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 Front Matter
 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Annex
 Schedules and charts






Annual report of the [U.S.] Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Title: Annual report of the U.S. Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Cover
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        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
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    Main
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    Annex
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    Schedules and charts
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Full Text
















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"/I


HAITI


ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE


FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL

RECEIVER

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER 1929-SEPTEMBER 1930


SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE,
AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF
THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, AND THE SECRETARY OF
STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



S. DE LA RUE
Financial Adviser-General Receiver

REX A. PIXLEY
Deputy General Receiver

J. C. CRADDOCK
Director General of Internal Revenue









Imprimerie du Service Technique
Port-au-Prince-(Ha7ti)




























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CONTENTS

Page
Foreign Commerce.................................................... ..................................... 2
Imports............................................................ .............................................. 3
Exports.................................. ..................... ................................................... 4
Balance of Trade....................................................... .................................... 4
Origin of Imports.................................................................................................. 6
Destination of Exports................................................. ................................ 8
Ports of Entry for Imports.............................................. ............................... 10
Ports of Shipment for Exports............................................ ......................... 12
Shipping................................................................................................................ 14
Foreign Commerce by M months and by Ports..................................... ........... 17
Commodities Imported................................................. .................................. 23
Commodities Exported................................................... ................................ 28
Standardization.................................................... ............... ........................... 35
Imports and Exports of Currency............................................. .................... 39
Customs Administration......................... ................ ........................................ 39
Tariff Revision................................. .................. ............................................ 41
Commercial Conventions............................................ .................................... 45
Customs Service...................................................... ...................................... 47
Internal Revenue Service............................................................................... 59
Customs Receipts................................ ................. .......................................... 62
Internal Revenues..................................................... ..................................... 71
M miscellaneous Receipts............................... ................. .................................. 73
Governmental Expenditures............................................ ............................... 74
Treasury Position................................................................................................. 89
Public Debt..................................... .................. ............................................. 94
Disbursements.................................................................................................. 100
Supplies........................................................................................................... 100
The Budget...................................................................................................... 102
Accounting....................................................................................................... 103
Currency.......................................................................................................... 103
Banking and Credit .............................................................................................. 105
Claims.............................................................................................................. 106
Personnel................................................. .......... .............. ............................ 107
The Santo Domingo Hurricane............................................................................ 109
The Forbes Commission....................................................................................... 112
Conclusions...................................................................................................... 115
Annex: Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue............................... 119
Collections.............................................................................................. 121
Receipts by Sources.................................................................................... 122
Receipts by Sources and Financial Districts................................................ 124
Internal Revenue Receipts according to Sources and Months....................... 127
Receipts by Rural Communes........................................................................ 127
Administrative and Operating Costs............................................................ 132
Administrative Organization......................................................................... 135
Personnel................................................................................................. 137
Quarters and Equipment.............................................................................. 138
Digest of Chief Taxes Collected.................................................................. 138







IV CONTENTS


Annex: Report of the Director of Internal Revenue-(Continued)
Page
Excise...................................................................................................... 138
Em igration Taxes......................................................................................... 140
Income Tax................................................................................................. 141
Occupational Tax on Foreigners............................................................ 142
Public Land Rentals................................................. ............................ 143
Recording Fees and Property Transfer Tax............................................... 146
Consular Receipts......................................................................................... 148
Steamship Passage Tax................................................................................ 149
Irrigation Tax.............................................................................................. 150
Conclusion......................................................................... ........................... 151
Appendix: Schedules and Charts........................................................................ 153











STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


TABLES

Page
1. Value of Imports and Exports and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1929-30.............................................. ........................... 3
2. Value of Imports showing Countries of Origin in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1929-30................................................................................... 7
3. Value of Exports showing Countries of Destination in Percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1929-30.......................................................................... 8
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by Countries in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1929-30................................................................................ 9
5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Countries, fiscal year 1929-30...................................... 10
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30........ 11
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30.... 12
8. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Ports, fiscal year 1929-30.............................................. 13
9. Net Tonnage of Steam and Motor Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered
and Cleared by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1929-30....................... 15
10. Net Tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1929-30....................................... 16
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1929-30........ 18
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1929-30.... 19
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 19.29-30
compared with 1928-29............... .......................... ......................... 20
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year 1929-30
compared with 1928-29........................ ........................................... 22
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30........... 25
16. Quantity'of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30........ 26
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30............ 28
18. Quantity of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30........ 28
19. Quantity and Value of Five Principal Exports by Ports, fiscal year 1929-30
compared with 1928-29........................................... .... ...................... 31
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1929-30............................................................................................... 32
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities and Months, fiscal year
1929-30................................................................................. .................. 34
22. Receivership Fund, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30.................................. 49
23. Expenses of Financial Adviser-General Receiver by Objects of Expenditures,
fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30...rr...................................... ............. 50
24. Cost of Effecting Civil Payments, fiscal year 1929-30.............................. 51
25. Classification of Total Expenditures of the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver, fiscal year 1929-30.................................................................. 53
26. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the Financial
Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1929-30...................................... 53
27. Repairs and Improvements to Customs Plant and Equipment, fiscal year
1929-30.............................................................................................. 54
28. Distribution of Expenditures from Receivership Fund, fiscal year 1929-30.. 55






STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


Page
29. Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Costs of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property and Fixed Charges, fiscal
years 1919-20 to 1929-30...................................................................... 56
30. Total Cost of Collecting Each Gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1929-30............................................. ............................ 58
31. Operating Allowance of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1929-30 .......................................................... .................................. 59
32. Costs of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditures, fiscal years
1923-24 to 1929-30............................................... .......................... 60
33. Classification of Total Expenditures of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal year
1929-30........................................................ ..................................... 61
34. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of Internal
Revenue Service, fiscal year 1929-30............................... ........... 62
35. Revenue of Haiti by Sources, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1929-30................... 65
36. Relation between Import and Export Values and Customs Receipts, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1929-30................................................................... 66
37. Customs Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30................ 67
38. Customs Receipts by Ports, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30................... 69
39. Customs Receipts by Sources and Ports, fiscal year 1929-30................... 70
40. Customs Receipts by Sources and by'Months, fiscal year 1929-30......... 70
41. Distribution of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1929-30........ 71
42. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1929-30.... 72
43. Miscellaneous Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1929-30........ 73
44. Total Receipts of Haitian Government by Sources, Months and Ports fiscal
year 1929-30............................................................................................... 75
45. Expenditures of Haitian Government by Services, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1922'-23................................. ......................................................... 77
46. Ordinary, Supplementary and Extraordinary Appropriations from Revenue,
fiscal years 1924-25 to 1999-30................................................ 79
47. Revenues and Expenditures, fiscal years 1923-24 to 1929-30................... 81
48. Functional Classification of Expenditures, fiscal year 1929-30............... 83
49. Classification of Total Expenditures by Departments and Services, fiscal
year 1929-30 .......................................................................................... 85
50. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures by Departments
and Services, fiscal year 1929-30......................................................... 86
51. Reimbursements to Appropriations, fiscal years 1925-26 to 1929-30........ 87
52. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal year 1929-30..................................... 88
53. Revenue and Expenditures and Excess of Revenues or Expenditures, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1929-30.............................................................. 89
54. Treasury Assets and Liabilities............................................................... 91
55. Public Debt.......... ........................ ........................................................ 95
56. Expenditures from Revenue for the Public Debt and Relation of such
Expenditures to Revenue Receipts, fiscal years 1928-29 and 1929-30.... 100
57. Profit and Loss Statement, Bureau de Fournitures, fiscal years 1928-29 and
1929-30.................................................................................................... 101
58. Balance Sheet-Bureau de Fournitures.......................................................... 102
59. Notes of the Banque Nationale in Circulation by Months, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1929-30........................................................................... 104
60. Loans and Deposits of Banks in Haiti by Months, fiscal year 1929-30.... 105





STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


CHARTS
Page
1. Values of Total Imports, Total Exports and Coffee Exports, fiscal years
1923-24 to 1929-30......................................................................... 21
2. Coffee Prices, fiscal years 1927-28 to 1929-30........................................... 30
3. Total Revenue Receipts of Haiti, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1929-30............ 64

ANNEX: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
TABLES
1. Annual Internal Revenue Receipts, 1911-12 to 1929-30........................... 122
2. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, 1919-20 to 1929-30 .................. 123
3. Internal Revenue Receipts by Collection Districts, 1919-20 to 1929-30 125
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Districts, 1929-30............... 126
5. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources and Months, 1929-30.................. 128
6. Internal Revenue Receipts by Months, 1919-20 to 1929-30................... 129
7. Internal Revenue Receipts of Rural Communes, 1929-30......................... 130
8. Operating Allowance of Internal Revenue Service, 1923-24 to 1929-30.... 132
9. Cost of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditure, 19'23-24 to
1929-30............................................................................................... 133
10. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditure, 1923-24
to 1929-30................................................................................................ 134
11. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Districts, 1923-24 to 1929-30.... 135
12. Administration and Operation Expenditures, Classified by Objects and by
M months, 1929-30......................................................................................... 135
13. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by Districts and Months, 1929-30... 136
14. Personnel ...................................................................................................... 137
15. Emigration Statistics, 1922-23 to 1929-30............................................... 141
16. Receipts from Foreigners' Occupational Tax, 1929-30.............................. 142
17. Public Land Rentals, 1929-30...................................................................... 146
18. Value of Sales and Mortgages of Real Property, 1929-30.................. 147
19. Consular Fees Accruing to the State, 1924-25 to 1929-30........................... 148
20. Receipts from Steamship Passage Tax by Ports, 1929-30....................... 149
21. Receipts from Steamship Passage Tax by Months, 1929-30................... 149
22. Receipts from Irrigation Taxes, 19,29-30.................................................... 150
APPENDIX
SCHEDULES
1. Quantity and Value of Imports into Haiti by Countries of Origin, October
1929 to September 1930 ........................................................................ 155
2. Quantity and Value of Exports from Haiti by Countries of Destination,
October 1929 to September 1930............................................................ 182
3. Customs Receipts by Sources, by Ports and by Months, fiscal year 1929-30.. 190
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, Districts and Months, fiscal year
1929-30............................................................................................... 194
CHARTS
I. Quantities of Coffee Exported, 1916-17 to 1929-30............................... 206
II. Quantities of Coffee Exported by Months, 1923-24 to 1929-30............. 207
III. Index of Coffee Exports............................................................................ 207
IV. Seasonal Index of Coffee Exports............................................................ 208
V. Quantities of Cotton Exported........................................................ 209
VI. Quantities of Logwood Exported........................................................... 210
. VII. Quantities of Cacao Exported ........................................................ ........ 211
VIII. Quantities of Sugar Exported .................................................................. 212
























HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-
GENERAL RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
OCTOBER, 1929- SEPTEMBER, 1930.









HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL
RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR OCTOBER 1929-
SEPTEMBER 1930


OFFICE OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, December 15, 1930.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF
HAITI.

Sirs:
I have the honor to transmit herewith the fourteenth annual 'report of
this office on the commerce and finances of the Republic of Haiti. The
report covers the fiscal year 1929-30, supplementing and enlarging upon
the monthly reports required by Article VII of the treaty of September 16,
1915, between the United States of America and the Republic of Haiti.
In Haiti as in many countries of the world the year which began with
the month of October 1929 will be remembered as one of startling economic
adjustments and political turbulence. At the very start of the Haitian
fiscal year the price of coffee in world markets fell abruptly to a level where
it was evident that the revenues of the country would be reduced con-
siderably. The price of cotton, cacao, sugar and other Haitian export
products, due to world economic conditions, followed the downward course
of coffee values. Although crops were better than average, the loss in
export commodity values impaired the purchasing power of the country
and was reflected immediately in greatly reduced imports. The recession
in business and foreign trade continued throughout the year.
Haiti still is dependent upon customs duties for approximately eighty
per cent of total revenue receipts. As a direct result of the loss in foreign
commerce values the total revenue receipts of the country for the year
dropped to the lowest figure since 1923-24.
With the decline in revenues the program of construction and financial
development so greatly needed by the the country has had to be restricted.
The internal political commotions which marked the year alarmed foreign
capital, added materially to the economic depression, and deterred the
government from instituting such palliative measures as might have been





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


possible. A strike of dissatisfied teachers and students early in the year
soon spread to other elements and culminated in a strike of customs
employees at Port-au-Prince on December 4, 1929. Because of the rioting
and disorder, martial law was proclaimed in several cities the same day by
the commander of the armed forces of the United States in Haiti.
In February a commission appointed by President Hoover visited Haiti
and submitted its recommendations for "sequent steps to be taken with
respect to the Haitian situation." As a direct result Eugene Roy was
nominated by Haitian political parties to assume the office of president at
the expiration of President Borno's term of office on May 15, 1930. Presi-
dent Roy was duly elected by the Council of State and agreed to consider
his tenure of office as temporary, and accepted as his principal objectives,
elections for senators and deputies, the reestablishment of the legislature
and the election of a president by the general assembly. President Roy
announced that he would not be a candidate; Political excitement remained
high throughout this period and on to the end of the fiscal year.
It is not surprising that during this time of confusion little could be
done by this office of a constructive nature. Established policies were
adhered to so far as possible and the administrative organization of Haitian
finance was kept intact. Under the circumstances, the general efficiency
with which revenues were collected was well maintained.
Despite the unfavorable conditions which characterized the year definite
progress was made along certain lines. No insuperable difficulties attended
the inauguration of the new system of coffee standardization, and indi-
cations are that it will be a complete success. The year was marked by
greater diversity of export products and an increase in agricultural pro-
duction. Internal revenue receipts were greater than the year before and
contributed substantially towards reducing the country's dependence upon
customs receipts. Expenditures were kept within reasonable limits and the
year ended with a comfortable surplus in the treasury.
The results for the year indicate that Haiti is not worse off than other
single crop countries, and that even with commodity prices continuing
at their present low level, the country, with the help of reasonable
economies, should be able to maintain a relatively favorable position.
Should commodity prices continue to fall during 1930-31 to a point where
export shipments decrease materially in volume the end of the year may
show a seriously shaken position, but any betterment in world conditions
immediately will be reflected in Haitian affairs as stocks are low and
producing costs favorable.

Foreign Commerce
Total foreign commerce, valued at Gdes. 134,930,967 in the fiscal year
just ended, dropped to the lowest level since 1921-22 when foreign trade






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 3


amounted to Gdes. 115,312,405. The decline from the 1928-29 figure, was
Gdes. 34,877,812, or 20.54 per cent, and from the 1927-28 figure, Gdes.
79,646,546, or 37.12 per cent.
It should be apparent at once to those acquainted with the world eco-
nomic situation during the past year that the sharp decline in Haiti's
foreign commerce largely was due to the decline in commodity values
abroad. Haiti's principal exports, including coffee, cotton, sugar and cacao,
were seriously affected, and increased agricultural production only partly
compensated for the decline in values. The lowered purchasing power of
the country, restricted credit, political disturbances both here and abroad,
and consequent business uncertainty combined to reduce imports to the
lowest figure since the fiscal year 1921-22.

Imports

Table No. 1 shows the value of total imports, by years, since the be-
ginning of the Receivership. From Gdes. 86,189,612 in 1928-29, imports
declined to Gdes. 64,208,132 in 1929-30, a drop of Gdes. 21,981,480, or
25.50 per cent.
The sudden drop in coffee prices at the very beginning of the fiscal year
gave sufficient warning to merchants and prevented undue accumulations

TABLE No. 1
VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30
I Excess Excess
Imports Exports Total Imports Exports

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17 ...................................... 43.030.428 44,664,428 87,694.856 ............... 1,634,000
1917-18 ... ...... 50.903,468 38,717,650 89,621,118 12.185,818 ...............
1918-19 ...... ............................ 85,588,041 123.811.096 209,399,137 ......... 38,223,055
1919-20 ........................................ 136,992,055 108,104,639 245,096,694 28,887,416
1920-21 ............................................. 59,786.029 32,952,045 .92,738,074 26,833,984 ...........
1921-22 ......................................... 61,751,355 53,561.050 115,312.405 8,190,305 ............
1922-23 ................ ... 70.789,815 72,955,060 143,744.875 .............. 2,165,245
1923-24 .... ................................ 73,480,640 70.881.610 144,362,250 2,599,030 .
1924-25 ...... ... 101,187,825 97,018.810 198,206,635 4.169,015 ..........-
1925-26 ................... ............ 94.257,030 101.241,025 195,498.055 ............. 6,983,995
1926-27 ............ ........... ..... 78,756,600 76,495,442 155,252,042 2,261,158 .
1927-28 .. ............................. 101.241,283 113.336.230 214,577,513 ...... 12,094.947
1928-29 ...................... .... 86,189,612 83,619,167 169,808.779 2,570,445 ............
1929-30 ... .. ........ 64,208,132 70,722,835 134,930.967 ........ 6.514.703
Total ................. ............. 1.108.162,313 1.088.081.087 2.196.243.400 87.697,171 67.615,945

of merchandise. The usual heavyseasonal importations during the first
quarter of the year fortunately were curtailed considerably, and in the
months which followed, hand to mouth buying was the rule. Inventories
appear to have been kept low, and on the whole merchants quickly adjusted
their activities to the reduction in consumer demand.
The import trade in Haiti serves as an excellent measure of internal
business activity.: Although progress has been made in developing native
industry and' in assurifig:.to "some degree .independence oD..foreign .rnanu-






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


facturers, the bulk of merchandise offered for sale in Haiti, even including
many staple food products, is imported from abroad. Consequently, it
was fortunate in a way that the warning of lower coffee prices and eco-
nomic disturbances abroad came in sufficient time to prevent heavy impor-
tations in anticipation of the expected good coffee crop.
Although the volume of business declined considerably and merchants
who were heavily committed were at times hard pressed, an adjustment to
the new scale of activity was made quickly enough to prevent more than
the normal number of business failures.

Exports
Haiti is primarily a producer of raw materials for export, and of these
products coffee alone represents in value more than seventy per cent of
the whole. It is indeed unfortunate that the prosperity of the country is
so largely dependent upon the rise and fall in price of a single commodity,
and particularly that that commodity is an article which for years has been
subject to a distinct maladjustment between supply and demand.
Largely as a result of the sudden drop in coffee prices at the beginning
of the last fiscal year, total exports declined in value from Gdes. 83,619,167
in 1928-29 to Gdes. 70,722,835 in 1929-30, a loss in value of 15.42 per
cent. Notwithstanding the fact that export values declined, the actual
quantities of coffee and cotton exported, constituting 84.68 per cent of
Haiti's export values, increased in volume over the previous year by a
considerable amount.
Not since 1921-22 have Haiti's export values declined to such a low
level. Since that year the record year was 1927-28 when inflated coffee
prices together with an excellent crop resulted in export values amounting
to Gdes. 113,336,230. It is at once evident that so decided a decline in
export values must bring with it substantial curtailment of business activity,
decreased government revenues and the need for strict economy in all
matters affecting the treasury.
Balance of Trade
During 1929-30 exports exceeded imports by Gdes. 6,514,703, while
during the previous year imports exceeded exports by Gdes. 2,570,445.
Curiously enough, over a period of the last six years there have been
excess exports and excess imports on alternate years. In no case has the
excess been more than a very small fraction of total trade. Taking into
consideration the entire period of the occupation, imports have exceeded
exports by Gdes. 20,081,226, but this figure is less than one per cent of
total commerce values during the period and does not include invisible
items as will be discussed below. However, the fact that imports have
exceeded exports over a long period of time merits explanation, even
though the excess represents but a small portion of total trade.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


It has been pointed out in the reports previously issued by this office
that in a country at Haiti's stage of economic development after taking
into consideration the invisible items of export and import the balance of
trade ordinarily would be expected to show an excess of exports over a
period of years. Otherwise, the conclusion would be logical that Haiti has
been paying for the excess of imports out of capital resources and that
the period of the Receivership has seen a gradual draining of the material
resources within the country.
An effort has been made to balance off invisible items and to show that
as a matter of fact the past fourteen years have been marked by a consider-
able advance in material welfare and enhancement of capital resources as
a result of more than compensatory returns on the disposition abroad of
Haitian articles of export.
The task of striking a balance between exports and imports to show
the increase in capital resources is relatively simple in the case of Haiti.
The invisible items can be determined with reasonable accuracy; other
factors are of a character which permits a more accurate study of their
effect and importance. On the whole, the result of such speculation is more
satisfactory than a similar estimate made in the case of a large industrialized
country with its problems in foreign exchange and international indebted-
ness, or when the difficulty of estimating invisible items such as tourist
expenditures and emigrant remittances is so great that the true value of
the result is doubtful.
With the exception of the amounts indicated in the import statistics and
in the records of interest and sinking fund payments on the public debt,
comparatively little money leaves Haiti. Foreign capital invested in Haiti
is relatively limited in amount, and an appreciable share of the income is
spent or reinvested in Haiti. The amount of money earned in Haiti and
spent abroad by Haitians is negligible in amount, and probably it is
balanced by funds brought into the country by foreigners visiting Haiti.
On the credit side, indications are that the invisible.items reach more
substantial proportions. As the country has attracted foreign capital
Haiti has received funds in the form of foreign investments oft which no
return is made until future profits are realized. Haiti has benefited by
foreign investments to a considerable extent in recent years, although it
must be admitted that the amount received has not attained the figures
that had been expected. Nevertheless, the influx of new capital undoubtedly
exceeds the remittances abroad of profits on enterprises which have been
established here long enough to show returns on the funds invested.
Another invisible item is money brought into Haiti by returning emigrants.
Unfortunately, emigration has declined in recent years, but the amount
earned abroad in this way and brought into the country still reaches. a
considerable figure. Finally, we. have:.the large sums of money spent by






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the United States government in maintaining military .forces in Haiti.
Much of this is clear profit to merchants in Haiti and to the Haitian people.
All of these items on the credit side make it possible for actual values
shown in the import schedules to exceed export values by a good margin
without a corresponding loss in capital resources. It nevertheless is to be
expected that in an intensive period of development such as has been
taking place in Haiti that imports would exceed exports. Available reve-
nues and borrowed money have been spent for purchasing machinery,
agricultural implements and construction material, as well as for obtaining
the services of persons whose training and purpose it is to assist Haiti
in the full development of its potentialities. It only follows that during
this period of development imports should exceed exports until such time
as funds so invested bring returns in the form of increased production
and profits derived from the sale of Haitian commodities abroad.
Too much reliance should not be placed on the evidence of yearly import
and export data. The invisible factors already mentioned are of too great
importance. Moreover, the figures themselves cannot be considered sig-
nificant as concerns a single year. In computing foreign trade values there
is the unavoidable danger of cumulative error. Foreign trade data are
compiled from customs records, and as customs duties are chiefly specific,
the value of merchandise declared often is required for statistical purposes
only. All reasonable means are taken to assure the accuracy of such data,
but it must be admitted that foreign commerce values can be accurate only
within limits.
The Receivership has been in existence for fourteen years. During the
first seven of these years imports exceeded exports by Gdes. 34,075,223.
During the last seven years, exports have exceeded imports by Gdes.
13,993,997. Sufficient commodities have been exported to bring about an
apparent so-called favorable balance of trade. The swing to greater export
values in recent years is due in part to increased production, and in part
to the upward trend. of commodity values which characterized the last
decade and continued until the crash in October 1929. In any event, the
conclusion is inevitable that the last seven years have been a period of
definite progress with respect to Haiti's position in international trade.

Origin of Imports
Approximately 90 per cent of total 'importations into Haiti each year
are supplied by only four countries, viz., the United States, Great Britain,
France, and Germany. Of these, the United States, during the fiscal year
1929-30 furnished 70.09 per cent of total importations, Great Britain, 7.30
per cent, France, 6.61 per cent, and Germany 4.31 per cent. The only
important change in this relationship that occurred in 1929-30 as compared
with: the preceding fiscal-year wras that Great Britain. supplanted France. as






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER 7


the second most important country in Haiti's import trade. Great Britain's
share increased from 6.80 per cent in 1928-29 to 7.30 per cent in 1929-30,
while France's share of the total declined from 7.85 per cent to 6.61
per cent.
The proportionate share of Haitian import trade supplied by the United
States has declined nearly every year since the beginning of the inter-
vention. One of the few exceptions was the fiscal year just ended when,
as shown in Table No. 2, the percentage was 70.09 as compared with 69.85
per cent the previous year. The slight rise is of no particular significance.
The French and British share of the import trade during the same period has

TABLE No. 2
VALUE OF IMPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
Country of Origin 1916-17- 1921.22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
United States...................... 87.09 79.37 76.56 75.30 69.85 70.09 80.29
France................................... 4.71 5.97 6.76 6.89 7.85 6.61 5.82
United Kingdom................ 5.85 7.30 5.02 6.69 6.80 7.30 6.54
Austria................... ....... ... .01 .01 .02
Bahama Islands.................. .02 .03 .04 .02
Belgium.............................. .62 .55 .85 1.01
British India ......................09 .10 .10 .04
Canada.......... .................. .0O .04 .15 .13
Canal Zone.................. .14 .11 .17 .15
China............................. .... ...... ................ ................ .01
Cuba.................................. .01 .05 .04 .12
Curacao...._................... .81 .90 1.94 3.21
Czechoslovakia................... .02 .02 .01 .02
Denmark............................ .18 .24 .35 .21
Dominican Republic.......... .71 .60 .67 .46
Germany....... .................. 2.35 7.36 4.65 4.08 4.38 4.31 7.35
Guiana, Britis h. ............. ......... ................ ............. .06
Italy......................... 1.00 .54 1.05 .79
Jamaica........... ...... .25 .02 .11 .04
Japan................................ .07 .11 .10 .21
Netherlands........................ 1.93 1.70 2.45 3.05
Norway.............................. ................ .01 .12 .30
Porto Rico........-............... .96 1.82 2.72 1.60
Spain............................ .08 .09 .04 .06
Sweden................ ........... ................ .01 .05 .03
Switzerland ................... .04 .09 .15 .14
Trinidad ................... ............ ................ ...... .......... .01
Total................... 100.00 1100.00 00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

remained fairly constant, while German imports have shown a rising trend.
Indications are that closer competition is bringing about a wider distri-
bution in the source of Haitian imports. Whereas in 1922-23 the four
countries mentioned above supplied 96-51 per cent of foreign goods brought
into Haiti, the same countries supplied only 88.31 per cent in 1929-30.
This tendency towards wider distribution is highly desirable, and eventually
should bring about a more equable disposition of Haiti's import trade.

Destination of Exports
During the fiscal year just ended France was the best customer of Haiti,
and as is shown in Table No. 3, 49.72 per cent of Haitian exports were







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


shipped in 1929-30 to that country. France has maintained its position as
chief purchaser of Haitian products since the period of'the European war.
As in the case of imports, however, the tendency has been towards wider
distribution, and while the share of exports taken by France declined from
55.29 per cent in 1928-29 to 49.72 per cent in 1929-30, the share taken

by a number of other countries has increased substantially. In particular
it should be noted that Italy, which in recent years has been purchasing
more and more Haitian products, in 1929-30 increased its share to 9.34
per cent and took the place of the United States as the second most
important country of destination, notwithstanding the fact that the latter
country increased its share from 7.81 per cent in 1928-29 to 9.23 per cent
in 1929-30. Other notable advances were made by Belgium and by
Germany, which increased their shares to 7.52 per cent and 7.04 per cent
respectively.


TABLE No. 3

VALUE OF EXPORTS SHOWING COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30


Country of
Destination


United States................
France.................................
United Kingdom................
Bahama Islands..................
Barbados ......................
Belgiu m.........................
Canada............................
Canal Zone........................
Colombia.....................
Cuba.......... .....................
Curacao ........-.......... .......
Denmark......................
Dominican Republic.....
Eqador..........................
Finland.....................-. .....
French Africa.. ............
Germany .................... ..
Italy.............................
Jamaica ......................
Japan .........................
Martinique.............- -
Mexico..............I.. ......
Netherlands .....-..--.
Norway .......^............. ...
Porto Rico..-..".... ...
Spain-.... ...............
Switzerland ...............
Venezuela....... -..-
Virgin Islands-.........
Total..-- ...........


Average
1916-17-
1920-21

Per cent
52.85
35.98
1.45









9.72


Average
1921-22-
1925-26

Per cent
11.02
62.29
4.40









22.29


100.00 100.00


The great importance of France as a market for Haitian exports is of
course due to the fact that the coffee crop is shipped mostly to that country.
In 1929-30, 60.42 per cent of coffee exports were consigned to French
importers. Haitian coffee is greatly esteemed in France and a strong prefer-
ence exists for the Haitian product over Brazilian grades. France not


1926-27


Per cent
7.81
47.51
5.16
.06
5.20
2.48
.17
3.86
.39
8.13
.04
.19
.03
6.22
3.64




.78
.80
3.42
.87
.08

100.00


1927.28


Per cent
8.18
49.77
4.50
.09
6.24
.96
.07
.78
.36
7.72
.03
.23
.04
4.96
6.97
.01
.02

4. f10
.62
.62
2.54
.88
.01

100.00


1928-29


Per cent
7.81
55.29
4.87
.09
5.59
.43
.09
.06
.98
.01
7.63
.06
.22
.04
4.08
7.33
.01
.02

1.64
.46
.01
2.63
.64
.01


100.00


1929-30


Per cent
9.23
49.72
4.67
.04
7.52

.16
.35
.77
.03
6.91
.02
.02
.06
.15
7.04
9.34
.05
.03
.03
1.07
.35
.01
1.98
.43

.02

100.00


Average
1916-17-
1929-30

Per cent
25.17
49.55
3.46











21.82












100.00






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 9


only consumes large quantities of the coffee it purchases from Haiti, but
it serves as a point of distribution to other coffee markets in Europe. The
good will which has been built up and the steady demand in France for
Haitian products are decided assets, and every effort should be made to
retain the ground which has been gained. At the same time, as has been
pointed out repeatedly in previous reports of this office, the very fact that
such a large proportion of Haitian exports is disposed of in a single market
introduces a serious element of weakness. Export outlets are slow to
develop and quick to lose. Economic or political difficulties arising in
a consumer country may wipe out in a very short time a market which
has been built up gradually over a period of years. Accordingly, it is
encouraging that while Haiti is retaining its hold on the French market
it is finding at the same time other outlets for its products. As new articles
of export are developed and production is increased, it is only natural
that an increasingly larger portion of Haitian exports should find their way
into new markets and thus relieve the insecurity of export concentration.
Table No. 4 combines imports and exports, by countries, expressed as

TABLE No. 4
VALUE OF TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
Country' 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
United States ...--.... 72.53 45.63 42.68 39.85 39.30 38.19 53.63
France......................... 18.39 33.83 26.84 29.54 31.21 29.21 26.99
United Kingdom........ 4.03 5.85 5.08 5.53 5.85 5.92 5.13
Austria 7 ........................... .01 .01
Bahama Islands........ .03 .06 .06 .03
Barbados.... ...................... .... ....... ........
Belgium............... 2.87 3.55 3.19 4.42
British India ......... .04 .05 .05 .02
Canada .................. 1.26 .53 .29 .06
Canal Zone .......16 .09 .13 .16
Colombia .............. .............. .03 .18
Cuba 1.91 .43 .50 .46
Curacao............ .61 .62 .99 1.55
Czechoslovakia-k...... .. .............. .01 ............ .01
Denmark................. 4.10 4.19 3.94 3.72
Dominican Republic-... .38 .30 .37 .23
Equador...... ............ 5.05 14.69 .......... .. ...... .... ...... ..01 14.25
Finland-._-............... .10 .12 .11 .03
French Africa........... .02 .02 .02 .08
Germany................ 5.42 4.55 4.23 5.74
Guiana, British-....... .... ............ .. .... ........ .03
Italy ............... 2.30 3.94 4.14 5.27
Jamaica....... 14 .02 .06 .05
Japan................... .06 .06 .11
Mexico............... .. ............. .............. .......... .01
Netherlands---......----. -2.51 3.12 2.05 2.01
Norway.................. .40 .33 .29 .33
Porto Rico.--..-------. .88 1.19 1.38 .77
Spain....... 1.72 1.38 1.32 1.07
Sweden...--..... .43 .47 .34 .24
Switzerland....... .02 .04 .08 .07
Venezuela ..-............ .04 .01
Virgin Islands.----- ..... ... ........ .01
Total.............. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

percentages of total commerce values. The United States in 1929-30
retained its lead in proportion of total commerce values with a percentage







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


of 38.19 per cent. This is a decline, however, from 39.30 per cent recorded

the previous year. The percentage of total trade with France also declined,
with 29.31 per cent reported in 1929-30 as against 31.21 per cent in 1928-29.
The difference was taken up by a number of countries, chief of which

were Great Britain, Germany, Italy and Belgium.
Full details regarding foreign commerce for 1929-30 are given in

Table No. 5 which tabulates actual values, as well as percentages, of
imports, exports, and total commerce, by countries.


TABLE No. 5


VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND
COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES-FISCAL YEAR 1929-80


TOTAL FOREIGN


Country


Argentina ....... ......................
Austria ...... ..............................
Bahama Islands.......................
Belgium .................................
Brazil ...........................................
British India.................................
Canada ......................................
Canal Zone .......................
Chile .............................................
China .............. ............
Colombia ...................................
Cuba ........................................
Curacao ..............................
Czechoslovakia .....................
Denmark ..................................
Dominican Republic....................
Equador .........................
Egypt ........................................
Finland ......... ..........................
France .. ...................
French Africa........... .......
Germany ...........................
Greece ........................
Guadeloupe -............................
Guatemala ................................
Guiana, British..........................
Hungary ...............................
Jamaica .................... ..
Japan ........-..................
Martinique ...........................-
Mexico .............................
Netherlands ............
Norway ................... .......
Palestine ........ ........
Peru .......... ........-
Porto Rico..--..-.........-
Portugal -..........-..- -------
Spain ....... ..................
Sweden ......................
Switzerland -......................
Syria .. .........................
Trinidad ........ .........
United Kingdom...............
United States..............-----.......
Virgin Islands-................
Total ......... .....


