 in value, or more than three times the 1931-32 figure. Nearly 50
per cent of the imports under this classification came from the United
States, with France supplying 25 per cent, Germany 8 per cent, and Canada
7 per cent.
Notwithstanding the recovery in commodity prices which took place
during the last five months of the year, average unit prices of commodities
imported in 1932-33, as shown by customs records, registered a decline in
almost every case when comparison is made with the previous year. Unit






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


prices of a dozen important groups of imports over a period of three years
are shown below: 1930-31 1931-32 193233
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Cement.............Kilo.................. 0.07 0.06 0.05
Fish..................Kilo.................. 0.58 0.47 0.38
Wheat flour......Kilo.................. 0.28 0.25 0.25
Meats...............Kilo.................. 1.18 0.9Q 0.73
Rice..................Kilo.................. 0.30 0.25 0.22
Liquors............Liter.................... 1.35 1.32 1.27
Lumber.............Cubic meter..... 103.52 89.00 85.95
Gasoline...........Liter................. 0.20 0.21 0.16
Kerosene.......... Liter................. 0.25 0.23 0.23
Soap.................Kilo.................. 0.66 0.48 0.41
Textiles............Kilo................ 4.29 3.31 3.06
Tobacco...........Kilo................. 1.99 1.90 1.93
Great Britain and Japan were the principal beneficiaries of increased
purchases of cotton piece goods in 1932-33. Imports of cotton goods from
the United States remained nearly stationary in both years. The value of
cotton textiles from the United States amounted to Gdes. 7,378,143 in
1932-33 as against Gdes. 7,362,728 in 1931-32. Great Britain, on the other
hand increased its sales of cotton goods to Haiti from Gdes. 1,966,466 in
1931-32 to Gdes. 3,131,054 in 1932-33.
Japan in 1932-33 for the first time became an important supplier of
cotton textiles. Sales to Haiti increased from Gdes. 87,893 in 1931-32 to
Gdes. 1,062,707 in 1932-33. This entrance of Japan into trade relations with
Haiti was one of the noteworthy commercial developments of the year.
Unfortunately, Japan has not yet shown any disposition to purchase Hai-
tian exports.
Imported foodstuffs, as usual, came mostly from the United States in
1932-33. The decline in flour imports carried the import trade with the
United States downward to the extent of Gdes. 2,190,345 in 1932-33, when
comparison is made with 1931-32. Imports of meats, fish, rice and other
foodstuffs from the United States remained substantially the same in both
years. Purchases of rice from France increased slightly in 1932-33, com-
pared with 1931-32. Purchases of rice from the Netherlands declined in
value from Gdes. 297,801 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 122,192 in 1932-33.
Cuba in 1932-33 disappeared from the import schedule as an important
supplier of soap to Haiti. Soap imports from the Netherlands also declined,
while purchases of this important commodity from Great Britain and the
United States increased.
The United States was the beneficiary of the substantial increase in
automobile and truck importations in 1932-33. Iron and steel imports from
the United States also increased but machinery purchases from the same
source declined by Gdes. 165,279.
Chemical and pharmaceutical products imported from France increased
in value from Gdes. 182,699 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 232,561 in 1932-33. Liquor
imports from that country declined during the same period from Gdes.
252,985 to Gdes. 239,862. Purchases of French perfumes declined from





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 23

Gdes. 251,936 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 242,683 in 1932-33. Cotton piece goods
imported from France remained in value practically the same in both years
at slightly more than Gdes. 200,000.
In addition, the United States in 1932-33 increased its trade with Haiti
in lumber, rubber goods, paints, textiles other than cotton goods, and
agricultural machinery. Losses in terms of value were recorded (consider-
ing only the more important groups) in the case of paper, cigarettes, gaso-
line, shoes, hides and skins.
Similarly, Great Britain increased its sales to Haiti of agricultural ma-
chinery, chemical and pharmaceutical products, miscellaneous foodstuffs,
and machinery. No declines were recorded among the more important
groups of commodities received from Great Britain.

Commodities Exported
In order of importance, the four principal export commodities in 1932-33,
as in the previous year, were coffee, cotton, sugar, and sisal. These four
products alone constituted 92.76 per cent of total export values in 1931-32,
and in 1932-33 this figure rose to 94.86 per cent.
The dominant position of these four commodities in relation to total
exports is shown by the following table:
Value of exports 1932-33
Gourdes Per cent
Coffee ....................................................... 2 52. 77.71
Cotton .....:................................................. 4,634,860 9.94
Sugar (raw and refined).......................... 2,221,629 4.76
Sisal ........................................................ 1,140,752 2.45
All other exports...................................... 2,400,973 5.14
46,650,366 100.00
In the "all other" category, logwood and cottonseed cake exports re-
spectively comprised 1.40 per cent and 1.00 per cent of total exports, and the
remaining 2.74 per cent, in order of importance, was made up of canned
pineapples, goatskins, cacao, honey, and molasses, together with small
shipments of cottonseed, bananas, turtle shells, corn, and cashew nuts.

Coffee
The 1932-33 coffee crop was the largest on record. Nearly forty-two
million kilos of coffee were exported during the fiscal period.
Exports of coffee during the past ten years are shown below:
Fiscal years Kilos
1923-24.................................................... 29,402,000
1924-25..................................... .... 30,767,100
1925-26.................................................... 35,683,690
1926-27 ................................................... 28,692,984
1927-28..................................................... 41,147,804
1928-29.............................................. 28,556,664
1929-30 ................................................... 34,321,114
1930-31 .................................................. 26,296,152
1931-32 ...................................... ....... 23,204,896
1932-33.................................................... 41,745,766
Average (10 years)............................................ 31,981837





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Shipments in 1932-33 exceeded.those of any year in the ten year period.
In 1918-19 nearly fifty million kilos were exported, but this figure includes
a large part of the 1917-18 crop which could not be exported in that year
because of the war. The 1932-33 crop, therefore, was the largest during
the period of the Receivership, and although complete figures are not
available for prior years, it would appear probable that annual crops never
have exceeded the 1932-33 figure. Exports in 1903-04 were reported as
having reached 44,000,000 kilos, but shipments in that year included a
large part of the 1902-03 crop held over because of internal disorders.
Not only did quantities of coffee exported reach a record total in 1932-
33, but it is believed that an unusually large carry-over existed at the end
of the year. Some estimates place the carry-over at 50,000 bags.
A study of coffee exports throughout the history of the Republic reveals
the interesting fact that coffee exports, although fluctuating widely from
year to year, have followed a rising trend, with production increasing by
about 10 per cent every ten years. Moreover, the rate of increase in coffee
production has followed closely the estimated rate of increase in popula-
tion, the only noteworthy break in the rising trend having occurred in the
ten years beginning in 1900 when average yearly exports of coffee receded
by about 10 per cent.
The exceptionally small crop in the fiscal year prior to that under review
gave rise to some apprehension that because of the disruption of coffee
prices the capacity of the country to produce coffee might have been
impaired. While it was known that unfavorable climatic conditions were
largely responsible for the sub-normal crop, it was felt that possibly the
low prices which the producers obtained for their coffee might have result-
ed in some destruction of coffee trees to make way for food crops. There
were no reports of actual reduction in the area planted to coffee, but the
marked decline in deliveries in 1931-32 pointed to the possibility of some
tree destruction.
The remarkably favorable results of the 1932-33 crop give assurance that
destruction of trees to any great extent has not occurred. Heavy exports
of the latter period have maintained average exports in recent years at
32,000,000 kilos and if past experience is any indication, the trend of
average production in the future should continue upward.
The 1932-33 coffee crop was not far from double the size of the previous
year's crop. Actually, the quantity exported exceeded shipments in 1931-32
by 18,540,870 kilos, or by 79.92 per cent. Such extreme variation in pro-
duction of the leading export crop is rare in Haiti, even though considerable
year-by-year fluctuation is to be expected. The rise in quantity, coming as
it did when coffee values were falling away alarmingly, assisted greatly in
maintaining business activity, and accounted in large measure for the
increase in revenues.,






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The unit values of coffee exports in each of the past five years have been
as follows:
Fiscal years Gourdes
1928-29..................................... ......................... 2.26 Per kilo
1929-30....................................................................... 1.52 "
1930-31...................................................................... 1.27 "
1931-32..................................................................... 1.13 "
1932-33.......................................................... .88 "
Thus, the price obtained for coffee in 1932-33 was little more than one-
third of the price received five years ago. Prices quoted for Haitian coffee
fell off rapidly in 1932-33 during the months when shipments were heaviest,
and they reached their low point in April after most of the coffee had been
shipped. In the same month the United States began its experiment in
raising prices through dollar inflation, and coffee prices inr terms of dollars
commenced to recover, but too late to have an important effect on the value
of the 1932-33 crop.

CHART No. 3
COFFEE PRICES, FISCAL YEAR 1932-33
-OLLAl3 PES
50KLOS









'8CrM"C HAM 'i i -






._^-_ ^^r-'-==- T-- __ =: ^r= _.=== _--r^=- :-
Octobr INovmt rDclmberJnuaory Fbbrury March April Moy Juno July Augus ~plwn*cr

The movement of coffee prices during 1932-33 is shown graphically in
Chart No. 3. In order to show the effect of dollar inflation, the price of
Haitian coffee at Havre is shown in terms of gold dollars as well as in
terms of dollars in current circulation. The spread between the two curves,
beginning in April, is striking. Quotations in current dollars remained
above the April low throughout the last five months of the fiscal year with
the exception of a brief period in June, and in July they recovered half of
the steady decline which had continued to the month of April. At the end
of the year dollar prices for coffee had declined from the July peak, but





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


were still appreciably above the low point reached in April. Gold prices
for coffee, on the other hand, continued on downward throughout the year,
and at the end of September the gold price for coffee was only half of the
price at the beginning of the year.
If coffee prices in terms of current dollars can be maintained at or above
the prices quoted in 1932-33 business in Haiti should continue on the way
to recovery. With the price of coffee the predominant factor in the Haitian
economy, any measure taken successfully to raise the price of coffee will
benefit Haitian business. Apparently, the low point for the price of coffee
has been passed. Meanwhile, all elements of business in Haiti have been
adjusted successfully to conditions existing when coffee prices were at
their lowest. Moreover, government finances have been adjusted to meet
conditions at their worst. Government expenditures are expressed in gourdes
and revenues have been obtained to meet, and even exceed, these expen-
ditures regardless of the low price of coffee. It should follow, therefore,
that any recovery of coffee prices in terms of current dollars (or in gourdes
which are linked to the dollar, and to which all values in Haiti are adjusted)
should be accompanied by an improvement in business and in the finances
of the government. From the point ot view under discussion, the American
experiment in raising the price level thus far has met with success. But
abroad the problem has been to raise all prices and at the same time to
adjust wages and costs to the higher level. In other countries the interplay
of many factors makes the achievement of success-infinitely more difficult;
but in Haiti, with its dependence on coffee alone, and with business and
government finances already adjusted to the low point in the price level,
any recovery in -prices must connote an unmistakable improvement in
business conditions and in the financial and economic stability of.,:the
country.
Haiti in 1931-32 passed through a year when the quantity of coffee
exported was abnormally low and when coffee prices at the same time were
near their lowest level. In 1932-33, coffee prices reached their lowest point
and since then have maintained a slight advantage. If in 1933-34 coffee
exports are only average, and the price advance can be maintained, it
follows that so far as concerns Haiti the low point in the depression will
have been definitely passed. It has been reported that world coffee stocks
on October 1, 1933, were 24 per cent less than on the same date in 1932,
and the smallest on that date for any year since 1929.
In 1932-33, the first time since the official standardization of coffee began,
no improvement was shown in the quality of coffee exported. Although a
considerably lower rate of duty is applied to the three higher grades of
coffee exported, the percentage of total exports classified under these types
declined from 9.46 per cent in 1931-32 to 6.24 per cent in 1932-33. The





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


percentages of total exports, by official grades, over the past three fiscal
years are given in the table below:
Type 1932-33 1931-32 1930-31
1............................ .57 1.20 1.33
2.......................... .17 .55 1.88
3.............................. 5.55 7.71 5.06
4............................ 11.86 15.32 19.21
5............................ 72.47 66.77 63.46
6......................... .91 1.12 1.88
7............................ 8.42 7.33 7.18
Parchment coffee...... .05
100.00 100.00 100.00

It can be seen that nearly three-fourths of the crop in 1932-33 was ex-
ported under the "Type 5" classification. Although nearly twenty per cent
of total exports had been shipped under the "Type 4" classification in 1930-
31, exports of this grade of coffee declined to 15.32 per cent of total ship-
ments in 1931-32 and to 11.86 per cent in 1932-33.
For years the world production of coffee has exceeded the demand.
Enormous surplus stocks of coffee in Brazil have been destroyed to support
prices. Competition between coffee countries never has been so keen as at
present, yet exporters in Haiti have done little to improve their product
and gain the competitive advantage which superior preparation of the
beans would bring. The Government has done its part by requiring the
official classification of coffee and granting lower rates of duty on properly
prepared coffee, but exporters have failed to take advantage of their op-
portunities.
The effect of the surplus stocks of lower grade Brazilian coffee on the
price of Haitian coffee is plainly shown in Chart No. 3. In the past, the
price of Haitian coffee has benefited from a premium as high as 33 1/3
per cent over the price of low-quality Brazilian varieties. In 1932, however,
the premium obtained by Haitian coffee gradually disappeared, and
throughout December, 1932, prices quoted for Santos "Good Average"
coffee actually exceeded the price of Haitian coffee. The chart shows that
during the balance of the fiscal year Haitian coffee regained part of its
price advantage over Santos coffee, but nevertheless the recent spread
between the two was not nearly so wide as it had been in the past. Undoubt-
edly, the exceptionally large offerings of Haitian coffee on the market
during the last year were largely instrumental in reducing the premium.
The premium invariably contracts most when sales of Haitian coffee are
greatest, as in December, 1933. Nevertheless, the gradual disappearance
of the premium in the fiscal year 1931-32, when shipments were light,
indicates the possibility that inferior varieties are replacing Haitian coffee,
or are comprising a greater share of the blends than in the past. The
premium granted to the mild Haitian coffees had been built up, particularly
in France, through a gradually acquired reputation for superior flavor.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The coffee is at its best when unblended. But recently there has been
evidence that much of the coffee retailed in France as Haitian coffee actu-
ally has been adulterated with large portions of inferior varieties.
This threat to the reputation of Haitian coffee is obvious. In an endeavor
to counteract these influences and to provide all possible assistance to the
Haitian coffee trade, the Government in March, 1933, sent a commission of
three members to Europe. It is reported that this commission has rendered
valuable service to exporters of Haitian coffee and has helped to maintain
the high place which the Haitian, product always has occupied in the
European coffee trade.
As usual, the greater part of the coffee crop in 1932-33 was shipped to
France, with Denmark, Belgium, Italy and Spain taking most of the re-
mainder. Quantities shipped to the principal markets in 1932-33 are shown
below:
Country Kilos Per cent
France ................................. 27,159,013 65.06
Denmark .............................. 4,418,779 10.59
Belgium ............................... 3,839,632 9.19
Italy .................................... 3,437,554 8.23
Spain ..................................... 1,083,860 2.60
All others.............................. 1,806,928 4.33
Total ............................ 41,745,766 100.00

France in the previous year took 55.71 per cent of all coffee shipped, and
Italy was in second place with 14.30 per cent. Denmark increased the
quantity of coffee which it purchased from Haiti in 1932-33 by 1,527,385
kilos, but its share of the total declined from 12.46 per cent in 1931-32.
Belgium likewise took a greater share of the total crop in 1931-32.
Exports of coffee to Spain show the most notable increase. Spain in the
past has been an important outlet for Haitian coffee, but during the two
years previous to 1932-33 comparatively little coffee was consigned to
Spanish importers. Only 279,735 kilos were sent to Spain in 1931-32, but
in 1932-33, as shown in the table, Spain took over a million kilos of Haitian
coffee. Spain increased its share of the total crop from 1.23 per cent to
2.60 per cent.
Coffee is shipped principally from Port-au-Prince and Cap Haitien,
although large quantities are exported from other ports. Nearly as much
coffee left Haiti via Cap Haitien in 1932-33 as from Port-au-Prince, where
7,610,477 kilos were shipped. Increased production in the northern part of
Haiti largely accounted for the greater quantities exported in 1932-33.
Shipments at Cap Haitien increased by 205.9 per cent over the previous
year, at Gonaives by 92.6 per cent, and at Port-de-Paix by 83.2 per cent.
The increases in coffee shipments at other ports, expressed in percentages,
were: Port-au-Prince, 70 per cent; Petit Goive, 69.8 per cent; Jeremie,
50.9 per cent; Cayes 31 per cent; and Jacmel, 25.3 per cent.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Cotton

Most of the cotton produced in Haiti is grown in the region around Saint
Marc and Gonaives. Saint Marc is the principal port of shipment for cottoil
with Port-au-Prince and Gonaives next in importance. Small quantities of
cotton also are produced for export along the southern coast of Haiti and
shipped through the ports of Jacmel and Cayes.
The United Kingdom is the principal purchaser of Haitian cotton, taking
67.04 per cent of the total amount exported in 1932-33. Only 54.74 per cent
of the total went to the.United Kingdom the previous year.
France is second in importance as a market for Haitian cotton, taking
27.49 per cent of the total in 1932-33, compared with 26.75 per cent in
1931-32. Germany in 1931-32 purchased over a million kilos of cotton, but
only 259,129 kilos in 1932-33. Small quantities also went to the Netherlands
and to Spain in the latter year.
Cotton exported in 1932-33 totalled 5,846,483 kilos, a decline of 461,852
kilos, or 7.32 per cent from the figure for the previous year. In value,
however, there was reported in 1932-33 an increase of Gdes. 572,599, or
14.09 per cent. The greater part of the annual cotton crop is exported
during the months of March, April, and May. Cotton prices therefore felt
the effect of dollar inflation, beginning in April, and consequently an in-
crease in the value of the crop in terms of gourdes was recorded.
The unit price of cotton in 1932-33, according to customs records, was
Gdes. 0.79 per kilo, compared with Gdes. 0.64 in 1931-32, and Gdes. 1.02
in 1930-31.
Experiments have been conducted for some years by the Agricultural
Service with the object of developing the production of a special long-fibre
cotton in Haiti. In the last report of this office it was remarked that ship-
ments of the new cotton had been made in commercial quantities and that
the cotton had been favorably received abroad. Further shipments were
made in 1932-33, and in addition funds were allocated by the Government
for the purpose of increasing the area planted to this variety of cotton.
It is hoped that eventually long-fibre cotton will have an important place
among Haitian exports.
Cottonseed and cottonseed cake exports increased in value from Gdes.
431,936 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 526,608 in 1932-33. In quantity, there was
recorded an increase of 2,369,397 kilos bringing the total amount exported
in 1932-33 to 8,526,135 kilos. More than half-of the total was shipped to
Great Britain, and the balance was taken mostly by Germany, Belgium
and Denmark.
Sugar
Shipments of raw and refined sugar in 1932-33 surpassed the record of
20,593.987 kilos exported in 1931-32. A total of 24,801,170 kilos were
exported in 1932-33, indicating an increase of 20.43 per cent. In value,





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


however, the figures for both years were practically identical, exports being
valued at Gdes. 2,221,629 in 1931-32 and Gdes. 2,221,097 in 1932-33.
Although in 1931-32 sugar shipments were distributed fairly evenly over
the year, exports in 1932-33 for the most part took place in March, April
and May. Most of the raw sugar produced in 1932-33 was exported to
the United Kingdom, although 12.68 per cent was taken by the United
States and the Virgin Islands. Small quantities went to Curaqao and to the
Bahama Islands. In the previous year the United Kingdom purchased near-
ly all of the quantity exported. The United States in 1932-33 for the first
time purchased important quantities of Haitian sugar.
Molasses is a by-product of a sugar central located near Port-au-Prince.
which is the only producer of sugar for export. Exports of molasses in
1932-33 amounted to 4,577,679 kilos, valued at Gdes. 113,197 compared
with 13,517,941 kilos, valued at Gdes. 387,006 in 1931-32.
Refined sugar is produced by the same sugar mill, but chiefly for local
consumption. Nevertheless, some refined sugar is exported from time to
time, most of it destined for the Canal Zone. Exports declined from 487,534
kilos in 1931-32 to 152,597 kilos in 1932-33.

Sisal
The production of sisal for export in 1932-33 again made a high record.
A total of 3,737,057 kilos were shipped, of which all except 193,281 kilos
were consigned to importers in the United States. Exports during the
previous fiscal year reached 2,788,614 kilos, indicating an increase in quanti-
ty in 1932-33 of 948,443 kilos, or 34.01 per cent.
Sisal exported in 1932-33 was valued at Gdes. 1,140,752 compared with
Gdes. 874,037 in 1931-32, recording a gain of Gdes. 266,715, or 30.50 per
cent.
The noteworthy increase in sisal production during the past four years
largely has been due to a modern plantation development and decorticating
plant near Fort Libert6. All except 314,794 kilos, out of the total approach-
ing four million kilos in 1932-33, was shipped from that port. The low level
to which sisal prices had declined since the depression gave rise to some
doubt as to whether sisal could be produced successfully in Haiti, but the
rise in sisal prices in 1933 has encouraged the belief that this enterprise
can be continued and that sisal will become increasingly important among
Haitian export commodities. Shipments in 1933-34 are expected to surpass
those of 1932-33 by a wide margin.
The prospects of success in growing sisal at Fort Libert6 have encouraged
similar enterprises elsewhere. Several decorticating plants are in operation,
and plantations abandoned during the decline in prices are being cleared
and put under cultivation. Some shipments of sisal from Cap Haitien
Saint Marc, and Port-au-Prince were made in 1932-33 as a result of the
activities of these smaller enterprises..





