Annual report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti to the Secretary of State

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Annual report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti to the Secretary of State reformatted from the original and including, Report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti ..
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Report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti
Annual report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti to the Secretary of State
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United States -- High Commissioner to Haiti
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Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Haiti -- 1844-1934   ( lcsh )
Politique et gouvernement -- Périodiques -- Haïti -- 1844-1934   ( ram )
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Dates or Sequential Designation:
-8th (1929).
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with report for 1922.

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Annual report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti to the Secretary of State
reformatted from the original and including,
Report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti (1922); and,
Annual report of the American High Commissioner at Port au Prince, Haiti to the Secretary of State (1923-1929)
LLMC: 31-614


REPORT
of the
AMERICAN .-"HIGH COMMISSIONER
at
PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI V
SUBMITTED TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE JANUARY 1, 1923
washington government printing office 1923


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10
-r.
REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSIONER AT PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI.
Legation of the United States of America,
Port au Prince, Haiti, January 1, 1923.
The Secretary of State,
Washington, D. G. Sir: I have the honor to report that, having been appointed American High Commissioner to Haiti, I left Washington on March 4, 1922, arriving in Port au Prince one week later on board the U. S. S. North Dakota. Upon landing I was received by the magistrat communal of Port au Prince, who in a short address welcomed me to the city. The streets in the neighborhood of the wharf were lined with people and automobiles, and on passing I received quite an ovation.
On Monday, the 13th of March, 1922, by arrangement I visited the National Palace, where I had an audience with the President of Haiti. The President was surrounded by his secretaries of state, and after I had made a short speech and presented a letter from the President of the United States to the President of Haiti, M. Dar-tiguenave, President of Haiti, responded in a few words of welcome to me on my return to Haiti.
During the ensuing three weeks I had almost daily conferences with the Haitian Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs and Finance and the Acting Financial Adviser, the subject under discussion being a preliminary agreement regai'ding a loan for Haiti and the working out of a financial program.
On April 10, 1922, the Council of State met as a National Assembly, and proceeded to elect a President of Haiti. On the evening of the same day a decision was arrived at by the National Assembly electing M. Joseph Louis Borno as President of Haiti, to take office on May 15,1922. On May 15 the inauguration ceremonies were he.ld, and Haiti for the first time in its history witnessed the spectacle of two Presidents taking part in an inauguration. A recently published history of Haiti in this respect states as follows:
Thanks to the Occupation, the transmission of presidential power was peacefully effected and without violence. On the 15th day of May, 1922, the people of the capital looked on with astonishment at this unique spectacle in the annals of our history: that of two Presidents exchanging mutual felicitations
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at the National Palace, one going in and the other leaving to go peacefully and embark on a vessel for his native village in southern Haiti.
Immediately upon taking the reins of office President Borno showed himself to be a man of energy, desirous of assisting and developing his country, and to this end he at once devoted his time to the consideration of the making of a loan to Haiti. As a result, on June 26, 1922, a law authorizing an exterior loan of $16,000,000 and an interior loan of $5,000,000 was passed by the legislative body, the Council of State.
While the loan law had been passed and the loan authorized, much work had to be concluded before the loan could be effected. Primarily it was essential that a sound financial program should be agreed to by the Haitian Government and the United States, and to this end exchanges of notes were necessary. In order that Haiti might obtain the best results from the loan, it was suggested ,that proposals be sent out and competitive bids invited. This arrangement was finally agreed to. A law was now passed by the Haitian legislative body authorizing the issuance of the interior bonds, series B. Shortly afterwards Monsieur Leon Dejean, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Monsieur Leys, consul general at New York, were sent to Washington on a special mission regarding the loan negotiations. Proposals were now sent out by the Financial Adviser in Washington and sealed bids submitted for the exterior loan, the bid of the National City Co. of 92.137 per cent being accepted. This bid was considered excellent, and I belieA'e that it is due to the competitive feature that it could now be said that never before in the history of Haiti had a loan been made under such excellent conditions.
Immediately following the signing of the loan contract, on October 11, 1922, Mr. John A. Mcllhenny, the Financial Adviser, resigned, and Mr. John S. Hord was nominated by the President of the United States and appointed by the President of Haiti as Financial Adviser. On November 1, 1922, Mr. Hord arrived in Port au Prince and immediately assumed his duties as Financial Adviser.
One of the first duties that devolved upon the new Financial Adviser was the purchase of francs for the redemption of the 1896 and 1910 French bonds. This purchase was at once taken up through the fiscal agent for the new loan, who acted without a commission and purchased the required 83,500,000 at an average of 13.83.
The Council of State, which had been called in extra session for the purpose of sanctioning the loan contract, after disposing of that question, took up the consideration of certain laws and toward the end of this session, the latter part of December, the council passed a number of laws that will be of material benefit to Haiti. One of these laws provides for the establishment of a rural police under