Imports


Gourdes
4
10,423
13,785
646,827
2
24,939
85.674
96.721
3
4,424
235
79,139
2,064,145
9,901
136,872
295,026
42
127

4.242,038
9
2,764,572
3
1
10
37,997
9
504,106
28,007
133,881
2
2
1.961.451
192,764
134
6
1,030,194
698
37,671
20,672
89,973
14
5,124
4,684,908
45,003,838
1.759
64.208.132


Per cent
.02
.02
1.01
.04
.13
.15
.01

.12
3.21
.02
.21
.46


6.61

4.31


.06
.79
.04
.21

3.05
.30

1.60
.06
.03
.14
.01
7.30
70.09

100.00


Exports


Gourdes
................
21
28,060
5,316,654
...............09

114,883
999

245,152
545,793
22,070
23
4,885.848
14,480
13,130
43.966
35,165.827
107,772
4,979,597


987

6.608,023
35.614
18.526
2,423
19.415
752.812
247,285

7.033

1.399,152
305,300
34

3.301.490
6,523,285
16,172
70.722,835


Per cent

.04
7.52


.16

.35
.77
.03
6.91
.02
.02
.06
49.72
.15
7.04




9.34
.05
.03
.03
1.07
.35

.01

1.98
.43


4.67
9.23
.02
100.00


Total

Gourdes Per cent
4
10.444 .01
41.845 .03
5.963,481 4.42
2
24,939 .02
86.683 .06
211.604 .16
1,002
4,424
245,387 .18
624,932 .46
2.086.215 1.55
9,924 .01
5,022.720 3.72
309.506 .23
13,172 .01
127
43.966 .03
39,407,865 29.21
107.781 .08
7,744.169 5.74
3
1
10
38,984 .03
9
7,112,129 5.27
63,621 .05
152,407 .11
2,425 __
19.417 .01
2,714,263 2.01
440,049 .33
134 .-
6 --
1,037,227 .77
698
1.436,823 1.07
325,972 .24
90,007 .07
14
5.124
7,986.398 5.92
51,527,123 38.19
17,931 .01
134.930.967 100.00


Ports of Entry for Imports

During the fiscal year 1929-30 Port-au-Prince increased its lead as the

chief port of entry by handling a total import value of Gdes. 40,303,471,
or 62.77 per cent of the value of all merchandise brought into Haiti during


I





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the year. The proportionate share of the import trade passing through
Port-au-Prince in 1928-29 was 58.76 per cent. In no year since the begin-
ning of the Receivership has Port-au-Prince handled a larger portion of the
import trade, and with better roads, improved facilities for coastwise trade,
and cheaper methods of distribution there is no reason why the capital and
largest city of the country in the future should not further increase its share
of the import trade.
Table No. 6 gives the import values by ports for the last four fiscal
years, and Table No. 8 gives import values for 1929-30 expressed as per-
centages of the total. It will be seen that next in importance to Port-au-
Prince came Cap Haitien with 11.89 per cent, followed by Cayes, Gonaives,
Jacmel, Jer6mie, Saint Marc, Port-de-Paix and.Petit Goave. Compared
with 1928-29, the only notable changes in relative importance were Gonai-

TABLE No. 6
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

So Average Average Average
Port of 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
Entry 1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin............... 156,514 120,425 24,739 3,287 1,250 1,624 101,114
Belladre................ ............. 6,482 222,478 204,362 243,459 78,243 55,782
Cap Haitien......... 9,987,651 8,293,009 6,937,571 9,759,058 9,630,967 7,636,909 8,954,843
Cayes................. 6,443,055 7,440,221 7,243,564 6,856,762 5,465,109 4,270,112 6,660,852
Fort Libertr....... 257 618 .................. .............. 482,755 56,888 38,858
Glore.. ............ .... 81,567 100,181 81,800 39,383 '22,998 46,586
Gonaives....... 3,922,744 3,732,077 3,309,762 4,820,335 4,151,751 2,794,623 3,810,755
Jacmel.............. 3,457,767 4,904,482 4,414,352 5,411,369 4,806,092 2,393,539 4,202,614
Jrmie.. ... 1,942,796 1,579,913 2,073,507 2,871,482 2,730,666 1,942,842 1,945,146
Miragolne......... 518,426 956,170 1,069,166 1,135,917 1,065,742 560,554 800,311
Onanaminthe...... 27,035 287,016 150,580 181,395 129,581 109,511 152,951
Petit Golve....... 2,674,944 2,081,535 2,229,860 2,387,703 1,728,241 1,057,839 2,227,574
Port-au-Prince..-. 41,712,019 45,889,008 46,488,467 62,588,706 50,642,981 40,303,471 45,573,483
Port-de-Paix-... 2,087,026 2,059,178 1,865,277 2,358,895 2,608,291 1,364,225 2,066,265
Saint Marc..... 2,329,771 2,861,632 2,627,096 2,580,212 2,463,344 1,614,754 2,517,316
Total........... 75,260,005 80,293,333 78,756,600 101,241,283 86,189,612 64,208,132 79,154,450

ves, which took the place of Jacmel as the fourth largest port of entry, and
Saint Marc which superseded Port-de-Paix as the seventh, port of entry.
The only major port which has shown a definite tendency to gain in
importance as a port of entry over the period of the Receivership has been
J6r6mie. This city ranked ninth as a port of entry until 1926-27, and during
the last three years it has been sixth in importance. On the other hand,
Petit Goive, which usually is the eighth most important port of entry,
during the last two years has dropped back to ninth place. In the case of J&-
r6mie the change very evidently is due to a steady upward trend in the
volume of the export trade at that port which has put more money into the
pockets of the people in the district and has made possible increased
purchasing of foreign goods. Petit Goave, however, has felt the competition
of Port-au-Prince as a center of distribution.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


There are certain advantages in keeping open as many as possible of the
minor ports of Haiti. Direct access to the smaller ports of the republic by
ships coming from abroad is necessary for the present: first, because
coastwise trade is irregular; secondly, because roads in some sections of
the country still are impassable in wet weather; and thirdly, because the
distances from the larger ports to some of the outlying coastal towns are
so great as to delay distribution.
Nevertheless, the tendency for direct trade with foreign countries to con-
centrate in the larger centers of distribution is beneficial to the country as
a whole. Development of larger centers of distribution eventually should
reduce ocean freight rates, at present paid to foreign steamship lines,
provided sufficient independent shipping line competition is developed to
restrain the present steamship conference practice of increasing freights
wherever no such competition exists. Up to the present time the many ports
have limited the development of coastwise traffic by means of small
steamers or motor boats. A reduction in the number of open ports would
go far to encourage enterprise along that direction.

Ports of Shipment for Exports

The export trade of Haiti is much more evenly distributed between the
various ports. Table No. 7 gives export values by ports, while in Table No.
TABLE No. 7
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY PORTS OF SHIPMENT-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
Ports of 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
Shipment 1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin......... 517,420 1,254,059 718,469 457,992 106,460 188,431 737,768
Belladire ........... 52 7,014 9,964 29,377 3,023 3,546
Cap Haitien....... 10,601,902 9,794,332 8,092,752 14,757,167 12,922,937 9,471,206 10,516,088
Cayes................. 4,543,658 6,652,145 6,661,198 7,047,564 7,026,532 5,721,689 5,888,286
Fort Liberti_..... 323,746 62,057 .......... .............. 145,784 249,678 166,034
Glore.............. .............. 11,015 723 134 156 77 4,012
Gonaives_..... 4,934,835 6,618,885 5,829,061 9,678,236 8,044,181 6,186,480 6,250,469
Jacmel...... 8,416,717 10,231,039 11,093,943 17,273,072 11,255,129 9,486,897 10,167,701
Jrimie ..-... 3,350,333 3,226,006 4,054,186 5,748,808 5,962,424 5,930,691 3,898,415
Miragoane-..... 1,009,265 1,871,386 2,343,078 3,635,255 2,952,189 2,432,018 1,840,414
Ouanaminthe.._. 9,015 7,284 2,400 4,163 2,580 1,179 6,558
Petit Goive.... 4,167,273 9,837,361 9,670,818 15,509,685 6,886,205 6,959,621 7,789,249
Port-an-Prince- 23,557,713 18,772,347 18,759,081 25,698,168 15,850,721 13,889,129 20,417,670
Port-de-Paix-_ 3,788,030 4,201,144 3,300,190 5,525,460 5,547,517 4,385,346 4,193,170
Saint Marc ._ 4,430,065 6,592,399 5,962,529 7,990,562 6,886,975 5,817,370 5,840,697
Total--... 69,649,972 79,131,511 76,495,442 113,336,230 83,619,167 70,722,835 77,720,077

8 are shown the same values for 1929-30 expressed as percentages of the
value of total exports for the year.
Port-au-Prince during 1929-30 shipped exports valued at Gdes. 13,889,129
and increased its lead as the chief port of shipment by handling 19.64 per
cent of the export trade during the year as compared with 18.96 per cent
in 1928-29. This is contrary to the general trend which since the beginning
of the Receivership has been in the direction of less concentration of the





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


export trade at Port-au-Prince. Heavy sugar shipments from Port-au-
Prince contributed largely to the increase in importance of Port-au-Prince
in the export trade.
At Cap Haitien exports declined from Gdes. 12,922,937 in 1928-29 to
Gdes. 9,471,206 in 1929-30, and the corresponding proportionate share of
total export trade dropped from 15.45 per cent to 13.39 per cent. Jacmel,
with 13.41 per cent of the export trade thus took the place of Cap Haitien
in 1929-30 as the second most important port of shipment. Other ports in
the order of their relative importance were Petit Goave, Gonaives, J6r6mie,
Saint Marc, Cayes, Port-de-Paix and Miragoine.
Table No. 8 sets forth the value of total foreign trade, by ports, together
with the respective percentages. In order of relative importance the ports
in 1929-30 were Port-au-Prince, Cap Haitien, Jacmel, Cayes, Gonaives,
Petit Goive, J6r6mie, Saint Marc, Port-de-Paix, Miragoane, Fort Libert6,
Aquin, Ouanaminthe and Belladere. The only noteworthy change in rela-

TABLE No. 8
VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY PORTS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Imports Exports Total

Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Percent
Aquin........... ................... 1,624 ...... 188,431 .27 190,055 .14
Belladre.... ............................... .. 78,243 .12 3,023 . 81,266 .06
Cap Haitien.................. ...... 7,636,909 11.89 9,471,206 13.39 17,108,115 12.68
Cayes..... ........ -.............. ....... 4,270,112 6.65 5,721,689 8.09 9,991,801 7.40
Fort Liberti................... ........ 56,888 .09 249,678 .35 306,566 .23
Glore............ .. ........... ............ 22,998 .04 77 ........- 23,075 .02
Gonaives ...... ........... ......... 2,794,623 4.35 6,186,480 8.75 8,981,103 6.66
Jacsmel........ ...... --..-. 2,393,539 3.73 9,486,897 13.41 11,880,436 8.81
Jrmie.................. .....^.- -. 1,942,842 3.03 5,930,691 8.39 7,873,533 5.84
Miragone......................... .................. 560,554 .87 2,432,018 3.44 2,992,572 2.22
Ouanaminthe -... ............ ..... 109,511 .17 1,179 ....... 110,690 .08
Petit Goive................ ....- 1,057,839 1.65 6,959,621 9.84 8,017,460 5.94
Port-au-Prince................ ........... 40,303,471 62.77 13,889,129 19.64 54,192,600 40.15
Port-de-Paix.......-........... ...... 1,364,225 2.13 4,385,346 6.20 5,749,571 4.26
Saint Marc ..................... .... 1,614,754 2.51 5,817,370 8.23 7,432,124 5.51
Total... ................ 64.208,132 100.00 70,722,835 100.00 134.930,967 100.00

tive importance as compared with the previous year was in the case of
Petit Goive, which became sixth in importance instead of eighth, taking
the place of Saint Marc. Heavy coffee shipments at Petit Goave during
the year more than compensated for the decline in import values there.
On the whole, data compiled over a period of the last seven years indicate
that as far as concerns total trade there has been little tendency for the
various ports to change their relative positions of importance. Gonaives,
Jacmel and J6ermie possibly have made the best showing compared with
their rival ports, while Saint Marc, Port-de-Paix and Ouanaminthe have
shown a tendency to lose ground. In no case, however, is the trend very
marked.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Shipping
Although foreign commerce dropped off considerably in 1929-30, the
number of vessels and total tonnage available for the carrying trade at
Haitian ports remained about the same in that year as compared with the
preceding fiscal period. A total of 605 ocean going steam and motor vessels
entered Haitian ports in 1929-30. The net tonnage of these ships totalled
1,364,524 tons. In the previous year 602 ships called registering a total
of 1,310,304 tons.
The slight difference is accounted for by the fact that more tourist ships
visited Haiti in 1929-30 than in 1928-29. Twenty tourist ships with a
total of 211,307 tons called at Port-au-Prince during the last season as
compared with eighteen registering 162,985 tons the previous year. As
these ships carry no freight and remain in port but a few hours, their
influence on statistical data from the point of view of commerce should
be discounted. This does not mean that the tourist trade is of small eco-
nomic benefit to Haiti. On the contrary it is significant that in recent years
the number of tourists visiting Haiti has risen steadily, and indications are
that tourist agencies abroad are appreciating more and more the perfect
winter climate and scenic attractions of Haiti. The natural beauty of the
mountains and countryside is unrivalled in the West Indies and the
picturesque peasant life never fails to fascinate visitors. Unfortunately,
hotel accommodations in Haiti are inadequate at present and tourist vessels
do not remain overnight; but now that motor roads have been built, water
systems improved, sanitation established, and the country in general made
safe and healthful to visitors and Haitians alike, there is no reason why
Haiti should not attract capital interested in the establishment of a modern
hotel for the tourist trade. In time Port-au-Prince should rival Nassau,
or Bermuda as a winter resort.
It is not necessary to give in detail the economic benefits which would
accrue to the country through an increase in the tourist trade. Every
addition to tourist attractions means more money spent in Haiti, more
trade, and more profits to merchants.
Mr. H. P. Garner of this office has had experience in the tourist business,
and during the past year he has done valuable work by encouraging
tourist agencies in the United States to make Haiti a stopping place. He
was also instrumental in the organization of the Haitian Tourist Bureau,
the purpose of which is to arrange local tours, recommend the establishment
of. uniform rates for taxi and other services, and in general place the
tourist business in Haiti on an efficient and reliable basis.
The regular passenger and commercial freight carrying trade of Haiti,
as shown in Table No. 9, is conducted principally by vessels of American,
Dutch, British, French and German registry. Of these, American ships
accounted for 47.60 per cent of the total tonnage entering Haitian ports









TABLE No. 9
NET TONNAGE OF STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30
Steam and Motor Vessels Entered
Total


Months



October 1929 ........................
November -.._.........................
December.............................
January 1930..................
February............-........ ...
March............... ....... ....
April.............................
May.................................,........
June ................. ............
July ...............
August........................... ......
September..................................................

Total............... ..


American

No. Tonnage

18 59,255
18 52,027
19 59,477
15 48,709
22 55,713
21 49,105
20 62,515
20 57,085
16 56,237
16 48,575
18 52,254
15 48,598
218 649,550


British

No. Tonnage

5 3,749
4 3,851
7 40,124
9 29,294
6 30,765
5 36,504
5 10,723
3 5,306
5 4,478
5 5,308
1 1,002

55 171,104


Dutch

No. Tonnage

11 13,867
12 14,399
10 29,261
13 32,460
14 23,144
14 24,474
10 11,768
14 14,682
12 14,006
13 16,332
11 12,382
12 14,538
146 221,313


French

No. Tonnage

3 5,558
4 9,882
1 1,010
4 7,453
2 8,992
4 6,154
5 13,420
1 1,010
3 6,344
3 4,786
2 3,677
3 3,908
35 72,194


German

No. Tonnage

7 12,498
7 13,175
6 11,053
6 11,237
6 11,233
9 14,979
6 10,344
4 9,602
6 11,366
5 9,421
7 12,370
9 16,121
78 143,399


All other

No. Tonnage

4 4,573
3 3,025
5 5,010
9 22,974
8 21,797
5 5,726
6 5,686
9 9,185
9 9,838
6 6,873
5 8,381
4 3,896
73 106,964


Steam and Motor Vessels Cleared


October 1929........... ........
November-..................
December........................
January 1930...............
March.......................- .
April ..............................
May ...........--.........
June .............----......
July....-......................
August..-..............--...-
September...........-.........

Total................... ..


17
18
19
15
22
21
20
20
16
16
18
15
217


57,645
52,051
59,477
48,709
55,713
50,664
S62,515
57,085
56,237
48,575
52,254
48,598

649,523


3,749
3,442
40,533
29,294
29,763
37,506
8,283
7,746
4,478
3,842
2,468

171,104


11
11
10
11
14
12
11
15
11
14
12
11
143


13,867
13,233
29,261
29,457
23,144
22,385
13,857
16,918
12,873
17,370
13,117
13,561
219,043


3
4
2
3
3
4
4
1
3
3
1
4

35


4,687
10,753
3,677
4,786
11,659
6,154
9,882
1,010
6,344
4,786
1,010
6,575
71,323


12,498
13,175
11,053
9,351
11,233
13,122
10,344
7,732
13,236
9,421
12,370
16,121

139,656


3,087
4,511
3,904
24,080
19,791
7,806
5,686
9,185
9,838
5,735
9,519
3,896

107,038


Total z

No. Tonnage

48 99,500 "
48 96,359
48 145,935
56 152,127 o
58 151,644
58 136,942
52 114,456
51 96,870 >
51 102,269 z
48 91,295
44 90,066 >
43 87,061 r
605 1.364,524 0




t:
m
z


46 95,533
47 97,165 m
49 147,905 m
53 145,677 3
56 151,303 m
59 137,637
50 110,567
54 99,676
51 103,006
48 89,729
46 90,738
43 88,751

602 1,357,687
----------- '


,


2


,


,









16 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

in 1929-30, showing an increase of 10,214 tons over the previous year.
Dutch vessels were second in importance with 16.22 per cent of total
tonnage and a gain over the prior year of 21,825 tons. Third in importance
were vessels of British registry with 12.54 per cent of the total. British
ships in the Haitian trade accounted for 171,104 tons in 1929-30 compared
with 191,155 tons in 1928-29, in which year 14.62 per cent of the tonnage
entering Haitian ports was under British registry. Although British
shipping declined during the year, it still holds third place with Germany
in fourth place. Ships entering Haitian ports under the German flag in
1929-30 totalled 143,399 tons, and accounted for 10.51 per cent of the
total tonnage, a slight gain in tonnage and relative importance over the
prior year. French vessels came fifth, with 72,194 tons compared with
61,788 tons in 1928-29.
Thus there was little change during 1929-30 in the carrying trade save
possibly in the case of ships .flying the British flag which declined in
number from 76 in 1928-29 to 55 in 1929-30. The loss in British tonnage
was more than offset by the increase in the group which includes nationali-
ties other than those already mentioned.
Table No. 10 presents data regarding entrances and clearances of sailing
vessels. The tonnage carried by sailing vessels is insignificant in amount,
and there was little change from the previous year.
TABLE No. 10
NET TONNAGE OF SAILING VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED
AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30
Sailing Vessels Entered
American British Haitian All other Total
Months
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage

October 1929.....- 2 2,155 6 49 ..- ......... .. ......... 8 2,204
November---.. -........ 2 10 .. ---- ........ 2 1
December......._- 1 580 5 52 .... --..-..-. 6 632
January 1930.... ._ 1 1,029 1 9 -...... ..... 2 1,038
February.... ....... 4 37 .. ... 1 1,427 5 1,464
March.-, ..... 8 67 .--...... 1 21 9 88
April .. ..... 2 2,080 4 36 ..... .6 2,116
May--------... -- 15 200 ---.. 2 1,949 17 2,149
June----- --- 22 205 .... ---- --- 22 205
July-.. ...... 1 724 19 221 ...... 1 1,943 21 2,888
August ...... .. 4 37 .-. ........ 4 37
September-----. 4 38 --... 1 13 5 51
Total ..... 7 6,568 94 961 ....... 6 5,353 107 12,882
Sailing Vessels Cleared
October 1929 --... ....4 34 4 34 --- 4 34
November- ..... 2 2,155 4 25 -- .---- -. 6 2,180
December.---- .. 5 52 ........ 5 52
January 1930...... 1 580 1 9 .. ....-- -- ... 2 589
February...-- 1 1,029 4 37 -.---- -- 5 1,066
M rc..... 5 39 .. ...... .... 2 1,448 7 1,487
April............ 1 715 7 64 -- -- -- 8 779
May.........--.. 1 1,365 15 200 ---. .--- 16 1,565
June ..... ...._. 22 205 .. 2 1,949 24 2,154
July .-....... 1 724 19 221 -...__. 20 945
Angust..------- 4 37 ........ 1 1,943 5 1,980
September ..... 1 13 ... -- ... 1 13
Total..... 7 6,568 91 936 --- 5 5,340 103 12,844





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Import values by countries of origin and registry of carrying vessels
are presented in Table No. 11. Of total imports valued at Gdes. 64,208,132,
a quantity valued at Gdes. 30,190,105, or 47.02 per cent of the whole, was
carried in American bottoms. In 1928-29 the share carried by American
ships was 50.53 per cent, and in 1927-28, 53.24 per cent. The value of
imports carried by ships of American registry has declined steadily since
1924-25.
Dutch ships were second in importance in the import trade, and the
percentage of the whole increased from 29.94 per cent in 1928-29 to 30.51
per cent in the fiscal year 1929-30. Vessels of British and French registry
both declined in relative importance, while German, Norwegian, and vessels
in the "all other" group gained in relative importance.
With regard to export values, Table No. 12 shows that 34.93 per cent
of total exports was carried in Dutch vessels compared with 41.06 per cent
the previous year. Germany improved its relative importance from third
place in 1928-29 to second place in 1929-30, with a total export value of
Gdes. 14,617,926, or 20.67 per cent of the whole. American vessels climbed
from fourth to third place over the same period with 17.65 per cent of
total export values in 1929-30 and 13.19 per cent in 1928-29. The pro-
portion carried under the French flag declined from 17.89 per cent in
1928-29 to 11.96 per cent in 1929-30, thus placing France in fourth place
instead of second.
Airplane passenger and mail service has been excellent during the year.
Haiti now is connected directly by airways with both the east and west
coasts of South America as well as the United States, Central America,
and the neighboring islands of the Greater Antilles. For several months
two lines were giving regular service until the New York Rio and Buenos
Aires Line, Inc. was absorbed by Pan American Airways, Inc. The volume
of air mail has been such that it has been found possible to reduce rates
by half to the United States, Cuba, Santo Domingo and Porto Rico, while
the saving in time has been of inestimable value to commerce.

Foreign Commerce by Months and by Ports
The usual wide variations in the value of Haitian foreign trade from
month to month were apparent during the year 1929-30 in the case of
exports but much less so in the case of imports.
Fluctuations in import values were a reflection of the world business
depression which commenced for Haiti with the break in the coffee market
at the beginning of the fiscal year. As is shown by Table No. 13, the first
month of the fiscal year was the high month with "Gdes. 6,762,090, after
which there was an almost uninterrupted drop to the low month, September,
when imports were only Gdes. 4,524,371. The combined deviation of the
high and low months from the average, Gdes.. 5,350,678, was 41.82 per








TABLE No. 11
VALUE OP IMPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Mer- Merchan-
chandise dise sub- Nor- Per
Country free of ject to American British Dutch French German Haitian wegian All other Total cent
duty duty

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdee Gourder Gourds G d Gord hordes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Argentina-. ....... 4 ............... .......... .. ........ ....... ; ........ ............ ....... ........- 4 4 ....
Austria................. ......... 10,423 ...... ......... 825 -___ 8,933 ..... .. .......... 665 10,423 .02
Bahama Islands......... ........... 13,785 13,641 .... .. ...... ..... ....... ....... 144 13,785 .02
Belgium----.-- ---. 13,213 633,614 33,880 1,899 18,838 1,607 585,422 ......- ........- 5,181 646,827 101
Brazil......................... 2 ........ ....... ........... 2 ...... .......... ......... ....... ............. 2 ....
British Guiana................. ....... 37,997 -........... -....... 37,997 ..- ............ ... .... ...... --- ........ 37,997 .06
British India--. --.....-. 24,939 24,818 21 ...... 100 ...... .............. 24,939 .04
Canada.............. 118 85,556 30,242 350 55,082 ........ 85,674 .13
Canal Zone....---- ... 74,311 22,410 96,721 -- ------ ........ ...... ......... 96,721 .15
Chile... -.....- ........ 3 3 .-..- .--. ...- ........ ...... .... .... 3
China ...................... ...... 4,424 713 ...... .....- 1,075 .................... 2,636 4,424 .01
Colombia..- -- ........- 235 2......... .. ....... 230 .-.- -- .. -... 5 235 -
Cuba........-- ---.... 5,370 73,769 4,405 3,330 10,953 7,123 5.... .... 53,328 79,139 .12
Curacao............ 487,660 1,576,485 176 698,994 580,288 .-669,110 .......... 61,397 54,180 2,064,145 3.21
Czechoslovakia.... ..- ........... 9,901 3 ......... 1,759 ..... 8,139 ... ........ ...... 9,901 .0O
Denmark................. 2,914 133,958 80711 .......... 42,680 6 4,401 .... ......... 9,074 136,872 .21
Dominican Republic.--- 40,553 254,473 23 1,014 17,012 ---- 24,885 .. 252,092 295,026 .46
Equador............ .... 42 42 ....... .................................. 42
Egypt-.-.._,.... .............. 127 77 5 ...... ..... .. ...... 50 ... ... ... 127
France.. ........... 139,060 4,102,978 176,544 12,765 130,966 3,869,991 41,858 .....9,914 4,242,038 6.61
French Africa -.--- ........... 9 1 .. .............. .... ... 8 9
Germany------.. 188,201 2,576,371 56,212 9,440 1,017,654 1,254 1,676,178 .....807 3,027 2,764,572 "431
Greece-..-------... ....----. ....... 3 ---.._ ... ----- -. .. 3 ............. 3 .
Guadeloupe.-................-. 1 .... .......- ........ .. 1 ....
Guatemala.-. .10 --- .. .........10 - 10
Hungary ..... 9 5 ......... 4 ... ..... ........ .............. .............. 9
Italy ......---...... "116 503,990 217,941 12,394 48,152 5,046 214,370 ....... 6,203 504,106 .79
Jamaica--.......... ... 12,341 15,666 96 10,162 2,269 ....... 3,117 ... 12,363 28,007 .04
Japan........--.--......... 133,881 111,489 .. 20,011 1,706 .. ... 675 ............ 133,881 .21
Martinique-__.. --...... 2 .......... .... .. ... 2 .. .. .2
Mexico...-.......... 2 2 ............. ................ .... ........... 2
Netherlands- ... .... 7,912 1,953,539 54,459 78 1,898,604 404 7,900 .. .. 6 1,961,451 "305
Norway-----..... 2,125 190,639 2,148 5 21,264 .. 169,347 .... ......... .... 192,764 .30
Palestine.--------- ...... 134 21 .............. 2 111 ............. .. .... 134
Per....................... .......... 6 6 .................. ........... 6
Porto Rico----..... .... 59,172 971,022 783,087 152,979 71,052 7,833 15,243 ............ ..... 1,030,194 1.60
Portugal-...---- - ......... 698 ........... ........... 698 .............. .... ........ 698
Spain....--------- 31 37,640 22,475 8,191 3,900 502 2,562 .... 41 37,671 .06
Sweden--------- 2 20,670 ................ .......... 15,818 ....... 4,854 ............ .............. ......... 20,672 .03
Switzerland............... 127 89,846 9,118 144 31,936 146 48,424 ............ ......205 89,973 .14
Syria....... .............. 2 12 10 4 ... 14
Trinidad------.... 5,124 9 ............... 5,115 .......... ........ ........... ........ 5,124 .01
United Kingdom----.......... 136,512 4,548,396 1,907,393 392,688 2,115,274 34,755 233,208 . 1,590 4,684,908 7.30
United State ........... 3,267,679 41,736,159 26,576,188 662,576 13,450,411 ...... 479,999 .......... 1,956,957 1,877,707 45,003,838 70.09
Virgin Islands..-----...... -..... 1,759 1,087 .............. .... ..... 672 ........... ............ .............. .......... 1,759 ....

Total. ... 4,437,435 59,770,697 30,190,105 1,977,351 19,591,177 3,936,216 4,205,073 ......... 2,019,836 2,288,374 64,208,132 100.00
Per cent-..-........ 6.92 93.08 47.02 3.08 30.51 6.13 6.55 3..1 5 1 F;











TABLE No. 12
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Met- Merchan-
chandise dise sub- Nor- Per
Country free of ject to American British Danish Dutch French German wegian All other Total cent
duty duty

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Austria ................................ ......... 2 21 .............. ....... ........... ..-. 21 .....-.
Bahama Islands..-...................... 8,222 19,838 ...... 27,941 ...... 119 .......... ........ ......... 28,060 .04
Belgium........................... ....... 5,316,654 874,550 776,055 .... .. 1,825,751 568,077 1,272,221 .......... ........... 5,316,654 7.52 H
Canada... ....... ........ ........... ....... 1009 134 ............ ...... 875 ................. ......... 1,009 .... 0
Canal Zone.... ......... .. 1,577 113,306 114,883 ............. ............ ...................... ......... 114,883 .16
Chile..........-................... ..... 999 999 .......... .. ........... ........ 999 .. ----
Colombia ..... ............... 245,152 233,505 .. 11,647 .............. ........ ............. 245,152 .35
Cuba ............... ......... 74 545,719 185,521 ............ ............ 137,701 28,086 ..... 194,485 545,793 .77 >,
Curacao................................ 2,777 19,293 .............. 834 ........ 20,782 ............. 454 ......... 22,070 .03 Z
Czechoslovakia ...... ........ ......... 23 ..........23 .... ...... ..... ..- .. 23
Denmark .... ........ .. 4,885,848 787,791 747,839 ........... 2,196,881 340,465 812,872 ........ 4,885,848 6.91
Dominican Republic..... ......... .... 14,480 2,189 .......... ............ 1,558 6,244 ...... .... 4,489 14,480 .02
S Equador ................ .. . .......... 13,130 13,130 ....- .... ... ... ....... ............... ............... ......... 13,130 .02 >
Finland............. ............ .... 43,966 18,558 ............ .......... 6,640 ............... 18,768 .......... ............ 43,966 .06
France........................ ......... 35,165,827 2,927,656 4,990,843 108,452 10,697,182 7,010,000 9,253,824 ........ 177,870 35,165,827 49.72 '
French Africa............................ ...... 107,772 49,166 ............ ........... 52,407 2,461 3,738 ............ 107,772 .15
Germany-..-.................... 255 4,979,342 313,761 561,121 ........... 1,636,473 215,667 2,252,575 ......-. 4,979,597 7.04 ,
Guiana, British ................-. 90 897 ............... ... .987 98............................ ................ 987
Italy.................................... .......... 6,608,023 2,845,945 107,600 ........ 3,375,953 181,200 97,325 ............ ...... 6,608,023 9.34
Jamaica.................-.......... ........... 35,614 .......... 18,025 ....... -....... .............. 17,589 .... .... 35,614 .05 Z
Japan.... ......... ........ .. 18,526 18,526 ........... .......... ............. ................ ........ ............ 18,526 .03
Martinique.................... ...... 2,423 ........ ... ....... ........ 2,000 423 .............. ........ .... 2,423 C.
Mexico............ ........ ...... 19,415 .... .. ........ ... .. 337 ............... 19,078 ......... 19,415 .03 r
Netherlands ............... ........ 752,812 28,205 18,052 ..... 645,135 13,865 47,555 .......... ........ 752,812 1.07 ;
Norway................................. 247,285 60,534 .......... 103,656 9,245 73,850 ........ ....... 247,285 .35 m
Porto Rico..................... .... 7,033 7,033 -.. ................ ....... .- .. 7,033 .01 Q
Spain............................... .. ........ 1,399,152 720,412 .... 673,638 ............. 5,102 ......... ....... 1,399,152 1.98
Sweden ....-............ ..... ...... 305,300 84,918 5,988 ........... 112,462 19,247 82,685 ...... .......... 305,300 .43
Switzerland.............. .... ... .... ...34 ............ ............. ............ 34 ............... .... .......... ............ 34 ......
United Kingdom-........ ... ........., 3,301,490 159,418 137,266 940,927 1,030,555 62,075 574,862 ........... 396,387 3,301,490 4.67
United States...............-......... 9,598 6,513,687 3,028,962 66,360 334,140 2,164,717 ........... 85,428 697,338 146,340 6,523,285 9.23
Virgin Islands..... ........ ....... 16,172 9,219 ...... ......... 6,953 .............. ...... ...... ...... .... 16,172 .02
Total....- ...... 22,593 70,700,242 12,485,015 7,457,924 1,383,519 24,704,487 8,457,055 14,617,926 697,338 919,571 70,722,835 100.00
Per cent................... .... .03 99.97 17.65 10.54 1.96 34.93 11.96 20.67 .99 1.30 ............ ..


I

















TABLE No. 13

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF ENTRY-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30 COMPARED WITH 1928-29


October I November


Port of
Entry


Aquin .... .......
Belladre ..........
Cap Haitien --
Cayes .............
Fort Libert.....
Glore -------
Gonaives --.
Jacmel .........-
Jtrimit....--..
Miragoine....-..
Ouanaminthe...
Petit Golve.--
Port-au-Prince
Port-de-Paix..
Saint Marc.......

Total 1929-30
Total 1928-29

Increase
1929-30..........
Decrease
1929-30----


January


Gourdes
293
11,070
605,936
305,437
36
1,144
297,614
218,900
154,552
28,929
13,970
95,850
3,265,990
93,270
159,891
5,252,882
7,584,875



2,331,993


February


Gourdes
12,433
847,395
240,250
63
27
199,093
149,553
99,738
66,908
8,017
61,891
3,420,585
89,877
94,721

5,290,551
5,836,101



545,550


March


Gourdes
68
10,820
609,009
227,544
10,507
11
291,067
133,679
98,081
64,629
4,220
61,030
3,566,844
113,777
233,248
5,424,534
5,472,955


April


Gourdes
78
11,425
545,773
269,973
35
3,589
210,213
165,215
156,189
33,077
17,390
110,319
3,345,269
100,074
154,233

5,122,852
6,696,017


48,421 1,573,165


May June


Gourdes
55
3,739
421,020
352,140
111
2,485
233,211
150,804
155,003
20,802
2,352
83,491
3,154,070
91,275
180,274

4,850,832
5,853,148


Gourdes
37
2,794
703,797
333,409
35,664
6,915
149,741
129,369
129,278
43,092
12,827
46,883
3,156,950
81,185
138,171
4,970,112
5,152,935


July I August, Septem-
ber


Gourdes
29
3,500
520,425
361,200
10,178
1,370
150,368
129,181
216,793
60,048
7,380
83,158
2,850,035
75,504
132,309
4,601,478
5,642,234


1,002,316 182,823 1,040,7
1,002,316 182,823 1040,756


Gourdes
1,888
529,934
530,773
132
2,759
160,446
178,759
117,312
31,656
3,788
68,492
2,995,649
81,893
117,870
4,821,351
5,241,653


Gourdes
36
1,278
484,857
356,512
61
644
170,798
195,253
130,270
27,073
15,313
76,926
2,910,844
83,593
70,913

4,524,371
5,741,719


Total
1929-30

Gourdes
1,624
78,243
7,636,909
4,270,112
56,888
22,998
2,794,623
2,393,539
1,942,842
560,554
109,511
1,057,839
40,303,471
1,364,225
1,614,754
64,208,132
...............