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Logwood
On January 16, 1933, the duties on logwood and logwood roots were
suspended by executive order for the period of one year. Price conditions
had almost brought an end to the exportation of this product, and removal
of the export duties was resorted to in an effort to bring logwood back to
its former important place on the export table.
Since the beginning of the Receivership logwood had maintained its
place as the third or fourth most valuable article of export, but in 1931-32
and again in 1932-33 it was relegated to fifth place, after coffee, cotton,
sugar, and sisal.
The removal of the export duties assisted the logwood trade to some
extent and quantities exported in 1932-33 increased by 16.92 per cent over
logwood shipments the previous year; but prices failed to improve and in
value a decline of 20.01 per cent was recorded. Total shipments in 1932-33
were worth only Gdes. 653,560, compared with Gdes. 817,086 in 1931-32
and an average annual value of Gdes. 3,331,037 over the seventeen years
of the Receivership.
Most of the 1932-33 shipments were made in the last five months of the
fiscal year. The region around Cap Haitien was the principal source of
1932-33 exports, with important shipments also leaving Port-au-Prince and
Aquin. Miragoane had been the principal port of shipment for logwood in
the previous year, but in 1932-33 exports of logwood from that port fell
to little more than a fifth of the quantity exported through Miragoane in
1931-32. Gonaives and Fort Libert6 also contributed small quantities to the
1932-33 total.
The United States purchased 74 per cent of Haitian logwood exports in
1932-33 compared with 62 per cent in 1931-32. France and Belgium took
most of the remainder in both years, with small shipments going to Italy
and Germany.
Other Exports
Pineapples grown on plantations near Cap Haitien and packed in a
canning factory at that port constituted the seventh most valuable export
product in 1932-33. Quantities exported in the latter year reached 634,869
kilos, compared with 233,560 in 1931-32. The increase in value amounted
to Gdes. 154,909, or 110 per cent over the value of the pack in 1931-32.
In spite of the price increase, the pineapple canning company at Cap
Haitien decided to give preference to its Hawaiian plantations during a
period necessary to dispose of surplus stocks, and canning was suspended
during the year. This has worked a hardship on Haitian labor which seems
but little justified in view of the very favorable contract given by the Hai-
tian State to encourage this company. Exports in the future will have to
await higher prices and the loosening of tariff restrictions abroad. Such
shipments as were made in 1932-33 for the most part went to Great Britain
with smaller quantities to' the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Exports of goatskins remained practically the same in both years so far
as concerns quantity, but in value a decline of 13.65 per cent was recorded.
All shipments in both years were taken by American importers.
Cacao lost again in value as an export, although quantities shipped in-
creased from 791,767 kilos in 1931-32 to 919,665 kilos in 1932-33. The
value of cacao exports in 1932-33 totalled only Gdes. 227,382, compared
with Gdes. 252,926 in .1931-32, and an average yearly value of Gdes.
1,641,071 during the period of the Receivership. Once an important export
product, cacao has become almost a negligible fraction of the total export
trade. Shipments in 1932-33 were made from the cacao producing centers
at Jer6mie, Cayes and Port-de-Paix. and the destination was principally
the United States. Unless prices recover appreciably, the outlook for
profitable trade in cacao is not promising.
Honey exports declined in quantity and value, while banana exports
increased in both respects by about 30 per cent. The increase in banana
exports was due to experimental shipments by companies investigating the
possibilities of large-scale banana production in Haiti.
Turtle shells, corn, and cashew nuts are the only other commodities
exported from Haiti in quantity. Combined shipments of these three pro-
ducts had a value of Gdes. 60,907 in 1932-33, and Gdes. 24,429 in the pre-
vious year.
Banana Production

Coffee alone in times of high prices has been the source of Haiti's great-
est prosperity; and in times of low prices and low productivity it has been
the chief cause of business and financial difficulties.
It must be admitted that years of continued effort to counteract the
dependence of the country on coffee thus far have produced little or no
improvement. The increase in sugar and sisal production has simply
replaced losses in the value of logwood and cacao exports. The growing
pineapple industry has suffered business reverses. In spite of augmented
cotton exports, this commodity in terms of values is no more important,
relatively, than it was ten years ago. Coffee still is predominant among
exports.
In 1932-33 efforts were renewed to encourage the large scale production
of bananas for export. Large areas in other banana-producing countries
had been infected with a banana blight known as "Panama disease". Several
destructive hurricanes during the fall of 1932 had ruined banana plantations
in other West Indian countries. As a result, foreign marketing organi-
zations became interested in Haiti as a potential producer of bananas for
export. High mountains in Haiti afford a natural protection against hurri-
canes, and soil and climate are all that can be asked. It already had been:
demonstrated that bananas could be grown successfully in the fertile Arti-
bonite valley and in extensive areas along the north coast of Haiti. Bananas





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


for years have been an important food crop in most parts of the Republic.
To be sure, the varieties grown most extensively have not been of the kind
which is suitable for export, but there was every indication that the "Gros
Michel" banana now produced in a small way in Haiti, and which com-
monly is accepted as most satisfactory for export, could be produced in
commercially exportable quantities.
Representatives of the two largest banana-marketing organizations in
this part of the world visited Haiti in the early part of the year under
review. Extensive investigations were carried on by these firms over a
period of months. Other capitalists also showed an interest in growing
and marketing bananas produced in Haiti. The Government demonstrated
its willingness to assist in the establishment of this new industry by appro-
priating Gdes. 500,000 in March, 1933, for beginning irrigation work in the
Artibonite valley. An additional Gdes. 500,000 was made available in May,
and the work of opening up large new areas to cultivation through irriga-
tion was actively pushed throughout the balance of the year.
Unfortunately, after negotiations with the Government already had
commenced, the banking crisis in the United States in March for the time
being put an end to the attempts of one of the two larger organizations to
extend its activities to Haiti. It was reported also that the "Panama dis-
ease" had been found in Haiti, and it was feared at the time that the diffi-
culty of controlling the spread of the disease offered too great a hazard to
the investment of capital. Reports agreed that sufficient areas for large-
scale banana production were suitable; that soil and climatic conditions
were especially favorable; that the abundance and relative cheapness of
labor in Haiti offered advantages over other banana producing countries;
that with government or private assistance areas needing irrigation could
be opened to cultivation at comparatively little cost; and that adequate
interior means of communication, port facilities, and transportation by
steamer to foreign markets already existed. In particular the new steamers
serving Haiti beginning in November, and to which reference already has
been made, were designed expressly for the purpose of carrying bananas,
and wherever a demand existed were available presumably for carrying
fruit to New York from Port-au-Prince, Saint Marc and other ports. Other
steamship lines also indicated their interest in the development of the
banana industry in Haiti.
The fact that negotiations during 1932-33 were not completed conse-
quently was due in the main to only two factors: First, to the banking
crisis in the United States, and attendant freezing of capital; and secondly,
to the fear of "Panama disease" in Haiti. The first factor has since become
of less importance, although foreign capital still appears reluctant to make
new commitments, regardless of advantages offered. This hesitancy of
foreign capital may be considered as temporary; but the early reports as to





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


prevalence of a banana blight in Haiti appeared at the time to offer a serious
obstacle to banana cultivation in Haiti.
In order that the Government might have full information on this subject,
this office made arrangements in May, 1933, to have conditions surveyed
by Dr. James Zetek, Associate Entomologist of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Dr. Zetek visited all of the important banana-produc-
ing sections of Haiti. His report on the prevalence of the Panama disease
was reassuring. While the blight, it is true, is to be found in some localities,
the disease in Haiti is kept from spreading either by the character of the
soils, or by climatic conditions. Dr. Zetek expressed the opinion that
irrigation would not increase the amount of the disease.
The Panama disease is found frequently in countries where bananas are
produced for export. It develops rapidly in heavy black humus soil but
does not spread easily in soils carrying a high percentage of lime, particu-
larly if there is good drainage. Conditions in Haiti are better than in many
other countries where bananas have been grown profitably by the large
producers. Dr. Zetek's report indicates that if proper attention is paid to
preventing the spread of the disease-and in Haiti this is relatively a simple
matter-there is no reason why Haiti cannot produce bananas commercially
and at the same time enjoy more freedom from Panama disease than
almost any other country.
These delays have held up the program of growing and marketing
bananas. Capital, however, had been definitely interested in the possibili-
ties. It has been demonstrated that with proper supervision and organized
marketing bananas can be grown by small producers and sold abroad.
Marketing organizations have been formed, and one group in particular
entered into negotiations with the Government in 1933 with a view to
controlling under contract the production of the region between the Arti-
bonite and Port-au-Prince, and assuring a steady foreign market for the
entire output of the district. It appears to be only a matter of time before
arrangements of this kind will be completed and bananas will supplement
the other resources of the country.

Tariff Modifications
On October 31, 1932, the statistical duty applicable to cottonseed exports
was removed by executive order
Cotton exporters had complained that the export duty of one gourde per
hundred pounds had prevented exportation of their surplus cottonseed
stocks. A large part of the cottonseed accumulations are sold to the do-
mestic lard compound industry. It had been found, however, that the lard
industry had not been able to purchase the entire stock of cottonseed. Low
prices abroad had made it unprofitable to export these surplus stocks. It had
been felt that with the removal of the export duty the surplus stocks would
find their way abroad.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENFRAL RECEIVER


Favored by the removal of duties, merchants in March, 1933, began to
ship large quantities of cottonseed abroad. A total of 1,563,940 kilos was
shipped during March, April, and May, although no cottonseed had been
exported during the previous fiscal year. The lard compound industry
immediately protested that it no longer was able to purchase cottonseed at
prices which would enable it to operate at a profit. As a result the Govern-
ment reconsidered its action in removing the export duty on cottonseed,
and on May 11, 1933, the previous order was abrogated and a duty of Gdes.
11.25 per ton of 1000 kilos was applied to cottonseed exports by executive
order. While the new duty was approximately only half of the original
rate, it was sufficient to protect the lard industry, and no further shipments
of cottonseed were made during the balance of the fiscal year.
Reference already has been made to the suspension for one year of the
export duties on logwood and logwood roots. Shipments of logwood;
formerly among the more valuable export products of Haiti, had fallen off
to such an extent that it had appeared advisable to assist the industry by
exonerating logwood from the export duties. Accordingly, on January 16,
1933, duties on logwood were suspended for the period of one year. This
measure, however, did not give the results expected, and logwood shipments
for the fiscal year 1932-33 exceeded those of the previous year by only
2,044,150 kilos. The former duties on logwood will be restored automati-
cally on January 16, 1934, unless it is decided in the meanwhile to continue
the experiment of endeavoring to encourage logwood exports by removing
the export duties.
An account was given in the last annual report of this office of .the
various tariff modifications put into effect at the end of the fiscal year
1931-32 for the purpose of assisting in balancing the 1932-33 budget.
While these changes affected 22 articles of the .tariff, and in addition
applied a 5 per cent surtax on import duties collected, for the most part the
changes were of relatively little importance from a revenue standpoint.
Exceptions were in the case of the 5 per cent surtax and the increased
duties on flour and matches.
Duties on imported matches had been increased from Gde. 1.00 per gross
kilo to Gdes. 2.00 per gross kilo. Revenues as a result of the new tax
increased from Gdes. 169,062 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 323, 533 in 1932-33.
Duties on wheat flour, as described in the last annual report,* had been
modified by the application of a sliding scale with the duty automatically
being reduced as the price of wheat increased. During the first seven
months of the fiscal year 1932-33 the maximum rate of duty was applicable
to flour because of the low price of wheat. This duty increased by nearly
50 per cent the rate which had been in effect previously. In May, 1933,
wheat prices began to recover and the rate of duty applicable was reduced


*Annual Report of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1931-32 page 23.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


in accordance with the sliding scale of duties from Gdes. 0.25 per not kilo
in April to Gdes. 0.24 per net kilo in May. Wheat prices continued to ad-
vance, and in September, 1933, the rate applicable had been reduced to Gdes.
0.21 per net kilo. The fixed rate prior to September 29, 1932 had been
Gdes. 0.17 per net kilo.
Apparently the increased rate of taxation on flour imports in 1932-33 had
an adverse effect on quantities imported. Only 11,362,903 kilos of flour
were received in 1932-33, compared with 19,941,336 kilos during the
previous year, and an average of 27,710,108 kilos per year during the five
years ending in 1931. Revenues from the import duty on flour declined
from Gdes. 3,387,910 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 2,892,170 in 1932-33, whereas it
had been expected that receipts from this source would increase. While
the reduction in revenues was unexpected, it is probable that the new
duties on flour have been instrumental in increasing the export surplus in
1932-33. Since imports of other foodstuffs did not increase in the latter
year, compared with 1931-32, it appears probable, as already remarked, that
requirements have been filled by increased domestic production of rice,
corn and similar crops, thus reducing payments abroad.
The five per cent surtax on import duties produced new revenue totalling
Gdes. 840,000 in 1932-33. The original budgetary estimates had fixed the
figure of probable new revenue to be obtained from this source at Gdes.
783,000. Increased imports in spite of higher taxation gave better results
from this source than had been expected.
The other tariff modifications which went into effect on September 29,
1932, were of minor importance. Together, they produced a net increase
in import revenues of about Gdes. 15,000 during 1932-33. Imports of
sporting goods, accessories used in the printing industry, macaroni, vermi-
celli, and automobile storage batteries were affected.

Customs Administration
The year was marked by the discovery that apparently over a period of
several years extensive contraband operations had been carried on suc-
cessfully by one of the leading importers of cotton goods in Port-au-Prince.
An inspection of the custom house at Port-au-Prince in February, 1933,
had revealed serious irregularities indicating that through a complicated
system of falsifying shipping documents covering imports, and systemati-
cally under-declaring the weights of the merchandise represented by the
documents, the treasury since 1929 had been defrauded of revenues
amounting to several hundred thousand gourdes. The evidence pointed
also to the implication of the American Collector of Customs at Port-au-
Prince.
The seriousness of the charges made it evident that prosecution of the
case lay without the jurisdiction of the customs administration. According-




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 37

ly, following the accumulation of the initial evidence covering the case,
the Collector was suspended from his duties, and on March 28, 1933, further
action was left with the Haitian government.
Subsequently, this office continued its investigation and made available
to the Government all statistical data and other evidence which had been
gathered having a bearing on the case. Every assistance was given to the
Government to enable it to prosecute the case.
At the present writing all pecuniary claims arising out of the charges
have been settled, the defendants in the case having agreed to pay the
Government a total of Gdes. 552,000. At the end of September, 1933, Gdes.
324,500 already had been paid under this agreement, and had been account-
ed for as miscellaneous customs receipts. The balance is payable in monthly
installments of Gdes. 7,500.
Following discovery of the fraud measures were taken to eliminate any
possibility of a repetition. The personnel of the custom house at Port-au-
Prince was reorganized and Mr. R. A. Farmer, who had been Collector of
Customs at Cap Haitien, was put in charge. Every attention was given to
securing greater efficiency in administration, in the handling of clerical
work, customs auditing, and the examination of merchandise passing
through the custom house. Measures were taken to assure the verification
of imports so as to eliminate the possibility of similar fraud in the future.
At the same time it is desirable, as an additional safeguard, that the law
should be amended to require the inclusion on shipping documents of
details which would facilitate auditing and relieve so far as possible the
dependence which necessarily must be placed on the actual examination of
mercharidise in order to detect under-declaration.

Government Revenues
Total Revenues

A remarkable rise in total government revenues was recorded in 1932-33.
Four consecutive years of declining revenues had carried total receipts to
the low figure of Gdes. 28,023,742.10 in 1931-32, from which revenues
increased to Gdes. 37,305,298.67 in 1932-33. The increase amounted to
Gdes. 9,281,556.57, or 33.12 per cent. Chart No. 4 shows that more than
a third of the previous decline was recovered in 1932-33. Total revenues in
the latter year were greater than in any year of the Receivership with the
exception of the six years ending with 1929-30.
Excellent crops, rising prices, and increased foreign commerce accounted
for the greater part of the gain in government revenues. While new sources
of revenue became productive at the beginning of the fiscal period, it is
estimated that not. more than Gdes. 1,500,000 out of the total increase may
be ascribed to the new taxes. For the most part, therefore, the gain in
government revenues was due to business recovery. As predicted in the




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


last report of this office, the fiscal year 1931-32 in all probability marked
the low point of the depression. Government revenues in Haiti are particu-
larly sensitive to changing business conditions, and the sharp recovery in
1932-33 appears to be indicative of a fundamental change for the better.

Customs Receipts

The import and export tariffs are predominantly the main source of
government revenues. Ordinarily, more than eighty per cent of total
revenues are in the form of customs collections. In 1932-33, customs re-
ceipts amounted to 83.82 per cent of total revenues, compared with 82.39
per cent in 1931-32.
CHART No. 4
TOTAL REVENUE RECEIPTS OF HAITI FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1932-33
MILLIONS OF"
60

30











9011 e M93"4695 073 09000103040060700900o 1 14 15 1 17 18 19 2O tIt 23tS5 26S272 8 23059

Total customs receipts amounted to Gdes. 31,266,223.58 in 1932-33
compared with Gdes. 23,086,587.35 in 1931-32, indicating an increase of
Gdes. 8,179,636.23, or 35.44 per cent.
The tariff on exported commodities yielded Gdes. 13,226,893.15 in 1932-
33 compared with only Gdes. 7,757,230.28 during the previous year. The
record coffee crop, and greater shipments of other principal export com-
modities resulted in nearly doubling the revenue from this source. All
duties on exports are specific, and the increase in revenues from this source
reflects directly the increased quantities of commodities exported.
The import duties yielded Gdes. 17,642,933.59 in revenues in 1932-33
compared with Gdes. 15,279,209.85 in 1931-32. The increase of Gdes.
2,363.723.74 was due partly to increased imports and partly to the new
taxes operative since the beginning of the year. The five per cent surtax on
import duties, and increased duties on flour, matches and various other
imported articles are estimated to have produced a net increase in customs





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


revenues of Gdes. 500,000. The rise in commodity prices towards the end of
the year also accounted for some of the increase in revenues from this
source. Ad valorem duties are applicable to many imported commodities,
and the recovery in prices therefore produced an increase in revenues.
Miscellaneous customs revenues, which consist principally of storage
charges, navigation fees and fines, increased from Gdes. 50,147.22 in 1931-
32 to Gdes. 398,396.84 in 1932-33. This considerable increase in receipts
under this classification was due mainly to collections arising from settle-
ment of pecuniary claims in connection with the extensive contraband
operations discovered during the year to which reference has been made
elsewhere in this report.
The value of all imported articles in 1932-33 reached Gdes. 38,333,943.
Since duties collected on imports during the same period totalled Gdes.
17,642,933.59, the burden of the import tariff amounted to 46.02 per cent.
This compares with 40.96 per cent in 1931-32 and 34.83 per cent in 1930-31.
Manifestly the tariff burden on imports in Haiti is high. The necessity of
balancing the budget and preserving a favorable balance of trade had made
it advisable to increase the tariff on imports. This greater charge has had
the desired effect. Not only has this source of revenue yielded more than
Gdes. 2,000,000 in increased returns, but imports probably were restricted
by the high duties which assisted in bringing about a favorable balance of
trade. However, the increase in import duties was imposed as an emergency
measure. Now that business shows every evidence of recovery and govern-
ment finances are in excellent shape, it should be possible to modify some
of the tariff restrictions on imports provided that revenues are safeguarded
and concessions made in the way of tariff reductions are accompanied by
reciprocal concessions granted by those countries which desire to sell to
Haiti. High duties at present are imposed on the principal .Haitian exports
in the countries where these commodities are marketed. Import quotas,
exchange restrictions and similar devices hinder the free movement of
Haitian commodities abroad. If, by reciprocal trade agreements, Haiti can
obtain a wider market for its products, it would be of great advantage to
the country. Material progress in Haiti will require the importation, in
greater quantity than in the past, of building materials, manufactured
articles of many kinds, textiles, machinery and agricultural implements.
Haiti cannot purchase these needed supplies unless it can sell freely abroad
its coffee, sugar, rum, pineapples, cotton and other products which at present
have a limited market. If foreign countries are willing to lower their tariff
restrictions on these and other commodities, Haiti can well afford to reduce
the tariff burden on the importation of those articles which it needs and
buys abroad.
* More difficult of solution is the problem of reducing, and eventually
removing, the burden which Haiti imposes on its own export trade through
the levying of export duties. These taxes have existed for years; This





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


office again and again has pointed out that they are economically undesir-
able, and should be replaced by internal revenues. The Government has
recognized that export taxes are undesirable; yet in recent years the public
has been unwilling to accept the only other alternative, namely the im-
position of suitable internal revenue taxes, and in particular, increasing the
excise on alcohol and tobacco.
To be sure, considerable progress had been made in the years prior to
1931. Expert advice was obtained, laws were drafted and enacted, an
efficient internal revenue organization was created and built up. Internal
revenues were increased from less than a million gourdes per year prior to
1918-19 to nearly seven million gourdes in 1929-30. Distillers, tobacco
growers, tobacco manufacturers and consumers alike had become ac-
customed to the new taxes.
The work done in the period from 1926 to 1931, however, was interrupt-
ed by the enactment of the Excise Law of August 5, 1931, changing the
basis of collecting the excise on alcohol and cutting in half the revenue
derived from alcohol and tobacco. The new law discriminated against the
small distiller; it provided no adequate means of enforcement; it exempted
raw-leaf tobacco from paying any tax and thus encouraged contraband.
The excise law offered almost nothing of advantage from any point of view.
All elements since its enactment apparently have recognized its deficiencies
and ineffectualness. Yet for more than two years, during a period when
there was urgent need for increasing revenues, it has remained on the
statute books and all efforts to amend it or enact new legislation have
failed.
While the effects of this measure have been unfortunate, they undoubted-
ly can be remedied if suitable legislation is enacted. Various projects of
law have been prepared. This office has collaborated in the preparation of
a law making it possible to control more effectively the production of raw-
leaf tobacco. It has also proposed a reduction in the duties on imported
cigarettes and cigars. On cigars, in particular, the present duty is so high
that very few cigars are legally imported. The domestic tobacco industry,
moreover, has not been equipped to produce satisfactory cigars, and the
high taxes heretofore have had no effect in protecting the local industry.
The import trade and the Government both have lost. The alcohol law
should be completely revised, or preferably, the Excise Law of August 14,
1928, should be re-enacted, and alcohol, as before, should be taxed on the
actual quantity produced rather than on the capacity of the stills to produce.
Tobacco and alcohol furnish the governments of other countries with
a natural and profitable source of revenue. As in other countries, tobacco
and alcohol in Haiti are important items of domestic consumption and the
incidence of the taxes can be spread over a large part of the population.
An excise is relatively easy to apply. Little objection ordinarily is made by
consumers, and the nature of the tax is such that if properly administered,





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


and the tax is not too high, it is not directly felt either by the producer
or the consumer. Yet revenues from alcohol and tobacco in 1932-33 reached
only a million gourdes, or about Gdes. 0.40 per capital.
Meanwhile, with internal revenues failing to give their proper yield, the
export tariff continues to burden exporters and producers of exportable
commodities. On exports valued at Gdes. 46,650,366 in 1932-33 a total of
Gdes. 13,226,893.15 were collected in the form of duties. Expressed as a
percentage, the burden of the export duties amounted to 28.35 per cent in
1932-33, compared with 21.48 per cent in 1931-32 and 19.68 per cent in
1930-31. The increased burden in 1932-33 was due chiefly to lower prices
for coffee during most of the year. The export duties are specific, and
as prices decline the amount of duty collected represents a greater share
of the value of the commodity exported.
To be sure, some progress has been made in reducing or removing this
form of taxation. Mention has been made of the removal of the duties on
logwood in January, 1933, and of the experiment in removing duties on
cottonseed exports. Cacao and coffee had previously benefited from reduc-
tions in the export duties in connection with the application of standardi-
zation, and the export duties formerly applied to a number of minor prod-
ucts had been removed. But the greater part of the Haitian export trade
still is subject to this direct levy amounting in 1932-33 to nearly 29 per
cent of the F. O. B. value of commodities exported. With the import trade
already giving its maximum yield, it is evident that the excise and other
internal taxes offer the only possibility of replacing revenues now provided
by the export tariff.

