Annual report of the [U.S.] Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)

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Title:
Annual report of the U.S. Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Mixed Material
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Wash., GPO, 1925-

Notes

General Note:
4-trUS-1923-33
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HLL-D HAI 772; Hollis 005938270

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University of Florida
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HAITI


ANNUAL REPORT


OF THE

FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL

RECEIVER

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER 1931 SEPTEMBER 1932



SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE,
AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF
THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, AND THE SECRETARY OF
STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA





S. DE LA RUE
Financial Adviser-General Receiver

REX A. PIXLEY
Deputy General Receiver

J. C. CRADDOCK
Director General of Internal Revenue




Imprimerie de I'Etat
PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI



















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CONTENTS


Page
Foreign Commerce ............................................... ........................................
Balance of Trade...................................... ................ ................................... 4
Origin of Imports.................................. .................. ................................... 5
Destination of Exports.................................................... ........................... 6
Ports of Entry for Imports................. ...................................... .......... ...... 8
Ports of Shipment for Exports............................................. ........................ 8
Shipping.... ............................................................................................................ 9
Foreign Commerce by M onths............................................. ........................ 12
Commodities Imported................................ ................ ................................. 14
Commodities Exported................................................... ................................ 16
Standardization ..................................... ............... ...... .................. 21
Tariff Revision................................................................................................. 23
Customs Service...................................... .................................................... 24
Internal Revenue Service................................................. .............................. 2
Land Legislation................................ ................... ........................................ 27
Government Revenues.............................................. ..................................... 29
Expenditures .............................................................. ................................... 35
Treasury Position............................................ ............................................... 40
Public Debt.................................................. .............................................. 43
Disbursements ........................................... ................. ................................... 46
Supplies ................................................................................................................ 48
The Budget and Financial Legislation...................................... ................... 48
Auditing and Accounting................................................................................ 51
Currency ........................................................ .............................................. 52
Banking and Credit....................................................................................... 52
Claims ............................................................................................................. 53
Personnel ............................................................................................................ 54
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 55
Tables ................................................................ ........................................... 59
Annex: Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue................................ 101
Receipts by Sources............................................................................. 101
Receipts by Financial Districts and Sources............................................... 102
Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Months................................... 105
Internal Revenue Receipts by Communes................................................. 106
Administrative and Operating Costs............................................................ 106
Quarters and Equipment...... ...... ................................................................. 107
Personnel .................................................................................................... 108
Digest of Chief Taxes Collected............................................................... 108
Conclusion .............................................................................................. 115
Tables .................................................................................................. 117
Appendix: Schedules.............. ................ ................................. .......... 137








STATISTICAL EXHIBITS

TABLES
Pag
1. Value of Imports and Exports, and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1931-32............................................. .................... 61
2. Value of Imports showing Countries of Origin in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1931-32................................................... ......................... 61
3. Value of Exports showing Countries of Destination in Percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1931-32................................................................. 62
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by Countries in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1931-32................................................... ......................... 62
5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Countries, fiscal year 1931-32................................... .... 63
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32........ 64
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32 64
8. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Ports, fiscal year 1931-32..................................... ........ 64
9. Net tonnage of Steam and Motor Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered
and Cleared by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1931-32.................... 65
10. Net Tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1931-32.................................... 66
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1931-32........ 67
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1931-32.... 68
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 1931-32
compared with 1930-31....................................................................... 69
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year 1931-32
compared with 1930-31................................................................... 70
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32............ 71
16. Quantity of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.... 72
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32........ 73
18. Quantity of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.... 73
19. Quantity and Value of Five principal Exports by Ports, fiscal year 1931-32
compared with 1930-31 ..................................................................... 74
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1931-32 ......................................................................................... 75
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities and Months, fiscal year
1931-32 .................................................................. ........... ........ 76
22. Receivership Fund, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32............. ........ 77
23. Expenses of Financial Adviser-General Receiver by Objects of Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32......................................................... 77
24. Classification of Total Expenditures of Financial Adviser-General Receiver,
fiscal year 1931-32............................................................................. 78
25. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the Fi-
nancial Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1931-32...... .........
26. Distributions of Expenditures from Receivership Fund, fiscal year 1931-32 79
27. Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Cost of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property, and Fixed Charges, fiscal
years 1919-20 to 1931-32................................................................. 79
28. Total cost of Collecting each Gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1931-32......................................... ........... 80
29. Operating allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24 t
1931-32 ............ ................................................... .......... 80





STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


Page
30. Revenue of Haiti by Sources, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1931-32................... 81
31. Relation between Import and Export Values and Customs Receipts, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1931-32............................................................. 81
32. Customs Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32................... 82
33. Customs Receipts by Ports, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32................... 83
34. Customs Receipts by Sources and Ports, fiscal year 1931-32................... 84
35. Customs Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1931-32............... 84
36. Distribution of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32........ 85
37. Miscellaneous Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1931-32.... 85
38. Total Receipts of Haitian Government by Sources, Months, and Ports,
fiscal year 1931-32...................................................................................... 86
39. Ordinary, Supplementary and Extraordinary appropriations from Revenue,
fiscal years 1925-26 to 1931-32........................................... ................. 87
40. Revenues and Expenditures, fiscal years 1923-24 to 1931-32................... 88
41. Functional Classification of Expenditures, fiscal year 1931-32................... 89
42. Classification of Total Expenditures by Departments and .Services, fiscal
year 1931-32 ............................................................................................. 90
43. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures by Depart-
ments and Services, fiscal year 1931-32................................................ 91
44. Reimbursements to Appropriations, fiscal years 1925-26 to 1931-32....... 92
45. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal year 1931-32....................................... 93
46. Revenues and Expenditures and Excess of Revenues or Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.................................................... 94
47. Treasury Assets and Liabilities............................................................. 95
48. Public D ebt .......................................................... ............................... 96
49. Expenditures from Revenue for the Public Debt and Relation of such
Expenditures to Revenue Receipts, fiscal years 1930-31 to 1931-32.... 96
50. Profit and Loss Statement, Bureau of Supplies, fiscal years 1930-31 and
1931-32 .......................................................... ............................... 97
51. Balance Sheet, Bureau of Supplies......................................................... 97
52. Notes of the Banque Nationale in Circulation by Months, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1931-32........................................... ............................ 98
53. Loans and Deposits of Banks in Haiti by Months, fiscal year 1931-32....... 98

CHARTS
1. Values of Total Imports, Total Exports and Coffee Exports, fiscal years
1925-26 to 1931-32.............................................. ......................... 13
2. Coffee Prices, fiscal years 1929-30 to 1931-32....................................... 17
3. Total Revenue Receipts of Haiti, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1931-32......... 29

ANNEX: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
TABLES

1. Internal Revenue Receipts ............................................................................ 119
2. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1931-32.... 120
3. Internal Revenue Receipts by Collection Districts, fiscal years 1919-20
to 1931-32.............................................................................................. 121
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Districts, fiscal year 1931-32.... 122
5. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Months, fiscal year 1931-32.... 123
6. Internal Revenue Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1931-32.... 124
7. Internal Revenue Receipts by Communes, fiscal year 1931-32................. 124








STATISTICAL EXHIBITS

TABLES
Pagt
1. Value of Imports and Exports, and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1931-32...................................................................... 61
2. Value of Imports showing Countries of Origin in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1931-32.............................................. ......................... 61
3. Value of Exports showing Countries of Destination in Percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1931-32.......................................... ................... 62
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by Countries in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1931-32.............................................................................. 62
5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Countries, fiscal year 1931-32.................................... 63
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32........ 64
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32 64
8. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Ports, fiscal year 1931-32......................................... 64
9. Net tonnage of Steam and Motor Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered
and Cleared by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1931-32................... 65
10. Net Tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1931-32................................... 66
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1931-32........ 67
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1931-32.... 68
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 1931-32
compared with 1930-31........................................... ..................... 69
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year'1931-32
compared with 1930-31........................................ ...................... 70
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32............ 71
16. Quantity of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.... 72
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32........ 73
18. Quantity of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.... 73
19. Quantity and Value of Five principal Exports by Ports, fiscal year 1931-32
compared with 1930-31........................................ .............. .......... 74
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1931-32 .................................................... 75
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities and Months, fiscal year
1931-32 .......................... ....................... ....... ................................... 76
22. Receivership Fund, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32.......................... 77
23. Expenses of Financial Adviser-General Receiver by Objects of Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1931-32............................. ................. 77
24. Classification of Total Expenditures of Financial Adviser-General Receiver,
fiscal year 1931-32................................ ................ 78
25. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the Fi-
nancial Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1931-32....................... 78
26. Distributions of Expenditures from Receivership Fund, fiscal year 1931-32 79
27. Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Cost of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property, and Fixed Charges, fiscal
years 1919-20 to 1931-32.................................................................... 79
28. Total cost of Collecting each Gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1931-32................................... .. ............... 80
29. Operating allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1931-32 ........................................................ ............. 80





















HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-
GENERAL RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
OCTOBER, 1931- SEPTEMBER, 1932.









HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL
RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR OCTOBER 1931-
SEPTEMBER 1932


OFFICE OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, December 29, 1932.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF
HAITI.

Sirs:
I have the honor to transmit herewith the sixteenth annual report of this
office on the commerce and finances of the Republic of Haiti. The report
covers the fiscal year ending on September 30, 1932, supplementing and
enlarging upon the monthly reports required by Article VII of the Treaty
of September 16, 1915, between the United States of America and the
Republic of Haiti.
The year began under most unfavorable circumstances. A second poor
coffee crop was in prospect. Export commodity prices showed no evidence
of an upturn, and there Were indications that low prices for cacao and
logwood would keep the Haitian product from the market. The import
trade had greatly diminished, commercial credit was restricted, and very
little money was in circulation. Revenues had receded alarmingly, and
legislation had just been passed which reduced the yield of the excise taxes,
notwithstanding the fact that the previous fiscal year had just ended with
a considerable excess of expenditures over receipts. To make matters worse,
a budget had been enacted which authorized expenditures during the
coming year in an amount far exceeding possible revenue receipts. To be
sure, the treasury remained in a strong position, although assets in the form
of investments in securities of the Republic were frozen because of the price
decline of Haitian bonds in the New York market. While the situation was
discouraging, it was not by any means hopeless, for remedial measures were
at hand, and could be taken, to reduce the operating deficit and preserve
the country's credit. The government was faced with the alternative of
taking prompt and energetic measures, or of running great risk of depleting
the treasury with consequent damage to the credit of the Republic. Fortu-
nately, the situation was met courageously and the first of the two alter-
natives was chosen.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


The year ended far more auspiciously, with evidence of a good coffee
crop for the coming season and all indications that the budget for 1932-33
had been balanced. New tax legislation was enacted in September, 1932,
establishing a five per cent surtax on import duties, and raising the tariff in
particular on wheat flour and matches. Internal revenues were augmented
by a new excise tax on gasoline, by revised stamp tax and income tax laws,
and by establishing a tax on salt. Reductions in salaries of government
employees were made effective in November, 1931, with a further reduction
in September, 1932. These measures, combined with the prorogued budget
for 1931-32 at the end of the year gave reason to believe that receipts would
at least equal ordinary expenditures. Unless unforeseen events reduce
revenues or compel additional disbursements, the year 1932-33 should end
with the treasury continuing in a safe condition.
The final balancing of the budget did not take place until the very end
of the year under report. Meanwhile, foreign trade and with it revenues
had continued to decline. The coffee crop proved to be even smaller than
early forecasts had indicated, and revenues fell to the lowest level since
1921-22. Commodity prices also continued downward, and for the second
successive year, the balance of trade was unfavorable. The salary reductions
and other budgetary cuts effected early in the year were not sufficient to
prevent a heavy operating deficit throughout the year, and cash reserves at
the year end were badly depleted. Urgently needed legislation was delayed
in passage, and other desirable legislation was either ignored or rejected.
The homestead law, of which much had been expected, was finally enacted
but with modifications which vitiated its effectiveness; the project of a law
governing the budget and public accounting was so altered by the Legisla-
tive Body that it failed of promulgation. A completed budget of expendi-
tures was not received from the Legislative Body before the end of the year,
and the government accordingly was forced to prorogue the 1931-32 budget.
Nevertheless, in addition to balancing the budget, much was accomplished
during the year which, from a fiscal point of view, gives cause for satis-
faction. Debt service was carried out regularly, and even to some extent
anticipated. All important government services and functions continued in
operation under restricted budgets. Roads and public works were main-
tained, and new roads and trails were constructed from the remaining
proceeds of the Series A loan. Drainage and irrigation work was begun
in the Artibonite valley and in the Cul-de-Sac plain from funds made
available through an extraordinary appropriation. The cotton, sugar cane,
and sisal crops were the largest in recent history. There was only
one business failure of any importance in the entire country, and in this
respect Haiti has been more fortunate than almost any country in the world.
Finally it should be recorded with gratification that the contracts between
the government and the two railroads operating in Haiti were sanctioned
by the Legislative Body at the close of the year, thereby solving two most





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


vexatious problems and bringing an end to the uncertainty surrounding the
status of the railroad companies.
Less tangible than the accomplishments which have been listed, but
perhaps even more important, is the fact that most elements of the body
politic have decided that taxes must be collected, that expenditures and
receipts must be balanced, and that the credit of the country must be
preserved; and that only through wholehearted endeavor towards the
accomplishment of these ends can the Republic of Haiti remain in the
favored position of being able to profit first from a return of world pros-
perity.
Foreign Commerce
During the sixteen years of the Receivership, foreign commerce values
have averaged Gdes. 147,600,000 yearly. In 1931-32, the .alue of Haiti's
foreign trade dropped to a total of Gdes. 73,411,945, or about half the
average. The continued decline in the prices of both export and import
commodities, together with poor export crops and reduced quantities of
goods imported brought the total value of foreign trade in 1931-32 to the
lowest figure of any year since the establishment of the Receivership.
The previous low for the sixteen-year period was recorded in 1916-17,
when foreign commerce values totalled Gdes. 87,694,856. In 1930-31, com-
merce values totalled Gdes. 92,698,684, from which the 1931-32 figure
represents a decline of Gdes. 19,286,739, or 20.81 per cent.
Total imports in 1931-32 were valued at Gdes. 37,305,551, compared with
Gdes. 47, 881,591 in 1930-31, and Gdes. 64,208,132 in 1929-30. The decline
from the 1930-31 figure amounted to Gdes. 10,576,040, or 22.09 per cent.
The past fiscal year was the first year since the establishment of the
Receivership that total imports have been valued at less than Gourdes
40,000,000. The previous low mark was recorded in 1916-17 when imports
were valued at Gdes. 43,030,428. In 1919-20, in 1924-25, and again in 1927-
28, the value of total imports exceeded Gdes. 100,000,000.
The extremely low level to which the import trade was carried may be
explained first of all by the unprecedentedly low prices at which all of the
common imported articles of consumption in Haiti could be purchased
throughout the year. Secondly, the value of the various export crops was
so low that imported articles, even at the low prices prevailing, could not be
purchased in the quantities common in the past. Purchasing power had been
absorbed by three years of declining export commodity prices and by two
poor coffee crops in successive years. Moreover, with the banks forced to
be extremely cautious in extending credit, there was no increase in imports
late in the year in anticipation of the excellent coffee crop which had been
predicted for the 1932-33 season.
The value of the export trade fell off to Gdes. 36,106,394 in 1931-32, from
Gdes. 44,817,093 in 1930-31. Expressed as a percentage of the 1930-31
figures, the decline of 19.44 per cent recorded in the case of the export trade





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


was not so severe as in the case of the import trade. In 1920-21, the export
trade declined to Gdes. 32,952,045, or somewhat lower than in the fiscal year
1931-32; but in all other years since the establishment of the Receivership
the annual export trade has far exceeded the 1931-32 figure. In 1927-28, for
example, the export trade was valued at Gdes. 113,336,230, or three times
the value of total exports in 1931-32. The explanation, of course, lies in the
fact that not only had the prices of all the principal export products receded
still further during the year, but the coffee crop was one of the smallest in
recent times. Furthermore, while the cotton, sugar cane, and sisal crops
were excellent, the production of logwood and cacao for export was greatly
diminished because low prices made exportation unprofitable.

Balance of Trade
The value of the import trade in 1931-32 exceeded total export values by
Gdes. 1,199,157. During the previous year the excess of visible imports over
visible exports amounted to Gdes. 3,064,498. So far as concerns foreign
trade balances, therefore, the assembled data indicate a more satisfactory
condition in 1931-32 than in the previous year. Comparison with 1929-30,
on the other hand, is unfavorable, as in that year export values exceeded
import values by Gdes. 6,514,703.
Haiti, like most countries in process of development, is, from an economic
viewpoint, a debtor nation. In 1931-32, 26.71 per cent of the" government's
ordinary budget of expenditures went into payment of debt charges. Haiti,
moreover, is an agricultural community which buys the imported articles
which it needs and pays for these purchases and pays its debt charges from
the proceeds of its exportable surplus of coffee, cotton, sugar, and a very
few other products. Disregarding invisible items, it would be expected,
therefore,- that export values normally should exceed import values. But
if we may rely upon our foreign trade statistics, this has not been the case
during the past two years. Neither have export values exceeded import
values over the period of the Receivership.
Of course, too much significance cannot be attached to the figures given
for the value of foreign trade. While every effort is made to keep these
figures as accurate as possible, it should be apparent that in statistical com-
pilations of this kind, and particularly in the case of export trade values,
there is always the danger of cumulative error. Data showing the value of
foreign trade are more useful, therefore, in determining trends than they are
in establishing absolute relationship, and if in examining the annual figures
for trade values we confine ourselves to the long-time trend of foreign trade
during the period of the Receivership we find unmistakable indications that
relative to the value of the import trade the tendency in recent years has
been for the value of the export trade to increase.
It is essential that this trend be maintained and that the value of the
export surplus be increased. Debt payments provided under the existing





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


loan contracts increase very slightly each year, following the usual form of
such arrangements. Lately, however, the invisible items of export, which
for many years have aided Haiti materially in balancing foreign payments,
have shown a noticeable tendency to decrease in relative importance. In the
past, the cash disbursements of the American forces in Haiti for rentals, for
provisions, for labor, and other items have substantially added to the amount
of money coming into the country. The annual operations of American
naval vessels in the Bay of Gonaives have in the past resulted in the expen-
diture of considerable sums ashore. Both of these sources of income are
becoming less important each year. In particular, it has been learned that
probably no naval vessels of the United States fleet will appear at Gonaives
in the winter of 1932-33. This will mean a substantial loss of business to
merchants at that port.
Although the income from these sources is supplemented somewhat by
money brought into the country by tourists, much assistance cannot be
expected from this source for the present. In spite of the increase in
sailings of large ships on winter cruises to the West Indies, the tourist
trade has not improved as rapidly as had been hoped. Cruise directors
apparently give preference to the large hotels of Jamaica and Cuba rather
than to the peculiar attractions of Haiti. Prospects are favorable for
some increase in this business as Haiti becomes better known, but it cannot
be expected that the tourist trade will become an item of importance in the
Haitian economy until after a period of development. Adequate modern
hotel and sports facilities still must be provided.
Meanwhile, improvement of Haiti's position with regard to foreign pay-
ments and foreign trade must result principally from an increase in agri-
cultural production. Economic forces have already restricted imports, and
further restrictions should result from the higher import duties established
in September, 1932. With excellent coffee and cotton crops in prospect, and
new export crops such as bananas and sisal becoming of increasing impor-
tance, it may be expected that in 1932-33 the balance of foreign trade will
be decidedly in Haiti's favor.

Origin of Imports
Most of the goods brought into Haiti come from the United States, Great
Britain, France, Germany, and Holland. In 1931-32, over ninety per cent of
total imports received in Haiti came from the five countries named, and
of these, the first three countries mentioned accounted for 82.65 per cent.
The share of the import trade coming from the United States declined
from 68.69 per cent in 1930-31 to 67.58 per cent in 1931-32. Similarly, the
share contributed by France declined from 6.88 per cent in 1930-31 to 5.87
per cent in 1931-32. Great Britain, on the other hand, increased its share
over the same period from 6.96 per cent to 9.20 per cent, while the share





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


received from the remaining countries taken together showed almost no
change. Thus, the year was particularly favorable to British commerce, at
the expense of American and French trade. The depreciation of the pound
sterling during the last year gave British goods a bargaining advantage over
those from France and the United States. Particularly under the important
textile classification merchants importing goods of British origin were able
to undersell the products of other countries.
While the Haitian tariff has been charged by some Haitians with favoring
the United States of America, it is apparent from any serious study that
the recent changes in the share of the import business handled by nations
trading with Haiti is due not to the tariff, or to preferential treatment, but
to the play of world economic forces which are beyond the control of the
Haitian government and Haitian regulatory measures. Figures disprove
any assertion of favoritism. Whereas the United States in the five years
from 1916-17 to 1920-21 (the war period when Haiti's trade with Europe
collapsed), contributed in value 86.58 per cent of all imports received by
Haiti, its share in 1931-32, as noted above, amounted only to 67.58 per cent.
Furthermore, in the years following the enactment of the present import
tariff, American trade to Haiti has shown a distinctly downward trend. This
is demonstrated by the table below, which gives the American share of the
total import trade with Haiti during the past six years, expressed in per-
centages:
Per cent
1926-27......................................................................... 76.56
1927-28........................................................................... 75.30
1928-29......................................................................... 69.85
1929-30......................................................................... 70.09
1930-31.......................................................................... 68.69
1931-32......................................................................... 67.58
It is only logical that the United States should be the source of the greater
Share of foreign articles required by consumers in Haiti. The nearness of
the American continent, compared with Europe, together with swift and easy
means of communication give commerce of the United States a natural
advantage over that of more distant nations. Yet so powerful have been the
factors of currency depreciation, commercial competition and intensive trade
promotion that Haiti has found it advantageous to purchase an increasingly
larger share of its requirements from European nations.

Destination of Exports

France, as usual, purchased the greatest portion of total exports from
Haiti in 1931-32. Great Britain, with 12.88 per cent of the total was second
to France, with 44.63 per cent, while the United States came third with 8.10
per cent. The relative position of these three nations did not change from
the rank held by them in 1930-31, although the French share declined from
the 50.75 per cent recorded in the latter year, while Great Britain increased





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


its share from 8.50 per cent in 1930-31. The percentage of total exports
taken by the United States remained practically the same in both years.
The question may be asked why the propinquity of the American market
does not result in a greater portion of Haitian exports being shipped to the
United States and to other nearby countries. There is no tariff barrier,
import quota, exchange restriction or territorial preference applied by the
United States against coffee, which is the most important Haitian export
product, nor against logwood, cacao, sisal, bananas, and other important,
or potentially important, raw materials produced in Haiti for export. The
answer is that the French demand for Haitian coffee, to give an example,
is largely the result of historical association with Haiti. Haitian coffee has
been marketed in Europe throughout the history of the country, and the
long period of developing the market in Europe has resulted in a preference
as to taste and quality for the Haitian variety. A steady demand and a ready
outlet for Haitian coffee therefore now exists in Europe but not in the
United States where supplies of coffee to be sold in various blends through
the same process of market development for years have been furnished by
South American and Central American countries.
Haiti's average production of coffee is about 400,000 bags of. 80 kilos.
This has made it difficult to enter into competition on the American market
with the almost unlimited quantity available of the mild coffees used in the
American blends. One American distributor alone ordinarily imports and
sells about 1,500,000 bags of coffee each year. However, it is suggested
that no more perfect type of coffee than the Haitian variety exists for
special use as an after-dinner coffee prepared in an unblended roast just as
it is normally used and enjoyed by Haitians and foreign residents in Haiti.
That American hotels have overlooked this unique coffee growing at their
very door while French chefs have made it their final contribution to the
dinners for which they are famous leads us to hope that when the oversight
is remedied Haitian coffee will find a new market in the demand of America's
better hotels and restaurants.
Foreign markets for Haitian products which have taken years to develop
can be lost almost overnight. ,Coffee exporters in Haiti at the time of t/he
world war had the unpleasant experience of finding that their coffee could
not be shipped to Europe. At the present time the world depression and the
disequilibrium of foreign trade have produced alarming threats from
various nations of tariff barriers, quotas, and other methods of restricting
imports. Haiti's chief defense is in building up a wider market for its pro-
ducts. With enterprise and perseverance, bananas, sisal, logwood, and cacao
can be sold in the United States. In time, it should be possible to establish
an outlet for some of the coffee crop in the United States. Fresh fruit and
vegetables can be sold in Panama. Canned pineapples, sugar and cotton
can be sold to England and South American countries. But meanwhile it is





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


essential that markets already established should be retained, and that
market extension should be reached through increased production of a
greater variety of export commodities.

Ports of Entry for Imports
Imports received at Port-au-Prince in 1931-32 were valued at Gourdes
25,703,610, an amount which represents 68.90 per cent of the value of
imports received at all ports of the Republic during the year. This is a
marked increase over the corresponding percentage for the previous fiscal
year, when the value of imports at Port-au-Prince amounted to 64.09 per
cent of the total. Thus, Port-au-Prince has increased its already command-
ing lead as chief port of entry, following a tendency which has been quite
noticeable in recent years, and which has been to some extent the result
of improved communications throughout the country. Port-au-Prince enjoys
many advantages over the other ports as a center of distribution, and it is
logical that it should continue to handle a large share of the import trade.
Cap Haitien handled 9.32 per cent of the total import trade in 1931-32 as
compared with 10.90 per cent in the previous year, and similarly imports
received at Cayes declined from 6.24 per cent in 1930-31 to 5.71 per cent in
the fiscal year just ended.
Excluding the minor ports, import values fell off most severely at J&re-
mie, Saint Marc and Cap Haitien, at which ports the total value of goods
imported in 1931-32 declined 45.50 per cent, 38.85 per cent, and 33.41 per
cent respectively from the corresponding totals of the previous year. The
declines at Cayes, Jacmel, and Gonaives amounted to 28.73 per cent, 24.33
per cent, and 21.49 per cent respectively. Port-au-Prince relatively made
a better showing, due in part to the fact that it received in 1931-32 a greater
share of the total import trade. At the latter port, the value of goods
imported in 1931-32 was Gdes. 4,984,351, or 16.24 per cent, less than the
value of goods imported through the same port in 1930-31.

Ports of Shipment for Exports
Exports from Port-au-Prince in 1931-32 were valued at Gdes. 9,141,556,
or 25.32 per cent of the total value of all commodities exported from the
country during the year. Jacmel retained its position as the second city
of importance in the export trade with a percentage of 15.78, while Cayes
supplanted Petit Goive as the third most important port of shipment for
exports.
Of the more important ports, J6remie and Petit Goive reported the great-
est falling off in the export trade. At J6ermie, failure to export the normal
production of cacao in the J&ermie district because of low prices abroad,
combined with the poor coffee crop, resulted in the total value of exports





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


from that port being reduced from Gdes. 3,068,779 in 1930-31 to Gourdes
1,611,445 in 1931-32. The decline amounted to 47.49 per cent. At Petit
Goave, which city is almost exclusively a coffee-shipping port, the failure
of the coffee crop brought about a reduction of export values from Gourdes
4,971,701 in 1930-31 to Gdes. 2,970,788 in 1931-32, indicating a decline of
40.25 per cent. The value of exports shipped from Saint Marc fell 32.62
per cent from the 1930-31 figure, and at Cap Haitien the decline amounted
to 16 per cent. At Gonaives, the value of the export trade fell off only 7.43
per cent, making that city fourth in importance a's a port of shipment in
1931-32, whereas it ranked seventh the previous year. Export values at
Cayes in 1931-32 declined 13.73 per cent from the preceding fiscal period.
At all of the major ports the value of total exports declined in 1931-32 as
compared with 1930-31, but the best showing was made by the two most
important ports in the export trade, Port-au-Prince and Jacmel, where the
decline amounted to 5.94 per cent and 6.09 per cent respectively. The re-
latively good showing made by these ports was due to the fact that in 1931-
32 they handled a larger share of the total export trade than in the previous
year. Thus, in the case of exports as well as imports the tendency continues
towards greater concentration of foreign trade at the larger ports, and
particularly at Port-au-Prince. The latter port handled 47.46 per cent of
the total foreign commerce of the country in 1931-32, as against 43.59 per
cent in 1930-31.
Although Fort Libert6 is one of the minor ports, it is worthy of note that
the value of exports shipped from that port increased from Gdes. 546,114
in 1930-31 to Gdes. 911,287 in 1931-32. Fort Libert6 was the only port
where exports in 1931-32 were greater than during the previous year.
The production of sisal by the plantation method has been under- way in
that district for some years, and sisal has become an important export
commodity. The increasing importance of Fort Libert6 is accounted for
entirely by this new development, which is helping to diversify the export
products of the country.
Shipping
In spite of the falling off in foreign trade the number of steam and motor
vessels calling at Haitian ports actually showed an increase in 1931-32 as
compared with the year before. The total number of ships reached 595
against 551 in 1930-31. Net tonnage, however, declined somewhat from the
1930-31 figure, when the combined tonnage of all vessels reached 1,313,725
tons as against 1,296,361 tons in 1931-32.
American vessels, both in tonnage and in number, led those of other
registries. The 212 American ships which entered Haitian ports registered
640,296 tons, or 49.39 per cent of the total, compared with 46.19 per cent of
the net tonnage in 1930-31. Dutch ships which remained in second place
both with respect to number and tonnage, increased their share of the total





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


tonnage from 16.30 per cent in 1930-31 to 18.49 per cent in 1931-32. German
ships, both in number and in tonnage, remained in third place, but their
share of the total declined from 14.41 per cent in 1930-31 to 13.12 per cent
in 1931-32. The tonnage of British ships declined from 170,186 tons in
1930-31 to 121,829 tons in 1931-32, giving ships of that registry 9.40 per cent
of the total tonnage in the latter year as compared with 12.95 per cent in
1930-31, and 12.54 per cent in 1929-30. Only 17 vessels flying the French
flag called at Haitian ports in 1931-32, as against 26 in the preceding fiscal
period. French tonnage dropped from 74,285 tons in 1930-31 to 40,175 tons
in 1931-32, or 45.92 per cent, and the share of total tonnage declined from
5.66 per cent to 3.10 per cent. Ships of all other nationalities increased
both in number and in tonnage, and their share of the total tonnage in-
creased from 4.48 per cent in 1930-31 to 6.50 per cent in 1931-32.
Sailing vessels entering Haitian ports from abroad declined in number
from 132 in 1930-31 to 123 in 1931-32, and in tonnage from 18,641 tons to
8,065 tons.
The import trade was handled mainly by American and Dutch ships in
1931-32. The share of total import values carried in American bottoms
increased from 49.95 per cent in 1930-31 to 51.60 per cent. in 1931-32, while
the share carried by Dutch ships declined from 27.92 per cent to 26.10 per
cent over the same period. Norwegian ships increased their share of the
import trade from 4.14 per cent in 1930-31 to 9.81 per cent in 1931-32. The
French and German shipping lines both lost ground in their share of the
import trade, while British ships slightly increased their portion of the
trade in 1931-32.
Of imports valued at Gdes. 25,212,282 received from the United States
during 1931-32, a total value of Gdes. 15,221,080 was carried in American
bottoms. This is 60.37 per cent of the total, as compared with 62.82 per cent
of the total in 1930-31 and 59.06 per cent in 1929-30.
Dutch carriers handled the largest share of the export trade in 1931-32,
and increased their proportion of total export values from 35.39 per cent
in 1930-31 to 36.46 per cent in 1930-31. German ships were in second place
in 1931-32 with 20.63 per cent of total export values, as compared with
28.37 per cent the previous year. Third place in the export trade was taken
by British carriers with 17.00 per cent of total values in 1931-32 as against
10.88 per cent the year before. Over the same period, American shipping,
in fourth place, increased its share of export values, while French shipping,
in fifth place, handled a smaller share of the total in 1931-32 than in the
previous year with 8.45 per cent of the total as against 12.50 per cent in
1930-31. This tendency for French shipping to become less important in
handling Haitian exports has been quite marked in the last few years. As
recently as 1928-29, French shipping carried almost eighteen per cent of
Haitian export merchandise, and in 1925-26 its share exceeded 22 per cent.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


As noted above, French vessels made a smaller proportion of deliveries to
Haiti in the last year than is usual.
Haiti has not yet profited from the interest shown by shipping lines in
the West Indies tourist trade. Tonnage which otherwise would be idle, is
being diverted to West Indian cruises during the winter months by the
trans-Atlantic steamship lines. Only nine tourist ships called at Port-au-
Prince in 1931-32 compared with 15 in 1930-31, and in 1929-30. The nine
ships which called in 1931-32 registered 130,133 tons compared with 193,223
tons for the 15 ships which called the previous year. The natural ad-
vantages which Haiti has to offer to the tourist trade are unsurpassed in the
West Indies, but until such time as adequate hotel accommodations and
sports facilities are provided, and the tourist trade is actively welcomed and
encouraged by all elements, it is probable that the country will continue to
obtain only a relatively small share of the West Indian tourist trade.
The Pan-American Airways system continued to furnish excellent com-.
munication by air. An improvement consisted in the substitution during
December, 1931, of seaplanes for the land planes which had been used up to
that time. Planes now land in the harbor of Port-au-Prince rather than on
the aviation field, and a dock has been constructed on the waterfront to
accommodate them. Also, an air express service was inaugurated during the
year. The number of passengers carried in 1931-32 increased over the pre-
vious year.
No important accidents to shipping in Haitian waters occurred during the
year with the exception of the grounding on March 27, 1932, of the Royal
Netherlands Line motorship Rhea off the coast between Saint Marc and
Gonaives. The Rhea was finally refloated on April first with the assistance
of the U. S. S. Woodcock and the steamer Tiberius. Much of the fuel carried
by the Rhea had to be pumped overboard, and cargo had to be discharged
to lighters before the ship was released. Captain John Davis, Surveyor
General of Customs and Captain of the Port at Port-au-Prince, was in
charge of the salvage operations and performed commendable work in re-
floating the ship.
Ocean freight rates applied to Haiti are still far too high when com-
parison is made with the rates in effect between other foreign ports. It costs
more to ship an automobile from the United States to Haiti than it does
to China. Freight rates on export products, in spite of a few reductions
granted during the past year, are still excessive and have made it difficult
for Haitian export products to compete with similar products of other
countries.
During the past year this office conducted an active campaign to induce
shipping companies to bring freight rates to a level which would put Haiti
on an equal basis with other countries. It was pointed out that sisal, for
example, could be shipped more cheaply from Yucatan to New York than





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


from Haiti, although the distance from Yucatan is greater; also, that
unless the rates on cacao were modified the Haitian crop could not be
shipped. Since commodity prices had declined to low levels, it was reason-
able that the prices of service such as those afforded by the steamship lines
should also be reduced. Other countries had benefited from reduced freight
rates, and it appeared reasonable and just that Haiti should enjoy similar
advantages.
Efforts to obtain more favorable rates met with some success, although
there still remain instances where rates are excessive. The rate on sisal
shipped to New York was reduced in July, and now shipments can be made
from Haiti to New York at the same rate as from Yucatan to New York.
Also, substantial reductions were made in the freight rates applying to a
list of minor exports including cashew nuts, goatskins, turtle shells, orange
peel, and old metal. In April, rates on cacao shipped to New York and to
Europe were reduced, and on September 1, 1932, the rate on coffee shipped
to Marseilles or Genoa, via New York, was reduced.
These reductions are for the most part relatively of little importance.
They apply to export products of very little value among Haitian exports,
or to important products, like coffee, between points where very little
movement has thus far taken place. However, the shipping lines have
taken some action in the right direction, and it is to be hoped that further
adjustments will follow.

