Country presentation by the Government of the Republic of Haiti

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Material Information

Title:
Country presentation by the Government of the Republic of Haiti
Cover title:
Country presentation
Title on p. iii:
Description of the current situation in Haiti and the development strategy for the period 1990-1999
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iv, 28 p.) : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Haiti -- Ministère de la planification et de la coopération externe
Conference:
United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, 1990
Publisher:
United Nations
Place of Publication:
Geneva
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Economic assistance -- Congresses -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Aide économique -- Congrès -- Haïti   ( ram )
Economic conditions -- Congresses -- Haiti -- 1971-   ( lcsh )
Economic policy -- Congresses -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Conditions économiques -- Congrès -- Haïti -- 1971-   ( ram )
Politique économique -- Congrès -- Haïti   ( ram )
Genre:
international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

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Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Statement of Responsibility:
United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries.
General Note:
"UNCLDC II/CP.3."
General Note:
Second United Nations Conference to be held in September 1990 in Paris.
General Note:
"Description of the current situation in Haiti and the development strategy for the period 1990-1999, Ministry of Planning and External Co-operation"--P. iii.
General Note:
"English and French only."

Record Information

Source Institution:
Columbia Law Library
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Columbia Law Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 622773030
Classification:
lcc - HC153 .U5 1990
ddc - 330.97294073
System ID:
AA00001121:00001


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SECOND UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE
LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES


COUNTRY PRESENTATION


HAITI

1990


NATIONS


UNITED































UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES






Country presentation

BY

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI


UNCLDC II/CP.3
ENGLISH AND FRENCH ONLY









J(4





14Q


NO1- TE
NOTEr


The views expressed in this document are those of
the Government of Haiti and do not necessarily reflect
the views of the UNCTAD secretariat. The designations
employed and the presentation of the material do not
imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the
part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning
the legal status of any country, territory, city or area,
or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.






- iii -


MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND EXTERNAL CO-OPERATION (MPCE)




DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT SITUATION IN HAITI AND THE DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGY FOR THE PERIOD 1990-1999


MAY 1989





- iv -


CONTENTS


I. PERFORMANCE IN THE 1980s ...............................

Macro-economic trends .............................

II. STRATEGY FOR THE 1990s .................................

A. General and specific objectives ...................

B. General strategy ..................................

C. Financing of the strategy .........................

ANNEXES

I. Macro-economic projections ............................

II. Financing conventions under negotiation ................


Paragraphs

1 14

1 14

15 71

15 24

25 64

65 71


GE.90-50397


Page

1

1

5

5

6

14






- 1 -


I. PERFORMANCE IN THE 1980s

Macro-economic trends

1. Changes in the main indicators of the situation of the Haitian economy
show that the trend in the 1980s was towards stagnation or recession and that
there were problems in nearly all sectors.

2. Overall production in real terms declined at an average rate
of 0.66 per cent per year, both in the agricultural sector and in the
industrial sector. Real per capital income dropped steadily over an
eight-year period from 1,087 gourdes in 1980 to 880 gourdes in 1988, so that
the already low standard of living of the majority of the population which
lives below the poverty line, grew even worse.

3. The drop in the level of real production, which led to an increase
in unemployment in the industrial sector and in underemployment in the
agricultural sector, is related to the low level of private and public
investment throughout the 1980s. The major private investors which
traditionally come mainly from abroad and have for some time limited
themselves to the assembly industries were afraid to make further investments
because of the climate of political instability in the country throughout the
period, thereby slowing the momentum gained in the export industries sector in
the 1970s. Public investments on which agriculture depends so much to meet
its infrastructure and management requirements, have been seriously affected
by the drop and by cuts in foreign development assistance.

4. After a brief upward movement in 1982, the export curve in constant
values fell and has not gone back up since. This is as much the result of the
steady drop in the volume of exports of coffee (the major agricultural export
product, whose world price was also decreasing) as of the falling-off of
orders from the United States for unfinished goods assembled in Haiti.

5. The trade balance deficit, which had thus started to improve in 1982
(dropping to 414 million gourdes at 1976 constant prices) began to worsen
again in 1983 and stayed at much higher levels during the rest of the period,
even though imports tended to be slightly lower in real terms.

6. The worsening of the trade balance deficit, taken together with the
reduction in public and private capital inflows (as well as a drop in the
unrequited transfers that many persons receive from emigre relatives), has
caused serious balance-of-payments problems and shortages of foreign exchange
that have now become the general rule. In 1983, for the first time, there was
an official currency market for changing the national currency for
United States dollars, with a discount of the gourde ranging from 3 per cent
to 30 per cent, depending on the scarcity of dollars.

7. Those responsible for the management of the economy, as well as public
opinion in general, are concerned about the Goverment's financial deficit,
which has been increasing at an alarming rate. Government investment






- 2 -


expenditure for the setting up of the infrastructures required for development
is not only financed primarily through the co-operation of international
agencies and friendly countries, but ordinary spending for public
administration often outstrips the available financial resources, mainly
because of the questionable practice of incurring extra-budgetary expenditure.
The current deficit has thus ordinarily been financed by borrowing from the
Central Bank, i.e. by ill-advisedly issuing new money.

8. In order to deal with these problems, which plunged the country into
crisis throughout the 1980s, the authorities adopted and implemented remedial
measures with the assistance of organizations such as the International
Monetary Fund-(IMF) and the World Bank. Most of these measures were, however,
only short-term solutions that were designed to re-establish purely financial
balances without going to the root of the chronic problems affecting the
Haitian economy and population.

9. "Stand-by" agreements were thus concluded with IMF in 1982 and 1984 with
a view to the elimination of the budget deficit and the formation of positive
public savings to serve as counterpart funds for development projects with
mixed financing, both national and foreign.

10. In view of the limited results of these measures, a structural adjustment
programme was designed in 1986 by the Haitian Government with IMF and
World Bank assistance and the financial participation of USAID. This
renewable programme, which was initially to be carried out during the
three-year period from 1987 to 1989, provided not only for short-term
stabilization measures, but also for basic reforms aimed at combatting
structural imbalances, such as those of the trade balance, the balance of
payments and the labour market, as well as the permanent imbalance in the
overall budget of the Haitian public sector. The full implementation of the
programme was, however, hampered and even suspended in late 1987 as a result
of the withdrawal of financial support by the multilateral and bilateral
assistance agencies.