Internal Revenue Receipts*
Except for the increased revenues produced by the new gasoline and salt
taxes, and by the revised income and stamp taxes, there was relatively
little change in the yield of the internal revenue taxes in 1932-33 compared
with the previous year.
Total internal revenue receipts reached Gdes. 4,991,322.16 in 1932-33
compared with Gdes. 3,930,906.29 in 1931-32. The increase amounted to
Gdes. 1,060,415.87, or 27.21 per cent.
The new gasoline and salt taxes, which went into effect at the beginning
of the year, yielded Gdes. 574,516.23 and Gdes. 132,888.98 respectively.
Under the revised income tax law, revenues from this source increased by
Gdes. 171,070.42 in 1932-33. The revised stamp tax law accounted for an
increase of Gdes. 100,963.50 during the same year, compared with 1931-32.
Together, these four sources of revenue accounted for Gdes. 979,439.13 of
the net increase of Gdes. 1,060,415.87 in internal revenues under all cate-
gories.

*A more detailed discussion of internal revenue receipts will be found in the report of the Director
General of Internal Revenue annexed to this report.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The new gasoline tax of Gdes. 0.25 per gallon proved to be particularly
successful as a revenue producer. Administration was made easy through
the fact that the tax is collected at the time the gasoline is imported. Stocks
of gasoline in the hands of dealers at the time the tax become effective
were gauged and the tax applied. The new tax, combined with the present
import duty and surtax of Gdes. 0.2625 per gallon, resulted in a total levy
of Gdes. 0.5125 per gallon of gasoline imported, and the retail price natur-
ally advanced. Nevertheless, the tax was easily absorbed and no serious
opposition to it developed. There appeared to be no diminution of im-
portance in the use of motor vehicles. Imports of automobiles and trucks
increased during the year. Motor vehicle registrations were reported to
have numbered 2444 in 1932-33 compared ith 2480 in the previous year.
The salt tax yielded somewhat less than original estimates, and the cost
of collection was found to be high relative to returns. The tax of Gdes. 1.50
per 100 kilos is collected at the time of importation, or at the time of sale
by the manufacturer in the case of salt produced locally. Most of the salt
consumed in Haiti is produced at various salt marshes located at scattered
points along the coast. Some of these salt marshes are not easily accessible
and it was found necessary to construct three sailboats for the use of tax
collectors. This expenditure added considerably to the cost of collection
during the first year's operation of the tax, but with this original outlay
already provided, the tax in the future should give good returns.
The alcohol taxes yielded Gdes. 652,965.03 in 1932-33 compared with
Gdes. 556,130.63 in 1931-32. In large part, the increase was due to payment
in 1932-33 of taxes postponed from the previous year. There is little
probability that the alcohol taxes will be much more productive of revenues
so long as the existing legislation remains in effect.
With the taxes based on capacity to produce, rather than quantities of
alcohol produced, it is unlikely that increased domestic consumption will
be accompanied by greater revenue returns. Stills already in operation are
able to produce much more alcohol than the quantity required to supply
any increased domestic demand which might result from continued im-
provement in conditions.
Of course, there remains the possibility that with the repeal of prohibi-
tion in the United States domestic distillers may find a market for Haitian
rum abroad. Excellent rum is being produced in Haiti, but under many
different brands and with much variation as to quality. With the immense
market offered by the United States it is necessary that sufficient quantities
of the brands sold for export should be available so that the reputation of
the product may be firmly established. Uniformity as to quality and
sufficient stocks to supply a considerable demand are essential. With aging
an important item in the production of a liquor suitable for export, the
distiller must have considerable capital at his command to enable him to






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


carry large inventories. Shipping and marketing rum abroad offer problems
with which distillers in Haiti have had no experience.
Probably not more than two or three distilleries in Haiti today can fill
these requirements well enough to be considered as potential producers of
rum for export. No rum has been shipped from Haiti in commercial
quantities for many years..
Quotas applied to liquor imports into the United States may offer diffi-
culties, although at the present time there appears to be no reason why
an appropriate trade agreement with the United States could not be
arranged. An appreciable rise in the price of sugar might further delay
the establishment of a Haitian rum-exporting industry since leading
producers may find it more profitable to convert their cane syrup into sugar
rather than into rum. But the sugar industry is handicapped by world
over-production and the uneconomic protection given beet sugar in many
countries.
In spite of the numerous obstacles, there is reason to believe that distillers
in Haiti may benefit from the repeal of prohibition in the United States.
Whether or not sufficient capital is available will be the controlling factor.
Success in marketing rum abroad would benefit Haiti immensely. The
exportation of rum in large quantities would increase the number of profit-
able business enterprises in the country; it would help diversify exports
and relieve the dependence of the country on coffee; it would increase
government revenues; and finally, it might help solve the present diffi-
culties of the small distiller.
Much of the alcohol sold in Haiti still is produced by crude distilling
apparatus, operated intermittently, and turning out low grades of liquor at
relatively high costs. Approximately 1,100 stills of this nature existed
in 1928. Many of them are simple pot stills, inefficiently operated and of
very limited capacity. The non-existence of roads in many parts of Haiti
until recent years had favored the small distiller, who had a virtual mo-
nopoly in supplying rum, clairin and tafia to the inhabitants of the limited
region within easy communication of his distillery. The small farmer had
no other market for his sugar cane. The small distiller prospered under
these conditions. With the advent of new roads and motor transportation
the small distiller has found that he must compete with modern continuous
stills, efficiently operated, and producing large quantities of superior grades
of alcohol. The Excise Law of August 14, 1928, sought to assist the small
distiller by taxing alcohol distilled from cane syrup at a lower rate than
alcohol distilled from other substances. The product of all the small
distilleries is derived from syrup extracted from sugar cane by various
crude processes giving a low percentage of yield from the cane. Horses
or oxen usually provide the motive power for operating the mill. The
larger stills, however, can utilize molasses obtained as a by-product in the
manufacture of sugar. In spite of the tax discrimination against the large






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


producers, the small distillers continued to lose ground. Lessened demand
for alcohol during the past four years aggravated the situation. The small
distillers, being politically articulate, began to agitate the repeal of the
Excise Law of 1928. These attempts to secure further advantages over the
large distiller resulted in the enactment of the Excise Law of August 5,
1931, which, while ostensibly conferring advantages on the small distiller
actually put him under a further handicap. This law changed the basis of
the tax from a tax on the actual quantity of alcohol produced to a tax on
the capacity of the distilling apparatus. The new law has proved to be a
defective piece of legislation, as this office pointed out at the time it was
enacted. As we have seen, the revenue yield to the Government has been
greatly reduced. At the same time the small distiller has obtained no relief.
Modern stills, operated continuously at their maximum output and under
scientific control, will maintain their great advantage over intermittently
operated stills, even though the law exempts distillers from paying the tax
when their stills are not operating.
Temporarily, at least, the small distiller may find some relief if it is found
that rum can be sold abroad in large enough quantities, in which case the
larger units in the industry would dispose of their stocks in the foreign
markets, leaving the domestic market largely in the hands of the small
producer. In this way the small producer again might enjoy some prosper-
ity. But inevitably the time will come when, as output increases, alcohol
efficiently produced again will displace the product of the small distiller,
and again there will be a demand for further legislative protection.
Until now this class of the industry has done little to protect itself by
forming combinations and modernizing equipment. Yet the true solution
of present difficulties lies not in ever-increasing legislative protection, which
seeks to overcome a fundamental economic law, but in combining the small
units into larger units able to compete with the leaders of the industry on
an equal basis. Further tax discrimination against an efficient and growing
industry to protect the inefficient and obsolete units of the same industry
is economically indefensible. This fact must be recognized if rum is to
become an important item on the export list and if alcohol production is to
provide its fair share of government revenues. This mistaken policy has
hindered the natural development of a growing industry, and now that an
opportunity may be offered to dispose of rum abroad, it is questionable if
more than two or three units of the industry are strong enough to enter the
new market successfully.
The tobacco industry also has failed to thrive under existing legislation
and adverse economic conditions.
The taxes on cigars, cigarettes and manufactured tobacco yielded Gdes.
1,090,411.74 in 1929-30. In 1932-33 the modified taxes provided in the
Excise Law of August 5, 1931, yielded only Gdes. 484,063.96. During the
previous year the taxes returned Gdes. 621,945.64 to the treasury.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Manufactured tobacco alone in 1929-30 yielded Gdes. 672,441.56 in re-
venues. In 1931-32 the yield from this source had declined to Gdes.
174,957.51, and in 1932-33 to Gdes. 90,037.81.
Obviously, so extensive a decline in revenues has not been due to eco-
nomic conditions alone. In large part the loss in revenue has been due to
defective provisions carried in the Excise Law of August 5, 1931. By
exempting all raw-leaf tobacco (under the previous excise law only tobacco
in the possession of the grower was exempt) the consumption of tobacco
in this form has increased at the expense of the taxable manufactured
variety. Then too, the new law carries inadequate provisions for enforce-
ment, and tax evasion and contraband have been a serious problem. The
Internal Revenue Service has done what it could under its present autho-
rity, but until the law is changed, tobacco will continue to provide only a
fraction of what it should in the way of revenues.
There was little change in the yield of other internal revenue taxes in
1932-33, compared with 1931-32, with the exception of rentals on state
lands. The yield from this source increased from Gdes. 278,661.66 in 1931-
32 to Gdes. 369,430.98 in 1932-33, establishing a new high record. With
the exception of a period in 1930 when revenues from state lands fell off
sharply as a result of political agitation, government income from rentals
has increased steadily since the organization of the Internal Revenue Ser-
vice. The gradual restoration of land to the cadastre and increased efficien-
cy in tax collecting have resulted in an upward trend in revenues from this
source.
The irrigation tax in 1932-33 continued to return to the Government only
a small fraction of the cost of maintaining government irrigation systems.
Receipts were Gdes. 15,883.52 in 1932-33 and Gdes. 14,297.83 in 1931-32.
The annual cost of maintaining these systems has been nearly Gdes.
100,000 per year. Moreover, the Government is continuing to spend large
sums for further irrigation, conferring great benefits upon a relatively
small group of the population at the expense of taxpayers as a whole. It is
only just and equitable that those who use government irrigation should at
least pay for the expense of upkeep. One of the most pressing needs of the
Government today is an adequate irrigation tax. A project revising the
existing law, and aimed to correct the present situation, is at present being
considered by the Government. It is greatly to be hoped that a suitable
law soon will be enacted.

Miscellaneous Receipts
Revenues classified as miscellaneous receipts include chiefly interest on
investments in government bonds, interest on treasury deposits, interest on
franc funds on deposit to cover redemption of outstanding bonds of the
1910 loan, repayments of loans to communes and funds reverting to the
treasury through prescription of unpaid checks.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Total receipts under this category in 1932-33 amounted to Gdes. 902,079.84
compared with Gdes. 1,006,248.46 in 1931-32, indicating a decline in mis-
cellaneous receipts of Gdes. 104,168.62, or 10.35 per cent.
Most of this drop in receipts was due to smaller interest returns in
1932-33. Interest on investments and deposits totalled Gdes. 658,732.50
in 1932-33 as compared with Gdes. 757,855.55 in 1931-32. The decline of
nearly Gdes. 100,000 from this source was due principally to the lower
interest rates on government deposits which prevailed during 1932-33.
The average rate of interest paid on the time account of the Government
was 1.65 per cent in 1931-32. During 1932-33 the average rate declined to
0.91 per cent. Similarly, the interest paid on the sight account of the
Government in New York funds dropped from an average of 0.79 per cent
in 1932-33 to 0.35 per cent in 1931-32. No interest at all is paid on govern-
ment funds in gourdes, in accordance with the provisions of the contract
between the Government and the Banque Nationale de la Republique
d'Haiti. However, the treasury always has received the prevailing New
York rate on its dollar funds on deposit in the time account. On its dollar
sight account it received interest until July, 1933. Beginning with the latter
month no further interest was paid on this account since banks in the
United States were forbidden by law to pay interest on demand deposits.
Every effort was made during the year to keep surplus funds as far as
possible in interest-bearing accounts. Unless rates increase, government
income in the form of interest will continue lower than in the past.
Interest received on francs on deposit to cover redemption of outstanding
bonds of the 1910 loan increased from Gdes. 222,450.15 in 1931-32 to Gdes.
229,884.70 in 1932-33. Income from this source had been steadily declining
in terms of francs due to the fact that more and more bonds of this issue
are being presented for redemption each year. However, interest accruals
in 1932-33 in terms of gourdes increased appreciably due to the fact that
accruals during the last five months of the fiscal year were converted into
dollars at favorable rates of exchange.
Many holders of outstanding bonds of the 1910 loan presented their
securities for redemption during 1932-33. Although only eight bonds had
been redeemed in 1930-31, 4498 bonds were redeemed in 1931-32, and in
1932-33 redemptions had increased to 9248 bonds. As a result of these re-
\',.demptions, the balance in the redemption account was reduced from
43,210,150.67 francs on September 30, 1932, to 38,574,590.67 francs on
September 30, 1933.
Although the 1910 loan has been called for redemption, and funds are
on deposit for retirement of all outstanding bonds, many bondholders have
failed to present their bonds for payment. Apparently these bondholders
hitherto believed that eventually the Haitian government would redeem
the bonds at the gold value of the franc notwithstanding the fact that
neither the bonds nor the bond contract provide for payment in gold





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


francs. In view of the large number of redemptions in 1932-33, it appears
that holders of these bonds at last are beginning to realize the futility of
demanding payment of a premium on the face value of their securities.

Receipts from Communes
By an executive order dated October 13, 1932, the Internal Revenue
Service was charged with collection of communal taxes in all communes
of the second class. The same order provided that the communal councils
of communes of the first class might request the Internal Revenue Service
to collect the taxes of their respective communes.
To defray the cost of collecting these taxes it was provided that the
Internal Revenue Service should retain fifteen per cent of all amounts
collected as an addition to its operating fund. During the year a total of
Gdes. 145,673.09 accrued to the operating fund of the Internal Revenue
Service in this way, and has been accounted for under 'a separate classifica-
tion along with other government receipts. This amount, therefore, appears
as a new item among the various categories of receipts. Strictly speaking,
these receipts should not be classified as government revenues. They consti-
tute simply a service charge contributed by communes to defray the ex-
penses of that part of the Internal Revenue Service charged with the
collection of communal taxes. Since, however, the Internal Revenue Service
operates as a part of the Haitian government, it has been felt best to
classify these accruals, for sake of clarity, under government receipts.
This new function of the Internal Revenue Service has been carried out
with complete success. Collection of taxes in communes of the second class
began in November, 1932. In many of these communes tax receipts in-
creased by more than 100 per cent. During the course of the year the
activities of the Internal Revenue Service in the collection of these taxes
were extended to a number of the communes of the first class. At the end
of the fiscal year, the communal councils of all communes with the excep-
tion of Port-au-Prince had requested that collection of taxes should be
administered by the Internal Revenue Service.
During 1932-33 a total of Gdes. 1,046,977.48 in taxes was received in
those communes where collection had been undertaken by the Internal
Revenue Service. Only Gdes. 573,918.47 had been collected in the same
communes during the previous year. This record is remarkable considering
that this new service did not begin until November, 18*, and that in manyff7JA
of the communes whose receipts are included in the above total collection
was not undertaken by the Internal Revenue Service until toward the end
of the fiscal year. Thus, in the commune of Cap Haitien, collection was
not undertaken until the month of September, 1933.
The report of Mr. J. C. Craddock, Director General of Internal Revenue,
which is annexed to this report, give a detailed account of the work of
his organization in collecting these taxes. The organization under Mr.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Craddock has accomplished remarkable results in a very short space of;
time. This successful venture into an entirely new field of activity gives
further and convincing evidence of the increasing confidence which has
developed in the administration of tax-collecting by the Internal Revenue
Service. During the years immediately following the organization of that
Service taxpayers were openly distrustful of its purposes. The collection of
excise taxes was an innovation in Haiti. Many taxes were provided for in
the fiscal laws, but little determined effort had been made to collect them.
Total tax receipts for years prior to 1918 had averaged less than Gdes.
700,000 each year. Receipts rose quickly to over four million gourdes with
the organization of the Internal Revenue Service in 1924, and with the
addition of the excise they exceeded six million gourdes in 1928-29 and
1929-30. While they have since declined, for reasons already given, they
still constitute between thirteen and fourteen per cent of the total income
of the Government. Taxes today on the whole are paid willingly, and the
record with regard to wilful tax evasion and contraband is no worse than in
other countries.
With this excellent record in regard to the collection of government
taxes, it is not surprising that the governments of the various communes
have turned to the Internal Revenue Service in order to improve their own
finances. The indifference of taxpayers to their obligations as citizens,
which for years had interfered with the collection of government taxes,
also, up to last year, had prevented the communal taxes from giving their
full yield. The accomplishments of the past year are only a beginning of
the expected results. There is no reason why these taxes, as in the case of
government taxes, should not give several times their yield in the past.

Government Expenditures
With total revenues reaching Gdes. 37,305,298.67 in 1932-33, expenditures
from revenue totalled Gdes. 33,258,808.08, leaving a surplus at the end
of the year of Gdes. 4,046,490.59.
The figure for total expenditures includes Gdes. 1,620,405.40 disbursed
during the year from extraordinary appropriations, most of which were for
irrigation, drainage, repairs to bridges, and road construction.
The surplus recorded in 1932-33 was the largest of any year since the
establishment of the Receivership with the exception of 1919-20, 1920-21,
1925-26, and 1927-28.
Deficits had been recorded in each of the four years prior to 1932-33,
with the largest in 1931-32 when expenditures from revenues exceeded
revenue receipts by Gdes. 4,864,369.90. Expenditures had been repeatedly
curtailed in each of these four years, but economies effected had been
insufficient to overcome the rapid decline in revenues.
Difficulties causing delays in effecting needed economies through the
years of declining receipts had given rise to apprehension that failure to





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


bring expenditures in line with receipts might deplete treasury reserves
beyond the safety point. The large surplus of 1932-33 gives ample as-
surance that expenditures at last have been brought under full control.
Funds allocated for expenditure during 1932-33 totalled Gdes.
35,008,497.08. These allocations may be classified as follows:
Gourdes
Ordinary budgetary appropriations.................... 31,364,533.80
Supplementary appropriations ............................ 195,058.52
Extraordinary appropriations ............................ 2,911,947.42
Supplementary accruals to operating funds of the
office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver
and Internal Revenue Service........................ 536,957.34
Total .......................................................... 35,008,497.08
The amount representing ordinary budgetary appropriations is a net
figure, after adjusting for economies effected through salary reductions
and consolidation of two government printing offices.
Supplementary appropriations, totalling Gdes. 195,058.50, represent ad-
ditions to existing budgetary credits. These appropriations are created by
law. The credits in the prorogued budget of 1931-32 were found to be
insufficient to cover full payment of supplementary amounts due members
of the Legislative Body and payment of amounts due to various internation-
al institutions. The figure given above represents principally appropriations
established for the payment of these obligations.
Extraordinary appropriations are created by law, or by executive order at
times when the Legislative Body is not in session. Funds may be disbursed
from such appropriations during a period of two years following the dates
on which the appropriations are opened. At the beginning of the fiscal
year 1932-33 a total of Gdes. 199,478.38 in the form of extraordinary appro-
priations still remained available for expenditure. To this figure was
added during the course of the year a total of Gdes. 2,911,947.42, making
the sum of Gdes. 3,111,425.80 which could be drawn on during the year.
Of the latter figure, Gdes. 2,271,791.43 represent sums which were made
available to the Public Works Administration for use in carrying out many
different public works projects in various parts of the Republic. Of the
total amount allocated for public works, Gdes. 1,130,397.84 were disbursed
during the year, leaving the balance available for expenditure in 1933-34.
At the end of September, 1933, the sum of Gdes. 1,291,542.02 remained
available for expenditure from extraordinary appropriations opened in
favor of various departments of the Government. All except Gdes.
123,309.66 of this amount was available for public works.
Appropriations are carried in the annual budgets showing estimated
amounts accruing to the operating funds of the office of the Financial
Adviser and of the Internal Revenue Service. Since the amounts expendible
by these services are fixed percentages of revenues collected, an adjustment
has to be made at the end of each year, when the figures for revenues





50 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

actually received are ascertained. With the increase in revenues in 1933-34,
the availabilities of these two services increased proportionally. The amount
of this increase over and above the original budgetary appropriations is
carried in the table above. Of this figure (Gdes. 536,957.34), Gdes.
145,673.09 represent the amount retained by the Internal Revenue Service
from communal revenues for defraying the cost of collecting communal
taxes. An account of this new function of the Internal Revenue Service
has already been given.
Funds in non-revenue accounts totalled Gdes. 585,075.76 as of September
30, 1933, compared with Gdes. 811,975.60 on the same date in 1932. Net
disbursements from these accounts during the year therefore amounted to
Gdes. 292,523.82, after allowing for the addition of Gdes. 65,623.98 in the
form of several small appropriations. These included a revolving fund of
Gdes. 25,000 for a model housing development at Port-au-Prince. The
capital thus contributed by the Government is to be reimbursed eventually
through the collection of rentals collected on houses to be built by the
Public Works Administration.
While expenditures from revenues increased from Gdes. 32,888,112.00
in 1931-32 to Gdes. 33,258,808.08 in 1932-33, the addition of non-revenue
expenditures to these figures in both years reveals a decline in total dis-
bursements in 1932-33 of Gdes. 417,841.87. The respective totals were Gdes.
33,969,173.77 in 1931-32 and Gdes. 33,551,331.90 in 1932-33.
It will be recalled that in September, 1932, the sum of Gdes. 1,050,000
was disbursed in settlement of the P. C S. Railroad controversy. Moreover,
there had been spent during 1931-32 a total of Gdes. 836,091.06 for road
construction from the proceeds of the Series A loan. The latter amount
was accounted for as a "non-revenue" expenditure. Largely because of
these two items, the above reduction in total disbursements in 1932-33 was
recorded notwithstanding the considerable amounts expended from revenue
receipts in 1932-33 for public works.
The accounting system of the Treasury permits a detailed analysis of
government disbursements classified by objects of expenditure.
Administration and operation costs comprised 61.08 per cent of total
disbursements in 1932-33 compared with 59.93 per cent in 1931-32. The
respective figures were Gdes. 20,494,400.62 and Gdes. 20,354,014.95. On the
other hand, expenditures under repairs and maintenance, acquisition of
property, and fixed charges declined in amount' in 1932-33. Together,
disbursements under these three classifications comprised 38.23 per cent
of total expenditures in 1932-33, as against 39.40 per cent in 1931-32.
Subdividing administration and operation costs, we find that Gdes.
15,801,282.16 were paid out in the form of salaries and wages during 1932-
33. The corresponding figure for.the previous year was Gdes. 15,914,911.84,
indicating a reduction in disbursements under this heading of Gdes.
113,629.68. Less money was expended in 1932-33 under "special and miscel-






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


laneous" as well as under "communication service". Payments for supplies
and materials, however, increased from Gdes. 2,862,201.32 in 1931-32 to
Gdes. 3,086,397.59 in 1932-33. Transportation costs increased by Gdes.
94,224.41, and payments for rentals by Gdes. 16,999.98.