Foreign Commerce by Months
In any normal year, exports reach a peak in November or December when
the first heavy shipments of each new coffee crop are made. Ordinarily,
there follows a period of a month or two in January or February when
exports decline. Coffee shipments fall off slightly, and as the cotton crop
is not shipped until March or later, the monthly figures for export values
register a slight decline. In March the cotton crop begins to move out in
quantity, and these exports are usually supplemented by important ship-
ments of sugar. As coffee shipments during March remain relatively high,
it is usually to be expected that the monthly totals of export values will
reach a new peak in March, and sometimes, as was the case in 1930, as late
as April. From the latter peak, the curve of export values drops steadily
each month until the low point is reached in August.
The curve of monthly export values given in Chart No. 1 shows that the
fluctuations in export values during the year under review were quite out
of line with expectations. The year began favorably with the usual sharp
increase in exports during October and again in December when export
values actually exceeded those of the previous year. Then followed the
usual February decline, but in March export values failed completely to
register the usual substantial increase. Coffee exports fell off sooner than





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


customary. The cotton crop proved to be large in size, and it was shipped
as usual beginning with the month of March, but the price of cotton had
fallen to such a low level that the value of the crop did not exert its usual
influence on total export values. The largest shipments of sugar were not
made until May, or somewhat later than has been the case in recent years.
Cacao and logwood are the only other important export products, and the
market for these commodities abroad was so unfavorable that quantities
shipped throughout the year were far below average. The net result was
that the curve of monthly export values dropped with only one slight break
from the high of Gdes. 4,761,960 reached in December to a low of Gdes.
1,228,620 in July.
Import values in 1931-32 did not follow the usual wide fluctuations
characteristic of previous years. Ordinarily, imports are heaviest in October,

CHART No. 1
VALUE OF TOTAL IMPORTS, TOTAL EXPORTS AND COFFEE EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1931-32
M.LUOINS O
OURDELS

IIC ,







0




1925- 26 1926- 27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32

which is a month or two before the period when coffee is exported in great-
est quantity. Merchants in October augment their stocks of merchandise
in anticipation of the purchasing power to be released through the sale of
the coffee crop. In October 1931, however, imports actually declined from
the September figure, and in November a still further decline was recorded.
Hand-to-mouth buying was therefore the rule, and merchants were re-
luctant to acquire supplies of merchandise until the demand actually existed.
Restricted bank credit also delayed purchases. Consequently, the usual
peak in import values was not reached until December, when a large part
of the coffee crop had already been shipped. From the December peak,
imports declined to a low of Gdes. 2,396,078 in July, which month corre-
sponds with the month when exports were at their lowest level for the year.






14 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

Commodities Imported
It has been noted already that in value the import trade in 1931-32
suffered even more severely than the export trade. Customs data indicate
that every item on a list which includes thirty of the most important com-
modities, or groups of commodities, received at Haitian ports in 1931-32
fell in value when comparison is made with the previous year. In most
cases the reduction in value by commodities varied between ten and thirty
per cent.
While import values, by commodities, offer a convenient measurement of
fluctuations in the various import classifications, such comparisons do not
give a true idea of activity in the import trade unless allowance is made at
the same time for fluctuations in the prices of commodities imported. This
influence of price fluctuations on trade values has been particularly im-
portant during the last three years when sweeping declines in the prices of
commodities imported into Haiti have exaggerated the extent of the decline
in importing when comparisons are made only in terms of values.
Taking a group of the leading articles in the import trade, we find that
the unit value of each commodity, with one exception, shows a decline in
1931-32 when comparison is made with the previous year. These relation-
ships, by unit values computed from customs statistics, are set forth in the
table below:

1929-30 1930-31 1931-32
Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Cem ent.................................. Kilo............................... 0.07 0.07 0.06
Fish........................................ K ilo................................ 0.65 0.58 0.47
W heat flour......................... Kilo.......... ................. 0.38 0.28 0.25
M eats............. .......... il.... Kilo................................ 1.25 1.18 0.90
Rice........................... Kilo...... ................................ 0.37 0.30 0.25
Liquors ....... ........... ....... Liter.............................. 1.36 1.35 1.32
Lumber................................. Cubic meter................. 114.40 103.52 89.00
Gasoline ................................ Liter .......................... 0.25 0.20 0.21
Kerosene.................... ....... Litr.............................. 0.28 0.25 0.23
Soap.............................. ....... Kilo... ..... ............. 0.76 0.66 0.48
Textiles..................... Kilo................ ................. 5.05 4.29 3.31
T obacco................................ Kilo................................ 2.22 1.99 1.90

The single commodity which showed an increase in unit value in 1931-32
was gasoline. In this case, imports were valued at Gde. 0.21 per liter in
1931-32 as against Gde. 0.20 per liter in the previous year. All other com-
modities on the list show declines ranging for the most part from 11 to 27
per cent. Soap declined in price by 27 per cent; meats by 24 per cent;
textiles by 23 per cent; fish by 19 per cent; rice by 17 per cent; cement and
lumber, each by 14 per cent; and wheat flour by 11 per cent.
Imports of foodstuffs form the most important group of articles brought
into Haiti. In value, foodstuffs ordinarily constitute about 30 per cent of
total import values. In 1931-32, however, this percentage declined to 28.44
per cent from 29.81 per cent the previous year, indicating that in time of
economic stress the tendency, as might be expected, is for home-grown
food products to form a larger share of food requirements. Rice imports





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


in 1931-32 declined in quantity by 31.84 per cent, and in value by 42.93 per
cent from the quantities imported in 1930-31. Similarly, wheat flour imports
fell off by 15.26 per cent in quantity and 25.27 per cent in value, and imports
of fish by 10.14 per cent and 26.83 per cent in quantity and value respective-
ly. Receipts of various meat products registered a slight increase in quantity
in 1931-32, but in value there was a decline of Gdes. 193,474, or 22.86 per
cent.
Fish, rice and meat are food products which make up a large part of the
diet of the Haitian people, and although they can be obtained locally, it has
been necessary to supplement local production by heavy purchases of these
products from abroad. With enterprise and the use of a little capital, it
should be possible to increase domestic supplies of these food products and
relieve this quite unnecessary dependence upon foreign sources. In particu-
lar, the development of a local fish-packing industry offers possibilities to
commercial enterprise.
Cotton textiles, after foodstuffs, form the most important group of im-
ported articles. All other imports in 1931-32 constituted less than half of
total import values. There is no cotton spinning or weaving industry in
Haiti and the entire requirements of the population must be supplied from
abroad. By far the greater part of textile importations ordinarily come
from the United States, but in 1931-32 Great Britain made important gains
in the Haitian textile trade due to the trading advantages acquired through
depreciation of the pound sterling. Textile importations had reached a low
level in the previous year, and with the lower prices which prevailed in
1931-32, there was a substantial increase in the quantity of cotton goods
imported, particularly of the cheaper grades. There were 2,407,190 kilos
of cotton piece goods imported in 1931-32 compared with 1,999,146 kilos
the previous year, indicating an increase of 20.41 per cent. Other imported
cotton goods increased in quantity by 122,946 kilos, or 48.64 per cent. In
value, however, there were recorded declines of 7.03 per cent and 28.42 per
cent respectively.
Imports of gasoline and kerosene declined in quantity and in value in
1931-32 compared with the previous year. Gasoline imports totalled
6,061,097 liters in 1931-32 compared with 8,125.598 liters in 1930-31. In
quantity, the decline amounted to 2,064,501 liters, or 25.41 per cent, and
in value there was a decline of Gdes. 388,650, or 23.58 per cent. Kerosene
imports fell off by 25,702 liters, or 0.64 per cent, and in value by- Gdes.
87,233, or 8.56 per cent.
Iron and steel imports in 1931-32 continued the decline reported in the
previous year. Imports under this classification were valued at Gourdes
1,309,124 in 1931-32 compared with Gdes. 1,633,207 the previous year,
indicating a decline of 19.84 per cent. The greater part of the iron and steel
articles imported into Haiti are used in the building trades, and the decline





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


recorded in these imports reflects the extent to which construction has
declined in Haiti. Cement imports, in quantity, fell off 664,621 kilos or 13.56
per cent in 1931-32 compared with the previous year Lumber imports,
on the other hand, increased slightly in quantity, although in value there
was a decline of Gdes. 85,097 or 11.58 per cent.
Soap imports were valued at Gdes. 1,535,154 in 1931-32 as against Gdes.
2,277,808 in the previous year. In quantity, there was a decline of 265,367
kilos, or 7.63 per cent. Cuban and British soap was imported in greater
quantity and value in 1931-32 than during the previous year, while soap
importations from the United States and from the Netherlands fell off
sharply. Cuban soap has become an important factor in the local market
during the past two years, while the British product in 1932 made important
gains through the bargaining advantage which came with British currency
depreciation.
Chemical and pharmaceutical products valued at Gdes. 616,200 were
imported in 1931-32 compared with Gdes. 895,213 the previous year. The
decline amounted to 31.17 per cent. Only 214 automobiles and trucks were
imported in 1931-32 compared with 410 in 1930-31, while imports of shoes
over the same period declined from 113,768 pairs to 67,347 pairs.
Commodities Exported
Exports of coffee in 1931-32, valued at Gdes. 26, 335,228, constituted 72.94
per cent of the value of all exports shipped from Haiti during the year.
In 1930-31, coffee exports made up 74.60 per cent of total export values,
and in the five years from 1926-27 to 1930-31, the corresponding share of
the export trade held by coffee reached 76.21 per cent. Coffee, therefore, still
holds the dominant position among Haitian exports, although recently the
trend has been towards greater diversification. In the year just ended, excel-
lent cotton and sugar crops aided materially in relieving the dependence of
the country on coffee. Sisal, molasses, and cottonseed cake also were export-
ed in considerably greater quantities, but logwood and cacao exports, which
formerly had been important articles of export, in 1931-32 constituted only
2.96 per cent of total export values.
The exceptionally small size of the coffee crop was the disappointing
feature of the year. Early forecasts had predicted a good crop. Climatic
conditions had been favorable, and it was believed that the 1930-31 crop
of 26,296,152 kilos would be exceeded. The coffee crops in recent years had
averaged about 32,000,000 kilos, and there was no reason to suppose that
the 1931-32 crop would not be of average size. However, it was realized
that the unusually heavy rains which had occurred during the flowering
season probably had interfered with pollenization, although the extent of the
damage could not be determined.
Coffee in Haiti is not raised on plantations as in most other countries,
and it is exceedingly difficult to obtain adequate and authoritative informa-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


tion regarding crop conditions from all parts of the country. Crop forecasts
must necessarily be based on hearsay and meagre reports obtained from
inspection of hundreds of small plots of land devoted to coffee growing by
the peasants. There are no large areas planted to coffee where the condition
of the trees can be scientifically watched and studied, and while an effort is
made to centralize information and attempt to forecast the size of the crop,
the accuracy of such reports cannot be relied upon.
The predictions of a good coffee crop in 1931-32 were borne out by the
figures for exports during the early months of the year. From November to
February, exports actually exceeded those of the previous year, but in
March and April, exports of coffee failed completely to register the rise
which is to be expected at that time of the year, and exports receded each
month until the 1932-33 crop made its appearance in September. Exports
CHART No. 2
COFFEE PRICES, FISCAL YEARS 1929-30 TO 1931-32
Prc, ,J/

















/929-30 /o30-3/ /93/-32
of coffee for the entire year declined to 23,204,896 kilos from 26,296,152 in
1930-31, a drop of 11.76 per cent. The 1930-31 crop was also far below
average, but the total export'of coffee in 1931-32 was the lowest in many
years. For sake of comparison, the average crop for the period amounted
to 30,566,177 kilos, and the five year average from 1926-27 to 1930-31,
which included several very good years, reached a figure of 31,802,740 kilos.
In value the coffee crop lost even more severely than in quantity. While
in the previous year, exports of coffee had brought Gdes. 33,434,881, the
1931-32 exports were valued only at Gdes. 26,335,228, registering a decline
of Gdes. 7,099,653, or 21.23 per cent. Expressed in terms of unit value, each
kilo of coffee exported in 1931-32, according to customs statistics, was
worth Gde. 1.13 against Gde. 1.27 in 1930-31 and Gde. 1.52 in 1929-30.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The price of Haitian coffee at Havre fluctuated relatively little through-
out the year, as may be seen from an examination of Chart No. 2. The rapid
decline which occurred in September of the previous year continued into
October just as the Haitian crop was coming into the market. Prices failed
to show the rise in the later months of the year which has characterized the
past several years. The lowest point in years was reached in July when
Haitian coffee, Contract No. 2, was quoted at Havre at 305 francs per 50
kilos, from which level prices rose at the end of the year to 345 francs per
50 kilos.
Thus, from every angle the 1931-32 coffee crop was a disappointment.
Having, as it does, so important a part in the economic life of the country,
its failure to make a better showing was the prime cause of the depressed
conditions in business and low government revenues throughout the year.
Fortunately, it is believed at the present time that the low point in the size
of the crop during the present difficult period of depression was reached
last year, and that unless unforeseen events reduce production, or unless the
price of mild coffees declines still further, the 1932-33 season should see
marked improvement. While, as pointed out above, too much reliance can-
not be put on early forecasts, there is every indication at the present time
that the 1932-33 crop will considerably exceed the previous crop in size.
The record size of the cotton crop for 1931-32 was a most encouraging
indication of how the country can supplement its economic means when
other crops fail. In 1931-32 cotton exports totalled 6,308,335 kilos. This is
an increase of 2,135,798 kilos, or 51.2 per cent from the previous year's total,
and is by far the highest figure reached in any year since the beginning of
the Receivership. Although cotton prices abroad reached the lowest level
in recent history, the entire crop appears to have been exported, and it
brought into the country a total of Gdes. 4,062,261. This figure is Gourdes
192,215, or 4.52 per cent, less than the value of the previous year's crop, in
spite of the smaller size of the latter. However, the fact that in a year of
unprecedentedly low cotton prices the country has been able to export
greatly increased quantities lends much encouragement to the hope that the
much-to-be-desired diversification of exports may be obtained through still
greater development of cotton as an article of foreign trade. The develop-
ment of long-fibre cotton to improve the quality and value of the Haitian
product has been actively pushed for some years, and in 1931-32 the first
commercial shipments of this variety were made. This cotton was very
favorably received abroad, and with proper cooperation on the part of the
growers and the Agricultural Service, long-fibre cotton should in time
become an important export commodity.
Sugar for the first time became in 1931-32 the third most valuable article
of export. More sugar was produced in Haiti in the latter year than in any
similar period since sugar has been produced by modern methods. Exports





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


of raw and refined sugar totalled 20,593,987 kilos as compared with
12,359,834 kilos in the previous year. The increase amounted to 66.6 per
cent. The unit value of sugar at the same time declined sharply, but never-
theless the total value of the product exported exceeded the value of the
previous year's export by Gdes. 486,700, or 28.06 per cent. Exports of
molasses, which is a by-product of sugar, at the same time increased in
quantity by 11,692,200 kilos, and in value by Gdes. 216,434. Both of these
products are exported only by the single modern sugar central doing
business in Haiti.
For the first time, sisal has become the fourth most valuable export com-
modity. Here again, more sisal was produced than in any year of the
SReceivership, and in addition, exports increased considerably both in quan-
tity and in value. Exports of sisal reached 2,788,614 kilos in 1931-32,
compared with 974,405 kilos the previous year, which in turn was a record
year. Although the price of the product declined sharply, production in
1931-32 was valued at Gdes. 874,037 as against Gdes. 460,906 the preceding
year, registering an increase of 89.63 per cent. Most of the sisal grown in
Haiti is produced on a single large plantation near Fort Libert6 and the
recent increase in sisal exports has been due almost wholly to this enterprise,
which has recently installed additional equipment. We may, therefore,
expect to see the output of this establishment increase again in 1932-33.
In addition, there are several other plantations which have suspended
cutting operations awaiting an improvement in prices. Sisal, prices have
dropped along with the prices of most raw materials. When the value of
sisal rises, as is hoped and expected, the growing of sisal for export should
assist materially in relieving the country from its present too great de-
pendence upon coffee.
Logwood always had been a staple export product which had a steady
demand in the dyeing industry. For years it consistently had ranked third
in importance among Haitian exports. In 1931-32 decreased consumption
together with competition from countries with depreciated currencies cut
heavily into the demand for the Haitian product and only 12,085,025 kilos
were exported, as compared with 25,362,884 kilos the previous year. In
value, the year's export dropped to Gdes. 817,086, from Gdes. 1,923,381,
registering a decline of 57.52 per cent, and putting logwood fifth in value
among exports, ranking after coffee, cotton, sugar and sisal. Until market
conditions improve, little can be expected in the way of an improvement in
the logwood industry.
Exports of cottonseed cake in 1931-32 increased 26.39 per cent in quantity
but declined in value to Gdes. 431,936, or by 13.85 per cent. The cake is
produced as a by-product by the local lard substitute factories, which in
1931-32 took the greater part of cottonseed supplies. None was exported.
Cottonseed exports were valued at Gdes. 127,033 in 1930-31.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Goatskins have in the past been of some importance among export pro-
ducts, but in 1931-32 the value of all shipments totalled only Gdes. 321,416,
as compared with Gdes. 871,133 the previous year.
Cacao exports dropped from 1,167,680 kilos in 1930-31 to 791,767 kilos
in 1931-32. In value, the cacao crop registered a decline of Gdes. 260,507,
or 50.74 per cent, continuing the downward trend of the past two years, and
which has been due to low prices which have made it unprofitable to ship
that commodity. Cacao is the product of small planters who need little
capital equipment and who have no fixed charges to meet. Rather than
ship at a loss, or at a negligible margin of profit, the planters have allowed
the pods to rot on the trees, or in many cases the trees actually have been
cut down to make way for food crops. Unless this destruction of trees has
been greater than is supposed, any improvement in market conditions should
enable cacao to regain its former important position among Haitian exports.
Honey exports in 1931-32 increased both in quantity and value, but honey
is still a relatively unimportant export commodity. The pineapple canning
industry at Cap Haitien, of which much had been expected, exported in
1931-32 only 218,081 kilos of canned pineapples, compared with 569,509
kilos the previous year. Low prices for the product abroad due to world
overproduction have made exportation unprofitable, and the present outlook
for the pineapple canning industry is not promising unless prices rise.
There is a market for the fresh fruit, however, if proper transportation is
arranged.
The year under report was the first in which bananas have been exported
in any quantity. A total of 26,453 stems, valued at Gdes. 34,846, were shipped
during the year, and September shipments, amounting to 8,109 stems, were
the largest for any one month on record.
The Royal Netherlands Steamship Company has shown its confidence in
the future of the banana trade by building special loading platforms to be
suspended from the sides of its ships. The loading boxes in which the
bananas, are carried are filled directly from the lighters on these platforms
which makes it possible for the fruit to reach its destination in better con-
dition than had been possible formerly. Excessive handling and contact
with salt water, which spoil the quality and appearance of the fruit, are
thus materially reduced. These platforms are already in use at Port-de-
Paix and their use will be extended to Cap Haitien and other places when
the business offered warrants it.
Bananas are easily grown with very little capital outlay or technical
training and they are eminently suited to production in Haiti. The interest
shown recently in banana growing augurs well for the future of this in-
dustry, and now that marketing connections have been established abroad,
banana shipments in 1932-33 should take an important place in the export
trade.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Standardization
For the purpose of assisting planters and exporters of cacao, an executive
order was published on May 12, 1932, modifying the regulations governing
the standardization of cacao which had been in force since October 16, 1930.
Under the old regulations, only Type A cacao was exempt from all export
duty, while Type B carried a duty of ten centimes per kilo, and Type C
was taxed at the rate of Gde. 0.23364 per kilo. The new schedule of rates
provided that both Type A and Type B would be exempt from duty, while
the former duty on Type C would be retained.
By this measure it was hoped that most of the crop could be exported,
since the extension of duty-free cacao to Type B would offer a greater in-
ducement to growers. As already pointed out, however, market prices
abroad remained so unfavorable throughout the year that very little cacao
was exported. Most of this commodity which actually reached the market
was shipped under the Type B classification. It is probable that if the old
rates had remained in force, the total exports of cacao for the year would
have been negligible.
Due to inadequate preparation, lower prices are obtained for the ordinary
variety of Haitian cacao than for the cacao produced in other parts of the
world. Nevertheless, the Haitian product, when suitably prepared and
graded, has a superior flavor which should assure it a favorable reception
in foreign markets. It is hoped that when market conditions improve, the
principle of standardization can be applied to this commodity with further
modifications which will encourage the exportation of a better quality cacao.
There were no changes during the year in the application of standardiza-
tion to coffee exports, and the former grades and standards remained in
effect throughout the year. It will be recalled that the three highest types
carried graduated reductions in the normal export duty, and it was expected
that exporters would improve the quality of their coffee in order to take
advantage of the favorable rates. That this has actually taken place is
shown by the fact that while 8.27 per cent of all coffee exports were shipped
under the first three types in 1930-31, this percentage increased to 9.46 per
cent in 1931-32 in spite of the fact that there was no further reduction in
the duties on these grades during the year. This comparison over a period
of the last three years is given in detail, by standard types, in the table
below:
Type 1929-30 19130-31 1931-32
1 ...................................... .99% 1.33% 1.20%
2 ........................................ .18 1.88 .55
3 .................................... 1.90 5.06 7.71
4 ......................................... 20.49 19.21 15.32
5 ........................................... 68.10 63.46 66.77
6 ......................................... 1.53 1.88 1.12
7 .......................................... 6.73 7.18 7.33
Parchment coffee................. .08 ....................
100.00 100.00 100.00





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


While there is some satisfaction to be had in the fact that the percentage
of coffee exported under the three highest grades is increasing, it is to be
regretted that the portion of the crop exported under Type 5 increased from
63.46 per cent in 1930-31 to 66.77 per cent in 1931-32, and that Type 41
coffee lost correspondingly. More than two-thirds of the entire 1931-32
crop was exported under the Type 5 classification. If Haitian coffee is not
to be displaced from world markets by competition from other countries
where the coffee is better prepared it is imperative that a better type should
represent the bulk of the crop. It should be prepared in a more uniform
manner and in quantities enough to meet the demand that exists because of
its excellent flavor. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the necessity
for better preparation by both exporter and planter.
Further attempts were made during the year to improve the preparation
and quality of Haitian coffee by enforcement of the executive order of
August 9, 1930, which restricts the marketing of coffee in the interior of the
country unless it has been prepared in accordance with certain standards.
Difficulty was experienced in coordinating the efforts of the various bran-
ches of the government entrusted with the duty of enforcement in such
a way as to insure uniform treatment of all persons engaged in marketing
coffee, and in making known the purposes of the measure. It is hoped
that with further experience this measure can be more satisfactorily en-
forced, and that the small planters and traders will appreciate the benefits to
be derived through a better prepared product. It will take time and per-
severance before appreciable results can be expected, but it is the feeling
of this office that this work must supplement official grading of coffee at
the time of exportation if the quality of the product is to be improved.
Certainly the figures given above indicate that some improvement in the
right direction is taking place.
In the past, the price of Haitian coffee has closely followed the fluctua-
tions in the price of the Brazilian product, although the Haitian variety,
as with other mild coffees, has enjoyed a substantial premium over Bra-
zilian coffee. It had been hoped that with improved quality through stan-
dardization and the encouragement of better preparation of coffee before it
reaches the market, this premium would be increased. Such had been the
case up to the month of October, 1931, when the price of Haitian coffee in
the Havre market receded abruptly, while Santos coffee advanced in price.
An over-supply of mild coffee kept the price of Haitian coffee down, while
Santos coffee continued to advance in price, as is shown in Chart No. 2.
The blockade of the port of Santos in July during the revolutionary dis-
turbances in Brazil still further reduced the premium. Santos coffee ad-
vanced rapidly in price up to the end of September, when the blockade was
lifted. Meanwhile, although Haitian coffee gained somewhat in value, the
advance was not so rapid as was the case with Santos coffee, and at the





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Send of the month the latter variety actually was sold at a premium over
Haitian coffee.
Too great importance should not be attached to this apparent change in
relative position, for coffee prices at the latter part of the year were ab-
normally influenced by conditions in Brazil. However, the evidence is
conclusive that the prices of mild coffees have lost ground relative to other
Coffee, and that production during the past year has been too great to
enable mild coffees to maintain their former relative advantage over other
varieties.
Tariff Revision
By an executive order published on May 12, 1932, the former high export
duty of Gdes. 13.05 per hundred pounds on old copper was reduced to Gde.
0.50 per hundred kilos, thereby making it possible to export old copper
from the country, whereas previously the duty had been prohibitive.
On September 29, 1932, just before the close of the fiscal year, there
was published the law of September 23, 1932, requiring the payment by
importers of a special surtax of five per cent on the amount of customs
import duties. This law was an emergency measure passed for the purpose
of raising revenue with which to balance the 1932-33 budget. In effect,
the law uniformly increased the amounts payable under the existing import
duty schedules. As the new surtax did not come into effect until the last
day of the fiscal year, its effect on imports and on revenues for the year was
negligible.
Another emergency measure which came into effect at the year end was
the law of September 23, 1932, modifying certain schedules of the import
tariff. This law, as in the case of the five per cent surtax, was enacted
primarily for the purpose of obtaining new revenue, although certain pro-
tective features were introduced.
The changes made for the sake of obtaining additional revenue involved
doubling the former duty on matches from one gourde to two gourdes per
gross kilo, and revising the tariff on wheat flour and wheat in the grain by
which the duty is payable in accordance with a sliding scale based on the
price of wheat at Chicago. This innovation in Haitian tariff legislation was
introduced with the idea of'equalizing to some extent the price of wheat
flour in Haiti. A scale of nine gradations in the price of wheat is provided
in the new tariff. When the price of wheat at Chicago in any one month
advances from one group to a higher group, the duty on wheat imported
into Haiti is reduced to a lower rate. Similarly, a fall in the price of wheat
abroad is followed by an increase in the tariff rate. At the time the new
"schedule went into effect, the price of wheat at Chicago corresponded to
the lowest gradation of the price scale in the tariff, at which gradation the
new tariff called for a duty of Gde. 0.25 per kilo net on imports of wheat
flour. Under the former tariff the duty would have amounted to Gde. 0.17





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


per kilo net. Accordingly, the new tariff at present wheat prices calls for a
substantial increase in the duty on this important article of consumption in
Haiti. At the present writing (December 1932), the price of wheat has
remained in the lowest price gradation, and the duty of Gde. 0.25 per kilo
is still in effect. A considerable increase in revenues derived from the duty
on flour imports may therefore be expected during the fiscal year 1932-33.
The other modifications in the tariff are relatively unimportant. In order
to favor the printing industry in Haiti, linotype and stereotype metal and
stereotype paper are admitted free of duty. The rate on imported vermicelli
and macaroni was increased from Gde. 0.45 to Gde. 0.65 in order to protect
the local manufacturers of these products. The assembling of automobile
storage batteries in Haiti was protected by an increase of the duty on im-
ported batteries from 10 per cent to 20 per cent ad valorem. Wooden cases,
boxes, and baskets used for packing fruits and vegetables under the new
law are admitted free of duty in order to aid the exportation of fruits and
vegetables. Finally, a series of eleven schedules in the former tariff which
carried various rates of duty on imported sporting goods of various kinds
have been changed to permit the importation of these articles free of duty.

Customs Service
The Customs Service in 1931-32 necessarily had to operate within greatly
reduced availabilities since the fund under which the service functions is
restricted by the Treaty of September 16, 1915, to five per cent of customs
receipts. At the end of the previous year there had remained a surplus of
only Gdes. 4,128.40 in the operating fund, and since five per cent of customs
revenues in 1931-32 reached only Gdes. 1,154,329.37, there was available for
customs use during the last year only Gdes. 1,158,457.77.
The ordinary budget at the beginning of the year had made available to
the Customs Service an appropriation of Gdes. 1,290,000, but this amount
was based on the more favorable figures for customs receipts which were
expected at that time. This estimate was not borne out by subsequent
events, and at the end of the year it was found that the continued decline
in foreign commerce during the year had affected customs revenues so
severely that they reached only Gdes. 23,086,587.35 leaving available to the
Customs Service only Gdes. 1,154,329.37. Nevertheless, by drastic economy,
it was found possible to keep the cost of operating the Customs Service
well within the latter figure, and in addition contribute Gdes. 133,363.10 to
the contractual amount of Gdes. 300,000 due by the government to the
Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti for its services as treasury agent
during the year. Under its contract with the bank, the government is oblig-
ed to pay a commission of one per cent of both customs and internal revenue
receipts to the bank, or a minimum in any one year of Gdes. 300,000. The
latter amount was paid to the treasury agent in return for its services in





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


1931-32, since one per cent of revenue receipts amounted to less than Gdes.
300,000. Of this amount, Gdes. 133,363.10 were contributed by the Customs
Service, Gdes. 36,562.46 were paid by the Internal Revenue Service, and
Gdes. 130,074.44 were paid from the treasury, the latter payment being made
in November, 1932, following the close of the fiscal period under report.
Excluding, for sake of comparison, the amounts paid by the Customs
Service for bank commission both in 1930-31 and in 1931-32, it is found that
the Customs Service operated on a total of Gdes. 1,025,094.67 during the
latter year as compared with Gdes. 1,187,513.13 during the year before. The
reduction in expenditures amounted to Gdes. 162,418.46, or 13.68 per cent.
As payments for supplies, transportation, repairs, and other items in the
previous year had already been reduced almost to a minimum, it was un-
fortunately found necessary in 1931-32 to effect most of the required eco-
nomies under the classification of salaries and wages. Payments under the
latter heading were reduced to Gdes. 926,194.82 in 1931-32, as compared
with Gdes. 1,029,871.75 in 1930-31 and Gdes. 1,124,419.03 in 1929-30. This
indicates a reduction of Gdes. 103,676.93, or 10.07 per cent, from the 1930-31
figure, and Gdes. 198,224.21, or 17.63 per cent, from the 1929-30 figure.
Expenditures for supplies and materials showed a reduction of Gdes.
6,349.21, or 14.62 per cent, in 1931-32. A saving of Gdes. 29,261.66 was
effected in the cost of transportation. Communication costs were lower by
Gdes. 587.70, and miscellaneous disbursements were reduced by Gdes.
21,934.01. The latter saving was due to the fact that in 1931-32, no audit
was made by accountants from the Comptroller General's Office in Wash-
ington. The cost of these audits in the two previous years had been charg-
ed to miscellaneous expenditures. Repairs and maintenance costs increased
from Gdes. 9,703.22 in 1930-31 to Gdes. 20,544.75 in 1931-32, while disburse-
ments for the acquisition of property were reduced over the same period
from Gdes. 11,544.62 to Gdes. 1,284.14.
At every port there was a substantial reduction in the cost of customs
operations. Of the four most important custom houses, Jacmel reported
the greatest reductions in costs, amounting to Gdes. 9,773.50, or 25.12 per
cent of customs expenditures at that port in 1930-31. Cap Haitien reported
a similar saving of Gdes. 17,007.58, or 25.00 per cent. At Cayes, the eco-
nomies effected amounted to 15.89 per cent, and at Port-au-Prince, 6.41 per
cent. The other reductions in the cost of customs operations were 42.88 per
cent at Petit Goave; 24.68 per cent at Gonaives; 21.91 per cent at Saint
Marc; and 12.38 per cent at Port-de-Paix.
Expressing cost of customs operation at each port in terms of cost per
gourde collected, Jacmel had the best record with Gde. 0.0141. Petit Goive
was in second place, with Gde. 0.0148, and Miragoane in third place with
Gde. 0.0175. At Gonaives, the cost per gourde collected was Gde. 0.0180 and
at Port-au-Prince, Gde. 0.0208. Cap Haitien reported a slightly higher cost





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


per gourde collected, with Gde. 0.0238, followed by Cayes with Gde. 0.0239,
Port-de-Paix with Gde. 0.0256, and Saint Marc with Gde. 0.0266. The other
ports and frontier customs posts as usual showed high cost of collection.
Ouanaminthe, Belladere and Glore are maintained primarily to control
smuggling. Fort Libert6 is kept as an open port because of the sisal plan-
tations being developed in that district. Fort Libert6 is increasing in re-
lative importance, whereas Aquin, where cost of collection in 1931-32 was
quite high, has lost considerable importance because of the recession in the
logwood trade.
Comparing costs of collecting customs revenues in 1931-32 with the pre-
vious year, we find that costs have increased at Saint Marc, Port-de-Paix,
Jeremie, Miragoine, Ouanaminthe and Belladere. At all other custom of-
fices costs per gourde collected have been reduced.

