Phytoseiidae of Florida

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Material Information

Title:
Phytoseiidae of Florida
Series Title:
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
Physical Description:
150 p. : illus. ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Muma, Martin H ( Martin Hammond ), 1916-1989
Denmark, Harold A., 1921- ( joint author )
Publisher:
Florida State Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Florida
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Phytoseiidae -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 146-148.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Martin H. Muma and Harold A. Denmark.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 00417784
lccn - 72610184
Classification:
lcc - QL434 .A75 vol. 6
ddc - 595/.2/09759 s|595/.42
bcl - 42.75
System ID:
AA00000576:00001

Full Text






ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS

VOLUME 6


PHYTOSEIIDAE OF FLORIDA


MARTIN H. MUMA


HAROLD A. DENMARK


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
A 2 8 DOYLE CONNER, COMMISSIONER


c- ^




























UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


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ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS


VOLUME 6


1970




PHYTOSEIIDAE OF FLORIDA


MARTIN H. MUMA
University of Florida, IFAS
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


HAROLD A. DENMARK
Chief of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Gainesville, Florida 32601


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Halwin L. Jones, Director

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry Library
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Contribution No. 148 Bureau of Entomology


Release Date December 1, 1970





















~a.








FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

Doyle Conner, Commissioner




DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY




Plant Industry Technical Committee

Vernon Conner, Chairman.......--------------------.. --------- ... Mount Dora
Roy Vandergrift, Jr., Vice Chairman--..-------------------...................................Canal Point
Colin English, Sr........-------------------------------.......................................................---......----.....Tallahassee
Lawrence W. Clements -..................................................................----------------------------------.. Bartow
N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.---....-.----.... ---.....-. Lakeland
Fred J. Wesemeyer ---------.......................----- ------------ ..--------....Ft. Myers
Foster Shi Smith --------------- -------- ...------------........Starke
Felix H. Uzzell ..--.. ---..------..... ..........---------- --.---------. Sebring
Halwin L. Jones, Secretary-...........--- --............---- -------......-........ Gainesville




Administrative Staff

Halwin L. Jones, Division Director ----- ----....----------...... Gainesville
P. E. Frierson, Assistant Director ----....----------............------..-- Gainesville
V. W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer ------.......----------- --------- Gainesville
R. L. Meeker, Information Officer --------- ------..-----.....Gainesville
G. D. Bridges, Chief, Bureau of
Citrus Budwood Registration ..--------....................----------...--.. Winter Haven
J. K. Condo, Chief, Bureau of Plant Inspection--- ..----.------ Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief, Bureau of Entomology -----.------.....-Gainesville
G. G. Norman, Chief, Methods Development -------------........... Gainesville
P. M. Packard, Chief, Bureau of Apiary Inspection .--.-----..Gainesville
C. Poucher, Chief, Bureau of
Pest Eradication and Control....----........-------....------ .Winter Haven
C. P. Seymour, Chief, Bureau of Plant Pathology..................----------.Gainesville
(Unfilled), Chief, Bureau of Nematology----------.........---....................-------Gainesville








FOREWORD


Mites of the family Phytoseiidae are pre-
dominately predatory. They are the most
important mite predators of plant-feeding
mites. They are moderate to large size,
flattened-oval to nearly hemispherical in
shape and move about readily on strong
robust legs. The life cycle from egg to
adult is completed in one to three weeks.
Phytoseiids have been collected on all
continents and from the arctic to the tropics.
They are found in a number of different ter-
restrial habitats. They are abundant in
ground surface litter such as dead and rot-
ting leaves, rotting logs and limbs, sod ac-
cumulations, fallen bromeliads, tidal debris
and trash. Many species also are common
on the trunks, limbs, leaves, flowers, and
fruits of plants including trees, shrubs,
herbs, grasses, mosses, and fungi. Some
species are found in stored plant and animal
fibers and food materials. Others are found
in mammal and bird burrows, dens and nests,
and a few have been taken from the soil.
Although the food habits of phytoseiids
have not been studied intensively, published
accounts indicate a wide range of foods.
Certain genera are known to feed predomi-
nately on spider mites, others feed readily
on the erineum or rust mites. At least
one genus is known to feed exclusively on
saprophytic mites, and another feeds and
develops readily on nematodes. One genus
is believed to feed and reproduce entirely on
pollen, and another is known to feed readily
on spider mites when pollen is a part of the
diet. Several species have been demon-
strated to survive for two or more weeks on
plant juices obtained from leaf hairs, and
one species has survived for three months
on water. Tiny soft-bodied insects such as
scale insect and whitefly crawlers also serve
as survival foods for certain species. The
tiny nearly edentate chelicerae of some
genera appear to be adapted for mite egg or
pollen feeding; the large multidentate cheli-
cerae of other genera indicate larger prey
or a broader food range, and the massive
chelicerae of one genus could be an adapta-


tion for very large, possibly hard-bodied
insects or mites.
The economic importance of Phytoseiidae
has, in the past, been the subject of much
scientific controversy. Recent carefully con-
ducted observational and experimental re-
search has demonstrated, however, that
some species are potentially or actually capa-
ble of controlling infestations of injurious
mites on economically important agricultural
crops. The potential importance of species
that inhabit ground surface litter, stored
products, and animal nests has not been in-
vestigated.
Phytoseiidae of Florida (Acarina: Meso-
stigmata) is the sixth publication in the
series dealing with insects, arachnids and
other arthropods in Florida and other land
areas in and around the Gulf of Mexico and
the Caribbean Sea. The taxonomic, ecologic,
biologic, zoogeographic and economic infor-
mation presented here for the eighty-six spe-
cies presently known from the state must be
considered preliminary. Many additional
species will probably be collected from the
study area and much additional biologic re-
search is needed.
The senior author, Martin H. Muma, was
born in Topeka, Kansas, July 24, 1916. His
professional training was obtained at West-
ern Maryland College Extension Night
School in 1933-34, Frostburg State Teachers
College in 1935-36, and the University of
Maryland in 1936-43. He received his B.S.
degree in 1939, his M.S. in 1940, and his Ph.
D. in 1943. From 1940 to 1945, he served as
an Instructor in Entomology and Assistant
Entomologist at the University of Mary-
land; from 1945 to 1951, he was Extension
Entomologist and then Associate Entomolo-
gist, Associate Professor, and Associate
Curator of The Museum at the University of
Nebraska.
Since 1951 he has been an Associate En-
tomologist, Associate Professor, Entomolo-
gist, and Professor at the University of Flor-
ida Citrus Experiment Station located near
Lake Alfred, Florida. His present projects









involve research on the taxonomy, biology,
and natural control of citrus mites, the na-
tural and ecological control of injurious cit-
rus insects and the biological control poten-
tial for the Caribbean Fruit Fly.
Although Dr. Muma's formal education
and official professional experience have been
in the field of entomology, his favorite avoca-
tional fields are arachnology and speleology.
In entomology he has investigated and con-
tributed to the taxonomy, biology, ecology,
and control of deciduous fruit insects, field
crop insects, livestock parasites, and citrus
insects. In arachnology he has studied and
contributed to the taxonomy, biology, and
ecology of mites, spiders, tarantulas, scor-
pions, whip-scorpions, and solpugids. In
speleology he has examined and contributed
to cave biology, cave ecology, and cave term-
inology. He is the author of a book, "Com-
mon Spiders of Maryland," and the author or
coauthor of 147 scientific bulletins or papers,
48 in entomology, 66 in arachnology, 21 in
extension entomology, and 12 in speleology.
His synoptic review of the North American,
Central American, and West Indian Sol-
pugida was published earlier in 1970 as Vol-
ume 5 of Arthropods of Florida and Neigh-
boring Land Areas.


The junior author, Harold A. Denmark,
was born in Lamont, Florida, July 3, 1921.
He attended public schools in Winter Garden,
Florida. In 1941 he joined the United States
Navy and served six years, much of this
time with the Submarine Service in the
Pacific Theatre of Operation, discharged as
a Signalman First Class. He received his
B.S.A. degree with honors from the Univer-
sity of Florida in 1952. The following year
he received his M.S. degree from the same
institution. During this period he served as
an interim instructor in the Department of
Entomology.
In July 1953 he became an Entomologist
with the State Plant Board of Florida
(which, in 1961, became the Division of Plant
Industry of the Florida Department of Agri-
culture). In July 1958 he became Chief
Entomologist.
He is the author of 51 arthropod publica-
tions, 29 pertaining to mites.
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Editor

Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 1
T erm inology .............................................................................................................................. 2
Diagnostic characters of Phytoseiidae ..............................................................................--------.. 2
Setal, spermathecal, and special characters .....---............ ............................---.-------- 3
System atics ................... .....................---.................. ................ ..... ............................ 4
Variations of leg setal formulae in Phytoseiidae ......................................................-----...... 5
Family Phytoseiidae .............................................................................----.....---------------................--------....... 11
Key to Subfamilies (3) and genera (28) of Phytoseiidae in Florida ........................ 11
Setal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida ..----------------..........----..-.......... 14
Scutal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida ...-...-...............-------......--- 15
Peritremal and stigmatal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found
in Florida ...............................................................................................--------------------............... 17
Spermathecal and spermatodactyl characters among genera of Phytoseiidae
found in F lorida ...................................................... ................................. ....... ................. 18
Cheliceral and leg characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in
F lorida ............. .......................................................................................................-- ....... 20
Subfamily Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker ..................................................... 21
Genus Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker ................................................................ 21
Subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma ..........-......----- ----.....----------------...------------.... 22
Genus Phytoscutus Muma, 1961 ..-................----------------------------------------------24
Genus Proprioseius Chant, 1957 ......................................................................................----------. 24
Key to Proprioseius Chant in Florida ...................................................................---------.. 25
Genus Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark, 1968 ...---...---------........................... 26
Genus Phytoseiulus Evans, 1952 ........................................................................................ -- 28
Genus Proprioseiopsis M um a, 1961 .................................................................................... 32
Key to Proprioseiopsis Muma in Florida .............----..........................---...................... 34
Genus Noeledius Muma and Denmark, 1968 ............................................. ............------------ 52
Genus Amblyseiella Muma, 1955 --------..--------...............................------....---------------------- 54
Genus Platyseiella Muma, 1961 ....................-----------------------------------------............-----........ 56
Genus Galendromimus Muma, 1961 .......................--------------------------------------------. 58
Genus Chelaseius Muma and Denmark, 1968 .-....----.......-----..... -----..........---------...---... 59
Genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914 ..........................--......--.................................................----........ 62
Key to Amblyseius Berlese in Florida .-..-......-...... ......---------..........----- --------------------64
Genus Iphiseiodes De Leon, 1966 -.....------------..... ----....... ------.........---------------- ...-------...... 70
Genus Fundiseius Muma and Denmark, 1968 ......................... .......--- ....................... 71
Key to Fundiseius Muma and Denmark in Florida ...--..---------.....---------..............------.----. 72
Genus Typhlodrom ips De Leon, 1959 ................................................................ ............... 78
Key to Typhlodromips De Leon in Florida ................................................................ 78
Genus Typhlodromalus Muma, 1961 .-......----...-.......------.............-----------------.---.. 86
Key to Typhlodromalus Muma in Florida ..........----.........--............-------------------..----.----..... 88
Genus Euseius Wainstein, 1962 .......-....-....---- -----------------------------..---------............... 92
Key to Euseius W ainstein in Florida ........................................ .................................. 94
Genus N eoseiulus H ughes, 1948 ......................................................................................... 100
Key to Neoseiulus Hughes in Florida .................------- ----------..---.--.---------........... 100
Genus Paraam blyseius M um a, 1962 .................................................................................... 112
Genus Phyllodromus De Leon, 1959 .-..-----------........--- -------........--------------.---------- 114
Subfamily Phytoseiinae ..........................................................................------......................------ 115
Genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904 .....................................................................................-----....... 115
Key to subgenera Phytoseius Ribaga in Florida ...-----.---------........ ....-......... ---------- 115
Subgenus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904 ................................. ..................... ....------ ..............-- ... 115
Key to species of subgenus Phytoseius Ribaga in Florida .-..--...................-----------.. 116
Subgenus Pennaseius Pritchard and Baker, 1962 ....................................................... 120
Key to species of subgenus Pennaseius Pritchard and Baker in Florida ........ 122
Genus Paraseiulella M um a, 1961 ............. .. .......................... ..................... 124
Key to Paraseiulella M uma in Florida .................................................................... 126
Genus Clavidromus Muma, 1961 ..------------..............--- ----------...............-----------------..--- 128










Genus Typhlodromina Muma, 1961 ------ -------------------................---.............-................ 130
Genus Galendromus Muma, 1961 .....----------------...............................--....................................... 134
Key to subgenera of Galendromus Muma in Florida .............. ................................. 134
Key to species of subgenus Galendromus Muma in Florida .................................. 134
Key to species of subgenus Menaseius Wainstein in Florida ......-....------........--------... 134
Subgenus Galendrom us M um a, 1961 ...........-................................................... .................. 134
Subgenus Menaseius Wainstein, 1962 .....................------------------------------........................... 138
Genus A nthoseius De Leon, 1959 ............................................................ .... .................... 140
Genus Orientiseius M uma and Denmark, 1968 .................................................................. 141
Genus Paraseiulus M um a, 1961 ....--.......................................................... ......................... 142
Literature cited .......................----------............................................................................................. 146
Index to scientific names -----------.... ---....--..-......-........-........................................... 149



















Martin H. Muma,3 Harold A. Denmark,4
and Donald De Leon5

Introduction


Mites of the family Phytoseiidae have
been the subject of intense taxonomic, bio-
logical, and ecological study since Nesbitt's
(1951) review of the group. At that time
less than 30 species were recognized, and
little was known concerning their biology
and ecology. Today more than 600 species
have been described; several reviews and
systematic studies have been published; nu-
merous reports have been made on food
habits, life cycles, ecological requirements,
and economic potentials.
Florida species have been described by
Chant, De Leon, Denmark, Garman, and
Muma in a series of recent taxonomic stu-
dies. The systematic problem of intra-
specific variation has been discussed by
Muma and Denmark (1962). Biological and
ecological notes on Florida species have been
published by Muma (1961, 1964a, and
1964b) and Muma, et al (1961). The eco-
nomic potential of several Florida phytosei-
ids has been evaluated and/or discussed by
Muma (1955b, 1958, and 1964), and McMur-
try and Scriven (1965, 1966a, and 1966b).
Chant (1959) listed 22 species of phyto-
seiids from Florida. In the present paper,
the authors propose to draw together in a
single publication all of the information pres-
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Jour-
nal Series No. 3236.
2Contribution No. 148, Bureau of Entomology, Di-
vision of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services.
3Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Lake Alfred, 33850.
4Chief Entomologist, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Gainesville 32601.
5Entomologist, Erwin, Tennessee (deceased June 8,
1966).


ently available on the species of Phytosefidae
known to occur in Florida. Eighty-six phy-
toseiids now are known from the state. So,
to conserve space, the data for each species
have been organized in concise paragraphs
which present diagnoses, type data, habitats,
biology, and distribution. Diagnostic keys
and distributional maps also are included.
The habitat includes those plants and litter
that mites have been taken from and in
most cases does not serve as a host. Such
areas as litter, Spanish moss, and other
plants most often serve as a host or hiding
place for the small arthropods on which the
phytoseiids prey.

This study presents more on the taxonomy
than on the distribution and biological data.
Our present knowledge of the state and
world distribution of phytoseiids is so in-
complete that detailed distribution records
and zoogeographic discussions would be
meaningless. Distribution maps have coun-
ties blocked in rather than individual col-
lecting sites because many species seldom
can be collected from the same locality over
a period of time. Species collected in one
county sometimes may be collected in
another county more easily than by going
back to the original habitat. The opposite is
true of a few ubiquitous species such as
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma), Pro-
prioseiopsis mexicanus (Garman), and
Euseius hibisci (Chant). Further, the re-
striction to Florida of certain species and
the absence from Florida of other species
may be more apparent than real. In the
past ten years 64 species have been added to
the list in Florida. It may be conservative
to estimate that this list represents approxi-










mately half of the species that may be found
in Florida within the next ten years.
Although the economic importance of
many species of phytoseiids is poorly known
at the present time, known data indicate a
broad potential. Macroseius biscutatus
Chant, Denmark, and Baker is known
(Muma and Denmark, 1967) to feed predom-
inately on nematodes; Phytoscutus sex-
pilis Muma feeds almost exclusively on
acarids (Muma, et al 1961) ; and Phytoseiu-
lus macropilis (Banks) has been shown to
be an important spider mite predator (Smith
and Summers, 1949). Furthermore, species
of the genus Euseius Wainstein have demon-
strated control potentials on tetranychids if
pollen is present as a supplemental food
(McMurtry and Scriven, 1964, and McMur-
try and Scriven, 1965).
The food habits of many species is un-
known or is not thoroughly understood; thus,
the economic importance is known for only
a few species. As more biological work is
developed, selective species may be intro-
duced to control a specific pest. An example
of this is Orientiseius rickeri (Chant) which
was introduced into central Florida for the
control of citrus rust mite.


Terminology

Several workers-Garman (1948), Nes-
bitt (1951), Athias-Henriot (1957), Chant
(1959), Muma (1961), Wainstein (1962),
Hirschmann (1957 and 1962), Pritchard
and Baker (1962), and Schuster and Pritch-
ard (1963)-have proposed and used slightly
to totally different scutal and setal terminolo-
gies in describing phytoseiids. The result-
ing confusion has made it necessary that
each worker indicate and delineate his termi-
nology.
The terminology used in this paper is in-
dicated by the labelled illustrations in Fig.
1-47. The following paragraphs delineate
these terms.
On the dorsal scutum, the anterior-most
and posterior-most setae are referred to as
the verticals and clunals as suggested by
Pritchard and Baker (1962). The dorsal,
median, and lateral setae of Garman (1948),


Nesbitt (1951), and Chant (1959) are recog-
nized here, except when L5 and L, of the
above authors are present and L5 is distinctly
mesad of L, it is referred to as M, as sug-
gested by Muma (1961). M2 of Garman,
Nesbitt, and Chant is recognized as M3 when
the above described M2 (L5 of authors) is
distinguishable, but neither M2 nor M3 is
recognized as such unless associated with
obvious lateral setae. We do not attempt to
distinguish or recognize setal homologs as
suggested by Athias-Henriot (1957) and
Hirschmann (1957 and 1962). Si and Sz
are referred to as sublateral setae as sug-
gested by Pritchard and Baker (1962). Setal
form is designated by the following terms:
setaceous (hair-like), bacillate (rod-like),
spatulate (flat), clavate (clubbed), hamate
(hooked), plumose (feathery), serrate
(toothed), oblanceolate (paddle-like), and
knobbed (rounded at tip). These terms are
pictorially defined in Fig. 13-22.
The peritremal and stigmatal terminology
suggested by De Leon (1966) for the scuta
associated with these structures is recog-
nized in Fig. 3 and 9.
The terminology of the ventral structures,
scuta, and setae in Fig. 2 and 8 is that of
Nesbitt (1951) except that the setae on the
interscutal integument, beside the ventrianal
scutum, and anterior to the caudal setae, are
recognized as ventrolateral setae but are not
given a numerical designation.
Although no worker has specifically de-
lineated the terminology of phytoseiid cheli-
cerae, the indicated terminology in Fig. 4
and 10 for these structures is universally ac-
cepted. The terms utilized by De Leon
(1961) to describe the male spermatodactyl
are recognized in Fig. 6 and 12.


DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF PHYTOSEIIDAE
IN FIG. 1-12.


Fig.
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.


1-6. Amblyseiinae.
Dorsal and leg structure and station 9.
Ventral scuta and station 9 .
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development

Cheliceral dentition 9.
Spermathecal structure 9.
Spermatodactyl structure &.











Fig.
7.
8.
9.


7-12. Phytoseiinae.
Dorsal and leg structure and station 9.
Ventral and station 9.
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development
9.


10. Cheliceral dentition 9 .
11. Spermathecal structure 9.
12. Spermatodactyl structure 3.

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Ap-apotele
At-atrium
Cl-clunal setae
Cs-caudal setae
Cx-cervix
DI-D4-dorsal setae
Dn-denticule
Ds-dorsal scutum
Exs-leg IV exopodal scutum
Ff-fixed finger
Ft-foot
Gs-genital scutum
H-heel
L1-Lio-lateral setae
Lp-lateral process
M1-M -median setae
Ma-major duct
Mf-movable finger
Mi-minor duct
Mp-metapodal scutum
Ms-metasternal scutum
P-peritreme
Pd-pilus dentilis
Pp-preanal pore
Ps-peritremal scutum
Si-S.,-sublateral setae
S-stigmata
Sge I-IV-genual macrosetae
Sh-shank
Sp-secondary pore
Ss-stigmatal scutum
St I-IV-tarsal macrosetae
Sti III-IV-tibial macrosetae
Sts-sternal scutum
T-toe
V-vertical setae
VI-ventro-lateral setae
Vs-ventrianal scutum

SETAL, SPERMATHECAL, AND SPECIAL
CHARACTERS IN FIG. 13-47.
Fig. 13-22. Setal characters.
13. Hooked-hamate.
14. Rod-like-bacillate.
15. Feathered-plumose.
16. Flattened-spatulate.
17. Clubbed-clavate.
18. Toothed-serrate.
19. Paddle-like-oblanceolate.
20. Hair-like knobbed--knobbed setaceous.
21. Rod-like knobbed-knobbed bacillate.


22. Hair-like-setaceous.
Fig. 23-30. Spermathecal characters.
23 and 24. Cup or bowl-shaped cervix-poculi-
form.
25. Horn-like cervix-corniform.
26. Bladder-like cervix-vesicular.
27. Sack-like cervix-saccular
28. Tube-like cervix-tubular.
29. Funnel-like cervix-fundibuliform.
30. Funnel-like cervix, knot-like atrium-fundibuli-
form, nodular.
Fig. 31-36. Sternum.
31. Concave posteriorly.
32. Flat posteriorly.
33. Lobate posteriorly.
34. Excavated posteriorly.
35. Obscure posteriorly.
36. Produced posteriorly.
Fig. 37-42. Ventrianal scutum.
37. Pentagonal.
38. Shield-shaped.
39. Quadrate.
40. Vase-shaped.
41. Ovate.
42. Massive.
Fig. 43-47. Scutal ornamentation.
43. Reticulate.
44. Imbricate.
45. Rugose.
46. Creased.
47. Punctate.


Leg chaetotaxy has been thoroughly stud-
ied by Evans (1963) who developed a
terminology for setal patterns. The setal
patterns for the 6 segments of the 4 legs are
basically similar throughout the Phytosei-
idae, but variations seem to be both intra-
and intergeneric and intra- and interspecific
(Table 1) which reduces the usefulness of
leg chaetotaxy below the family or subfamily
level. Leg chaetotaxy, except as it applies
to macrosetae, is not utilized here. The
macrosetal terminology in Fig. 1 and 7 is
that proposed by Athias-Henriot (1957).
Setae are considered to be macrosetae if they
occur in the positions indicated in Fig. 1 and
7 and if they are noticeably thickened or
their lengths are more than half the length
of the segment on which they occur. Other
enlarged or modified setae are not considered
macrosetae.
The terminology concerning the parts of
the spermatheca in Fig. 5 and 11 is that of
Schuster and Smith (1960) which was modi-
fied from that of Dosse (1958). The services










and atria are defined with the following
terms: corniform (horn-like), fundibuliform
(funnel-like), poculiform (cup-like, wider
than long), saccular (sack-like, 1 to 4 times
longer than wide), tubular (tube-like more
than 4 times longer than wide), vesicular
(bladder-like), nodular (node or nut-like),
ovate (egg-like), and undifferentiated. These
terms are pictorially defined in Fig. 23-30.

Systematics

Within the last 20 years, several workers
have published reviews and revisions of the
family Phytoseiidae. Most important are
those of Garman (1948), Nesbitt (1951),
Womersley (1954), Athias-Henriot (1957,
1958, and 1960), Chant (1959), Muma
(1961), Wainstein (1962), Hirschmann
(1962), Pritchard and Baker (1962),
Schuster and Pritchard (1963), and Chant
(1965). Garman, Nesbitt, Womersley,
Athias-Henriot, Chant, and Hirschmann
were conservative in their approach and
recognized a few broadly conceived genera
and subgenera. Hirschmann (1962) most
conservatively recognized all species in the
genus Typhlodromus Scheuten. Muma,
Wainstein, Pritchard and Baker, and Schus-
ter and Pritchard on the other hand recog-
nized many narrowly-restricted, sharply-
defined genera and sub-genera. Muma
(1961), in extreme, recognized 43 genera.
This extreme divergence of opinions indi-
cates that systematics and nomenclature
within the family may be in a state of flux
for several years. It seems propitious,
therefore, that our generic concepts be dis-
cussed.
The subfamily and generic concepts pro-
posed by Chant (1965) do not seem to be
realistic. The combination of the Otophei-
domenidae, a family of semiparasitic to
parasitic mites with incomplete chelicerae,
fragmented and poorly-defined dorsal and
ventral scuta, anteriorly located paraanal
setae, and a terminal anus with the Phyto-
seiidae, a family of semipredaceous to pre-
daceous mites with complete chelicerae, well-
defined dorsal and ventral scuta, laterally
located paraanal setae, and a ventral anus
seems to be unwarranted. Further, Chant's


recognition, within the Phytoseiinae, of 5
monotypic narrowly-defined genera and 5
polytypic broadly-defined genera does not
take into consideration the wealth of mor-
phological, biological, and ecological data
that have been accumulated in the last 10
years. For example, the combination of An-
thoseius De Leon and Galendromus Muma
as junior synonyms of Typhlodromus Scheu-
ten, buries distinctly different groups of
species in a single genus. Anthoseius are
flower-inhabiting, pollen-feeding mites with
short stocky legs, 2 pairs of sublateral setae,
and long slender undifferentiated spermato-
dactyls. Galendromus, obligate predators
associated primarily with Tetranychidae,
have short slender legs, only 1 pair of sub-
lateral setae, and L-shaped spermatodactyls
with a typical shank, heel, foot, toe, and
lateral process. Typhlodromus, facultative
predators with an apparent preference for
Eriophyidae, have long legs, 2 pairs of sub-
lateral setae, and L-shaped, typically dif-
ferentiated spermatodactyls. Cheliceral,
spermathecal, and peritremal characters also
serve to distinguish these genera. A similar
combination of dissimilar groups of species
occurs when Phytoscutus Muma and Pro-
prioseiopsis Muma are made junior syno-
nyms of Amblyseius Berlese. Cheliceral
dentition, dorsal scutal station, peritremal
scutal development, macrosetal development,
ecological niches, and feeding habits all serve
to distinguish species assigned to these 3
genera.

Although the generic assignments and ar-
rangement proposed by Muma (1961) are
extreme and in need of modifications beyond
those already indicated by Lindquist and
Chant (1964), De Leon (1965 and 1966),
Muma (1967), and Muma and Denmark
(1968), it results in a grouping of similar
species into well-defined genera which fre-
quently include recognizable species-groups.
Where definition of genera is still obscure
and further partitioning or combining is in-
dicated, such is discussed in the generic
paragraphs below. Otherwise, Muma's
(1961) system of subfamial and generic
classification is utilized here and is charac-
terized in Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.












