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Annual report of the [U.S.] Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Title: Annual report of the U.S. Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year… (run is from 1923/24 to 1932/33)
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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
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    Annex
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    Schedules
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Full Text
















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, I


HAITI


ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL

i RECEIVER

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

OCTOBER, 1928-SEPTEMBER, 1929


SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE
AND COMMERCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, AND
THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA THROUGH THE
AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER


S. DE LA RUE
Financial Adviser-General Receiver
E. A. COLSON
Deputy General Receiver
R. A. PIXLEY
Director General of Internal Revenue


THE EVENING POST JOB PRINTING OFFICE. INC.
154 FULTON STREET. NEW YORK. N.Y.


















aj,s











CONTENTS
PAGE
Foreign Commerce ........... ...... ................................... 2
Im ports ................................................. ........... 3
Exports ............................................................... 3
Balance of Trade ...................... ............................. 4
Origin of Imports....................... ..................... .......... 5
Destination of Exports ................................. .............. 6
Ports of Entry for Imports. ............................................. 9
Ports of Shipment for Exports .......................................... 11
Shipping ............................................. ............ 13
Foreign Commerce by Months and by Ports................................ 19
Commodities Imported...... ...................... .................... 21
Commodities Exported..................... ............................. 26
Standardization ...................................................... 33
Diversity of Export Products and Markets ................................. 36
Imports and Exports of Currency.......................................... 38
Customs Administration ................................................ 40
Tariff Revision............ ........................................... 41
Commercial Conventions....... ............... ......................... 42
Customs Service ....................................................... 43
Internal Revenue Service.......................... .................... 52
Customs Receipts ....................................................... 56
Internal Revenues........................................ ............... 66
Excise Taxes..................... ..................................... 68
Private Domain of the State............................................ 70
Miscellaneous Receipts.. ...................................... ....... 72
Governmental Expenditures.............................................. 73
Treasury Position ...................................................... 90
Public Debt............. .............................................. 93
Disbursem ents ......................................................... 97
Supplies ............................................................. 98
Budget and Finance Law .............................................. 99
Accounting ............................................................ 99
Auditing .................................. .. .............. ......... 99
Currency ..................... ........................... 99
Banking and Credit.................................... .............. 101
Claims .............. .............................................. 103
Personnel ............................................................. 103
Conclusions ............................................................ 105
Annex: Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue................ 107
Collections ...................................................... 109
Receipts by sources................................................ 110
Receipts by sources and financial districts ............................. 112
Internal revenue receipts according to sources and months ............... 112
Receipts by rural communes........................................ 117
Administrative and operating costs................................... 120
Administrative organization........................................... 125
Personnel ............ ............................................. 127

III






iv CONTENTS

PAGE
Annex: Report of the Director General of Internal Revenue-Continued
Quarters and equipment ........................................... 128
Digest of chief taxes collected. ..................................... 129
Excise ............... .. .......................................... 129
Emigration taxes.................... .............................. .. 132
Income tax.................... .................................... 132
Occupational tax on foreigners.............. ... ...................... .. 133
Public land rentals ........................................ ........ 133
Recording fees and property transfer tax ............................. 136
Consular receipts ............................... ...... ............ 138
Steamship passage tax................................................. 139
Irrigation tax.................................. ................. 140
Conclusion ........................................ 141
Appendix: Schedules.............................. .. .... ............... 143












STATISTICAL EXHIBITS

PAGE
1. Value of Imports and Exports and Excess of Imports or Exports, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1928-29 .................. ......................... 2
2. Value of Imports showing Countries of Origin in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1928-29........................................... ..... 5
3. Value of Exports showing Countries of Destination in Percentages, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1928-29 .......................................... 7
4. Value of Total Foreign Commerce by Countries in Percentages, fiscal years
1916-17 to 1928-29........................................ ........ 8
'5. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign
Commerce by Countries, fiscal year 1928-29 .......................... 9
6. Value of Imports by Ports of Entry, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29...... 10
7. Value of Exports by Ports of Shipment, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29.. 11
8. Value and Percentage of Value of Imports, Exports and Total Foreign Com-
merce by Ports, fiscal year 1928-29................................ 12
9. Net Tonnage of Steam Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1928-29 ......................... 14
10. Net Tonnage of Sailing Vessels in Foreign Commerce Entered and Cleared
by Registry and Months, fiscal year 1928-29 .......................... 15
11. Value of Imports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1928-29.... 17
12. Value of Exports by Registry of Carrying Vessels, fiscal year 1928-29.... 18
13. Value of Imports by Months and Ports of Entry, fiscal year 1928-29 com-
pared with 1927-28 ............................................... 20
14. Value of Exports by Months and Ports of Shipment, fiscal year 1928-29
compared with 1927-28 ............................................ 22
15. Value of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29....... 23
16. Quantity of Imports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29..... 24
17. Value of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29......... 27
18. Quantity of Exports by Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29...... 27
19. Quantity and Value of Five Principal Exports by Ports, fiscal year
1928-29 compared with 1927-28.................................... 28
20. Percentage of Value of Exports by, Commodities, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1928-29 ........................ ................................. 29
21. Quantity and Value of Exports by Commodities and Months, fiscal year
1928-29 ...... ................................................... 31
22. Imports and Exports of Currency, fiscal years 1922-23 to 1928-29......... 39
23. Receivership Fund, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29....................... 44
24. Expenses of Financial Adviser-General Receiver by Objects of Expendi-
tures, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29............................... 45
25. Classification of Total Expenditures of the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver, fiscal year 1928-29....................................... 45
26. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of the
Financial Adviser-General Receiver, fiscal year 1928-29 ............... 46
27. Repairs and Improvements to Customs Plant and Equipment, fiscal year
1928-29 ........................................................ 47
28. Distribution of Expenditures from Receivership Fund, fiscal year 1928-29. 48






STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


PAGE
29. Cost of Customs Operations by Ports and Costs of Administration, Repairs
and Maintenance, Acquisition of Property and Fixed Charges, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1928-29................................................ 50
30. Total Cost of Collecting Each Gourde of Customs Receipts, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1928-29................................................ 51
31. Operating Allowance of Internal Revenue SerVice, fiscal years 1923-24 to
1928-29 ......................................................... 52
32. Costs of Internal Revenue Service by Objects of Expenditures, fiscal years
1923-24 to 1928-29 ................................................ 53
33. Classification of Total Expenditures of Internal Revenue Service, fiscal year
1928-29 ............................ .... .. ............ .......... 55
34. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures of Internal
Revenue Service, fiscal year 1928-29 ................................. 56
35. Revenue of Haiti by Sources, fiscal years 1889-90 to 1928-29 .............. 57
36. Relation between Import and Export Values and Customs Receipts, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1928-29 ........................................... 60
37. Customs Receipts by Months, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29 ............. 62
38. Customs Receipts by Ports, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29 ............... 64
39. Customs Receipts by Sources and Ports, fiscal year 1928-29 .............. 64
40. Customs Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1928-29.......... 65
41. Distribution of Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1916-17 to 1928-29......... 65
42. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, fiscal years 1919-20 to 1928-29..... 67
43. Miscellaneous Receipts by Sources and by Months, fiscal year 1928-29..... 72
44. Total Receipts of Haitian Government by Sources, Months and Ports, fiscal
year 1928-29..................................................... 74
45. Expenditures of Haitian Government by Services, fiscal years 1916-17 to
1922-23 ................. ....................................... 76
46. Ordinary, Supplementary and Extraordinary Appropriations from Revenue,
fiscal years 1924-25 to 1928-29 ..................................... 77
47. Revenues and Expenditures, fiscal years 1923-24 to 1928-29 .............. 80
48. Functional Classification of Expenditures, fiscal year 1928-29 ............ 84
49. Classification of Total Expenditures by Departments and Services, fiscal
year 1928-29.............................. ....................... 86
50. Classification of Administration and Operation Expenditures by Depart-
ments and Services, fiscal year 1928-29............................... 87
51. Reimbursements to Appropriations, fiscal years 1925-26 to 1928-29....... 88
52. Receipts and Expenditures, fiscal year 1928-29 ......................... 89
53. Revenues and Expenditures and Excess of Revenues or Expenditures, fiscal
years 1916-17 to 1928-29.................................... ....... 90
54. Treasury Assets and Liabilities. .................................. ... 91
55. Public Debt ..... ................................................... 93
56. Expenditures from Revenue for the Public Debt and Relation of Such
Expenditures to Revenue Receipts, fiscal years 1927-28 and 1928-29... 97
57. Required and Actual Debt Reduction, fiscal years 1927-28 and 1928-29... 97
58. Income Account of Bureau de Fournitures, fiscal year 1928-29 ............ 98
59. Assets and Liabilities of Bureau de Fournitures ......................... 98
60. Notes of the Banque Nationale in Circulation by Months, fiscal years
1919-20 to 1928-29 ............................................. 101
61. Loans and Deposits of Bank in Haiti by Months, fiscal year 1928-29...... 102






STATISTICAL EXHIBITS


ANNEX: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
PAGE
1. Annual internal revenue receipts, 1911-12 to 1928-29 .................... 110
2. Internal revenue receipts by sources, 1919-20 to 1928-29................ 111
3. Internal revenue receipts by collection districts, 1919-20 to 1928-29..... 113
4. Internal revenue receipts by sources and districts, 1928-29 .............. 114
5. Internal revenue receipts by sources and months, 1928-29............... 115
6. Internal revenue receipts by months, 1919-20 to 1928-29................ 116
7. Internal revenue receipts of rural communes, 1928-29 ................... 118
8. Operating allowance of Internal Revenue Service, 1923-24 to 1928-29 ...... 120
9. Cost of Internal Revenue Service by objects of expenditure, 1923-24 to
1928-29 ...................................... ................... 122
10. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by objects of expenditure, 1923-24 to
1928-29 ............................ ....... ...................... 123
11. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by districts, 1923-24 to 1928-29..... 124
12. Administration and operation expenditures, classified by objects and by
months, 1928-29 .................................................. 125
13. Expenses of Internal Revenue Service by districts and by months, 1928-29. 126
14. Personnel ..................................... .................... 127
15. Emigration statistics, 1922-23 to 1928-29 .............................. 132
16. Receipts from foreigners' occupational tax, 1928-29 ..................... 134
17. Public land rentals, 1928-29................... ....................... 136
18. Value of sales and mortgages of real property, 1928-29 ................. 138
19. Consular fees accruing to the State, 1924-25 to 1928-29 .................. 139
20. Receipts from steamship passage tax by ports, 1928-29................. 140
21. Receipts from steamship passage tax by months, 1928-29............... 140
22. Receipts from irrigation taxes, 1928-29 .............................. 141


APPENDIX: SCHEDULES

1. Quantity and Value of Imports into Haiti by Countries of Origin, October
1928 to September 1929 ............................................ 145
2. Quantity and Value of Exports from Haiti by Countries of Destination,
October 1928 to September 1929................................... 172
3. Customs Receipts by Sources, by Ports and by Months, fiscal year 1928-29.. 178
4. Internal Revenue Receipts by Sources, Districts and Months, fiscal year
1928-29 ................... ...... ........ ... .............. 182


CHARTS

1. Values of Total Imports, Total Exports and Coffee Exports, fiscal years
1923-24 to 1928-29.............................. .................. 30
2. Coffee Prices, fiscal years 1927-28 and 1928-29 ........................... 32
3. Total Revenue and Customs Receipts, fiscal years 1924-25 to 1928-29....... 58
4. Gross and Net Public Debt of Haiti from October, 1924 to September, 1929.. 94
























HAITI

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-
GENERAL RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
OCTOBER, 1928-SEPTEMBER, 1929









HAITI
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL
RECEIVER FOR THE FISCAL YEAR OCTOBER, 1928-
SEPTEMBER, 1929


OFFICE OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, December 11, 1929.

THE SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FINANCE AND COMMERCE OF THE
REPUBLIC OF HAITI.
SIRS:
There is transmitted herewith the thirteenth annual report respecting
the commerce and finances of Haiti, covering the fiscal year 1928-29, and
supplementing and enlarging upon the monthly reports required by Article
VII of the treaty of September 16, 1915, between the United States of
America and the Republic of Haiti.
Commercial and financial conditions during the course of 1928-29 were
less favorable than those enjoyed in the record year 1927-28. Foreign com-
merce declined substantially and this was reflected in smaller revenues.
Collections from the excise taxes adopted at the close of 1927-28 only par-
tially compensated for the general decline of revenue receipts. Financial
obligations of the Haitian Government, however, were promptly fulfilled,
retirement of the public debt up to requirements for the fiscal period was
accomplished well before the close of the year, and the unobligated cash
balance of the treasury on September 30, 1929, was the highest on record.
At the end of 1928-29, prospects for 1929-30 were encouraging. The
summer months of'1929 had passed without recurrence of the adverse
weather conditions which preceded the coffee harvest of 1928-29, and which,
by reducing the volume of coffee exports, were largely responsible for the
generally less favorable commercial and financial conditions of the year as
compared with those enjoyed during 1927-28. The outlook for a normal
coffee crop in 1929-30, therefore, suggested general economic and fiscal
improvement. Further, enactment of a standardization law in September,
1929, assured shipment of coffee in more marketable condition than here-
tofore.
During the early part of October 1929, however, the coffee valorization
program carried on by Brazil since the war partially collapsed. Though
1






2 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL. RECEIVER

Haitian coffee commands a premium in Europe over Brazilian grades, the
price range of Haitian coffee reacts immediately to fluctuations in the
market for Brazilian coffees and in like degree. Under the valorization
system price fluctuations were dictated by the ability of Brazilian producers
to finance the measured release of their crop in relation to world consump-
tion of coffee. Such control is enjoyed at the expense of accumulating very
large reserves of coffee in Brazil, and assumption of increasingly heavy
carrying charges. With impairment of the valorization system, and the
threat of release of accumulated reserves of Brazilian coffee, the outlook is
for substantially lower prices, and for a disorganized coffee market.
There is little likelihood that the probable increase in the volume of
Haitian coffee available for export will compensate appreciably for the
lower prices which are logically to be expected; in consequence commercial
and financial prospects for 1929-30 are uncertain. This situation, however,
is by no means peculiar to Haiti. Reports from both Santo Domingo and
Porto Rico indicate widespread apprehension respecting possibilities in the
coffee market. Customs revenues in Santo Domingo show a progressive
reduction over the last three years, which may be continued during the
ensuing year. The advantage held by these countries over Haiti is their less
complete dependence upon coffee as an export and the fact that control of
quality of exports has been more fully established. Brazil, of course, is
heavily involved, as is Colombia, and the seriousness of the decline has
unsettled coffee markets the world over.

FOREIGN COMMERCE

Foreign commerce for 1928-29 as shown on Table No. 1, amounted to
Gdes. 169,808,779, as against Gdes. 214,577,513 in 1927-28, a decrease of
Gdes. 44,768,734 or 20.87 per cent. This reflects in the main the severe

TABLE No. 1
VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR EXPORTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Imports Exports Total Excess Excess
Imports Exports

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17 .................. 43,030,428 44.664,428 87,694,856 ................ 1,634.000
1917-18.................. 50,903,468 88,717,650 89.621,118 12,185,818 ..............
1918-19.................. 85,588.041 123.811.096 209,899,187 ................ 38223,055
1919-20.................. 136,992,055 108,104,639 245.096,694 28887,416 ...............
1920-21.................. 59,786.029 82,952,045 92,738.074 26,833.984 ...............
1921-22............... 61,751,355 53.561,050 115,312,405 8,190,305 ...............
1922-23.................. 70,789.815 72,955,060 143,744,875 ................ 2,165,245
1923-24.................. 73,480.640 70,881,610 144,362.250 2,599,030 ...............
1924-25................. 101.187.825 97,018,810 198,206,635 4,169,015 ..............
1925-26.................. 94,257.030 101,241,025 195.498,05 ................983995
1926-27................ 78,76,600 76,495.442 155,252.012 2.261,158 .......
1927-28................. 101,241,283 113,336,230 214.577,513 ................ 12,094947
1928-29.................. 86,189.612 83,619,167 169,808,779 2,570.445 ...............
Total......... ..... 1,013,954.181 1.017,358,252 2,061,312,433 87,697,171 61,101,242






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


decline of exports for the year as compared with 1927-28, and the resultant
curtailment of purchasing power as evidenced by decreased imports.

IMPORTS
Total imports for 1928-29 were valued at Gdes. 86,189,612 as against
Gdes. 101,241,283 in 1927-28, a decrease of Gdes. 15,051,671 or 14.87 per
cent. Import values for the year under review were Gdes. 2,570,445 in
excess of total exports for the year. The value of imports, generally speak-
ing, furnishes an index to the purchasing power derived from exports of
principal local commodities. Haitian imports, however, as is often the
case with communities predominantly dependent upon agricultural produc-
tion, include purchases of wholesale merchandise effected in anticipation of
the purchasing power which accrues during each harvest season. This
practice is explicable on the basis that the merchant must have stocks ready
for the liquidation period when money is comparatively plentiful. While
there was evidence that such anticipatory purchasing toward the close of
1928-29 was more conservative than usual, a portion of the imports recorded
for the year represents stocks not yet purchased by consumers, and which do
not bear any relationship to the needs of the current market.
Again, imports are subject to increase in virtue of residual purchasing
power remaining from exports of the preceding year as distinguished from
those of the current year. It is true that unusual features attended expen-
diture of the purchasing power carried over from 1927-28, especially with
respect to very large purchases of food supplies in the southern peninsula
as a result of storms in that section. Nevertheless in Haiti, as in other
countries, expenditure of surplus funds is the rule rather than the exception.
It is therefore assumed that in absence of emergency conditions the total
expenditure for imports during 1928-29 would not have differed materially
from that actually effected.
In short, the decline of imports for the year under review as compared
with 1927-28 was primarily due to the decrease of exports from which
purchasing power is derived. Import volume was affected less than usual
by purchasing in anticipation of the prospective coffee harvest, but was out
of proportion to income from current exports mainly because of the expen-
diture of the residue of purchasing power remaining from 1927-28.

EXPORTS
Total exports were valued at Gdes. 83,619,167, as against Gdes.
113,336,230 in 1927-28, a decrease of Gdes. 29,717,063, or 26.22 per cent.
The most important factor in the commerce of Haiti is export trade. The
economic condition of local business depends fundamentally upon the
quantity and value of one principal agricultural product: coffee. Generally






4 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

speaking, it is against the actual returns from the coffee crop that the
balance is stricken off between profitable and unprofitable commercial enter-
prise in Haiti. For this reason the value of exports of coffee is of greatest
interest in the analysis of commercial and financial conditions.
The coffee harvest for the fall of 1928 in the north of Haiti was imme-
diately preceded by unusual drought, and excessive rains damaged the coffee
during the actual harvest, whereas the outlook had been for a bumper crop
in that section. During August, 1928, there was a severe hurricane on the
southern peninsula, which, in addition to actual destruction of the coffee
crop, considerably disorganized the whole southern region so that much of
the effort ordinarily devoted to harvesting and marketing coffee was diverted
to necessary reconstruction. Such were the factors which reduced the
coffee exports from 41,146,804 kilos, valued at Gdes. 89,582,312 in 1927-28,
to 28,556,644 kilos, valued at Gdes. 64,493,905 in 1928-29, and lowered the
value of total exports for the year under review.

BALANCE OF TRADE
Reflecting principally application of the residual purchasing power re-
maining from 1927-28, the balance of trade for the year under review
showed an excess of imports of Gdes. 2,570,445. In 1927-28 there was a
balance of exports of Gdes. 12,094,947, and in 1926-27 a balance of imports
of Gdes. 2,261,158.
The unfavorable balance last noted obtained during a year in which
commercial conditions simulated those of the year under review. During
1926-27 exports were at a comparably low figure, while coffee prices were
less favorable than during the year under review. A residuum of purchas-
ing power carried over from the year 1925-26 was expended during that
year. The reaction upon the balance of trade was in favor of imports.
Under present conditions any severe recession in the value of the coffee
crop, resulting either from smaller volume, lower prices or a combination
of both, especially following a fiscal period during which such factors have
been more than usually favorable, may be expected to bring about an
unfavorable balance of trade. Such was the nature of the causes contribut-
ing to the unfavorable balances recorded for 1926-27 and for the year under
review.
An unfavorable balance of exports versus imports is generally to be
interpreted differently in Haiti than in highly industrialized countries.
Haiti is in a developmental stage. Production should be diversified as
well as increased, and work on these lines is beginning to show results.
Methods of production should be improved to the end that the standard of
living may be raised, and in this connection it should be noted that imports
calculated to increase production have represented an important part of the
total imports during the past few years. A temporary unfavorable balance






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER 5


of trade warrants little concern so long as fundamental conditions are not
affected and when the excess of imports results from investment of buying
power which originated during a preceding year, while at the same time
purchasing in anticipation of the future has been relatively at a minimum.
The end of the year found credit conditions less extended and stocks not
excessive as compared with the preceding year.
Under present conditions and pending more definite information on the
Brazilian valorization situation, it is exceedingly difficult to be very opti-
mistic with reference to any business expansion during the coming year.
On the other hand, credits of various merchants with the banks and in
general are very much better than they have been for some time. There
probably has not been a period within the last five years when stocks of mer-
chandise were as low as they are today. Hand to mouth buying is the rule
and no over-stocking appears to be in prospect for some months to come.
Unless conditions radically change so that renewed anticipatory buying takes
place toward the end of the year, it is conceivable that total imports during
1929-30 will more closely correspond to export values than for several years.


ORIGIN OF IMPORTS

Table Np. 2 shows the percentage of total import values furnished by
the several countries which have participated in the import trade of Haiti

TABLE No. 2
VALUE OF IMPORTS, SHOWING COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
Country of Origin 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
United States................. 87.09 79.87 76.56 75.30 69.85 81.08
France....................... 4.71 5.97 6.78 6.89 7.85 5.76
United Kingdom.............. 5.85 7.30 5.02 6.69 6.80 6.48
Austria.............. ...................... .01 .01
Bahama Islands.......... 02 .03 .04
Belgium.....................:. .62 .55 .85
British India.................. .09 .10 .10
Canada........................ .08 .04 .15
Canal Zone.................... .14 .11 .17
Cuba .......................... .01 .05 .04
Curacao ....................... .81 .90 1.94
Czechoslovakia................ .02 .02 .01
Denmark.................. .18 .24 .35
Dominican Republic.......... 2.85 7.36 .71 .60 .67 6.68
Germany................... 4.65 4.08 4.88
Italy........................... 1.00 .54 1.05
Jamaica...................... .25 .02 .11
Japan .......................... .07 .11 .10
Netherlands................... 1.93 1.70 2.45
Norway....................... ............ .01 .12
Porto Rico.................... .96 1.82 2.72
Spain ........................08 .09 .04
Sweden .. .............. ............ .01 .05
Switzerland ................... .04 .09 .15
Total..................... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00






6 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

since establishment of the Receivership. The proportion of imports from
the United States has exceeded that from other countries, averaging 81.08
per cent for the period in question. For the year under review, the per-
centage of American imports, 69.85 per cent, was less than that recorded
for any fiscal year during the Receivership.
Principal imports are foodstuffs, construction material, and the cheaper
textiles. The proportion of foodstuffs imported from the United States
during 1928-29 was virtually the same as in the preceding year. The
diminution in the percentage of the total import trade enjoyed by American
firms was largely attributable to wider dispersion of orders for construction
material and textiles. It is not improbable that this situation was in-
fluenced to a considerable degree by the reaction of American firms them-
selves to the unsatisfactory conditions arising from the small coffee crop
of 1928-29 as compared with 1927-28, inasmuch as the dominating position
of the United States with respect to imports is explained on the basis of
generally better competitive prices, quicker delivery and recognized quality.
Next in order of importance to import trade during the year were
France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Porto Rico and the Netherlands.
Each of the countries just enumerated enjoyed a slightly greater percentage
of total import trade than in 1927-28. Only eight countries accounted for
as much as one per cent of Haiti's total import trade, which, however,
represented an increase of two over the number of countries accounting for
as much import trade during 1927-28.
Percentages for 1928-29, particularly when viewed in conjunction with
those for recent years appear to indicate a trend toward wider distribution
of import business. However, Haitian commerce in its various phases has
tended rather toward irregular fluctuation than toward positive changes.
There is therefore little basis for interpretation of the percentages under
discussion in terms of probable distribution of future import business on a
wider scale.

DESTINATION OF EXPORTS ...

Table No. 3 shows the percentages of export values declared for various
countries which have traded in Haitian products during the period of the
Receivership. For the thirteen years in question France has taken 49.53
per cent of Haitian exports, while the percentage for 1928-29 was 55.29
per cent, substantially in excess of the average. The importance of the
French market to Haiti's export trade obtains by reason of the fact that
France_is the principal purchaser of Haitian coffee. During the year
60.15 per cent of the value of total exports of coffee were consigned to






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


French dealers. Coffee exports to all countries constituted 77.13 per cent
of total export values.

TABLE No. 3
VALUE OF EXPORTS, SHOWING COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
Country of Destination 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Percent
United States................. 52.85 11.02 7.81 8.18 7.81 26.40
France....................... 35.98 62.29 47.51 49.77 55.29 49.53
United Kingdom............. 1.45 4.40 5.16 4.50 4.87 3.87
Bahama Islands.............. .06 .09 .09
Barbados.......................................... ... ....
Belgium ...................... 5.20 6.24 5.59
Canada ........................ .48 .96 .43
Canal Zone.................... .17 .07 .09
Colom bia...................... ............ ............ .06
Cuba.......................... 3.86 .78 .98
Curacao....................... .39 .86 .01
Denmark..................... 8.13 7.72 7.63
Dominican Republic.......... .04 .03 .06
Finland........................ .19 .23 .22
French Africa................ 9.72 2.29 .03 .04 .04 20.7
Germany ..................... 6.22 4.96 4.08
Italy .......................... 8.64 6.97 7.33
Jamaica ...................... ............ .01 .01
Japan......................... .05 .0 .02
Martinique .................... .0 ............ ............
Netherlands................... 3.09 4.40 1.64
Norway........................ .78 .62 .46
Porto Rico.................... .80 .62 .01
Spain.......................... 3.42 2.54 2.63
Sweden....................... .87 .88 .64
Switzerland................... ...... .....i ..... .01
Venezuela ..................... 08 .01 ........
Total...................... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Haitian export trade is thus dependent not only upon one principal
export commodity, but to a large degree as well upon a single market.
Without discounting the importance of export trade with France, continued
evidence of such dependence emphasizes the importance of developing a
diversity of export products and wider markets.
As will be pointed out later in the present report, prices received abroad
for Haitian coffee ate not appreciably influenced by local costs of produc-
tion, but rather are determined by the world coffee market. The quantity
of coffee exports from Haiti is subject to wide variation, depending to a
large degree upon weather conditions. Finally with a single country fur-
nishing the principal market for Haitian coffee, the export trade of Haiti
is subject to such additional contingencies as may develop in the economic
conditions of that country. For these reasons, while every encouragement
should be given to the production of coffee, improving its quality, and to
continued development of trade with France, achievement of ultimate
economic stability will not be accomplished without wider diversity of
crops and markets.







8 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Percentages of exports going to countries other than France during the
year, among those countries accounting for more than one per cent of export
trade, were slightly lower than in 1927-28, Italy, the United Kingdom and
Spain excepted. In order of importance to export trade such countries
were the United States, Denmark, Italy, Belgium, the United Kingdom,
Germany, Spain and the Netherlands.
Percentages of total foreign trade accounted for by various countries
during the Receivership are shown on Table No. 4. The United States, by
reason of predominance in import trade over the entire period, and with
respect to exports during the world war, accounted for 54.82 per cent of
total foreign commerce over the thirteen years in question, though the


TABLE No. 4

VALUE OF TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES IN PERCENTAGES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
Country 191617- 1921-22- 192-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
\ 1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
United States................. 72.53 45.63 42.68 89.85 89.30 54.82
France...................... 18.89 33.83 26.84 '29.54 81.21 26.82
United Kingdom.............. 4.03 5.85 5.08 5.53 5.85 5.07
A ustria ........................ .......... ............ .01
Bahama Islands............... .03 .06 .06
Barbados.......................... .. ...... ..........
Belgium................ 2.87 8.55 3.19
British India.................. .04 .05 .05
Canada........................ 1.26 .53 .29
CanalZone................... .16 .09 .18
Colombia...................... ....................... .03
Cuba.......................... 1.91 .43 .50
Curacao...................... .61 .62 .99
Czechoslovakia................ ........... .01 ............
Denmark...................... 4.10 4.19 3.94
Dominican Republic....... .38 .30 .37
Finland....................... 5.05 14.69 .10 .12 .11 13.29
French Africa................. .02 .02 .02
Germany...................... 5.42 4.55 4.23
Italy........................... 2.30 8.94 4.14
Jamaica....................... .14 .02 .06
Japan ..........................06 .06 .06
Netherlands.......... ........ 2.51 8.12 2.05
Norway....... ........ .40 .83 .29
Porto Rico..................... .88 1.19 1.38
Spain.......................... 1.72 1.88 1.32
Sweden..................... .43 .47 .34
Switzerland ................... .02 .04 .08
Venezuela ..................... .04 .01 ..........
Virgin Islands................. . .. ..... ....
Total..................... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


percentage for 1928-29 was 39.30 per cent, a more representative propor-
tion. Next in importance to total foreign commerce was France which
country accounted for 26.82 per cent of such commerce during the period
of the Receivership, and for 31.21 per cent in 1928-29. As compared with
the proportions for 1927-28, total trade with France during the year under
review increased 5.65 per cent while that with the United States diminished








HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 9


1.36 per cent. This, however, does not reflect direct competition inasmuch

as the decline shown for the United States was principally with respect to

imports, while the proportionate increase for France involved more par-

ticularly exports. By way of summary, Table No. 5 shows the values and


TABLE No. 5

VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY COUNTRIES. FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Country



Austria.....................
Bahama Islands............
Belgium ...................
Brazil.......................
British India..............
Canada.......................
Canal Zone .............
China .......................
Colombia ..................
Cuba .........................
Curacao..................
Czechoslovakia............
Denmark....................
Dominican Republic..........
Egypt ...... ............
Finland .......................
France .....................
French Africa................
Germany......................
Guadeloupe ................
Guiana, Dutch ................
Honduras.....................
Italy........... ........
Jamaica..................
Japan ........................
Martinique...............
Mexico.......................
Netherlands ...............
Norway ............ .....
Palestine....................
Peru...........................
Porto Rico..................
Spain.........................
Sweden........................
Switzerland ................
Syria.......................
Trinidad......................
Tripoli .........................
United Kingdom ..........
United States................
Venezuela....................
Virgin Islands.............. ..

Total....................


Imports


Gourdes
12,829
32,474
733,884
20
86,243
131,695
148,920
4,963
7
35,282
1,674,666
7,237
305,s38
575,011
1

6,768,768
66
3,776,605
8
875

904,738
90,968
85,897
157
57
2,115,243
97,553
105
10
2,338,601
85,655
39,182
118,954
37
55
20
5,861.045
60,205,728
60
1,155


Per cent
.01
.04
.85
.10
.15
.17

.04
1.94
.01
.35
.67
. ...........
7.85
... .........
4.88


1.05
.11
.10

2.45
.12
.. .. ...
2.72
.04
.05
.15


6.80
69.85
.... .. .


86,189,612 100.00


Exports


Gourdes
............
74.641
4,677,321

858,287
78,097
53.149
814,597
10,585

6,377.468
52,818

K184220
46,233,062
31,936
3,410,203
.........i66
100
6,124.423
5,470
14,095
1,009

1,871,900
388,009
12

10,907
2,198,700
533,326
10,527

............
4,072,98.3
6,531,807
20


Per cent
............
.09
5.59

.48
.09
......... ...
.06
.98
.01
7.63
.00
......... ..
.22
55.29
.04
4.08


7.Z3
.01
.02

1.64
.46
......... ..
.01
2.63
.64
.01


4.87
7.81
............


83,619,167 100.00


Total


Gourdes Percent
12.829 .01
107,115 .06
5,411,205 8.19
20 ..........
86,243 .05
489,982 .29
227,017 .13
4,963 ............
53,156 .03
849,879 .50
1,685.251 .99
7,237 ...........
6,682,806 8.94
627,324 .37
1 ............
184,220 .11
53,001.880 31.21
32,002 .02
7,186,808 4.28
8 .............
375 ...........
100 ...........
7,029,161 4.14
96,438 .06
99,992 .06
1,166 ...........
57 ........
8,487,143 2.05
485,562 .29
117 ...........
10 ...........
2,849,508 1.38
2,234,355 1.38
572,508 .34
129,481 .08
37 ...........
55 ...........
20 ...........
9,924,028 5.85
66,737,585 39.80
80 ...........
1,155 ...........

169,808,779 100.00


percentages of imports, exports and total foreign commerce by countries

of origin and of destination for the fiscal year 1928-29.



PORTS OF ENTRY FOR IMPORTS


Values of imports by ports of entry since establishment of the Receiver-
ship are shown on Table No. 6, and by percentages for 1928-29 on Table

No. 8.


