Annual reports of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti, to the Secretary of State; Rpts. 1-8, 1923-29...

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Annual reports of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti, to the Secretary of State; Rpts. 1-8, 1923-29 (UMI has rpts. 1-8.. CLL has #1&8 only, already scanned)
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Annex F1926 .U57  v. 1/8 1923/1929

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PUBLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE LATIN AMERICAN SERIES, No. 3
EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER AT PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI
TO
THE SECRETARY OF STATE
1929
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1930
For lale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Price 15 centu


Publication No. 76
U1> UBRART


CONTENTS
Report of the High Commissioner
I'atre
General statement----------------------------------------------------- 3
Events of interest during the year----------------------------------- 3
Boundary settlement----------------------------------------- 3
Emigration_________________------------------------------------ 4
President's message_____________________________________________ 4
Changes in Cabinet______________________________________________ 4
Commercial conventions and agreements--------------------------- 4
Judiciary_______________________________________________________ *
The cadastral survey-------------------------------------------- 4
National elections_______________________________________________ 5
New crops_____________________________________________________ 5
Negotiable instrument law--------------------------------------- 6
Economy______________________________________________________ 6
Civil service---------------------------------------------------- 6
Students' strike and the declaration of martial law-------------------- 6
Causes of disorders______________________________________________ 6
Loyalty of Government employees-------------------------------- 9
The Cayes incident______________________________________________ 9
Disorders in other localities_______________________________________ 11
Martial law____________________________________________________ H
L'essons of the strike_____________________________________________ 11
Schools reopened________________________________________________ 12
President Borno's proclamation----------------------------------- 12
United States forces_______________________________________________ 13
Garde d'Haiti_____________________________________________________ 13
Achievements-------------------------------------------------- 13
The Garde and the attempted general strike------------------------ 15
Organization and duties___________------------------------------ 15
Personnel______________________________________________________ 17
Communications________________________________________________ 17
Police services, and fire and traffic control-------------------------- 17
Communal administration---------------------------------------- 18
Marksmanship__________________________________________________ 18
Construction--------------------------------------------------- 18
Coast guard____________________________________________________ 18
Finances_________________________________________________________ 18
Achievements of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver_____________ 18
Problems confronting the office of the Financial Adviser_____________ 19
Activities of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver during the fiscal year 1928-29_____________________________________ 20
Internal revenue service__________________________________________ 22
Auditing and accounting----------------------------------------- 22
Government finances----------------------------------_--------- 23
Treasury position___-------------------------------------------- 23
Public debt_____________________________________________________ 23
Budget for 1929-30______________________________________-_______ 23
Economic conditions_____________________________________________ 23
Foreign trade___________________________________________________ 24
Public Works_____________________________________________________ 25
Reiumt of achievements since 1915________________________________ 25
Personnel______________________________________________________ 27
in


rv
contents
Public WorksContinued. Page
Expenditures___________________________________________________ 28
Public buildings service----i------------------------------------- 28
Municipal engineering service------------------------------------- 28
Irrigation service________________________________---------------- 29
Roads, bridges, and trails service------------..--------------------- 29
Shop, supply, and transportation service___________________________ 31
Harbor improvement service______________________________________ 31
Telephone, telegraph, and radio service____________________________ 31
Cadastral administration service__________________________________ 32
Public Health____________________________________________________ 32
Accomplishments of the National Public Health Service in the last ten
years________________________________________________________ 32
Record program of the Public Health Service in 1929---------------- 34
Hospitals, dispensaries, and rural clinics---------------------------- 34
Division of laboratories__________________________________________ 35
Division of quarantine and sanitation______________________________ 35
Division of education__________________________________________-, 35
Division of legal medicine and vital statistics----------------------- 36
Division of supplies and transportation____________________________ 36
Division of personnel______________------------------------------ 36
Division of finance______________________________________________ 36
Service Technique------------------------------------------------- 36
Program_______________________________________________________ 36
Accomplishments in the past five years----------------------------- 39
Outstanding developments in the fiscal year 1928-29---------------- 41
Personnel______________________________________________________ 41
Enrollment in schools-------------------------------------------- 41
Inventory of property------------------------------------------- 41
Expenditure---------------------------------------------------- 41
Normal training------------------------------------------------ 42
Conclusion_______________________________________________________ 43
Appendices: Summaries of Annual Reports of the Heads of Departments
Appendix I: Garde d'Haiti----------------------------------------- 47
Functions______________________________________________________ 47
Target practice------------------------------------------------- 47
Military communications_________________________________________ 47
Police duties and fire protection----------------------------------- 47
Traffic control__________---------------------------------------- 48
Military intelligence--------------------------------------------- 48
Control of the possession of firearms_______________________________ 48
Communes------------------------------------------------r---- 48
Personnel___________________________--------------------------- 48
Officers______________________________________________________ 48
Enlisted men------------------------------------------------- 48
Training of Haitian personnel___________________________________ 49
Total strength of Garde________________________________________ 49
Administrative accomplishments________________------------------ 49
Publication of Regulations_____________________________________ 49
Lighting plant at La Gonave___________________________________ 49
Radio equipment--------------------------------------------- 49


contents V
Appendix I: Garde d'HaitiContinued. Page
Quartermaster department--------------------------------------- 50
Building program_____________________________________________ 50
Motor transport___________________________------------------- 50
Commendations and decorations-------------------------------- 50
Medical department_____________________________________________ 50
Training of Haitian personnel-------------------------.--------- 50
Services rendered_____________________________________________ 501
Health of Garde_______________________________________________ 50
Care of prisoners and insane____________________________________ 51
Coast guard---------------------------------------------------- 51
Navigational aids_____________________________________________ 51
Motor launches_______________________________________________ 51
Appendix II: Office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver---------- 52
Foreign commerce_______________________________________________ 52
Customs service_________________________________________________ 54
Internal revenue service__________________________________________ 54
Receipts_______________________________________________________ 54
Expenditures___________________________________________________ 55
Treasury position_______________________________________________ 55
Public debt_____________________________________________________ 55
Supplies______________________________________________--------- 56
Budget and financial law_________________________________________ 56
Accounting_____________________________________________________ 56
Auditing_______________________________________________________ 56
Currency_______________________________________________________ 56
Banking and credit______________________________________________ 56
Personnel_____________________________------------------------- 57
Appendix III: Department of Public Works-------------------------- 58
Corps of Haitian commissioned engineers and architects-------------- 58
Personnel in general_____________________________----------------- 58
Fire-__^____________________________________----------------- 58
Expenditures____________________________________--------------- 59
Communal funds_____________________------------------------- 59
Public buildings service------------------------------------------ 59
Buildings for the Garde d'Haiti__________________________________ 59
Buildings for the Financial Adviser-General Receiver----_--------- 59
Buildings for the Public Works Administration___________________ 60
Buildings for the National Public Health Service------------------ 60
Buildings for the Service Technique_____________________________ 60
Other State buildings__________________________________________ 60
Municipal engineering service_____________________________________ 60
Water works_________________________________________________ 60
Well drilling__________________________________________________ 61
Streets_______________________________________________________ 61
Parks________________________________________________________ 61
Drains_______________________________________________________ 61
Street lighting________________________________________________ 62
Building permits______________________________________________ 62
Irrigation service________________________________________________ 62
Hydrographic works___________________________________________ 62
Roads, bridges, and trails service__________________________________ 62
Vehicular trail system__________________________________________ 62
Rainfall damage______________________________________________ 63
Modern machinery____________________________________________ 63
Road improvements___________________________________________ 63


vi
contents
Appendix III: Department of Public WorksContinued.
Roads, bridges, and trails serviceContinued. Page
Trails_____.___________________________________________________ 63
Road location surveys_________________________________________ 63
Road construction_____________________________________________ 63
Bridge maintenance, repair, and improvement-------------------- 63
Bridge construction___________________________________________ 64
Shop, supply, and transportation service___________________________ 64
Shops.. J____________________________________________________ 64
Storehouses__________________________________________________ 64
Transportation_______________________________________________ 64
Construction_____________________ _____________________________ 64
Maintenance_________________________________________________ 64
Telephone, telegraph, and radio service---------------------------- 64
Total revenue. _---------------------------------------------- 65
Expenditures for maintenance and operation______________________ 65
Expenditures for monthly salaries_______________________________ 65
Telephone offices___________________________________________--- 65
New construction;__________________________________________ 65
Radio_______________________________________________________ 66
Cadastral administration service----------------------------------- 66
National Railroad Company-------------------------------------- 66
Mining concession at Terre-Neuve_________________________________ 66
Appendix IV: Department of Public Health-------------------------- 67
Division of hospitals, dispensaries, and rural clinics------------------ 67
Division of laboratories------------------------------------------ 68
Division of quarantine and sanitation------------------------------ 68
Division of education____________________________________________ 69
Division of legal medicine and vital statistics----------------------- 70
Division of supplies and transportation---------------------------- 70
Division of personnel-------------------------------------------- 70
Division of finance---------------------------------------------- 71
Appendix V: Service Technique------------------------------------- 72
Personnel______________________________________________________ 72
Enrollment in Service Technique schools------.-------------------- 72
Increased value of property-------------------------------------- 74
Ecole Centrale_______________________'--------------------------- 74
Policy of the school___________________________________________ 74
Total enrollment______________________________________________ 74
Student aid__________________________________________________ 74
Courses------------------------------------------------------ 75
Department of industrial education________________________________ 75
Major projects------------------------------------------------ 75
Industrial schools--------------------------------------------- 76
Evening schools-----------:------------------------------------ 77
Service Technique garage-------------------------------------- 77
Department of rural farm schools--------------------------------- 77
School gardens------------------------------------------------ 77
Manual training---------------------------------------------- 78
Enrollment in rural farm schools------'--------------------------- 78
Courses______________________________________________________ 79
Evening schools----------------------------------------------- 79
Secondary agricultural school at Plaisance------------------------ 79
Agricultural extension------------------------------------------- 80
Work in agricultural rehabilitation______________________________ 80


contents VII
Appendix V: Service TechniqueContinued.
Agricultural extensionContinued. Page
Agricultural agents____________________________________________ 80
Veterinary clinics_____________________________________________ 80
Agricultural and industrial fairs_________________________________ 81
Educational moving pictures___________------------------------ 81
Printing department_____________________________________________ 81
Experiment stations_____________________________________________ 82
Permanent improvements______________________________________ 82
Crops________________________________________________________ 82
Animal husbandry____________________________________________ 82
Swine________________________________________________________ 82
Poultry______________________________________________________ 82
Breeding posts________________________________________________ 82
Botanical department____________________________________________ 82
Department of chemistry________________________________________ 83
Department of entomology and zoology---------------------------- 83
The year's projects-------------------------------------------- 83
Beekeeping____________________________________________________ 84
Department of horticulture_______________________________________ 84
Veterinary department___________________________________________ 84
Livestock station at Hinche_______________----------------------- 85
Coffee experiment station_________________----------------------- 85
Department of forests and fisheries________________________________ 86
Department of markets____________---------------r-------------- 86
Commercial information________________----------------------- 86
Exportation of minor products---------------------------------- 87
Graphs Showing the Rapid Progress Made toward the Rehabilitation of the Country as to Public Debt, Revenues, Etc.
No. 1. Public Debt______________________________________________ 91
No. 2. Revenues of Haiti by sources________---- ____________________ 92
No. 3. Customs receipts "A"Percentage cost of collections "B"------ 93
No. 4. Revenues and expenditures therefrom.----------------------- 94
No. 5. Unobligated Treasury surplus------------------------------- 94
No. 6. Values of imports by principal commodities------------------- 95
No. 7. Values of exports by principal commodities------------------- 96
No. 8. Value of imports by registry of carrying vessels--------------- 97
No. 9. Value of exports by registry of carrying vessels---------------- 98
No. 10. Garde d'Haiti_____________________________________________ 99
No. 11. Development of public works as indicated by distribution of
expenditures____________________________________________ 100
No. 12. Growth of telephone system, Port au Prince------------------ 101
No. 13. Commercial receipts, telephone-telegraph--------------------- 102
No. 14. Bridges___________________________________________________ 103
No. 15. RoadsRural schools and dispensaries constructed------------ 104
No. 16. Private constructions, cost therefor, Port au Prince------------ 105
No. 17. Service d'Hygiene: Expenditures for hospitals and sanitation--- 106
No. 18. Service d'Hygiene: Hospital patients------------------------- 107
No. 19. Service d'Hygiene: Out-patients, including rural dispensaries and
clinics_________________________________________--------- 108
No. 20. Service Technique de l'Agriculture___________________________ 109
No. 21. Automobiles registered_____________________________________ 110


REPORT OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER




REPORT OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER
Port au Pkince, January 8,1930.
The Honorable
The Secretakt of State,
Washington, D. G. I
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report covering the conduct of my special mission to the Republic of Haiti during the past calendar year.
General Statement
The fiscal period ending September 30, 1929, despite less favorable financial and commercial conditions than in 1927-28, was a fairly prosperous one and Avas marked by the execution of productive developments certain to add to the wealth of the Republic. The unobligated surplus of the treasury was the highest on record. The long-standing difficulties between the Haitian Government and the P. C. S. Railroad and the National Railroad were finally in process of satisfactory settlement. The long-needed coffee standardization act was drafted and placed in operation. The coffee cropthe economic mainstay of the countrywas good, and future prospects were bright.
Unfortunately, in October came the collapse of coffee prices, and the outlook for 1930 is one of some economic distress and retrenchment for the Government, business, and the rjopulation. This distress is being mitigated, however, by the capital brought in and new wealth afforded by productive developments of several large-scale agricultural and other projects.
Politically, the end of the year was marred by abortive revolutionary disorders. These disorders were quickly and quietly suppressed with but one incident of bloodshed and were the occasion of a display of loyalty of the majority of the personnel of the Government departments and services. The masses of the population were untouched by the agitators.
Events or Interest During the Year
Boundary settlement.This vexatious question that had for many years been a source of annoyance to both the Haitian and the Dominican Republics was definitely settled by the signing of the treaty of the 21st of January, 1929.
3


4 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
This amicable and just settlement should be a cause of joy to the peoples of both countries and is one of the outstanding accomplishments of President Borno's able administration. The mixed commission that is, in accordance with the provisions of the above-mentioned treaty, formed for the purpose of marking the border is pursuing its task and has already made definite progress.
Emigration.There has been no change in the emigration situation during the year. It is estimated that 3,100 emigrants left Haiti for Cuba and the Dominican Republic, but a large percentage of them returned after the close of the cane-cutting season. In view of the depressed economic condition of the country and consequent increased unemployment, the Haitian Government is considering the advisability of temporarily removing some of the restrictions now placed on emigration.
President's message.On the occasion of the convening of the Council of State in extraordinary session, on November 25. 1929, President Borno addressed to that body a message, the last paragraph of which reads as follows:
Gentlemen of the Council of State, I have awaited until the present session, in order to dissipate all possible uncertainty, to renew here the declaration that I have constantly made to you, that I have repeated to all who have interrogated me, that I am not a candidate for the presidential election of April, 3030.
This message is particularly important, as it definitely states President Borno's attitude in the coming presidential election.
C hanges in Cabinet.During the year the entire Cabinet was changed, the members of the old Cabinet being called to other Government posts.
Commercial conventions and agreements.The following international conventions and agreements were signed during the year:
Treaty of amity, perpetual peace, and arbitration, signed at
Santo Domingo, February 20, 1929, between Haiti and the
Dominican Republic; Convention regarding exchange of correspondence between the
American States, signed at Mexico City, November 9, 1926; Pact for outlawry of war (Kellogg pact), signed at Paris,
August 27, 1928; Convention signed at Habana, containing code of international
law, on February 20, 1929.
Judiciary.-There has been no material change in the status of the judiciary during the year under review. The problem of the reform of the judiciary is of absolutely fundamental importance for Haitian development.
The cadastral survey.As outlined in my report for last year, the Haitian Government decided to bring to Haiti one well qualified in


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 5
the preparation of land legislation in Latin American countries, with the view to the early preparation and enactment of pertinent legislation. Accordingly, Judge R. C. Round, who had had wide experience in such work and was highly recommended, came to Haiti on the request of the Haitian Government and drafted the required laws and projects.
Unfortunately, these well-thought-out plans did not meet with the entire approbation of the Haitian Government; but it is anticipated that during the coming year certain changes can be made that will overcome all objections, and that this much-needed legislation can be enacted into law.
National elections.On October 5,1929, President Borno addressed the following letter to all the prefects of the Republic:
Me. Prefect : In my message addressed to the Council of State in April of tlie past year, I did not hesitate to envisage as a possibility in 1030, the eventuality of the functioning of the legislative chambers; but I, in common with the whole country, had a right to expect that the wisdom of the opposition wou'd have helped me thus to hasten the hour when it would appear possible for the President of th3 Republic to exercise the important prerogative entrusted to his patriotism, to his judgment, to his conscience.
A vain hope! In the opposition groups, blinded politicians condemned to remain the slaves of their passions have continued to travesty the most praiseworthy initiatives of the Government, and have created by their machinations in impressionable and credulous milieux, a dangerous state of mind favorable to the worst impulses of disorder.
Faced with such a situation, my imperative duty is to consider solely, as ever, the highest interests of the Republic and to decide that the elections of January 10, 1930, will be exclusively communal.
I am absolutely indifferent to the shouts and hypocritical declamations of the opportunist demagogues who imagine that they can still deceive the people, and have been so outrageously bold as to pretend to speak in their name after having in the past been the real despoilers of the people.
I count upon your enlightened patriotism, Mr. Prefect, to cause my decision to be respected throughout your entire district.
With the assurances of my highest consideration,
Borno
This action on the part of President Borno definitely settled the much-mooted question as to whether or not national elections for senators and deputies would be held on January 10, 1930.
New crops.Naturally, every effort is being made by the Haitian Government to introduce new crops and increase production. With this end in view, a department of markets was formed, and immediate efforts are being directed toward increasing the production of corn. This product grows luxuriously in Haiti and requires but little cultivation, and in addition there is an assured sale for it at a fair price.
While the main efforts of the Haitian Government are being directed toward increasing the production of corn, efforts also are


6 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
being made along other lines not only to diversify crops but to establish industries. Haitian honey, for example, can be produced in quantity and is of an especially fine flavor. In the past, however, sufficient attention in producing and shipping has not been paid to cleanliness.
The sisal plantations which, as a result of the demonstration work of the Service Technique, were established in Haiti a few years ago are being developed along well-thought-out lines and are certain to make Haiti one of the sisal-producing countries of the world. One of these plantations forwarded its first shipment of sisal shortly before the end of the 3-ear. It is understood that the grade of sisal being produced is of the highest quality.
Negotiable instrument law.A negotiable instrument law is obviously much needed; but altliough such a law has been under consideration by the Haitian Government for some years, no action has been taken with a view to placing it before the legislative body.
Economy.During the past year every effort has been made to effect economies in the various departments under the supervision of treaty officials. Treaty officials have been instructed that, consistent with efficiency, expenditures in their departments must be reduced to a minimum. A careful supervision by the Financial Adviser will assure the desired control.
Civil service.One of the first questions that arises in the mind of a student of Haitian affairs is why a civil service system has not been established in Haiti. It would undoubtedly be of tremendous advantage to eliminate politics as far as possible from Government positions. However, in the early stages of the rehabilitation work, it was most important that the heads 6f organizations be left a free hand to promote, dismiss, or change the work of any member of their organization. A certain amount of stability as a consequence of this action has been attained, and it would ap2>ear that the time is now ripe for the establishment of a civil service system.
Students' Strike and the Declaration of Martial Law
Causes of disorders.The students' strike," starting in November, and the ensuing disorders of which it was the ostensible cause, aroused considerable comment in the American and other foriegn press which, in general, ascribed to the incident an importance it did not intrinsically possess. It will be discussed in some detail here, although in origin it was a petty students' affair, seized upon by disgruntled politicians, the "outs," as an opportunity for a demonstration against the Government, and, they hopedin accordance with the unfortunate, previous tradition of the countryfor a revolution. The affair was a series of local disorders "engaged in by a minority


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 7
in a few towns. This was the third attempt, within a year, of opposition politicians to foment general disorder by a virulent campaign in their press. The tobacco and alcohol excise taxes and the coffee standardization act furnished the other two occasions. They were unsuccessful. The students' strike disorders were utterly unsupported, almost unknown and completely uninteresting to the passive, politically inarticulate Haitian peasants, who form nine-tenths of the population, and who, in recent years, for the first time in their history, had been free from war, tyranny, graft, and exploitation. Only in the vicinity of Cayes were agitators able to play upon the ignorance of a mob containing some peasants; and .among the causes of that outbreak were liquor, hatred of the town, and the expectation of loot.
As described in this report, one of the main purposes for which the Service Technique was called into being by the Haitian Government in 1924, was to start a system of agricultural-vocational education. There were then no teachers available for the rural farm schools contemplated. In the beginning it was impossible to find among the agricultural population, with its 99 per cent illiteracy, sufficient candidates who had had the necessary elemental schooling to enable them to take normal training. Accordingly, a normal school was started at Damien. To make a start, the majority had to be recruited in the towns among the small minoritythe elite who had had access to secondary education. In order to stimulate student enrollment, a total sum of $10,000 per annum was allotted as scholarships in addition to free tuition. For the small initial class the scholarships averaged around $15 a month and were sufficient to live on. It was realized that the system of recruiting from the towns and of granting scholarship < was objectionable from many points of view, but the only alternatives were the indefinite postponement of this needed work or the bringing in of sufficient foreign instructors for the schools throughout the countrywhich would have occasioned an expense beyond the ability of the State to bear. This difficult decision has been justified for, prior to the students' strike, 400 teachers, largely of urban origin, were graduated, instilled with interest in this educational departure, novel for Haiti, and are giving generally effective service in the rural farm schools. Scholarships would hardly be awarded on any basis other than that of grades and were naturally won by the town students with their better preparatory instruction. The school was, however, steadily increasing its enrollment from the rural districts by weakening the entrance requirements for rural applicants in the knowledge that these students, because of their agricultural background, could best approach, instruct, and elevate the younger rural generation. To read: and ern'oura'*? this clans, which as a whole could hardly hope