11. In fact, the negative growth rates recorded for most of the key
macro-economic variables and the negative growth of the main sectors of the
Haitian economy clearly show that the management of the economic and social
crisis by the authorities did not prevent the situation in the country from
worsening in the 1980s.

12. One of the explanations for this deterioration is that the Haitian
economy cannot react adequately to external crises, such as the economic
recession in the industrialized countries in the early 1980s and the second
oil crisis that preceded it.

13. Another explanation is that most of the measures taken by the authorities
as a result of concerns about the economic situation did not tackle the major
problems which confront the Haitian economy and society, which are structural
in nature and which will continue to be bottle-necks and stumbling blocks
until they are solved or greatly alleviated.





- 3 -


14. Of these major problems, particular attention is drawn to:

(a) The very serious deterioration of the physical environment, one
aspect of which is deforestation, which has reached a very advanced stage and
is the cause of the rapid erosion of mountain slopes and the inexorable
process of desertification. This environmental deterioration is the cause of
increasing soil infertility, low income in rural areas, the flight from the
countryside and growing social problems in the country's main towns.

(b) The inadequacies and shortcomings of the production system which are
hampering the expansion of the supply of goods and may be identified as
follows:

(i) The lack of skilled workers, particularly in the productive
sectors, primarily as a result of the very high illiteracy rate;

(ii) Low capital accumulation and non-optimal utilization of
installed capital in the various production sectors;

(iii) The weak network of small- and medium-sized industrial
processing and handicraft enterprises;

(iv) The inefficient organization of the institutional credit system
which does not satisfactorily meet all of the economy's
financing requirements;

(v) The lack of any genuine price policy and the existence of many
monopolies which create distortions in the allocation of
resources to the most efficient sectors;

(vi) Low productivity in practically all sectors, with, as a
corollary, high production costs and weak competitive capacity
in export markets;

(vii) Low volume of output in all sectors leading to massive imports
and chronic trade balance deficits;

(c) Marked disparities in several areas:

(i) Disparities between urban and rural incomes, with
over-concentration of income in the hands of a very small
segment of the population;

(ii) Disparities between urban and rural economic infrastructures,
with concentration in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince;

(d) The persistence of such overall imbalances as chronic budget
deficits, structural trade balance deficits and the permanent imbalance in
the labour market;

(e) Illiteracy, which even now affects nearly 80 per cent of the
population aged 10 years and over. This situation is not without
consequence for the country's ability to overcome its social and economic
underdevelopment, which will depend first and foremost on a change of attitude
and behaviour by the population, which is still by and large totally ignorant.





- 4 -


CHANGES IN MACRO-ECONOMIC AGGREGATES

Average annual rate in real terms for the period 1979/80-1983/89

Overall GDP -0.49%
Agricultural GDP -0.32%
Industrial GDP -2.85%

Per capital income -1.66%

Overall investment -6.23%
Private investment
Public investment

Exports -3.58%
Imports -3.68%
Trade deficit -3.87%

In nominal terms for the period 1980/81-1987/88

Private capital 6.23%
Public capital -22.38%

External public debt 9.77%
Internal public debt 11.88%

Budget balance 0.98%

Credit to private sector 4.71%
Credit to public sector 11.42%

Price level 3.31%
Unemployment rate






- 5 -


II. STRATEGY FOR THE 1990s

A. General and specific objectives

15. Government action in the next 10 years will make it possible to achieve
the following two general objectives:

(a) Eliminating poverty and social injustice;

(b) Promoting and developing human and natural resources, while
preserving the national cultural identity.

16. The aim is to achieve the following four specific objectives:

(1) At the economic and social level (two objectives):

17. The first objective is to ensure a decent standard of living for the
majority of the population, by improving housing and raising health, nutrition
and educational standards to enable the population to move above the poverty
line.

18. In macro-economic terms, this means increasing per capital consumption
by 30 per cent in the next 10 years, i.e. an average of 2.6 per cent per year.

19. To bring about such an increase, emphasis must be placed on:

(a) The creation of paying jobs through a process of steady economic
growth of 63 per cent for the 1990s, i.e. an average annual growth rate of
4.5 per cent. In order to set this process in motion and keep it going, the
following action should be taken immediately and continued throughout the
entire period: reorganization of the production system; mobilization of
national savings; intensification of manpower training; functional literacy
programmes for the illiterate masses (with particular emphasis on instruction
in basic farming techniques); finding foreign markets for Haitian products;
and elimination of regional disparities;

(b) The expansion of community services (education, health, drinking
water, electricity) to make them available to the majority of the population,
which is now deprived of them;

(c) The reorganization of the social security system, as an effective
means of bringing about the more equitable distribution of income between
socio-professional categories and stimulating domestic demand;

(d) A significant increase in low-cost housing for low-income
socio-professional categories.

20. The second objective is to halt the deterioration of the environment and
improve its quality.

21. Efforts must be made to prevent soil erosion and deforestation by
improving the operation of the structures set up for this purpose and ensuring
the development and management of national forests, in particular the pine
forest in the la Selle mountains and the Pic Macaya forest in the
Hotte mountains.





- 6 -


22. Pollution must be dealt with and steps taken to prevent the dumping of
toxic waste in the national territory, in accordance with the requirement laid
down in the Constitution of 29 March 1987.

(2) At the cultural level (one objective):

23. The aim is to preserve the Haitian cultural identity, both in terms of
customs and in terms of assets, while remaining open to other civilizations in
order to ensure the full development of the individual. Government action in
this regard will focus primarily on:

(a) The revaluation of the historical heritage, namely, historical
monuments and sites and styles of architecture;

(b) Support for artistic and literary creation.