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the direction of the Gendarmerie d'Haiti. It is expected that this police force will be able materially to reduce, if not entirely to prevent, the thieving that is now being carried on in the various communes. Another law relates to the press.
During the early summer a program of development had been drawn up, and immediately after the sanctioning of the loan contract, thus making the money from the loan available, the sum of $300,000 was appropriated- by an extraordinary credit, and made available for the department of public works. This amount was necessary for preliminary work connected with the development work to be undertaken by this department later on, and it was essential that the gathering of material in certain investigations be made at once in order to take advantage of the dry season.
Negotiations were now undertaken for settling the interior bonds comprising the 1912, 1913, and 1914 A, B, and C bond issues. This subject was inquired into very carefully, and finally a proposition was submitted by the Haitian Government to the bondholders whereby all interest would be paid up to December 31, 1922, but the principal of the interior bonds would be reduced as follows:
Per cent.
1913__________________________'._____________________________________ 5
1914-A__________________________________________________________ 15
1914-B____________________________________________________________ 20
1914-C______________________________________;_____________________ 25
This arrangement was considered most equitable in view of the manner in which these bonds had been originally issued, and two days before Christmas, over 70 per cent of the bondholders having agreed, payment of interest was commenced.
In accordance with the provisions of the protocol, an arrete was issued by the President organizing the claims commission and appointing as members Mr. John S. Stanley, American; M. Abel Leger, Haitian; Mr. Hector Saavedra, Cuban.
During "the consideration of French claims, M. Bene Delage will replace Mr. Saavedra, while for British and Italian claims Mr. Briscoe and Mr. Oscar Scarpa will serve on the commission, respectively.
United States Forces.
The United States forces, consisting of the First Brigade, United States Marines, and three small naval vessels, have continued under the direct command of the brigade commander. During the period covered by this report the efficiency of these forces has been maintained at a high standard, and in addition it has been indoctrinated with the purposes for which we are in Haiti and the necessity for the maintenance of the most cordial relations and cooperation in


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all dealings with Haitians. The conditions throughout the country have so materially improved that it was considered proper to withdraw some of the interior marine posts. This withdrawal was gradually made and at the beginning of the year only two interior posts, Mirebalais and St. Michel, are garrisoned by marines.
Gendarmerie D'Haiti.
The Gendarmerie d'Haiti has been most efficiently handled during the past year and as a result it has been brought to a very high standard of excellence. The full report of the Chief of the Gendarmerie d'Haiti is attached hereto,1 but it is believed that the most important work of the gendarmerie has been the establishment of the Department of Central Haiti with headquarters at Hinche.
Public Works.
The yearly report of the public works officer is appended and shows very clearly the progress that has been made in this important department, and when the limited funds at the command of the Director General of Public Works is considered, the work accomplished is phenomenal.
Public Health.
This department has been greatly handicapped by a lack of funds, but with the small amount available it has succeeded in maintaining an excellent condition of health throughout Haiti, and has even extended its public health and sanitary service. The report of the public health officer is appended.
Receiver General.
The Receiver General's office has continued during the year its excellent work of collecting the import and export duties. This office is exceptionally well organized, and when it is considered that the customs laws with which it deals are exceedingly antiquated, the results that have been obtained are exceptional. The obsolete customs laws will shortly be revised, but such revision could not be made until after a loan had been effected and an internal tax law put in operation.
The report of the Receiver General is hereto attached.
Financial Adviser.
During the greater part of the year covered by this report the Financial Adviser was absent on duty in Washington in connection
1 The reports of the treaty officials, which are too voluminous for publication,, are on flle in the Department of State.


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with the flotation of a loan and his duties in Haiti were assumed by the Receiver General of Customs, who carried them out in a most efficient manner.
Upon the arrival of the new Financial Adviser, Mr. John S. Hord, his office immediately commenced the study of an internal-tax law and a law covering the putting into effect of a general accounting system. It is expected that both of these laws will be ready to be placed before the legislative body when it meets in April next, and that they will be in operation before the end of the present fiscal year.
Judiciary System.
The judiciary system of Haiti is sadly in need of renovation. In the lower tribunals, generally speaking, the administration of justice is entirely unsatisfactory, and there is a general feeling that political, family, and other interests have an undue weight.
The salaries given to judges are considered to be much too small, and it is believed that with a reduction in the number of officials and a material increase in the salaries the efficiency of the judiciary system will be increased; but it will not be satisfactory until certain laws are passed changing slightly the methods of procedure. The framing of such laws is now receiving consideration by the Haitian Government.
The present unsatisfactory condition results from insufficient pay, no provision for retirement, lack of careful selection, and inadequate corrective measures where necessary. The entire administration of justice should be placed outside of politics and other improper influences.
The judiciary system is the foundation stone of stable government, and when the Haitians have been taught to look with pride on their courts and to respect them, much will have been done toward establishing permanent stability of government in Haiti.
In conclusion, it is my opinion that the future of Haiti has never been brighter, and it is believed that a continuance of the present policy of cooperation with the Haitian Government, together with a maintenance of the sincere and earnest' cooperation that has been given by it during the past eight months, can lead but to the development and progress of Haiti, the maintenance of peaceful conditions, and the increased welfare and prosperity of the Haitian people.
There is appended hereto a summary of the reports of the respective departments.
I have the honor to be, sir. Your obedient servant,
John H. Russell.