Expenditures for Public Works
The special interest which attaches to the government program for the
expenditure of surplus revenues for public works warrants the inclusion
in this report of further details. During the course of the past year the
following amounts were appropriated for various public works projects:
Gourdes
Irrigation and drainage in the Artibonite valley.... 1,000,000.00
Drainage in the Quartier Morin plain.................. 228,000.00
Construction of a road from Fonds Verrettes to
Saltrou ............................................................ 200,000.00
Construction of a road from Bainet to Carrefour
Fauche (Jacmel)................................................ 180,000.00
Other road construction...... ... .............................. 30,000.00
Repairs to various bridges.................................. 237,500.00
Drainage in the Cul-de-Sac plain........................ 30,000.00
Construction of school buildings, and other public
buildings, and repairs to public buildings............ 283,770.82
Loan to the Commune of Cayes for installation of
an electric light plant...................................... 110,000.00
Repairs to the wharf at Jacmel, etc....................... 35,000.00
2,334,270.82
Other appropriations for constructive purposes, improvements in equip-
ment, agricultural development and kindred projects totalled Gdes.
208,587.86. These projects include Gdes. 57,500 for the extension of ex-
periments in cultivating long-fibre cotton, Gdes. 30,750 for promoting the
sale of coffee in Europe, and Gdes. 50,000 tor various urgent requirements
of the Public Health Service.
The most important of the above appropriations is the item of Gdes.
1,000,000 for irrigation and drainage in the Artibonite valley. Of the total
amount appropriated, slightly more than one-half had been expended by
the end of September, 1933. The work has been pushed rapidly, and it is
believed that before long a large area on the left bank of the Artibonite
river between the town of Verrettes and the bridge where the Saint Marc-
Gonaives road crosses the river (Pont Sond6) will be opened to cultivation.
The region is particularly suited to growing cotton and bananas although
other export and food crops can be produced there. It appears certain that
the productivity of the region will be greatly increased by the work at
present under way.
The Artibonite is the largest river in Haiti. It runs between almost
perpendicular banks through a fertile but insufficiently watered plain.
In years of exceptionally heavy rains the river overflows, sometimes with
disastrous results. At the same time these inundations saturate otherwise
arid regions and bring good crops of cotton, rice, bananas, beans and other
products to the inhabitants of the district.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Irrigation, drainage, and the control of flood waters always have pre-
sented difficulties to the people of the Artibonite valley. In colonial times
the French constructed an elaborate network of canals, permitting the
water of the river in time of flood to run under control over the surface
of the land. This plan was only an expedient. It was useful only at ir-
regular intervals, usually every two or three years, when the water of the
river rose to the top of its banks. The problem of irrigating the land in
time of low water remained. French engineers as long ago as 1786 en-
deavored to utilize the water of the river for irrigation by installing a large
pump to draw the water to the level of the plain. This pump is said to
have had sufficient capacity to irrigate 8,000 carreaux of land. Apparently
this engineering feat was partially successful and the pump functioned for
several years.
Even with modern engineering the problem of irrigating the plain is
difficult and execution of most plans would be costly. A system of pumps
has been considered. The cost of operation appears to be too high for the
small farmers who would benefit from them. Some of the old French
irrigation canals were restored with funds appropriated in March, 1932.
This method remains an expedient. A large dam across the valley was
projected some years ago. This would be the ideal system, but capital to
finance so elaborate a project could not be obtained. Such an undertaking
cannot be considered today, as the prospect of obtaining sufficient capital
is still remote.
Another plan calls for the construction of comparatively small diversion
dams in the upper part of the valley. From these dams canals and con-
necting laterals would draw water for irrigation, and ditches would assure
adequate drainage. This plan is particularly suitable under present condi-
tions. It permits the work to be carried on in sections, with separate
systems providing the irrigation for each section. The work can be un-
dertaken by government engineers, one section at a time, and as funds
become available. Completion of any one section should produce immediate
results in opening land to cultivation.
The appropriation of Gdes. 1,000,000 during 1932-33 was for the com-
pletion of the first section which it is proposed to irrigate in this way.
Eventually, it is hoped that as funds become available additional sections
will be added to the Verrettes Pont Sond6 project, which alone is expect-
ed to open up nearly 4,000 hectares of fertile land. It is planned to irrigate
first the land on the left bank of the river, following which an additional
area will be irrigated on the right bank.
Drainage will be an essential part of the completed project. In some
parts of the Artibonite valley, as in the Cul-de-Sac plain, the ground water
carries minerals which, if the water table is allowed to rise and impregnate
the surface soil, destroy plant life and render the land valueless. In the
Cul-de-Sac the work of draining a large area of land and freeing it of salt






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


deposits was continued during 1932-33 and the sum of Gdes. 30,000 was
appropriated for this purpose in addition to the Gdes. 180,000 made avail-
able the previous year. Fhe Cul-de- Sac drainage project has reclaimed
some 1475 hectares of land which otherwise would be useless, and has
conferred a great benefit upon the inhabitants of the region. Many new
houses are being erected as once abandoned lands are brought again under
cultivation.
Large areas in the Cul-de-Sac plain still are in need of drainage, and it
is hoped that this work can be extended in the near future.
Reference has been made to the appropriation of Gdes. 57,500 during
1932-33 for the extension of experiments in the cultivation of long-fibre
cotton. While this expenditure is relatively small, it is believed that the
results will be particularly beneficial Experiments have been conducted
for some years aiming toward the commercial production of this especially
fine quality of cotton. Small quantities of long-fibre cotton produced on
the government experimental farms already have been shipped to England.
The samples submitted were well received by the cotton trade and found
to be suitable for spinning. A high price for the cotton is assured if regular
shipments can be made and in sufficient quantities. The above appropriation
of Gdes. 57,500 was to increase the area planted to this cotton by adding
to the present farms at Hatte Lathan and Hinche, and extending experi-
mental cotton cultivation to Ile A Vache. The cotton experiments on Ile
a Vache are expected to be particularly valuable since the cotton formerly
growing on the island has been eliminated and the new plants will be
protected from cross pollenization. With the addition of these plantings
the experimental farms eventually will be assured of an annual total
production of about 1,000 bales, or enough to enable shipments to be made
regularly in commercial quantities.
A detailed analysis of expenditures by government departments and
services is not within the scope of this report. However, in the case of the
Customs Service and the Internal Revenue Service, the usual analysis of
expenditures provided in previous annual reports of this office is given in
the two sections which follow.
Customs Service
By the provisions of Article VI of the Treaty of September 16, 1915, the
expenditures of the Customs Service are paid from a fund consisting of
five per cent of customs revenues.
Customs receipts were favored by the rise in foreign trade during 1932-
33 with the result that accruals to the five per cent operating fund in that
year reached Gdes. 1,563,311.18, or more than in any previous fiscal period
since 1928-29. Accruals in 1931-32 amounted to Gdes. 1,154,329.37 and in
1930-31 to Gdes. 1,278,139.20.
The increase in the operating allowance was particularly timely in view
of the fact that only enforced retrenchment over a period of four years,







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


with greatly curtailed expenditures for personnel and general administra-
tive costs, had made it possible to continue operations under the greatly
restricted allowance. At the same time, avoidable disbursements for main-
tenance and similar expenditures had been deferred as long as possible.
With the increase in accruals to the operating fund in 1932-33 the organiza-
tion at last was able to finance needed purchases of new equipment and
supplies, and at the same time strengthen the personnel to the extent
required by the gain in foreign commerce with its accompanying greater
demands on the customs administration.
Nevertheless, the many economies which had been put into effect during
the period of declining revenues for the most part remained in force during
1932-33. While expenditures increased during the latter year, the increase
was due entirely to greater disbursements of a capital nature such as
replacement of automotive equipment, a new port boat, repairs to customs
property, and the acquisition of supplies and new property.
Moreover, the rise in the operating fund permitted the Customs Service
to contribute payment of the entire amount of Gdes. 312,662.24 due to the
Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti during 1932-33 as its com-
mission of one per cent of customs receipts for treasury service. This
commission is an annual obligation of the Government, but whenever
possible it is paid from the five per cent fund of the Customs Service.
Total expenditures reached Gdes. 1,415,531.12 in 1932-33, as against
accruals to the operating fund of Gdes. 1,563,311.18. Thus, after deducting
the full bank commission, a surplus of Gdes. 147,780.06 was left at the end
of the year.
The total increase in expenditures in 1932-33, compared with the previ-
ous year, amounted to Gdes. 257,073.35. Of this figure, Gdes. 133,363.10
represented the increased contribution towards payment of the bank
commission. Deducting, for sake of comparison, the figures representing
payment of the bank commission in both years, the actual increase in the
cost of the customs service amounted only to Gdes. 77,774.21, or 7.58 per
cent. Considering that during the same period customs receipts increased
by 35.44 per cent, the fact that costs increased by so little is worthy of note.
An analysis of costs reveals that the increase of Gdes. 77,774.21 in
expenditures was due to increased disbursements under the following
classifications: Increase 1932-3 Percentage
over 1931-32 increase
Gourdes Per cent
Salaries and wages.......................... 4,953.14* 0.5*
Supplies and materials.................... 7,057.21 19.0
Transportation ................................ 48,831.67 54.4
Communication ............................... 2,096.20 131.5
Rents .............................................. 38.75 1.2
Special & miscellaneous................... 4,442.69 812.0
Repairs & maintenance...................... 3,774.27 18.4
Acquisition of property.................... 16,486.56 128.4
77,774.21
*Decrease





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


From the above table it is at once apparent that the increase in expendi-
tures was due very largely to capital expenditures classified under "trans-
portation" and "acquisition of property". The increase in availabilities
made it possible to replace used automobiles with new equipment. The
cost of building a new customs launch also accounted for part of the in-
creased disbursements under "transportation". This launch was built to
replace one formerly used by the Customs Service at Port-au-Prince. The
new boat was put into service near the close of the year under review. It
was constructed in the shops of the Coast Guard Service under the direction
of Captain John Davis, Surveyor General of Customs, and is a splendid
addition to the facilities of the Port Office at Port-au-Prince.
The increase of Gdes. 4,442.69 under "special and miscellaneous" was
due principally to the payment under that classification of expenses connect-
ed with the investigation of the possibilities of growing bananas in Haiti
conducted by Dr. James Zetek, and to which reference already has been
made.
The most striking change in expenditures is noted under "salaries and
wages". Total payments under this heading actually decreased by
Gdes. 4,953.14, or 0.5 per cent. Increased customs activity was handled by
practically the same number of customs employees as were carried on the
payrolls the previous year. In a number of instances increased salaries
were granted to customs employees charged with increased work and
responsibility, although it was not found possible to grant a general in-
crease. The net reduction in salary costs was due chiefly to a cut of 15 per
cent in the salaries of American officials. This cut was put into effect on
July 11, 1933, following the suggestion made to the Haitian government
by the government of the United States, to reduce the salaries of all
American officials in the service of the Haitian government in order to
assist Haiti during the economic crisis and in view of the reduction of all
salaries in the services of the government of the United States. The amount
of the salary cut was fixed at the same percentage as had been applied in
the United States to employees of the American government.
It is perhaps worthy of note that whereas conditions in the United States
have necessitated reductions in the salaries of government employees of
15 per cent and even more, in Haiti a surplus of revenues amounting to
Gdes. 4,046,490.59 has been recorded for the fiscal year 1932-33, notwith-
standing large amounts expended for public works from current income.
Moreover, all indications are that the budget for 1933-34 has been safely
balanced.
Increased total disbursements for customs operations were distributed
fairly evenly between the custom houses at the various ports of the Re-
public. Expenditures in 1932-33 increased over the previous year at every
custom house with the exception of small decreases recorded at Cayes.
Saint Marc, Port-de-Paix, and Fort Libert6. Expenditures at Port-au-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Prince increased from Gdes. 248,248.85 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 267,216.48 in
1932-33, and at Cap Haitien from Gdes. 51,021.70 to Gdes. 53,944.04.
General administration costs increased from Gdes. 507,252.19 in 1931-32
to Gdes. 541,340.28 in 1932-33.
With the considerable increase in customs receipts and relatively slight
increase in customs expenditures, it follows that a much better showing
was made in 1932-33 with respect to the cost of collecting each gourde of
customs receipts. Disregarding payment of the bank commission, mainte-
nance costs, and capital expenditures for the acquisition of property, a total
of Gdes. 0.0339 was expended in 1932-33 for each gourde of customs reve-
nues collected. This compares very favorably with the corresponding figure
of Gdes. 0.0435 in 1931-32, and Gdes. 0.0357 representing the average yearly
cost per gourde collected since 1919-20. The cost per gourde collected
declined at every custom house in 1932-33, compared with 1931-32, with the
exception of Miragoine, Ouanaminthe and Glore. While figures are not
available at this date for a complete comparison it is believed that it may
be stated confidently that costs of collection of customs revenue are less
than can be shown by other countries and that this service has functioned
more economically than that of any other country in Latin America.

Internal Revenue Service
Expenditures of the Internal Revenue Service are analysed in detail in
the Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue annexed to this
report. Accruals to the operating fund of that service increased from
Gdes. 548,436.94 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 859,896.16 in 1932-33 and expenditures
increased by approximately the same amount.
Accruals to the operating fund of the Internal Revenue Service have been
as follows during the past five years:
Gourdes
1928-29............................................... 905,289.72
1929-30................................................ 993,024.61
1930-31..................................................... 774,062.00
1931-32 ................................................... 548,436.94
1932-33...................................................... 708,615.48*
The problem of adjusting the expenditures of the Internal Revenue
Service to available funds has always been more difficult than in the case
of the Customs Service. Comparatively frequent changes in the internal
revenue taxes have necessitated sweeping changes in the personnel of the
service. The organization built up following the enactment of the original
alcohol and tobacco excise law had to be extensively curtailed when the
Law of August 5, 1931, was enacted. This measure alone, after making due
allowance for the effect on tax yields of the depression, has been responsible
for a loss to the treasury of a figure approaching Gdes. 1,500,000 each year.

*Not including Gdes. 145,673.09 contributed by communes to cover cost of collecting communal revenues: and
Gdes. 5,607.59 representing 14 per cent fo registration receipts collected by agents of the Internal Revenue Service.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


It has forced the Internal Revenue Service to reduce its organization to a
corresponding extent, since its operating fund is based on a percentage of
receipts. In 1931-32, accruals to the fund amounted to little more than
half the amount which had been made available to it in 1929-30 before
changes in the excise taxes were made.
In a belated attempt to regain the internal revenue lost through this
change, emergency taxes were applied to gasoline and salt at the beginning
of the fiscal year 1932-33. About half of the estimated annual loss has
been recovered through these taxes. Again the Internal Revenue Service
has expanded. New equipment has been purchased, new employees hired,
and the personnel has been trained in the collection of the new taxes.
If we accept the principle that the internal revenue taxes should eventu-
ally replace the export taxes and this is a principle which this office
repeatedly has recommended and urged for many years then it should be
evident that the tax collecting service should be permitted to expand
steadily and strengthen its organization gradually as new taxes are applied
and internal revenues increase.

Treasury Position

Fiscal operations during 1932-33 left the treasury as of September 30,
1933, with an unobligated surplus of Gdes. 15,179,937.91. This compares
with Gdes. 12,595,613.92 on September 30, 1932. and Gdes. 16,462,841.50 on
September 30, 1931.
The cash balance sheet of the treasury is given in detail in Table No. 47
following the text. A statement in simplified form showing treasury assets
and liabilities at the close of the year under report and at the close of the
previous fiscal period is given below:
Sept. 30, 1932 Sept. 30, 1933
ASSETS
Gourdes Gourdes
Current Assets.................... 4,540,910.32 8,704,183.30
Investments ...................... 9,753,530.50 9,278,728.55
Other Assets .................... 3,955,827.49 4,182,327.49
18,250,268.31 22,165,239.34
LIABILITIES
Gourdes Gourdes
Current Liabilities ................ 1,697,776.21 2,801,923.25
Reserves.............................. 3,956,878.18 4,183,378.18
Surplus ............................ 12,595,613.92 15,179,937.91
18,250,268.31 22,165,239.34

Current treasury assets on September 30, 1933, were nearly double the
figure recorded on September 30 of the previous year. The increase shows
the effect of increased revenues and the four million gourde excess of
receipt, over expenditures recorded during the year.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The item of Gdes. 8,704,183.30 representing current assets as of Sep-
tember 30, 1933, included the following:
Gourdes
Current accounts in New York funds.................. 990,186.20
Time account in New York funds....................... 3,552,612.60
Current account in gourdes.............................. 4,064,077.58
Receipts in suspense............................................ 1,527.23
Cash in the hands of disbursing officers............... 95,779.69,
Total.......................................................... 8,704,183.30
The amount of Gdes. 4,064,077.58 representing funds on deposit in
gourdes at the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti increased from
Gdes. 498,333.57 at the end of the previous fiscal period. The large unex-
pended appropriations for public works on September 30, 1933, together
with the Government's program for further public works appropriations
during 1933-34, necessitated the retention of a large cash balance in gour-
des. Part of this balance eventually will be transferred to New York for
service of the public debt and payment of other dollar obligations of the
Government, but a large part of the available funds probably will be
utilized for public works and for restoring the cash reserves depleted during
the years of declining revenues.
Current accounts in New York" funds also showed an increase on Sep-
tember 30, 1933. On the latter date a total of Gdes. 938,835.75 was on
deposit in current dollar accounts compared with Gdes. 498,322.70 on
September 30, 1932. The time account in New York funds had increased by
Gdes. 17,647.10 on September 30, 1933, compared with the same date a
year ago.
Investments, carried at cost, declined from Gdes. 9,753,530.50 on Sep-
tember 30, 1932, to Gdes. 9,278,728.55 on September 30, 1933. Series B
bonds carried on the books at Gdes. 308,091.05 were sold to the fiscal agent
of the B issue during the year in fulfillment of amortization requirements
for 1931-32. The B bonds are infrequently offered for sale. Rather than call
bonds for amortization, the treasury continued the practice of selling part
of its holdings in order to complete the amortization required by the bond
contract and at the same time avoid calling bonds at par.
The balance of the decline in investments represents the transfer of
Series C bonds in the amount of Gdes. 166,710.90 to The National City Bank
of New York, New York. as fiscal agent for the exchange of C bonds
against outstanding bonds of the National Railroad Company of Haiti.
An account of this operation is given elsewhere in this report.
Treasury investments in securities of the Republic had the following face
value as of September 30, 1933:
Dollars
Series A ............... .......................................... 690,600.00
Series B............................................................... 940,085.15
Series C........................................................... 318,799.74
Total.......................................................... 1,949,484.89




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


These bonds for the most part had been purchased at prices slightly
under par during the years preceding the depression. The value of these
investments has since declined, although compared with most other Latin
American issues they have made a remarkably good showing. Prices of
A bonds in New York fluctuated during 1932-33 between a high of 84 1/4
and a low of 67. Quotations during the year averaged about 75. It should
be noticed that the cost of these investments was considerably higher than
their actual market value during 1932-33, and the value attributed to them
on the balance sheet above should be discounted accordingly. With market
conditions as they are today, it is evident that prices would be further
depressed if any attempt were made to dispose of these holdings in large
amounts.
New loans by the treasury to several communes accounted for the
increase of Gdes. 226,500 under "other assets". The communes of J6r6mie
and Jacmel together received a total of Gdes. 34,500 in monthly installments
of Gdes. 1,500 each to assist the communes in paying their obligations to
the electric light companies in those cities. A loan of Gdes. 110,000 was
made to the commune of Caves for construction of an electric light plant
at that city under the direction of the government Public Works Ad-
ministration. Although Cayes is one of the important cities of the Republic
it has never been served with electric current. The communes of Grande
Riviere du Nord, Arcahaie, Verrettes, and Petite Riviere de l'Artibonite
received loans of.Gdes. 40,000, Gdes. 22,000, Gdes. 15,000, and Gdes. 5,000
respectively for the construction of public buildings. Government as-
sistance of this kind is doing much to better conditions in various parts of
the country. With improvement in the finances of the communes resulting
from the collection of communal revenues by the Internal Revenue Service,
it should be possible for the treasury to extend further financial assistance
to the communal governments for needed improvements.
On the liability side of the balance sheet we find that current liabilities
had increased by Gdes. 1,104,147.04 on September 30, 1933, compared with
the corresponding figure on September 30, 1932. In large part the increase
was due to the large number of extraordinary appropriations for public
works opened during the year. A total of Gdes. 1,291,542.02 was still
available for expenditure under extraordinary appropriations on September
30, 1933. The corresponding figure of the previous year had been Gdes.
199,478.38.
SThe balances of "non-revenue" accounts, included above under current
liabilities, declined from Gdes. 811,975.60 as of September 30, 1932, to
Gdes. 585,075.76 on September 30. 1933. The payment of Gdes. 280,623.15
from the construction fund of the National Railroad Company of Haiti
largely accounts for this decline.
Current liabilities were increased by Gdes. 147,780.06 at the end of 1932--
33 through the fact that the operating fund of the Customs Service remain-




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


ed unexpended to that extent. All accruals to the fund had been expended
at the end of the previous year.
Checks outstanding increased from Gdes. 687,372.92 on September 30,
1932 to Gdes. 778,576.10 on September 30, 1933.
Reserves remained the same on both dates with the exception that the
liability set up to cover loans to communes was increased by the amount
of Gdes. 226,500 during the year. The latter figure represents new loans.
No loans have been repaid by communes, even in part, for several years.
Conservative accounting has made it advisable to set up this reserve cover-
ing the entire amount of outstanding loans to communes.