Internal Revenue Service
The adjustment in operating expenses of the Internal Revenue Service
during 1931-32 had to be even more drastic than was the case with the
customs administration. While customs receipts declined 9.68 per cent from
the previous year, internal revenue receipts, chiefly because of changes in
excise tax legislation, declined by Gdes. 1,229,507.04, or 23.83 per cent.
The operating fund of the Internal Revenue Service is fixed by law at
fifteen per cent of revenue collected, and the decline in revenue carried
availabilities down from Gdes. 774,062.00 in 1930-31 to Gdes. 548,436.94 in
1931-32. Expenditures had to be reduced in like proportion, even though
such a radical revision in administrative costs involved the risk of losing
tax collecting efficiency and meant the partial destruction of an organization
laboriously built up over a period of years.
Part of the reduction in the fifteen per cent operating fund in 1931-32
was due to the fact that at the beginning of the fiscal year 1931-32, in ac-
cordance with an agreement between the Haitian and American govern-
ments, the documentary recording offices were transferred from the super-
vision of the Internal Revenue Service to that of a new organization under
the Department of Finance. The new Registry Bureau now operates under
special budgetary allocations, and the operating fund of the Internal Re-
venue Service is no longer increased by fifteen per cent of recording fees.
Total expenditures of the Internal Revenue Service were reduced to
Gdes. 544,949.58 in 1931-32 from Gdes. 770,681.47 in 1930-31. The reduction
amounted to Gdes. 225,731.89, or 29.29 per cent, and kept expenditures
safely within the limits of the fifteen per cent fund. At the end of the year
a surplus of Gdes. 3,487.36 reverted to the treasury.
Most of the saving was effected through reductions in disbursements for
salaries and wages. Also, the transfer of the Registry Bureau reduced the
amounts expended by the Internal Revenue Service for salaries. Personnel





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


was greatly reduced and salaries were adjusted. A total of Gdes. 385,251.02
was disbursed for salaries and wages in 1931-32, compared with Gdes.
518,822.06 in the prior year. The saving amounted to Gdes. 133,571.04, or
25.74 per cent.
Further reductions were effected under all other classifications with the
exception of repairs and the acquisition of property. The cost of supplies
was reduced by Gdes. 5,894.28, or 12.39 per cent; transportation by Gdes.
54,216.97, or 53.73 per cent; rents by Gdes. 1,090.63, or 85.49 per cent; and
special or miscellaneous items by Gdes. 29,833.09, or 88.39 per cent.
In the case of repairs, a total of Gdes. 3,069.90 was expended in 1931-32
in excess of the figure for the previous year, while the property account
showed an increase of Gdes. 10,875.89, or 69.00 per cent. It was necessary
to purchase a building on La Gonave Island to house the new internal re-
venue office established there. Also, badly needed internal revenue buildings
were constructed at Grand Goive and at Gressier. These entailed the ex-
penditure of Gdes. 7,100. The purchase of office equipment of various kinds
accounted for the rest of the increase.
The fixed charge of one per cent of revenue receipts due to the Banque
National de la REpublique d'Haiti for treasury service was paid in full as
usual from the operating fund. The bank commission amounted to Gdes.
36,562.46 in 1931-32 compared with Gdes. 51,604.13 the previous year.

Land Legislation
In the last Annual Report of this office it was remarked that a project of
a homestead law had been prepared which would be presented to the Se-
cretary of State for Finance with the recommendation that it be enacted
into law. The project was actually presented by this office on January 5,
1932, and in the subsequent months it was the subject of considerable dis-
cussion and study on the part of the government. Later, it was sent to the
Legislative Body in modified form for its consideration and for enactment.
The importance of this project made it worthy of the attention which it
received.
On September 5, 1932, the project was passed by the Legislative Body,
but with a modification which'in the opinion of this office nullifies the main
purpose of the law. It will be recalled that the original project as described
in the last Annual Report would make it possible for homesteaders, after
complying with certain formalities for a period of three years, to become
actual owners of the state land which they had cultivated and upon which
they had lived. It was believed that in this way great areas of state land at
present unoccupied or uncultivated-or what is still worse from an economic
viewpoint, cultivated to destruction by persons who have no real interest
in preserving the fertility of the land or the timber growing on it would
be opened up by such Haitians as have the enterprise and initiative to avail





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


themselves of the advantages offered by the homestead law. The require-
ment that the land be dwelt upon and cultivated for a period of three years
was felt to be long enough to eliminate speculation. At the same time it
was believed that if the period were extended beyond three years state
tenants would be discouraged from applying for homesteads as the benefits
would accrue in the too distant future.
The law as finally accepted by the Council of Secretaries of State and
enacted modified this idea by providing that after the initial three year
period had expired, the homesteader would not be entitled to lease, sell, or
mortgage the land on which he had lived until an additional period of
twenty years had passed. Thus an applicant for a homestead would have
no prospect of coming into full ownership of the land which he might
desire to develop until twenty-three years had passed. The land could not
be used as security for a loan except from an establishment (at present
non-existant) for agricultural or real estate loans; the homesteader could
not lease or sell his land to meet changing conditions over a twenty-three
year period; he would forfeit all rights to the land acquired during his
residence if at any time before the end of twenty-three years he or his
heirs for any reason were unable to continue to dwell upon and to cultivate
the homestead.
Accordingly, there can be little hope that Haitians will apply for home-
steads and in time become actual owners of the land they expect to cultivate.
Meanwhile, there remain the thousands of hectares of fertile land belonging
to the state and occupied by state tenants who have little or no prospect of
ever owning the land they dwell upon. These tenants will continue to treat
the land with the same indifference that they have shown in the past. In-
stead of permanent dwellings there will be the usual make-shift huts; ins-
tead of coffee trees or cotton plantations there will be the usual ill-kept
plots of corn and vegetables where peasant farmers, without the pride or
incentive which comes with private ownership, will continue simply to
eke out a bare living from the soil as tenants of the state.
There are also the extensive areas of state land at present unoccupied and
needing only the incentive of private ownership to be productive. Such land
at present is of no possible use either to the government or to the people
of Haiti, yet it is allowed year after year to lie idle, of benefit to no one.
The government even at times is obliged to drive squatters from such
lands in order to preserve its ownership and protect the rights of others.
It would be far better if, instead of jealously keeping state land to itself, or
collecting rents with difficulty from unwilling and indifferent tenants, the
land were distributed in an orderly manner, and under proper safeguards
and regulations, to those Haitians who have the ambition to establish
homesteads with the hope that their efforts in the not-too-distant future
may bring returns.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Unfortunately the law which was enacted does not offer advantages
enough to encourage homesteading. Unless it is modified it will be found
to be completely ineffectual. This office recommends that the government
endeavor to have the law modified in order to bring it into harmony with
homestead laws in other countries, which laws have aided so materially in
developing a self-respecting and financially independent agricultural class.

Government Revenues
Total Revenues
For the fourth consecutive year, total revenue receipts of the Republic
have been less than those of the previous year. From the high point in
the recorded history of Haitian revenues, which was reached in 1927-28
when receipts totalled Gdes. 50,421,016.49, revenues have registered a decline
each year until the year under review when they amounted only to Gdes.
28,023,742.10. In the previous year collections totalled Gdes. 31,746,582.38,
from which the 1931-32 figure represents a decline of Gdes. 3,722,840.28, or
11.73 per cent.
CHART No. 3
TOTAL REVENUE RECEIPTS OF HAITI, FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1931-32

GOUBDES.










6g



S09/92S-3'49S9S9759B 9Oooc3O506070S0090///2/3/4/1 7/3/S 2 IS 2 24 Iat S Z 26 2723a0 3/ .52

With every indication that the fiscal year 1932-33 will witness a distinct
upturn in trade and in government revenues, it is probable that collections
for'the last year mark the low point in revenue receipts during the present
period of depression. Low as that level is, the figure for total receipts in
1920-21 during the last big depression in business was even lower, and total
revenues were lower still in four of the six preceding years. Haiti has been
hard hit by the loss in value of its principal exports, and has been unfor-
tunate in that the last two coffee crops have been much smaller than aver-
age. Revenues have of course suffered, but taken as a whole the record of





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


revenue collection in Haiti compares quite favorably with the records of
other countries during the present period of depression.
Revenues in Haiti are collected under three main classifications. First,
there are the customs receipts which have always comprised the greater part
of government revenues; secondly, there are the internal revenue receipts,
which until the last two years had been increasing in importance; and third-
ly there are the miscellaneous receipts of the government, representing
chiefly interest received on government deposits and investments. These
three sources of income in 1931-32 were of the following relative impor-
tance:
Gdes. Per cent
Customs receipts .................................... 23,086,587.35 82.39
Internal revenues .................................... 3,930,906.29 14.02
Miscellaneous receipts .......................... 1,006,248.46 3.59
Total .......................................... 28,023,742.10 100.00

Customs Receipts
Customs receipts in 1931-32 showed a smaller percentage loss than in-
ternal revenues. From Gdes. 25,562,783.98 collected by the Customs Service
in 1930-31, collections dropped to Gdes. 23,086,587.35 in 1931-32, indicating
a decline of Gdes. 2,476,196.63 or 9.68 per cent.
Subdividing customs receipts by sources, we find that the following
relation existed between these sources in 1931-32:
Gdes. Per cent
Import duties ........................................ 15,279,209.85 66.18
Export duties ....................................... 7,757,230.28 33.60
Miscellaneous customs receipts ................ 50,147.22 .22
Total.............................................. 23,086,587.35 100.00
Import duties collected in 1931-32 declined by Gdes. 1,397,871.55 or 8.38
per cent, from the total of Gdes. 16,677,081.40 produced by the import duties
in the previous year. Similarly, export duties declined by Gdes. 1,063,979.68,
or 12.05 per cent, and miscellaneous customs receipts, which consist mainly
of storage charges, navigation fees, and fines, declined by Gdes. 14,345.40,
or 22.24 per cent.
It should be noted that the percentage decline in import duties was some-
what less than in the case of export duties, whereas foreign trade statistics
for 1931-32 show that the decline in import values was somewhat more
extensive than was the decline in export values. A greater proportion of
total customs receipts is therefore being derived from the import duties. In
the last Annual Report of this office* attention was called to the effect of
lower commodity prices on the tax burden imposed by the import tariff.
It was shown that because of the downward trend of commodity prices
many imported articles which formerly were taxed under ad valorem rates

*Annual Report of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, 1930-31, page 25.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


are now taxable under specific duties where the tariff provides for alternate
States. Most of of the import tariff schedules carry these alternate rates
and as imported articles are taxable under whichever rate produces
the greater revenue, specific duties become of increasing importance as
prices decline. In 1930-31 import duties collected represented 34.83 per cent
of the value of all articles imported. In 1931-32, this percentage, represent-
ing the burden of import taxation, had increased to 40.98 per cent due to the
effect of the alternate rates.
While the tax burden imposed by the import tariff at present is high,
it should be remarked that the effect of alternate rates in automatically
increasing the tax burden has had a most beneficial effect, first because the
revenues of the government from their most important source have been
kept relatively stable,. and secondly because the value of the import trade,
and with it the amount of money leaving the country, has been automatically
reduced. Many countries have found it necessary to restrict their import
trade by modifying their tariffs, by imposing import quotas, or by control-
ling foreign exchange. In Haiti this control of imports in order to avoid
an unfavorable balance of payments has operated quite automatically and
without discriminating against any nation. Although there has been an un-
favorable balance of trade during the past two years, it is certain that unless
the tax burden on imports had increased there would have been an even
greater excess of imports over exports, bringing with it the danger of an
insufficiency of available credits abroad to finance necessary payments.
Importers and merchants have been handicapped by the high duties, but
after all, the increased tax burden together with reduced imports are evi-
dence of the fact that money has been kept within the country, and to this
extent the adjustment necessary in the foreign balance of payments has been
materially aided.
It is unfortunate that government revenues from other sources have not
increased sufficiently to permit greater flexibility with regard to the taxa-
tion of exports. Whereas in times like the present the import tariff should
operate to restrict importation, the export tariff on the other hand should
logically impose a lighter burden on exports. The contrary has been the
case. Export duties collected'in 1931-32 comprised 21.48 per cent of total
export values, compared with 19.68 per cent in 1930-31, and 16.90 per cent
in 1929-30. Exporters therefore paid to the government more than one-fifth
of the values which they received for their merchandise. The duties on
exports are all specific, and when the values of export commodities decline,
as occurred in 1931-32, the tax burden at the same time is increased, thereby
imposing a greater burden on the export trade at the very time when it most
needs assistance.
This office has repeatedly pointed out that theoretically direct taxation
of exports is unsound. It can only be justified by necessity due to the





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


absence of more desirable tax legislation. The revenue derived from the
export taxes is still so large a share of total revenues that the duties on
exports cannot be reduced or removed until other taxes are devised to take
their place. Obviously, the import tariff cannot produce much more revenue,
and the only alternative has been the development of internal sources of
revenue, such as excise taxes. The gains of the Internal Revenue Service
in this direction during the years from 1927 to 1931 have to a great extent
been lost through the revision of alcohol and tobacco taxes in 1931, and as
long as there exists the refusal to permit adequate internal revenue taxation,
the time when the export trade can be materially aided through removal of
export duties is dependent on increased production for export sale with
corresponding increase in purchasing power. In this sense Haiti's future
relief from the present admittedly high revenue tariff is dependent on its
ability to increase production and find adequate foreign markets for ex-
ported products.

Internal Revenue Receipts*
The internal revenue taxes have produced as high as Gdes. 6,620,164.04
in one year. This was in 1929-30, when the alcohol and tobacco taxes were
yielding their maximum returns. From the 1929-30 figure, internal revenue
receipts declined to Gdes. 5,160,413.33 in 1930-31, and in the year under
report they dropped to Gdes. 3,930,906.29, indicating a decline of Gourdes
1,229,507.04, or 23.83 per cent of the previous year's total.
It will be recalled that a new excise law came into force on September 10,
1931, which changed the basis on which alcohol is taxed, and removed the
tax on raw leaf tobacco. As was expected, these changes resulted in a much
lower revenue yield. The excise taxes produced only Gdes. 1,178,076.27 in
1931-32 compared with Gdes. 1,889,942.34 in the previous year, which in
turn was an exceptionally poor year, chiefly because throughout that period
the taxes had been the subject of political discussion, and promises had been
made that the taxes would be reduced or removed. Distillers had delayed,
or evaded, tax payments, in anticipation of such action, and tax collecting
was further hindered by lack of cooperation and assistance from certain
officials of the government itself. The excise taxes had been administered
with maximum efficiency in 1929-30, when they yielded Gdes. 2,732,478.75,
and aided materially in supplementing greatly diminished income from other
sources. From the latter figure, the 1931-32 yield showed a reduction of
Gdes. 1,554,402.48, or 56.89 per cent, and from the 1930-31 figure of Gdes.
1,889,942.34, a reduction of Gdes. 711,866.07, or 37.65 per cent.
Even after making generous allowance for reduced yield from the excise
taxes because of declining trade and reduced purchasing power, it is reason-

*A more detailed discussion of internal revenue receipts will be found in the report of the Director General
of Internal Revenue annexed to this report.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Sably evident from the above figures that the treasury would have gained at
least a million gourdes if these taxes had not been modified.
Examining in detail the data covering excise tax revenues, it appears that
Sin spite of decreased consumption the income from the taxes on cigarettes
and on malt liquors was greater in 1931-32 than in the previous fiscal period.
The gains were Gdes. 90,449.45, or 25.82 per cent, and Gdes. 23,817.87, or
S46.61 per cent, respectively. The tax on foreign cigarettes was trebled by
the new excise law, and that on malt liquors was doubled. All other items
taxable under the excise law, on the other hand, showed decreased returns,
Sthe most important classification being alcohol derived from material other
Than cane juice, under which heading the loss in revenue amounted to Gdes.
350,416.84, or 80.74 per cent. The new system of taxing alcohol on the
capacity of the stills rather than on quantities produced cut heavily into
This once important source of revenue. Alcohol from cane juice produced
SGdes. 302,169.26 in 1931-32 compared with Gdes. 462,964.60 the previous
year indicating a revenue loss of Gdes. 160,795.34, or 34.74 per cent. In spite
of a tax increase of 33 1/3 per cent on wines and spirituous liquors, the
internal revenue from these imports declined 2.21 per cent and 30.49 per cent
respectively. The loss may be ascribed to decreased purchasing power.
SThe tax on cigars was increased by the new law, yet less revenue is ob-
Stained than under the former tax. The new alcohol and tobacco law has
made the problem of adequate enforcement much more difficult by requir-
ing that seizures of non-tax-paid tobacco or of illicit distilling apparatus be
effected by Justices of the Peace in the presence of three witnesses, instead
of directly by agents of the Internal Revenue Service as under the former
law. The tax evader is not usually sufficiently complacent to wait until the
Justice of the Peace can be found and brought to him. This inability to
enforce the law, coupled with the exemption from taxation of raw tobacco,
produced a marked decline in tobacco revenues during 1931-32. The tax on
manufactured tobacco produced Gdes. 296,464.53, or 62.89 per cent, less
than in 1930-31, and similarly the income from the cigar tax showed a loss
of Gdes. 13,060.20, or 67.84 per cent.
Six years of experiment have demonstrated that Haiti cannot produce
raw leaf in quantity of the type and quality suitable for black manufactured
tobacco. To prepare black tobacco of the flavor and quality favored in
Haiti, a blend of native and foreign tobacco is required. The experiment of
a high tariff instituted to encourage Haitian planters has not succeeded in
the way that had been hoped and has reduced revenues without benefiting
production. The unsatisfactory flavor of the present product has resulted
in the consumer turning to smoking home-grown raw leaf although he would
still gladly buy and smoke the superior flavored foreign and native blend if
it could be procured at a reasonable price. Dominican raw leaf of the same
type as is produced in Haiti has been smuggled in at a hundred points






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


along the border and many Haitians have lost all interest in plantation
development as the market has been flooded in this way. This office recom-
mended a return to the old tariff on foreign leaf so as to permit the proper
flavoring of prepared tobacco to be marketed at a reasonable price, but the
law was not voted by the Legislative Body and the tobacco industry remains
in a reduced state. This reduction in the tariff on foreign leaf of the type
used for flavoring prepared tobacco should be reconsidered, and it is hoped
this will be done in the near future. The manufactured tobacco industry is
suffering from the abundance of raw leaf sold everywhere and consumed ,
without any preparation other than drying, and it is believed that valuable
revenue could be restored to the state, while at the same time the Haitian
citizen could again enjoy the superior flavor of the blended tobacco if the
tariff law were changed and further steps taken to control the sale of raw
tobacco so as to reduce the sale of the contraband product.
It has been noted that internal revenue from sources other than the
excise taxes in 1931-32 showed a decline of Gdes. 517,630.97 from the previ-
ous year. A large part of this loss was due to decreased income from the
government-owned telegraph and telephone service, receipts from which
in 1931-32 were Gdes. 241,463.52 less than the year before. Decreased use
of telephones due to commercial conditions contributed to the decline,
although the loss in revenue in large part was due to the fact that be-
ginning with October, 1931, the various government services were no longer
required to pay for use of the telephone and telegraph system.
Internal revenues under five classifications actually showed an increase
in 1931-32 over the previous year. The most important item was a gain of
Gdes. 55,201.08, or 24.71 per cent, in collection of rentals on state land. The
increase may be ascribed to careful administration and to increased activity
on the part of the Internal Revenue Service both in enforcing collection of
rentals due and in locating new areas of state land on which rental vwas
collectible from the occupants.
Other classifications under which increased returns were noted were in
order of importance miscellaneous internal revenue receipts, irrigation tax
receipts, visas on manifests, and receipts from sales of the official gazette.
The increase aggregated Gdes. 14,732.12. All other items registered declines,
the most important being a drop of Gdes. 100,948.95, or 18.73 per cent. in
revenue received from the income tax, and a loss of Gdes. 99,184.22, or 16.16
per cent, in revenues obtained from the various stamp taxes. In both cases
the decline would appear to be normal in view of business conditions. The
drop of Gdes. 71,101.23, or 20.57 per cent, in documentary recording fees,
and Gdes. 34,499.29, or 10.97 per cent, in revenues from the occupational tax
applied to foreigners also reflect adverse business conditions.
As might be expected, there was relatively little movement in receipts
from subscribers to the government-owned water services. Revenues from





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


this source declined from Gdes. 221,600.50 in 1930-31 to Gdes. 210,432.75
in 1931-32, indicating a decline of Gdes. 11,167.75, or 5.04 per cent.

Miscellaneous Receipts
Miscellaneous receipts of the government fell off from Gdes. 1,023,385.07
in 1930-31 to Gdes. 1,006,248.46 in 1931-32. The decline amounted to Gdes.
17,136.61, or 1.67 per cent.
Government receipts classified as miscellaneous are derived chiefly from
interest on its investments in Haitian bonds. The amount of these invest-
ments varied little during the year, and the income from them therefore
remained practically the same. The slight decline in miscellaneous receipts
was therefore due principally to other causes, of which should be mentioned
the fact that: (1) interest rates on government deposits were lower in 1931-
32 than in the previous year; and, (2) interest produced by the special franc
account was reduced in 1931-32 because of the many redemptions of 1910
bonds which took place during the year, resulting in a corresponding de-
crease in the amount of interest-drawing funds on deposit for redemption
of the 1910 loan. A total of 4,498 bonds of the 1910 loan was redeemed
during the year, reducing the balance in the redemption fund from
45,464,773.17 francs on September 30, 1931, to 43,210,150.67 francs on Sep-
tember 30, 1932. Many holders of the 1910 bonds had persisted in retaining
their securities notwithstanding the fact that the entire issue had been
called and the bonds are redeemable at par. Apparently large groups of
these bondholders at last have recognized the correctness of the Haitian
government's position to the effect that it is under no obligation to redeem
the bonds at the gold value of the French franc.
The interest rate on the sight account of the General Receiver in New
York funds rose from 2 of one per cent to one per cent in October 1931.
In May, 1932, the rate returned to Y2 of one per cent, where it remained to
the close of the year. On the time account of the General Receiver in New
York funds, the interest rate increased from 1 per cent to 2 per cent in
November, 1931. In June, 1932, the rate declined to 1Y per cent, and in
July it declined further to 1 per cent, where it remained to the year-end.

Expenditures
The ordinary budget of expenditures for 1931-32 as reduced by the execu-
tive order of November 23, 1931, called for an expenditure program of
Gdes. 31,999,977.47. To this sum should be added the unused balances of
extraordinary appropriations made available during the previous fiscal year
and which could still be drawn upon at the beginning of the fiscal year
1931-32. These totalled in amount Gdes. 363,255.02. There were also the
extraordinary appropriations created during the course of the fiscal year
1931-32, and amounting in all to Gdes. 1,465,250. Also, there were five
comparatively small items aggregating Gdes. 84,633.32 which were added to






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the ordinary budgetary appropriations during the year in the form of
supplementary credits. In all, there was accordingly available for expendi-
ture during 1931-32 a sum total of Gdes. 33,913,115.81.
Although the total amount, available for expenditure during the year
aggregated nearly thirty-four million gourdes, actual disbursements from
revenue amounted only to Gdes. 32,888,112.00. During the preceding year
a total of Gdes. 36,190,070.45 had been spent from revenue, from which the
1931-32 figure represents a reduction of expenditures amounting to Gdes.
3,301,958.45, or 9.12 per cent.
At this point it should be remarked that the 1931-32 figure for expendi-
tures was considerably inflated by the payment at the end of the year of
Gdes. 1,050,000 to the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad Company. The eventual
payment of approximately this amount had been anticipated for some years,
and over a period of the last four years an amount of Gdes. 825,600 had
been carried in a reserve account, reducing the treasury surplus by an
equivalent amount. Also, over the same period each of the annual budgets
of expenditure had carried an item of Gdes. 206,400, representing an ad-
ditional part of the expected payment. When the contract between the
railroad company and the government was finally ratified on September 21,
1932, the amount of Gdes. 1,050,000 became immediately payable to the
company as a compromise settlement of all claims of the parties interested.
The entire amount was then made available by an extraordinary appropri-
ation and payment was effected on September 29,1932. At the same time
the item of Gdes. 825,600 disappeared from the balance sheet and the item
of Gdes. 206,400 was cancelled from the ordinary budgetary appropriations.
These operations, in view of the large amounts involved, should be kept in
mind when comparing expenditures in 1931-32 with those of other years.
Eliminating from total disbursements the above item of Gdes. 1,050,000
in order to show the true extent of economies effected during the year, it
appears that expenditures from revenue were reduced from Gourdes
36,190,070.45 in 1930-31 to Gdes. 31,838,112 in 1931-32, indicating a reduc-
tion in government expenditures of Gdes. 4,351,958.45, or 12.03 per cent.
It already has been pointed out that revenue receipts in 1931-32 declined
from those of the previous year by Gdes. 3,722,840.28, or 11.73 per cent.
The end of the year therefore showed an excess of expenditures over receipts
amounting to Gdes. 4,864,369.90, or eliminating the Gdes. 1,050,000 item,
a deficit of Gdes. 3,814,369.90. Despite really substantial economies effected
in the cost of running the government, there has been a mounting deficit
over a period of the last four years. The excess of expenditures over receipts
in each of these years has been as follows:
Fiscal year Gourdes
1928-29 ............................................................ 1,597,975.54
1929-30............................................................ 1,995,066.13
1930-31 ............................................................ 4,443,488.07
1931-32 ............................................................ 4,864,369.90





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIV'Zi.


The executive order of November 23, 1931, reducing budgetary appropri-
ations, was chiefly responsible for the substantial economies effected. At
the same time government officials in charge of the various departments
and services made important contributions by their action in cutting costs
to a minimum and in keeping expenditures wherever possible to figures even
lower than the amounts made available through budgetary appropriations.
The cooperation of these officials in this connection is to be commended.
The extent of the economies effected by the various departments and
services is shown below:
Reductions in expen- Percentage reductions
ditures from in expenditures from
1930-31 1930-31
Public Health Service (including the American Scien- Gourdes Gourdes
tific M mission ) ............................................... 1,095,602.00 28.09
Guard of H aiti......................................................... 758,072.72 11.98
Public Works Administration.............. ...... 735,628.79 14.23
Departments of Agriculture, Labor and Public In-
truction (including the services under their super-
vision.) ................................................................. 662,859.53 14.23
Office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver
(including the Internal Revenue Service.)............ 510,415.09 23.06
Department of Finance*............................................ 349,481.40 36.14
Public Debt (including payments to fiduciary curren-
cy reserve and to international institutions)....... 93,375.55 1.08
Department of Foreign Relations.......................... 86,285.23 14.00
Department of Justice................................................ 70,484.06 5.45
Department of Commerce.......................................... 35,379.77 10.27
Department of Religion............................................ 4,621.22 1.13

Only one department of the government reported an actual increase of
expenditures in 1931-32 over the preceding year. This was the Department
of the Interior, whose total disbursements (excluding those of the Guard
of Haiti, the Public Health Service and the American Scientific Mission)
reached a total of Gdes. 1,642,636.62 in 1931-32 compared with Gourdes
1,589,833.75 in the previous year. The increase of Gdes. 52,802.87, or 3.32
per cent, resulted from increased payments to members of the Legislative
Body. Senators and deputies did not take office until November, 1930, and
consequently they did not receive salaries for the full year 1930-31. More-
over, increased expense allowances were made payable to them by law, and
payments of these allowances were made dating from April 6, 1931. In
addition, the new constitution adopted in July 1932 provides for five ad-
ditional senators who were paid during the last two months of the fiscal year
1931-32.
It was fortunate that there were no unforeseen events during the year
which required the appropriation of large amounts in the form of extraor-
dinary credits. While the total amount appropriated in this way reached
Gdes. 1,465,250, it will be recalled that Gdes. 1,050,000 of this amount

*Excluding from expenditures in 1931-32 the payment of Gdes. 1,050,000 to the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad
Company.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


represented the special payment made to the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad
Company. The actual amount made available to cover unforeseen contin-
gencies therefore amounted only to Gdes. 415,250. Of the latter figure,
Gdes. 300,000 were made available to enable the Public Works Service to
begin badly needed drainage work in the Cul-de-Sac plain and in the Arti-
bonite valley. Lack of an adequate drainage canal in one section of the
Cul-de-Sac plain was bringing about the ruin of large areas of fertile land
through the infiltration of water containing harmful minerals. The expen-
diture of part of the appropriation for the construction of a deep drainage
canal has made possible the control of water in part of the affected
area, although additional funds will have to be spent if the entire district
is to be properly drained. Also, a part of the appropriation was expended
for work in the Artibonite valley to permit flood waters from the river
to run under control into a system of canals built in French colonial
times for irrigation. The funds thus far made available for this purpose
have permitted only a small beginning of the extensive work which must
be accomplished if this fertile valley is to attain its full productivity.
Both with respect to the above activities, as well as in the maintenance
and improvement of roads and trails, the Public Works Service during
1931-32 accomplished results which are truly remarkable considering the
limited funds available.
Other extraordinary appropriations during 1931-32 numbered nine items,
all of which were small in amount except for one of Gdes. 65,000 to cover
certain expenses necessary in connection with holding the last legislative
elections, and another of Gdes. 20,000 to aid in the work of restoring the
Citadel of Christophe. The sum of Gdes. 8,000 was also appropriated to
permit Haiti to be represented at the Olympic Games held at Los Angeles.
Expenditures of funds derived from sources other than from revenue
reached Gdes. 1,081,061.77 in 1931-32, compared with Gdes. 711,306.06 in
1930-31. The greater part of this item of expense in 1931-32 consisted of
payments from the road-construction fund representing the unused proceeds
of the Series A loan. A total of Gdes. 836,091.06 was disbursed from this
appropriation during the year and was used for work on a large number of
road construction projects in different parts of the country. At the end
of the year a small unused balance of Gdes. 813.97 reverted to the treasury.
The work accomplished through the expenditure of these funds has been
important. Remote parts of the country have been opened up through the
construction of new roads and trails, and existing roads have been improved.
It may be considered that the money has been spent for reproductive
purposes, as the improvement in communication will assist the movement
of crops to the market, and increase foreign trade and revenues.
The other non-revenue accounts of the government showed relatively
little movement with the exception of the account to which funds collected





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


by the sequestrator of the La Gonave Island concession had been credited.
The controversy between the concessionnaires and the government was
settled early in the year. It was agreed that the government would retain
three per cent of the sequestrated money and would pay the balance to
the concessionnaires or their heirs. The concessionnaires on the other
hand agreed to give up their rights to the exploitation of the island,
and in January, 1931, the government assumed all of its privileges and
rights in connection with the administration of the island. The funds ac-
cumulated in the sequestrator's account were accordingly paid out during
the year to those who were able to establish legally their interest in the
concession, and at the end of September, 1932, the entire amount of the
fund had been withdrawn with the exception of Gdes. 1,050.69.
In January and February, 1932, the sum of Gdes. 50,000 was released
from funds belonging to the National Railroad Company and held in sus-
pense by the government. Since June 1, 1931, the railroad had suspended
service because of unprofitable operations and because of failure of the
Legislative Body to ratify the new contract which had been signed in
January, 1930. The closing down of the railroad had contributed to the
unfavorable trade and revenue figures for 1930-31 by cutting off certain
sections of the country from the markets. In January, 1932, the railroad
was strongly urged to attempt to resume service, and the government offer-
ed to assist by releasing enough money from the so-called construction
fund to permit the railroad to repair its tracks and rolling stock. The rail-
road resumed service in February 1932.
Classifying all expenditures of the government by functions, we find that
service of the public debt as usual made up the greatest percentage of total
disbursements. In 1931-32, 25.15 per cent of all governmental expenditures
were for account of the public debt. As might be expected in view of the
relative inflexibility of the public debt charges, the latter percentage is an
increase over the 23.05 per cent paid out for debt service in the previous
year. Expenditures for public safety declined from 15.97 per cent of total
payments in 1930-31 to 15.44 per cent in 1931-32. Similarly, disbursements
for educational purposes showed a decline from 11.42 per cent to 10.76 per
cent. Functional classifications which showed an increase in their pro-
portional share of expenditures were in order of their importance, trans-
portation, public works, the judicial function, agricultural development, the
legislative branch of government, and communications. A smaller share
of total expenditures was taken by public health activities, the financial
administration, general executive costs, and the cost of municipal im-
provements.
At a time when such sweeping reductions have been made in government
costs, it is particularly interesting as well as useful to know under just what
classifications of expenditures these economies have been effected. The






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


disbursements coming under the heading of administration and operation in
1931-32 constituted 59.93 per cent of total expenditures, compared with
65.73 per cent the previous year. By far the greater portion of total savings
were therefore effected under this classification. Only Gdes. 20,354,014.95
were expended for administration and operation in 1931-32 as compared
with Gdes. 24,107,854.15 in the preceding year. The reduction amounted
to Gdes. 3,753,839.20, or 15.58 per cent.
Further analyzing the total saving under administration and operation,
we find that the following are the items under which economies have been
effected:
Reductions in expendi-
tures from 1930-31
Gourdes
Supplies and Materials .............................................. 1,660,849.67
Salaries and wages .................................................... 1,292,677.36
Transportation .............................................................. 267,444.35
Communication ............................................................. 173,509.40
R ents ..................................................... .................... 14,108.08
Special and miscellaneous ......................................... 345,250.34
Total ................................................................. 3,753,839.20

The amount saved in the purchase of supplies and materials was 36.72
per cent of expenditures under this heading in 1931-32. Similarly, the above
table shows that disbursements for government salaries were reduced in
1930-31 by Gdes. 1,292,677.36, or 7.51 per cent. Under these two groups,
therefore, were concentrated most of the savings effected in 1931-32.