Table 1. Variations of leg setal formulae in Phytoseiidae'

Genera and species Genu II Genu III

Macroseius biscutatus Chant, Denmark, and Baker 2-2, -1 1-2, 2 -1
1, 0 1, 0

Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) 2- 2,-1 1- 2,2 -1
1,0 1

Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma 2- 2, 2-1 1- -1
20, 0 1, 20

Proprioseius meridionalis Chant 2-22-1 1- 2,2


Proprioseius anthurus Denmark and Muma 2-2,2-1 1-2 2 -1
1 1, 0

Proprioseiulus paxi (Muma) 2- 2,2 -1 1 22 -1
1, 0 1, 0

Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma) 2- -2 -1 1-, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

2 2 i121 2i
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma) 2_ 2, 2 -1 1- -1


Proprioseiopsis tubulus (Muma) 2- 2,2-1 1- 2 -1
1,0 1

Proprioseiopsis sarraceniae (Muma) 2- 1-2 1 1- 2 -1


Proprioseiopsis macrosetae (Muma) 2-2, -1 1- 2, -1
0, 1 0, 1

Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma) 2- 2, 21 1- 2' -1
0, 0 0, 1

Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma) 2- 2, -1 1- 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

9 2 222
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma) 2- 2 2 -1 2, -1
0, 1 1

Proprioseiopsis gracilisetae (Muma) 2- 2-1 1 -1
0, 0 0, 1

Proprioseiopsis clausae (Muma) 2- 2'-1 1- i2, 2 -1
1/2 1

Noeledius iphiformis (Muma) 2-29-1-2-1 1-2, _1
0, 0 1, 0

Amblyseiella setosa Muma 2-2, 2-1 1-2--2 _1


Platyseiella platypilis (Chant) 2- 2, 21 1- L-21


Galendromimus alveolaris (De Leon) 2- 20 -1 1- 2, -1


'See discussion on leg chaetotaxy (p. 3).












Table 1. Continued

Genera and species Genu II Genu III

Chelaseius vicinus (Muma) 2- 2, 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

Chelaseius floridanus (Muma) 2-, 2-1 1-2, 2-1
0, 0 1

Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) 2- 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

Amblyseius curious (Chant and Baker) 2-, -2 -1 12 2 -1
0, 2 21

Amblyseius rhabdus Denmark 2- 2, 2 --1 1- 2 1
0,0 1

Fundiseius cesi (Muma) 2-2, 2-1 1- 2, 2-1
0, 0 1, 0

Fundiseius arenicola (Muma) 2- 2,-2 -1 1- 2, 2-1
0, 0 1, 0

Typhlodromips simplicissimus (De Leon) 2-, 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark & Muma 2- 2, 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
1, 0 1, 0

Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark & Muma 2-2, 2-1 1-2, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

Typhlodromips mastus Denmark & Muma 2- 2, 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 1

Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) 2- 2,2 -1 1- 2,-1
0, 0 0, 1

Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor) 2- 2, 2 -1 2-2 22 -1
1 0, 1

Euseius hibisci (Chant) 2- 2, 2 -1 1- 22 -1
0, 0 0, 1

Neoseiulus kerri Muma 2- 2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 0, 0

Neoseiulus umbraticus (Chant) 2- 2, 2-1 1- 2, 2 -1
1 1

Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma) 2-2, 2-1 12, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0

Neoseiulus interfolius (De Leon) 2- 2,2 -1 1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0 1

Neoseiulus marinellus (Muma) 2- 2 -1 1- 2--1
0, 0 1, 0

Neoseiulus planatus (Muma) 2-2 2,2 -1 1-2, 2 -1
0, 0 1, 0















Genera and species

Paraamblyseius lunatus Muma


Phyllodromus leiodis De Leon


Phytoseins bakeri Chant


Phytoseius betulae Denmark


Phytoseius mexicanus De Leon


Paraseiulella elliptica (De Leon)


Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt)


Typhlodromina subtropica Muma & Denmark


Galendromus (Galendromus) floridanus (Muma)


Galendromus (G.) gratus (Chant)


Galendromus (Menaseius) mcgregori (Chant)


Galendromus (M.) loculus Denmark & Muma


Anthoseius hebetis De Leon


Orientiseius rickeri (Chant)


Paraseiulus ecclesiasticus (De Leon)


Table 1. Continued


Genu II

2,2
2-2' 2 -1
0, 0

2- 2,P2 -1
2

2- 2, 2 -1
0, 0

2- ,2 -1
0, 0

2-2 2-1
0, 0

2- 2, -1
1

2, 2-1
1, 0

2- 2, 2 -1
0, 0

2-2, 2-1
0, 0


0, 0

2- 2, 21
1, 0

2- 2, 2 -1
1, 0

2- 2, 2 -1i
1, 0

2- 1,-2 -1
0, 0

2, 21
0, 0


Genu III

1- 2, 2 -1
0, 0


1- 2, 2-1
21

0, 0

1- 2, 2-1
0, 0

1_2, 2 _1
0, 0

1-2, 2 -1
1

1- 2, 2 -1
1, 0

1- 2, 2 1
1, 0

1-2, 2 -1
1, 0

1- 2, 2 -1
1, 0


I, 1
1- 2, 2
1, 0

1- 2, 2 -1
1, 0

1 2, 2 1
1, 0

1_2, 2 1
0, 0













Ff






4 Mf


MI


t-~


Gs
Mp





VI


Vs-
PpC

Cs


jilt?


C -


AtX-

Ma--(















2
22


V


33





39


44,._

44 o \,
~X


30


29





34


36


0. ,*

4 7 O-, ; o -


045
45 w


23


24






28


27


32


31





37


4


>-T--

w)




























Pinus clausa, sand pines


iarracena mmnor, pitcher plants serenoa repens, saw palmetto

Some Selected Habitats of Phytoseiidae in Florida










Family Phytoseiidae


Mesostigmatid mites of the monogynaspid
family Phytoseiidae are characterized by a
two-tined palpal apotele, chelate chelicerae,
undifferentiated hypostomal setae, a smooth
or indistinctly serrate epistome (tectum of
authors), a quadrate sternum with 2 to 5
pairs of lateral setae and 1 to 3 pairs of
lateral pores, an entire or transversely di-
vided dorsal scutum provided with less than
24 pairs of setae, 1 to 3 pairs of sublateral
setae, peritremes extending anteriorly from
the mesolateral stigmata, a ventral anus, and
cursorial type legs provided with pretarsi
and ambulacra. Females have the genital
pore protected by an anterior membrane of


the genital scutum, the genital scutum with
one pair of lateral setae and more or less
truncate posteriorly, a pair of spermathecae
that open between the coxae of legs III and
IV, a quadrate, elongate, or pentagonal ven-
trianal scutum provided with 1 to 5 pairs of
preanal setae in addition to the paraanals
and postanal, 1 to 5 pairs of ventrolateral
setae and a pair of caudal setae. Males have
cheliceral spermatodactyls, the genital pore
protected by the anterior margin of the
sternal scutum, a shield-shaped ventrianal
scutum provided with 3 to 6 pairs of preanal
setae and one pair of caudal setae.


KEY TO SUBFAMILIES (3) AND GENERA (28) OF
PHYTOSEIIDAE IN FLORIDA
(Females)


la Dorsal scutum divided; 5 pairs of
dorsal setae; large phytoseiids (body
length 470, to 580,, mean 540%) that
feed on nematodes in leaf-cups of
Sarracenia ...................--.......--- .-- ....
----------- Macroseiinae, Macroseius
Chant, Denmark, and Baker (p. 21)
lb Dorsal scutum entire; 2 to 5 pairs of
dorsal setae, small to medium-sized
phytoseiids (body length 200, to
460) ----.................------------......------.......--...... 2
2a(lb) 4 pairs of lateral setae well anterior
to D,,; medium-sized phytoseiids
(body length 260/, to 460/A, mean
340,) that feed on insects, mites, and
pollen, in ground surface litter, in
and on stored products, and on
plants .------.... Amblyseiinae, 3
2b 5 pairs of lateral setae well anterior
to D,; small phytoseiids (body length
200% to 370%, mean 310/) that feed
on mites, pollen, and leaf-hairs on
plants ---..........-----.--.--. Phytoseiinae 21
3a (2a) 2 pairs of dorsal setae; macroseta on
basitarsus IV short, thick, and ham-
ate; exopodal scutum of coxa IV,


peritremal scutum, and stigmatal
scutum greatly enlarged and complex
.------..---. Phytoscutus Muma (p. 24)
3b 3 or 4 pairs of dorsal setae, macro-
seta on basitarsus IV, when present,
slender and elongate; exopodal scu-
tum of coxa IV, peritremal scutum,
and stigmatal scutum small and sim-
ple ......-----.....--........-----------------------...---.....--. 4
4a (3b) 3 pairs of dorsal setae ---------- 5
4b 4 pairs of dorsal setae .--....---.---.-- 9
5a (4a) Leg I shorter than or only slightly
longer than other legs; 1 or 3 pairs
of median setae --.--. ----------- --- 6
5b Leg I twice as long as other legs; 2
pairs of median setae ---- Proprioseiu-
lus Muma and Denmark .----- (p. 26)
6a (5a) 1 pair of median setae --..------ 8
6b 3 pairs of median setae; leg I
slightly longer than leg IV ------ 7
7a (6b) S, on interscutal membrane; genital
scutum as wide as ventrianal scu-
tum; minor metapodal scutum mesad
of major metapodal scutum -------..--
-.-.---- Proprioseiopsis Muma (p. 32)
7b S2 on dorsal scutum; genital scutum
much wider than ventrianal scutum;