Total In-
1928-29 crease


Gdes.
374










374..........


Gourdes
1,250
243,459
9,630,967
5,465,109
482,755
39,383
4,151,751
4,806,092
2,730,666
1,065,742
129,581
1,728,241
50,642,981
2,608,291
2,463,344

86,189,612


420,302 11,217,348 21,981,480 1 .................. .. I


Decrease o
.-
0
O
Gourdes -
........... "n
165,216 g
1,994,058 >
1,194,997
425,867
16,385
1,357,128
2,412,553 >
787,824
505,188
20,070
670,402 ;
10,339,510
1,244,066 m
848,590 Z
21,981,854 ,
-----



------ ?
to

to


4.628.023 I 3,661,040


December


Gourdes
156
18,897
791,730
444,924
30
2,523
255,002
318,673
207,709
79,126
5,726
117,357
3,615,110
187,450
94,071
6,138,484
9,799,524


Gourdes
255
331
870,147
487,557
71
1,510
276,451
307,114
234,320
71,152
14,428
93,947
3,811,699
169,374
110,239
6,448,595
11,076,618


Gourdes
617
S 68
706,886
360,393
21
400,619
317,039
243,597
34,062
4,100
158,495
4,210,426
196,953
128,814
6,762,090
12,091,833



5,329,743


I III r






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


cent. In comparing the fiscal year 1929-30 with the previous year it
should be noted that the curves of import values followed almost the
same course but the cause was entirely different. During 1928-29 imports
were greater at the beginning of the year on account of heavy importations
to repair the damage done by the hurricane of August 1928 together with
the expenditure of returns from the record year 1927-28. The spread
between October, the high month, and June, the low month, of 1928-29
was Gdes. 6,938,898, or a combined deviation from the average of 79.99
per cent, considerably greater than the 41.82 per cent noted for 1929-30.
The tendency toward a more uniform distribution of import values over
the fiscal year has been noticed for several years and is desirable from
every point of view. It would seem to indicate an appreciation on the part
of merchants of the desirability of striving for a faster turnover of smaller
and more seasonable inventories rather than periodic liquidations of excess
stocks.
CHART No. 1
VALUES OF TOTAL IMPORTS, TOTAL EXPORTS AND COFFEE EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1929-30
MILLIONS or
GOURDES
z0






Sh ,1 A
7 2.6 pr s as a G 9
1 -1 -A-A--- _*--- 4 1 l1 ---


E\ x. ,Eportb \


6 fI




3-24 14-25 1925-26 19Z6-27 127-28 198-29 1-30

Export values by months are shown h Table No. 14. The peak month
during 1929-30 was April with Gdes. 9,129,417, while August with Gdes.
1,723,799 was the low month. The high and low months for the year
1928-29 were March and August. The spread for 1929-30 was Gdes.
7,405,618, or 125.66 per cent of the average, as against Gdes. 9,904,254, or
96.61 per cent, in 1928-29.
Thus the strong seasonal character of Haitian exports was again in
evidence in 1929-30 to a more marked degree than usual. Due to the


















TABLE No. 14
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF SHIPMENT-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30 COMPARED WITH 1928-29


Port of
Shipment October


Aquinl..............
Belladre ...........
Cap Haitien.....
Cayes.................
Fort Libert......
Glore..................
Gonaives ...........
Jacmel ..............
Jrtmie .............
Miragoine........
Ouanaminthe...
Petit Golve......
Port-au-Prince.
Port-de-Paix....
Saint Marc........
Total 1929-30...
Total 1928-29...
Increase
1929-30..........
Decrease
1929-30.........


Gourdes
23,190
864,125
512,130

448,302
862,576
567,809
97,997
327,034
706,499
353,751
118,969
4,882,382
7,829,122


No- De-
vember member Janhary


Gourdes


1,045,139

419,967
1,196,911
918,300
219,252
806,272
904,250
522,105
306,604
7,803,099
9,261,080


Gourdes
381
1,362,067
554,470
20,475
642,251
1,308,761
941.256
194,933
950,820
1,082,359
498,032
306,816
7,862,621
9,277,678


Gourdes
45,300
1,075,331
625,135
28
676,744
853,238
578,917
341,832
109
912,122
1,074,698
641,537
241,641
7,066,632
10,341,981


2,946,740 1 1,457,981 I 1,415057 I 32753 9


February

Gourder

1,254,151
556,436

587,356
1,017,850
471,334
306,037
119
883,678
1,346,431
454,059
895,861
7,773,312
10,802,778



3,029,466


March

Gourdes
10,818

1,008,545
592,608
44,112
2
924,097
1,061,097
389,476
382,744
36
921,940
2,136,773
255,680
1,350,355
9,078,283
11,419,944



2.341.661


April

Gourdes
13,120
755,229
440,352
210
13
1,017,539
1,113,635
488,828
240,112
20
791,774
2,635,253
504,793
1,128,539
9,129,417
8,841,681


287,736 624,275
.... ..... .... ....


May

Gourdes
10,388
1,885
481,637
566,187

572,932
660,934
435,245
143,206
86
468,405
2,107,224
374,578
693,813
6,516,520
5,892,245


June

Gourdes
45
207,833
192,163
149,491
20
353,495
463,469
349,002
235,638
457,921
685,531
284,232
331,406
3,710,246
3,059,773


July

Gourdes
29,754
140
105,075
193,792
24,047
14
124,265
344,663
263,415
152,700
39
174,596
449,912
123,375
84,719


August

Gourdes
47,437
262,678
83,725
11,343

85,043
278,383
206,943
42,832
711
140,794
300,741
51,748
211,421


2,070,506 1,723,799
3,246,170 1,515,690


650,473 .............. 208,109
1 17564


Sep-
tember

Gourdes

639,232
359,552

334,489
325,380
320,166
74,735
59
124,265
459,458
321,456
147,226
3,106,018
2,131,025

974,993
...........


Total
1928-29

Gourdes
106,460
29,377
12,922,937
7,026,532
145,784
156
8,044,181
11,255,129
5,962,424
2,952,189
2,580
6,886,205
15,850,721
5,547,517
6,886,975

83,619,167


Total
1929-30

Gourdes
188,431
3,023
9,471,206
5,721,689
249,678
77
6,186,480
9,486,897
5,930,691
2,432,018
1,179
6,959,621
13,889,129
4,385,346
5,817,370
70,722,835




12.896,332


crease

Gdes.
81,971


103,894
............



73,416







259,281


De-
crease

Gourdes

26,354
3,451,731
1,304,843
79
1,857,701
1,768,232
31,733
520,171
1,401
1,961,592
1,162,171
1,069,605


31I 155 613


............. 11 1 61.....


.......... .....


I


I I .... ... .. ........ ........ ......... .


, ~


--i~-~---- -- I I _I






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


precipitous decline of coffee prices at the beginning of the fiscal year
peasants and exporters held up their stocks in the hope of getting a better
price. This procedure seems to have been justified as prices recovered
slightly, reaching a high point in May at about the time when coffee
shipped during the month of greatest exports, April, should have reached
the market.
The strong seasonal swings of the import and export trade are illustrated
graphically over a period of seven years in Chart No. 1 which also shows
the monthly variations in coffee shipments. Obviously, such extreme perio-
dicity is highly undesirable. To the retail merchants it means a season of
relative inactivity with goods lying idle on the shelves. Shipping compa-
nies operating on regular schedules to Haitian ports find that there are
very few cargos to be had during the dull months; freight rates accordingly.
are scaled upward throughout the year to cover the deficiency. Finally,
seasonal fluctuations in foreign commerce mean corresponding variations
in government revenues since revenues still are derived chiefly from
customs duties. A large treasury surplus must be maintained at all times
in order that expenditures may be met during that part of the year when
revenues are low.
Little can be done to flatten the import curve since the volume of imports
necessarily must coincide roughly with the demand created by the sale of
export commodities. The curve of import values, therefore, tends to swing
upward somewhat in advance of the export curve and to reach its low
point at about the time that exports are lowest. In the case of seasonal
variation in exports, however, beneficial results can be obtained by en-
couraging a more diversified production for export and particularly the
production of commodities which are exportable throughout the year.
Sisal, banailas and pineapples may be mentioned as being the most promis-
ing within this category and the list could be extended indefinitely.

Commodities Imported

Perhaps the most significant feature which characterized the world
business depression of the past year was the extent of the decline in com-
modity values. There were almost no staple commodities imported into
Haiti which were not affected to a considerable degree by this price
deflation, and "although revenues were diminished as a consequence, it
follows that Haitian consumers benefited to the extent that they were able
to purchase larger quantities of staple commodities with a given amount of
money. To be sure, staple food articles in 1929-30 made up only 26.59 per
cent of the import schedule and many manufactured articles and other
import items did not register nearly so large a decrease in values. Neverthe-
less; there was a.net decrease: in the cost of goods imported which served






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


to compensate to a certain degree for the loss in purchasing power arising
from price deflation affecting commodities exported.
Unit prices of the principal imports are shown in the table below. These
figures were compiled from the declared values obtained from customs
records and they may be considered to represent the average unit prices
for the year with reasonable accuracy.


Imports 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Cement......... ... ............... ilo............. ...... 0.07 0.07 0.07
Fish .......................................... Kilo........ 0.64 0.71 0.65
Wheat flour....... ............ Kilo........ .... ... 0.43 0.40 0.38
Meats ..... ..........___ ................... K. 1.16 1.25 1.25
Rice..... ... ............ Kilo........ ..... .... 0.38 0.38 0.37
Liquors............................. ter......... ...1.27 1.31 1.35
Lumber ................... cubic meter......... 109.65 122.57 114.40
Gasoline.............................. liter........................ 0.39 0.35 0.25
Kerosene ........ ...................... .... ......... ............. 0.27 0.28 0.28
Soap .............................. Ki ................ 0.77 0.78 0.76
Textiles.......................... ilo........ 5.68 5.93 4.98
Tobacco............................. Kilo ................... 1.55 1.95 2.22


It appears that a substantial decline was recorded in every case with
the exception of tobacco and liquors which increased in unit value 13.85
per cent and 3.05 per cent respectively. In both cases the increased value
probably was due to the fact that 1929-30 importations tended toward
higher qualities than the year before. This is certainly true of tobacco
importations which are now confined entirely to the better grades since
increasing quantities of the cheaper kinds now are being grown within the
republic, thus tending more and more to take care of the entire consumer
demand. The country is not yet able to care of the entire demand of
manufacturers for high grade leaf tobacco.
No change in unit prices was recorded in the case of cement, kerosene
and meats. All other items on the list showed declines varying from 28.57
per cent for gasoline to 2.56 per cent for soap. The declines in the price
of foodstuffs were as follows: fish, 8.45 per cent; wheat flour, 5 per cent;
rice, 2.63 per cent. Lumber and textiles dropped in price 6.67 per cent
and 16.02 per cent respectively.
Accordingly, it should be borne in mind when analyzing the import
groups in detail that in nearly every instance the declines in value do
not represent corresponding declines in quantities imported. Table No. 15
presents a comparison of import groups by values, while Table No. 16
shows a similar comparison of quantities imported assembled by main
groups of commodities.
Foodstuffs normally comprise by far the largest group of commodity
imports. Over the period of the Receivership this group alone constituted
33.26 per cent of average yearly import values, and during the year 1928-29







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the percentage rose to 30.16. The year which has just ended discloses a
remarkable decrease in food importations. Values declined from Gdes.
29,210,240 to Gdes. 17,073,776, while, as already has been noted, the ratio
of food values to total imports dropped to 26.59 per cent. Evidently the
country is not so dependent upon importations of foreign foodstuffs as the
average figures would imply, and adjustment to changed economic con-

TABLE No. 15
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Agricultural implements ....... 595,000 581,431 700,964 516,344
Books and other printed
matter ............................ 241,017 282,694 298,910 435,300
Cement ............................. 453,756 426,121 952,613 894,552 833,944 519,999 542,892
Chemical and pharmaceutical
products............................ 644,320 928,705 858,727 1,098,676 1,048,153 907,039 841,266
Cotton and manufactures of
other than textiles............. 3,002,466 5,201,131 3,491,532 2,934,611 *
Fibers, vegetable and manu-
factures of, other than
cotton and textiles........... 2,114,647 1,856,885 1,280,368 1,449,877 1,215,347 893,159 1,764,029
Foodstuffs:
Fish............................. 2,380,691 3,289,025 4,033,060 4,546,563 3,370,450 2,607,833 3,064,749
Wheat flour....................... 10,671,303 12,044,975 11,456,714 14,229,947 14,975,862 7,629,613 11,562,395
Meats................................. 1,129,413 1,452,559 1,509,395 1,556,284 1,339,788 1,061,524 1,312,632
Rice ............................... 1,735,650 1,293,365 1,850,807 2,065,855 2,643,401 960,608 1,618,982
All other............................. 6,544,557 5,786,803 7,030,371 7,996,509 6,880,739 4,814,198 6,312,758
Household utensils: crockery,
porcelain, glassware, cut-
lery and kitchen utensils,
of aluminium, iron and
steel............................ 1,223,128 1,396,442 1,348,661 804,385
Iron, steel and manufactures,
other than specified_..... 3,460,075 3,411,649 3,602,797 4,430,881 5,134,226 3,277,339 3,628,847
Leather........ ............ 780,115 785,827 262,635 495,659 330,363 252,391 655,054
Liquors and beverages.......... 1,229,720 1,433,548 913,320 1,607,748 1,051,056 825,217 1,265,263
Lumber .................. ............... 1,054,752 1,345,746 1,701,620 2,109,083 1,947,564 1,403,390 1,368,868
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles passenger..... 1,528,267 2,010,409 1,921,474 1,293,920
Trucks.............................. * 446,360 774,034 627,226 519,415
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline............................ 354,469 855,634 2,115,890 2,408,851 2,840,048 2,586,841 1,143,010
Kerosene......................... 1,108,696 935,008 1,214,877 1,376,559 1,292,719 1,280,972 1,098,832
All other ......................... 175,174 361,676 618,624 1,015,879 823,064 828,446 426,447
Shoes.................................. * 889,095 1,355,267 976,690 800,448
Silk and manufactures of
except textiles-.............. 219,480 252,199 209,852 186,742
Soap.............. ...... 3,849,333 3,060,897 3,192,235 3,451,433 3,175,379 2,808,322 3,369,894
Textiles, cotton............ 19,708,185 21,150,406 16,035,283 22,275,001 12,079,361 12,860,803 19,110,243
All other.................... 2,058,179 2,060,431 800,156 1,006,221 1,055,642 500,174 1,711,089
Tobacco......-......_.. ... 2,009,210 1,770,269 89,992 733,529 177,712 44,279 1,424,493
Wool, hair and manufactures
of except textiles_.. 278,218 244,608 261,820 184,402 *
All other.......................... 13,797,759 16,043,804 10,814,085 14,393,961 14,137,665 10,470,418 16,932,708
Total.......-..-.... ..... 75,260,004 80,293,333 78,756,600 101,241,283 86,189,612 64,208,132 79,154,451

No separate figures available.

editions easily can take the form of increased or decreased domestic pro-
duction. The chief foodstuffs are in order of their importance flour, fish,
rice and meats. All of these articles are in the nature of luxuries which are
purchased in large quantities whenever the coffee crop is good and the
peasant gets a generous return for his labor. When conditions are bad, as
they were in 1929-30, the peasant plants rice, corn and vegetables on his






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


plot of land and does not buy imported food. There was no shortage of
food in the domestic markets during 1929-30 and there is no evidence that
prices were any higher than they were the previous year. Nevertheless,
imports of flour declined 46.89 per cent in quantity and in value from Gdes.
14,975,862 to Gdes. 7,629,613. In quantity, imports of fish dropped off
15.07 per cent, meat 20.55 per cent and rice 62.49 per cent. From the latter
figure it appears that rice enters largely into the increased domestic pro-
duction, for there was an abundance of that commodity in the local markets
throughout the year and prices were no higher than usual.

TABLE No. 16
QUANTITY OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
Commodity Unit 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Cement ........... Kilo 3,518,741 5,675,884 13,552,117 12,092,361 11,510,658 7,227,011 6,453,948
Foodstuffs:
Fish........... 2,166,642 4,298,888 7,486,565 7,137,251 4,776,020 4,008,490 3,981,141
Wheatflour 12,354,104 28,161,255 25,058,159 32,657,546 37,427,385 19,876,285 22,685,441
Meats......... 500,144 923,154 1,290,337 1,344,434 1,067,611 848,238 833,365
Rice.......... 675,744 2,859,235 4,113,816 5,453,914 6,894,258 2,586,242 2,623,080
Liquors and
beverages........ Liter 686,337 1,126,049 870,351 1,266,456 801,380 607,576 900,550
Lumber............. Cubic meter 6,769.43 14,321.29 15,557.94 19,234.49 15,889.50 12,266.98 12,028.75
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline..... Liter 547,523 2,254,239 5,546,920 6,238,332 8,151,307 10,460,900 3,171,876
Kerosene.... 2,894,769 3,623,516 4,658,299 5,055,440 4,572,014 4,546,295 3,673,105
Soap ................ Kilo 2,830,380 3,605,622 4,076,929 4,449,942 4,061,871 3,712,040 3,462,914
Textiles............. 3,063,308 3,862,943 8,071,724 4,095,936 2,215,865 2,583,782 3,328,469
Tobacco............. 694,984 821,907 46,841 471,997 91,321 19,903 586,751

It should be recalled that 1929-30 was a year of good crops and heavy
exports so far as actual quantities are concerned. Thus it is demonstrated
that Haiti easily can decrease its importations of comestibles without
affecting adversely its production of exportable products.
Textiles are next in importance in the import trade, and with two
unimportant exceptions, they made up the only item on the list where
increased import values in 1929-30 were indicated as compared with 1928-
29. In quantity, textile importations increased 16.60 per cent, and in value
from Gdes. 13,135,003 to Gdes. 13,360,977. The reason is not hard to find.
An exceptionally good coffee year in 1927-28 led to unusually heavy
imports of cotton piece goods. Merchants found that their stocks exceeded
the demand and a large surplus was carried over into 1928-29 with the
result that imports in that year were very low. The comparison above
was made with a year of exceptionally low imports when cotton textiles
comprised only 14.01 per cent of total importations, whereas for the period
of the Receivership they made up 24.14 per cent of average total import
values. The same ratio for 1929-30 was 20.03 per cent, or considerably
below normal, and although-quantities and values actually have increased
when comparison is made with the previous year, it probably can be con-
cluded that the adverse economic situation had a detrimental effect upon the
textile trade notwithstanding the apparent showing of the import statistics.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Gasoline importations increased in volume from 8,151,307 liters in 1928-
29 to 10,460,900 liters in 1929-30; but with the sharp downward revision
during the year of gasoline prices values declined from Gdes. 2,840,048 to
Gdes. 2,586,841. It should be mentioned here that the drop in value from
Gdes. 0.35 to Gdes. 0.25 per liter shown in the table of unit prices is more
apparent than real. One of the large oil importers during the year put
into use a storage plant for gasoline with the result that large quantities
of gasoline were imported in bulk which ordinarily would have been
imported in drums and in smaller lots. The customs figures from which
the data in the tables were compiled naturally reflect the saving in landed
costs which arises from the importation of gasoline in bulk. Moreover, it
is probable that as a result of the new storage facilities a larger quantity
of gasoline was being held in stock at the end of the fiscal year than
previously would have been the case. Consequently, the increase in quantity
imported does not connote a corresponding increase in gasoline con-
sumption. Nevertheless, even in the past year of economic stringency
gasoline consumption in Haiti has followed more or less the upward trend
so noticeable in most countries of the world. As new roads in Haiti are
opened up and transportation facilities increasingly are provided, it is
to be expected that motor fuel will be used more and more in spite of oc-
casional recessions in the normal course of business.
Curtailment of building activity during the year resulted in a sharp
decline in cement and lumber imports which in quantity as compared with
1928-29 fell 37.21 per cent and 22.80 per cent respectively. Iron and steel
imports also showed a severe decline with values down 36.17 per cent from
those of the year before. Other important declines in value were: chemical
and pharmaceutical products, 13.46 per cent; cotton and manufactures of
cotton (except textiles) 15.95 per cent; other vegetable fibers, 26.51 per
cent; household utensils, 40.36 per cent; automobiles, 32.66 per cent;
trucks, 17.19 per cent; shoes, 18.04 per cent; soap 11.56 per cent.
Tobacco imports during 1929-30 were valued at only Gdes. 44,279, a
decline from the previous year's figures of 78.21 per cent in quantity and
75.08 per cent in value. Apparently the full effects of the protective tariff
against tobacco and the fact that Haiti now is practically self-sufficing so
far as many grades of tobacco are concerned combined to limit importation.
Liquors also declined, with the quantity imported 24.18 per cent under the
1928-29 figure and the total value 21.49 per cent less than 1928-29 values.
The decline in liquors may be ascribed to the reduced purchasing power
of the country as most liquor importations are of high quality, the lower
grades being adequately produced locally.
Further details regarding the importation of commodities during 1929-30
will be found in Schedule No. 1 appended to this report.







28 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Commodities Exported

The values and quantities of commodities exported by years are presented
in Table No. 17 and Table No. 18. Chief interest, of course centers around
the export of coffee, for the prosperity of the country depends very largely

TABLE No. 17
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 '1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30


Bananas.................. ;---
Beeswax ......................
Cacao.............................
Cashew nuts..................
Castor beans.............
Coffee..................... .
Corn......................
Cotton, raw...............
Cottonseed....................
Cottonseed cake .......
Cowhides.....................
Goatskins ....................
Honey.......................
Lignum vitae..............
Logwood......................
Molasses......................
Pineapple, canned.....
Pineapple, fresh.......
Sisal ............................
Sugar, raw ...............
Sugar, refined..............
Turtle shells................
All other exports..........
Total.............. .....


Gourdes Gourdes
559(1) 20(2)
59,995 4,053
2,726,921 1,240,007
............... 18,160(1)
734,328 69,583
46,999,359 60,437,516
1,073,905(3) 18,400
5,595,881 9,186,908
428,686 761,204
58,891 53,086(2)
426,618 4,471(4)
1,068,096 419,784
794,093 344,518
436,616 200,299
6,143,993 2,286,293
1,704(1) .............

93,558 3,370
1,876,976(4) 2,403,398
61,149 95,205
1,068,644 1,585,236
69,649,972 79,131,511


Gourdes

13,783
1,680,933
273,450
13,490
56,921,970
1,691
7,334,573
591,465
306,557
13,935
613,775
751,149
100,038
2,589,206

47,635
6,347
3,402,735
67,103
1,765,607
76,495,442


Gourdes
4,046
5,982
2,227,742
146,874
39,072
89,582,312
15,584
10,007,602
144,114
724,057
29,054
710,634
630,063
87,058
3,534,840
............
31
73,664
23,503
3,251,211
24,250
2,074,537
113,336,230


Gourdes
1,529
9,044
1,186,357
135,515
94,872
64,493,905
7,321
10,353,545
67,745
886,274
67,011
683,463
561,389
118,122
2,511,079
626,525
185
36,926(
44,259
899,009
154,939
25,300
654,853
83,619,167


Gourdes
7,851
6,656
1,974,797
81,346
28,575
52,032,362
8,077
7,858,656
94,829
519,849
23,036
974,933
301,229
51,184
2,441,619
573,858
180,424
37,470
226,700
1,981,866
987,163
65,657
264,698
70,722,835


Gourdes
25,408
1,921,748
299,683
57,158,209
392,443
7,819,166
489,115
214,044
163,463
744,443
566,920
252,927
3,802,012


56,104
2,209,764
68,863
1,535,766
77.720,078


Figures in parenthesis indicate number of years the commodity was shipped during the five year period.

TABLE No. 18
QUANTITY OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30


Bananas........-
Beeswax.............
Cacao..." -......
Cashew nuts....
Castor beans....
Coffee ..---...-
Corn..---..--
Cotton, raw-..
Cottonseed..~ .
Cottonseed cake
Cowhides.....
Goatskins.........
Honey--...--.
Lignum Vitae...
Logwood..--....
Molasses-..----
Pineapple,canned
Pineapple, fresh
Sisal .....-..
Sugar, raw.....
Sugar,refined...
Turtle shells...


Average
1916-17-
1920-21

Kilos
279*(1)
19,277
1,958,832

1,102,620
29,307,941
2,230,066(3)
2,487,783
2,480,810
1,066,180
127,835
154,966
731,880
4,036,687
54,869,896
1,995(1)

116,915
2,543,397(4)
1,635


Average
1921-22-
1925-26

Kilos
9*(2)
2,910
1,908,678
9,270(1)
179,214
32,060,107
96,174
3,895,790
5,604,133
728,997(2)
4,380(4)
127,445
547,907
2,710,852
27,816,496


7,603
6,731,098
1,478


1926-27


Kilos
4,095
1,629,979
145,886
41,263
28,692,984
8,906
4,900,945
4,746,216
5,365,216
7,722
182,180
787,827
693,804
28,084,183

119,262
8,463
9,841,398
1,275


1927-28 1928-29 1929-30


Kilos
258*
3,063
2,393,486
73,485
80,047
41,146,804
37,057
4,427,337
787,149
6,415,465
14,932
210,656
660,505
603,794
36,361,678
78
185,465
31,341
12,016,554
1,524


Kilos
516*
4,522
1,365,707
97,869
189,780
28,556,644
14,651
4,754,579
359,766
7,141,064
33,505
227,908
588,483
819,196
23,402,456
9,871,020
235
106,504
47,479
4,198,855
530,595
1,265


Kilos
5,174-
2,981
2,272,863
55,794
100,449
34,321,114
43,555
5,124,551
1,447,366
5,710,539
16,279
238,233
526,136
606,515
26,775,964
6,087,573
210,131
121,865
364,173
11,184,537
3,757,271
1.290


Average
1916-17-
1929-30

Kilos
8,971
1,928,542
487,194
31,396,985
838,241
3,651,806
3,411,801
2,400,584
52,394
162,217
640,135
2,604,357
37,718,303


76,718
5,972,416
1.494


Figures in parenthesis indicate number of years the commodity was shipped during the five year period.
*Bunches.


I





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 29

upon the size and value of the yearly crop. The 1929-30 crop amounted
to 34,321,114 kilos compared with 28,556,644 kilos in 1928-29, indicating
an increase of 20.19 per cent. It should be remembered, however, that the
1928-29 crop was disappointingly small and comparison with that year
is apt to be misleading. A better basis for comparison is the average yearly
crop for the period of the Receivership which was found to be 31,396,985
kilos. The 1929-30 export of coffee exceeded that figure by 2,924,129 kilos,
or 9.31 per cent. Hence it appears that the 1929-30 crop, while not ex-
ceptional, was considerably above average when measured with respect
to quantity. Weather conditions were favorable throughout the year and
the berries ripened normally, but the drop in coffee prices at the beginning
of the year delayed marketing the crop and resulted in a more even
distribution of coffee shipments throughout the year than is usually the
case. There was no carry-over into 1930-31 and the figures for the year
consequently represent the entire harvest.
On the other hand, because of the prevailing low prices the 1929-30
crop was valued at less than the abnormally small crop of 1928-29 as well
as less than the average value of the coffee crop for the fourteen years of
the Receivership. In 1928-29 the value of all coffee exported was Gdes.
64,493,905 compared with Gdes. 52,032,362 in 1929-30, a decline in value
of Gdes. 12,461,543, or 19.32 per cent. Compared with the average value
for the period of the Receivership, amounting to Gdes. 57,158,209. the
decline was Gdes. 5,125,847, or 8.97 per cent.
Coffee prices for a number of years previous to 1930 were inflated and
artificially kept at high levels by the Brazilian valorization scheme. Without
going into details as regards the many factors which brought about the
sudden collapse in October 1929, it should be mentioned that the artificial
stimulation of coffee prices led to over production in Brazil and other coffee
growing centers in the world. An adjustment sooner or later was inevitable
and it came just a few weeks before the stock market crash of 1929,
accompanied by the general depression in the world markets for all leading
commodities. The seriousness of the situation with respect to Haiti was
fully recognized in the last annual report of this office in which it was
explained that the price of Haitian coffee is controlled by conditions in the
world markets and that the failure of the Brazilian valorization scheme in-
evitably would have an adverse effect upon Haiti's prosperity. The loss to
the Haitian people has been severe notwithstanding the relatively low pro-
duction costs which result from the Haitian system of small land holdings
operated by peasant families as contrasted with the plantation system of
production in other countries with heavy overhead costs and comparative
inelasticity with respect to changing conditions. True, Haitian coffee,
because of its quality and excellent flavor, enjoys a substantial premium
over Brazilian grades, but quotations abroad for Haitian coffee necessarily
correspond with the fluctuations in price of the Brazilian grades.






30 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Chart No. 2 has been prepared to illustrate this relationship as well as
to depict graphically the gradual weakening of coffee prices through 1929
which culminated in a sudden collapse in October. Still further losses
occurred in November and December. The upper curve was constructed
from weekly quotations of Haitian coffee "contract 2" at Havre, while the
lower curve corresponds with quotations on the same market for the leading
grade of Santos coffee. Both curves have been constructed to the same
arithmetic scale and the difference between the two consequently indicates

CHART No. 2
COFFEE PRICES, FISCAL YEARS 1927-28 TO 1929-30
Fraca per










j---.-Jc-- ---i---





1927- E8 928- 9 1929-30

the variations in the premium which Haitian coffee enjoys over the Brazil-
ian variety. This premium during the last two years has shown a definite
tendency to increase, indicating a strong demand for the Haitian grades
inasmuch as supplies, particularly during the last year, have been ample.
To some extent it is believed that coffee standardization already has helped
in improving this relation, and there is every hope that next year will show
a still further premium increase when the system of official grading of
coffee comes more fully into effect, and larger quantities of the higher types
find their way into the foreign markets. Acceptance of Haitian official type
standards by foreign grading experts as a basis for sales and increased
interest by the Haitian exporters gradually will bring into full effect the
benefits designed to be attained by standardization.
Haiti's export market still is dominated by coffee, and export data for
the fiscal year 1929-30 unfortunately do not indicate that sufficient progress
has been made towards developing other export products seriously to affect
coffee supremacy. It is not meant by this that coffee planting should be















TABLE No. 19

QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FIVE PRINCIPAL EXPORTS BY PORTS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30 COMPARED WITH 1928-29


Port


Aquin............................^...
Belladire.................- ...-....
Cap Haitien........-. ...
Cayes ............ ................
Fort Libert(........- .........
Gonaives ........-.-......- ...
Jacmel.............---.-........
Jrlmie-..........................
SMiragoine ...__...............
Ouanaminthe.........--.... .
Petit Golve ................
Port-au-Prince.................
Port-de-Paiz.............. ....
Saint Marc .........., .....

Total 1929-30........... ....
Total 1928-29..............
Increase 1929-30.........--
Decrease 1929-30.....................


Kilos

34,317

5,017,355
3,409,095

2,919,191
5,362,376
3,203,810
1,178,324
58
4,623,864
4,962,711
2,319,465
1,290,548

34,321,114
28,556,644

5,764,470


Gourdes

51,212

7,654,778
5,405,668

4,350,383
8,200,693
4,906,949
1,746,293
91
6,946,368
7,343,752
3,496,902
1,929,273

52,032,362
64,493,905

12,461,543


Cotton

Kilos Gourdes


98 140

134,044 191,670
............ ...........
1,031,443 1,583,606
678,150 1,048,646



1,120,561 1,721,367

2,160,255 3,313,227

5,124,551 7,858,656
4,754,579 10,353,545

369,972
............. 2,494,889


Log wood


Kilos

1,722,000

9,626,239

1,678,000
317,045
38,300

6,958,056

1,450,000
1,659,500
3,326,824

26,775,964
23,402,456

3,373,508


Gourdes


119,691

978,079

108,452
34,019
3,523

622,352

110,481
199,140
265,882

2,441,619
2,511,079

69,460


Sugar


Kilos Gourdes











14,941,808 2,969,029


14,941,808 2,969,029
4,729,450 1,053,948

10,212,358 1,915,081
......... ..... ............


Cacao, cr


Kilos



286,171
11,433


1,147,348


366,450
461,461

2,272,863
1,365,707

907,156


ude O

Gourdes 0

..-..- ..