,






10 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

The greatest portion of imports for 1928-29 was received at Port-
au-Prince, which has consistently been the chief port of entry throughout
the Receivership. Imports at Port-au-Prince during 1928-29, valued at
Gdes. 50,642,981, represented 58.76 per cent of total import values for the
year, as against 61.82 per cent accounted for at that port in 1927-28, and
57.25 per cent over the thirteen years of the Receivership. While the
percentage of imports received at Port-au-Prince during 1928-29 was less

TABLE No. 6
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY PORTS OF ENTRY FIscAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1920-29

Average Average Average
Port of Entry 1916-17 1921-22 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17
-1920-21 -1925-26 -1928-29

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin............. 156,514 120,425 24,789 8,287 1,250 108,767
Belladere.......... ............. 6,482 222,478 204,362 24,459 54,055
Cap-Haitien........ 9,987,651 8,293,009 6,937,571 9,759,058 9,630,967 9,056,228
Cayes.............. 6,443,055 7.440,221 7,243,564 6,856,762 5,465,109 6,844,755
Fort Libert ...... 257 618 .......................... 482,755 37,471
Glore.............. .............. 81,567 100,181 81,800 89,383 48,400
Gonaives............. ,922,744 3,732,077 3,309,762 4,820.335 4,151,751 3,888,919
Jacmel............ 3,457,767 4,904.482 4,414,352 5,411,869 4,806.092 4,341,774
J6r6mie............ 1,942,796 1,579,913 2,073.507 2,871,482 2,730,666 1,945,823
Miragoane......... 518,426 956,170 1,069,166 1,135,917 1,065,742 818,154
Ouanaminthe...... 27.085 287,016 150,580 181,395 129,581 156,293
Petit GoAve....... 2,674,944 2,081,585 2,229,860 2,887,7,8 1,728.241 2,317,554
Port-au-Prince.... 41,712,019 45,889,008 46,488,467 62,588,706 50,642,981 45,978,868
Port-de-Paix ...... 2,087,026 2,059,178 1,865,277 2,858,895 2,608,291 2,120,268
Saint Marc........ 2,329,771 2,861,632 2,627,096 2,580,212 2,463,344 2,586,744
Total.............. 75,260,005 80,293,833 78,756,600 101,241,283 86,189,612 80,804,168


than any recorded for a fiscal period since 1925-26, it is not believed that
this condition denotes any material change in the tendency toward concen-
tration of imports at Port-au-Prince. The position assumed by Port-au-
Prince as a port of entry is readily understandable inasmuch as it is the
capital of the country, has the largest population of any city in Haiti, and
is the most important center for consumption and distribution of imports.
Second in importance as a port of entry was Cap-Haitien, which received
11.17 per cent of imports for .1928-29, representing an increase in the
proportion accounted for in 1927-28. Only one change occurred during
the year in the order of importance of the principal ports to the import
trade, though there was some change in the degree of importance assumed
by all ports of entry as compared with 1927-28. Port-de-Paix, ninth in
importance in 1927-28, changed to seventh place; Saint Marc and Petit
Goave in consequence assumed eighth and ninth places, respectively. The
percentages for Cap-Haitien, Jacmel, Gonaives, Jeremie, Port-de-Paix,
Saint Marc and Miragoane showed slight upward revision; those for Port-
au-Prince, Cayes and Petit Goave diminished.
Changes in. distribution of imports by ports of entry during 1928-29,
as compared with 1927-28, corresponded closely to fluctuations in the dis-






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


tribution of commodities exported for the two years in question. Import
values, as an expression of applied purchasing power, fluctuate with changes
in value of exports, the source of purchasing power. Analysis of imports
by ports of entry, therefore, is facilitated by consideration of the distribu-
tion of exports by ports of shipment.

PORTS OF SHIPMENT FOR EXPORTS

Table No. 7 shows the values of exports shipped from the various ports
during the period of the Receivership, while the percentages of such values
in relation to total exports for 1928-29 are indicated on Table No. 8.

TABLE No. 7
VALUE OF EXPORTS BY PORTS OF SHIPMENT FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Ports of Average Average Average
shipment 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
pment 1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin............. 517,420 1,254,059 718,469 457,992 106,460 780,024
Belladre......... ........ 52 7,014 9,964 29,77 3,586
Cap-Haitien....... 10,601,902 9,794,332 8.092.752 14,757,167 12,922,937 10,596,464
Cayes.............. 4,543,658 6,652,145 6,661,198 7,047,564 7,026,532 5,901,101
Fort Libert6....... 823,746 62,057 ............................ 145,784 159,600
Glore............ .............. 11,015 723 134 156 4,814
Gonalves.......... 4,934,835 6.618,885 5,829,061 9,678.236 '8,044,181 6.255,891
Jacmel............ 8,416,717 10,231,039 11,093,943 17,273.072 11.255,129 10.220,071
J6remie........... 8,850,333 3,226,006 4,054,186 5,748,808 5,962,424 3,742,086
Miragoane.......... 1,009,265 1,871,386 2,348,078 3,635,255 2,952,189 1,794906
Ouanaminthe ..... 9,015 7.284 2,400 4,163 2,580 6,972
Petit Goave........ 4,167,273 9,887.361 9,670,818 15,509,685 6,886,205 7,858,067
Port-au-Prince.... 23,557,713 18.772,347 18,759,081 25,698,168 15,850.721 20,919,867
Port-de-Paix....... 8,788,030 4,201,144 ,800,190 5,525,460 5,547,517 4,178,887
Saint Marc........ 4,430,065 6,592,399 5,962,529 7,990,562 6,886,975 5,842,491
Total.......... 69,619,972 79,131,511 76,495,442 113,836.230 83,619,167 78,258,327


Comparison of the relative importance of the several ports to export
trade in 1928-29 reveals a wider distribution than was the case with im-
ports, which is usual. Port-au-Prince was first with 18.96 per cent for
the year, which represents a decline from the 22.67 per cent of total exports
accounted for at that port during 1927-28. Second place was assumed by
Cap-Haitien with 15.45 per cent; third place by Jacmel with 13.46 per cent.
Other principal ports in order of importance to export trade were Gonaives,
Cayes, Saint Marc, Petit Goave, Jeremie, Port-de-Paix and Miragoane.
Distribution of exports by ports of shipment during the year was char-
acterized by changes from the proportion for 1927-28, including re-align-
ment of the ports both in order and degree of importance to export trade. The
essential factor influencing such re-distribution was relative dependence,
as between the ports, upon exports of coffee, together with relative losses
or gains in such exports as between the two years under comparison.
Combined percentages of Haiti's total export were 10.94 per cent less than
in 1927-28. The remainder of the ports, being less dependent upon exports






12 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

of coffee, or having suffered relatively less severe decreases in the coffee
crops, or showing increases in such exports, as in the cases of Jeremie and
Port-de-Paix, enjoyed increased percentages of total export trade. The
most severe loss, from 13.69 per cent of total exports to 8.24 per cent, was
sustained by Petit Goave due to the fact that exports from that port consist
almost wholly of coffee. Petit Goave, third in importance to export trade
in 1927-28 assumed sixth place (with Saint Marc) in the year under review.
Changes in the proportions of exports accounted for during the year as
compared with 1927-28 were accompanied by similar increases or decreases
in the percentage of imports accounted for by the various ports as between
the years under comparison, with but one readily analyzed exception. For
example, Cap-Haitien, enjoying 15.45 per cent of export trade during
1928-29 compared with 13.02 per cent in the preceding year, accounted for

TABLE No. 8
VALUE AND PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TOTAL FOREIGN
COMMERCE BY PORTS FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Imports Exports Total

Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Per cent
Aquin......................... 1,250 .......... 106,460 .13 107,710 .06
Belladare...................... 243,459 .28 29,377 .04 272,836 .16
Cap-Haitien.................. 9,630,967 11.17 12.922,937 15.45 22,553,904 13.28
Cayes ..................... 5,465,109 6.34 7,026,532 8.40 12,491,641 7.36
Fort Libert6 ................. 482,755 .56 145,784 .17 628,539 .37
Glore......................... 89,383 .05 156 ......... 39,539 .02
Gonaives...................... 4,151,751 4.82 8.044,181 9.62 12,195,932 7.18
Jacmel.............. ........ 4.806,092 5.58 11,255,129 13.46 16,061,221 9.46
J6r emie....................... .2730,666 3.17 5,962,424 7.13 8,693,090 5.12
Miragoane.................. 1,065,742 1.24 2,952,189 3.53 4,017,931 2.37
Ouanaminthe............. 129,581 .15 2,5 ........ 132,161 .08
Petit Goa.ve................... 1,728,241 2.01 6,886,205 8.24 8,614,446 5.07
Port-au-Prince............... 50,642,981 58.75 15,850,721 18.96 66,493,702 39.16
Port-de-Paix ................ 2,608,291 3.02 5.547,517 6.63 8,155,808 4.80
Saint Marc................... 2,463,344 2.86 6,886,975 8.24 9,850,319 5.51
Total...................... 86,189,612 100.00 83,619,167 100.00 169,808,779 100.00


11.17 per cent of import trade in the year under review as against 9.64
per cent in 1927-28. Conversely, exports from Port-au-Prince represented
18.96 per cent of export trade in 1928-29 against 22.67 per cent in 1927-28,
while imports dropped from 61.82 per cent in 1927-28 to 58.75 per cent of
total imports for the year under review. The notable exception to the
tendency under discussion was Cayes, where the proportion of exports
increased over the percentage for 1927-28, while imports, on the same basis
of comparison, decreased. Such increase in exports from Cayes proceeded
from shipment of products formerly handled at Aquin, which port was
virtually inactive during the year under review; the decrease in imports
at Cayes was due to abnormally large imports in the latter part of 1927-28
following exaggerated first reports respecting destruction of foodstuffs by
the hurricane of August 10, 1928.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


In general, however, redistribution of export trade among the ports
is characteristically accompanied by changes in the proportion of imports
respectively accounted for, increases or decreases in percentages being con-
trolled, as to direction, by such change as obtains with respect to exports,
inasmuch as the latter constitute the source of purchasing power. Thus
changes in the distribution of exports control the direction assumed by
changes in the percentages of foreign commerce accounted for by the several
ports; changes in distribution of exports resulting, primarily, from fluctua-
tions in the coffee crop. Until Haiti becomes less dependent upon coffee,
through development of a greater diversity of export products, explanation
of changes in distribution of foreign trade will be furnished by reference
to statistics respecting coffee exports by ports of shipment. Table No. 8,
in addition to showing the values and percentages of imports and exports
among the ports for the year under review, shows total foreign commerce
in values and percentages so as to indicate the relative commercial impor-
tance of each port during 1928-29.

SHIPPING
Notwithstanding the palpably smaller shipping requirements of Haitian
commerce during the year under review as compared with 1927-28, net
tonnage of ocean-going vessels entering and clearing Haitian ports increased
in 1928-29 as against the preceding year. This was attributable mainly to
the larger number of tourist ships of heavy tonnage which visited Haiti
during 1928-29 than theretofore. In point of fact prior to the year under
review comparatively few tourist ships had included Haiti in their itiner-
aries. Freight rates continued to be high; passenger facilities, while some-
what increased in comparison with former years, were still limited.
Table No. 9 shows total inbound and outbound steam tonnage under
various registries by months for the year 1928-29, and indicates the number
of ships of this class entering and leaving Haitian ports. Steamships enter-
ing totalled 602 as against 629 in 1927-28, though tonnage of such vessels
was 1,310,304 as against 1,235,393 in the preceding year. Figures respect-
ing steam vessels clearing Haitian ports during the year are at variance
with the above, which is usual due to over-lapping of departures at the
beginning and close of the fiscal year. Arrivals, however, present a clear
basis of comparison as between two fiscal years.
American ships were greatest in number and tonnage during the year
under review, Dutch vessels were second, British ships third. The three
registries just mentioned showed an increase in number of steamships and
with respect to tonnage in 1928-29 as compared with the preceding year.
American tonnage increased virtually ten per cent as between the years
under comparison, Dutch tonnage 6.51 per cent, British tonnage 17.29 per










TABLE No. 9
NET TONNAGE OF STEAM VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Steam Vessels Entered


American British Dutch French German All Other Total
Months
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage

October, 1928............... 15 47,578 5 8,720 11 11,877 3 5,558 5 8,794 4 8,740 43 81.267
November.................. 17 58,182 8 2,849 15 19,312 2 4,548 9 13,574 4 5,814 50 104,279
December .................. 19 2,889 8 81155 12 14,344 8 4,405 7 12,037 8 9,358 57 134,188
January, 1929............... 18 50,095 11 45,944 15 17,771 8 4978 5 9,115 3 15,140 55 143,04
February.................. 20 47,644 8 28,88 12 29,486 4 6,293 5 10,093 8 20 1 57 142628
March....................... 15 49,828 7 51,015 15 19,461 2 2,898 9 22,817 4 4,979 52 150,998
April........................ 15 48,219 7 9,877 14 15,735 8 7,215 5 8,766 2 2,605 46 92,417
May. ...................... 19 58,497 3 2,492 14 16,746 2 4,548 6 10,966 8,271 47 96,520
June ...................... 17 59,91 7 5,511 10 11,629 8 5,662 6 10,577 7 8,028 50 100,798
July......................... 22 55,134 8 8,643 13 14,559 8 6,344 7 9,770 4 4,874 57 93,824
August.................... 18 52.339 5 3,743 13 16,955 1 1,010 4 5.544 3 3,034 44 82,625
September................. 16 49,590 4 2,818 10 11,618 4 8,829 7 12,246 8 3,171 44 87,767
Total.................. 211 639,836 76 191,155 154 199,488 33 61,788 75 134,299 53 84,238 602 1,810,804


Steam Vessels Cleared

October, 1928................ 16 49,245 4 .2578 12 18.105 4,687 5 8,794 5 5,600 45 84,004
November................. 16 56,570 4 8,836 15 19,187 8 8,086 8 12,764 8 4,712 49 105,155
December ................. 20 64,451 8 31,155 12 14,344 2 3,677 8 12,847 9 10,460 59 136,934
January, 1929................ 17 48,09 10 44.957 15 17,771 4 5,706 4 7,740 2 13,848 52 188,531
February... ............... 20 47,618 9 29.375 12 29,486 8 4,405 6 11,468 7 19,556 57 141,908
March..................... 16 51,440 7 51,030 14 18,292 3 4,786 8 21,889 4 5.047 52 152,484
April....................... 14 45,676 5 8,8 15 17.029 8 7,215 4 6,470 2 2,763 43 87,958
May ......................... 17 56,834 4 8,479 18 15,502 2 4,548 7 19,815 8,271 46 96449
June......................... 19 61.044 6 4,471 10 11,629 2 3,836 6 10,096 7 8,028 50 98 604
July............... ... 22 55,184 9 4,686 18 15,028 4 8,670 7 9,692 3 3,273 58 96,483
August.................... 18 52.839 4 2,741 14 17,658 1 1,010 5 7,478 4 4,185 46 85,361
September.............. ... 16 49,590 5 8,820 11 12,437 8 5,66' 7 12,246 4 3,171 46 86,926
Total................. 211 638,450 75 190,958 156 201,468 33 61,788 75 134,299 53 88,864 603 1,810,827


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0





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z
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Is.





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92
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92*







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 1b


cent. On the other hand, German ships dropped in number from 88 in
1927-28 to 75 in 1928-29, accompanied by a loss in tonnage of 8.55 per
cent. French ships were the same in number as in 1927-28, but tonnage
dropped from 72,381 to 61,788. Steamships under registries accounted for
in the "all other" category dropped in number from 116 in 1927-28 to
53 in 1928-29 with a loss of but slightly under one thousand tons. Sailing
vessels, as shown on Table No. 10, remained relatively unimportant, show-
ing a small decrease in net tonnage as compared with 1927-28.

TABLE No. 10

NET TONNAGE OF SAILING VESSELS IN FOREIGN COMMERCE ENTERED AND CLEARED
BY REGISTRY AND MONTHS FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Sailing Vessels Entered


American British Haitian All Other Total
Month
Num- Ton- Num- Ton- Num- Ton- Num- Ton- Num- Ton-
ber nage her nage ber nage her nage her nage

October, 1928.............................. 3 25 ...... ........ .............. 3 25
November..................... ..... ..... 3 26 1 68 ...... ........ 4 94
December .................. 2 639 6 46 1 68 1 1,986 10 2,739
January, 1929................. 8 2,036 ...... ........ 1 68 ...... ........ 4 2,104
February ...................... ........ 8 66 ...... ....... ...... ........ 8 66
March................ .................... 22 . ..... .2 8,194 5 3,216
April ..................................... 10 92 ............................ 10 92
May ...................... ...... ....... 9 72 ...... ........ 1 1,955 10 2.027
June....................... 1 790 12 109 1 14 ...... ........ 14 918
July .......................... 1 580 14 153 1 14 ...... ........ 16 747
August................................ 6 57 .............. 8 8 65
September............ ................ 2 21 ...... ...................... 2 21
Total .................. 7 4,045 76 689 5 232 6 7,143 94 12,109


Sailing Vessels Cleared

October, 1928................ ...... ........ 8 25 ...... ........ ...... ........ 3 25
November................... ...... ........ 2 16 1 68 ...... ........ 3 84
December................... 2 639 6 50 1 68 ............... 9 757
January, 1929................ 2 671 1 6 1 68 1 1,986 5 2,731
February............... ........ 1 1,865 7 52 ...... .................... 8 1,417
March ......... ... ....... 4 ..6 ............... ....... ........ 4 36
April..................................... 7 62 .............. 2 8,194 9 3,256
May .......................... ....... 10 79 1 14 ...... ........ 11 93
June.................. ... ... ........ 12 120 ...... .... .. 1 1,955 13 2,075
July.......................... 1 790 12 126 1 11 .............. 14 930
August ...................... 1 580 10 96 ..... ....... 2 8 18 684
September.................................. 2 21 ...... ........ ............. 2 21
Total................... 7 4,045 76 689 5 232 6 7,143 94 12,109


Distribution of shipping throughout 1928-29 showed little variation
from month to month among registries principally handling imports, but
with respect to those carrying both imports and exports, arrivals and
departures were greatest in number during movement of the coffee crop,
that is to say from November to March. However, the latter period was
coincident with the tourist season, so that shipping statistics by months






16 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

for the year under review, while generally in line with seasonal activities,
were disproportionately high during the peak months in terms of ordinary
commercial activity.
Table No. 11 shows the values of imports for 1928-29 from various
countries of origin according to registries of carrying vessels. American
ships carried 50.53 per cent of total imports for the year as against 53.24
per cent in 1927-28. The decrease in percentage as between the years under
comparison was due to smaller shipments of American goods, inasmuch as
the value of imports from other countries carried in American ships during
1928-29 was slightly larger than in 1927-28. American vessels carried
65.15 per cent of American imports during the year, as against 65.03 per
cent in 1927-28. Altogether, American shipping gave a good account of
itself during the year under review with respect to imports in that being
mainly dependent upon American goods the proportion of total imports
carried by American lines during the year showed less decrease in com-
parison with 1927-28 than did American imports themselves over the same
period.
Dutch vessels were next in importance to those of the United States,
carrying 29.94 per cent of total imports, somewhat less than in the pre-
ceding year. French, British and German ships carried a slightly greater
proportion of imports than in 1927-28.
Table No. 12 shows the values of exports for the year under review by
countries of destination according to registries of carrying vessels. Dutch
ships carried 41.06 per cent of total exports for 1928-29 as against 41.04
per cent in 1927-28. French ships were second in importance, German
and American vessels third and fourth, respectively. Distribution of
exports by registries during the year presented relatively little change
over the percentages for 1927-28. British and Danish vessels lost frac-
tionally; registries included in the "all other" group lost slightly over
one per cent of total export traffic. In no case did any registry gain as
much as one per cent with respect to exports as compared with the pro-
portion carried in 1927-28.
In short, shipping during the year under review showed no marked
tendency toward redistribution among the registries serving Haitian com-
merce as compared with the preceding year. Such changes as occurred
were occasioned mainly by fluctuations in commercial needs, rather than
being appreciably affected by competition among the steamship companies.
During the year an American steamship line instituted a regular pas-
senger service between Haiti and Galveston, Texas, which was the only
important addition to steamship service. The Pan American Airways,
Inc., established an air service providing passenger and mail accommoda-
tions between Port-au-Prince, Cuban points, Miami, Florida, the Domini-
can Republic, and San Juan, Porto Rico in January, 1929. Under its






TABLE No. 11

VALUE OF IMPORTS BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Mer- Merchan.
Country chandise dise sub- American British Dutch French German Haitian Noan All other Total Per
free of jectto wegian cent
duty duty


Gourdes
Austria ......... .............
Bahama Islands.......... 1,147
Belgium ................. 8,83
Brazil............ ... ............
British India.............
Canada................... 111
CanalZone............... 66,135
China ......... ..........
Colombia ................. .....
Cuba..................... 1,106
Curacao................. 629,498
Czechoslovakia.......... ..........
Denmark................. 3
Dominican Republic..... 42,576
Dutch Guiana........................
Egypt.............................
France.................. 212,513
French Africa................
Germany................ 319,682
Guadeloupe..........................
Italy ..................... 1,193
Jamaica........... ...... 24,707
Japan................. ...........
Martinique.......................
Mexico................... 42
Netherlands............. 6,872
Norway..............................
Palestine................ ............
Peru ..................... 10
Porto Rico................ 860,848
Spain..................... 218
Sweden...............................
Switzerland............ 1,094
Syria.............. ..........
Trinidad ................. ............
Tripoli ..............................
United Kingdom......... 226,224
United States........ .... 3,579,544
Venezuela.....................
Virgin Islands............ ..........

Total............... 5,976,906
Per cent............. 6.93


Gourdes
12,829
31,327
730,501
20
86,243
131,584
82,785
4,963
7
31,176
1,045,168
7,237
805,335
532,435
375
1
6,556,255
66
3,456,923
8
903,545
66,261
85,897
157
15
2,108,371
97,553
105

1,477,758
35,437
39.182
117,860
37
55
20
5.634,821
56,626,184
60
1,155


Gourdes
2,119

129,380
.......
76,911
87,077
148,920
1,635
7
5,222
37,340

82,691
3,197
............

848,490
66
118,977
............"
301,281
244
82,913
............
............
18,738
20
............
............
915,636
14,847
1.375
5,565
13
33

1,941,270
39,228,906

............


Gourdes

82,474
4,430





65
1,295,505





10,974
.. .. . "



54,952



23,953
3,304


1,231,786
...........

2
... .. .. ..


452,063
147,769

............


Gourdes
6,819
........ ...
49,697

9,332
43,981

1,293

6,755
238,508
2,268
84,632
2,657
375

239,488

1,670,552
............
126,003
17,844
1,253

43
2,058,998
18,816
............
10
72,173
6,454
6,875
34,379
5
22
.............
8.254,639
17,854,850

............


Gourdes

129....

20

637

2,035

18,511



1,302
........... .
1
6,074,197

9,964
5
79,034
............
1,731
154

851
..... ......
105
...........
2,922
201

6,191
19

20
13,641

............l
............


Gourdes
3,885

523,634





125
108.313
4.969
76.097
81,246

85,576

1,970,778

384,079
17,928


13
12,578
25,016


711
14,135
30,932
72,006



598,816

60


Gourdes
..... . .


............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
..........
.... .. .
............
..... .

............
.... .. .

...........

............
..... . .
.... .. .
........ ..
............
..... . .

............
............
...........' '


...........'' ''


............: :
............ '


Gourdes


13,041

............




26


50,000




950





............

49,597


92,028







1,934,738


Gourdes
6
13,573







4,578


11,918
536,609


10,013

5,884
3
14,341


3
1
125
6,300


23,345
18

811
............
."ii'


........ ..i .

1,039,465

1,155


Gourdes
12,829
32,474
733,884
20
86,248
131,695
148,920
4,963
7
85,282
1,674,666
7,237
805,338
575,011
375
1
6,768,768
66
8,776,605
8
904,738
90,968
85,897
157
57
2,115,243
97,553
105
10
2,338,601
85,655
89,182
118,954
387
55
20
5,861,045
60,205,728
60
1,155


-
"-


0.01
0.04
0.85
............ O
0.10
0.15
0.17 o
. ... .. ....

0.04
0.01

0.35
0.67
.. ..... .


4.38 t
1.05
0.11 8
0.10

.W
2.45 i
0.12 x
............ N
......... ...
2.72 >
0.01
0.05
0.15 m
........ .
........ M

6.80 d
69.85 2



100.00
NJ


80,212,706 43.552,873 8,257,277 25,803,221 6,211,670 3,555,897 ............ 2.140,380 1,668,294 86,189,612
93.07 50.53 3.78 29.94 7.21 4.12 ............ 2.48 1.94














TABLE No. 12

VALUE OF EXPORTS .BY REGISTRY OF CARRYING VESSELS, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Country


Bahama Islands...........
Belgium.................
Canada.......... .......
Canal Zone................
Colombia...................
Cuba .................
Curacao.......... ......
Denmark ................
Dominican Republic......
Finland...................
France....................
French Africa............
Germany..............
Honduras............
Italy .....................
Jamaica..................
Japan ................
Martinique................
Netherlands..............
Norway.................
Palestine .............
Porto Rico...............
Spain......................
Sweden................
Switzerland..............
United Kingdom..........
United States............
Venezuela................


Merchan- erchan-
dise free dise sub-
of duty etto
duty


American


British


Danish


I 1-1-I


Total.................. 1,604
Per cent............... ............


Gourdes
73,361
4,677,321
358,287
78,097
53,149
814,597
10,585
6,377,468
52,313
184,220
46,283,062
31,936
3,410,203
100
6,124.423
5,470
14,095
1,009
1,371,900
388,009
12
10,658
2,198,700
533,326
10,527
4,072,983
6,531,732
20


Gourdes

1,054,109
1,985
78,097
53,149
299,935
............
1,163,549

22,653
2,867,793
4,642
218,274
1,671,988

14,095
... .. .
700
78,224
2,284
634,911
185,374
10,504
270,647
2,399,667
..... . .


Gourdes
74,601
522,215



950
772,007


............
6,30,791
190,498


Gourdes
............,
.. .. . "
............ "
.. .. . '


101,839 ............
............ .... iii


............
..... . .
............


............
............
185,790
.. .. .. .


60.443
22,843




1,204,641"


83,617,563 11,032,580 8,980,834
100.00 13.19 10.74


Dutch French


Gourdes

323,187


575

762,501

12,855,671
4,261
375,091
100
486,570

1,009
20.520
22,776
.... .......
8,623



97,284


Gourdes
40
1,530,212


358,334
7,772
2,919,175
20,200
18,119
16,742,762
23,033
1,325,161

3,527,175
64


1,228,056
196,025
12

1,.56,789
227,467
............
1,837,157
2,805,790
20


German


Gourdes



........ ...
1,247,598


150
1,863
760,236
..143,448
7,598,701
1,301,179

336,851
5,406

62,181
68,047

.... . .
120,485
23
663,248


185.790 34,330,863 14,958,168 12,309,416
.22 41.06 17.89 14.72


Norwegian


Gourdes
............

356,302
.. ........

............
............

137,344

..........94

........ ...


1,433,274
1.71


All other


Gourdes
............
|............
............
............


Total


Gourdes
74,641
4,677,321
858,287
78,097
53,149
814,597
10,585
6,377,468
52,813
184,220
46,233,062
31,936
3,410,203
100
6,124,423
5,470
14,095
1,009
1,371,900
388,009
12
10,907
2,198,700
533,326
10,527
4,072,983
6,531,807
20


388,742 83,619,167
.47 ............


Per cent

0
1-3

.09
5.59
.43
.09
.06
.96
.01
7.63
.06
.22
55.29
.04
4.08 -.
... ..... ..
7.83
.01
.02

1.64
.46

.01
2.63
.64 t-
.01
4.87
7.81 g


100.00


Gourdes
1,280


...........

............


i 1- -1 1 1


''






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


contract with the Haitian Government, this company will furnish tri-
weekly air mail service and will transport all Haitian air mail until such
time as a more direct or less costly service is available. The cost to the
Haitian Government of mail carried by this company is five dollars gold
per pound. This necessitates a minimum postal rate of twenty cents
American, or one gourde Haitian, for each fifteen grammes. The excessive
cost has restricted the use of the air mail service to urgent business com-
munications, the general public finding the charge too high for ordinary
correspondence. It is hoped that a downward revision of these rates may
be found practicable during the coming year.
Meanwhile development of air lines through the West Indies and on
to South America finds Haiti, and Port-au-Prince in particular, in an en-
viable position due to central geographical position and comparative se-
curity from hurricanes. Plans for the construction in the near future of
a large modern airport at Port-au-Prince are under consideration, although
present facilities are adequate for immediate traffic.

FOREIGN COMMERCE BY MONTHS AND BY PORTS
Seasonal fluctuations characterize the trade of Haiti. Generally speak-
ing, import statistics over an extended period show less wide variation
from month to month than do export figures, though the year under re-
view was an exception. However, the trend of Haitian foreign commerce
over a fiscal year is typically that of a single crop agricultural community,
including an active period immediately preceding and following the coffee
harvest, and a season of relative dullness.
That imports during 1928-29 were affected to a large degree by residual
purchasing power remaining from 1927-28 is illustrated on Table No. 13,
which shows values of imports by months and by ports of entry for 1928-29,
and offers comparison of monthly totals with those of 1927-28. The peak
month of the year under review was October, when imports totalled Gdes.
12,091,833, while 47.05 per cent of imports during 1928-29 were accounted
for during the first four months of the year, compared with 35.37 per
cent over the same period of 1927-28. This situation was induced mainly
by unusually large importations of foodstuffs at the ports of the southern
peninsula following the hurricane which occurred in August, 1928.
Smaller total imports received at the ports in question during the remain-
der of the year tended to balance off the purchases of foodstuffs, so that
total imports for 1928-29 bore, a fairly normal relationship to the general
drop in purchasing power, taking into account the surplus remaining from
1927-28. An important part of the foodstuffs imported during the fall
months was necessitated as a result of destruction of comestibles by the
storm. Analysis of import statistics as included hereafter in the present
report shows that such conditions operated to curtail imports of other
commodities.

















TABLE No. 13
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY MONTIIS AND PORTS OF ENTRY, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29, COMPARED WITH 1927-28


Port of Entry October N em- Decem- Ja ebru- March April May June July August S r 19 9 19-28 crease crDse


rdes G Gourde ourdes ourd Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin........... 87 15 50......... 359 75 ......... 57 95 193......... ,2 ,287 ......... 2,037
Belladre........... 1:,: 21,610 10,882 ..9 '3 32,860 35,530 22,'95 7,525 26,898 5,977 9,913 4,512 243,459 204,862 39,097 ..........
Cap-Haltien..... 1 *"1 5 952,917 998,440 *.*, 833,157 556,935 'I.51- 685,315 584,123 580,831 690,299 702,532 9. :9 ., 9, 058 .... 128,91
Cayes........... ,.,-:-- N r, 961,932 389740 24,598 222,608 -,..' 303,079 328.689 312,250 847,180 846,904 ,4 6,856762 ......... 1,891,653
Fort Libert ..... ....... 7,1 80,285 43,981 125,828 l".' ; 12,848 13,712 12 20,117 68,567 482,755 ........... 48275
Glore............ 1,240 2,412 761 ,55 1,06 4 1 1, 4 8,707 ,782 ,475 5,922 2,243 89,83 81,800 ......... 4,417
Gonaives........ 601,823 396,921 429,266 :..'.' 401,593 2 i 80,064 210, 175,905 169.466 424546 .1 4,80,5 ...668,84
Jacmel.......... 1,007,778 960,345 526,410 224921 ,* 315,971 213,706 151. 197,927 250.662 4 5,411,69 ...... 60,277
Jertmie ......... 360,892 4..::2 4 .7,l4 I',! -'. 126,998 125,757 .. 234,694 1:..lI; 13i.'2. 143,194 179,532 2,730,666 2,871,482......... 140,816
Mirago&ne...... 318,467 191.'-.< 5 2* ; 44,216 52,625 5.::1 101,029 34.7'.2 .L 3 2,193 34,583 1,065,742 1,15,917 ..... 70,175
Ouanamlnthe... 18,799 11.I I I I' '' 9,859 5,670 1.- 7,849 7,'. 1,:71 7,904 14,821 129,581 18195 ......... 51,814
Petit Goove..... ;4' t 'l, 27.:4 I. 1, l, 1 105,609 1' 1. 87,170 74,87 45,430 65,829 46,012 1,728241 2,87,703 ......... 659,462
Port-au-Prince.. 6.r' ?.0 6,266,207 .,3'. ri 4,585,078 3.1 7'*; 3,304,176 3.5. 8,420,547 3,166.85 3,917,28 8,34,004 3,42,122 50,642,981 6,8,706 ... ... 11,945,725
Port-de-Pa .... :.. l'. 296,095 ..4-.I.r 273,820 2...4. 191,293 I:,'. 186,078 118.93 166,978 113,301 121,860 2.608.291 2.858.895 249 ..........
Saint Marc...... 21' 6z. 268,749 *.i,1. 208,687 255,719 223,874 275,501 202,777 217,029 95,018 104,211 121,82 2,463,344 2,580,212......... 116,868
Total 1928-29... 1 1,83 11.076,618 9,799,52 7,584,875 5,836,101 ,47.955 6.696,01 5,853,148 5.1:?.' 5i.12:.i . 1I.r'-.1 5.71.71:' : ,l. r.1,: ........... 771,248 15,822,919
Total 192728... 8,811,746 9,129,420 9,750,443 8,119,850 8,416,660 9,28,85 8,230,34 7,870,265 7.,--, 1l 7..,' -1 : . ..,77 ,., 715;. ......... 101,241,283...........
Ir.' r .ea. 1 .' .. '..". '.'.. .... 4 I I ........ ......... ........ ...,', ", ', .. ....... ......................................... ..... ....
Dr-re.'- .. .... .. ..... 54,975 2,580,559 ,855,930 1,534,3 2,017,117 2,105,499 1,508,347 3,429,424 2,761,857 15,051,671 ................... .........