SUMMARY OF ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTS.
There is herewith submitted a summary of the achievements to the credit of the various departments in the development of Haiti since the beginning of my tenure of office as American High Commissioner. The points emphasized in this summary are entered into in detail in the separate reports from the heads of those departments which are attached to this report.
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SUMMARY OF REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS.
personnel.
1. There are associated with the 10 treaty engineers under the Chief Engineer, Commander Archibald L. Parsons, Corps of Civil Engineers, United States Navy, 15 commissioned Haitian engineers and architects. The assistant to each treaty engineer is a Haitian. The officer in charge of the legal work and library is a Haitian, and other architects and engineers are detailed on special projects of design and construction. Practically the entire clerical force is composed of Haitians. In the stream gauging service there are 3 Haitians as hydrographic aids and 13 gauge readers. The entire organization is so planned that upon American withdrawal the department will have the services of Haitians trained in every phase of its activities and equipped to carry on its functions.
2. The average number of Haitian laborers employed is 2,700 and the pay received by them is 50 per cent higher than that of common labor in Haiti.
stores and shops.
3. A storekeeping department has been added to the administrative activities and has shown a turnover of 2.95. A direct economy of $20,000 has been realized by direct purchases from American manufacturers and direct shipments. Sales to other departments of the Haitian Government have netted $64,340.51 and a surplus of $8,027.87 accumulated.
4. Construction of new store yard, with railroad into yard, saving costs of handling and expediting deliveries. Installation of workshops and concrete tanks for creosoting bridge timbers, telegraph poles, etc., begun.
5. Operation of the system of shops and supplies on thoroughly modern lines.
legal work and library.
6. Enlarged scope of legal work and professional library through collection of all Haitian legal works affecting public-works develop-
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ment, technical reference books in both French and English, complete file engineering products catalogues.
7. Completed photographic plant with photographic record of all work done, airplane photographs of cities and photographs of public buildings, parks, streets, and structures.
electric lighting.
8. Supervised operation of electric lighting of Port au Prince, Cape Haitien, and Gonaives, completely renovating last-named system. Completed preliminary work for electric lighting plant at Jacmel.
hydraulic services.
9. Maintained all hydraulic services in the Republic. Through active collection campaign and improved collection system doubled receipts from subscribers in three cities and made total increase of 13i per cent in the nine cities affected, while lowering total cost of operation.
10. In addition to maintenance and improvement completed new construction to total of $38,013.
11. Placed in operation in Port au Prince salt water high pressure fire protection system.
telegraphs and telephones.
12. Operated 1,500 kilometers of- pole lines in Haitian telegraph service.
13. Outstanding achievement of period was installation of automatic telephone system, with capacity of 350 phones, in Port au Prince, with approximately 300 subscribers.
14. Built up existing telegraph and telephone system, entirely reconstructing parts, and completing new line between Port de Paix and Cape St. Nicolas.
15. Increased telegraph traffic 26 per cent and doubled long distance telephone traffic. Reduced personnel 10 per cent and lowered cost of operation and maintenance 17 per cent. Reduced time of telegram deliveries 75 per cent and rates for telephone service 15 per cent. Increased receipts of telegraph and telephone systems 30 per cent.
16. Installed modern system of business administration.
17. Opened schools for instruction in modern methods of construction, repair, and maintenance of system, installation and supervision of posts, installation of cables and cable splicing, linemen and inspectors.


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irrigation.
. 18. Operated irrigation service in Plains of Cul de Sac, Leogane, and Aux Cayes.
19. Completed the Digue des Matheux Dam in the Plain of Ar-cahaie to serve 5,000 acres of land free of tax for service.
20. Made preliminary investigation of other irrigation projects and examinations of sources of water supply in other plains.
21. Determined by preliminary investigation that 100,000 acres in the Artibonite Valley can be irrigated, an area of immense promise to Haiti's future.
river gauging.
22. Organized river gauging service and now securing rainfall and other meteorological data from 82 stations in the Republic.
23. Trained corps of Haitian engineers and gauge readers in this important service.
river control.
24. Throughout five months of flood season in the Artibonite Valley kept the important St. Marc-Gonaives section of main road across the island open to traffic at all times by repairing of breaks and dikes, reconstruction of dikes, and by raising several kilometers of road above flood water. Saved the city of Grande Saline at mouth of the Artibonite from destruction by flood.
lighthouses.
25. Placed four new automatic flashing acetylene lighthouses, with visibility up to 16 miles, in commission. Renovated four lighthouses of old type, increasing visibility of important Point Lamen-tin Light at entrance to Port au Prince from 8 miles to 14 miles. Installed lighthouse structure at Jacmel and inspected sites for others to give a total of 15 new automatic lights to Haiti's thousand miles of coast line.
26. Completed plans for lighthouse depot at Port au Prince.
27. Completed program for buoys and harbor lights for all ports, and installed new buoys in four of the leading ports.
28. Repaired wharves in various ports and completed plans for reconstruction of all small wharves for use of native sailing vess?ls and lighters.
roads and bridges.
29. Maintained 960 kilometers of road through permanently organized road-maintenance organization. Reconstructed and resurfaced


