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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE RISE, PROGRESS, AND PRESENT STATE op
THE KINGDOM OF HAYTI,
WITH A PREFACE
by Tviut Saudcv
PRINCE SANDERS, ESQ.
AGBNT FOR TBB HAYTIAN GOVERNMENT.
printed for w. rebd, law bookseller, no. 17, fleet street.
[dfrmreto at fetationersf K?alL]
T. Bensley and Son, Bolt Court, Fleet Street, London.
Extracts from the Registers of the Deliberations of the
Consuls of the Republic ....,................... 1
Narrative of the Accession of their Royal Majesties to the
Throne of Hayti, &c............................ 55
State of Hayti. Proclamation, &c............'....... 99
Constitutional Law, &c. ,..........................124
Manifesto of the King .m..........................154
Reflections of the Editor...........................192
Royal Gazette of Hayti......................... .. 198
Reflections on the Abolition of the Slave Trade.........215
TO THE PUBLIC,
I ah induced to lay the following Translations of Haytian State Papers, in conjunction with some extracts from their ordinary Publications, before the British people generally, in order to give them some more correct information with respect to the enlightened systems of policy, the pacific spirit, the altogether domestic views, and liberal principles of the Government; and also to more obviously evince the ameliorated and much improved condition of all classes of society in that new and truly interesting Empire (with which I have the honour to be connected) than I am inclined to think have hitherto been fully known or understood in this country.
For I am deeply penetrated with the conviction, that it is only necessary that the actual character and feelings of the Haytians
should be made apparent, to most assuredly and most satisfactorily allay all those apprehensions of their interference with the internal regulations of neighbouring powers, which the enemies to the Abolition of the Slave Trade, and the foes to all attempts at the improvement and elevation of the African race, would, by their misrepresentations and false statements, endeavour to excite in the minds of this nation of genuine philanthropists.. But to the immortal honour 6f noble and gene-, rous Englishmen be it said, their hearts are in general attuned to the exercise of more humane, and more rationally illumined views and sentiments. O happy England! to thee most appropriately belong the exalted appellations of protectress of the Christian world; the strong hold of rational freedom; the lk beratress as well as the genuine asylum for oppressed humanity, and the promulgatress of civilization, knowledge, and piety to .every, region of the globa* In thee we see a practical exemplification of those principles of benevolence and kind affection which encompass the human character with an imperishable lustre of glory and honour,
Having understood that it oas often been insinuated by those few individuals, whose habitual labour is the perversion, (and as far as they are able,) the absolute destruction of every object which has a tendency to show that the Blacks possess, to any considerable extent, that portion of natural intelligence which the beneficent Father of all ordinarily imparts to His children; I say, being convinced, that for these inglorious and malevolent purposes, such persons have endeavoured to impress the public with the idea, that those official documents which have occasionally appeared in this country, are not written by black Haytians themselves; but that they are either written by Europeans in this country, or by some who, they say, are employed for that purpose in the public offices at Hayti; and, for the entire refutation of this gross misrepresentation, I upon my honour declare, that there is not a single ;white European at present employed in writing at any of the public offices; and that all the public documents are written by those of the King's Secretaries whose names they bear, and that they 4Fe all black men, or men of colour.
It is my humble, though sincere opinion, that no one can visit Hayti at this period, and have an opportunity of seeing the decency of manners, the apparent cheerfulness, the happiness and industry which prevail among all grades of the community, without being struck with the astonishing accuracy with which it has pleased God to bring to pass a state of society there, the very idea of the establishment of which in that country Mr. Bryan Edwards observed, iii his History of St. Domingo, is so pleasing to the imagination, that every humane and re* fleeting mind must wish it may be realized."
Says Mr. Edwards, I might here expatiate upon the wonderful dispensations of Divine Providence in raising up enslaved Africans to avenge the wrongs of the injured Aborigines; I might also indulge the fondbxxtfallacious idea, that, as the negroes of St. Domingo have been eye-witnesses of the benefits of civilized life among the whites; have seen in what manner and to what extent social order, sober industry, and submission to the laws, contribute to individual and general prosperity (advantages which were denied to them jn their nativte country), some superior spirits may hereafter
rise up among them, by whose encouragement and example they may be taught, in due time, to discard the ferocious and sordid manners and pursuits of savage life; to correct their vices, and be led progressively on to civilization and gentleness, to the knowledge of truth, and the practice of virtue!
" This picture (then continues he) is so pleasing to the imagination, that every humane and reflecting mind must wish it may be realized ; but I am afraid it is the mere creation of the fancy, the fabric of a vision P
If it had pleased God to spare Mr. Edwards to this time, and he had been permitted to revisit Hayti in its present improved state, I am inclined to think he would be ready to exclaim, I now behold here a scene of things, the momentary anticipation of the possibility of the existence of which among these people, a few years since, seemed to me like the mere creation of the fancy," and the fabric of a vision/'
They are now blest with a Sovereign, whose sincere desire, and firmly settled purpose, most obviously appears to be the elevation of the
characters, and the improvement of the hearts and lives, of all the various classes of society. It especially appears to be his object to ameliorate the condition and improve the character of the. humblest class, namely, that of the plantation labourers. For the full confirmation of the truth of this fact, the following extracts from the laws relating to the agricultural interest, and management, in all its relative departments and: bearings,. will be most satisfactory tq every reflecting and unprejudiced mind.
LAW RESPECTING THE CULTURE.
litre 1, Chap. 1.
The proprietors and farmers of land are bound to treat their respective labourers with true paternal solicitude; an obligation which it is greatly for their own interest to fulfil in its utmost extent.
2 Chap. 16 par. Page 5.
The law exacts from the labourers in return a reciprocal attention to the welfare and interest of the landlord and farmer.
litre 4, Pa. 56.
In lieu of wages, the labourers in plantations shall be allowed a full fourth of the gross product, free from all duties and expenses to the time of removal.
Page 1, Art I. It is the King's express order, that on every complaint of the cultivators against their landlords and farmers, the lieutenant commanding in the parish shall immediately attend to the circumstances of the case; and on proof of the grievance; report to the the general of the district, who shall thereupon transmit the same to the privy council, who shall decide on the case, and pronounce sentence of punishment according to the nature of the offence. .
On refusal of this parish officer to enter into the business, the plaintiff is authorised to address the commandant; in default of whose interference he may address the general of division ; and, if need be, the privy council direct.
III, No landlord or farmer has authority to reject any cultivator from his habitation on pretext of illness or infirmity.
IV. An hospital shall be. T built on every plantation wherein the sick labourers shall be attended by professional assistance, and supplied with medicines at the expense of the landlord or farmer, who is to secure tht personal attendance twice in each week.
Another hospital shall be provided for such as are afflicted-with contagious disorders.
Independent of. the professional visitor, each hospital Shall be provided with a midwife and a female nurse.
: V. The medical visitors are bound to act in conformity with all the King's ordinances respecting the exercise of their profession. VL landlords and proprietors are boiund to maintain and support the aged and infirm cultivators, and to furnish medicine and attendance.
~ VII. Landlords and farmers are most expressly prohibited from forcing their cultivators to quit their dwellings for the purpose of working at another plantation, or in any other branch of cultivation than that in which they have been accustomed to labour, without the privy council's permission; to be obtained only on proof of the lands proposed to be abandoned being no tlonger susceptible of production.
VIII. Resident planters convicted of having suborned*or connived at the desertion of a soldier, or his absence without a furlough,
ate punishable according to art. IS. sect. 2. of the military code.
IX. Farmers are obliged to furnish tools and kimplements of cultivation, for which the managers shall be responsible.
X. Provision grounds shall be allotted upon every plantation in presence of the public authorities, and proportionally among the respective labouring families, according to the quality and extent of the land applicable'to such purpose.