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 21

That less than usual purchasing in anticipation of the coffee harvest
in prospect for the succeeding year characterized the closing months of
1928-29 is borne out by comparison of monthly totals during the spring
and summer of 1929 with those of the same period of 1928. In 1927-28
imports were accelerated in August and September as compared with im-
mediately preceding months, which is usual, though the situation at that
time was somewhat affected by the storm conditions discussed heretofore.
However, imports during the last five months of the year under review
were maintained practically at the same level. The low month for imports
during 1928-29 was June, when values totalled Gdes. 5,152,935.
During 1927-28, when imports orders were placed more or less as
actual returns were realized from the current coffee crop (there being vir-
tually no residual purchasing power from 1926-27), the high month was
December with imports valued at Gdes. 9,750,443; the low month was
July with Gdes. 7,150,581. Mean variation in monthly import values dur-
ing 1927-28 was thus Gdes. 2,599,862. In the year under review such
variation was Gdes. 6,938,898, showing the extensive adjustment neces-
sitated by the severe change in commercial conditions as between the two
years.
Table No. 14 shows values of exports by months and by ports of ship-
ment, and monthly export totals for 1927-28. The peak month for both
years was March, exports valued at Gdes. 11,419,944 being shipped in
March, 1929, as against Gdes. 17,032,159 in the same month of 1928.
Low months were August and September, respectively. Export values for
August, 1929, totalled Gdes. 1,515,690; for September, 1928, Gdes.
2,442,868. Mean variation in monthly export figures for 1928-29 was
Gdes. 9,904,254. Such variation during 1927-28 was Gdes. 14,589,291.
Due to dependence upon the coffee crop it is logical that the greatest vari-
ation should obtain in the fiscal year during which coffee exports were
largest. Such dependence further serves to explain the marked periodicity
of exports indicated during both 1928-29 and 1927-28 on Table No. 14.
Until the situation is essentially changed by development of a greater
diversity of export 'commodities, the level of monthly export figures will
be subject to wide fluctuation as in the past, and the coffee market will
continue as the deciding factor in the commercial life of Haiti.

COMMODITIES IMPORTED
Table No. 15 shows the values of various commodities imported dur-
ing the period of the Receivership, such values for the first ten years being
indicated by averages over five-year periods in order to present the data
in condensed form. Due to changes in classification respecting certain of
the commodities included, averages for the ten-year period and with re-
















H

TABLE No. 14

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY MONTHS AND PORTS OF SHIPMENT, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29, COMPARED WITH 1927-28


Port of October
shipment


Gourdes
Aquln .......... 4,826
Belladfre .... .. ....
Cap-Haitien..... 1,050.680
Cayes........... 1,508,928
Fort Libert .... ......
Glore............ 22
Gonaives........ 307,240
Jacmel.......... 1,87,853
J4r6mle ......... 623,581
Miragone....... 819,491
Ouanamlnthe.. 628
Petit Gofve.... 614,7;27
Port-au-Prince... 1,493.380
Port-de-Pax..... 827,831
Saint Mare .... 245,540
Total 1928-29... 7.829.122
Total 1927-28..... 7,253,170
Increase 1928-29. 575,952
Decrease 1928-29 ..........


Novem-
ber


Gourdes
25,541
2.324
1,477,797
918,419
..........
737.090
1,064,965
699,812
418,266
43
980,957
2.1 4*',":
'81,187
321,672


Decem-
ber


Gourdes
6,438

1,558,159
776.828
64,380
866.52C
1,675624
549,145
527,72(
232
971,31t
1,499.29%
547,951
234,056


Janu- Febru-
ary ary


Gourdes Gourdes
6,103 8,605
.......... 2500
2,063,056 1,891,610
815,099 615.095
........ 8,440
.......... 15
929,68 770,88
1,493,257 1,585,326
545,109 538,871
"I'1 254,8396
1..X 100

1 .11,4-3 2.225.626
1,007,736 968,789
846,682 817,047


March


Gourdes


1,676,824
524,669
..,...... i
1.330.687
1,468,856
464,011
168,0625
861
818,6:13
2,504 814
725,271
1,738,78(


April May


Gourdes Gourdes
.......... 10,412
7,435 1,132
1 25.67I 484.844
4'.5 :.1 883,505
72,964 ..........
9 30
1,182.978 663,149
1.;?.;.;"i 626,669
I r'2 .m 571,296
141,' 6 318,452
174 ..........
':9.'. 244 869
1,.7:l ~. 1,397,98C
*;,':97 394,824
1,182,989 800,58


June I July August


Gourdes

9,518
219.466
329,750
..........
450,902
275.046
806,720,
217,020
208
117.696
551,040
159,764
422,643


Gourdes
10,251
2468
254,657
347,826
..........
22
452,629
183,862
427,155
126,479
37
76,186
708.269
108,235
548,144


Gourdes
20,215
2,0010
828.665
235,059

59,810
95,152
225,691
58,239
9(
63,97C
241,145
20,17,
165,471


Sep- Total Total In-
tember 1928-29 1927-28 crease


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
19,569 106.40 457.992 ..........
2,000 29,877 9,964 19,418
031 12.9?3k- H.75 7.1 ...........
S 15 .i8".'i 7.,'.'. t ,-2 7,,17.y,,: ..........
li... 13,. .. .... .. 145,784
49 156 184 22
292,554 8.044,181 9,678286 ..........
187.037 11,255,129 17.273,07..
068,499 5,962,424 5,748,808 218,616
33,457 2,952.189 3,635,255 ..........
40 2.580 4.163 ..........
1,675 6,886,205 15,509,68........
275.07 15,850721 25,698,168 ..........
79,096 5,517.517 5,525,460 22,057
33,360 6,886,975 7,990,56 .........


De-
crease


Gourdes
851,532
1,884,230
21,032

1,684.055
6,017,943
683,066
1,583
8,623,480
9,847,447
1,103,587


9,6108 9.277,67810,41,98 10802,7 11419,944 8,841,681 5,892,24 8,059,778 3,246,17 1,515,690 2,11.025 83,619,16......
10,111,2 14,60567 2,729,825 15,7,68 17,032,159 1,891,550 8,728,72 ,164,76 4,424, 2,653,707 442,868 ........ 11 6,0 .......... ..........


8 50 4J582798 28744:9105,6i2,2i1


2,886,1271


.......... ......... .......... ......... ........... 400,892
1,178,758 1,138,017 311,848 29,717,063 .....................


...117,955
30,117,955






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


spect to the whole of the Receivership are not comparable to figures for
the last three years, and in consequence are omitted. Table No. 16 shows
the quantities of various commodities imported during the Receivership in
virtually the same form as values are presented on the preceding table.

TABLE No. 15
VALUE OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES, FISCAL YEABS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Agricultural implements.............. 595,000 581,431 700,964
Books and other printed matter........ 241,017 282,694 298,910
Cement..................... ....... 453,756 42,121 952,61 894,552 833,944 554,653
Chemical and pharmaceutical products 644,320 928,705 858,727 1,098,676 1,048,153 836,206
Household utensils: crockery, glass-
ware, porcelain, cutlery and kitchen
utensils of aluminum, iron and steel.. 1,223,128 1,396,442 1,344,607
Fibers, vegetable and manufactures of,
other than cotton and textiles........ 2,114,647 1,856,885 1,280,368 1,441,925 1,592,978 1,859,456
Foodstuffs:
Fish.................................. 2,880,691 3,289,025 4,033,060 4,546,563 3,370,450 3099,896
Wheat flour.................... 10.671,303 12,044,975 11,456,714 14,229,947 14,975,862 11,864,916
Meats................................. 1,129,413 1,452,559 1,509,95 1,56,284 1,339,788 1,831,948
Rice. ................................ 1,735,65 1,293,65 1,850,807 2,065,855 2,643,401 1,669.626
All other ................. .. 6,544,557 5,786,803 7,030,371 7,996,509 6,880,789 6,428,032
Iron beds............................. 80,69 92,105 80,764
Iron, steel and manufactures, other
than specified............... .. 3,460,075 ,411,649 3,522,428 4,338,776 5,057,516 3,636,718
Leather........................ 780,115 785.827 262,635 495,659 330,363 686,028
Liquors and beverages..............1,229,720 1,433,548 913,320 1,607,748 1,051,056 1,299,112
Lumber.................. ........ 1,054,752 1,845,746 1,701,620 2,109,083 1,947,564 1,366,212
Motor vehicles:
Automobiles, passenger............... 1,528,267 2,010,409 1,921,474
Trucks.... ........................ 446,360 774,034 627,22 *
Oils, mineral:
Gasoline............................ 54,469 855.634 2,115,890 2,408,851 2,840.048 1,031,946
Kerosene .............. ...... 1,108,696 935,008 1,214,877 1.376,559 1,292,719 1,094,821
All other..... .................... 175,174 361,676 618,624 1,015,879 823,64 395,524
Shoes............................... 889,095 1,355,267 190,801 *
Soap..................................... 3,849,33 3,060,897 3,192,235 3,451,433 3,175.379 ,413,092
Textiles................................. 21,76,374 23,210,837 16,835,439 23,281,222 13,135,003 21,395,209
Tobacco................................. 2,009,210 1,770,269 89,992 733,529 177,712 1.530,664
All other................................ 13,797,749 16,043,804 14,314,249 20,099,851 18,509,127 15,548,538
Total............................. 75,260,004 80,293,333 78,756,600 101,241,283 86,189,612 80,304,168

*No separate figures available.

Haitian imports statistics do not necessarily bear an exact relationship
to consumption. Decreases from year to year may indicate replacement
of foreign commodities by goods of local manufacture, as is the case with
lard substitutes and to some extent with tobacco, or merely a loss in pur-
chasing power. Again, there is variation with respect to imports of indi-
vidual commodities due to inexactness with which needs of the local mar-
ket are anticipated. Nevertheless, in absence of figures respecting con-
sumption, import statistics present a reasonably accurate indication of the
purposes for which Haitian income is expended.
As previously stated, imports during the year under review were 14.87
per cent less than in 1927-28. Comparison of importations by values of
individual commodities as between two fiscal periods in which economic






24 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

conditions have varied widely, furnishes indication of changes in the stand-
ard of living, especially in the more favorable years when an excess of
purchasing power permits acquisition of a greater proportion of luxuries.
It is of course logical that imports should more strongly favor necessities
in years when purchasing power is relatively low. Such was the case as
between the year under review and 1927-28, although unusual circum-
stances tended to accentuate the difference.

TABLE No. 16
QUANTITY OF IMPORTS BY COMMODITIES. FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
Commodity Unit 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Cement Kilo 8,518,741 5,675,884 18,552,117 12,092,361 11,510,658 6,394,482
Foodstuffs:
Fish.................... 2,166,642 4,298,888 7,48,565 7,17,251 4,776,020 ,979,037
Wheat flour............ 12,354,104 28,161,255 25,058,159 82,657,546 7,427,385 22,901,529
Meats................... 500,144 923,154 1,290,337 1,44,484 1,067,611 832,221
Rice......59.............. 675,744 2,859,25 4,11,816 5,458,914 6,894,258 2,625,914
Liquors andbeverages... Liter 686.837 1,126,049 870,351 1,266,456 801,380 923,086
Lumber ................. Cubic Meter 6,769.48 14,321.29 15,557.94 19,234.49 15,889.50 12,010.42
Oils, Mineral:
Gasoline................ Liter. 547.523 2,254,239 5,546,920 6,238,832 8,151,07 2,611,182
Kerosene............... 2,894,769 8,623,516 4,658,299 5,055,440 4,572,014 3,605,937
Soap.................... Kilo 2.830.880 3,605,622 4,076,929 4,449,942 4,061,871 3,443,750
Textiles.................. 3,063,80 8.862,948 8,071,724 4,095,936 2,215,865 3,885,752
Tobacco.................. 69484 821,907 46,841 471,997 91,821 60.55


Imports of foodstuffs during 1928-29 dropped 3.90 per cent in value
as compared with those for 1927-28, while total quantities of principal
foodstuffs imported, notably wheat flour and rice, were greater during the
year under review than in the preceding year, this discrepancy being due
to decreases in price. Foodstuffs accounted for 33.89 per cent of total im-
port values in 1928-29 against 30.02 per cent in 1927-28. Large imports
of foodstuffs were effected especially during the fall of 1928 to counteract
the destruction of the food supply in the southern peninsula, and general
disorganization of the market in that section and elsewhere in the republic
following the hurricane of August, 1928 and succeeding storms. While
opinions vary as to the extent of actual crop destruction, and no accurate
survey exists, the fact remains that the larger importations of foodstuffs
were absorbed during the course of the year under review, whether due
principally to devastation of crops, inability to market such local supplies
the commodities included, averages for the ten-year period and with re-
as were cut off by destruction of trails and roads, or to diversion of eco-
nomic effort from ordinary pursuits to reconstruction.
As a result of the proportionately larger expenditure of available in-
come for foodstuffs, imports of other staple commodities declined in pro-
portion as well as in value during the year under review as compared with
1927-28. Importations of textiles dropped in value from Gdes. 23,281,222






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


in 1927-28 to Gdes. 13,135,003 in 1928-29, a decrease of Gdes. 10,146,219
or 43.58 per cent, accompanied by a decrease in the quantity imported of
45.90 per cent. Textiles constituted but 15.23 per cent of total import
values during the year under review as against 23.00 per cent in 1927-28.
Imports of shoes dropped from Gdes. 1,355,267 in 1927-28 to Gdes.
190,801 in 1928-29, a decrease of 85.92 per cent.
Importations of chemical and pharmaceutical products, household uten-
sils and books remained virtually unchanged during the two years under
comparison; imports of cement decreased slightly in 1928-29 as did im-
ports of lumber. Imports of automobiles and trucks declined somewhat,
while imports of gasoline increased as compared with 1927-28. Imports
of iron and steel manufactures increased, due largely to government im-
portations; those of agricultural implements increased 20.56 per cent, but
accounted for less than one per cent of total imports.
Of particular interest, in view of institution of the new excise taxes
at the beginning of the year under review, are import statistics respecting
liquors and tobacco as between 1928-29 and the preceding year. Imports
of liquors declined in value from Gdes. 1,607,748 to Gdes. 1,051,056, a
decrease of 34.62 per cent. Total imports of leaf tobacco and tobacco
products (values of imports of leaf tobacco only being shown on Table
No. 15) declined from Gdes. 1,195,955 to Gdes. 648,594, a drop of 45.77
per cent. This situation, popularly ascribed largely to the new excise taxes,
proceeds in actuality from a number of causes. First was the diminished
purchasing power as between 1927-28 and 1928-29, and the unusual pro-
portion of purchases of foodstuffs in relation to total imports which re-
sulted in smaller importations of other commodities. Import duties upon
liquors were increased during the latter part of 1927-28, in order to com-
pensate for reductions in the customs tariff with respect to more necessary
articles. The increase in import duty, which was relatively greater than
the excise tax, of itself operated to curtail imports of spirituous liquors.
A local brewery placed in operation during the year under review re-
duced imports of beer. Again, imports of all liquors during 1927-28 were
admittedly larger than would otherwise have been the case as a result of
tariff legislation in 1925-26 which operated to curtail liquor importations
in 1926-27 and resulted in a shortage of stocks on hand at the beginning
of 1927-28. This situation led to over-buying in 1927-28 so that a decrease
of importations of liquors during the succeeding year was to be expected.
Altogether, the decline in imports of liquors during the year under review
as compared with 1927-28 appears to have been influenced comparatively
little by the excise tax.
With respect to tobacco the situation was similarly influenced by the
customs tariff. Import duties on leaf tobacco have been virtually pro-
hibitive since 1926 in order to encourage local production. The year un-






26 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

der review was the first during which local production was sufficient to
have an important effect upon imports of leaf tobacco, which declined in
value from Gdes. 733,529 in 1927-28 to Gdes. 177,712 in 1928-29. On the
other hand, imports of cigarettes increased in value from Gdes. 383,069
in 1927-28 to Gdes. 406,154 in the year under report. Imports of cigars
showed but a slight decrease in 1928-29; such imports, however, were
relatively unimportant in both years under comparison. It would seem
evident that the 1926 increase of the customs tariff rather than the excise
tax is responsible for the effect upon imports of tobacco and tobacco
products, during the year under review.
Marked changes occurred with respect to unit prices of commodities
imported during 1928-29 as against those of 1927-28. Only two of the
principal commodities, namely wheat flour and gasoline, showed decreased
unit prices, though both were important. Of the increases in unit prices
those respecting fish, meats, lumber, liquors and tobacco were of consider-
able severity. Unit prices for cement, kerosene and soap remained vir-
tually unchanged. Unit prices of principal imports are shown below:


1926-27 1927-28 1928-29

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Cement................ kilo................ 0.07 0.07 0.07
Fish................... kilo................ 0.54 0.64 0.71
Wheat flour............ kilo................ 0.45 0.4 0.40
Meats.................. kilo............. ... 1.17 1.16 1.25
Rice..................... kilo............... 0.44 0.88 0.38
Liquors................. liter................ 1.04 1.27 1.31
Lumber................ cubic meter....... 109.87 109.65 122.57
Gasoline................. ................... 0.88 0.39 0.35
Kerosene.............. liter. ............. 0.26 0.27 0.28
Soap............ ........ kilo.. ..... .. 0.78 0.77 0.78
Textiles................ kilo................ 5.48 5.68 5.93
Tobacco ............... kilo ............... 1.92 1.55 1.95


COMMODITIES EXPORTED

Table No. 17 shows values of various commodities exported during the
period of the Receivership, while Table No. 18 shows quantities of the
most important commodities exported over the same period.
Of chief interest during 1928-29, as is usual, were coffee exports which
declined Gdes. 25,088,407, or 28.00 per cent in value and 12,590,160 kilos,
or 30.59 per cent in quantity as compared with 1927-28, the difference in
percentages of decrease resulting from somewhat higher prices. Such
exports during 1928-29 were in excess of the average for the period of the
Receivership with respect to value but less than the average with respect to
quantity. As shown on Table No. 20, the relative importance of coffee
exports to total exports remained practically unchanged, exports of coffee
accounting for 77.13 per cent of all exports for 1928-29 as against 79.04
per cent in 1927-28.







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 17

VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES

FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29


Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Baannas............................. 4,046 1,529 *
Beeswax.................... 59,995 4,053 13,783 5,982 9,044 26,850
Cacao......................... 2,726.921 1,240,007 1,680,933 2,227,742 1,186,357 1,917,667
Cashew nuts................... ** 273,450 146,874 135,515 *
Coffee......................... 46,999,59 60,47,516 56,921,970 89,582,812 64,498,905 57,552,505
Cotton, raw.................... 5,595,881 9,186.908 7,334,573 10,007,602 10,853,545 7,816,128
Cottonseed.................... 428,686 761,204 591,465 141,114 67,745 519,444
Cottonseed cake.............. 806,557 724,057 886,274 *
Honey.......................... 794,093 34,518 751,149 630,063 561,389 587,358
Lignum Vitae................ 486,616 200,299 100,038 87,058 118,122 268.446
Logwood..................... 6,145,079 2,286,293 2,589,206 3,534,840 2,511,079 3,907,076
Sisal.......................... 6,47 23,503 44,259 *
Skins.......................... 1,502,690 424,678 627,710 739,688 750,474 904,209
Sugar....................... 1,876,976 2403.398 3,402,735 8,251,211 1,053,948 2,239,212
Turtle shells................... 61,149 95,205 67,103 24,250 25,300 69,109
Allother exports............. 8,022,527 1,747,432 1,828,423 2,202,888 1,420,682 2,253,984
Total............... 69,649,972 79,131,511 76,495,442 113,836,230 83,619,167 78,258,327

No separate figures available.


TABLE No. 18

QUANTITY OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES

FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29


Average Average Average
Commodity 1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29


Bananas....................
Beeswax...................
Cacao.............. ...........
Cashew nuts.................
Coffee........................
Cotton, raw.............
Cottonseed..............
Cottonseed cake.............
Honey ......................
Lignum vitae.................
Logwood ............
Sisal ............ ........
Skins.......................
Sugar... .............. .
Turtle shells .................


Kilos
*
19,179
1,958,938
*
29,308.341
2,488,291
2,480,810
731.881
4,036,786
54,889,424
283,467
2,543,897
1,635


* No separate figures available.
t Bunches.


Kilos
*
2,910
1,908,678
*
32,060,107
3,895,790
5,604,338
547,907
2,710,876
27,816,496
*
132,282
6,879,930
1,478


Kilos
*
4,095
1,629,979
145,886
28,692,984
4,900,945
4,746,216
5.865,216
787.827
693,804
28,084,183
8,463
189,902
9,841,398
1,275


Kilos
*
3,063
2,893,486
73,485
41,146,804
4,427,387
787,149
6,415,465
660,505
603,794
36,361,678
81.341
225.588
12,016.554
1,524


Kilos
516t
4,522
1,865,707
97,869
28,550,644
4,754,579
859,766
7,141,064
588,483
819,196
23,402,456
47,479
261,413
4,729.450
1,265


Kilos
*
9,394
1,902,096
*
31,172,206
3,538,713
3,562,990
*
648,904
2,758,085
38,567,532
211,973
5,669,541
1,510


Virtual maintenance of the relative importance of coffee exports during
the year under review as compared with 1927-28 suggests decreases in ex-
ports of other commodities commensurate with the decline in exports of
coffee. The Dominican reports for this period indicate similar conditions
obtained in the sister republic. Adverse conditions contributing to the de-
crease in coffee shipments did in fact affect certain other exports, but in


















TABLE No. 19

QUANTITY AND VALUE OF FIVE PRINCIPAL EXPORTS BY PORTS. FISCAL YEAR 1928-29 COMPARED WITH 1927-28


Port Coffee Cotton Logwood Sugar, raw Cacao, crude

Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes
Aquin ......................... 7,982 17,64 ............................ 80,000 40,774 .............. ........ .......................
Belladbre...................... 147 824 ............ ............. ...... .. .. ...... ...... ........ ........... ...... ................ ..
Cap-Haitien................... 4 ':, l 1, 11,128,067 13,870 29,008 6,796,500 729,264 .......... .. ............ 234,819 203,721
Cayes..................... .... ,', 6,620,25 85,266 185,861 ......... .......................................... 7,692 6,684
Fort Libert6 .................. ................ ........... ................. 1,280,000 187,44 ............ ..........................................
Gonaives.................... 2,505,945 5,671,556 963,509 2,092,703 812,000 87,127 .............. .............. .............. ..............
Jacmel ...................... 4091.84 9,192,249 81,119 1,796,227........................... ... ........... ..... ..............
J6rdmle ...................... 2,814,991 5,279,736 .............. .... ........................ ............ 710,657 617,022
Miragodne..................... 882,86 2,006,865......... 7,907,05 848,426................................ .............
Ouanam inthe.......... ....... 205 320 ............ .......................................... ....... .........................
Petit GoAve................... 8,081,704 6,86365 .. .......... ..................................................................
Port-au-Prince ................ 1... 11,146.483 905,445 1,962,903 775,000 83,157 4,729,450 1,053,918 186,236 118,389
Port-de-Paix.................. ,.'.,li 5,150,736 ......... ... ..276,803 240,541
Saint Marc.................... 617,084 1,420,944 1,978,370 4,287,843 5,451,900 584,987 ............ .....
Total 1928-29.................... 28,556,644 64.493,905 4,754.579 10,353,545 23,402,456 2,511,079 4,729,450 1,058,948 1.865,707 1,186,857
Total 1927-28 .................. 41,146,804 89,582,312 4,47,8337 10,007,602 86,361,678 8,534,840 12,016,554 3,251,211 2,393,486 2,227,742
Increase 1928-29.................................... ........... 827,242 45,94 .......................................... ..... ... ...............
Decrease 1928-29.............. 12,590,160 25,088,407 ............................. 12,959,222 1,023,761 7,287,10 2197,26 1,027,779 1,041,885


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HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


varying degree. On the other hand, exports of cotton increased in value
from Gdes. 10,007,602 in 1927-28 to Gdes. 10,353,545 in the year under
review, and as shown on Table No. 20, accounted for 12.38 per cent of
total exports in 1928-29 as against 8.83 per cent in 1927-28. Other in-
creases in exports of less relative importance occurred with respect to bees-
wax, lignum vitae, cottonseed cake, sisal and skins. Exports of sugar, how-
ever, dropped 67.58 per cent; cacao exports decreased 46.74 per cent and
logwood exports 28.96 per cent. The remainder of exports shown on
Tables No. 17 and 18 decreased both as to value and quantity in the year
under review as compared with 1927-28, with the exception of exports of
turtle shells which increased in value, but decreased in quantity.

TABLE No. 20
PERCENTAGE OF VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average Average
1916-17- 1921-22- 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17-
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
Coffee........................ 61.46 75.49 74.41 79.04 77.13 70.41
Cotton ....................... 8.78 11.98 9.59 8.83 12.38 10.33
Logwood..................... 9.31 8.01 3.89 8.12 3.00 5.47
Sugar, raw................... 8.27 3.31 4.45 2.87 1.26 3.19
Cacao, crude................. 4.86 1.40 2.20 1.97 1.42 2.65
All other...................... 12.87 4.81 5.96 4.17 4.81 7.95
Total...................... 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

It is evident, therefore, that the year under review showed little im-
provement with respect to diversity of exports with the exception of cot-
ton, and that commodity did not appreciably relieve dependence upon
coffee.
The relationship of the coffee trade to total exports and to total im-
ports over a period of five years is graphically presented on Chart No. 1.
Total exports over that period closely paralleled coffee exports both sea-
sonally and with respect to value. On the whole, somewhat less periodicity
obtained with respect to imports over the period in question, but imports
were unmistakably influenced by the ebb and flow of the coffee trade. The
chart under discussion also illustrates changes from year to year in the
economic situation of Haiti as interpreted in terms of purchasing power
and of expenditure.
Distribution of the values and quantities of principal exports by ports
of shipment during the year under review, as indicated on Table No. 19,
further illustrates the importance of the coffee trade. But two ports,
namely, Jeremie and Port-de-Paix, enjoyed increases in coffee exports as
compared with 1927-28. Port-au-Prince, exporting coffee valued at Gdes.
17,604,745 in 1927-28 shipped but a value of Gdes. 11,146,483 in 1928-29.






30 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

Coffee exports from Petit Goave and Jacmel declined 55.67 per cent and
41.14 per cent, respectively. The remainder of the ports experienced rel-
atively less severe declines in coffee exports, while Gonaives and Jacmel
benefited by increased exports of cotton.


CHART No. 1
VALUES OF TOTAL IMPORTS, TOTAL EXPORTS AND


MILLIONS OF
COURDES


COFFEE EXPORTS


1923-24 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1926-2e
Table No. 21 shows the quantity and value of exports by commodities
and by months during the year under review. It will be noted that the
seasonal fluctuation thereby illustrated corresponds to relative importance
of coffee shipments from month to month. Exports of cotton were largest
during the closing months of the coffee season, while exports of cacao were
effected largely during the fall of 1928. Sugar and logwood shipments
were irregular.
The unit price of coffee increased from Gdes. 2.18 in 1927-28 to Gdes.
2.26 during the year under review. Important decreases in unit prices
obtained with respect to cacao, cotton, skins and sugar. Unit prices of
principal exports have been as follows:

1926-27 1927-28 1928-29

Gourdes per kilo Gourdes per kilo Gourdes per kilo
Beeswax......................... 3.37 1.95 2.00
Cacao........................... 1.03 0.9 0.87
Coffee ........................... 1.98 2.18 2.26
Cotton, raw.................... 1.50 2.26 2.18
Cottonseed....................... 0.12 0.18 0.19
Honey........................... 0.96 0.95 0.95
Lignum vitae.................... 0.14 0.14 0.14
Logwood ........................ 0.09 0.10 0.11
Skins............................ 3.37 3.37 3.00
Sugar............................ 0.35 0.27 0.22




r em Vt .wsr fl 4 a .eu mI


t4


TABLE No. 21

QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS BY COMMODITIES AND MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Month Coffee Cotton Logwood Sugar, raw Cacao, crude All other All exports

Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes Kilos Gourdes ilos Gourdes ourdes Gourdes
October, 1928 ............. 3,222,425 7,401,857 2.693 5,507 1,216,500 130,58U ............ ........... 103,549 89,982 198,246 7,829,122 t
November ................ 4,084.576 8,920,675 4,903 10,027 190,000 20,387 45 85 136,304 118,447 191,509 9,261,080
December ................. 879,767 8,158,334 12,401 25.380 6,228,500 667,780 45 85 307,1883 266,909 164,260 9,277,678
January, 1929............ 4,96,188 9899,151 1,264 27,801 655,500 70.335 31,745 10,500 150,964 181,186 203,008 10,341,981 0
February ............. 74,105 8,709,599 637.645 1,382,106 500,000 53,650 1,679,815 77,089 93,531 81.277 199,057 10,802,778
March.......... ....... 008,420 6,993,76 1,451,772 3,265,740 1,145,680 122,931 1,055,462 227,252 104,675 90,481 720,164 11,419,944 m
April..................... 2,146,843 5,10,97 1147,655 2,566,018 4,112,056 441,224 1,064,532 238,755 170,108 147,878 817.409 8,841,681 W
May ................... 1,515,824 3,554,552 654,506 1,40,090 2,592,260 278.149 ........... ............ 102,980 89,488 539,966 5,892,245
June .................... 797,572 1,793,452 846,562 705,074 1,777,000 10,672 22,675 5,875 85,727 74,485 290,215 8,059,778
July .................... 671,004 1,505,947 867,718 714,487 2.526,500 271,092 780,511 148,881 54,298 47,178 559,085 3,246,170
August .................. 285,872 659,704 115,810 221,047 2,263,460 242,869 58,955 19,088 19,779 17,188 855.794 1,515,690
September ............... 874,053 1,768,861 150 288 200,000 21,460 86,165 26,938 36,664 31,858 281,620 2,131,025
Total............... 28,556,644 64,493,905 4,754,579 10,553,545 28,402,456 2,511,079 4,729,450 1,058,948 1,865,707 1,186,857 4,020,883 83,619,167


58






32 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Unit prices, however, are not particularly enlightening with respect to
price trends. Fluctuation in the quantity of shipments from month to
month, even when prices remain relatively unchanged as between two
fiscal years, may bring about changes in unit prices which do not corre-
spond to average prices of the market.
The present world coffee market commands particular attention so far
as Haiti and other coffee producing countries are concerned. Offerings
of Brazilian coffee since the world war have determined prices in the world
coffee market. By means of the valorization system, Brazil has exercised
control over coffee prices, but at the expense of accumulating enormous
reserves of coffee, the potential release of which constitutes an increasing
danger to the coffee trade. Even the rumored failure of the valorization
system shortly subsequent to the close of the year under review was suf-
ficient to bring about severe declines in coffee prices. As a price-fixing ex-
periment this system has enjoyed apparent success for a sustained period,
but whether or not it may lead ultimately to disorganization of the world
coffee market is a question of divided opinion. Last reports at the date
of writing (November fifth) present a dismal outlook for the future. In
any event, under present circumstances, the fortunes of Haiti are most
certainly involved in the shifting prices of the world coffee market.
Chart No. 2 graphically shows weekly quotatiofis for Haitian coffee
and for Santos, the grade of Brazilian coffee with which the Haitian prod-

CHART No. 2
COFFEE PRICES, FISCAL YEARS 1927-28 AND 1928-29
Courdes per kilo
(Oavre quotations)
2.801 r


0-
1927-28 10S8-29
uct competes at Havre, for the fiscal years 1927-28 and 1928-29. The
close correspondence between the two curves demonstrates the relationship
between prices received for Haitian coffee and for the Brazilian product.