Treasury Position

The condition of the treasury as of September 30, 1932, and also at Sep-
tember 30, 1931, is set forth in the condensed balance sheet given below:
ASSETS Sept. 30, 1931 Sept. 30, 1932
ASSETS Gourdes Gourdes
Current Assets................................... 10,626,086.09 4,540,910.32
Investments .......... .............................. 9,844,222.65 9,753,530.50
Other Assets .................................... 3,955,827.49 3,955,827.49
24,426,136.23 18,250,268.31


LIABILITIES Gourdes
Current Liabilities................................ 3,794,607.04
R deserves ............................. ................. 4,168,687.69
Surplus ............................................... 16,462,841.50
24,426,136.23


Gourdes
1,697,776.21
3,956,878.18
12,595,613.92
18,250,268.31


Fiscal operations during the year brought about a net reduction of the
unobligated cash surplus amounting to Gdes. 3,867,227.58, and on Sep-
tember 30, 1932, the surplus stood at Gdes. 12,595,613.92. The reduction in
surplus was therefore not so great as might be expected in view of the
heavy deficit between receipts and expenditures during the year. This was





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


due to the fact that payment of the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad award,
and settlement of the La Gonave Island obligation, had been anticipated
by setting up an adequate reserve. Surplus therefore was not affected to
any extent by the payment of these awards.
Current liabilities of the treasury had been reduced from Gdes.
3,794,607.04 on September 30, 1931, to Gdes. 1,697,776.21 on September 30,
1932, at which time the current liabilities of the treasury were listed as
follows:
Gourdes
Extraordinary credits outstanding................................................. 199,478.38
"Non-revenue" credits:
Construction fund of the National Railroad........................ 280,623.55
Revolving fund of the Public Works Service...................... 199,786.51
Others ........... .............................................................. 330,514.85
Checks outstanding .......... ......................................................... 687,372.92
Total ............................................................................ 1,697,776.21

It should be noted that two important items carried as current liabilities
at the close of the previous year no longer appear upon the balance sheet.
First, there was the road construction fund, originally in the amount of
Gdes. 1,400,000, and representing the balance of the proceeds of the Series
A loan. A total of Gdes. 836,905.03 in this appropriation remained unused
on September 30, 1931. During the last fiscal year this amount was drawn
upon for various road construction projects and was used in its entirety
with the exception of Gdes. 813.97 which reverted to the treasury at the end
of the fiscal year. Secondly, there was the amount of Gdes. 825,600 which
for some years had been carried on the balance sheet, and which represented
the greater part of the government's probable liability in connection with
the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad litigation. With the ratification of the
new contract between the government and the railroad company on Sep-
tember 21, 1932, a payment of Gdes. 1,050,000 was made to the railroad, and
the item of Gdes. 825,600 disappeared from the balance sheet, as did also
the amount of Gdes. 206,400 which had been carried each year in the
ordinary budget of expenditures.
Reserves totalled Gdes. 3,956,878.18 at September 30, 1932, as against
Gdes. 4,168,687.69 on the same date the previous year. The difference of
Gdes. 211,809.51 reflects the disappearance of the amount which had been
set up as a liability in anticipation of the settlement of the La Gonave Island
controversy, involving the payment of Gdes. 212,860.20 to the concession-
naires with the exception of three per cent to be retained by the government.
The concessionnaires and the government reached an agreement on De-
cember 28, 1931, and distribution of the entire amount was made during
the year with the exception of Gdes. 1,050.69, payment of which has been
delayed through legal difficulties. Reserves as of September 30, 1932, there-
fore consisted of the latter amount, plus Gdes. 3,622,500 set aside to cover





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


the government's liability to the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti
for fiduciary currency out of circulation, and Gdes. 333,327.49 to cover the
full amount of avances made to communes in the past and which had not
yet been re-paid to the treasury.
Referring now to the asset side of the balance sheet, it should be noted
that the cash items represented by current assets were substantially reduced
by the heavy disbursements made during the year. On September 30, 1931,
current assets stood at Gdes. 10,626,086.09, and on September 30, 1932,
they had been reduced to Gdes. 4,540,910.32. The latter amount was com-
posed of the following items:
Gourdes
Current accounts in New York funds.................................. 498,322.70
Time account in New York funds ...................................... 3,534,965.50
Current account in Haiti funds.......................................... 498,333.57
Receipts in suspense ............................................................ 5,650.85
Cash in the hands of disbursing officers.............................. 3,637.70

Total ............................................................................. 4,540,910.32

Treasury investments in government bonds of the Series A, B, and C
loans, carried on the books at cost, declined from Gdes. 9,844,222.65 on
September 30, 1931, to Gdes. 9,753,530.50 on September 30, 1932. Of the
latter amount, Gdes. 7,134,084.70 represented holdings of the Series A and
C loans, and Gdes. 2,619,445.80 represented investments in Series B bonds.
Series A and C bonds held by the government in the treasury investment
account declined during the fiscal year 1931-32 by Gdes. 318,694.30. The
bonds were sold at cost to the fiscal agent of the Series A and Series C
loans who cancelled the bonds and retired them from circulation. Payment
for the bonds was made by the fiscal agent with money from the sinking
fund which was credited to the government's cash account. Thus the assets
of the government were not affected by this operation. The Series B bonds
held in the treasury investment account of the government showed an in-
crease of Gdes. 228,002.15 during the year. These bonds were purchased
in the open market.
As was pointed out in the last Annual Report of this office,* these invest-
ments cannot be considered as liquid cash assets until confidence has been
restored in the market for Latin-American bond issues. The price of Series
A bonds fell off sharply in December, 1931, and still further throughout
May and June when the few bonds which changed hands were sold at prices
between 50 and 60. Following the New York bond market, recovery started
in July and continued through to the end of the year under review when
Series A bonds were selling in New York at 73, or slightly better than the
price at which the bonds were selling at the end of the previous fiscal year.


*Annual Report of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, 1930-31, page 34.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The demand for the bonds, however, was still too weak to permit the go-
vernment to dispose of its holdings in any quantity without depressing the
price unduly.
Due to the fact that the Series B loan is an internal issue, and bonds are
closely held, together with tne fact that amortization of outstanding bonds
is proceeding very rapidly, prices of these bonds during the year ruled con-
siderably higher than in the case of the external issues. Prices during the
year fluctuated for the most part between 73 and 86. Treasury purchases
of Series B bonds for investment were made at the average rate of 85.9,
while a few bonds changed hands in the market at 73 at the end of the fiscal
year 1931-32. Government investments in this series are therefore more
nearly liquid than in the case of its other investments, and it is possible
that if it should be found desirable to do so, investments in Series B bonds
before long may be disposed of at prices exceeding the average purchase
price.
Treasury assets other than cash items and investments showed no change
during the year. They consisted of Gdes. 3,622,500 deposited with the
Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti to cover fiduciary currency out
of circulation, and Gdes. 333,327.49 representing the aggregate amount
owed to the treasury by various communes to which money had been ad-
vanced. The financial condition of the communes indebted to the treasury,
largely due to non-enforcement of tax collection, during 1931-32 was such
that in every case they defaulted on both the principal and interest of their
treasury loans. Repayment to the government must apparently await im-
proved conditions. Meanwhile, as explained above, a reserve equal to the
total amount of these outstanding loans has been set aside from surplus.

Public Debt
The origin and history of the present public debt of Haiti has been set
forth in sufficient detail in previous issues of the Annual Report* to require
no further comment at this time, and this section will be devoted only to
administrative activities in connection with the public debt during the
period under review.
The bond contracts covering the three series of the 1922 loan required
the payment in installments of the following aggregate amounts during
1931-32:
Gourdes
Series A ........................................ .............................. 5,775,000.00
Series B ........................................................................ 1,794,000.00
Series C ........................................................................ 955,937.40
Total .................................................................. 8,524,937.40
See in particular the Annual Report of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, 1929-80, page 94.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The fiscal agents of the loan under the contracts were required first to
set aside from the amounts received from the government sufficient funds
to cover payment of the next interest coupon. The balance then had to be
applied to amortization of the public debt. Each of the bond contracts
carries a schedule showing the amounts to be paid to the fiscal agents for
interest and amortization. These amounts increase slightly each year. In
1931-32, for example, the total amount payable reached Gdes. 8,524,937.40,
compared with Gdes. 8,489,781, in 1930-31.
It should be borne in mind that the government is required by the bond
contracts to make at regular intervals certain specified payments to the
fiscal agents, and that the amount of these payments is regulated by the
contracts rather than by the amount of interest which may be payable on
outstanding bonds. Consequently, as bonds are retired the amount of in-
terest payable is reduced, and the amounts which the fiscal agents are re-
quired to apply to amortization are automatically increased. Amortization
is accelerated correspondingly. Meanwhile, the amounts which the go-
vernment is required to pay to the fiscal agent are in nowise changed. The
government, therefore, knows exactly how much it must pay each year for
debt service, but it has no way of telling to what extent the amount of out-
standing bonds will be reduced, as the rate of retirement is subject to con-
siderable variation, depending chiefly upon the price at which the bonds
can be purchased for amortization. Assuming that a given amount of money
is available in the sinking fund for use in purchasing bonds for amortiza-
tion, the number of bonds which can be purchased will, of course, be in-
creased if the price of the bonds declines.
The effect of this accelerated amortization was demonstrated strikingly
during the fiscal year 1931-32 when the par value of all bonds retired reached
Gdes. 5,731,705.14, compared with Gdes. 4,206,473.25 duringl930-31, not-
withstanding the fact that the total of sums paid into the sinking fund in
1931-32 exceeded those paid the previous year by only Gdes. 86,614.75. This
acceleration in the rate of amortization was of course due largely to the low
prices at which Series A and C bonds could be purchased throughout most
of the year. During seven months of the year, Series A bonds could be
purchased at prices under 70, and for a while purchases were actually made
at prices between 50 and 60.
In past years it has been customary to pay all interest and amortization
requirements in connection with the Series A and Series C loan each year
at the beginning of the year. In 1930-31, for example, a total of Gdes.
6,701,781.00 was paid to the fiscal agent on October first, although under
the bond contracts the payment could be distributed over the whole year.
The advantage to the treasury through his procedure was that this large
amount of money would receive a higher rate of interest if placed in the
hands of the fiscal agent than it would if retained in one of the government





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


accounts. Also, by anticipating payment of the entire amount of the debt
charges, it was possible for the fiscal agent to begin at once the purchase
and retirement of bonds whenever the market price of the bonds made it
appear advantageous to do so. If, on the other hand, payments to the
sinking fund were made only in small installments, the fiscal agent under
the contracts could not begin purchases for amortization until sufficient
funds first had been set aside to cover payment of interest on outstanding
bonds on the next semi-annual interest date. Consequently, no important
purchases for amortization could be made until in the last half of the year
when the greater part of the amount to be expended for amortization would
have to be utilized in a comparatively short space of time. This procedure
would inevitably bid up the market price of the bonds, and fewer bond's
could be purchased with the money available in the sinking fund. The
market would find support from sinking fund purchases only during a few
months. This would lead to an uneven market, with prices higher towards
the end of the year.
Conditions in 1931-32 made it advisable to modify this practice of an-
ticipating amortization. Instead of making available in October the entire
year's requirements for interest and amortization, payments to the fiscal
agent of the Series A and Series C loans were made in the following three
installments:
Series A Series C
Gourdes Gourdes
October, 1931 .................................. 4,253,050.00 709,565.85
November, 1931 ................................ 975,000.00 135,000.00
April, 1931 ........................................ 546,950.00 111,371.55
5,775,000.00 955,937.40

The first installment made available sufficient funds to enable the fiscal
agent to set aside an amount equal to all interest requirements for the year.
In addition, sufficient funds remained on hand to enable amortization to
begin at once. The two additional installments were forwarded in time to
keep funds in the hands of the fiscal agent throughout the year, which
money could be drawn upon at any time that purchases could be made to
advantage.
This change in the former practice was made for two reasons: first,
because the prospect of decreasing government revenue made it advisable
to release cash with more caution than usual; and secondly, because the
market for foreign bonds in New York was decidedly erratic throughout
the year, and it appeared desirable to spread amortization somewhat and
await eventualities. The subsequent behavior of the bond market demons-
trated the wisdom of this procedure, and bonds were acquired during the
year at prices which were extremely advantageous to the Haitian govern-
ment.





46 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

With regard to the Series B issue, which is an internal loan, payments
for debt service during 1931-32 were made as usual in monthly installments.
Since no interest is paid on the balance in the Series B sinking fund, there
would be no advantage to the government in anticipating debt service pay-
ments. Moreover, with interest on the series being payable six times each
year instead of semi-annually, as in the case of the other series, there are
always sums remaining in the sinking fund, and market support through
sinking fund purchases is never lacking. Then too, a comparatively small
number of the Series B bonds are still outstanding, and by far the greater
part of debt payments in connection with this series are therefore applied
to amortization rather than to the payment of interest. Payments for in-
terest and amortization of the Series B loan totalled Gdes. 1,794,000 in
1931-32, compared with Gdes. 1,788,000 in 1930-31.
Outstanding bonds of the Series B issue are closely held by persons who
for the most part live in Haiti. The market price of the bonds was little
influenced by the weakness in foreign bonds on the New York market, and
bonds could be acquired for amortization only at relatively high prices.
Amortization of the issue is proceeding at a rapid rate, and it is often dif-
ficult to obtain sufficient bonds to complete amortization requirements.
At the end of September, 1932, the face amounts of the three issues of
the loan still outstanding, after deducting funds still in the hands o'f the
fiscal agent and not yet applied to amortization, were as follows:
Gourdes
Series A ...................................................................... 53,221,413.85
Series B ..................................................................... 7,103,321.31
Series C ...................................................................... 8,678,635.80
Total ................................................. ..... .. 69,003,370.96

To the above total should be added the amount of fiduciary currency in
circulation and not covered by the fiduciary currency reserve deposited with
the Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti. Unprotected currency of
this nature totalled Gdes. 3,622,500, which amount, added to the face value
of outstanding bonds as of September 30, 1932, gives a total of Gdes.
72,625,870.96 as the gross public debt of the Republic at the end of the fiscal
year 1931-32. Compared with the latter figure, the gross public debt as
of September 30, 1931, amounted to Gdes. 78,357,576.10, and as of Septem-
ber 30, 1930, it reached Gdes. 82,705,649.35.

Disbursements

The problem of effecting promptly the payment of government salaries,
rentals, and other regular disbursements, was complicated in October and
November, 1931, by the budgetary modifications which were being elabor-
ated throughout that period by the government. Decision as to how the




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


necessary economies in government costs were to be effected was not reach-
ed until November 23, 1931, when an executive order was published which
reduced most government salaries by five per cent and ordered further sa-
vings in a long list of reducible items in the ordinary budget of expendi-
tures.
November salary checks and other regular payments affected by the exe-
cutive order had to be brought into conformity with the new amounts which
were payable. This necessitated an immense amount of clerical work, and
the preparation of new salary checks with adjusted amounts.
Ordinarily, preparation of civil pay checks payable near the end of each
month is begun during the first week of the same month. A large part of
these checks represents monthly salaries due to teachers, court officials, and
other employees of the government living in remote parts of the interior.
In order that such employees may receive their salaries before the end of
the month, it is necessary in many cases that the checks be prepared and
sent out from the comptroller's office about the middle of the month. In
November, 1931, however, the amounts of the November salary checks
were not known until the 23rd of the month. Although every effort was
made to get the checks prepared and distributed before the end of the
month, it was unavoidable that many government employees had to wait
until after the end of the month before they received their salary checks.
The delays were accepted with good grace, however, and this office received
very few complaints.
The work of distributing civil pay checks during 1930 and 1931 for the
most part had been performed by customs and internal revenue officials.
As a measure of economy, this function was given up in 1932, and the dis-
tribution of civil pay checks outside of the principal cities since then has
been performed by the Guard of Haiti. Previous to 1930 civil pay checks
always had been distributed by Guard officers on their regular tours of
inspection to all parts of the country. This duty then had been assigned to
customs and internal revenue collectors as it was felt that making civil pay-
ments was a function which more properly should be performed by this
organization. Moreover, the new method of making payments would allow
collectors to become more familiar with their respective districts. However,
with the sharp reduction in the Receivership operating fund in 1930-31 it
became apparent that this organization could no longer bear the entire
expense of making civil payments, and this operation was turned back to
the Guard of Haiti. This office is much indebted to the Guard organization
for its readiness to assist in this important function. It is hoped that when
revenues increase it will be found possible once more for this organization
to take over the entire task of making civil payments.




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Supplies
The Bureau of Supplies, operated by this office, carries a stock of sta-
tionery, office equipment, and various supplies used commonly by the
various government offices. Merchandise carried by the Bureau of Supplies
is sold at prices which allow only enough income to cover the cost of the
merchandise sold plus operating expenses. It is not intended that the Bu-
reau should ever make more than a nominal profit.
Gross sales in 1931-32 totalled Gdes. 172,611.16, as against Gdes.
242,009.67 in the previous year. The cost of merchandise sold in 1931-32
plus operating expenses reached Gdes. 173,154.09. Accordingly, there was
a loss of Gdes. 542.93 in 1931-32 contrasted with a net profit of Gdes. 814.03
in 1930-31.
The Budget and Financial Legislation
The fiscal year 1931-32 opened with the treasury burdened by an ordinary
budget which offered a program of expenditures far in excess of probable
revenue receipts. The budget was voted on August 5, 1931, and it provided
for expenditures totalling Gdes. 32,796,673.66. Early estimates of ways
and means, on the other hand indicated that revenues could not possibly
exceed Gdes. 32,000,000, and activities were accordingly directed towards
reducing the budget to the latter figure by administrative action in the
manner provided by law. Moreover, many adjustments had to be made in
the budget as voted in order to bring it into conformity with the Accord
of August 5, 1931, between the Haitian government and the government of
the United States which provided for the complete Haitianization of the
Public Works Service, the Public Health Service and the Agricultural Ser-
vice, and for the establishment of the American Scientific Mission.
The annual Law of Expenditures and the Law of Ways and Means were
published on September 17, 1931. They were defective in many respects.
New provisions had been introduced which were impossible of execution;
others were antiquated and in such conflict with long-established account-
ing methods than they could not possibly be harmonized sufficiently to be
carried into practice.
The government was therefore faced with several difficult problems at the
beginning of the fiscal year. First, it had to cut its ordinary budget almost
Gdes. 800,000 in order to avoid a greater deficit than the treasury could
safely bear; secondly, it had to adjust the budget as voted in order to permit
expenditures to conform with the reorganization resulting from the Hai-
tianization agreement; and thirdly it had to establish a workable basis on
which the finances of the Republic could be administered under the new
finance laws. These problems naturally took considerable time to work
out, and it was not until November 23, 1931, that a satisfactory arrangement
was made. Meanwhile, the payment of government salaries was continued




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


through the month of October on the basis of the previous budget, and
other expenditures, by administrative action, were rigidly confined to such
disbursements as were absolutely essential to the continued operation of the
government services.
With the publication of the executive order of November 23, 1931, pay-
ments were resumed on a definite basis. This executive order provided for
budgetary cuts which would restrict ordinary expenditures for the year to
a total of Gdes. 31,999,977.47. This was done chiefly through reducing
practically all annual salary and wage disbursements by five per cent, and
distributing the saving over an eleven month period extending from No-
vember, 1931, to September, 1932. Similarly, a list of reducible items in the
budget was uniformly reduced by five per cent. At the same time, adjust-
ments were made in the budget to bring it into conformity with the reor-
ganization made necessary by the Haitianization of the three services men-
tioned above, and by the establishment of the American Scientific Mission.
Soon after this work had been accomplished it became evident that re-
ceipts would be far less than had been indicated by early estimates. This
office therefore recommended that the government begin early in the prepa-
ration of a budget for 1932-33. It was recommended that this budget be
balanced by the enactment of new revenue laws, since the experience of the
past year had demonstrated the improbability that important savings could
be effected through further contraction of the ordinary budgetary appro-
priations without interfering with the normal functioning of the govern-
ment; and further it was recommended that the proposed new tax legislation
be put into effect early in 1932 in order to reduce or eliminate the large oper-
ating deficit which at that time seemed unavoidable without new and im-
mediately available sources of revenue.
Beginning in January, 1932, this office and the government worked toge-
ther on a program which aimed to secure the enactment of a budget for
1932-33 balanced at Gdes. 32,000,000. It was expected that the deficiency
in revenues would be met by the enactment of new tax legislation, and that
the new budget would become law early in the Spring session of the Le-
gislative Body.
In order to assist the government in the preparation of the needed tax
legislation, this office drafted, or assisted in drafting over twenty different
projects of law affecting revenues. Throughout the year, beginning with
January, 1932, a great deal of time and careful consideration was given to
the preparation of these projects, and often to their modification in order
to bring them into conformity with the ideas of the government.
Of those projects in the preparation of which this office took an important
part, the laws listed below were enacted by the Legislative Body before the
end of the fiscal year. These laws either were drafted by this office in coo-
peration with the executive officials of the government, or assistance was




HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


given in the form of study, suggestions, and recommendations. In most
cases important modifications in the original projects were made by the
Legislative Body before enactment. The list follows:
(1) A law modifying the import tariff, and increasing in particular
the duties on wheat flour and on matches.
(2) A law establishing a five per cent surtax on import duties.
(3) A law placing a new internal revenue tax on gasoline.
(4) A completely revised stamp tax law.
(5) A new income tax law.
(6) A law establishing a salt tax.
(7) A homestead law.
In addition to the above, this office recommended the enactment of a poll
tax law, and a project which was prepared by the Department of Finance,
and later modified to some extent in accordance with the suggestions of this
office, was submitted to the Legislative Body. It failed to pass when it
came up for consideration. It is a most necessary law, however, both from
financial and other points of view, and it is hoped that it may be recon-
sidered and passed.
Also, a thorough revision was made of the annual finance laws in order
to bring them into complete harmony with the requirements of a well-
ordered financial administration. Instead of covering accounting methods
in each annual Law of Ways and Means, and working out government
disbursement accounting in another annual Law of Expenditures, it was
planned that there should be a single permanent law containing much of the
material in both of the previous laws, and to be known as the "Budget and
Public Accounting Law". This law was to be supplemented in 1931-32 by
a shorter law to be known as the "Law fixing Ways and Means and Expen-
ditures", which would contain principally the figures of ways and means,
the annual budget of expenditures by departments, and the prorogation of
existing tax legislation. It was to be accompanied by schedules giving
details of the ordinary budgetary appropriations.
Both of these laws were passed by the Legislative Body. The Public
Accounting Law had been extensively modified in important details before
being accepted by the Legislative Body. It failed to be promulgated when
it came before the President. The second law was published in the Moniteur
on September 30, 1932. It provided a program of expenditures for
1931-32 totalling Gdes. 31,793,577.47. These expenditures were to be met
by ways and means totalling Gdes. 31,803,000.00, of which it was estimated
that Gdes. 3,103,000 would be produced by the new tax legislation enumer-
ated above, and Gdes. 28,700,000 would be produced by tax laws already
existing.
It was not found possible before the beginning of the new fiscal year to
promulgate new detailed budgets by ministerial departments. Accordingly,





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


on the last day of the fiscal year 1931-32 an executive order was published
which prorogued the budget for 1931-32 as well as the finance laws for that
year.
The figure of Gdes. 28,700,000 given above as the estimate of ways and
means for 1932-33 to be derived from previously existing tax legislation
may appear at first view to be somewhat high, because of the fact that the
same laws in 1931-32 produced only Gdes. 28,000,000 in revenues. On the
other hand, there was the reasonable certainty of a good coffee crop in
1932-33, and the probability that the prorogued tax laws as a consequence
would produce in 1932-33 at least several hundred thousand gourdes more
than Gdes. 28,000,000. Also, the figure for total expenditures amounting to
Gdes. 31,793,577.47 made no allowance for the saving which would be effect-
ed through additional reductions in government salaries provided for in a
law published on September 26, 1931. This law called for a cut of five per
cent in most government salaries and wages of one hundred gourdes or less
per month, and a cut of ten per cent in the case of most salaries in excess
of one hundred gourdes. This salary reduction was not an addition to the
cut which had been made on November 23, 1931, except insofar as concerned
salaries exceeding Gdes. 100 per month. Advance estimates largely have
been borne out by the figures for receipts and expenditures in October,
November, and December, 1932. The marketing of the coffee crop, how-
ever, at the present writing has been delayed considerably by heavy rains,
but all indications to date are that the crop will be much larger than a year
ago, and that the budget has been safely balanced.

Auditing and Accounting
The need for every economy in 1931-32 made it impossible in October,
1931, to have the usual audit of accounts made by auditors from the office
of the Comptroller General of the United States. These audits had been
made at the end of the two previous fiscal periods. It is to be regretted that
in the last year it was found impracticable to continue this annual audit of
accounts which in the past had furnished this office with valuable infor-
mation, and had given this organization many useful suggestions for
improvement of its accounting methods.
No innovations of importance were made during 1931-32 in the accounting
methods and in the equipment of the comptroller's office. Excellent proof
of the flexibility and accuracy of the accounting organization was furnished
in November, 1931, when as related elsewhere, the entire government pay-
roll had to be revised. New pay checks were prepared and distributed in a
surprisingly short space of time considering the magnitude of the task in-
volved.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Currency
The total amount of currency in circulation in Haiti on September 30,
1932, was as follows:
Gourdes
Notes of the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti...................... 5,562,712
United States currency, $600,000 (estimated).................................... 3,000,000
Subsidiary currency.................................................................................. 3,219,540
T otal................................................................................................ 11,782,252

Banks shipped very little United States currency out of the country
during the year, and the estimate of $600,000 for United States currency
still circulated in Haiti represents a decline of only $80,000 from estimated
circulation of United States currency at the end of the previous fiscal year.
Notes of the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti in circulation on
September 30, 1932, totalled Gdes. 5,562,712, as compared with Gourdes
6,951,562 on the same date the year before, indicating a decline of 19.98
per cent, while circulation of subsidiary currency declined between the same
dates by 10.49 per cent. Taking the total of all currency in circulation on
the same two dates, and including the estimate of United States money in
circulation, there was a decline in currency circulation during the year of
Gdes. 2,166,407, or 15.53 per cent.
Contrary to what has occurred in Haiti, the amount of mbney in circu-
lation has increased in the United States, to give an example, during the
present period of depression. This effect is ascribed both to the hoarding
of money by a large part of the population, and to the tendency of all classes
of business enterprises to maintain as liquid a condition as possible. In Haiti
the per capital circulation of money is so very limited, and most businesses
are conducted on such a small capital outlay, that the decline in the volume
of trade has been accompanied by a striking decrease in the demand for a
circulating medium of exchange. Assuming a population of 2,600,000 the
per capital circulation of currency in Haiti declined from Gdes. 5.35 on
September 30, 1931, to Gdes. 4.57 at the end of September, 1932.

Banking and Credit
Further contraction of credit accompanied the falling off of commercial
activity in 1931-32. The average of total loans and discounts reported by
the two banks doing business in Haiti declined from Gdes. 15,717,631.01 in
1930-31 to Gdes. 11,118,437.23 in 1931-32. Average deposits of the two banks
during the same period declined from Gdes. 39,888,377.30 to Gourdes
23,976,692.15
Considering the fact that trade during 1931-32 reached its lowest level
in years, there were surprisingly few serious business difficulties. Only one
establishment of any size was forced into bankruptcy during the year.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


although four important failures had been recorded the year before. Two
small retail dry goods stores failed. Otherwise, casualties consisted of the
usual number of small businesses forced to liquidate or to transfer owner-
ship, as often a result of mismanagement and lack of capital as of conditions
arising out of the general depression in trade.
The most serious threat to private enterprise during the year was the
forced closing of the only modern sugar central doing business in Haiti.
The sugar industry, in Haiti as elsewhere in the world, has generally been
operating at a loss during this period of extremely low sugar prices. The
local sugar central is one of the fortunate enterprises in the sugar industry
which has found it possible to continue operations, but naturally its liquid
resources have been considerably restricted. In June, 1932, a court judgment
ordered the immediate payment of a comparatively large sum of money to
the plaintiff in a court action which had been pending for some time. An
attachment was secured on the property of the company, forcing it to
suspend operations on June 29, 1932. Fortunately, this attachment was
served at the end of the grinding season when nearly all of the crop had
been harvested. Otherwise, there would have been a more serious loss not
only to the company, and the government, but to the several thousands of
employees who through no fault of their own would be thus deprived of
employment.
The sugar central was closed until the end of September, 1932, when the
Legislative Body finally ratified the government's new contract with the
Plaine du Cul-de-Sac Railroad. This railroad is owned by the holding
company and is used largely by it for transporting sugar cane to the local
central. With the ratification of the contract, a payment of Gdes. 1,050,000
was made to the Railroad by the government, and indirectly this award
provided sufficient funds to enable the allied companies to resume operations
immediately.
During the period when the sugar central was closed, cane fields did not
receive the usual irrigation from the company's pumps. Fortunately, rain-
fall was abundant and well-distributed during the three months when
irrigation was not possible. It is not believed, therefore, that the temporary
closing of the central has to any extent reduced the size of the 1932-33
sugar crop or the volume of sugar production.
Claims
The settlement of claims against the State in 1931-32 involved payments
totalling Gdes. 69,388.46 in 1931-32 compared with Gdes. 166,419.64 in
1930-31. A great number of claims were settled involving the payment of
comparatively small cash awards. There were no claims liquidated during
the year which involved the payment of large amounts, which fact accounts
for the substantial reduction in the total amount paid out in settlement of
claims during 1931-32 compared with the previous year.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Unfortunately, it must be recorded that nothing definite was accomplished
during the year towards the establishment by law of a uniform and orderly
method of liquidating claims against the State. As described in the last
Annual Report of this office,* a project of law had been prepared which
incorporated more modern practice in this regard. Much time and consider-
ation was given to the drafting of this project. It was not presented to the
government in final form until January 15, 1932, at which time the problem
of balancing the budget made it difficult for the government to give much
attention to the project. The project did not come up before the Legislative
Body for consideration during the fiscal year 1931-32, but it is believed that
it may be found possible to give the project consideration during 1932-33.
It is the opinion of this office that its enactment into law would provide an
eminently satisfactory solution to the problem of protecting the treasury
adequately against pecuniary awards by judicial decision in cases where it
may be found that the State has not been properly defended.