(3) At the institutional level (one objective):

24. The aim is to establish a healthy institutional environment to ensure
respect for national values and the material and cultural possibilities of
the population as a whole. Priority will be given to:

(a) The reorganization of the administration and Government enterprises
in the areas of management and rules and procedures, as well as to the
strengthening of decentralized Government bodies;

(b) The adaptation of legislation governing State undertakings, the
organization of political life, the system of justice, the armed forces and
the police to the new requirements of the socio-political situation;

(c) The establishment of new institutions, both Government and mixed,
with a view to the smooth functioning of society.

B. General strategy

25. In view of the very serious and complex problems which have been
identified and which are structural in nature and of the specific objectives
to be achieved, a general strategy with the following main components will
have to be implemented in the next 10 years:

(1) Economic component

26. The basic option is a liberal one that is in keeping with the national
interest. It is characterized by the recognized predominant role of private
enterprise in the production of commercial goods and services, as well as by
the State's responsibility to establish adequate infrastructures and to create
the appropriate political, legal and institutional conditions to promote the
full development of productive activities. There will be few obstacles to
free trade and, since the production system will be up against foreign
competition, local entrepreneurs will have to develop more competitive
production methods and opt for the re-allocation of resources to the most
profitable sectors and activities.






- 7 -


27. This option also implies:

(a) Disengagement of the State from certain activities in the industrial
sector if State management makes these enterprises unprofitable;

(b) Improvements in the efficiency of central and local Government
bodies with a view to the management of and support for public and private
undertakings.

28. The State will nevertheless continue its dialogue and co-operation with
all political forces and socio-professional associations with a view to
reaching a national consensus on major issues of concern to society as a whole.

29. Priority will be given to the agricultural sector, in which four main
types of action will be taken:

(a) Optimum food crop production, for which farmers already have enough
know-how, in the irrigated plains and humid valleys. Productivity efforts
will focus mainly on basic cereals (rice, maize, millet) and pulses (peas,
beans);

(b) Promotion of the production of chickens, eggs, pork, goatmeat and
fish;

(c) The production of oilseed, fruit and aromatic plants (vetiver,
citronnella, amyris) used as basic raw materials by Haitian agro-industries
and of export crops (coffee, cocoa, sisal, flowers and ornamental plants) will
be the focus of attention of managers and technical staff in the agricultural
sector;

(d) Since the reforestation of the country (particularly of the steep
slopes and crests of the main mountain areas) is an absolute priority,
energetic and sustained measures will be adopted to re-establish the
vegetation cover which will conserve the country's arable land and make it
fertile again.

30. Most of the action taken in the other economic sectors will, moreover, be
complementary to that taken in the agricultural sector.

(a) Industry

31. The maximization of local added value, agro-industrial integration and
the decentralization of industry for the benefit of the main provincial towns
are the key elements of the Government industrial strategy.

32. The State will pay particular attention to the processing industry.
Specific policy measures will be taken to realize the agro-industrial
potential of oilseed, aromatic plants, fruit, milk, butter, cheese, fish,
leather goods and cellulose waste, which are now imported.

33. Incentive measures will also be taken to promote the small-scale light
mechanical engineering industry, which can be used by the agricultural sector
(motor-cultivators, pumps, etc.).





- 8 -


34. Small and medium-sized enterprises which use labour-intensive methods and
rely on natural skills, ingenuity and an innate artistic sense, as well as the
types of manufactures requiring a low level of capital investment per worker,
the fullest possible use of existing raw materials, the development of
by-products and the recycling of recoverable materials will be supported
in their efforts to derive the greatest benefit from national potential.

35. With regard to international subcontracting, moreover, emphasis will be
placed on the branches that can best stand up to international competition,
for example, electronic products. Systematic research will, however, be
undertaken on ways and means of integrating the subcontracting industry both
upstream and downstream.

36. Existing industries that are geared to the domestic market will be
encouraged to modernize their equipment and thus to reduce their production
costs; investment will be facilitated upstream and downstream of existing
branches in order to promote their integration.

(b) Handicrafts

37. With a view to the development of the family labour force and the
integration of small production units into the circuit of local and national
economic activity, handicrafts should be promoted, particularly in the
informal sector.

(c) Infrastructures

38. Activities to strengthen infrastructures will be co-ordinated in time and
space with development activities in productive sectors.

39. With regard to agricultural infrastructures, action (projects and
measures) will be taken to improve existing infrastructures and build new
ones, such as irrigation and drainage systems, anti-erosion structures,
agricultural secondary roads, etc.

40. As to transport, account will be taken of activities for which the State
had to make enormous expenditures by ensuring efficient maintenance, repairs
and rehabilitation. Activities will focus mainly on road networks in priority
development areas with a good level of productivity where highly
labour-intensive work can be done.

41. The main roads linking departmental capitals will also be modernized in
order to facilitate the transport from one part of the national territory to
another of freight, persons and goods, particularly to support the
agriculture, industry and tourism sectors.

42. Where the postal services and telecommunications are concerned, the aim
is to continue to replace out-of-date infrastructures by more appropriate
equipment which conforms to new technological standards and will make for
the smoother flow of denser traffic.






- 9 -


43. With regard to energy, the supply of electric power to the industrial
sector and its extension to the domestic sector continue to be matters of high
priority. Support will be given to the national policy of decentralization by
building small power stations in a number of towns and work will continue on
the interconnection of regional networks by setting up distribution lines.
Where small systems cannot be installed in rural areas, the systems to be
built will use solar energy. On the other hand, in order to mitigate the
effects of deforestation resulting from the widespread use of charcoal, the
use of other types of energy will be encouraged. A sustained effort in this
direction will be made as from the first five-year period.