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


It is a matter of every day experience that price changes affecting Santos
are attended by an immediate and corresponding reaction in the market
for Haitian coffee, entirely independent of the importance of the local
supply and of varying costs of preparing Haitian coffee for export. It is
true that Haitian coffee has consistently enjoyed a premium over Santos,
but it is also apparent that the premium received is generally at a mini-
mum when lower prices are received for Santos. A prospective decline in
the price paid for the Brazilian grade therefore indicates a smaller pre-
mium as well as a lower price for Haitian coffee.
Haitian coffee is of the best quality. The premium it commands over
other coffees is due to excellence of flavor. It can be prepared without
loss of flavor with snow water in countries where .the water supply pre-
sents a problem in winter, and it generally enjoys preference in France
and adjacent countries. Yet primitive methods of harvesting and prepara-
tion have minimized its market value. While there are several modern
plants in Haiti which are equipped properly to prepare coffee for ship-
ment, the bulk of the crop so far has been exported in poor condition.
There is not as yet one modern coffee plantation in Haiti; that coffee
has been successfully grown in the country for over two hundred years is
recognizedly due to the inherent suitability of the climate and soil to the
growth of a high quality coffee with virtually no cultivation. Even the
simplest measures such as pruning are not in use, and there is no doubt
that a superior yield would obtain under plantation methods.
A general organization of production methods might well necessitate
a considerable outlay of capital. Improvement of preparation for ship-
ment, however, is now well under way.

STANDARDIZATION

The necessity for proper standards for coffee and other Haitian export
products has long been advocated by this office. On June 12,1929, a law
was passed creating a central commission of standardization. The duties
of this commission are to study the interests of commerce in coffee, cot-
ton, cacao, sisal, and other export products and to submit reports with
recommendations as to standard export types of each commodity to the
President of the Republic. The law provides that the Central Commis-
sion shall consist of a delegate of the Secretary of State for Commerce,
the Director General of the Technical Service of Agriculture, and the
General Receiver, with the proviso that the last two officials may designate
in their place delegates attached to their offices. The commission selected
the General Receiver as its presiding officer, and the General Receiver
designated the Deputy General Receiver as his delegate.
Coffee, being the most important export commodity, was the first
product to receive attention. In order that an opportunity might be given






34 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

exporters to state fully their views and recommendations it was decided to
hold public hearings in the principal export centers and seven such meet-
ings were held outside of Port-au-Prince. Some twenty additional meet-
ings in Port-au-Prince were devoted to the study of recommendations of
coffee merchants and other data, resulting in the submission to the Presi-
dent of proposed standards and regulations governing the export of green
coffee, which were approved and promulgated by the executive order of
September 7, 1929, to take effect October 1, 1929.
Under the provisions of this regulation all coffee for export must
be graded and marked in accordance with the number of imperfect coffee
beans or other defects included in a representative sample of 500 grams.
Seven types were defined. The first grade may contain a maximum of
thirty defects to the half kilo, the second not more than sixty, and so on.
The seventh grade is any coffee containing more than 700 defects to the
half kilo.
A feature of the standardization law which has encountered the criti-
cism of exporters is the provision that prior to the delivery to the customs
of export products the exporter shall affix or imprint upon the bags, bales
or other containers a label or stamp of a design approved by the central
commission on standardization denoting the standard of the product to be
exported, which standard shall be subject to inspection and verification by
the customs authorities. In the event that verification reveals a product
of a lower standard than that marked, the exporter is required to take it
back and remark it. Some exporters have objected that this entails un-
necessary expense, and that they should be permitted to mark their prod-
uct after verification by the customs authorities and in accordance with the
standard type found at verification. At first sight, this objection or com-
plaint seems reasonable, and it would perhaps be reasonable if it were
not for the peculiar conditions prevailing in Haiti. In most countries
exporters would have interested themselves in improving and standardizing
their products, without governmental intervention, but a law of July 19,
1927, on the optional standardization of export products had proven in-
effective, and was consequently replaced by the law of June 12, 1929,
making standardization compulsory. One of the principal purposes of
the system envisaged by this law is to induce the exporter to use more care
in the preparation of his product, to insure its uniformity, and to remove
the defects therefrom. If he were not subjected to the inconvenience re-
sulting from improper marking this purpose would never be attained.
The exporter should himself supervise the preparation of his product and
should be better informed than any one else as to the standard type which
he prepares for export. The role of the custom house should be restricted
to the verification of the classification made in the first instance by the
exporter, and to the discovery of attempted frauds.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


To the objection that a difference of opinion as between the exporter
and the customs inspector with respect to whether or not two or three
beans in a given sample are defective may result in rejection of a large
lot of coffee, it may be answered that an exporter should not endeavor to
prepare his product with the maximum number of defects permissible for
the standard type marked on the sacks, but in the case of coffee of stand-
ard type 3, for example, he should endeavor to have the mean number of
defects for that type, 90, and not 61 or 119, which approach too closely
the limits of types 2 and 4. If he purposely endeavors to include the
maximum number of defects permissible for the type in question, he runs
the risk of having his shipment rejected, in which case he alone is to be
blamed. On the other hand, if he endeavors to prepare a product con-
taining the mean of 90 defects, it is most improbable that he will ever be
subjected to the expense of remarking and resacking his product. It was,
of course, necessary to provide a limit of defects for each standard type,
but this does not imply that an exporter should endeavor to see how
nearly he can approach this limit without exceeding it.
The benefits of this measure are manifest, though the inspection pro-
cess necessarily entails some expense, which however is borne by the cus-
toms service. Heretofore the foreign market for Haitian coffee has shown
preference for coffee from given ports on account of supposed better meth-
ods of preparation in use in certain sections of the country. This has
resulted in overland shipment of coffee within Haiti in order to effect ship-
ment abroad from one of the favored ports. A uniform method of grad-
ing removes this anomaly.
The far more important item, however, is the promise of improve-
ment of coffee exports as a whole. But a very small portion of the crop
had ever received acceptable preparation; the fact that the major portion
was exported in poor condition operated to penalize the improvements
effected by the reliable exporters by maintaining a poor reputation abroad
for all Haitian coffee. A law of July 5, 1929, authorized the President
to regulate by executive order the methods of cultivation, harvesting, in-
spection, and packing or export of crops, and established a penalty for the
violation of such regulations; this was followed by an executive order of
July 18, 1929, prohibiting the sale of unripe coffee berries or those con-
taining excessive quantities of stones or other foreign matter or of broken
or spoiled beans, and providing for inspection in the places of production
and of marketing by agricultural agents. Much has been accomplished in
improving the preparation of coffee for the market, and doubtless the
continued application of these measures will effect further improvement.
Raising the standard of coffee exports particularly at this time may
well serve a double purpose, first by strengthening the claim of Haitian
coffee to a premium over Brazilian grades not only on the basis of superior






36 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

inherent quality, but as well by instilling confidence in foreign importers
with respect to the uniformity of the product. Secondly, as trading under
the standardization system develops, it is not unlikely that a higher dif-
ferential of premiums may be commanded by Haitian coffee over the Bra-
zilian grades.
Aside from these considerations, exportation of Haitian coffee in
graded condition opens possibilities in the way of new markets. The
United States, for example, has never purchased Haitian coffee to any ex-
tent, because it was not graded. Among the countries which heretofore
have bought Haitian coffee in limited quantities for the same reason, the
new law offers possibilities for increased demand, while the new system
will undoubtedly improve the coffee trade with France.
Finally, enactment of the standardization law particularly at this junc-
ture was fortunate, considering the uncertainty prevailing with respect to
the coffee market itself. To meet these unusual conditions with a coffee
of definitely improved preparation may well provide a basis for a wider
premium and thus tend somewhat to compensate for lower prices. Haiti
had hitherto attempted to encourage a better preparation of coffee by re-
ducing the export duty on coffee culls or waste. This policy had not pro-
duced the desired result, and simultaneously with the taking effect of the
regulations for coffee standardization on October 1, 1929, the reduction in
the export duty on coffee culls or waste was eliminated, and the duty was
increased to the same amount as that paid on coffee other than that of the
two highest types, while the duties on coffee of types 1 and 2 were reduced.
It is expected that this reduction in export duties, together with the better
prices which should be received for the higher grades, will have a stimu-
lating effect upon the efforts of coffee merchants to improve the quality of
this commodity. The central commission of standardization will extend
its activities during the coming fiscal year to the study of the trade in
other products and the preparation of regulations for their standardization.

DIVERSITY OF EXPORT PRODUCTS AND MARKETS

Because the economic history of various agricultural centers through-
out the world, which are principally dependent upon a single commodity,
has been one of alternating prosperity and depression, and because this has
been particularly true of Haiti, this office has consistently reiterated the
necessity for a greater diversity of export products and for wider markets.
Reliance upon a single crop is often attributable to inability to produce
other commodities upon a profitable basis, but with Haiti it is rather a
case of chosen dependence upon the one crop which brings the highest re-
turn with a minimum of effort, to the degree that the potential diversity
of export commodities has not been developed.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 37

There is no immediate probability that any other single commodity
will displace coffee as the most important Haitian export, nor is there any
doubt that coffee is at this time the most distinctive and dependable crop
of the country. For this reason this office is of the opinion that produc-
tion of coffee by plantation methods offers opportunities for profit. The
standardization law is believed to assure the proper market differential for
coffee of a manifestly superior grade such as could be produced under mod-
ern methods. The establishment of facilities for increasing the percentage
of washed coffees will bring an immense and immediate improvement
which will remove those coffees from competition with Brazilian, and sup-
ply an entirely new outlet for their sale. Certainly no constructive pro-
gram for the betterment of Haiti could overlook improvement of coffee
production and marketing.
At the same time it would be obviously to the advantage of Haiti to
develop other agricultural crops to which the soil and climate are mani-
festly suited, not only with a view to increasing total production, but also
following a general plan calculated to correct periodicity of foreign
commerce.
By experimentation, a long fiber cotton has been developed which is
specially suited to cultivation in Haiti. Suitable land is available, and de-
velopment of this crop would tend to increase exports at the close of the
coffee season. A ready market has been available for exports of Haitian
cotton so far, and the use of cotton seed for the preparation of lard sub-
stitutes is already an established business locally. This commodity there-
fore presents a double opportunity, meeting the needs for export trade and
of local commerce. There is no reason why local cotton could not be man-
ufactured into cloth for local consumption, as has been profitably done in
Venezuela. A cotton mill would help to furnish employment for many
workers between crop seasons and to keep cane cutters at home. Lack of
continuous home employment encourages the export of labor, which such
an industry would tend to correct.
During the colonial period cacao was one of the principal exports of
Haiti. In fact the island as a whole then produced most of the world's
supply, whereas in 1928-29 cacao accounted for but 1.42 per cent of total
exports of Haiti. Cacao produced on the island is of a specially fine flavor
and is eagerly bought when properly prepared. Development of this prod-
uct necessarily entails improvement of local methods of preparation, but
potential profits with respect to this crop should prove a sufficient in-
ducement.
Recently there has been wide development of corn for export in several
countries in the West Indies. During one year of the world war, Haiti
exported in excess of 10,400,000 kilos of corn; and there seems to be no
good reason why Haiti should not participate in the present development.






38 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Large projects for the production of sisal are under way in the north
of Haiti, and the growth of pineapples in that section is beyond the ex-
perimental stage. There remain other crops which constitute important
exports of other countries in the West Indies, and which may be produced
in Haiti, such as bananas, limes, ginger, cashew nuts, avocados, etc. Rub-
ber grows well in certain sections, and it seems certain that this product
will not continue to be neglected much longer. Development of a diver-
sity of export crops is therefore not handicapped by any lack of variety.
Markets for export products are available for any of the above named
products on the basis of production upon a commercial scale combined with
acceptable quality. In the latter respect Haitian products are the equal
if not superior to those of any West Indian country. It remains to cor-
relate production and marketing. The development of both requires care-
ful planning and investment of capital. In the latter respect, foreign
capital is becoming increasingly interested in Haiti.
In spite of the need for capital, however, it is not the desire to hold
out encouragement to wholesale foreign exploitation or to introduce boom
conditions overnight into Haitian commercial life. Serious foreign in-
vestors have ample opportunity for profitable enterprise in Haiti; profit-
able both to themselves and to the country as a whole. The Haitian peas-
ant, however, is not without initiative. With reasonable encouragement,
the peasants have in a few years developed tobacco production in Haiti
until it virtually meets the local demand. Similar activity may be an-
ticipated in connection with other crops.
Ultimate benefits from development of the export market should accrue
to the peasant proprietor and be of permanent value to the country. Pro-
jects for various commercial enterprises brought forward under the aus-
pices of foreign capital are therefore appraised with this end in view.
Within these conditions there remains ample encouragement to investment
of capital, though the primary purpose to be served is to assist the Hai-
tians to assist themselves. The future of Haiti is that of a nation of
peasant farmers.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF CURRENCY
Table No. 22 shows imports and exports of currency from 1922-23 to
1928-29. No currency has been shipped into Haiti as an article of com-
merce since before the fiscal year 1926-27, though currency is ordinarily
introduced by returning emigrants. Due to the decreased number of emi-
grants in the year under review, the amount of currency introduced was
substantially less than in the preceding year. Exports, consisting chiefly
of United States currency, were far below those of 1927-28, and below the
average for the years covered on the table in question. Under the contract
between the Banque Nationale and the Republic of Haiti, the parity of the








TABLE No. 22
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF CURRENCY FISCAL YEARS 1922-23 To 1928-29

Average H
1922-23-25-26 196-1927 1927-28 1928-29
Month ______

Gold Silver Paper Gold Silver Paper Nickel Copper Gold Silver Paper Nickel Copper Gold Silver Paper Nickel Copper

Imports ,
October .......... ............................. ......... .......... '."'" ........ .. ........ ........ ... ................ 0.
November........ ........ ..... ... .........1 "" ....... ........ ..................................
Decea r ................................ .......
January..................... ......... .............................. ........ ........ ............................. ........
February......... ................ 100,000 ................................................... ........ .......
March ............ ........ ........ 250,000 ........ .......................... ............ .. .......... ....................... .....................
April ............. .... ................. ........ ...... ............. ... .................... ........ .... ......:: ...... ....... .. .... .....
May ........... ......... ... .......... ...... .. ....... ........ ... .... ........ ........ ......... ........... . .... .... ........ . ..... ......... ....... ...... n
July .... .................. .......... ..... ............ ..... ........ ...... .. ........ : : ...... ...................... .......................
. .................. .. .... ... ...... ............... ....... .. ..... .


Total value n I-n
Gourdes............ ........ 662,500 ............. ....... ........ .. ........ ...................................... ........ ... ..

Exports
October.................. 1,25 75,000 .............. 1,000,000 ........... .. ....................... ................000 4026 ..... ........
November........ ........ 750 250,000................. .......... ......................... 570,700 ............... 2,000.. ............ ........
December........ 250,000 18,110 125,000 15,015 ........ 1,000,000 ....... .... .. 49,500 .......... ..... : ... ....
January.......... 37,500 16,750 ..... ......... ......122,00 ......... ... ...... ...... ...........................
January.........87,500 16,750...................122,090................................... ........ ................ .......
February................. 14,312 100,000 ....... 53,060 505,000 ..... ..... ........ .. .... .................. .......... ........ . ....................
March .............. ...... ..... ..... 8,437 ........ 25,000 .................. ........ 17,27 36,500 60,000 760 ........ 1,282 1I,150 ....... ...........
April ............. 187,500 .......................................................... 28,840 475,000 ........ ........ ........................ 00
May.......... ............. ,850 ......... ...... ......... .. ............................. .... .... ... ....... ...... 8,000 4,600 ...................
June ............. ...... 7,55 .................. 34,930 .......... ..... ............... 500, ........................ ........ ...
July.............. ........ 41,125 .................. .. ......... ....... .8,248 .
August............ 4,937 526,250 135,000 ........ 80,530 619,250 ... .. 72,550 154,550 ........ .. ...... 6,300 ........... ........
September........ 256 265,114 375,875 ....... 72,500 275,000 4,250 350 ........................... .. ............... ...
Total value in 4 9 1 1 8 7 ----,-- 3
Gourdes.... 480,193 928,171 1,069,812 15,015 388,110 3,399,250 4,250 350 17,270 187,390 1,760,250 760 ........ 9,282 35,298 40.266 ........ 300






40 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Haitian Gourde is maintained by the assets of the Bank: the import and
export of currency no longer serve as an economic guide as it did years ago.

CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATION

Under article 59 of the customs administrative law of September 4,
1905, a penalty of one hundred gourdes was required to be imposed upon
the captain of a vessel for each unmanifested package debarked; and the
package was required to be seized, confiscated, and sold for the benefit of
the public treasury. It has occasionally happened that packages which
were not manifested through error or negligence were debarked through
like error or negligence, and obviously without intent to defraud. In such
cases, and particularly in shipments involving a large number of pack-
ages, the penalty imposed by this provision of law was unduly severe and
worked unnecessary hardship. Under the law of July 20, 1929, the Gen-
eral Receiver, with the agreement of the Secretary of State for Finance and
Commerce, may remit or reduce the penalty imposed and waive in whole
or in part the seizure of unmanifested articles, upon application supported
by proof of exceptional circumstances, and when it is evident that there
was no fraudulent intent.
Another hardship resulting from the application of article 60 of the
customs administrative law of September 4, 1905, was the penalty of
twenty per cent of the duties imposed if for any reason declaration of the
merchandise had not been made within twenty-four hours from the arrival
of the vessel by which the goods were imported. This provision of law
had previously been interpreted as permitting declarations within twenty-
four working hours considered as equivalent to five working days, but even
with this liberal interpretation instances occurred wherein neglect to pre-
sent the declaration occasioned a serious loss to the importer dispropor-
tionate to the inconvenience or congestion caused by delayed withdrawals
of merchandise from the customs. By another provision of the law of
July 20, 1929, the General Receiver is authorized, with the agreement of
the Secretary of State for Finance and Commerce, and upon application
tending to establish the existence of exceptional circumstances causing the
delay, to reduce the penalty, which however, can not be reduced to less
than five per cent of the duties.
A case of systematic undervaluation extending over a considerable pe-
riod was discovered at one of the ports, and was made the subject of appro-
priate administrative penalties. The duties of which the treasury had been
defrauded were also recovered.
The creation of bonded warehouse facilities was authorized by articles
41 to 45 of the law of July 26, 1926, but there seemed to be no demand
for these facilities, and no action was taken to make them available until






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 41

April 2, 1929, when instructions were issued creating bonded warehousing
facilities at Port-au-Prince and, in the discretion of collectors and to the
extent that warehouse space is available, in the other ports. Importations
in bond are subject to the regular storage charges and, in addition, to a
warehousing charge of one-half per cent ad valorem per month or fraction
of a month. The maximum period during which imported merchandise
may remain in bond is six months. The importer is required to insure
the merchandise against all risks, and the State assumes no liability of
any sort for any loss, damage or deterioration of merchandise entered in
bond.
Several maritime collisions having occurred as a result of failure of
Haitian coastwise or fishing vessels to display proper lights, a law was
passed on May 29, 1929, by which the port authorities are required to re-
fuse clearance for a period of 30 days to any sailing vessel which shall have
failed to display proper lights, this administrative action being indepen-
dent of any prosecution for violation of the maritime laws and regulations.
The vesting of this authority in the port officials has had an excellent ef-
fect, as few owners or operators of sailing vessels care to incur the risk of
remaining tied up for 30 days through failure to display proper lights.
Various miscellaneous instructions were issued designed to secure uni-
formity in the application of the tariff at the various ports. Detailed in-
structions on coffee. grading were issued in September to become effective
on October 1, 1929, when the system of coffee standardization, discussed
elsewhere in this report, took effect.

TARIFF REVISION

A number of paragraphs of the import tariff were modified by the law
of July 20, 1929. Slates, slate pencils, and chalk used for educational pur-
poses, and live plants and garden seeds, were exempted from import duties
with the view of promoting public instruction and agriculture. Duties
were reduced on paint materials and prepared paints, upon glazed book
paper and writing paper, and adding machine tape, and upon harmonicas
and violins. Duties were increased upon brooms and upon lard and lard
substitutes, in order to protect and promote local industry. A new para-
graph was created for the taxation of containers made of corrugated paste-
board, and the principle of alternative ad valorem duties was further ex-
tended to a number of articles where there is considerable variation in
quality and value.
Under the excise tax law of August 14, 1928, the President of the Re-
public by executive order may authorize the suspension of a part or all of
the export duties. This authority was utilized in the executive order of
September 7, 1929, to reduce the export duty on green coffee of standard






42 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

types No. 1 to twenty centimes (4 cents) per kilogram, and No. 2 to twen-
ty-five centimes (5 cents) per kilogram. The export duty on broken beans,
coffee residue, and coffee waste, previously $2.50 per hundred French
pounds, was increased by the law of July 5, 1929, to $3.00, which is the
rate applying to coffees of other types than Nos. 1 and 2. These changes
in export duties, while authorized during the fiscal year under review, did
not become effective until the beginning of the following fiscal year, on
October 1, 1929. The export duties on coffee of other standard types than
Nos. 1 and 2 will probably remain at the present rate, slightly over thirty
centimes (6 cents) per kilogram, until experience has shown what propor-
tion of Haitian coffee is exported under the various types and what price
differential is established for the various grades. It is not expected that
any important reduction in export duties will be possible before October
1, 1930.
COMMERCIAL CONVENTIONS
No further commercial conventions or agreements were concluded dur-
ing the year under review, though negotiations are in progress relative to
a commercial convention between Haiti and Belgium. Haiti has a com-
mercial convention with France, whereby certain goods of French origin,
notably beverages, patent medicines, perfumery, cosmetics, and pharma-
ceutical products, are accorded reduced import duties. Under conventions
and agreements with the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Great
Britain, and Italy, embodying provisions for reciprocal unconditional most
favored nation treatment, the reduced import duties accorded to certain
goods of French origin are also accorded to articles of the same kind ori-
ginating in the other countries mentioned. The commercial convention
with France will terminate on June 4, 1930, unless renewed or replaced by
another agreement on or before March 4, 1930. It is to be hoped that it
can be replaced by an agreement embodying provisions for reciprocal un-
conditional most favored nation treatment. This would be in accord with
the tariff policy of Haiti as enunciated in article 2 of the law of July 26,
1926, which article provides that the import tariff thereto annexed shall be
a minimum tariff applicable to products of countries which grant to im-
portations from Haiti unconditional most favored nation treatment, and
that the President of the Republic may by executive order increase these
duties by not more than fifty per cent upon any or all products originating
in a country which does not grant unconditional most favored nation treat-
ment to products of Haitian origin.
Haiti was requested during the year to participate in a plan of stabili-
zation of world sugar production, based upon agreements of the principal
producing countries to restrict their exports to certain quotas. The amount
of sugar at present produced in Haiti would not have any considerable
effect upon the plan, whether Haiti participates or not. As the plan does





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER 43

not offer any particular advantage to Haiti, while an agreement to restrict
exports might prove to be a considerable handicap to the economic develop-
ment of the country, it is believed that Haiti should not participate therein.

CUSTOMS SERVICE
Except by agreement between the governments of Haiti and of the United
States, the expenses of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver under the
treaty of September 16, 1915 cannot exceed five per cent of customs receipts.
Shortly following establishment of the Receivership, however, one-fifth of
the so-called "Five Per Cent Fund" was assigned to the Banque Nationale
de la Republique d'Haiti as commission for its services. To all intents
and purposes, therefore, the activities conducted by the Financial Adviser-
General Receiver are financed from four per cent of customs revenues, and
so far the operating expenditures of this service have been carried on
within that portion of customs receipts.
Table No. 23 shows income and expenditures of the Financial Adviser-
General Receiver over the period of the Receivership. Income dropped
21.81 per cent during 1928-29 as compared with the preceding year, while
expenditures declined but 1.07 per cent. This brought about the deficit of
Gdes. 102,319.90 shown for 1928-29 on the table under discussion. Strictly
operating expenditures during the year under review, however, were well
within four per cent of customs receipts. The deficit in question was
attributable to capital expenditures as mentioned in detail in discussion of
Table No. 27, undertaken from surplus income of 1927-28, but effected
during the year under review.
As indicated in the footnote under Table No. 23, this tabulation has
undergone recent revision. From 1925-26 to 1927-28 a surplus in the
receivership fund was invested in bonds of the Haitian Government. Inter-
est on this investment, which was credited to the five per cent fund until
late in 1927-28, was then turned over to the general treasury. The table
in its present form presents actual receipts of the five per cent fund without
reference to this transaction.
Expenditures from' the receivership fund, while limited to the given
portion of customs revenues, do not bear a direct relationship from year to
year to such receipts. Only in the year 1920-21, however, was there an
excess of operating expenditures over income. It has been the policy so
far as possible to devote available surpluses to permanent improvements,
inasmuch as the customs plant in common with other properties of the
Haitian Government requires expansion and betterment. As such surpluses
are determinable only toward the close of the fiscal year, commitments are
made with respect to permanent improvements for the most part at that
time, and thus expenditures of a capital character are made in the succeed-
ing year which bear no relationship to current income.






44 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

TABLE No. 23
RECEIVERSHIP FUND
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Five per cent
of Expenditures Surplus Deficit
customs receipts

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
September 1916................. 60,211.85 89,850.15 ........... ...... 29,688.30
91-17.......................... 914,794.70 796,625.70 118,169.00 ..................
1917-18....................... .. 755,464.80 741,055.80 14,409.00 ..................
1918-19......................... 1,432,176.60 700,03560 732,141.00 ..................
1919-20...................... .... 1,603.639.95 1,380,460.60 223,179.5 ..................
1920-21.......................... 882.854.05 1,452,073.10 .................. 569,219.05
1921-22 ........................ 1,877,811.70 1,279,142.25 98,669.45 ..............
1922-23........................ 1,555.057.00 1,438.506.15 116,550.85 ..................
1923-24......................... 1,607.569.51 1,896,332.08 .................. 288,762.57
1924-25........................ 1,787,500.90 1,849,587.49 .................. 62,036.59
1925-26.................... ... 2,029,741.59 1,698,379.86 331,361.73* ..................
1926-27.......................... 1,683,093.81 2,278.241.30 .................. 595,147.49*
1927-28...................... 2,254,104.63 1,884.994.88 869,109.75*.. ...
1928-29 .......................... 1,762,382.50 1,864,702.40 .................. 102,819.90
Total................... 19,706,403.59 19,49,937.86 2,003,590.13 1,647,123.90
Average........................ 1,511,245.52 1,481,545.17 1,647,123.90 ..................
Surplus for period............. 856,466.28
Statement has been changed to eliminate interest on Series B bond investment, amounting
to Gdes. 52,661.80, which was credited to the receivership fund in 1925-26 and 1926-27 and deducted
therefrom in 1927-28.

Distribution of expenditures from the receivership fund by objects is
indicated on Table No. 24, which provides a clear basis for comparison of
operating expenditures as against those for capital improvements and fixed
charges. This table is presented for the first time in the present report
with a division showing expenditures for repairs and maintenance. Such
expenditures have previously been charged to administration or customs
operation, as the case might be. This re-classification will be useful par-
ticularly in succeeding years, in that as property used by the customs service
increases, repair and maintenance charges will become more important,
provided, of course, that such expenditures are made from the receivership
fund rather than from general funds of the government.
While costs of administration as shown on Table No. 24 appear to have
been greater during the year under review than in 1927-28 by Gdes.
64,809.86, and customs operating costs less by Gdes. 13,231.11, redivision
of the table in question as discussed in the preceding paragraph more or
less nullifies the value of the comparison. Total operating expenditures,
including repairs and maintenance, totalled Gdes. 1,274,186.98 in 1928-29
as against 1,198,580.91 in 1927-28, an increase of Gdes. 75,606.07, or
slightly over six per cent. Acquisition of property accounted for Gdes.
238,038.92 in the year under review which was slightly in excess of such
expenditures during 1927-28. Fixed charges, consisting of the commis-
sion paid the fiscal agent, totalled Gdes. 352,476.50, which was considerably
less than in the preceding year. Such commission is uniformly one per cent






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 45


of customs revenues, which accounts for the difference in the total payment
as between the two years.
TABLE No. 24

EXPENSES OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER, BY OBJECTS OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29


Adminis- Customs Repairs and Acquisition Fixed Total
traction operation maince of property charges
nance*

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
September, 1916..... ........................... ............. .............. .............. 89.850.15
1916-17.............................................. ...................................................................... 79,625.70
1917-18............... .............. .......... .......................................... 741,055.80
1918-19... ..... ......... ..... .... ..... .... ............... ................... ... .. 700,085.60
1919-20.............. 829,684.00 508,570.75 .............. 114,500.00 427,755.85 1,880,460.60
1920-21............... 426,498.70 547,194.55 .......................... 478379.85 1,452,073.10
1921-22............. 404,251.70 605,778.60 ........................... 269,116.95 1,279,142.25
1922-23.......... 503,997.40 600,627.10 ............................ 8333,881.65 1,438,506.15
1923-24.............. 455,447.21 648.959.62 .............. 500,000.00 291,925.25 1,896,332.08
1924-25............. 461.316.07 673,495.96 ......... 57,745.41 656,980.05 1,849.557.49
1825-26......... .... 467,996.66 669,394.41 ............. 155,040.47 405,948.32 1,698,379.86
1926-27............. 523,192.77 712,154.94 .............. 706,274.83 136,618.76 2,278,241.30
1927-28............. 514,017.30 684,563.61 .............. 235,593.04 450,820.93 1,884,994.88
1928-29............... 578,827.16 671,332.50 24,027.82 238,038.92 352,416.50 1,864,702.40
Average 1919-20
to 1928-29..... 466,517.90 632,206.70 2,402.73 200,719.27 400,390.41 1,702,237.01

*Prior to 1928-29 repairs and maintenance expenses were charged to administration or customs
operation.

Expenditures from the receivership fund by months are shown on Table
No. 25. It is to be noted that monthly expenditures for administration
and operation were fairly uniform, and that variation in total expenditures


TABLE No. 25
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Month Administration Repairs and Acquisition Fixed Total
and operation maintenance of property charges To

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ............ 106,624.87 2,371.72 20,558.80 ................ 129.555.89
November........... 101,468.62 2,685.21 38,616.72 ................ 142,770.55
December........... 97,891.58 1,844.25 20,438.55 ................ 120.174.88
January............. 105,333.00 1,398.89 27,924.82 .............. 184.655.71
February............ 90,151.61 1,458.66 30,588.12 ................ 122,198.39
March............... 99,056.71 528.25 24,616.96 ................ 124,201.92
April................. 114,508.22 1,069.58 39,802.68 ................ 155,380.43
May................. 106,182.68 590.68 10,806.52 ................ 117,579.88
June................. 101,171.49 2,011.57 4,170.44 ................ 107,353.50
July................ 103.162.28 790.30 2,917.34 ................ 106,869.92
August.............. 103,587.90 6,448.07 10,180.24 ................ 120,166.21
September ........: 121,070.70 2,830.69 7,418.23 852,476.50 483,796.12
Total....... .... 1,250,159.6 24,027.82 238,038.92 852,476.50 1,864,702.40
Percentage...... 67.04 1.29 12.77 18.90 100.00


from month to month proceeded largely from payments on account of
acquisition of property. Total expenditures in September were of course
greatly increased by payment of fixed charges for the year at the close of
that month.






46 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Table No. 26 presents the monthly administrative and operating expen-
ditures of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver according to objects.
Salaries totalled Gdes. 1,090,941.64 or 87.27 per cent of total payments.

TABLE No. 26
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES OF TIE
FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Salaries Supplies Transr Commu. Special
and and aspor- nication Rents and Total
Wages Materials taton Service leous

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October........ 87.008.50 5.602.83 12,405.71 173.80 7.50 1,426.53 106,624.87
November...... 92,369.34 5,767.39 2,695.19 31.65 1.265.00 659 95* 101,46862
December...... 88,675.57 5,274.12 3,501.10 55.25 215.00 170.54 97,891.58
January........ 93,843.10 5.374.91 5,32 04 40.80 220.00 522.15 105,333.00
February....... 83,866.67 3,509.70 2,900.69 41.60 207.60 625.35 90,151.61
March.......... 88,830.90 3,76229 5,746.97 73.20 215.00 428.35 99,056.71
April.......... 99,448.86 9.570.14 4,942.10 46.80 205.00 295.32 114,508.22
May............ 94.306.76 7,278.44 4.183,08 46.85 90.00 277.55 106,182.68
June............ 90,199 98 7,488.66 3,145.54 ............ 75.00 262.31 101,171.49
July............. 86,384.75 7,970.18 4.181,18 113.30 302.87 4,210.50 103,163.28
August......... 91,160.06 5.187.45 6.801,98 24.80 137.87* 500.98 103,537.90
September...... 95,847.15 16,718.80 7,195.35 180.45 440.00 738.95 121,070.70
Total........ 1,090,941.64 83,504.91 63,030.93 778.50 3,105.10 8,798.58 1,250.159.66
Percentage..... 87.27 6.68 5.04 .06 .25 .70 100.00
Credit

Personnel was increased somewhat as compared with 1927-28, and reason-'
able salary promotions were accorded. Extension of auditing activities
accounted for a portion of the increased expenditure for personnel, and
enactment of the standardization law necessitated additions to the staff
toward the close of the year. Supplies and materials cost Gdes. 83,504.91,
6.68 per cent of the expenditures under discussion. During September
badly needed replacements of office equipment were effected, and equipment
for grading coffee was purchased. Transportation expenses amounted to
5.04 per cent of expenditures shown on Table No. 26, replacement of auto-
motive equipment accounting for the comparatively large payment in Sep-
tember. Other expenditures were relatively unimportant, except that special
expenditures, as reflected by the figure for July, were effected in connection
with the audit of the accounts of the Haitian Government which was made
following the close of the year under review.
Acquisition of properties for the customs service is financed either from
the receivership fund or from general funds of the Haitian Government,
depending largely upon availabilities of the receivership fund. As shown
on Table No. 27, Gdes. 238,038.92 was expended during the year from the
five per cent fund, and Gdes. 131,544.76 from general government funds
for such improvements. Of chief importance among expenditures of the
Financial Adviser-General Receiver were those effected for construction of






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 47

the Port Office at Port-au-Prince, the customs house at Fort Liberte and
the coastwise wharf at Port-au-Prince. Other minor improvements were
generally distributed among the ports. Improvements financed from gen-
eral funds of the government during 1928-29 included completion of a new
wharf at Jeremie, repair of the wharf at Cayes and initiation of wharf
construction at Gonaives.