XI. In case of fire, the labourers on contiguous plantations are enjoined to assist in extinguishing it, and the neighbouring farmers to contribute in every way to that effect,
XII. No landlord or cultivator shall carry fire among the cane-pieces, nor plant any fresh wood upon his boundaries without due notice to his neighbour, and observation of the distances proper, to prevent accidents by fire.
XIII. Farmers have the right of pasturing their saddle and carriage horses: but the attendants of these animals shall have no right to share in the crop.
' XIV: The keep of too many animals upon cultivated land being found prejudicial to cultivation and good husbandry, their number shall be limited, and the surplus number turned into the common field.
XV. A limited number of attendants on the plantation cattle shall share in the fourth part of .the produce allotted to the agriculturists and assistants in the manufacture.
Art. XVII. The law punishes the lazy and vagabond, among whom are comprehended labourers of both sexes who shall quit the habitations in which they have domiciled, in order to reside in towns or other places where they are forbidden to settle: penalty, Art. 114. Titre 8.
XVIII. Marriage being the source of moral conduct, it shall be especially encouraged and protected; and the laborious peasantry who shall bring up' the greatest number of legitimate children in a reputable manner, shall be distinguished and encouraged by government itself.
XIX. Mendicity and female licentiousness ate severely reprobatedall; beggars on the highway, prostitutes, and stragglers shall be arrested, and such as have no legal settlement placed by the proper authorities, in their discretion, to labour for their livelihood. His Majesty's governors and lieutenants are strictly ordered to enforce these regulations, and the good and faithful subjects invited to denounce the delinquents.
XX. Every conductor or manager who shall be convicted of neglecting the cultivation confided to his care, or of converting to his own benefit the property of his employer, by diverting the workmen to fish or chase, employ them in building for his own benefit, or who shall have mistreated the labourers, or misused his own authority, shall be liable to the penalties in Art. 115. T. 111.
XXI. The misconduct of managers and conductors with respect to others, in which the proprietors and farmers appear neither to have participated nor to have derived any advanr tage, shall in no case attach to the latter, nor to prejudice the interest of absentees: but jf
the case be otnerwjse, they shall be respon* sible according to the nature of the transaction.
. XXII. The following hours of labour are irrevocably established.
Work shall commence with the day-light, and be continued uninterruptedly till eight o'clock:one hour is allotted to the labourer for breakfast on the spot where employed; at nine work recommences until noon, when two hours repose are granted them : at two exactly they recommence work, and shall not leave off before night-fall.
XXIII. Women pregnant, or with children at nurse, are exempt from field labour. .
XXIV. Prayers shall be read to the labourers every night, and the landlord, farmer, or manager, shall invite the people to attend on the Sabbath and on fast days to public prayers iq their parish.
XXV. Proprietors, farmers, and managers of plantations are compelled to see the provision-ground well kept by the respective labourers to whom they have been granted: if the latter neglect this duty, they shall be employed in \%
during their hours of respite from plantation-work.
XXVI. No labourer, without permission of the lieutenant of the King, shall absent himself from the plantation on wprking days, unless this be obtained through the overseer or conductor.
XXVII. On the appearance of disorder or seditious movement on a plantation, the proprietor, farmer, or superintendant, shall apply to his neighbours for assistance in arresting the guilty; after which notice shall be dispatched to the commandant of the police, who is bound to repair to the spot and secure the disturbers of the public peace, imprison, and report to the proper authorities, on pain of becoming personally liable for all consequences.
I would here beg leave to observe, that while reading the foregoing laws, in order to have a fair understanding of the grounds upon which the military aspect of them is to be justly founded and approved, is, that at the period when they were framed th? whole popur
lation" were soldiers; and all the most improved and intelligent men were placed in the highest civil and military offices: in this state of things, a government bearing some degree of consonance to the condition, character, wants, and employment of the whole people, was absolutely necessary,
Extracts from the Registers of the Deliberations of the Consuls of the Republic.
Pari*, 17th Brumaire, in the 10th year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.
Proclamation of the First Consul to the Inhabitants of St. Domingo.
Whatever be your origin or your colour, you are all Frenchmen, you are all free mid all equal before God, and before the Republic.
France, as well as St. Domingo, has been the prey of factions, dismembered by civil and by foreign wars; but all is
changed. All nations have embraced the French, and sworn to them peace and amity. Frenchmen, too, have embraced one another, and have sworn unanimously to live as friends and brothers; come you, likewise, to throw yourselves into the arms of France, and rejoice to see once more your friends and brothers of Europe.
The government sends you the Captain-General Leclerc; he takes with him a numerous force for your protection against your enemies, and against the enemies of the Republic. Should any one whisper in your ear, These forces are destined to despoil you of your liberty;" answer, It is the Republic that has given us liberty; the Republic will never suffer it to be ravished from us"
Rally around the Captain-General, he brings you back peace and plenty. Rally all around him: whoso dares to separate himself from the Captain-General shall be accounted a traitor to his country, and
the wrath of the Republic shall devour him as fire devours your parched sugar canes.
Given at Paris, at the Palace of Government, the 17th Brumaire, in the 10th year of the French Republic.
(Signed) BONAPARTE. By the First Consul, (Signed) H. B. Maret, Secretary of
(A True Copy.) (Signed) Leclerc, Captain-General.
(A True Copy.)
(Signed) The General, Chief of the
Etat Major of the Army,
LIBERTY and EQUALITY.
ARMY OF ST. DOMINGO.
Head Quartern on Board the Ocean, 13 th Pluviose, 10th year of the Republic.
The General in Chief of the Army of St. DomingOjCaptain-General of the Colony, to the General of Brigade, CHRIS* TOPHE, Commandant at the Cape.
I learn with indignation, Citizen Genera], that you refuse to receive the French squadron, and the French army that I command, under the pretext that you have received no orders from the Governor-General.
France has concluded a peace with England, and its government sends to St.
Domingo forces capable of subduing the rebels; at least if any are to be found at St. Domingo. As to you, General, I confess it will grieve me to account you among them.
I give you notice, that if you have not in the course of this day surrendered the Forts Picolet and Bel air, with all the batteries on the coast, to-morrow, at daybreak, fifteen thousand troops shall be disembarked.
Four thousand men are, at this moment, landing at Fort Liberty; eight thousand more at Port Republican,
Herewith you will receive my Proclamation, which expresses the intentions of the French Government; but, recollect, whatever individual esteem your conduct in the colony may have inspired me with, I hold you responsible for what may happen.
I salute you.
Head-Quarters at the Cape, 13 th Pluviose, year 10.
Henry Christophe, General of Brigade, Commandant of the Arrondissement of the Cape, to the General in Chiefs Leclerc.
You it Aid-deCamp, General, has de* livered to me your letter of this day; I have the honour to inform you that I could not deliver up the forts and post confided to my command, without previous orders from the Governor-General, Tous-saint Louverture, my immediate chief, from whom I hold the powers with which I am invested. I am fully persuaded that I have to do with Frenchmen, and that you are the chief of the armament called
the expedition; hut I wait the orders of the Governotf, to whom I have dispatched one of my Aid-de-Camps, to apprize him of your arrival, and that of the French army, and cannot permit you to lan You say that the French Government has sent to St. Domingo forces capable of subduing the rebels, if any such be found; it is your coming, and the hostile intentions you manifest, that alone could create them among a peaceable people, in perfect submission to France. The very mention of rebellion is an argument for our resistance.
As to the troops which you say are this moment landing, I consider them as
so many pieces of cards which the least breath of wind will dissipate.
How can you hold me responsible for the event ? You are not my Chief; I know you aot, and can therefore make no account of you till you are recognised by Governor Toussaint.
For the loss of your esteem, General, I assure you that I desire not to earn it at the price that you set upon it, since to purchase it I must be guilty of a breach of duty.