minor metapodal scutum ectad of
major metapodal scutum -..............
Noeledius Muma and Denmark ........
---------.--.. -............. (p. 52)
8a(6a) No or 1 pair of preanal setae on the
female ventrianal scutum; 2 to 3
macrosetae on leg IV; D, elongate;
leg I shorter than leg IV ---------...........
----------.. Phytoseiulus Evans (p. 28)
8b 3 pairs of preanal setae on the fe-
male ventrianal scutum; no macro-
seta on leg IV; D, short; leg I about
as long as leg IV --------... --..........
-------.-- Proprioseius Chant (p. 24)
9a (4b) 1 pair of median setae; 1 pair of
sublateral setae --.......---.---------.......... 10
9b 3 pairs of median setae; 2 pairs of
sublateral setae -...-.--..--..--------...... 11
10a (9a)7 pairs of lateral setae; S1 on dorsal
scutum ; peritreme long -----------.........
--------. Platyseiella Muma (p. 56)
10b 9 pairs of lateral setae; S, on inter-
scutal membrane; peritreme short
-------- GaIndronmim us Muma (p. 58)
11a (9b) Macrosetae' usually present on
genu, tibia, and tarsus of leg IV;
medium-sized species -------......--. 12
11b No macrosetae or macrosetae only
on tarsus of leg IV; small species --
---.------ -------............ 20
12a(lla)7 pairs of lateral setae; 1 or 2
pairs of preanal setae on female
ventrianal scutum --------...................
--..---. Amblyseiella Muma (p. 54)
12b 8 pairs of lateral setae; 3 pairs of
preanal setae on female ventrianal
scutum .------..-...-................--------...---....... 13
13a(12b) L, and sometimes L4 and/or M,
long and whip-like, longer than
distance between their bases; leg I
with macroseta on genu and erect
seta on tarsus ------------.......................... 14
13b L, usually shorter than, at most as
long as, distance between their
bases; L, and M, always shorter
than distance between their bases;
leg I with no macroseta or only 1
on genu, no erect seta on tarsus 15
14a (13a) Chelicerae normal, pilus dentilis
medial, spermatodactyl with heel


terminal Amblyseius Berlese ..
S-----------. --.. --...... (p. 62)
14b Chelicerae large, pilus dentilis
basal, spermatodactyl with foot
terminal -----------------.................. Chel-
aseius Muma and Denmark (p. 59)
15a (13b) Peritremal scutum distinct and ex-
tending to or along leg IV exopo-
dal scutum; usually well sclero-
tized, brown or red-brown species
-----------.. ------.. ...........-. .. ......... 16
15b Peritremal scutum indistinct or
missing; usually lightly sclerotized
yellow or white species ---.----........--. 17
16a(15a) Peritremal scutum extending to
leg IV exopodal scutum, legs II
and III with macrosetae, cheli-
cerae multidentate -...................
-----. Iphiseiodes De Leon (p. 70)
16b Peritremal scutum along leg IV
exopodal scutum, legs II and III
without macrosetae, chelicerae
with few (2 to 4) denticules ..
Fundiseius Muma and Denmark -..-
-----------.--. ...--. ......-..... (p. 71)
17a(15b) Sternal scutum distinct and
straight or concave posteriorly;
ventrianal scutum approximately
shield-shaped or pentagonal -_ 18
17b Sternal scutum indistinct but tri-
lobate posteriorly; ventrianal scu-
tumrn elongate, vase-shaped or con-
cave laterally ---------.. --....--.......... 19
18a(17a) M, and L, distinctly serrate; ster-
num as wide or wider than long;
leg I macroseta when present on
genu, macrosetae also usually pre-
sent on genu II and genu III --
---- Typhlodrcmips De Leon (p. 78)
18b M.3 and L, not or indistinctly ser-
rate; sternum longer than wide;
genu I, genu II, and genu III with-
out macrosetae ......---------------.............
----- Neoseiulus Hughes (p. 100)
19a(17b) Peritreme usually extends for-
ward to L,; anterior pair of pre-
anal setae adjacent to anterior
margin of ventrianal scutum; chel-
icerae normal and multidentate
---- Typhlodromalus Muma (p. 86)
19b Peritreme not extending forward










to L,; anterior pair preanal setae
removed from anterior margin of
ventrianal scutum; chelicerae tiny
with 0 to 4 denticules --...---. -------
.t--- Euseius Wainstein (p. 92)
20a(11b) Lateral setae setaceous; 4 pairs of
preanal setae on female ventrianal
scutum; massive metapodal scuta;
small round species ---.. ------....-- ...-
-- Paraamblyseius Muma (p. 112)
20b Lateral setae spatulate and oblan-
ceolate; 2 pairs of preanal setae on
female ventrianal scutum; small
metapodal scuta; small slender
species .......-- ........ .........--- --- ..
.-- Phyllodromus De Leon (p. 114)
21a (2b) 1 pair of median setae; some lateral
setae thickened and serrate or
plum ose -- -. ......-- .......................
------- Phytoseius Ribaga (p. 115)
21b 2 or 3 pairs of median setae; lat-
eral setae setaceous although some-
times plumose or apically knobbed
.--..----.......... ......... ........ 22
22a (21b) With 9 pairs of lateral setae; 1
pair of sublateral setae; 4 (some-
times 3) pairs of preanal setae on
fem ales .............................. --- ..-
.----. Galendromus Muma (p. 134)
22b With 8 to 10 pairs of lateral setae;
2 pairs of sublateral setae; 3 or 4


pairs of preanal setae on females
-- --- -............ ......................... 23
23a (22b) Leg IV with 3 macrosetae ....... 24
23b Leg IV with 0 to 1 macrosetae --.
-.---------..-..-.------- --------------.-... -... 25
24a (23a) 9 pairs of lateral setae; 2 pairs of
sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal
setae; most dorsal scutal setae
knobbed ........ ----. ................
.......... Cl ;,r Muma (p. 128)
24b 10 pairs of lateral setae; 3 pairs
of sternal setae; 4 pairs of preanal
setae; dorsal scutal setae pointed
-.-- .. .. ... ..-- Orientis-
eius Muma and Denmark (p. 141)
25a(23b) 8 pairs of lateral setae; 2 to 3
pairs of sternal setae ..-............. 26
25b 10 pairs of lateral setae; 2 pairs of
sternal setae ...... ..------ ---.. ---...-.. 27
26a(25a) Most lateral setae slender and
smooth or weakly plumose .....
--. Typhlodromina Muma (p. 130)
26b Most lateral setae flattened ...
---.. Paraseiulella Muma (p. 124)
27a(25b) 2 pairs of median setae; 3 pairs of
preanal setae ... ------- --- ---.-
------.. Anthoseius De Leon (p. 140)
27b 3 pairs of median setae; 4 pairs of
preanal setae -- --..- ...........
..... Paraseiulus Muma (p. 142)









14

Table 2. Setal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida
Generic name Number of Setae






Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker

Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker 5 3 8 (1)2 3 1 3

Amblyseiinae Muma

Phytoscutus Muma 2 2 8 2 3 3 3
Proprioseius Chant 3 1 8 2 3 3 3
Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark 3 2 8 2 3 3 3
Phytoseiulus Evans 3 1 8 2 3 0-1 3
Proprioseiopsis Muma 3 3 8 2 3 3 3
Noeledius Muma and Denmark 4 3 8 (2)2 3 3 3
Amblyseiella Muma 4 3 8 2 3 1-2 4-5
Platyseiella Muma 4 1 7 (1)1 3 2 2
Galendromimus Muma 4 1 9 1 2 4 1
Chelaseius Muma and Denmark 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Amblyseius Berlese 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Iphiseiodes De Leon 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Fundiseius Muma and Denmark 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Typhlodromips De Leon 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Typhlodromalus Muma 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Euseius Wainstein 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Neoseiulus Hughes 4 3 8 2 3 3 3
Paraamblyseius Muma 4 3 8 2 3 4 1
Phyllodromus De Leon 4 3 8 2 3 2 4

Phytoseiinae Berlese
Phytoseius Ribaga 3-4 2 8(1)1-2 2-3 1-3 2-4
Paraseiulella Muma 4 2 8 2 2 4 2
Clavidromus Muma 4 2 10 2 2 3 3
Typhlodromina Muma 4 2 8 2 2 4 2
Galendromus Muma 4 2 9 1 2 4 1-2
Anthoseius De Leon 4 2 10 2 2 3 4
Orientiseius Muma and Denmark 4 3 10 2 3 4 3
Paraseiulus Muma 4 3 10 2 2 2-4 2
*(1)-=S1 on dorsal scutum in females.
(2)=S2 on dorsal scutum in females.













Table 3. Scutal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida

Number Sternal scutum


dorsal


scuta L/W


Post.


Ventrianal scutum


Size and form


margin Form Size Major Metapodals


Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker
Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker

Amblyseiinae Muma
Phytoscutus Muma

Proprioseius Chant

Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark

Phytoseiulus Evans

Proprioseiopsis Muma


Noeledius Muma and Denmark



Amblyseiella Muma

Platyseiella Muma


Galendromimus Muma


2 L>W


L
L>W

L
L
L = or < W


Concave Quadrate < genital Normal


Concave

Concave

Concave

Concave

Concave


Pentagonal >

Elongate =

Pentagonal =

Quadrate <

Pentagonal


genital

genital

genital

genital

genital


1 L

1 L=W Concave

1 L = W Not
Visible

1 L =W Not
Visible

1 L

Quadrate

Elongate


genital

genital


Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal


Smaller
than
Minor

Normal

Small


Pentagonal = genital Normal


Pentagonal > genital Normal Ovate


Generic name


Elongate


Ovate

Elongate

Ovate

Elongate

Ovate to
Elongate

Elongate



Elongate

Elongate


Elongate


Chelaseius Muma and Denmark












Table 3 (cont.)