TABLE No. 27
REPAIRS AND IMPROVEMENTS TO CUSTOMS PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Repairs and
Acquisition of Improvements to
property paid plant and equip- Total
from 5 per cent ment paid from
fund* general funds of
the government

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Administration.............................. 44,791 10 .................... 44,791.10
Cap-Haitien........ ........................ 2.30 ....................2.80
Aquin ............ ........ ................ 317.75 .................... 317.75
Bellad6re.......... .......................... 4,651.29 ................... 4,651.29
Cayes.. .................................... 118.55 3,284.25 3,402.80
Fort Libert6 ............................... 20,402.73 .................... 20,402.73
Glore ................. ...................... ......... ............... ..... . ........................
Gonaives .................................... 955.20 6,456.50 7.411.70
Jacmel ............ ........................ 1,149.6 .......... 1.149.63
J6r6mie...................................... 534.80 11,804.01 122,3888.81
Miragoane ................................... 659.90 ................. 659.90
Ouanaminthe............................... 975.90 .................... 975.90
Petit Iloive ................................ 6,175.13 .................... 6,175,13
Port-au-Prince............... ................ 156,242.59 ................... 156,242.59
Port-de-Paix ................................ 600.35 .................... 600.85
Saint Marc .................................. 461.70 .................... 461.70
Total......... .......................... 238,038.92 131,544.76 369,583.68

SRepairs the cost of which is charged to the 5 per cent fund, are included in the cost of customs
operation and are not charged to permanent improvements.

Table No. 28 shows respective customs receipts and operating costs of
the various ports, the ports being grouped in order of importance of customs
receipts with respective percentages of customs revenues accounted for.
Collection expenses are indicated according to the cost per gourde collected.
The only change in the present grouping of the principal ports as compared
with that for 1927-28 was with respect to Petit Goave, which port dropped
to eighth place in importance in 1928-29 as against fifth place in the pre-
ceding year. Percentages of total customs receipts accounted for by the
various ports as between the two years corresponded in general to the redis-
tribution of foreign commerce which occurred during the year under review.
Total operating expenditures per gourde collected at the ports amounted
to Gdes. .0191 as against Gdes. .0152 in 1927-28 due mainly to the general
decline in receipts. Port-de-Paix had the lowest collection cost during the
year, expenditures at that port amounting to Gdes. .0121 per gourde
collected. Miragoane, Jacmel, Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jeremie and Port-
au-Prince, in the order named, showed the next lowest costs of collection







48 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

which were within the average of Gdes. .0191 per gourde collected at all of
the ports. Saint Marc showed the greatest collection cost among the prin-
cipal ports during 1928-29. The minor ports, relatively unimportant cus-
toms receipts of which are recorded on Table No. 28, customarily show
higher collection costs than do the principal ports, inasmuch as they are
maintained primarily to control smuggling rather than because of com-
mercial importance.

TABLE No. 28
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES FROM RECEIVERSHIP FUND
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Ratio
Customs to total Customs Cost per
receipts Customs operation collected
receipts

Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Gourdes
Port-au-Prince.................................. 16,065,576.58 45.58 307,813.41 .0191
Cap-Haitien.................................. 4,605,834.01 18.07 79,854.13 .0173
Jacmel....................... ................ 2,950,342.86 8.37 42,822.89 .0145
Cayes......................................... 2,882.663.98 8.04 58,775.55 .0208
Gonaives................ ............... 2,041,322.95 5.79 85,497.00 .0174
J6r6mie .......................................... 1,765.515.10 5.01 32,705.60 .0185
Port-de-Pai ................................. 1,557,766.80 4.42 18,838.98 .0121
Petit GoAve................................... 1,498,540.79 4.25 30,796.71 .0206
Saint Marc.................................... 1,016,96328 2.89 27,191.84 .0267
Miragoane.................................... 784,514.81 2.23 10,288.67 .0131
Fort Libert6.......................... ... 62,863.70 .18 15,451.20 .2458
Ouanaminthe................................... 26,053.25 .07 2,677.16 .1028
Belladere ....................................... 22,804.23 .06 5,075.18 .2226
Aquin............................................ 11,962.40 .03 2,149.93 .1797
Glore.................................. 4,926.31 .01 1,895.30 .8847
Total ....................................... 35,247,650.00 100.00 671,332.50 .0191
Administration...................... ........... .. ....... ........... 578,827.16 .0164
Totaladministrationandcustomsoperation. .......................... 1,250,15966 .0855
Repairs and maintenance........................ ....... ............. 24,027.82 .0007
Acquisition of property.............................. ........... 238,038.92 .0067
Fixed charges...................... ..................................... 352,476.50 .0100
Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund.... .......................... 1,864,702.40 .0529


Operating expenditures of the customs service at the ports generally
speaking are determined by demands for periodic activity rather than being
based upon an even flow of business. It is not practicable in customs work
to alternately employ and discharge personnel in order to effect economies
during slack periods. The ideal is maintenance of the minimum staff
necessary to cope with probable peak conditions. So varied however is the
nature of the work handled, and so often is it true that the less remunera-
tive objects require the greater attention for control, that the maximum
necessities of the service so far as expenditures are concerned bear no fixed
relation to the return in revenues.
As a general rule, collection costs decline as the volume of trade
increases, but as between the ports no exact ratio is determinable. The con-
trol of exports, limited as it has been to application of specific duties to a
small number of commodities, has been comparatively simple and inexpen-





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


sive. Imports, however, present wide variety and necessitate relatively
involved control. A decline in the volume of trade brings about wide fluc-
tuations in collection costs as between the ports, those suffering the greatest
decrease in exports showing the most unfavorable reaction with respect to
costs per gourde collected. Such was the cause of the showing made by
Petit Goave during the year under review as compared with the record
of that port during 1927-28. Conversely, Port-de-Paix which enjoyed an
increase in exports in 1928-29 as compared with the preceding year showed
a smaller cost per gourde collected than did any port during the year
1927-28.
Administrative costs of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver during
the year were Gdes. .0164 per gourde collected as against Gdes. .0114 in
1927-28. Total operating expenditures were Gdes. .0355 per gourde col-
lected during the year. Total expenditures from the receivership fund,
including repairs, maintenance, acquisition of property and fixed charges
were 5.29 per cent of customs receipts for the year under review, but it is
to be remembered that more than the apparent excess over five per cent
was available from reserves set up for property acquisition from the surplus
of prior years.
Table No. 29 shows expenditures from the five per cent fund over the
period of the receivership according to costs of administration, customs
operation, repairs and maintenance, acquisition of property and fixed
charges. Administrative costs were greater than in 1927-28. Among the
ports, customs operations at Cap Haitien, Jeremie and Saint Marc entailed
larger expenditures than in 1927-28; the remainder of the ports showed
decreased expenditures. One new port, Fort Liberte, was added during
the year under review. Expenditures for property were somewhat greater
than in 1927-28, while fixed charges, due to the decline in customs revenues,
were less.
Table No. 30 presents expenditures of the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver over the Receivership by costs per gourde collected. Except
among the minor ports where both expenditures and collections are
irregular, higher costs have been the rule during the less favorable years
from the standpoint of revenue.
It is improbable that four per cent of customs revenues during 1929-30
will be a sufficiency with which to finance the activities of the Financial
Adviser-General Receiver. The severe decline in receipts anticipated as
a result of the coffee situation will of course affect the operating revenues
of this service more directly than that of any other division of the Haitian
Government. Recurring expenses heretofore have been so planned as to
permit expenditures for maintenance and improvement of the customs plant.
Further undertakings along this line must be foregone at least for the time
being, in favor of adequate provision for necessary operating functions.














TABLE No. 29

COST OF CUSTOMS OPERATIONS BY PORTS AND COSTS OF ADMINISTRATION, REPAIRS AND
MAINTENANCE, ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY AND FIXED CHARGES
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1928-29


A quin......... ..............................................
Belladre... .
Cap-Haitien..................................................
Cayes..................... ......... .................
Fort Libert...............................................
Glore...........................................
Gonaives.... ...............................
Jacmel ........................ ................
J6r6m ie.................................
Miragofne .... ...........................
Ouanaminthe ...............................................
Petit GoAve.............................................
Port-au-Prince............................................
Port-de-Paix.................................................
Saint Marc........ ...................................

Total customs operation.................................
Administration... .................................
Total administration and operation......... ........
Repairs and maintenance...............................
Acquisition of property................................
Fixed charges.............................................


Average
1919-20 to 1924-25
1923-24


Gourdes
4,144.35
898.96
73,190.96
50,932.83
800.12
37,507.43
48,404.08
29,439.82
6,098.56
4,180.83
26,449.52
256,158.43
17,548.24
22,074.54
577,888.17
423,965.80


Gourdes
3,473.83
2,000.30
85.065.19
60,765.24
2,021.85
36,831.10
48,431.19
33.749.14
7,615.28
3,481.29
34,106.17
305,140.31
19,687.95
31,127.12
673,495.96
461,316.07


1925-26 1926-27


Gourdes
3.477.88
2,025.01
70,841.95
60,917.11
1.859.95
40,127.43
53,749.11
36.791.45
8.356.14
2,616.05
30,921.21
309 650.96
21,856.60
26,203.56
669.394.41
467,996.66


Gourdes
3,669.21
4,762.06
86,410.14
58,437.89

4,803.29
50.683.85
50,329.94
34.338.97
11,625.03
4.808.54
82,070.93
320,947.55
21,604.51
27.663.03
712,154.94
523,192.77


1927-28


Gourdes
2,883.83
11,557.10
68,572.67
59,640.25
2,793.02
38,800.21
56,528.07
30,630.10
22,799.62
3,491.06
32,231.01
308,533.60
20,716.07
25,387.00
684,563.61
514,017.30


1928-29


Gourdes
2.149.93
3,075.13
79,854.13
58,775.55
15.451.20
1,895.80
35.497.00
42,822.39
32,705 60
10 288.67
2,677.16
30,796.71
807,313.41
18,838.98
27,191.84
671,832.50
578,827.16


1,001,853.97 1,184,812.03 1,137,391.07 1,235,347.71 1,198,580.91 1,250,159.66
.... ..................... ...... ... ....... .......... ... 24,027.32
122,900.00 57,745.41 155,040.47 706,274.83 235,593.04 238,038.92
860,211.91 656,980.05 405,948.32 336,618.76 450,820.93 352,476.50


Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund............... 1,484,965.88 1,849,537.49 1,698,379.86 2,278,241.30 1,884,994.88 1,864,702.40


I-l



0

Average
1919-20 to
1928-29 O


Gourdes
3,637.64
2,991.44
75,669 89
55,820.03
1.545.12
1,767.40
38,947.67
49,388.11
31,541.43
9.117.75
3,797.57
29.237.86
283,237.80
19,044.53
24,794.48
630,038.22
466,517.90
1,096,556.12
2.402.73
200.719.27
400,390.40
1,700,068.52
_______ 80
---------


I / ) I I ( I


I I / I I


I


Be~F~L*l~;i~;samrr~--~rPrra(as~i~~ I-











TABLE No. 30

TOTAL COST OF COLLECTING EACH GOURDE OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1928-29


Average Average
1919-20 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1919-20
to to
1923-21 1928-29


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aqun...................................................... 0209 .0128 .0192 .0324 .0471 .1797 .0223
Beladre....... .................................. 4.1225 2.8871 1.8629 .3538 .5505 .2226 .4943
Cap-Haitien............................................... .0230 .0213 .0139 .0266 .0189 .0173 .0200
Cayes........................................................ .0195 .0165 .0169 .0171 .0181 .0208 .0185
Fort Libertd................................................ .0975 .............. ..................................... ........ .2458 .0541
Glore ......... ....................................... 1.8248 3.0370 1.1973 1.3517 .4555 .3847 .9211
Gonalves..................................................... .0251 .0192 .0210 .0804 .0155 .0174 .0222
Jacmel....... .................................... .0209 .0158 .0151 .0169 .0189 .0145 .0175
JBrmie.................................................. .0876 .0276 .0180 .0251 .0161 .0185 .0258
Miragolne................................................ .0187 .0127 .0143 .0165 .0259 .0131 .0158
Ouanaminthe................................................ 1.1820 .4073 .1838 .3842 .1674 .1028 .3802
Petit Go&ve.................................................. .0163 .0134 .0114 .0149 .0111 .0206 .0147
Port-au-Prince............................................. .0217 .0190 .0174 .0204 .0142 .0191 .0194
Port-de-Paix............................................. .0167 .0161 .0122 .0192 .0133 .0121 .0152
Saint Marc............................................. .0222 .0248 .0197 .0236 .0204 .0267 .0225
Total customs operation............................... .0217 .0188 .0165 .0211 .0152 .0191 .0195
Administration......................................... .0161 .0129 .0115 .0156 .0114 .0164 .0145
Total administration and operation.............. ..... .0378 .0317 .0280 .0367 .0266 .0355 .0340
Repairs and maintenance ................................... ............ ...........0007 .0001
Acquisition of property................................... .0046 .0016 .0038 .0210 .0052 .0067 .0062
Fixed charges............................................ .0136 .0184 .0100 .0100 .0100 .0100 .0124
Total expenditures from 5 per cent fund................ .0560 .0517 .0418 .0677 .0418 .0529 .0527


I -___






52 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
Continued improvement marked operations of the internal revenue
service during the year under review. Problems incident to collection of
the new excise taxes were met with greater success than usually attends
application of a new tax. Toward the close of the year the registration
service was transferred to the internal revenue service. From the viewpoint
of development of a satisfactory internal revenue system, progress made
during 1928-29 was gratifying.
The operating allowance of the internal revenue service as established
by the law of June 6, 1924, is limited to fifteen per cent of internal revenue
receipts. As in the case of the customs service, one per cent of receipts are
paid to the fiscal agent of the Haitian government, so that operations of
the internal revenue service are financed within fourteen per cent of internal
revenue receipts. Table No. 31 shows the operating allowance of the
internal revenue service, expenditures effected and surpluses reverting to
the general treasury since establishment of the service in 1924. A portion
of the surplus income of the service for a time was invested in Series B
bonds, but these bonds and accruals of interest were transferred to the
general funds of the government late in 1927-28. This transaction has
been eliminated from the figures carried on Table No. 31.
TABLE No. 31
OPERATING ALLOWANCE OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 To 1928-29

Fifteen per Expenses
cent of Current from Total Sur
internal expenses previous expenses Surplus
revenues year

Gourdes Gourdea Gourde r Gourdes Gourdes
August and Sept., 1924 ........ 110,195.90 75,254.27 ............. 75,54.27 34,941.63
1924-25....................... 618,488.92 820,388.02 29,886.54 850,274.56 263,214.86
1925-26........................... 623.607.59 273,904.56 80,294.20 304,198.76 319,408.83
1926-27......................... 622,993.20 802.713.49 8,595.19 306,808.68 316,684.521
1927-28..................... 686,243.02 460,783.81 1,276.52 462,010.83 174,232.69
1928-29.................... .. 905,289.72 799,081.94 5.00* 799,076.94 106,212.78
Surplus for 1926-27 has been changed to eliminate Gourdes 4,905.22, Interest on series B bond
investment which was credited to the internal revenue fund in 1926-27 but which was unutilized.
t Credit.
Expenditures of the internal revenue service invariably have been well
within the operating allowance. Figures for the year under review show a
large increase in operating income and in total expenses as compared with
previous years, increased income and expenditure both attending institution
of the new excise taxes, while expenditures were further increased during
the latter part of the year by transfer of the registration service to the
internal revenue service.
Table No. 32 shows the detail of expenditures from the so-called "Fif-
teen Per Cent Fund" since establishment of the internal revenue service.

















TABLE. No. 32 0

COSTS OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE BY OBJECTS OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 To 1928-29


Cost per Gourde collected
Administration Repairs Acquisition
and and of Fixed Total A
operation maintenance* property* charges Administration Repairs Acquisition Fixed
and and of Total
operation maintenance property charges

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes i3
August and September, 1924. 75,254.27 ................ .............. ............ 75,254.27 .1024 ...................... ........ ....... 1024
1924-25 ..................... 302,028.90 ................ .......... 48,245.66 350,274.56 .0739 ............................ .0117 .0856
1925-2......................... 262,647.06 .......................... 41.551.70 304,198.76 .0632 ............... ............. .0100 .0732
1926-27......................... 264,775.80 ............. 41,532.88 306,308.68 .0638 ............... .............. .0100 .0738
1927-28...................... 419,594.13 ........................... 42,416.20 462,010.33 .0989 ............................. .0100 .1089
1928-29..................... 671,173.86 2,161.50 65,388.93 60,352.65 799,076.94 .1112 .0004 .0108 .0100 .1324

Prior to 1928-29, repairs and maintenance and acquisition of property were included in administration and operation.


-- ~ ---.---I





54 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

Repairs, maintenance and acquisition of property, heretofore charged to
administration and operation, are for the first time shown separately. As
in the case of the customs service, properties in the use of the internal
revenue service require considerable extension and improvement, and the
service so far as possible pays for such betterments. Expenditures for
acquisition of property during the year under review, which will be men-
tioned in detail in the discussion of Tables No. 33 and No. 34, were far
greater than those effected in any previous year. Combined expenditures
for administration, operation, repairs, maintenance and acquisition of prop-
erty during 1928-29 were Gdes. 738,724.29 as against Gdes. 419,594.13 in
1927-28, an increase of Gdes. 319,130.16, or 75.06 per cent. Fixed charges
totalled Gdes. 60,252.65 as against Gdes. 42,416.20, an increase of Gdes.
17,936.45, or 42.29 per cent. The latter percentage was identical with that
for the increase in revenues as between the two years under comparison, in
that fixed charges, which consist of the commission paid the fiscal agent,
are uniformly one per cent of internal revenues. The larger fixed charges
paid in 1924-25 resulted from carrying over the commission of the fiscal
agent on account of collections effected during August and September,
1924.
Administration and operation costs, combined with those for repairs,
maintenance and acquisition of property to permit comparison with cor-
responding expenses in 1927-28, were Gdes. .1224 per gourde collected in
1928-29 as against Gdes. .0989 in the preceding year. The increased costs
in 1928-29 were due principally to establishment of the excise taxes, expan-
sion of personnel and purchases of equipment in connection with the trans-
fer of the registration service to the internal revenue service and to exten-
sion of the work pertaining to the private domain of the state. Revenues
from sources other than excise taxes, in that they declined some ten per
cent, also contributed to the increase in cost per gourde collected.
As is the case with customs operations, collection of internal revenues
necessitates expenditures sufficient consistently to maintain an organiza-
tion adequate to cope with the periods of maximum activity. In point of
fact, development of a satisfactory internal revenue system requires expen-
ditures which are disproportionate to immediate returns in revenue, and
which may conceivably be out of line with ultimate direct returns. The
internal revenue service, for example, in its supervision of the private
domain of the state, is in a position to assist in increasing production by
locating state lands and making them available for productive use. The
value of this service can hardly be measured in terms of rentals, which
accrue from such lands, though rentals are the only direct returns enjoyed
by the internal revenue service from activity in this connection. It should
be noted too that, once state lands are identified and placed on rental, the
state benefits year after year by this income, although most of the expense





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


of survey, investigation of title and so on, falls on the first year's operating
expense. During the year under review considerable progress was made in
connection with placing the cadastral records in order. Re-evaluations
effected and additional parcels placed upon the rental lists will assure
increasing returns in future years. Again, similar work on behalf of
various governmental services requires expenditures from which there is
no direct return whatever, in that state lands are located and placed with-
out rental or other charges at the disposition of such services.
Table No. 33 presents total expenditures of the internal revenue service
during the year by objects and by months. As shown on Table No. 34,
administrative and operating expenses showed gradually increasing expen-
ditures for personnel through the year, which was particularly marked in
August and September at the time the registration service was taken over.
Expenditures for supplies in the early months of the year showed wide
variation as necessities in connection with the excise taxes developed.
Transportation expenditures were increased in March and May by pur-
chases of badly needed automotive equipment.

TABLE No. 33
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Month Administration Repairs and Acquisition ied s Total
and operation maintenance of property Fixed charges total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ............. 40.861.23 45.00 66.50 ................ 40,472.73
November........... 40,522.45 40.00 1,101.87 ................ 41,664.82
December........... 50,789.71 6.50 903.85 ................ 51,699.56
January............. 67,111.05 52.00 14.00 ........... .... 67,177.05
February............ 41,576.79 105.00 ................ ............... 41,681.79
March ............... 66,384.18 15.00 ............................... 66,399.18
A ril ...:............ 47,672.70 474.35 .... ......... ..... .......... 48,147.05
................. 0,470.91 40.00 1,240.97 ................ 51,751.88
June................. 51,459.65 161.50 100.00 ............... 51,721.18
July.................. 50.646.49 40.00 329.00 ................ 51,015.49
August.............. 61,651.10 263.50 80.00 ............... 61,994.60
September........... 102,527.57 918.65 61,553.24 60,352.65 225,352.11


Total ...........


671,173.86 2,161.50 65,388.93 60,852.65 799,076.94


Percentage.......... 84.00 .27 8.18 7.55 100.00


Of particular interest, both with respect to strictly operating expendi-
tures and total expenditures were payments effected for supplies, materials
and property. Table No. 33 shows the relatively large expenditure for
property during September of Gdes. 61,553.24, while Table No. 34 shows
a similarly large increase in expenditures for supplies during that month.
One of the reasons prompting the transfer of the registration service
to the internal revenue service was that the system of maintaining records
afforded them virtually no protection. It is hardly necessary to dwell upon





56 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

the importance of preserving records respecting conveyances of landed
property, mortgages, etc., in the best possible condition. Such records
afford the only basis for security in such transactions. The first step in
taking over this service was to install modern safes in the numerous offices
of the registration service. Desks were furnished to the various offices
which had been operating with makeshift equipment. A large number of
typewriters were provided to eliminate the tedious and inefficient practice
of making several copies of each document in longhand. Among expendi-
tures for property a new building was provided to house the activities of
the internal revenue service at Leogane. A quantity of firearms was pur-
chased for the inspectors of internal revenue to afford them necessary pro-
tection. Office equipment and furniture was purchased to correct de-
ficiencies in the offices of the internal revenue service as well as those of the
registration service. While these expenditures did not by any means com-
plete the program of modernizing the system, they will be of material
assistance during the coming year.
TABLE No. 34
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES
OF INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Salaries Supplies Tras- Communi- Special
and and ortaton cation Rents and miscel- Total
wages materials ortation service laneous

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October ..... 0,761.17 3,706.27 4,893.80 5.00* 100.00 1,405.49 40,361.23
November... 3,423 50 3,056.30 4,177.26 ............ 50.00 815.89 40,522.45
December.... 32,275 83 1,510.95 4,165.17 5.85 40.00 791.91 50,789.71
January..... 4158.06 24,485.14 7,157.27 ............ 40.00 1,275.58 67,111.05
February.. 84.706.43 2,965.96 4,188.29 ............ 70.00 353.89* 41,578.79
March....... 33,960.91 19,658.95 12,598.24 .......... 104.05 62.03 66 84.18
April........ 36.295.30 6,543 6 4,226.95 104.60 10.00 492.22 47,672.70
May......... 5,972.48 8,454.34 11,218.56 ............ 40.00 214.47* 50,470.91
June ........ 36,803.24 4,931 39 9,525.95 ............ 79.55 119.55 51,459.68
July......... 38,668.07 6,707.91 4,964.11 ............ 60.00 246.40 50,646.49
August...... 46,929.46 4,800.90 9,519.64 ............ 60.00 841.10 61,651.10
September.. 42,643.99 42,439.90 6,495.13 13.95 810.00 10,624.60 102,527.57
Total..... 435,593.44 136,261.64 82,629.87 119.40 963.60 15,605.91 671,173.86
Percentage.. 64.90 20.30 12.31 .02 .14 2.883 100.00
*Credit

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS

Total revenues of Haiti from 1889-90 to the close of the year under
review are shown on Table No. 35. Despite the relatively poorer showing
as compared with 1927-28, total revenues for the year under review amount-
ing to Gdes. 42,521,528.40 were the third largest on record. Revenue
receipts for 1928-29 were Gdes. 7,899,488.09, or 15.66 per cent less than
in 1927-28, the record year, and Gdes. 2,843,119.70, or 6.27 per cent less
than in 1925-26 when the second largest receipts on record were collected.
Compared with prospective revenue for 1929-30, those collected during







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 57


the year under review may prove to have marked a relatively successful

fiscal period.

TABLE No. 35

REVENUE OF HAITI BY SOURCES,* FISCAL YEARS 1889-90 TO 1928-29


1889-90.
1890-91.
1891-92.
1892-93.
1893-94.
1894-95.
1895-96.
1896-97.
1897-98.
1898-99.
1899-00.
1900-01.
1901-02.
1902-08.
1903-04.
1904-05.
1905-06
1906-07.
1907-08.
1908-09.
1909-10
1910-11.
1911-12.
1912-18.
1913-14.
1914-15.
1915-16.
1916-17.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
1928-29.


Imports


Gourdes
.... : .........
.. ...........
..............
... .........
.. ...........

..... . .


13.652,334.70
15.176,838.80
10.637,856.40
8 668.408.45
12,970.092.55
9,736,057.28
7.784.253.80
12 264.105.80
18,898,013.74
9,816.677.88
18,247,038.18
16.815.500.17
19.415.707.84
23,452,828 71
26,169,088.58
23,572,181.41
30,935,585.10
25,293,700.63


CUSTOMS RECEIPTS


Exports


Gourdes

... .. ... ..


19,814,908.75
10,280.211.40
18,413,711.10
6.441;318.45
9.201,876.30
8.473,752.35
7,331,366.55
16,503,870.20
13,143.137.45
8,184,194.70
10,077.988.15
12.312,916.60
9,984.701.92
10,617,525.63
12.660.447.87
10,015,913.41
14.040,033.56
9,841,455.54


Miscel-
laneous


Gourdes


..............


262,538.80
.... ....
5.897.52
18,665.10
18,611.90
81,877.91
29.982 42
41.543.87
64,169.58
550,497.38
1,680,164.00
1,765.295.29
73,781.41
106,474.14
112,493.83


Total


Gourdes




.. . .. .


..............


33,467,243.45
25,456,560.20
24.051,567.50
15.372,265.70
22,171,468.85
18,215.707.15
15.129,285 45
28,781,087.90
32,073,029.10
18,030,865.00
23.366,569.70
29,192,586.85
29,950,907.14
85,750,018.34
40,594,831.74
33,661,876.23
45,082,092.80
35,247,650.00


Internal
revenues



Gourdes


.............
............."


.............


912,014 55
670,522 20
706,709.70
353,533.40
643,610.05
717,005.60
911,203.40
1,159,974.00
1,886,174.99
1,897,171.70
1,580,246.77
2,699,443.24
2,795,870.53
4,089,926.19
4,155,170.28
4,153,287.97
4,241,620.14
6,035,264.80


Miscel-
laneous
receipts


Gourdes
.......,......
.............
S.............










.............
L .............

........, ....


.............
....... *.....



... .... ..








7,901.90
14.871.55
88.246.70
18,059.00
17,979.25
58.071.65
155,543.66
647,722.47
614,646.08
1,046,870 59
1,097.303.55
1,238,613.60


Total
receipts


Gourdes
31,533,254.85
40.868,026.30
34.799,016.95
34.880,861.45
38,853,640.75
34,917,258.60
28,047,666.65
30,665,202.15
23.753,709.25
19,467,977.35
24,416,719.00
21,986,480.60
18,834,716.85
17,517,062.85
20,087.928.90
13,741,865.95
16,695,679.00
11,977,500.00
10,524,189.40
15,044,893.45
23,014,530.50
20,520,595.90
34,379,258.00
26,127,082.40
24,758,277.20
15,725,799.10
22,715,078.90
18,934.684.70
16,048,390.75
29.955,933.45
33.997,450.79
19.946,095.70
24,964,795.72
81,950,101.24
32.902,821.33
40,487,667.00
45,364,648.10
38,861,534.79
50,421,016.49
42,521,528.40


*Fluctuations in the gold value of the gourde prior to Its stabilization May 2, 1919 have been
calculated and are reflected in statistics of revenue before 1919-20.

Except for the abnormal conditions prevailing in the early years of the
Receivership as a result of the world war, revenues during the thirteen-

year period have evidenced a trend toward higher levels. It is manifest,

however, that the desirable degree of stability has not been attained. In

point of fact, revenues throughout the entire period from 1889-90 to date
have fluctuated in accordance with variations in the value of coffee exports.

Taking the thirteen years of the Receivership as a whole it is clear that no

essential change in dependency upon coffee has developed; rather, coffee

export has increased in importance as new roads and increasing internal

security have enabled more of the peasant growers to reach the markets of

the coast. Chart No. 3, showing total revenues and customs receipts over






58 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

CHART No. 3


+ H- t H I- -II 4-4


1:11 1


4-4.


o .nJ Fr&MJ J.AS A3 J rM AMF AJA. ON.D..JR MAAU.A- DJF.KAkU.J.A.dNtJ. rt MARJ.A.5.
1924-25 I 1925-26 192627 1 927-28 I 128-Z9


--Total Revenue ------- Cushos Receipts


TOTAL REVENUE & CUSTOM REC.EPT5


~r I I II


I n u I.. . I


t i l l 4-- m-4-1-


flEM


:: : : .' .': : : :.' : .': : : :


44-4-44mL l i I I I I II I II


-r~-cccc






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


the past five years, studied in conjunction with the graphic presentation
of total imports, total exports and coffee exports for. the same period as
shown on Chart No. 1, bears out this premise. The following tabulation
records exports by quantities over the period of the Receivership, which
best illustrates conditions with respect to production and marketing:


Average
1916-17- 1923-24 1924-25 19'5-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29
1922-23

Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos Kilos
Coffee............... 30,141,821 29,402.200 30.767,100 35,683,690 28,692,984 41.146,804 28,556,644
Cotton............. 2,856,677 3,323.389 8.605749 4,994,526 4,900,945 4,427,337 4,754,579
Cacao............... 1,995,240 1,647,029 1,533.772 2,190,598 1,629,979 2,393,486 1,865,707
Honey............. 688,873 308,048 648,846 619,931 .787.827 660,505 588,483
Beeswax............ 14,299 1,462 8,292 598 4,095 3,063 4,522
Sugar, raw.......... 4,028,685 6,242,781 5.359,360 7,313,699 9,841,898 12,016.554 4,198,855
Logwood.............. 48,296.633 21,563,005 32,308.035 21,587,180 28,084,183 86,361,678 23.402,456
Cottonseed.......... 3,763,095 5,842,327 2,468,946 5,772,803 4,746,210 787,149 359,766
Goat skins........... 141,652 154,506 129,141 136,843 182,180 210656 227,908
Lignum-vitae....... 8.917,353 2,254,632 2,460,663 1,601,543 693,804 603,794 819,196
Turtle shells......... 1,457 1,972 1,973 1,423 1,275 1,524 1,265
Corn.............. 1,625,733 51,141 136,600 68,327 8,906 87.057 14,651
Bananas............ 141*(1) ...4* ... .... 736* 516*
Castor Beans........ 795,536 209,042 540,460 90,556 41,263 80,047 189,780
Sisal................. 80,315 ...... ........... 8,726 8463 31.341 47.479
Cow hides........... 94236 1,248 175 ........... 7,722 14,932 33,505
Malasses............. 1,425 (2) ........... .... ..................... ........... 9,871.020
Sugar, refined (8)... .......................... ........... ...................... 530,595
Cashew nuts........ ............................... 46,350 145,886 73,485 97,869
Cottonseed cake.... 811,041 ........... ......... 3,298.596 5,365,216 6,415,465 7,141,064
Orange peel......... 116,905 ...................... 55,226 208,027 261,954 553,903

During the years for which figures are not shown for certain products
no separate statistics were kept for those commodities.
*Bunches.
(1) Only shipped in 1917-18 and 1922-23.
(2) 1917-18.
(3) The first exportations of refined sugar occurred in 1928-29.