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most important stretches. Made surveys for new road projects and kept all main roads passable at all times.
30. Began road from Las Cahobas to Belladere on the Santo Domingo border to link it with Santo Domingo road system. This stretch, when completed, will reduce the present three-day travel by automobile between the capitals of the two Republics to one day of travel and will open to commerce and intercourse a hitherto isolated section of central Haiti.
31. Improved existing trails.
32. Completed new bridges and masonry culverts and maintained and repaired existing ones.
33. Collected material for construction and erection of 40 new timber truss bridges that will keep open to traffic in rainy seasons stretches hitherto impassable.
34. Completed program for new road construction and bridges and the reconstruction and improvement of trails.
MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS.
35. In addition to the repair of streets and the lighting of cities, water was furnished free for public fountains and fire hydrants. This department in Port au Prince alone has maintained 78 kilometers of streets, with an average width of 11 meters, graded, bridged, and provided drains and masonry culverts for them.
36. Through the creation of a cadastral commission has begun work to determine all state, communal, and private properties in Port au Prince.
37. Partially completed study for a city plan and traffic control for Port au Prince, and prepared plans for its park development.
38. Completely renovated the Palais des Ministeres which houses the Haitian Government departments and treaty officers, and installed modern furniture therein.
39. Completed fireproof building for Haitian Government archives.
40. Renovated and repaired state, communal, and school structures in seven leading cities.
41. Completed building for nurses' home at City General Hospital of Port au Prince and begun construction of two new wards.
42. Completed plans for most urgent school-building projects.
united states geological surve1".
43. Through data collected by United States Geological Survey in Washington and mapping of the country, discontinued through lack of funds in January, 1922, this department has begun preparation of outline map of Haiti.


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44. Through data collected by geological reconnaissance of the country by the United States Geological Survey, this department is completing, in both French and English, a complete report on the mineral resources of Haiti, and has already issued a pamphlet on its oil resources.
45. Has issued its annual printed report in both French and English with many maps and diagrams.
46. Has expended $757,056 on its work, of which amount there was $22,585 contributed by individuals, communes, and the Marine Corps. The balance of this sum was allotted from the collections of customs revenues.
47. Secured an extraordinary credit of $300,000 through the Haitian loan and had already prepared a program for public works in Haiti covering a two-year period on a basis of $2,991,000.
48. Has maintained the roads, bridges, city lighting, water and street systems, harbor improvements, aids to navigation, hydraulic, telegraph and telephone, public buildings and schools, and the irrigation services of Haiti on its appropriation of $757,056.
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SUMMARY OF REPORT OF PUBLIC-HEALTH SERVICE.
PERSONNEL.
1. The public-health service, in addition to the total of 7 commissioned naval surgeons, under the supervision of Lieut. Commander James M. Minter, Medical Corps, United States Navy, as chief of the sanitary service, and 10 chief pharmacists and pharmacists' mates, includes in its personnel 11 native Haitian physicians, 1 pharmacist, and 1 dentist. Native physicians are also employed as assistants to the public-health officers of Port au Prince and Cape Haitien. In addition, 13 native nurses completed the two years' training course at the General Hospital of Port au Prince and 26 are in training.
2. Through the training of these Haitian medical men and nurses a corps is being formed competent in time to take over all sanitary activities and trained in all phases of public-health work, such as administrative, hospitalization, sanitary, and quarantine duties.
3. Growing cooperation between this service and the Haitian medical fraternity is further strengthening the policy to equip Haitians to man their own public-health service.
SANITATION.
4. As a result of intensive vaccination campaign carried on through 1920 and 1921, final traces of smallpox epidemic wiped out early in year. Believed this campaign will prevent spread of smallpox for several years.
5. Secured increased cooperation of communes in maintaining sanitary labor squads, this service contributing money and equipment.
6. Examination of all sources of water supply, cleaning cities, eradication of mosquitoes, supervision of cleaning of markets, and inspection of foodstuffs, places of sale, slaughter of animals, campaign against rats, mice, and stray dogs. Examination of one out of every seven rats trapped showed negative results.
7. Drainage and filling of swamp areas.
RESEARCH.
8. Study of bacillary dysentery, known in Haiti as cholerine, stamped out severity of epidemic late in the year. Microscopical
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studies of 1,140 stains and 1,520 types of cultures, use of serum, and intensive educational campaign in affected areas brought this disease under control.
9. Study and preparation of plans for medical survey of Haiti.
EDUCATIONAL.
10. Distributed throughout the Eepublic bulletins of prophylatic measures for prevalent diseases and special bulletins for combating dysentery epidemic.
11. Employment of visiting nurses for the poor.
HOSPITALIZATION.
12. All hospital facilities improved and working to full capacity.
13. Prepared plans for mobile field laboratory with efficient personnel and transport.
14. Secured services of American specialist in eye, ear, nose, and throat for treatment of poor at each of the public-health hospitals.
15. Haitian mass responding in greatly increased numbers to the opportunities for medical and surgical treatment. Patients under hospital treatment 22,316, as compared to 7,305 for previous year.
16. Port au Prince: Completion of modern operating pavilion, home for the native nurses in training, a 70-room ward and morgue. Begun construction of new ward for treatment of pay patients.
Cape Haitien: Begun plans for increasing capacity of Justinian Hospital. Completed new ward for isolation and treatment of tubercular patients.
Port de Paix: New hospital with 50-bed capacity 70 per cent completed.
Gonaives: Completed 40-bed ward for women patients. St. Marc: Renovation of old hospital.
Jeremie: New hospital under construction with 40-bed capacity. Jacmel: Constructing new operating pavilion and ward for isolation and treatment of tubercular patients.
QUARANTINE.
17. Completed plans for quarantine and detention station at Port au Prince. Haiti now has no quarantine station, but this service boards all vessels entering ports.
INSANE.
18. Plans under way for insane asylum. At pi-esent there are no facilities for their segregation and treatment save at the prisons.