8
eighth annual report of american high commissioner
to win many scholarships, the authorities decided to take $2,000 of the $10,000 heretofore allotted and to devote that amount for remuneration of students willing to do practical farm labor on the demonstration farm and experiment station at Damien. This entailed, naturally, a reduction in the individual scholarships held by the town students." The individual scholarships had previously suffered decrease as student enrollment and applications and interest in the new career increased. This change was welcomed by the rural students. It was fought by the urban students since manual labor is held in almost complete disesteem in the towns. The economic condition of the agricultural laborer and manual worker in Haiti has been so abject that a positive prejudice against toil has been created. It had never been the way to riches in the Republic. Previous higher education had been almost exclusively medical, legal, or literary and had operated to turn the educated away from productive activity. It was recognized by the Government that a change in this attitude was prerequisite to the economic advance of the country.
This was the cause of the student strike on October 31. In spite of the unjustified complaints and demands of the students, the Government adopted a policy of conciliation, naming a committee of inquiry.
This policy was inspired by a generous understanding that many of the striking students found it difficult to attend school without the help of scholarships and by a desire not to alienate their sympathies or lose the services of future teachers so badly needed in the cause of popular education to supply the personnel for scantily staffed schools.
To this point the affair had been a students' strike, similar to the students' strikes which have occurred in various countries since the World War. The affair might have terminated, but at this juncture occurred the immixture of the opposition politicians and their press. Left to themselves the Damien students would have eventually accepted the Government concessions increasing the scholarship fund to $15,000 and the number of scholarships from G6 to 100.
It is pointed out that due to various causeshistorical, geographical (the mountainous configuration of the country, consequent difficulties of communication and hardships of establishing a strong central government), the poverty, gullibility, and dense ignorance of the massesHaiti's history has been that of a series of almost invariably successful revolutions, and a revolutionary mentality has been bred. These revolutions, however, have always been conducted bv the small literate minority of the townsthe so-called elite. Never since Dessalines has a revolutionary movement originated with


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 9
the people or have administrations changed as a result of the protest of the masses against their oppressive rulers.
The school boys' episode offered, judging from previous national history, an opportunity for revolution. The tone of the articles in the opposition papers concerning the striking students became ful-somely laudatory, producing an exalted, unreasonable attitude among (he strikers. Subtle but definite incitatioris to disorder were daily printed. A substantial fund is known to have been raised to provide free meals for the strikers. Emissaries were set at work by the politicians in the other schools. Intimidation was employed against students unwilling to strike, and the prospect of excitement, publicity, and a holiday had its influence on others. Parents of the'" out" group incited their children. Other schools joined the strike.
Loyalty of Government employees.Adroit propaganda was used concerning the wages paid American employeesnecessarily somewhat higher because of expensively obtained professional education, the different wage scale of the United States, the impermanence of their employment here, and because, in spite of the consistent policy of training Haitians, a sufficient number of experienced, suitably instructed men had not yet been developed to take over higher posts in the treaty services. Efforts were made to undermine the loyalty of the Garde d' Haiti, the police force of the country. Subordinate employees were eventually persuaded to strike in the customhouse at Port au Prince, in the customs control office, and in the Service Technique. The employees in the Public Works, the Public Health Department, the Garde, and in all divisions and customhouses of the General Receiver, except as stated, remained loyal. With the students and customs clerks of the Port au Prince customhouse running through the streets, the mob element, always large and dangerous by reason of the general illiteracy and low economic status of the population, began to take part. The stage was set for rioting, looting, and bloodshed. Martial law was, therefore, made effective on December 4. Patrols were thrown out in Port au Prince and Cape Haitien. A curfew order was publishednot a great hardship in this country of "early to bed and early to rise." Almost immediately these two chief cities became calm, showing the lack of real popular interest in the affair. A few arrests of leaders and violators of the curfew order were made. In some of the outlying towns, where no military patrolling was enforced, the agitators attempted to promote disorders for a short time. Only in Cayes did any serious trouble occur.
The Cayes incident.There, emissaries from Port au Prince had persuaded and organized a parade and strike of primary and secondary schools. Had the children been left alone, there would have
307190HO--2 -


10 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
been no strike, as there was absolutely no dissatisfaction with school conditions at Cayes. The children's strike started in orderly fashion, but a number of irresponsible hoodlums joined in and caused commotion. The stevedores' strike which followed was the result of political agitators who employed intimidation and persuasion to accomplish this result.
Agitators then proceeded to work on the peasants in the district surrounding Cayes. Unfortunately, conditions were temporarily favorable to their designs there, and the gullibility and ignorance of the peasants was such as to persuade them, to listen to the agitators. Cane growing is one of the principal occupations of that district. The cane is sold to local distillers, and the local distillers had been compelled to meet the recent competition of a 9,000-gallon-per-day still at Port au Prince, now manufacturing 40 per cent of the entire consumption of the country and selling alcohol at a fixed price of 60 cents per gallon, tax paid. The local distiller-, unable to meet this competition by passing the tax on to the consumer, retaliated by offering lower prices to the peasant cane grower, causing serious dissatisfaction among the growers.
Rumors that the reduction in coffee prices which occurred as a result of the Brazilian situation were due to the Haitian standardization act, were spread by out politicians to inflame the peasants.
Another cause of unrest was the action taken by the Haitian Government to prevent seasonal emigration of laborers. But 3,100 laborers were permitted to emigrate during the year as compared with more than 20,000 in other periods. These seasonal emigrants came to a great extent from the Cayes district, and the sums brought back by them from Cuba and Santo Domingo were important to the poverty-stricken masses. The peasant did not understand either the new laws or the causes of the drop in coffee prices. Any change in their conditions of life or production are regarded at the outset with intense suspicion by these illiterate, primitive, and, hence, conservative folk. A condition of discontent was temporarily, therefore, available for the agitators. But the traditional antagonism of the country for the town, the hopes of looting, the supplying of liquor, the love of excitement, and their acceptance of the leaders' assurance that no real danger was involved, were the factors which started a mob of about 1,500 toward Cayes. Halted by a group of 20 United States Marines, they first retired, but their leaders re-formed them and advanced. Over an hour's parley7 ensued, and then they tried to rush the Marines. Firing over their heads failed to stop them; they stoned the little detachment, and finally effective fire was employed, killing six. The mob broke, leaving 28 wounded. Four of these wounded later died. All of these wounded were transj>orted to the hospital and given thorough treatment and care. In this contact the Marine


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 11
used the greatest restraint and only employed fire for effect when it became absolutely necessary. The Cayes episode was the only one with serious consequences. The 10 deaths were inevitable in order to prevent the much heavier loss of life, and the crime and destruction that would have ensued had the mob been allowed to wreak its will in Cayes.
Disorders in. other localities.Attempts to stimulate disorders in a few other localities where Port au Prince agitators had penetrated were quickly stopped with a handful of arrests. In no part of the Republic was there any dissatisfaction or disorder except where instigated by Port au Prince emissaries.
Martial law.The declaration of martial law meant in effect the patrolling of the streets the forbidding of assemblies, the discontinuance of subversive and inciting articles in the press, and a curfew order in the two < hief cities of the Republic. It did not really impinge on the liberty of the majority of the inhabitants of localities where it was enforced. It was progressively relaxed after the first 2 or 3 days and discontinued entirely 12 days after, on December 16. The Haitian Government immediately came out with a proclamation authorizing and asserting the necessity of the declaration of martial law.
The United States Marines acted as a reserve and adjunct to the regular police force, the Garde d'Hai'ti, which functioned well and with loyalty during the disturbance. But the Garde is a relatively new, inexperienced unit. It was subjected to great and clever pressure. This was its first experience in public rioting. It was nrmeri-cally weak in view of national conditions and its manifold duties.
Lessons of the strike.Had previous Haitian history permitted the establishment of an adequate police force of long experience and tradition, or had the Haitian Government been able completely to reorganize the courts so that offenders against public order would have had prompt justice instead of acquittal meted out to them, martial law and the support of the American Marines would not have been necessary in this instance. However, until the mentality of the people becomes accustomed to stable government, and as long as ignorance and poverty of the people furnishes a revolutionary field for irresponsible politicians, as long as a large, irresponsible, mob element of the population exists, as long as cheap alcohol can be obtained for this hoodlum fringe," any police force in Haiti must be ready to act promptly and decisively and, until the courts are reorganized, to do their share in preserving public order, extraordinary measures must occasionally be taken.
This is the lesson of the strikean event that gained importance only because of the death of 10 members of a mob in Cayes, an extremely sad result, but unavoidable in order to prevent further


12 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
deaths. The further lesson is the unwelcome one that revolutionary mentality is not dead in Haiti. It has been weakened and will weaken further as the lot and intelligence of the common people already improved-gradually approaches standards of more fortunate countries. Should it further evidence itself, the Garde d'Hai'ti, fortified by the incidents just recited, will be even better able to handle it. For the nonce, however, the Garde, under present circumstances of organization and strength, should have behind it a reserve, a feeling of support.
Schools reopened.At this writing, all schools have reopened with their former students, with the exception of Damien. Some of the Damien students have returned, and the places of the others have been filled by new applicants. More applications have been received than vacancies exist.
President Borno's proclamation.The strike disorders were dealt with by President Borno in his proclamation of December 9, 1929, which reads :
PROCLAMATION Borno
President of the Republic to the Haitian People Fellow Citizens :
Once more the ambitious impenitents have accomplished their criminal designs. They knew perfectly well the Government of the United States was obliged by formal treaty to maintain public order in Haiti. They knew perfectly well the American military occupation has, according to international law, its sole and only justification in assuring the loyal execution of that contractual obligation. They knew this. But they foolishly imagined the Government of the United States would betray its trust and favor their plans for disorder, their dreams of anarchy. Foolishly, they imagined the American forces of occupation would become accomplices of their machinations. Thus, with the fixed intention of embarrassing and annihilating the constitutional Government of the Republic in order to place it in a situation where it would be forced to resign, they have fomented throughout the country a political agitation, camouflaged under the pretended student demands. Exploiting by its equivocal maneuvers the ardent and generous sentiments of youth, they have succeeded in casting into the streets the young boys and girls of the schools, thus disorganizing education, thus compromising the future of this entire body of young people and children.
In the midst of the student turbulence, the Government has maintained the greatest calm and manifested the highest sentiments of benevolence.
Always dominated by consideration for the public welfare and regard for the interests of the young people, it has on two occasions accorded the students the greatest concessions; but each time the leaders of the underground politics have raised absurd difficulties and placed obstacles in the way of the good intentions of the students.
And in the meantime the secret agents of these politicians, employed in the" public services, in the customs, in the internal revenue service, have actively instigated demands, in appearance purely administrative, in order to bring about a desertion of the offices and the complete paralyzation of the fiscal services of the State.


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 13
It was in the face of the extension of these insidious acts, confronted by the partial realization of their plans, confronted by the alarming attitude of the elements of disorder who audaciously began to take possession of the streets of Port au Prince, Cape Haitien, Jacmel, Aux Cayes, Gonaives, that the chief of 'he American forces, as equally responsible for the public safety as the Haitian Government itself, intervened and put into effect martial law.
It is clearly evident that it is the political opposition which provoked and justified this measure for the defense of public order, which had been dangerously menaced.
For the energetic measures of repression which may thereby follow, it is, therefore, the leaders of the opposition who must, before the Nation and history, assume the grave responsibility.
In any case and under whatever circumstances, the Government will fulfill to the end its imperious duty of safeguarding public peace.
It has the right to count, and it firmly counts, on the sincere aid of every good citizen.
United States Forces
During the past year, the United States forces in Haiti have been maintained at a skeleton brigade of United States Marines and a mine sweeper of 950 tons displacement.
Col. Richard M. Cutts assumed command of the brigade on June 25, 1929, relieving Col. John T. Myers.
On December 4, 1929, in view of the disorders that occurred in Port au Prince and other places in Haiti, and in accordance with the obligations of the treaty of 1915, it again became necessary to place in operation martial law, and to impose certain restrictions. As soon as order was restored and conditions permitted, these restrictions were removed and the brigade resumed its normal passive function on December 17, 1929.
Considering the conditions that prevailed when martial law was placed in operation on December 4, 1929, it reflects the highest credit on the officers and the men of the brigade, as well as those of the Garde d'Hai'ti, that in the short period of two weeks order could be restored throughout the country. The prompt and effective measures that were taken unquestionably snuffed out the flame that might have easily developed into a conflagration and resulted in much bloodshed and loss of life.
During the operation of martial law, no offenses were committed of such a serious nature as to warrant trial by provost courts. This fact, together with the efficient manner in which each new situation was met, demonstrated the tact and ability of the military leaders. The Garde operated as a part of the brigade with efficiency and perfect cooperation.
Garde d'Hai'ti
Achievements.The primary object of the Garde d'Hai'ti is the maintenance of law and order. But its functions as the military and


14 EIGHTH ANNUAL IiEPOBT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
police force of the Republic have been greatly expanded to include, among other things, the supervision of communal finances and administration, and the administration of the coast guard and military communications utilized also for civil purposes.
The achievements of this new organization in maintainingwith, the backing of the United States Marineslaw and order for a period of 14 years, without interruption except for the banditism of 1919-20 and the abortive disorders of November and December, 1929, are remarkable when viewed against the background of previous conditions in the Republic.
Prior to 1915, the great mass of Haitians were at the mercy of a rapacious military oligarchy. There was real danger in producing or owning anything beyond the merest necessities. The peasant feared to come to the towns lest he be seized and forcibly and unlawfully inducted into the army. The produce was brought into the cities by peasant women who frequently saw their wares taken from them by the almost unpaid soldiers.
The Haitian Army before 1915 consisted of 38 line and 4 artillery regiments of a total paper strength of over 9,000, a gendarmerie of over 1,800, plus 4 regiments of the President's guard, and the whole was officered by 308 generals and 50 colonels, not to mention the honorary generals created by the President pro tern, among his friends. The pay of the private was 20 cents per month, plus 80 cents for rations, none of which was ever received, with the exception of a few troops selected for honor duty. The soldiers' pay, plus appropriations for medical service and uniforms, went into the pockets of the generals. The prisons conducted by the gendarmerie of that day were indescribable places of filth and disease, unfit for human habitation. The former method of recruiting without legal basis was performed to line the pockets of the generals who sent their soldiers out to impress all young men, whether of military age or not, to joki their army. Those who would pay a bribe of around $2 were released from serving, and members of the elite families were allowed to engage in the fire brigade or the parade companies. The others were forced into service. "With these conditions obtaining, it is small wonder that revolutions were never suppressed by the standing army, that many of the recruits for these insurrections came from the army itself, and that oppressive lawlessness was the rule.
To-day, peace obtains, although the Garde d'Hai'ti is less than a fourth of the numerical strength of the old forces. An officers' school has been created, and a military career is one which a self-respecting Haitian can adopt. The men are modernly housed, equipped, uniformed, educated if illiterate, and paid $10 per month, a suitable pay for Haitian conditions. Prisons are immaculately


eighth annual eepoet of american high commissioner 15
clean and sanitary; buildings have workshop facilities. Graft has been eliminated. A modern accounting and purchasing system has been introduced which has effected important economies. Due to supervision by district commanders Haitian communal revenues, previously dissipated in graft and unwise expenditures, have greatly increased, and communal administration has been strengthened. A reorganized medical department has more than halved the death and disease rate among personnel and prisoners. In the first four years of the occupation the Garde also carried over an important road-building program.
These achievements have been accomplished in the face of the handicaps of the mentality and tradition of the people, in the face of the frequent noncooperation, and at times actual hostility, of the courts. For the first time in their history the masses of the Haitian peoj^le have been really free and protected in their lives and callings.
The Garde and the attempted general strike.The students' strike and attempted general strike with attendant disorders provided the Garde with its severest test since the banditry operations in 1919-20. In a sense the test was more severe than in those latter operations. The Garde was subjected to an intense and adroit propaganda. The out politicians engineering these disorders confidently counted on the Garde either joining forces with the manifestants or remaining passive.
The event was a most valuable experience for the organization. The fact that the Garde so well acquitted itself and remained loyal to a man in these disturbances, is a milestone in Haiti's progress. For almost the first time in Haitian history the armed forces remained loyal in face of an energetic, if local and artificial, revolutionary movement.
A policy of putting the Garde in the forefront in all these disorders was maintained. United States Marines acted as a support of the Garde and as a necessary reserve. The Garde emerged with even stronger efficiency and morale from this experience.
Organization and duties.The Garde d'Hai'ti performs all the military and police functions of the Rejmblic with its area of 10,200 square miles, its population, of approximately 2,000,000. and its rugged and extensive coast line and mountain frontier. There is an average of one Garde to each 3.4 square miles and to some 690 inhabitants. In addition to its specifically jJolice and military duties, the Garde has charge of the maintenance and operation of all navigational aids in Haitian waters, the registration and licensing of motor vehicles and traffic controls, and the care and guard of all prisoners and, to a great extent, the insane of the Republic.
An idea of the highly varied activities performed by the Garde can best be illustrated by visualizing the daily routine of a composite


16 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
district of the 21 districts in the Republic. This district would be commanded by either an American or Haitian captain of the Garde and manned by a force of 5 officers and 100 men. It would include three subdistricts under command of American or Haitian lieutenants, and each subdistrict would be composed of seven outposts, each manned by three or four privates under a noncommissioned officer. Each district would also have a small sanitary detachment of the Garde attached to it.
In this composite district the Garde performs all the police and military functions in an area of 40 square miles. The rugged sea-coast, the mountains rising from 3,000 to 0,000 feet, the stretch of wild and sparsely populated frontier which offers an effective lair for smuggling bands, the fertile valleys and broad plains, the stretches of cactus-spiked desert land and almost primitive jungle form a formidable amphitheater of the district's activities. ,
The Garde's day begins at 5.45 a. m. with the functions of messing and physical drills, color ceremonies, arms drill, and schools for illiterates and noncommissioned officers. Patrols move out on the alert for smuggling or disorder. The Garde supervises the open markets held throughout the districts, towns, and villages on specific days. In the larger towns controlled registration and licensing of motor traffic is carried out; sale, importation, and licensing of firearms and amusements constitute a steady duty. In isolated interior regions the Garde and peasant labor must construct and maintain trails, serving not merely military communication but aiding the peasants in their travel to markets. With this goes the supervision and construction of a large mileage of wire communications.
Its officers have been trained in the construction of the modern barracks of the smaller type, while the men, trained in masonry and carpentry, push the work ahead with trucks or pack animals. In the erection of these barracks, lime, stone, roofing, and other material are transferred by the Garde over many miles of difficult roads and mountain trails. A column is always ready on short notice to move by truck or foot to handle any incipient disorder that may arise. But from 1921 until December, 1929, there was no break in the peaceful routine of the organization.
Traffic counts are made on principal roads. The Garde operates to supplement the restricted investigating personnel of the other treaty departments and frequently acts as paymaster in place of these services. It furnishes fire protection and police and traffic control for the towns in the districts. It maintains radio receivers and public-address equipment in all the seaports.
The district commander acts as adviser in all matters of communal administration, such as communal budgets, sanitation, streets, parks, and bridges. In the lower courts of the villages, noncom-


eighth annual beport of american high commissioner 17
missioned officers assist in the administration of law and justice. Whenever a light goes out on the coast or a buoy goes adrift, the district commander immediately informs the coast guard.
Routine inspections take the district commanders and their aides into every corner of their little self-contained provinces. Emergency missions, such as arise when there are rumors of a human or animal epidemic, may start them suddenly on horseback or mule-back over difficult trails, fording swollen rivers, or by automobile or motor launch along the coast, well named the Coast of Iron." In addition to the duties above outlined, their administrative activities and duties are frequently performed under most trying weather conditions, such as the tropical heat of the Haitian summer and the torrential downpours of the rainy season. The Garde officers must know not merely French, but the Creole of the hills.
Personnel.The enlisted strength of the Garde was increased from 2,537 to 2,622 during the year. The total strength of the organization, including the auxiliaries of the coast guard, rural police, and palace band, reaches a total of 3,460.
In conformity with the definite policy of the gradual preparation of Haitian officers, Haitian officers in the Garde were increased from 5 per cent in 1917 to 19 per cent in 1922, to 35 per cent in 1928, and to 36.42 per cent at the end of the fiscal year. Of the 15 outlying districts, 4 are now entirely officered and manned from Haitian sources. During the disturbances in the latter part of the year the Haitian officers evinced good progress in their ability to command. The military school staff, which is 75 per cent Haitian, graduated 17 aspirant officers at the end of a year's work.
Communications.At the end of the year, a total of 309.5 miles of telephone lines, nine airplane landing fields constructed by its own labor, and the maintenance and extension of a considerable mileage of trails were under the administration of the Garde.
Police services, and fire and traffic control.There was a greatly increased demand on the purely police functions of the Garde during the year. Fire-fighting facilities were increased in Port au Prince, and the capital city now for the first time is approaching adequate fire protection. Installation of modern storage facilities for inflammable liquids in bulk beyond the city limits in the capital were completed during the year, substantially reducing the fire menace. In Cape Haitien and other cities, fire-fighting equipment, fire zoning, and storage facilities were improved. The reduction in fire losses compared with 1928 was $384,325.
Registration of motor vehicles increased from 2,589 in 1928 to 2,839 during the past year, and this increase was met by a campaign of enforcement in traffic regulations in all centers. In Port au Prince alone, 1,001 traffic violations were recorded as compared


18 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
with 461 in 1928. By stricter application of the laws governing their possession and by confiscations, a reduction of 388 in the number of privately owned firearms in the Republic was accomplished.
Communal administration:One of the serious Haitian problems is that of communal administration. Commanders of the Garde have the title of communal advisers and have charge of the important duties of collecting and distributing communal revenues and have the surveillance and control of all financial operations of the commune. Unfortunately, present laws do not provide advisers' real control and, as a result, in many communes there have been illegal, dishonest, or unwise expenditures of public funds. These 'incidents have been promptly reported. Legislation correcting this situation is urgently needed.
Marksmanship.Although the annual rifle matches scheduled for December had to be postponed, departmental and district competitions showed that the marksmanship acquired by the Garde is up to its former excellent standards. With the normal handicap of old rifles, accentuated by the passage of another year, an average of 69.40 percentage of qualifications was made. The 1928 record was 70.08 per cent.
Construction.A comprehensive building program for the Garde is now in its fourth year. In 1928, 24 modified and 8 outpost buildings were constructed by Garde and prison labor. The completion by the Public Works Department of one 2-story and three 1-story district headquarters, gave the Garde more than 90 per cent of modern and adequate buildings.
Coast guard.Despite the lack of a suitable lighthouse tender, the coast guard department of the Garde d'Hai'ti successfully maintained navigational aids in Haitian waters, serving 15 lighthouses and maintaining the buoyage system intact. Although small gasoline launches with inadequate lifting machinery were employed, all defects reported were repaired within 48 hours. The coast guard also surveyed an area 4 miles square at Caracol Bay, locating and buoying an excellent shipping channel.
Finances
Achievements of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver.The treaty concluded between the United States and Haiti on September 16, 1915, stated that the Government of the United States "will, by its good offices, aid ... in the establishment of the finances of Haiti on a firm and solid basis." This provision was the basis for the creation of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver with its manifold functions in the service of the rehabilitation of public