204,221
8,290-




ri
.----
958,7967





----
526,482 m


1,186,357 r

788,440
.... ..
<


I I I


-- --


.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


discouraged in Haiti. The Haitian mountains are ideal areas for the pro-
duction of high grade mild coffees. Production costs are low, and even
with still lower prices coffee could be harvested and sold at a profit. Haiti
should plant more coffee, but at the same time it must develop other exports.
Referring to Table No. 20 it will be noted that coffee exports constituted
73.57 per cent of all export values, and further that all except 4.88 per cent
of the remainder was divided among four products. These are, in order of
their importance, cotton, sugar, logwood and cacao. It is true that the
percentage of coffee values declined from 77.13 per cent in 1928-29 to 73.57
per cent in 1929-30, but it is more than likely that the decline was due rather
to a relatively greater decline in coffee prices as compared with other
TABLE No. 20
PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30
Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Per c t Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
Coffee.. ................. .......... .. 61.46 75.49 74.41 79.04 77.13 73.57 70.63
Cotton.............----.... ..... 8.73 11.98 9.59 8.83 12.38 11.11 10.39
Logwood...................---.......... 9.31 3.01 3.39 3.12 3.00 3.45 5.33
Sugar....-....- ........-...... 3.27 3.31 4.45 2.87 1.26 4.20 3.26
Cacao, crude............. ............... 4.36 1.40 2.20 1.97 1.42 2.79 2.66
All other-....-..-...-----... .---- 12.87 4.81 5.96 4.17 4.81 4.88 7.73
Total.... ...... .......... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
commodity prices than to an appreciable increase in the production of other
export items. Cotton also took a relatively smaller share of total export
values, while logwood, sugar, and cacao improved their relative positions.
The item covering all other exports increased from 4.81 per cent in 1928-29
to 4.88 per cent in 1929-30, but the latter figure still is far below the average
of 7.73 per cent which has been recorded for the period of the Receivership.
Table No. 19 gives comparative data for volume of exports of the five
principal commodities in 1928-29 and again in 1929-30. In each case the
volume of exports for 1929-30 showed a sizeable increase as compared with
the previous year. Coffee exports increased 20.19 per cent in volume;
cotton, 7.78 per cent; logwood, 14.42 per cent; sugar 215.93 per cent; and
cacao, 66.5 per cent.
The most noteworthy increase occurred in the case of sugar. Exports of
that commodity, including both raw and refined sugar, totalled 14,941,808
kilos in 1929-30 as compared with 4,729,450 kilos in 1928-29. The best
previous year was 1927-28, when 12,016,554 kilos were shipped. This export
of sugar represents the output of a single modern sugar central located near
Port-au-Prince. Within recent years the company has commenced the ma-
nufacture and export of refined sugar, and in 1929-30 sugar exported in
this form amounted to 3,757,271 kilos, or 25.15 per cent of the total. It also
has found a market abroad for molasses, of which it shipped 9,871,020 kilos
in 1928-29 and 6,087,573 kilos in 1929-30.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Sugar is one of the products on which Haiti must depend if it is to
accomplish greater diversity of exports. The soil and climate of the coun-
try are well adapted to the growth of sugar cane wherever water is avail-
able, and it should be possible eventually to increase by a considerable
amount the yearly production and export of sugar.
Cacao is another commodity which has possibilities of further develop-
ment provided that prices in the foreign markets return to a higher level.
Since the close of the fiscal year 1929-30, reductions in price quotations for
cacao have left little inducement to planters of this commodity, and in spite
of government assistance in the removal or reduction of export duties on
certain grades, there is reason to fear that 1930-31 will see a sharp decline
in cacao production.
Logwood exports during 1929-30 increased in volume as compared with
1928-29 but declined slightly in value. Little can be expected from logwood
as a possibility for increased exports. Available supplies are being depleted,
and without systematic reforestation it hardly can be expected that the
trend of logwood exports in the future will be upward. The peak in logwood
exports was reached in 1919-20 when 129,566,275 kilos valued at Gdes.
16,824,060, were exported. In 1929-30 only 26,775,964 kilos valued at Gdes.
2,441,619 were shipped. Reforestation in the case of logwood, lignum vitae,
and other valuable forest products, is faced with obstacles in Haiti which
are difficult to overcome. Nothing of value has been accomplished thus far,
and all indications are that Haiti's national forest resources before long may
be faced with extinction.
Cotton exports in 1929-30 also increased in volume but declined in value
as compared with the previous year. The increase in volume was not great,
but it brought the 1929-30 total to the highest level that has been reached
during the period for which reliable records are available. The trend is
distinctly upward, and indications are that the increase will be continued
in the future. Haitian cotton is a long staple variety which enjoys favor
in the markets abroad.
Although cotton, and possibly sugar, have the best immediate prospects
as far as achieving greater diversification of exports is concerned, there
are excellent possibilities in the development of some of the commodities
now included in the "all other" export schedule. Among them the most
promising are pineapples, bananas, sisal corn and cashew nuts.
An intensive campaign was conducted early in the year to encourage the
production of corn for export. An American manufacturer of corn products
early in the year agreed to buy at the current market price all corn that
might be produced. Unfortunately, the price of corn, along with other world
commodities, dropped to such a low price that it did not offer sufficient
inducement to the Haitian peasant and very little Haitian corn found its
way abroad. However, corn can be grown profitably under average con-






















TABLE No. 21
QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES AND MONTHS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Month Coffee Cotton Logwood Sugar Cacao, crude All other All exports

tobr, 1 .....Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October, 1929.. 2,359,449 4,407,511 8,880 16,650 517,045 55,479 81,630 26,175 250,720 217,873 158,694 4,882,382
November....... ..... 3,528,963 6,694,006 7,932 13,178 5,467,091 523,125 111,561 34,578 384,276 392,672 145,540 7,803,099
December....................... 4,440,296 7,376,967 1,117 2,170 160,000 11,200 31,745 9,942 361,278 318,011 144,331 7,862,621
January, 1930........... 4,153,779 6,183,921 22,747 41,788 3,710,854 445,302 88,523 27,872 291,098 232,877 134,872 7,066,632
February..................... 4,561,204 5,792,736 704,463 1,218,722 3,641,070 400,518 165,618 48,667 192,016 120,974 191,695 7,773,312
March..............-......... 4,019,240 5,385,796 1,557,413 2,320,557 3,539,000 318,510 3,742,855 659,210 176,649 116,589 277,621 9,078,283
April........... ...... 3,423,939 5,067,926 1,377,912 2,080,655 2,225,000 161,390 5,283,902 984,215 229,946 231,969 603,262 9,129,417
May ..................... 2235,978 3,599,487 883,470 1,357,032 470,000 31,559 3,883,166 843,640 157,377 150,512 534,290 6,516,520
June.......................... 1,644,131 2,547,305 284,615 431,926 3,399,500 237,300 135,125 30,459 139,902 126,734 336,522 3,710,246
July......................... 1,033,592 1,384,460 131,140 188,296 1,568,404 108,681 360,532 81,380 44,202 32,614 275,075 2,070,506
August .... -..... 807,121 1,002,455 121,242 160,278 928,000 55,891 462,569 100,143 29,700 23,398 81,634 1,723,799
September............ 2,113,422 2,589,792 23,620 27,404 1,150,000 92,664 594,582 122,748 15,699 10,574 262,836 3,106,018

Total.......... 34,321,114 52,032,362 5,124,551 7,858,656 26,775,964 2,441,619 14,941,808 2,969,029 2,272,863 1,974,797 3,446,372 70,722,835


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HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


editions in Haiti, and with a return to higher prices that commodity should
assist materially in bringing about greater export diversification.
The fiscal year just ended was the first in which canned pineapples
were exported in commercial quantities. A total of 210,131 kilos valued
at Gdes. 180,424 was shipped during the year. Exports of fresh pineapples
increased from 106,504 kilos in 1928-29 to 121,865 kilos in 1929-30. For
a number of years a pineapple plantation financed by American capital
under an agreement entered into with the Haitian government in 1923 has
been in the course of development near the city of Cap Haitien. During the
past year a canning factory was constructed and the first few months of
operation have resulted in the addition of this new item to the export table.
The figures mark only the beginning of a new development which it is
expected in a few years will reach sizeable proportions. Indications are
that during the present year the 1929-30 figures will be tripled.
It has been demonstrated that many tropical fruits of the best varieties
easily can be grown in Haiti, and shipped fresh or canned, but exports until
now have been negligible. In an effort to encourage the exportation of fruit
and fresh vegetables an executive order was issued on July 4, 1930 removing
the export duties on nearly all fruits and fresh vegetables which can be
produced in Haiti. The direct results of this measure are not yet in evidence,
but there is every hope that before long a flourishing trade will develop.
A good demand exists in the United States and other countries. The only
need is sufficient enterprise and a moderate amount of capital..
Plantation developments resulted during 1929-30 in the exportation of
364,173 kilos of sisal compared with only 47,479 kilos in 1928-29. The
1929-30 figure surpasses the previous record year, 1919-20, when the inflated
values of the post war boom made it profitable to export wild sisal. The
1929-30 shipments are represented entirely by plantation sisal, and exports
in 1930-31 should surpass last year's record provided prices rise high
enough to yield a profit to the growers.
Complete statistical data showing quantities and values of all exports
for 1929-30 by countries of destination are given in Schedule No. 2 annexed
to this report. There also will be found in the appendix a series of charts
presenting graphically yearly shipments of the principal articles of export
since the beginning of the Receivership.

Standardization
Reference was made in the annual report of this office for the fiscal year
1928-29, to the regulations governing standardization of green coffee for
export. These regulations became effective on October 1, 1929, and
therefore have been operative throughout the year covered by the present
report. The regulations define seven standard types of coffee, and require
that the exporter; determine the .type .of; coffee declared for export and





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


mark the sacks accordingly.; the standard type so declared and marked
upon the sacks is subject to inspection and verification by the customs
authorities. If at customs inspection it is found that the coffee is of a lower
grade than that declared and marked upon the sacks, the exporter may
withdraw the shipment from the customs and re-mark it, or, if he does not
agree with the result of the customs inspection, he may appeal to the local
standardization commission, consisting of representatives of the Depart-
ment of Finance, the Customs Service, and the Agricultural Service. The
findings of the local commission are subject to review by the Central
Commission on Standardization created by the law of June 12, 1929, the
decision of which is final.
The system has operated successfully and to the benefit of the Haitian
coffee trade, some elements of which regarded it with misgivings at the
beginning.
Coincidentally with the institution of the system of standardization, the
export duties on green coffee of types 1 and 2 were reduced to Gdes. 0.20
and Gdes. 0.25 per kilogram, respectively, while the normal export duty of
Gdes. 0.30777 was maintained on coffee of the other types. On September
1, 1930, the duties on coffee of types 1 and 2 were further reduced and the
reduction was extended to coffee of standard type 3, with the result that the
export duties are now Gdes. 0.15 per kilogram on coffee of type 1, Gdes. 0.20
on coffee of type 2, Gdes. 0.25 on coffee of type 3, and Gdes. 0.30777 on all
other types of coffee. This office estimates that the reduction in revenue
from export duties resulting from this measure, which became effective
September 1, 1930, will be about Gdes. 43,000. Some of this loss in revenue,
however, will be recovered, since the increased purchasing power resulting
from better prices obtained for coffee of the higher grades will be reflected
in increased imports. The reduced export duties on coffee of the superior
types, plus the reasonable certainty of obtaining higher prices for coffee of
these types, should give the exporter an incentive to improve the grade of
his product by removing impurities. It is hoped that it will be possible
(from a financial point of view) to make further reductions in the export
duties on coffee as well as on other export products, coupling such re-
ductions in duties with measures intended to promote improvement in
quality. This is the present policy of this office and it will be speeded up or
delayed in accordance with the financial conditions of the Haitian govern-
tnent.
An executive order of July 18, 1929, prohibited the sale of unripe coffee
berries, coffee containing excessive quantities of stones, other foreign
matter, or broken and spoiled beans, and further provided for inspection
by agents of the agricultural service at the places of production and of
marketing. The effect of this measure while it was enforced was excellent,
but it soon became a dead letter. Exporters then complained, and justly,
that the entire burden of standardization was placed upon them, and that





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the problem should be attacked at its source, that is, that the enforcement of
regulations to secure proper preparation and to prevent adulteration by
middlemen, known in Haiti as speculators, is perhaps of greater importance
than the verification of the product at the moment of exportation. The orig-
inal executive order, which provided for seizure and possible confiscation
of poorly prepared or adulterated coffee, was thought to be too harsh and
to afford opportunity to local petty officials to oppress the peasant pro-
ducers. A new draft of the regulations accordingly was prepared, more
clearly defining the impurities or adulterations which make commerce in
coffee containing them prohibited, defining what constitutes placing prohi-
bited coffee on sale, and providing that, in cases of first offense, the person
concerned shall be given the opportunity of cleaning-or preparing properly
the coffee seized for violation of the regulations, and that confiscation shall
be pronounced against an offender only in case of failure to avail himself of
this opportunity or in cases of second offenders. Technical questions involv-
ing a determination of whether the coffee contains impurities which subject
it to seizure are required to be submitted to the local standardization com-
missions. The new regulations were promulgated by an executive order of
August 9, 1930, and their effect in improving the quality of Haitian coffee
should be important, depending, of course, on the strength with which
they are enforced.
So long as the coffee standardization system was incomplete, in that
it did not extend to the producer and the middleman, the Central Commis-
sion on Standardization considered it prudent not to propose standardiza-
tion methods for other products, but to restrict its work to the execution
and improvement of the system as applied to the export of coffee. The
instructions mentioned below were issued by the General Receiver after
discussion with and approval by the Central Commission on Standardiza-
tion.
At the commencement of operations under the coffee standardization
system, those exporters who were not interested in improving or even in
ascertaining the grade of their product declared all their coffee for export
as of type 5, regardless of the fact that it might come within one of higher
types. Some of the opponents of the system are reported to have advised
their consignees that an effort would be made to render it ineffective by
declaring all coffee, including the best types, as of type 5. Coffee declared
by the exporter as type 5 frequently was found at verification to be type 4
or even type 3. On October 21, 1929, collectors were instructed that, in the
event a shipment is declared by the exporter to belong to a lower type
than that found on verification, the exporter may be permitted to re-mark
the shipment to correspond with the correct classification. If the exporter
fails to re-mark the coffee, the certificate of origin is issued showing the
lower classification as declared by the exporter. In the event a shipments





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


declared as of a higher type than that found at verification the shipper
must re-mark it to correspond with the type verified, unless the question is
appealed to the standardization commission. In any case, if the bags are
withdrawn for re-marking or re-grading, collectors are required, when the
shipment renters the custom house, to take an additional sample and make
a new verification. Every effort is made by the customs service to make
certain that the contents of every sack of coffee are not inferior to the
standard type marked upon the sack. The system has operated without
undue inconvenience to the exporter, and in most instances with his co-
operation and full appreciation of the resulting benefits.
Unfortunately, a tendency has been indicated in a few cases to employ
on sacks private marks inconsistent with the official marks, or imputing to
the contents qualities which the coffee does not possess. Instructions were
issued December 24, 1929, and April 14, 1930, prohibiting the use of any
private mark or designation incompatible with the mark indicating the
official standard type on any part of the sack or other container, or on the
customs or shipping documents. For example, the words "trie A la main"
(hand picked) or other incompatible words are not permitted on coffee of
types 6 and 7, and the words "extra prima", "extra choix", or other incom-
patible designations are not permitted on types 5 to 7, inclusive. The term
"extra choix" as a private mark is permitted on types 1 to 4.
To prevent misbranding it is required that "triage", which is composed
principally of the defects or culls, shall be marked as such if any mark at
all is applied other than that of the official standard type; and that the
mark "machine 6pierr6" (mechanically de-stoned) shall not appear upon
coffee of types 6 or 7. This prohibition was motivated by an incident
wherein an exporter marked as "machine epierr6" a shipment found on
verification to contain 217 defects of stones in a representative sample of
500 grammes. These prohibitions have been well received by those ex-
porters who are interested in maintaining and enhancing the good name of
Haitian coffee in foreign markets. In making these instructions public, it
was announced that there is no purpose of imposing exaggerated restrictions
upon the use of private marks, but that it is intended to prohibit such
private marks as are contrary to the facts, or which tend to facilitate fraud
or to give a bad reputation to Haitian products.
As to the effect of the standardization system in the foreign markets
where Haitian coffee is an important factor, it is believed the system has
been well received. It may be expected that the principal foreign purchasers
of Haitian coffee will wish to observe the operation of the Haitian standard-
ization system for a sufficient length of time to satisfy themselves that
the official standard types denote a uniform grade maintained, regardless
of season or of the place of origin, before they will be willing to accept
these standard .types:as-the basis of :transactions. .If these standard types





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


are to serve as a basis of transactions, it is essential that there be uniformity
of verification at the different ports, and that the principal purpose of veri-
fication, which is to insure that the quality established for each type is
maintained, shall never be lost from sight. That the objectives sought are
likely to be obtained is indicated by the fact that, in connection with the
new Franco-Haitian Commercial Convention discussed elsewhere in this
report, the French government informed the Haitian government that it
would recommend to the syndicate of coffee dealers of Havre the acceptance
of the Haitian official standard types as a basis of transactions in Haitian
coffee in the market of Havre, which for a long time has been predominent
in the trade in Haitian coffee.

Imports and Exports of Currency
The usual table showing imports and exports of currency over a period
of years has been omitted from this year's report. Large quantities of
currency regularly are transported.to and from the country in various ways
without appearing in the customs records, and such incomplete figures as
are available are apt to be misleading.

Customs Administration
The initiation of the coffee standardization plan on October 1, 1929 added
considerably to the administrative activities of the organization. Much
time and effort in the first few months of the year were spent in working
out the operating details of the system, instructing collectors in a proper
and uniform method of grading coffee, and straightening out to the satis-
faction of both parties the inevitable misunderstandings which, as naturally
might be expected, attended the beginning of so radical a change in the
rules governing shipment of Haiti's principal export. It was to be expected
that a few unforeseen difficulties would arise and that both coffee merchants
and members of the customs organization would fail to grasp the signifi-
cance and importance of certain of the new regulations. But on the whole a
distinct willingness to cooperate was shown by all persons involved, and it
is gratifying to record that the new system was working smoothly and
satisfactorily a very short time following the date when it first came into
effect.
On October 29, 1930 all collectors were instructed to forward a monthly
report regarding the circulation of fiduciary currency in their respective
districts. Previously it had been evident that in certain parts of the country
the circulation of subsidiary coins was not sufficient to meet the require-
ments of trade. The new system of regular monthly reports made it
possible for the customs organization to work with the treasury agent in
effecting a nickel money circulation more commensurate with trade require-
ments.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


There already has been mentioned the concerted effort made by this
office and the Agricultural Service for the purpose of encouraging the
growing of corn for export. All members of the customs force were instruct-
ed to assist corn planters and exporters in every way possible. The export
duty on corn was removed by executive order, dated December 26, 1929.
Customs warehouses were made available for the storage of corn without
requiring payment of the usual storage charges. Unfortunately, the price
of corn dropped to a point where returns did not offer sufficient inducement
to the exporter with the result that only a negligible amount of Haitian
corn reached the foreign market. However, there was a visible increase
in the production of corn which eventually found its way into domestic
consumption and thus tended to relieve the dependence of the country on
the importation of foreign food products.
An entirely new-activity during the year was undertaken by the customs
service in connection with the monthly payment of salaries, pensions,
subventions, and rentals which the state owes to persons residing in the
interior of the country. These payments previously had been made by
members of the Guard of Haiti in the course of their monthly inspection
trips which carry them into some of the most remote and inaccessible parts
of the country. Although the disbursement of government funds, properly'
speaking, does not constitute a necessary function of the Guard, this
manner of effecting payments to employees of the state had been adopted
as being the most expedient under the circumstances. At the beginning of
the fiscal year 1929-30 it was felt that the customs and internal revenue
service had reached a state of development where additional responsibilities
could be entrusted to Haitian officials, thereby making it possible for
collectors and inspectors to assume the burden of effecting most of the
government payments in the interior of the country. Accordingly, collectors
or inspectors are required once a month to made a trip over their respective
districts, visiting personally all employees or creditors of the state, and
making payments in the form of checks. These checks in turn may be
cashed by the creditor when he so desires from funds which the disbursing
official carries with him. In nearly all cases the creditor takes advantage of
this facility as even government checks have a very limited circulation in
the country and banking arrangements are used by very few persons living
in the interior of the country.
There have been instances in the past where monthly payments have
been made to employees of the state who have neglected completely their
official functions. Then too, payments have been subject to unnecessary
delay in the case of new appointments. Disbursing officers accordingly
were instructed to make every effort to determine that state employees
were performing their services and to check up on new appointments and
terminations of service. These instructions have been carried out faithfully





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


by officials entrusted with effecting civil payments, and it may be stated
definitely that a marked improvement has resulted with a corresponding
gain to the treasury.
At the end of the year the function of making civil payments had been
taken over by the customs and internal revenue service in all districts
except Jer6mie where civil payments still are made by the Guard of Haiti.
The Guard also has cooperated by providing collectors and inspectors of
this service, when making pay trips, with an escort and horses whenever
necessary.
This new function has meant the assumption by officials of this service
of new and arduous duties which they have carried out efficiently and
willingly. The trips each month take from five days to a week of the
disbursing officer's time during which he often must spend many hours in
the saddle on difficult mountain trails. Parts of some trips have to be
made by motor launch in all kinds of weather. Lodging and food at the
best are unsatisfactory, and the heavy rains of the wet season add greatly
to the hardships encountered.
Considerable credit is due both to the Haitian and American personnel
for the efficient way in which they have carried out this new undertaking.
No additions to the personnel have been made for the express purpose of
making these trips with the result that longer hours and increased work
have been necessary for all officials directly or indirectly connected with
the new service.
Tariff Revision
No revision of the import tariff schedules took place during the fiscal
year 1929-30 although material for a number of suggested changes was
collected. These recommendations will be presented during 1930-31 to the
administration at the first favorable opportunity.
In addition, record should be made of the fact that during the course of
the past year this office drafted a draw-back law which was presented to
the government but has not yet been passed. Under the present tariff it
is not possible for a manufacturer in Haiti to export his product abroad
and obtain a refund or reduction of any kind on import duties which he
may have paid on imported raw materials entering into the composition of
his product. Thus, in the case of beer made in Haiti for export abroad the
local brewery is forced to import malt and hops and pay the regular import
duty on these products. This results in a corresponding increase in the price
which must be asked for beer exported, and puts the brewery at an obvious
competitive disadvantage. A draw-back law would obviate this difficulty
and would be of assistance to any manufacturer in Haiti exporting a
product which utilizes imported raw materials. Legislation similar to the
proposed measure exists in other countries, and there is no good reason
why a similar system would not work to advantage in Haiti.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Although there were no revisions in import duties, there were several
reductions made in the export duty schedules. Haiti is one of the few
countries which rely upon export duties as an important source of revenue.
They constituted during the year under report 38.76 per cent of customs
revenues and 30.93 per cent of total revenues. In their defense it may
be urged that they are indirect, of long standing and easily collected, and
there is much force and perhaps some cynicism in the theory that because
the taxpayer has become accustomed to a tax it may be considered a
desirable from of taxation. The excise taxes are a form of indirect taxation
designed to supply revenue which would permit the gradual removal of
the export duties; opposition to these taxes may be thought to lend support
to the theory that it is unwise to disturb a system of taxation which is
sanctioned by usage. But the burden of the export duties is upon the
producer of commodities which must compete in the markets of the world;
no one of the commodities affected is produced solely in Haiti and this
burden is a handicap to such competition, which handicap only partly is
offset by the advantage of lower labor costs which Haiti undoubtedly
possesses. The tendency throughout the world is for export duties to
disappear as a source of revenue, and it is doubtful that any country which
has been able to abandon them has had cause to regret its action. The
removal of export duties has a tendency to encourage production, or rather
to remove one of the impediments to increased production, and it may
be expected that this will be the result in Haiti as it has been in other
countries which have effected this modification in their revenue systems.
Export duties on Haitian products have one advantage from the stand-
point of treasury operations which import duties do not possess. As they
are in all cases specific duties, their productivity is relatively stable and
is influenced only by fluctuations in the volume of the commodity exported.
But the effect is most burdensome upon the producer in years of price
depression. Fluctuations in this burden are in inverse relation to price,
and the lower the price the greater is the percentage burden of the export
duty. Some of the countries which have retained export duties as a source
of revenue endeavor to lessen the burden or to make the ad valorem
equivalent fairly constant by readjusting the duty periodically to market
prices. This has not been the practice in Haiti. If export duties are to be
continued as a source of revenue, a method should be devised to make such
duties less burdensome in years of price depression. While from the stand-
point of the public treasury they are eminently satisfactory because of
their stability, specific export duties operate most inequitably upon the
producer. They were approximately equivalent to 25 per cent ad valorem
in 1920-21, the year of commodity price depression after the great war,
compared with a percentage burden only half as great in the prosperous
year of 1927-28. In the year under report, which has'also been one-of






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


price depression, the percentage burden has been nearly 17 per cent as
compared with less than 12 per cent during the year 1928-29.
At the institution of the Receivership, it was found that all articles and
commodities exported from Haiti, including re-exports, were subject to
export duties at varying rates, and that the revenues derived from them
in most cases were pledged to debt service. No revision of the system of
export duties was possible while these specific pledges of revenue were
in existence. The matter could not be considered until the debts so secured
were refunded and pledges of specific revenues were replaced by a general
pledge of revenues as security for the debt service. The debt refunding
operations were not completed until the fiscal year 1923-24, and it was not
until these operations were completed that it was possible to attack the
problem of revision of customs duties.
Revision of the import tariff was undertaken first, and it became effective
in July 1926. The new tariff on imports differed completely in detail from
the old tariff, but it was so calculated as to produce a net burden of taxation
only slightly greater than under the old tariff. The effect of the new tariff
on the tax burden is set forth in Table No. 36 and in the discussion which
accompanies it.
Next, the financial administration was confronted with the problem
of reducing the duties on exports and eventually of removing them alto-
gether. The administration felt that the export duties were fundamentally
unsound in principle and a dangerous obstacle to the economic rehabilita-
tion of the country. This opinion it still holds, in common with most
competent observers.
Obviously, the export duties could not be removed without devising
other sources of revenue to take their place. Not only did the program
of development make it advisable that revenues be maintained, but the
treaty of September 16, 1915 provides that: "The Republic of Haiti will
not without a previous agreement with the President of the United States,
modify the customs duties in a manner to reduce the revenues therefrom..."
The administration therefore, in carrying out this program, was, faced
with two alternatives: it could compensate for reduced duties on exports
by making corresponding increases in the import tariff; or, it could devise
new internal revenue taxes to take the place of the loss in revenue caused
by export tax reductions. As the import tariff already was considered as
high as commerce reasonably could be expected to bear, the latter alterna-
tive was chosen.
Accordingly, an excise tax measure was drafted, and it became a law on
August 14, 1928. By this law the revenue from a tax on alcohol and
tobacco products was designed gradually to replace the revenue derived
from export duties.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


In principle and in operation this law has been opposed bitterly by
certain political interests until the people have come to believe that most
of their economic ills can be cured and prosperity restored by drastic
reductions and changes in the excise taxes.
The export duties were particularly burdensome upon Haiti's principal
export, coffee, and affected other exports in degrees varying with their
importance as a source of revenue which could be pledged to debt service.
So far as concerned the minor products, the export taxes consisted of
statistical duties insignificant in amount and not burdensome. An instance
of the persistence of a tendency to burden any commodity with an export
duty as soon as it became an important article of export commerce occurred
in connection with cotton, the export duty on which was quintupled by a
law of June 4, 1919. Fortunately, it was restored to its former figure by a
law of July 8, 1921.
During the fiscal year 1927-28 it was found that the statistical duty when
applied to crude salt was so burdensome as to result in an effective prohi-
bition of its exportation. A law of March 20, 1928, reduced the export
duty on this commodity to Gdes. 0.002 per kilogram. Bananas and plantains
were exonerated from export duty by the law of June 15, 1928.
The law of August 14, 1928, established the machinery whereby export
duties may be reduced or removed without further legislation, by executive
order of the President. This authority was first utilized in the executive
order of September 7, 1929, which reduced the export duties on coffee of
types 1 and 2 to Gdes. 0.20 and Gdes. 0.25, respectively, effective the
beginning of the fiscal year covered by the present report.
An executive order of December 21 1929, issued under the authority
of the law of August 14, 1928, exempted corn from export duties. Bricks
were exempted from export duties by the executive order of February 19,
1930. On July 14, 1930, the exemptions from export duties were extended
to a long list of fresh fruits and vegetables including practically everything
which answers this description, except pineapples and cashew nuts. Finally,
the executive order of August 9, 1930, made a further reduction in the ex-
port duties on the better standard types of coffee, reducing the duty on
types 1, 2 and 3 to Gdes. 0.15, Gdes. 0.20, and Gdes. 0.25 per kilogram,
respectively, effective September 1, 1930.
The law granting the President power to suspend in whole or in part,
the collection of export duties is conditional upon the resulting loss in
revenue being compensated by the revenue derived from excise taxes. It
has not been possible to make as much use of this authority to reduce
export duties as was intended when the excise law was voted because of
the disturbance of the Haitian economic situation which resulted from the
collapse of the Brazilian coffee valorization system.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


When the excise law was voted, it was hoped that the greater part
of the new revenue derived therefrom could and would be utilized to
replace revenue which would be lost through anticipated reductions and
removals of the export duties. But the commodity price depression has had
for effect a reduction of something over five million gourdes in revenue,
or a loss of about double the revenue from the excise taxes. Prompt
measures were taken to maintain the equilibrium of the budget, but it
was necessary momentarily to sacrifice a part of the project to reduce
export duties, just as it was necessary to sacrifice or defer numerous other
projects of merit which involve a charge upon the public treasury.
Measures were taken, effective March 1, 1930, to curtail budgetary expendi-
tures to an amount about three million gourdes less than was authorized
in the budget. Similarly it was necessary to curtail the intended reductions
of export duties. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in that
direction, and although the public interest demands that when conditions
are favorable the export duties shall be reduced still further, it is concerned
even more intimately at the present time with the maintenance of a balanced
budget and the normal operation of the public services.
The liberal budgetary allotments of former years cannot be continued
under present conditions. Until such time as coffee recovers at least some
of its former value the annual budget must be restricted to essential
services or productive enterprises only. The present budget, even including
the most recent reductions, is far too high to be considered in adjustment.
with revenue receipts. This office is fully aware of the fact that the people
of Haiti are heavily burdened by taxation when the ratio of their earning
capacity to taxation is compared with other countries, and that tax
reductions are greatly to be desired. But until the budget is brought in line
with reduced revenues there should be no reduction in the present scale
of taxation.
Commercial Conventions
The tariff policy of Haiti is based upon the principle of reciprocal uncon-
ditional most-favored-nation treatment, and Article 2 of the law of July
26, 1926 provides that the import tariff annexed thereto shall be a minimum
tariff applicable to products originating in all countries which grant uncon-
ditionally to products of Haitian origin most-favored-nation treatment, with
reservation of agreements which may be-made with foreign nations. This
reservation arises from a special commercial convention with France, pro-
viding for reciprocal tariff concessions. A further provision of the article
cited vests in the President of Haiti the power to increase, by executive order
issued upon the joint recommendation of the Secretary of State for Finance
and the General Receiver, by not more than fifty per cent as a maximum
tariff the duties applicable to any product or products originating in a
country which does not grant unconditional most-favored-nation treatment





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


to goods of Haitian origin. It has not been found necessary up to the
present time to make use of this provision authorizing the imposition
of retaliatory duties.
The commercial convention with France expired on June 3, 1930, and
was replaced by a new convention which this office believes is more favor-
able to Haiti than the one which it replaced. The new convention provides
for the minimum French and Algerian tariff rates on all important classes
of articles originating in Haiti. In pursuance of its tariff policy Haiti
grants most-favored-nation treatment to all goods of French, Algerian,
and Indo-Chinese origin. In addition Haiti grants a reduction of one-third
of the import duties on certain French products classified under paragraphs
456, 1309, 1314, 1415, 2126, 2128, 2306, 2309, 2315, 5045, 7036, (books
and printed matter in the French language only), 8065, 12303, 12304,
12310 to 12316 inclusive, 12327 (only mineral and medicinal waters, natural
or artificial), and 12430 of the Haitian tariff. The former commercial
convention provided also for this reduction in import duties on articles
classified under paragraphs 2127 (proprietary and patent medicines
containing more than 14 per cent alcohol, and extracts for the preparation
of beverages) and 11120 (bicycles). The tariff concessions previously
granted on these articles were replaced by tariff concessions applying to
articles classified under seven additional paragraphs, as follows: 1309,
cast iron pots and kettles; 1314, cast iron kitchen utensils; 1415, wrought
iron pipes and tubes; 5045, woolen underwear, plain woven; 7036 (books
and printed matter in the French language only, not including the other
articles dutiable under this paragraph); 12327 (mineral and medicinal
waters only, and not the other articles dutiable under this paragraph);
and 12430 (canned or potted game, pate de foie gras, etc.). While the
number of articles now enjoying tariff concessions is increased, the total
loss in revenue to Haiti is believed to be less than under the former con-
vention, in view of the elimination of articles classified under paragraph
2127 which formerly enjoyed reduced tariff rates.
A provision of the former convention, whereby Haiti agreed not to
increase during the existence of the convention the import duties on articles
enjoying preferential duties, was replaced in the present convention by
a reciprocal agreement that in case of a modification of the tariff deemed
by one of the countries prejudicial to its interests, it may open negotiations
looking to the repeal of the measure or to an equitable compensation.
Failure to reach an agreement within six months may be utilized by either
party as a reason for denouncing the convention, which in the event of
denunciation expires one year from the date of opening negotiations.
The new Fianco-Haitian commercial convention is for a period of three
years from the date of exchange of ratifications. If before its expiration
an agreement shall not have been reached to renew it, it is maintained in






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


effect provisionally for six months, upon the expiration of which provisional
period it will cease to exist unless an agreement shall have been reached to
renew it. Pending ratification by both governments, it was placed in effect
immediately by a modus vivendi.
Ordinarily, commercial conventions are of indefinite duration, but in
this instance, as the convention forms an exception to the Haitian tariff
policy which is to seek reciprocal unconditional most-favored-nation
treatment, it was thought desirable to make the convention expire by
limitation at the end of a definite period, at which time the advantage of
enjoying minimum duties in France may have become less important. As
a matter of fact, the present .advantage to Haiti is more apparent than
real. In applying the minimum duties to coffee of Haitian origin France
loses nothing, because if the maximum French tariff were applied Haitian
coffee would go elsewhere than to France. If the maximum French duties
were to be applied, French commerce might be the first to suffer, since
Havre would lose its predominance in the Haitian coffee trade.
Haiti has various arrangements with the United States, Germany, the
Netherlands, Great Britain and Italy embodying provisions for reciprocal
unconditional most-favored-nation treatment. The preferential duties ac-
corded to certain products of French origin, as mentioned above, are
applied also to the same products originating in the other countries
mentioned. The commercial agreement between Haiti and Germany was
replaced during the year by a formal treaty of friendship and commerce
signed July 26, 1930, and embodying provisions for reciprocal most-
favored-nation treatment in customs matters.
Negotiations have been continued concerning a project of commercial
convention with Belgium, and a project of commercial convention with
Cuba has been discussed. Also, negotiations have been under way for
some time aiming toward the establishment of a treaty of commerce and
navigation with Great Britain. Spain and Denmark have become important
as markets for Haitian coffee, and it would seem that the development of
commercial relations with these countries would be facilitated by the negoti-
ation of commercial conventions.
Customs Service
The cost of administering the various activities of the Financial Adviser-
General Receiver is limited by Article VI-of the treaty of September 16,
1915 to five per cent of yearly customs receipts. Although the treaty further
provides that by mutual agreement between Haiti and the United States
the amount of this so-called "five per cent fund" may be increased, it
never has been necessary since the establishment of the Receivership to
make use of this provision. On the contrary, during most of the period it
was found possible 'to accumulate funds which were utilized for many
capital expenditures. As an example there might be mentioned the con-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


struction in 1926 of the large modern building at Port-au-Prince which
now houses not only the main office of the customs receivership but also
the offices of the Department of Commerce, the Department of Finance and
the Internal Revenue Service. A large portion of the building thus has
been turned over to the Haitian government. Many other customs improve-
ments have been instituted by the Receivership in accord with the govern-
ment, and financed solely from the five per cent fund.
Shortly after establishment of the Receivership one per cent of revenue
receipts was fixed as the amount to be paid by the government to the
Banque Nationale de la R6publique d'Haiti as compensation for its services
as treasury agent of the government. This sum has been paid regularly
from the 5 per cent fund in so far as the customs receipts are concerned.
It follows, therefore, that the activities of the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver, including capital outlays in the form of permanent improvements,
have been financed entirely with what amounts to four percent of yearly
customs revenues.
Table No. 22 indicates the condition of the Receivership fund since the
fiscal year 1916-17. At the close of the year just ended there remained
in the fund a balance of Gdes. 169,130.17. However, expenditures during
the year exceeded five per cent of customs receipts and brought about
a reduction in the accumulated surplus amounting to Gdes. 187,336.06.
This result is not at all surprising in view of the general business depression
and decline in foreign commerce; similar conditions in much more ex-
aggerated form existed in 1920-21 when the deficit for the year amounted
to Gdes. 569,219.05, or more than half the receivership fund.
The surplus in the five per cent fund has been reduced to a very low
figure and it is obvious that for the year 1930-31 there can be no continu-
ation of expenditures for permanent improvements in customs property
and equipment however much such improvements may be needed; neither
is it certain that this fund can continue to pay for the customs share of
the treasury service rendered the government by the Banque Nationale de
la R6publique d'Haiti if the present economic condition is long continued.
The outlook at the present writing is not at all hopeful for an improvement
in business, and it is to be expected that customs receipts during the year
will remain at a low level. It is not expected that they will reach the 1929-
30 figures which themselves were far below normal. Contrasted with this
is the situation in the 1921 depression when five per cent of customs receipts
recovered from Gdes. 882,854.05 in 1920-21 to Gdes. 1,377,811.70 the follow-
ing year, or 56.06 per cent. A comparably rapid recovery from the present
depression cannot be expected, and it will take the most rigid economies
to maintain expenditures of the Receivership within the five per cent fund.
Not since 1926-27 has the reserve fund reached so low a figure, and that