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WELFARE AND RELIEF.
19. Distributed foods and medicines and employed native Haitian physicians in areas where cholerine epidemic was most prevalent.
20. Intensive inspection of child-welfare work in schools.
21. Placed in commission hospice communal in Port au Prince for relief of paupers.
FREE DISPENSARIES.
22. Opened five free dispensaries in the interior in sections where no physician or drug store exists within radius of several miles and lack of medical assistance was appalling. Haitian doctors and nurses in charge. Large number of peasants applying for treatment justifies the planned extension of this help that is to be carried throughout the Republic.
RED CROSS.
23. The American Red Cross has cooperated splendidly with financial assistance and supplies in relief and free dispensary measures.
ASSISTANCE TO HAITIAN MEDICAL MEN.
24. Clinical teaching facilities at City General Hospital of Port au Prince extended to the National Medical School of Haiti. Senior medical students have use of all hospital facilities, with certain ones assigned for special laboratory work.
25. Haitian physicians have full use of facilities for treatment of private patients in new private ward of general hospital.
26. Employment of native Haitian physicans in public-health service, extension of hospital and laboratory facilities to physicians and students, training of native nurses, opening of free dispensaries, relief measures, educational measures, and free and full cooperation has greatly strengthened the hold of the public-health service both among the native medical fraternity and the peasant class.
VITAL STATISTICS.
27. Continued efforts to build up accurate vital statistics resulted in 60 per cent of the communes making reports as compared to 10 per cent for 1921.
APPROPRIATIONS.
28. With a total budgetary appropriation of $264,000 from the customs collections receipts this service has accomplished the above in a country of 2,500,000 and an area of 10,000 square miles at a pro rata of 11 cents gold per person for the year. Under these


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conditions its most important work was necessarily restricted to operation in the larger centers of population.
FUTURE PLANS.
29. In anticipation of greater funds for its work plans have been prepared for a medical survey of Haiti, research work to study and eradicate the prevalent diseases, establishment of quarantine station, segregation and treatment of insane and lepers, further establishment of free dispensaries, increased hospitalization, and an intensive educational campaign among the 95 per cent illiterate population.