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 19
finances, the promotion of Haiti's commerce and the general economic welfare of the Republic. To comprehend the activities and accomplishments of this new unit of the Haitian Government, the chaotic condition of Haitian finances at the time of the inception of the Financial Adviser's service must be understood. The country in 1915 was practically bankrupt. In that year the net public debt totaled some $30,772,000, of which over $4,000,000 represented arrears in interest, Amortization in the instance of one bond issue was 12 years in arrears. In October, 1916, some $2,997,570, or three-fourths of the revenues of the annual receipts estimated at $4,043,000, was necessary for debt service, 5 per cent for the fiscal and collection service rendered by the Financial Adviser-General Receiver's organization and nearly 20 per cent for the upkeep of the military and police force, the Garde d'Hai'ti, leaving only $68,820 to take care of the other expenses of the Government, amounting to some $2,340,000 per annum. Heavy bank borrowing at ruinous rates of interest was the means by which previous Governments had carried on. Salaries to Government employees were insufficient and months in arrears, Government auditing was inefficient, the customs tariff was antiquated, and Government revenues depended almost entirely on customs duties, especially on the coffee export tax, and fluctuated with the coffee crop. The currency was depreciated and subject to violent variations. No effective measures to establish a real revenue from internal sources had been taken and customs collections were but a part of what they should have been, due to corruption and inefficiency.
At the end of the fiscal year 1928-29, the Government of Haiti had an unobligated cash balance of more than $4,000,000. Bonded indebtedness had decreased from $30,772,000 to $17,735,479, in spite of the contraction of new loans in 1922, 1923, and 1924, totaling $22,-695,000. These loans were utilized chiefly to refund previous bonded indebtedness and to satisfy claims against the Government, but they were utilized also to effect material improvements.
Government revenues have more than doubled, chiefly through better collections and yields of existing taxes, enabling the various departments of the Government to undertake the greatest program for public welfare the country has ever seen. Internal revenue has been increased, yielding over $1,200,000 during the year just finished, or more than one-fourth the total receipts of 13 years ago, and further important increases are forecast. A sound currency has been achieved.
Problems confronting the office of the Financial Adviser.The Haitian Government originally depended on customs revenue for income. Twenty per cent of Haiti's population consists of ignorant peasants. Direct taxation is extremely difficult to enforce on such people. There are neither proper land laws, land survey maps,


20 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
registration offices, nor an adequate system of settling titles. Therefore, the imposition of a land tax lies in the future. Due to ignorance and primitive conservatism of this population, it is necessary to educate rather than to legislate. Therefore moderate, balanced systems regulating incidence of taxation can only be arrived at gradually.
The second aspect of this situation covers increased and diversified production and, until this is scientifically organized and accomplished, the forward movement in public finances must be extremely slow. The great hatred and suspicion which exists between town and country complicates the situation. The Government financial program, in face of these difficulties, must be carried out with extreme skill, devotion, political wisdom, honesty, and impartiality, and it needs many years for its full accomplishment.
Activities of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver during the fiscal year 1928-29.-Despite smaller revenues due to the fact that commercial and financial conditions during the course of 1928-29 were less favorable than in the preceding fiscal period, the financial obligations of the Haitian Government were promptly fulfilled, and the unobligated cash balance of the treasury on September 30, 1929, was the highest on record.
The development of the internal revenue service, designed to remove Haitian public finances from their former unsound and almost complete dependence upon the fluctuating customs revenues and specifically on the objectionable coffee export tax, continued. The first year of operation of the alcohol and tobacco excise taxes brought Haiti's internal revenue from $848,324 in 1927-28 to $1,207,-054 in 1928-29. Internal revenue for the period accounted for about 15 per cent of total Haitian revenues as compared with 8 per cent in 1927-28. The office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver presided over a central commission which elaborated the coffee standardization law designed to increase the demand and reputation of Haitian coffee, previously limtied by the poor preparation thereof. The office took over the registration of land records and provided, for the first time since Haiti's independence, safe recording for these most important documents. Considerable progress was made during the year in clarifying the chaotic records of state domains, and a considerable additional area of land was made available for rental and productive use. Administrative regulations of the customs service found to work hardships on importers were modified. Bonded warehouse facilities were established in Port au Prince.
The treaty of 1915 engaged the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver to effect the collection of the customs revenues at a cost not to exceed 5 per cent thereof. The Financial Adviser's office previously decided, however, to effect the collection at a still lower rate and offered to pay out of the 5 per cent fund the com-


eighth annual report op american high commissioner 21
mission of the National Bank of Haiti, amounting to 1 per cent. Out of the remaining 4 per cent have been effected not only administration and operation, but capital expenditures for customhouses, etc., extremely high in view of previous ill-housing and equipment. This is a remarkable record of which the service may justly be proud. Deducting the bank's commission, which is not properly chargeable to administration costs, but including capital expenditures, the costs of collection and operation in late years in comparison with certain other tropical countries were as follows:
Costs of Customs Collection and Operation in Haiti as Compared with Certain Other Tropical Countries
Country
Haiti______________
Dominican Republic.
Nicaragua__________
Philippines_________
Per cent
5. 35
4. 27 4. 80
1925 1C2S 1927 1928 1929
Per cent 3. 33 4. 14 3. 78 4. 60 Per cent 3. 18 4. 56 Per cent 6. 07 3. 94 Per cent 3. 18 4. 79 3. 94 4. 50 Per cent 4. 29

5. 00 5. 30

The distribution between operating costs and capital expenditures is analyzed in the following table:
Distribution of Customs Costs between Operating Costs and Capital
Expenditures
Fiscal year Administration and operation Permanent improvements Bank commission Total
Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
1923-24 ._ _______ ... __________ 5. 35 0. 98 6. 33
1924-25______________________________ 3. 17 0. 16 1. 84 5. 17
1925-26______________________________ 2. 80 0. 38 1. 00 4. 18
1926-27______________________________ 3. 67 2. 10 1. 00 6. 77
1927-28______________________________ 2. 66 0. 52 1. 00 4. 18
1928-29___________________________... 3. 62 0. 67 1. 00 5. 29
The percentage of Americans employed in the customs service of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver has steadily decreased although there has been an absolute increase in their number since 1922, as a result of the establishment of the internal revenue service in August, 1924, and the subsequent transfer to this latter service of the domainial services, the enactment of the excise taxes in 1928 and the standardization of exports legislation in 1929, and the transfer, in 1929, to the service of the bureau of registration and extension of the scope of the auditing operations of the service.


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The record in this respect is shown in the following table:
Percentage of Americans Employed in the Customs Service, 1922-1029
Americans Percentage
Year Haitians Total of
Americans
1922_______ 17 219 236 7. 20
1923_______ 17 230 247 6. 88
1924_______ 20 408 428 4. 67
1925_______ 19 367 386 4. 92
1926_______ 20 400 420 4. 76
1927_______ 21 395 416 5. 05
1928_______ 23 424 447 5. 14
1929_______ 26 508 534 4. 87
The service now has 4 Haitian collectors of customs and 2 deputy collectors in charge of ports. There are 2 Haitian legal advisers in the service, 22 active full-time Haitian inspectors, and 80 other native employees functioning as part-time inspectors.
The great majority of the employees of the service stood firm against extreme agitation -for a general* strike'in the December disorders. Only subordinate emploj'ees in the Port au Prince and in the customs control office walked out.
In'ema' revenue service.The accomplishment of this service in increasing Haiti's internal revenue from a little over $100,000 in 1916 to $848,000 in 1928, and to $1,207,000 in 1929, has been mentioned. Last year's increase was due to the inauguration of the alcohol and tobacco excise taxes. The problem in connection with collections of these taxes, absolutely novel in Haiti, met with greater success than had been anticipated. In spite of the necessarily heavier expenditures attending the introduction of the new taxes and the charges-occasioned by the transfer of the registration service, the internal revenue kept well within its operating allowance of 15 per cent of the revenue collected.
Auditing and accounting.The year saw the introduction in the accounting system of the functional classification of expenditures and redistribution of expenditures by objects. Modern installations to facilitate preparation of records, improvements of the control over expenditures, and measures to protect all records from loss were made during the year. The auditing accommodations of the office were extended, and arrangements were made for a complete audit of all governmental accounts by representatives of the office of the Comptroller of the United States Government. This audit took place in October and November, 1929, and will be continued annually hereafter.


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 23
Government finances.The Financial Adviser-General Receiver reports that the total revenue receipts of the Haitian Government for the fiscal year 1928-29 were $8,504,305, or 15.66 per cent less than in 1927-28, the record year. Total customs receipts amounting to $7,049,530 were 21.81 per cent less than the record customs revenues in 1927-28.
On the other hand, expenditures increased 7.66 per cent to a total of $8,823,900 in 1929, as against $8,195,580 in 1927-28. The increased expenditures were caused by larger disbursements by the Department of Public Works, the Service Technique, and the Department of Hygiene. The Garde d'Hai'ti and the Departments of Foreign Relations as well as Agriculture and Labor decreased their expenditures.
Treasury position.Despite the fact that expenditures from revenues exceeded revenues for the year by $319,595, or 3.76 per cent, the unobligated cash balance on September 30, 1929, was the largest on record, amounting to $4,072,291. The public treasury is, therefore, in the best condition in Haitian history to meet the prospect of lower revenues expected during 1929-30, as a result of lower coffee prices: While the unobligated cash balance is at a peak sum, the total cash assets of the Government declined 4.29 per cent during the year to a total of $6,538,676.
Public debt.A reduction of $1,152,142 in the public debt to a total indebtedness of $17,735,479 was accomplished. This was a reduction of 6.10 per cent as compared with 5.28 per cent in 1927-28.
Budget for 103.9-3O.~The budget for the fiscal period 1929-30 was voted on July 16, 1929, forecasting a revenue of $8,020,000 and expenditures of $8,018,000. It is probable that, due to the severe economic disturbance caused by the drop in the world prices for coffee, Haiti's chief crop, the revenue will be below this estimate. At the end of the calendar year, active steps were being taken to reduce expenditures below the budget figure.
Economic conditions.Prosperity in Haiti depends entirely on the coffee crop and prices. Coffee constitutes in value from 60 to 80 per cent of the country's exports.
The coffee crop in the period 1928-29 was a lean one, due to unfavorable weather conditions, but prospects for the 1929-30 crop were bright. In October, 1929, however, the coffee valorization program which has been carried on by Brazil since the World War and which has maintained prices at a high level, collapsed, and with it collapsed hopes for general prosperity for the coming year in Haiti. All advices indicate a continuance of low coffee quotations for some years to come.
But the situation is not one of despair, due to the productive developments which have occurred in Haiti since 1915. The credit


24 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
standing of the merchants in the banks at the close of the calendar year was, in general, good, and stocks of merchandise were lower than at any time during the past five years. Among the productive developments which are steadily adding to Haiti's wealth may be mentioned sisal plantations, planted on land which had been uncultivated for more than 100 years. These plantations will begin exporting in quantity within the coming year, bringing several hundred thousands of dollars per annum into Haiti. Another development which is beginning to yield returns is a large pineapple plantation and canning establishment at the Cape. Due to the efforts of the offices of the High Commissioner and the Financial Adviser, an export outlet for Haitian corn has been opened by an arrangement with an American corporation. New crops are being introduced and existing crops improved, which through their export or through the reduction of imports will add riches to Haiti. The coffee standardization act offers a remedy for the low differential prices previously received by Haitian growers by reason of the poor preparation of their crop.
Other projects, which will develop unused or poorly used tracts, are being studied and encouraged. The establishment during the last year of direct shipping service between Galveston and Porto Rico, stopping at Haiti, and the opening up of air communication by the Pan American Airways between Haiti, Cuba, Florida, the Dominican Republic, and Porto Rico, will have some small favorable effect. Other air lines are contemplated.
Although the tourist traffic is not yet important, it is increasing. The expenditures of the United States Marine Corps detachment is one of the few positive invisible items in Haiti's foreign trade and a stabilizing economic factor.
' The situation created by the drop in coffee prices is a serious one for Haitian economy, but it has been suggested, with a considerable show of reason, that it may prove to some extent to be a blessing in disguise in accelerating the movement toward crop diversification and development of new crops which Haiti needs.
Foreign trade.Haiti's total foreign trade declined from $42,915,-502 in 1927-28 to $33,901,755 in 1928-29, a decrease of $8,953,747, or 20.87 per cent. Imports declined 14.87 per cent to $17,237,922, while exports declined 26.22 per cent to $10,723,833, leaving an unfavorable trade balance of $514,089. In 1927-28 there was a favorable trade balance of $2,418,989.
The proportion of Haitian imports supplied by the United States declined from 75.30 per cent of the total in 1927-28 to 09.85 per cent in 1928-29, while France continued to be the heaviest purchaser of Haitian exports, taking 55.29 per cent, an increase over the percentage for the previous year. Port au Prince, with 58.75 per cent


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 25
of total import trade for the year, continued to lead as port of entry/ although its share of the import trade declined as compared with the previous year. In proportion of exports Port au Prince handled 18.96 per cent of the total, which represents a decline from the 22.67 per cent of total exports accounted for at that port during 1927-28.
Foodstuffs formed 33.89 per cent in value of total imports of 1928-29, as compared with 30.02 per cent in 1927-28. This increase was largely due to destruction of edible crops by the hurricane of 1928. Imports of most other commodities declined in value, including textiles, footwear, cement, liquors, lumber, tobacco, and automotive vehicles. Exports of coffee fell off 28 per cent in value and 30.59 per cent in quantity, as compared with 1927-28. Exports for the year totaled 12,590,160 kilos. There was little improvement shown in the other chief export items, with the exception of cotton, and the increased shipments of that commodity were not sufficient to afford any appreciable relief from the dependence of coffee. The excess of imports over exports during the past year was paid for by a residium of purchasing power remaining from 1927-28. This unfavorable balance of trade is considered as of a purely temporary nature and warrants little concern, as, for 1929-30, it is conceivable that total imports will more closely correspond to export values than for several years.
Public AVorks
Resume of achievements since 191-5.The achievements and importance to Haiti of the Public Works Department, with its varied program of construction and administration of essential services, can best be understood by a brief comparison of present conditions with those that faced the department at the time of its intervention in 1915.
At the time of the American intervention, there was no definite organization for carrying out the few public improvements that were undertaken. A number of engineers, citizens of Haiti, were attached to the Ministry of Public Works and were assigned to particular projects in a more or less haphazard and desultory fashion.
There was no accurate system of accounting for expenditures, and the public works of the country as a whole, such as they were, were in a deplorable condition. The organization of a technical department with a proper accounting system and an efficient professional personnel for carrying out the work of this department, was there' fore of primary importance. The existing public works were few. There were practically no roads connecting the cities and towns and, as a consequence, communication was most difficult. In view of the difficulties, the interior of Haiti was practically unknown to those
10779030-3


26 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
living on the seacoast or in the port towns. A century had passed since any extensive road building, maintenance, or repair had occurred. There were few improved city streets. Sidewalks were practically unknown. Bridges were few and dangerous to the point that the proverb Never cross a bridge until you come to it," had been changed in Haiti to Never cross a bridge if you can go around it." The single telephone system in Port au Prince had failed in 1911; and there was but a rudimentary telegraph system. The ports, storage, and shipping facilities, with the exception of Port au Prince, were generally in bad shape and inadequate. An automobile was a thing unheard of to the majority of the population.
To-day, there are nearly 3,000 automobiles and numerous motor-bus lines. There have been constructed 1,006 miles of roads uti-lizable by motor vehicles. The length of bridges has increased nearly three times to a total of 210 structures of a total1 span of 5,870 feet, and their improvement as regards security and maintenance is equally remarkable. The peasant in many remote districts can bring or send his Avares to markets in many cases by motor-bus or motor-truck service. Many districts whose products were largely lost through spoilage and the inaccessibility of markets or for which the grower received a small return- due to the cost and difficulty of transportation, are now selling in the consuming centers and for export, thus adding to the wealth of the inhabitants of the nation. Of political and educative value is the fact that the peasant can, and is beginning to, come to the cities where he comes into contact with ideas and a higher material civilization.
A modern telephone system, automatic in the cities of Port au Prince and Cape Haitien, gives good communication between 48 important centers of the Republicsome 1,250 miles of long-distance service created. The telegraph system has been improved, and these two services function not only without cost to the Government, but yield a net profit. A radio transmitting and receiving station has been constructed and regular broadcasting inaugurated. The capital and other cities have public buildings which are ornaments to their localities. Parks, streets, and public squares have been built, improved, and beautified. A remarkable program of public-school construction has been carried out and students are rapidly being changed from the ill-adapted school buildings of former times to fine modern structures. New hospitals have been built and old ones modernized. The housing of the services of the Garde d'Hai'ti, the combined police and military force of Haiti, has been nearly completed; and modern, serviceable customhouses have been erected, and former ones improved, in all the principal ports. Twelve of the existing 16 lighthouses have been built since 1915, and 9 wharfs constructed. Irrigation, practically nonexistant since French


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 27
colonial times, has been revived and over 100 miles of canals constructed serving 8.000 farms and a population of 62,000. Surveys for 16 additional projects of 107,000 acres have been completed. Municipal water systems have been reconstructed, expanded, and rendered sanitary. Sixty-four villages have been given an adequate, healthy water supply.
Some of the results of the 14 years' program of the department are strikingly shown in graphic representations appended to this report.1 The results have been obtained entirely from current revenues of the Government, with the exception of some $300,000 granted from the proceeds of the 1922 loan.
The work has been retarded due to the insufficiency of these revenues. An enormous task still faces the department, but the productive projects accomplished will help advance the economic day when Government revenues will be sufficient to take care of increased, necessary construction and public services.
A policy of the department, successfully carried out, has been that of continued instruction of Haitian technical personnel and their indoctrination with the spirit of loyalty to the Government and their services, and the gradual replacement of foreign technicians. As a result, during the so-called disorders accompanying the students' strike in December, not a man left his post, although employees were subjected to extreme pressure and clever incitation to walk out" in a sympathy strike.
Following is a brief recital of outstanding developments during the fiscal year 1928-29. A more detailed summary of the work of the department is included in the appendix to this report.2
Due to the emphasis placed on road work and construction, the number of employees increased 24 per cent, whereas the expenditures were 2.7 per cent less than in the preceding year.
Personnel.The policy of training and promoting Haitian commissioned personnel was pursued diligently throughout the year. Two Haitians were commissioned in the active service and two others were promoted. Two native engineers resigned during the year. In general, increased authority was given native commissioned personnel during the year and the interest of the native commissioned personnel maintained by the seventh annual conference of the corps held in April, 1929, at which five excellent papers were read and discussed to the benefit of all. The annual meeting of the Haitian commissioned engineers and architects is the oldest established professional conference in Haiti.
1 Post, p. too. 'Post, p. 58.


28" eighth annual report op american high commissioner
Previous records were broken with an employment of 8,933 for one year, as compared with 7,000 in the preceding fiscal period. The ratio of Haitians to Americans was 297 to 1.
Expenditures.The Public Works administration expended a total of $2,249,909 during the year, as compared with $2,311,000 in 1927-28. The expenses of general administration were reduced from $226,179.33 to $219,236 and lesser expenditures were made for harbor improvements. The expenditures for roads, bridges, and trails increased from $559,749.34 to $768,827.24.
Public buildings service.The activity in public building construction was only 70 per cent of that of the previous year, but was attended by an improved quality of workmanship and quantity of work per man a day. Of importance to the development of this branch of the dej>artment, as well as to Haitian construction in general, was the inauguration of a plumbing school during the year to fill the pressing need for plumbers.
Notable in the construction of public buildings during the year were: The completion of the headquarters building at Las Cahobas for the Garde d'Hai'ti, the largest -structure yet completed by the department outside of Port au Prince; the construction of a 250-student unit for the Brothers' school at Port-de-Paix and a 250-student additional unit for the Sisters' school at Gonaives; the starting of industrial school buildings for the Service Technique, which will eventually house 6,000 students; the completion of 10 standard rural dispensaries, a morgue, a ward, and a mess hall at the Gonaives hospital; the construction of public comfort stations in Port au Prince and a sanitary fish market at Fort St. Clair for the national public-health service; the construction of the port office building in Port au Prince, an ornament to the city's water front; and the construction of a fine Public Works administration office with storage and garage at Gonaives.
Municipal engineering service.The waterworks for 10 Haitian cities were operated and maintained with a 5 per cent increase in subscribers. An improved water supply was gained for Port au Prince by the completion of the renewal of the Plaisance-Cerisier aqueduct. In spite of a subnormal yield of the springs supplying the capital, an adequate supply for the city was maintained by the checking of wastage. Of great importance was the installation of a chlorinator at the Bourdon Reservoir which completes the means of sterilization of the water supplies at both Port au Prince and Petionville. This accomplishment has resulted in a most gratifying reduction in morbidity rates from water-borne diseases. A site has been bought for a much-needed reservoir in the Bolosse. section of the city. Other accomplishments made in the field of municipal waterworks during the year include partial reconstruction of the


eighth annual deport of american high commissioner 29
water distributing system at Petionville; a large extension of the distributing system at Petit-Goave and the completion of an excellent headquarters building there; the capping and connection of the water mains and the cleaning of the entire system at Gonaives; the installation at Cayes of a new Diesel plant, enabling the pumping of twice the amount of water formerly pumped with the same cost; the drilling of seven additional wells for water supply for various villages in the Republic; and the capping of a spring at Furcy for public use.
During the year the service accomplished a fine program of street improvement in the principal cities and towns. Among the improvements may be mentioned the paving of John Brown Avenue in Port au Prince with penetration asphalt. In this city, a total of 31,000 square meters of macadam and 35,000 square meters of asphalt were laid during the year, in addition to the maintenance of all streets previously improved. A careful study was made of the street cross sections of the various parts of the capital, with the view of obtaining the most useful and ornamental at the very lowest cost, and a campaign to interest property owners in contributing to the cost of constructing improved streets was started. In Port au Prince, alone, 8,100 linear meters of concrete curbs and gutters were constructed and open drains on two of the principal avenues were eliminated. In other cities of the Republic the total drainage, concrete curb, and gutter projects carried out was large.
In Port au Prince, the department issued 201 building permits of a total estimated value of $557,800, a figure considerably higher than that of the previous year.
Irrigation service.Large sections of Haitian farm lands were subjected to unusual drought during the past year and lack of water-storage facilities prevented the remedying of this condition. As a result, croj)s in the irrigated districts were smaller than in the preceding year. The irrigation service of the department is continually showing peasant users a more economical and a better use of water, and a steady improvement in this respect is being noted. A total of 148 kilometers of canals was operated on the Grise and Blanche systems, and grades have been changed to give a full head of water. Many new weirs were built and the Momance Dam was enlarged; and to prevent wastage an inverted syphon was built on the Momance to carry water to the north side.
The valuable hydrographic service of the department is to be mentioned here. Rainfall records were kept for 127 stations, evaporation records for 2 stations, and temperature records for 13 stations.
Roads, bridges, and trails service.The construction of vehicular trails to open up rich areas now served only by paths, traversed with difficulty even by loaded burros," was one of the chief objectives


30 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
of the department during the year just closed. By vehicular trails are meant trails sufficiently wide, and with grades and curves of a character, to permit automobile traffic. In general, they have a 10-foot wide gravel surface and are well drained and should be able to withstand the elements and traffic with small maintenance cost. This network of vehicular trails, which will be steadily extended, will bring economic benefit not only to the immediate district served by them but to the country as a whole. Increased construction of such routes was especially necessary during the past year, due to the fact that the hurricane of August 10, 1928, practically obliterated all the trails in its path. As a result, the greater part of the construction was in the hurricane zone," but other sections of the country were also benefited. Of note was the improvement of the trail following the Boyal Road of Christophe," built over one hundred years ago, but for a great many years practically impassable. On this trail an automobile can now go from Cape Haitien to Milot in less than 30 minutes.
The outstanding road improvement of the year was the hard surfacing of the Petionville road, inaugurating the system of the department of installing durable surfacing on heavy-traffic roads. It is 5% kilometers in length, and in its construction the asphalt-penetration method was used in Haiti for the first time. This road is a splendid example of modern highway construction; it is marked for the aid of traffic, has modern wire-mesh road guards at dangerous turns, and is beautified with trees, shrubs, and vines. Many other improvements were made throughout Haiti during the year, including the elimination of curves at railroad crossings and the construction of drainage structures and gravel surfacing. "Work was continued on the Trouin-Jacmel road, and the Petionville-Kenskoff road was started on November 18, 1929. Surveys for other needed routes were made, including a study of the proposed main road down the center of the southern peninsula.
The program of bridge construction and repair was maintained throughout the year. Among the achievements of this service may be mentioned the placing of two 91-foot steel spans into the Chris-tophe's Bridge; the completion of a reinforced structure at La Matrie with three 21-foot spans; the opening to traffic of the St. Louis-du-Sud Bridge, constructed of steel I beams encased in concrete with three 40-foot spans; and the completion of a new 91-foot steel truss bridge over the Gosseline, and many other minor concrete and wooden bridges as well. Continuous careful maintenance of existing bridges was performed during the year. The most important repair was the raising of the Second Street Bridge in Cape Haitien, originally built in 1896, and consisting of a single steel span of 171 feet.