I have the honour to salute you. (Signed) H. Christophe*
Head Quarters at the Cape, 29th Germinal, Year 10 of the French Republic
The General in Chief to General Christophe.
You may give credit, Citizen General/ to all that Citizen Viiton has written ta you on behalf of General Hardy; I will keep the promises which have been made you; but, if it is your intention to submit to the Republic, think on the essential service you could render her by furnishing the means to secure the person of General Toussaint.
Head Quarters, RobiUard, Grand-Boucatb 2d Floreal, Year 10.
The General of Brigade, Henry Christophe, to General Leclerc.
I have received yours of the 29th of last month. With earnest desire to give credit to what Citizen Vilton has written me, T wait only for a proof which must convince me of the intention to procure the liberty and equality of the population of this colony. The laws which consecrate the principles, and which the mother country, without doubt, has enacted, will carry to my heart this conviction; and I protest, that on obtaining this desired proof, by being made acquainted with these laws, 1 shall submit immediately.
You propose to me, Citizen General, to furnish you with the means of securing
the person of General Toussaint Louver-ture. It would be perfidy and treason in me to do so, and a proposition so degrading to me, is, in my opinion, a mark of your invincible repugnance to believe me susceptible of the smallest sentiment of delicacy and honour. He is my commander, and my friend. Is friendship, Citizen General, compatible with such monstrous baseness ?
The laws which I have just mentioned, have been promised us, by the mother country, by the proclamation that her Consuls have addressed to us. when they communicated the constitution of the 8th. year. Fulfil, Citizen General, fulfil this maternal promise, by unfolding to oup view the code which contains it, and you will soon behold all her children rushing into the arms of that beneficent mother, and amongst them General Toussaint Lou-verture, who, thus undeceived, like the rest, will hasten to correct his error. It is
only when this error shall have been so dispelled, that, if he persist in spite of evidence, he can fairly be regarded as criminal, and be the first object of the anathema you have launched against him, and the measure you propose to me to execute.
Consider, Citizen General, the happy effects that will result from the mere publication of these laws to a people crushed, of old, beneath the weight of burden, and lacerated by the scourges of a barbarous slavery, in whom the apprehension of similar enormities is, doubtless, excusable; a people, in short, who have tasted the aweets of liberty and equality, and covet no happiness beyond the assurance of never more having to dread the fetters they have broken. The exposure of these laws before their eyes, will stop the effusion of French blood by the hands of Frenchmen; will restore to the Republic children who may yet do her service; and, after the
horrors of civil war, bring back tranquil-lity, peace, and prosperity, to the bosom of this unhappy colony. The object is, without question, worthy of the greatness of the mother country: its attainment, Citizen General, would cover you with glory, with the blessings of a people who will take pleasure in forgetting the evils that they have suffered by the delay of this promulgation. Reflect, that to refuse them a participation of these laws, so ne~ eessary for the salvation of these countries, would be to perpetuate those evils, and must lead to absolute destruction. In the name of my country, in the name of the mother country, I call for these salutary laws. Produce them, and St. Domingo is saved.
I have the honour to salute you.
(Signed) H. Christophe.
ARMY OF THE EXPEDITION.
Head Quarters at the Cape, the 4th Floreal, Year 10 of the French Republic.
The General in Chief to General Chrhtophe*
I have just received your letter, General: the uneasiness you testify to me is of a nature easy to be removed. You demand of me the code which gives assurance of liberty to the Negroes; that code is not completed : I am engaged upon it at this moment.. The wisdom of the First Consul did not allow him to make a code for the government of a country with which he was unacquainted, and of which the accounts he has received are contradictory; but I declare to you in the presence of the colony; I protest before the Supreme Being, whose assistance is
never invoked in vain, that the bases of this code are, liberty and equality; that the Negroes shall be free; and that the system of cultivation shall be founded upon the basis of that of General Toussaint, which may perhaps be even ameliorated in their favour. If this declaration is insufficient, it will be to me a convincing proof, that you have no wish to submit to the Republic. If it be sufficient, present yourself to-morrow at the village of Cape Heights; I shall be there, and I declare to you, that if, after an hour's explanation, we do not come to a proper understanding, you shall be at liberty to return to your troops, upon the word of honour of the General in Chief.
What I have said to you on the subject of General Toussaint, arose from my not supposing him to be actuated by such loyal views as yourself. I shall take pleasure in finding myself deceived; the answer you have made, on this head, gave
me great satisfaction, and confirms me in the opinion I have always had of your loyalty.
If you come, and we understand each other, the war will have lasted so much shorter time in the colony. If not, calculate my means and your chances of successful resistance.
I salute you.
Let me know the result of your arrangements, for I intend to absent myself from the Cape for some moments.
17i N VII.
LIBERTY and EQUALITY.
Head Quarters, Cardineau, Grande Riviere, 5 Floreal, Year 10.
The General of Brigade, Henry Christophe, to General Leclerc.
I this moment*received your letter of yesterday: its contents revive in my mind the hope of seeing tranquillity, peace, and prosperity, returned to this too-long agitated colony, under the auspices of liberty and equality. I accept your offer of an interview; to-morrow, at eleven o'clock in the morning, I shall present myself at Cape Heights, to confer with you. The word of a French General is, in my estimation, too sacred and inviolable to be denied belief. ,
I am flattered with the opinion you entertain of my loyalty; but regret that you still persist in thinking General Toussaint uninspired by that estimable feeling; give me leave to say, that you are deceived with regard to him. I have no apprehensions of finding myself deceived, when I assure you, that the confirmation of civilized liberty and equality will make him throw himself into the arms of the Republic.
It is hopeless to enter upon any calculation of our respective means; the resolution to be a man, and a free man, is the unit of my arithmetic; and the certainly of seeing this title insured to my fellow-citizens, will soon resolve our divided forces into one and the same body, into one apd the same family, united by the sincerest fraternity.
I have the honour, Sec.
(Signed) H. Christophe.
Head Quarter* at the Cape, 8th Floreal, Year 10.
The General in Chief to the General of Brigade, Chri&tophe, commandant of the Cordon of the North.
I approve, Citizen General, of the motives which prevent your presence at the Cape to-day. I am the more gratified by your effecting this operation in person, because the execution of your orders experienced some difficulties at Limb6.
The commandant, Lafleur, who occupies the great cut of Limb6, would not consent to surrender his post without having seen you. It appears that the same thing has taken place on the side of the landing-place of Limb6. General Salme
had sent troops to occupy these posts; on the refusal to surrender them, the troops retired. Some mounted dragoons of the country, and some of the rustic militia, came to his camp to buy provisions. General Saline caused them to be disarmed and sent back. I have given orders for their arms to be restored. .
As soon as yott have completed the arrangements on the side of Grande Rivifere, proceed to the crossway cff Limb6, where you will find General Salme, who commands the arrondissement de Plaisance, and all the country that lies beyond the Riviere Sal6e. Take measures, in consulting with him, so that he may forthwith occupy the military posts at present in charge of your troops, and give orders that the rustic militia retire immediately to their habitations.Put in requisition every possible means of conveyance, in order to facilitate the provi-
sioning of the troops cantoned in the mountains.
I salute you.
As soon as you have concluded the business at Limb6, you will come and join me.
LIBERTY and EQUALITY.
Head Quarters of the Cape, 30th Germinal, Year 10 of the French Republic.
The General of Division Hardy, commanding the division of the North at St. Domingo, to General Christophe, commanding the Cordon of the North.
Captain Vilton, in command at the Petit Anse, has communicated to me, Citizen General, the letter which you have written to him, and I imparted it immediately to the general in chief, Leclerc.