Public Debt
At the end of September, 1933, the gross public debt of Haiti had been
reduced to Gdes. 66,901,412.84. This compares with Gdes. 72,625,870.96 as
of September 30, 1932, and Gdes. 78,357,576.10 at the end of the previous
fiscal period.
In nine years the public debt of Haiti has been reduced by nearly one-
half. At the end of the fiscal year 1923-24 the gross public debt had
amounted to Gdes. 121,048,501.20. Uninterrupted service of the debt and
measures taken to accelerate retirement in years of surplus revenues have
resulted in rapid reduction.
The low prices at which it has been possible to purchase bonds for
amortization have been particularly effective in accelerating retirement. In
1932-33, for example, at an expenditure for amortization of Gdes.
4,604,789.69 the treasury was able to reduce the face value of bonds out-
standing by Gdes. 5,724,458.12. Similarly, the application of Gdes.
4,283,108.06 to amortization in the previous year reduced the nominal
amount of outstanding bonds by Gdes. 5,731,704.14.
The three series of the loan of 1922, which constitute the entire funded
debt of Haiti, were issued under bond contracts carrying substantially the
same provisions so far as concerns the security offered and the payment
of interest and amortization*. The contracts require the payment of stipu-
lated amounts to the fiscal agents. From the funds received sufficient sums
are set aside to cover interest payments during the year; the balance is
then applied to amortization. The interest and amortization schedules
call for gradually increasing payments. In 1931-32, for example, the
contracts required payment for service of the three issues of an amount
aggregating Gdes. 8,524,937.40. Requirements during 1932-33 totalled
Gdes. 8,560,093.80. The latter figure is composed of the following amounts:
Gourdes
Series A .............................................................. 5,800,000.20
Series B .............................................................. 1,800,000.00
Series C ............................................................. 960,093.60
Total......................................................... 8,560,093.80
*Further details regarding th. bond issues are given in previous reports of this office. See in particular ihe
report for the fiscal year 1929-30, page 94.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The bond contracts call for payment of the amounts due for service of
the loans in equal monthly installments. However, in accordance with past
practice these payments in 1932-33 were anticipated to some extent in the
case of the A and C loans. The dates on which funds were transferred to
the fiscal agent of the A and C loans during 1932-33 are given below:
Series A Series C
Gourdes Gourdes
October 1, 1932.................. 2,416,666.75 400,039.00
February 14, 1933.............. 483,333.35 80,007.80
April 10, 1933.................. 483,333.35 80,007.80
April 22, 1933.................. 1,933,333.40 320,031.20
July 17, 1933.................... 483,333.35 80,007.80
Total...................... 5,800,000.20 960,093.60
When sufficient funds are available it is of great advantage to transfer
requirements to the fiscal agent as early as possible. Funds in the hands
of the fiscal agent draw interest, as provided in the bond contracts, at the
minimum rate of 24 per cent per annum. The interest returns are therefore
greater than can be obtained by leaving the funds in government deposits.
Moreover, a large initial payment each year permits the fiscal agent to set
aside sufficient funds to cover interest requirements and begin the purchase
of bonds for amortization at once, or whenever bonds can be purchased to
advantage. It is manifestly to the advantage of the treasury that purchases
of bonds for amortization should be distributed as evenly as possible over
the year.
As in the previous year, while the entire amount due for the fiscal period
was not advanced at the beginning of the year, at the. same time sufficient
funds were kept in the hands of the fiscal agent to permit purchases for
amortization at all times.
Of the total of Gdes. 5,800,000.20 paid for service of the Series A issue,
Gdes. 3,039,900.00 were used by the fiscal agent to satisfy interest require-
ments and the remaining Gdes. 2,760,100.20 were applied to amortization.
Expenditure of the latter amount for bond purchases in the open market
reduced the face amount of bonds outstanding by Gdes. 3,620,736.25.*
Bonds were acquired at rates varying from 69 to 84 1/4.
The Series C issue required the expenditure during 1932-33 of Gdes.
494,432.55 for interest. The balance of the contractual payments, amount-
ing to Gdes. 464,661.05, was applied to bond purchases for amortization
at rates averaging several points under the corresponding prices of the A
bonds. Although the C bonds were issued under practically the same terms
as those of the A issue, they are not listed on the New York Stock Ex-
change. The ease with which the A bonds can be marketed and negotiated
gives them a somewhat higher value.
The Series B issue is similar to the A and C issues in most respects
except that it is an internal dollar loan. Also, the issue differs in that the

*This figure includes Gdes. 34,322.40 remaining in the sinking fund at the end of the year, and which will
be applied subsequently to bond purchases.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


bonds are registered and interest is payable every two months by check.
The checks are issued by the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti,.
which is fiscal agent for the loan. The interest checks are subject to an
income tax deduction of 10 per cent. Coupons on the external bonds are not
subject to Haitian tax deduction.
Interest and amortization requirements of the B issue, totalling Gdes.
1,800,000.00 for the fiscal year 1932-33, were met during the year by trans-
ferring Gdes. 150,000 to the fiscal agent every month, in accordance with
the terms of the contract. Funds on deposit with the fiscal agent of the
B issue do not draw interest and consequently there is no reason for
anticipating requirements as in the case of the external loans. The amount
required to pay interest on B bonds during the year reached Gdes.
419,971.56. The remaining amount paid to the fiscal agent, namely, Gdes.
1,380,028.44, was applied to amortization.
The outstanding bonds of the B issue are closely held and comparatively:
few of the bonds were offered for sale during the year. Purchases of bonds
for amortization by the fiscal agent resulted in the expenditure of only
Gdes. 72,286.88 from the sinking fund, leaving Gdes. 1,307,741.56 still
available for bond purchases at the end of the fiscal year. Since the Haitian
treasury holds B bonds valued at several million gourdes in its investment
account, enough of these bonds were sold to the fiscal agent to satisfy all
amortization requirements. Bonds of the B issue, carried on the books at
Gdes. 1,300,367.35 were sold in October, 1933, to the fiscal agent, thereby
completing all amortization requirements for the fiscal year 1932-33.
At the end of September, 1933, the face amounts of bonds outstanding,
after deducting funds in the hands of the fiscal agents and not yet applied
to amortization, were as follows:
Gourdes
Series A ................................................... 49,600,677.60
Series B ..................................................... 5,655,492.39
Series C .................................................. .. 8,022,742.85
Total.............................................. 63,278,912.84
In addition, the public debt included Gdes. 3,622,500 representing fiduci-
ary currency not protected by the deposit of reserves in the Banque Na-
tionale de la Republique d'Haiti. There was no change in this item on.
September 30, 1933 compared with the same date of the previous year.

Retirement of the Series B issue
The authorized amount of the Series B issue was Gdes. 25,000,000. The
schedule of payments for interest and amortization carried in the bond
contract was based on the original authorized amount of the issue, and was
calculated to retire the entire issue by October 1, 1952. Actually, however,
only Gdes. 21,170,209.70 in B bonds were ever issued to the public. The
sinking fund therefore has operated to retire the issue much more rapidly





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


than either of the external loans. Less than 25 per cent of contractual
amounts paid annually to the fiscal agent of the loan at present is needed
for the payment of interest. The balance, amounting to Gdes. 1,380,028.44
in 1932-33, must be applied to amortization.
The disproportionate burden on the treasury of these heavy amortization
charges called attention to the possibility of retiring the entire issue by
offering to exchange A bonds in the treasury investment account against
B bonds in the hands of the public. The two issues are equally secured
and the terms of the two contracts differ only in minor respects. Moreover,
-the A bonds from an investor's standpoint are more desirable than the B
bonds in that: (1) they enjoy a wider market than the B bonds; (2) they
are listed on the New York Stock Exchange and are easily negotiable;
(3) they are more acceptable for use as collateral; (4) they do not have
to be registered as to principal or interest; and (5) they bear a six per cent
coupon and Haitian taxes are not deductible from the interest. The B bonds
*on the other hand have none of these advantages. In particular, the Haitian
income tax of 10 per cent is deducted from interest checks making the net
interest return only 5.40 per cent.
On May 1, 1933, B bonds having a nominal value of $859,711.64 were
still in the hands of the public. Since the bonds are registered, the names
of all bondholders are known. To each of the bondholders the President
of the Republic on May 9, 1933, addressed a letter pointing out the desira-
:bility of retiring the entire B issue and informing the bondholder that it
was the Government's plan to permit B bondholders to exchange their
securities against equivalent nominal amounts of A bonds. Sufficient A
bonds already were in the treasury investment account to permit completion
of the operation.
An executive order on June 23, 1933, fixed the details of the operation.
The Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti was appointed fiscal agent
for the exchange. The A bonds are in denominations of $1,000 and $500
only, whereas many of the B bonds outstanding were of $100 denomination.
-Certificates of interest were to be issued in exchange for B bonds in the
smaller denomination. Arrangements were made whereby holders of the
B bonds could present their securities for exchange at any of the offices
of the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti. The exchange would be
effected without cost to the bondholder.
SThe obvious advantages of the plan both to the bondholders and to the
Government resulted in rapid exchange of outstanding B bonds. Approxi-
mately half of the outstanding bonds were presented for exchange during
.the four months ending on September 30, 1933. Many more bonds since
then have been exchanged and at the present writing the nominal value of
'B bonds still outstanding has been reduced nearly to $250,000. These bonds
-are held:by about 120 individuals, nearly all living in Haiti. Practically all





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


of the bondholders who held comparatively large amounts have exchanged
their securities against A bonds.
Exchange of the remaining $250,000 will enable the Government if it so
desires to retire the entire issue, relieving the budget of an annual charge
amounting at present to Gdes. 1,806,000, and increasing each year. The
Government plans to utilize this saving in extending its present program
for public works. In his letter to the bondholders of May 9, 1933, the
President of the Republic stated that with a view to increasing the pro-
ductive capacity of the country, of relieving unemployment and bettering
the economic situation in general through increasing money in circulation,
the Government had decided upon this public works program, the im-
mediate realization of which would be for the future of the nation the
source of considerable and extensive benefits.

Supplies
The Bureau of Supplies during 1932-33 continued to render valuable
service to this organization and to other departments and services of the
Haitian government. The Bureau carries a complete stock of office equip-
ment, stationery, and other supplies used by the various government offices.
By centralizing purchases of supplies the Bureau is able to obtain favor-
able discounts which result in important savings to the Haitian govern-
ment.
Gross sales during 1932-33 amounted to Gdes. 271,231.10 compared
with Gdes. 172,611.16 in 1931-32. At the end of the year 1932-33 a net
profit of Gdes. 4,256.49 was reported Merchandise is sold at cost plus a
commission sufficient to pay for the expenses of administration.

The Budget and Financial Legislation
Government expenditures in 1932-33 were effected under the authority
of the prorogued general budget for the previous fiscal year.
The prorogued budget provided for a program of expenditures totalling
Gdes. 31,999,977.47. Of this amount, the sum of Gdes. 206,400, represent-
ing the reserve which had been set up to cover settlement of the P. C. S.
Railroad Company controversy, was no longer applicable in 1932-33 as the
controversy with the railroad had been settled in September, 1932, as
described in the last annual report of this office.
In effect, therefore, the budget authorized payments in 1932-33 totalling
Gdes. 31,793,577.47, from which figure should be deducted the economies
resulting from the salary reductions called for by the Law of September 23,
1932. These economies reduced authorized expenditures by an additional
Gdes. 392,283.55. To the net authorized budgetary appropriations there
should be added supplementary appropriations, totalling Gdes. 195,058.50
which were voted during the course of the fiscal year, and there should be






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


deducted the sum of Gdes. 36,760.10 representing savings effected through
the consolidation of the National Printing Office with the printing plant
of the Agricultural Service.
After making these adjustments, the net amount available for expendi-
ture during 1932-33, excluding extraordinary appropriations, totalled Gdes.
31,559,592.32.
The necessity of effecting many adjustments in the prorogued budget
had called particular attention to the desirability of enacting a budget for
1933-34 which made proper allowance for the reorganization of various
governmental functions which had taken place in the time intervening since
the preparation of the 1931-32 budget. At the same time it was felt that
total appropriations should not exceed Gdes. 32,000,000, representing the
estimated figure for total revenue receipts during 1933-34. It was assumed
that existing tax legislation would remain in effect and that coffee exports
during 1933-34 would approximate the annual average of 32,000,000 kilos.
Efforts to balance the budget on this basis were completely successful.
The budget project presented to the Legislative Body after the opening of
its regular session in April, 1933, was passed by both Chambers early in
July. The new budget was published in the official gazette of the Govern-
ment on August 24, 1933, to take effect on October 1st, 1933.
A comparison of the 1933-34 budget with the prorogued budget in effect
during 1932-33, after making the adjustments in the latter budget described
above, is given in the following tabulation:
Budget for Budget for
BUDGET CHAPTERS 1932-33 1933-34 Increase
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Public Debt............................... 8,715,193.80 8.696,249.60 18,944.20*
Foreign Relations ................... 539,464.50 500,692.50 38,772.00*
Finance ................................... 2,722,510.00 2,820,651.00 98,141.00
Commerce ............................... 310,386.00 325,327.00 14,941.00
Interior ..................................... 9,799,392.64 9,928,322.46 128,929.82
Public Works ........................ 3,966,389.82 3,991,885.00 25,49!5.18
Justice ................................... 1,202,744.25 1,264,641.00 61,896.75
Agriculture ........................... 1,573,870.62 1,618,727.20 44,856.58
Labor .................................... 518,987.84 522,211.00 3,223.16
Public Instruction ................... 1,798,402.75 1,849,760.50 51,357.75
Religion ................................ 412,250.10 419,162.10 6,912.00
31,559,592.32 31,937,629.36 378,037.04
The various increases for the most part concerned a large number of
minor adjustments in order to bring the budget into conformity with
government plans for reorganizing certain services and departments. The
annual appropriation for the Garde d'Haiti was increased by Gdes. 40,000
to permit the training of Haitian officers preparatory to complete Haitiani-
zation of the Garde. The appropriation for "Secret Police" was increased
by Gdes. 28,750. The annual allocation for construction and maintenance
of roads was reduced by Gdes. 36,000. Other changes concerned chiefly

*Decrease





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


revision of salary schedules and rearrangements of personnel. For the most
part, where such changes were made, salaries were revised upward. At the
same time the general cut of 10 per cent in the pay of government employees
receiving monthly salaries in excess of Gdes. 100 was maintained, as well
as the reduction of 5 per cent in the case of those employees receiving Gdes.
100 or less per month. The general cut of 5 per cent has been in effect since
November 23, 1931, and the additional 5 per cent applicable to those receiv-
ing salaries in excess of Gdes. 100 has been in effect since October 1, 1932.
These salary reductions have applied to all government employees with
the exception of those serving the State under special agreements or con-
tracts, such as in the case .of members of the clergy serving under the
Concordat. Special arrangements have been made in the latter case for a
reduction of 4 per cent applying to salaries of Gdes. 100 or less and 8 per
cent to salaries in excess of Gdes. 100. The salaries of Americans serving
in the Garde d'Haiti, the American Scientific Mission, and in this organi-
zation, including the Internal Revenue Service, have been reduced by 15
per cent since July 11, 1933. No general cuts in salaries have been applied to
Haitian employees of the same services.
In the tabulation given above comparing the two budgets, the amounts
shown are net figures after deduction of salary cuts.
The. budget for 1933-34 represents a notable improvement over any
budget in effect during the past several years. The mere fact that the budget
authorizes expenditures well within the limits of probable revenues is in
itself a distinct accomplishment. That in addition it provides adequate
funds for the full operation of all essential government services gives
further cause for pride. Few governments can claim that their budgets are
in a more satisfactory condition.
Still another fiscal accomplishment of the Government in 1932-33 was
the enactment of a new Budget and Public Accounting Law. The draft of
this law had been under preparation during the past two years. One project
was passed by the Legislative Body in 1932, but with modifications which-
prevented its promulgation. Another project, which endeavored to harmo-
nize the ideas of the legislative branch with those of the executive branch
of government, was prepared and presented to the Legislative Body at its
regular 1933 session. The project was enacted on July 4, 1933, along with
the budget, and was published in "Le Moniteur" on August 24, 1933.
The accounting legislation had undergone modifications from year to
year as accumulated experience in accounting for government funds and
justifying expenditures had pointed out desirable changes. In this process
of evolution the "finance laws" had become somewhat confusing in ar-
rangement and in substance. It had become evident that they needed a
thorough revision.
Acting under the authority of Article II of the Treaty of September 16,
1915, which provides that "the Financial Adviser shall devise an adequate





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


system of public accounting", this office suggested the original draft of the
new law and collaborated with the Secretary of State for Finance in draft-
ing subsequent modifications. In revising the two prior "finance laws" it
was decided to combine the desirable features of each in a new arrangement
which could become permanent in nature. Those provisions which neces-
sarily had to be changed each year, such as the budget of expenditures and
the budget of ways and means, including the annual prorogation of tax
legislation, were to be taken care of each year by two separate laws, to be
modified as circumstances required.
As finally enacted, the new Budget and Public Accounting Law was
divided into five chapters covering: (1) the general budget and additional
appropriations; (2). receipts; (3) the incurring of expenses and their
liquidation; (4) the auditing of accounts; and (5) budgetary appropriations.
The last chapter is applicable only to the fiscal year 1933-34. All essential
features of government accounting and control over fiscal operations are
provided for in the new law and regulations are set forth governing the
preparation of the budget, enactment of the budget, procedure in case of
budgetary deficits and the liability of the State in connection with the
incurring of government expenditures Procedure in effecting payments is
covered in detail as well as the justification of expenditures by documents.
The restitution of overpayments, prescription of unpaid debts of the State,
the preparation and submittal of accounts, and many other features of
government accounting are regulated by this law.
In making these regulations a part of the legislation of the country, the
Republic of Haiti has placed itself in an enviable position when comparison
is made with the accounting legislation of other countries. Good govern-
ment accounting can be expected only if the full authority of law is given
to the intricate details of handing government funds.
With the above notable exceptions, little was accomplished during 1932-33
towards filling outstanding deficiencies in the fiscal legislation of the
Republic. Disregarding the enactment of routine legislation covering ad-
ditional appropriations, and legislation reorganizing various services and
departments in accordance with the new budget, no other laws of any kind
directly affecting the finances of the country were enacted during the year.
No action was taken on a project of law recommended by this office cover-
ing the establishment of public warehouses and providing for the issuance
of negotiable warehouse receipts. The same fate overtook a project of law
calling for a number of tariff modifications and revising the classification of
a number of articles in the import tariff. The new Homestead Law was
not amended although the several months which had passed since enact-
ment of the law had been enough to point out its serious deficiencies. The
law has become a dead letter. No action was taken on a recommendation to
empower the President to protect plant life in Haiti, and particularly the
nascent banana industry, by placing an embargo on the introduction of





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL' ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


infected seeds or plants. Neither was any action taken with regard to the
alcohol and tobacco law of August 5, 1931, although all elements appear to
agree that the law is defective.
A law completely reorganizing the Service for Recording Public Docu-
ments was the most important of the numerous laws of this nature enacted
during the regular 1933 session of the Legislative Body. This law provides
also for a number of changes in connection with the collection of fees for
recording public documents. The probable effects of these modifications on
receipts from this source are difficult to determine at the present time.
Certain increases in fees for recording mortgages indicate the probability
that there will result some curtailment in commercial loans against real
property.
Other laws reorganizing government services provided for an extensive
readjustment of personnel including a number of increases in salaries. The
personnel of the Bureau of Archives was increased. The salaries of certain
officials in the Departments, of Public Instruction, Public Works, Agri-
culture, Commerce, and Foreign Relations were increased. A representation
allowance was granted to members of the military staff of the President.
Regulations governing presbyteral schools were established by the Law
of July 4, 1933, and a similar law enacted July 3, 1933, provided regulations
for the operation of all law schools of the Republic including the National
Law School.
Currency
Money circulation in Haiti has increased along with the rise in trade.
A comparison of figures showing currency in circulation on September 30
of each of the last two fiscal years follows: 193 1932
Gourdes Gourdes
Notes of the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti.... 6,907,764 5,562,712
United States currency (estimated) .................................. 3,000,000 3,000,000
Subsidiary currency .......................................................... 3,735,315 3,219,540
13,643,079 11,782,252
The figures for United States currency in circulation necessarily are
estimates. In all probability there was little change in the amount of
American money used in Haiti during the year.
A curious effect of the banking crisis in the United States in March, 1933,
was the fact that for a brief period there was a marked preference on the
part of the public for notes of the Banque Nationale de la Republique
d'Haiti. American notes were presented at banks all over the Republic to
be exchanged against gourde notes. Tradesmen even took advantage of the
situation by accepting dollar notes only at a discount to the gourde. The
gourde, of course, bears a fixed relation to the dollar, and the Government's
contract with the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti requires the
free exchange of dollars for gourde notes at the fixed ratio of five gourdes
to one dollar. A notice published in the newspapers put an end to this form
of speculation.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 69