Amblyseius Berlese

Iphiseiodes De Leon

Fundiseius Muma and Denmark

Typhlodromips De Leon

Typhlodromalus Muma

Euseius Wainstein

Neoseiulus Hughes


Paraamblyseius Muma

Phyllodromus De Leon

Phytoseiinae Berlese
Phytoseius Ribaga



Paraseiulella Muma

Clavidromus Muma

Typhlodromina Muma

Galendromus Muma


Anthoseius De Leon


Orientiseius Muma and Denmark

Paraseiulus Muma


1 L= or > W Concave Variable =


L
L
L or < W

L>W

L>W

L = or > W


Concave

Concave

Concave

Lobate

Lobate

Concave


genital Normal


Shield = genital

Pentagonal -/>genital

Pentagonal =/>genital

Elongate < genital

Elongate < genital

Variable =/> genital


L

L < W Concave Quadrate =-


1 L W Concave
L < W Truncate
or Lobate


genital
genital


Ovate


Normal Elongate

Normal Elongate

Normal Ovate

Normal Ovate

Normal Ovate

Normal Ovate to
Elongate

Large Triangular

Normal Elongate


Variable =/< genital Normal


1 L = W Truncate Pentagonal

1 L > W Lobate Pentagonal

1 L = W Truncate Pentagonal

1 L = W Truncate Pentagonal


or Concave
1 L < W Not
Visible

1 L = W Concave

1 L = W Concave


= genital
= genital

= genital

= genital


Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal


Pentagonal < genital Normal


Pentagonal

Pentagonal


< genital Normal

= genital Normal


Elongate


Elongate

Elongate

Elongate

Elongate


Elongate


Elongate

Ovate












Table 4. Peritremal and stigmatal characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida.

Peritremal &
stigmatal scuta
Fused Sepa- Com- Special
Generic name Peritreme extending forward rated plex characters


Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker
Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker
Amblyseiinae Muma
Phytoscutus Muma

Proprioseius Chant

Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark

Phytoseiulus Evans

Proprioseiopsis Muma

Noeledius Muma and Denmark

Amblyseiella Muma

Platyseiella Muma

Galendromimus Muma
Chelaseius Muma and Denmark

Amblyseius Berlese

Iphiseiodes De Leon

Fundiseius Muma and Denmark

Typhlodromips De Leon

Typhlodromalus Muma

Euseius Wainstein
Neoseiulus Hughes


Paraamblyseius Muma

Phyllodromus De Leon
Phytoseiinae Berlese
Phytoscius Ribaga
Paraseiulella Muma
Clavidromus Muma
Typhlodromina Muma


Galendromus Muma

Anthoseius De Leon

Orientiseius Muma and Denmark
Paraseiulus Muma


Beyond L1


To vertical
setae
To vertical
setae X
Between
vertical setae X
Beyond L1

To or between
vertical setae
Between
vertical setae
To vertical
setae X
To vertical
setae X
Beyond L4 X
Between
vertical setae X
Between
vertical setae X
Beyond L1

To or between
vertical setae
To or between
vertical setae X1
To vertical
setae X
To L4 to Li X
To vertical
setae at least
beyond L1 X
To vertical
setae
Beyond L1 X

Beyond L1 X
Beyond L1 X
To L2 X
Between
verticals
or beyond Li X
A variable
distance X
To L1 X


Beyond L2
Beyond Li


Secondary pore on peritreme-
X like plate.
Scuta parallel leg IV exopodal



X Peritremal scuta parallel leg IV
exopodal

X

X


Enlarged secondary pore

Enlarged secondary pore
Reinforced secondary pore

Reinforced secondary pore


X Peritremal scuta to leg IV
exopodal
Peritremal scuta surround
X IV exopodal


Extra division near leg IV
X exopodal
Peritreme very wide


Reinforced secondary pore
Triangular secondary pore
Enlarged secondary pore


Kidney shaped secondary pore

One very small round and one
kidney shaped secondary pore
Long and thin secondary pore
Kidney shaped secondary pore


1T. simplicissimus, the type, has separated scuta.











Table 5. Spermathecal and spermatodactyl characters among genera of Phytoseiidae
found in Florida.

Spermathecal form
Generic name Cervix Atrium Spermatodactyl form

Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker
Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker Saccular Nodular Heel terminal, lateral process
small to obscure

Amblyseiinae Muma

Phytoscutus Muma Corniform Nodular Foot terminal, lateral process
and toe modified into crescent

Proprioseius Chant Poculiform Nodular Heel terminal, lateral process
large and usually distinct

Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark Tubular Undiff.

Phytoseiulus Evans Vesicular Undiff. Value Foot terminal, heel obscure, lat-


Proprioseiopsis Muma



Noeledius Muma and Denmark

Amblyseiella Muma


Platyseiella Muma



Galendromimus Muma



Chelaseius Muma and Denmark


Amblyseius Berlese



Iphiseiodes De Leon


Fundiseius Muma and Denmark


Typhlodromips De Leon


Typhlodromalus Muma



Euseius Wainstein


Neoseiulus Hughes


Flared


Fundibuliform
Saccular
Poculiform

Saccular

Fundibuliform


Poculiform



Vesicular



Saccular


Fundibuliform
Saccular
Poculiform

Tubular and
Fundibuliform

Fundibuliform


Fundibuliform
and Tubular

Tubular



Tubular


Fundibuliform
Tubular
Saccular


indistinct


Undiff. and
Nodular


Ovate

Slender,
Ovate

Nodular



Undiff.



Undiff. to
Nodular

Undiff.
Nodular


Undiff.


Ovate


Undiff. and
Nodular

Undiff. and
Nodular


Undiff.


Nodular


eral process small, toe large and
spatulate

Foot terminal or subterminal,
heel and lateral process obscure
to distinct

Not known

Heel terminal, lateral process
obscure or absent

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process subequal and distinct
crest present

Male unknown (De Leon, 1967,
shows foot terminal and lateral
process distinct)

Foot terminal, heel obscure, lat-
eral process distinct

Heel terminal, lateral process
obscure to distinct


Foot terminal, heel obscure, lat-
eral process distinct

Foot terminal, heel obscure, lat-
eral process distinct

Foot terminal, heel distinct, lat-
eral process distinct to obscure

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process distinct, toe broad and
flat

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process distinct

Heel or foot terminal, lateral
process distinct to obscure








Table 5 (Cont.)

Paraamblyseius Muma


Phyllodromus De Leon


Phytoseiinae Berlese

Phytoseius Ribaga




Paraseiulella Muma



Clavidromus Muma

Typhlodromina Muma


Galendromus Muma



Anthoseius De Leon


Orientiseius Muma and Denmark


Paraseiulus Muma


Saccular


Saccular



Saccular and
Fundibuliform



Tubular to
Fundibuliform


Fundibuliform

Tubular


Tubular
Vesicular


Fundibuliform


Saccular


Fundibuliform


Slender,
Ovate

Undiff. Valve



Slender,
Ovate
Undiff. and
Nodular

Nodular



Hooked

Undiff.


Nodular
Undiff.


Undiff.


Nodular


Undiff.


19

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process distinct

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process subequal and distinct


Foot usually terminal, heel and
lateral process subequal and dis-
tinct


Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process distinct


Male unknown

Foot terminal, lateral process
distinct

Foot terminal, heel terminal or
heel and lateral process subequal
and distinct

Foot terminal, heel and lateral
process indistinct

Heel terminal, lateral process
small to obscure
Male unknown











Table 6. Cheliceral and leg characters among genera of Phytoseiidae found in Florida.

Chelicerae
Fixed Denticules Denticules
finger movable fixed Leg Number of Macrosetae'
Generic name Lengthy finger finger formula I II III IV


Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker
Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker

Amblyseiinae Chant, Denmark and Baker
Phytoscutus Muma
Proprioseius Chant
Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark
Phytoseiulus Evans
Proprioseiopsis Muma
Noeledius Muma and Denmark
Amblyseiella Muma
Platyseiella Muma
Galendromimus Muma
Chelaseius Muma and Denmark
Amblyseius Berlese
Iphiseiodes De Leon
Fundiseius Muma and Denmark

Typhlodromips De Leon

Typhlodromalus Muma
Euseius Wainstein

Neoseiulus Hughes

Paraamblyseius Muma
Phyllodromus De Leon
Phytoseiinae Berlese
Phytoseius Ribaga
Paraseiulella Muma
Clavidromus Muma
Typhlodromina Muma
Galendromus Muma
Anthoseius De Leon
Orientiseius Muma and Denmark
Paraseiulus Muma

'See identification of macrosetae (p. 3).
2Leg I much longer than other legs.


50-56


3-4 10-12 4132 1 2 2 3


16-24 0-3 0-6 4123
20-32 1-3 6-8 4123
40 1- 10- 14232
24-26 3 8- 4123
24-48 0-3 3-12 1423
48 0 3 1423
24-36 0-1 1-3 4123
20-24 1 2-3 4123
20-22 2 1 4123
56-80 0 2-4 1423
24-40 0-4 8-12 1423
28-36 2-3 9-10 4132
28-40 0 2-4 1432
1423
24-36 0-3 4-9 4123
4132
28-40 1-3 8-9 4123
20-28 0-1 1-4 1423
4123
20-36 0-2 4-6 4123
1423
16-20 1-2 5-7 4123
18-24 2 5-6 4132


21-23
20-26
28-33
27-29
25-27
20-22
28-30
20-22


0
0
1
0
0-1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0


0
0
2
0
0-2
0
1
0
1
2
2
1
0


0-3 0-3 0-3 2-3

0-3 0-3 0-3 2-3
0-3 0-3 0-3 2-3

0 0 0 0-3


4123
1423
4123
4123
4132
4123
4123
4123





21


SUBFAMILY MACROSEIINAE CHANT, DENMARK, AND BAKER


Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker, 1959: 808
Phytoseiinae Berlese, Chant, 1965: 359 (in part).