By the details into which you have entered with Citizen Vilton, it is easy to discover, General, that you have been the victim of the treacherous insinuations of an infinity of beings who, during the.
course of the revolution in France, have set all parties on fire together; have every where excited trouble and discord; and who, after having brought upon themselves their own expulsion, have taken refuge in this colony, where they have distorted every fact and circumstance, disseminated the most atrocious falsehoods and calumnies, and sought, in fresh troubles, an existence that they could no longer find in Europe.
These crafty men have inspired you with distrust of the French government and its delegates. The conduct of the government and its good faith are well known to the whole world. Our own behaviour, since our arrival in St. Domingo, our proceedings towards the peaceable inhabitants, and in the instances of Generals Clervaux, PauV Lou-verture, Maurepas, Laplume, and their companions in arms, may give you a just measure of all that malevolence and in-
trigiie have invented to slander the purity of our intentions.
Twelve years, General, have we been fighting for liberty; can you believe that, after such great sacrifices, we would so degrade ourselves in our own eyes as to incur a blemish which would efface our glory and destroy our work? Return, General, to more reasonable sentiments* and assure yourself, that your principles are ours also.
The reputation you enjoy in this country led us not to presume, that the French, your brothers, would encounter any resistance in you to the will of the government.
Nevertheless, General, all hope of obtaining from this same government oblivion of the past is not entirely lost to you. I address you with the frankness of a soldier, unacquainted with shifts and evasions.Correct your errors; your return to true principles may accelerate the
reparation of evils which have afflicted this beautiful spot. It is unworthy of you to serve as a stepping-stone to an usurper, to a rebel. The mother country throws wide her arms to all her children led astray, and invites them to take refuge in her bosom.
If you have a serious intention of recognizing the laws of the republic, and of submitting to the orders of her government, you will not hesitate, General, to come and join us with your troops. Hi* therto we have fought you as enemies; tomorrow, if you will, we will embrace you as brothers.
Write me your proposals, or inform me at what hour you will be at Vaudreuil, to make them verbally. You will find me there. If we do not come to an understanding, I give you my word of honour, after the conference, you shall be at liberty to return to your head quarters.
I have the honour to salute you.
Head Quarters, Robillard, Grand Boucao, 2d Floreal, Year 10.
The General of Brigade, Henry Christophe, to the General of Division, Hardy.
Your letter of the 30th Germinal lias reached me. You are wrong in believing me the victim of the machinations of perfidious intriguers. Nature, without having endued me with all the. subtlety of a penetrating and clear-sighted genius, has furnished me with sense enough to guard me from the insinuations of wicked men. With an ardent love of peace and tranquillity, I have always kept at a distance from me violent and turbulent men, whose empoisoned breath engenders confusion and discord; but I have not been exempt
from the suspicions that so many publications have roused in my mind, and which so many others have confirmed. Some originated in foreign countries, others in the heart of France. All announced, with a menacing tone, the misfortunes which now afflict us. How happens it, that the desires of the wicked, and the predictions of the evil-minded, appear so much in unison with the resolutions of the mother country ?
When we were thus threatened with the return of slavery, after having broken its fetters, was any thing more natural than the dread of its return; than the suspicion, the restlessness, even the mistrust of a people so often deceived; so constantly the mark for the declared hatred of the enemies of its liberty, who were jealous of the equality admitted in their favour ? Could we be otherwise, when every thing concurred to justify our fears ?
General, we too have twelve years
combated for liberty, for the same rights. Which, like yourselves, we bought at the price of our blood; and I have ever revolted at the belief that the French, after having made such sacrifices, to. obtain them, would one day come to tear them from a people who glory in being a part of the great nation, and in enjoying in common with her the advantages derived from the revolution. That revolution, and the benefits it has diffused, are worthy of the glory of the Republic; and when you assure me, that she will not destroy her work, why refuse to this branch of her family what must infallibly consolidate and immortalize for her the sublime edifice! The code of laws, promised to the inhabitants of the colonies by the proclamation of the consuls which accompanied their communication of the constitution of the, year 8, cap alone convey to my mind the pledge of the consolidation of our rights. : This, Citizen General* is the
only weapon capable of subduing tbfc apprehensions of a justly suspicious people! This a convincing proof, which alone can restore in my mind these sentiments to which you would recall me, and assure me that our mutual principles are the same!
The candour with which you address, irie is worthy,. in all respects, of a soldier like yourself; I express myself with equal frankness; and if General Leclerc, instead of proposing to me an act of treason and infamy, which would degrade me in my own eyes, had spoken to me as you have done, a language consistent with sentiments of honour and delicacy, such as he might fairly have presumed in me, J should have at least consented to the interview which you invite, not only ajt Vaudreuil, but at Le Petit Anse, or eveiji at the Cape. But, be it as it may, I augur too favourably of your frankness and your word of honour, not to consent to
that interview; not at the place you point out, but at one which may be near the centre of our respective lines. I therefore propose the house of Montalibor for this purpose. If that is agreeable to you, appoint the day and hour when you will meet me there, and I promise to be present. But, General, furnish yourself with the dbde of laws which are to govern this country, which confirm liberty and equality to the people who will water and fertilize it with their sweat, and our interview will be crowned with the happiest success, and I rejoice to^ owe to you the information which can alone dispel our error. Doubt not, General, that General Toussaint Louverture himself, whom Ge* neral Leclerc considers but as a (criminal, will then not hesitate to throw himself, with the whole nation, into the arms of the Republic, and, reunited under the auspices of these beneficent laws, this grateful people will offer him again, as a proof of
their devotion, the exertions that they have once before directed to render this portion of the French Empire productive.
I have the honour, &c. (Signed) H. Christophe.
Petit Anse, 26th Germinal, year 10.
Vilton, Commandant of the Petit Anse,* to Citizen Henry Christophe, General of Brigade, at his Head-Quarters.
My Dear Comrade,
I give way to the sentiments that my ancient friendship inspires for you;
* The two letters subjoined under the signature of Sieur Yilton, were fabricated by the Sieur Anquetil, who wrote them with his own hand at the house of
I have heard with the deepest regret your refusal to submit to the will of the French general whom the First Consul has dispatched to St. Domingo, to complete, support, and consolidate the order that you had so effectually established at the Cape Town, the dependance of the north, where you acquired the regard and affection of all the colonists. You repeatedly told me, my dear Comrade, that your greatest pleasure would be to see the French arrive, and resign into their hands the authority with which you were invested; by what fatality, can you so suddenly have changed your good intentions ? By this step you have renounced personal happiness, the security of your fortune, and the splendid establishment you could have secured to your amiable fa-
the Sieur Blin de Villeneuve, one of the great planters of the northern district, grandfather to the Sieur Vilton, who had no hand in them but the signature, to which he was forced by the French government.
mily; you have plunged them, as well as yourself, into the most frightful misery. Your intentions have always, to me, appeared so pure, and your devotion tp the French nation left me nothing to doubt on the conduct you purposed to pursue; when, in an instant, upon the appearance of the French squadron you were no longer the same man. All the world, and your friends in particular, were persuaded that you had been ill-advised, and perhaps overruled by some black chiefs which were about you. So many handsome things have been said of you to M. Le-plerc, the general in chief, that he is thoroughly convinced that it is owing to evil counsels that you took the resolution to resist; that he is ready to pardon you if you will reduce to obedience the troops that you command, and surrender the post that you occupy. This is a fine opening, my dear Comrade, for yourself, as well as the brave officers and soldiers
under your command; tbey will be all treated in the same manner as the French army, and you will secure for yourself and family every happiness that you can desire; especially if you should desire to quit the colony, which is the best course you can take to save yourself from being exposed to the hatred of the rebels to the orders of France, who shall refuse to follow your example; you will be certain of a liberal fortune, and may enjoy it peaceably, under the "protection of France, in the country of your choice. My dear Comrade, my tender friendship for you and your family induces me to write this. I shall partake of your happiness if I can contribute to effect iL It lies with you to give me this gratification by following the advice of your old friend. Reply to me, and let me know your intentions, that I may bring them to bear in the way most agreeable to yourself.