Personnel

There were comparatively few changes in the personnel of either the
customs or the internal revenue services during the year. Adjustments
necessitated by the reduced availabilities for personnel had been made
during the previous year. Collectors of customs and internal revenue re-
mained at the same posts throughout the fiscal period, and there were no
changes or transfers affecting the higher officials at the various ports.
In the administrative offices at Port-au-Prince there were several resign-
ations during the year. Mr. Fred Q. Rickards left the Internal Revenue
Service on April 30, 1932, to become Assistant to Mr. W. E. Dunn, Financial
Adviser in the Dominican Republic. Mr. Dunn, it will be recalled, from
1924 to 1926 had been Director General of the Internal Revenue Service in
Haiti. Mr. Rickards during his period of service with the Internal Revenue
Administration had rendered very valuable service to that organization.
The Internal Revenue Service on March 29, 1932, also lost the services of
Mr. E. E. Valentini. His place as Assistant to the Director General was
taken by Mr. M. J. Perry, who was formerly employed by the Agricultural
Service.
Mr. Vincent Moore resigned in October, 1931. The vacancy made by his
resignation was not filled, as lack of sufficient funds made it necessary
somewhat to curtail surveying and technical work in connection with state
land matters. The organization built up during Mr. Moore's period of
service has continued under Mr. Marc Brutus to furnish most valuable
technical assistance. Mr. Moore's experience as a civil engineer and surveyor
had been useful, and it is to be regretted that available funds now do not


*Page 42.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


permit the continuation of his work on the larger scale previously planned.
Mrs. Mary Moore at the same time resigned as Secretary to the Financial
Adviser, and her place was taken by Mrs. Helen E. Mohr. Also, Mr. HT.
P. Garner resigned on November 15, 1931, as Inspector in the Customs
Service where he had been employed since August 24, 1928.

Conclusion

The achievement of a balanced budget has cleared the way to recovery.
So long as export crops remained disappointing in size, while commodity
prices and government revenues continued to decline, a great deal of effort
necessarily had to be directed towards the difficult problem of adjusting
the fiscal machinery so that it would function properly under new and most
unfavorable conditions. These adjustments have now been made, and unless
unexpected difficulties arise, energy now can be applied to the task of
economic development and to the furtherance of constructive plans for the
diversification of export production.
It is still too early to venture a prediction as to whether or not business
and revenues have passed the low point of the depression; but we do know
that for the present at least good export crops are in prospect, commodity
prices have become comparatively stable (though at discouragingly low
levels), and government receipts for the fiscal year following that covered
by this report, should at least reach the level of expenditures which have
been authorized for that period. The prospects of attaining before long
some degree of prosperity are accordingly far brighter than they have been
at any time during the past several years.
Much work needs to done. Cash reserves have been depleted after four
years of increasingly greater operating deficits. The principal task of the
government, therefore, will be to strengthen the treasury cash position in
order that the treasury may have a greater margin of cash reserves with
which to meet the sudden and violent fluctuations from year to year which
are characteristic of government revenues dependent so largely on customs
receipts. Expenditures must be carefully controlled, and if not in 1933, at
least in the following year, the 'program of expenditures should be so
arranged that receipts will exceed disbursements by an amount which will
leave a much more comfortable reserve of cash in the treasury than at
present.-It was only through the wise policy of having accumulated sub-
stantial cash reserves in more prosperous years that Haiti has been able
to maintain the normal functions of government and preserve its credit
standing. There is no country today in all of Latin-America which can
show a better record than Haiti in the payment of its funded debt service
during this difficult period of depression. During these years Haiti has
met promptly every obligation-a record which has established a firm foun-
dation for Haitian credit in the future.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


It will be only through increased production for export and through
greater diversification of export commodities that Haiti will attain pros-
perity. The logwood and cacao markets, at least for the present, have been
lost. They must be recovered. Cotton is now the second most valuable
export crop. Production must be increased and quality improved. Sugar
and sisal exports have increased, and both products now have an important
part in diversifying Haitian production and in opening new outlets abroad
for commodities produced in Haiti. Much may still come of the pineapple-
canning industry, in spite of its present difficulties. But still other products
must be found which can be produced in Haiti and marketed abroad. Fresh
fruits and vegetables offer possibilities, particularly bananas and tomatoes.
Furthermore, the prospect of Philippine independence, and consequently the
reduction and eventual removal of tariff preferences at present accorded the
Philippine Islands by the American government, encourages the belief that
Haiti should in time, because of its proximity to the American market,
become an important source of copra and coconut oil for export to the
United States. In the possibility of establishing in the near future an
important banana trade prospects are most encouraging.
For many years the project of building up a banana trade has been under
consideration. The practicability of growing and marketing bananas on a
large scale has been thoroughly studied by the government services in
charge of agriculture, irrigation, and the settlement of land titles. It has
been determined that the soil and climate of many parts of Haiti are ideally
suited to banana culture. In particular, the Artibonite valley has been
found to offer the advantage of an irrigable area of some fifty thousand
hectares, ideally suited to banana growing, and completely protected from
high winds and hurricanes by mountains on three sides. There is no record of
hurricane damage within the valley. This area, protected from winds,
where labor is cheap and transportation to the chief foreign market is only
a matter of three days, is believed to offer advantages which are unique in
the banana-producing world.
At the end of the fiscal year 1931-32, definite steps were taken by the
government to interest foreign capital and to assure markets for bananas
produced in Haiti for export. The response has encouraged the belief that
before long banana shipments will make up an important part of the Haitian
export trade.
Along with its plans for agricultural development, the government will
be wise to continue actively the preparation and enactment of needed legis-
lation for the assistance of commerce and agriculture. Little was accomplish-
ed during the past year in the way of new fiscal legislation with the ex-
ception of new tax laws and the sanctioning of the railroad contracts. The
much-desired Homestead Law, from which great results had been expected,
was enacted, but with modifications which have rendered it ineffectual.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Nothing was accomplished to remedy conditions surrounding the control
of irrigation. As a consequence, it has been impracticable to undertake
important irrigation projects. It is essential to the government of an agri-
cultural community that it be assured of adequate control and income from
water furnished by the state for irrigation purposes. This does not exist
in Haiti at present. Neither is it fair that the taxpayers as a whole-even
the city-dwellers-should pay for irrigation used by the relatively small
group of farmers who benefit directly from the use of water furnished them
by the state. It is true that irrigation fees are charged, but they are totally
inadequate, and payment is difficult to enforce. A remedy must be found
for this weakness in existing legislation if large-scale irrigation is to be
attempted.
There is no banking institution in Haiti at present which makes advances
to farmers against farm mortgages. An agricultural bank has been pro-
posed, but its organization would be utterly useless unless the obsolete
legislation now in effect governing the settlement of land disputes, the
clearing of titles and the conducting of common real estate transactions is
improved. But while awaiting this needed legislation, and eventually the
extension of credit facilities to farmers, there is no reason why commerce,
and particularly the export trade, cannot be assisted by making available to
it an instrument of credit which is commonly used in progressive countries,
although its use has never been provided for adequately by law in Haiti.
By this is meant the negotiable warehouse receipt. A public warehouse law
is being drafted and shortly will be presented to the government for its
consideration. Under this project, warehouses under certain conditions may
be designated as "public warehouses", and title to goods stored in them may
be evidenced by warehouse receipts which are negotiable in accordance
with conditions specified in the law. With such receipts giving title to
valuable merchandise, and title being transferable by simply negotiating
the receipts, it will be a simple matter for the holders of such receipts to
use them as collateral for advances at commercial banking institutions.
Exporters, importers, middlemen, and other merchants, should find that by
use of warehouse receipts as collateral, financing of merchandize purchases
would be simplified and the amount of credit available to them would be
greatly extended.
Bonded warehouse facilities should also be made available by the enact-
ment of appropriate legislation so as to permit steamships touching at
Haitian ports to purchase ships' stores out of bond. Such facilities are not
available in Haiti at present, and what might prove to be a profitable
business to merchants in Haiti is being lost to the merchants of foreign
ports at which these ships purchase their supplies.
Many nations in recent months have attempted to rectify unfavorable
trade balances by erecting high tariff barriers, by imposing quotas, ex-






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


change restrictions, and other measures aimed to reduce imports. Such
measures have constituted a threat to the free movement of the Haitian
export trade, but it is believed that the importance of such threats, so far
as concerns trade with Haiti, has been exaggerated. Certainly, Haiti has
taken no measures which could justify such treatment from any nation.
The Haitian tariff is primarily a revenue tariff. It does not aim to protect
local industries created for the production of articles which can be more
cheaply manufactured elsewhere. The principal industries which enjoy
tariff protection in Haiti, namely, the sugar, lard sustitute and tobacco
industries, are protected simply because they are employers of labor, or
because they prepare for the internal market commodities produced in
Haiti which would not be salable without such preparation nor for which
it is believed in the state of present world market conditions there would
be sufficient export demand. Haiti desires to sell freely abroad the com-
modities it can produce most efficiently. In return it offers to the world
a market which is open to all nations, and where the quantity of goods it
can purchase from abroad varies only with the amount of money it receives
for its exports. Haiti has attempted none of the dangerous experiments in
trade control which have led to tariff wars and trade discrimination with
disastrous effects upon world commerce. Haiti should feel that in no way
is it involved in such trade disputes, and that so long as'it continues its
present policy of tariff for revenue only no foreign nation will attempt to
shut its door to Haitian exports. Certainly, any such action would be
totally undeserved.
Few factors can be discerned which are likely to delay recovery if capital
is obtained for the development of projects now under consideration, and if
legislation is corrected and amplified along the lines which have been
suggested. To be sure, commerce and revenues still will be subject to the
vagaries of weather conditions and crop production. The prices offered
abroad for Haitian export commodities still will fluctuate in accordance
with world conditions affecting supply and demand. Haitian prosperity
must continue to rise and fall inevitably with the movements of the business
cycle, which modern economic and political science apparently is still quite
unable to control. But it can be predicted confidently that by judicious
control over expenditures, by the enactment of needed legislation, and by
the preservation and wise use of the country's credit, Haiti, of all nations,
should be the first to move forward in world commercial recovery.

Respectfully submitted,

S. DE LA RUE,
Financial Adviser-General Receiver.


















TABLES











HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER 61


TABLE No. 1

VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Excess Excess
Imports Exports Total Imports Exports


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17 .................................. ...... 43,030,428 44,664,428 87,694,856 .................. 1,634,000
1917-18 ........................................... 50,903,468 38,717,650 89,621,118 12,185,818 ...............
1918-19 ................................................. 85,588,041 123,811,096 209,399,137 ................ 38,223,055
1919-20 ........................................... 136,992,055 108,104,639 245,096,694 28,887,416 ...........
1920-21 ......................................... ... 59,786,029 32,952,045 92,738,074 26,833,984 ..................
1921-22 .......................................... ... 61,751,355 53,561,050 115,312,405 8,190,305 ..................
1922-23 ........ ......................... 70,789,815 72,955,060 143,744,875 .................... 2,165,245
1923-24 ............................................. 73,480,640 70,881,610 144,362,250 2,599,030 ..................
1924-25 .......................... ......... .. 101,187,825 97,018,810 198,206,635 4,169,015 ..................
1925-26 ............................... ........... 94,257,030 101,241,025 195,498,055 ................ 6,983,995
1926-27 ............................................... 78,756,600 76,495,442 155,252,042 2,261,158 ..................
1927-28 ............................................ 101,241,283 113,336,230 214,577,513 ............... 12,094,947
1928-29 ............................................ 86,189,612 83,619,167 169,808,779 2,570,445 ..................
1929-30 ............................................. 64,208,132 70,722,835 134,930,967 ................ 6,514,703
1930-31 ......................................... ... 47,881,591 44,817,093 92,698,684 3,064,498 ..................
1931.32 .................................................. 37,305,551 36,106,394 73,411,945 1,199,157 ............

Total ............................................... 1,193,349,455 1,169,004,571 2,362,354,029 91,960,826 67,615,945


STABLE No. 2

VALUE OF IMPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Country of
Origin


France ... ................... ...
United Kingdom ..... .....................................
U united States .................................. ....................
Bahama Islands ............................ ...................
Belgium ................ ..... .
Canada ..................
Canal Zone .............................
Cuba ...... ........ .... .....................................................
Curacao .... -... .......................... ...... ...... ......
Czechoslovakia .... .................................. .
Denmark .......... ......................... ........
Dominican Republic .......................... ....
Germany .......... ...... ............... ................. ......
Guiana, British ........... ......................
Italy ...............
Jam aica .................................................................
Japan .................. .....................
Netherlands .............. .. ..............
Norway ................ ..........
Spain .... ....... ....... ................................................
Sweden ...................................... .................
Switzerland ...................... ......... .
All others .................. ................ ..........................


Average
1916-17-
1920-21


Per cent
4.72
6.17
86.58







2.53


II IJ


Average Average Average
1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Per cent
6.13
7.41
78.84


7.62


Per cent
7.03
6.50
72.60
0.03
0.78
0.11
0.13
0.12
1.57
0.02
0.25
0.61
4.39
0.05
0.83
0.10
0.13
2.47
0.11
1.87
0.07
0.03
0.11
0 O9


Per cent
6.88
6.96
68.69
0.04
1.10
0.20
0.05
0.55
1.40
0.05
0.20
0.59
4.78
0.32
0.87
0.06
0.25
4.22
0.23
2.28
0.08
0.03
0.09
n no


Total .. ....................................................... I 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Per cent
5.87
9.20
67.58
0.05
0.99
0.22
0.03
0.97
1.06
0.16
0.24
0.52
4.20
0.33
0.80
0.01
0.40
3.50
0.43
2.63
0.15
0.11
0.21
0.34

100.00


Per cent
5.96
6.79
78.95







8.30











100.00


I. VV








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 3

VALUE OF EXPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Country of
Destination


France ... .......... ..........................
United Kingdom .................................... ..............
BahamaUnited States .........................................................
Bahama Islands ............................................................
Belgium .......................... ...... ........................
Canada ................ ......................................................
Canal Zone .........................................................
Cuba ........................................................
Curacao .......................................................................
Denmark .................................................... ............
Dominican Republic ........................ .....................
Finland .................................. .......... ..................
French Africa ................................ ...... ..............
Germany ..................................................................
Italy ................. ..........................................
Jamaica ..................................................................
Netherlands ............................................. ................
N orw ay ..................................................... ................
Puerto Rico ....................................... ................
Spain .. ........................................................................-
Sw eden ................................... ...........................
Virgin Islands ..................................... .............
All others .....................................................

T total .......................................................................


Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31


I --


Per cent
39.64
1.35
51.05


Per cent
62.89
4.11
10.67


7.96 I 22.33


Per cent
50.62
5.20
8.21
0.07
6.41
0.87
0.13
1.34
0.19
7.80
0.03
0.17
0.06
5.18
7.06
0.02
2.54
0.51
0.34
2.38
0.69
0.01
0.17


Per cent
50.75
8.50
8.11
0.03
8.71
0.05
0.20

0.03
9.11
0.01
0.03
0.06
3.11
9.00
0.05
0.94
0.13
0.01
0.40
0.44
0.09
0.24


100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


TABLE No. 4

VALUE OF TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Country


France ....... ..... ........ .................
United Kingdom ............................. ...........
United States ................................................
Bahama Islands .............................................
Belgium ......................................................
Canada ................................. .... ........
Canal Zone ..........................................................
Cuba ...................................................................
Curacao .........................................................
Czechoslovakia ..................................................-
D enm ark ........... .....................................................
Dominican Republic ....................................
Finland ..................................................
French Africa .............................. .................... .
Germany .....................................................................
Guiana, British ..................................................
Italy ....................... .........................................
Jamaica ...................
Japan ............................................... .
Netherlands ................ ..............
Norway .................................................................
Puerto Rico .............................
Spain ....-.. .
Spain ..............................................................................
Sweden ..........
Switzerland ....................... .
Virgin Islands ...........................................................
All others ............................................ ...................

T total ............................. ........................


Average
1916-17-
1920-21


Per cent
20.05
4.05
70.98


Average Average
1921-22- 1926-27-
1925-26 1930-31


Per cent
34.29
5.77
45.02


4.92 1 14.92


100.00


100.00


Per cent
29.13
5.84
39.95
0.05
3.64
0.50
0.13
0.73
0.88
0.01
4.07
0.32
0.09
0.03
4.79
0.03
3.99
0.06
0.08
2.51
0.32
1.09
1.24
0.36
0.05
0.01
0.10

100.00


1930-31



Per cent
28.09
7.71
39.40
0.04
4.78
0.13
0:12
0.29
0.74
0.03
4.51
0.31
0:02
0.03
3.97
0.17
4.80
0.05
0.13
2.64
0.18
1.18
0724
0.23
0.05
0.04
0.12

100.00


Average
1931-32 1916-17-
1931-32


Per cent Per cent
24.93 28.14
11.01 5.46
38.33 50.67
0.03
4.91
0.18
0.11
0.49
0.55
0.08
4.58
0.26
0.02
0.10
3.72
0.17 15.73
5.54
0.01
0.20
2.02
0.31
1.33
0.61
0.17
0.11
0.05
0.18

100.00 100.00


1931-32



Per cent
44.63
12.88
8.10
0.02
8.96
0.14
0.18
0.02
9.07
0.05
0.20
3.23
10.43
0.01
0.48
0.18

1.08
0.22
0.10
0.02


Average
1916-17-
1931-32


Per cent
51.87
4.05
20.40







23.68











100.00


, ;








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 5

VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Country



A rgentina .................................. ............
Australia ................... ....................................
Austria ...................... ......................................
Baham a Islands ............................... ...........
Belgium .................................. ................
Brazil ......... .......................................
British A frica ..............................................
British India ......................................................
Canada ................ ......................................
Canal Zone ..................................... ..........
Chile ... ............................. ...
China .......................... .................... ...........
Colom bia ................... ....................................
Corsica ............................................................
Cuba .................... ......................................
Curacao ..................................... ...................
Czechoslovakia ........................................ ........
D enm ark ..........................................................
Dom inican Republic .................................
Egypt ................................. ...................
Equador ........................... ..................... .
Finland ........ ......................................
France ........ ......................................
French A frica ....................................................
Germ any ....................................... ..............
Gibraltar ................................. ...............
Greece ..............................................................
Guadeloupe ..........................................................
G uiana British ..................................... ........
Guiana, D utch .................. ....... .... ........
Honduras ................. .....................................
H ungary ................................ ................
Indo China ....... .............. ...................
Italy .................. ........................................
Jam aica .............. .....................................
Japan ...................................... .................
Java ................. .........................................
Luxem burg ................................ .............
M artinique .................................. .............
M exico .......................................... ..................
M onaco .................................. ................
M orocco ..........................................................
N etherlands ......................................... ............
N orway ........................................
Palestine ........... ................. ................


in a l ..........................................................
Sweden ....... ............................................
Switzerland .......................................................
Syria .................................................................
T rinidad ........................................ ..............
U united Kingdom .............................................
U united States ....................... ........................
V enezuela ..................................... ......
Virgin Islands .. ............. .......................

Total ......................... .................................


Imports


Gourdes
8,536
8,907
4,942
17,665
370,672
58
18
9
83,557
11,653
14,139
52,225
18
57
361,817
396,980
58,904
89,377
194,196
109
5
10
2,189,710
5
1,566,891
1
342
121,400
6,729
229
1,423
2
296,790
3,156
149,330
1
57
51
20,967
2
5
1,307,118
160,108
208
7
10
979,777
55,930
40,480
78,669
45
5,931
3,433,600
25,212,282
17
424

37,305,551


Per cent
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.05
0.99


0.22
0.03
0.04
0.14

0.97
1.06
0.16
0.24
0.52


5.87
4.20


0.33
0.02


0.80
0.01
0.40


0.06

3.50
0.43


2.63
0.15
0.11
0.21

0.02
9.20
67.58


100.00


Exports


Gourdes P
3,042

359
7,978
3,236,937


50,986
65,693


12
20
6,497
1,605
3,274,270
158

17,951
16,113,937
71,134
1,165,763
2,020






3,766,244
3,256






173,172
64,868


20
388,779
80,632
699
76
4,649,645
2,925,762

34,879

36,106,394


er cent
0.01


0,02
8.96


0.14
0.18




0.02
9.07


0.05
44.63
0.20
3.23
0.01






10.43
0.01





...........
0.48
0.18



1.08
0.22


12.88
8.10
0.10

100.00


I _


Total


Gourdes Per cent
11,578 0.02
8,907 0.01
5,301 0,01
25,643 0,03
3,607,609 4.91
58
18 ............
9 ............
134,543 0.18
77,346 0.11
14,139 0.02
52,225 0.07
18
69
361,837 0.49
403,477 0.55
60,509 0.08
3,363,647 4.58
194,354 0.26
109 ............
5 ............
17,961 0.02
18,303,647 24.93
71,139 0.10
2,732,654 3.72
2,020 ............

242 ............
121,400 0.17
6,729 0.01
229 ............
1,423 ............
2 ............
4,063,034 5.54
6,412 0.01
149,330 0.20

51
20,967 0.03
2 ..........
5 .....
1,480,290 2.02
224,976 0.31
208 ............
7 ............
10 ....
979,797 1.33
444,709 0.61
121,112 0.17
79,368 0.11
45 ...........
6,007 0.01
8,083,245 11.01
28,138,044 38.33

35,303 0.05
73,411,945 100.00









HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 6
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY PORTS OF ENTRY FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Port of Entry


Aquin ........................................
Belladre ..................................
Cap Haitien..............................
Cayes ..................................
Fort Libert .........................
Glore ..........................................
Gonaives ...............................
Jar oe .....................................
Jfr&nsie ..........................................
Miragolne ............. .....
Ouanaminthe ................................
Petit Golve..................................
Port-au-Prince ... ...........
Port-de-Paix .. ....................
Saint Marc..................................

Total ..................................


Average
1916-17-
1920-21

Gourdes
156,514

9,987,651
6,443.055
257

3,922,744
3,457,767
1,942,796
518,426
27,035
2,674,944
41,712,019
2,087,026
2,329,771

75,260,005


Average
1921-22-
1925-26

Gourdes
120,425
6,482
8,293,009
7,440,221
618
81,567
3,732,077
4,904,482
1,579,913
956,170
287,016
2,081,535
45,889,008
2,059,178
2,861,632


Average
1926-27-
1930-31

Gourdes
6,384
164,003
7,836,730
5,364,502
156,510
51,427
3,389,829
3,746,895
2,203,983
859,672
138,690
1,641,739
46,142,317
1,833,370
2,119,392


80,293,333 75,655,443


TABLE No. 7
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY PORTS OF SHIPMENT FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
Port of Shipment 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin ....... ........ ........ 517,420 1,254,059 305,227 54,781 43,223 651,672
Belladire .. .... .............. ................... 52 9,982 533 ................... 3,136
Cap Haitien ........... ........ 10,601,902 9794,332 9,829,289 3,902,384 3,277,992 9,650,351
Cayes ..... ................. 4,543,658 6,652,145 6,186,142 4,473,726 3,859,350 5,673,067
Fort Libert.............................. 323,746 62,057 188,315 546,114 911,287 236,367
Glore .......................... ....... ..... ..... .. 11,015 218 .................... .................... 3,510
Gonaives ................................. 4,934,835 6,618,885 6,675,137 3,637,727 3,367,333 5,906,976
Jacmel ....................................... 8,416,717 10,231,039 11,035,134 6,066,628 5,696,978 9,631,964
Jirimie ............................. 3,350,333 3,226,006 4,952,977 3,068,779 1,611,445 3,703,627
Miragolne ............................ 1,009,265 1,871,386 2,733,711 2,306,015 773,594 1,802,838
Ouanaminthe ......................... 9,015 7,284 2,762 3,490 158 5,967
Petit Gove.......................... 4,167,273 9,837,361 8,799,606 4,971,701 2,970,788 7,311,999
Port-au-Prince ......................... 23,557,713 18,772,347 16,783,239 9,719,095 9,141,556 19,044,253
Port-de-Paix .................... 3,788,030 4,201,144 4,114,143 1,812,202 1,586,364 3,881,434
Saint Marc................................ 4,430,065 6,592,399 6,182,271 4,253,918 2,866,326 5,555,625
Total ............................. 69,649,972 79,131,511 77,798,153 44,817,093 36,106,394 73,062,786


TABLE No. 8
VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY PORTS- FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Aquin
Belladi re ................-...-......---
Cap Haitien
Cayes .........--...
Fort Libertl ...................-.........- .. ...
Glore ............... .....-----
Gonaives ...................................
Jacmel ...................................................
Miragoine ................
Onanam inthe ..............................
Petit Golve -........--............ .
Port-au-Prince ............
Port-de-Paix .... .....r. ...... ......
Saint Marc.......... ...
Total -..........-........... .


Imports

Gourdes Per cent
397
31,883 0.07
3,475,682 9.32
2,128,849 5.71
100,509 0.27
13,340 0.04
1,470,242 3.94
1,293,376 3.47
763,710 2.05
230,496 0.62
100,382 0.27
504,319 1.35
25,703,610 68.90
686,712 1.84
802,044 2.15
37,305,551 100.00


1930-31


Gourdes
1,022
71,473
5,219,144
2,986,965
242,908
12,772
1,872,675
1,709,123
1,401,420
466,982
122,383
805,052
30,687,961
970,161
1,311,550

47,881,591


1931-32


Gourdes
397
31,883
3,475,682
2,128,849
100,509
13,340
1,470,242
1,293,376
763,710
230,496
100,382
504,319
25,703,610
686,712
802,044

37,305,551


Average
1916-17-
1931-32

Gourdes
88,563
55,269
8,378,915
6,147,984
55,465
42,394
3,543.343
3,864,944
1,837,323
743,865
147,755
2,030,963
43,401,271
1,911,536
2,334,751
74,584,341


Exports


Total


Gourdes
43,223

3,277,992
3,859,350
911,287
3,367,333
5,696,978
1,611,445
773,594
158
2,970,788
9,141,556
1,586,364
2,866,326

36,106,394


Per cent
0.12




9.33
15.78
4.46
2.14
8.23
25.32
4.39
7.94
100.00


Gourdes
43,620
31,883
6,753,674
5,988,199
1,011,796
13,340
4,837,575
6,990,354
2,375,155
1,004,090
100,540
3,475,107
34,845,166
2,273,076
3,668,370

73,411,945


Percent
0.06
0.04
9.20
8.16
1.38
0.02
6.59
9.52
3.23
1.37
0.14
4.73
47.46
3.10
5.00
100.00





TABLE No. 9

NET TONNAGE OF STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Steam and Motor Vessels Entered


October 1931 .........................................
November ..............................................
December .... ....................................
January 1932 .......................................
February ..............................................
March ..... ......... ..................
April ..........................................
May .................................................
June .........................................................
July ....................................................
August .............. ........ ............
September .....................................
Total .........................................


American


No. Tonnage

17 49,459
14 51,871
21 57,038
16 49,083
14 45,911
22 63,679
17 51,336
21 61,043
16 49,064
18 51,016
18 52,387
18 58,409

212 640,296


British


No. Tonnage

3 4,503
2 1,872
2 2,875
3 4,503
8 54,418
3 34,895
.. .. .. ....
3 4,332
2 3,306
3 3,955
1 1,834
3 5,336
33 121,829


Dutch


No. Tonnage

14 18,072
13 17,833
13 32,266
19 22,506
15 16,466
20 22,657
14 15,310
17 18,435
15 17,685
15 17,171
18 19,933
18 21,451
191 239,785


French


No. Tonnage

1 3,539
1 2,667
1 2,667
4 9,302
1 1,733
3 7,067
1 1,733

.2 5,334
2 I 3,466
1 2,667
17 40,175


German


No. Tonnage

6 11,091
8 '14,898
6 19,158
8 13,015
7 11,890
6 11,251
9 24,765
6 10,159
7 13,032
6 11,119
8 14,622
8 15,052
85 170,052


Steam and Motor Vessels Cleared


October 1931 ....................................
November .............................................
December ............................
January 1932 ......................................
February .................................... .......
March .................. .......... ....
April ..................................... .....
May ....................................... ................
June ...............................
July ............... ......................
August .................................
September ............................
Total ............................. .


16 47,846
16 55,096
19 52,323
18 53,798
14 45,911
21 61,479
18 53,536
21 61,043
15 47,452
18 51,018
18 52,375
19 60,031
213 641,908


3
1
2
3
7
5
2
3

3


4,503
1,457
2,249
4,087
52,575
38,195
2,498
5,140
3,955

17,170
121,829


13 17,129
13 17,267
14 33,775
18 21,863
16 17,109
19 21,714
15 16,253
16 17,798
16 18,322
14 16,436
18 20,028
17 20,239
189 237,933


........ ................. 6
2 6,206 7
1 2,667 7
3 6,635 6
2 4,400 7
2 4,400 7
1 2,667 9
1 1,733 7
2 5,334 6
7
2 3,466 7
1 2,667 9
17 40,175 85


11,091 5
12,969 3
21,087 5
10,208 3
11,065 6
12,980 5
S24,844 5
11,983 8
11,129 6
13,022 4
12,847 4
16,827 4
170,052 58


5,739
3,425
5,417
21,723
6,877
5,614
6,158
7,825
7,443
5,253
5,343
4,518
85,335


43
42
48
51
52
59
48
55
48
46
49
54

595


86,308
96,420
117,518 t
118,314 T
137,937 S
144,382
103,458
102,880
94,820
89,684
94,059
111,452
1,297,232
____ 't


All other Total


No. Tonnage No. Tonnage

4 4,628 45 91,292
3 3,425 41 92,566
5 5,417 48 119,421
3 21,723 53 120,132
6 6,877 51 137,295
6 6,725 60 146,274
5 6,157 46 99,301
7 6,715 54 100,684
6 7,443 48 95,864
4 5,253 46 88,514
4 5,343 51 97,585
4 4,518 52 107,433
57 84,224 595 1,296,361


I


Steam and Motor Vessels Cleared


' '


----c--







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 10

NET TONNAGE OF SAILING VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED
BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Sailing Vessels Entered


Months



October 1931 ......................
November .........................
December ................................
January 1932 ......................
February ............................
March .......................
April ...............................
May ... ..............
June ..........................
July .........
August ...............................
September ......................

Total ...........................


American British


No. Tonnage No. Ton

........ .............. 8
........ ................ 11

..... ................ 11
2 1,919 4
.... ............... 11
3 3,044 15
....... ............... 10
........ .............. 9
....... ............... 13
........ ................ 14
S4,963..................... 8

5 4,963 111 1,1


nage

74
99
78
40
105
250
87
88
143
119
83

L66


Sailing Vessels Cleared


October 1931 ....................
November .................-........
December .......................... .
January 1932 ...............
February.....................
March -..................
April .......................
May .......... .....
June........................
July ..-------.----.
August ..........- .-
September ......- .......-
Total


Haitian


No. Tonnage

2 24

1 12








3 36


All other


No. Tonnage

1 43


1 10
1 883



1 964

4 1,900


Total


No. Tonnage


11 141
11 99
8 78
7 1,971
12 115
19 4,177
10 87
9 88
13 143
14 119
9 1,047

123 8,065


1,365

1,919

1,679
1,365





6,328


83
88
89
28
83
222
133
92
155
95
107

1,175


24

12............