GENDARMERIE D'HAITI.
PERSONNEL.
1. The gendarmerie is officered by 102 officers and noncommissioned officers detailed from the Marine Corps, 12 officers, warrant and petty officers of the Navy. In addition there are 16 lieutenants and 7 acting lieutenants appointed from Haitian citizens and 22 aspirant officers from the same source; a total of 45 of Haitian birth. The enlisted personnel of 2,414 is wholly Haitian.
2. This total of 45 Haitian appointees, comprising both line and medical officers, is the present nucleus of what will eventually become an armed force wholly Haitian in both its commissioned and enlisted personnel, trained on modern lines, to act both as a police organization and an armed force capable of putting down internal disorders and maintaining the prestige of Haiti in her relations with the nations. It is also the avowed policy of the present corps to replace the medical officers detailed from the United States Navy by native surgeons, and three have been so appointed.
3. It is worthy of note that the Haitian young men who are commissioned, serving as acting officers, and in training for commission have been recruited from the best families in Haiti and represent the best type of Haitians. Their service has been excellent and full of promise.
MILITARY OPERATIONS.
4. The period just passed has been the most peaceful in the annals of the occupation. There has been no semblance of an uprising and banditry has been nonexistent. In addition to these evidences of peace the efficiency of the gendarmerie police and the constant patrols of the interior have resulted in a notable decrease of crime and offenses against the Haitian laws.
CENTRAL DEPARTMENT.
5. The Central Department has been organized in the period covered and is functioning with the smoothness of a long-established Department. This new Department comprises that section of Haiti that always had been the first to rise against constitutional government and most prolific in bandit activities. Since its estab-
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lishment the gendarmerie of the Central Department has relieved the posts of marines maintained at Hinche, Las Cahobas, Thomonde, and Maissade. These substitutions, with Hinche as the headquarters, and the contemplated establishment of a court of first instance at Hinche, will greatly increase the importance of this hitherto isolated section, materially aid in stabilizing this formerly turbulent area, and expedite the administration of justice within its boundaries. These changes are eloquent of the progress of order and tranquillity.
ORGANIZATION.
, G. The gendarmerie in the period covered has been thoroughly reorganized along the lines of a modern staff system, and placed on a sound business basis of administration and supply.
7. Gendarmerie messes and post exchanges, modeled on those of the Marine Corps, have been inaugurated at all posts where the strength of the personnel warrants, and the messing system installed in all prisons. In place of the old system of rationing the rations are now commuted at the rate of 15 cents per day, and the ration table is well balanced and scientific. At the end of the first month of this new system the gendarmes affected registered an average gain of 2| pounds per man. The gains are still noticeable.
8. All regulations and manuals are now printed in both French and English. The Codes Penal and Criminal are also printed in both languages.
9. New service record books modeled on those of the Marine Corps have been issued.
10. A deposit system paying 3 per cent interest has been put into operation.
11. A fireproof depot of supplies has been added, increasing the efficient handling of supplies and reducing the cost of motor transportation alone by $600 for the year.
EDUCATIONAL.
12. All gendarmes are now receiving a free grammar-school course. In addition to the benefit' that the individual gendarme receives from this innovation, it has spread the desire for education, been the subject of much favorable comment among the Haitians, and proved an added incentive for recruiting.
13. The Ecole Militaire for the training of aspirant officers has been greatly extended in its scope, and now approximates the training of American officers of that rank. Eleven aspirant officers have been assigned to duty, and a present class of the same number is under instruction.


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14. A school for the training of American officers newly appointed for service in the gendarmerie, covering a period of three months, has also been established with excellent results.
15. Intensive training in military subjects, sanitation, and relations with the Haitian officials, treaty departments, and civilians is now being conducted at all gendarmerie posts.
RECRUIT DEPOTS.
16. Two recruit depots have been established in the new Central Department, the course covering 14 weeks and including record firing.
TARGET PRACTICE.
17. For the first time all gendarmes have been required to fire the United States Army course B, and ranges have been built in each of the four Departments. Department matches were held early in the fall and in November the first national team and the President's individual matches were shot. Prizes to the winning Departments and to the individual winners were personally presented by the President of the Republic. The results of this innovation fully warranted this new line of development. Marked improvement was recorded in the use of the rifle and the gendarmes have manifested the greatest enthusiasm and esprit in this work.
PRISONS.
18. All prisons are under control of the gendarmerie and frequent inspections have shown excellent sanitary conditions and good physical condition among the prisoners. There were an average of 2,778 prisoners confined monthly and the death rate was held to the almost irreducible minimum of 0.017 per cent. In this connection it should be noted that the great percentage of prisoners admitted are received in deplorable physical condition, and that a number of the deaths occurred within a few days of their admission. Under the old regime, prior to the Occupation, the death rate was as high as 1,300 out of each 2,000.
19. The introduction of the new messing system has greatly improved the health of the prisoners.
20. The number of prisoners has decreased materially and remained low throughout this period. Chief offenses, vagabondage, theft.
21. The prison hospitals have been increased in capacity and equipment.


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22. In the main prisons, Port au Prince, Cape Haitien, and Hinche, among the trades taught and carried on are the manufacture of gendarmerie uniforms, prison uniforms, shoemaking and repairing, carpentry, furniture making, brickmaking, mat and basket weaving. The profits from the sale of prison-made products go to the welfare funds of the prisons, with a percentage to the prisoners employed, to be paid to them on their discharge. In addition to increasing the discipline and contentment of the prisoners they are enabled to return to civil life equipped with a trade.
23. The cost of the manufacture of uniforms, and that of rations, has been materially reduced and the quality of both improved.
24. New woodworking machinery has been installed in the national penitentiary at Port au Prince, and facilities for brickmaking at the Hinche prison.
POLICE AND FIRE DEPARTMENTS.
25. Both the police and fire departments of Port au Prince are now under control of the gendarmerie.
26. The police have been instrumental in the material decrease of crime, the principal forms now being confined to those of a minor nature.
27. A fingerprint bureau and the photographing of all criminals has been added to the equipment of the police department. Studies of other modern police methods are being carried on.
28. The fire department has added to its equipment of two chemical and one equipment motor trucks a horse-drawn engine in addition to the two old-type engines.
29. An electric pump has been installed at the head of the city dock, giving ample salt-water pressure.
30. Firemen are now properly equipped, organized, and trained in modern fire-fighting methods.
BANDS.
31. In addition to reorganizing and placing the palace band under gendarmerie control, two additional bands have been organized.
COMMUNES.
32. Under authority issued by the Secretary of the Interior gendarmerie officers are now assigned as communal advisers. Through their auditing of funds and their advice there has been a marked increase in the amounts collected by the communes, and increased results from their disbursements. In the commune of Arcahaie, for