Every one here, and in all parts1 of
the colony, has witnessed the frankness and good faith of the French generals, and I have no reserve in repeating to you the assurance that you may place entire confidence in them; they will open to you every facility, assist you with every means in their power, and furnish you the convenience of carrying along with you every thing you possess, and enjoying it peaceably wherever you choose. Trust me then, my dear Comrade; quit this wandering and vagabond life, which would dishonour you if you continue to follow it, and regain the esteem of all good citizens, by being yourself again, and abandoning the cause of an ambitious man, who will be your ruin in the end. Pay no regard to your outlawry; the General in Chief, Leclerc, has said that it should not have taken place had he known you sooner, and that the Proclamation should be annulled as soon as he learns that you have
acknowledged your error, and abandoned the cause of rebellion.
Health and Friendship.
Head Quarters, Hamlet of Dondon, 20th Germinal, year 10.
The General of Brigade, Henry Christophe, to the Commandant Vilton.
I love to give credit to the expressions of your long standing friendship for me, which has inspired you with the idea of addressing to me your letter of the 26th of this month. The sentiments of friendship I have avowed to you remain unalterable; you know me too well to doubt it.
Should I ever have refused to submit to the orders of the French general sent to this island by the First Consul of the Republic, if every thing had not conspired to convince me that the meditated consolidation of the good order which reigned in this colony, was nothing less than the destruction of our liberty, and the rights resulting from equality ? It is true, as you say, I have declared my greatest desire was to see the French arrive, and to deposit in their hands the share of authority with which I was invested, and enjoy as a simple citizen the benefits of liberty and equality in the bosom of my family, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, provided that they too partook, with myself, of these sacred rights. A Frenchman, loving and respecting France, I joyfully entertained this hope, a hope that my confidence in the government of the mother country fostered and confirmed from day to day. I have never changed my in*
clinations in this respect; but by what fatality is it that this hope has been de* ceived, that all has concurred to prove that the principles previously adopted in our favour have been changed ? St. Domingo, wholly French, enjoyed, as you know, the profoundest tranquillity ; there were no rebels to be found : by what fatal blindness, then, did it happen, that France has come with all the terrors of war and the artillery of destruction ? Not to subdue the rebels (for rebels there were none), but to create them amongst a peaceable people, and furnish a pretext, to destroy or enslave them.
You say I have renounced my happiness. Alas what happiness, what fortune, what splendid establishment, of myself and my family, could ever have offered me consolation for the grief of seeing my fellows reduced to the last degree of misfortune beneath the burthen of slavery? My intentions have always been pure, and you
were, more than any body, acquainted with my devotion to the French nation. My intentions, my sentiments, have never varied; I have always been the same man. But, placed as I was, by my fellow citizens, as a sentinel at the post where it was my duty to watch over the preserva*-tion of liberty, more dear to them than their existence, how could I do otherwise than alarm them at the approach of the blow aimed at its annihilation ?
How many letters, pouring in upon us in shiploads from France and foreign countries, written in a menacing tone, by colonists to other colonists, who preached forth their contents with undisguised and seditious vehemence, announced to me, in the most explicit terms, the fate reserved for the people of this colony and its de^ fenders!
You know it. I have communicated to several. Did I not, from motives of
prudence, conceal them from the governor, for fear of agitating him; and did not my confidence in the government of the Republic so master my common sense as to make me, to the last moment, consider these letters as the mere expressions of the hatred of some wretches, who sought, in pure despite, again to embroil this country? Yet has not the event, notwithstanding my credulity, fully justified all their annunciations? The world, above all, nay friends most especially, deceive themselves if they believe that I have allowed myself to be led away by any chiefs that are about me. At my age I have no need of counsel; it is my duty that is my counsellor upon all occasions. You ought to know me better, and to be aware, that I never look advice of my friends, not even of you, whom I distinguished amongst them. Friends, alas! I thought I could count many; but now,like Diogenes,
with a lantern in my hand, at noon day, I search in vain for one upon whom I can rely.
It is without doubt very flattering to have so much good said of me to M. Leclerc, the general in chief; but he is wrong in persuading himself that my present conduct is the result of evil counsel. What I have said to you on that head is a complete answer to that opinion. I never had any intention of resisting him; and so I wrote word when he first appeared before the Cape; I testified to him how much regret I should feel if compelled to oppose reluctant resistance before receiving the orders of the chief who had placed me at this post, and who had intrusted me with a charge I could resign into no other hands. I sent to him Citizen Gra-nier, commander of a battalion of the national guard, as the bearer of my letter, and charged him to express verbally the necessity I was under of waiting the orders
I expected from the governor, and my resolution, when he should have been apprised of the squadron's arrival, to fulfil the obligation of receiving it with all the respect due to the mother country, in case the governor, after being certified that it was from France, should meditate resist? ance. Without attending to this reasonable observation, General Leclerc send$ back the Citizen Granier without any other answer than this : That he had orders to use force, and would execute them." A trifling delay would have prevented much calamity. As a man of honour, I was determined to observe, religiously, what I had charged the citizen Granier to represent on my behalf to General Leclerc: but this general did not condescend to give it credit; and, notwithstanding the protestations he received of my devotion to France, the port captain, whom I had sent to meet the squadron, is still detained on board, and his aid-de-camp forewarns
me, that if I send my adjutant general, he will be similarly treated. At the same lime General Rochambeau effects a landing near Fort Liberty, without giving notice to the commander of that place, marches upon the forts which defend it, makes himself master of them, and puts to the sword the brave men he finds there, whilst the vessels enter the harbour, and discharge their guns upon the town. On the other hand, another landing is made at Limbe, which is likewise cannonaded, and the cape is placed between two numerous armies, with a menacing squadron in front. The terms of the letter which General Leclerc had addressed to me, showed plainly enough the object he had in view. I take counsel of the emergency of the circumstance in which I was placed by the conduct of this general; I take counsel, I say, of his own behaviour, and thus commence all the evils that afflict us. After acting in such a manner, what
must not I suspect? Had I not reason to presume unfavourably, from the measures just put in execution against me? Yes I avow it; however great had been at all times my confidence in the French Government, I felt it powerfully shaken by the thundering threats, by the blows aimed at us, and the conduct of the chiefs of the French army determined mine.
You speak to me of fortune; I have no longer any; I have lost all. Honour is, henceforth, the only possession which is left to me and my family. You know me, and you know whether or not it is the object of my ambition.
You counsel me to make bold to ask permission to quit the colony. You cannot be ignorant that I am not deficient in courage, and in this case it would not fail me. I had resolved long since to quit the colony on the restoration of peace, and Citizen Granier was half inclined to the same course. If he exists, he can testify
to the truth of this assertion. My attachment to France had made me choose her bosom as the asylum whither we might, with our united families, have retired, and passed our days in peace, in the sweet certainty of leaving all our brethren free and happy on the soil of this colony. Why has every thing concurred to frustrate this hope? I expect to receive every day the blow that will annihilate me; and Citizen Granier, who, I learn, is detained on board, has, perhaps, already ceased to exist. What is his crime ? What harm has he done? Is it possible that his friendship for me has been his crime?
You take upon yourself, my dear Comrade, to give me proofs of good faith and frankness on the part of the French Generals; you know not how it grieves me to be unable to remove the just suspicion with which all the facts I have detailed have inspired me; facts against which I can find no reasonable or prudent
pretext for shutting my eyes. Happen what may, honour is my guide; and it is with extreme repugnance that I impute to any other rule of conduct the actions and promises of others; honour has always to me appeared so dear to French officers.