44. In addition, the following specific overall policies will be implemented:

(a) An active policy of controlled credit for production, particularly
for current and potential small-scale producers who do not have access to the
traditional credit channels. The public institutions which grant production
credits will be put in a position to cope with the implementation of this
policy to make credit available to small-capital entrepreneurs; a national
promotion fund will also be set up;

(b) A policy to give small-scale producers technological assistance and
to support export-oriented sectors by organizing a systematic search for
foreign markets and favourable trading conditions with Haiti's trading
partners;

(c) A fiscal policy based on a tax system that does not hamper
production and an improved and better monitored system of tax collection
making it possible to increase revenue substantially so that more public
investments may be made;

(d) A foreign trade policy designed to raise Haiti's level of trade with
the outside world while reducing the trade deficit as much as possible. The
policy will thus be characterized by what would amount to the active and
systematic marketing of Haitian products on foreign markets, both neighboring
and traditional, and on new markets. Imports will be restricted to the
country's ability to pay its bills, i.e. its capacity to generate the
necessary foreign exchange to pay for its imports taking due account of its
priorities in this regard;

(e) A price policy aimed at obtaining the real prices practised by
leaving the market to play its role freely, but with Government intervention
when there are flagrant distortions in the levels of certain prices,
particularly the prices of staple products;

(f) In view of the current level of the deterioration of the
environment, one of the most flagrant causes of which is the ill-considered
exploitation of Haiti's forestry reserves, a national environment policy
will be implemented with a view to committing the country to the gradual
restoration of the ecological balance. It will be aimed at improving the
context and quality of life of the people of Haiti, both in urban and in rural






- 10 -


areas, and using natural resources more rationally, particularly by reducing
the pressure on timber and soil resources on step slopes. Specifically, it
will be necessary to:

(i) Preserve arable land for agriculture as far as possible;

(ii) Apply a type of management to agriculture which will take
account of the role of the land and bioclimatic zones, the
danger represented by certain fertilizers and pesticides, both
for agricultural products themselves and in terms of the
pollution of underground water and the environment, etc.;

(iii) Ensure that areas with steep slopes are used only for permanent
crops, fruit trees or forestry;

(iv) Plan the assessment, use and protection of water resources or,
in other words, organize water management (underground water,
surface water, rain water);

(v) Promote the establishment of national parks so as to conserve
the balance between fauna and flora;

(vi) Take legal measures on standard setting for the conservation,
protection and preservation of the environment;

(vii) Promote increased participation by para-governmental and
private bodies in national reforestation efforts;

(viii) Popularize scientific research and encourage environmental
education, this popularization will take place at all levels:
primary, secondary and university education, functional
literacy centres, etc.;

(ix) Develop alternative sources of energy, such as biomass energy,
solar energy and wind energy;

(x) Promote substitution energies for charcoal, such as
electricity, propane gas, alcohol, paraffin, palma christi oil
and olive oil for cooking purposes. The State should subsidize
distributors so that prices will be within the reach of the
largest number of persons, since the individual choice of
energy depends on the socio-economic standing of the user
and on market prices;

(xi) Encourage the development of improved stoves to reduce energy
consumption through the use of wood and charcoal;

(xii) Give tax breaks and credit facilities to entrepreneurs to
enable them to obtain suitable equipment for the use of new
fuels (tax reductions on imports of gas and equipment).






- 11 -


45. With a view to obtaining the maximum rate of return on investments and
ensuring the harmonious and balanced distribution of the population, and of
economic activities, infrastructures and services throughout the territory,
concerted action by the public and private sectors will be carried out in
high priority areas known as "spatial development units" (USD).

46. It should be stressed that, in view of the need for foreign exchange to
finance at least compulsory imports, some specific action will be taken by the
State to support the activities of private money in the mining and tourism
sectors when the expected rate of return is relatively high.

(a) Mining

47. The Governments will give high priority to developing mines and quarries
whose potential has been identified on the basis of reliable studies. They
will encourage the development of these resources by private companies,
strictly respecting contracts which safeguard both the general interest and
the interests of the local population. Sites for the exploitation of the
gold-mines in the north and the calcium carbonate mines at Miragoine will be
started up.

48. The Governments will also encourage the establishment of self-managed
groups which will receive support from technical experts for the working of
marble, sand and clay quarries. It is understood that the protection of the
environment will be a major concern in the development of national mines and
quarries.

49. Another element of the Government's strategy in this sector will be to
intensify the inventory and detailed studies of the country's potential
mineral resources.

(b) Tourism

50. In view of the many natural, historical and cultural assets that make
Haiti a definite tourist attraction, the Governments will pursue a strategy
based on the encouragement of the national and foreign private sector with a
view to taking advantage of the country's favourable conditions for tourism by
investing in the expansion of hotel capacity and the construction of seaside
resorts and tourist centres and by establishing additional services to attract
tourists.

51. The Governments will encourage stop-overs in Haiti by cruise ships and,
through Haitian embassies, particularly in North America, Europe and the
Caribbean, will intensify campaigns to promote tourism.

52. The training of managerial staff and incentives to municipal authorities
to build holiday resorts will be other steps in the establishment of the
Government tourist strategy. A more "popular" type of tourism aimed at
middle-income consumers will also be promoted. Particular attention will
be paid to the Haitian "diaspora" clientele in addition to traditional
North American customers.





- 12 -


(2) Social component

53. Government action to try to provide lasting solutions to the various
social problems which have been diagnosed will be directed at the
rehabilitation of the individual in Haiti with a view to making him a genuine
economic, social and political agent. To this end, better conditions of
access to basic services must be created for him, particularly in education
and health. At the same time, his material environment must be improved and
measures to ensure his social protection must be reinforced.

(a) Education

54. The State must play a more active role by defining the main elements of
the educational system; the private sector must also be more fully integrated
in efforts to meet educational needs and improve the efficiency and the
productivity of the system.

55. Emphasis will be placed on the ongoing introduction of educational
reform, vocational and technical training at the secondary level, university
reform and functional literacy programmes in a context of co-operation
between the private and public sectors and the improved distribution of
infrastructures between urban and rural areas. These reforms will be carried
out in order to meet the great need for skilled workers and middle and higher
management staff and will lead to the establishment of an economy that will
gradually become increasingly complex.

(b) Health

56. The previously recommended policy which aims at health for all by the
year 2000, will be continued. Compared with the previous period, there will
be a difference in how the established objectives are achieved, in the way the
implementation of programmes is scheduled and in arrangements for programme
funding, will be very considerably increased. Particular emphasis will be
placed on primary health care and on:

(i) Transmissible diseases;

(ii) Nutritional problems;

(iii) Sanitation;

(iv) Mother and child protection and family planning, particularly in
order to slow down the population growth rate;

(v) The organization of the health services network;

(vi) The encouragement of health education.