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example, the receipts for the first month under this system were greater than the total for the preceding six months. Reports show that in a great number of the communes the local officers are cooperating to an encouraging degree.
LEGISLATIVE.
33. The following laws proposed by the Chief of the Gendarmerie have been enacted: establishment of a rural police; traffic law for the regulation of motor, mechanical, and animal-drawn vehicles; arms licensing.
34. The authority for the registration of all foreigners in Haiti has been delegated to the gendarmerie by the Secretary of the Interior, reports being made to that officer.
COAST GUARD.
35. Four 24-foot naval type motor boats have been added to the equipment of the coast guard for its work of transporting troops and supplies, suppression of smuggling, and relief of coastwise shipping.
36. Negotiations are under way to replace with a vessel of the steam trawler type the flagship of the coast guard, the auxiliary yacht Independence, totally destroyed by a gasoline explosion at the naval station, Guantanamo Bay, on November 17.
RECREATION AND MORALE.
37. Two traveling motion-picture machines have been added, and films shown not only at all gendarmerie posts but to the public in those localities. They were the first motion pictures shown in the great majority of the places, increasing the good feeling existing between the gendarmerie and the civil popidation, and inspiring many letters and newspaper articles of commendation. It is proposed to extend this virgin field by the gradual introduction of films of an educational nature.
38. Afternoon periods are now devoted to various forms of athletics. Boxing, basketball, baseball, soccer, and field and track contests are encouraged and the gendarmes trained by well-qualified American instructors. At the recent field and track meet of the gendarmes stationed in Port au Prince, the first held, there were fully 20,000 spectators. Libraries, a gendarmerie magazine published every two months, rifle contests, and other forms of morale building have been introduced in the period of this report.


21
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.
39. New accounting and budget systems have been introduced, and the business system of administration and procurement and handling of supplies reorganized.
40. Through increased spread of sanitation and physical development and extension of hospital facilities the death rate of troops has been reduced to 5.11 per thousand.
41. The so-called prison disease has been eradicated.
APPROPRIATIONS.
42. The sum of $1,004,451 was appropriated to the gendarmerie, including a monthly allotment of $9,000 for prisons, from the revenue collections of the Receiver General of Customs.


RECEIVER GENERAL.
PERSONNEL.
1. As in the other departments, the policy of this office is to build up a corps fitted to assume in all its phases the task of administering the collections of customs and the application of the tariff laws when American withdrawal is made.
2. The total personnel includes 11 Americans and 200 Haitians, the total clerical force being Haitian.
COLLECTIONS.
3. The collections of import and export duties for the fiscal year, $4,673,314, exceeded those of the preceding period by $1,067,141.
4. The collections for the last three months of 1922, not included in the above total, were $1,771,380, a gain of $246,199, or 16 per cent, over those of the corresponding period of 1921.
5. The collections of customs for December, 1922, were the highest monthly since January, 1920. They totaled $695,221, as against $522,549 for December^ 1921.
6. The above gains reflect a significant improvement in economic conditions and increased volume of trade.
7. The actual cost of collections was reduced from $0.043747 to $0.034780.
VOLUME AND BALANCE OF TRADE.
8. The volume of trade was $23,062,481, as compared to $16,910,-775, and the balance of trade was $1,638,061.
IMPORTS.
9. The imports to Haiti aggregated $12,350,271 as against $11,-957,206 for the preceding period.
10. The United States led in imports with $10,359,613, the United Kingdom second with $763,363, and France third with $642,382.
11. The United States increased its volume from the preceding period by $816,602 and its percentage of the whole from 79.82 to 83.87. The United Kingdom decreased by $55,393 its percentage from 6.84 to 6.18; and France decreased by $495,207, and from 9.51 to 5.21.
12. Of the 10 leading articles of import, namely, cotton textiles, flour, fish, soap, iron and steel, tobacco, oils, fibers, liquors and
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beverages, and meats, the United States strongly predominated, with the exception of liquors, in which France outranked all other countries. In meats, rice, leather, and wood the United States had no competitors and in the remaining minor articles of import the great bulk was shipped from the United States.
EXPORTS
13. The exports from Haiti aggregated $10,712,210 as against $4,953,570 for the preceding period.
14. The United States ranked second with exports amounting to $1,438,755, France leading with $6,0i8,524, and the United Kingdom third with $589,175.
15. The percentage of France jumped from 50.70 to 56.18 and the United Kingdom from 3.61 to 5.50 as compared with the preceding period. The percentage of the total export going to the United States decreased, showing 13.44 as against 32.38 of the preceding period. It is worthy of note that the increase of France, and the consequent decrease of American export trade was almost wholly due to the fact that $5,371,116 worth of coffee was exported to France and but $162,905 to the United States; $574,327 of cotton to France and $228,432 to the United States. Haitian coffee is given a preferential rate by France and the United States is primarily a cotton-exporting rather than a cotton-importing country. Honey was the other article that outstripped American trade. In all the remaining articles the United States led in its value of trade.
16. The leading export articles of Haiti for the period were coffee, sugar, dyewoods, cacao, goatskins, honey, lignum-vitse, and mahogany. With the exception of the coffee, cotton, and honey the great bulk went to the United States. In this period cotton and cacao trebled in value and honey doubled, no other changes of consequence being recorded.
17. Prior to this period the amount of export duty was not included in the value of exports and prior records of exports are therefore incorrect in lessening the trade balances of those years. The unfavorable trade balance of the preceding period, $7,003,635, is therefore reduced by this change of computation to $5,336,796.
SUNDRY.
18. Smuggling during this period has been reduced to a negligible volume along the Haitian-Dominican border.
19. The revision of the antiquated tariff of 1872, slightly modified by that of 1905, has been studied and plans prepared for its revision along modern lines.
20. A new method of keeping and computing statistical data on exported and imported merchandise has been adopted.