Customs receipts, composing the far greater portion of total revenues,
logically set the trend of collections. Total customs receipts during
1928-29, amounting to Gdes. 35,247,650.00 were Gdes. 9,834,442.80, or
21.81 per cent less than the record customs revenues of 1927-28 which
totalled Gdes. 45,082,092.80. The decrease was of course attributable to
the lowered volume and value of foreign trade with respect to both imports
and exports. Import duties totalled Gdes. 25,293,700.63 during 1928-29
as compared with Gdes. 30,935,585.10 in 1927-28, a decrease of Gdes.
5,641,884.47, or 18.23 per cent. Export duties were Gdes. 9,841,455.54
as against Gdes. 14,040,033.56 in 1927-28, a decrease of Gdes. 4,198,578,
or 29.90 per cent. Miscellaneous customs receipts consisting mainly of
storage charges and navigation taxes remained relatively unimportant as
has been the case since unification of customs duties by the tariff of July
26, 1926. Such receipts, however, totalled Gdes. 112,493.83 in the year
under review as against Gdes. 106,474.14 in 1927-28.
The fiscal burden imposed by customs duties over the period of the
Receivership is shown on Table No. 36, which presents import and export






60 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

values in relation to customs duties. Import duties during the year under
review amounted to 29.35 per cent of the total value of imports, compared
with 30.56 per cent in the preceding year. As mentioned in the discussion
of commodities imported, limitations imposed by the decreased purchasing
power extant in the year under review as compared with 1927-28 operated
in such manner that imports favored the more necessary commodities.
The reduction in the percentage of import values taxed as between the two
years demonstrates the soundness of the differential in the customs tariff
as between duties upon staple commodities and luxury articles.

TABLE No. 36
RELATION BETWEEN IMPORT AND EXPORT VALUES AND CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Imports Exports
Year
Value Duty Value Duty

Gourdes Gourdes Per cent Gourdes Gourdes Per cent
1916-17............... 43,00,428 9,741,954.80 22.64 44.664.428 8,473,752.35 18.97
1917-18................. 50,903,468 7,797,918.90 15.82 38,717,650 7,331 366.55 18.93
1918-19................. 85,588,041 12.277,717.70 14.35 123.811,096 16.503.870.20 13.38
1919-20................ 186,992.055 18,929,891.65 13.82 108.104 639 13,143,137.45 12.16
1920-21................ 59,786,029 9,846.670 0 16.47 32,952,045 8,184.194 70 24.84
1921-22............. 61,751,855 13,288,58155 21.52 53.561.050 10.077 988.15 18.82
1922-23................ 70789,815 16 879,669.75 23.84 72.955,060 12.312.916.60 16.88
1923-24................ 73.480,640 19,966,205.22 27.17 70,881,610 9,984.701.92 14.09
1924-25............... 101.187,825 25,132,492.71 24.84 97,018,810 10,617,525 63 10.95
1925-26..................... 94.257,030 27,808,486.25 29.50 101,241,025 12,660.447.87 12.51
1926-27............... 78,756,600 23.572.181.41 29.93 76,495,442 10.015.913.41 18.09
1927-28 ............... 101,241,283 30,935,585.10 80.56 113.336.230 14,040,033.56 12.89
1928-29............... 86,189,612 25.293,700.63 29.35 83,619,167 9,841,455.54 11.77
Average......... 80,304,17 18,574,696.61 23.13 78,258,328 11,016,446.46 14.08


Export duties during 1928-29 amounted to 11.77 per cent of the total
value of exports as against 12.39 per cent in 1927-28. Such duties are
strictly specific and therefore the percentage of export duties in relation
to export values is subject to variation as a result of price changes. The
slight increase in the unit price of coffee which occurred in 1928-29 was
sufficient to explain the decrease in the percentage of export values taxed
during the year under review as compared with 1927-28.
Despite the influence of the price factor in determining the proportion
of export values subjected to customs duties, it is apparent from the per-
centages on Table No. 36 that over the period of the Receivership, and
particularly since 1925-26, tariff revision has been directed toward
reducing export duties. Further examination of Table No. 35 reveals the
far greater importance of export duties to total customs receipts prior to the
Receivership than has obtained since 1916-17.
Export duties are considered at best a measure of expediency rather than
acceptable fiscal practice. Penalizing exports by taxation especially in a





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 61

country as dependent upon exports for purchasing power as is Haiti is
indefensible except for the production of needed revenue. In the event
of a severe decline in prices for exports, such as occurred subsequent to the
year under review with respect to coffee, export duties if sufficiently high,
by reducing profits to the degree that the margin of return is not a suffi-
cient inducement to exporters, might prove to be the cause of a more drastic
loss in purchasing power than that warranted by actual conditions.
For example, the peasant who sells coffee to the exporter has uniformly
exhibited resistance to reductions in price below a given level; therefore
lower prices automatically purport a smaller profit to the exporter. In con-
sequence there is a margin of return below which exporting coffee is not a
profitable occupation. Export taxes are paid by the coffee exporter and
therefore figure largely in his calculations. When the exporter's costs,
including export duties, preclude a profit he does not deal in coffee.
Obviously, the purchasing power derived from coffee is not the middle-
man's comparatively small profit, but the return to the peasant. When
the coffee crop is not marketed for one cause or another, it is the peasant
who suffers, and in turn the importer who depends largely upon the pur-
chasing power of the peasant. Parenthetically, the value of removal of
export duties to the peasant has been questioned. It is argued that only
the exporter would profit. Unquestionably the exporter would profit, but
to the peasant removal of such duties might well mean the difference
between ability and inability to market his crop.
The predominance of customs duties in the fiscal system of Haiti is con-
sidered undesirable and should not be maintained as a permanent revenue
program. It is believed that internal revenues should gradually replace
a large portion of present customs duties; revision of the fiscal system, how-
ever, must be gradual.
Reform of the fiscal system of Haiti must be effected in such manner
as to serve the greatest needs of the country. Such needs could not be
best served by measures involving an immediate and direct loss in total
revenues. The aim is more equitable distribution of the burden of taxa-
tion. Per capital taxation at present is high in proportion to estimated cash
income, but considering the values exchanged by barter of which no record
is available, such taxation is not believed to be excessive, or beyond the
level of taxation in the majority of other undeveloped countries.
The law of August 14, 1928, establishing the excise taxes, provided that
the President of Haiti upon recommendation of the Minister of Finance
in accord with the Financial Adviser may suspend wholly or in part col-
lection of any of the present export duties to the extent of increased
revenue derived from the new excise taxes. During the year under review,
export duties upon the higher grades of coffee as defined in the Standardi-
zation Law were somewhat reduced, but not in sufficient amount to signalize






62 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

any severe reduction in income. In point of fact the reduction of export
duties in proportion to excise tax receipts as envisaged in the annual report
of this office for 1927-28 was predicated upon virtual continuation of the
high collections from other sources of customs revenues which characterized
that year. However, the decline in customs revenues during the year under
review was so severe that total collections from the excise taxes proved only
partially compensatory. As a result, maintenance of total revenues assumes
more importance than immediate reduction of export duties.
While expediency must remain the determining factor in such measures
as are taken, and while there is an even greater decline of revenues in pros-
pect for 1929-30 than that which occurred during the year under review,
this office is of the opinion that useful ends might be served by removal
of export duties on the better grades of corn, honey, and cacao, in the order
named. This may also be extended to cotton, if grading of this product
proves practicable in Haiti. In other words, the question is being examined
from the viewpoint of directly stimulating production of export com-
modities of high quality as an independent means of increasing purchasing
power. From a fiscal point of view the most desirable method of removing
the burden of export duties would be substitution of internal taxes of like
productivity. Inasmuch as the general decline in revenues for the time
being precludes direct measures of this kind, it is'possible that the needed
development of export crops can be stimulated by reduction of export duties
in conjunction with measures to improve the quality and grade of exports.
Table No. 37 shows customs receipts by months over the period of the
Receivership. Seasonal fluctuation characterizes collection of customs

TABLE No. 37
CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Average Average average
1916-17 to 1921-22 to 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 191-17 to
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October........... 1,518,926.08 3.037,492.87 3,770,458.42 3,731,545.38 4,877,847.79 2,704,765.10
November......... 1,813,282.97 3,538.557.92 3.534,435.74 4,205.086.96 4,620094.58 8,009,120.90
December......... 2.195,593.43 3,854.936.07 3.923,268.01 5,324,91659 4.410.265.07 3,377.776.71
January........... 2,08,150.90 8,214,619.05 2,966.878.06 4,428,381.45 8,586193.19 2,968,869.42
February ........ 2,078.966.06 2.870,412.10 2,886,093.61 4,572,322.28 2,897,206.45 2,700,193.82
March........... 2.077,327.60 2.968,218.94 2,949,459.94 4,689.408.32 2,640,030.70 2,781,279.36
April.............. 2,109,606.72 2,429607.04 2.443,025.84 3.644.378.62 2,681,417.88 2.420.876.24
May..... ....... 1,763,034.48 2.140,627.99 2,246,828.72 8.204,051.56 2.316.819.18 2,098,885.52
June.............. 1,942,219.96 1,871,808.14 2,149,413.19 2,750.736.89 1804,732.42 1,982,501.77
July.............. 1,444.162.80 1,743,104.07 2.091,505.76 2,595,099.65 1.928,236.97 1,734.705.71
August........... 1,610,259.38 1,806,235.06 2.184,434.62 2.970,700.22 1,568,188.21 1.831,215.02
September........ 1,569,050.83 2,295.863.38 2,516,074.82 2,965,464.88 1,917,117.56 2,055,632.90
Total.......... 22,430,530.71 81,770,982.63 33.661,876.23 45,082,092.80 35,247,650.00 29,615,321.97

receipts, being determined by the movement of the coffee crop. October
showed the highest receipts of any month in 1928-29, and the second largest





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


customs collections of any month during the period of the Receivership,
customs revenues totalling Gdes. 4,877,847.79. The highest customs re-
ceipts on record for one month were those collected in December, 1927,
in the amount of Gdes. 5,324,916.59. The low month for customs receipts
during the year under review was August, with Gdes. 1,568,188.21, which
is significant in that during August and September there is ordinarily the
greatest activity in connection with purchasing in anticipation of the coffee
crop. September of the year under review showed second lowest customs
receipts. The low month in 1927-28, as well as in 1926-27, was July.
Movement of the coffee crop during the year under review was seasonally
in line with the usual condition, shipments being heaviest in the earlier
months of the year. In 1927-28 movement of the coffee crop was somewhat
later and more extended.
The fluctuation of customs revenues from month to month as well as
from year to year presents a complex fiscal problem. Governmental expen-
ditures are planned considerably in advance. On the other hand, it is
impossible accurately to estimate revenues even a few months in advance.
For example, revenue prospects for the year under review were favorable
even in comparison with the record returns in 1927-28 until unusual
weather conditions developed in the late summer of 1928. Similarly,
there was every prospect for substantial recovery in the revenues for
1929-30 as compared.with those of 1928-29, until the unfavorable develop-
ments occurred in the coffee market as a result of the apparent failure
of the Brazilian valorization system in October, 1929. Much depends upon
whether movement of the coffee crop is early or late, in that larger pay-
ments are concentrated in the early months of the fiscal year. In short,
the only means of assuring prompt fulfillment of governmental obligations
is maintenance at all times of a large treasury reserve. This means that
values which would assist considerably in needed developments must be held
unobligated. Until seasonal fluctuation is minimized by development of
export crops which will assure a more even distribution of business
throughout the year, and from year to year, a substantial portion of the
revenues must remain in hand as a contingency reserve.
Table No. 38 shows customs receipts by ports over the period of the
Receivership. With the exception of Port-de-Paix, all of the principal ports
showed decreased receipts as compared with 1927-28. The largest numer-
ical decline occurred at Port-au-Prince where customs receipts were Gdes.
5,622,328.17 less than in 1927-28. The greatest proportionate decline was
at Petit Goave where customs receipts during 1928-29 were 48.33 per cent
less than in the preceding year. With the exception of Petit Goave, how-
ever, all of the principal ports showed collections in excess of their averages
for the Receivership period.








64 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

TABLE No. 38

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY PORTS

FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 To 1928-29


Average Average Average
1916-17 to 1921-22 to 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1916-17 to
1920-21 1925-26 1928-29


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Aquin............. 124,805.62 222,39284 113,122.24 61,168.80 11,962.40 147,865.06
Belladdre.......... 3.280 13 653.80 13,458.33 20,993.24 22.804.23 5,917.34
Cap-Haitien...... 3.179,095.89 3,646,227.43 3.254,525.83 4,936,597.14 4,605,834.01 3,609.505.65
Cayes............ 1,910,474.91 3,205.206.20 3,408,107.55 3,291,804.10 2,832,663.98 2,700,844.71
Fort Libert6...... 62.108.75 14,532.22 .......................... 62.863.70 34,312.97
Glore ............. 50173 915.20 3.553.51 6,131.30 4,926.31 1,668.90
Gonaives.......... 1,72,395.15 1,762,959.97 1,668.692.47 2,502,325.52 2,041,322.95 1,683,778.19
Jacmel .......... 2,076.404.15 2,858.299.20 2,978,165.49 4,068,426.87 2,950.342.36 2,666,573.19
J&r6mie............. 925,743.72 1,119,908.59 1,865,664.38 1,907,633.64 1,765,515.10 1,174,890.86
Miragoane........ 275.744.34 559,994.05 705,299.97 880,237.74 784,514.31 503,749.53
Ouanaminthe ..... 10.260.12 7,336.32 12,516.45 20,851.28 26,053.26 11.338.70
Petit Goave....... 1,221.660.24 2,160,650 50 2,147,929.25 2.900.380.06 1,498.540.79 1,804.492.61
Port-au-Prince.... 9.540,425.27 13,823.939.29 15,698,821,56 21,687,904.75 16,065.576.58 13,097,971.21
Port-de-Paix...... 925,723.20 1,252,298 94 1,123.445.51 1.553,467.62 1,557,766 80 1,163,445.43
Saint Marc........ 799,520.56 1,135,668.10 1,174,073.69 1,214,170.74 1,016,963.23 1,008,550.08
Total......... 22,428,143.78 31,770,982.65 33,661,876.23 45,082,092.80 35,247,650.00 29,614,403.93



Table No. 39 shows customs receipts for the year under review by
sources and by ports, while Table No. 40 shows such receipts by sources and
by month. Import duties were greatest during the "early months of the
year reflecting the expenditure of purchasing power carried over from
1927-28. From February on, import duties fell to definitely lower levels.
Export duties were in line with movement of the coffee crop, showing
maximum collections in January, but less pronounced increase during that
month as compared with earlier fall shipments than was the case in Decem-
ber 1928.

TABLE No. 39

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND PORTS

FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Aquin.................. ......
Belladere....................
Cap-Haitien...................
Cayes....................
Fort Lbert.......... ....
lore................. *.........
Gonaives ..................
Jacmel....................***. .
J6r6mie.........................
Mirago&ne ..... ....... ....
Ouanaminthe .............
Petit GoAve....................
Port-au-Prince ..............
Port-de-Palx..................
Saint Marc.............. :... ..
Total........... ...........


Imports

Gourdes
359.76
20.972.54
2,910,351.27
1,897,928.65
41,339.80
4,790.70
1,225.123.63
1,666,766.10
883,741.63
375,629.30
25,336.67
560.265.00
14,255,297.47
792,095.43
633,702.68
25,293,700.63


Exports

Gourdes
11.295.06
1,728.25
1,689,170.93
930,019.50
21,040.23
2.91
812,558.93
1,279,439.59
878,928.33
405.810.16
889.14
934,651.94
1,735.502.33
762,166.44
878,756.80
9,841,455.54


Miscellaneous

Gourdes
307.58
103.44
6,311.81
4,715.83
48367
132.70
8,645.89
4,136.67
2,845.14
8,074.85
827.44
8,623.85
74,776.78
3.504.93
4,508.75
112,493.83


Total

Gourdes
11.962.40
22.804.23
4,605,834.01
2,832,663.98
62,863.70
4,926.31
2,041,322.95
2,950,342.86
1,765.515.10
784,514.31
26,053.25
1,498.540.79
16,065,576.58
1,557,766.80
1,016,963.23
85,247,650.00







HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


TABLE No. 40

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS

FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Month Imports Exports Miscellaneous Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October .................... 8,818.573.78 1,048,067.79 11,206.22 4,877,847.79
November .................... 3,336710.63 1,269,967.68 13,416.27 4,620,094.58
December.................... 3,000.953.41 1,395,854.70 13,456.96 4,410,265.07
January..................... 2,159,534.30 1,402.839.40 23,819.49 3,586,193.19
February..................... 1,712,677.17 1,177,050.52 7,478.76 2,897,206.45
March ......................... 1,559,608.73 1,070,821.95 9,600.02 2,640,030.70
April........................ 1,873,637.29 802,025.88 5,754.71 2,681,417.88
May......... ................ 1,709,120.71 599,841.00 7,357.47 2,316,319.18
June......................... 1,477,012.33 322,151.46 5,568.63 1.804,732.42
July........................ 1,622,861.45 300,604.47 -4,771.05 1,928,236.97
August...................... 1,408.985 49 154,585.28 4,617.44 1,568,188.21
September................... 1,614.025.34 297,645.41 5,446.81 1,917,117.56
Total............. 25,293,700.63 9,841,455.54 112,493.83 35,247,650.00



Table No. 41 shows distribution of customs receipts over the period of
the Receivership by sources. It is logical that in a year when there has been
an unfavorable balance of trade import duties should have accounted for an
increasingly greater portion of customs receipts. Such was the case in
the year under review when import duties were 71.76 per cent of total cus-
toms duties, as compared with 68.62 per cent in 1927-28. Export duties
were 27.92 per cent of total customs receipts in 1928-29 compared with
31.14 per cent in 1927-28. The percentage of customs duties accounted
for as between import and export duties results primarily from the tariff.
Further reference to Table No. 36 illustrates this point.


TABLE No. 41

DISTRIBUTION OF CUSTOMS RECEIPTS
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29


Receipts Receipts Miscel-
Year f rom from s Total
imports exports customs
receipts


Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
.1916-17................................................. 53.45 46.52 .03 100.00
1917-18............................................... 51.45 48.46 .09 100.00
1918-19................................. 42.61 57.34 .05 100.00
1919-20............................................ 58.92 40.98 .10 100.00
1920-21.................... ............................ 54.44 45.39 .17 100.00
1921-22.... .......................... ............ 56.69 43.13 .18 100.00
1922-23.... ............ ......................... 57.60 42.18 .22 100.00
1923-24....... ........... ............. ........ 64.83 33.34 1.83 100.00
1924-25.................................... 65.60 29.70 4.70 100.00
1925-26......... ...................................... 64.46 31.19 4.35 100.00
1926-27............................................ 70.03 29.75 .22 100.00
1927-28 ... ....... .............................. 68.62 31.14 .24 100.00
192-29..................................... ..... 71.76 27.92 .32 100.00
Average............................................ 61.65 37.23 1.12 100.00






66 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

INTERNAL REVENUES

As shown on Table No. 42, internal revenue receipts during 1928-29
totalled Gdes. 6,035,264.80 as compared with Gdes. 4,241,620.14 in 1927-28,
an increase of Gdes. 1,793,644.66, or 42.28 per cent. Receipts from the
excise taxes more than accounted for the increase, collections from other
sources having declined by Gdes. 408,435.06, or 9.77 per cent under those
for the preceding year. Receipts from emigration, which up to 1926-27
was the most important source of internal revenue, declined from Gdes.
635,082.50 in 1927-28 to Gdes. 278,875.00, a decrease of Gdes. 356,207.50,
or 56.08 per cent. This single decrease accounted for 87.21 per cent of
the decline of internal revenue receipts from the old sources as between
1927-28 and the year under review. The volume of emigration determines
receipts from emigration taxes rather than does administrative effort on the
part of the internal revenue service. The number of Haitian laborers
accepting employment abroad has steadily diminished since 1925-26 due
to restrictive measures on the part of the Haitian Government.
Of the remainder of the internal taxes which have been in force since
establishment of the internal revenue service, ten showed larger collections
during the year under review than in 1927-28. The largest increases were
shown in telephone and telegraph receipts, revenue from postage stamps
and occupational taxes on foreigners in the order named. Of more
importance in terms of development of a permanent internal revenue
system was the continued though slight increase in public land rentals.
Such rentals are one of the few sources of internal revenue from which col-
lections are subject to increase by direct administrative effort.
Receipts from the majority of the original internal revenue taxes
fluctuate more or less in line with changes in business conditions, and are
of such nature as to preclude increased returns in proportion to the expen-
ditures necessary to more exacting control. Some of them, such as the
tax on bank checks, are limitative in themselves. Considering general con-
ditions, and that the greatest loss of internal revenue during 1928-29
occurred with respect to emigration taxes, the showing of the internal
revenue service during the year under review so far as the old taxes were
concerned was a decidedly creditable one. Internal revenues constituted
14.19 per cent of all fiscal receipts of the Haitian Government during
1928-29, as against 8.41 per cent in 1927-28. The decrease in customs
receipts, however, contributed as much to the enhanced importance of
internal revenues as did collections from the excise taxes.






TABLE No. 42
INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS BY SOURCES FISCAL YEARS 1919-20 TO 1928-29


Excise Average 1919-20 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29
to 1923-24


Alcohol from cane juice....................
Alcohol from other matter...................
Malt liquors.................................
Spirituous liquors.......................
Vinous liquors..............................
Cigars........ ..................
Cigarettes............................
Manufactured tobacco ....................
Total...........................
Circulation tax on bank notes.................
Consular fees.................................
Court fees.....................................
Diploma fees........ .................
Documentary recording fees..............
Emigration fees....................................
Fines and penalties...........................
Income tax....................................
Irrigation tax.................................
Occupational tax on foreigners..............
Official gazette..............................
Official publications, sales of..............
Patent and trade mark fees...............
Post office box rentals.........................
Public auction fees..........................
Public land exchanges........................
Public land rentals.............. .........
Stamp receipts:
Bank checks...............................
Commercial account books...............
Documentary stamps....................
Postage....................................
Stamped paper............................
Stock and bond tax ...........................
Telegraph and telephone service..............
Visas of manifests.............................
Vital statistics fees ...........................
Water service rents...........................
Miscellaneous.................................

Total...........................


Gourdes

.......... I .......' "


81,728.11
7,147.06
....... "....'....
252,579.03
239,884.20
1.886.01
281,810.55
6,995.21
175,397.56
1,071.90

6,884.50
7,521.62
5,095.12
74,668.37

7,987.74
2,908.72
185.179.25
128,547.82
107,518.78
26,364.99
176,774.07
5,932.96
33.208.69
179,307.97
175,381.22

2,171,781.45


Gourdes



..................'' '


Gourdes

..................
................. .' '
.................. '
..................'' '
..................


Gourdes


Gourdes
32,400.36
68.40
2,889.20
1,862.55
19,162.56
1,797.75
1,727.75
2,330.08


Gourdes
1,058,838.97
172,455.45
53,100.19
16.305.00
137,814.14
34,176.80
327,229.33
463,898.49


I- *1- l - l - I Il - I-


34,615.93
152,914.40
7,919.87
574.75
288,78419
945,022 90
24,770.82
625,086.64
8,543.14
208,445.27
1,220.20
344.35
5,700.00
11,348.90
1,463.84
177,919.02

15,915.40
4,643.20
371,795.54
195.755.00
55,620.51
55,099.40
541,103 81
5,237.50
94,034.03
240,553.54
15,495.04
4,089,926.19


53,827.22
157,080.30
8.293.50
2,650.00
804.868.81
1,014 012.50
4,222.25
503,202.81
11,027.95
239,062.51
1,025.00
855.25
15,982.50
12,129.25
2,612.06
325.00
191,890.71
18,280.30
6,048.89
403,171.62
197,485.4.
52.565.15
63,089 91
580,979.77
3.680.00
90,531.14
216,222.78
1,553.17
4,155,170.28


21,142.80
127,984.45
8,798.05
1,809.50
332.837.12
960,933.75
5,309.00
533,757.96
10.296.10
245.150.50
960.00
12.00
11,832.50
12,529.26
2,991.95
450.00
213,851.77
18 737.00
4,285.85
368.841.38
210.119.85
65,301.25
51,280.28
574,002.81
1,095.00
78,949.43
221,478.70
69,049.71

4,153,287.97


61,738.65
51,593.47
151,597.80
9,151.75
200.00
354,451.96
635,082.50
1,563.75
595,599.14
10,685.14
251,507.20
854.00
148.50
12,925.00
12,991.40
2,947.53

268,626.01

24,289.20
3,698 40
406,315.82
187,202.84
72.471.87
53,709.28
685,821.80
1,075.00
93,622.33
231,085.55
60,714.75
4,241,620.14


2,263,818.37
27,881.09
115.819.40
8,819.94
52.50
369,447.08
278,875.00
6,426836
530,993.96
13.104.57
280,405.55
826.00
10,946 35
12,109.90
694.03

270,005.83

19,306.30
4.202.60
404,841.70
212,416.67
66,287.60
62,506.20
740,677.20
1,150.00
79,841 44
244,926.15
9,388.01

6,035,264.80


Average 1919-20
to 1928-29


Gourdes
109,123.93
17,252.388
5,548.94 O
1,816.75 w
15,697.07
3,597.46
32,895.71
46,622.86

232,555.70

18,856.05
111,403.69
7,871.84
528.67 >
291,228.38 .
503,334.77
5.172.22
419,769.832
8.858.30 '-
210,155.88 m
1,024.47 M
86.01
9,180.88
9,871.68
3,618.45
77.50
149,513.51
13.646 69 r
38741.76
288,086.18
164,571.89 g
84 984.03
41,751.00
400,645.53
4,190.23
60,302.18
205,080.66
103,310.18

3,353,417.65 0a
N)


------ ------------ ----~I-~...~_.I _~LL--~--~ ~_~~-~.I_~_-_~i~~~__~ I I ___~ ----L~-_c-----.- ~1~ ______






68 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

EXCISE TAXES
The first full year's operation of the excise tax law revealed that it is a
fiscal success, having produced Gdes. 2,263,818.37 in revenue. As with
any new tax, however, certain peculiarly local problems developed with
respect to collection methods, which merit discussion. The excise law was
passed on August 14, 1928, and was in operation for but one month during
1927-28, so that comparative revenue statistics are not available as between
two full fiscal years.
Excise taxes were adopted in view of the recognized necessity for more
balanced revenues to counteract virtually complete dependence upon cus-
toms duties. Considering that locally produced alcohol and Haitian grown
tobacco had not been taxed at all, the difficulties attending application of
the excise taxes during the year under review were relatively negligible.
Such objections as obtained were levelled, for the most part, at the
measures adopted to prevent evasion of taxation, or at payment of any excise
tax at all.
The excise tax law was so prepared as to permit progressive development
of collection procedure. Careful study of the excise laws of the United
States, Canada, Cuba, Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, and British possessions
in the West Indies revealed the tendency toward enactment of organic
laws conferring liberal administrative powers through which working regu-
lations could be developed as needed. The law of August 14, 1928 was
such an enactment, and accorded administrative authority to develop regu-
lations.
Regulations governing collection of the tax upon alcohol were prepared
along the lines followed in the various islands in the West Indies, and pro-
vided for collection at the source. No particular difficulty was experienced
with collection of the tax upon alcohol in this manner, though the con-
siderable expense for reservoirs caused many distillers to object in the first
instance.
The regulations covering collection of the taxes upon tobacco products
were prepared with the assistance of Mr. Murray F. Snider, Chief of the
Tobacco Division of the United States Internal Revenue Service. The new
taxes upon cigarettes and cigars were collected without much objection.
The only real difficulty encountered in execution of the excise law has
obtained with respect to smoking tobacco. Local smoking tobacco, prior
to enactment of the excise law, was mostly "black tobacco", a preparation
of partially cured leaf soaked with petrolatum in various forms, and sold in
twists of a few leaves. The twists were ordinarily packed in wooden
buckets. Application of a tax to low grade commodities of this kind
presented certain problems. The sources of supply occasioned difficulty of





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


control. Tobacco of an acceptable grade is produced very cheaply across
the border in the Dominican Republic.
Late in 1926 a high tariff was placed upon importations of tobacco,
and prevention of the smuggling of contraband leaf tobacco over the
Dominican frontier has constituted since then the major problem of inland
custom houses. Such smuggling served to complicate collection of the excise
tax during the year, and emphasized the necessity for measures establishing
the origin of tobacco. When the tariff was placed upon importations of
tobacco, an effort was made to encourage local production, which was the
real object of the tariff change. These measures, while serving to render
well managed tobacco plantations profitable, at the same time led to in-
discriminate and uninstructed planting of tobacco on the part of the
peasants. As a result, a very inferior type of smoking tobacco found its
way into the local market.
To meet the necessity for identifying the origin of tobacco, it was
considered necessary that smoking tobacco be wrapped in small packages
of 16-2/3 grammes, and that these packages be stamped. This constituted
a radical change in the local method of marketing smoking tobacco, and
necessitated some capital expense. Again, the packaging of tobacco gave
certain irresponsible local firms the opportunity to adulterate their product
with banana leaf and other materials. The peasant, having purchased an
inferior product of this kind, naturally desired the return of the order
under which he could see and smell tobacco before buying it, as was possible
when it was sold in buckets. Consequently there was some demand for re-
sumption of the sale of black tobacco in buckets. Such a change would
preclude control inasmuch as stamps will not adhere to leaf tobacco, and
buckets can easily be refilled.
The objection to purchasing "black tobacco" in packages was evidenced
by introduction of "yellow leaf" smoking tobacco into the local markets.
"Yellow leaf" is tobacco practically as harvested, but stemmed and made
into twists. It is prepared in all sizes, weights and lengths. It cannot be
stamped. Its sale in certain sections necessitated confiscatory measures.
It is believed, however, that the appearance of "yellow leaf" in the local
market is attributable only in part to the excise tax. In point of fact,
the sale of packed black tobacco as prepared by the reliable firms increased
during the year. "Yellow leaf" has not been found profitable as it does not
command a good price. It is not improbable that the "yellow leaf" problem
will eventually provide its own solution. The market prefers a better grade
of product, and increasing return to the use of black tobacco packed in
legal form was noted during the closing months of the year under review.
There are no reliable data respecting local tobacco production and con-
sumption prior to establishment of the excise tax except with respect to
importations. Excise tax collections during the year indicated that varia-





70 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

tions from month to month in the sale of packed black tobacco were con-
sistent with the fluctuation in purchasing power which also influenced
trading in other commodities as heretofore discussed.
The substance of the problems, incident to application of the excise
tax law during the year just closed, as seen by this office, is that a tax had
but recently been introduced upon certain commodities. Those commodities
are deemed proper objects of taxation in virtually every country in the
world. Few excise tax systems have been established without certain pecu-
liarly local administrative difficulties; none have been applied without
objection on the part of taxpayers. As concerns the immediate problem in
Haiti there is need to determine whether or not the excise tax will actually
operate to cause a reduction in consumption, particularly of tobacco, which
is substantially greater than that warranted by trade conditions, taking
into account the logical effect of new taxes upon hitherto untaxed articles.
When sufficient time has elapsed to resolve this point, the internal revenue
service will be prepared to proceed with such changes in the regulations
as are consistent with promotion of the tobacco industry and with the safe-
guarding of the treasury.

PRIVATE DOMAIN OF THE STATE

Continued effort was devoted during the year under review to perfecting
the method of handling land cases. The type of difficulties heretofore
encountered in determining the private domain of the state and rendering
it available for productive use were carefully described in the report of
the Financial Adviser-General Receiver for the fiscal year 1927-28.
It is gratifying to be able to state that the work along this line as
carried out during the year did not meet with misapprehension or mis-
understanding on the part of the peasants. Commercial developments
following the location of state lands have been recognizedly beneficial.
Individual rights have been scrupulously protected, and Haitian tenants
and occupants of state lands have received the preference accorded by the
law of July 26, 1927 which provides "that occupants who shall have been
in possession for at least two years shall have a preference to lease the
land occupied for a period of three months following the notification made
to them by the Internal Revenue Service to take out a lease; if, at the end
of these three months they refuse to take out a lease the land may be
leased to any other person."
During the year under review considerable progress was made in connec-
tion with clarifying cadastral records. Mr. Francis E. Taylor, an attorney
trained in French legal procedure, was placed in charge of the land work.
Inaccuracies of long standing in the rental lists were corrected, and con-
siderable additional area of land was made available for rental.