I always cherish the esteem of good citizens. If there exist at St. Domingo any ambitious men, who covet nothing but honour, preferment, or distinction; as for me, my ambition always consisted iii meriting the honourable consideration of good men, in seeing my fellow citizens happy; in enjoying, in common with them, the sole title of free man, the sole rights of equality, in the bosom of my tranquil family, and in the circle of a few estimable friends.
You advise, my dear Comrade, to pay no regard to my outlawry; General Le^ clerc, you tell me, has said it should not have taken place had he known me sooner, and that the Proclamation should be an-
nulled as soon as I should have retracted my error. I am ready to retract, but my doubts must be removed, my suspicions cleared up. There is no sacrifice that I will not make for the peace and happiness of my fellow citizens, if I am but convinced that they shall all be free and happy. I have but one thing left to sacrificemy life, all the rest I have already made. Produce the proofs necessary for my conviction, and with a willing heart I offer the sacrifice, if, after demonstration of my error, it cAn make atonement, and restore tranquillity and prosperity to my country, and to my fellow citizens.
I salute you with friendship.
(Signed) H Christophe,
Petite Anse, 30th Germinal, year 10.
Vilton, Commandant at La Petite Anse, to Citizen Henry Christophe, General of Brigade, commanding the Cordon of the North.
My Dear Comrade,
I can with difficulty express the pleasure that your answer to my letter affords me, since it gives me the hope of seeing you once more actuated by that confidence which you should never have ceased to place in the justice and generosity of the representative of France in this colony; these are the general characteristics of French officers, and, above all, of the general in chief, Leclerc; and it was
the intimate knowledge of these qualities, that induced the First Consul to make choice of him as the bearer of happiness and peace to this unfortunate colony. Your submission to a chief of such merit will gain you a jprotector, who will charge himself with the office of making such provision for you as will lead you to bless the day of your compliance with the counsel I have given, and which I now repeat more strongly than ever. I made it my first business to communicate your letter to him, as well as to General Hardy. The expressions you make use of have met with their approbation. The distrust you discover in some paragraphs alone prevents them from being completely satisfied. The general in chief himself is going to write to you. I cannot press you too strongly to place entire confidence in his promises, as well as in the honour of General Hardy; and I doubt not but you will find in their letters every thing that
you, as well as your fellow citizens, ought, in reason, to require for your satisfaction.
With respect to your friend Granier, if he is detained, it*is not because of his connections, but because he has many enemies here, who have calumniated him. I have no doubt, that, as soon as Government shall have had leisure to investigate his affair, he will be immediately set at liberty.
Adieu, my dear Comrade: depend upon the friendship I have sworn to you for life.
Health and friendship.
Head Quarters, Robillard, Grand Boucan, 2d Floreal, Year 10.
The General of Brigade, Henry Christophe, commanding the Cordon of the North, to Vilton, Commandant at La Petit Anse.
I again receive, with pleasure, in your letter of the 30th ultimo, the expression of your friendship for me. The successful issue of your correspondence, which you seem to hope, depends upon General Leclerc. He has, indeed, addressed to me a letter; but I have read in it, with disgust, the proposition it contains, of dishonouring myself by an act of monstrous cowardice and perfidy.
I do trust, however,that in the character which has been given him of me, if dictated by truth, it has not been represented, that
such actions were familiar to me, and that I was wholly divested of every sentiment of delicacy and honour.
I replied to his letter in the same manner as I did to that addressed to me by General Hardy, which appeared to be written in that style of frankness which ought to distinguish a soldier.
I have every desire to abjure the distrust which I have conceived. I demand of those two Generals no more than what is necessary to renounce it; that is, in fact, the code of laws which was promised us by the proclamation addressed to us by the consuls of the republic, when they communicated the constitution of year 8. In such a code only can lie the proof of the intention to maintain and consolidate liberty and equality. If these laws are in your possession, impart them to me; if they exist, and you have them not, endeavour to obtain and produce them to me. To them I look for the restoration of tran-
quillity to this country, for the cement of union between the French of both worlds, for a stop to the effusion of their blood, for the reconciliation with the republic of her children, who never willingly renounced her; and for the re-establishment, in this island, of peace and its blessings, in lieu of civil war and its ravages. Openly proclaim this code, and let the light of truth shine on those who may be blinded with error; then will you enjoy the satisfaction of having contributed to the happiness of our country, to that of our fellow citizens, to my own amongst the rest; for, whatever lot may await me, my happiness will consist in that of my brethren, were it even sealed with my blood.
The unfortunate Granier is detained, and, without doubt, you tell me, on account of some calumnious insinuations of his enemies. Ought such a detention to have taken place without evidence ? and is it consistent with a just and impartial
government to suffer such long delays m the production of the proofs requisite for just condemnation, or equitable acquittal ? But, placed as I am, does it become me to plead the cause of friendship ?
My dear comrade, do not forget these laws about which I have been speaking to you. Communicate them to me without delay, and you will soon attain the object you seem to aim at in your correspondence.
I salute you in friendship.
(Signed) Henry Christophe.
A true copy of the originals deposited in the archives of the state,
Compte de Limonade,
Secretary of State, Minister of Foreign Affairs.
At Cape Henry, by p. Roux, Printer to the King.
ACCESSION OF THEIR ROYAL MAJESTIES
THRONE OF HAYTI,
Before entering upon the narrative of the accession of their Royal Majesties to the throne, we deem it our duty to lay before our readers a succinct exposition of the principal events which have occurred, and of the principal operations antecedent to this happy day of everlasting memory.
The Haylian people had scarcely breathed, after their deliverance from the presence of those Vandals who have ra-
vaged every country into which their well-known footsteps have strayed, and just freed from disorders* a brigand-like spirit, and from anarchy, when our inde-dependence began to be established, the state became organizedcommerce, agriculture, and navigation flourishedour internal fortifications were completed; at length the Haytians, reunited, reconciled, perceived that there existed and could exist for them no other country in the globe than these happy and fortunate climes, which the sun delights to illumine, abundantly pouring forth, with a complacent heat, all the benignity of his beneficent rays on the fields in which are to be found, in unparalleled plenty, those fruits of delicious flavour, and those trees loaded with the precious aromatic juices of Arabia, which produce the real nectar so much esteemed and so generally prized, its cottons, cacaos, &c. and so many other productions with which bounteous Nature
hath endowed Hayti, in the measure of its goodness, the true attribute of Divine Providence; when our happiness was all at once totally and utterly subverted. Insubordination and licentiousness found their way into our armies; some perfidious men, who sold themselves to the enemy, organized a conspiracy, of which history furnishes but few examples; and in the sequel, Dessalines, the chief of the government, was assassinated. The public treasures were squandered, a few of the conspirators seized the spoils of the unfortunate state, dark and secret plots were agitated in the different regiments, calumny pointed its shafts, and intrigue was busy. The Haytians took up arms, and all the evils that were sought and fomented by the enemies of Hayti, speedily became realized to afflict anew these beautiful countries. Henry foresaw all that was accumulating to oppress his native land ; he saw that the storm was particularly di-
reeled against the heads of the illustrious and incorruptible defenders of liberty; and that, this being accomplished, the factions proposed to themselves nothing less than to substitute themselves in their place, to deliver over the country to our enemies, to fascinate and lull the multitude by promises and presents of pretended promotion, which were offered with a too culpable facility, in order to effect the more certain attainment of their criminal ends.
Great at q!\ timesever the sameand reared and brought up in revolutionsin the midst of the din of arms, he was unmoved at this;he knew what the traitors and other loose .characters, who had given rise to the evils of a civil war, were capable of. His energy and his resolutioq augmented with the dangers which he had to overcome; he braved the fury of the storm, put forth all his efforts, and shewed himself, with the rapidity of lightning,
wherever his presence was required; he dispersed and punished the traitors, re* vived the courage of the brave, and succeeded in triumphing over the efforts of the wicked.