Large Phytoseiidae with a divided dorsal
scutum, 5 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of
median setae, 4 pairs of anterior lateral
setae; 2 pairs of sublateral setae with S, on
anterior dorsal scutum in females. Males
with partly to completely fragmented ventri-
anal scutum and both sublateral setae on
anterior dorsal scutum.
TYPE GENUS: Macroseius Chant, Den-
mark, and Baker, 1959.
DIAGNOSIS: Large phytoseiids with di-
vided dorsal scutum and 4 pairs of anterior
lateral setae well anterior to D3.
DISCUSSION: Sternal and dorsal scutal
pores are not illustrated for this subfamily


which is presently
species.


known


from only


shank and a distinct terminal heel and a
small to obscure lateral process on the foot.
The fragmented ventrianal scutum has 4
pairs of preanal setae.
TYPE SPECIES: Macroseius biscutatus
Chant, Denmark, and Baker, 1959, by desig-
nation.
DISCUSSION: The genus is monotypic.
The type species feeds primarily on nema-
todes. It is known only from Florida,
Georgia and North Carolina.


Macroseius


one


biscutatus Chant,
and Baker


Denmark,


Fig. 48 to 55


GENUS MACROSEIUS CHANT,
DENMARK, AND BAKER

Macroseius Chant, Denmark, and Baker,
1959: 808.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are usually large
and distinguished by 8 pairs of lateral setae,
some elongate and serrate; 3 pairs of sternal
setae; 1 pair of preanal setae.
Dorsal scutum imbricate and transversely
divided just posterior to D,. Sternum longer
than wide. Preanal, ventrianal setae on an-
terior margin of scutum which is ovate.
There are 4 pairs of ventrolateral setae ex-
cluding the caudal setae. Peritreme long but
extending forward just beyond L,. The peri-
tremal and stigmatal scuta are fused but
distinguishable posteriorly. The chelicerae
are normal in proportion to body size with
both fingers multidentate. Macrosetae' are
present on the genu of all legs, Sti IV, and
St IV. There is also an erect seta on tarsus
1, St I. Leg formula 4132.
Males are distinctly smaller than but
otherwise similar to females. The sperma-
todactyl is well developed with an elongate


1See definition of macrosetae (p. 3).


Macroseius biscutatus Chant, Denmark, and
Baker, 1959: 808.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is easily recog-
nized by the generic characters. Instability
of normally stable characters is confusing,


Macroseius biscutatus o
Ch mt, Denmark, and Baker iO"









Muma and Denmark (1962), but it is mor-
phologically, biologically, and ecologically
unique, Muma and Denmark (1967). The
body is about 450, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from pitcher-
plant leaf, Alachua County, Florida, June 23,
1958, by H. A. Denmark, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This unusual, large phytoseiid
is, at the present time, known only from
Florida, Georgia and North Carolina where
it is found in the leaf cups of pitcher-plants,
Sarracenia spp. (p. 10).
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Osceola, Polk, Putnam, and Seminole.


BIOLOGY: Living specimens are milk-
white to pale yellow in color, occasionally
marked with dark green to black gut con-
tents.
Over-wintering mites have been kept alive
on water for 3 months but summer mites
seem to live a much shorter time. The
species feeds primarily on nematodes of the
genus Panagrolaimus that occur in the liquid
of Sarracenia leaf cups. It can, however,
survive on other foods including Collembola
and anoetids, Muma and Denmark (1967).
The life cycle is completed in 9 to 12 days.
This species has been collected year
around except for August (Muma and Den-
mark, 1967).


SUBFAMILY AMBLYSEIINAE MUMA

Amblyseiinae Muma, 1961: 273
Amblyseiini Muma, Schuster and Pritchard, 1963: 225.
Phytoseiinae Berlese, Chant, 1965: 359 (in part).


Phytoseiidae with an undivided dorsal
scutum, 2 to 5 pairs of dorsal setae, 1 to 3
pairs of median setae, 4 pairs of lateral
setae well anterior to Ds, normally 7 or 8
total; 1 to 3 pairs of sublateral setae on
females; 1 to 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal
setae; 1 to 3 macrosetae' on leg IV. Males
have a fragmented or entire ventrianal scu-
tum with 3 or 4 pairs of ventrianal setae,
and usually 2 pairs of sublateral setae with
both on the dorsal scutum.
TYPE GENUS: Amblyseius Berlese, 1915.
DIAGNOSIS: Medium sized phytoseiids
with undivided dorsal scutum and 3 or 4



'See definition of macrosetae (p. 3).


pairs of anterior lateral setae well anterior
to D3.
DISCUSSION: In this subfamily the ster-
nal scuta have 2 pairs of laterally located,
distinctively reinforced pores. Since they
are always present these pores have been
omitted from the illustrations of species of
this subfamily. -
Dorsal scutal pores also have been largely
omitted from Amblyseiinae illustrations. A
few unusually large or otherwise distinctive
pores have been indicated, but small or in-
distinct pores have been omitted purposely
to avoid errors. We believe that many, if
not all, dorsal scutal setae on Amblyseiinae
have associated pores, but that they are in-
distinct or invisible on certain specimens at
presently obtainable magnifications.


leg
9.


Fig. 48 to 55. Macroseius biscutatus Ch
structure and station 9. 49. Ventral
51. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal


ant, Denmark, and
scuta and station
development 9. 52


Baker.
9. 50.
and 53.


tions of spermathecal structure 9. 54. Spermatodactyl structure 3. 55.
tum S.


48. Dorsal and
Metapodal scuta
Positional varia-
Ventrianal scu-




























51












/ /

48
50











55 52 53







24


GENUS PHYTOSCUTUS MUMA

Phytoscutus Muma, 1961: 275.
Amblyseius Berlese, Chant, 1965: 371 (in
part).
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 2 pairs of dorsal setae, 2 pairs of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae, some elongate
and weakly plumose; 2 pairs of sublateral
setae on the interscutal membrane; 3 pairs
of sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal setae on
a massive shield-shaped ventrianal scutum.
Dorsal scutum well sclerotized and pro-
vided with numerous tiny pits. Sternum
much wider than long with a concave pos-
terior margin. There are 3 pairs of ventro-
lateral setae excluding the caudal setae.
Peritreme long, extending forward to verti-
cal setae. Peritremal and stigmatal scuta
divided into 3 sections posterior to the
secondary pore which is situated on a peri-
treme-like plate. Chelicerae small in pro-
portion to body size. Macrosetae present
only on leg IV, Sge IV and Sti IV elongate,
St IV short and hamate. Leg formula 4123.
Males smaller than females, but other-
wise similar. Spermatodactyl with an elon-
gate shank terminating in a crescent-like
structure instead of the usual foot. Ventri-
anal scutum with 3 pairs of preanal setae.
TYPE SPECIES: Phytoscutus sexpilis
Muma, 1961, by designation.
DISCUSSION: This distinctive genus is
represented by 2 species, the type and Phy-
toscutus vaughni (Chant and Baker). The
latter is distinguished by having L4, M2, and
L8 much longer and whip-like and by having
edentate chelicerae.
The genus is known only from the Carib-
bean area. One species is known from Flor-
ida.


finger and
chelicerae.
TYPE:
type, and
grapefruit


3 on the movable finger of the
The body is about 350% long.
The female holotype, male allo-
paratypes feeding on acarids on
leaves at Polk City, Florida, May


Phytoscutus sexpilis o
Muma OWO


22, 1954, by M. H. Muma, are in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Host plants include Citrus
spp., Eriobotrya japonica, Feijoa sellowiana,
and Psidium sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Charlotte,
Marion, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens are rose-red
in color and invariably are associated with
and feed upon colonies of Tropacarus mumai
Cunliffe on trees and shrubs. It is known
locally as the velvet button mite.
This species has been collected in March,
April, May, and July.


Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma


Fig. 56 to 63
Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961: 275.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is easily distin-
guished by the generic characters, by hav-
ing L4, M2, and Ls elongate but not whip-like,
and by having 5 to 6 denticules on the fixed


GENUS PROPRIOSEIUS CHANT

Proprioseius Chant, 1957: 357.
Amblyseius Berlese, Chant, 1965: 371 (in
part).
Proprioseius Chant, Denmark and Muma,
1966: 253.