(c) Housing

57. Priority will be given to Government action on behalf of low-income
families, which will include three types of activity:

(i) The rehabilitation of over-populated slum areas which do not have
even a minimum of basic infrastructures;





- 13 -


(ii) The development of sites and services on vacant plots of land for
the settlement of persons moved out of areas to be rehabilitated;

(iii) The development of sites and services for the settlement of persons
living in non-rehabilitated areas.

(d) Social security

58. Particular importance will be attached to full co-operation between the
State, employers and workers, especially with regard to the strengthening of
the accident, sickness and maternity insurance scheme and the improvement of
working conditions and safety at work. In the case of least-favoured and
marginal groups, such as handicapped persons, drug addicts, delinquents,
prostitutes and the needy in general, the State will do everything in its
power to help them to become aware of the need to get out of the situation
they are in and will facilitate their return to a normal life.

(e) Drinking water

59. The objectives will be achieved by continuing with the rehabilitation,
construction and installation of infrastructures, which must be maintained and
monitored in order to prevent water from being wasted. This tyoe of activity
will be carried out mainly in towns.

60. High priority will also be given to drinking water supplies for rural
communities, only 5 per cent of which are currently covered. In sparsely
populated areas, there are plans to drill wells and install hand pumps
to improve the water supply, while, in more densely populated areas,
encouragement will continue to be given to the construction of small
gravity-operated systems to facilitate supply from public wells.

61. In addition, emphasis will be placed on the systematic identification of
new sources of supply and the study of new projects particularly in rapidly
growing urban areas.

62. In all spheres, the agencies responsible for carrying out these
activities will receive additional technical and institutional support.

(f) Urban development

63. The process of urbanization must be re-organized through the
modernization or transformation of certain built-up areas which were
incorrectly or too rapidly classified as towns. Efforts will focus on the
establishment of new sanitation and drainage systems, the reconstruction and
surfacing of urban roads and the expansion of inhabited areas, which will be
done in a controlled way to prevent any further encroachment on the country's
remaining fertile land.

(3) Institutional component

64. The public administration has to be restructured. Procedures will be
simplified and methods of managing human and material resources will be
modernized and standardized. The efficiency of the public services will be
improved by integrating officials in the civil service which will be governed
by a revised general statute and special statutes for the joint bodies






- 14 -


offering career job security. In addition the strengthening of the
decentralized services and the delegation of power to the responsible
departmental and communal authorities, in accordance with the model set out in
the 1987 Constitution, will allow local concerns to be taken more fully into
consideration.

C. Financing of the strategy

65. The implementation of the strategy requires enormous investments, which
will amount to 53,283 million gourdes for the next 10 years, or
$US 10,657 million, i.e. $US 1,066 million per year.

66. The public component of the investment, i.e. 33,045 million gourdes
or $US 6,609 million accounts for slightly more than 60 per cent of the total
and will be the most dynamic element, with an average annual real growth rate
of 9.55 per cent. It will be used mostly in highly labour-intensive work
consuming large quantities of local materials.

67. The financing of the public investment will be ensured by resources from
the Treasury and funds from independent bodies amounting to $US 1,030 million
(19 per cent of the total) as a result of special provisions to enable the
public sector regularly to have a substantial budget surplus.

68. An increase in the value of the foreign contribution to development
is therefore necessary. Emphasis will be placed on loan negotiations and
operations with regional and international financing organizations. However,
the Government's ongoing efforts to set up a programme to improve the
country's financial situation should make it possible to arrive at an
increasingly larger budget surplus, which will lead to an increase in Treasury
funds to be earmarked for development and, as a side effect, to a reduction in
the share of official foreign capital in the financing of the country's
investment budget.

69. The present Government will also continue its efforts to inform
multilateral and bilateral financing agencies of its new way of looking at the
problem of foreign assistance to Haiti. Account will therefore have to be
taken of the need to bring projects financed in whole or in part by such
assistance into line with the priorities set out in this programme.

70. The Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund will continue to be the preferred partners. However, greater
efforts to strengthen South-South co-operation and create a more pragmatic
opening towards some European and Asian countries will further diversify the
country's sources of external financing for development.

71. The elements of the national co-operation policy are described below.

Elements of a national co-operation policy

Justification:


The interdependence and solidarity of nations.






- 15 -


Objectives:

To promote the well-being of the community by seeking to make the most of
the impact of co-operation on development.

To play a more balanced role in international co-operation, taken in the
strict sense of trade and complementarity.

Strategy:

Differentiation between multilateral co-operation and bilateral
co-operation.

A. Multilateral co-operation

(1) Strengthening Haiti's presence in multilateral organizations in order to
influence their approach, strategy and policy in favour of the interests of
the least-developed countries.

(2) Seeking solidarity with countries whose socio-economic conditions are
comparable to those of Haiti so that the multilateral agencies will do more to
promote the development of the least developed countries; and working for the
establishment of consultation machinery.

B. Bilateral co-operation

(1) Strengthening ties of friendship and solidarity with traditional partners.

(2) Establishing bilateral relations with other countries (Nordic, Asian,
etc.).

(3) Promoting and establishing South-South co-operation and working for
regional integration.

(4) Identifying bilateral partners whose cultural affinities, geopolitical
situaiton and political aspirations are likely to strengthen ties of
co-operation with Haiti.

Financial co-operation

A. Gifts

Maximum use of non-reimbursable financial assistance, in keeping with the
principle of self-determination.

B. Loans

Maximum use of reimbursable financial co-operation.

(1) By seeking minimum financial costs.

(2) By seeking maximum reimbursement periods.

(3) By giving preference to economically viable sectors of investment
in order better to guarantee reimbursements.






- 16 -


Co-operation in kind

A. Food aid

(1) Eliminating food shortages.

(2) Conserving the balance of the domestic market.

(3) Protecting local production from disruptions.

(4) Determining food aid requirements on the basis of a national food
policy linked to the agricultural policy.

B. Plant, equipment, etc.

(1) Selection in terms of identified needs.

(2) Rational use as a result of integration in structured projects.

C. Technical assistance

(1) Clearly identifying technical shortcomings in the light of
development priorities.

(2) Intervention in the definition and choice of the required profile.