Banking and Credit
The banking crisis in the United States during the month of March, 1933,
fortunately had little effect on banking in Haiti. At the first signs of
monetary difficulties in the United States, cabled requests for additional
supplies of currency were sent to New York and Washington, and $500,000
in American currency were released by the United States treasury authori-
ties and sent by airplane to Haiti. This currency was sent for in anticipa-
tion of possible runs on the local banking institutions. However, no serious
runs developed, although abnormal withdrawals of cash were reported at
the branches of the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti at Cayes,
Gonaives, and J6ermie, and at the head office of the bank in Port-au-Prince.
The two banks doing business in Haiti had no difficulty in meeting demands
for cash at any of their offices. Foreign tourists were-refused currency,
except at outrageous discounts, in nearly all West Indian resorts, and
American travellers checks could not be cashed. Tourists in Haiti ex-
perienced no difficulties. Haiti welcomed this opportunity to extend every
assistance and courtesy to travellers.
In recent years about half of the total amounts deposited in banks in
Haiti have consisted of government funds. All government funds are on
deposit with the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti which acts as
treasury agent. Government balances during 1932-33 averaged Gdes. 12,-
057,331.56. Commercial and private deposits averaged Gdes. 12,317,027.63.
Of the latter amount, the greater part represents the accounts maintained
in the banks by the larger commercial establishments in the various.cities.
Average balances of funds on deposit in all banks, excluding government
deposits, show a downward trend during the past four years. From a high
of Gdes. 16,499,255 in 1928-29, average deposits declined to Gdes. 12,317,027
in 1932-33. In 1931-32 the corresponding average was Gdes. 13,063.579.
Loans and discounts in Haiti have declined more rapidly. The high point
was reached in 1927-28 when average loans and discounts for the year
amounted to Gdes. 35,143,507. Credit extended by banks has dropped off
in five years to an average of only Gdes. 4,720,059 in 1932-33. It is worthy
of note that whereas in 1927-2S average loans and discounts nearly equalled
total deposits in banks, including government deposits,' in 1932-33 loans
and discounts amounted to less than twenty per cent of total deposits. In
spite of greatly improved business in the latter year, average advances by
banks declined from Gdes. 6,306,606 in 1931-32 to Gdes. 4,720,059 in 1932-33.
The need for extreme caution during the months of monetary difficulties
abroad probably was the most important factor in reducing bank commit-
ments. Excessive liquidity in banking institutions is as much an evidence
of panic psychology as the currency shortage which it anticipates. If
conditions abroad and in Haiti continue to improve, merchants in Haiti
should receive greater assistance from the banks in the way of credit in





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


order to bring about a normal expansion of business. Meanwhile the banks
appear to have done their share in financing crops and in enabling exporters
to sell abroad all of the commodities produced in Haiti forexport.
No business failure of any importance was reported during 1932-33.
The weaker houses had been eliminated in previous years and merchants
during the recent period of expanding trade in general have improved their
position.
Claims
Over a hundred individual payments were made during 1932-33 in settle-
ment of various claims against the State, including correction of over-
payments, and adjustments of pension payments. Disbursements qf this
nature reached a total of Gdes. 82,035.89 in 1932-33, compared with Gdes.
69,388.46 in 1931-32 and Gdes. 166,419.64 in 1930-31.
The largest single amount paid out under this classification during 1932-
33 involved Gdes. 26,178.85 paid to the Receiver of the National Railroad
company of Haiti in April, 1933, in execution of part of the arrangements
completed in March for the retirement of 471 outstanding bonds of the
railroad company.
Interest and amortization on this bond issue involving Gdes. 1,240,603.55
per year had been guaranteed by the Republic. In order to clear the Govern-
ment of this contingent liability the offer had been made to exchange Series
C bonds against the railroad bonds at the rate of $72.39 principal amount
of C bonds, with interest, against $96.53 principal amount of the railroad
bonds. The reorganization plan had fixed March 31, 1926, as the last date
on which the bonds could be exchanged. On that date all except 471 of
the bonds had been presented. Subsequently, however, some of the holders
of the railroad bonds who had failed to present their securities before March
31, 1926, claimed the right to receive C bonds for their railroad bonds
notwithstanding the time limit provided in the reorganization plan. The
contract of January 6, 1930, recognized the rights of the bondholders in
this respect. However, the contract was not ratified until September 22,
1932, and arrangements for carrying out the provisions of Article VIII,
permitting the exchange of the remaining bonds, were not completed until
March of the following year. The National City Bank of New York, New
York, was appointed as fiscal agent for the purpose of effecting the ex-
change. No additional series C bonds were issued for this purpose. Instead,
arrangements were made for setting aside sufficient Series C bonds from the
treasury investment account. These bonds are to be exchanged at the ratio
fixed by the reorganization plan as railroad bonds are presented by the
bondholders. Arrears of interest (coupons on the bonds in the investment
account had of course been clipped) were to be paid from a fund amounting
to Gdes. 92,058.30, which amount was paid to the fiscal agent in April,
1933, from an extraordinary credit opened for this purpose at the same






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 71

time that the sum of Gdes. 26,178.85, referred to above was paid to the
Receiver of the Company. On the same occasion, the balance remaining
in the "construction fund" of the railroad (a trust fund held by the Govern-
ment and accounted for as a "non-revenue" deposit) and amounting to
Gdes. 280,623.55 was returned to the railroad company, as part of the total
of Gdes. 306,802.40 due the railroad by the Government. A further step in
the operation involved the payment in April, 1933, of Gdes. 9,093.25 to the
fiscal agent from the budgetary article for the settlement of claims. As each
bond is exchanged, $3.861 is to be paid to the Receiver of the company from
this fund by the fiscal agent.
Following the completion of these arrangements over one hundred rail-
road bonds were presented for exchange up to the end of September, 1933.
Probably a few more of the outstanding bonds will be exchanged from time
to time, but it appears likely that most of the holders of the outstanding
bonds will never be located. Undoubtedly, many of the bonds have been
lost or destroyed.
With the ratification of the railroad contract, and completion of pecuniary
arrangements, the Government has been relieved of all further obligations
to this railroad company, thereby solving what has long been a vexatious
problem.
Most of the other payments in settlement of claims during 1932-33 were
for comparatively small amounts. An exception was an item of Gdes. 10,000
to settle a court judgment rendered against the State in connection
with arrears of rentals. Many other judgments were satisfied during the
year, but the individual amounts were small. Some represented compromise
settlements of claims where the propriety of payment had not been fully
established or where the amounts originally demanded were in excess of
what appeared to constitute an equitable and proper compensation for
damages sustained. Many claims which had a "nuisance value" only have
been removed from the books.
The State is still inadequately protected against court judgments where
the interests of the Government have been improperly defended. The claim
settled for Gdes. 10,000 to which reference has been made above constitutes
a striking example of the lack of protection which on too many occasions
has proved costly to the treasury and inconsistent with good government.
In the last two reports of this office reference was made to the urgent need
for corrective legislation, but up to the present time, although a project of
law has been- drafted and recommended for enactment, nothing further
appears to have been accomplished. Under the circumstances, the lack of
a more definite legal procedure in settling claims will continue to be a source
of trouble.
Personnel
The Customs Service lost one of its oldest employees with the death of
SMr. Dorvilier Charles Olivier in June, 1933. At the time of his death Mr.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Olivier was serving as Deputy Collector of Customs at Gonaives. He had
been with this organization since December, 1917, serving as customs
auditor at Gonaives until 1923 and as Deputy Collector since that date.
Following Mr. Olivier's death, Mr. Leopold Renaud, formerly an official
of the Internal Revenue Service at Cap Haitien was appointed as Collector
of Customs at Gonaives on July 7, 1933.
The Collector of Customs and Internal Revenue at J6r6mie was removed
from office on February 5, following the disclosure of irregularities in the
service at that port. He was replaced by Mr. Rudolf Gerdes, formerly
a customs official at Cayes.
An account already has been given of the discovery during the year of
extensive contraband operations at Port-au-Prince. The seriousness of the
charges necessitated a complete reorganization of the personnel. The
American Collector of Customs at that port was discharged on March 29,
1933, and replaced temporarily by Mr. Robert Maumus. Mr. Maumus served
as collector at Port-au-Prince until June 30, 1933, when he returned to his
regular post as collector at Cayes. Mr. Douglas A. Witcomb also assisted
in the reorganization.
'The changes made necessary by this reorganization resulted in the ap-
pointment of the following officials to the posts indicated:
Mr. Robert A. Farmer........Collector of Customs at Port-au-Prince
Mr. Douglas A. Witcomb....Deputy Collector of Customs, Port-au-Prince
Mr. Melville A. Monk........Collector of Customs, Cap Haitien
Mr. Emmanuel Thales........Collector of Customs, Saint Marc.
Mr. Farmer had been collector at Cap Haitien and Mr. Monk collector
at Saint Marc and Gonaives. Mr. Witcomb had been assistant chief of
customs auditing and statistics at the head office. Mr. Thales formerly had
served as deputy collector at Saint Marc.
Mr. J. H. White entered the customs service on June 6, 1933, to fill the
vacancy created by the transfer of Mr. Witcomb to the custom house at
Port-au-Prince.
Mr. M. J. Perry on August 1, 1933, was appointed Resident-Inspector in
charge of customs and internal revenue inspection in the Gonaives-Saint
Marc district. Mr. Perry previously had been an inspector of internal
revenue.
Mr. E. H. Mahy reentered the customs service on July 1, 1933, and was
assigned to inspection work at the custom house, Port-au-Prince.
Mr. Andre Moise was appointed Collector of Customs at Belladere on
March 25, 1933 replacing Mr. Leon Michel, who left the service.

Conclusion
The period which this report covers, and which in many countries was
marked by extremes of economic, financial, and social difficulties, was
characterized in Haiti by a notable recovery of trade and of government






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


revenues. With the beginning of recovery has come renewed confidence in
the continued progress of the country and the belief that the more difficult
problems of the last few years may not recur.
To be sure, the fortunate arrival of an excellent coffee crop at the low
point in the depression had much to do with the size of the gains recorded.
Nevertheless it should be evident that if the crop had been much smaller,
and even if commodity prices had failed to recover toward the end of the
year, in all probability conditions in Haiti would have shown much
improvement. Certainly, government revenues would have exceeded ordi-
nary expenditures, and that accomplishment alone in other countries would
have given cause for satisfaction.
To achieve what has already been accomplished in Haiti, the governments
of many countries have been compelled to resort to extraordinary measures,
involving every phase of economic relationships, and throwing the entire
world into a period of doubt and uncertainty. This is a period characterized
by radical economic and social reforms growing out of universal discontent
and desire for a quick betterment of conditions. Where a laissez-faire
attitude had sufficed in the past, nothing but direct and drastic government
action at present is able to bring about the changes demanded. Too often
the action taken has been accompanied by measures which in effect will
pass on to future generations the greater part of the cost incurred to secure
immediate and needed results. Money and foreign trade have been lost;
international friendships have been strained.
Haiti has been more fortunate. Progress has been recorded without
disturbing the economic equilibrium and without resorting to experiments.
,There has been no undue strain on the national credit, no waste of the
country's resources and no increase in the public debt. On the contrary, the
national obligations steadily have been reduced through uninterrupted
payment of all debt service. Moreover, the country is in the enviable po-
sition of having a large surplus of current revenues which it is applying,
through its program of productive public works, to hastening complete
recovery.
For the time being, therefore, it would appear that the country is in a
secure position. Nevertheless, so close--is the relation between prosperity
in Haiti and world recovery that to a large extent further progress is
dependent upon the outcome of the economic reforms being undertaken
abroad. Of these there are two groups which undoubtedly will have funda-
mental and far-reaching effects on Haitian prosperity. First there are the
reciprocal trade pacts planned to revise international commercial relation-
ships securing to those who buy the right to sell; and secondly there are
the monetary adjustments which have for their principal object the raising
of prices to former levels. Without success in the wider sense abroad, and
without securing its own position in this new world economy, Haiti will
find it difficult to advance much farther.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


SIt has now become universally recognized that substantial improvement
in international trade relationships will require radical revision of previous
ideas and past practices. The rise of extreme nationalism and the attendant
demands for economic self-sufficiency, bringing with them managed pro-
duction and trade restrictions of every kind, are in sharp conflict with the
principle of equal treatment of all nations in the matter of international
trade. Since nationalism has not been overcome in the conferences held
for the purpose of improving international relations, it is now an accepted
principle that reconcilement of nationalism with reduction of trade barriers
lies in the establishment of bi-lateral commercial agreements providing for
reciprocal trade privileges.
The present trend towards managed production abroad and govern-
ment-directed international trade may prove to be the salvation of trade
between the principal countries; but at the same time it may present
enormous difficulties to the smaller producing countries which do not find
proper measures of defense. In the case of these smaller countries, safety
lies in hastening to secure as many favorable commercial agreements as
possible and assuring the maintenance of their export markets. Thus, if
trade difficulties arise in the future in any one market, other outlets, pro-
tected by reciprocal agreements, will remain available. Delay in making
such, arrangements may put the smaller country in a position of complete
economic surrender to one or more countries where a needed market must
be bought by trade concessions which in themselves may be nearly as,
disastrous to the internal economy of the smaller country as the closing of
the export market would have been.
Because of this trend towards nationalism, bringing with it trade barriers
and increasing self-sufficiency, countries which export raw products now
are compelled to consider carefully their whole economy from the point
of view of determining on the the one hand what commodities they can
most profitably export and for whicn markets are available, and on the
other hand what goods can be safely imported from abroad so as to main-
tain a fair exchange of commodities between the producer country and the
foreign market country.
Haiti should be able to establish new and satisfactory commercial re-
lations quickly and without difficulty. Coffee, sisal, logwood, and cacao,
comprising more than 80 per cent of present export production, do not
compete unduly with the products of any of the foreign market countries,
thus giving Haiti a bargaining advantage. These products are raw materials
for which there should always exist a demand. Cotton and sugar, however,
compete directly with the production of some countries where Haiti finds
outlets for exports. Appropriate trade arrangements, providing for re-
ciprocal concessions, can assure markets for these exports.
In order that Haiti may maintain its favorable bargaining position it is
essential that protection of domestic industry should not be extended to the






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


point where such protection would conflict with the commercial interests
of producing countries which are themselves markets for Haitian exports.
The creation of new industries and the further development of economic
self-sufficiency is a desideratum in Haiti as it is elsewhere; but plans for the
establishment of further tariff protection or monopolies to promote the
domestic production of textiles, matches, soap, and other goods now im-
ported, may well cause the countries which now provide those goods to
close their markets to future Haitian exports.
To this complex network of trade relationships must be given much study
and consideration. With trade already being directed and managed through
direct governmental action in the larger countries,-it is essential that the
Government of Haiti, in accord with the new world trends, should take
what measures it can to protect the commerce of the country and encourage
its proper development in the interest of the future welfare of all of its
people. Full cooperation between the Government and private enterprise
can be of immense assistance. It becomes important that exporters' asso-
ciations should be formed and that the Government work closely with these
associations, taking advantage of their superior knowledge of market con-
ditions, and aiding them by entering into reciprocal trade agreements to
meet the situations which will arise and which can best be settled by such
cooperation.
Failure to establish mutually satisfactory trade agreements will lead
inevitably to the gradual closing of world markets to Haitian exports,
bringing with it danger of disaster to the export trade and harm to the
internal economy of the country.
Whether or not the changing world monetary situation constitutes an-
other serious menace to the progress of the country cannot be determined
at present. Certain it is, however, that Haiti thus far has benefited from
the changes in monetary policy abroad. What the future policy of Haiti
will be will have to be determined by eventualities.
Revaluation of currency was a common experience to many countries
shortly after the World War. It was the only means found to enable
countries to adjust international balances and internal debts. The world
depression of the past several years has produced conditions similar'to
the disturbances created by the World War. With over-capacity to produce,
accumulating stocks and increasing unemployment, each country has been
reluctant to permit other countries to sell in the domestic market, resulting
in the erection of higher trade barriers and a rapid decline in international
trade. As an additional defense, countries have resorted to limitations on
the free movement of gold, primarily, in most cases, to protect national
gold reserves, but also to favor exports and restrict imports.
This sequence of events has manifested itself in Haiti during the past
several years through the rapid decline in commodity prices. Fortunately,
export markets for Haitian products for the most part have remained open.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


With the suspension of gold payments in the United States in April,
1933, Haiti came more directly under the influence of changes abroad in
monetary policies, since the gourde and the dollar are exchangeable at a
fixed ratio. That up to the present time the dollar revaluation policy has
reacted favorably to Haiti is evident from its effects on coffee, cotton and
sisal prices in terms of gourdes. Moreover, with debt service being paid
in dollars of current circulation, the debt burden has been lightened. Haiti
exports raw materials, the prices of which are rising rapidly in terms of
gourdes. Imports, however, coming largely from the dollar countries, and
consisting mainly of manufactured articles, the prices of which respond
less quickly to the stimulus of dollar depreciation, have not shown an
equal cost increase. For the time being, therefore, more money is being
received without there being a corresponding increase in sums expended.
All factors, therefore, point to the fact that Haiti has benefited from
the present monetary policy of the American government. Success thus far
has attended the efforts of both the British and American governments in
combating depression, and if this success is continued throughout the
economic fields of Great Britain and the United States, world prosperity
eventually will be reestablished. Whether or not the beneficial effects from
both the economic and monetary policies of the two great creditor nations
abroad will continue to react as favorably toward Haiti in the future as
during the past year remains to be seen, but there appears to be every reason
why the Haitian monetary policy should not be changed for the present;
while an economic policy, as recommended, which will preserve and extend
markets for Haitian products should assure Haiti's future position.
In addition to these new problems created by recent world trends, there
remain for solution two outstanding difficulties which still threaten, as in
the past, to retard the progress of the country. These are first, the present
dependence of the country upon a single export crop, and secondly the
reliance upon the customs tariff as the principal source of government
revenues.
This report has shown that comparatively little visible progress has been
made either in diversifying exports or in shifting the principal source of
revenue from the customs duties to internal taxes. The need for both has
been recognized for years. This office repeatedly has pointed out the
dangers of the present arrangement and for years has actively assisted in
endeavoring to bring about a change. Nevertheless, coffee still constitutes
more than seventy per cent of export values, and the customs duties still
produce more than eighty per cent of government revenues.
If progress is to be made in diversifying exports, every effort must be
made to encourage the production of those commodities which potentially
may become important in the export trade. Outstanding possibilities today
are bananas and rum.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


It already has been pointed out that Haiti enjoys exceptional advantages
as a possible producer of bananas for export. Dr. James Zetek's report
shows that the Government will be well advised to push actively a campaign
to develop banana production and to give assistance to private enterprise.
There appears to be little reason why the Government should not be able
shortly to enter into contractual arrangements with marketing associations
capable of giving to the producers inducements necessary to bring about
a rapid increase in banana cultivation.
At the present writing the repeal of prohibition in the United States has
gone into effect and an immense market may be opened to Haitian rum.
Repeal finds the Haitian rum industry, with the exception of two or three
distilleries, unprepared to take full advantage of this new market. A
mistaken policy of stifling the natural growth of a modern industry to give
undue protection to hundreds of antiquated and inefficient small distilling
units heretofore had made it impossible for any one distiller to accumulate
sufficient stocks and acquire capital to assure a successful export trade.
Nevertheless, it is believed that with proper encouragement there is hope
of a revival of the industry. It should be possible to enter into trade
arrangements with the United States, with a substantial quota making it
possible for present stocks and future production to enter the United
States under favorable conditions. Moreover, if the large distillers are
able to dispose of their output abroad, these exports may offer, though
perhaps only temporarily, a partial solution of the present difficulties of
-the small distillers.
As to the problem of reducing the customs duties, and particularly the
heavy levies on exports, little of importance was accomplished during the
past year. The new gasoline tax, although it is collected by the Internal
Revenue Service, in effect is simply a higher import duty. The revenue
from alcohol and tobacco should be increased. New taxes must be devised
to enable the Government to reduce the duties on exports. The project
providing for a poll tax, long advocated by this office, should be enacted
into law. Government irrigation works should return to the treasury all
of the cost of maintenance, and eventually should reimburse the treasury,
at least in part, for the original cost of installation. Hence, the irrigation
tax law should be revised so that the persons who benefit directly from
government-furnished irrigation will contribute their fair share.
With proper attention to the revision of internal revenue tax legislation
along these lines, receipts should increase greatly, making it possible for
the Government to resume the program first officially announced in the
Excise Law of August 14, 1928, of replacing revenues from the export
duties by internal revenues, and distributing the incidence of taxation as
evenly and fairly as possible.
The Homestead Law, of which so much had been hoped, at the present
writing has not yet been amended in such a way as to make it of value.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The Public Warehouse Law in the form proposed by this office in its last
annual report has not been enacted. Action taken by the Government to
provide this needed legislation would aid recovery.
The collection of communal revenues by the Internal Revenue Service
has done much to assist the communal governments. Many communes,
however, still are financially in poor condition, owing large sums to the
central Government and in two cases even requiring government assistance
to pay for the cost of electric current furnished the communes by private
companies. The taxpayers of the entire country should not be asked to
assist communes in meeting ordinary running expenses. When capital is
required to finance needed communal improvements, the Government
properly may render assistance in the form of loans, providing interest and
eventual repayment are assured; but little justification can be found for
continuing indefinitely to pay the ordinary operating costs of local govern-
ments from treasury funds, provided by all the taxpayers of the country.
In time these changes of administrative policy probably will take place
and needed legislation will be supplied. Certainly no special difficulties can
be foreseen at present in bringing the financial administration of the
country to an enviable degree of perfection. But there remain the difficult
problems of adjusting the country's international commercial relations
quickly and satisfactorily to the new trends of world thought and to the
constantly changing interplay of world economic forces. Many difficulties
can be foreseen but none which the country should not be able to overcome.

Respectfully submitted,

S. DE LA RUE
Financial Adviser-General Receiver.

















TABLES










HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 1

VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33


1916-17...................................................
1917-18....... ............. ..
1918-19..................................................
1919-20........................ .................
1920-21 ... .......................................
1921-22...................................................
1922-23. ...................................... .......
1923-24................... ...... ...................
1924-25............................. ...............
1925-26................................
1926-27................................ ..................
1927-28........ ......... .....
1928-29............................. ...
1929-30 ........................................................
1930-31 ..........................................................
1931-32.......................... ........
1932-33....................................... .........

Total ................ ..........................