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 31
Shop, supply, and transportation service.The shops handled over 800 job orders of a total value of $60,000. The offices of the storehouse service were moved to the general storehouse, effecting economies. The efficiency of the garage, which services automobiles and road machinery, was improved.
Harbor improvement service.Outstanding in this service was the completion of a modern reinforced-concrete wharf for the city of Jeremie. In addition, new wharfs were built at two other sections. Efficient maintenance of existing wharfs was performed, and in Port au Prince harbor a part of the sea wall was repaired and strengthened.
Telephone, telegraph, and radio service.The patronage and satisfaction of the public in this service continued to grow during the year. Long distance facilities and, in Port au Prince, local automatic telephone service were increased. The total revenue for the year, both commercial and official, increased 8 per cent. That from commercial sources alone increased 9.2 per cent. Total revenue exceeded total expenditures by 8.8 per cent and, based on a total plant investment of $492,000, the gross earnings for the year were 13 per cent, which, allowing 5 per cent for depreciation and 5 per cent for improvement, would have given a net earning of 3 per cent. This result was obtained in spite of pay-roll increases which augmented the average pay per man from $23.43 to $24.11. While no new telephone exchanges were opened, the number of subscribers to the 48 exchanges now operated increased 17 per cent during the year.
The outstanding incident of new construction was the completion of a telephone line from Las Cahobas to Belladere, 37 kilometers in length, which will eventually be joined up with the Santo Domingo telephone system, to give long distance communication with the neighboring Republic. The service between Port au Prince and Cape Haitien was improved by the construction of a grounded circuit. A cable system for local subscribers was installed in Petit-Goave and St. Marc. In Port au Prince, 400 additional lines were completed in April, 1929, bringing the capacity of the exchange to 1,200 lines, affording a possible total of 1,400 subscribers as compared with the present subscription list of 1,170. The maximum number of calls in the Port au Prince exchange in one day in 1929 was 27,574, as compared with a previous maximum record of 20,5S3. At Cape Haitien the telephone system has reached capacity, and requests for additional telephones in certain localities have been refused.
The regular scale of broadcasting has been maintained and 14 I public-address stations are now maintained throughout the Republic.


32 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
In addition, radio sets were installed in 14 farm schools and instructional broadcasting is carried on for them.
Cadastral administration service.A cadastral administration service was organized on February 19, 1929, to prepare a law for determining and recording land titles. At the close of the year this question was still a matter of study for presentation to the Haitian State at a later date.
Public Health
The work of the Department of Public Health since 1915, is an inspiring chapter in the history of Haiti.
Prior to that date, the national public health service consisted of a loosely organized body of practicing physicians, known as a Jury Medical. Poorly financed and without support from the public, the courts, or from abroad, it never had and, as formed, never could have entered upon a stage of progressive activity. As a result, the entire country teemed with filth and disease. A description of the Haitian General Hospital from an eye witness at the time states: The building resembled one used for a stable, being divided into stalls or small rooms, without floors and none had beds. On the first day that I went to the hospital, shortly after landing, I saw three men lying dead among the others." This description of the Haitian General Hospital applied to the few other so-called hospitals which were really nothing but shacks where human wrecks were brought to die. Some 80 per cent of the Haitian population were diseased.
In 1919 the Haitian Government with great wisdom organized the National Public Health Service by law.
Accomplishments of the National Public Health Service in the last ten years.Eleven modern hospitals, fully equipped, have been placed in operation. A medical and hospital training school of the highest type has been given the Haitian nation. As further reorganized in 1926, the service afforded by the school was recognized as sufficient by the Rockefeller Foundation to justify its financial support. Valuable research work has been carried out in the field of tropical diseases.
Health has been carried to the people by rural and traveling clinics, in many instances in districts which for over a hundred years have never seen a doctor.
For more than 200 years three diseasesyaws, malignant malaria, and intestinal diseases-have claimed a terriffic national toll of Haitian lives. The department's campaign of sanitation has reduced the incidence of malaria and water-borne and epidemic diseases in the most populated districts of the country. A splendid effort toward


eighth annual eepoet of american high commissioner 33
the elimination of the national scourge of yaws has been made. What has been accomplished in terms of human happiness and health by the Public Health Department is matched by its contribu-i tion toward the economic welfare of the country. No single activity of the various Government departments has been of greater economic benefit than the work of the clinics in restoring to productive labor tens of thousands of disease-ridden Haitians. The importance of this medical, surgical, and sanitation attack, seldom paralleled in the world's medical history, is not limited to human and economic benefit. The work of the rural clinics has been the greatest single factor in destroying superstition among the country masses.
It is aiding to destroy the barrier between the country and the city which has been potent in the political difficulties experienced by Haiti in the last 125 years. Prior to 1915 the remote country Haitians entertained complete mistrust and suspicion of the town man and other inhabitants. The latter had constantly exploited him and impressed him into the so-called armies. On the other hand, the town man prior to that date, seldom ventured far into the interior because of his fear for his life. The peasant to-day is seeing that kindly and sympathetic Haitians in the cities are manning the public health units which are ridding his people of disease. He is getting a valuable and novel political idea, ideal, that a government can be one of popular service. The work being done by the Public Health Department has other than a national significance. In these days of rapid transportation, when the potentialities of yellow fever and bubonic plague are being brought overnight to neighboring countries and the United States, the work of this service has an international significance.
The achievements above cited have been accomplished at an average annual expenditure during the past 10 years of only $490,000, or a per capita of 24.46 cents. Public health work has been limited and handicapped here by insufficient funds, for, whereas the Haitian Government is now solvent, it can not attain prosperity until after-many years of effort.
The fine record of achievement to date, however, constitutes only the first phase in the necessary program, final success in which can only be reached after many years. An intensive and widespread mass treatment must be waged to eliminate pandemic yaws, the cause of great economic loss and suffering in Haiti. The reduction of tuberculosis, epidemic meningitis, hookworm, malaria, dysentery, and typhoid fever in Haiti can not be accomplished in a single generation. The ignorance of the people is a principal obstacle. A campaign of unremitting intensity for which increasing funds are urgent and in which professional competency must be matched by devotion, must be waged.


34 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
At the present time there are only 159 practicing physicians in Haiti, of which 42 per cent are in the Public Health Service. Of the balance of 58 per cent all are in the cities and none are in the country; thus the peasant is left to the voodoo doctor or, if he is fortunate, to the American doctor in the traveling clinic. The Public Health Department, and its medical school, is steadily working to remedy the lack of trained physicians and personnel. It is a subject of gratification that despite the exercise of adroit and intense pressure by political agitators during the December disorders following the "students' strike," the personnel of the department remained loyal and calm.
The following is a brief recital of certain outstanding developments of the year just ended. A more detailed summary of this period is given in the appendix to this report.3 The progress made by the service is also strikingly shown in the appendix containing graphical representations of the work done in recent years by the "treaty departments" of the Haitian Government.4
Record program of the Public Health Service in 1929.The year 1929 was the record year of achievement for the Public Health Service in Haiti. Total disbursements increased from $796,701 in 1928 to $986,334 in 1929. Of this last total the National Government furnished only $887,086, a per capita of about 44 cents. The Central Relief Committee, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the American Red Cross contributed $51,820, the municipal government $29,080, and the balance of the receipts were from hospitalization and sanitation work.
Hospitals, dispensaries, and rural clinics.This increase of approximately 11 per cent in expenditures was more than compensated by the great expansion in all the services of the organization. For example, rural clinics were increased in number from 139 to 147, giving a remarkable total of 1,341,000 treatments, an increase of 36 per cent over the total of treatments in the preceding 12 months. Hospital admissions increased 17 per cent during the year to a figure of 10,588. On July 1 the Public Health Service took over from the Garde d'Hai'ti the hospitalization of patients with mental diseases and the care of delinquent minors. In addition, the service initiated a course giving selected hospital-corps men of the Garde four months' special training in dispensary, surgical, urological, and operating work. The Haitian General Hospital at Port au Prince was greatly modernized and its service improved during the year. Helpful reorganization was effected in the out-patient, radiology, maternity, and private-ward departments, and the institution despatched a traveling clinic for three months to survey the isolated
3 Post, p. 67. Post, p. 89.


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 35
populations of the Morne La Selle Mountain Range. At Cayes, Petit-Goave, and Gonaives, additions to Public Health Service hospitals were made. In the other six hospitals maintained by the service throughout Haiti improvements were also effected.
Division of laboratories.With the aid of the American Committee on Research in Syphilis, a comprehensive study of the relationship of yaws and syphilis began.
Division of quarantine and sanitation.Great progress was made in all phases of the sanitation and quarantine work. Swamp-control measures in the Martissant section of Port au Prince were extended; a modern and sanitary fish market, the first of its kind in Haiti, has been constructed in Port au Prince; some 2,000 acres of swamp lands were reclaimed near Gonaives and Cayes; swamp-control measures were carried out at Hinche, three localities near Cape Haitien, and other centers; a new market building was started in Petit-Goave and the existing market improved in Jeremie. To further the splendid measures of control of malaria already effected by the service, the entomological department of the service of epidemiology was strengthened by the addition of a trained American entomologist. Paris-green dusting by hand, by blower, and by airplane was added to mosquito-control measures. These innovations will effect in the future a great saving of money in replacing the use of crude oil.
In the areas devastated by the hurricane of August 10, 1928, 299 homes were rebuilt or repaired at a total expenditure of $36,829. Sanitary inspectors completed the first accurate census of Port au Prince on January 4, 1929, showing the capital city to possess a population of 79,797. Previous estimates had varied from 100,000 to 200,000.
Division of education.Medical instruction in Haiti was strengthened by the addition of a new and important unitthe anatomy-pathology building of the medical schooland the nation's first health center was established in Port au Prince, functioning chiefly in infant welfare work, including prenatal and postnatal care. Rockefeller Foundation fellowships were granted to 11 members of the medical school for foreign study. The director of laboratories was sent to Panama to study certain types of technique employed there in the Herrick Clinic; a member of the dental faculty was given three months' postgraduate work in the United States; a graduate of the nurses' training school was given one year's training in public health nursing at Columbia University and the directress of the nurses' training school was enabled to visit Porto Rico to study and report upon nursing activities in that country.
The public health nursing movement in Port au Prince was extended during the year.


36 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
Division of legal medicine and vital statistics.The creation of this division in August filled a fundamental need. Due to its creation the solution of many legal problems, constantly arising in public health work, can be expedited as never before. The division is now at work on long-needed projects of law, which will revise and modernize the present medical, dental, nursing, and midwifery practice act; will modernize the control of foods and drugs, and the collection of vital statistics; and will effect reform in legal procedure with respect to patients afflicted with mental disease. Instancing difficulties encountered by the service and the need for this division is the fact that convictions for sanitary code infractions were obtained and sentences awarded in but 38.3 per cent of the 1,157 cases referred to the courts throughout Haiti.
Division of supplies and transportation.The 82 motor units that are bringing health to rural Haiti were operated at an average maintenance cost of only $524 per unit. A total of 133,499 miles were covered in the clinical work, of which 109,181 miles were by automobile, 19,824 on horseback, 4,244 by boat, and 250 by airplane.
Division of personnel.To cope, with its increased tasks, the Public Health Service increased its personnel from 2,010 to 2,222 in 1929. In spite of the extreme lack of competently trained persons, the service did not increase the number of Americans employed. American employees account for only 1.72 per cent of the personnel.
The service was able to withdraw 4 members of the American naval personnel from the 10 sanitary districts and to replace them by Haitian physicians to act as district public health officers.
Division of finance.The work of the service has necessarily been one of charity, but the service is now devoting especial attention to the lowering of the volume of free care given by hospitals and sanitary units. This is in the interest of democracy and sound economics and will eventually result in proper medical and sanitation service for all the people.
Service Technique
Program.Owing to the character of the country and its inhabitants, Haiti is, and will remain for many years, essentially an agricultural nation. The national wealth is in its agriculture. There are no important mineral resources capable of profitable exploitation, under present conditions, and industry is as yet insignificant. Nearly 90 per cent of the population is directly engaged in farming.
The condition of the peasants has been one of absolute poverty, utterly primitive farming and living conditions, ignorance, and disease. On an area two-thirds the area of the neighboring republic of Santo Domingo is settled a population nearly three times as great.


EIGHTH annua .PORT OF american high commissioner 37
Fundamental to any further important general advancement of the country is the business of education and of improving national and individual wealth and health.
To promote popular education especially in the rural districts and to increase agricultural production, were the purposes for which the Service Technique de l'Agriculture was called into being by the Haitian Government in August, 1923. Organization was largely completed and the service able to begin effectively to function towards the end of 1924. '
It was suggested by some in the beginning that the service confine its efforts to so-called practical projects to increase immediately the acreage and production of existing Haitian crops, and to introduce new crops and crop diversification in order to wean Haitian economy from its dangerous dependence on coffee culture, which normally accounts for 75 per cent of the exports. It may be stated here that "culture is a misnomer, for the crop has been essentially a wild one as regards cultivation. The service was urged by certain advisers, not having carefully studied the problem, to encourage large-scale agricultural concessionsinevitably to foreign interests since native capital was not availableon Government and private land and to provide numerous modern farms, on the theory that once shown the way the tropical peasant would immediately desert his ignorant and easy mode of life for intensive, toilsome cultivation.
It would have been possible by a system of expensive drives" and bounties to have stimulated production of certain crops, and this has been and is still being done in certain cases. The exj^erience of the service has shown, however, that such artificial results would have been of brief duration and, in most cases, would be unprofitable in relation to the money expended. Once the pressure and rewards are removed the peasant relapses. The matter of promoting large-scale agricultural concessions was complicated by the question of land ownership, previously referred to in this report, and the scarcity of really good land. Concessions have been granted, but to have sought indiscriminately to increase their number would have obliged the Haitian Government to accord them on long and over generous terms not to the eventual benefit of the country or its population, already overcrowded in most farming districts. It was the desire of the service to develop Haiti for Haitians.
The model farm idea is of some, but not complete, value. It is used by the service at the present time. Immediately to have created a great number of model farms would have necessitated funds and a supply of trained agriculturists which were not available. It is a mistaken idea that example is all that is necessary for the tropical peasant to mend his farming ways. This has been


38 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
learned by actual experiences of the service, but is also historically shown.
At the moment when Haiti conquered its independence from France, the French colonists had developed a highly successful system of tropical agriculture and irrigation. The country was in a sense a huge model farm. As soon as the untrained peasants came into occupation of the land, agriculture began to decay and revert to a primitive state. The peasant of to-day has neither in character, intellect, education, in farming ability, nor outlook greatly changed since 1804.
The Service Technique, therefore, decided that in order to achieve permanent, important results, it must include in its program widespread agricultural and vocational education of the younger generation. This was a novel departure in Haiti. The previous limited educational system was chiefly along strict academic lines-^a system doomed to failure in a country where over 90 per cent of the population is illiterate and poor and destined to perform manual labor to gain their livelihood. It is to be noted that in the rural districts of the Philippines a 35 per cent relapse into illiteracy within five years after schooling has occurred.
There were practically no teachers available for the farm and industrial schools. Instructors had to be trained. To get literate teacher material it was necessary, in the beginning, to use students from the towns who had had access to some elementary instruction. A normal school with a faculty of American teachers was started. Only two Haitians could be found with the necessary qualifications for teaching agriculture. By 1925 nine farm schools and three large industrial schools were in operation. In addition, at the normal school higher agricultural education for the training of teachers, research workers, and farm advisers was started.
A system of service to adult farmers through farm advisers and demonstration farms was inaugurated with success, and direct aid was given to the farmers through annual clinics and demonstrations in the control of both plant and animal diseases and injurious insects. Experiment farms to develop new or improved plant varieties and animal breeds for Haitian agriculture were begun.
Forestationin a country whose forests had largely disappeared and flood-prevention projects were launched. Foreign companies were encouraged to come in and initiate fairly large-scale farming projects in sisal and other cropsparticularly for crops which could be sown in uncultivated areasfor the country needs a certain amount of such foreign capital, and increased productiveness and the example of initiative and scientific farming afforded by the operation of such concessions.


eighth annual report of american high commissioner 39
The above has been the program of the Service Technique. The difficulties faced by it in its work are too numerous to be recounted here. Insufficient funds have retarded the program. The program is a long-term one. Twenty yearsa short time in the history of national developmentwill be necessary before this first stage can achieve pronounced success. It is believed to be, however, the only program which will give permanent result in raising the financial and cultural level of Haiti and its agricultural masses and in providing a foundation for stable democratic government.
Accomplishments in the past five years.The following is a brief general summary recounting the main accomplishments of the service since its inception:
1. Established a normal school which has trained more than 400 teachers and technical assistants who are now employed in educational and scientific work.
2. Established Co rural farm schools with 7,493 students.
3. Established 8 industrial schools with an enrollment of 3.293 students.
4. Established 5 experiment stations as follows:
(a) At Port au Prince, 200 acres for general crops, fruits,
vegetables, and dairy husbandry;
(b) At Fonds des Negres, 100 acres for coffee and cacao;
(c) At Hinche, 1,500 acres for cattle;
(d) At Hatte Lathan, 400 acres for sisal and cotton;
(e) At Poste Chabert, 100 acres for forestry, palm nuts, bees,
and cattle.
5. Inauguration of a forestry department, passage of law providing for national forests, and establishment of two forestry experiment stations. The forestry department introduced sisal culture and in the experiment station of 200 acres demonstrated its successful production in Haiti, with the result that there are now three companies with 8,500 acres planted, producing the finest grade of sisal, thus adding to Haiti's agricultural wealth.
6. Established a department of markets for assisting in the development of Haitian foreign commerce and for finding markets for hitherto unmarketed Haitian products.
The department of markets has
(a) Organized a source of commercial information concerning
Haitian products, custom duties, regulations, freight rates, sources of supply, etc., for use- of foreign buyers and similarly the collection of information concerning foreign markets for Haitian products which shall be useful to Haitian exporters;
(b) Made contacts between Haitian exporters and foreign
buyers ;
(e) Assisted materially in the formulation of the coffee standardization law recently passed. This department has also helped in putting the law into operation by assisting in the education of the public in the requirement of


40 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
the law and in training the customs officers in the grading of coffee;
(c/) Has demonstrated the successful canning and marketing of Haitian fruits and vegetables, such as guava paster tomatoes, etc.
7. Established a printing department, modernly equipped, functioning as a printing school and doing a large part of the Government printing.
8. Established an agricultural extension department with 34 Haitian supervisors and demonstration agents, teaching adult farmers throughout the country modern agricultural and animal husbandry methods. Among the accomplishments of this unit may be mentioned its excellent work in promoting the culture of cacao and teaching its proper cultivation and preparation.
9. Established a horticultural department which in the last year and a half has grown and furnished the extension department 65,000 orchard and garden plants; furnished landscaping plans % for 45 public and private grounds.
10. Established a department of chemistry which, in addition to teaching duties, has made complete soil surveys of 3 sections totaling 107,000 acres, originated methods of control of sugar-cane chlorosis and rate of fermentation in distilleries, and acted as a chemical laboratory for the customs and internal revenue service.
11. Established a botanical department which has
(a) Built up a Haitian herbarium of over 5,000 species of
plants;
(b) Determined the cause of fruit black rot of pineapples and
suggested methods of control;
(c) Made a survey of Haitian plant diseases;
(d) Published two textbooks on botany for Haitian schools;
(e) Cooperated with the department of agronomy in the pro-
duction of an improved strain of native Haitian cotton. This cotton has sold for prices comparing favorably to Egyptian cotton, and its extended cultivation will greatly add to future Haitian wealth.
12. Established a veterinary department which to date has trained 12 Haitian assistants and in the past five years has held 8,379 public clinics and healed 315,267 animals. The chief of this department has written and published two textbooks for Haitian students on veterinary subjects and is publishing a third.
13. Started an animal husbandry department of the Port au Prince experiment station, producing on a paying basis for the first time in Haiti Grade A" pasteurized milk and cream; established 10 breeding posts with purebred donkey, boar, and bull for improving Haitian livestock; demonstrated hog culture is profitable in Haiti; and trained a corps of Haitian dairy workers and livestock tenders as well as technical assistants and teachers.
14. Aided 10 students of proved character and ability to undertake special university work in the United States unobtainable in Haiti. Four of these students have returned and are in executive and teaching positions.


eighth annual eepobt of american high commissioner 41
Outstanding developments in fiscal year 1928-29.-Among the outstanding developments in the work of this service in the fiscal year 1928-29 may be mentioned the inauguration of a greatly enlarged program of industrial education in Port au Prince, the continuance of a vigorous program of expansion in the development of rural education, a large increase in enrollment in the Service Technique schools, the production of pasteurized milk by the Damien dairy, and the development of an improved strain of native Haitian cotton.
Personnel.In accordance with its program of development, the Service Technique increased its employment during the 12 months from 377 to 476. The results of the training of Haitian employees and the policy of the steady replacement of foreign personnel, as competent native instructors are trained, is illustrated by the fact that the percentage of non-Haitian employees dropped from 10 to 8.4 per cent. When the service was organized in 1923, the percentage of foreign employees was 26 per cent.
Enrollment in schools.Attendance at Service Technique schools has increased from an initial enrollment of 51 in 1923 to a total of 11,430 in 1928-29, a gratifying progress. An enormous task still faces Haiti in this field, for there are almost 400,000 children of school age and the existing schools of all types (including national, religious, and private schools) can only accommodate slightly more than 100,000 students.
Inventory of property.The inventory of the Service Technique property at the end of the last fiscal year gave a result of $1,475,000 as compared with $217,600 in 1923-24 and $923,800 at the end of the preceding year. Buildings, $685,000, and equipment, $714,600, account for the bulk of the total inventory.
Expenditure.The extensive program of the service in 1928-29 was achieved at an expenditure of $612,655 for salaries, labor, materials, equipment, and expenses. In addition, for new school buildings, the sum of $720,000 was authorized. Of this amount $600,000 was allotted for the construction of industrial schools in Port au Prince which will accommodate 6,000 children and will replace some 40 primary and elementary academic" schools now inadequately housed in insanitary and unsafe buildings. In the past, education in Haiti was restricted to a small and elite section of the people. The extension of the industrial school system is designed to make education in Haiti really popular, and to meet the needs of the masses who must look forward to earning a living by labor of some sort. These industrial elementary schools do not mean that students having the means and the desire to obtain further instruction will be handicapped or precluded from doing so, as for further training in the
10779030-i