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER 71

It has been noted that public land rentals collected during the year
were but slightly greater than in 1927-28. That there was not greater in-
crease was partially due to the general decline in purchasing power. Again,
as is evidenced on Table No. 18 in the report of the Director General of
Internal Revenue annexed to the present report, surtaxes collected during
the year under review represented a smaller portion of total revenues from
state lands than in 1927-28. This points to increased collections applicable
to current rentals which in turn indicates a larger number of tenants, and
only to some small extent to revaluations of properties already under rental.
Smaller revenues from surtaxes also indicate administrative improvement,
in that delinquency on the part of tenants was less prevalent. Detailed fig-
ures bearing upon land rentals for 1928-29 show a smaller number of tenants
than were on the records in 1927-28. In point of fact the number of actual
tenants was greater. Control of the rental lists as carried on extensively
during 1928-29 resulted in removal of a substantial number of persons
from the rolls who, though still listed, were no longer actually tenants of
the state.
The necessity for general land legislation with a view to settlement
of land titles in Haiti has for some time been stressed by this office. There
is no question that economic stability will not be fully realized until such
time as greater confidence and security attach to transactions in landed
property, and until such transactions are simplified and rendered less
costly. Present methods are obsolete; records are not centralized. Difficul-
ties over titles constantly arise, more because present provision for clearing
titles is slow, cumbersome and costly, than because of inherently insur-
mountable obstacles. Nevertheless, landed property in Haiti is in fact cur-
rently conveyed, mortgaged and leased. While there is every good reason
for working toward a modern titles system, the present land situation in
Haiti, as such, presents no more difficulties toward securing a title than
obtain generally in many Latin American countries.
No new internal revenue taxes were established during the year under
review. Transfer of the registration service to the internal revenue service
may be expected to increase revenues from the registration taxes. Further
development of the internal revenue system, in the opinion of this office,
calls for reorganization of the communal revenues and revision of the pres-
ent income tax legislation. A tax upon landed property is as yet far in
the future. It would be impracticable to say the least, until such pre-
liminary steps as land legislation, as above referred to, a complete land
survey, reorganization of communal revenues and some further speeding up
of court procedure are carried into full effect. It is not believed at this time
that the tax burden should be increased. Such sources of internal revenue
as are now being developed should bring about a decrease in customs duties,
primarily export taxes.






72 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

Detailed discussion of the operations of the internal revenue service
during the year under review will be found in the report of the Director
General of Internal Revenue annexed to the present report.

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS

Table No. 43 shows miscellaneous receipts for 1928-29 by sources and
by months. Such receipts totalled Gdes. 1,238,613.60 in 1928-29 as com-
pared with Gdes. 1,097,303.55 in 1927-28, an increase of Gdes. 141,310.05,
or 12.87 per cent.
TABLE No. 43

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY MONTHS
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Interest on Conversion of
governmental francs Miscellaneous Total
deposits

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
October............ ........... 233,144.85 ................. .................. 233,144.85
November..................... 39,397.00 37,095.00 503.45 76,995.45
December..................... 71,403.00 18,860.60 8,000.00 98.263.60
January......................... 47,270.90 18,243.45 1,000.00 66,514.35
February....................... 71,983.55 18,845.50 1,000.00 91,829.05
March ................ ....... 52,652.10 18,839.55 6,000.00 77,491.65
April........................... 158,676.85 17,032.65 7,053.00 182,762.50
May ............................ 51,7583.20 18,851.55 6.020.50 76,625.25
June............................ 75,208 90 18,243.45 1,003.90 94,456.25
July.......................... 47,738.40 18,875.70 1,000.00 67,614.10
August....................... 79,840.70 18,255.10 2,975.60 101,071.40
September...................... 46,963.45 18,881.70 6,000.00 71,845.15
Total....................... 976,032.90 222,024.25 40,556.45 1,238,613.60


Interest on governmental deposits totalled Gdes. 976,032.90 as against
Gdes. 793,094.03 in 1927-28, an increase of Gdes. 182,938.87, or 23.06
per cent. This resulted from greater interest bearing cash deposits and
increased interest rates thereupon, as well as from larger holdings of
securities of the Haitian Government.
Receipts from conversion of francs decreased from Gdes. 229,994.60 in
1927-28 to Gdes. 222,024.25 in the year under review. Such receipts pro-
ceed from interest upon funds on deposit for redemption of the French
franc loan of 1910. Repayments reduce the principal of this account from
time to time and interest accretions diminish in consequence.
Unclassified miscellaneous receipts amounted to Gdes. 40,556.45 as
against Gdes. 74,214.92 in 1927-28. The only recurrent receipts in this
category proceed from loans made by the state to the communes. During
the year under review funds were advanced to the Communes of Hinche
and Petionville. The loan to the Commune of Hinche was for the purpose
of repairing the church of that city. The Commune of Petionville borrowed
funds with which to repair a portion of an office building. The only other






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


loan outstanding is one made some years ago to Petit Goave for installation
of a municipal water system.
The important source of miscellaneous receipts is, of course, interest
on government deposits, which consist of surplus funds. To the extent that
insufficient revenues occasion operating deficits during the coming year as
a result of the coffee situation miscellaneous receipts will suffer a pro-
portionate decrease. It is not likely that surplus funds of the Haitian
Government will be sustained on any such high basis as obtained in the
year under review during 1929-30. Unless there is substantial improvement
in the coffee market, it seems probable that miscellaneous receipts for the
year under review, which were the highest on record, will remain as such
for some time to come.
Total receipts for the year under review according to sources, months
and by ports are shown on Table No. 44. These data serve to summarize
the discussion of revenues, showing clearly the periodicity which charac-
terizes collections, and evidencing the concentration of receipts at Port-au-
Prince. The fiscal importance of the capital city constitutes a material
advantage in terms of supervision. Both causes and results of seasonal
fluctuation of the revenues and attendant disadvantages from a fiscal view-
point have already been discussed.
Schedules Nos. 3 and 4 annexed to the present report show customs and
internal revenue receipts in further detail according to sources, months and
ports.

GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURES

Discussion of the revenues of the Haitian Government for the year
under review emphasized definite limitations so far as control over receipts
is concerned; on the one hand due to seasonal fluctuation of collections
and on the other due to the present proportions of the tax burden itself.
As a result, administrative effort, except that devoted to increased efficiency
in collecting revenues (particularly those of the internal revenue service),
is generally more effective in the control of expenditures than it is with
respect to revenues. Maintenance of a balanced budget is one of the first
rules of successful administrative finance. The adjustment of expenditures
"to revenues therefore assumes as great importance in financial administra-
tion as does the endeavor to bring about the most equitable burden of
taxation, and other effort concerned primarily with stabilizing the income
of the state.
The outline of expenditures in the present report is necessarily limited
to general classifications. The individual activities of the various services
of the Haitian Government are covered in detail in reports of those services.
Analysis of results achieved is best assisted by study of such reports in






74 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER














TABLE No. 44

TOTAL RECEIPTS OF HAITIAN GOVERNMENT BY SOURCES, MONTHS AND PORTS
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


October November December January February March April May June July August September Total


Customs receipts:
Aquin ..............................
Belladare.............................
Cap-Haitien ............... .....
Cayes.................................
Fort Libert6.......................
Glore........................... .....
Gonaives............................
Jacm el..............................
J6remie ............................
Mirago&ne .........................
Ouanaminte .........................
Petit Gove............................
Port-au-Prince......................
Port-de-Paix ........................
Saint Marc..........................
Total customs receipts............
Internal revenue receipts:
Administration-Port-au-Prince....
Aquin .................................
Cap-Haitien .......... ...........
Cayes................................
Fort Libert .........................
Gonaives............................
Jacmel...............................
Jer6mle.............................
Miragoine...........................
Petit Gof6ve........................
Port-de-Paix....................... .
Saint Marc...........................
Total Internal revenue receipts.....
Miscellaneous receipts:
Port-au-Prince...................
Total revenue receipts.............

Non revenue receipts................
Total receipts......................


Gourdes
358.38
2,513.25
512,710.58
549,619.71
171.50
210,202.03
536,166.50
214,412.54
166,646.80
2,597.63
217.166.03
2,217,260.96
153,360.98
94,660.90


Gourdes
3,483.20
2,190.45
489,193.77
454,223.62
1,473.28
268.15
224,902.72
525,564.42
277,827.97
127,321.76
1,441.84
267,497.64
1,969,758.21
163,141.51
111,806.04


Gourdes
1,011.09
1,818.15
565,477.15
474,698.84
14,107.43
54.30
258,856.96
429,971.75
231,066.94
94,994 89
2,429.74
216,858.48
1,802.105.22
215,937.94
100,876.19


Gourdes
816.27
2,822.82
574,856.51
246,401.66
2,917.73
827.50
243,274.08
326,838.67
123,347.96
78,695.57
2,174.99
203.259.01
1,451,453.13
227,475.52
101,531.77


Gourdes
801.19
2,048.65
507,167.54
151,627.53
3,359.62
171.45
197,681 93
232,427.26
119,078.87
49,658.42
1,350.83
170,843.09
1,164,195.59
197,421.04
99,873.44


Gourdes
120.55
3,106.45
377,470.09
123,347.94
5,890.80
370.70
183,854.45
194,273.87
107,343.73
32,160.04
8,067.70
139,496 86
1,196,477.21
154,644.87
118,405.94


Gourdes
71.69
2,087.69
392,426.70
136,320.66
11,619.46
763.10
186,781.11
196,277.50
152,742.29
45,484.76
1,675.00
122,494.98
1,173,813.45
144,371.96
114,487.58


Gourdes
1,231.66
1,021.65
246,480.73
183,547.00
2,586.89
710.60
143,444.84
168,263.63
162,895.10
83,131.12
1,850.88
52,056.70
1,136,202.79
99,444.82
84,001.77


Gourdes
43.20
1,899.50
196,820.50
141,210.58
185.89
866.40
95,424.85
103,635.70
90,385.56
40,427.24
908.41
45,966.07
956,022.61
60,409.63
71,076.28


Gourdes
1,403.84
989.95
220,603.92
161,070.94
59.91
247.09
87,150.90
58,418.69
101,789.16
29,769.74
1,590.09
17,026.10
1,125,958.64
67,685.75
54,472.75


Gourdes
1,521.49
1,403.92
229,199.24
139,192.57
6,432.80
666.70
58,859.65
70,425.65
73.716.20
21,993.07
8,558.80
26,690.44
872,942.79
29,719.22
82,366.17


Gourdes
1,600.84
901.75
293,927.28
121,402.93
14,280.89
808.82
151,889.93
108,078.72
111,458.78
14,230.90
8,407.34
19,185.44
999,385.98
44,154.06
33,404.40


Gourdes
11,962.40
22,804.23
4,605,884.01
2,882,663.98
62,868.70
4,926.81
2,041,822.95
2,950,342.86
1,765,515.10
784,514.81
26,053.25
1,498,540.79
16,065,576.58
1,557.766.80
1,016,963.23


4,877,847.79 4,620,094.58 4,410,265.07 3,586.193.19 2,897,206.45 2.640,030.70 2,681,417.88 2,316,319.18 1,804,732.42 1,928,236.97 1,568,188.21 1,917,117.56 35,247,650.00

329,724.93 193,402.35 487,428.29 531,988.52 855,027.63 334,228.94 535,051.73 333,022.95 219,388.43 261,057.98 206,430.46 244,160.16 4,030,912.87
2,419.06 727.43 866.91 665.46 633.65 448.46 931.52 614.20 724.90 775.45 736.14 1,168.55 10,711.73
78,427.44 38.468.78 44,679.54 88,311.18 46,483.03 40,800.25 46,340.12 26,959.20 27.879.64 27,515.26 28,015.20 86,323.92 475,203.56
44,715.04 19,589.60 32,848.99 43,895.06 81,478.24 42,763.17 28,749.35 15,070.62 12,266.72 15,329.05 19,770.20 22,253.16 328,729.20
........... ........... ............. 179.10 41.40 53.15 68.20 812.45 1,547.86 1,776.07 454.89 1,247.78 6,180.90
24.461.56 16,031.28 16,51273 23,759.41 17,059.09 21,610.04 19,596.26 18,068.55 15,973.10 11,427.03 7,766.45 10,101.59 197,867.09
85.957.44 14,605.63 18.402.82 22,998.61 18,8(6.86 17,91904 24,078.95 13,250.70 9,915.71 10,382.98 8,932.67 14.803.75 210,065.16
27,740.94 15.028.02 22,503.43 19,111.08 8,127.68 10,986.17 14,708.88 10,416.23 9,250.09 12,824.64 9,169.99 17,986.01 177847.66
12,324.53 8,925.87 4,350.89 3,718.99 4,219.46 3,985.78 5,237.89 2,937.11 2,702.89 2,604.73 2,398.93 4.015.40 52,422.47
34,398.82 12,687.30 12,730.16 13,394.09 8,486.96 8,860.93 18.802.34 7,143.37 5,022.59 4,429.05 8,903.57 7,404.16 137,262.84
25,643.08 14.024.23 12,919.23 18,731.16 12,962.77 11,833.82 12,858.68 12,719.58 9.521.13 10,372.89 6,120.84 10,939.45 158.646.36
31,070.73 15,670.80 14,508.68 19,387.85 22,615.69 17,786.68 38,845.31 22,896.85 16,374.89 15,476.06 18,682.48 17,099.94 249,915.46
641,888.07 344,161.29 667,751.67 736,140.51 525,952.46 511,275.93 745,263.73 458,411.81 830,567.45 373,971.19 812,381.82 887,503.87 6,035,264.80

233,144.85 76,995.45 98,263.60 66,514.85 91,829.05 77,491.65 182,762.50 76,625.25 94,456.25 67,614.10 101,071.40 71,845.15 1,238,613.60
5,752,875.71 5,041,251.32 5,176,280.34 4,88,848.05 8,514,987.96 3,228,798.28 8,609,444.11 2,851,356.24 2,229,756.12 2,369.822.26 1,981,641.43 2,376,466.58 42,521,528.40


5,752,875.71 5,041,251.32 5,176,280.34 4,88,848.05 3,514,987.96 3,228,798.28 3,609,444.11 2,851,356.24 2,229,756.12


i


..........._.............. ..............
2,369,822.26 1,981,641.43 2,376,466.58 42.521,528.40
1






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


conjunction with the data which are presented in the present report respect-
ing fiscal activities as a whole.
Expenditures of the Haitian Government from September, 1916, to the
close of the fiscal year 1922-23 were accounted for only in the general
classifications shown on Table No. 45. Since 1923-24, however, govern-
mental accounts have been segregated according to organizations and
activities, by objects of expenditure and by functions.
Table No. 46 shows budgetary and extraordinary appropriations from
revenue for the past five years by individual public debt provisions and
by organizations. Ordinary and supplementary appropriations to the
budget prior to 1928-29 were not completely utilized during the course
of the year to which they pertained, but were continued as separate accounts
during the early months of the year following that for which they were
established. For the past two years unexpended balances of ordinary and
supplementary credits have reverted to the public treasury at the close of
the fiscal year, but obligations assumed within such credits have been met
with funds set up in connection with corresponding credits for the succeed-
ing year. Under the latter system expenditures from ordinary and sup-
plementary credits for given purposes cannot exceed the amount of the
current budgetary appropriation. In the strict sense, however, neither
ordinary nor supplementary appropriations for a given year bear an exact
relationship to expenditures effected during that year, but rather serve to
indicate the manner in which obligations are adjusted to revenues. Extra-
ordinary credits are expendable for a period of two years which seldom
coincide with the fiscal calendar, and this also tends to diminish the cor-
respondence between appropriations and expenditures in a given year. It
will be noted that ordinary and supplementary credits as shown on Table
No. 46 have gradually increased since 1924-25, and that except during
1926-27 and the year under review there was a wide margin between such
appropriations and revenues.
The current situation in the coffee market and the consequent un-
certainly of revenue prospects necessitates careful analysis of the program
of expenditure. As is evident on Table No. 46, extraordinary credits have
been voted virtually in the amount by which revenues have exceeded require-
ments for ordinary purposes. In a program of development it is natural
to seek expansion as rapidly as the revenues permit.
Extraordinary expenditures represent for the most part capital dis-
bursements as distinguished from operating charges. Excepting such
extraordinary credits as have been voted for the purpose of retiring the
public debt, which actually reduces operating costs, such credits purport
recurring charges of varying importance which are reflected in increase
of the ordinary budget. The present ordinary budget contains virtually no


















TABLE No. 45
EXPENDITURES OF HAITIAN GOVERNMENT BY SERVICES*
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1922-23


Guaranteed Financial
Public nterestand viser- en- Haitian Public Public Extraor- Miscel-
debt subsidies gener darmerle ministries hea works di Total
receiver service service credits anus


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
September ..................... .............. 89,850.15 711,809.91 1,905,047.50 .............. 690,284.08 .............. 355,033.48 8,751,525 12
1916-17.................................... 92,434.55 796,625.70 4,792,156.10 5,131,819.90 ......... .288031.60 ............. 1,783,109.95 15,884,177.80
1917-18...... .... ....... ............ ........... 741,055.80 4,565,23875 5,547,888.85 889,870.75 2,700,853.70 .............. 170,089.60 14,614,997.45
1918-19 ........................ 497,140.00 175,099.15 700,035.60 4,594,938.30 5.806,871.30 958.756.70 2,721,341.50 .............. 45,297.90 15,499.480.45
1919-20 ........................ 245,000.00 461.241.15 1,880,460.60 5,415,377.45 8.490 246.70 1,338,591.30 8,199,680.25 .............. 116,268.80 20.646,866.25
190-21........................ 13,170.880.95 406,771.80 1,452,073.10 5,114,593.80 7,005,503.45 1.541,482.30 2,634.628.15 ... ....... 1,463,022.85 82,788.455.90
1921-22................ ......... 21,663.845.05 293,995.55 1,279,142.25 5.104,056.45 7,483,588.25 1,244,506.25 2,451,720.30 188,422.70 67,181.(0 89,775.908 40
1922-23........................ 9 057,374.50 206,400.00 1,438,506.15 5,226,550.60 7,811,914.75 1,485,106.25 5,019.229.60 232,709.00 82,822.80 80,560,113.15
Total .................... 44,633,240.50 1,635,941.70 7,877,749.35 85,524,221.86 49,182,880.70 7,458,313.55 22,705,769.18 421,131.70 4,082,826.48 173,521,524.52


0
Y


a




M

M
[-1

0







iz
N


*The classificationsof expenditures in this table are not satisfactory but a reclassification according to objects of expenditure was found to be impossible,












































Public debt:
Financial adviser-general receiver.....
Internal revenue service................
Series A loan..........................
Series B loan..........................
Series C loan..........................
Miscellaneous debt items.............
Fiduciary currency....................
International institutions....:..........
P. C. S. railroad subvention ............
Wharf Company subvention............
Cable Company subvention............

Total public debt....................
Guard.......................................
Foreign relations...........................
Finances...................................
Commerce..............................
Interior.......... ........................
Public health service.....................
Public works............ ..................
Public works service........................
Justice ...................................
Agriculture.............. ............
Agricultural service.......................
Labor.......................................
Public instruction.........................
Religion...................................

Total appropriated from revenue..
Total revenue.....................
Total expenditures from revenue...


HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 77


















TABLE No. 46

ORDINARY, SUPPLEMENTARY AND EXTRAORDINARY APPROPRIATIONS FROM REVENUE
FISCAL YEARS 1924-25 TO 1928-29


1929-30
1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 (as of Oct.
1, 1929)


Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary Ext-
O e- oaExtra Extra- ad sppe- Extr ad e- ra Era- Ordnary
and supple- or and supple ordinary diary e- rdinar ad supple- ordinary
mentary mnayment ary mentary ordinaymen ry


Gourdes
1,849.537.49
342,928,16
7,336,491.75
2,453,151.14
1,209,067.55
42,500.00
420,000.00

206,400.00
201,000.00
120,000.00


14.181,076.09
5,753,952 02
676.410.50
1,003.795.00
242,040.00
1,171,087.60
1,985.848 29
78.233.00
4.561.891.00
1,377,379.60
42,082.60
1.080,000.00
228.235.00
2.031,286.20
396,744.90


34,609,561.80
40,487,667.00
39,218,202.02


Gourdes
..............

..,.....,....,..
.. . .. . '
.. . .. . "


10,315,16
500,000.00
1,000.00
1,000.00
..............
861,000.00
5,430,000.00
5,000.00
5,000.00
675,000.00
140,250.00

..............


Gourdes
1,698,879.86
539,944.84
6,908,047.60
2,148,625.00
1,141,421.00

420,000.00

206,40000
201,000.00
120,000 00


13,383,818 80
6,151.035.64
636,886.08
880,580.00
268,760.00
1.262,257.60
2,250,000.00
42.233.00
4.618.000.00
1,418,835.60
43,112.60
1,745,000.00
866 000.00
2,111,689.19
401,709.30


Gourdes
..............
..............

..............
.. . .. . '
.............. '


89,000.00
5,000.00
..............
25,000.00
1,235,140.00
8,878,530.00
4,580.00

80,500.00
270,100.00
..............


Gourdes
2,278,241.80
540,000.00
6.637,870.05
2,065,682.40
1,099,239.70
420,000.00
53,600.00
206,400.00
250,000.00
..............


13,550,533.45
6,433,160.89
558,960.00
909.180.00
262.170.00
1,170,558.00
8,070,634.17
42,500.00
5.338,770.00
1,404.065.00
43,910.00
2,025.700.00
447,800.00
2,092,293.00
402,832.50


7,127,565.16 35,574,917.81 5,082,850.00 37,753,067.01
.............. 45,864,648.10 .............. 88,861,584.79
.............. 40,930,725.08 .............. 89,747,163.75


Gourdes
..............
..............

..............
..............
. . . . '
.........' "''


..............
20,000.00

25,000.00
20,500.00
107,500.00


789.600.00
8,000.00
220,000.00

1,000.00
..............
'20,b'.6


1,186,600.00


Gourdes
1,884.994.88
600,000.00
6,985,999.80
2,160,624.98
1,157,125.09

420,000.00
53,600.00
206,400.00
250,000.00


13,718,744.75
6,874.782.86
608,960.00
901,980.00
269,865.00
1,183.434.80
3,167,940.00
42.500.00
5,668,800.00
1,447,395.00
43,910.00
2,130,000.00
618,500.00
2,089,368 00
426,337.50


Gourde,


..............
.... .. .
. . ... ...
..............
..............
..............
.. '

.. . .. . "


9,900.00

116,889.00
1,025,335.00

5,728,000.00

422,500.00
10,000.00
8,000.00
52,500.00


38,695.517.91 7,873,124.00
50,421,016.49 .............
40,977,914.49 .............


Gourdes
1,864,702.40
799,076.94
7,014,000 00
2,166,625.00
1,162,281.80

422,322.50
53,600.00
206,400.00
..............


13,689,008.14
6,372,842.40
605,100.00
904,680.00
314,282.50
1,132.208.00
8,603,230.00
44.240.00
5,458,200.00
1,317.755.00
48,910.00
2,471.000.00
620,000 00
2,131.008.00
457,765.00


Gourdes
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............

........... .
..............
..............


.. ... ......
80,000.00
15,560.00
161,791.85
38,600.00
301,740.00
209,000.00

2,411,956.50

.. ..... '.. "
12,500.00
10,000.00
75,000.00


89,165.229.04 3,266,147.85
42,521,528.40 .............
44,119,503.94...........


Gourdes
1,680,000.00
930,000.00
7,045,000.00
2,172,625.00
1,167,437.50

205,900.00
57,600.00
206,400.00


18,464 962.50
6,513.607.08
584,200.00
889,980.00
840,060.00
1,159.808.00
3,903,229.92
44.240.00
5,672,200.00
1,827,095.00
45,000.00
2,796,666.60
945,000.00
1,947.268.00
457,672.50

40,090,989.60


I I I I I I I I I I


-I I


I I I I I I I I -I I







78 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

provision for expenditures of a capital character, and in consequence is a
typically operating budget.
The first relatively large appropriations of extraordinary credits during
the period of the Receivership were effected during the fiscal year 1923-24.
As illustration of the point under discussion, ordinary and supplementary
appropriations in the amount of Gdes. 29,419,381.70 for that year provide
a starting point, in that extraordinary credits voted in 1923-24 could not
presumably have operated to increase the ordinary operating charges for
that year. Gdes. 6,938,252.88 were voted from revenue as extraordinary
credits during 1923-24, of which Gdes. 2,496,179.48 were for public debt
payments. Of this capital expenditure, therefore, only Gdes. 4,442,073.40
were of such character as to purport an increase in operating costs as
carried in the ordinary budget.
The following tabulation shows the amounts of appropriations for the
ordinary budget including supplementary credits as compared with extra-
ordinary credits appropriated from revenue during and since 1923-24 for
purposes other than reduction of the public debt:
Ordinary and
Supplementary Extraordinary
Budget Credits
(Operating .. (Capital
Expenditures) Expenditures)
Year Gourdes Gourdes
1923-24.......................... 29419,381.70 4,442,073.40*
1924-25 .......................... 34,609,561.80 7,127,565.16'
1925-26 .......................... 35,574,913.71 5,082,850.00
1926-27.......................... 37,753,067.01 1,186,600.00
1927-28.......................... 38,695,517.91 7,373,124.00
1928-29.......................... 39,165,229.04 3,266,147.85
1929-30.......................... 40,090,989.60j ..........
Increase .................. 10,671,607.90 Total...... 28,478,360.41
Reduced by amount of appropriation for retirement of public debt. This appropriation
was the only one made for public debt from revenues in the form of an extraordinary credit
during the period covered by the above tabulation.
t Ordinary budget only.
The above figures evidence the fact that an increase of Gdes.
10,671,607.90 in annual operating expenses has occurred between 1923-24
and the close of 1928-29, during which time Gdes. 28,478,360.41 have been
expended in extraordinary appropriations for capital purposes. The ratio
of budgetary increase to capital disbursements exceeds thirty-seven per
cent. No attempt has been made to go into particular detail in the present
report with respect to recurring charges from one type of capital expendi-
ture as opposed to another, though it must be recognized that recurring
obligations vary as between objects of capital expenditure.
Certain capital expenditures have been made from loans, and at first
thought it would appear that these should be added to the extraordinary






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


credits shown on the tabulation which would operate to lower the recurring
ratio. Actually, however, recurring charges occasioned- by expenditures
from loans were partially, reflected in the ordinary budget for 1923-24 and
those for succeeding years shown on the tabulation in the form of debt
charges. In further compensation for any effect which capital expenditures
from loans, as opposed to those from revenue, might have upon the recur-
ring ratio, the budget as shown for 1929-30 is the ordinary budget only,
without any estimate for supplementary credits. Prospective requirements
-for supplementary credits during 1929-30 are in fact unusually high.
Altogether, this office is of the opinion that average permanent operating
charges recurring from capital disbursements are at least thirty per cent
"of such expenditures.
The present uncertainty with respect to revenues as a result of the
coffee situation suggests the possibility that the treasury surplus, from
which extraordinary credits are customarily appropriated, may have to
be substantially reduced to meet operating deficits. On the other hand, as
has been pointed out, seasonal fluctuation of revenue collections necessitates
maintenance of a relatively high treasury surplus. Therefore any immediate
expansion of the governmental program by means of capital improvements
involving average 'recurring charges as above in the ordinary budget would
be out of line with present fiscal prospects. Unless there is a favorable
change in the coffee situation or diminished dependency upon coffee, it is
probable that retrenchment rather than expansion of expenditures will be
necessary.
Table No. 47 presents expenditures from revenue and from the proceeds
of loans in order to show the total of all governmental payments. Total
expenditures from revenues during 1928-29 were Gdes. 44,119,503.94 as
against Gdes. 40,977,914.49 in 1927-28, an increase of Gdes. 3,141,589.45,
or 7.66 per cent. The larger disbursements during the year resulted from
expenditure of extraordinary credits voted for the most part in 1927-28
from the large surplus revenues of that year.
Total disbursements on account of the public debt totalled Gdes.
13,455,414.94 as against Gdes. 13,091,193.76 in 1927-28, an increase of
Gdes. 364,221.18, or 2.78 per cent. The major portion of the increase was
accounted for by larger operating expenditures of the internal revenue
service &ue to -the excise taxes. Debt service payments -were slightly greater
'than in 1927-28 as a result of the loan contracts which require somewhat
increased provisions from year to year. Other expenditures constituting
fixed charges were relatively unchanged as between the two years, except
that no payments were effected on account of the wharf company subven-
tion, inasmuch as the wharf company now makes direct collection of
wharfage dues.







80 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER










TABLE No. 47

REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEARS 1923-24 TO 1928-29


1923-24 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29


REVENUES
Customs...........................................
Internal revenue.................................
Miscellaneous ...................................
Total revenue .................................
Non-fiscal receipts ...... ..................
Total receipts..................................
EXPENDITURES
Public debt:
Financial adviser-general receiver................
Internal revenue service.........................
Series A loan.....................................
Series B loan.....................................
Series C loan......................................
Interior consolidated debt.........................
Fiduciary currency................................
Commissions paid to Banque Nationale...........
Haitian construction Co. notes...................
Roberts Dutton & Co. claim......................
Stamp sales discounts and expenses..............
International institutions.........................
P. C. 8. railroad subvention.......................
Wharf company subvention......................
Cable company subvention.......................
Total...................................... ....
Guard .........................................
Foreign relations.................................
Finance............................................
Commerce................. ........................
Interior.... ............................... ....
Public health service..............................
Public works......................................
Public works service..............................
Justice...........................................
Agriculture.................. .............
Agricultural service...............................
Labor.............................................
Public instruction.................................
Religion..........................................
Total expenditures from revenue .............
Awards of the claims commission.................
National railroad construction....................
Miscellaneous .....................................
Total payments................................
Pension deductions...............................
Net payments.................................
Revenue over expenditures.....................
Expenditures over revenues......................


Gourdes
29,950,907.14
2,795,870.53
155,543.66


Gourdes
35,750,018.34
4,089,926.19
647,722.47


Gourdes
40,694,831.74
4,155,170.28
614,646.08


Gourdes
83,661,876.23
4,153,287.97
1,046,370.59


Gourdes
45,082,092.80
4,241,620.14
1,097,303.55


Gourdes
85,247,650.00
6,035,264.80
1,238,618.60


82,902,821.88 40,487,667.00 45,364.648.10 38,861,534.79 50,421,016.49 42,521,528.40
.................... 69,855.47 2,600 00 3,988.00 83,761.82 ...................
32,902,321.83 40,557,522.47 45,867,248.10 88,865,522.79 50,504,777.81 42,521,528.40


1,118,917.23 1,849,537.49 1,698,879.86 2,278,241.30 1.884,994.88 1,864,702.40
73,478.88 342,928.16 304,198.76 306,308.68 462,010.33 799,076.94
5,589.864.50 7,836,491.75 6,908,047.60 6,637,370.05 6,960,374.65 6,999.195.50
1,695,970.36 2,453,151.14 2,148,625.00 2,065,682.40 2,160,624.98 2,166,625.00
928,174.00 1,209,067.55 1,141,421.00 1,099,239.70 1,157,060.69 1,153,170.05
.................... 195,839.01 .................... ................... .................... ....................
420,000.00 420,000.00 420,000.00 420,000.00 422.322.50
828,227.51 27,958.63 ....................... ........................................
433,915.00 ............. ...................... .................... ................... ....................
277,87 .35 ........................................................... ... ......................
18,285.42 8,191.31 .................... ................. .................... ....................
............................................................ 57,629.15 45,606.95 50,322.55
206,400.00 206,400.00 206,400.00 .................. ........................................
524,564.28 268,838.26 247,706.25 67,463.85 521.28 ...................
480,000.00 120,000.00 90,000.04 ...........................................................
12,170,669.53 14,433,403.30 18,164,778.51 12,931,935.13 18,091,193.76 13,455.414.94
5,822,449.22 5,579,242.54 6,062,415.34 6,496,006.55 6,427,467.21 6,368.579.83
734,199.47 619,958.31 635,084.64 555,875.62 579,224.57 555,875.63
1,520,366.84 1,197,945.96 1,062,756.19 827,576.63 634,874.38 721,811.41
.................... 230,051.46 247,935.91 255,063.06 257,730.29 829,739.51
1,363,403.06 1,208,067.76 1,224.369.56 1,229,080.99 1,241,170.42 1,265,557.13
1,529,057.91 2,223,059.14 2,852,485 58 3,444,301.76 3,631,024.09 4,435.428.67
961,336.20 703.416.57 92.287.98 34,789.54 34,110.49 43,575.89
5,895,159.05 7,533,943.51 9,082,496.06 7.166,798.42 8,435,445.55 9,621,862.65
1,372,533.28 1.833,838.31 1,895.153.62 1,369,351.38 1,33,376.69 1,297,719.99
148,288.24 44,258.88 41,426.15 43,039.34 43.611.39 43,105.13
434,445.89 1,526,891.70 2.185,104.58 2,452.380.38 2.170,007.41 2,815,688.95
.................... 274,393.63 530,646.65 557,200.68 615,663.31 595,387.22
2,306,194.25 1,942,599.20 1,965,167.09 1,996,720.01 2,059,021.14 2,053,664.29
457,893.00 867,186.75 888,617.22 387,544.26 424,493.79 516,093.20
84,215,495.94 39,218,202.02 40,930,725.08 89,747,163.75 40,977,914.49 44,119,603.94
.................... 1,191,045.20 1,671,072.85 8,015.25 .......................................
................. 1,553,756.20 545,995.05 ...........90.00 ..................
.................... .................... 1,42,247. ,889,422.08 2,183,489.88 914,152.25
84,215,495.94 41,968,003.42 44,990,040.53 43,641,601.08 43,161,318.87 45,033,656.19
.................... 151,460.29 91,430.92 103,264.06 .................. .................


34,215,495.94
......,174..............
1,113,174.61


41.811,548.13 44,898,609.61
1,269,464.98 4,483,923.02
.................... ....................


*Credit.