(3) Gradually solving problems of technical shortcomings through
transfers of know-how and a policy of training in Haiti and abroad.
National priorities must prevail in all circumstances. The
principles of national sovereignty and self-determination must be
constantly safeguarded in all co-operation relationships. Efforts
to find partners in co-operation must be continued in order to
combat the power struggle that all too often influences
negotiations. Sovereignty, self-determination and partnership are
possible if the country has the means to strengthen its position
in negotiations by making serious efforts to ensure the sound
management of the national economy and setting up appropriate
structures for the use of available resources.



























Agriculture, forestry, fisheries
Agriculture
Stock-breeding, forestry
and fisheries

Mining
Manufacturing:
Food production
Carbonated beverages
Tobacco
Textiles, clothing, leather
Chemicals
Non-metallic mineral products
Metal processing
Miscellaneous industries

Electricity, water

Buildings and public works

Trade

Restaurants, hotels

Transport, communications

Financial institutions

Real estate

Community services

Non-market services

GDP/factors

Duties, taxes on imports

GDP/market prices


Annex I

MACRO-ECONOMIC PROJECTIONS

A. SECTORAL GDP TRENDS IN 1998-1999


(In thousands of gourdes
at 1975-1976 prices)

1987-1988 Sl S2 S3


1 659 094 2 233 393 2 602 255 3 202 702
1 392 678 1 881 542 2 190 690 2 694 311
266 416 351 851 411 565 508 391


5
776
238
23
33
107
45
39
183
105

53

320

867

23

104

5

290

176

605

4 889

220

5 109


9 362
961 566
270 491
19 635
33 202
195 562
74 584
67 027
148 750
152 315

34 448

504 288

1 058 723

20 267

121 367

14 437

321 474

124 670

705 629

6 109 624

272 103

6 381 727


11
1 154
313
22
38
233
88
87
187
182

41

670

1 248

23

142

17

375

145

815

7 249

328

7 577


----------------- ------ ---L---------I_---------I--------


13 951
1 422 623
386 014
27 990
47 313
284 974
109 276
111 169
233 394
222 493

50 913

858 883

1 540 660

28 888

175 193

21 801

464 398

100 359

1 005 464

8 885 835

408 090

9 293 925


Average annual rate
(per cent)


SI


2.74
2.77
2.56


5.27
1.96
1.16
-1.57
-0.02
5.57
4.54
4.90
-1.88
3.40

-3.97

4.22

1.82

-1.47

1.34

8.60

0.92

-3.09

1.40

2.05

1.95

2.04


S2


4.18
4.20
4.03


7.21
3.67
2.52
-0.26
1.31
7.30
6.21
7.49
0.20
5.10

-2.40

6.96

3.36

-0.16

2.81

10.53

2.37

-1.69

2.75

3.64

3.70

3.65


S3


6.16
6.18
6.05


9.16
5.66
4.48
1.65
3.25
9.24
8.23
9.84
2.23
7.02

-0.50

9.39

5.35

1.75

4.78

12.75

4.35

-4.98

4.72

5.58

5.78

5.59


Source: Data from the model of the Haitian Statistical Institute (IHSI), DP/MPCE, 17 May 1989.









r---------------------------------







Agriculture, forestry fisheries
Agriculture
Stock-breeding, forestry
and fisheries

Mining
Manufacturing:
Food production
Carbonated beverages
Tobacco
Textiles, clothing, leather
Chemicals
Non-metallic minerals
Metal processing
Miscellaneous industries

Electricity, water

Buildings and public works

Trade

Restaurants, hotels

Transport, communications

Financial institutions

Real estate

Community services

Non-market services

GDP/factors

Duties, taxes on imports

GDP/market prices




Source: DP/MPCE, 17 May 1989.


B. SECTORAL GDP TRENDS IN 1998-1999


In thousands of gourdes
at 1975-1976 prices

1987-1988 Sl S2 S3
--------I ------__.__ I----_------ ---


1 659 094
1 392 678
266 416


5
776
239
23
33
107
45
39
183
105

53

320

867

23

104

5

290

176

605

4 889

220

5 109


320
754
328
376
265
758
770
603
193
461

777

062

985

858

805

825

649

085

323

537

000

537


2 319 522
1 954 790
364 732


9
1 013
314
19
33
196
74
67
150
156

37

507

1 129

20

129

15

337

149

909

6 579

434

7 014


369
557
905
647
202
701
640
551
287
624

922

514

512

731

678

613

572

003

597

590

899

489


2 701 847
2 275 388
426 459


11 449
1 218 067
368 259
22 730
38 390
235 274
88 816
88 236
189 100
187 262

45 172

674 412

1 330 030

23 975

151 699

18 873

394 474

172 951

1 051 721

7 794 670

522 314

8 316 984


3 325 157
2 798 448
526 709


1


13
1 500
453
28
47
286
109
111
235
228

55

863

1 641

29

187

23

487

213

1 297

9 638

647

0 286


960
839
436
007
313
594
353
914
578
644

854

470

257

551

003

475

275

099

412

352

810

162


Average annual rate
(per cent)


SI


3.09
3.13
2.90


5.28
2.45
2.57
-1.57
-0.2
5.62
4.55
4.97
-1.78
3.66

-3.13

4.28

2.42

-1.27

1.95

9.38

1.37

-1.51

3.77

2.74

6.39

2.92


S2


4.53
4.56
4.37


7.22
4.17
4.04
-0.25
1.31
7.36
6.21
7.55
0.29
5.36

-1.57

7.01

3.96

0.04

3.42

11.28

2.82

-0.16

5.15

4.33

8.18

4.53


S3


6.52
6.55
6.39


9.17
6.17
6.02
1.66
3.25
9.30
8.24
9.90
2.31
7.29

0.35

9.44

5.96

1.96

5.40

13.51

4.81

1.75

7.18

6.36

10.32

6.57


-----------






- 19 -


C. VECTOR OF IMPORTS AT CURRENT PRICES

(In thousands of gourdes)



Average annual growth rate 10.00%

Import price index, base 1975/76 498.4394


Sl S2 S3

Imports 12 306 14 945 18 593


Source: IHSI model, DP/MPCE, 17 May 1989.