42 eighth annual report of american high COMMISSIONER-
sciences, arts, or professions no better foundation can be laid than that given them in the industrial schools.
Normal training.-As previously stated, one of the problems in the development of the agricultural and industrial school system was the building up of a force of instructors in agricultural manual training and the industrial trades. This work is being done at the Ecole Centrale and along most efficient lines.- The- normal course in agricultural and industrial education gives the aspirant teacher not only a foundation in the subject matter of his profession but also manual skill in doing the practical work involved. Emphasis is laid on laboratory, field, and shop work, and every effort is made to impress the student with the importance of the practical as well .as the theoretical side of his profession. Previously in this report, it was stated that in these beginning years it was necessary for the Ecole Centrale to draw chiefly upon urban students for, teacher material, as the rural districts are not yet producing, in any number, candidates who have passed the lower schools. This was a necessary but undesirable feature, and as the Service Technique's program of rural education develops, instructor material for agricultural education is more and more sought and found in the country districts. In order to make a start it was also necessary to give scholarships to attract students. Dependence on the town population for students, and on a system of paid scholarships, was partly responsible for the students' strike, described previously in these pages.5 It is again repeated that the students' strike did not indicate any real dissatisfaction among the mass of students. They were carried away by strike leaders, in turn impelled by outside agitators using a minor affair as an excuse for political agitation. Applications for the places of those students who have not returned at this writing have exceeded vacancies. The majority of teachers graduated and the students at present under instruction at the Ecole Centrale are successful and enthusiastic in their work. This fact is attested by the increased number of and attendance at the rural farm schools.
In addition to regular instruction at the Ecole Centrale the service during 1928-29 encouraged and in some cases financially aided nine students to take special agricultural and industrial studies in American universities. Prior to the introduction of this idea, novel to Haiti, of agricultural and industrial education, practically no Haitian proceedng abroad for study ever considered any course but the law or medicine, and most particularly the former. There was a great surplus of lawyers, a serious shortage of doctors and dentists, and an almost complete lack of industrial, chemical, or agricultural engineers necessary to the material development of the country.
'Ante, p. 6.


eighth annual, report of american high commissioner 43
It is realized that any permanent efforts to raise the educational level of the population can not be obtained without schooling for the girls as well as for the boys. There are two industrial schools for girls at the present time with an enrollment of 327. The $600,000 allotment for new buildings includes two industrial schools to accommodate 1,000 girl students.
Conclusion
In addition to the annual reports of each of the treaty officials, there are appended summaries of accomplishments.6 As customary in previous reports, graphic representations have been made in order to bring out more clearly certain outstanding facts.7
A careful examination of these data shows the decided progress that has been made particularly during the past eight years. In a very large measure this progress is due to the wisdom of President Borno and his earnest efforts to cooperate in the carrying out of the provisions of the treaty of 1915. The achievements that have taken place during his administration and the benefits that have accrued therefrom to the mass of the Haitian people speak effectively for themselves and can not be controverted.
It is with a great pleasure that I refer to the loyal, devoted, and efficient service of the treaty officials. Unappreciated by the malcontents in Haiti and the uninformed at home, these Americans of unimpeachable integrity are giving their very best to assist in the rehabilitation of Haiti and to bring happiness and prosperity to the Haitian people.
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient servant,
John H. Russell
* Complete reports not published; for summaries see post, p. 45. 'Post, p. 89.




APPENDICES
SUMMARIES OF ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS. SHOWING THE WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HAITI SINCE JANUARY I. 1929, AND EMPHASIZING POINTS WHICH ARE ENTERED INTO IN GREATER DETAIL IN THE SEPARATE REPORTS




APPENDIX I
GARDE D'HAI'TI
Functions
The outstanding duties of the Garde were the suppression of disorder and the prevention or dispersal of unauthorized manifestations in connection "with the students' strike and the aborted general strike in November and December, and the maintenance of peace and order that were threatened by these hostile activities. This the Garde accomplished with a minimum of the force necessary to its accomplishment.
Target Practice
These disorderly activities forced the abandonment of the annual rifle matches in December. Departmental and district competitions were held, however, with results that showed the skill of the Garde in this respect was fully up to its past excellent standard. With the normal handicap of old rifles accentuated by the passage of another year, a total average of 69.40 percentage of qualifications was recorded. The record of the previous year was 70.08 per cent.
Military Communications
The improvement, maintenance, and extension of military communications, which carries with it benefit to the peasant traffic on trails, brought this factor to the highest state of development in the history of the Garde. A total of 309.5 miles of telephone lines was under operation at the end of the year. The Garde also maintained nine landing fields, cleared by its own labor, a valuable supplement to the activities of the observation squadron of the Marine Brigade. In addition, a system was developed by which planes can pick up messages at all district headquarters in a military or other emergency when other forms of communication fail.
Police Duties and Fire Protection
Extraordinarily increased demands on the purely police functions of the Garde were successfully met. Fire-fighting facilities were increased at Port au Prince through the acquisition of one motorized steamer and the order of another. Through this intensified increase the capital city now has, for the first time, adequate fire protection for its fine group of Government buildings and its rapidly developed residential and business quarters. Cape Haitien also acquired more adequate fire protection, and all fire-fighting apparatus in the Re-
47


48 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
public has been efficiently supervised. The end of the year saw the installation of modern storage facilities for inflammable liquids in bulk beyond the city limits of Port au Prince, and the removal of this disturbing menace. Fire zoning and storage facilities in other cities' made substantial progress. In the capital, fires were reduced to 33, only 4 of which were of a serious nature. The reduction in fire losses, compared to 1928, was $384,325.
Traffic Control
A material increase in motor traffic, notably in jitneys and in passenger and freight camions, was met by a spirited drive in the cities and on the main country roads. In Port au Prince 1,001 traffic violators were apprehended, as compared to 461 in 1928. The fines collected totaled $4,551. A chain of camion control stations was established at all towns.
A total of 2,839 motor vehicles was registered by the Garde, as contrasted to 2,589 in 1928.
Military Intelligence
An experienced commissioned officer placed in charge of the intelligence division made considerable headway in the expansion of this important duty of the Garde. In the closing month of the year plans were completed to augment this development by the detail of an officer of field rank as head of this division.
Control of the Possession of Firearms
To combat the possibility of serious disorder, a total reduction of 388 firearms was accomplished by stricter application of the laws governing their possession and by confiscation.
Communes
Despite the handicap of a proper law that would make more effective the efforts of communal advisers to better communal conditions and increase revenues, the total collection of communal revenues, $419,964.47, was the highest ever recorded.
Personnel
Officers.A total of 19 additional Haitian officers were commissioned, 2 going to the Service de Sante. Four Haitian officers were promoted from the grade of second to first lieutenant. Prior to the expiration of the year, orders were prepared for the examination of 15 aspirant officers. If these officers qualify, the total promotions and original appointments within a space of approximately six months will reach that of 40. The officer strength during the year, through legislation, totaled 198. Of this number 78, or 39.3 per cent, were from Haitian sources. In the grades below that of major there were 71, or 46.2 per cent, from those sources.
Enlisted men.The enlisted strength was increased from 2,537 to 2,622. Of this increase 68 were assigned to the line and 17 to the


appendix i: garde d'haiti
49
Service de Sante. The percentage of desertions was 0.0069. Within the year 636 Gardes were discharged by reason of expiration of enlistment, while there were 658 reenlistments.
Training of Haitian, personnel.In conformity to the definite policy of a gradual and progressive preparation of Haitian officers to take over the functions of the Garde in 1936, the percentage of Haitian officers in the company grades has been increased from 5 per. cent in 1917 to 19 per cent in 1922 and 46.2 per cent at the end of this year.
In the 15 outlying districts 4 are now wholly officered and manned from Haitian sources. Two of the three districts of the Department of the Center are under Haitian command, one in the west and one in the south. In the Service de Sante 31.5 per cent of the commissioned personnel, including 2 captains, is Haitian.
In the administration of districts and subdistricts by Haitian officers the splendid record of not one cent lost to the Government in the disbursement of funds again held true throughout the year.
In this striking respect, in the ability to command, and fitness for staff duties the Haitian officers, in the trying conditions and acid test of the year, revealed unmistakable progress. In a fine spirit of loyalty and in capacity for hard and unremitting work both Haitian officers and men measured up to a high standard.
The Ecole Militaire, whose entire staff was 75 per cent Haitian, graduated 17 aspirant officers; at the end of a year's course. Their performance of duty under an approximation of front-line duty in time of war, was exceptionally gratifying and was conclusive evidence that the Garde can draw its Haitian officer personnel from the highest type of Haitian youth.
A new class of 13 aspirant officers, commissioned from the ranks, was organized late in the year at the Ecole Militaire. Military demands forced the temporary abandonment of their special course, which will be completed in 1930.
Total strength of Garde.The total strength, of the Garde, including such auxiliaries as the coast guard, rural police, and palace band, reached the total of 3,460.
Administrative Accomplishments
Publication of Regulations.Such important administrative accomplishments as the compilation and issuance in printed form of the. Garde Regulations, Courts and Boards, and Uniform Regulations, were effected during the year, following months of preparation. In addition progress was made on Drill Regulations. These publications will add materially to the efficiency of the Garde, and to the thorough indoctrination of the officer personnel.
Lighting plant at La Gonave.To render more efficient and desirable the duties of the district commander on the Island of La Gonave, a new electric-lighting plant .was installed in that isolated station. Collections of revenues, as the agent of the General Receiver, totaled $7,176.10.
Radio equipment.A total of 15 radio-receiving and public-address equipments were operated during the year, an increase of 3


50 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
over 1928, and of 6 over 1927. Radio communication was established between Hinche, seat of government in the Central Department, and Port au Prince. The projected extension of this venture, operating in conjunction with the Navy Radio Station, will prove invaluable in times of disaster or military emergencies.
Quartermaster Department
Building program.The quartermaster department, in its fourth year of a comprehensive building program, completed 24 modified and 4 standard outpost buildings through Garde and prison labor, and 4 special outpost buildings on La Gonave. One 2-story, and three 1-story district headquarters constructed by the Travaux Publics, gave the Garde more than 90 per cent of modern and adequate buildings.
Motor transport.Through intelligent supervision the average cost of operation of motor transport was reduced to that of 10 cents per mile, while the average miles per gallon of gasoline was 8.5 miles.
Commendations and decorations.In recognition of services rendered, letters of commendation were issued to 24 American and 15 Haitian officers, 4 of the latter being honored twice. In addition, 7 Haitian officers and 46 enlisted men were decorated for especially meritorious and loyal service.
Medical Department
Training of Haitian personnel.During the year the Haitian commissioned personnel of the medical department was increased from 22 per cent to 31.5 per cent of the whole number, and 2 transferred to the line where they could receive promotion not possible in the medical department by reason of not being graduate physicians. Of 11 men discharged upon expiration of enlistment, 8, or 73 per cent, reenlisted. A total of 46 ex-hospital-corps men were employed during the year by the National Public Health Service.
Hospital-corps men, on enlistment, now receive three months' hospital training; they are also detailed to assist officers in the National Public Health Service; and plans have been made for their laboratory training.
Services rendered.Medical service was furnished a total of 6,402 officers, Gardes, rural police, and prisoners.
Health of Garde.Health conditions were maintained at an excellent standard. While the death rate of 16.418 per 1,000 shows an apparent increase, this is due to the fact that of the 41 deaths,'23 were men carried on indefinite furlough. Prior to 1928, Gardes who had contracted tuberculosis were discharged from the service, and their deaths were not charged in vital statistics. Under the present system they are provided with their base pay while on furlough.
An intensive antisyphilitic treatment, and other measures to combat venereal diseases, was begun and promises effective future results. Yaws, once a factor", has ceased to be a problem for the Garde.
Malarial admissions, with a rate of 108.9 per 1,000, were remarkably low as contrasted with past records.


appendix i: garde d'haiti
51
(.'are of. prisoners and insane.A total of 45,711 prisoners and insane were afforded medical care and treatment, with intensive treatment for syphilis and yaws.
Within a 9-month period 9,160 prisoners were vaccinated against smallpox.
Coast Guard
Navigational aids.The coast guard, despite the lack of a suitable lighthouse tender, successfully maintained all navigational aids in Haitian waters. This included 15 lighthouses, all of whose defects were remedied within 48 hours from the time of such reports, and the buoyage system which was kept intact. This work was accomplished by the employment of small gasoline launches with inadequate lifting machinery.
The coast guard also surveyed an area 3 miles square at Caracol Bay, locating and buoying an excellent channel for shipping operations. This work was accomplished with a chartered schooner and launches under tremendous natural handicaps.
Motor launches.Seven motor launches have been in active use for lighthouse services and inspections. Two motor sailing launches, 36 and 40 foot, respectively, were acquired, reconditioned, and equipped.


APPENDIX II
OFFICE OF THE FINANCIAL ADVISER-GENERAL RECEIVER
There is presented herewith a summary of the foreign commerce and finances of Haiti together with an outline of the principal activities and operating results of the office of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver during the fiscal year 1928-29.
Foreign Commerce
Foreign commerce for 1928-29 amounted to $33,961,755.80 as against $42,915,502.60 in 1927-28, a decline of $8,953,746.80, or 20.87 per cent. Total imports were valued at $17,237,922.40 or 14.87 per cent less than the preceding fiscal year, while total exports, amounting to $16,723,833.40, declined 26.22 per cent and left an unfavorable balance of trade amounting to $514,089. In 1927-28 exports exceeded imports by $2,418,589.40.
The proportion of Haitian imports supplied by the United States declined from 75.30 per cent of the total in 1927-28 to 69.85 per cent in 1928-29, while France continued to be the heaviest purchaser of Haitian exports, taking 55.29 per cent, an increase over the percentage for the previous year. Port au Prince, with 58.75 per cent of total import trade for the year, continued to lead as port of entry, although its share of the import trade declined as compared with the previous year. In proportion of exports Port au Prince handles 18.96 per cent of the total, which represents a decline from the 22.67 per cent of total exports accounted for at that port during 1927-28.
Notwithstanding the smaller volume of commerce, the net tonnage of ocean-going vessels entering and clearing Haitian ports increased in 1928-29 as against the preceding year. This was attributable mainly to the Larger number of tourist ships of heavy tonnage which visited Haiti. In point of fact, prior to the last fiscal year, comparatively few tourist ships had included Haiti in their itineraries. During the year an American steamship line instituted a regular passenger service between Haiti and Galveston, Tex., and the Pan American Airways, Inc., established an air service providing passenger and mail accommodations between Port au Prince, Cuban points, Miami, Fla., the Dominican Republic, and San Juan, Porto Rico. Development of air lines through the "West Indies and on to South America finds Haiti in an enviable position due to central geographical location and security from hurricanes. Plans for the construction in the near future of a large modern airport at Port au Prince are under consideration, although present facilities are adequate for immediate traffic.
A marked seasonal fluctuation in imports was recorded when 47.05 per cent of imports during 1928-29 was accounted for during the 52


appendix ii: financial adviser-general receiver 53
first four months of the year. This situation was induced mainly by unusually large importations of foodstuffs following the hurricane of August, 1928.
Foodstuffs accounted for 33.89 per cent of total import values in 1928-29 against 30.02 per cent in 1927-28. Imports of most other commodities declined in value, including textiles, shoes, cement, lumber, liquors, tobacco, automobiles, and trucks.
Coffee exports declined $5,017,681.40, or 28 per cent, in value and 12,590,160 kilos, or 30.59 per cent, in quantity as compared with 1927-28. The year showed little improvement with respect to diversity of exports with the exception of cotton, and that commodity did not appreciably relieve dependence upon coffee. The rumored failure of the Brazilian valorization system shortly subsequent to the close of the fiscal year was sufficient to bring about severe declines in coffee prices and served to show that the fortunes of Haiti are closely involved in the shifting prices of the world coffee market.
The necessity of proper standards for coffee and other Haitian export products has long been advocated by this office. On June 12, 1929, a law was passed creating a central commission of standardization. The duties of this commission are to study the interests of commerce in coffee, cotton, cacao, sisal, and other export products and to submit reports with recommendations as to standard export types of each commodity to the President of the Republic. Coffee was the first product to receive attention, and in accordance with the Executive order of September 7, 1929, all green coffee for export must be graded and marked in accordance with the number of imperfect coffee beans or other defects included in a representative sample of 500 grams. At the same time, export duties on the two highest grades were reduced. It is expected that this reduction in export duties, together with the better prices which should be received for the higher grades, will have a stimulating effect upon the efforts of coffee merchants to improve the quality of this commodity.
Other legislation during the year has made it possible for the General Receiver, with the agreement of the Secretary of State for Finance and Commerce, to reduce or remit the penalty provided by article 59 of the customs law of September 4, 1905, which called for a line of 100 gourdes for each unmanifested package debarked. This provision of the law was unduly severe and worked unnecessary hardship in the case of unmanifested packages debarked through error or negligence and without attempt to defraud. The General Receiver has also been authorized by law to reduce the penalty in the case of delayed declaration of goods imported when it is shown that the delay was due to exceptional circumstances.
A case of systematic undervaluation extending over a considerable period was discovered at one of the ports and was made the subject of appropriate administrative penalties. The duties, of which the treasury had been defrauded, were also recovered.
On April 2, 1929, instructions were issued creating bonded warehousing facilities at Port au Prince and, at the discretion of collectors and to the extent that warehouse space is available, in other ports.
A law was passed on May 29, 1929, by which the port authorities are required to refuse clearance for a period of 30 days to any sail-


54 eighth annual beport of american high commissioner
ing vessel which shall have failed to display proper lights. The vesting of this authority in the port officials has had an excellent effect.
A number of paragraphs of the import tariff were modified by the law of July 20, 1929. Slates, slate pencils, chalk used for educational purposes, live plants, and garden seeds were exempted from import duties with the object of promoting public instruction and agriculture. Duties were reduced on paint materials and prepared paints, upon glazed book paper and writing paper, upon adding-machine tape, harmonicas, and violins. Duties were increased upon brooms and upon lard and lard substitutes in order to protect and promote local industry. A new paragraph was created for the taxation of containers made of corrugated pasteboard, and the principle of alternative ad valorem duties was further extended to a number of articles where there is considerable variation in quality and value.
Customs Service
Except by agreement between the Governments of Haiti and the United States, the expenses of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver under the treaty of September 1G, 1915, can not exceed 5 per cent of customs receipts. Shortly following the establishment of the receivership, however, one-fifth of the so-called 5 per cent fund was assigned to the Banque Nationale de la Republique d'Hai'ti for payment of treasury service rendered. Strictly operating expenditures during the year were well within 4 per cent of customs receipts, but capital expenditures undertaken from surplus income of 1927-28 resulted in a deficit of $20,403.98. Total operating expenditures, including repairs and maintenance, totaled $254,837.40 in 1928-29 as against $239,710.18 in 1927-28. A total of $47,607.74 was expended during the year from the 5 per cent fund, and $26,308.95 from general government funds for repairs and improvements to customs plant and equipment.
Internal Revenue Service
Continued improvement marked operations of the internal revenue service during the fiscal year. Problems attending collection of the new excise taxes were met with greater success than had been anticipated, since internal revenue is new to Haiti. An important phase of our work is the establishment of a more balanced revenue and a more equable incidence of taxation.
Expenditures of the internal revenue service invariably have been well within the operating allowance. Figures for the last fiscal year show a large increase in operating income and in total expenses as compared with previous years. Increased income and expenditures both accompanied institution of the new excise taxes, while expenditures were further increased during the latter part of the year by transfer of the registration service to the internal revenue service.
Receipts
Revenue receipts for 1928-29 were $8,504,305.08 or 15.60 per cent less than in 1927-28, the record year, while total customs receipts, amounting to $7,049,530 were 21.81 per cent less than the record customs revenues of 1927-28.


appendix ii: financial adviser-general receiver 55
Internal revenue receipts during 1928-29 totaled $1,207,052.96 as compared with $848,324.02 in 1927-28, an increase of $358,728.93, or 42.28 per cent. Receipts from the excise taxes more than accounted for the increase, collections from other sources having declined 9.77 per cent from those for the preceding year. Receipts from emigration declined 56.08 per cent, but income from public land rentals showed a slight increase.
The first full year's operation of the excise tax law revealed that it has produced $452,763.67 in revenue and is a fiscal success.
No particular difficulty was experienced with collections of the tax upon alcohol at the source, and the new taxes upon cigarettes and cigars were collected without much objection. However, in the case of smoking tobacco there MTas considerable opposition to the requirement that the tobacco be wrapped in small packages and stamped.
Continued effort was devoted during the year to perfecting the method of handling land cases, and it is gratifying to note that the work did not meet with misapprehension or misunderstanding on the part of the peasants. Considerable progress was made in connection with clarifying cadastral records; inaccuracies of long standing in the rental lists were corrected, and some additional area of land was made available for rental.
Expenditures
Total expenditures from revenues during 1928-29 were $8,828,-900.79 as against $8,195,582.90 in 1927-28, an increase of 7.66 per cent. Disbursements on account of the public debt increased 2.78 per cent. Services which showed smaller expenditures than in the preceding fiscal year were the Garde d'Hai'ti, and the Departments of Foreign Relations, Justice, Agriculture, and Labor. Increased expenditures were registered by the Department of Public "Works, the Agricultural Service, and the Department of Religion.
Expenditures from revenue exceeded revenues for the year by $319,595.11, or 3.76 per cent.
S Treasury Position
i Total cash assets as of September 31, 1929, were $6,538,672.38, or a decline of 4.29 per cent from total cash assets at the close of 1927-28. Deposits in New York and Haiti decreased, while funds I in the hands of disbursing officers were less than on September 30, 1928.
The unobligated cash balance on September 30, 1929, amounting to $4,072,291.65 was the largest on record, and the public treasury was in a better condition than ever before to meet the contingencies incident to an abrupt change in the trend of revenues such as that in prospect for 1929-30.
Public Debt
The public debt of Haiti was reduced during the year by a total of $1,152,143.81, or 6.10 per cent. This compares with 5.28 per cent, the percentage of reduction in 1927-28. All amortization requirements were fulfilled well before the close of the year.