43,541,837.02 43,161,813.87 45,033,656.19
......... ...",* 9,443,102.00 ..................
88,628.6 .................... 1,597,975.54






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER


Expenditures from revenue on the part of the various governmental
services and departments represent application of availabilities, after fixed
charges have been accounted for, to the present program of development.
The Garde d'Haiti is charged with the police and military functions
of the republic. This organization expended Gdes. 6,368,579.33 during the
year under review, somewhat less than in both 1927-28 and 1926-27.
Decreased expenditures during the year were due in part to smaller pay-
ments for acquisition of property, but also to the practice of rigid economies.
That this service has maintained order and security throughout the republic
upon virtually the same financial basis over a period of three years merits
the highest commendation. In order to carry out the purposes of the treaty
of September 15, 1916, an increase in expenditures during future years
will be necessary.
Expenditures of the Department of Foreign Relations, amounting to
Gdes. 555,875.63 during 1928-29, were less than in the preceding year
chiefly due to decreased travelling expenses of diplomatic appointees.
Present expenditures of this department would seem sufficient for all
ordinary purposes.
The Department of Finance expended Gdes. 721,811.41 during the year
under review, which represented a proportionately large increase over its
costs for the year 1927-28. This was due in the main to expenditures con-
nected with the preparation of land legislation. Because pensions and
claims are provided for in the appropriations of the Department of Finance,
and as such payments are not uniform, little regularity has attached to
expenditures of this department. Claims, however, have steadily decreased
in importance over the period recorded on Table No. 47. Expenditures of
the Department of Commerce increased as between 1927-28 and the year
under review due to added costs of the postal administration incident to
the new air mail service, and increase in the volume of the ordinary mail.
Expenses of the Department of the Interior were greater than in 1927-28
as a result of special activity in connection with defining the Haitian-
Dominican boundary.
Expenditures of the Public Health Service during 1927-28 were Gdes.
4,435,428.67, which represented substantial increase over those effected
in the preceding year. In pursuance of a carefully formulated program,
activities of this service have consistently expanded over the period of the
Receivership, and have been of increasing benefit to the Haitian people.
Appreciation of the problems faced by the Public Health Service is best
gained from the reports of that organization, but the excellence of its
work in supplying treatment and eliminating the causes of disease is grate-
fully recognized throughout the Republic.
The Department of Public Works expended Gdes. 43,575.89 during the
year under review, proportionately more than in the preceding year due






82 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER--GENERAL RECEIVER

to increased payments on account of personnel. Expenditures from revenue
of the Public Works Service were Gdes. 9,621,862.65, and from the pro-
ceeds of the Series A Loan, Gdes. 914,152.25. Funds expended for con-
struction and repairs, irrespective of the department or service for which
the work is performed, are charged to the Public Works Service, excepting
only such expenditures as are effected from the five per cent fund of the
General Receiver and the operating allowance of the internal revenue
service (which during 1928-29 totalled Gdes. 329,616.67), and a very few
minor expenditures for construction and repairs made directly by other
services. In consequence the cost of public works is the largest single item
of governmental expenditure other than payments of fixed charges. Ex-
penditures effected during 1928-29 were considerably larger than in the
two preceding years following the extraordinary credits voted from surplus
revenues of 1927-28. Administration and operating costs were also some-
what increased. As a result of charging construction costs to the Public
Works Service, capital expenditures pertaining to activities of the other
departments and services are not included in the figures showing expenses
of those organizations. Construction and maintenance of roads, bridges
and trails, operation and extension of the telephone, telegraph and water
systems are among the particular responsibilities of the Public Works
Service as distinguished from services performed in behalf of other govern-
ment organizations. Development of the present system of highways and
trails has been of inestimable benefit to commerce and has intensified the
effectiveness of all governmental activity. Further capital expenditures for
construction are urgently needed and should be carried out so far as is now
possible bearing in mind present financial limitations both in connection
with original outlay and recurring charges.
Expenses of the Departments of Justice and Agriculture were slightly
less during the year under review than in 1927-28. It is believed that the
activities of both these Departments are adequately provided for.
Expenditures of the Agricultural Service during the year were Gdes.
2,815,688.95 which was greater than in the preceding year. The Depart-
ment of Labor expended Gdes. 595,387.22, slightly less than in 1927-28,
expenditures of this department being devoted to development of voca-
tional education. The Department of Public Instruction spent Gdes.
2,053,664.29 during the year under review, virtually the same amount as
in 1927-28. These organizations are grouped inasmuch as their combined
expenditures represent the operating costs of educational activity. Con-
sistent increases in expenditures for education are evidenced over the period
shown on Table No. 47. It should be recalled, however, that capital ex-
penditures (construction) for educational purposes are among those ap-
propriated to the Public Works Service. During the year under review, for
example, Gdes. 3,000,000.00 were voted for construction of industrial






HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


schools at Port-au-Prince (the first major development of this type provided
for at the capital city), while Gdes. 525,000.00 were appropriated for ex-
tension of the already considerable number of farm schools and industrial
schools in other parts of the country. In previous years large capital
expenditures have been devoted to construction of the central agricultural
school and rural farm schools.
During the past six years the entire educational system has been under-
going reorganization. The primary object is to establish industrial and
agricultural education of the type best suited to the needs of the country.
The conception of the dignity of labor as the foundation of wellbeing held
in other lands is neither understood nor recognized by many in Haiti.
Until professional and classical education are balanced by industrial and
agricultural education the development of the country must be left largely
to foreigners or in the hands of unskilled peasants. Under such conditions
a well-to-do middle class cannot be developed, and Haiti will continue as a
country wherein "the government is rich and the people poor." The first
step is the training of Haitian teachers in these new lines, and the difficul-
ties incident to this part of the program have been very great. Reorganiza-
Stion is proceeding as rapidly as the conditions permit, but at the present
writing the construction program for which funds have already been ap-
propriated, while well under way, is not by any means near completion.
Expenditures of the Department of Religion during 1928-29 were
Gdes. 516,093.20, a substantial increase over those of the preceding year.
Addition of two new bishoprics during the year accounted for the larger
costs of this department.
Total revenue receipts amounting to Gdes. 42,521,528.40 during the
year are compared with expenditures from revenue of Gdes. 44,119,503.94.
Expenditures from revenue thus exceeded revenues for the year by Gdes.
1,597,975.54 or 3.76 per cent. This of course proceeded mainly from the
severe decline in revenues combined with the larger expenditures of the
year which were undertaken primarily as a result of the large surplus
revenues of 1927-28.
On Table No. 48 total expenditures for the year under review are
classified by functions. This is the first time that such data have been
presented for a full fiscal year. The proportion of total expenditures devoted
to any one function would ostensibly denote its relative importance in the
governmental program. Total expenditures as classified on Table No. 48,
however, include extraordinary disbursements, most of which are of a
capital nature. Expenditure of a capital appropriation may be effected
in a short period or extended over two years. Thus the proportion of total
expenditures devoted to a given function may vary from year to year in
such manner as to suggest partial abandonment or disproportionate expan-
sion of certain phases of the governmental program, whereas no actual











TABLE No. 48

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Function Administration Re airs and Acquisition Fixed Trust fund Total Percentage
Function and of total
operation matenance of property charges repayments expenditures expenditures


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Legislative...................................... 846,195.53 1,375.00 3,811.75 .................. ................ 851,882.28 .78
Judicial..................................... 1,263,68.69 ,097.19 8,281.95 ................................. 1,27947.83 2.8
Executive:
General....................................... 861,102.91 312.696.27 130,344.16 379,259.05 .................. 1,683,402.39 3.74
Foreign affairs.............................. 553,246.93 8,415.32 11,254.33 50,322.55 .................. 618.239.13 1.7
Financial administration.................... 2,321,550.89 26,888.82 801,591.71 413,439.92 .................. 3.062,971.34 6.80
Trade promotion............................. 43586.75 46,829.98 169.520.23 .................................. 651,736.96 1.46
Health...................................... 3,253,245.81 162,347.35 873,792.18 44,267.85 .................. 4,33,65319 9.62
Police................................... 5,787,229.91 82,055.02 284.580.32 ................................. 6,103,865.25 13.55
Agricultural development................... 1,176,585.04 84,635.21 612,276.79 15,405.00 ................. 1,888,902.04 4.19
Fisheries ..................................... 49.00 5.00 40.00 ............. .. ............... 94.00 .00
Education................................... 3,980,809.62 41,505.21 788,191.88 130,753.85 .................. 4,886,260.56 10.85
Religion...................................... 388,468.20 90,636.17 .................. 52,050.00 .................. 531,154.37 1.18
Transportation............................... 31,165.91 1,384,552.64 1,716,015.63 .3.191,74.18 7.09
Transportation............................... 31,165.91 1,884,552.64 1,776,015.63 .................................... 3,191,734.18 7.09
Communications........................... 688,069.50 46,245.41 234,202.60 ................................. 968,517.51 2.15
Municipal:
Streets................................. 633,824.15 404,251.95 289,012.41 .................. ............ 1,26,588.51 2.95
Sewers and drains......................... 271.02 11,28584 838,65.97 ................. ................. 349,922.33 .78
Water service........................... 227,506.87 139,024.91 636,447.58 .................. .................. 1,002,979.36 2.23
Other municipal.................................................................................................
Currency and banking .............. ....................... ............... ............ 422,22.50 ................ .. 422322.50 .94
Public works................................. 1,089,107.00 174,938.07 108,049.85 .................................. 1,872,094.92 3.05
Non functional:
Public debt................................... ... .................. .................. 10,18,590.55 .................. 10,38,990.55 22.91
Pensions..................................... .................... ....... .............. 249,798.88 .................. 249,798.88 .55
Printing office and storehouses.............. 289,387.26 11,662.72* 55.758.74* ...........221,965.80 .49
Communes, individuals and companies...... .................. ................... .............................. .... 22,132.31 223,132.31 .50
Total expenditures.................. 23,276,270.99 2,952,622.14 6,505,020.60 12,076,610.15 223,132.31 45,033,656.19 100.00

*Credit.


M

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HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 85

change may have occurred. Appropriations, as shown on Table No. 46,
present perhaps a clearer expression of governmental intent that do actual
expenditures over a given period.
With due allowance for the foregoing considerations, it remains of in-
terest to note the division of expenditures during the fiscal year as
between various functions. Police functions accounted for 13.55 per cent
of all expenditures during 1928-29. Education, including capital expendi-
tures charged to the Public Works Service on Table No. 47, but combined
with those of the Agricultural Service and of the Departments of Labor
and Public Instruction on the table under discussion, was next in order,
taking 10.85 -per cent of all expenditures. Public health expenditures were
third in importance, accounting for 9.62 per cent, while construction and
maintenance of transportation facilities were fourth, taking 7.09 per cent
of total expenditures. Financial administration, including functional ex-
penditures of the Department of Finance, the Financial Adviser-General
Receiver and of the Internal Revenue Service took 6.80 per cent of the
total expenditures for the year. Agricultural development accounted for
4.19 per cent. Public debt payments, which are classified as non-functional,
were the largest for any one purpose, accounting for 22.91 per cent of the
total. The present public debt, as will be shown in succeeding discussion,
has been rapidly reduced in recent years, but this is not as yet reflected by
and change in debt charges.
Expenditures of the departments and services according to objects are
shown on Table No. 49. Administration and operation presented the
largest costs, absorbing 51.69 per cent of all expenditures. Fixed charges
were second in importance, taking 26.81 per cent of the total expended.
Acquisition of property accounted for 14.44 per cent of expenditures
effected during the year, while repairs and maintenance accounted for
6.56 per cent. For such period as it may become necessary to curtail
capital expenditures due to the coffee situation, expenditures for acquisi-
tion of property may be expected to diminish. On Table No. 50 administra-
tive and operating expenditures are shown in detail. Salaries represented
the largest item, 70.86 per cent of expenditures for administration and
operation having been disbursed for personnel. Supplies were next in
importance, accounting for 16.86 per cent, while transportation absorbed
6.83 per cent of the expenditures under discussion. The segregation of
expenditures by objects as included in both Table No. 49 and Table No.
50 represents somewhat of a departure from the previous method of report-
ing disbursements. A full year's expenditures classified under the new
system are presented for the first time in the present report. Consequently
comparison of the amounts expended under the new sub-divisions as be-
tween two fiscal years will not be possible until the close of 1929-30.
















TABLE No. 49
CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES
FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Department or service. Adm. and
operation


Gourdes
General receiver................ ................................. 1,250,159.66
Internal revenue service........................................ 671,178.86
Public debt................... .. .. .............. ..... .............
Subventions ................. ............................... ................
Guard...................................................... 6,237,753.77
Foreign relations ............................................... 541,205.98
Finances ........................................................ 439,420.40
Commerce............................................ .... 327.890.24
Interior.............. ................................. 1,220,067.87
Public health service............................................ 8,276,605.29
Public works..................................................... 43.024.64
Public works service..... ........................... 2,483,861.28
Justice......... ......... ....................................... 1,289,28.04
Agriculture...................................................... 39.034.23
Agricultural service.............................................. 2,382.167.27
Labor .... *****........................................ 487,045.84
Public instruction ............................................... 1,983,577.08
Religion.................... ................................... 888,468.20

Total exp. from revenue................................... 23,060,693.65
Non fiscal......................................................... 215,577.34

Total expenditures........................................ 23,276,270.99
Percentage ......... ........................................ 51.69


Repairs and
maintenance


Gourdes
24,027.32
2,161.50


83,389.72
8,415.82
1,200.00
225.95
3,174.75
186,959.38
125.00
2,670,949.95
200.00

11,570.10
1,906.70
822.92
75,575.00

2,965,703.61
18,081.47*


Acquisition
of property


Gourdes
238,038.92
65,888.93
.... ... ...........

97,435.84
11,254 83
8,163.86
1,623.82
16,814.51
645,207.65
426.25
4,467,051.42
8,281.95
440.90
350,109.58
89,234.68
17,024.39
............. ......

8,016.496.53
488,524.07


2,952,622.14 6,505,020.60
6.56 14.44


*Credit


Fixed charges


Trust fund
repayments


? I -


Gourdes
352.476.50
60,352.65
10,741,313.05
50,322.55
.............. ....
... .... .... ..
278,027.15
..................
25,500.00
876,656.85

..................
8,630.00
71,842.00
17.200.00
52.239.90
52,050.00

12,076,610.15
..................


12,076,610.15
26.81


Gourdes
..................
.................
.................
..................
..................
..... I..
..................
......... ........
.............. ..
. ............. ..
.................
..................
...... . ..........
..................

..................
.. 1........... ..
..................
223,132.31


223,182.81
0.50


Total


Gourdes
1,864,702.40
799,076.94
10,741,313.05
50,822.55
6,868,579.33
555,875.63
721,811.41
829,789.51
1,265,557.18
4,435,428.67
43,575.89
9,6U1,862.65
1,297,719.99
43,105.13
2,815,688.95
593,387.22
2,059,664.29
516,093.20

44.119,503.94
914,15225

45,033,656.19
100.00


-1


* Credit













TABLE No. 50
CLASSIFICATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION EXPENDITURES BY DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES. FISCAL YEAR 1928-29


Department or service Salaries and Supplies and Transportation Communication Rents Special and Total
wages materials Service miscellaneous


Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Receiver General........................... 1,090,941.64 83,504.91 63,030.93 778.50 8,105.10 8,798.58 1,250,159.66
Internal Revenue service...................... 435,593.44 186,261.64 82,629.87 119.40 963.60 15,605.91 671,173.86
Public debt.................. ............... ................. ..... ......... ............ .... ..... .......... .................. .................. ..................
Subventions.................................... .... ... ..................................... .................................... ..................
Guard.......................................... 8,711,831.07 1,997,858.63 419,710.44 57,343.75 1,819.42* 52,829.30 6,237,753.77
Foreign relations............................. 454,841.22 13,823.71 50,935.90 14,105.15 ................. 7,500.00 541,205.98
Finances.................................. 257,478.27 128,707.37 17,296.80 25,629.43 15.00 10,293.53 439.420.40
Commerce................................. 169,569.68 58,962.77 93,754.09 2,822.05 1,920.00 861.65 827,890.24
Interior.............................. ...... 1.041,610.14 53,247.64 91,173.33 11,179.68 800.00 22,057.08 1,220,067.87
Public health service......................... 1,995,562.70 823,067.00 898,126.68 14,063.95 7,015.75 88,769.21 3,276,605.29
Public works................................ 89,240.00 2.674.64 850.00 565.00 .................. 195.00 43,024.64
Public works service........................... 1,91,517.77 219,982.82 166,675.17 49,450.24 15,797.57 640,437.71 2,483,861.28
Justice ................................. 1,222,696.90 14.936.10 1,193.50 18,939.55 29,847.37 1,624.62 1,289,288.04
Agriculture................................. 85,048.86 2,798.57 669.00 418.30 .................. 100.00 39,084.23
Agricultural service........................ 1,726,710.64 248,993.05 858,867.67 16,604.15 6,295.75 29,696.01 2,882,167.27
Labor........................................ 423,623.41 207,926.54 146,747.73* 2,016.60 655.25 428.23* 487,045.84
Public Instruction.......................... 1.754,767.27 41,502.40 20,222.35 9,915.15 154,945.61 2,224.30 1,983,577.08
Religion ....................................... 46,909.87 8,022.98 82,583.75 466.60 485.00 .................. 888,468.23
Total expenditures from revenue....... 16,097,942.38 4,042,270.77 1,645,471.75 224,417.50 220,026.58 830,564.67 23,060,693.65
Non fiscal...................................... 896,688.48 119,286.62* 56,260.60* 148.75 1,720.50 7,433.17* 215,577.84
Total expenditures...................... 16,494,630.86 8,922,984.15 1,589,211.15 224,566.25 221,747.08 823,131.50 23,276,270.99
Percentage......................... .......... 70.86 16.86 6.83 .96 .95 3.54 100.00


* Credit.


I r- - I


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0





m
ia
0
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02

02
02
02
M2
02
0
02








88 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER


Table No. 51 shows reimbursements to appropriations. Various govern-
mental organizations receive returns from the sale of materials or from
services rendered which operate under the law to increase certain of their
credits. Such reimbursements during the year under review were sub-
stantially greater than in 1927-28. This was due in part to the fact that a
number of budgetary credits were made reimbursable in the latter part of
1927-28. A large portion of the reimbursements shown on Table No. 51
reflect merely transfers of funds from certain government services to others.
Consequently the data shown on the table under discussion do not indicate
more extended activities than those noted in the general discussion of
expenditures.
TABLE No. 51

REIMBURSEMENTS TO APPROPRIATIONS
FISCAL YEARS 1925-26 TO 1928-29


General Receiver........ ......
Internal Revenue.................
Finance:
Pensions....................... .......
Public Health Service:
Materials and supplies...............
Medical school....................
Sanitation and quarantine.........
Hospitals ..... ...............
Aid to hurricane sufferers...........
Gendarmerie:
Rations......... ............. ..
Operation and maintenance.......
Prisons................. ...........
Coast guard and light houses........
Rural police ......................
Public Works Service:
Public buildings........... .....
School houses...................
Streets and parks....................
Roads, trails and bridges............
Water service...................
Materials and supplies...............
Agricultural Service:
Administration..... ............
Central experimental farm..........
Breeding station.....................


1925-26


1926-27


1927-28


1928-29


1*.I_______-1 1


Gourdes Gourdes
1,102.15 3,445.90
.. . ..... ... .. ..........


27,069.54
185,139.06
126.590.67

83,452.84
624,851.89
583.45
9,093 20
................


106,890.39
87,742.57
o................
121.00
14,078.90
493.50


9,725.37
75,000.00
129,861.94
146,525.91

49,084.84
674,066.14
129.48
28,829.35
.... ............


127,573.11
..............
87,166.15
................
216.80
29,452.16
4,478.70


Gourdes
10,221.26
915.46
92,066.19
17,527.57
95,188.58
170,573.18
4,504.80
115,517.40
402,173.04
5,584.32
988.80
8.90
2,410.77
169,622.79
27,427.98
58,840.18
520.89
1,089.20
46,903.59
10,033.65


Gourdes
19,956.71
5,933 75
165,599.63
53,353.97
50.245.60
96,659.17
190,503.24
19,501.22
106,894.90
414,840.26
69,276.54
15,032.99
625.15
34,835.29
82.50
167,975.95
4,084.14
43,181.23
8,291.34
1,176.34
51,569.43
3,603.97


Coffee experimental station ..................... .............. .. 848.50 261.50
Sylviculture....................... 5,726.84 8,731.40 29,253.10 46,296.93
Cooperative demonstration farms... .............................. 486.50 5,766.15
Rural farm schools....... .... ..... 2,271.09 971.00 2,792.10 6,143.57
Agricultural college.................. 18,243.67 31,114.84 15,430.99 23,728.61
Development of foreign markets.... .............. ................ 2,370.20 4,569.70
Printing plant.................. ... ................ ................ 43,690.75 82,854.15
Soil analysis ............ ..... ................................ 1,085.07 1,646 60
Veterinary clinics............ ... ................ ................ 142.00 246.15
Labor:
Reform school....................... 9,299.80 68,694.60 247,142.56 361,207.00
Elie Dubols school................... 2,018.85 2.001.60 2,908.30 4.67125
J. B. Damler school............... 9,279.00 14,865.88 2,211.40 6,203.57
Industrial school Gonaives............... .......... 686.10 15,568.10 7,771.72
Industrial school Jacmel.................................. 22.20 1,29510 2,861.50
Industrial school Cap Haltlen....... ..................... ......... 200.00 678.60
Industrial school Jeremie............ ................................ 200.00 270.00
Industrial school Saint Marc........ ............................. 312.00 7.162.85
Total.....................1. 1,208,547.91 1,442,443.47 1,597,484.67 2,085,062.97


Table No. 52 shows receipts and expenditures by months for the year
under review. Operating and capital expenditures were for the most part





HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER 89






TABLE No. 52

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1928-29

Receipts

October November December January February March April May June July August September Total

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
Customs.................................. 4,877,847.79 4,620,094.58 4,410,265.07 3,586,193.19 2,897,206.45 2,640,030.70 2,681,417.88 2,316,319.18 1,804,732.42 1,928.236.97 1,568,188.21 1,917,117.56 35,247,650.00
Internal revenue.......................... 641,883.07 344,161.29 667,751.67 786,140.51 525,952.46 511,275.93 745,263.73 458,411.81 330.567.45 878,971.19 312,381.82 387,503.87 6,035,26480
Miscellaneous............................. 233,144.85 76,995.45 98,263.60 66,514.35 91,829.05 77,491.65 182,762.50 76,625.25 94,456.25 67,614.10 101,071.40 71,845.15 1,238,613.60
Total revenue................ ...... 5,752,875.71 5,041,251.82 5,176,280.84 4,888,848.05 8,514,987.96 8,228,798.28 3,609,444.11 2,851,856.24 2,229,756.12 2,869,822.26 1,981,641.43 2,376,466.58 42,521,528.40
Non fiscal receipts..................... .. .............. ................ ................ ............... ................ ................ ................ ............... ... ............... ................ .......... ...
Total receipts....................... 5,752,875.71 5,041,251.32 5,176,280.84 4,888,848.05 8,514,987.96 8,228,798.28 8,609,444.11 2,851,856.24 2,229,756.12 2,369,822.26 1,981,641.43 2,376,466.58 42,521,528.40

Expenditures

October November December January February March April May June July August September Total

Public debt: Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
General receiver ...................... 129,555.39 142,770.55 120.174.88 184,655.71 122,198.89 124,201.92 155,380.43 117,579.88 107,833.50 106,869.92 120,166.21 483.796.12 1,864,702.40
Internal revenue....................... 40,472.73 41,664.82 51,699.56 67,177.05 41,681.79 66.399.18 48,147.05 51,751.88 51,721,18 52,015.49 61,994.60 225,852.11 799,076.94
Series A loan............ ............... 6,437,907.85 7,500.00 529,383.00 5,000.60 6,115.50 2,506.00 ............ ...... ......... ...... ........ 625.00 10,158.15 ................ 6,999,195.50
Series B loan........................... 499,138.81 281,787.05 48,230.00 200,604.10 600,988.70 214,720.85 39,119.35 156,062.45 15,017.50 110,961.19 ................ ............. 2,166,625.00
Series C loan............................ 1,064,000.05 ... ............ 87,281.25 ...........849.85 ................ ........................................... ......... ....1,038.90 ................ 1,153,170.05
Fiduciary currency..................... 37,322.50 35,000.00 35 ,000.00 835,000.00 85,000.00 35,000.00 85,000.00 85,000.00 35,000.00 35,000.00 35,000.00 422,322.50
International institutions............... ................ 1,905.60 22,827.00 8,275.00 ................ 659.10 1,044.75 ................ 5,896.85 ................ 18,333.85 1,880.90 50,322.55
Total public debt ................. 8,208,397.83 510,627.52 894,595.19 445,711.86 806,829 23 443.487.05 278.691.58 860,394.21 214.988.53 804,47160 241,691.71 745,529.13 18,455,414.94
Guard........................................ 429,805.94 464,371.41 544,232.08 521.837.02 600,047.67 489.808.97 524,370.77 621,226.48 519,754.44 522,785.66 570,923.51 559.915.43 6,868.579.33
Foreign relations ........................... 32,140.86 56,883.38 56,289.11 50,902.41 43,265.56 42,592.71 41,959.13 42.282.61 48,669.80 46,070.63 45,187.05 50,172.88 555,875.63
Finance ................................... 26,742.58 34,766.87 87,848.59 63,176.86 183,481.61 51,591.45 61,811.11 49,702.35 55.242.14 41,106.59 54,846.01 62,495.25 721,811.41
Commerce........................ ......... 20,100.64 21,806.51 20,665.79 21,08810 23,891.51 34,516.88 88,163.61 21,969.26 35,847.52 32.597.64 23,914.66 85,182.89 829,739.51
Interior............. .................... 88,742.99 91,805.45 103,118.33 91,866.74 90,721.07 89,702.31 102,558.28 88.923.86 120,300.78 145,981.00 125.454.20 126,882.12 1,265,557.18
Sanitaryservice........................... 270,902.83 488,680.65 407.961.42 436,565.27 884,971.48 810,454.77 301,243.74 863,924.03 867,64583 407,907.25 825,473.64 369.69776 4,435,428.67
Public works............................... 3270 00 3,585.90 8,599.10 3,415.45 8,680.10 3.610.15 8.660.50 3.280.09 3.615.20 8,652.00 8,315.00 4.892.40 43.575.89
Public works service........................ 656.253.88 852,970.55 827,819.11 780,178.52 750,80973 796,633.66 785.530.81 785,850,21 753.010.76 894,21811 891.677.60 847,909.71 9,621,862.65
Justice.... ............................. 103,647.16 107,106.26 107,920.04 108,855.73 109,262.21 107,978.18 105,883.47 108,515.67 108,380 3 107.598.68 108,450 37 114,121.94 1,297,719.99
Agriculture.... 3.303.08 8,330.00 4.054.42 8,830.00 3,735.74 3,684.10 3,358.15 3,456.10 8.740.25 3,653 84 8,600.55 3,859.40 43,105.13
Agricultural service........................ 264,604.98 299,845.13 225,492.89 220,844.40 210,566.86 196,919.19 242,710,88 220 818.71 240,970.91 216.795.86 180,341.54 295,778.15 2,815,68895
Labor................................... 51,039.04 44,558.71 88,633.95 30,861.24 88,241.32 57.356.40 38,447.12 50,226.08 27,027.86 55,242.83 58,12206 105,630.61 595.387.22
Public instruction................. .......... 187,753.93 192,402.6 166,070.87 171,22044 174994.53 175,19.88 172,457.04 170,837.86 169,759.97 170,247.72 17.07601 17,024.18 2,053,664.29
Religion................................. 28,123.96 58,191.87 38,986.99 40,107.07 42,442.24 84,781.15 108,957.75 87,401.86 33,193.99 81,835.83 82,002.84 35,068.15 516,093.20
Total revenue payments............ 10,324,328.70 8,230,482.57 3,472.297.88 2,989,456.11 8,466,440.36 2,888,486.85 2,809,803.89 2,927,809.33 2,702,148.31 2,984,164.69 2,840,526.25 3,534,159.50 44,119,503.94
Miscellaneous................... ......... 120,462.74 244,921.24 98,379.53 54.978.67* 88,602.46 87,079.76* 146,179.99 62,082.80* 187,107.14 202,791.60 8,434.44* 83,283.22 914,152.25
Total payments................... 10,444,791.44 3,475,853.81 8,570,677.41 2,934,477.44 8,505,042.82 2,751,856.59 2,955,483.88 2,865,726 58 2,889.255.45 8,186.956.29 2,837,091.81 3,617,442.72 45,033.656.19
Revenue receipts................. 5,752,875.71 5,041,251.32 5,176,280.34 4,888,848.05 8,514,987.96 3,228,798.28 3,609,444.11 2,851,856.24 2,229,756.12 2,869.822.26 1,981,641 48 2,76 466.58 42.521.528.40
Expenditures from revenue .............. 10,24,328.70 8,230,432.57 8,472,297.88 2,989,456.11 8,466.440.86 2,888,436.85 2,809,803.89 2,927,809.33 2,702,148.81 2,983,164.69 2,840,526.25 3,534,159.50 44,119,503.94
Difference....................... ........ 4,571,452 99t 1,810,818.75 1,708,982.46 1,399,391.94 48.547.60 890,361.93 800,140.22 76,453.09 472,892.19 614,842.43t 858,884.82t 1.157.692.92t 1,597,975.54t
Cumulative revenue....................... 5,752.875.71 10,94,127.03 15.970,407.87 20,359,255.42 23,874,243.88 27,103,04166 80,712,485.77 33.563,84201 85,793.598.13 88.163.420.39 40,145.061.82 42.521.528.40 42,521,528.40
Cumulative payments from revenue....... 10,324,828.70 1,3554.761.27 17,027,059.15 20,016.515.26 23,482,960.62 26,821,891.97 29,150,695.86 82,058,505.19 84,760,653.50 87,744,818.19 40,585,844.44 44,119,508.94 44,119,503.94
Difference.................................. 4,571,452.99 2,760,634.24t 1,056,651.78t 842,740.16 891,282.76 781,649.69 1,581,789.91 1,505,836.82 1,032,944.63 410,602.20 440,282.62t 1,597,975.544 1,597,975.54+

Credit. t Deficit.






90 HAITI: REPORT OF FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER

evenly distributed, the notable exceptions being October, February and Sep-
tember. Concentration of public debt payments in October explains the
larger expenditures effected during that month, while large payments of
the same type were made during February. Expenditures in September
represented liquidation of accounts at the close of the year.
By way of summarizing discussion of receipts and expenditures, Table
No. 53 shows annual revenues and expenditures together with resulting sur-

TABLE No. 53
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES AND EXCESS OF REVENUES OR EXPENDITURES
FISCAL YEARS 1916-17 TO 1928-29

Year Revenues Expenditures Surplus Deficit

Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes Gourdes
1916-17................................. 18,934,684.70 15,884,177.80 3,050,506.90 ................
1917-18................................. 16,048,890.75 14,614,997.45 1,433,393.80 ............
1918-19............................ 29,955,933.45 15.499,480.45 14,456,453.00 ................
1919-20................................. 33,997,4 50.79 20.646,866.25 13,350,584.54 ............
1920-21.............................. 19,946,095.70 82,788,455.90 ................ 12,842,860.20
1921-22............. ................... 24,964 795.72 89,775,908.40 .............. 14,811,112.68
1922-23................................ 31,950,101.24 30,560,118.15 1,89,988.09 ............
1923-24.............. .......... ....... 32,902 321.83 84,215,495.94 ................ 3,174.61
1924-25................................ 40,487,667.00 89,218,202.02 1,269.464.98 ...............
1925-26.................................. 45,364,648.10 40.930,725.08 4,433,923.02 ................
1926-27...... ......................... 38.861,534.79 89,747,163.75 ................ 885,628.96
1927-28 ................ .............. 50,421,016.49 40,977,914.49 9,443,102.00 ................
1928-29.................................. 42,521,628.40 44,119,503.94 ................ 1,597,975.54
Total............................. 426,356,168.46 408,979,004.62 48,827,415.88 81,450,251.99
Surplus for period...................................... 17,877,163.81 ..............


pluses or deficits over the period of the Receivership. The net surplus for
the period has been Gdes. 17,377,163.84. The large surpluses for the first
two years following the world war, and the large deficits for the suc-
ceeding two years of course resulted from the abnormal conditions which
characterized that four year period. The deficits shown for 1926-27 and
for the year under review proceeded from virtually the same causes, namely,
expenditures effected from surplus revenues carried over from an imme-
diately preceding year during which revenues had been unusually large.
Revenues for 1929-30 may not even approximate those for the year under
review. Continuation of expenditures on the present scale therefore points
to a deficit for 1929-30.

TREASURY POSITION

Assets and liabilities of the Haitian Government as of the close of the
past six fiscal years are shown on Table No. 54. Only cash assets are
presented though valuable properties including real estate and equipment
are owned by the state. All uncertain items which perhaps might be
deemed proper to include as cash assets have been omitted; on the other
hand, care has been taken to include all admissible current liabilities.




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