GENERAL SUMMARY.
Among the outstanding developments of the period under consideration may be cited:
1. The holding for the first time in Haiti's history of 118 years of an absolutely free election for President of the Republic.
2. The unprecedented spectacle of a presidential inauguration, free from military coercion or civil violence, at which the incoming and the retiring Presidents took part.
3. Centralization of control in the. office of the American High Commissioner over all officials representing the United States in Haiti, a vitally needed move that has done away with friction, duplication of efforts, and has resulted in full cooperation and interchange of ideas.
4. Full publicity as to the mission of the United States in Haiti through the medium of the Haitian press and by speeches at official functions.
v5. Indoctrinating the people with the desire of the United States to uplift the illiterate and poverty-ridden mass of Haiti that constitutes not less than 95 per cent of its population of 2,500,000.
6. Fostering among the people'the necessity for all factions working in accord for Haiti through the medium of the press, public utterances, and the circulation of popular slogans stressing the necessity for accord.
7. Realization of the loan of $40,000,000 sanctioned by the Haitian law of June 26, 1922, in ratification of the protocol of October 3, 1919, by which the Haitian Government obligated itself to negotiation of such a loan.
8. Formation of a claims commission, working in accord with the Haitian Government, for settlement of all pending claims against Haiti.
9. Creation of an internal bond issue for settlement of long-standing internal and floating debts.
10. Transfer of the bank contract of the National Bank of the Republic of Haiti, permitting its reorganization along modern American banking lines.
11. "Withdrawal of United States marines from the interior garrisons of three important towns and replacement by gendarmes.
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ECONOMIC.
1. Comprehensive and detailed agricultural survey of Haiti begun and completed by detail of an American agricultural expert who had specialized for many years in tropical countries.
2. Distribution of seed, both American and tropical, to interior locations, the agricultural farm, and to individual growers, with expert advice as to soil, planting, care, and methods of avoiding and combating crop blights.
3. Effecting a considerable saving to the Haitian Government by purchase of certain bonds of the French loan on the Paris market at a discount.
4. Formation of stream gauging, irrigation, and river control services and extensive studies for their development. Preliminary surveys for needed irrigation projects.
5. The drafting, with the advice and assistance of the American officials, of several important laws necessary to the economic development of Haiti.
6. Formation of comprehensive program of all departments, covering a period of two years, for the economic development of Haiti and her resources.
7. Development, to the full extent of funds at hand, of present program of all departments.
SOCIAL.
1. All Americans serving with the Occupation have been steadily and successfully indoctrinated with the American mission of the development of Haiti to a point where American supervision can be reduced to a minimum and the American forces withdrawn. The success of this indoctrination has been clearly reflected in the increasing confidence and friendly relations with the Haitian people.
2. The steady improvement of communications, sanitation, hospitalization and stabilized order throughout the Republic has materially contributed to the success of our mission.
3. The constant effort to fill vacancies in the various departments with Haitians, and to extend their scope and increase their relative importance, has been emphasized with excellent results.
o


REPUBLIC OF HAITI
Based chiefly upon a map in the Annual Report ofthe Director of Public Works of Haiti, datedOct. 1,1922, and upon manuscript information.
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A T L ANT/ C
OCEAN
TORTUGA I.
OEP*RTMNT orST*T; Geofrf>f}t'c)Section, Division of Pt>Hf/ 4545123 (Follows p. 25.)