36


2 1,007


1 10

1 883



1 964

5 2,864


2,479
88
89
1,959
93
1,901
2,381
92
155
95
107
964

10,403







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 67


TABLE No. 11

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Mer- Merchan-
chandise dise sub- Per
Country free of ject to American British Dutch French German Norwegian All other Total cent
duty duty


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Argentina ...................................... ................ 8,536 5,899 1,176 1,451 ................ ............... ................ 10 8,536 0.02
Australia ...................................................... 6 8,901 5,064 571 3,266 6 ........ .......... .......... 8,907 0.02
Austria .......................................................... ........... 15 4,927 20 .............. 1,933 111 2,878 .............. .............. 4,942 0.02
Baham a Islands ...................................................... ................ 17,665 13 17,464 83 ................ ................ ................ 105 17,665 0.05
Belgium ..................................................................... 12,206 358,466 52,922 1,022 13,334 10,153 291,332 1,132 777 370,672 0.99
Brazil ...............58 58 .............. ........... ... .... ............... ............ .............. 58
British A frica ............................................ 18 ..................... .................. .............. 18 ........... ..... ................ ........ ...... ............. 18
British India ............................................................ 9 .................. 9 .............. ................ .. ..... ................ ............... .............. 9
Canada ....................................................... 694 82,863 27,731 5,038 46,962 ................ 1,200 2,623 3 83,557 0.22
Canal Zone ....................................................... 2,593 9,060 11,653 .............. ................ ............... ............................... ............. 11,653 0.03
Chile .......................................................................... 255 13,884 6,036 .............. 3,258 250 25 4,570 .............. 14,139 0.04
China ................................................................... 51,565 660 52,038 ............ ................ 185 ................ ................ 2 52,225 0.14
Colombia ............................................18 ................. 18 ............ ..................... .................. ........ ...... 18 ............
Corsica ............. ...................... .... .................. ......... ..... ........... .. 57 ................ ................ ............ 57
Cuba .......................................................................... 3,025 358,792 167,373 .............. 3,869 1,968 2,039 ............... 186,568 361,817 0.97
Curaao ..................................... 152,798 244,182 2,518 .............. 167,738 160,691 ................ 66,033 396,980 1.06
Czechoslovakia ........................................................ 12,523 46,381 5,137 .............. 17,647 1,027 35,087 ................ 6 58,904 0.16
Denmark ............................................................... 2,899 86,478 32,734 ............. 42,037 ................ 12,545 ................ 2,061 89,377 0.24
Dominican Republic............................................ 27,662 166,534 2,261 .............. 295 673 38,722 ................ 152,245 194,196 0.52
Egypt ............................. ...................................... 1 108 1 .............. ................ 108 .......... .............. ...109 ...........
Equador ...................................... 5 .................. 5 .............. ................ ................ ................ ................ .............. 5
Finland ..... 10 .................. 10 ............ ................ ................ ................ .... ....... ............... 10
France ......................................................................... 94,349 2,095,361 273,118 709 92,128 1,790,561 22,115 31 11,048 2,189,710 5.87
French Africa ......h......A...................... .. ......... .. 5 5 ....................... ... 5
Germany ................................... 80,174 1,486,717 69,614 2 648,508 1,445 837,011 7,761 2,550 1,566,891 4.20
Greece .................................................... 1 .................. 1 .............. ................................ .......1..........
Guadeloupe ... .. ........................... ................ 342 33 ......... ................. 309 342
Guiana, British ..................................................... 121,400 1,427 .............. 88,446 ................ ................ 31,527 .............. 121,400 0.33
Guiana, Dutch ..................................................... .............. 6,729 ................. .............. 6,719 10 ................ ................ .............. 6,729 0.02
Honduras .. ........................................................ 10 219 229 .............. .... ............... ............... ... ...... 229
Hungary .................................................... 1 1,422 .................. ............ 22 ................ 1,421 ................ .............. 1,423 ...........
Indo China .............. ....................... ......... 2 ........ .......... .... .......... ................ ............... ................ 2 2
Italy ....................... .............. .... 1,537 295,253 195,961 3............. 34,218 1,544 46,165 1,260 17,642 296,790 0.80
Jamaica ............................................................. 24 3,132 151 165 657 485 1,698 .............. ..............3,156 0.01
Japan .................................. ............................. 15,282 134,048 141,471 .............. 2,094 5,760 ............. ...........5 149,330 0.40
Java .................. ........................ .......................... ............ 1 ........1 ..........1 1... ................. .... 1
Luxem burg ..................................... .. 10 47 .................. .............. ................ 47 ................ ................ 10 57
M artinique .. ................ .................. ................................... .......... 1 5 .............. ................ ................ 1 ................ 45 51
Mexico ................................. 40 20,927 20,923 .............. 31 ................ 13 ............ .............. 20,967 0.06
Monaco ........................... 2 2 .................................................. 2 .................. 2 2
M orocco .................................. ...... ............ 1 4 .................. .............. ................ ................ ................ ................ 5 5
Netherlands ...................................................... 30,968 1,276,150- 45,947 .............. 1,248,022 27 12,996 74 52 1,307,118 3.50
Norway .............................................................. 2,165 157,943 7,329 .............. 81,650 71,129 ................ .............. 160,108 0.43
Palestine ...... .................... ..................... ................ 208 3 .............. 3 197 3 ............. 2 208 ............
Peru ........ .............................. ............. .... .... .............. 7 5 ........... ................ ................ ................ ................ 2 7
Portugal ... ... 10 9 .............. 1 ................ ................ ........... .............. 10 ........
Puerto Rico................................... ....... 33,853 945,924 961,472 .............. 5,601 ................ 10,866 1,705 133 979,777 2.63
Spain .............................................................. 6 55,924 33,283 ............ 14,699 876 2,851 1,450 2,771 55,930 0.15
Sweden .... ... ............................ 5 40,475 .............. ............. 15,097 6,294 15,541 3,548 40,480 0.11
Switzerland ............................................................ 815 77,854 192 ............ 29,721 2,258 46,406 ................ 92 78,669 0.21
Syria ...................................................................... ................ 45 5 ............. ............... 40 ................ ................ .............. 45
Trinidad .............. .. ..... 231 5,700 .... ..... .. 5,9................ ...... 5,931.. .............. 5,931 0.02
United Kingdom ............................................. 144,673 3,288,927 1,905,570 337,645 1,036,841 2,716 131,566 19,081 181 3,433,600 9.20
United States .................................... 1,866,811 23,345,471 15,221,080 233,710 6,123,595 ................ 32,266 3,575,012 26,619 25,212,282 67.58
Venezuela ............................................. ....... 15 2 2 ..........15 ................ .............................. 17
V irgin Islands .............................. ............... ........... 424 11 ........... ................ ................ 413 ............ .............. 424 ............

Total ..................... ....................................... 2,537,275 34,768,276 19,249,315 597,502 9,735,856 1,820,552 1,767,733 3,661,767 472,826 37,305,551 100.00
Per cent .................................................. 6.80 93.20 51.60 1.60 26.10 4.88 4.74 9.81 1.27 ..............
















TABLE No. 12

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Country


Argentina ........................................
Austria ...............................................
Bahama Islands ...............................
Belgium ............. ..........................
Canada ..............................................
Canal Zone .....................................
Corsica .................................................
Cuba a ...... ..............................
Curacao ................................................
Czechoslovakia .......... ..................
Denmark .............................................
Dominican Republic ..........................
Finland ......................................
France ..............................................
French Africa .................................
Germany ............................. ...........
Gibraltar ...........................................
Italy ....................................................
Jamaica ............. ........................
Netherlands ......... ...... .............
Norway ..................... ...... ..........
Puerto Rico m ...............................
Spain ................................ ...
Sweden ................ .................
Switzerland ...........................................
Trinidad .............................. ..................
United Kingdom ...................
United States .... ...........................
Virgin Islands ..................................

Total .... ................................
Per cent .................... ...


Mer- Merchan-
chandise disc sub-
free of iect to
duty duty



Gourdes Gourdes
............ 3,042
................ 359
5,655 2,323
................ 3,236,937
................ 50,986
5,964 59,729
............. 12
................ 20
4,397 2,100
............ 1,605
.............. 3,274,270
.............. 158
............. 17,951
3,133 16,110,804
................ 71,134
.......... 1,165,763
.............. 2,020
............. 3,766,244



20
............... 388,779
................ 80,632
150 549
76
................ 76
4,649,645
126,396 2,799,366
................ 34,879

145,695 35,960.699
0.40 99.60


]























i



I


Danish


British




Gourdes


7,978
376,438






405,334


3,520,035
4,400
39,235



11,161

645


1,697,728
76,258


----- -i- 1
5,449,720 6,139,222 117,951
15.09 17.00 0.33


Dutch


American




Gourdes



519,557
661
65,693




231,219


1,543,482
4,540
102,386

1,499,748

13,440
20
98,398
18,000


389,449
928,248
34,879


French




Gourdes
...................







........... .




1,994,459
6,780
82,133
35,849
761
13,644

1,004
30

221,064


German




Gourdes

...............

558,946


............
20


516,689

17,951
3,702,531

~177,687

S 6,900
3,256
3,447
24,363


24,735
669

1,506,056
304,417


Nor.
wegian




Gourdes

























.661429
............


Gourdes
3,042
359

1,028,580
50,325



6,497
1,605
1,778,410


5,160,904
55,414
564,322
2,020
2,223,747

168,964
2,260
290,381
36,248
...................
76
835,338
955,410


13,163,902
36.46


TALENo 1


Total


All other




Gourdes










158


Z7'575
















74,733
0.21
0.21


Per
cent




0
0.01

0.02 0
8.96 "I
0.14 '
0.18
...... .... Z

0.02

9.07

0.05 <
44.63 .;
0.20 m
3.23
0.01
10.43
0.01 m

0.13




100.00
0.22




0.10

100.00


Gourdes
3,042
359
7,978
3,236,937
50,986
65,693
12
20
6,497
1,605
3,274,270
158
17,951
16,113,937
71,134
1,165,763
2,020
3,766,244
3,256
173,172
64,868
20
388,779
80,632
699
76
4,649,645
2,925,762
34,879

36,106,394
..............


3,051,770 7,447,667 661,429
8.45 20.63 1.83


Gourdes

.............
..............
............
............
.............
.............
...............
...............
...............
...........
................
117,951.....
...............
...............

.............

...............
...............
..............
................















TABLE No. 13
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEAR 1931-32 COMPARED WITH 1930-31


No-
vember


Gourdes
1,630
363,494
289,422
109
1,030
153,369
125,623
88,032
26,646
6,798
26,211
2,133,955
71,315
39,578
3,327,212
5,277,064


Port of Entry



Aquin..................
Bellad;re ............
Cap Haiitien......
Cayes...................
Fort Liberte.....
Glore...................
Gonaives ............
Jacmel.................
Jirimie..............
Miragolne..........
Ouanaminthe....
Petit Gosve......
Port-au-Prince.
Port-de-Paix.....
Saint Marc.......

Total 1931-32...
rotal 1930-31....

Increas-
1931-32............
Decrease
1931-32...........


De-
cember


Gourdes

3,420
415,891
218,234
45,271
1,019
178,301
224,117
79,970
28,611
16,948
73,716
2,456,013
102,068
74,993

3,918,572
5,268,356



1,349,784


January


Gourdes
52
4,124
340,122
311,932
20
43
165,644
131,541
95,623
31,005
3,088
50,720
2,326,040
64,181
79,492

3,603,627
4,153,440



549,813


February


Gourdes
21
1,780
314,448
181,956
53
218
138,154
93,331
54,145
18,168
12,914
50,627
2,083,215
54,877
52,398

3,056,305
3,705,510



649,205


March


Gourdes

6,048
235,475
170,480
139
1,216
147,954
100,628
60,419
10,466
20,216
50,434
2.581.109
54,097
129,848

3 568.529
3.604.619



36,090


April


Gourdes

3,955
214,237
114,451
8,108
1,218
128,918
87,293
46,955
18,044
3,995
37,026
2.083.248
35,668
81,035
2.864.151
3.253.942



389,791


May


Gourdes

984
229,256
124,982
8,161
2,180
132,379
83,896
58,308
22,695
12,962
25,115
2.408 950
45,260
83,521

3.238.649
2.991.619

247,030

.............


June


Gourdes
130
2,749
236,162
148,314
68

68,805
88,539
37,842
16,213
195
34,248
1,805,359
51,691
38,832

2,529,147
3,455,519


July


Gourdes
99
26
226,147
117,817
8,825
3,923
83,654
37,254
35,066
11,452
6,832
21,946
1,703,238
67,822
65,977

2,396,078
3,142,952


926,372 746,874


August


Gourdes
8
2,572
240,277
125,094
29,674
1,043
42,866
68,805
73,768
16,070
4,146
22,235
1,759,229
36,253
44,142

2,466,182
3,276,441



810,259


Septem'-
ber


Gourdes

1,930
263,967
115,851
42
9
79,554
90,204
61,395
5,954
2,938
26,823
2,065,382
36,271
42,896

2,793,216
3,644,259



851,043


Total
1931-32


Gourdes
397
31,883
3,475,682
2,128,849
100.509
13,340
1,470,242
1,293,376
763,710
230,496
100,382
504,319
25,703,610
686,712
802,044

37,305,551




10,576,040


October


GCxrds
87
2,665
396,206
210,316
39
1,441
150,644
162,145
72,187
25,172
9,350
85,218
2,291,872
67,209
69,332

3,543,883
6,107,870


2,563,987 1,949,852


Total
1930-31


Gourdes
1,022
71,473
5,219,144
2,986,965
242,908
12,772
1,872,675
1,709,123
1,401,420
466,982
122,383
805,052
30.687.961
970,161
1,311,550


47,881,591


Decrease


Gourdes
625
39,590
1,743,462
858,116
142,399

402,433
415,747
637,710
236,486
22,001
300,7?3
4.984.351
283,449
509,506

10,576,608


---- --- ------ ---


I I I 1 ; .


I


I





















TABLE No. 14
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF SHIPMENT -FISCAL YEAR 1931-32 COMPARED WITH 1930-31


Port of No- De.
Shipment October member member January


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin................ 34,041 .............. 1541 1,159
Belladire....... .. ....... ........
Cap Haitien....... 414,148 A-"...' 806,938 420,620
Cayes.................... 401,822 :;7, i1 466,936 552,265
Fort Libert........ 97,611 18,830 36,957 22,065
Glore........................... ........
Gonives............. 285,611 340,053 455,021 336,913
Jacmel........................... 740,326 578,504 674,539 841,032
JRtimie.............. 120,525 214,334 329,040 187,048
Miragoine........... 68,736 104,639 70,949 154,261
Ouanaminthe...... 7 19 37 31
Petit Golve........ 272,179 256,910 460,439 389,769
Port-au.Prine... 642,439 752,065 953,553 1,419,388
Port-di-Paix...... 229,492 196,780 291,337 246,587
Saint Marc.......... 159,355 193,122 214,673 140,843

Total 1931-3".... 3,466,292 3,419,013 4,761,960 4,711,981
Total 1930-31..... 4,206,642 3,586,254 4,638,617 4,793,482
Increase
1931-32............. .............. .............. 123,343 .............
Decrease
1931-32............. 740,350 167,241 ............. 81,501


I February March April


Gourdes
3,100

393,753
503,439
139,085

372,190
647,364
95,365
137,504
408,339
1,034,642
124,043
229,837

4,088,661
4,423,497



334,836


Gourdes

216,749
376,099
147,856
460,690
658,712
94,580
89,400
234,810
1,159,797
54,930
669,108
4,162,731
5,976,799


....1814,0
1,814,068


Gourdes
1,691

126,103
157,637
99,071


125,328
79,126

216,823
784,062
75,731
518,790

2,998,994
5,322,488


May


Gourdes

94,984
238,437
56,486
341,012
272,528
157,127
32,564
12
152,774
1,067,146
87,996
269,711

2,770,777
3,323,007


2,323,494 552,230


June


Gourdes

122,887
312,402
56,564
149,893
276,987
102,981
8,751
9
238,645
'"

125,777

1,766,551
2,649,507


July


Gourdes
1,691
27,296
143,038



84,307
13,010
29
98,818
421,801
100,048
94,894
1,228,620
2,245,001


us I Septem-
August her


Gourdes

52,052
105,525
46,452
78,303
199 11

14
132,580
418,170
27,917
141,893

1,241,965
1,594,988


S 882,956 1,016,381 353,023


Gourdes

115,123
325,332
190,310
96,734
201,469
62,861
14,654
108,702
202,492
65,849
105,323
1,488,849
2,056,811



567,962


Total
1931-32


Gourdes
43,223
3,277,992
3,859,350
911,287

3,367,333
5,696,978
1,611,445
1-.:.;

2,970,788
9,141,556
1,586,364
2,866,326
36,106,394
................


Total In-
1930-31 crease


Gourdes
54,781
533
3,902,384
4,473,726
546,114

3,637,727
6,066,628
3,068,779
2,306,015
3,490
4,971,701
9,719,095
1,812,202
4,253,918

44,817,093


8,710,699 ........... ...........


Dectease


Gourdes
11,558
533
624,392
614,376

270,'39
369,650
1,457,334
1,532,421
3,332
2,000,913
577,539
225,838
1,387,592

9,075,872


Gdes.



355,173




365,173


I









HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 15

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES -FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Agricultural implements ............ 561,758 415,053 286,505
Books and other printed matter 319,717 340,663 114,037 *
Cement ............................................ 453,756 426,121 708,521 341,496 247,886 511,867
Chemical and pharmaceutical
products ...................................... 644,320 928,705 961,562 895,213 616,200 830,571
Cotton, and manufactures of,
other than textiles.................. 3,341,450 2,077,511 2,018,486 *
Fibers, vegetable, and manu-
factures of, other than cotton
and textiles .............................. 2,114,647 1,856,885 1,133,803 830,264 512,647 1,627,458
Foodstuffs:
Fish ....................................... 2,380,691 3,289,025 3,276,411 1,824,151 1,334,658 2,879,081-
Wheat flour ...................... 10,671,303 12,044,975 10,987,422 6,644,975 4,965,715 10,842,763
Meats ............................... 1,129,413 1,452,559 1,262,670 846,361 652,887 1,242,256
Rice ........................................ 1,735,650 1,293,365 1,704,546 1,002,059 571,909 1,514,982
All other .............................. 6,544,557 5,786,803 6,135,900 3,957,682 3,083,617 5,963,745
Household utensils: crockery,
porcelain, glassware, cutlery
and kitchen utensils, of alu-
minium, iron and steel ........ 1,080,639 630,580 591,255
Iron, steel and manufactures
of, other than specified....... 3,460,075 3,411,649 3,615,690 1,635,207 1,309,124 3,359,137
Leather .................... 780,115 785,827 307,544 196,670 137,173 594,038
Liquors and beverages ............ 1,229,720 1,433,548 1,007,712 641,220 479,013 1,177,120
Lumber ................................... 1054,752 1,345,746 1,579,319 734,937 649,840 1,284,308
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles passenger .. 1,547,757 984,715 523,700
Trucks .................................. 521,839 242,160 108,004
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline .............................. 354,469 855,634 2,319,923 1,647,984 1,259,334 1,181,842
Kerosene ............................. 1,108,696 .935,008 1,236,788 1,018,812 931,579 1,083,377
All other .............................. 175,174 361,676 782,138 624,677 564,486 447,464
Shoes .............................................. 921,824 587,620 366,013
Silk, and manufactures of,
except textiles ......................... 203,099 147,222 119,950 *
Soap ................................... 3,849,333 3,060,897 2,981,036 2,277,808 1,535,154 3,186,968
Textiles, cotton ........................ 19,708,185 21,150,406 14,364,675 8,568,855 7,966,543 17,755,180
All other .............................. 2,058,189 2,060,451 756,300 421,612 347,172 1,545,117
Tobacco ........................................ 2,009,210 1,770,269 226,481 86,895 19,213 1,253,063
Wool, hair, and manufactures
of, except textiles ................ 226,701 164,458 145,506 *
All other ........................ ........ 13,797,749 16,043,784 11,582,219 8,096,731 5,847,945 16,304,004

Total ....................................... 75,260,004 80,293,333 75,655,444 47,881,591 37,305,551 74,584,341

No separate figures available.








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 16
QUANTITY OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
Commodity Unit 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Cement .... ........................ Kilo 3,518,741 5,675,884 9,856,604 4,900,874 4,236,253 6,218,275
Cotton, and manufactures
of, other than textiles...... 367,748 252,851 375,817 *
Fibers, vegetable, and ma-
nufactures of, other than
cotton and textiles...... 737,822 661,774 495,529
Foodstuffs:
Fish ............................. 2,166,642 4,298,888 5,311,642 3,149,885 2,830,384 3,857,265
Wheat four.................. 12,354,104 28,161,255 27,710,108 23,531,165 19,941,336 22,566,792
Meats ..... 500,144 923,154 1,053,446 716,610 726,047 819,360
Rice ................. 675,744 2,859,235 4,469,193 3,297,733 2,247,588 2,641,778
Leather .............................. 18,642 13,621 12,063
Liquors and beverages....... Liter 686,337 1,126,049 804,225 475,362 361,982 840,315
Lumber ................... Cubic meter 6,769.43 14,221.29 14,009.65 7,099.36 7,301.93 11,425.24
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger.. Number 412 340 180 *
Trucks ........................... 133 70 34
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline ................... Liter 547,523 2,254,239 7,704,611 8,125,598 6,061,097 3,662,060
Kerosene ......................... 2,894,769 3,623,516 4,574,678 4,041,344 4,015,642 3,717,529
Shoes ..................................... Pair 177,997 113,768 67,347
Silks, natural and artificial,
and manufactures of, ex-
cept textiles................. Kilo 3,371 2,495 2,707
Soap ...................................... 2,830,380 3,605,622 3,955,471 3,476,573 3,211,206 3,448,036
Textiles cotton.................- 2,685,127 3,708,304 2,707,401 1,999,146 2,407,190 2,994,459
All other................. ... 361,788 66,548 38,864 52,913 137,162
Tobacco ................................ 694,984 821,907 134,759 43,732 10,110 516,773
Wool, hair, and manufactures
of, except textiles............... 14,814 9,598 5,589

*No separate figures available.







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 73


TABLE No. 17
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES -FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Bananas ............... 559(1) 20(2) 3,318(4) 3,166 34,846 ...............
Beeswax ............. 59,995 4,053 7,424 1,655 2,275 22,477
Cacao, crude .......... 2,726,921 1,240,007 1,516,652 513,433 252,926 1,729,427
Cashew nuts............ ................. 18,160(1) 133,554 30,584 1,365 ..................
Castor beans............ 734,328 69,583 37,799 12,986 2,410 263,185
Coffee ................. 46,999,359 60,437,516 59,293,086 33,434,881 26,335,228 53,749,065
Corn .................... 1,073,905(3) 18,400 7,190 3,277 600 343,630
Cotton .................. 5,595,881 9,186,908 7,961,770 4,254,476 4,062,261 7,361,566
Cottonseed .............. 428,686 761,204 205,037 127,033 ................. 435,915
Cottonseed cake..... 58,891. 53,086(2) 587,621 501,370 431,936 245,620
Cowhides ............... 426,618 4,471(4) 28,905 11,489 ................. 143,748
Goatskins .......... 1,068,096 419,784 770,788 871,133 321,416 725,922
Honey ................... 794,093 344,518 474,912 130,729 153,022 513,790
Lignum vitae............ 436,616 200,299 76,944 28,316 5,746 223,440
Logwood ................ 6,145,079 2,286,293 2,600,025 1,923,381 817,086 3,498,379
Molasses ............. 1,704(1) .............. 274,191(3) 170,572 387,006 110,405
Pineapple, canned.... ....... ...... ..................118,959(4) 414,154 132,473 ..................
Pineapple, fresh ... .................. .................. 39,151 59 7,795 ............
Sisal ........................ 93,558 3,370 152,343 460,906 874,037 132,525
Sugar, raw................ 1,876,976(4) 2,403,398 2,216,281 1,546,586 2,126,103 2,252193
Sugar, refined........... .................. .................. 265,983(3) 187,811 94,994
Turtle shells............ 61,149 95,205 47,160 53,488 22,464 65,002
All other exports.... 1,067,558 1,585,236 979,061 135,608 40,405 1,246,497
Total .............. 69,649,972 79,131,511 77,798,154 44,817,093 36,106,394 73,062,786

Figures in parenthesis indicate number of years the commodity was shipped during the five year period.






TABLE No. 18
QUANTITY OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos
Bananas ............... 279 (1) f 9 (2) t 1,616 (4) f 2,130 26,453
Beeswax ..... ... 19,277 '2,910 3,203 1,354 2,212 8,073
Cacao, crude .......... 1,958,832 1,908,678 1,765,943 1,167,680 791,767 1,809.940
Cashew nuts .............................. 9,270(1) 79,004 21,987 2,207
Castor beans .............. 1,102,620 179,214 91,961 48,265 13,839 430,176
Coffee .................... 29,307,941 32,060,107 31,802,740 26,296,152 23,204,896 30,566.177
Corn .. ................... 2,230,066(3) 96,174 27,040 31.032 6,835 735,827
Cotton ..................... 2,487,783 3,895,790 4,675,990 4.172,537 6,308,335 3,850,384
Cottonseed ............... 2,480,810 5,604,133 1.840,750 1,863,251 .................. 3,101,779
Cottonseed cake ..... 1,066,180 728,997(2) 5,900,693 4,871,182 6,156,738 2,789,755
Cowhides ...... .... 127,835 4,380(4) 17,017 12,648 .................... 46,635
Goatskins ............. 154,966 127,445 221,180 246,921 133,302 165,704
Honey ................. 731.880 547,907 577,253 323,314 566,057 615,704
Lignum vita .. 4,036,687 2,710,852 581,747 185,424 84,692 2,295,695
Logwood 54........... 4,869,896 27,816,496 27,997,433 25,362,884 12,085,025 35,344,009
Molasses ................ 1,995(1) .............. 3,556,867(3) 1,825,741 13,517,941 1,957,016
Pineapple, canned .......... ..... ... 155,991 (4) 569,509 218,081 ......
Pineapple, fresh .... ............ ............. 106,689 350 15,479 ....
Sisal ............... 116,915 7,603 285,172 974,405 2,788,614 302,317
Sugar, raw ... 2,543,397 (4) 6,731,098 9,758,153 11,549,419 20,106,453 L7.553.432
Sugar refined .... .... ... .... 1,019,656 (3) 810,415 487,534 (
Turtle shells ...1,635 1,478 1,285 1,070 830 1,426

Figures in parenthesis indicate number of years the commodity was shipped during the five year period.
IBunches.





















TABLE No. 19
QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FIVE PRINCIPAL EXPORTS BY PORTS FISCAL YEAR 1931-32 COMPARED WITH 1930-31


Aquin .................................
Cap Haitien ..............................
Cayes ......... ........... ..................
Fort Liberti .................................
Gonaives ...........................................

Jlrinie...... .................
irim ie ..............................................
Miragoine .............................
Ouanaminthe ...........................
Petit Golve ...................................
Port-au-Prince ..................
Port-de-Paix ..............................
Saint Marc ...................................

Total 1931-32 ..................................
Total 1931-32... .
Total 1930-31 .............................

Increase 1931-32 ..........................
Decrease 1931-32 ......................


Coffee

Kilos Gourdes


81
2,290,222
3,189,638
2,136,030
4,568,530
1,320,880
477,648
71
2,622,373
4,479,451
1,277,825
842,147

23,204,896
26,296,152


91
2,606,039
3,625,488

2,437,892
5,174,666
1,489,167
546,808
81
2,966,638
5,096,625
1,437,634
954,099

26,335,228
33,434,881


. 3,09 25......6............... ....7 09 653
3,091,256 1 7,099,653


Cotton


Kilos


..................
11,306
338,046

1,372,315
740,890



1,502,520

2,343,258

6,308,335
4,172,537

2,135,798
....................


Gourdes


7,614
198,359

873,158
497,491



958,586

1,527,053

4,062,261
4,254,476

19..... 215
192,215


Logwood

Kilos Gourdes


890,000 42,560
3,124,000 299,913

1,308,500 79,181
...................... ..................



.................. ... .... .... ..
3,768,500 215,616

25 2
323,500 25,469
2,670,500 154,345

12,085,025 817,086
25,362,884 1,923,381

13,277,859 1,106,295


Sugar

Kilos Gourdes


"20593,987-
20,593,987


20,593,987
12,359,834

8,234,153
.....................


2,221,097


2,221,097
1,734,397

486,700
...................


*Cacao, crude


Kilos Gourdes


222,063 60,014



283,138 93,070


108,516 42,963
178,050 56,879


791,767 252,926
1,167,680 513,433


375,913 200,507


Cacao has been included in this table since 1923-24 but during 1931-32 it could not be considered as one of the five principal exports being exceeded in value by cottonseed
cake, goatskins, molasses and sisal. However, for purposes of comparison it has been retained this year in this table. See tables 17 and 18 for camparative totals.


II I -







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 75


TABLE No. 20

PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27- 1930-31 1931-32 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1930-31 1931-32


Per cent Per ceent Per cnt Per cent Per cent Per cent
Coffee ............................................................ 67.48 76.38 76.21 74.60 72.94 73.57
Cotton .............................................. 8.03 11.61 10.23 9.49 11.25 10.08
Logwood ........................................ 8.82 2.89 3.34 4.29 2.26 4.79
Sugar ............................ ............................. 2.69 3.04 3.19 3.87 6.15 3.08
Cacao, crude ................................................ 3.91 1.57 1.95 1.15 0.70 2.37
Sisal .................................................... ............ 0.13 ................. 0.20 1.03 2.42 0.18
Cottonseed cake ....................................... 0.08 0.07 0.76 1.12 1.20 0.34
M classes ................................... .. ............ .......... ...... ............. 0.35 0.38 1.07 0.15
Goatskins .............................................. 1.53 0.53 0.99 1.94 0.89 0.99
All other ................................ ................. 7.33 3.91 2.78 2.13 1.12 4.45
Total .............................................. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00






















TABLE No. 21
QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES AND MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Month
Kilos

October, 1931............................... ... 2,807,825
November....................................... 2,802,947
December....................................... 3,699,344
January, 1932............................... 3,489,030
February.............................. 2,809,019
March ......................................... 1,853,296
April....................................... .. 1,314,094
May...................... ............. 1,178,369
June............................. ....... 1,191,882
July.................................. ...... 649,892
August............................................ 618,780
September..................................... 790,418

Total....................................... 23,204,896


jSee footnote to table 19.


Coffee


Gourdes


Cotton

Kilos IGourdes


3,121,994 10,767
3,167,334 11,095
4,157,716 8,767
3,995,433 5,424
3,353,852 395,313
2,186,895 1,636,353
1,489,020 1,623,970
1,560,403 1,038,910
1,315,013 488,813
669,389 428,482
639,441 429,425
878,738 231,016
26,335,228 6,308,335


10,998
6,990
4,647
3,742
298,492
1,165,341
1,023,108
599,303
246,559
233,035
292,803
177,243
4,062,261


Logwood

Kilos I Gourdes


1,223,000
2,597,000
683,000
582,525
1,925,500
1,838,500
533,500
180,000
1,150,000
1,372,000
12,085,025


65,707
217,101
40,725
30,093
110,202
115,868
37,935
11,045
82,764
105,646
817,086


Sugar

Kilos Gourdes

40,815 10,089
1,034,007 144,440
2,236,489 266,011
3,415,880 391,188
1,304,909 161,051
2,575,948 299,254
1,113,822 101,177
5,614,502 481,416
112,513 18,062
2,072,549 210,403
1,054,414 134,731
18,139 3,275

20,593,987 2,221,097


Cacao, crudely

Ki.os Gourdes

17,977 7,458
82,549 27,245
71,513 29,407
49,741 16,874
68,075 24,867
79,927 26,896
47,055 19,422
92,354 25,548
143,991 41,116
87,591 18,621
35,056 11,191
15,938 4,281
791,767 252,926


All other All exports

Gourdes IGourdes


250,046
73,004
87,078
264,019
220,306
374,143
250,399
266,172
145,801
86,127
81,035
319,666
2,417,796


3,466,292
3,419,013
4,761,960
4,711,981
4,088,661
4,162,731
2,998,994
2,770,777
1,766,551
1,228,620
1,241,965
1,488,849
36,106,394


- -- -- --





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 22

RECEIVERSHIP FUND -FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Septem ber 1916......................................................................
1916-17 ......................................................................................
1917-18 ......................................................................................
1918-19.................................... ................ ...................
1919-20......................................................................................
1920-21......................................................................................
1921-22............................................................. .. ...........
1922-23.............................................................
1923-24..........................................
1924-25..................................................
1925-26............................... .. ............................................
1926-27...................................................................................
1927-28................................... .............................................
1928-29.....................................................
1929-30............ ... ........................................... ... .................
1930-31................................................. ......................
1931-32...................................................................................

Total .................... .. .................
Average 1916-17 to 1931-32........................... ..........
Surplus for period................................ ..................


Five per cent
of customs Expenditures
receipts


Gourdes
60,211.85
914,794.70
755,464.80
1,432,176.60
1,603,639.95
882,854.05
1,377,811.70
1,555,057.00
1,607,569.51
1,787,500.90
2,029,741.59
1,683,093.81
2,254,104.63
1,762,382.50
1,541,953.74
1,278,139.20
1,154,329.37

23,680,825.90
1,476,288.38

......................


Gourdes
89,850.15
796,625.70
741,055.80
700,035.60
1,380,460.60
1,452,073.10
1,279,142.25
1,438,506.15
1,896,332.08
1,849,537.49
1,698,379.86
2,278,241.30
1,884,994.88
1,864,702.40
1,729,289.80
1,443,140.97
1,158,457.77

23,680,825.90
1,474,435.98

..... .......


TABLE No. 23

EXPENSES OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER BY OBJECTS OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Septem ber 1916............. .........
1916-17.............................................
1917-18..............................................
1918-19..............................................
1919-20.......................... ............
1920-21.......................... ...........
1921-22.......................... ............
1922-23............................ ............
1923-24........................... ..........
1924-25............................ ...........
1925-26............................ ...........
1926-27............................ ............
1927-2 .................... ................
1928-29................. ............... ..........
1929-30........... ................ ..........
1930-31............... ................. ..........
1931-32............... ................. ..........

Average 1919-20 to 1931-32......