56 eighth annual keport of american high commissioner
supplies
The bureau of supplies was established in 191G by means of an advance of $14,100. During the year 1928-29 the last of this advance was paid off. The close of the fiscal year found the bureau with no indebtedness, and no uncollected accounts or liabilities other than a surplus.
Budget and Financial Law
The ordinary budget for 1929-30 was voted on July 16, 1929. Revenue estimates totaled $8,020,000 while proposed expenditures amounted to $8,018,197.92.
The law of ways and means and the law of expenditures, passed in conjunction with the budget for 1929-30, contained no essential changes. Revisions in the law of expenditures as effected prior to 1928-29 eliminated the liquidation period for accounts and clarified the limitations under which the governmental obligations are terminated. Marked improvement attended operation under these revisions during the year.
Accounting
Recent innovations in the accounting system were the functional classification of expenditures and redistribution of expenditures by objects as adopted late in 1927-28. Modern installations to facilitate preparation of records and improved control over expenditures were extended during the year, while additional measures were taken to protect all records from loss.
Auditing
During the year the auditing activities of the office were extended, and toward the close of the year arrangements were made for a complete audit of all governmental accounts by representatives of the office of the Comptroller of the United States Government, to take place in the early months of 1929-30.
Currency
On September 30, 1929, currency in circulation was estimated at $3,601,327a decline over the estimate for September 30, 1928. From all indications the currency in circulation during the year was sufficient for the requirements of commerce, with the exception of subsidiary currency of which the local supply was inadequate in several instances.
Banking and Credit
As compared with average loans and discounts in Haiti during 1927-28 there was a decrease from $7,028,701.40 to $4,373,343.81 in the fiscal year 1928-29, while total loans and discounts fell from an average of $10,355,084.33 in 1927-28 to $5,336,055.98 in 1928-29. On the other hand, average individual deposits rose from $3,005,778.45


appendix ii: financial advisee-general receiver 57
to $3,299,851.15, and average governmental deposits increased from $4,565,935.10 to $5,034,918.77.
Credit was restricted during the latter months of 1928-29 in line with the lowered purchasing power extant at that time. Following developments in the Brazilian valorization situation which occurred subsequent to the end of the fiscal year, credits were for a time virtually suspended. Limited credits have since been extended, however, and at this writing movement of the coffee crop is as satisfactory as could be expected in view of the lower prices offered in foreign markets.
Personnel
Personnel under the supervision of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver (including the internal revenue service) on September 30, 1929, was made up of 26 Americans and 508 Haitians, as compared with 23 Americans and 424 Haitians at the close of 1927-28. Extension of a number of activities added to the responsibilities of American and Haitian employees alike. New duties were executed satisfactorily, and old functions were carried on with increased efficiency. A number of the Haitian personnel were advanced to more responsible positions upon the basis of demonstrated aptitude.
10779030-5


APPENDIX III
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS
The development of personnel, the improvement of roads, and extension of the vehicular trail system remain outstanding missions of this organization. The most important change in the trend of activity has been an increase of 37 per cent in the work of the service of roads, bridges, and trails.
While total expenditures were 2.7 per cent less than the previous year, the average number of employees was 24 per cent larger. This apparent contradiction is a natural result of the increased road work which requires much labor. More of the funds expended thus remain in the country and the nation as a whole is benefited.
Of 659 job orders for, the year, 353 were for new construction.
Corps or Haitian Commissioned Engineers and Architects
Mr. Felix Bayard was commissioned; Engineer Pierre Etheart returned to active duty after an absence of over seven years on duty in the office of the Minister of Public Works; Engineers F. C. Azor and Amilcar Cauvin were promoted; while Engineers J. Lafontant and E. Gardere resigned.
Material progress was made in increasing the authority given Haitian engineers.
The seventh annual conference of this corps was held in April. Five excellent papers were read and discussed to the benefit of all. These annual conferences are the oldest established meetings of professional men in Haiti.
Personnel in General
Again all records were broken for numbers of employees with an average of 8,933 for the year, the ratio of Haitians to Americans being 297 to 1.
During the strike of students and certain Government employees during part of November and December, the strikers endeavored to force the employees of the Public Works Administration to join the strike. It is most encouraging that all employees of th.-, service remained calm during this disturbing time and no member of the organization left his work.
Fire
Only one serious fire occurred (in one of the Government storehouses in Port au Prince) during the year. It took place on the 31st day of December and resulted in considerable loss of material
58 i


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to the Garde d'Hai'ti (covered by insurance) and the Service Technique de 1'Agriculture. Again the wisdom of building storehouses of as noninflammable material as possible, was demonstrated.
) Expenditures
The Public Works Administration expended for:
General administration____________________________ $219,230.87
Public buildings___________________________________ 473,217.82
Municipal engineering_____________________________ 523, 555. 93
Irrigation ________________________________________ 73,028.22
Roads, bridges, and trails--------------------------- 768,827. 24
Harbor improvements______________________________ 46,396. 51
Telephone, telegraph, and radio-------------------- 144, 643.29
Cadastral service__________________________________ 1,003.23
Total_______________________________________ 2,249,909.11
In October, 1929, the central accounting office placed in operation a system of Kardex accounts. The use of this equipment has resulted in expedition in making entries and balancing books. At the same time a central Kardex obligation account was established to replace the several such accounts of the various services.
A new requisition system has been instituted which results in making charges to appropriations immediately when material is drawn from store.
Communal funds.Communal funds contributed to the Public Works Administration for municipal work were smaller than the previous year by some $360, and amounted to $25,819.60. Attention is again invited to the fact that the communes depend on the State entirely too much for assistance and strenuous action is needed to stop this growing tendency.
Public Buildings Service
There has been a contraction in the activity concerning public buildings, the year's work load being but 70 per cent of that of the previous year. Quality of workmanship improved and the accomplishment per man day was greater than ever before.
A plumbing school was started in Port au Prince to fill the pressing need for plumbers. The results of this undertaking are gratifying but a large turnover in the men seeking training has been necessary in solving the task of finding men fitted for this work.
Buildings for the Garde d?Haiti.The headquarters building at Las Cahobas, the largest structure yet completed by this service outside of Port au Prince, was occupied in April. Subdistrict headquarters buildings were commenced at Arcahaie, Corail, and Plaisance, the first being completed in February. Twenty-one outpost buildings were under construction and all completed but three.
Buildings for the Financial Adviser-General Receiver.The port office building in Port au Prince was completed and adds greatly to the attractiveness of the water front. A combined customhouse and residence for the collector of customs, was completed at Fort-Liberte. An extension to the port office at Cape Haitien and internal revenue offices at Leogane and Arcahaie were commenced.


60 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
Buildings for the Public Works Administration.The administration offices, storage, shop, and garage were completed at Gonaives and have given the town a good appearing institution. A building in which all Public Works activities are brought together at Petit-Goave was completed. A renovation of the department headquarters at Cayes was started.
Buildings for the National Public Health Service.While the activity of constructing rural dispensaries declined, major repair projects for this service increased. The morgue at the Haitian General Hospital was completed. A ward and a mess hall with kitchen were built at the hospital at Gonaives. Ten standard rural dispensaries were completed. An innovation in the design of these buildings has been adopted in that celotex is now being used for the roof covering in place of corrugated galvanized iron, resulting in better architectural effect as well as reducing the radiation of heat into the building from the roof. Public latrines were constructed in Port au Prince at Place Louverture and under the Tribune. A sanitary fish market has been built at Fort St. Clair.
Buildings for the Service Technique.A 33 per cent expansion in volume of new building construction for this service occurred indicating the efforts being made to make industrial and farm school facilities available to the people. Industrial schools were started in Port au Prince which will be able to care for 3,000 pupils at one time, or with day and night classes they will be able to handle twice that number. The headquarters building for this service at Damien was completed. A dormitory for 32 students was started at Plaisance. Sixteen farm schools Avere completed.
Other State buildings.A 250-student unit for the Brothers' school at Port-de-Paix was started. A 200-student unit was completed as an addition to the Sisters' school at Gonaives. The first subpost-office in Haiti was constructed on John Brown Avenue in Port au Prince. Extensive repairs were accomplished on the Tribune in Port au Prince, a very old Government building in Petionville, the church at Hinche, the Brothers' and Sisters' schools jat Anse-a-Veau as well as much other work.
Municipal Engineering Service
Waterworks.Waterworks for 10 cities of the Republic were operated and maintained with a 5 per cent increase in subscribers.
At Port au Prince the final step in renewing the entire Plaisance-Cerisier aqueduct system was completed, resulting in much improved water supply. The yield of the springs supplying the capital city, however, has been subnormal throughout the year, but through the use of meter readings the subscribers have been kept informed when wastage was apparent, and, through the cooperation of the majority, it has been possible to make the reduced water supply serve equally as well as the greater supply did in the previous year. The installation of a chlorinator at the Bourdon Reservoir completed means of sterilization of the water supplies of both Port au Prince and Petionville, and in accordance with reports of the National Public Health Service a most gratifying reduction in morbidity rates from water-borne diseases has resulted. Ten fire hydrants were added in Port


appendix iii: department of public works
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au Prince. Property has been bought for the greatly needed Bolosse Reservoir which will when constructed further conserve the supply.
At Petionville the water distributing system was partly reconstructed.
At Furcy a spring was capped for public use.
At Miragoane, despite changes in the intake arrangements, the high turbidity of the water continues to require constant attention to the system.
At Petit-Goave a considerable extension of the distributing system was accomplished, and an excellent headquarters building was completed.
At Gonaives two additional springs were capped and connected to the water main. The cleaning of the entire system Avas completed.
At St. Marc there appears to be an increasing density of population and the Avater supply of the toAvn Avill soon require augmentation Avhich can be accomplished by the use of Corbay Spring noAv-running to waste.
At Cayes a new Diesel-driven pumping plant has been put in operation, enabling the pumping of tAvice the quantity of water formerly pumped for the same cost.
At Cape Haitien the springs yielded a larger quantity of Avater than before but still not sufficient to be called satisfactory. At the close of the year one of the wells used to augment the supply appeared to be failing.
Jacmel continues to be the city with the most abundant supply of Avater.
At Jeremie another small spring Avas added to the water system, but the supply is still inadequate.
Well drilling.Well drilling for Avater supply for the villages of the Republic has continued, and seven additional such supplies have been completed. At Hatte Lathan a 13-inch Avell was drilled for l the National Public Health Service and, while Avater was obtained,, lack of funds preA'ented drilling the Avell as deep as seemed most likely to give the largest supply.
Streets.In Port au Prince the paving of John BroAATn Avenue with penetration asphalt Avas the outstanding accomplishment. This j type of street construction is much more durable than that used in the past. A total of 31,310 square meters of macadam and 25.220 square meters of asphalt Avere laid in addition to maintenance of all the streets previously improved. Nine new streets Avere accepted by I the GoATernment. Great study has been made of street cross sections of the various parts of the city with a A7ieAV of obtaining the most useful, as Avell as ornamental, at the loAvest eventual cost. Attempts have also been made to interest abutting property OAvners in contributing to the cost of constructing streets.
Throughout the Republic the streets of cities and toAvns haATe been greatly improATed.
Parks.An unusual amount of attention has been giA'en to the improvement of the parks and public places of Port au Prince Avith pleasing results.
Drains.-The elimination of open" drains on John BroAvn Avenue and Turgeau Avenue were the outstanding accomplishments in the capital city. Here and elseAvhere 8,100 linear meters of concrete curbs and gutters were constructed.


62 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
In all other parts of the Republic many drainage projects were completed. Concrete curbs and gutters were provided wherever possible.
Street lighting.Jacmel remains the only city in the Republic which paid the entire costs of its street lights. Port au Prince, Cape Haitien, and Gonaives are the only other cities with street lights, and the National Government pays for the same.
Concessions for electric lighting were granted for five more cities during the year but work has only started at Jeremie.
Building permits.For Port au Prince 201 permits of a total estimated value of $557,800, were issued showing, considerable increase over the previous year. In Cayes plans were ajiproved and permits issued for eight buildings.
: "*1 1 Irrigation Service
Large sections of the agricultural land of Haiti have been subjected to unusual drought. Lack of water storage has prevented tiding over this period.
A possible irrigation development was investigated at Anse a Pitres and found feasible. Crop results in the irrigated districts show less favorable conditions than last year due to the drought. The people living in the Avezac system are the ones who held the average down but they are learning to make better use -of water under the encouragement of the irrigation service.
One hundred forty-eight kilometers of canals were operated on the Grise and Blanche systems and grades have been changed to give full head of water. Many new weirs were built. The Momance Dam was enlarged, the spillway being lengthened from 31 meters to 71 meters, thus reducing the danger of the adjoining earth dams being carried away by too much water. In order to prevent waste of water an inverted siphon was built on the Momance to carry water to the north side.
Hydro-graphic works.Rainfall records were kept for 127 stations. The station at Port au Prince is of the recording.type permitting studies of intensity of rainfall. Evaporation records are made for two stations. Temperature records are kept for 13 stations. A hydrographic bulletin will be published as in the past giving the results of observations so far available.
Roads, Bridges, and Trails Service
Vehicular trail system.Particular emphasis was placed on the extension of the vehicular trail system. The term vehicular trail indicates well-drained trails which are sufficiently wide and which have grades and curves of a character to permit the passage of a motor vehicle. These trails have in general a 10-foot wide gravel surface. While there is still great need of improvement in the National and departmental roads, there is even greater need for opening up rich areas which are now accessible only by trails which are traversed with difficulty even, by animal traffic. During the current year, the opening up of such areas by trails was notably advanced by the construction, in the Department of the South, of a number of trails in the area devastated by the hurricane of August


appendix iii: department of public works
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10, 1928, and by a lesser amount of trail construction in other parts of the Republic.
Rainfall damage.In February a five-day rain caused the closing of the Gros-Morne-Port-de-Paix road for two days. On June 3 the maximum rainfall of record for Cayes and St. Louis-du-Sud, 16 inches in 24 hours, seriously damaged the main road to the south as well as the St. Louis Bridge then under construction. Other damages of less proportion from rainfall were experienced.
Modern machinery.One 10-ton gasoline-driven road roller, 5 caterpillar tractors, 2 asphalt heaters and spreaders, 5 road-maintenance graders, and 12 dump wagons were purchased. All of this machinery has greatly expedited work and its use is gradually producing smoother roads. The dump wagons move earth at half the cost of using dump trucks for this work.
Road improvements.The outstanding road improvement of the year was the rebuilding of the Petionville road. It inaugurated the policy of installing durable surfaces on heavily traveled roads. It is 5% kilometers in length. In its construction the asphalt penetration method was used in Haiti for the first time. It is well marked for the aid of traffic, and has modern wire-mesh road guards at dangerous turns. It is being planted with trees, shrubs, and vines of a colorful nature. Many other improvements have been made throughout Haiti, including elimination of curves and railroad crossings, building drainage structures, and gravel surfacing.
Trails.The hurricane of August 10, 1928, practically obliterated all trails in its path, and the long-needed access to the rich agricultural district through which it passed was, as a result, in a measure secured by the rebuilding of trails of 10-foot width of such grades as to be passable by motor vehicles. These new trails are all well drained, and it is hoped that they will withstand the elements and effects of traffic with small maintenance costs. This network of good trails has also reduced the time of travel for pedestrians and animals of burden, thus increasing trade. Other sections of the country have also benefited from new or improved trails, the most interesting of which follows the Eoyal Road of Christophe," built in the early days of independence, but for a long period practically impassable. It was completed November 18, 1929, and an automobile can now go from Cape Haitien to Milot in less than 30 minutes.
Road location surveys.The survey of the proposed main road down the center of the southern peninsula has been continued, and 75 kilometers of it were completed. The final survey for the Trouin-Jacmel road was completed. A reconnaissance of a trail from Bara-daires to Jeremie was completed. Other minor trails were studied.
Road construction.The building of the Trouin-Jacmel road continued, as far as funds would permit, 24 river crossings being eliminated. The Petionville-Kenskoff road was started November 18, 1929.
Rridge maintenance, repair, and improvement.The traveling painting gang was employed continuously on steel bridges, five being painted. The most important repair was the raising of the Second Street Bridge in Cape Haitien. This bridge was built in 1896 and is a single steel span of 171 feet. Many members had to be renewed, and it is now in excellent condition. Reinforced concrete was used to


64 eighth annual eepoet of american high commissioner
replace several small wooden bridges and others were repaired with wood.
Bridge construction.Two new 91-foot steel spans were added to the Christophe Bridge over the Limbe River. The La Matrie Bridge of three 21-foot spans of reinforced concrete was completed. The St. Louis-du-Sud Bridge of steel I beams incased in concrete of three 40-foot spans was opened to traffic. The new 91-foot steel truss bridge over the Gosseline was completed. Many other minor concrete and wooden bridges were built.
Shop, Supply, and Transportation Service
Shops.Over 800 job orders of completed value of more than gdes. 300,000 were handled. The practices of kiln-drying mahogany and using plywood for panels in furniture and interior doors were put into effect.
Storehouses.On February 1, 1929, the offices of this service were moved from the' Palais des Ministeres to the general storehouses thus reducing loss of time in executing paper work and permitting close check on the work. Sales were diminished.
Transportation.The efficiency of the garage has been well maintained and the service further improved. The housing and repair of road machinery in the garage was started to some extent, and experience indicates that this procedure should be extended in order to keep proper machinery ready for any of the construction services needing it.
Construction.A Avharf was completed at Jeremie of reinforced concrete. It is of the solid-fill type inclosed by reinforced concrete sheet piles. It is provided with two boat landings, three hand cranes, a latrine, a boathouse, a scale, and the necessary mooring bitts. The wharf at Aquin, having been badly damaged by the hurricane of August 10, 1928, was reconstructed. The commune of Dame-Marie having furnished one-half of the funds necessary to construct a small timber wharf, the National Government furnished the remaining funds and the wharf was built. A boathouse for the National Public Health Service and the customs service was constructed adjacent to the Port au Prince wharf.
Maintenance.Wharves at all open ports have been kept in serviceable condition. At Fort Ilet, in Port au Prince harbor, a part of the sea wall was repaired and backfilled. The floating pile driver has been properly maintained.
Studies and estimates were completed for a new wharf at Gonaives. Material for this structure has been ordered. It will be of the reinforced concrete solid-fill type, similar to the wharves built in the recent past in other ports.
Telephone, Telegraph, and Radio Service
The general increase in use of the telephone-telegraph service was at practically the same rate as for previous years. Long distance facilities as well as the Port au Prince local automatic telephone facilities were increased. The confidence of the public in the service appears to have grown.


appendix iii: department op public works
65
Total revenue.The total revenue for the year, commercial and official together, increased 8 per cent. That from commercial sources alone increased 9 per cent. Total revenue exceeded total expenditures by 8 per cent. Based upon a total investment in plant of $492,130, the gross earnings for the year were 13 per cent. If 5 per cent were set aside for depreciation and 5 per cent for betterments, a net earning of 3 per cent would result.
Expenditures for maintenance and operation.Because of the lack of an elaborate accounting system, unit maintenance and operating costs have not been determined with accuracy. As nearly as possible, however, with our accounting system, it appears that the cost of maintenance and operation per kilometer of long distance pole line has been $15.31. Similarly, the cost per kilometer of long distance single wire has been $6.90.
Expenditures for monthly salaries.Expenditures for monthly salaries increased from an average pay per man of $23.44 to $24.10.
Telephone offices.No new telephone exchanges were opened, but the 48 previously operated were continued. Of these, 24 have -local telephone exchanges. The number of subscribers at the close of the year was 1,629, and for the past year there was an increase of 17 per cent in the number of subscribers.
New construction.For the purpose of furnishing communication to travelers on the road through Belladere to Santo Domingo and also in anticipation of a future connection Avith the Santo Domingo telephone system, the line from Las Cahobas to Belladere was constructed and opened to traffic on March 30, 1929. It is a grounded circuit about 37 kilometers in length. In order to improve the service from Port au Prince to Cape Haitien a grounded circuit was constructed from Gonaives to Cape Haitien, and all stations between Gonaives and Cape Haitien were disconnected from the 2-wire circuit and placed on a new circuit. Free from the possibility of interference by intermediate stations, the direct line is a distinct improvement. A phantom circuit which normally gives better transmission than either of the physical circuits is now in use in connection with the Gonaives-Cape Haitien metallic circuit.
A cable system for local subscribers was installed at Petit-Goave, provided with sufficient capacity to serve 100 subscribers with individual lines.
On December 9,1929, a similar cable system was placed in commission at St. Marc.
In April, 1929, 400 additional lines were completed for Port au Prince, bringing the capacity of the exchange to 1,200 lines, of which 1,000 are individual lines and 200 two-party lines, and giving a possible total of 1,400 subscribers. The total number of subscribers connected on December 31, 1929, was 1,170. At the same time the cable system at Port au Prince was increased from 122 pairs to 1,900 pairs.
The maximum number of calls through the Port au Prince exchange in one day was recorded on December 4, 1929, as 27,574. Ihe maximum previous to that time had been also reached in the past year at 20,583. It is to be noted that December 4, 1929, was the day on which martial law was again made operative in Port au Prince.


66 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
As reported last year, the Cape Haitien automatic system is practically working at capacity and requests for additional telephones in certain localities can not now be supplied.
Radio.The regular schedule of broadcasting has been maintained for an hour on Friday evenings and 30 minutes on Saturday mornings. On July 8, 1929, a regular schedule from 12.15 p. m. to 12.45 p. m. daily, except Sundays and holidays, was instituted. The frequency of the station is 325.9 meters, 920 kilocycles. Fourteen public-address stations are now maintained throughout the Republic, and one short and long wave receiver.
An educational test program was made between May 20 and June 15 for the Service Technique de l'Agriculture, from 10 to 11 a. m. and at 12.30 p. m. Radio sets were installed in classrooms of 14 farm schools, and the results obtained from an instructional standpoint are reported to be excellent.
Cadastral,. Administration Service
A cadastral administration service was organized on February 19, 1929, to prepare a law for determining and recording land titles. At the close of the year this question was still a matter of study for presentation to the Haitian State at a later date.
National Railroad Company
An additional sum of $106.75 for the settlement of land claims on right of way of section 4 was expended from railroad funds.
The expenditures were only slightly under those of the previous year, while receipts dropped 26 per cent or to about the 1926-27 level. The Government paid $212,800.01 for interest and amortization of railroad bonds.
Mining Concession at Terre-Neuve
Preparations for active field work were initiated by the conces-sionnaire, the Compagnie Miniere de Terre-Neuve. They had recently obtained support from substantial financial interests. The modification of the by-laws of the company was approved by presidential arrete, and the modification of the contract of concession to clarify it and bring it in accord with existing laws was approved by law July 20, 1929. The necessary machinery for mining operation, together with proper personnel to operate same, has arrived in Haiti and work has been started. It is hoped that a successful mining operation will result, as the employment of such labor which would naturally follow would greatly assist in diversifying industry. The current depression of the coffee market forcefully emphasizes the need for such a diversification in Haiti.