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 49

year 'was followed by the most prosperous year in the history of the
Receivership.
Both revenues and expenditures from the five 'per cent fund declined
during 1929-30 as compared with the preceding year, but whereas customs

TABLE No. 22
RECEIVERSHIP FUND
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Five per cent
of Expenditures Surplus Deficit
customs receipts

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
September 1916 ............... 60,211.85 89,850.15 ... ....... 29,638.30
1916-17...................... .......... 914,794.70 796,625.70 118,169.00 ........
1917-18.......... ... .......... .. ......... 755,464.80 741,055.80 14,409.00 ...
1918-19............................ ... .. 1,432,176.60 700,035.60 732,141.00
1919-20.r .. .................- --..... 1,603,639.95 1,380,460.60 223,179.35 ...........
S1920-21 .... ........ 882,854.05 1,452,073.10 ................... 569,219.05
1921-22....... .............._..._ ... 1,377,811.70 1,279,142.25 98,669.45
1922-23.................... 1,555,057.00 1,438,506.15 116,550.85 ............
1923-24... ......................... 1,607,569.51 1,896,332.08 ........... 288,762.57
1924-25..............__...... 1,787,500.90 1,849,537.49 ............... 62,036.59
S1925-26...... ..... _. 2,029,741.59 1,698,379.86 331,361.73 ...........
1926-27.................-.--... ........ 1,683,093.81 2,278,241.30 ............. 595,147.49
1927-28............ ...... ................. 2,254,104.63 1,884,994.88 369,109.75 ................
1928.29 ........ 1,762,382.50 1,864,702.40 .......... 102,319.90
1929-30 ........ ...... ............ 1,541,953.74 1,729,289.80 ............. 187,336.06
Total_..._.._...... ... ...... 21,248,357.33 21,079,227.16 2,003,590.13 1,834,459.96
Average... .... 1,513,438.96 1,499,241.22 1,834,459.96 ....-
Surplus for period............... ....... ................... 169,130.17

revenues dropped 12.51 per cent, expenditures from the five per cent fund
declined only 7.26 per cent. In Table No. 23 these expenditures are classified
functionally. The item "fixed charges" is represented by the commission
of one per cent of customs revenues which is paid at the close of each
fiscal year to the Banque Nationale and which necessarily fluctuates with
the yearly changes in customs revenues. Property acquired during the year
brought about the expenditure of Gdes. 115,479.47, or less than half the
amount spent for the same purpose in 1928-29. Repairs and maintenance
charges, on the other hand, increased slightly. The significant items of
expenditure, however, are classified under administration and customs
operation. The cost of maintaining the custom houses was reduced by Gdes.
33,743.93, or 5.03 per cent less than in 1928-29. Administration costs
increased by Gdes. 61,436.75, or 10.61 per cent. This item comprises the
operating expenses of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver
at Port-au-Prince.
The failure of expenditures to keep pace with the sharp decline in
revenues may be ascribed to several reasons: in the first place, the cost of
making civil payments has added a completely new set of expenditures
to operations costs. Not only is a considerable sum paid out each month for
gasoline, automobile hire, horses, and food and lodging for disbursing
officers while making pay trips, but an even greater cost accrues in the form






50 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

of intangible items and increased overhead costs, the approximate total of
which is difficult to estimate. The actual costs of effecting monthly pay trips
during the past year, amounting to Gdes. 17,157.08, are shown in Table
No. 24. This amount was charged to the five per cent fund when pay trips
were made by customs collectors and members of the customs administra-
tion force; the internal revenue service was charged when pay trips were
made by members of that service. Since few pay trips were made by
internal revenue inspectors, all except Gdes. 1,764.37 of the total cost was
charged to the five per cent fund. Even more important are the intangible
costs which include depreciation on official customs automobiles and other
equipment assigned for use in making civil payments and the cost of the
collector's services during the time when he is absent from his regular

TABLE No. 23
EXPENSES OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER BY OBJECTS OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Repairs and
Adminis- Customs mainte- Acquisition Fixed Total
tration operation nance* of property charges

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
September 1916............ .... ......... .. .................--.... 89,850.15
1916-17..................... .......... .......... ............ .. ............... .... ..... 796,625.70
1917-18 ..................... _.. ................ .............. ........ ...... .................... ............. 741,055.80
1918-19 .................. ..... .... ... ...... ..... ..................................... ... ... 700,035.60
1919-20....-... ......... 329,634.00 508,570.75 ........ 114,500.00 427,755.85 1,380,460.60
1920-21-................. 426,498.70 547,194.55 ....... .... ...... 478,379.85 1,452,073.10
1921-22 .- .................. 404,251.70 605,773.60 ................ ......... 269,116.95 1,279,142.25
1922-23.................... 503,997.40 600,627.10 ........... ........... 333,881.65 1,438,506.15
1923-24....................... 455,447.21 648,959.62 .................. 500,000.00 291,925.25 1,896,332.08
1924-25...................... 461,316.07 673,495.96 ................ 57,745.41 656,980.05 1,849,537.49
1925-26.................. 467,996.66 669,394.41 ............ 155,040.47 405,948.32 1,698,379.86
1926-27.....- ........ 523,192.77 712,154.94 .......... 706,274.83 336,618.76 2,278,241.30
1927-28......-------------- 514,017.30 684,563.61 ......... 235,593.04 450,820.93 1,884,994.88
1928-29............... ... 578,827.16 671,332.50 24,027.32 238,038.92 352,476.50 1,864,702.40
192930 ........... ..... 640,263.91 637,588.57 27,567.10 115,479.47 308,390.75 1,729,289.80
Average 1919-20 to......
1929-30....-....... 482,312.99 632,695.96 4,690.40 192,970.19 392,026.81 1,704,696.35
*Prior to 1928-29 repairs and maintenance expenses were charged to administration or customs operation.

duties. No adequate accounting has been made of these factors, but it is
evident that they reach a much greater figure than the total given in Table
No. 24.
The new standardization law has required some additional personnel,
and has increased both equipment and supply costs. In addition, it un-
doubtedly has increased inspection costs as it was necessary to send in-
spectors to train the port personnel in grading and in the handling of the
different phases of the standardization law as new questions arose or as
previously unnoted points became important at this or that port.
The anticipated effect of .the internal revenue laws is that the export
duties may be reduced as the internal revenues are increased. In other
words, the reduction of export duties is contingent upon the state establish-
ing equally important sources of revenue by its internal taxation. Obviously,





















TABLE No. 24
COST OF EFFECTING CIVIL PAYMENTS FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


District


Hinche-Port-au-Prince.....................
Cap Haltien ......... ................... ......... ...
Cayes......................... ...................
Fort Liberti...................... .................
Gonalves....... ...................... ...
Jacmel.................
Petit Goive ................................................

Saint Marc.......................................
Glore ...................... .....


Nov. Dec.

Gourdes Gourdes
732.80 66.47





....732.80 66.47.... ...........
............. .............
............. ..............
.............. ..........

................



732.80 66.47


Jan.

Gourdes
542.92
10.00





9.38

562.30


Feb.

Gourdes
244.25
104.15
81.25

321.80
88.00
69.65

112.00

1,021.10


March I April


Gourdes
404.68
658.61
578.55

385.60
196.45
146.75
496.00
12.00
45.00

2,923.64


May

Gourdes
1,011.40
508.35
47.55
55.25
653.50
258.75
101.61
169.50
358.00

3,163.91


Gourdes
547.91
104.77
204.25
33.00
278.20
359.50
116.61

57.00

1 'm71 9A


June

Gourdes
611.02
189.39
254.62
42.00
250.00
274.45
164.73
435.25
94.13

2.315.59


July

Gourdes
270.51
83.43
256.20
112.50
288.40
119.35
137.25
203.25
88.63
51.00

1,610.52


Aug.

Gourdes
100.75
181.80
222.75
...........
283.40
............
111.50
168.75
51.26
70.75

1,190.96


0
0
o
1B




Total

Gourdes
4,775.01 S
1,913.50 t
2,108.16
242.75 0
3,028.90 <
1,326.88
966.60
1,682.75
872.53
240.00

17,157.08
C-


Sept.

Gourdes
242.30
73.00
462.99

568.00
30.38
118.50
210.00
90.13
73.25

1,868.55


I I


,


,





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


however, the question of the reduction of taxation is one that is to be
considered only in connection with the actual necessities of the government
budget, and when all revenues have decreased, as at the present time, it is
not only unwise but impossible, from the point of view of maintaining a
balanced budget, to put into effect any general plan of reduction.
A new item entered into the cost of administration in the form of the
regular yearly audit of accounts which took place for the first time at the
beginning of the fiscal year 1929-30. The cost of this audit amounted to
Gdes. 22,874.15. A change in the accounting system of the Guard of Haiti
was effected by this office early in the year. This change involved a
redivision of work in the Comptroller's office and an extra employee was
found to be necessary. In addition, Mr. Lassiter was reappointed to the
service as the increase in the accounting detail required increased super-
vision.
The visit of the Forbes Commission also increased the cost of adminis-
tration in that innumerable reports and letters had to be prepared. To
assist in this work it was found necessary to employ temporarily an
additional American stenographer. With this should be mentioned the
cost of many telegrams, long distance telephone calls and incidental costs
occasioned not only by the visit of the Commission but by the political
difficulties which characterized the entire year.
Finally, should be added the fact that the customs service must maintain
practically the same personnel and general overhead in poor years that it
carries in years of maximum commercial activity. It is true that certain
economies can be made in the less prosperous years, but in general the
customs service cannot be expected to adapt costs quickly to sudden
changes in the volume of foreign commerce. The inevitable result is that
the five per cent fund is increased during the prosperous years and is
reduced during the lean years. Unfortunately, the fiscal year just ended
was not one of the prosperous years.
A further analysis of total expenditures for the fiscal year 1929-30 is
presented in Table No. 25 which classifies expenditures by months and by
objects of expenditures. It will be noticed at once that fixed charges, con-
sisting entirely of the commission paid to the Banque Nationale de la Repu-
blique d'Haiti, are paid at the end of the fiscal year. This practice was
adopted first in 1925, previous to which it was customary to pay the
treasury commission after the close of the fiscal year. The other accounts
set forth in the table show no striking fluctuations from month to month
with the exception of the property account over which the principal entries
were passed during the early months of the year, which accounts largely
for the fact that total expenditures showed a tendency to decline during
the course of the year. Total expenditures were highest in October and
lowest in August.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 25
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Moh Administration Repairs and Acquisition Fixed
and operation maintenance of property charges Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October............................ .. ........... 114,895.17 2,129.68 14,273.81 ..-.............. 131,298.66
November............................................... 109,972.48 2,457.06 17,737.40 ....130,166.94
December............................................... 107,242.62 5,163.03 17,074.99 ........ 129,480.64
January............................... .............. 99,025.99 2,275.99 7,842.8 .. 109,144.76
February............................ .... .. 109,092.76 1,030.30 14,576.41 124,699.47
March.................... .............. 107,993.00 3,905.21 5,528.14 .... 117,426.35
April................................... .................. .... 102,292.64 523.91 6,895.80 ................ 109,712.35
May.................... ...................... .............. 111,634.74 1,186.42 7,355.10 . 120,176.26
June................................................... .. ... 108,295.40 4,119.38 8,881.66 ............ 121,296.44
July...................................................... ......... 101,662.54 1,724.53 5,626.93 ............. 109,014.00
August .............................. ...... 93,710.35 1,881.31 5,105.30 ..... 100,696.96
September................... ................................ 112,034.79 1,170.28 4,581.15 308,390.75 426,176.97
Total.................................... .............. 1,277,852.48 27,567.10 115,47947 308,390.75 1,729,289.80
Percentage.............. ...... .......... .. .... 73.90 1.59 6.68 17.83 100.00

Table No. 26 sets forth a classification of administration and operation
expenditures which alone constituted during the year 73.90 per cent of
total expenditures of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver compared
with 67.04 per cent the year before. Salaries and wages totalled Gdes.
1,124,419.03, an increase of Gdes. 33,477.39 over 1928-29.

TABLE No. 26
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES
OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Special
Month ,Salaries Supplies Commu- and
and and Transpor- nication Rents miscel- Total
wages materials station service laneous

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October...................... 96,515.07 6,691.66 6,571.94 269.00 185.00* 5,032.50 114,895.17
November................... 81,195.72 4,201.12 6,286.94 29.30 250.00 18,009.40 109,972.48
December................... 97,698.46 2,928.36 5,999.50 293.30 240.00 83.00 107,242.62
January..................... 90,614.71 3,913.56 4,348.57 141.60 10.00" 17.55 99,025.99
February.................. 93,026.06 12,512.63 3,720.25 114.55 260.00* 20.73* 109,092.76
March.................... 94,813.19 3,329.06 9,151.87 159.12" 350.00 508.00 107,993.00
April......................... 93,257.29 5,843.26 3,769.16 137.82" 620.00* 180.75 102,292.64
May............................... 102,005.59 5,352.64 4,520.10 203.59* 70.00* 30.00 111,634.74
June ....-.................. 97,888.53 4,747.53 5,728.20 190.26" 21.50 99.90 108,295.40
July........ ........ 93,751.62 2,083.14 5,901.92 10.00 60.00* 24.14* 101,662.54
August ................- 86,343.08 3,828.98 3,650.09 15.00 110.00* 16.80* 93,710.35
September................ 97,309.71 7,647.80 7,040.03 62.97 80.00* 54.28 112,034.79
Total.................. 1,124,419.03 63,079.74 66,688.57 244.93 533.50* 23,953.71 1,277,852.48
Percentage....... 87.99 4.94 5.22 .02 .04" 1.87 100.00
Credit

Additions to the staff made the previous year in anticipation of greatly
augmented activities such as civil pay trips, standardization law enforce-
ment, increased inspection work, etc., influenced the size of the monthly
pay roll.
The effect of our economy is in evidence in the case of the purchase
of supplies and materials for which Gdes. 63,079.74 were spent in 1929-30
as compared with Gdes. 83,504.91 in 1928-29. Expenditures under this item
constituted 4.94 per cent of the total in 1929-30.which compares favorably






54 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

with the percentage of 6.68 recorded at the close of the previous year.
The transportation account, largely because of the new activities of the
service, increased from Gdes. 63,030.93 to Gdes. 66,688.57, or 5.80 per cent.
The cost of the audit which was made at the beginning of the year by
representatives of the office of the Comptroller General of the United
States was charged to the special and miscellaneous expense account. The
year just ended was the first in which an audit of this kind was made, and
accordingly the account under which the cost of the audit appears shows
a decided increase. In 1928-29 a total of Gdes. 8,798.58 was listed under
special and miscellaneous expenditures, while during 1929-30 this item rose
to Gdes. 23,953.71. The difference is more than represented by the cost of
the government audit.
TABLE No. 27
REPAIRS AND IMPROVEMENTS TO CUSTOMS PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Repairs and
Acquisition of improvements to
property paid plant and equip-
from 5 per cent ment paid from Total
fund* general funds of
the government

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Administration.................................................................. .. 30,574.00 ............................ 30,574.00
Aquin .................................... ...................9 5..................... 91.50
Bellad re .............. ................................ 98.45 ............................ 98.45
Cap Haitien .......................................... .. 42, 1 ........ ....... 42,266.21 ..42,266.21
Cays .. ........... ..................................... 1,823.50 5,899.12 7,722.62
Fort Libert ............. .... ....... .. ................ 18,563.80 ............ ......... 18,563.80
Glore.......................................... ....... ............. ..... ........... 384.00 .............................. 384.00
Gonaives ................ .. ............ ......... 4,611.00 334,229.35 338,840.35
acmel.......................... ............. .... ............. .............- 561.20 722.88 1,284.08
Jkr emie ................ ......... ...... .......... 287.75 16,974.82 17,262.57
Miragoane .......... ................... ........ 1,231.79 .............................. 1,231.79
Ouanaminthe ..... ........................ .. ................. 126.40 ........................ 126.40
Petit Golve........... ................................ 465.70 -.......................... 465.70
Port-au-Prince ............... ...................... .. ........... 13,294.92 297.12 13,592.04
Port-de-Paix .. .............. .............. ...... ........... 194.55 708.72 903.27
Saint Marc.............................. . ................... 904.70 ........................... 904.70
Total....... ....... ................ 115,479.47 358,832.01 474,311.48
Repairs the cost of which is charged to the 5 per cent fund are included in the cost of customs operation
and are not charged to permanent improvements.

Every organization or individual entrusted with the administration of
large sums of money realizes the importance of a periodical examination
of accounts by a competent and disinterested force of auditors. The
wisdom of this practice has been demonstrated time and time again in
corporation and government finance, and in the case of Haiti the inaugura-
tion of a regular system of periodical audits has been felt to mark a distinct
advance in the financial administration. Although the cost of the exami-
nation may at first sight seem disproportionately large, the expense eventu-
ally will be more than made up by increased accounting efficiency and
general improvement in the management of government funds.
In Table No. 28 the ports are arranged in order of their importance
with respect to customs receipts,w while in separate columns are given the






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 55

cost of customs operation by ports and cost by ports per gourde collected.
The first four ports maintained during 1929-30 the same relative importance
with respect to customs receipts that obtained during the previous year,
with Port-au-Prince leading, followed by Cap Haitien, Jacmel and Cayes.
Customs receipts collected at Port-au-Prince in 1929-30 amounted to 44.47
per cent of the total as compared with a share of 45.58 per cent in 1928-29.
J6r6mie changed place with Gonaives as the fifth port of the republic in
size of customs receipts, while Petit Goave took the place of Port-de-Paix
as the seventh port. Heavy logwood shipments at Aquin moved that port
from 14th to 11th in importance.

TABLE No. 28
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES FROM RECEIVERSHIP FUND
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Ratio to total Cost per
Customs customs Customs gourde
receipts receipts operation collected

Gourdes Percent Gourdes Gourdes
Port-au-Prince............ ................. 13,709,825.70 44.47 284,030.60 .0207
Cap Haitien .................................... 3,789,680.04 12.30 72,273.27 .0191
Jacmel....... .................................................................... 2,522,230.06 8.18 43,210.39 .0171
Cayes.......................................................................... 2,411,579.06 7.82 60,108.31 .0249
Jrie........................................................ ... 1,842,259.93 5.97 32,448.29 .0176
Gonives....... ...................... ...................... 1,791,977.39 5.81 39,072.23 .0218
Petit Golve...................... ..................................... 1,728,672.12 5.61 28,349.87 .0164
Port-de-Paix............. ..................................... 1,298,046.55 4.21 21,429.26 .0165
Saint Marc .................................... ..... .. .......... 964,917.79 3.13 24,777.76 .0257
Miragolne................. ......... .............. ........... 673,819.20 2.18 8,487.83 .0126
Aquin................................. ... 41,011.15 .13 2,121.52 .0517
Fort Libertc........ ................... ................ . 35,418.25 .11 11,814.53 .3336
Ouanaminthe................................ 16,415.20 .04 2,947.97 .1796
Belladire .................. .......... ........ 10,285.09 .03 4,134.94 .4020
Glore.................................................... 2,937.22 .01 2,381.80 .8109
Total.............. ...................... .......... ......... 30,839,074.75 100.00 637,588.57 .0207
Administration. .......................... ...................... .................... ...................- 640,263.91 .0208
Total administration and customs operation.... ............ ......... 1,277,852.48 .0415
Repairs and maintenance ............. ......... ... .... ............ .... .............. 27,567.10 .0009
Acquisition of property...................... ........... ... ...................... ................... 115,479.47 .0037
Fixed charges.................... ......... ............... .................. ..... .... .. 308,390.75 .0100
Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund............ ........................ ................ 1,729,289.80 .0561

Although Cayes is the fourth city of importance with respect to receipts,
the cost of customs operation at that port is higher than at any other port
except Port-au-Prince and Cap Haitien. Stating the same relationship in
terms of cost per gourde collected, it appears that the cost at Cayes was
Gdes. .0249; at Port-au-Prince Gdes. .0207; at Cap Haitien, Gdes. .0191;
and at Jacmel Gdes. .0171. During 1928-29 the same relationship between
the four leading ports existed, but the cost per gourde collected was some-
what less, the increase in 1929-30 being due primarily to the decline in
revenue receipts at each of the ports and to the fact that necessarily the
overhead costs at the ports must remain practically the same regardless of
a temporary recession in foreign trade.
Of the major ports, Petit Goive showed the lowest cost per gourde
collected with a figure of Gdes. .0164. The highest cost was at Saint Marc


















TABLE No. 29

COST OF CUSTOMS OPERATIONS BY PORTS AND COSTS OF ADMINISTRATION, REPAIRS AND
MAINTENANCE, ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY, AND FIXED CHARGES
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1929-30


Aqu aitien............... ......................................................
BllCaye .......................................... .....................................
p Haitien.......................................................................
Cay es .......................... ...... .............. ............ ........................
Fort Libert. .................................. .... .............................
G l oire ............. .....................................................................................
Gornain .................. ...... ............................. ... ........................
P etit Goliv................................. .... .... ......... .......
Jortanri........................... ..... ....................................................
Mirgo e ............ ......................................................
Ouanaminthe r ..............................................................................




Total stoms ........................opraion..... ............................................
Total customs opranata .........................................
Administration .........................
Total administration and operation .............................
Repairs and maintenance ... .................................... .........
Acquisition of property ............... .....................
Fixed charges...................... ................... ............
Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund.............................


Average
1919-20 to
1923-24


Gourdes
4,144.35
898.96
73,190.96
50,932.83
860.12
37,507.43
48,404.08
29,439.82
6,098.56
4,180.33
26,449.52
256,158.43
17,548.24
22,074.54
577,888.17
423,965.80
1,001,853.97
122,900.00
360,211.91
1,484,965.88


1924-25


Gourdes
3,473.83
2,000.30
85,065.19
60,765.24
2,021.85
36,831.10
48,431.19
33,749.14
7,615.28
3,481.29
34,106.17
305,140.31
19,687.95
31,127.12
673,495.96
461,316.07
1,134,812.03
57,745.41
656,980.05
1,849,537.49


1925-26 1 1926-27


Gourdes
3,477.88
2,025.01
70,841.95
60,917.11
1,859.95
40,127.43
53,749.11
36,791.45
8,356.14
2,616.05
30,921.21
309,650.96
21,856.60
26,203.56
669,394.41
467,996.66
1,137,391.07
155,040.47
405,948.32
1,698,379.86


Gourdes
3,669.21
4,762.06
86,410.14
58,437.89
4,803.29
50,683.85
50,329.94
34,338.97
11,625.03
4,808.54
32,070.93
320,947.55
21,604.51
27,663.03
712,154.94
523,192.77
1,235,347.71

706,274.83
336,618.76
2,278,241.30


1927-28


Gourdes
2,883.83
11,557.10
68,572.67
59,640.25
2,793.02
38,800.21
56,528.07
30,630.10
22,799.62
3,491.06
32,231.01
308,533.60
20,716.07
25,387.00
684,563.61
514,017.30
1,198,580.91
235,593.04
450,820.93
1,884,994.88


1928-29


Gourdes
2,149.93
5,075.13
79,854.13
58,775.55
15,451.20
1,895.30
35,497.00
42,822.39
32,705.60
10,288.67
2,677.16
30,796.71
307,313.41
18,838.98
27,191.34
671,332.50
578,827.16

1,250,159.66
24,027.32
238,038.92
352,476.50

1,864,702.40


Average
1924-25 to
1928-29

Gourdes
3,130.94
5,083.92
78,148.81
59,707.21
3,090.24
2,674.68
40,387.92
50,372.14
33,643.05
12,136.95
3,414.82
32,025.21
310,317.16
20,540.82
27,514.41
682,188.28
509,070.00
1,191,258.28
4,805.46
278,538.54
440,568.91
1,915,171.19


1929-30


Gourdes
2,121.52
4,134.94
72,273.27
60,108.31
11,814.53
2,381.80
39,072.23
43,210.39
32,448.29
8,487.83
2,947.97
28,349.87
284,030.60
21,429.26
24,777.76
637,588.57
640,263.91
1,277,852.48
27,567.10
115,479.47
308,390.75
1,729,289.80


Average
1919-20 to
1929-30

Gourdes
3,499.81
3,095.40
75,361.11
55,755.33
2,478.70
1,823.26
38,958.99
48,826.50
31,623.87
9,060.49
3,720.33
29,156.68
283,309.87
19,261.32
24,792.96
630,724.62
482,312.99
1,113,037.61
4,690.40
192,970.20
392,026.79
1,702,725.00


I


_ I I I


I





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


where the cost was Gdes. .0257 for every gourde collected. During the
preceding year also, Saint Marc showed the greatest collection cost, but
Petit Goive in that year gave way to Port-de-Paix for the distinction of
reporting the lowest collection costs. The minor ports, and in particular
the three frontier stations, as usually is to be expected, showed collection
costs considerably in excess of those at the larger ports. The smaller ports
are maintained for the convenience of commerce and because it is hoped
that by keeping them open the adjacent territory eventually will undergo
more complete development. The frontier stations, on the other hand, are
maintained chiefly as a means of controlling smuggling.
The last column of Table No. 28 gives a figure for the cost per gourde
collected at all ports taken together. In 1929-30 this cost was Gdes. .0207;
in 1928-29,' Gdes. .0191; and in 1927-28, .0152. It appears therefore, that
collection costs have mounted steadily upward over the last three years.
The same period, however, has been marked by declining customs receipts
and the increase in collection costs is to be ascribed to that fact rather
than to any weakening in the efficiency of collecting. An increase also was
recorded in the case of administrative costs per gourde collected which
amounted to Gdes. .0208 in 1929-30, Gdes. .0164 in 1928-29 and Gdes. .0114
in 1927-28.
The cost of collection at ports where exports largely exceed imports
is generally less per gourde, because duties assessed on exports are specific,
and each shipment is relatively large in volume and requires no more paper
work than the smallest importation. Further, in a general sense, the
quantities of export products do not vary greatly from year to year. At
a port where the usual condition shows a great excess of imports over
exports the clerical work is much greater, and the cost per gourde collected
higher in consequence. It follows, therefore, that the wide variation in the
cost of collection at the different ports does not necessarily reflect the
efficiency of the organization, but does indicate the increased detail neces-
sary in handling import collections. Comparatively speaking, the clerical
paper work necessary in handling an importation of a half dozen lead
pencils by parcel post, on which we receive a few cents in duty, is greater
than the clerical work necessary in the exportation in one.shipment of
2000 sacks of coffee weighing 160 metric tons, on which we receive Gdes.
49,243.34 in export duties.
Combining administration and operating costs with repair and main-
tenance, the acquisition of property, and the fixed commission paid to the
fiscal agent, it appears that total expenditures from the five per cent fund
during 1929-30 amounted to Gdes .5 per gourde collected. As is to be
expected, this compares unfavorably with the 1928-29 figure which amount-
ed to Gdes. 0.0529. Both figures, however, indicate an expenditure in excess
of five per cent of customs receipts with the result that, as already has been
i41/



















TABLE No. 30

TOTAL COST OF COLLECTING EACH GOURDE OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1929-30
_____________________________________________________________________________ _____ ______________________________________


Aquin......................................... ........................................
Belladkre .......................................... ..
Cap Haitien.. ................................. .................. .... .....
Cayes ....... ...........................................................
Fort Libert ................. ................. .... ....
Glore...................................................................................
Gonaives...................................... .....................................
Jacmel ............. .............................................
J rmie ..... .................................. ......... ...................................
M iragot ne ... .............. .... .......... ............ .... ..............................
Oanaminthe........................ ............. ..... .........
Petit Golve ........ ....................... .........................................
Port-au-Prince ........ ............................................ ..
Port-de-Paix ...... .......................
Saint Marc..................................................................

Total customs operation.......................................
Administration................................................
Total administration and operation........................
Repairs and maintenance .. ........................... ....................
Acquisition of property............ ..........................
Fixed charges........... .............. ............. ..... .........


Average
1919-20 to 1924-25
1923-24


Gourdes
.0209
4.1225
.0230
.0195
.0975
1.8248
.0251
.0209
.0376
.0137
1.1820
.0163
.0217
.0167
.0222
.0217
.0161
.0378
.0046
.0136
.0560


Gourdes
.0128
2.8871
.0213
.0165
3.0370
.0192
.0158
.0276
.0127
.4073
.0134
.0190
.0161
.0248
.0188
.0129

.0317
.0016
.0184
.0517


1925-26


Gourdes
.0192
1.3629
.0139
.0169
1.1973
.0210
.0151
.0180
.0143
.1838
.0114
.0174
.0122
.0197
.0165
.0115
.0280
.0038
.0100
.0418


1926-27 1927-28 1928-29


Gourdes
.0324
.3538
.0266
.0171

1.3517
.0304
.0169
.0251
.0165
.3842
.0149
.0204
.0192
.0236

.0211
.0156
.0367
........02
.0100

.0677


Gourdes
.0471
.5505
.0139
.0181
.4555
.0155
.0139
.0161
.0259
.1674
.0111
.0142
.0133
.0204
.0152
.0114
.0266
.0052
.0100
.0418


Gourdes
.1797
.2226
.0173
.0208
.2458
.3847
.0174
.0145
.0185
.0131
.1028
.0206
.0191
.0121
.0267
.0191
.0164
.0355
.0007
.0067
.0100
.0529


Average
1924-25 to
1928-29

Gourdes
.0245
.4277
.0179
.0177
.2458
.7946
.0201
.0152
.0203
.0171
.2077
.0136
.0178
.0142
.0228
.0179
.0134
.0313
.0001
.0073
.0116
.0503


Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund...................


1929-30


Gourdes
.0517
.4020
.0191
.0249
.3336
.8109
.0218
.0171
.0176
.0126
.1796
.0164
.0207
.0165
.0257
.0207
.0208
.0415
.0009
.0037
.0100
.0561


Average
1919-20 to 0
1929-30
0
0
Gourdes
.0230
.4809 g
.0199 >
.0190 Z
.0850
.9065 >
.0222
.0175 >
.0247
.0154
.3519 9
.0148
.0195
.0154 m
.0228 2
.0196 g
.0150
.0346
.0001
.0060
.0122
.0529


I I I


,


,


,


.


,


,


,


.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


noted, the surplus remaining in the Receivership fund is diminishing each
year of operation. Unless increased revenues reduce our operating per-
centages (which is unlikely in view of present world conditions), or the
removal of the burden of the yearly commission paid to the treasury agent
increases our availabilities, the close of the present year will find the five
per cent fund in a decidedly precarious position. In any event marked
economies must be effected in all administrative plans for customs operation.

Internal Revenue Service
The law of June 6, 1924, created the internal revenue service and placed
the collection of internal revenues under the supervision and control of the
General Receiver. Expenditures of the service were provided for by es-
tablishing an operating allowance of fifteen per cent of all internal revenues
collected. As in the case of the customs service, one per cent of yearly
receipts have been paid regularly to the Banque Nationale de la R6publique
d'Haiti as its contractual commission for service as treasury agent.
Table No. 31 shows the condition of the fifteen per cent fund since the
establishment of the internal revenue service. Collections during 1929-30
increased over the previous year, but not at the rate which had been

TABLE No. 31
OPERATING ALLOWANCE OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1929-30

Fifteen per cent
of internal Expenses Surplus
revenue

Gourdes Gotrdes Gourdes
August and September 1924...... .. .......................... 110,195.90 75,254.27 34,941.63
1924-25..................... .. ..................................... 613,488.92 350,274.56 263,214.36
1925-26..................... ................................ .. ................. 623,607.59 304,198.76 319,408.83
1926-27................................................. .................. 622,993.20 306,308.68 316,684.52
1927-28.............. .... ................... ....... ......... 636,243.02 462,010.33 174,232.69
1928-29..... ........... ................. .... ........ ... .... 905,289.72 799,076.94 106,212.78
1929-30..... ...... ......................................... ........... 993,024.61 993,017.74 6.87

expected. As a result, fifteen per cent of internal revenues amounted to
Gdes. 993,024.61 in 1929-30 compared with Gdes. 905,289.72 in 1928-29,
an increase of Gdes. 87,734.89, or 9.69 per cent. The increase was barely
sufficient to take care of the program of expansion and improvement of
facilities which had been planned for 1929-30. Expenditures rose from
Gdes. 799,076.94 in 1928-29 to Gdes. 993,017.74 in 1929-30, an increase of
Gdes. 193,940.80, or 24.27 per cent, and thus practically the entire operat-
ing allowance was utilized during the year.
An analysis of internal revenue service expenditures is given in Table No.
32. Most of the increased expenditures were recorded in the account cover-
ing administration and operation which increased from Gdes. 671,173.86
in 1928-29 to Gdes. 800,451.30 in 1929-30. A large part of the increase
also was accounted for under the heading of property acquisitions,

























TABLE No. 32
COSTS OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE BY OBJECTS OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1929-30


Cost per gourde collected
Administration Repairs Acquisition
and and of Fixed Total Administra- Repairs Acquisition
operation maintenance* property* charges tion and and of Fixed Total
operation maintenance property charges

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
August and Sept. 1924.... 75,254.27 75,2 7 .1024 ..... .. .... ........... .1024
924-25................. 302,028.90 .......... ............ 48,245.66 350,274.56 .0739 .......... ......... .0117 .0856
1925-26................. 262,647.06 .......... 41,551.70 304,198.76 .0632 .... ..... ............. .0100 .0732
1926-27............... 264,775.80 .............. .....41,532.88 306,308.68 .0638 ............ .0100 .0738
927-28.. .......... 419,594.13 ..... .. ............ 42,416.20 462,010.33 .0989 ....... ... ...... ...... .0100 .1089
1928-29.......-- .......- 671,173.86 2,161.50 65,388.93 60,352.65 799,076.94 .1112 .0004 .0108 .0100 .1324
1929-30............ .. 800,451.39 5,281.74 121,082.97 66,201.64 993,017.74 .1209 .0007 .0183 .0100 .1499


*Prior to 1928-29 repairs and maintenance and acquisition of property were included in administration and operation.