Imports



Gourdes
43,030,428
50,903,468
85,588,041
136,992,055
59,786,029
61,751,355
70,789,815
73,480,640
101,187,825
94,257,030
78,756,600
101,241,283
86,189,612
64,208,132
47,881,591
37,305,551
38,333,943

1,231,683,398


Exports



Gourdes
44,664,428
38,717,650
123,811,096
108,104,639
32,952,045
53,561,050
72,955,060
70,881,610
97,018,810
101,241,025
76,495,442
113,336,230
83,619,167
70,722,835
44,817,093
36,106,394
46,650,366

1,215,654,940


Total



Gourdes
87,694,856
89,621,118
209,399,137
245,096,694
92,738,074
115,312,405
143,744,875
144,362,250
198,206,635
195,498,055
155,252,042
214,577,513
169,808,779
134,930,967
92,698,684
73,411,945
84,984,309
2,447,338,338


Excess
Imports


Gourdes

12,185,818
28,887,416
26,833,984
8,190,305

2,599,030
4,169,015

2,261,158

2,570,445

3,064,498
1,199,157

91,960,826


TABLE No. 2

VALUE OF IMPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33


Country of Origin


France..................................
United Kingdom................ ..........
United States..........................................
Bahama Islands .............................. ....
Belgium.............. ..........................
Canada........................................
Canal Zone............................. ..
Cuba..................... ..............
Cu ra ao ................................................
Czecboslovakia ................... ....
Denmark.......................... ...
Dominican Republic.............................
Germany .............. .................
Guiana, British.......................
JItaly a........................................ ...........
,Jam aica ......................................................
Japan ..................................... .........
Netherlands ............. ...................
Norway...............................
Pnerto Rico.............................
Spain ..................................................... ..
Sweden .. .............-.............
Switzerland............... ...............
Venezuela ..................... ..........
All other .......-................................

Total......................... .............


Average
1916-17-
1920-21


Per cent
4.72
6.17
86.58


Average Average
1921-2- 192-27- 193132
1925-26 1930-31


Per cent
6.13
7.41
78.84
1


2.53 1 7.62


100.00


100.00


Per cent
7.03
6.50
72.60
.03
.78
.11
.13
.12
1.57
.02
.25
.61
4.39
.05
.83
.10
.13
2.47
.11
1.87
.07
.03
.11

.09

100.00


Per cent
5.87
9.20
67.58
.05
.99
.22
.03
.97
1.06
.16
.24
.52
4.20
.33
.80
.01
.40
3.50
.43
2.63
.15
.11
.21
.34

100.00


Excess
Exports


Gourdes
1,634,000
38,223,055


2,165,245

6,983,995
12,094,947

6,514,703

8,316,423

75,932,368


1932-33



Per cent
5.75
12.70
62.22
.10
1.40
.80
.11
.09
L96
.... 20
.39
.31
4.87
.10
.78
.05
3.02
2.64
.29
.92
.22
.03
.22
.58
.25

100.00


Average
1916-17-
1932-33


Per cent
5.96
6.97
78.43








8.64










100.00







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 3

VALUE OF EXPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33


Country of Destination


France.................................................
United Kingdom.. ........ ................
United States...............................
Bahama Islands........................................
Belgium..........................
Canada ................................. ................
Canal Zone...........................................
Cuba .......................................................
Curaa......................................
Denmark.............................,...........
Dominican Republic .......................
Frinland fri.................................
French A rica... ........................ ..........
Germany ......................................................
Italy ..........................................-. ...............
Jamaica ....................................
Netherlands .............................................
Norway .. .................... ............
Puerto Rico .........................................
Spain ....................................................
Sweden ........... .................
Virgin Islands.....................................
All other .............................................

Total...............................................


Average
1916-17-
1920-21


Per cent
39.61
1.35
51.05








7.96










100.00


Average
1921-22-
1925-26


Per cent
62.89
4.11
10.67


22.33










100.00


Average
1926-27-
1930-31


Per cent
50.62
5.20
8.21
.0
6.41
.87
.13
1.34
.19
7.80
.03
.17
.06
5.18
7.06
.02
2.54
.51
.34
2.38
.69
.01
.17

100.00


1931-32



Per cent
44.63
12.88
8.10
.02
8.96
.14
.18
.................
.02
9.07
.05
.20
3.23
10.43
.01
.48
.18

1.08
.22
.10
.02

100.00


1932-33



Per cent
54.18
11.48
6.26
.04
7.43
.16
.05

.11
8.22

.09
1.20
6.44
.02
1.44
.29
...................
2.01
.34
.11
.13

100.00


TABLE No. 4

VALUE OF TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33

Average Average Average Average
Country 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1931-32 1932-33 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1932-33


Per cenr Per cent Per cent Per cent Per ent Per cent
France.................. ................ .............. 20.05 34.29 29.13 24.93 32.33 28.28
United Kingdom........................ ... 4.05 5.77 5.84 11.01 12.03 5.71,
United States................................ 70.98 45.02 39.95 38.33 31.50 49.98
Bahama Islands ......................................... 0.05 0.03 0.07
Belgium................... ......... . .... 3.64 4.91 4.71
Canada................. ..................... 0.50 0.18 0.45
Canal Zone........................ ......... 0.13 0.11 0.08
Cuba....................... .... .................. 0.73 0.49 0.04
Curagao.............. ..... .................. 0.88 0.55 0.94
Czechoslovakia ... ...... ............... 0.01 0.08 0.09
Denmark........................ ... .. ..-.. 4.07 4.58 4.69
Dominican Republic...................... 0.32 0.26 0.14
Finland ......... ...... .... .......... 0.09 0.02 ............
French Africa ............................................. 0.03 0.10 0.05
Germany...... ....... .......................... 4.79 3.72 2.86
Guiana, British............................ 4.92 14.92 0.03 0.17 0.05 16.03
Italy.............................. .... 3.99 5.54 3.90
Jamaica............................ ..... 0.06 0.01 0.03
Japan.......................... ....... 0.08 0.20 1.36
Netherlands ............. .................... 2.51 2.02 1.98
Norway............................... 0.32 0.31 0.29
Puerto Rico.................................. 1.09 1.33 0.42
Spain ........... ...... ....................... ............. 1.24 0.61 1.20
Sweden ..................... ..... ............. 0.36 0.17 0.20
Switzerland .......... ..... 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.10
Venezuela................................. ......... ...... ................ .. .................. 0.26
Virgin Islands....... ........................... 0.01 0.05 0.06
All other...................... ...... ........ 0.10 0.18 0.17

Total............... ........ ... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Average
1916-17-
1932-33


Per cent
51.95
4.37
19.82








23.86










100.00










HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 83


TABLE No. 5

VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33


Country


Algeria .... ........................................................
Argentina.................... .........................
Australia............................. .. ............
A ustria ................................................................
.Bahama Islands................. ...............
Barbados....................... ............
Belgium...... ..........................................
British Africa.....................................
British India................. .....................
Canada.............. .........................
Canal Zone......... .............. ..............
China............................... ..
Corsica................... ...
Costa-Rica....................... .......
Cuba .. ..... ..................................
Curacao ..........................................................
Czechoslovakia........... ..... ....
Denmark.................. _.......... ...
Dominican Republic...................................
Dutch India................................ .........
Ecuador....... ........................ ..........
Egypt.................................................
Finland ...............................................
Francte ......................... ..
French Africa.................. ..................
Germany .....................................................
Guadeloue ................. ................................
Guiana, British.........................................
Guiana, Dutch....... ...................... .................
H aw ai..................................................................
Hionduras..............................
Hungry ..............................................................
Hungary............ .. ..... .....

aa................................ ........
Japan ...........................................................
Luxem burg ......................................................
M artinique...............................................

Neterland........
Meorxico...........................................................
Noroway.............. .............
Oceania...........'..z. ....'. .....
cPlestine......... ........................
Petheruland................. ......................

Portugal-.. ^..................... ..
Puetto Rio........... ........ .'.'...
Salvador........ ...................................... ...
Spain................._ .......................
Sweden........................... ...........................
Switzerland.. .........................................
PoStn a.............................................................

Trnidadl............................................

erto Rico ................................ ..
Salvador ............. ... ..........


SpaUnited ................ ....................................


United States................... ..
Venzuela...........................................
Virgin sland............. ............................... ...
Sw it z r land ........................................................


Impor


Gourdes
2
18,166
18,377
3,403
39,456

537,897
16
24,932
306,014
43,441
12,238
52
10
33,471
750,717
78,551
147,888
117,600
21
220
49
7
2,202,832
38
1,867,206
593
38,635
16,383
62
62
2,520
298,386
17,882
1,156,152
4
22
121
105
1,011,041
110,262
2
147
7
13
5
351,490
1
85,468
11,553
83,368
65
3,862
6
4,869,132
23,850,935
222,764
350

38,333,943


its Expc


Per cent Gourdes
............. ...................
0.05 30,586
0.05 ..................
0.01 ................
0.10 16,745
2,260
1.40 3,463,954
0.06 ..................
0.80 73,821
0.11 23,146
0.03 ................
................ 15

0.09 .. ..
1.96 49,686
0.20 ....................
0.39 3,834,834
0.31 433
......... . ...............

................ 1,680
5.75 25,275,888
............... 43,485
4.87 559,524
.............. 2,095
0.10 34
0.04
0.04 .... ...........


0.78 3,003,323
0.05 10,759
3.02 ....................

............... 13,640

2.64 669,930
0.29 136,270

................ ....................
........ 12,558

0.92 862

0.22 935.506
0.03 160,878
0.22 126
............. : .....

12.70 5"357,180
62.22 2,919,092
0.58 .................
............. 52,056

100.00 46,650,366


rts


Per cent

0.07

0.04

7.43

0.16
0.05



0.11

8.22




54.18
0.09
1.20






6.44
0.02

0.03

1.44
0.29

........
0.03


2.01
0.34



11.48
6.26

0.11

100.00


Gourdes
2
48,752
18,377
3,403
56,201
2,260
4,001,851
16
24,932
379,835
66,587
12,238
67
10
33,471
800,403
78,551
3,982.722
118,033
21
220
49
1,687
27,478,720
43,523
2,426,730
2,095
593
38,669
16,383
3
62
2,520
3,301,709
28,641
1,156,152
4
13,662
121
105
1,680,971
246,532
2
147
7
12,571
5
352,352
1
1,020,974
172,431
83,494
65
3,862
6
10,226,312
26,770,027
222,764
52,406

84,984,309


Per cent

0.06
0.02

0.07
............
4.71
...........
0.03
0.45
0.08
0.01

0.04
0.94
0.09
4.69
0.14



32.33
0.05
2.86

0.05
0.02


3.90
0.03
1.36
............
0.02

1.98



0.29

0.01





12.03
0.42



1.20
0.20
0.10


12.03
31.50
0.26
0.06

100.00


- .








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 6
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33


Port of Entry


-1

Aquin...........................
Belladire ...............................
Cap H aitien....................................
Cayes............... ......... ..............
Fort Libert......................................
Glore.................................................
Gonaives.......................... ............
Jacm el....... ......................... ................
Jir m ie ...................... ...................
Miragolne ............ .
Ouanaminthe............................
Petit 'Golve......................
Port-au-Prince........................
Port-de-Paix .............................
Saint Marc..............................

T otal.........................................


Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22-
1920-21 1925-26


Gourdes
156,514

9,987,651
6,443,055
257

3,922,744
3,457,767
1,942,796
518,426
27,035
2,674,944
41,712,019
2,087,026
2,329,771

75,260,005


Gourdes
120,425
6,482
8,293,009
7,440,221
618
81,567
3,732,077
4,904,482
1,579,913
956,170
287,016
2,081,535
45,889,008
2,059,178
2,861,632

80,293,333


Average
1926-27-
1930-31


Gourdes
6,384
164,003
7,836,730
5,364,502
156,510
51,427
3,389,829
3,746,895
2,203,983
859,672
138,690
1,641,739
46,142,317
1,833,370
2,119,392
75,655,443


1931-32 I 1932-33


Gourdes
397
31,883
3,475,682
2,128,849
100,509
13,340
1,470,242
1,293,376
763,710
230,496
100,382
504,319
25,703,610
686,712
802,044

37,305,551


Gourdes
1,070
49,987
3,655,479
1,977,194
275,294
4,155
1,501,478
956,870
945,950
144,633
43,874
380,423
26,468,054
808,126
1,121,356
38,333,943


TABLE No. 7
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY PORTS OF SHIPMENT-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33


Port of Shipment


Aquina............... ....................
Belladire...................... .............
Cap Haitien .............. ............
Cayes.............................. ....
Fort Libert............................ ..........
Glore............................. ............
Gonaives........................... .............
Jacm el................................ ............
Jdrim ie...............................................
Miragoine.............. ................
Ouanaminthe.............................
Petit Golve....................................
Port-au-Prince........................ .....
Port-de-Paix.................. ...........
Saint Marc.................. .........
T otal................. ......................


Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1931-32
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31


Gourdes
517,420

10,601,902
4,543,658
323,746

4,934,835
8,416,717
3,350,333
1,009,265
9,015
4,167,273
23,557,713
3,788,030
4,430,065
69,649,972


Gourdes
1,254,059
52
9,794,332
6,652,145
62,057
11,015
6,618,885
10,231,039
3,226,006
1,871,386
7,284
9,837,361
18,772,347
4,201,144
6,592,399

79,131,511


Gourdes
305,227
9,982
9,829,289
6,186,142
188,315
218
6,675,137
11,035,134
4,952,977
2,733,711
2,762
8,799,606
16,783,239
4,114,143
6,182,271

77,798,153


Gourdes
43,223

3,277,992
3,859,350
911,287
3,367,333
5,696,978
1,611,445
773,594
158
2,970,788
9,141,556
1,586,364
2,866,326
36,106,394


1932-33


Gourdes
227,158

7,118,913
3,809,457
1,056,874
4,709,388
5.562,954
3,594,461
680,888
352
3,817,848
10,657,461
2,156,102
3,258,510
46,650,366


Average
1916-17-
1932-33

Gourdes
626,700
2,951
9,501,442
5,563,443
284,632
3,304
5,836,530
9,392,611
3,697,205
1,736,841
5,636
7,106,461
18,550,913
3,779,944
5,420,501
71,509,114


TABLE No. 8
VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY PORTS-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33


Imports


Gourdes Per cent
A quin............................ ................................. 1,070 ................
Belladre..................................... ............ 49,987 0.13
Cap Haitien............... .......... .................. 3,655,479 9.54
Cayes................................................... 1,977,194 5.16
Fort Liberti..................... .................... 275,294 0.72
Glore................................................................. 4,155 0.01
Gonaives..............-.......................................... 1,501,478 3.92
Jacmel............................................................... 956,870 2.50
Jeremie............................................................. 945,950 2.47
Miragone..................... ........................... 144,633 0.38
Onanaminthe......... .............................. 43,874 0.11
Petit Gove....................................................... 380,423 0.99
Port-au-Prince ........................ ......... .. 26,468,034 69.04
Port-de-Paix ...................... ................... ......... 808,126 2.11
Saint Marc............1................................. ... 1,121,356 2.92
Total....................................................... 38,333,943 100.00


Exports


Gourdes
227,158
7,118,913
3,809,457
1,056,874
4,709,388
5,562,954
3,594,461
680,888
352
3,817,848
10,657,461
2,156,102
3,258,510
46,650,366


Per cent
0.49
15.26
8.16
2.27
10.10
11.92
7.71
1.46
8.18
22.85
4.62
6.98
100.00


Total


Gourdes Per cent
228,228 0.27
49,987 0.06
10,774,392 12.68
5,786,651 6.81
1,332,168 1.57
4,155 .
6,210,866 7.31
6,519,824 7.67
4,540,411 5.34
825,521 0.97
44,226 0.05
4,198,271 4.94
37,125,515 43.68
2,964,228 3.49
4,379,866 5.16
84,984,309 100.00


Average
1916-17-
1932-33


Gourdes
83,417
54,959
8,101,065
5,902,643
68,397
40,145
3,423,234
3,693,880
1,784,889
708,616
141,645
1,933,872
42,405,199
1,846,630
2,263,375

72,451,965






TABLE No. 9

NET TONNAGE OF STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS
-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33

Steam and Motor Vessels Entered


Months


October 1932.......................................
November..............................................
December...................... ..............
January 1933......................................
February....................... ..............
March....................................................
A pril................................. .............
M ay..................................... ...............
June.................................. .............
July............................... .............
August...................................... ..............
Septem ber.............................................
Total.......................................


American


No. Tonnage


17 55,223
17 52,178
21 64,872
23 75,046
21 69,530
26 89,716
21 76,418
23 74,209
26 81,044
22 74,023
26 86,461
27 80,001
270 878,721


British


No.


2
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
5
1
2
1
30


Tonnage


2,914
5,502
5,311
4,776
18,985
18,673
4,669
5,750
5,260
2,067
3,668
2,067
79,642


Dutch


No. Tonnage


18 21,517
18 19,398
18 19,954
12 13,247
13 14,960
16 18,317
19 19,322
17 20,572
14 17,962
15 20,530
16 18,723
14 17,263
190 221,765


French


No. Tonnage


2 4,400
1 2,667
2 3,466
2 5,334
2 5,002
3 6,468
2 7,078
3 7,222
2 7,078
2 5,334
2 7,078
2 5,334
25 66,461


German


No. Tonnage


10 18,479
7 13,110
9 24,359
10 26,314
6 11,016
11 36,650
8 15,670
6 11,088
6 11,286
5 9,110
9 16,144
9 17,061
96 210,287


All other


No. Tonnage


6 8,026
2 2,582
8 10,116
5 5,627
7 39,715
6 21,588
5 6,545
5 6,399
6 7,427
5 6,494
5 5,362
10 12,255

70 132,136


Steam and Motor Vessels Cleared


October 1932.....................................
November.......................... ............
December....................... ...............
January 1933.....................................
February.......................... ..............
March...........................................
April.................... ..........
M ay........................................................
June.............................. ... ............
July........................................ .......
August......... ........... .........
September...................... ...............
Total .......................... ...........


17
17
21
23
21
26
21
22
25
23
26
28
270


55,223
52,178
64,872
75,046
69,530
89,716
76,418
72,623
80,873
74,194
86,461
81,587
- 878,721


2,914
5,502
5,311
4,134
17,481
20,819
4,669
3,604
7,406
2,067
1,834
3,901
79,642


19
19
18
11
14
16
18
17
14
16
16
14
192


22,834
19,933
19,954
12,304
15,903
18,317
18,492
20,794
17,746
21,354
18,723
S17,263
223,617


1
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2

25


2,667
1,733
4,400
7,067
5,002
6,468
7,078
7,222
7,078
5,334
7,078
5,334
66,461


9
6
11
8
8
10
8
6
7
5
9
9

96


16,693
11,140
28,115
22,651
14,679
34,747
15,731
11,073
13,143
9,110
16,144
17,061
210,287


6
2
8
4
8
6
4
6
5
6
5
10

.70


8,026
2,582
10,116
4,348
40,994
21,588
5,362
7,582
6,693
7,228
5,362
12,255
132,136


Total


No. Tonnage

0
55 110,559 W
48 95,437
61 128,078 0
55 130,344 '
51 159,208 M
64 191,412 2
58 129,702 >
57 125,240
59 130,057
50 117,558
60 137,436
63 133,981
681 1,589,012




B
El
r

54 108,357
48 93,068
63 132,768
51 125,550 <
55 163,589 m
64 191,655
56 127,750
56 122,898
59 132,939
53 119,287
59 135,602
65 137,401
683 1,590,864 00
Q1g


i








86 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 10
NET TONNAGE OF SAILING VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED
AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33

Sailing Vessels Entered

American British Haitian All other Total
Months --- ---
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage


O october 1932..................... ... ..... ..... ............. 6 54 ............ ............ ............... ......... 6 54
N ovember......................... .. ............ ............. 8 82 ............ .......... .............. ............ 8 82
December.............................. 2 2,055 10 88 ............ ................ 1 984 13 3,127
January 1933................ 3 564 .. .. ........ ................ 1 39 13 696
February............ 1,539 5 43 ............ ............... ......... ....... 10 1,582
March......................... 2 1,180 20 177 ....................... 1 2 23 1,359
April...................................... 1 11 19 426 ...... ............. ........... ........ 20 437
May........... .................. 2 135 21 195 ............ ................ 1 965 24 1,295
June .................................... 1 1,362 28 299 ............ .............. ........ .............. 29 1,661
July................................ ............ ... .......... 28 295 .. ..... .............. ........... 28 295
August ........ ... .......... ........... 16 ...6 19 ........ .............. ....... ... 16 149
September....................... ........... 1 144 8 77 ..... ........ ............ 9 221
Total........................... 17 6,990 18 1,978 .................... 4 1,990 199 10,958


Sailing Vessels Cleared

O october 1932.......................... .. ..... .. ............. 6 54 ............ ............ ... .. ............. 6 5
November............................. .......... ...... 3 36 .................. .... ......... 3 36
December....... ......................... 1 1,365 15 134 ............ ............. ...... .... 16 1,499
January 1933........................ 3 935 9 93 ............ ............. 1 984 13 2,012
February.......................... 4 1,041 5 43 .. .............. 1 39 10 1,123
March ................... ........ 4 1,997 20 177 ............ ................. 24 2,174
April............ .. 1 11 16 159 .... ...... 1 "2 18 172
May..................................... 2 135 22 443 ...... .......... .... 24 578
June................................... 1 1,362 26 282 .......... ............ 1 965 28 2,609
July........................................ .......... .. .......... 28 282 ........... .. ............. .... 28 282
August .................. ....... ........... ..... ......... 20 198 .. .. ... 20 198
September........................... 1 144 6 58 .... ........... 7 202
Total.......................... 17 6,990 176 1,959 ... .... 4 1,990 197 10,939






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 87






TABLE No. 11

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33


S Mer- Merchan-
Country chandise dictsub- American British Dutch French German Norwegian oher Total cet
free of ject to other cent
duty duty