Adminis-
tration


Gourdes



329,634.00
426,498.70
404,251.70
503,997.40
455,447.21
461,316.07
467,996.66
523,192.77
514,017.30
578,827.16
640,263.91
583,723.66
507,252.19

492,032.21


Repairsand
Customs mainte-
operation nance*


Gourdes



508,570.75
547,194.55
605,773.60
600,627.10
648,959.62
673,495.96
669,394.41
712,154.94
684,563.61
671,332.50
637,588.57
582,541.63
496,013.59

618,323.91


Gourdes











24,027.32
27,567.10
9,703.22
20,544.75

6,295.57


*Prior to 1928-29 repairs and maintenance expenses were charged to administration or customs operation


Surplus



Gourdes

118,169.00
14,409.00
732,141.00
223,179.35

98,669.45
116,550.85

331,361.73

369,109.75




2,003,590.13


Deficit



Gourdes
29,638.30



569,219.03

288,762.57
62,036.59

595,147.49

102,319.90
187,336.06
165,001.77
4,128.40

2,003,590.13


Acquisition
of property


Gourdes



114,500.00


500,000.00
57,745.41
155,040.47
706,274.83
235,593.04
238,038.92
115,479.47
11,544.62
1,284.14

164,269.30


Fixed
charges


Gourdes



427,755.85
478,379.85
269,116.95
333,881.65
291,925.25
656,980.05
405,948.32
336,618.76
450,820.93
352,476.50
308,390.75
255,627.84
133,363.10

361,637.37


Total



Gourdes
89,850.15
796,625.70
741,055.80
700,035.60
1,380,460.60
1,452,073.10
1,279,142.25
1,438,506.15
1,896,332.08
1,849,537.49
1,698,379.86
2,278,241.30
1,884,994.88
1,864,702.40
1,729,289.80
1,443,140.97
1,158,457.77

1,642,558.36






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 24

CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Administration Repairs and Acquisition Fixed
and operation maintenance of property charges Total


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ....... ....... ... .................. 94,811.46 285.15 10.00* .............. 95,086.61
November ................................. 84,488.72 295.45 427.75 ................ 85,211.92
December ..............- ................ 79,308.93 303.25 248.35 .................. 79,860.53
January .............................. .......... 77,694.33 913.25 20.00* ...................... 78,587.58
February ....................................... 81,668.12 394.77 .................... ............. 82,062.89
March .............................................. 82,576.16 372.50 25.00* .... ............ 82,923.66
April ................. ......... ......... 84,257.23 445.15 ................ ... .. ... 84,702.38
M ay ...................... ........... .... 84,429.67 678.14 85.85 ...................... 85,193.66
June ......... ........... ....... ... 84,215.96 530.00 164.19 ....................... 84,910.15
July .............. .. .......... .... 81,051.94 512.05 .. ..... ................ .. 81,563.99
August ............. 85,751.81 12,624.77 331.00 ................98,707.58
September ............................ 83,011.45 3,190.27 82.00 133,363.10 219,646.82
Total ............... ................ 1,003,265.78 20,544.75 1,284.14 133,363.10 1,158,457.77
Percentage .............................. 86.61 1.77 .11 11.51 100.00

Credit









TABLE No. 25

CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES
OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER -FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Special
Supplies Commu- and
Month Salaries and and Transpor- nication Rents Miscel- Total
wages materials station service laneous


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ............... -. 88,147.02 2,425.89 4,157.50 231.05 150.00 ............ 94,811.46
November ................. 77,228.46 1,086.07 6,099.09 252.60 240.00* 62.50 84,488.72
December .........--- .. 73,869.88 2,235.13 3,347.52 81.40 225.00 ......... 79,308.93
January ......... ........ 73,901.30 1,776.68 2,231.25 7.50 225.00* 2.60 77,694.33
February ..........-..-- 77,192.31 1,954.39 2,727.42 119.00 325.00 .. 81,668.12
March ....................... 76,581.08 2,808.40 3,511.68 ......... 325.00* 82,576.16
April ....... ...... 76,708.05 5,852.95 1,849.93 150.50 510.00* 5.80 84,257.23
May ......-......-.------- 79,014.28 2,902.13 2,669.91 228.35 385.00* 84,429.67
June ..... ........... 79,025.22 1,922.90 3,295.49 169.50 385.00 187.85 84,215.96
July ...................... 74,059.62 3,343.71 3,471.86 221.15 235.00* 190.60 81,051.94
August ..............- 75,057.77 8,195.28 2,555.56 133.10 180.00* 9.90* 85,751.81
September ......--.. ......-.. 75,409.83 2,600.56 5,108.36 ... 215.00* 107.70 83,011.45
Total .-. ... 926,194.82 37,104.09 41,025.57 1,594.15 3,200.00* 547.15 1,003,265.78
Percentage .. 92.32 3.70 4.09 .16 .32* .05 100.00

Credit





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 26

DISTRIBUTIONS OF EXPENDITURES FROM RECEIVERSHIP FUND FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Ratio
to total Cost per
Customs customs Customs gourde
receipts receipts operation collected


Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Gourdes
Port-au-Prince ....................................... .......................... 11,928,675.58 51.67 248,248.85 .0208
Cap Haitien ................................................ 2,145,735.49 9.29 51,021.70 .0238
Jacmel ..... ........................................................................... 2,074,185.46 8.98 29,161.07 .0141
Cayes ............. ....................................... ..... 2,012,446.16 8.72 48,116.83 .0239
Gonaives .. .. ........................................................................ 1,335,121.61 5.78 24,031.83 .0180
Petit Goive ............................................... .... ...... ... 985,728.66 4.27 14,584.46 .0148
JFrLmie .............. ................................................... ......... 760,711.27 3.30 24,122.20 .0317
Saint Marc ....................................... 722,847.33 3.13 19,227.39 .0266
Port-de-Paix ......................... ....................... .......... 684,800.62 2.97 17,523.69 .0256
Mirago ne ...................................................................... .... 328,696.84 1.42 5,751.14 .0175
Fort Liberte ............................ ............................... ...... 74,014.53 32 2,282.75 .0308
Aquin ......................... ................... 14,912.41 .07 2,235.68 .1499
Ouanaminthe .......................................................................... 13,234.30 .06 3,091:54 .2336
Belladire ......... ............................................................... 3,339.13 .01 4,378.69 1.3113
Glore ................................................. 2,137.96 .01 2,235.77 1.0457
Total .......... ........................................ ................... 23,086,587.35 100.00 496,013.59 .0215
Administration ........ ......................................... 507,252.19 .0220

Total administration and customs operation...... ................ ................. 1,003,265.78 .0435
Repairs and maintenance ............................... .... ............. ...... ... 20,544.75 .0009
Acquisition of property ............................... ...... 1,284.14 .0001
Fixed charges .. ................................................ 133,363.10 .0057
Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund ............ ................. .............. 1,158,457.77 .0502




TABLE No. 27

COST OF CUSTOMS OPERATIONS BY PORTS AND COSTS OF ADMINISTRATION,
REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE, ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY, AND FIXED CHARGES
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1931-32

Average Average Average
Port 1919-20 to 1924-25 to 1919-20 to
1923-24 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1931-32


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin ....................................... 4,144.35 3,130.94 2,121.52 2,244.98 2,235.68 3,306.05
Belladire ................................. 898.96 5,083.92 4,134.94 4,372.31 4,378.69 3,292.34
Cap Haitien ........................... 73,190.96 78,148.81 72,273.27 68,029.28 51,021.70 72,924.86
Cayes ..................................... 50,932.83 59,707.21 60,108.31 57,212.95 48,116.83 55,279.88
Fort Libert ............................... ........... 3,090.24 11,814.53 5,791.70 2,282.75 2,718.47
Glore ......................................... 860.12 2,674.68 2,381.80 2,731.16 2,235.77 1,924.83
Gonaives ................................... 37,507.43 40,387.92 39,072.23 31,885.72 24,031.83 37,266.49
Jacmel ............................................. 48,404.08 50,372.14 43,210.39 38,934.57 29,161.07 46,552.85
Jerimie .. ......................... 29,439.82 33,643.05 32,448.29 25,978.35 24,122.20 30,612.55
Miragoane ................. ... 6,098.56 12,136.95 8,487.83 6,787.65 5,751.14 8,631.09
Ouanaminthe ........................... 4,180.33 3,414.82 2,947.97 3,186.57 3,091.54 3,630.90
Petit Golve ............................... 26,449.52 32,025.21 28,349.87 25,521.61 14,584.46 27,756.12
Port-au-Prince ............................ 256,158.43 310,317.16 284,030.60 265,242.44 248,248.85 279,223.07
Port-de-Paix ................................ 17,548.24 20,540.82 21,429.26 19,999.45 17,523.69 19,184.43
Saint Marc .................................... 22,074.54 27,514.41 24,777.76 24,622.89 19,227.39 24,351.76

Total customs operation.... 577,888.17 682,188.28 637,588.57 582,541.63 496,013.59 616,655.69
Administration ........................... 423,965.80 509,070.00 640,263.91 583,723.66 507,252.19 492,032.21
Total administration and
operation ...................... 1,001,853.97 1,191,258.28 1,277,852.48 1,166,265.29 1,003.265.78 1.108.687.90
Repairs and maintenance ........ ...... 4,805.46 27,567.10 9,703.22 20,544.75 6,295.57
Acquisition of property ........... 122,900.00 278,538.54 115,479.47 11,544.62 1,284.14 164,269.30
Fixed charges ............. .......... 360,211.91 440,568.91 308,390.75 255,627.84 133,363.10 361,637.33

Total expenditures from
5 per cent fund fo.......... 1,484,965.88 1,915,171.19 1,729,289.80 1,443,140.97 1,158,457.77 1.640.890.10






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 28

TOTAL COST OF COLLECTING EACH GOURDE OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1931-32


Aquin....... q
Belladire.............................. ..... ...........................
B elladire .......................................................................................
Cap Haitien........................ ........ .........................
Cayes............................. ...... ....... ............
Fort Libert- .............. ......... ....... ..............
Glore........................................ .. ............................
Gonaives................................ ..... ............... .....................
Jacm el...................................................... ................................
J r m ie....................... ................................................. ...........
M irago ne..................................................... .................
Ouanaminthe.............................................. ............... ...
Petit Golve..........................................................................
Port-au-Prince..................................... .................................
Port-de-Paix ..........................................................
Saint Marc............ ................................................................

Total customs operation............................................
Administration ............... .....................................

Total administration and operation.................
Repairs and maintenance..................... ..........................
Acquisition of property.........................
Fixed charges .........................................

Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund..............


Average
1919-20
to
1923-24


Gourdes
.0209
4.1225
.0230
.0195
.0975
1.8248
.0251
.0209
.0376
.0187
1.1820
.0163
.0217
.0167
.0222

.0217
.0161

.0378
.0046
.0136
.0560


Average
1924-25
to
1928-29


Gourdes
.0245
.4277
.0179
.0177
.2458
.7946
.0201
.0152
.0203
.0171
.2077
.0136
.0178
.0142
.0228

.0179
.0134

.0313
.0001
.0073
.0116

.0503


1929-30


Gourdes
.0517
.4020
.0191
.0249
.3336
.8109
.0218
.0171
.0176
.0126
.1796
.0164
.0207
.0165
.0257

.0207
.0208

.0415
.0009
.0037
.0100

.0561


1930-31


Gourdes
.1695
.4339
.0299
.0259
.0957
1.3158
.0227
.0190
.0206
.0089
.1885
.0176
.0218
.0249
.0231

.0228
.0228

.0456
.0004
.0005
.0100

.0565


TABLE No. 29

OPERATING ALLOWANCE OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1931-32


Fifteen per
cent of
internal
revenue


Gourdes
110,195.00
613,488.92
623,607.59
622,993.20
636,243.02
905,289.72
993,024.61
774,062.00
548,436.94


Expenses


Gourdes
75,254.27
350,274.56
304,198.76
306,308.68
462,010.33
799,076.94
993,017.74
770,681.47
544,949.58


Average
1919-20
to
1931-32 1931-32


Gourdes Gourdes
.1499 .0253
1.3113 .4714
.0238 .0206
.0239 .0197
.0308 .0776
1.0457 .8987
.0180 .0220
.0141 .0174
.0317 .0247
.0175 .0149
.2336 .3223
.0148 .0150
.0208 .0197
.0256 .0163
.0266 .0230

.0215 .0199
.0220 .0159

.0435 .0358
.0009 .0002
.0001 .0053
.0057 .0117

.0502 .0530


August and September 1924....................- -.... .............
1924-25........ ---- ............ .............
1925-26 ......--..-. ......- .........................
1926-27 .....-------....----.----. --.. ...............
1927-28..-----------------------
1928-29......----- ..--------.-----..-------
1929-30. .. .-----. .------- .---- -- ~ -. ....
1930-3L............-- .. ..-..-........... ........
1931-32................ ..........-------- .-..... .


Surplus


Gourdes
34,941.63
263,214.36
319,408.83
316,684.52
174,232.69
106,212.78
6.87
3,380.53
3,487.36







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 30
REVENUE OF HAITI BY SOURCES* -FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1931-32


1891-9 ..............
189 -9 ..............
1893-9 ..............
1894-9 ..............
189 -9 .............
1894-95 ...............
1895-96 ..............
1896-97...............
1897-98..............
1898-99..............
1899-00..............
1900-01..............
1901-02..............
1902-03..............
1903-04..............
1904-05...............
1905-06..............
1906-07...............
1907-08...............
1908-09...............
1909-10...............
1910-11..............
1911-12 .............
1912-13...............
1913-14...............
1914-15...............
1915-16...............
1916-17..............
1917-18...............
1918-19...............
1919-20...............
1920-21...............
1921-22............
1922-23..............
1923-24..............
1924-25.............
1925-26..............
1926-27..............
1927-28 .............
1928-29..........
1929-30.............
1930-31............
1931-32...........


Imports

Gourdes



















13,652,334.70
15,176,348.80
10,637,856.40
8,668,408.45
12,970,092.55
9,736,057.28
7,784,253.80
12,264,105.80
18,898,013.74
9,816,687.88
13,247,038.18
16,815,500.17
19,415,707.84
23,452,328.71
26,169,088.58
23,572,181.41
30,935,585.10
25,293,700.63
18,813,703.58
16,677,081.40
15,279,209.85


Customs Receipts


Exports

Gourdes



















19,814,908.75
10,280,211.40
13,413,711.10
6,441,318.45
9,201,376.30
8,473,752.35
7,331,366.55
16,503,370.20
13,143,137.45
8,184,194.70
10,077,988.15
12,312,916.60
9,984,701.92
10,617,525.63
12,660,447.87
10,015,913.41
14,040,033.56
9,841,455.54
11,952,580.99
8,821,209.96
7,757,230.28


Miscel-
laneous

Gourdes






















262,538.80
5,897.52
13,665.10
13,611.90
31,877.91
29,982.42
41,543.37
64,169.58
550,497.38
1,680,164.00
1,765,295.29
73,781.41
106,474.14
112,493.83
72,790.18
64,492.62
50,147.22


Total

Gourdes
....................






....................
....................











33,467,243.45
25,456,560.20
24,051,567.50
15,372,265.70
22,171,468.85
18,215,707.15
15,129,285.45
28,781,087.90
32,073,029.10
18,030,865.00
23,366,569.70
29,192,586.35
29,950,907.14
35,750,018.34
40,594,831.74
33,661,876.23
45,082,092.80
35,247,650.00
30,839,074.75
25,562,783.98
23,086,587.35


Internal
revenues

Gourdes









..................









912,014.55
670,522.20
706,709.70
353,533.40
543,610.05
717,005.60
911,203.40
1,159,974.00
1,886,174.99
1,897,171.70
1,580,246.77
2,699,443.24
2,795,870.53
4,089,926.19
4,155,170.28
4,153,287.97
4,241,620.14
6,035,264.80
6,620,164.04
5,160,413.33
3,930,906.29


Miscel- .
laneous
receipts

Gourdes
























1,971.95
7,901.90
14,871.55
38,246.70
18,059.00
17,979.25
58,071.65
155,543.66
647,722.47
614,646.08
1,046,370.59
1,097,303.55
1,238,613.60
1,188,924.60
1,023,385.07
1,006,248.46
..... .... .
..... ... ..
I. ......


































1,006,248.46


*Fluctuations in the gold value of the gourde prior to its stabilization May 2, 1919 have been calculated and
are reflected in statistics of revenue before 1919-20.

TABLE No. 31
RELATION BETWEEN IMPORT AND EXPORT VALUES AND CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


1916-17..........................
1917-18.......... ..........
1918-19......................
1919-20.......................
1920-21...........................
1921-22.. ................
1922-23........................
1923-24.......................
1924-25....................
1925-26........................
1926-27........................
1928-29........................
1929-30........................
1930-31..........................
1931-32....................

Average-..-...........-.....


Imports


Exports


Value

Gourdes
43,030,428.00
50,903,468.00
85,588,041.00
136,992,055.00
59,786,029.00
61,751,355.00
70,789,815.00
73,480,640.00
101,187,825.00
94,257,030.00
78,756,600.00
101,241,283.00
86,189,612.00
64,208,132.00
47,881,591.00
37,305,551.00
72,252,747.19


Duty

Gourdes
9,741,954.80
7,797,918.90
12,277,717.70
18,929,891.65
9,846,670.30
13,288,581.55
16,879,669.75
19,966,205.22
25,132,492.71
27,808,486.25
23,572,181.41
30,935,585.10
25,293,700.63
18,813,703.58
16,677,081.40
15,279,209.85

18,265,065.68


Per cent


22.64
15.32
14.35
13.82
16.47
21.52
23.84
27.17
24.84
29.50
29.93
30.56
29.35
29.30
34.83
40.96

25.28


Value

Gourdes
44,664,428.00
38,717,650.00
123,811,096.00
108,104,639.00
32,952,045.00
53,561,050.00
72,955,060.00
70,881,610.00
97,018,810.00
101,241,025.00
76,495,442.00
113,336,230.00
83,619,167.00
70,722,835.00
44,817,093.00
36,106,394.00

73,062,786.50


Duty

Gourdes
8,473,752.35
7,331,366.55
16,503,370.20
13,143,137.45
8,184,194.70
10,077,988.15
12,312,916.60
9,984,701.92
10,617,525.63
12,660,447.87
10,015,913.41
14,040,033.56
9,841,455.54
11,952,580.99
8,821,209.96
7,757,230.28

10,733,989.07


Per cent


18.97
18.93
13.33
12.16
24.84
18.82
16.88
14.09
10.95
12.51
13.09
12.39
11.77
16.90
19.68
21.48

14.69


---~--


Total
receipts

Gourdes
31,533,254.85
40,868,026.30
34,799,016.95
34,880,361.45
33,853,640.75
34,917,258.60
28,047,666.65
30,665,202.15
23,753,709.25
19,467,977.35
24,416,719.00
21,986,480.60
18,834,716.35
17,517,062.85
20,087,928.90
13,741,365.95
16,695,679.00
11,977,500.00
10,524,189.40
15,044,393.45
23,014,530.50
20,520,595.90
34,379,258.00
26,127,082.40
24,758,277.20
15,725,799.10
22,715,078.90
18,934,684.70
16,048,390.75
29,955,933.45
33,997,450.79
19,946,095.70
24,964,795.72
31,950,101.24
32,902,321.33
40,487,667.00
45,364,648.10
38,861,534.79
50,421,016.49
42,521,528.40
38,648,163.39
31,746,582.38
28,023,742.10























TABLE No. 32
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY MONTHS- FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


1928-29



Gourdes
4,877,847.79
4,620,094.58
4,410,265.07
3,586,193.19
2,897,206.45
2,640,030.70
2,681,417.88
2,316,319.18
1,804,732.42
1,928,236.97
1,568,188.21
1,917,117.56
35,247,650.00


1929-30 1930-31



Gourdes Gourdes
2,699,139.41 2,829,234.14
3,205,518.05 2,637,786.00
3,361,925.56 2,871,519.02
2,875,510.04 2,443,625.30
2,875,602.36 2,094,422.43
3,021,610.59 2,279,028.42
2,787,424.11 2,043,075.11
2,268,017.84 1,728,745.88
2,099,321.08 1,694,850.25
1,721,219.99 1,642,976.33
1,824,712.51 1,585,608.84
2,099,073.21 1,711,912.26
30,839,074.75 25,562,783.98


Average
1926-27 to
1930-31


Gourdes
3,581,645.03
3,640,584.26
3,978,378.85
3,260,117.61
3,065,129.42
3,115,907.59
2,719,924.31
2,352,792.63
2,099,810.76
1,995,807.74
2,026,728.88
2,241,928.45
34,078,755.53


1931-32



Gourdes
2,320,797.78
2,199,297.14
2,756,720.04
2,551,309.83
2,217,575.28
2,169,182.46
1,733,578.40
1,782,021.73
1,468,333.46
1,166,001.06
1,254,280.76
1,467,489.41

23,086,587.35


Average
1916-17 to
1931-32


Gourdes
2,688,194.85
2,947,573.31
3,306,328.86
2,904,109.22
2,643,132.08
2,686,028.33
2,376,810.55
2,066,518.58
1,939,689.24
1,692,585.73
1,779,399.84
2,000,106.41
29,030,477.00


Average
1916-17 to
1920-21


Gourdes
1,518,926.08
1,813,232.97
2,195,593.43
2,308,150.90
2,078,966.06
2,077,327.60
2,109,606.72
1,763,034.48
1,942,219.96
1,444,162.30
1,610,259.38
1,569,050.83
22,430,530.71


October.....................
N ovem ber.................
D ecember..................
January.....................
February...................
M arch.......................
April...... .............
M ay ........ ......
June...... ..............
July............................
August.......................
Septem ber..............

T otal.................


Average
1921-22 to
1925-26


Gourdes
3,037,492.87
3,538,557.92
3,854,936.07
3,214,619.05
2,870,412.10
2,968,218.94
2,429,607.04
2,140,627.99
1,871,308.14
1,743,104.07
1,806,235.06
2,295,863.38
31,770,982.63


1926-27



Gourdes
3,770,458.42
3,534,435.74
3,923,268.01
2,966,878.06
2,886,093.61
2,949,459.94
2,443,025.84
2,246,828.72
2,149,413.19
2,091,505.76
2,184,434.62
2,516,074.32
33,661,876.23


1927-28



Gourdes
3,731,545.38
4,205,086.96
5,324,916.59
4,428,381.45
4,572,322.28
4,689,408.32
3,644,378.62
3,204,051.56
2,750,736.89
2,595,099.65
2,970,700.22
2,965,464.88
45,082,092.80

















TABLE No. 33

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY PORTS FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


Aquin...... ......... ...........
Belladire... ...... ........
Cap Haitien...................
Cayes............................
Fort Liberti...................
Glore................................
Gonaives..........................
Jacmel..............................
Jir mie.............................
M irago ne........................
Ouanaminthe..................
Petit Golve....................
Port-au-Prince.................
Port-de-Paix...................
Saint M arc......................
Total........................


Average
1916-17 to
1920-21


Gourdes
124,805.62
3,280.13
3,179,095.89
1,910,474.91
62,108.75
501.73
1,372,395.15
2,076,404.15
925,743.72
275,744.34
10,260.12
1,221,660.24
9,540,425.27
925,723.20
799,520.56

22,428,143.78


Average
1921-22 to
1925-26


Gourdes
222,392.84
653.80
3,646,227.43
3,205,206.20
14,532.22
915.20
1,762,959.97
2,858,299.20
1,119,908.59
559,994.05
7,336.32
2,160,650.50
13,823,939.29
1,252,298.94
1,135,668.10

31,770,982.65


1926-27



Gourdes
113,122.24
13,458.33
3,254,525.83
3,408,107.55
........................
3,553.51
1,668,692.47
2,973,165.49
1,365,664.38
705,299.97
12,516.45
2,147,929.25
15,698,321.56
1,123,445.51
1,174,073.69

33,661,876.23


1927-28



Gourdes
61,168.80
20,993.24
4,936,597.14
3,291,804.10
........................
6,131.30
2,502,325.52
4,068,426.87
1,907,633.64
880,237.74
20,851.28
2,900,380.06
21,687,904.75
1,553,467.62
1,244,170.74

45,082,092.80


4
2

2
2
1

1
16
1
1

35


1928-29 1929-30



Gourdes Gourdes
11,962.40 41,011.15
22,804.23 10,285.09
,605,834.01 3,789,680.04
,832,663.98 2,411,579.06
62,863.70 35,418.25
4,926.31 2,937.22
,041,322.95 1,791,977.39
,950,342.36 2,522,230.06
,765,515.10 1,842,259.93
784,514.31 673,819.20
26,053.25 16,415.20
,498,540.79 1,728,672.12
,065,576.58 13,709,825.70
,557,766.80 1,298,046.55
,016,963.23 964,917.79

,247,650.00 30,839,074.75


1930-31



Gourdes
13,244.22
10,077.01
2,275,844.14
2,211,866.73
60,512.65
2,075.66
1,401,898.37
2,052,178.31
1,264,035.04
762,909.65
16,907.19
1,446,138.93
12,173,513.16
804,222.97
1,067,359.95
25,562,783.98


Average
1926-27 to
1930-31


Gourdes
48,101.76
15,523.58
3,772,496.23
2,831,204.28
31,758.92
3,924.80
1,881,243.34
2,913,268.62
1,629,021.62
761,356.17
18,548.67
1,944,332.23
15,867,028.35
1,267,389.89
1,093,497.08
34,078,695.54


1931-32



Gourdes
14,912.41
3,339.13
2,145,735.49
2,012,446.16
74,014.53
2,137.96
1,335,121.61
2,074,185.46
760,711.27
328,696.84
13,234.30
985,728.66
11,928,675.58
684,800.62
722,847.33
23,086,587.35


0
Average
1916-17 to
1931-32
"rJ


Gourdes
124,463.34
6,289.10
3,445,927.07 -
2,609,179.57
38,500.88 a
1,802.91 <
1,651,132.11
2,582,127.83 m
1,195,880.06
519,635.60
12,122.49 m
1,726,183.97
13,005,352.51
1,119,491.30 >
991,642.26

29,029,731.00
Etl


_ ___ ~







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 34

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND PORTS--FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


llquadin .................... ... .... ........................
B ella re....... ................ ............................. .............
Canp H itien..........................................................................
Fort Labert..............................................................................
Glort Liber..................................................................................
G loret ....... .................................................................................
Gonaives...................................................................... .....
J cm el.................. .... ............ ...................... ........
J rimie ............................................................... .
Miragone .................................................
Ouanaminthe.......................................... ......................
Petit Golve.................................................................................
Port-au-Prince ...................................................................
Port-de-Paix.......................... .....................................
Saint Marc...................................... .......................

Total.................................... ................ .........


Imports

Gourdes
93.55
3,226.00
1,386,267.42
1,018,971.10
14,420.71
1,997.75
675,203.16
646,524.24
329,158.43
119,050.41
12,763.13
233,450.12
10,211,991.95
301,853.33
324,238.55

15,279,209.85


Exports

Gourdes
14,698.16

756,813.02
990,692.64
58,816.68

657,583.25
1,425,468.67
429,931.94
208,396.63
33.80
749,403.49
1,689,292.90
380,325.27
395,773.83

7,757,230.28


TABLE No. 35

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


October............................... ......................
November................................................
December ................ ............ ........................
Jauary..................................................................
February .............................................................
March ..............................
April ...... ..-.-... .................... .......................
M ay ............................................................................
July ............... ............ ....................
August......... ..................................................
September............... ..........---.................. ...
Total..................... .................... ...


Imports


Gourdes
1,448,708.15
1,339,738.45
1,561,624.86
1,413,030.07
1,321,994.71
1,453,374.10
1,244,122.12
1,293,221.12
1,073,481.37
935,709.35
1,023,276.17
1,170,929.38

15,279,209.85


Exports Miscellaneous Total


Gourdes
868,658.30
855,898.16
1,190,278.65
1,132,968.60
891,942.11
711,904.52
484,174.07
483,688.95
391,433.38
227,681.21
226,206.78
292,395.55

7,757,230.28


Gourdes
3,431.33
3,660.53
4,816.53
5,311.16
3,638.46
3,903.84
5,282.21
5,111.66
3,418.71
2,610.50
4,797.81
4,164.48

50,147.22


Gourdes
2,320,797.78
2,199,297.14
2,756,720.04
2,551,309.83
2,217,575.28
2,169,182.46
1,733,578.40
1,782,021.73
1,468,333.46
1,166,001.06
1,254,280.76
1,467,489.41

23,086,587.35


Total

Gourdes
14,912.41
3,339.13
2,145,735.49
2,012,446.16
74,014.53
2,137.96
1,335,121.61
2,074,185.46
760,711.27
328,696.84
13,234.30
985,728.66
11,928,675.58
684,800.62
722,847.33

23,086,587.35


Miscel-
laneous

Gourdes
120.70
113.13
2,655.05
2,782.42
777.14
140.21
2,335.20
2,192.55
1,620.90
1,249.80
437.37
2,875.05
27,390.73
2,622.02
2,834.95

50,147.22







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 36

DISTRIBUTION OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1931-32


1916-17..... ..................................................... .....................
1917-18 ......9........................................................................ ......
1918-19 ................................................................................................
1919-20................................................................... ....................
1920-21................................................................... ... ...................
1921-22...............................................................................................


1923-24..
1924-25..
1925-26..
92ao


192 -28....................... ............................................... .. .........
1928-29.....................................................

1929-30...................................... ...................................................
1930-31 .................................. ................................... ...........
1931-32..... ...... ..................................... ..... .......... ..............

A average ............................................... .. ...... ...........................


Receipts
from
imports



Per cent
53.45
51.45
42.61
58.92
54.44
56.69
57.60
64.83
65.60
64.46
70.03
68.62
71.76
61.01
65.24
66.18

61.81


Receipts
from
exports


Per cent
46.52
48.46
57.34
40.98
45.39
43.13
42.18
33.34
29.70
31.19
29.75
31.14
27.92
38.75
34.51
33.60

37.14


Miscel-
laneous
customs
receipts



Per cent
.03
.09
.05
.10
.17
.18
.22
1.83
4.70
4.35
S .22
.24
.32
.24
.25
.22

1.05


TABLE No. 37

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


October..............................................................................
November........................................... .............................
December................................................. ......................
January...... ........... .................................. ...................
February......................................... ........................
March...............................................................................
April...................................... ......................
May........................... .....................................
June........................................................
July...................................
August................... .......................................................
September................................................................

T total ................................ .............................


Total



Per cent
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

100.00


Interest
on govern-
mental
deposits


Gourdes
271,060.90
10,521.40
34,616.65
23,137.10
34,602.15
8,005.40
275,954.75
11,366.50
34,308.25
18,786.30
32,356.60
3,139.55

757,855.55


Conversion
pf francs


Gourdes
18,981.65
18,264.50
18,876.50
18,325.70
19,259.85
19,222.25
18,016.25
18,994.90
18,302.35
18,606.65
17,593.45
18,006.10

222,450.15


Miscel-
laneous


Gourdes
5,017.27
1,177.17
698.83
14,827.10
505.30
697.01
292.90
458.70
1,674.50
168.15

425.83

25,942.76


Total



Gourdes
295,059.82
29,963.07
54,191.98
56,289.90
54,367.30
27,924.66
294,263.90
30,820.10
54,285.10
37,561.10
49,950.05
21,571.48

1,006,248.46


................................................... ...........................
..............................................................................................
.....................................:........................................................
....................................................,........................................






86 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER














TABLE No. 38

TOTAL RECEIPTS OF HAITIAN GOVERNMENT BY SOURCES, MONTHS, AND PORTS
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Customs Receipts:
A quin.......................................................
Belladire.....................................................
Cap Haitien.................... .............
Cayes....... ................................................
Fort Libert............................... ...............
Glore...................................... ................
Gonaives..................................................
Jacm el ................ .................. ................
Jirtmie............................... .............
Miragoine....................... ..................
Ouanaminthe..............................................
Petit Golve................ .......... ...........
Port-au-Prince...................... ...............
Port-de-Paix...................... ... .........
Saint M arc.............................. ..... ..........

Total customs receipts...................

Internal revenue receipts:
Administration Port-au-Prince.............
Aquin..... ..................... ...................
Cap Haitien......................... .............
Cayes................................... .................
Fort Libert. .........................................
Gonaives .-................................................
Jacm el ............... ............................... ........
Jrimie ...............................................
Miragone...............................................
Petit Gove...................................
Port-de-Paix............. .......................
Saint Marc.................. ........

Total internal rev. receipts..........
Miscellaneous receipts:
Port-au-Prince ....... ..............................

Total revenue receipts.....................
Non revenue receipts.........................

Total receipts ...........................