Source: DP/MPCE, 17 May 1989.







D. OVERALL INVESTMENT TRENDS, PERIOD 1987/88 1998/99


In real terms

In nominal
terms



Deflator


-- ---- -



In real terms

In nominal
terms



Deflator


1988


955


1989 1990


--------------


1 035


1 501 1 789



157.17 172.89


1988






544



855



157.17
L--__----


1989






596



1 030



172.89


1 122



2 133



190.18


1990






653



1 242



190.18


- - - - - - - - - -


1991 1992






715 784



1 496 1 803



209.20 230.12


1993






858



2 173



253.13


1994






940



2 618



278.44


1995






1 030



3 155



306.29


1996






1 128



3 802



336.91


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996


---------------------------------------------------------



1 216 1 318 1 428 1 548 1 677 1 818 1



2 543 3 032 3 615 4 310 5 138 6 125



S209.20 230.12 253.13 278.44 306.29 336.91 27



PUBLIC INVESTMENT TRENDS, PERIOD 1987/88 1998/99


1997






1 236



4 582



370.61


1997







970



S302



70.61


1998






1 354



5 521



407.67
L -1" _


1998







2 135



8 706



407.67


1999






1 484



6 653



440.43


Over the
period
1990-1999
----------



16 547



53 283


Over the
period
1990-1999
----------



10 183



33 045


----------------------------------


PRIVATE INVESTMENT TRENDS, PERIOD 1987/88 1998/99
(in millions of gourdes)


In real terms

In nominal
terms



Deflator


1988 1989


-- - -- - -



411 438



646 758



157.17 172.89


1990






467



889



190.18


1991






498



1 042



209.20


1992






531



1 222



230.12


--1993 1994 1995 1996 ---- 1997
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997


566



1 433



253.13


---------



604



1 681



278.44


644



1 972



306.29


686



2 312



336.91


S 732



2 712



370.61
L---__-__


1998


t--------



780



3 181



407.67


1999


832



3 730



448.43


Over the
period
1990-1999




6 341



20 175


Annual average

Abs. Growth
value rate



634 6.62%



2 017 17.28%


1999







2 314



10 379



448.43


Annual average
---------------
Abs. Growth
value rate



1 655 8.38%



5 328 19.22%










Annual average
----------------
Abs. Growth
value rate



1 018 9.55%



3 304 20.50%












E. CHANGES IN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, PERIOD 1987/88 1998/99


1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Over the

period
1990-1999
---------------- -------- --------- ---------------------------------------------------- ------------------



In real terms 5 110 5 341 5 583 5 836 6 101 6 377 6 666 6 968 7 284 7 614 7 958 8 319 68 706

In nominal
terms 9 729 10 983 12 399 13 998 15 803 17 840 20 140 22 736 25 668 28 977 32 713 36 930 227 203



Deflator 190.39 205.62 222.07 239.84 259.03 279.75 302.13 326.30 352.40 380.59 411.04 443.92
--- -----------I-------- -------- L-------- L-------- L-------- I-------- I-------- L-------- -------- L-------- -------- ----------


ESTIMATE OF GOVERNMENT REVENUE, ANNUAL AVERAGE

---------------------------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- -------- --------- -------- ----------
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Over the

period
1990-1999
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tax ratio

In real terms

In nominal
terms


10.00%

511



973


10.65%

569



1 170


11.34%

633



1 406


12.08%

705


12.86%

785


1 691 2 033


13.70%

874



2 444


14.59%

973



2 939


15.54%

1 083



3 533
-,----,----


16.55%

1 205


17.63%

1 342


4 248 5 107


18.77%

1 494



6 141


19.99%

1 663



7 383


153.06%

10 757



36 925


Annual average
------- ---------
Abs. Growth
value rate


6 871



22 720


4.53%



12.89%


Annual average
------ -------
Abs. Growth
value rate


15.3%

1 076

3 693
^--------


6.5%

11.32%

20.23%






F. TRENDS IN PUBLIC CONSUMPTION, PERIOD 1987/88 1998/99


In real terms

In nominal
terms


Deflator


1988 1989 1990

1 1988 1989 1990


203.10


838


1 339



219.34


861


2 041



236.09


1991 1992 1993 1994



-------------------------1-------


885


2 265



255.84


910


2 513



276.31


935 960


2 789 3 095



298.41 322.29


1996


1998


-------- --------1---I------------


987


3 434



348.07


1 014


3 811



375.92


1 042


4 229


405.99


1 070


4 693


438.47


1 100


5 208


473.55


Over the
period
1990-1999
E---------



9 763


34 077


Annual average
----------------
Abs. Growth
value rate



976 2.75%


3 408 10.97%


TRENDS IN REVENUE OF INDEPENDENT BODIES INTENDED FOR INVESTMENT


In real terms

In nominal
terms


Deflator


1988


1989]






71


146


205.62


1990


69


153


222.07


1991


67


161


239.84


1992


65


169


259.03


1993 1994


63


178


279.75


62


187


302.13


1995


60


196


326.30


58


206


352.40


1997


57


216


380.59


1998


--------


55


227


411.04


1999


Over the
period
1990-1999




611


238 1 930


443.92


Annual average
----------------
Abs. Growth
value rate


-2.78%


193J 5.00%


------------------ _,_,__ -- I ---- ---- ----------- ---------- ---I------


L_


I I I 1 I I
















G. FINAL



1988 1989


----------..................-------------------



Government revenue 569

Public consumption 838

Balance -270

Revenue of independent 71
bodies

National resources 0

SPublic investment 596

Financing requirements -596

National resources/
public investment 0.00%


INCING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME IN REAL TERMS



1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998


633

861

-228

69


0

653

-653


0.00%


705

885

-180

67


0

715

-715


0.00%


785

910

-125

65


0

784

-784


0.00%

L-------


874

935

-61

63


3

858

-856


0.31%


1 083

987

96

60


156

1 030

-874


1 205

1 014

192

58


250

1 128

-878


7.89% 15.16% 22.15%


1 342

1 042

360

57


357

1 236

-879


28.88%


479

1 354

-876


35.35%


1999 Over the
period
1990-1999
-- -


617

1 484

-867


41.58%


10 757

9 763

994

611


1 936

10 183

-8 247


19.01%


Annual average
----------------
Abs. Growth
value rate


1 076 11.32%

976 2.75%

99

61 -2.78%


194

1 018

-825


19.01%


9.55%

3.20%


-- ------- --
---------------------------------------------------------------------

