On the 18th of December 1806, in a proclamation dated from the citadel Henry, he points out the secret agents of those ambitious men who had made themselves busy, in every way, in corrupting the troops.
The 24th, he proceeded to disperse the collection of troublesome spirits assembled at Portaux Crimes, who were holding a consultation under arms, yet reeking with the blood of those martyrs to liberty whom they had sacrificed to their rage, their ambition, and cupidity.
The 1st of January 1807, he fought the famous battle of Cibert, routing and cutting in pieces the army of Petion, who was himself obliged to throw away his decorations, in order to protect his flight,
and then plunged into a morass up to his neck, before returning to Port aux Crimes.
Henry then lays siege to this rebel city, but reflecting upon the number of conspirators whom he had left in the rear, added to those who abounded in the army, and whose inflammatory expressions were scarcely concealed; and considering the horrors that must ensue from the capture of a city by assault, he postponed the conquest of it, and marched his troops back to their cantonments.
A council of state, composed of the generals and eminent citizens, who saw the necessity of establishing in these tempestuous times an order of things, was speedily convoked* and they instituted the constitution of the 17th of February 1807, which decreed to the chief magistrate the title of President of Hayti.
The 19th of February, he offered, through the medium of a proclamation distinguished for its good sense, a general
amnesty, and oblivion of the past to all the revolted.
Without being diverted from the great conceptions he had formed, he organizes the civil and commercial tribunals; nominates to vacant places in the army, as well as in the magistracy; stimulates the work of cultivation by the establishment of companies of agriculturists, known by the name of Police Guards," composed of managers and heads of houses, the utility of which is now so generally admitted, both on account of the public security and the improvement of cultivation; he moreover restored public instruction in full activity, examined into the administration of the public hospitals, and carried into every branch of the service that penetrating eye which embraces all the details, without their detracting fom the vast conception of the whole.
The insurrection continued to spread, and the Haytians, not knowing what they
really wanted, urged by that restless spirit which seems natural to them, take up arms and stir up a revolt, stimulated by harangues from the rebellious. The most beneficial acts of the government; the regularly established pay of the troops ; the buying up of the coffee, that judicious measure, so well calculated to enhance the value of our territorial commodities; all became, in the mouths of these infuriate demagogues, so many pretexts for an insurrection of the troops, as well as of that important though unenlightened body of the people, the cultivators. The good deeds of the government thus became as instruments in the hands of calumniators, with which they had the audacity to combat it. One issue of specie, from the public treasury, of 227 thousand gourd bottles, for the purpose of accomplishing that very laudable object of paying for coffee at 20 sous to the growers, ought of itself to prove, to men of good faith, at once the greatness of the
plhn, the advantages that must result from it, and the solicitude of the government that ordained it.
In the beginning of June 1807, from the extremity of the insurrection of the Moustiques the president repairs in haste before the town of the Gonaives, which was sold to the rebels by treason, and in a few days he compelled them to reimbark with disgrace, whilst the greater part of the revolted, after having got possession of Arcahaye, presented themselves before St. Marc; yet, when informed of the arrival of the President and of the flight of Bazelais, the rebels did not think proper to wait for him, but withdrew themselves into their Port aux Crimes; they were pursued on their way, without a possibility of being overtaken, so precipitate was their flight!
In July, some troops under the command of Lamarre were sent against the insurgejnts, of Port de Paix. The ninth
corps rose in a mass, and deserted the cause of legitimate authority. The Presi-sident marched, and on the other side of the mountains of St. Louis repulsed the rebels, pursued them from post to post up to the very forts of Port de Paix, where they intrenched themselves. He there attacked them in order, displaying the rare endowments of his energy and courage, and concluded, in less than fifteen days, a memorable campaign, which was followed by the dispersion of Lamarre, the capture of all the forts at Port de Paix, and a great number of prisoners.
A complaint, brought on by the fatigues of this campaign, suspended his complete reduction of the rebels. The operations were not followed up with vigour; they contented themselves with keeping possession of the town of Port de Paix, and with too much confidence despised or neglected pursuing a small body of the fugitives who were still in the
woods. A fatal error! strong reinforce-i ments were sent to Lamarre; the rebels, by the help of their barges discovered a method of maintaining their accomplices and furnishing them with ammunition. Lamarre, on this, rallies his partisans and makes his appearance at Damalo, an advantageous position in the mountains, distant some leagues from Port de Paix.
The President, scarcely recovered from his indisposition, and yet in a state of convalescence, sets out to place himself at the head of the troops; he again dislodges the revolted from all the positions they occupied, and charges them himself at the head of his staff; they broke and fled, pursued on all sides. Henry now saw, with emotion, that these unhappy men were undeceived, and about to renounce their errors.
During this expedition the troops of the west rivalled those of the north in valour and achievements, in again subduing the
revolted who hud the audacity to attack the line. It was on the memorable 20th of September, when eight battalions of faithful troops got the better of twenty-one of the revolted, who were intrenched and in the most advantageous position. This instance is a proof that bravery is inseparable from honour and fidelity. These rebel troops who could not bear the sight and presence of those under the legitimate authority, are nevertheless the same who conquered the south under the French armies.
Whilst the rebellion seemed to acquire consistency in the south, the legitimate authority found one of its firmest defenders in General Jean Baptiste Perrier, called Gauman, who separated from the revolters, erected the standard of fidelity and ho? nour in the mountains of the great Bay of Jeremy; rallied his brethren, enlightened them; undeceived them respecting the ah* surd calumnies of the revolters, and paid
homage to the President, whom he acknowledges as the only chief to whom he wished and ought to pay obedience. His successes, aided by the means that were dispatched to him, brought about a useful and fortunate diversion: he kept the rebels constantly in check and in perpetual alarm: he pounced, with the rapidity of the eagle, upon the places where he was not expected, leaving behind him traces of his having been there, and retired into inaccessible fastnesses, which he knew how to select, from the moment that a superior force marched against him: he showed himself too incorruptible by any of the caresses and promises which the revolters had tendered, to attract him to their cause: he braved at: once their menaces and their stratagems, and shewed himself always unconquerable.
Such brilliant expeditions as these we have enumerated, not having yet sickened the revolters, so blind is pyestimp-
tion! they again directed, towards the end of October, all attempt against St. Marc. The President repaired to this town, and the day after his arrival caused thein to be attacked at the habitations Pivert and Florenceau, where they had gained time sufficient to intrench themselves head high. The day of the 25th was rendered doubly memorable by the two actions which took place, at the termination of which the rebels were overthrown and pursued with desperate vigour by the horse guards of the President. A great number of prisoners was made, and the fields of battle were covered with dead bodies. The chests and colours of the rebel army fell into our possession. Then were to be seen the miseries of war dis-played in all their horror; wretched fugitives wandering about, lost in the woods, perishing of hunger and of thirst, venting imprecations against those traitors who had exposed them to so deplorable a lot,
and running, like new Europeans, to i the sea-shore in the hope of regaining
their vessels which were kept at anchor, as the only refuge in which they could find safety. It was on this day too that the brilliant valour of our troops was so conspicuous ; but particular praise is here due to the 2d and 3d battalions of the 2d regiment, and the 1st battalion of the 27th, Which after a fatiguing march of thirty-six leagues without resting, contributed so effectually to the glory of this day. The Women of St. Marc have afforded on this, as well as on preceding and subsequent occasions, proofs of patriotism and ardent devotion to their country's cause, such as characterised the ancient Spartans. Spectators of the combat, they applauded from the top of the ramparts the valour of our troops, ,and were the first to shout aloud the cry of victory. Their generous cares have brought alleviation and comfort to the aid of suffering humanity, by their
affording in the most ample manner that relief to the' wounded which their state demanded.