October


Gourdes

11,944.24
375.50
260,134.96
215,945.13
4,075.88
220.40
133,654.25
278,252.96
58,786.54
31,844.06
1,313.55
94,942.36
1,092,061.14
75,181.32
62,065.49
2,320,797.78

399,946.77
1,974.79
74,479.10
32,135.75
1,851.38
28,171.82
24,045.30
14,924.87
8,013.37
20,458.34
19,817.03
29,627.69
655,446.21

295,059.82
3,271,303.81



3,271,303.81
3,271,303-81


November


Gourdes

3.01
43.75
277,252.34
206,357.56
1,263.12
165.00
153,139.99
222,105.74
95,028.81
41,594.85
920.61
73,416.16
982,008.46
84,321.36
61,676.38
2,199,297.14

195,758.77
580.01
24,725.06
17,017.52
2,846.04
9,307.50
12,325.35
6,108.76
2,767.43
10,763.77
7,276.64
8,374.91
297,851.76

29,963.07
2,527,111.97



2,527,111.97


December January


Gourdes Gourdes

500.80 446.93
375.50 246.50
366,250.29 230,001.46
230,166.64 304,409.76
7,150.61 1,151.82
200.70 25.35
195,223.01 160,660.11
306,374.36 289,138.11
120,496.73 94,847.57
35,904.57 57,323.63
2,000.21 408.60
154,681.27 122,527.20
1,130,084.15 1,120,497.23
118,140.33 96,084.47
89,170.87 73,541.09

2,756,720.04 2,551,309.83

215,723.28 258,740.84
823.17 607.97
26,167.28 23,954.26
16,579.93 15,547.07
8,236.64 530.45
8,422.99 10,997.09
13,936.08 12,314.05
8,427.60 10,118.89
4,247.54 5,923.24
9,819.77 8,731.99
7,422.74 5,061.98
7,051.89 9,497.59
326,858.91 362,025.42

54,191.98 56,289.90
3,137,770.93 2,969,625.15



3,137,770.93 2,969,625.15


February March


Gourdes Gourdes
944.00 ..................
75.75 370.85
221,262.36 123,021.19
215,116.93 168,216.16
4,824.19 14,300.62
160.10 209.60
151,003.08 130,979.32
195,683.14 180,781.99
51,588.53 52,621.29
45,430.13 28,474.92
1,934.40 2,591.50
124,943.39 80,612.87
1,096,235.09 1,241,464.30
54,586.48 34,598.16
53,787.71 110,939.69
2,217,575.28 2,169,182.46

183,697.56 243,659.64
1,143.10 1,302.80
22,704.57 31,423.09
15,354.84 15,022.99
3,837.66 2,061.88
11,621.84 13,849.49
12,274.22 13,206.55
8,698.79 8,871.52
2,018.31 5,132.40
8,268.15 9,179.66
7,773.99 9,790.08
9,693.67 15,235.67
287,086.70 368,735.77

54,367.30 27,924.66
2,559,029.28 2,565,842.89



2,559,029.28 2,565,842.89


April


Gourdes
490.80
441.15
108,221.36
87,445.98
7,801.13
390.81
115,310.00
131,262.58
53,932.76
30,409.90
254.95
71,872.02
1,007,997.27
34,423.23
83,324.46

1,733,578.40

262,219.72
1,258.28
37,145.49
23,587.63
6,784.66
17,099.51
20,631.67
10,816.88
4,620.30
12,153.82
10,736.95
23,035.12
430,090.03

294,263.90
2,457,932.33



2,457,932.33


May


Gourdes
20.00
306.96
110,446.61
111,937.47
5,118.16
228.80
108,729.64
113,807.78
66,228.41
22,012.09
1,642.47
50,661.70
1,099,183.52
39,600.38
52,097.74

1,782,021.73

188,406.85
444.36
21,455.75
18,751.62
2,118.01
10,389.58
12,300.01
7,657.96
3,607.34
5,824.37
6,651.60
11,733.50
289,340.95

30,820.10
2,102,182.78



2,102,182.78


June July


Gourdes
28.17
372.70
121,740.07
151,642.06
3,144.35
167.20
58,314.65
123,818.50
43,702.88
10,135.89
273.80
84,563.07
792,245.79
46,928.29
31,256.04
1,468,333.46

200,575.75
578.24
15,747.17
8,725.25
1,355.84
6,972.25
7,441.11
5,662.07
2,004.12
4,278.31
6,822.08
6,387.86

266,550.05

54,285.10

1,789,168.61



1,789,168.61


Gourdes
532.86
44.75
90,989.74
95,347.31
2,138.75
202.50
54,561.79
69,202.54
39,838.58
8,902.18
842.31
41,099.53
677,633.01
53,383.58
31,281.63
1,166,001.06

144,470.55
837.70
18,994.17
10,267.77
469.79
6,715.45
7,271.50
5,803.44
1,993.39
4,594.73
4,206.09
7,799.38
213,423.96

37,561.10
1,416,986.12



1,416,986.12


August September Total


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1.60 ...................... 14,912.41
470.32 215.40 3,339.13
105,821.05 130,594.06 2,145,735.49
85,274.37 140,586.79 2,012,446.16
13,566.47 9,479.43 74,014.53
159.00 8.50 2,137.96
25,554.18 47,991.59 1,335,121.61
74,778.88 88,978.88 2,074,185.46
42,060.06 41,579.11 760,711.27
8,782.37 7,882.25 328,696.84
880.63 171.27 13,234.30
42,846.39 43,562.70 985,728.66
787,276.61 901,989.01 11,928,675.58
19,888.28 27,664.74 684,800.62
46,920.55 26,785.68 722,847.33

1,254,280.76 1,467,489.41 23,086,587.35

143,174.01 168,430.00 2,604,803.74
528.84 431.89 10,511.15
11,983.99 17,409.97 326,189.90
8,825.77 9,675.59 191,491.73
795.11 663.59 31,551.05
4,892.78 9,040.16 137,480.46
5,809.80 6,949.20 148,504.84
4,596.07 5,662.39 97,349.24
1,357.90 2,087.44 43,772.78
3,206.32 5,906.45 103,185.68
4,396.17 3,886.60 93,841.95
5,628.56 8,157.93 142,223.77

195,195.32 238,301.21 3,930,906.29

49,950.05 21,571.48 1,006,248.46

1,499,426.13 1,727,362.10 28,023,742.10



1,499,426.13 1,727,362.10 28,023,742.10


I






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 87















TABLE No. 39
ORDINARY, SUPPLEMENTARY AND EXTRAORDINARY APPROPRIATIONS FROM REVENUE
FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1931-32


1925-26 1926-27 .1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32

Department or Service

Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor- Ordinary and Extraor-
supplementary dinary supplementary dinary supplementary dinary supplementary dinary supplementary dinary supplementary dinary supplementary dinary


Public debt: Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Financial Adviser-General Receiver......... 1,698,379.86 ..................... 2,278,241.30 .................... 1,884,994.88 ..................... 1,864,702.40 .................. 1,541,953.74 .......... .. 1,278,139.20 ................ 1,154,329.37 .................
Internal Revenue Service................ 539,944.84 ...................... 540,000.00 .................. 00,000.00 ............... 799,076.94 .................... 993,024.61 .................... 774,062.00 ................... 548,436.94 ................
Series A loan................................................. 6,908,047.60 ...................... 6,637,370.05 ...... 6,985,999.80 ................. 7,014,000.00 ............. 7,010,000.00 .............. 5,779,999.80 ................ 5,803,500.00
Series B loan......................................... 2,148,625.00 .................. 2,065,682.40 .......... 2,160,624.98 2,166,625.00 .......... 2,067,000.13 ................ 1,788,000.00 ................ 1,794,000.00 ..................
Series C loan......................................... ....... 1,141,421.00 ...................... 1,099,239.70 .................... 1,157,125.09 .................... 1,162,281.30 .................... 1,162,437.50 ............ 956,781.20 .......... 959,937.40 ......
M miscellaneous debt item s............................ ....................... ..................... ....................... .................... ........................ .......... ......... ........................ .................... ........................ .................... ....................... ...................................................... ......
Fiduciary currency............................ ........... 420,000.00 ...................... 420,000.00 420,000.00 ...................... 422,322.50 ................. 205,900.00 141,600.00 .................... ........................ ....................
International institutions........................... ........................ ................... 53,600.00 .................... 53,600.00 ...................... 53,600.00 .................... 57,600 00 .................... 57,600.00 .................... 57,600.00 ....................
P. C. S. railroad subvention.................... 206,400.00 .................... 206,400.00 ................ 206,400.00 ...................... 206,400.00 .................... 206,400.00 .................... ....................... ....................206,400.00 ....................
Wharf Co. subvntion............ ................................. 201,000.00 ..................... 250,000.00 256,372,842.40 0,00000 6,428,7.02 108,125.00 6,253,455.08 150,000.00 5,568,240.00 ....................
Cable Co. subvention............................... 20,000.00 ..................... ........................ ............ .. ....................... ....
Total public debt............................. 13,383,818.30 ....................... 13,550,533.45 ........ .... 13,718,744.75 ....................... 13,689,008.14 ..................... 13,244,315.98 ................... 10,776,182.20 .................. 10,524,203.71
Guard..................... 6,151,035.64 89,000.00 6,433,160.89 20,000.00 6,374,782.86. 6,372,842.40 30,000.00 6,428,60702 108,125.00 6,253,455.08 150,000.00 5,568,240.00
Foreign relations....-................................ 636,886.08 5,000.00 558,960.00 0........ 08,960.00 .. 605,100.00 15,560.00 616,944.36 .................. 617,157.62 10,239.00 543,637.50 2,500.00
Finance............880580.00 8. 909,180.00 25,000.00 904,980.00 9,900.00 904,680.00 161,791.35 885,980.00 .................. 852,040.00 209,997.00 850,057.00 1,050,000.00
Commerce............... ...................... ............ 268,760.00 ...................... 262,170.00 20,500.00 269,865.00 .................... 314,282.50 38,600.00 338,360.00 .................... 323,370.00 25,000.00 316,677.00 3,500.00
Interior...................................................... 1,262,257.60 25,000.00 1,170,558.00 107,500.00 1,183,434.80 116,889.00 1,132,208.00 301,740.00 1,155,808.00 261,520.00 1,826,919.00 311,077.29 1,574,335.10 74,250.00
Public Health Service..................................... 2,250,000.00 1,235,140.00 3,070,634.17 ........... .. 3,167,940.00 1,025,335.00 3,603,230.00 209,000.00 3,878,229.92 133,502.00 3,784,588.44 125,000.00 2,758,604.78 ...................
Public W orks......................................................... 42,233.00 ..................... 42,500.00 ...........42,500.00 .................... 44,240.00 8,190.00 30,140.00 .................... 27,018.00
Public Works Service .. ................................ 4,618,000.00 3,373,530.00 5,338,770.00 789,600.00 5,668,800.00 5,728,000.00 5,458,200.00 2,411,956.50 5,295,634.00 202,900.00 5,043,167.77 218,073.53 4,044,428.42 335,000.00
Justice.................................................................. 1,413,835,60 4,580.00 1,404,065.00 3,000.00 1,447,395.00 ...................... 1,317,755.00 .......... 1,322,095.00 ................... 1,300,895.00 ................ 1,249,365.75 ....................
Agriculture.............................................. ........ 43,112.60 ...................... 43,910.00 .................... 43,910.00 ......... 43,910.00 .................... 44,000.00 .................... 43,360.00 ..............80,427.00 ... ..........
Agricultural Service......................................... 1,745,000.00 80,500.00 2,025,700.00 220,000.00 2,130,000.00 422,500.00 2,471,000.00 12,500.00 2,351,666.60 .................... 1,912,820.00 ................ 1,545,936.19 .............
Labor....................... .. .... 366,000.00 270,100.00 447,800.00 ........-. 618,500.00 10,000.00 620,000.00 10,000.00 711,073.18 646,000.00 ............569,185.00 ......
Public Instruction.......... ........ 2,111,689.19 .................... 2,092,293.00 1,000.00 2,089,368.00 8,000.00 2,131,008.00 ......... 2,104,856.00............. 2,113,564.00 ................ 1,829,995.05
Religion............................................................. 401,709.30 ................ 402,832.50 ................. 426,337.50 52,500.00 457,765.00 75,000.00 457,672.50 438,592.50 .................. 419,016.60

Total appropriated from revenue..... 35,574,917.31 5,082,850.00 37,753,067.01 1,186,600.00 38,695,517.91 7,373,124.00 39,165,229.04 3,266,147.85 38,873,429.56 706,017.00 35,962,21.61 1,049,386.82 31,901,127.10 1,465,250.00
Total revenue......................................... 45,364,648.10 ...................... 38,861,534.79 ................. 50,421,016.49 ................. 42,521,528.40 ................ 38,648,163.39 ............... 31,746,582.38 ............... 28,023,742.10 .................
Total expenditures from revenue..... 40,930,725.08 ..................... 39,747,163.75 .................. 40,977,914.49 ............... 44,119,503.94 .................. 40,643,229.50 ............... 36,190,070.45 ............... 32,888,112.00 ............





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER











TABLE No. 40
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1931-32


REVENUES
Customs............................ ..................
Internal revenue................................ ................
Miscellaneous.................................................

T otal revenue................................. ..........
N on fiscal receipts............................ ..........
Total receipts........................ ..................

EXPENDITURES
Public debt:
Financial Adviser-General Receiver...........
Internal Revenue Service...... ...................
Series A loan............................... ..............
Series B loan............................... ..............
Series C loan ............................... ............
Interior consolidated debt.......................
Fiduciary currency........................
Commissions paid to Banque Nationale.
Haitian Construction Co. notes.................
Roberts Dutton 8 Co. claim.....................
Stamp sales, discounts, and expenses.....
International institutions .............................
P. C. S. Railroad subvention...................
Wharf company subvention......................
Cable company subvention.....................
Total.................................... ...............
Guard....................... ................................
Foreign Relations............................................
Finance.................................. ..................
Commerce......................................................
Interior...........................................................
Public Health Service........................
Public Works......................... ..............
Public Works Service................................
Justice......................................................
Agriculture....................................................
Agricultural Service............ ......
Labor..................... .........................................
Public Instruction....................................
Religion........................... ....................


1923-24



Gourdes
29,950,907.14
2,795,870.53
155,543.66
32,902,321.33

32,902,321.33


1,118,917.23
73,478.88
5,589,864.50
1,695,970.36
928,174.00

828,227.51
433,915.00
277,872.35
13,285.42
206,400.00
524,564.28
480,000.00
12,170,669.53
5,322,449.22
734,199.47
1,520,366.84
1,363,403.06
1,529,057.91
961,336.20
5,895,159.05
1,372,533.28
148,288.24
434,445.89

2,306,194.25
457,393.00


1924-25


Gourdes
35,750,018.34
4,089,926.19
647,722.47
40,487,667.00
69,855.47
40,557,522.47


1,849,537.49
342,928.16
7,336,491.75
2,453,151.14
1,209,067.55
195,839.01
420,000.00
27,958.63

3,191.31
206,400.00
268,838.26
120,000.00
14,433,403.30
5,579,242.54
619,953.31
1,197,945.96
230,051.46
1,208.067.76
2,223,059.14
703,416.57
7,533,943.51
1,333,838.31
44,258.88
1,526,891.70
274,393.63
1,942,599.20
367,136.75


1925-26


Gourdes
40,594,831.74
4,155,170.28
614,646.08
45,364,648.10
2,600.00
45,367,248.10


1,698,379.86
304,198.76
6,908,047.60
2,148,625.00
1,141,421.00

420,000.00




206,400.00
247,706.25
90,000.04
13,164,778.51
6,062,415.34
635,084.64
1,062,756.19
247,935.91
1,224,369.56
2,852,485.58
92,287.98
9,082,496.06
1,395,153.62
41,426.15
2,185,104.58
530,646.65
1,965,167.09
388,617.22


Total expenditures from revenue... 34,215,495.94 39,218,202.02 40,930,725.08
Awards of the claims commission........... ........... 1,191,045.20 1,671,072.85
National Railroad construction............. .................... 1,553,756.20 545,995.05
M iscellaneous................ ............................. ... ........... ........................ 1,842,247.55

Total payments..................... 34,215,495.94 41,963,003.42 44,990,040.53
Pension deductions......................................... ................... 151,460.29 91,430.92

Net payments..................................... 34,215,495.94 41,811,543.13 44,898,609.61
Revenue over expenditures................................................. 1,269,464.98 4,433,923.02
Expenditures over revenues......................... 1,313,174.61 ........................


1926-27



Gourdes
33,661,876.23
4,153,287.97
1,046,370.59
38,861,534.79
3,988.00

38,865,522.79


2,278,241.30
306,308.68
6,637,370.05
2,065,682.40
1,099,239.70

420,000.0



57,629.15

67,463.85

12,931,935.13
6,496,006.55
555,375.62
827,576.63
255,063.063
1,229,080.99
3,444,301.76
34,789.54
7,166,798.42
1,369,351.38
43,039.34
2,452,380.38
557,200.68
1,996,720.01
387,544.26


1927-28


Gourdes
45,082,092.80
4,241,620.14
1,097,303.55

50,421,016.49
83,761.32

50,504,777.81


1,884,994.88
462,010.33
6,960,374.65
2,160,624.98
1,157,060.69
420,000.00



45,606.95
521.28

13,091,193.76
6,427,467.21
579,224.57
634,374.38
257,730.29
1,241,170.42
3,631,024.09
34,110.49
8,435,445.55
1,333,376.69
43,611.39
2,170,007.41
615,663.31
2,059,021.14
424,493.79


39,747,163.75 40,977,914.49
8,015.25 ..............
...................... 90.00
3,889,422.08 2,183,489.38
43,644,601.08 43,161,313.87
103,264.06 .......................

43,541,337.02 43,161,313.87
9,443,102.00
885,628.96 ....................


1928-29


Gourdes
35,247,650.00
6,035,264.80
1,238,613.60

42,521,528.40


1929-30 1930-31


Gourdes
30,839,074.75
6,620,164.04
1,188,924.60
38,648,163.39


42,521,528.40 38,648,163.39


1,864,702.40
799,076.94
6,999,195.50
2,166,625.00
1,153,170.05
422,322.50



50,322.55



13,455,414.94
6,368,579.33
555,875.63
721,811.41
329,739.51
1,265,557.13
4,435,428.67
43,575.89
9,621,862.65
1,297,719.99
43,105.13
2,815,688.95
595,387.22
2,053,664.29
516,093.20

44,119,503.94

914,152.25

45,033,656.19

45,033,656.19
1,597,975.54


1,729,289.80
993,017.74
7,001,587.15
2,067,000.13
1,158,220.10
205,900.00



52,824.17



13,207,839.09
6,459,654.24
572,039.59
681,569.38
311,957.67
1,494,643.19
4,040,662.71
37,462.49
6,837,531.17
1,309,419.18
42,956.98
2,408,006.25
759,615.76
2,055,190.00
424,681.82

40,643,229.52

1,204,072.89

41,847,302.41

41,847,302.41
1,995,066.13


Gourdes
25,562,783.98
5,160,413.33
1,023,385.07

31,746,582.38

31,746,582.38


1,443,140.97
770,681.47
5,763,933.75
1,788,000.00
953,947.55
141,600.00



22,290.00



10,883,593.74
6,326,038.78
616,289.14
966,912.91
344,408.20
1,589,833.75
3,900,302.82
29,566.00
5,171,684.81
1,294,973.13
42,480.87
1,899,038.68
639,712.63
2,076,742.28
408,492.71

36,190,070.45

711,306.06
36,901,376.51

36,901,376.51

4,443,488.07


1931-32



Gourdes
23,086,587.35
3,930,906.29
1,006,248.46

28,023,742.10

28,023,742.10


1,158,457.77
544,949.58
5,794,210.75
1,794,000.00
957,995.05





30,189.95



10,279,803.10
5,567,966.06
530,003.91
1,667,431.51
309,028.43
1,642,636.62
2,804,700.82
27,010.04
4,436,056.02
1,224,489.07
76,471.35
1,552,180.61
575,020.84
1,791,442.13
403,871.49

32,888,112.00

1,081,061.77

33,969,173.77

33,969,173.77
4,864,369.90





I I


I


I









TABLE No. 41

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENDITURES -FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Function


Executive:
General...... ...................................
Foreign affairs............................................... ......................
Financial administration................................................
T rade promotion....................................................................
H ealth................................ ..........................................
Police...... ............ .........................
Agricultural development.....................................................
F isheries............................... ...............................
Education.............................................................................
R eligion......................................................................................
Transportation........................................ ...................
Communications .............................................................
Municipal:
Streets........................................ ..................................
Sewers and drains .................................. .............
W ater service ..................................................................
Other municipal..........................................................
Currency and banking................................. ...........
Publics works ...................................
Non fictional:
Public debt.........................................................................
Pensions............... ................. .
Printing office and storehouses..................... .............
Communes, individuals and companies...........................

Total expenditures............ ...................................


Credit


Administration
and
operation



Gourdes
802,828.50
1,214,972.66

836,333.36
522,821.92
1,769,517.29
164,156.82
2,641,821.23
5,188,608.92
729,782.56

3,402,553.43
371,153.85
47.284.71
684,998.23

634,347.09

73,953.49


1,177,001.55

174.00

91,705.34


20,354,014.95


Repairs and
maintenance



Gourdes
1,298.00
1,083.87'

66,162.24
640.00
24,971.66
13,686.82
69,687.61
20,389.15
25,675.58

50,600.29
893.91
721,237.08
52,384.99

89,564.83

117,843.74


61,807.04



5,797.55-


1,312,129.26


Acquisition
of property



Gourdes
9.45
8,432.54

6,388.61
6,541.99
29,079.85
9,328.45
38,614.88
34,925.60
345,700.48

140,064.13

989,250.66
20,801.38

140,793.55

68,999.48


91,138.42



36,569.94*


1,893,499.53


Fixed
charges



Gourdes



5,197.00
30,189.95
170,015.56

22,866.78

3,762.00

62,948.22
31,823.73
1,050,000.00
............................







8,546,031.80
257,836.04

10,180,701...................
10,180,701.038


Trust fund Total
repayments expenditures


Gourdes
........................
.......................

........................
.......................
.......................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

........................
228,828.95

228,828.95


Gourdes
804,135.95
1,224,489.07

914,081.21
560,193.86
1,993,614.36
187,172.09
2,772,990.50
5,243,923.67
1,104,920.62

3,656,166.07
403,871.49
2,807,772.45
758,184.60

864,705.47

260,796.71


1,329,947.01

8,546,205.80
257,836.04
49,337.85
228,828.95

33,969,173.77


Percentage
of total H
expenditures

0

2.37
3.60 0

2.69 3
1.65 Z
5.87 >
55
8.16 1
15.44 p
3.25
10.76
1.19
8.27 m
2.23

2.55 r

.77

. ....... .......
3.92
m
25.15
.76
.15 m
.67 P

100.00







90 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 42

CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32

Administration Repairs Acquisition
and and of Fixed Trust fund
operation maintenance property charges repayments Total


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
General Receiver.................. 1,003,265.78 20,544.75 1,284.14 133,363.10 .................. 1,158,457.77
Internal Revenue Service.. 477,839.21 3,912.00 26,635.91 36,562.46 ............ 544,949.58
Public debt........................... 174.00 .................... .................... 8,547,935.00 ................... 8,548,109.00
Subventions........................... ...................... .................... .................... 28,286.75 .................... 28,286.75
Guard.................................. 5,526,139.15 11,809.88 30,017.03 .................... ...... 5,567,966.06
Foreign Relations............... 522,821.92 640.00 6,541.99 ......... ................ 530,003.91
Finance................................. 349,375.76 514.91 4,387.80 1,313,153.04 ............... 1,667,431.51
Commerce............................ 307,642.68 624.55 761.20 ... .......... ...... ....... 309,028.43
Interior................................. 1,608,055.93 3,137.00 2,374.12 29,069.57 .................... 1,642,636.62
Public Health Service....... 2,687,912.15 69,374.23 38,877.28 8,537.16 .................. 2,804,700.82
Public Works..................... 26,742.39 261.00 6.65 ................... 27,010.04
Public Works Service........ 2,354,621.75 1,149,996.75 931,437.52 ......... ............ 4,436,056.02
Justice................................... 1,214,972.66 1,083.87 8,432.54 ...................... .................. 1,224,489.07
Agriculture............................ 68,906.05 108.20 3,695.10 3,762.00 .................... 76,471.35
Agricultural Service........... 1,465,362.25 16,263.41 56,774.23 13,780.72 .................... 1,552,180.61
Labor.................................... 569,143.19 753.59 2,042.59* 7,166.65 ................ 575,020.84
Public Instruction............... 1,746,739.90 400.62 17,040.71 27,260.90 .................. 1,791,442.13
Religion................. ............ 371,153.85 893.91 ................... 31,823.73 ................... 403,871.49
Total expenditures
from revenue....... 20,300,868.62 1,280,318.67 1,126,223.63 10,180,701.08 ............. 32,888,112.00
Non fiscal expenditures.... 53,146.33 31,810.59 767,275.90 ................ 228,828.95 1,081,061.77
Total expenditures..... 20,354,014.95 1,312,129.26 1,893,499.53 10,180,701.08 228,828.95 33,969,173.77
Percentage ............................ 59.93 3.86 5.57 29.97 .67 100.00

Credit














TABLE No. 43
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND'SERVICES
FISCAL YEAR 1931-32


Department or Service


Salaries
and wages


I _


General Receiver............
Internal Revenue Service.
Public debt ........................


Subventions ..............................................................
Guard..... .. ..............................................................................................


Foreign


ielalns.on ..... ..... ........ ...................... ........


------ ---- ---...
Commerce............................................................................. ..................... ..
Interior k..................... ........... ....
Public Health Service...... ............... ................ ..
Public Works .. rvice... .............................................................................. ....
Public W works Service ..................................................................................................
Justice.... .. ............... ..... .......................................................................................
A griculture.............................................................................................................. ..............
A agricultural Service.... .. .... ..................................................................................


Public
T) i:_:


Instruction............... ..................................................


. .............. .................................................. .................
Total expenditures from revenue................................................
Non fiscal.................................................................. ...... .............................................................

Total expenditures. ...............................................................
Percentage .........................................................................................................................


*Credit


Gourdes
926,194.82
385,251.02

3,732,248.32
480,419.24
292,344.31
163,877.31
1,456,429.80
1,809,980.64
25,306.47
1,430,248.94
1,177,665.38
64,514.09
1,292,676.10
500,703.94
1,567,238.02
334,608.35

15,639,706.75
275,205.09

15,914,911 84
78.19


Supplies and
materials


Gourdes
37,104.09
41,745.27

1,401,126.12
6,920.90
15,621.26
7,248.39
37,836.89
521,822.94
1,191.92
764,691.31
6,835.68
2,134.00
74,920.79
62,869.33.
21,437.29
433.00

3,003,939.18
141,737.86"

2,862,201.32
14.06


Transpor-
tation


Gourdes
41,025.57
46,723.33

366,844.13
27,701.73
27,186.31
134,456.98
44,316.49
348,423.45
244.00
149,267.36
2,597.90
2,257.96
62,919.23
4,169.92
1,835.25
35,962.50

1,295,932.11
79,636.42*

1,216,295.69
5.98


Communi-
cation
service


Gourdes
1,594.15
10.00
174.00

1,189.60
5,083.05
8,308.80

36.25
423.45

327.85-


839.05



17,986.20
3.52

17,989.72
.09


Rents


Gourdes
3,200.00*
185.00

388.95*

4,613.27
2,060.00
646.00
3,583.00

9,948.25
24,869.10

28,914.31

155,874.81
150.00

227,254.79
1,452.25*

225,802.54
1.11


Special and
miscel-
laneous


Gourdes
547.15
3,924.59

25,119.93
2,697.00
1,301.81

68,790.50
3,678.67
138.04
3,004.60

5,092.77
1,400.00
354.53


116,049.59
764.25

116,813.84
.57


35


O
Total 0
-- l
O
Gourdes TJ
1,003,265.78
477,839.21 t
174.00

5,526,139.15 >
522,821.92 "
349,375.76 >
307,642.68 8
1,608,055.93
2,687,912.15
26,742.39 a
2,354,621.75
1,214,972.66 m
68,906.05 z
1,465,362.25
569,143.19
1,746,739.90
371,153.85

20,300,868.62
53,146.33

20,354,014.95 9
100.00


... .................. ........I -............
....................* ...... ............................


.................................................. ........................................... ..................................






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER













TABLE No. 44

REIMBURSEMENTS TO APPROPRIATIONS FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1931-32


General Receiver................................................. ................................
Internal Revenue Service............................ ...................
Finance:
Pensions............. ......... ........................... .........
Public Health Service:
Materials and supplies..................... ................ ................
M medical school........................................... ...........................
Sanitation and quarantine.......................................................
H ospitals.........................................................................................
Aid to hurricane sufferers...........................................................
American Scientific Mission............................... ................
Guard:
Rations.............................................................


Operation and
.-S. _. .


m aintenance................................ .......................


Coast guard and light houses................... ........ .....
R ural police.................................. .................................
Public Works Service:
Public buildings............................... ......
School houses................................ ...... ......... ............
Telegraphs and telephones...................................................
Streets and parks......................... ...... ....... .......
Roads, trails and bridges................ ........ .......
Water service................ .. ............ .
M materials and supplies......................... ...................................
Agricultural Service:
Administration........... ....... ..... .... ......
Central experimental farm............... ............
Breeding station..........................................
Coffee experimental station.......... ..... ..........
Sylviculture.................................. .......................
Cooperative demonstration farms..............................
Rural farm schools..................................... ................................
Agricultural college........... .................
Development of foreign markets......... .. ........
Printing plant.............................................................................
Soil analysis................................................ ........... .
V veterinary clinics.......................................
Labor:
Reform school...... ... .................................
Elie Dubois school ...................................
J. B. Damier school............ ......................................
Industrial school Gonaives..................... ..................
Industrial school Jacmel .......... -- ----..... .................
Industrial school Cap-Haitien.....................................................
Industrial school J.rimie........... ........ ..............
Industrial school Saint-Marc.......... ...................
Primary industrial schools..............- .........................
Printing plant................................................... ..............

Total ......................................................... .....................


1925-26


Gourdes
1,102.15



27,069.54

135,139.06
126,590.67


83,452.34
624,851.89
583.45
9,093.20




106,390.39
37,742.57


121.00
14,078.90
493.50
5,726.84
2,271.09
13,243.67




9,299.80
2,018.85
9,279.00





I ................


1926-27


Gourdes
3,445.90



9,725.37
75,000.00
129,861.94
146,525.91


49,084.84
674,066.14
129.48
28,829.35




127,573.11
37,166.15


216.80
29,452.16
4,478.70
8,731.40

971.00
31,114.84




68,694.60
2,001.60
14,365.88
686.10
322.20

................-
....................


1,208,547.91 1,442,443.47


1927-28


Gourdes
10,221.26
915.46

92,066.19

17,527.57
95,138.58
170,573.18
4,504.30

115,517.40
402,173.04
5,584.32
988.80
8.90

2,410.77

169,622.79
27,427.98
58,340.13
520.89

1,039.20
46,903.59
10,033.65
848.50
29,253.10
466.50
2,792.10
15,430.99
2,370.20
43,690.75
1,085.07
142.00

247,142.56
2,905.30
2,211.40
15,568.10
1,295.10
200.00
200.00
312.00


1,597,434.67


* 1928'29


Gourdes
19,956.71
5,933.75

165,599.63

53,353.97
50,245.60
96,659.17
190,503.24
19,501.22

106,394.90
414,840.26
69,276.54
15,032.99
625.15

34,8.5.29
82.50
167,975.95
4,084.14
43,181.23
8,291.34

1,176.34
51,569.43
3,603.97
261.50
46,296.93
5,766.15
6,143.57
23,728.61
4,569.70
82,854.15
1,646.60
246.15

361,207.00
4,671.25
6,203.57
7,771.72
2,831.30
678.60
270.00
7,162.85


2,035,062.97


1929-30


Gourdes
51,056.92
20,308.19

148,384.54

66,868.83
2,749.75
117,361.61
225,508.25


97,718.65
344,923.52
54,297.18
17,965.09
110.05

28,156.07
427.68
15,976.15
117,898.37.
36,431.02
82,120.14
4,509.23

26,196.91
77,562.79 "
10,108.12
3,924.60
55,640.03
5,074.25
5,597.16
24,140.40
7,990.88
72,015.29
3,195.45

416,734.58
3,808.45
2,060.05
2,650.40
1,070.35
1,908.10
2,589.38
659.30
1,047.20


1930-31


Gourdes
57,516.83
26,205.45

120,251.69

37,007.63
1,724.65
81,659.47
208,099.26


54,402.01
222,965.23
34,335.43
18,454.24
25.90

14,608.03
15,590.98
91,934.84
-29,720.00
41,542.49
7,138.36

213,170.18
63,276.26
4,993.75
3,042.60
4,343.81
153.00
20,403.55
77,127.06



2,769.00
2,070.00
1,336.90
2,118.40
2,667.97
2,559.60
173.50
420.25
251.50


2,156,744.93 1,464,059.82


1931-32


Gourdes
29,110.19
9,810.70

168,737.44

25,481.98
712.25
14,892.22
137,308.00
71,975.06

73,682.06
187,246.91
61,250.70
15,855.34

11,223.91
92.00
5,418.34
64,991.29
17,900.98
20,483.74
11,274.20

81,241.58
4,297.71
67.70

2,971.06
201.39
70,244.37




1,342.75
2,010.40
2,539.42
284.18
998.15
100.95
46.50
239.10
218.35
35,532.93

1,129,783.85