(z
n




r1
o



-'




13
rl






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 61

expenditures for which during 1929-30 were Gdes. 55,694.04 more than in
the previous year. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance increased by
Gdes. 3,120.24 over the same period, while fixed charges increased by
Gdes. 5,848.99. Fixed charges, as in the case of the customs service, include
only the commission of one per cent paid to the Banque Nationale, and
with the increase in internal revenue collections, the amount of the
commission increased proportionately.
Inasmuch as expenditures increased relative to receipts, it follows that
the cost per gourde collected increased correspondingly. In 1929-30 the
cost per gourde collected was Gdes. 0.1499 compared with Gdes. 0.1324
in the prior year.
Table No. 33 shows the distribution of expenditures by months during
the past fiscal year. The bank commission as usual was paid in the month
of September, and the large increase in total expenditures for that month
was due in part to that payment and in part to an expenditure of Gdes.
47,110.64 for the purchase of much needed equipment including new fire-

TABLE No. 33
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Month Administration Repairs and Acquisition of
and operation maintenance property Fixed charges Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October......... ..... ..... ............ 68,303.86 49.05 2,373.38 .... 70,726.29
November.................. ............. 68,600.66 25.00 3,003.23 .... ... 71,628.89
December....................................... 66,761.72 130.00 25,474.80 ............ 92,366.52
January ...... .......................... .. 57,795.98 1,107.58 11,035.67 ........ ... 69,939.23
February ........................... .... 62,930.22 608.15 7,702.58 ...... 71,240.95
March............. ........ 73,353.09 2,754.16 2,110.38 ................. 78,217.63
April.-. ..... ........................... 62,260.52 50.00 5,570.76 ........ 67,881.28
May ....................... ........ 67,014.23 .................. 8,204.51 ................ 75,218.74
June..........-- .... 60,166.50 205.00 2,367.65 .... 62,739.15
July....... ......... ...... .. 64,747.88 79.50 1,149.17 .............. 65,976.55
August ..... ... ............... 70,164.43 93.30 4,980.20 ...... ... 75,237.93
September....................... 78,352.30 180.00 47,110.64 66,201.64 191,844.58
Total........ ............._ ......... 800,451.39 5,281.74 121,082.97 66,201.64 993,017.74
Percentage ..-...................... 80.61 0.53 12.19 6.67 100.00

proof steel filing cabinets for the land registration office, new safes, and
additional automotive equipment. Other expenditures under the property
account were for construction of new internal revenue offices at Areahaie
and Lascahobas.
In spite of increased operating costs, the proportion which these charges
bore to total expenditures declined from 84"per cent in 1928-29 to 80.61 per
cent in 1929-30. The larger capital expenditures during the latter year
on the other hand, increased the proportion of expenditures under the
property account from 8.18 per cent in 1928-29 to 12. 19 per cent in 1929-30.
A further classification of administration and operating expenditures is
presented in Table No. 34. Salaries and wages took a larger share of these
expenses with 70.92 per cent in 1929-30 as compared with 64.90 per cent






62 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

in the previous year. An increased share also was indicated under the
heading of special and miscellaneous expenses which comprised 7.86 per
cent of total operating expenses in 1929-30 as contrasted with 2.33 per cent
in the previous year. This was due to steady expansion during the year in
land and survey work. These expenditures are not immediately productive
of increased revenues, but the income of the state in the course of time
should increase appreciably as state land is identified and placed under
rental.
Expenditures for rents increased from Gdes. 963.60 in 1928-29 to Gdes.

TABLE No. 34
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES OF INTERNAL
REVENUE SERVICE-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Special
Salaries Supplies Commu- and
and and Transpor- nication Rents miscel- Total
wages materials station service laneous

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
')tober................ 45,188.84 12,745.13 9,352.87 6.20* 40.00 983.22 68,303.86
November............ 47,682.76 12,207.10 7,733.95 ............. 270.00 706.85 68,600.66
December.......... 49,979.61 10,060.05 5,249.99 ........ 305.00 1,167.07 66,761.72
January............... 45,110.28 2,398.72 5,317.73 17.00 295.00 4,657.25 57,795.98
February..-_... 46,593.28 5,266.49 5,109.68 ....... 285.00 5,675.77 62,930.22
March.................. 45,877.87 15,465.48 4,797.29 . 335.00 6,877.45 73,353.09
April................... 45,480.00 2,489.41 7,248.71 ........... 302.00 6,740.40 62,260.52
May..................... 47,604.79 4,742.53 8,324.29 ............. 312.00 6,030.62 67,014.23
June-............. 44,798.17 2,109.51 6,690.82 10.00 50.00 6,508.00 60,166.50
July...... ....... 47,727.73 3,580.39 6,031.04 76.00 7,332.72 64,747.88
August................ 45,816.67 11,582.48 5,402.59 . 60.00 7,302.69 70,164.43
September........ 55,818.50 4,258.47 9,027.24 .............. 332.00 8,916.09 78,352.30
Total.......... 567,678.50 86,905.76 80,286.20 20.80 2,662.00 62,898.13 800,451.39
Percentage........ 70.92 10.86 10.03 ........... 0.33 7.86 100.00
*Credit
2,662.00 in 1929-30. On the other hand, a large saving was effected in the
purchase of supplies and materials for which Gdes. 86,905.76 were spent
in 1929-30 as compared with Gdes. 136,261.64 in the previous year.
Transportation costs in 1929-30 were less by Gdes. 2,343.67 compared with
expenditures under the same classification in 1928-29.

Customs Receipts

It happens not infrequently that small and relatively undeveloped coun-
tries are forced by expediency to resort to customs duties as their principal
source of income. This reliance upon a single means of obtaining revenue
usually is the result simply of the lack of adequate governmental machinery
for the collection of internal revenues. Customs duties are found to be
the easiest and cheapest taxes to collect, hence consideration of the dangers
of a lack of a diversified source of revenue sometimes is not given the im-
portance which it merits. Then too, internal disorders may make it im-
possible to collect taxes except at a few well protected points. Customs
duties answer these requirements. Again, lack of understanding on the part






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


of the population may make the collection of direct taxes politically difficult.
High import and export tariffs frequently offer the only solution to the
problem until such time as the population becomes conscious of a tax as an
obligation to be acquitted willingly and voluntarily rather than as a kind
of penalty to be extracted from the taxpayer by force.
Haiti unfortunately must be included among those nations which depend
upon the customs service for most of their revenues. Figures available
prior to the Receivership indicate that customs receipts averaged about
95 per cent of the total revenues of the central government. The percentage
since then has declined, but customs collections still constitute far too large
a portion of total revenues. Accordingly, this office repeatedly has advo-
cated the development of other sources of income to the end that the
treasury may receive a revenue more evenly spread over the entire year
instead of having to accumulate sufficient funds during the shipping season
to carry its expenditures over the balance of the year. Then too, it is
desirable that there be less occasion to look upon the rise and fall in volume
of foreign trade as the sole barometer of national income. Internal revenues
are less subject to the violent fluctuations characteristic of customs reve-
nues and tend to assure a more certain basis upon which to estimate future
expenditures in developing any constructive program.
Although customs receipts still constitute by far the largest portion of
total revenue, some progress has been made since the establishment of
the Receivership towards the development of other sources of income. The
table below presents customs receipts for the last fifteen .years expressed
as percentages of total revenues:
Year Per cent
191-1....................................... ....... 97.61
1916-17 ................................... ......................... ........................ 96.20
1917-18 .... ........................................... ...... .............................._ 94.27
1918-19 .... ............................-. ........ 96.08
-----12--- -------------------.-..... -....... 96.08
1919-20- 2 .......- ......................... ...-. ..... 94.34
1920-21 .............. ...... ............................. 90.40
1921-22 ......... ...... .......... 93.60
1922-23.. _... ... ...... ......................................-........................ 91.37
1923-24 ........ ....... ............................... ...1-.-- 91.03
1924-25............................................------- 88.30
1925-26---...............-....- ..---................ 89.49
1926-27.......................... .. .... ......................... 86.62
1927-28- .... .-- ....-.... ...........- .................. 89.41
1928-29 .....__ .................... ... 82.89
1929-30o ...........................-..- ----.....---.... 79.79
It will be seen that the fifteen years of the Receivership have been
marked by a definite trend downward in the relative importance of customs
receipts as a source of revenue. During the year just ended, customs re-
ceipts for the first time amounted to less than 80 per cent of total revenues.
The progress made in the last two years towards diversifying income
sources may be ascribed chiefly to passage of the excise tax law of August
14, 1928. By this measure the President of Haiti, upon the recommendation
of the Secretary of State for Finance in accord with the Financial Adviser,
may suspend wholly or in part collection of any of the present export





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


duties to an amount estimated not to exceed the revenue derived from the
new excise taxes. But if it is found during the course of any fiscal year
that the new taxes do not compensate fully for the reduction in customs
revenues, the President may restore the suspended export duties to the
extent necessary to prevent loss in revenues. During the year 1929-30
export duties were removed on bricks, fresh fruits and vegetables, while
in conjunction with the standardization law export duties were reduced or
suspended on certain grades of coffee. As was to be expected, strong
opposition to the excise taxes developed from certain quarters soon after
they came into effect. From lack of a true understanding of the govern.
ment's financial situation, political agitators made an issue of the internal
revenue taxes and stirred up considerable adverse sentiment. The effect of

CHART No. 3
TOTAL REVENUE RECEIPTS OF HAITI, FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1929-30
MLULONSor
60














3 0 32533 945536373839 foI 00E030400060708093 J It I 13)4 156 171813 z20 tU13t51426 27229.

world market conditions was confused with taxation, and to the new laws
were charged loss of profits and the general depression in business. Never-
theless, as will be pointed out elsewhere in this report, no insuperable
obstacles have been encountered in the collection of this new source of
revenue, and in the long run, if the principle of internal revenues is main-
tained the country should benefit greatly. As government expenditures
cannot be reduced below a fixed minimum, and sufficient revenue must be
retained to assure this amount, any changes in revenue laws should be
limited to methods of application rather than to reductions in the amounts
of the various taxes. To do otherwise might result in 'a budgetary deficit
with a corresponding reduction in reserves, or exhausting the reserves, in
an increase in bonded indebtedness.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Table No. 35 gives an interesting comparison of the revenue of Haiti
by sources since the fiscal year 1889-90. Prior to 1911-12 the revenue of
the country was not segregated by sources and the comparison therefore
is not complete. Nevertheless, the table presents as comprehensive a picture
of the financial history of the country as our records permit. So far as
possible, the data have been adjusted to a comparable basis. The monetary
reform agreement of May 2, 1919, eliminated the difficulty of exchange

TABLE No. 35

REVENUE OF HAITI BY SOURCES*-FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1929-30

Customs Receipts I


Year




1889-90............
1890-91..............
1891-92 .............
1892-93............
1893.94..............
1894-95.............
1895-96..............
1896-97...............
1897-98..............
1898-99..............
1899-00.............
1900-01.........
1901.02...........
1902-03..............
1903-04...........
1904-05..............
1905-06.............
1906-07............
1907-08.............
1909-10............
1910-11...........
1911-12...........
1912.13..........
1913-14..........
1914-15.............
1915-16.........
1916-17.........
1917-18............
1918-19..........
91-20..........
1920-21__...
1921-22....__...
1922-23 ............
1923-24...........
1924-25........
1926-27.......
1927-28........
1928-29.........
1929-30_.........


Imports


Gourdes


















13,652,334.70
15,176,348.80
10,637,856.40
8,668,408.45
12,970,092.55
9,736,057.28
7,784,253.80
12,264,105.80
18,898,013.74
9,816,687.88
13,247,038.18
16,815,500.17
19,415,707.84
23,452,328.71
26,169,088.58
23,572,181.41
30,935,585.10
25,293,700.63
18,813.703.58


Exports


Gourdes


















19,814,908.75
10,280,211.40
13,413,711.10
6,441,318.45
9,201,376.30
8,473,752.35
7,331,366.55
16,503,370.20
13,143,137.45
8,184,194.70
10,077,988.15
12,312,916.60
9,984,701.92
10,617,525.63
12,660,447.87
10,015,913.41
14,040,033.56
9,841,455.54
11,952,580.99


Miscel-
laneous

Gourdes
.................




















262,538.80
5,897.52
13,665.10
13,611.90
31,877.91
29,982.42
41,543.37
64,169.58
550,497.38
1,680,164.00
1,765,295.29
73,781.41
106,474.14
U2,493.83
72,790.18


Total


Gourdes


















33,467,243.45
25,456,560.20
24,051,567.50
15,372,265.70
22,171,468.85
18,215,707.15
15,129,285.45
28,781,087.90
32,073,029.10
18,030,865.00
23,366,569.70
29,192,586.35
29,950,907.14
35,750,018.34
40,594,831.74
33,661,876.23
45,082,092.80
35,247,650.00
30,839,074.75


Internal
revenues


Gourdes


















912,014.55
670,522.20
706,709.70
353,533.40
543,610.05
717,005.60
911,203.40
1,159,974.00
1,886,174.99
1,897,171.70
1,580,246.77
2,699,443.24
2,795,870.53
4,089,926.19
4,155,170.28
4,153,287.97
4,241,620.14
6,035,264.80
6,620,164.04


Miscel-
.laneous
receipts


Gourdes






















.1,971.95
7,901.90
14,871.55
38,246.70
18,059.00
17,979.25
58,071.65
155,543.66
647,722.47
614,646.08
1,046,370.59
1,097,303.55
1,238,613.60
1,188,924.60


Total
receipts


Gourdes
31,533,254.85
40,868,026.30
34,799,016.95
34,880,361.45
33,853,640.75
34,917,258.60
28,047,666.65
30,665,202.15
23,753,709.25
19,467,977.35
24,416,719.00
21,986,480.60
18,834,716.35
17,517,062.85
20,087,928.90
13,741,365.95
16,695,679.00
11,977,500.00
10,524,189.40
15,044,393.45
23,014,530.50
20,520,595.90
34,379,258.00
26,127,082.40
24,758,277.20
15,725,799.10
22,715,078.90
18,934,684.70
16,048,390.75
29,955,933.45
33,997,450.79
19,946,095.70
24,964,795.72
31,950,101.24
32,902,321.33
40,487,667.00
45,364,648.10
38,861,534.79
50,421,016.49
42,521,528.40
38,648,163.39


*Fluctuations in the gold value of the gourde prior to its stabilization May 2, 1919 have been calculated
and are reflected in statistics of revenue before 1919-20.


fluctuations, but in the case of data previous to that time it was necessary to
make an adjustment for the wide fluctuations in the value of the gourde.
Adjustment also had to be made for the fact that revenue collections
formerly were made both in dollars and in gourdes. Then too, there is
evidence that the figures as reported in the early years are none too accurate

and due allowance should be made in comparing the assembled data.


,


,


,


,


,






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The American intervention took place in 1915. The European war now
had commenced and nearly the entire world was undergoing a period of
economic readjustment. Haiti was no exception and in addition the economic
situation was seriously affected by the caco troubles. Haiti did not show
definite signs of recovery until the two years of trade inflation following
the war when revenue receipts more than doubled only to be cut in half
again by the depression of 1920-21 which corresponds to a similar situation
abroad. Recovery from the post-war depression was rapid and continued
with only one break until the last two fiscal years when receipts dropped,
first as a result of hurricane damage to the coffee crop and then because of
the sudden collapse in coffee prices which followed deflation in the price
of most of the world's staple commodities.
The financial administration has done its part during the prosperous
years by building up treasury reserves to a point where the government

TABLE No. 36
RELATION BETWEEN IMPORT AND EXPORT VALUES AND CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Imports Exports

Value Duty Per cent Value Duty Per cent

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17..................... 43,030,428 9,741,954.80 22.64 44,664,428 8,473,752.35 18.97
1917-18,..-........ ...- 50,903,468 7,797,918.90 15.32 38,717,650 7,331,366.55 18.93
1918-19..--................. 85,588,041 12,277,717.70 14.35 123,811,096 16,503,370.20 13.33
1919-20....._......... 136,992,055 18,929,891.65 13.82 108,104,639 13,143,137.45 12.16
1920-21... ...... 59,786,029 9,846,670.30 16.47 32,952,045 8,184,194.70 24.84
1921-22......-......... 61,751,355 13,288,581.55 21.52 53,561,050 10,077,988.15 18.82
1922-23 ---........ --...... 70,789,815 16,879,669.75 23.84 72,955,060 12,312,916.60 16.88
1923-24................. 73,480,640 19,966,205.22 27.17 70,881,610 9,984,701.92 14.09
1924-25 ........-- 101,187,825 25,132,492.71 24.84 97,018,810 10,617,525.63 10.95
1925-26.............- 94,257,030 27,808,486.25 29.50 101,241,025 12,660,447.87 12.51
1926-27............ 78,756,600 23,572,181.41 29.93 76,495,442 10,015,913.41 13.09
1927-28-....-....-..... 101,241,283 30,935,585.10 30.56 113,336,230 14,040,033.56 12.39
1928-29_ ....----. 86,189,612 25,293,700.63 29.35 83,619,167 9,841,455.54 11.77
1929-30----- -.... 64,208,132 18,813,703.58 29.30 70,722,835 11,952,580.99 16.90
Average-.. ...... 79,154,455 18,591,768.54 23.49 77,720,079 11,083,241.78 14.26
should be able successfully to pass through the present situation even if it
be prolonged beyond expectation.
Referring again to Table No. 35, it appears that customs receipts derived
from export duties increased from Gdes. 9,841,455.54 in 1928-29 to Gdes.
11,952,580.99 in 1929-30, an increase of Gdes. 2,111,125.45, or 21.45 per
cent. Duties on exports are entirely specific, and consequently export duties
vary directly with the volume of the export trade. Coffee, cotton and others
of Haiti's principal export products were exported in larger quantities in
1929-30 than the previous year, and it follows that customs receipts
obtained from the duties on exports increased correspondingly. On the
other hand, because of the drop in commodity prices these same exports
were sold abroad for a smaller return than the year before. The ability of
the country to purchase imports from abroad consequently was reduced,






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 67

and, of course, revenues from imports followed the some downward course.
A reduction in import collections further might be expected because of the
fact that a considerable part of the duties on imports are collected on an
ad valorem basis. Many of the staple import commodities declined sharply
at the beginning of the year, and when duties on such articles are
collected ad valorem the return to the government naturally is less. It is
not surprising, therefore, that import collections declined from Gdes.
25,293,700.63 in 1928-29 to Gdes. 18,813,703.58 in 1929-30, a drop of Gdes.
6,479,997.05, or 25.62 per cent.
Customs receipts, being dependent upon the volume of the import and
export trade, are subject to wide seasonal variations. The coffee crop in-
variably is shipped for the most part during the first half of the year, and
the season of heavy imports likewise tends to follow the.coffee crop.*
There are factors which may intervene, however, and cause a more even
distribution of receipts over the fiscal period; or again, the period of
heaviest receipts may be advanced or retarded. For example, the hurricane
of August 1928 brought about abnormally large importations of foodstuffs
at the beginning of 1928-29 with the result that customs revenues were
very heavy at the beginning of the year and declined gradually towards
the end. The opposite situation existed during the past year when receipts
reached their highest point in December and thereafter relatively were
distributed evenly throughout the year. This flattening of the curve of
customs receipts may be attributed directly to the October drop in coffee
prices which caused peasants to delay marketing their coffee beyond the
usual period in the hope that prices would rise. It also is claimed that
lack of understanding on the part of the country people as to the motives
behind the coffee standardization law prompted them to retard the
marketing of their crops. In any event, the coffee crop was late in being
marketed and customs receipts as a consequence showed unusually even
distribution throughout the year. Table No. 37 gives customs receipts by
TABLE No. 37
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY MONTHS-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30
Average Average Average
1916-17 to 1921-22 to 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1916-17 to
1920-21 1925-26 1929-30

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October .... 1,518,926.08 3,037,492,87 3,770,458.42 3,731,545.38 4,877,847.79 2,699,139.41 2,704,363.26
November... 1,813,232.97 3,538,557.92 3,534,435.74 4,205,086.96 4,620,094.58 3,205,518.05 3,023,149.27
December- 2,195,593.43 3,854,936.07 3,923,268.01 5,324,916.59 4,410,265.07 3,361,925.56 3,376,644.48
January_ 2,308,150.90 3,214,619.05 2,966,878.06 4,428,381.45 3,586,193.19 2,875,510.04 2,962,200.89
February... 2,078,966.06 2,870,412.10 2,886,093.61 4,572,322.28 2,897,206.45 2,875,602.36 2,712,722.54
March........ 2,077,327.60 2,968,218.94 2,949,459.94 4,689,408.32 2,640,030.70 3,021,610.59 2,752,017.31
April........... 2,109,606.72 2,429,607.04 2,443,025.84 3,644,378.62 2,681,417.88 2,787,424.11 2,446,593.95
May..... 1,763,034.48 2,140,627.99 2,246,828.72 3,204,051.56 2,316,319.18 2,268,017.84 2,110,966.40
June............ 1,942,219.96 1,871,308.14 2,149,413.19 2,750,736.89 1,804,732.42 2,099,321.08 1,990,846.01
July.......,-" 1,444,162.30 1,743,104.07 2,091,505.76 2,595,099.65 1,928,236.97 1,721,219.99 1,733,742.44
August.... 1,610,259.38 1,806,235.06 2,184,434.62 2,970,700.22 1,568,188.21 1,824,712.51 1,830,750.56
September... 1,569,050.83 2,295,863.38 2,516,074.32 2,965,464.88 1,917,117.56 2,099,073.21 2,058,735.78
Total-_.. 22,430,530.71 31,770,982.63 33,661,876.23 45,082,092.80 35,247,650.00 30,839,074.75 29,702,732.89
SSee Chart No. 1.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL 'ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


months and by years, together with average monthly receipts for the
period of the Receivership.
Distribution of customs receipts by years and by ports is assembled
in Table No. 38, from which it appears that with only two important
exceptions, receipts at the various ports were less during 1929-30 than
during the preceding year. The exceptions were at Jer6mie and Petit
Goive where improvement in the export trade brought about an increase
in total customs duties collected.
Since enactment of the tariff of July 26, 1926, miscellaneous customs
receipts have been merely nominal in amount. They consist chiefly of
navigation taxes and storage charges on goods held in the customs
warehouses. From Gdes. 112,493.83 in 1928-29 they declined in 1929-30
to Gdes. 72,790.18, a drop of 35.29 per cent.
Yearly variations in the burden of customs duties are assembled in
Table No. 36 which expresses customs receipts as percentages of import
and export values. The relation between import duties collected and total
import values changed very little in 1929-30 as compared with the previous
year. The tax burden on exports, however, increased from 11.77 per cent.
to 16.90 per cent of total export values. All export duties are specific, and
since the value of commodities exported dropped sharply at the beginning
of the year and continued-at a low level throughout the fiscal period, it
follows that the tax burden increased correspondingly.
Too much importance should not be attached to the evidence regarding
the burden of taxation on imports presented in Table No. 36. There are
many factors which may distort the yearly ratio of duties collected to
total values. For example, allowance should be made for the fact that
in August 1926 under the tariff law of July 26, 1926, authorization was
given for charging customs duties on government importations, thus in-
creasing the apparent ratio of total duties collected to total values. The
influence of this factor is difficult to estimate accurately over a sufficient
period of years, and no attempt has been made to adjust the data according-
ly. Moreover, the value of other merchandise'admitted free of duty varies
considerably from year to year, and unless the value of such merchandise
is deducted over the entire period the results are misleading. Again, the
yearly variations in unit values have a corresponding influence on the
composite result. Finally, due allowance must be made for cumulative
error which is unavoidable in the compilation of total trade values over
long periods of time. The statistical value of the data as presented conse-
quently must be discounted to some extent. Nevertheless, this office
ventures the conclusion that the tariff of 1926 has added slightly to the
tax burden on imported merchandise, although the increase is not nearly
so great as is indicated by the necessarily incomplete data presented in
the table.
















TABLE No. 38
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY PORTS-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30


Aqu in...-...-.....--.-. ......................
Belladkre............................. ............--
Cap Haitien .... .................- .............
Cayes...................... ............ .....
Fort Libert -..,,..,. ......................___
Glore......................................................
Gonaives........................... .......
Jacmel....--....-.--...--............. .....
Mirago5ne.................L.... ............
Ouanaminthe-------.. .......... ... .......
Petit Golve...... ........... ......... ........
Port-au-Prince ...i.n.........._ ...........
Port-de-Paix...l.............-...................
Saint Marc.............., ....--^
Total ....... .. _............... ..........


Average Average
1916-17 to 1921-22 to
1920-21 1925-26


Gourdes
124,805.62
3,280.13
3,179,095.89
1,910,474.91
62,108.75
501.73
1,372,395.15
2,076,404.15
925,743.72
275,744.34
10,260.12
1,221,660.24
9,540,425.27
925,723.20
799,520.56
22,428,143.78


Gourdes
222,392.84
653.80
3,646,227.43
3,205,206.20
14,532.22
915.20
1,762,959.97
2,858,299.20
1,119,908.59
559,994.05
7,336.32
2,160,650.50
13,823,939.29
1,252,298.94
1,135,668.10
31,770,982.65


1926-27


Gourdes
113,122.24
13,458.33
3,254,525.83
3,408,107.55
3,553.51
1,668,692.47
2,973,165.49
1,365,664.38
705,299.97
12,516.45
2,147,929.25
15,698,321.56
1,123,445.51
1,174,073.69
33.661,876.23


1927-28 I 1928-29


Gourdes
61,168.80
20,993.24
4,936,597.14
3,291,804.10

6,131.30
2,502,325.52
4,068,426.87
1,907,633.64
880,237.74
20,851.28
2,900,380.06
21,687,904.75
1,553,467.62
1,244,170.74
45.082.092.80


Gourdes
11,962.40
22,804.23
4,605,834.01
2,832,663.98
62,863.70
4,926.31
2,041,322.95
2,950,342.36
1,765,515.10
784,514.31
26,053.25
1,498,540.79
16,065,576.58
1,557,766.80
1,016,963.23
35,247,650.00


1929-30


Gourdes
41,011.15
10,285.09
3,789,680.04
2,411,579.06
35,418.25
2,937.22
1,791,977.39
2,522,230.06
1,842,259.93
673,819.20
16,415.20
1,728,672.12
13,709,825.70
1,298,046.55
964,917.79
30,839,074.75


'o

Average
1916-17 to
1929-30

Gourdes
140,232.64
6,229.32 g
3,622,375.25 r
2,680,182.88 ,
34,391.92 5
1,759.49 <
1,691,506.70 D;
2,656,262.97
1,222,095.33
515,897.36
11,701.31
1,799,076.86
13,141,675.10
1,173,059.80 >
1,005,433.49 r
29,701,880.42
-------- hi
10


I


I


I i


I


I


---- ---- I


1


I






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


A further classification of the 1929-30 customs receipts by sources and
by ports is offered in Table No. 39, while Table No. 40 distributes the
same data by months rather than by ports.
Receipts from import and export duties naturally follow the seasonal
crop movement; consequently, we find the heaviest collections in the early
months of the year corresponding with the movement of the coffee crop.


TABLE No. 39
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND PORTS-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Miscel-
Imports Exports laneous Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin....... ........................... 413.75 40,396.07 201.33 41,011.15
Belladre.......................... --.... 9,363.68 862.43 58.98 10,285.09
Cap Haitien......... ...... ... ........ ... ... ... 2,000,200.78 1,785,151.01 4,328.25 3,789,680.04
Cayes ............. ...... ......... .... 1,346,959.72 1,061,853.17 2,766.17 2,411,579.06
Fort Libert e........................... ..... ............. ". 8 4,212.14 30,881.21 324.9C 35,418.25
Glore.......................................................................... 2,754.15 5.22 177.85 2,937.22
Gonaies............................................................ 852,124.95 937,020.29 2,832.15 1,791,977.39
Jacmel........................................ ............. ............... ..... 815,495.57 1,703,680.67 3,053.82 2,522,230.06
Jermoie.................. ...... ......... ... 582,256.87 1,256,368.46 3,634.60 1,842,259.93
Miragolne............................................................ 194,056.62 478,211.08 1,551.50 673,819.20
Ouanamintbhe........................................... 15,159.65 305.42 950.13 16,415.20
Petit Gove................................................ ....... 341,485.08 1,384,607.23 2,579.81 1,728,672.12
Port-.au-Prince............ .... ................ 11,787,296.63 1,878,836.92 43,692.15 13,709,825.70
Port-de-Paix........ ....................................... 435,458.14 859,147.76 3,440.65 1,298,046.55
Saint Marc......................-.......................... 426,465.85 535,254.05 3,197.89 964,917.79
Total.. ... ....... ...... 18,813,703.58 11,952,580.99 72,790.18 30,839,074.75


TABLE No. 40
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Imports Exports Msce Total
laneous Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ................... ....---------- 1,893,020.62 799,066.20 7,052.59 2,699,139.41
November...... .... ........-.-- --- 1,927,591.59 1,269,946.95 7,979.51 3,205,518.05
December........-............ .--. -------.. 1,893,505.86 1,462,043.65 6,376.05 3,361,925.56
January-.......... .......-...-.-- ------ .. 1,463,702.80 1,400,522.12 11,285.12 2,875,510.04
February ......--.-.----- 1,328,937.72 1,541,058.83 5,605.81 2,875,602.36
March--.........----..-..--..... 1,609,593.49 1,406,049.55 5,967.55 3,021,610.59
April.............. .-.....---. .- 1,522,851.34 1,259,162.40 5,410.37 2,787,424.11
May.... ... .............-------------- 1,424,669.40 838,615.89 4,732.55 2,268,017.84
June.......................--- .....1,468,964.13 625,842.08 4,514.87 2,099,321.08
July ----. ----------....-- -- 1,334,462.26 381552.19 5,205.54 1,721,219.99
August--...........--------------- 1,527,829.25 292,014.07 4,869.19 1,824,712.51
September..--.......---..--..----..- 1,418,575.12 676,707.06 3,791.03 2,099,073.21
Total----------------- 18,813,703.58 11,952,580.99 72,790.18 30,839,074.75


Table No. 41 presents yearly customs receipts, by sources, expressed
as percentages of total yearly collections.
The past fiscal year was a period when export values exceeded import
values, and receipts from exports represented a relatively larger portion
of the total than in the previous year when the balance of trade was
unfavorable.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 41
DISTRIBUTION OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS-FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Receipts Receipts Miscel-
from from cIous Total
imports exports receipts

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
1916-17............... ........ .................................. 53.45 46.52 .03 100.0
1917-18.............................................................. .................................. 51.45 48.46 .09 100.
1918-19................................... ....................................... 42.61 57.34 .05 100.00
1919-20............................................................ ................. .. 58.92 40.98 .10 100.00
1920-21....................................................................................... .. .. 54.44 45.39 .17 100.00
1921-22......................................... .......................................... .... 56.69 43.13 .18 100.00
1922-23.... .............. .......................... .... ............ ....... .. ...... 57.60 42.18 .22 100.00
1923-24................................................................................................. 64.83 33.34 1.83 100.00
1924-25............ ... ...................................................... ................... 65.CO 29.70 4.70 100.00
1925-26................................................... ......... ........................... ..... 64.46 31.19 4.35 100.00
1926-27....................................... .... ...... ....... 70.03 29.75 .22 100.00
1927-28........ ..................... ...................................................... .. 68.62 31.14 .24 100.00
1928-29..................................... ......................... ....... .......... 71.76 27.92 .32 100.00
1929-30. ............. ............................................... ............... .... 61.01 38.75 .24 100.00
Average..................................................................... ... 60.11 38.98 .91 100.00

Internal Revenues*

One of the principal purposes of the Receivership has been to overcome
so far as possible the present top-heavy fiscal structure by which over
eighty per cent of total revenues each year are obtained from one source,
namely, customs receipts. At the same time the inherent difficulties in
connection with altering radically the tax structure of the country were
fully appreciated and it was felt that development of a modern internal
revenue system of taxation necessarily would have to be spread over a
long period of time. It was hoped, however, that with steady improvement
in the tax collecting administration and in the gradual substitution of new
internal taxes for certain customs duties that ultimately the tax system of
Haiti would bear a closer resemblance to the system found in progressive
countries of the world.
Real progress in the right direction was made with the passage of the
excise law in 1928 which added a completely new source of revenue and
provided that the unsound export taxes gradually could be supplanted by
the new taxes. Internal revenue receipts as a direct result increased from
Gdes. 4,241,620.14 in 1927-28 to Gdes. 6,035,264.80 in 1928-29, a gain of
Gdes. 1,793,644.66, or 42.29 per cent. Since 1928, however, new legislation
providing for still further increases in internal taxation has been lacking,
and progress necessarily has been limited to improving the efficiency with
which the present laws are applied and taxes are collected.
In 1929-30 total receipts from internal revenues were Gdes. 6,620,164.04,
a gain of Gdes. 584,899.24 over the previous year, or 9.69 per cent.
Excise tax collections were 20.70 per cent more than last year, while
internal revenue receipts from other sources increased by 2.27 per cent.

*A complete analysis of internal revenue collections will be found in the report of the Director
General of Internal Revenue annexed to this report.











TABLE No. 42

INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS BY SOURCES-FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1929-10


Alcohol from cane juice.............................-
Alcohol from other mattr..... ................. ....
Malt liquors........- ............ ....... ..
Spirituous liquors............. ..... ..... .............
Vitus liquors ...tob.a.. ....................... ..... .........
Cigars ..................................................................
Cigarettes reordn....... ....................................- .....
Manufactured tobacco..*...l............... ........


n a Totd al i.............. ........... .................... ..................
Circulation tax on bank notes--... .. ................. ...
Coigular fees ....................... ....- .......
Court feres............. .. .
Diploma fres ..............................................
Documentary recording fees .................................
Emigration Iecs.................... ........... ........
Fines and penaties........................... ..............
Income tax_. .t . ......
Irrigation tax ........................... ...................
Occupational tax on fortigners............ .. .. ......
O utcial gazet....................... .................................
Patent and trade mark fee .... ......... .... ...............
Post office box rentals .................... ............................
Public auction fees ............................ ..........
Public land rental........................... .... .. ..
Stamp receipts: .. ......... ..... ...... ............. ................. ...
Bank checks ..... .......................... ....................... ...........
Commercial account boo........................................
Documentary stamps..e..... ................. ...............
Postage .... ......................................................


Vi of mnifests.......... .......................................... ... ... ..
Vital statistics fees ..................... ....... ........ .............................
W ater service rents .......................... .....................................
Miscellaneous......... ...................................................
Total ................... ...................................... .......


Average
1919--20 to
1923i24

Gourdes





.................