Gratitude has since rewarded the zeal and fidelity of the province of the West, with the appellation bestowed upon St. Marc, of the faithful, a title equally honourable and glorious to her.
The enemy being driven away, the President, with his accustomed activity, set out from St. Marc the 28th, and on the 1st of November he was at Port de Paix, after paving passed the Great Hill, and traversed the mountains of St. Louis; without resting, he marched over those of Port de Paix, caused the rebels to evacuate the formidable position of Calvary, which they had got possession of, then returned to the city of Port de Paix, organised a system of attack as well of defence, and on the 7th he returned to his capital.
In the course of September in the year following, the revolters not being yet sick-
ened by their repeated defeats, were to receive a new proof of the inutility of their endeavours. One of their most formidable expeditions from the Port aux Crimes, to compose which they had put in requisition every body from infancy to old age, menaced the cordon of the west at all points, whilst Lamarre, by a bold stroke, takes post, with all the forces that he could collect in the centre of the mountains of Port de Paix, menacing the city at the same time.
In the west, the camps of Colleau, La-croix, Dubourg, and the post of Verrier, were successively attacked, and became the theatre of the valour of our troops, and that of the losses of the enemy. The insurgents in the mean time send out detachments to pillage and set on fire all solitary and unprotected houses, a species of brigand-like warfare in which they excel; then reuniting their troops, they form the project of laying siege to Sti
Marc, but at a very respectful distance; they take up a position at Langeae Ros- sineau, Jean ton, and Charette; there, thinking themselves secure, they organize camps; no longer confiding in their numbers, they raise intrenchment upon intrenchment, of double and triple stages, and construct gigantic works, hastening all the while the receipt of ammunition and provisions supplied by means of their corsairs, which they keep at anchor in the Bay of La-conde.
In this position they remained for twenty-five days; but hunger began to be felt, and considerable detachments from the main body traversed the mountains to maraud for provisions, but the moveable columns of our army repulsed them at the point of the bayonet every time they appeared before the plantations.
The operation next commenced was the attack of the rebels at Charette, who, by means of our well served-batteries, sus-
tained a considerable loss, which had the effect of obliging them to dig trenches to afford them shelter from our bombs and bullets, which were directed to intercept their procuring water and every kind of provisions.
It was determined to occupy the position of Mary, in the rear of the enemy, so as to cut off their retreat. I know that our intrepid general thought of nothing less than requesting to have the disposal of a part of the forces of the west, to pass by the mountains, and possess himself of the city of Port aux Crimes, destitute as it was of troops, while the rebels were dying of hunger, hemmed in around all their positions.
In the mean time the squadron with stores and provisions, which had left the Cape to go to the relief of St. Marc, did arrive; calm winds had detained it on its passage, but with what pleasure was it descried by our army in full sail after the rebel
barks, and in the act of capturing seven of their corsairs that were leaving the Port aux Crimes with ammunition and necessaries, which they were carrying to the relief of their accomplices; the rest saved themselves by superior sailing. Our operations were then carried on with more activity, and it was determined that new and vigorous measures should be adopted for defeating the insurgents, and allowing them no time to breathe. Positions were taken up within pistol shot; and the insurgents, closely cooped up, cannonaded or killed off, no more dared to make their appearance; so that every outlet being guarded to cut off their retreat, we in a great measure calculated upon their being reduced; but on the 18th of November the rebels made their escape by a road abandoned ever since the revolution, and covered with shrubs and logwood, which had been deemed impracticable ; they were, nevertheless, pursued*
and it is said, that in this affair Petioii disguised himself in female attire, many women being about the camp, and that thus our troops allowed him to pass on, intent only on pursuing men with arms in their hands. The places abandoned by the rebels presented the appearance ia reality of a churchyard, in consequence of the great number of graves they contained.
L^marre having, as we already ob* served, taken up his position in the mountains of Port de Paix, and fortified it in an equal degree with that of Port aux Crimes, saw himself surrounded in a similar manner, and in want of every thing; he burnt with the rage of despair, made attack upon attack, which being uniformly repulsed, compelled him to retire into his intrenchments, not without considerable loss. To furnish some idea of the fury displayed in this quarter, a.fury qniy to be found in civil wars, the most
formidable ramparts on both sides, were built up, one against another, so that no one could venture to lift up his head without being immediately shot. Extreme and indeed frightful means were employed to annihilate these madmen; subterranean engagements took place; sappers and miners would work with indefatigable perseverance to blow up the fortifications of each other, and whole battalions of grenadiers were sent into the air* the ground covered with mangled limbs, the dying and the dead, while others found their grave in the bowels of the earth. What a distressing picture for humanity! let us however pursue it, for truth requires I should not disguise our sufferings. Those same ramparts, when destroyed, were as soon occupied again: a murderous fire was kept up from the ruins, whilst new ramparts were erecting to replace the first. At length, after a thousand engagements, famine, losses, disease, and desertions,
compelled the insurgents to break through the lines and retire into the Mole!
The quarters of Gros-Morne, the mountains of Port de Paix, of Monstigne, and of Jean Rabel, then breathed once more; the cultivators returned to their labours, the army formed a cordon in the mountains which surround the Mole, and besieged that place.
In the Spanish part, some conspirators sold to the insurgents, such as Stephen Albert and Gilbert, endeavoured to deceive them in exciting them against us, but they received the reward of their treason at their own hands.
The skilful policy of the President took advantage of the happy moment of the usurpation of the Spanish monarchy in Europe to draw closer the ties of amity with those in Hayti. He had long conceived that, as inhabitants of the same soil, a similarity of wants ought to unite us with our brethren, the Spanish Hay-
tians, when the same enemies menace our existence. To this effect, he sounds their inclinations; he finds them equally well disposed with his own ; he dispatches arms and warlike stores to the general, Don Juan Sanchez Ramirez, and by these generous aids he enables him to undertake offensive operations against the city of Sti Domingo, to attack the place whither Fer-rand had taken refuge with the French troops who still occupied this point, and finally to expel them from it.
He restores the ancient ties of friendship and of trade with this just, loyal, and sensible people, and the result has proved that he has had no occasion to repent of it.
The fury of contention which we have thus slightly sketched, did not however prevent the chief of the government from directing his attention, even amid camps; to the welfare of the people. He had per* ceived that a wise administration of the revenues of the state could alone save it;
Men of unimpeachable integrity replaced (hose who did not stand so clear in their office. A commission for the examination of the public accounts was established ; the state then began to feel the immensity of its resources; the troops were clothed, equipped, and paid ; a navy was all at once created, and our seamen already, who had only been accustomed to manoeuvre in slight vessels, learnt, with the aid of the compass, how to navigate ships of three masts, to cruise in the most stormy latitudes, and to surmount the fury of the storms. The Haytian flag displayed itself on the astonished ocean, and with surprise and admiration was seen a new people in the history of navigation.
Not only did this navy become the terror of the insurgents, but it wrested from them the empire of the seas, of which they had become so vain.
The citadel Henry, that palladium of liberty, that majestic bulwark of inde?
pendeiice, that monument of the greatness and of the vast combinations of a Henry, is built on the lofty summit of one of the highest mountains in the island, whence you may discover, to the left, the island of Tortuga, and the reflection of its beautiful canal; in front, the gentle risings, with the city of Cape Henry, its roadstead, and the vast expanse of the ocean. On the right, La Grange, Monte Christ, the city of Fort Royal, Mancheneel Bay, and the surrounding hills. The eye is gratified with the prospect of the beautiful plain, and the magnificent carpet of verdure spread before it.
At the back, the extended chain of mountains seems, as it were, the frame to this enchanting picture. The position, fortified by nature, and to which art has added all its science; with casemates and bomb proofs, has secured it from being successfully besieged, while the mouths of the cannon overtop the elevation of the