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Algeria................................................ 2 .................... 2 .................................... 2 .......... 2
Argentina.............. ......... .............. 18,166 11,573 ........... 6,593 ...... ... .. ......... 18,166 0.05
Australia...................................................................... .................. 18,377 15,771 .........2,606 .......... ........ .......-- 18,377 0.05
Austria............................................ 4 3,399 155 .. 350 47 2,851 .... ...... 3,403 0.01
Bahama Islands......................................................... 98 39,358 3,411 36,045 ................ ......... ..... 39,456 0.10
Belgium.................................................... 10,191 527,706 87,351 3 31 18,092 1,320 428,651 2,342 110 537,897 1.40
British Africa ............................................................... ................... 16 .................... ............... 16 ............. ........... .....- -. .... 16 ...... .
British India.................................................. 885 24,047 24,019 ..514 399 ...... ...... ...... 24,932 0.06
Canada....................... ..... ... 891 305,123 265,439 4,500 29,225 12 6,070 ............. 768 306,014 0.80
Canal Zone ............... ..................... ...... 4,966 38,475 43,441 ........... .................. .............. 43,441 0.11
China................................................. .. ................. 11,695 543 11,978 ............... 88 167 ............ ............. 5 12,238 0.03
C orsica ............................................................................ ..............52 .................... ................ ................ 52 ............ ................ ............... 52 ..........
Costa Rica .................................................... 10 10.......... 10 ................... 10 ................ ................. . . .................. .............. 10 ...........
Cuba ....... ...... ....... ..... 2,570 30,901 3,645 831 4,604 2,175 ............. 22,216 33,471 0.09
Curacao.......................... ........................ 259,243 491,474 52,794 123,732 269,142 ............ 254,135 .................. 50,914 750,717 1.96
Czechoslovakia............................................................. 4,388 74,163 1,041 356 16,907 26 59,960 .................. 261 78,551 0.20
Denmark .................... ...... ........... 68 147,820 43,007 ...... 54,420 211 48,958 ................ 1,292 147,888 0.39
Dominican Republic.............................. .......... 15,814 101,786 902 ............ 8,754 ............ 4,465 .................. 103,479 117,600 0.31
Dutch India........................................ ......................... .. 21 7 ................ 14 .................. ................ .................. .......... 21
Ecuador --**-- **-----........ . . ....^....... 220 220 ....... .. .. 220
Ecuador................................................................... 2205 220 ............ ...............9 ... .............. ............. --- 220 ..........
Egypt............................ ........................ ............... ..... 5 44 30 .............. ...... 9 ............ ..... .. ..... ....... 10 49 ........
Fran.c. ...e .............. ............. 119,948 2,082,884 204,756 911 84,130 1,841,377 62,634 1,924 7,100 2,202,832 5.75
French Africa ................................. ....................38 14 ............ ...........24...... ........... .......... 38 ..........
Germany................. ........................... 110,272 1,756,934 145,029 940 659,628 418 1,055,129 ............ 6,062 1,867,206 4.87
Guadeloupe........... ..................... .................................... .................. 593 157 .............. ............ 351 78 .............. 7 593 ............
Guiana, British.. ......... ...............................38,635 6,971 ................ 27,102 .................. .... ..... 4,562 .... 38,635 0.10
Guiana, Dutch........................................................... ................. 16,383 9,100 ........ 2,783 .............. 4,500 .. ........... .... 16,383 0.04
Haw ai....l.............................................. ...................... .................. 3 3 ............ ... ....................... .... ... ..............3 ..........
Honduras....................................... ............ 62 51 ............ .... 9 .. ......... 2 62 ......
Hungary... ........... .... ........ 6 2,514 8 .............. 670 2 1,840 .......... ................ 2,520 .........
Italy....... .................... ............................................ 4,419 293,967 177,133 ................ 40,843 214 77,939 ................ 2,257 298,386 0.78
Jamaica..................................................................... 301 17,581 11,708 2,399 413 .................. 3,227 ... ....... 135 17,882 0.05
Japan......................................... 1,459 1,154,693 1,083,818 467 61,012 4,285 .......... 6,048 522 1,156,152 3.02
Luxem burg .................................................................... 4 ................... 4 ................ ............. .................. ............ .................. . ............ 4 ..........
M artinique............................................. 22 14 .............. ............ 6 ........ .. 2 22 ............
M exico................................. 18 103 18 ............. 61 ................. ..... 121 .......
M oroco............................................................................. ........... 10 79 ................ .............. 26 .... .... .. ..... 105 .......
Netherl;nds........................................................... 23,872 987,169 64,129 2,857 932,007 ................ 9,466 2,027 555 1,011,041 2.64
Norway............................... 943 109,319 6,005 ............... 69,609 6,522 21,689 6,437 ......... 110,262 0.29
O ceania......................................................................... .. 2 .................. ................ ............ ............ ...... .2 2 ........
Palestine ...................................................................... 14 .................. 147 5 .............. .............. 142 ................. ............... ................ 147 ............
Peru................................ .. ........ ........... ...... ..................7 ................ ................ ....... .................. ... ...7 7 ..
Poland............. ..................... ................................... .................. 13 .................... .............. . ................ ...... ....... 13 .. .....
Portugal........................................................................... .................. 5 5 ................ ................ ........... ...... ......... ............ ............. 5
Puerto Rico............... ........................ ........ 10,75 340,715 325,226 ........... 10,715 3,569 10,502 1,478 351,490 0.92
S P er l or. ........... .. ..... .................................. .................... ..
Spain ..................... .... .... .................... 489 84,979 43,639 ................ 25,205 16,541 ................. ................ 83 5,468 0.22
Sweden............................................................................. 220 11,,33 699 ................ 6,679 .................. 3,687 488 ............. 11,553 0.03
Switzerland................................... 354 83,014 4,476 19,220 3,506 55,305 861 83,368 0.22
Syria.................. ...... .... 11 54 10 55 65 ............
Trinidad .. .......................................... ........... 5 3,857 5 ................ 3,830 ................ . .............. 27 3,862 0.01
Tripoli................................. ............................ ..... ................. 6 .................... ................ 6 ... . . ..... ... 6
United Kingdom.................................................... 208,158 4,660,974 3,529,836 338,423 802,830 11,335 186,461 247 4,869,132 12.70
United States................................................................ 2,007,823 21,843,112 14,417,267 312,817 5,642,006 ............. 16,946 3,336,254 125,645 23,850,935 62.22
Venezuela....................... .... 222,764 222,740 ............... ............ 24 .................. ........... ............... 222,764 0.58
Virgin Islands............................................................... ...350 .................... ................ .............. 350 ......... ................. ..... ... 350 .......
Total ........ ......... 2,799,915 35,534,028 20,817,702 823,478 8,796,301 1,895,603 2,316,732 3,360,082 324,045 38,333,943 100.00
Per cent............... ........ ........... 7.30 92.70 54.31 2.15 22.95 4.94 6.04 8.77 0.84














"TABLE No. 12

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33

Mer- Merchan- -
Country chandise dise sub- Nor- All TPe
rCny c ie djects- American British Danish Dutch French German Ngn er PeTotal
free of Ject to wegian other CentT
duty duty

0
nGourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gdes. Gourdes
Argentina..........0,586 30,586 ......... .... ........... ................ ................ ....... .... ... ........... 30,86 0.07
Bahama Islands ... ..................... 9,090 7,55 .................. 16,745 ............ ........ ................. .................. .................. ............ 16,745 0.04
Barbados.................................... .... ... ............. 2,2 ................. 2,260 .............. ................ .............. ............ 2,260 ............
Belgium .................. ............... 10 3,463,794 997,849 257,391 ................ 988,084 281,852 938,778 .......... ............ 3,463,954 7.43
Canada............................................... 73,821 32,872 ................ ............... 40,949 . .................... .......... ... ... ..... 73,821 0.16
Canal Zone................................ 4,801 18,345 23,146 ................ ... ........ ........... 23,146 0.05
Corsica............ ........ ........ ...... .......... ........ .... ......... 15 .................. ... ........ ....... ......... ............ ........ 15 .... 15
Corica ..................... ................. 15 ............. .....15.......... .... 15
Curacao.................... ____ ....................... 3,292 46,394 .................. .................. .............. 49,686 ..... ...... ........ . . . 49,686 0.11 0
CDenar.o................ ............... 3,292 46.394.. 49,686.49,686 0.11
Denmrk.............................................. ......... .... 3,834,834 503,787 491,954 .............. 1,532,444 580,87 725,782 ................. 3,834,834 8.22
Dominican Republic .......................... 230 203 ................... ..... ...... ... .... 81 .... .. 352 433
Finland.......................................................... ........... 1,6 80 ............. ........ ......................................... 1,680 .... 1,680 .......
Finland ........................................................... ..... 1,680 .................. .................. .............. ............ .... 1,680 ................. ............ 1,680 >
Franc................ ....................... 298 25,275,590 3,670,599 4,153,171 102,793 7,171,828 3,930,235 6,247,262 ............... 25,275,888 54.18 0
French Africa............................................... 43,485 15,646 ...... ... ..... 21,199 .. .6,640 ................ ........... 43,485 0.09 <
Germany........................................... 90 559,434 9,522 11,045 ............ 101,463 135,576 271,918 ........... .. 559,524 1.20 E,
Gibraltar... .................................................. 2,095 865 ............. ............ 1,230 .......... ..... ........ .................. . 2,095
Guiana, British............ .. .. ..... ......... 34 .................. ................. .............. 34 .................. ................... ............ 34
Italy.......... ........... 3,003,323 1,273,942......... 1,712,458 7,540 9,383 ................ 3,003,323 6.44
Jamaica............................ .................. 5 10,754 10,755 ........... .......... .. ....... 24 ... ......... ............ 10,759 0.02 m
Martinique........................ .......................... 13,640 .................. .................. ........... ...................13,640 .............. . .. 13,640 0.03
Netherlands.................... ........ ........... . 669,930 59,960 15,270 ..............., 477,068 73,007 44,625 ............................. 669,930 1.44
Norway.......................................................... .... 136,270 18,263 14,091 ...... 45,032 24,382 34,502 ............. ......... 136,270 0.29
Poland................ ...... .............. .... 12,558 ...................... 12,558 .................... .................. ........... 12,558 0.03
Puerto Rico............................. ... ............ 280 582 862 ........ .. ......... ................. ....... 862
Spain..................................... ....... ...... 935506 461,435 ................. ............... 451,373 5,462 17,236 ............ ....935,506 2.01
Sweden............................. ..... ........ 160,878 24,666 ................. .............. 93,921 .................. 42,291 .............. ............ 160,878 0.34
Switzerland .............................. ........ 126 .126 ................. ............ 126
United Kingdom............................. ....... 5,357,180 862,961 1,663,082 ................ 781,771 475785 1,573,581 .......................... 5,357,180 11.48
United States............ ...................... 119,033 2,800,059 598,120 ................ 180,086 650,178 ........ 113,197 1,377,511 ........... 2,919,092 6.26
Virgin Islands......................... .... ............... 52,056 28,336 ................. .... .... 23,720 ............... .................. ............ 52,056 0.11
Total.................................... .......... 137,279 46,513,087 8,654,152 6,625,009 282,879 14,118,718 5,564,639 10,027,106 1,377,511 352 46,650,366 100.00
Per cent............................... 0.29 99.71 18.55 14.20 0.61 30.27 11.93 21.49 2.95 .....................................















TABLE No. 13

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33 COMPARED WITH 1931-32


No-
October member


Gourdes Gourdes
134 145
2,152 4,690
286,558 403,183
142,277 167,864
230 67
2 1,009
159,510 106,324
86,911 103,928
70,637 131,684
6,794 8,928
6,171 6,201
19,157 27,312
1,833,163 2,072,649
77,564 102,830
87,184 52,270

2,778,444 3,189,084
3,543,883 3,327,212



765,439 138,128


January


Gourdes
203
2,651
433,117
123,005
143,167
31
118,922
76,154
72,547
10,303
2,186
32,346
1,736,831
67,958
86,513

2,905,934
3,603,627


February


Gourdes
5
6,245
254,375
130,757
10,590
1,720
125,671
67,664
53,958
16,308
5,358
36,216
1,966,480
61,649
112,399

2,849,395
3,056,305


Port of
Entry



Aquin................
Belladire ...........
Cap Haitien....
Cayes.................
Fort Liberti....
Glore..................
Gonaives...........
Jacmel ...............
Jirdmie.............
Miragoine........
Ouanaminthe...
Petit Gove......
Port-au-Prince
Port-de-Paix...
Saint Marc.......

Total 1932-33..
Total 1931-32..

Increase
1932-33..........
Decrease
1932-33........


March


Gourdes
96
5,580
293,485
175,304
20,787
72
129,997
115,939
105,984
15,270
8,650
44,428
2,973.617
59,607
134,722

4,085,538
3,568,529

517,009

...........


April


Gourdes
100
9,280
249,228
144,173
30,402
2
97,821
41,203
65,909
13,078
417
49,631
2,251.233
36,766
75,274

3,014,517
2,861,151

150,366

............


May


Gourdes
106
3,500
277,448
174,119
21,978
198
106,059
87,352
80,822
7,857
3,267
28,837
2 n?.r..71

123,207

3,003,143
3,238.649



235,506


June July


Gourdes Gourdes
105 74
1,195 2,931
219,908 250,066
135,430 208,426
12,991 932
25 115
107,673 87,909
29,557 38,489-
48,594 82,444
11,122 8,208
C96 381
17,819 26,51
1,lI 'i 2,154,328
,- 84,341
56,095 83,179

2,807,478 3,030,474
',529,147 2,396,078

278,331 634,396

........... .............


August


Gourdes
87
1,722
238,090
185,419
24,155
..............
93,650
93,793
49,477
20,454
1,889
22,984
2,674,451
65,468
68,753

3,540,392
2,466,182

1,074,210


Septem-
ber


Gourdes
15
1,091
323,835
92,981
9,825
32
167,298
87,615
46,095
10,567
444
33,107
2,184,316
55,770
158,601

3,171,592
2,793,216

378,376


Total
1932-33


Gourdes
1,070
49,987
3,655,479
1,977,194
275,294
4,155
1,501,478
956,870
945,950
144,633
43,874
380,423
26,468,054
808,126
1,121,356

38,333,943


1,028,392


Total
1931-32 Increase


Gourdes Gourdes
397 673
31,883 18,104
3,475,682 179,797
2,128,849 ..............
100,509 174,785
13,340 ..............
1,470,242 31,236
1,293,376
763,710 182,240
230,496 ........
100,382 ....
504,319 ..............
25,703,610 764,444
686,712 121,414
802,044 319,312

................ 1,792,005
37,305,551 ........


De-
cember


Gourdes

8,950
426,186
297,439
170
949
200,644
118,265
137,799
15,744
8,214
41,935
2,526,876
93,622
81,159

3,957,952
3,918,572

39,380

I ..............


697,693 206,910


De-
crease


Gdes.


151,655

9,185

336,506
85,863
56,508
123,896



763,613


I, ., I -I~*1.~_11, MR."P ""LI_^___~-I--___I~II__rl-~~~1~_r~~F i~~~



















TABLE No. 14
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF SHIPMENT-FISCAL YEAR 1932-33 COMPARED WITH 1931-32

Port of No- De- Sep- Total Total De- v
Shipment October vember cember January February March April May June July August tember 1932-33 1931-32 Increase crease 0


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gdes.
Aquin.......... 2,281 .............. 8,186 13,932 34,210 47,737 30,103 41,404 49,305........ 227158 43,223 183,935 .
Cap Haitien... 717,260 984,711 919,362 932,736 750,197 755,732 506,794 678,187 253,199 270,517 190,616 179,602 7,118,913 3,277,992 3,840,921 ..
Cayes............... 257,108 332,225 461,283 407,863 441,608 439,544 257,101 231,414 296,271 264,446 176,080 244,514 3,809,457 3,859,350 ................ 49,893
Fort Libert... 73,643 .............. 157,430 3,197 180,086 29,140 106,008 26,099 98,946 68,710 53,825 259,790 1,056,874 911,287 145,587 ............
Gonaives......... 249,500 438,083 532,372 478,142 525,601 680,208 556,225 511,592 363,325 208,518 71,508 94,314 4,709,388 3,367,33 1,342,055 ...
Jacel.............. 483,521 551,473 549,562 711,631 642,512 600,448 586,275 502,138 212,115 489,347 135,215 98,717 5,562,954 5,696,978 .............. 134,024 r
Jlrimie........... 429,475 515,353 545,177 474,893 341,582 247,151 236,724 306,264 198,655 169,378 84,805 45,004 3,594,461 1,611,445 1,983016...
Miragone....... 42,795 34,059 81,294 85,366 115,208 56,368 25,268 79,313 65,525 43,709 18,411 33,572 680,888 773,594 ............ 92,706
Ouanaminthe. ............. .............. ........... .......4 22 4 12 54 55 131 70 352 158 194 ..........
Petit Gove.... 185,776 200,156 539,396 472,934 483,167 580,214 274,121 351,659 218,614 297,171 126,914 87,726 3,817,848 2,970,788 847,060 ...
Port-au-Princ 450,298 585,017 1,051,411 1,251,128 684,280 1,587,563 1,438,089 1,288,881 509,049 607,389 373,779 830,577 10,657,461 9,141,556 1,515,905 ........
Port-de-Pai.. 310,175 305,699 242,921 284,799 97,863 211,630 132,011 116,216 128,804 129,584 60,292 136,108 2,156,102 1,586,264 569,738 .........
Saint Marc...... 76,370 158,691 191,168 113,166 314,389 626,865 464,244 482,590 388,687 120,016 153,891 168,433 3,258,510 2,866,326 392,184 ...........
Total 1932-33 3,278,202 4,085,467 5,279,562 5,229,787 4,610,707 5,862,622 4,612,967 4,615,769 2,782,549 2,668,840 1,445,467 2,178,427 46,650,366 .......... 10,820,595 276,623
Total 1931-32 3,466,292 3,419,013 4,761,960 4,711,981 4,088,661 4,162,731 2,998,994 2,770,7771,766,551 1,228,620 1,241,965 1,488,849 ............. 36,106,394

Increase
1932-33........ .............. 666,454 517,602 517,806 522,046 1,699,891 1,613,973 1,844,992 1,015,998 1,440,220 203,502 689,578 10,543,972 .............. ............... ...........
Decrease o
1=32 ........ 188,090 ............. ............. ............. ........... ............. ............ ....... .. ......... .................. . .. . .
--I







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 91


TABLE No. 15

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33

Average Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27-- 1931-32 1932-33 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1932-33


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Agricultural implements....................................... 561,758 286,505 350,337
Books and other printed matter........................ 319,717 114,037 357,361 *
Cement ....................................... 453,756 426,121 708,521 247,886 319,799 500,569
Chemical and pharmaceutical products....... 644,320 928,705 961,562 616,200 771,665 827,106
Cotton, and manufactures of, other than
textiles.................................... ........* 3,341,450 2,018,486 1,856,518
Fibers, vegetable, and manufactures of,
other than cotton and textiles..................... 2,114,647 1,856,885 1,133,803 512,647 651,924 1,570,073
Foodstuffs:
Fish............................................................ 2,380,691 3,289,025 3,276,411 1,334,658 1,487,469 2,797,221
Wheat flour.................................................... 10,671,303 12,044,975 10,987,422 4,965,715 2,866,115 10,373,549
Meats.......................................................... 1,129,413 1,452,559 1,262,670 652,887 578,316 1,203,201
Rice................................... 1,735,650 1,293,365 1,704,546 571,909 313,251 1,444,292
All other................................................. 6,544,557 5,786,803 6,135,900 3,083,617 2,625,205 5,767,360
Household utensils: crockery, porcelain,
glassware, cutlery and kitchen utensils, of
aluminium, iron and steel............................. 1,080,639 591,255 758,626 *
Iron, steel and manufactures of, other
than specified...................................................... 3,460,075 3,411,649 3,615,690 1,309,124 1,328,208 3,239,671
Leather....... ..................... ................. 780,115 785,827 307,544 137,173 126,095 566,512
Liquors and beverages...................... ......... 1,229,720 1,433,548 1,007,712 479,013 484,254 1,136,363
Lmber......................... ........ 1,054,752 1,345,746 1,579,319 649,840 712,167 1,250,652
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger............................... 1,547,757 523,700 888,066 *
Trucks................................ .... ..... 521,839 108,004 160,200 *
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline.....................----......- 354,469 855,634 2,319,923 1,259,334 1,167,388 1,180,991
Kerosene............................ ...... .......... 1,108,696 935,008 1,236,788 931,579 917,772 1,073,636
All other................................................... 175,174 361,676 782,138 564,486 411,040 445,322
Shoes............................ .............................. 921,824 366,013 330,574
Silk. and manufactures of, except textiles... 203,099 119,950 120,465 *
Soap............................................................................ 3,849,333 3,060,897 2,981,036 1,535,154 1,339,468 3,078,291
Textiles, cotton............................................. 19,708,185 21,150,406 14,364,675 7,966,543 10,278,600 17,315,381
All other......................................................... 2,058,189 2,060,451 756,300 347,172 304,425 1,472,135
Tobacco..................................................................... 2,009,210 1,770,269 226,481 19,213 21,021 1,180,590
Wool, hair, and manufactures of, except
textiles..................................................................* 226,701 145,506 125,121 *
All other.................................................................. 13,797,749 16,043,784 11,582,219 5,847,945 6,682,493 16,029,050
Total................................................... 75,20,004 80,293,333 75,655,444 37,305,551 38,333,943 72,451,965


* No separate figures available.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No, 16
QUANTITY OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1932-33

Average Average Average Average
Commodity Unit 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1931-32 1932-33 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1932-33


Cement ................................... Kilo 3,518,741 5,675,884 9,856,604 4,236,253 5,852,777 6,196,775
Cotton, and manufactures of,
other than textiles.......... 367,748 375,817 259,400 *
Fibers, vegetable, and manu-
factures of, other than
cotton and textiles.............. 737,822 495,529 805,322
Foodstuffs:
Fish .................................... 2,166,642 4,298,888 5,311,642 2,830,384 3,879,108 3,858,550
Wheat flour.................... 12,354,104 28,161,255 27,710,108 19,941,336 11,362,903 21,907,740
Meats ......................... .... 500,144 923,154 1,053,446 726,047 793,566 817,843
Rice ...................................... 675,744 2,859,235 4,469,193 2,247,588 1,403,327 2,568,928
Leather .................................... 18,642 12,063 12,031 *
Liquors and beverages-...... Liter 686,337 1,126,049 804,225 361,982 381,197 813,308
Lumber ................................ Cubic meter 6,769.43 14,321.29 14,009.65 7,301.93 8,285.99 11,240.57
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger.. Number 412 180 286
Trucks ............................ 133 34 54 *
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline ....................... Liter 547,523 2,254,239 7,704,611 6,061,097 7,470,076 3,886,061
Kerosene .......................... 2,894,769 3,623,516 4,574,678 4,015,642 3,992,730 3,733,717
Shoes ............................... .. Pair 177,997 67,347 56,915
Silks, natural and artificial,
and manufactures of, ex-
cept textiles.......- .. ....... Kilo 3,371 2,707 3,144 *
Soap ....................................... 2,830,380 3,605,622 3,955,471 3,211,206 3,300,260 3,439,31
Textiles, cotton....................... 2,685,127 3,708,304 2,707,401 2,407,190 3,359,265 3,015,919
All other .................. 361,788 66,548 52,913 56,465 132,415
Tobacco ................................... 694,984 821,907 134,759 10,110 10,884 487,014
Wool, hair, and manufactu-
res of, except textiles....... 14,814 5,589 9,435 *

*No separate figures available.




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