Government revenue

Public consumption

Balance

Revenue of independent
bodies

National resources

Public investment

Financing requirements

National resources/
public investment


H. FINANCING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME IN NOMINAL TERMS

(Unit: millions of gourdes; base year: 1975/76)


1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998


1 406

2 041

-634

153


0

1 242

-1 242

0.00%


1 691

2 265

-574

161



0

1 496

-1 496

0.00%


033

513

-480

169


0

1 803

-1 803

0.00%


---------------t-----1


2 444

2 789

-345

178


0

2 173

-2 173

0.00%


2 939

3 095

-156

187


30

2 618

-2 588

1.16%


295

3 155

-2 860

9.34%


----.-------

4 248 5 107

3 811 4 229

437 878

206 216


643 1 094

3 802 4 582

-3 159 -3 487

16.90% 23.88%
- - -


6 141

4 693

1 448

227


1 674

5 521

-3 847

30.33%

L ......


1999


Over the
period
1990-1999


1------------------------.


7 383

5 208

2 175

238


2 413

6 653

-4 240

36.27%


6 150

33 045

-26 895

18.61%


Annual average
----------------
Abs. Growth
value rate


3 693 20.23%

3 408 10.97%

285

193 5.00%


615

3 304

-2 690

18.61%


20.50%

14.62%


Source: Scenario 2 Forecast, DP/MPCE, 19 May 1989.


1988


----------------------------T---t-----------------------------


1 170

1 839

-659

146


0

1 030

-1 030

0.00%


'---'----






- 25 -


I. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ACCOUNT

RESOURCES-EMPLOYMENT BALANCE

(in millions of gourdes at 1975/76 prices)


SCENARIO 2


1987/88

GDP 5 110

Imports 1 799

Resources 6 909

Construction 4 973

Public construction 816

Private construction 4 157

Investment 955

Public investment 544

Private investment 411

Exports 981

Employment 6 909


Source: DP/MPCE, 19 May 1989.


I1998/99

8 317

2 998

11 315

7 400

1 100

6 300

2 315

1 484

832

1 600

11 315


Rate/period

62.76%

66.67%

63.78%

48.80%

34.80%

51.55%

142.44%

172.72%

102.36%

63.10%

63.78%


Rate/annual average

4.53%

4.75%

4.59%

3.68%

2.75%

3.85%

8.38%

9.55%

6.62%

4.55%

4.59%





Annex II

FINANCING CONVENTIONS UNDER NEGOTIATION

May 1989


AGENCIES


OVERALL --------------------------------


World Bank













IMF




IFAD



SAID





WFP


PURPOSE --------- ------DURATION
PURPOSE FD-------TTDI,,;,,


AMOUNT
gourdess)

3 074 542 600

271 375 000


CAMEP master plan
Support for ED'H
ECONOMIC Recovery Fund (ERF)
Economic Social Support Fund (ESSF)
Urban development, phase II



Construction of Cales de Halaye




Industrial restructuring




20 small irrigated areas



Food programme
ESF: Assistance to the Payments Bank



Support for victims of cyclone Gilbert


100 000
75
75
100 000
16 525
17 350
18 220
19 130


1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92


50 000 000

50 000 000

49 200 000

49 200 000

184 000 000

60 000 000
124 000 000



10 153 160
10 153 160









PURPOSE


-------------
AGENCIES


OAS












FRG







FAO











UNDP


DURATION


1989/90
1990/91
1989/90
1990/91
1989/90
1990/91
1989/90
1990/91




1989


.1


AMOUNT
gourdess)

4 350 000


1 3
475
500
1 000
400
400
550
550


uuu
000
000
000
000
000
000
000


Multinational food biotechnology project

Multinational microelectronics and data-processing project

Multinational materials project

Multinational library data and documentation project





Food assistance
Support for the Hinche and Belladeres health services
Food security fund in the north-west
Regional development of the central Plateau




Master plan for water resources management in
the Plaine des Cayes
Development of irrigation
Reforestation in the Dauphin plantation
Rehabilitation of six irrigated areas in the
Plaine des Gonaives
Management of the Trois Rivieres catchment area




Industrial use of lignite
Geological map of mineral resources
Support for the tourism sector
Support for small- and medium-sized enterprises
Restructuring and development of the postal services
Technical assistance to improve infrastructure and
conditions in five provincial towns
Information and documentation centre (advancement of women)


000
000
000
000
000


15 620 000
850 000


1 860 000

1 860 000
not available
not available
not available

14 853 000


3 330 000
1 820 000
3 463 000

2 760 000
3 480 000

24 620 000







AGENCIES PURPOSE DURATION %


IDA










IDB


ODVA III
Sond6 Mirebalais bridge
Drinking water, Port-au-Prince
Plaine du Cul-de-Sac
ED'H transmission lines and rural distribution
MTPTC secondary roads




Regionalization of public health services
Irrigation, Riviere Blanche II
MARNDR Sectoral loan
Banque Agricole de Cr4dit (Agricultural Credit Bank)
Improvement of the teacher training system
SONAPI industrial area
ED'H Electricity generation
Artibonite III-IV
MSPP, malaria control
Drinking water III
Rehabilitation University Hospital
Malaria control
Nutrition
Institutional support for MSPP
Agricultural policies
Education programme
Reforestation, soil protection
Secondary roads


76.4


AMOUNT
gourdess)

2 347 500 000


1989
1989
1989
1990
1990
1990




1990
1990
1990
1991
1991
1991
1991
1992
1992
1992
1993


60 000 000
50 000 000
50 000 000
25 000 000
100 000 000
40 000 000
300 000 000
75 000 000
100 000 000
60 000 000
40 000 000
150 000 000
150 000 000
150 000 000
150 000 000
150 000 000
150 000 000
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