APPENDIX IV
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
In disbursing a total of $996,332 from its allotments (National Government, $887,085; communal, $29,029), reimbursements (hospital. $25,971; sanitation, $2,418), and donations (Central Relief Committee, $26,829; Rockefeller Foundation, $15,000; and American Red Cross, $10,000), the Public Health Service passed all previous records in practically every aspect of its work. The salient features follow.
Division of Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Rural Clinics
Hospital admissions were 10,588an increase of 17 per cent over last year.
Rural clinics increased to 147, and a remarkable total of 1,341,596 treatments was reachedan increase of 36 per cent over the preceding 12 months.
The hospitalization of patients with mental disease and the care of delinquent minors were taken over from the Garde on July 1. Arrangements were made with the medical director of the Garde d'Haiti whereby selected hospital-corps men of the Garde were given four months' special training in dispensary, surgical, urological, and operating-room work.
At Port au Prince, under the excellent administration of Dr. L. W. Johnson, every department of this institution has been modernized to an extent never before attained, in fact never believed possible in so short a time. Conspicuous among the results were the institution during May, June, and July of a traveling clinic along the Morne La Selle Mountain Range and the reorganization of the out-patient, radiology maternity, and private-ward departments.
At C ape Haitien extensive repairs, repainting of buildings, and parking of grounds Avere effected.
At Gonaives a new ward of 30 beds, kitchen, and mess hall units were completed and funds allotted for construction of garage and supply depot.
At Port-de-Paix extensive paving and parking of hospital grounds were effected, and all buildings repainted.
At Hinche all wooden posts of galleries were replaced by concrete and galvanized pipe railings; new quarters were constructed for the public health officer; all buildings were repainted inside and out; the power plant boiler was retubed; and the grounds were beautified.
At Petit-Goave a building for private patients was erected, and a water carriage sewage system was installed.
At St. Marc, by the purchase of adjoining property, the hospital grounds were doubled in size.
07


68 eighth annual report of american high commissioner
At Jeremie there was an extensive parking of grounds and paving of buildings; and a chapel was erected.
At Jacmel wooden posts of galleries were replaced by concrete; all hospital buildings were repainted; and the grounds were beautified.
At Cayes, by subdividing one of the large public wards, two new private wards were effected; the hospital dispensary was enlarged; roofs of all outbuildings were painted; and a new dispensary building was constructed at Port-Salut.
On December 7, following the unprecedented and regrettable riot in the suburbs, 34 casualties (6 dead and 28 wounded), the result of gunfire, were received at the hospital. The majority of wounds incurred were located in the lower extremities, and, of the 28 wounded, all lesions were infected prior to admission.
' Division of Laboratories
With the aid of the Committee on Research in Syphilis' (United States) a comprehensive study of the relationship between yaws and syphilis began.
Division of Quarantine and Sanitation
By the partial replacement of the Miller siphon system with modern toilets, a saving of 40 per cent in the water consumption of the Haitian General Hospital was made. The importance of this is realized when one is aware of the fact that up to the time of this change one-seventh of the entire city water supply was used by this hospital, an average just short of 600,000 gallons a month.
Paris-green dusting by hand, by blower, and by airplane was added to mosquito-control measures. Experiments now under way indicate that within the very near future a great saving of money can be effected by extending the use of Paris green in replacing that of crude oil.
The rebuilding program in areas devastated by the hurricane of August 10, 1928, was completed. Two hundred and ninety-nine homes were rebuilt or repaired with a total expenditure of gdes. 184,148.85 ($36,829.77). ,
An accurate census of Port au Prince by sanitary inspectors completed January 24, 1929, evidences the capital city to possess a population of 79,797; previous estimates varied from 100.000 to 200,000.
All phases of sanitary engineering were speeded up by the erection of the office of sanitary engineer.
Swamp-control measures in the Martissant section of Port au Prince were extended.
Practique service for commerical airplanes was instituted.
A new modern fish market, the first of its kind in Haiti, was constructed in Port au Prince.
A pasteurization plant for the dairy farm of the Service Technique was purchased.
Entomology in the service of epidemiology being a fundamental necessity in the study of control of malaria, Mr. R. L. Turner, an


appendix iv: department op public health
69
entomologist long in the employ of the United States Public Health Service, became a member of the division in September.
A total of 2,000 acres of swamp lands were reclaimed near Gonaives and Cayes at an approximate expenditure of gdes. 8.90 ($1.78) per acre.
At Petit-Goave the main street was curbed and guttered, and a new market building started.
At Miragoane a deep pond near the shore line is being filled up, and, when completed, it will provide an excellent location for the city market. Funds were allocated to the Department of Public Works for restoration of Miragoane-Petit-Trou highway.
At Hinche an abattoir building and new market buildings were started, and swamp drainage was continued.
At Jeremie the market was improved, and a new sanitation depot and abattoir were erected.
At Cape Haitien swamp-control measures at Limbe, Quartier-Morin, and Limonade were continued.
At Port-de-Paix the installation of curbs and gutters was continued.
At St. Marc a new market was constructed.
Division of Education
A new and important unit, the anatomy-pathology building of the medical school, was completed and equipped.
The nation's first health center was established in Port au Prince. Its principal function is that of infant welfare work including prenatal and postnatal care.
The public health nursing movement in Port au Prince Avas extended, and one of the graduates of the training school was sent to the United States for a year's course in public health nursing at Teachers College, Columbia University.
A member of the faculty of the dental school was given a three months' postgraduate course at Northwestern University, Chicago. 111.
The directress of the training school for nurses visited Porto Rico> to study and report upon nursing activities in that country.
Rockefeller Foundation fellowships were granted to 11 members of the faculty of the medical schoolthe studies to be pursued in France, Canada, the United States, and Porto Rico.
The director of laboratories was sent to Panama to study and report upon certain types of technique employed in the Herrick Clinic.
In spite of the earnest pleas of the dean to refrain from "strike n activities, on November 7, all of the medical, dental, and pharmacy students left their classes as a demonstration of "sympathy with the students of the School of Agriculture." At the time of leaving, the student committee addressed a letter to the director general stating that they bore nothing but good will toward the Public Health Service and that they had no fault to find with the medical school. After repeated and unsuccessful efforts to persuade the student body to return to their classes, it was recommended to the Haitian Government on December 19 that the medical school remain closed until October 1, 1930. This step was taken only after it be-


70 EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
came evident that our students were more in sympathy with strike movements than with the health interests of 2,000,000 of their countrymen. A professional school can not function efficiently and effectively with seven weeks lost from the school year. To hold the faculty intact for next year all of its members were incorporated into other units of the service.
Division of Legal Medicine and Vital Statistics
The creation of this division in August filled a long-felt need. Under the able directorship of Mr. F. Jean-Louis the solution of many legal problems constantly arising in- public health work can now be expedited as never before. The proof of this was illustrated in the speed and precision with which the division functioned following the recent theft of several thousand gourdes worth of medical supplies. It is now at work on projects of law which will revise and bring up to date the present medical, dental, nursing, and midwifery practice act; modernize the control of food and drugs, and the collection of vital statistics; and effect needed reforms in present legal procedures connected with the care of patients with mental disease. Convictions were obtained and sentences awarded in but 38.3 per cent of the 1,157 cases referred to the courts throughout Haiti for infractions of the sanitary code.
Division of Supplies and Tran sportation The mileage covered in all clinical work was:
By automobile_________________________________________ 109,181
By horse______________________________________________ 19,824
By boat_______________________________________________ 4, 244
By airplane____________________________________________ 250
Total_____________________________________________ 133,499
Eighty-two motor units were operated throughout the Republic at an average maintenance cost of gdes. 2,620 ($524) per unit, the mileage per gallon of gasoline being 13.2 for touring cars and 8.4 for trucks.
In the total expenditure of gdes. 971,296.82 ($194,259.36) for the purchase of supplies and equipment 331/3 per cent was expended in Haiti. But for the fact that drugs and hospital and laboratory supplies can not be obtained locally in large amounts, this percentage would have been greater.
Division of Personnel
During the past year the personnel increased from 2,010 to 2,222, the United States naval personnel remaining the same as last year. The percentage of Americans employed in the Public Health Service is 1.72 per cent. 1
All United States naval personnel were withdrawn from 4 of the 10 J sanitary districts, and their places filled, to the satisfaction of every j one, by Haitian physicians and inspectors. In detail the assignment j of Haitian physicians as public health officers is now as follows: I
'i


APPENDIX IV: DEPARTMENT OP PUBLIC HEALTH
71
Port-de-Paix.
St. Marc____
Jeremie_____
Petit-Goave-
Dr. S. Rey
Dr. L. Jourdan Dr. L. Torchon Dr. J. R. Jeanty
In striking contrast to the action of the medical, dental, and pharmacy students in the disorders of December 4, was the loyal stand taken by a united personnel of the Public Health Service. Though strong pressure was brought to bear in some instances, to a man they refused to participate. Not only did they refuse to enroll themselves as strikers," but all who approached them were informed that no cause existed which was greater than that of the care of the sick and the health of the nation. Never has Haiti witnessed a more beautiful example of loyalty to Government than this; never has esprit de corps been more effective. To have been a member of such an organization is a matter of intense pride and satisfaction to us all. The memory of that event will always be one of our treasured possessions.
The institution of better business principles in the collection of hospital and sanitation fees was effected. In all but three district centers far too much attention has been given to charity service and far too little to working out in a businesslike fashion a scheme which will offer good service at low costs. Hospitals and sanitation units should cease to boast of the volume of their free care. They should take greater pride in so organizing their services that as many as possible (even the low wage earners) may be able to pay as they go for what they get. This is good democracy and sound economics. It will mean proper medical and sanitation service for all the people.
Division of Finance


APPENDIX V
SERVICE TECHNIQUE
The fiscal year 1928-29 has been marked by a number of outstanding developments in the work of this service. Among these there may be mentioned the transfer of the executive department from its old quarters at the corner of Rue du Centre and Rue des Miracles to Damien, the inauguration of a greatly enlarged program of industrial education in Port au Prince, the provision for the continuance of a vigorous program of expansion in the development of rural education, the great increase in the number of students enrolled in Service Technique schools, the marked success of the summer school, the inauguration of the system of coffee standardization, the production of pasteurized milk by the Damien dairy and the development of an improved strain of native Haitian cotton. This expansion in the work of the Service Technique has been accompanied by a'corresponding increase of its personnel.
Personnel
The complete list of personnel shows a total of 476 employees. Among these there are 24 Americans, 16 of other nationalities, principally French and Belgian, and 436 Haitians. The percentage of non-Haitian employees has therefore dropped to 8.4 per cent, which marks a further decrease in the percentage of foreign members of the staff.
Table No. 1 gives a summary of the personnel list for each year of the Service Technique since its organization in 1923-24:
TiBLE NO. 1
EMPLOYEES OF THE SERVICE TECHNIQUE 1112S-1 !>20
| 1923-24 1924-25 138. 0 80. 0 20. 0 1925-26 1920-27 1927-2S 1928-29
Total number of employees____ Percentage of Haitians________ Percentage of foreigners_____ 108. 0 74. 0 26. 0 200. 0 85. 0 15. 0 268. 0 87. 7 12. 3 377. 0 | 476. 0 89. 4 91. 6 10. 6 I 8. 4 1
Enrollment in Service Technique Schools
The increase in the number of students enrolled in the Service Technique schools during the past year has continued to emphasize the progress of the development of agricultural and industrial education in Haiti. The number of students enrolled in the schools administered by this service since its organization in 1923-24 is shown in Table No. 2.
72


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
73
Table No. 2
students enrolled in service technique schools
dumber of
Fiscal year students
1923- 24_____________________________________________ 51
1924- 25_____________________________________________ 825
1925- 26_____________________________________________ 1, 659
1926- 27_____________________________________________ 4, 496
1927- 28______________________.___________________7,925
1928- 29_____________________________________________ 11, 430
In Table No. 3 there is given the enrollment of students in the various schools of this service in order to set forth the progress of each type of education:
Table No. 3
students enrolled in service technique schools in the fiscal year 1928-29
School Day school Night school Summer school Total
cole Centrale.. .. _______ ______ 207 325 172 359 155 241 270 398 289 6, 858 447 654 637 172 359 337 297 481 496 504 7, 493
ficole J. B. Damier.______________ 312
ficole filie Dubois__________________
Maison Centrale ____.____ ___
Industrial school, St. Marc. .. _____ 182 56 211 98 215 635
Industrial school, Jacmel .. ____
Industrial school, Jeremie__________
Industrial school, Gonaives.-
Industrial school, Cape Haitien _____
Rural farm schools___._____________
Total.. ....
11, 430

In the study of the above table it should be noted that the Ecole Centrale is the teacher training school for young men and that it is from the Ecole Elie Dubois that the greater part of the teachers for girls' industrial schools are drawn. The summer school at the Ecole Centrale is made up of the teachers of all of the Service Technique schools who are required to return to the central school for further training in the subjects in which they specialize and for conferences concerning the problems and programs of their work.
The night schools are organized for those whose employment prevents their attendance upon the classes of the day schools. They are made up of more mature young men or women who desire to improve their education in some special subjects which will be useful to them in their business affairs.
Now whereas the development of these agricultural and industrial schools from an enrollment of 51 at the time of their beginning in 1923-24 to a total of 11,430 in 1928-29 seems gratifying, the progress seems really insignificant when compared with the needs of the country as a whole for educational facilities. When we consider that there are probably almost 400.000 children in Haiti who are of school age and when we realize that the existing schools of all types (including national, religious, and private schools) can
10779030-0


74 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
accommodate slightly more than 100,000 children, we are impressed by the enormous task which still lies before us in developing an adequate school system for Haiti.
Increased Value of Property
The increase in the value of the lands and buildings under the administration of the Service Technique and in the inventory value of equipment and supplies in its various departments has shown a no less marked increase than in the number of employees and in the students enrolled. A summary of these inventories follows:
Table No. 4 inventories of property, 1'.) 21!)!".
Fiscal year Total of inventory
1923- 24___________________________________________ $217, 520. 00
1924- 25_______________________________!____________ 356, 916. CO
1925- 26___________________________________________ 520, 324. 00
1926- 27__________:_________________________________ 704, 841. 50
1927- 28___________________________________________ 923, 837. 40
1928- 29___________________________________________ 1,475,018.60
Table No. 5
resume of inventories, june 30, 12<)
Lands and buildings______________________________ $774,225.71
Materials, tools, apparatus, machinery, and permanent construction other than buildings____________ 674,681.91
Animals__________________________________________ 26,110. 95
Total inventory_____________________________ 1, 475,018. 57
Ecole Centrale
Policy of the school.The development of the agricultural and industrial school system in Haiti has necessitated the training of a large number of young men as teachers in agriculture, manual training, and the industrial trades. The curriculum of the Ecole Centrale has, therefore, been developed to meet these needs by the formation of one normal course in agriculture and another in industrial education. It is the purpose of these courses not only to give the aspirant teacher a foundation in the subject matter of his profession, but also to give him manual skill in doing the practical work involved.
It is the policy of the school, therefore, to emphasize the laboratory, field, and shop work and to encourage the student to lay as much stress upon learning the practical, as upon the theoretical side of his profession.
Total enrollment.The total enrollment in the regular session of the Ecole Centrale for the school year was 207 of which 138 were new students and 69 were students who had not yet completed their 3-year course.
Student aid.As usual, the sum of $10,000 was available for the aid of needy students. This was distributed each month to a stated


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
75
number of students in each class who were selected from those who made the best grades in their school work.
Inasmuch as the system of distributing the bourses on a basis of scholastic grades gives an advantage to those boys from the cities who have had better secondary training, it has resulted that the greater number of men trained to become rural farm school-teachers have come from the larger cities, principally Port au Prince.
A system of rendering State aid to needy students which will attract a large proportion of the boys from rural districts and small towns, will have the effect of bringing in a class of young men with a closer contact with actual agricultural problems, and it will be less difficult for them to comprehend agricultural problems and make themselves familiar with improved methods of farming and of building up the standards of rural life. Of the 436 Haitian employees of the Service Technique, 180 have been trained in the Ecole Centrale.
Courses.The courses given at the Ecole Centrale during the year under review may be listed as follows:
Preparatory course: French, English, arithmetic, civic instruction, general science, shop and field work, agriculture, and drawing.
Agriculture I (first year) : French, English, zoology, botany, horticulture, agronomy, chemistry, veterinary science, and field and shop work.
Agriculture II (second year) : Pedagogy, livestock breeding, veterinary science, veterinary clinics, botany, horticulture, entomology, agricultural chemistry, mathematics, drawing, and practical work in the shop and field.
Agriculture III (third year): Pedagogy, physics, breeding of livestock, veterinary science, bacteriology, botany, horticulture, entomology, agricultural chemistry, agricultural economics, and shop, laboratory, and field work.
Industrial course I (first year) : English, pedagogy, chemistry, mathematics, drawing, and shop work.
Industrial course II (second year) : Pedagogy, chemistry drawing, and shop work.
Surveying I (first year): Surveying (class and field work), mathematics, drawing, and agricultural economics. In all of these courses the laboratory and practical work takes from one-third to one-half the time of the students. The details of the courses are given in the annual catalogue of the school.
Department of Industrial Education
Major projects.The department of industrial education, organized September, 1925, has grown rapidly during the last four years. In its first year the industrial educational activities were confined to the organization and operation of three schools in Port au Prince, and to the teacher training projects at Ecole Centrale. At the present time the following major projects are being carried on by this department: Supervision of 5 industrial schools for boys, 2 industrial schools for girls, 6 evening schools for men and women, 1 detention home for boys, the industrial teacher training course


76 EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOET OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
at Ecole Centrale, shop courses for rural school-teachers, Service Technique garage and transportation, the' development of a system of industrial schools for boys and girls in Port au Prince to accommodate 6,000 students.
Industrial schools.The industrial schools for boys and girls are located in the larger cities because it is in these places that most of the industrial activities are carried on.
Although the industrial schools are operated primarily to teach trade subjects, it is necessary to spend considerable time on fundamental academic subjects. In a great many instances it is necessary to teach 12, 13, and even 16 year old students to read and write.
In addition to such academic subjects as reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, history, geography, drawing, and science, each boy or girl.must take up one or more trade subjects. The following is a list of these occupational trades: For girlsembroidery, lace making, dressmaking, millinery, cloth weaving, cooking, basket weaving, domestic service, housekeeping, bookkeeping, shorthand, and, typewriting; for boysshoemaking, saddle making, tailoring, forging, sheet-metal work, cabinet making, carpentry, basket making, auto mechanics, plumbing, cement work, bricklaying, stone masonry, bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting.
The attendance in the various industrial schools is given in Table No. 3 1 which shows a total enrollment of 3,937 students in this system.
The industrial schools for boys are constructed on a fairly uniform standard type which may be described as follows: The main building is constructed of masonry, and the shop building is constructed of steel, the whole front of which is open. The shop building is located 50 to 100 feet in the rear of the main building. Each unit is 150 feet long and 30 feet wide and they are constructed to accommodate a total of 300 students. The shop building is divided into five shops which include the following activities: Auto repair, forge work, tailoring, shoemaking, general shop and wood work. The main building contains all of the classrooms, office, and storage room. In all, there is a total of 11 rooms and 1 hall in each building. An 8-foot gallery on the rear runs the entire length of the building. The purpose of this gallery is to keep the classrooms cool and afford a passage from one room to another during rainy weather.
At the Maison Centrale the buildings have been renovated and considerable changes made in them. For the most part this work has been done by the students themselves. Among these improvements may be mentioned the following: The sleeping quarters of the students were removed from the third to the second floor of the main building in order to reduce the fire hazard; the hospital and pharmacy were renovated and repaired; the floor of the mess hall was repaired, and new tables were installed; the kitchen and storeroom were enlarged and remodeled; a cement drainage canal was constructed from the building to the sea; the shower baths were reconstructed and 12 new shower heads installed; a new guard and store house were built; and the front wall, which fell down on May 9, was repaired.
At the Ecole Elie Dubois a new hospital building was constructed. It contains three rooms and a bath and toilet.
'Ante, p. 73.