7,147.06

252,579.03
239,884.20
1,S83.0f
281,810.55
6,995.21
175,397.5i3
1,071.90
6,884.50
7,521.62
5,095.12
74,8CS.37
7,987.74
2,908.72
185,179.25
128,547.82
107,518.78
1;.. 7:1 1. 7
5,932.96
33,208.69
179,307.97
175,31.22
2,171.781.45


1924-25


Gourdes



.............




.3.615.e3.
152.914.40
7,919.87
574.75
288,784.19
945,022.90
24,770.82
625,083.61
8,543.14
208.443.27
1,220.20
5,700.00
11,348.90
1,4G3.34
177,919.02
15,915.40
4,643.20
371,795.54
195,755.00
55,620.51
55,0,9.40
541,103.31
5,237.50
94,034.01W
240,553.54
15,839.39
4,089,928.19


1925-26


SGourdes









53,827.22
157.080.0
8,293.50
2,650.00
304,368.31
1,014,012.50
4,222.25
503,202.81
11,027.95
239,062.51
1,025.00
15,982.50
12,129.25
2,612.06
191,390.71
18,280.30
6,043.89
403,171.62
197,485.43
52,565.15
63,083.91
580,979.77
3,680.00
S0.531.14
216,222.78
2,233.42
4,155,170.28


1926-27


Gourdes









21,142.80
127,984.45
8,798.05
1,809.50
332,337.12
960,933.75
5,309.00
533,757.96
10,296.10
245,150.50
960.00
11,832.50
12,529.26
2,992.95
213,850.77

18,737.00
S4,285.85
268,841.38
210,119.85
65,301.25
51,280.28
574,002.81
1,095.00
78,949.43
221,478.70
69,511.71
4,153,287.97


1927-28 .1328-29


Gourdes Gou-des
32,400.36 1,058,838.97
,8.40 172,455.45
2,389.20 53,100.19
1,862.55 16,305.00
19,162.56 137,814.14
1.797.75 34,176.80
1.727.75 327,229.33
2,330.08 463,898.49
61,738.65 2,263,818.37
51,593.47 27,381.09
151,597.80 115,819.40
9,151.75 8,819.91
200.00 52.50
54,451.90 269,447.03
635,082.50 278,875.00
1,563.75 6,426.36
593.599.14 530,993.96
10,635.14 13,10I.57
251,507.20 280,405.55
854.00 82G.00
12,2-..00 10,94].35
12,991.40 12,109.90
?,947.51 4 G04.0'
268,626.01 270,005.83
24,2N9.20 19,S06.S.3
3,098.40 4,202.60
405j,315.32 404,841.70
187,202.84 212,41G.67
7, '71.87 (66,287.60,
51,709.23 C2,506.20
,85.S21.80 740,677.20
1,075.00 1,150.00
93,622.33 79.841.44
231,085.55 244,926.15
60,831.25 9,383.01
4,241,620.14 6,035,264.80


1929-30


Gourdes
1,091,466.89
373,745.67
59,070.30
15,913.35
101.870.80
34,740.48
381,229.70
672,441.56
2,732,478.75
3,213.97
110,498.35
6,850.75
S86.25
359,118.11
128,625.00
5,432.77
666,327.25
12,479.38
363,862.68
802.00
11,975.00
14,635.51
472.98
267,436.07

20,517.20
3,611.50
424,367.03
258,328.73
58,370.69
57,560.S8
791,129.48
8,932.50
C1,934.06
236,833.20
19,282.43
6,620.164.04


Average
1919-20 to
1929-30

Gourdes
198,427.84
49,660.87
13,141.79
3,098.28
23,531.59
S6,428.61
64.744.2a
103,515.47
462,548.72
-17,4.4.23
108,854.44
7,726.35
488.45
293,635.08
450,154.74
4,920.08
428,819.25
9,004.90
220,068.25
1,009.88
9,222.36
10,072.83
3,479.47
153,103.z0

13,747.65
3,903.87
290,867.34
169,382.95
84,644.14
41,786.28
414,529.90
S4,313.98
58,180.38
189,362.31
102,462.42
3,553,753.61


I


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I oua I I I I -~ ~ I ~ I I I I -






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 73

The largest single gain after excise tax collections was in income tax
receipts which were Gdes. 135,333.29, or 25.49 per cent, more than the
year before. The occupational tax on foreigners accounted for an increase
of Gdes. 83,457.13, or 29.76 per cent. Stamp receipts of all kinds increased
by Gdes. 53,194.48, or 6.92 per cent, while collections by the telephone and
telegraph service increased Gdes. 50,452.28, or 6.82 per cent. Other gains
were patent and trade mark fees, post office box rentals, visas of manifests,
and miscellaneous internal revenue receipts. All other sources showed
losses which were relatively unimportant excepting emigration fees which
fell off Gdes. 150,250.00, or 53.88 per cent. The depressed condition of the
Cuban sugar industry together with restrictive measures enacted by the
Cuban government against the importation of Haitian labor into that
country in recent years have combined to reduce Haitian emigration, and
revenues from that source have fallen off accordingly.
A detailed record of internal revenue collections over a period of six
years is presented in Table No. 42.

Miscellaneous Receipts
By far the greater portion of miscellaneous receipts of the government
as listed in Table No. 43 is represented by interest on government deposits
and on bonds of the Haitian government purchased for its own account.

TABLE No. 43
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

Interest on
governmental Conversion ot Miscellaneous lotal
deposits francs

Gourdeq G''erdr Gourder Gourdes
October. .......... 257,567.10 19,018.70 1,00.00 277,85.80
November.............................. ............ 31632.50 1 800.00 0,804.40
December.................. ............... ........ 59,230.60 I,": ', 1,800.00 80,027.00
January._............. 29.201.80 ,:3.:;0 7,97.44 U5,495.54
February................................ 5, ....... 274 40 l18., 1::.15 1,,00.00 81,437.B5
Ma.rch............... . .. .1.3S71.90 I.S30).01 53,750.81
April............ .............. ........ . 17n- 2,115.0 1, .60
---....................................... 1 57,767.18
June........................................................... ", 720.4 1S.1 1.3? 5 ', 7,387.7.
July.......................................................... 5,L 2 .70" 18,9)70.75 2,100.00 15,.75.05
August..: ... ... ................. .. 4,480.05 18,170.50 1,644.20 84,494.75
eptmber................ .... ........,;.0.7 G,918.07 55,192.17
Total ....... .... .......... ..... 923,053.44 220,030.00 45,841.10 1,183,924.60
*Debit
Funds invested in securities yield approximately 6 per cent, cash deposits
in New York for the most part bear 272 per cent, while cash funds on
deposit in Haiti bear no interest. As reserve funds of the treasury during
1929-30 did not vary greatly from the 1928-29 reserves and the interest
rates accorded the government funds on deposit were fairly constant, it
follows. that there was no great variation in total miscellaneous receipts
between the two years.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The total income of the government from miscellaneous sources
amounted to Gdes. 1,188,924.60 in 1929-30 as compared with Gdes.
1,238,613.60 in 1928-29, a decline of 4.01 per cent. Most of the loss was
in the interest account which recorded a falling off in income of Gdes.
52,979.46, or 4.43 per cent.
The next largest source of miscellaneous income arises from the con-
version and deposit in New York of interest accruals on the franc funds
placed in escrow and held in New York by The National City Bank of
New York for the purpose of converting bonds of the old French franc
loan of 1910. On September 30, 1930 there still remained a balance of
francs 45,468,820.77 in this account representing the expense allowance and
the redemption value of bonds still outstanding and which the holders
refuse to convert in the hope that ultimately the Haitian government may be
compelled to effect redemption at the gold value of the bonds. There ap-
pears to be no likelihood of such eventuality, and in the opinion of this office
the bondholders by retaining their securities are working against their
better interests. Only a few bonds of the 1910 loan were redeemed during
the past year and income from the account in 1929-30 declined only Gdes.
1,994.25, or .90 per cent as compared with the previous year. Income from
the account can vary only in accordance with (1) the rate at which the
interest in francs is converted to dollars, (2) reductions in the prin-
cipal through bond redemptions, thereby producing a corresponding
decrease in interest accruals, and (3) the interest rate allowed on this
fund. As there was little change in any of these factors, the decline in
income from the account was insignificant.
Governmental Expenditures
Records of governmental expenditures for the years prior to the
American intervention are for the most part completely lacking. When they
do exist they are so incomplete and unreliable that their inclusion with
this report would be of no value. It is only with the beginning of American
assistance in the administration of Haitian finances that accurate records
are available and an intelligent comparison of government disbursements
from year to year can be be made.
For the first seven years of the Receivership expenditures of the Haitian
government were classified in the manner set forth in Table No. 45 which
gives an accurate and reasonably detailed record of expenditures made
during the early period of reorganization. In 1923-24 the accounting
system was amplified still further and expenditures were segregated by
functions and by objects of expenditures as well as by government services.
With the new system of accounting it became possible from year to year
to make a comparative analysis of expenditures which has proved to be
of great value in the determination of annual budgetary appropriations and
in effecting a better adjustment between receipts and disbursements.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 75













TABLE No. 44
TOTAL RECEIPTS OF HAITIAN GOVERNMENT BY SOURCES, MONTHS AND PORTS
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30

October November December January February March April May June July August September Total

Gourdes. Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Customs Receipts:
Aquin ...- .....- 3,426.95 1,870.10 78.02 8,249.46 .............. 1,475.63 3,119.23 1,851.98 13.55 8,165.02 12,727.91 33.30 41,011.15
Belladire. ........ ............................ 541.93 687.43 2,357.45 632.80 938.24 1,145.00 1,136.00 1,097.63 712.40 581.06 220.85 234.30 10,285.09
Cap Haitien.... ............. 353,767.16 505,324.09 490,251.03 373,717.13 412,845.56 371,645.29 295,454.88 205,472.42 159,545.61 159,478.73 168,309.21 293,868.93 3,789,680.04
Cayes................................................ 191,055.34 28,542.30 255,117.99 210,197.74 214,020.79 201,277.83 176,186.58 209,080.89 132,761.40 143,028.16 187,352.72 202,957.32 2,411,579.06
Fort Libert.... ...... 10.26* 111.54 427.40 13.85 15.76 2,608.38 23.12 24.95 29,993.26 1,717.41 397.24 95.60 35,418.25
Glore.......... ......... ....................... 61.00 137.40 239.75 117.18 22.50 72.88 469.54 305.00 911.40 219.57 260.00 121.00 2,937.22
Gonaive ......... .... 190,944.99 159,507.93 193,298.47 232,596.88 153,700.99 199,985.33 181,016.44 122,830.84 95,534.40 70,147.60 63,730.19 128,683.33 1,791,977.39
Jacmel ....... ....................................... 257,900.66 300,059.07 368,483.43 208,353.49 261,108.92 239,054.91 229,409.51 143,123.90 124,266.44 106,871.36 134,102.86 149,495.51 2,522,230.06
Jirimie........................................... 188,686.08 240,496.79 254,495.58 168,737.12 150,113.42 126,390.46 158,073.44 129,150.43 111,874.02 105,342.70 89,463.47 119,436.42 1,842,259.93
Miragone....................................... 28,499.53 63,649.98 62,426.52 70,739.04 86,051.11 103,217.68 57,861.72 31,943.44 65,917.54 54,462.43 20,873.44 28,176.77 673,819.20
Ouanaminthe......................... 956.29 2,707.81 704.89 2,192.68 1,035.80 1,017.88 1,675.65 1,254.37 542.07 1,102.51 975.07 2,250.18 16,415.20
Petit Golve....................................... 89,719.03 159,928.15 217,223.54 215,953.55 227,028.54 226,356.02 199,173.59 117,171.79 105,203.71 64,940.32 54,075.49 51,898.39 1,728,672.12
Port-au-Prince.................. .......... 1,226,104.35 1,261,315.21 1,288,456.45 1,138,783.69 1,130,595.60 1,305,574.44 1,236,386.57 1,103,450.40 1,135,681.04 909,505.62 1,009,878.96 964,093.37 13,709,825.70
Port-de-Paix........... .................. 116,994.45 136,564.90 151,741.89 147,116.56 140,631.60 94,682.21 131,714.57 102,232.35 79,241.86 52,806.09 38,005.44 106,314.63 1,298,046.55
Saint Marc............................. 50,491.91 84,615.35 70,623.15 98,108.87 97,493.53 147,106.65 115,723.27 99,027.45 57,122.38 42,851.41 44,339.66 51,414.16 964,917.79
Total customs receipts............. 2,099,139.41 3,205,518.05 3,361,925.56 2,875,510.04 2,875,602.36 3,021,610.59 2,787,424.11 2,268,017.84 2,099,321.08 1,721,219.99 1,824,712.51 2,099,073.21 30,839,074.75
Internal revenue receipts:
Administration Port-au-Prince.......... 511,401.92 406,830.54 405,355.87 547,088.39 338,078.87 521,802.00 385,460.85 253,411.26 262,012.52 307,914.23 252,316.22 280,732.54 4,472,405.21
Aquin......................................... 2,524.40 738.90 624.98 867.62 860.30 843.29 843.60 547.20 482.15 582.45 655.20 1,704.55 11,274.64
Cap Haitien....................................... 78,697.83 47,074.08 36,296.17 49,945.82 38,494.67 4,139.87 40,604.12 37,446.76 28,671.12 28,771.19 26,268.69 33,582.29 488,992.61
Cayes ............................... 52,260.27 39,115.03 33,952.55 32,287.54 34,732.09 32,804.70 30,930.05 23,011.88 18,879.72 18,506.69 20,695.81 24,758.78 361,935.14
Fort Libert......................................... 2,773.55 2,141.46 1,837.75 12,405.02 4,999.59 6,186.78 2,277.33 2,200.21 1,297.97 592.46 638.70 1,259.69 38,610.51
Gonaive........ ........ 26,844.85 16,118.14 10,954.15 18,240.00 18,836.45 15,976.09 18,176.21 14,449.98 11,224.51 9,907.95 8,205.16 14,634.51 183,568.00
Jacmel................................................. 33,60.29 15,251.68 17,291.92 20,321.47 22,111.45 19,350.09 21,214.34 9,716.47 8,135.24 10,472.00 12,683.10 9,780.52 199,937.57
Jrimie .............................. ........... 29,856.14 13,353.59 15,962.75 15,172.27 14,964.49 15,739.00 24,035.96 19,324.51 12,599.28 12,390.36 10,728.82 16,408.40 200,535.57
Miragolne............................................ 12,719.14 5,737.58 4,184.65 5,867.69 5,286.94 4,408.93 6,989.77 3,629.94 2,544.14 3,660.32 2,621.02 3,594.68 61,244.80
Petit Gove.. ................ 28,863.30 18,258.05 14,170.45 14,854.45 11,987.20 14,568.65 20,151.88 8,979.40 9,445.42 7,068.25 6,628.10 8,020.79 162,995.94
Port-de-Paix....... .................. 27,061.34 7,343.01 10,470.87 9,612.19 10,946.50 12,393.07 15,64.94 11,520.74 8,260.89 5,820.46 10,499.88 9,964.54 139,558.43
Saint Marc................... 43,105.30 21,327.31 20,089.27 25,897.10 22,542.85 45,284.09 37,066.80 20,814.48 13,987.64 16,890.66 11,812.82 20,287.30 299,105.62
Total internal revenue receipts 849,717.33 593,289.40 571,191.38 752,559.56 523,841.40 732,496.56 603,415.85 405,032.83 377,540.60 422,577.02 363,753.52 424,728.59 6,620,164.04
Miscellaneous receipts:
Port-au-Prince.......................... 277,885.80 50,804.40 80,027.00 55,495.54 83,437.55 58,750.81 281,906.60 57,767.18 87,387.75 15,775.05 84,494.75 55,192.17 1,188,924.60
Total revenue receipts............... 3,826,742.54 3,849,611.85 4,013,143.94 3,683,565.14 3,482,881.31 3,812,857.96 3,672,746.56 2,730,837.85 2,564,249.43 2,159,572.06 2,272,960.78 2,578,993.97 38,648,163.39
Non revenue receipts .......................... .................... ............. ................... ................... ................ .................. .................. ................... ..................

Total receipts......................... 3826,742.54 3,849.611.85 4,013,143.94 3,683,565.14 ,482,881.31 3,812,857.96 3,672,746.56 2,730,837.85 2,564,249.43 2,159,572.06 2,272,960.78 2,578,993.97 38,648,163.39
*Cridit






HAITI; REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


The revenues of Haiti are subject to such sudden and violent fluctuations
that it is necessary to make provision in the law fixing the budget of
expenditures for reduction of the budget in the course of the year when
revenues do not reach estimates. Unexpended balances of budgetary credits,
according to present practise, revert to the treasury at the end of the
fiscal year and any obligations assumed under authority of a credit which
have not been paid before the end of the year may be met under a corre-
sponding credit in the budget for the succeeding year. Thus liquidation
of obligations contracted under budgetary credits in one year may to a
limited extent take place in the year following that in which the original
budgetary provision was made. Again, extraordinary appropriations are
made expendable over a period of two years from the date on which they
originally were voted. Expenditures under the authority of such appropri-
ations accordingly may be, and often are, spread over a period affecting the
expenditure statements of three fiscal years. The budget of expenditures
of a given year, therefore, should not be looked upon as bearing a fixed
relation to expenditures effected within that year, and indeed, often there
is little resemblance between the two.
Bearing the above remarks in mind, the record for the past five years
of budgetary appropriations as assembled in Table No. 46 should be
considered simply as indicative of administrative intent in the yearly adjust-
ment of expenditures to revenues. Ordinary and supplementary appropri-
ations are listed together by services and government departments, and
they represent almost exclusively budgetary control over ordinary operating
expenditures. On the other hand, the yearly figures for extraordinary ap-
propriations are confined chiefly to outlays of a capital nature which carry
with them the probability of recurring charges for operation and mainte-
nance during the succeeding years. During 1929-30 only Gdes. 706,047.00
were voted in the form of extraordinary credits as against Gdes. 3,266,147.85
in 1928-29, and Gdes. 7,373,124.00 in 1927-28. Of the appropriations of
this character voted during 1929-30, a total of Gdes. 261,520.00 was placed
at the disposal of the Department of the Interior. Of that amount, a total
of Gdes. 111,330.00 was for the purpose of completing the work of the
Frontier Commission in establishing the boundary between Haiti and the
Dominican Republic. The remainder was voted chiefly for use in connection
with necessary expenditures occasioned by the legislative elections held
shortly after the close of the fiscal year.
A total of Gdes. 202,900.00 was appropriated during the year for use of
the Public Works Service. Of this amount, Gdes. 150,000.00 provided the
necessary funds for the construction of a road leading from Petionville to
Kenscoff. Most of the remainder was for the purpose of reestablishing
communication by land with the city of Santo Domingo following the
hurricane which struck that city in September 1930. Further relief to
victims of the hurricane disaster was provided by an appropriation of















TABLE No. 45
EXPENDITURES OF HAITIAN GOVERNMENT BY SERVICES*
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1922-23


Public
debt

Gaurdes


497,140.00
245,000.00
13,170,350.95
21,663,345.05
9,057,374.50
44,633,240.50


Guaranteed
interest and
subsidies

Gourdes
92,434.55
175,099.15
461,241.15
406,771.20
293,995.55
206,400.00
1.635,941.70


Finanial
adviser-
general
receiver

Gourdes
89,850.15
796,625.70
741,053.80
S700,035.60
1,"80;460;60
1,452,073.10
1,279,142.25
1,438,506.15

7.877.749.35


Giard


Gourder
711,309.91
4,792,156.10
4,565,23S.75
4,594,938.30
5,415,377.45
5,114,593.80
5,104,056.45
5,228,560.60
35,524,221.36


Haitian
ministries


Gourdes
1,905,147.50
5,131,819.90
5,547,888.85
5,806,871.30
8,490,246.70
7,005,503.45
7,483,538.25
7,811,914.75
49,182,830.70


Public
health
service


Gourdes

889.870.75
958,756.70
1,338,591.30
1,541,482 30
1,244,506.25
1,485,106.25
7 fA Q1i r"


Public Exttaor-
works didiary
service credits


Gourdes Gourdes
690,284.08 ........;.........
3,283,031.6 ::..................
2,700,853.70 ...............
2,721,341.50 .................
3,199,680.25 .............
2,634,628.15 ................
2,451,720.30 188,422.70
5,019,229.60 232,709.00

22,705,769.18 421;131.70


Miscel.
laneotus
linciths


Gourdes .
355,033.48
1,783,109.95
170,089.60
.45,297.90
116,268.80
1,463,022.85
67,181.60
82,322.30
4,082,326.48


*The classifications of expenditures in this table are not Satisfactory but a reclassification according to objects of expenditure was fouiid to tc impossible.


Total
0

Gourdes
3,751,525.12 >
15,884,177.0
14,614,997.45 <

20,646,866.25
32,788,455.90
39,775,908.40
00,560,113.15 "

173,521,524.52
r-


a
1
511


Septem ber.....................
1916-17...................
1917-18......;...................
1918-19.... .................
1919-20..:.....;......... ...
1920-21.........................
1921-22........................
1922-23 ............. .......

Total.................:...


, ,





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Gdes. 100,000.00 for use by the Public Health Service in purchasing supplies
and medical equipment.
The only other important appropriations of this character were for use
of the Guard of Haiti. The sum of Gdes. 50,000.00 was for the purpose
of effecting repairs to the Coast Guard dock at Bizoton and Gdes. 45,000.00
were for the establishment of a military school at Port-au-Prince.
It is evident that of the relatively small amount appropriated during
1929-30 in the form of extraordinary credits, only about Gdes. 200,000.00
were of such nature as to involve recurring charges in succeeding years.
The sudden drop in coffee prices at the beginning of the year and the
concomitant decline in national income made continuation of all previous
plans for expansion and development quite out of the question. Expendi-
tures during 1929-30 accordingly were confined during the year strictly
to maintenance and operation of public works and government activities
already in existence or provided for by legislation enacted prior to the
fiscal year under review. Present indications are that the same policy
regarding expenditures necessarily must be adhered to during the year
1930-31 or until such time as agricultural production and revenues shall
have evidenced unmistakably a definite upward trend.
Actual expenditures from revenue by services and government depart-
ments over a period of seven years are presented in Table No. 47 which
also shows revenue receipts by years and the yearly excess of revenues or
expenditures. During 1929-30 expenditures from revenue totalled Gdes.
40,643,229.50 compared with Gdes. 44,119,503.94 in 1928-29 and Gdes.
40,977,914.49 in 1927-28. The respective declines were 7.88 per cent and
.82 per cent. It will be noticed at once that expenditures in 1927-28, a year
of exceptionally high revenues, were only slightly greater than in 1929-30.
This was due to the fact that the surplus revenues of the former year were
not expended until 1928-29, and to some extent in 1929-30 with the result
that expenditures exceeded receipts during the last two years.
Expenditures coming under the classification of public debt declined
from Gdes. 13,455,414.94 in 1928-29 to Gdes. 13,207,839.09 in 1929-30, a drop
of 1.84 per cent. The public debt item includes expenditures of the Financial
Adviser-General Receiver whose expenditures under Article V of the treaty,
enjoy priority over disbursements for account of interest and amortization
of the public debt. Internal revenue expenditures also are included under
public debt, for under authority of the internal revenue law of June 6,
1924, this service is placed under the supervision and control of the General
Receiver. Internal revenues are hypothecated by the government of Haiti
under the protocol of October 3, 1919 and by virtue of the various bond
contracts.
During 1929-30 there was spent for service of the three outstanding
loans a total of Gdes. 10,226,807.38 compared with Gdes. 10,318,990.55 the
previous year. Under the bond contracts, an aggregate of 36.96875 per cent






I' HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


















TABLE No. 46
ORDINARY, SUPPLEMENTARY AND EXTRAORDINARY APPROPRIATIONS FROM REVENUE
FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1929-30


Department or Service


Public debt:
Financial adviser-general receiver.......... .......
Internal revenue service..............-....---...
Series A loan......-.....---..... --.. ........

Series C loan........................-- -..........
Miscellaneous debt items............-.........-- ...
Fiduciary currency..........-.- ...........-........
International institutions.....-. --.- ....
P. C. S. railroad subvention......._..............--
Wharf Co. subvention............................-. .. ..
Cable Co. subvention.........................- ..

Total public debt.....................- ......
Guard........................................... ...
Foreign relations....................--........-...-....

Pubic healths........ .....................
Commerce........- .............".."........ ............ .
Interior............................................"" ..........
Public health service ............."..--....... .............. ..
Public works-.......... ..-.....---. ..-....- ........
Public works service...................... ....-.... ...
Justice .......................------- -...........

Agricultural service.....".- ...-.. ......-"... ....
Labor....................................................
Public instruction ........................ ..-.........-
Religion.... ............--........- ..........-

Total appropriated from revenue ....-.....- .....
Total revenue-.......--.----...- .---.. ..
Total expenditures from revenue-.........-......


1925-26


Ordinary
and supple-
mentary

Gourdes
1,698,379.86
539,944.84
6,908,047.60
2,148,625.00
1,141,421.00

420,000.00

206,400.00
201,000.00
120,000.00

13,383,818.30

6,151,035.64
636,886.08
880,580.00
268,760.00
1,262,257.60
2,250,000.00
42,233.00
4,618,000.00
1,413,835.60
43,112.60
1,745,000.00
366,000.00
2,111,689.19
401,709.30

35,574,917.31
45,364,648.10
40.930.725.08


Extraor-
dinary


Gourdes












89,000.00
5,000.00

25,000.00
1,235,140.00

3,373,530.00
4,580.00

80,500.00
270,100.00


5,082,850.00


1926-27


Ordinary
and supple-
mentary

Gourdes
2,278,241.30
540,000.00
6,637,370.05
2,065,682.40
1,099,239.70

420,000.00
53,600.00
206,400.00
250,000.00

13,550,533.45

6,433,160.89
558,960.00
909,180.00
262,170.00
1,170,558.00
3,070,634.17
42,500.00
5,338,770.00
1,404,065.00
43,910.00
2,025,700.00
447,800.00
2,092,293.00
402,832.50

37,753,067.01
38,861,534.79
39,747,163.75


Extraor-
dinary


Gourdes












20,000.00

25,000.00
20,500.00
107,500.00

789,600.00
3,000.00

220,000.00

1,000.00

1,186,600.00

....................


Ordinary
and supple-
mentary

Gourdes
1,884,994.88
600,000.00
6,985,999.80
2,160,624.98
1,157,125.09

420,000.00
53,600.00
206,400.00
250,000.00

13,718,744.75

6,374,782.86
608,960.00
904,980.00
269,865.00
1,183,434.80
3,167,940.00
42,500.00
5,668,800.00
1,447,395.00
43,910.00
2.130.000.00
618,500.00
2,089,368.00
426,337.50

38,695,517.91
50,421,016.49
40,977,914.49


Extraor-
dinary


Gourdes














9,900.00

116,889.00
1,025,335.00

5,728,000.00

422,500.00
10,000.00
8,000.00
52,500.00

7,373,124.00


Ordinary
and supple-
mentary

Gourdes
1,864,702.40
799,076.94
7,014,000.00
2,166,625.00
1,162,281.30

422,322.50
53,600.00
206,400.00
...................

13,689,008.14

6,372,842.40
605,100.00
904,680.00
314,282.50
1,132,208.00
3,603,230.00
44,240.00
5,458,200.00
1,317,755.00
43,910.00
2,471,000.00
620,000.00
2,131,008.00
457,765.00

39,165,229.04
42,521,528.40
44,119,503.94


Extraor-
dinary


Gourdes












30,000.00
15,560.00
161,791.35
38,600.00
301,740.00
209,000.00

2,411,956.50

12,500.00
10,000.00

75,000.00

3,266,147.85


Ordinary
and supple-
mentary

Gourdes
1,541,953.74
993,024.61
7,010,000.00
2,067,000.13
1,162,437.50
.......... .........
205,900.00
57,600.00
206,400.00


13,244,315.98

6,428,607.02
616,944.36
885,980.00
338,360.00
1,155,808.00
3,878,229.92
38,190.00
5,295,634.00
1,322,095.00
44,000.00
2,351,666.60
711,070.18
2,104,856.00
457,672.50

38,873,429.56
38,648,163.39
40,643,229.50


1930-81
(as of Oct.
1, 1930)



Ordinary


Gourdes
1,435,000.00
900,000.00
5,779,999.80
1,788,000.00
956,781.20

141,600.00
57,600.00



11,058,981.00

6,253,455.08
564,700.00
752,040.00
323,370.00
1,145,408.00
3,784,588.44
30,140.00
5,043,167.77
1,300,895.00
43,360.00
1,912,820.00
646,000.00
1,886,756.00
438,592.50

35,184,273.79


Extraor-
dinary


Gourdes
















261,520.00
133,502.00

202,900.00






706,047.00


I I


.


I


I


,


I


.


,


,






:,80 .-'. :' HAITI:: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

of the amount up to Gdes. 5,000,000.00 by which revenues in any one year
exceed Gdes. 35,000,000.00 must be applied to retirement of the bond issues
in addition to the regular sinking fund provisions called for in the amorti-
zation schedules.
A complete analysis of expenditures made during the year by the various
services and departments does not fall within the scope of this report. For
detailed descriptions reference should be made to the annual reports of the
services involved. But in a general way the data assembled in Table No. 47
give information from which some interesting deductions can be made.
For example, it appears that the chief saving during the last year as
compared with the year before was made by the Public Works Service.
In 1928-29 a total of Gdes. 9,621,862.65 was expended by this service, but
in the year just ended expenditures incurred amounted only to Gdes.
6,837,531.17, a reduction of Gdes. 2,784,331.48, or 28.94 per cent. The
difference, of course, is accounted for by the almost complete cessation
of expenditures of a capital nature for new roads, bridges and public
works in general. Because of the absence of legislation for the appropri-
ation of extraordinary 'credits, the Public Works Service during the
year confined its activities to maintenance of existing iv orks and to the
completion of those projects contemplated in credits appropriated during
the previous year. Accordingly, the total disbursements of the Public
Works Service during 1929-30 were: considerably less than in any fiscal
year since 1923-24.
Next to the Public Works Service in importance of economies effected
came the Agricultural Service which in 1929-30 paid out Gdes. 2,408,006.25
compared with Gdes. 2,815,688.95 the year before,. indicating:.reduced
expenditures amounting to Gdes. 407,682.70, or 14.48 per cent. On the
other hand, expenditures of the Department of Labor increased from Gdes.
595,387.22 to Gdes. 759,615.76. To this department are charged expenditures
in connection with the establishment and maintenance of schools for
vocational and industrial education now operated under the direction of
the Agricultural Service.
The Public Health Service expended during 1929-30 a total of Gdes.
4,040,662.71 registering a decline from expenditures the previous year of
8.90 per cent. Somewhat less important economies were effected by the
Department of Finance, the Department of Commerce, the Department of
Religion, and the Ministries of Public Works and Agriculture.
All other departments of the government reported increased expendi-
tures, the principal increase being recorded in the case of the Department
of the Interior which expended Gdes. 1,265,557.13 in 1928-29 compared
with Gdes. 1,494,643.19 in 1929-30, an increase of Gdes. 229,086.06, or 18.10
per cent. A large part of the increase was due to extraordinary expenses
necessitated by the various political changes which took place during the






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 81











TABLE No. 47
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES-FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1929-30


REVENUES
Custom s............................. ................. ...... .............
Internal revenue.......................... ..................................
Miscellaneous............................................................. ...........


Total revenue........
Non fiscal receipts,

Total receipts.......


EXPENDITURES
Public debt:
Financial adviser-general receiver.. ..............................................
Internal revenue service........... .............................................
Series A loan................... ..................... ..............................
Series B loan................................................ .............. ...
Series C loan................................. ................. ....... .......
Interior consolidated debt.... ........... ...............................
Fiduciary currency. .. . ................... ......................
Commissions paid to Banque Nationale.....................................
Haitian Construction Co. notes.................................... ..............
Roberts Dutton & Co. claim....................................................
Stamp sales, discounts, and expenses-............................. ......
International institutions.............................. ....................................
P. C. S. railroad subvention... .................... ..
Wharf company subvention ............. ................... ...
Cable company subvention.......................... ......................

Total ......................................... . ................ ...................


relations ........ ....................................... ..........


Slntoeur .... ..... ......... .................................. .... ...................
Commerce............... .............
Interior ....... .... .....................


Public health service.
Public works.............
Public works service..


Agriculture.............. ....... ..... .............
Agr u......... .. ........ ........7-.............-- -...


Agricultural


Laor ....................... ......... .....................
Public instruction....................... ....................
Religion......................................
Total expenditures from revenue.......................................
Awards of the claims commission ....... ....................
National railroad construction......................................
Miscellaneous......................................... ...-...

Total payments...-................................................
Pension deductions......................................... ..

Net payments............................... .... ...... ..........
Revenue over expenditures.............................
Expenditures over revenues.................................... ....... ........


Uredit


1923-24


Gourdes
29,950,907.14
2,795,870.53
155,543.66

32,902,321.33

32,902,321.33


1,118,917.23
73,478.88
5,589,864.50
1,695,970.36
928,174.00

828,227.51
433,915.00
277,872.35
13,285.42
206,400.00
524,564.28
480,000.00
12,170,669.53
5,322,449.22
734,199.47
1,520,366.84
1,363,403.06
1.529,057.91
961,336.20
5,895,159.05
1,372,533.28
148,288.24
434,443.89
2,303,194.25
457,393.00
34,215,495.94

..-,2..... ....94
14,215,495.94

34,215,495.94
1,313,174.61


1924-2S


Gourdes
35,750,018.34
4,089,926.19
647,722.47

40,487,667.00
69,855.47
40,557,522.47


1,849,537.49
342,928.16
7,336,491.75
2,453,151.14
1,209,067.55
195,839.01
420,000.00
27,958.63

3,191.31
"206,400.00
268,838.26
120,000.00
14,433,403.30
5,579,242.54
619,953.31
1,197,945.96
230,051.46
1,208,067.76
2,223,059.14
703,416.57
7,533,943.51
1,333,838.31
44,258.88
1,526,891.70
274,393.63
1,942,599.20
367,136.75
39,218,202.02
1,191,045.20
1,553,756.20

41,963,003.42
151,460.29
41,811,543.13
1,269,464.98


1925-26


Gourdes
40,594,831.74
4,155,170.28
614,646.08

45,364,648.10
2,600.00

45,367,248.10


1,698,379.86
304,198.76
6,908,047.60
2,148,625.00
1,141,421.00

420,000.00




206,400.00
.247,706.25
90,000.04
13,164,778.51
6,062,415.34
635,084.64
1,062,756.19
247,935.91
1,224,369,56
2,852,485.58
92,287.98
9,082,496.06
1,395,153.62
41,426.15
2,185,104.58
530,646.65
1,965,167.09
388,617.22
40,930,725.08
1,671,072.85
545,995.05
1,842,247.55
44,990,040.53
91,430.92
44,898,609.61
4,433,923.02


1926-27


Gourdes
33,661,876.23
4,153,287.97
1,046,370.59
38,861,534.79
3,988.00
38,865,522.79


2,278,241.30
306,308.68
6,637,370.05
2,065,682.40
1,099,239.70

420,000.00



57,629.15
67,463.85

12,931,935.13
6,496,006.55
555,375.62
827,576.63
255,063.06
1,229,080.99
3,444,301.76
34,789.54
7,166,798.42
1,369,351.38
43,039.34
2,452,380.38
557,200.68
1,996,720.01
387,544.26
39,747,163.75
8,015.25
3,889,422.08
43,644,601.08
103,264.06
43,541,337.02

885,628.96


Foreign


1927-28


Gourdes
45,082,092.80
4,241,620.14
1,097,303.55
50,421,016.49
83,761.32
50,504,777.81


1,884,994.88
462,010.33
6,960,374.65
2,160,624.98
1,157,060.69
420,000.00



45,606.95

521.28

13,091,193.76
6,427,467.21
579,224.57
634,374.38
257,730.29
1,241,170.42
3,631,024.09
34,110.49
8,435,445.55
1,333,376.69
43,611.39
2,170,007.41
615,663.31
2,059,021.14
424,493.79

40,977,914.49
90.00*
2,183,489.38
43,161,313.87

43,161,313.87
9,443,102.00


1928-29


Gourdes
35,247,650.00
6,035,264.80
1,238,613.60
.42,521,528.40

42,521,528.40


1,864,702.40
799,076.94
6,999,195.50
2,166,625.00
1,153,170.05

422,322.50



50,322.55



13,455,414.94
6,368,579.33
555,875.63
721,811.41
329,739.51
1,265,557.13
4,435,428.67
43,575.89
9,621,862.65
1,297,719.99
43,105.13
2,815,688.95
595,387.22
2,053,664.29
516,093.20

44,119,503.94

914,152.25
45,033,656.19

45,033,656.19
1,597,975.54


1929-30


Gourdes
30,839,074.75
6,620,164.04
1,188,924.60
38,648,163.39

38,648,163.39


1,729,289.80
993,017.74
7,001,587.15
2,067,000.13
1,158,220.10

205,900.00



52,824.17



13,207,839.09
6,459,654.24
572,039.59
681,569.38
311,957.67
1,494,643.19
4,040,662.71
37,462.49
6,837,531.17
1,309,419.18
42,956.98
2,408,006.25
759,615.76
2,055,190.00
424,681.82
40,643,229.52

1,204,072.89
41,847,302.41

41,847,302.41
1,995,066.13


. ... . ................ ..................

........... ......................... . . ..........


u 1 ........... ...... ........ ...........


........................ ...... ..........-............ ....
...... ...................


service ........... ........ ......................................


*Credit






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


year and by the national elections which were held soon after the close of
the fiscal year.
The Guard of Haiti during 1929-30 expended Gdes. 91,074.91 more than
it did the year before, indicating a 1.43 per cent increase. The Department
of Foreign Relations, the Department of Justice and the Department of
Public Instruction all spent slightly more in 1929-30 than in 1928-29.
Total receipts from revenue amounted to Gdes. 38,648,163.39 during
1929-30 while expenditures from revenue during the same year amounted
to Gdes. 40,643,229.52. This leaves an excess of expenditures over revenues
of Gdes. 1,995,066.13, or 5.16 per cent. It will be recalled that the ordinary
budget as voted on July 16, 1929 called for expenditures of only Gdes.
40,090,989.60 and that this figure later was reduced materially as it became
evident with the collapse of the Brazilian valorization scheme that revenues
would be far less than had been expected. Accordingly, at first sight, it
appears that in spite of radical budget cuts, expenditures exceeded the
budgetary provisions as first proposed. It should be remembered, however,
that the total expenditures as recorded for 1929-30 include disbursements
under extraordinary credits for which funds were taken from surplus
during the previous two years and not entirely utilized. Under the finance
law, such credits continue until the purposes for which they were allotted
have been fulfilled, provided this period does not exceed two years.
The table showing classifications of expenditures by governmental func-
tions presented for the first time in the report for 1928-29 is presented
again this year as Table No. 48. An interesting comparison between the
two years is made possible by these tables. Service of the public debt as
usual is still the chief cost of running the government, and in the year just
ended 24.44 per cent of total expenditures was devoted to that purpose. For
the prior year the comparable percentage was 22.91. Next in importance
came the expense of maintaining the Guard of Haiti which accounted for
13.55 per cent of all disbursements in 1928-29 and 14.75 per cent in 1929-30.
Funds devoted to education increased from 10.85 per cent in 1928-29
to 13.45 per cent in 1929-30, but expenditures on behalf of public
health declined from 9.62 per cent in 1928-29 to 9.41 per cent in 1929-30.
Fifth in importance in 1928-29 was the cost of transportation (7.09 per
cent) which was reduced through economies of operation and curtailment
of government activities to 5.63 per cent in 1929-30. Administration of the
government finances has overhead expenses which cannot be reduced to a
great extent during bad revenue years. Accordingly, the ratio of such
expenditures increased from 6.80 per cent in 1928-29 to 7.18 per cent in
1929-30. Comparative inactivity in agricultural development during 1929-30
resulted in expenditures for that purpose declining to 3.69 per cent compared
with 4.19 per cent in the previous year. Somewhat higher proportionate
expenditures during 1929-30 as compared with the previous year attended


82











TABLE No. 48
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENDITURES-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Function


Leg islative.. ...;. .........,_ ..---..-_
Judicial..- ...- _.. ... _._..._.
Executive:
Gen tral.........--^. .--- .-,,r, -. ..... .
Foreign affairs .. .... .......... .... .
Financial administration -. --..---
Trade promotion...... ,,....
Health---- ..--, ,-.-. .....
Police-.-.-..-............. ..
Agricultural development........ ........ ..
Fisheries g ................. ..... ... ... ...
Education-- .... .
Religion ~ ....... .. .. ..... ..............
Transportation. _. ........ .. ..........
Communications--........ .....................
Municipal:
Streer ,,, .... ..t^ _,,
Sewers and drains-- ........ .
W after service-,,,, ,,,..................
Other municipal-..
Currency and banking--,.
Public works,
Non functional:
Public debt.--..., ,,-
Pensions--' ------
Printing office and storehouse .... ..............
Communes, individuals,and companies.-..
Total expenditures.... .........


Administration
and
operation

Gourdes
344,047.14
1,268,744.42
1,169,746.86
566,791.34
2,357,907.29
339,389.80
3,492,072.77
6,068,647.82
1,332,748.05
1,300.00
3,802,121.07
393,716.82
77,138.97
668,172.00
622,678.43
135,832.58

1,064,633.02


168,822.97

23,874,511.35


Repairs and
maintenance

Gourdes
160.00
,3,837.90
73,636.34
477.50
33,275.84
22,043.42
55,637.62
31,755.42
50,023.00
73,591.66
7,110.62
1,271,020.71
45,897.02
219,058.80

105,386.40

222,805.30
ws5SS>

64,587.51*

2,151,130.04


Acquisition I Fixed
of property charges


Gourdes
1,541.25
12,483.57
45,057.98
4,770.75
238,859.34
385,164.11
352,379.47
70,268.91
156,362.17
63.25
1,561,140.96
17,906.95
1,006,700.41
46,567.45

209,489.05
26,011.70
315,846.68

37,168.19


218,259.99'

4,269,522.20 .


*Ctedit


Gourdes


107,196.81
52,824.17
374,592.39
39,350.00
3,960.00

192,937.91
30,350,00






205,900.00

10,226,807.38
279,225.14


11.513.143.80


Trust fund Total
repayments I expenditures


Gourdes






















38,995.02
38,995.02


Gourdes
345,748.39
1,285,065.89
1,395,637.99
624,863.76
3,004,634.86
746,597.33
3,939,439.86
6,170,672.15
1,543,093.22
1,363.25
5,629,791.60
449,084.39
2,354,860.09
760,636.47
1,051,226.28
26,011.70
557,065.66
205,900.00
1,324,606.51
10,226,807.38
279,225.14
114,024.53*
38,995.02
41,847,302.41


-----1
Percentage '
of total
expenditures


0-
.83
3.07 0
3.34
1.49 3
7.18
1.78
9.41
14.75
3.69 8-
13.45 -
1.07 <
5.63
1.82 M
2.51
.06
1.33
.49 >
3.17 r
24.44
.67 m
.27* '
.09
100.00


II ----. ~----- -- -- -


,


,


.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the administration of the judicial and general executive functions. General
expenditures for public works declined from Gdes. 1,372,094.92 in 1928-29
to Gdes. 1,324,606.51, but the ratio of such expenditures to total govern-
mental costs registered a slight increase. Maintenance of city streets and
water works was reduced from 2.95 per cent to 2.51 per cent, and from 2.23
per cent to 1.33 per cent respectively as between the two years.
In Table No. 49 expenditures are further subdivided by objects of expen-
diture and by departments and services. Administrative and operating costs
taken as a whole during 1929-30 comprised 57.06 per cent of total expendi-
tures as compared with 51.69 per cent in 1928-29. An increase in this ratio
naturally is to be expected as revenues decline and retrenchment in new
governmental activities takes place. Similarly, it is not surprising that
funds applied to fixed charges increased from 26.81 per cent of total
expenditures in 1928-29 to 27.51 per cent in 1929-30. The principal saving
during the year came under the head of property acquisitions which made
up 14.44 per cent of government disbursements in 1928-29 compared with
10.20 per cent in 1929-30. Expenses for repairs and maintenance likewise
declined as between the two years, the percentage being 6.56 in 1928-29
and 5.14 in 1929-30.
The items appearing under the heading of administration and operation
expenditures in Table No. 49 are still further subdivided in Table No. 50
by objects of expenditure. Salaries and wages made up 72.45 per cent of
administrative and operating costs in 1929-30 as against 70.86 per cent in
1928-29. The share taken by supplies and materials, however, declined
from 16.86 per cent in 1928-29 to 16.20 per cent in 1929-30. A relative
saving also was effected under the heading of special and miscellaneous
expenditures, but the cost of transportation, rents, and communication
increased relatively.
Table No. 51 presents reimbursements to appropriations made during
1929-30. For purpose of comparison reimbursements to appropriations also
are presented for the four years prior to 1929-30. It will be recalled that
certain budgetary credits are reimbursable and that government organi-
zations operating under such credits are permitted to deposit receipts from
the sale of materials or services, thereby increasing the balance available
in the credit. The total of such reimbursements increased from Gdes.
2,085,062.97 in 1928-29 to Gdes. 2,156,744.93 in 1929-30. A large part of
these reimbursements is composed of receipts from sales to other govern-
ment services and consequently the slight increase in the total does not
reflect necessarily a corresponding increase in profitable operations by
those organizations involved.
A monthly record of receipts and expenditures for the year 1929-30
is presented in Table No. 52. Because of the customary large payment at
the beginning of the year for account of the public debt, expenditures














CLASSIFICATION OF


TABLE No. 49

TOTAL EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES
FISCAL YEAR 1929-80


General receiver..........
Internal revenue service.
Public debt........................


Subvent ons......... ........................ ............. .... .. .......... -
Gurei relate. ......................
F inanceslatis .....................-..........................................
Commerce ......... .......................................... ..........
Interior ........ ........ ......... ..- ........... ......
Public health service. ............... .....................
Public works ...... ......... ..........................................
Public works service.........................
Justice .... ................x...... ..................... ...... ........
Agriculture................ ..............................................
Agricultural service ...... ...................................................
Labor ............................. ... ...................................
Public izistructio n._..*:. ........ ...:.. ...... ..:1. .................
Religion ............................................ .......................................



Total expendituresro re.. ..................................
Percentage.................................. .... ..............
* Credit


Adm. and
operation

Gourdes
1,277,852.48
800,451.39

6,386,839.41
566,791.34
371,720.34
307,406.08
1,457,377.29
3,521,089.84
37,115.49
2,432,154.42
1,296,307.36
38,540.98
2,238,100.96
619,666.52
1,958,356.10
393,716.82
23,703,486.82
171,024.53
23,874,511.35
57.06


Repairs and
maintenance

Gourdes
27,567.10
5,281.74

42,122.27
477.50
502.00
1,707.15
2,075.00
34,261.46
303.00
2,091,433.07
628.25
84.00
9,684.70
4,661.40
375.00
615.00
2,221,778.64
70,648.60*
2,151,130.04
5.14


Acquisition
of property

Gourdes
115,479.47
121,082.97

30,692.56
4,770.75
10,121.90
2,844.44
4,590.90
335,480.85
44.00
2,313,943.68
.12,483.57
372.00
108,759.73
99,348.69
44,804.75

3,204,820.26
1,064,701.4
4,269,522.20
10.20


Fixed
charges

Gourdes
308,390.75
66,201.64
10,432,707.38
52,824.17

299,225.14
30,600.00
149,830.56


3,960.00
51,460.86
35,939.15
51,654.15
30,350.00
11,513,143.80

11,513,143.80
27.51


Trust fund
repayments

Gourdes
















.......38995.02

38,995.02
.09


Total

Gourdes
1,729,289.80
993,017.74
10,432,707.38
52,824.17
6,459,654.24
572,039.59
681,569.38
311,957.67
1,494,643.19
4,040,662.71
37,462.49
6,837,531.17
1,309,419.18
42,956.98
2,408,006.25
759,615.76
2,055,190.00
424,681.82
40,643,229.52
.1,204,072.89
41,847,302.41
100.00


.I... ....... .......... ......... ................ ..............
.............. ... ....... .............. ..... ...... ...


I I


[


)


I


I


I


I


I















TABLE No. 50
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES
FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Department or Service


General receiver--- -
Internal revenue service.
Public debt. ...._


Guard------------------
Foreign relations---o ..... .. ......, ,,
Financ5--. , *,. _-
Comm trce------.----------------


Public health service.
Public works......--
Public works service.


U ic- --TT .l . .. ................-T... .., ,
Agriculture i.- ....- ...........
Agricultural service..- -.. - .
Labor... ............ ................................. .............
Public instruction.... ...-... ......................... .. ....


Tot-n- ------...al
Religion .. .> ..-----...........................- -.... I


Total expenditures f..or.. n.......... ..................................
P r sa ..---centage.................. ................... -..... .....-. ..=... -.


Salaries and
wages


Gourdes
1,124,419.03
567,678.50

3,890,630.30
437,607.17
241,635.25
177,800.79
1,212,544.22
2,107,292.44
34,432.08
1,404,762.24
1,235,109.65
34,450.27
1,776,932.76
570,397.66
1,740,641.60
357,870.35
16,914,204.31
- 384,477.12
17,298,681.43
-- 72.45


*Credit


Supplies and
materials Transportation

Gourdes .Gourdes
63,079.74 66,688.57
86,636.96 80,555.00

1,905,825.67 496,746.96
7,455.82 114,177.55
8,035.28 1,765.25
11,560.54 103,539.01
56,282.14 54,156.25
916,552.45 470,410.14
1,642.66 410.00
814,294.85 155.502.27
8,589.47 1,084.40
3,029.31 683.00
70,202.45 370,859.09
108,032.29 63,949.73*
12,093.15 4,164.50
1,901.47 33,356.25
4,075,214.25 1,890,148.51
206,035.54* 9,916.18*
3,869,178.71 1,880,232.33
16.20 a 7.88


Communi-
cation service

Gourdes
244.93
20.80

74,849.92
7,550.80
27,753.45
12,450.74
15,033.42
13,170.85
630.75
38,729.99
21,868.40
378.40
14,503.11
4,350.94
10,504.00
588.75
242,629.25
41.00

242,670.25
1.02


Special and
Rents miscellaneous


Gourdes
533.50*
2,662.00

416.09
83.00
2,030.00
550.00
9,456.20
10,520.39
29,341.64
2,509.80
632.75
189,835.65

247,504.02
69.35

247,573.37
1.04


Gourdes
23,953.71
62,898.13

18,370.47
92,448.11
25.00
118,811.26
4,207.76
8,344.68
313.80

3,093.75
202.61
1,117.20

333,786.48
-* 2,388.78 .
336,175.26
1.41


Total 0

Gourdes 0
1,277,852.48 1
800,451.39 a

6,386,839.41
566,791.34
371,720.34
307,406.08
1,457,377.29
3,521,089.84 0
37,115.49
2,432,154.42
1,296,307.36
38,540.98
2,238,100.96
619,666.52
1,958,356.10
393,716.82 >
23,703,486.82 ;
171,024.53

23,874,511.35 <
100.00 t


T


--""^"""~""'~~~"~'"'~"~~"


-1---1--1---11---LI~*-l^-
11--1--~---1111111----
*11----^-11~-111-111-


I


I


I


I


---- --- ---- -- ----








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


87


exceeded revenue receipts during the month of October. Commencing with
November came a period of eight successive months when receipts each
month exceeded expenditures. Thus funds accumulated during the year,
and by the month of May the deficit created by the heavy public debt
payment had been wiped out and the cumulative totals revealed a credit
balance. In July, however, revenues again had declined to such an extent
that expenditures exceeded revenues, and a deficit was created. August and

September also were months when expenditures exceeded receipts, and the
year ended with a deficit of Gdes. 1,995,066.13.

TABLE No. 51

REIMBURSEMENTS TO APPROPRIATIONS-FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1929-30


General Receiver.........................................
Internal Revenue................. ... .... ..........
Finance:
Pensions................. ...
Public Health Service:
Materials and supplies..................
Medical school............................
Sanitation and quarantine....................
H ospitals............................. ......................
Aid to hurricane sufferers....................
Guard:
Rations...........................................................
Operation and maintenance..............
Prisons....... ...... ..... ...................
Coast guard and light houses.............
Rural police..........................................
Public Works Service:
Public buildings...................
School houses...... ...................
Telegraphs and telephones................
Streets and parks............ .............
Roads, trails and bridges.............
W ater service........... ............
Materials and supplies ....................
Agricultural Service:
Administration .... ........... ........
Central experimental farm..........
Breeding station ......... ..............
Coffee experimental station.................
Sylviculture......... ..... ..........
Cooperative demonstration farms......
Rural farm schools......... .............
Agricultural college.......................
Development of foreign markets.......
Printing plant........... ....... .......
Soil analysis.... ....... ........
Veterinary clinics................................
Labor:
Reform school..... ..... ...............
Elie Dubois school.......................
J. B. Damier school....... ..............
Industrial school Gonaives...................
Industrial school Jacmel.................
Industrial school Cap Haitien...........
Industrial school Jremie .....................
Industrial school Saint Marc.............
Primary industrial schools.............
Total............. ............. --


1925-26

Gourdes
1,102.15



27,069.54

135,139.06
126,590.67

83,452.34
624,851.89
583.45
9,093.20




106,390.39
37,742.57

121.00
14,078.90
493.50

5,726.84
2,271.09
13,243.67




9,299.80
2,018.85
9,279.00



..................


1926-27

Gourdes
3,445.90



9,725.37
75,000.00
129,861.94
146,525.91

49,084.84
674,066.14
129.48
28,829.35




127,573.11
37,166.15

216.80
29,452.16
4,478.70
8,731.40
971.00
31,114.84




68,694.60
2,001.60
14,365.88
686.10
322.20

..................


1927-28

Gourdes
10,221.26
915.46
92,066.19
17,527.57
95,138.58
170,573.18
4,504.30
115,517.40
402,173.04
5,584.32
988.80
8.90
2,410.77

169,622.79
27,427.98
58,340.13
520.89.
1,039.20
46,903.59
10,033.65
848.50
29,253.10
466.50
2,792.10
15,430.99
2,370.20
43,690.75
1,085.07
142.00
247,142.56
2,908.30
2,211.40
15,568.10.
"1,295.10
200.00
200.00
312.00


1928-29

Gourdes
19,956.71
5,933.75
165,599.63
53,353.97
50,245.60
96,659.17
190,503.24
19,501.22
106,394.90
414,840.26
69,276.54
15,032.99
625.15
34,835.29
82.50

167,975.95
4,084.14
43,181.23
8,291.34
1,176.34
51,569.43
3,603.97
261.50
46,296.93
5,766.15
6,143.57
23,728.61
4,569.70
82,854.15
1,646.60
246.15
361,207.00
4,671.25
6,203.57
7,771.72
2,861.30
678.60
270.00
7,162.85


1,208,547.91 | 1,442,443.47 1,597,434.67 2,085,062.97


A record of revenues and expenditures throughout the period of the
Receivership is summarized in Table No. 53 which also shows the yearly
surplus or deficit. There have been eight years when revenues have
exceeded expenditures and six years when a deficit was reported. In


1929-30

Gourdes
51,056.92
20,308.19
148,384.54
66,868.83
2,749.75
117,361.61
225,508.25

97,718.65
344,923.52
54,297.18
17,965.09
110.05
28,156.07
427.68
15,976.15
117,898.37
36,431.02
82,120.14
4,509.23
26,196.91
77,562.79
10,108.12
3,924.60
55,640.03
5,074.25
5,597.16
S24,140.40
7,990.88
72,015.29
3,195.45,

416,734.58
3,808.45
2,060.05
2,650.40
1,070.35
1,908.10
2,589.38
659.30
1,047.20
2,156.744.93










HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 52

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES-FISCAL YEAR 1929-30


Receipts

Customs........-........--....-.
Internal revenue.. ----.........
Miscellaneous ..........* ........
Total revenue....-......-..-
Non fiscal receipt.....-.-.--
Total receipt..- ----

Expenditures
Public debt:
General receiver.............
Internalrevenue....-..........
Series A loan...........
Series B loan. .....
Series C loan--.^---......
Fiduciary currency---..--.
International institution-.....
Total public debt----...
Guard------ --
Foreign relations --..
Finance----------
Commerces.------
Interior---
Sanitary service---.
Public works .-
Public works service--......
Justice-..---.--. -----
A griculturea .
Agricultural servicer-- -
Labor-.--..- -..
Public instruction-- --....
Religion
Total revenue payments-
Miscellaneous-....
Total payments..........
Revenue receipts...- ....
Expenditures from revenue..........
Difference.......
Cumulative revenue --.. ..
Cumulative payments fr. rev......
Difference- ....
'Credit


October



Gourdes
2,699,139.41
849,717.33
277,885.80
3,826,742.54

8,826,742.54




131,29S.66
70,726.29
6,975,006.15
296,555.65
1,155,458.85
35,000.00

8,664,045.60
478,182.80
51,317.15
52,402.64
22,921.01
112,235.20
240,576.72
3,495.00
562,326.95
107,261.08
3,323.60
190,261.16
60,697.33
171,997.02
29,787.25
10,750,830.51
291,141.49
11,041,973.00
3,820,742.54
10,750,830.51
6,924,087.97*
3,826,742.54
10,750,830.51
6,924,087.97*


November December January


Gourdes
3,205,518.05
593,289.40
50,804.40
3,849,611.85

3,849.611.85
3,849,611.85


Gourdes
3,361,925.56
571,191.38
80,027.00
4,013,143.94

4,013,143.94


Gourdes
2,875,510.04
752,559.56
55,495.54
3,683,565.14

3,683,565.14


February March


Gourdes
2,875,602.36
523,841.40
83,437.55
3,482,881.31

3,482,881.31


120,166.94 129,480.64 109,144.76 124,699.47
71,628.89 92,366.52 69,939.23 71,240.95
........................ 6,210.40 .................... 6,250.00
253,794.22 48,641.30 132,110.80 70,577.45
. ... ......... .... 1,240.65 ........ ....... ...........
35,000.00 35,000.CO 35,000.00 35,000.00
5.80 26,625.15 16,622.25 1,421.52
493,595.85 339,564.66 362,817.04 309,189.39
514,609.68 573,501.07 593,292.42 505,923.07
43,383.78 44,438.86 34,737.39 37,552.44
46,202.56 45,370.36 47,990.86 49,273.97
28,075.81 24,571.90 17,203.34 27,381.77
121,954.63 132,050.66 121,094.90 118,323.87
392,193.97 353,324.73 284,727.94 304,450.99
3,420.00 3,490.00 3,558.70 3,627.64
C25,888.30 595,545.29 566,537.92 586,128.12
106,187.93 107,447.62 107,980.39 112,511.28
3,325.00 3,937.95 3,350.00 3,829.55
244,001.11 179,906.8 212,107.24 248,993.00
1; 9,293.53 o6,058.37 92,036.71 60,831.40
183,468.09 178,040.58 168,680.83 168,557.08
38,092.41 38,645.02 42,432.14 34,907.20
2,918,695.65 2,679,894.11 2,638,547.83 2,571,480.77
81,175.06 171,347.44 148,472.43 65,327.09
2,999,870.71 2,831,241.55 2,S07,020.28 2,636,807.86

3,849,611.85 4,013,143.94 3,683,565.14 3,482,881.31
2,918,695.65 2,679,891.11 2,658,547.85 2,571,480.77
950,916.20 1,333,249.83 1,025,017.29 911,400.54
7,676,354.39 11,689,498.33 15,373,063.47 18,855,944.78
13,669,526.16 16,349,420.27 19,007,968.12 21,579,448.89
5,993.171.77* 4,659,921.94* 3,634,904.65- 2,723,504.11*


Gourdes
3,021,610.59
732,496.56
58,750.81
3,812,857.96

3.812,857.96




117,426.35
78,217.65
5,000.00
208,547.42
30,900.00
5,896.35
445,987.77
530,931.37
37,350.91
49,243.33
28,841.77
128,304.57
310,059.06
2,810.00
5.0,963.51
110,454.71
3,715.75
212,337.65
49,473.11
170,106.99
39,214.46
2,619,824.96
172,526.01
2,822,350.97
3,812,857.96
2,649,824.96
1,162,033.00
22,668,802.74
24,229,273.83
1,560,471.11.


April


Gourdes
2,787,424.11
603,415.85
281,906.60

3,672,746.56

3,672,746.56




109,712.35
67,881.28
9,120.60
10,008.25
1,520.60
1,014.90

199,257.98
489,270.80
35,800.50
70,095.52
22,612.80
109,792.53
317,453.40
2,865.00
510,197.69
110,091.87
3,558.13
163,541.51
64,556.31
172,048.86
29,952.08
2,301,094.98
82,915.34

2,384,010.32
3,672,746.56
2,301,094.98
1,371,651.58
26,341,549.30
26,530,368.83
183,819.53*


May



Gourdes
2,268,017.84
405,052.83
57,767.18
2,730,837.85

2,730,837.85




120,176.26
75,218.74
149,837.44




345,232.44
470,950.83
35,683.83
51,730.94
32,657.12
136,331.03
328,970.39
2,866.75
528,765.96
110,162.95
3,352.65
192,732.19
48,500.52
166,209.33
37,073.05
2,491,219.98
138,369.66
2,629,589.64
2,730,837.85
2,491,219.98
239,617.87
29.072,387.15
29,021,588.81
50,798.34


June



Gourdes
2,099,321.08
377,540.60
87,387.75
2,564,249.43

2,564,249.43




121,296.44
62,739.15

7,424.25
...... ...

191,459.84
488,402.63
27,966.47
47,033.57
26,348.18
107,629.23
285,037.56
2,555.00
497,817.04
106,150.61
3,459.59
178,637.99
73,464.00
166,342.79
27,430.93
2,229,735.43
61,352.07
2,291,087.50
2,564,249.43
2,229,735.43
334,514.00
31,636,6-6.55
31,251,324.24
385,312.34


July



Gourdes
1,721,219.99
422,577.02
15,775.05
2,159,572.06

2,159,572.06




109.014.00
65,976.55
119,858.50

1,238.20

296,087.25
481,052.82
104,032.40
51,106.43
26,045.82
126,374.77
330,582.09
2,992.27
566,048.13
109,024.50
3,725.00
199,063.72
50,655.53
168,718.26
36,964.21

2,552,473.20
17,357.03
2,535,116.17

2,159,572.06
2,552,473.20
392,901.14*

33,796,208.64
33,803,797.44
7,588.80*


September


Gourdes
2,099,073.21
424,728.59
55,192.17
2,578,993.97

2,578,993.97


Total



Gourdes
30,839,074.75
6,620,164.04
1,188,924.60
38,648,163.39

38,648,163.39


August


Gonrdes
1,824,712.51
363,753.52
84,494.75
2,272,960.78

2,272,960.78




100,696.96
75,237.93
5,872.50



181,807.39
511,257.73
66,265.34
43,457.77
26,936.75
157,398.69
373,895.80
2,780.00
511,910.55
108,484.10
3,372.65
177,085.75
66,547.62
168,452.78
36,628.23
2,436,280.15
14.3,714.81
2,579,994.96
2,272,960.78
2,436,280.15
163,319.37*
36,069,169.42
36,240,077.59
170,908.170


426,176.97 1,729,289.80
191,844.56 993,017.74
........................ 7,001,587.15
760,772.35 2,067,000.13
-.......... 1,158,220.10
.................... 205,900.00
.... ............ 52,824.17
1,378,793.88 13,207,839.09
822,279.02 6,459,654.24
53,510.52 572,039.59
127,661.43 681,569.38
28,362.40 311,957.67
123,153.11 1,494,643.19
519,390.06 4,040,662.71
3,002.13 37,462.49
755,401.71 6,837,531.17
113,662.14 1,309,419.18
4,007.11 42,956.98
209,338.09 2,408,006.25
63,498.10 759,615.76
167,567.39 2,055,190.00
33,524.84 424,681.82
4,403,151.93 40,643,229.52
134,911.48* 1,204,072.89
4,268,240.45 41,847,302.41
2,578,993.97 38,648,163.39
4,403,151.93 40,643,229.52
1,824,157.96* 1,995,066.13*
38,648,163.39 38,648,163.39
40,643,229.52 40,643,229.52
1,995,066.13* 1,995,066.13-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 89


1920-21 and 1921-22 large payments were effected on account of public
debt. This coupled with the fact that revenue receipts were low caused a
substantial deficit which had to be met by payments from the reserves.
Beginning with 1922-23 a much closer correspondence between expenditures
and revenues is noticeable.

Treasury Position

Most of the accounting problems of a government treasury can be handled
in much the same way as those of a private corporation. Ordinary ac-
counting practice as sanctioned by usage, by legal restrictions, and by the
.common desire to record as accurately as possible the financial status of
a going concern have developed accounting virtually into an exact science.
To be sure, the finer points of accounting procedure still are matters of
opinion and are subject to controversy among competent authorities, but
by and large, the more important elements of presenting the financial
situation both of a government and of a corporation are bound by hard
and fast rules from which there can be no variance.

TABLE No. 53
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES AND EXCESS OF REVENUES OR EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1929-30

Year Revenues Expenditures Surplus Deficit

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17............... ...................... 18,934,684.70 15,884,177.80 3,050,506.90 ......................
1917-18....... .................................... 16,048,390.75 14,614,997.45 1,433,393.30 .....................
1918-19................................................ .. 29,955,933.45 15,499,480.45 14,456,453.00 ................
1919-20................................................. 33,997,450.79 20,646,866.25 13,350,584.54 ......................
1920-21................................ ................... 19,946,095.70 32,788,455.90 ...... 12,842,360.20
1921-22................................................ ..... 24,964,795.72 39,775,908.40 ....................... 14,811,112.68
1922-23........ ...... ...................... 31,950,101.24 30,560,113.15 1,389,988.09 ..........
1923-24............ ............ .. ..... 32,902,321.33 34,215,495.94 ........... 1,313,174.61
1924-25........................ .. ......... ...... 40,487,667.00 39,218,202.02 1,269,464.98 .................
1925-26..... ....... ............... 45,364,648.10 40,930,725.08 4,433,923.02 ..............
1926-27................................................ 38,861,534.79 39,747,163.75 ................... 885,628.96
1927-28................. ........................ 50,421,016.49 40,977,914.49 9,443,102.00
1928-29............................................ 42,521,528.40 44,119,503.94 ........1,597,975.54
1929-30........................ ........................ 38,648,163.39 40,643,229.52 ..................... 1,995,066.13
Total................................ 465,004,331.85 449,622,234.14 48,827,415.83 33,445,318.12
Surplus for period........................... ......... .................. .. ............. 15,382,097.71 ....

An exception might well be made in the case of a balance sheet presen-
tation of the assets and liabilities of a government as distinguished from
that of a corporation. In the latter case procedure is fairly well defined in
spite of the infinite variety and complexity of the accounting problems
presented. But while the financial structure of a government is far less
complicated than that of a large corporation it is at the same time true
that it is much more difficult to portray adequately in the form of a
balance sheet the assets and liabilities of even a small state such as Haiti.
In 1924 an effort was made for the first time to present in the form of
a balance sheet the condition of the Haitian treasury. In the interest of





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


conservatism only cash items were included as assets of the state, while
on the'liability side were set forth all definitely established obligations
of the state. The general form and arrangement of this balance sheet
have been adhered to up to the present date and have been offered each
year in the annual reports of this office. The condition of the treasury as
of September 30, 1930 is shown in the statement given in Table No. 54.
For comparative purposes a similar statement is given for each of the
preceding years since 1924.
An explanation should be given of the item aggregating Gdes.
25,807,378.06 which is indicated as deposited in the Banque Nationale de
la R6publique d'Haiti. Of this amount, only Gdes. 2,794.868.66 were retained
by the Banque Nationale in Haiti. The balance represents funds which had
been transferred to New York, with the approval of this office, where they
were deposited with The National City Bank of New York or were
invested in securities of the Haitian government. Until provision is made
for the payment of interest on funds deposited in Haiti, it will continue
to be the policy of this office to recommend the transfer of all funds to
New York except for a working balance sufficient to meet the current
requirements of the government in Haiti.
Of the amount carried in New York funds, a total of Gdes. 12,225,660.05
on September 30, 1930 was carried on the books of The National City
Bank of New York for the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti
as a time deposit for account of the General Receiver drawing interest
at 2y2 per cent, and requiring thirty days notice of withdrawal. Funds
were provided for current use by deposits of Gdes. 4,381,469.60 payable
on demand and drawing interest at the rate of two per cent per
annum. All other funds carried in New York, totalling Gdes. 6,405,379.75
at the end of the year, were invested in Series A and Series C bonds of
the Republic of Haiti and carried on the books at cost. These have a par
value of Gdes. 6,444,477.15. On September 30 of the previous year, the
amount invested in these securities totalled Gdes. 6,129,310.71. Thus, the
investment at New York in Haitian securities increased during the year
by Gdes. 276,069.04.
Of a total of Gdes. 2,794,868.66 retained in Haiti, Gdes. 2,130,163.80
on September 30, 1930 had been invested in Series B bonds of the republic,
having a par value of Gdes. 2,532,327.00. At the end of the previous fiscal
year the investment in Series B bonds totalled Gdes. 2,883,148.15.
It has been the policy of this office to employ surplus funds for investment
in Haitian securities so long as the market value of the securities is such
that purchases can be made to advantage. Not only is interest saved by
this procedure, but a reserve is provided of bonds purchased below par
which later can be utilized for completing sinking fund requirements ivhen
desirable.




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