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
77
Evening schools.Two years ago, at the request of a large group of men and women who desired to attend evening classes, an experiment was started to see whether or not evening schools were practical. In all of the industrial schools, except J. B. Damier, the teachers worked without pay, because they were as much interested in the project as the department. At the J. B. Damier industrial school several teachers were employed and on the opening night all the classes were filled, showing that the initial interest at least was very high.
The result of the experiment proved that there was a need for evening classes, that the people were interested in them, and that they would be well and regularly attended. The evening school then became a regular project of the department of industrial education.
Service Technique garage.The idea of a Service Technique garage was first thought of in connection with the automobile repair shop as an industrial project at the J. B. Damier school in Port au Prince. It soon became evident, after a trial of several months, that the project would be successful if the purely mechanical phase did not interfere with the instructional phase. Unfortunately, in many respects the volume of work that had to be done made it necessary to move the Service Technique garage to new quarters in Maison Centrale, keeping the J. B. Damier shop for instructional purposes only. One hundred and seventeen cars are given service in this garage. This garage is also used as a training center for automobile mechanics who then go out to teach in the industrial schools.
Department of Rural Farm Schools
The Ecole Centrale was established for the training of teachers in agriculture, but, in order to secure young men who had a sufficient amount of preliminary education to enable them to receive instruction in modern agriculture and pedagogical methods, the student body had to be drawn largely from the cities where secondary education was available. While the majority of these young men so drawn from city schools have applied themselves earnestly to receive agricultural training and have shown zeal and enthusiasm in endeavoring to apply what they have learned when they are sent out to teach in rural districts, they have been greatly handicapped by the fact of their urban rather than rural background. The fact, therefore, that so many of these young men have been successful as rural farm school teachers is a great credit to their earnestness and adaptability. These facts also make it necessary that we should not judge too harshly the occasional failure of some of these schools or teachers, but that, on the other hand, the success that has been obtained warrants us in looking forward to the future of this work with optimism.
School gardens.During the year 1928-29, every farm school had some kind of garden. The crops grown in these gardens depended upon the agricultural conditions in the community in which they were located. The types of vegetables, fruits, and field crops planted in each garden differ therefore and were selected on the basis of the need and possibilities of the community. The early difficulties met with in having the children work in the garden seem to be disappearing gradually since it has been made the policy of this


78 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
department to make the school such an attractive place for the children that they do not find it hard to perform garden work. Manual training.In addition to the school garden work each school is provided with simple tools for manual training in shop work. The development of manual ability has become an important part of general education. Modern education aims at social efficiency and assumes that each individual should be a productive-member of society. Now, productivity in the great majority of cases is the direct result of the intelligent and skillful use of his hands by the individual. Anything that will help toward a harmonious development of handability will consequently serve as an efficient agent in the making of productive members of society. This is the reason why manual work of some kind is given even to the youngest children. In the agricultural schools the shop work is therefore designed: (1) to develop hand skill among the children, (2) to teach the home manufacture of furniture and other necessities which will contribute to the health and comfort of, rural life, (3) to teach the construction of farm implements and buildings and other constructions which will make the farm more productive and labor more efficient in cultivation and in the care, handling, and housing of livestock.
Enrollment in rural farm schools.Table No. 6 gives the statistics of attendance at the rural farm schools for 1928-29 and shows a total enrollment of 6,858 students with an average of 4,972 regular attendance. The percentage of attendance for the year was 72.5, a gain of 10 per cent over the last year. About 25 schools maintained an attendance of over 80 per cent during the year and 6 had a percentage of over 90. In addition to the increase in number of schools the steady increase in the number of pupils per school gives evidence of the increased appreciation of the parents for this type of education.
Table No. G
statistics of rural farm schools 1!>2s-:> Number of schools_____________________________________ GO
Total number of children enrolled______________________G, 858
Number of children attending school regularly____________4. 972
Number of teachers____________________________________ 12G
Number of school days_________________________________ 154
Number of pupils per school_____________________________ 114. 3
Percentage of attendance_________________________________ 72. 5
Number of teachers per school_________________________ 2. OG
Average number of children on honor roll each month____1, 307
Beginning with an average of 64.6 in the fiscal year 1924-25. the average number of students per school has advanced as follows:
Table No. 7
average number of students per farm school
1924- 25__________________________________________________ 04. 6
1925- 26___________________________________________________ 75. 0
102G-27__________________________________________________ 85. 0
1927- 28___________________________________________________113.8
1928- 29__________________________________________________114.3
In the latter part of the scholastic term, seven radio sets were installed in rural farm schools around Port au Prince. A daily pro-


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
79
gram was prepared and given at the Ecole Centrale at Damien and was broadcast through the sending station HHK at Port au Prince.
Courses.In reading, mathematics, and other scholastic subjects the pupils have made good progress but the greatest improvement has been made in the development of school garden and shop work. This phase of instruction and its results vindicate the policy of teaching agriculture and manual training in the primary classes through the medium of their native Creole language before the children know how to read or write French. As a matter of fact, the child has gained considerable skill in manual work which will be useful to him at home and on the farm, and he will have gained considerable training in improved agricultural practices and in the care of domestic animals during the two or three years necessary to give him a satisfactory knowledge of reading and writing. By this means at least three years are gained in the development of agricul- i tural productive efficiency and even if after leaving school the child should lapse to illiteracy through nonuse of reading and writing, he will at least have his agricultural training which in the farm work in which he is constantly engaged will remain with him and will be useful to him throughout life.
Evening schools.The organization of evening classes was undertaken in 16 rural farm schools during the past year and there was a total enrollment of 635 students. A special program was prepared for the adults which emphasized the practical side of the education to be given. It is to be noted that a high percentage of the adults attending the evening schools are simply relearning. They attended school in childhood but relapsed into illiteracy afterward.
Secondary agricultural school at Plaisance.The secondary school at Plaisance was an experiment to determine whether or not it would be possible to draw from the rural districts a group of intelligent and energetic young men who could be educated and trained as teachers of agriculture. Having originated in the rural districts and being accustomed to the work and life of the farm, it was felt that they would be more likely to succeed as teachers of agriculture than would young men who are drawn from strictly urban communities. Inasmuch as it is very difficult to find young men who have such an agricultural background and whose parents are able to defray their expenses while in school, we have made available for each of these young men Government aid which is sufficient to keep them in food and clothing and give them a small amount of spending money. This aid has been given in consideration of the student's giving a specified number of hours of manual labor on the farm and in the garden and m attending to the livestock, and at the same time maintaining satisfactory progress in his theoretical studies in school. The student is, therefore, not only given an education, but his habits of industry and skill in practical agricultural operations are maintained.
The subjects taught may be listecl as follows: French, Haitian and general history, Haitian and general geography, arithmetic, hygiene, morality and civics, natural science, botany, entomology, agriculture, use of the plow, crops and varieties, horticulture, fruits, shop work woodwork, sheet-metal work, basketry, weaving, and the care of animals and control of their diseases.


80 EIGHTH ANNUAL BEPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
Agricultural Extension
The activities of this department during the fiscal year 1928-29 may be reported under the following headings: (a) Agricultural rehabilitation in the region devastated by the hurricane of August 10, 1928; (b) agricultural work of the extension agents; (c) veterinary clinic work; (d) agricultural fairs; (e) moving picture propaganda.
Work in agricultural rehabilitation.As noted in the last annual report (p. 69) a hurricane of great intensity swept across the southern peninsula of Haiti on August 12, 1928. A preliminary report of the agricultural rehabilitation work undertaken by the Service Technique is given in the report for the fiscal year 1927-28. The plan there outlined of organizing community cooperation in replanting the fields and rebuilding houses proved a great success and demonstrated the possibilities of realizing other large cooperative projects in crop production and in improving living conditions in this country.
The sections in which rehabilitation work was undertaken hiay be listed as follows: Anse-a-Veau, Aquin, Baraderes, Chaugien, Grande Riviere de Nippes, L'Asile, Miragoane, Pestel, Petite-Riviere-de-Nippes, Petit-Trou-de-Nippes and St. Louis-du-Sud.
In this work there were 3,048 families assisted, 4,212.75 acres of crops planted, 4,183 farm tools (axes, crowbars, files, grindstones, hoes, machetes, picks, saws, and sickles) distributed. The total cost was gdes. 50,000 ($10,000).'
Agricultural agents.An agricultural agent was assigned to each of the following 16 districts: Anse-a-Veau, Anse d'Hainault, Aquin, Cape Haitien, Cayes, Dame-Marie, Gonaives, Hinche, Jacmel, Jere-mie, Mirebalais, Ouanaminthe, Port-a-Piment, Port au Prince, Port-de-Paix, St. Marc.
Altogether 167 definite cooperative demonstration projects were organized. The crops or subjects included, together with the number of separate projects in each, may be listed as follows: Bananas, 8; sugar-cane, 5; coffee, 18; seed distribution, 12; insect control, 10; irrigation, 30; sisal, 4; tobacco, 12; beekeeping, 1; control of plant disease, 1; manioc, 1; peanuts, 3; rice, 2; farm management, 6; fence building, 4; trail repair, 1; and hogs, 1.
Improved seeds and plants distributed by this department during the fiscal year may be divided as follows: Mosaic resistant varieties of sugar-cane, 8,500 pounds; feterita seed, 2,870 pounds; improved varieties of citrus trees, 19; mangoes, 5; avocadoes, 6; plantain, 550 suckers; Gros Michel banana, 6.793 suckers; sisal, 72 plants; berries, 42 plants; tobacco, 86 plants; shade and ornamental trees, 495 plants; ornamental shrubs, 8,594 plants; papayas, 1,591 plants; tomatoes, 14,704 plants.
Veterinary clinics.Veterinary aides were stationed in the districts of Cape Haitien, Gonaives, St. Marc, Port au Prince, Jacmel, Petit-Goave, Cayes, and Jeremie. The aides occupy themselves principally in the actual treatment of animals brought to them at the clinics, but in addition to this they endeavor to teach the peasants sanitation, animal hygiene, and the proper feeding and the correct loading of pack animals.


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
81
During the year 2,262 rural clinics were held. At these 63,812 animals were treated. Special clinics were organized by the clinic inspector from time to time to give treatment on account of outbreaks of hog cholera and anthrax in cattle. One hundred and eighty-five dogs were vaccinated against rabies in the city of Port au Prince.
Agricultural and industrial fairs.During the year 15 regional fairs and 1 national fair were held. A great improvement in the quantity and quality of the exhibits made and in the interest and attendance at the fairs is noted as compared with last year. There was an attendance of approximately 25,600, and a display of 23,666 separate exhibits. Six thousand eight hundred and twenty prizes were awarded, amounting to $5,184.60. Other expenses of the fairs amounted to $1,815.40.
Educational moving pictures.During the year educational moving pictures were exhibited cooperatively with the National Public Health Service. Programs were made out and sent in advance to local agents of the Service Technique, Public Health Service, and Garde d'Haiti who assisted in publishing the dates and places of the lectures and demonstrations. The operator of the machine, who speaks fluently English, French, and Creole, explained the pictures in language appropriate to the audience. Altogether there were 164 programs given in 101 different localities. There was a total attendance of 175,430 persons. For the Public Health Service, 8 films were shown 344 times; for the Service Technique, 3 films were shown 177 times; for the Department of Public Works, 1 film was shown 2 times, and 3 comical films were shown 132 times.
Printing Department
At the beginning of the year the printing department was removed to new quarters on Rue du Centre in the building formerly occupied by the Court of Cassation. These buildings were remodeled and placed in condition for the machinery that was later installed in them. Five departments were established as follows: (1) Hand composition, (2) linotype, (3) proof reading, (4) presswork, (5) bindery and stock room.
The classes in typography from Ecole J. B. Damier were also taught in this department. Sixteen students were enrolled in these classes.
In addition, the printing department trained and furnished three linotype operators for commercial establishments in the city of Port au Prince. Among work produced by the printing department during the fiscal year there may be listed three school textbooks for the Service Technique, the annual reports for the National Public Health Service, the Direction Generate des Travaux Publics, the Financial Adviser, and the -Service Technique. There were also published the programs of the national fair, the annual catalogue of the Ecole Centrale and of the summer school at Ecole Centrale, and 4 quarterly issues of the bulletin of the national medical society and 10 issues of the student paper Le Bon Grain. In addition to these, a large amount of blank forms, letterheads, etc., was printed for various Government departments, totaling a number of 2,358,659.


82 eighth annual eepoet op american high commissioner
Experiment Stations
Permanent improvements.A number of permanent improvements were made at the central experiment station during the fiscal year. Among these there may be listed the following:
The storage building was extended 38 feet; The dairy barn was extended 3G feet;
Two large air-tight grain bins were installed in the dairy barn; Two brick houses 12 by 20 feet were constructed for the foreman and chief guard;
An additional lath house 40 by 150 feet was constructed for the horticulture department;
A brick kitchen was built for the superintendent's quarters; Sleeping quarters for the dairy workers were constructed in the horse barn;
A concrete and wire animal cage was constructed for the veterinary department and also a concrete platform 15 by 15 feet.
In addition to these improvements, 2,048 feet of concrete irrigation ditch were added to the existing irrigation system. The pastures were cleaned, drained, and planted to Guinea grass. The water tower was scraped and repainted, and the grounds surrounding the old colonial mill and sugar house were landscaped. A new 10-ton Holt tractor was purchased for the main station, and a cost-accounting system was installed which enables the department to determine the actual cost of any project.
CropsOn account of insects, pests, and mosaic and other diseases which attack corn in the Cul de Sac Plain, feterita has become the staple grain crop at Damien for the feeding of dairy animals. The production of farm crops on the Damien farm for the fiscal vear 1928-29 amounted to 1,094 tons, valued at $5,376.36.
Animal husbandry.The inventory of September 30, 1929, shows that there are 212 animals on the experiment station. These include 7 horses, 15. mules, 3 jacks, 133 cattle, 48 bogs, 5 poultry, and 1 sheep.
Dairy records show a total of 58,474 quarts of milk produced, which was an average of 6.42 quarts per day per cow. Of the above amount of milk produced, 46,285.75 quarts were sold. The remainder was fed to calves or used for bacterial testing and other laboratory work. The gross receipts of the dairy amounted to $7,865.86. During the year sterilizing machinery was obtained which was very efficient in producing sanitary milk.
Swine.Duroc Jersey hogs continue to thrive, and the stock is being propagated for continual distribution in the country. Several farmers have taken up the breeding of these animals with success.
Poultry.Under past conditions poultry imported from temperate regions have failed to succeed in Haiti. Steps are now being taken to reorganize the poultry work on the basis of native stock.
Breeding posts.Breeding posts have continued to function and the number of mules, Hereford calves, and Duroc Jersey pigs is increasing throughout the country.
Botanical Department
About 450 new species were added to the botanical collection, which now makes the collection of the Service Technique fairly representative of Haitian flora. The survey of plant diseases has


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
83
been continued. The only new disease worth mentioning is that of anthracnose of sisal which appeared at Poste Chabert during January. It did but little damage.
The breeding of cotton has been continued and the results are now being published as Technical Bulletin No. 16. Several superior strains of cotton have been purified from ordinary stock. Reports from various experts indicated that the best of these should bring a price markedly higher than that of Haitian cotton. One bale has been sold at a premium of more than 10 cents per pound of lint above the price of ordinary cotton. Approximately 1,000 pounds of the seed of this improved strain were distributed and 25 acres were planted at Hatte Lathan, and 60 at Hinche. These plantings will give a large quantity of seed for distribution during the winter and spring of 1930. It has been found that cotton may be propagated by cuttings. This will enable the station to propagate improved varieties rapidly. This department carried out cultural and fertilizer tests of cotton, details of which are given in the annual report,
In the work of plant diseases the transmission of disease known as bean yellows was studied. Evidence was collected to show that the disease is transmitted by leaf hoppers and it was found that beans sprayed with insecticides which repel these insects are not attacked by the disease. Other plant diseases studied were tomato mosaic and control of smut in feterita.
Department of Chemistry
During the year analyses of more than 150 samples of miscellaneous materials were made. These include soils, irrigation water, fodder plants, flour, vegetable oils, soap-making materials, sugar, syrup and molasses, distillery beer, lubricating oils, cementing materials, cottonseed cake, peanut meal, brewer's grain, and common salt. A soil survey was begun on the Cul de Sac Plain near Port au Prince. A survey was made of the Anse a Pitres region. This district is the Haitian portion of the fan-shaped plain of the Pedernales River which forms the southeastern boundary between Haiti and Santo Domingo. This area comprises the total of about 1,000 acres of land of which 500 are arable and irrigable.
During the year a considerable amount of the time of the chemist was occupied in moving the laboratories from the old building in Port au Prince and the installation of the equipment in the permanent quarters at Damien.
Department of Entomology and Zoology
The year's projects.The work of this department for the year included the project on cotton insects, insects of staple crops other than cotton, fruit and vegetable insects, insects and other animals injurious to man and to domestic animals, and beekeeping. The life history of the cotton-leaf worm in Haiti was worked out, and evidence to show the proper time for spraying for its control was obtained. The resistance of native Haitian cotton to the pink bollworm was further confirmed, and methods for the control of cotton stainer were demonstrated. A thorough study was carried out on insects injurious to stored grain. This showed that means for controlling


84 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
these insects are necessary in Haiti in order to prevent great losses. Coffee insects studied were shown to do little economic damage with the exception of the coffee cricket, which at low altitudes is quite destructive. The most important insect pest of tobacco in Haiti is the leaf miner. It was found that if the young plants were kept well dusted with arsenate of lead from the 2-leaf stage to the time of transplanting, a good control could be obtained. Other insects studied wTere the melon-leaf worm, ants, kapok-leaf worm, palm-leaf skeleton-izer, and the canna-leaf rollers. Demonstrations were made in the killing of rats by the use of cyanogas. Another rat poison, K. R. O., which is of vegetable origin and is not dangerous to other animals, has been tried successfully. Demonstrations of killing bedbugs in buildings were made, and experiments were made in the use of various oils in killing mosquitoes.
Beekeeping.Five hives of bees were installed in the Damien experiment station and a cooperative experiment with a local beekeeper was undertaken at the Hinche experiment station.' This local beekeeper furnished 100 hives of bees, which have been placed on the experiment station, and a model 2-room bee-tight honey house, equipped with an up-to-date honey extracting machine, was constructed.
Department of Horticulture
The projects under which the work of the department of horticulture is organized are listed as follows: Coconuts, papayas, citrus fruits, grapes, mangoes, bananas, avocados, miscellaneous fruits, onions, eggplants, peppers, tomatoes, miscellaneous vegetables, and the production of seed and plants by the extension department. Among tomatoes the Stone continued to give the best results. The Canary Crystal onions seem best adapted to local conditions. Among eggplants the Black Beauty is recommended. Ruby King pepper seems to be the best sweet pepper for the export trade. Other successful vegetables at Damien were asparagus, rutabaga, and turnips. Such vegetables as cabbage, beets, lettuce, sweet corn, Irish potatoes, muskmelons, watermelons, and peas do better at higher altitudes. Breeding experiments were continued with papayas and avocados, and several varieties of grapes known to produce successfully in Haiti were planted. Five varieties of bananas and five of plantain are now being grown at the Damien farm. The Gros Michel is being propagated for general distribution. The list of trees and shrubs produced for general distribution has been noted in the report of the extension department. The total sale of horticultural products from the experiment station was gdes. 4.352.82 ($870.50).
Veterinary Department
This department is charged with the maintenance of the health of experiment station livestock and a study of animal diseases and their control in Haiti. This department also maintains a close surveillance over the sanitary conditions of the dairy and makes daily bacterial counts of the milk produced. The animal disease survey of the country did not show any new diseases appearing this year. About 250 bus horses in Port au Prince were tested for glanders with negative results, and there is no evidence to show that this disease


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
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is Avidespread or serious in Haiti. There were some outbreaks of hog cholera and anthrax among cattle and sheep. The diseases' of pigs, particularly that of the thorny-headed worm, are receiving attention.
Livestock Station at Hinche
Livestock now at this station includes 307 cattle, 61 Angora goats, and 42 horses and mules. The native black cattle of Spanish type, originally from Santo Domingo, appear to be most hardy and successful under the conditions at Hinche. The improvement of this herd is being continued. Five hundred and seventy-two cattle given out to the peasants several years ago have now increased to 1,154. During the past fiscal year, 243 calves were reported from these cattle. As this second crop of calves belongs to the State, the cooperative farmers are beginning to deliver them to the station. This project is very popular with the farmers and will be continued. Since shelter was provided for the Angora goats the percentage of kids has been raised to 68, and no losses have occurred from the attacks of dogs during the past years.
Cotton was added to the crops grown this year, of which 68 acres were planted; and a steel shed, 100 by 30 feet, to house the gin, is being constructed. A roller type of gin suitable for ginning long-staple cotton has been purchased.
P. O. J. sugar-cane continues to be the best forage for this section. Ten tons of cane seed were distributed to native farmers. As a grain crop, feterita appears to be the most productive, but corn has succeeded well at the station this year.
Of the improved grasses, Elephant, Guatemala, Rhodes, Molasses, and Angleton grasses seem to be most promising. A small orchard of citrus fruits is making good growth; and seven acres of cashew nuts planted in May have germinated, and at the end of the year the young plants are growing rapidly. Pineapples, up to 11 pounds in weight, were grown at the station farm, and only about 20 per cent were affected by eye-spot disease.
Coffee Experiment Station
During the past fiscal year practically the entire area of land of the coffee station that is suitable for coffee culture, was planted. To accomplish this 32,332 seedlings were planted from the nursery to the field. From past experience it has been found that the best time to plant coffee in the region of the experiment station is in the months of March or April, or as soon as spring rains begin. As a temporary shade for young coffee, 16,659 banana plants have been set out. These will furnish temporary shade pending the development of permanent shade. Experience has shown that the proper spacing for this purpose is 2y2 by 5 meters. Where shade is deficient it has been found that successful transplanting of coffee seedlings is facilitated by the use of bamboo mats. These mats are approximately 18 inches square and are set on stakes from one to one and one-half feet high. A total of 12,000 cacao.seedlings were transplanted as an experiment in using the cacao tree as a shade for coffee. Other trees grown as shade for coffee may be listed as follows: Inga vera (sucrin), Ster-cularia apetela, Haitian oak (bois de chene), tonga oil, Spanish


86 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OP AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
cedar, Hevea brasiliensis (rubber), and saman. Saman and sucrin seem most promising. Rubber has made a good growth on well-drained, deep soil.
Department or Forests and Fisheries
The sisal plantation at Hatte Lathan contained at the end of the year 145 acres of sisal. The larger part of this was'interplanted with cotton from which a total of 30,232 pounds of raw cotton were produced. From this there was obtained 19,859 pounds of seed. Total sales of cotton amounted to $2,138.10. The decortication of two cuttings of sisal was made during the year. The first decortication gave 118 bales of fiber, weighing 50,593 pounds, and the second gave 72 bales, weighing 29,413 pounds. This sold at from 8y2 to 9V8 cents per pound. At the end of the fiscal year the sisal and cotton plantation at Hatte Lathan is being transferred to the department of experiment stations. Commercial plantations at the end of the fiscal year 1929 had planted 8,510 acres of sisal and a great increase for this area is predicted for the future. This new industry is the result of the demonstrations made by the forestry department. The forest nursery at Cote Plage is being maintained as a source for the distribution of forest and shade trees. A nursery also has been established at Kenskoff. Pine seedlings are being grown in this nursery for forest plantings in the mountains. The collection of samples of economic woods native to Haiti has been continued. A dry kiln has been erected at Damien.
The work of the department for the coming year will be confined entirely to the forest nurseries, forest preserves, and the forestry experiment station at Poste Chabert.
Department of Markets
Commercial information.As noted in the last annual report, the department of markets was reorganized near the close of the fiscal year 1927-28. As there noted, Mr. Martin, the new director, arrived in Haiti only a few weeks before the end of the fiscal year. As soon as the new organization was completed, the director initiated an intensive program to collect information concerning Haitian export products. He made visits to various parts of Haiti in order to meet Haitian exporters and become acquainted with resources, trade factors, and other information and statistics concerning the commerce of Haiti and its potentialities. Studies were also made of foreign conditions; and in order to make contacts with importers of Haitian products and get acquainted with the demands of foreign markets, the director made a trip to New York, Havre, Antwerp. Amsterdam, Hamburg, and Copenhagen. A mutual exchange of information was thus secured, and as a result a number of Haitian exporters have been placed in connection with reliable importers in the United States and Europe, who had not yet been in contact. As a further means of furnishing commercial information to those who desire it, the department now issues each month a bulletin giving details concerning exports of the month previous along with comparisons of preceding years. Cooperation with foreign import as-


APPENDIX V: SERVICE TECHNIQUE
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sociates and Haitian consulates abroad is being developed and samples of standardized Haitian products are being prepared for exhibit in foreign consulates and chambers of commerce. Several thousand pamphlets in English and French were prepared for distribution for the purpose of furnishing information concerning the laws and decrees relative to coffee standardization. This department also cooperated in the preparation of coffee standardization laws which were voted on June 12, 1929, and has assisted in the training of the custom inspectors who are charged with the execution of these laws. For the purpose of building up a tourist trade, an attractive pamphlet, describing and illustrating the principal.points of interest in Haiti and giving other information useful to tourists, has been printed and distributed to transportation companies, tourists' agencies, and other interested parties.
Exportation of minor products.In addition to the staple export products of Haiti such as coffee, sugar, cotton, cacao, logwood, and sisal, this department is undertaking work to increase the export of such products as corn, honey, limes, and preserved Haitian fruits. Considerable progress has been made in the development of a staple market for corn, and the improvement of honey export trade is being aided by the introduction of improved extracting machinery and the provision of new, clean barrels as containers. The department has specialized also in the production of guava jelly and paste for the export trade and of canned tomatoes for the domestic trade.




GRAPHS
SHOWING THE RAPID PROGRESS MADE TOWARD THE REHABILITATION OF THE COUNTRY AS TO PUBLIC DEBT, REVENUES, UNOBLIGATED TREASURY SURPLUS, CUSTOMS, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS, PUBLIC WORKS, HYGIENE, AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION
107790307


V


GRAPH NO. 1
PUBLIC DEBT REPUBLIC DF HAITI
TOTAL DEBT
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92 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER
GRAPH NO. 2
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