25


DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 3 pairs of dorsal setae, 1 pair of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae, some distinctly
clavate and serrate; 2 pairs of scapular setae
on the interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of ster-
nal setae; 3 pairs of preanal, ventrianal
setae.
Dorsal scutum partly to completely
creased and rugose. Sternum slightly longer
than wide. Ventrianal scutum elongate
with concave lateral margins; preanal setae
arranged in parenthesis-like longitudinal
rows; preanal pores, if present, very small
and obscure. Peritreme long, extending for-
ward to vertical setae. Peritremal and stig-
matal scuta indistinguishable fused and pro-
jected behind coxae IV. Chelicerae normal
but with 6 to 8 denticules on the fixed finger
and 1 to 3 on the movable finger. Legs
without macrosetae. Leg formula 4123.
Males smaller than females but otherwise
similar. Spermatodactyl with heel terminal
and lateral process large and usually distinct.
Ventrianal scutum with 4 pairs of preanal
setae; the extra pair is situated near the
lateral margin and is nearly aligned with the
paraanals.
TYPE SPECIES: Proprioseius meridion-
alis Chant, 1957, by designation.
DISCUSSION: This genus is known only
from North America and Central America.
It is represented by 5 species, 2 of which
occur in Florida.
Denmark and Muma (1966) erroneously
reported 7 lateral setae, 2 median setae,
and only 1 pair of metapodal scuta. The
genus actually possesses 8 pairs of lateral
setae, 1 pair of distinguishable median setae,
and 2 pairs of metapodal scuta.


Key to Proprioseius Chant in
Florida


(Females)

la L4 about 1/3 scutal width; L,; slightly
shorter than Ls ..--........--------------- .---------
.------.... meridionalis Chant (p. 23)
lb L4 less than 1/4 scutal width; L,; much
shorter than L .......................-------------------------......--
.... anthurus Denmark and Muma (p. 24)


Proprioseius meridionalis Chant

Fig. 64 to 69

Proprioseius meridionalis Chant, 1957: 358.
Phytoseiulus (Proprioseius) meridionalis
Chant, Wainstein, 1962: 17.
Amb lyseius (Proprioseius) meridionalis
Chant, Pritchard and Baker, 1962: 294.
Proprioseius meridionalis Chant, Denmark
and Muma, 1966: 259.
DIAGNOSIS: This species differs from
the 4 other known species of the genus by
the comparative lengths and forms of L2, Ls,


Proprioseius meridionalis
Chant


do


L4, and Ls. There are also minor differences
in the spermathecae and spermatodactyls.
The body is about 280,u long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Psycho-
tria bahamensis, Homestead, Florida, Octo-
ber 20, 1948, by 0. D. Link, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: It is found on a wide range of
host plants including Abutilon sp., Callicarpa
americana, Chrysanthemum sp., cover crops,
Croton sp., Erigernon sp., Eriobotrya japon-
ica, Malva sp., Parathenocissus quinquefolia,
Psychotria sp., Quercus prinus, Quercus







26


sp., Rhododendron sp., Rubus sp., Sarracenia
sp., Vitis sp., and weeds.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Clay, Dade, Gilchrist, Highlands, Hills-
borough, Lake, Levy, Pasco, Polk, Putnam,
and Volusia.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens of this small
species are off-white to pale yellow in color.
Food habits are unknown.
This species has been collected in every
month except January.

Proprioseius anthurus Denmark and
Muma

Fig. 70 to 75

Proprioseius anthurus Denmark and Muma,
1966: 261.
DIAGNOSIS: Proprioseius anthurus dif-
fers from the closely-related P. meridionalis


Proprioseius anthurus
Denmark and Muma .0,00 4


Chant in the shorter lengths of L4 and L,.
It differs from P. clancyi Chant in having L1
and L, subequal and L, much shorter than
L,. The body is about 290, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Levy
County, Florida (2 miles south of junction
US 19 and State 121, April 30, 1965, by H.
A. Denmark, on Quercus stellata, is in the
USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has been taken
from Quercus stellata and Quercus stellata
margaretta.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Levy, Lib-
erty and Marion.
BIOLOGY: This species is an off-white in
life and has been found along the underside
of the leaf associated with the midrib in the
absence of any other arthropod.
This species has been collected in May,
June, and October.


GENUS PROPRIOSEIULUS MUMA
AND DENMARK

Proprioseiulus Muma and Denmark, 1968:
231 (new name for Proprioseiopsis Muma,
1961, not type).
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 3 pairs of dorsal setae, 2 pairs of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae with some
elongate and weakly plumose but only 3 pairs
well anterior to D3; 2 pairs of scapular
setae on interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of
sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal setae.
Dorsal scutum well sclerotized but not
ornamented. Sternal scutum as wide as long
and deeply notched anteriorly. Ventrianal
scutum shield-shaped. Peritreme long, ex-
tending forward between vertical setae.
Peritremal and stigmatal scuta indistin-
guishably fused and projected only to leg IV
exopodal scutum. Chelicerae normal in size


with 10+ denticules on fixed finger and 1 or
more denticules on movable finger. Macro-


Fig. 56 to 63. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma.
tion 9. 57. Ventral scuta and station 9. 58.
opment 9. 59 and 60. Positional variations of
dactyl structure. 62. Male ventrianal scutum.


56. Dorsal and leg structure and seta-
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal devel-
spermathecal structure. 61. Spermato-
63. Larval dorsal station.

























61


' I


\


D 6
:



0
O, '" '. ,

*' '
. G/y







28


setae present on genu of leg I, Sge II, Sge
III, Sti III, Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV. Leg
formula 1423 with leg I nearly twice as long
as other legs.
Special setal characters include only 3
pairs of lateral setae obviously anterior to
D3; L2 and L3 are more than twice as far
from L, and L4 as they are from each other;
there is no median seta associated with L5.
Males are similar to females except S, and
S2 are located on the dorsal scutum. Sperma-
todactyl with typical terminal foot, distinct
heel and lateral process, and spatulate toe.
TYPE SPECIES: Proprioseiopsis paxi
Muma, 1965, by designation, Muma and Den-
mark (1968).
DISCUSSION: The genus is known only
from southeastern United States. One spe-
cies is known from Florida.

Proprioseiulus paxi (Muma)

Fig. 76 to 82

Proprioseiopsis paxi Muma, 1965a: 245.
Proprioseiulus paxi (Muma), Muma and
Denmark, 1968: 231.

DIAGNOSIS: The large size, the length of
leg I, the distinctive elongate setae on leg I,
the extreme length of Ls, and the location of
the pores on the ventrianal scutum serve to
distinguish this species. The body is about
390,u long.
TYPE: The female holotype from citrus
litter, Cleveland, Florida, January 22, 1962,
by Judith A. Murrell, is in the USNM, Wash-
ington, D. C.
HABITAT: The holotype of this species
was collected from citrus litter and the para-


Proprioseiulus paxi
(Muma)


type from sand pine litter. It also has been
collected from litter in Georgia.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Charlotte,
Orange, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology of this species.

GENUS PHYTOSEIULUS EVANS

Phytoseiulus Evans, 1952: 397.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 3 pairs of dorsal setae which are elongate
and plumose, 1 pair of median setae, 8 pairs
of lateral setae some elongate and distinctly
plumose; 2 pairs of scapular setae on inter-
scutal membrane; 3 pairs of sternal setae;
no or 1 pair of preanal setae.


Fig. 64 to 69. Proprioseius meridionalis
station 9. 65. Ventral scuta and station
development 9. 67. Spermathecal structure
Ventrianal scutum 8.
Fig. 70 to 75. Proprioseius anthurus De
ture and station 9. 71. Ventral scuta and
stigmatal development 9. 73. Spermathecal
&. 75. Ventrianal scutum &.


Chant.
9. 66.
9. 68.

mark an
station
structure


64. Dorsal and leg structure and
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
Spermatodactyl structure &. 69.


d
9


Muma.
72.
9. 74.


70. Dorsal and leg struc-
Posterior peritremal and
Spermatodactyl structure












7 74





72



71



73 -71









\11
\ 70








68 /

7 'y 66

t 65



y -r (f 67 /








30


Dorsal scutum lightly to moderately scle-
rotized and creased or imbricate, the latter
more distinct laterally than medially. Ster-
num much wider than long and creased.
Genital scutum creased. Ventrianal scutum
reduced in size, creased and with no or only
1 pair of preanal setae. Peritremes short ex-
tending forward to the area between L4 and
L,. Peritremal scutum extends to and be-
side leg IV exopodal scutum, stigmatal scu-
tumrn with 2 distinguishable secondary pores.
Chelicerae small, fixed fingers with 8 or
more denticules, movable fingers with 3 den-
ticules. Distinguishable macrosetae usually
present only as Sge IV and St IV. Leg for-
mula 4132 with all legs longer than usual.
Males smaller than females but otherwise
similar. Spermatodactyl of typical form,
foot terminal, heel obscure, and lateral proc-
ess small, but with toe large and spatulate.
Ventrianal scutum with 3 pairs of preanal
setae.
TYPE SPECIES: Laelaps macropilis
Banks, 1905, by designation, Evans (1952).
DISCUSSION: Six species have been de-
scribed in this genus, but Chant (1960) syn-
onymized P. speyeri Evans with P. macro-
pilis (Banks) and P. riegeli Dosse with P.
persimilis Athias-Henriot. Gonzales and
Schuster (1962) redistinguished P. riegeli.
Therefore, at the present time, only P.
macropilis, P. persimilis, P. riegeli, P. tardi
(Lombardina), and P. chanti Ehara are
recognized. However, because of inadequa-
cies and inaccuracies in earlier descriptions
and diagnoses, the types of all described
species probably should be reexamined and
reevaluated.
Several workers have studied the biologies
and biological control potentials of species of
this genus. They are effective predators of
spider mites on low growing shrubs and
herbs.


This genus probably is world wide in dis-
tribution. It is common in the Caribbean


area. Only the type species is known from
Florida.


Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)

Fig. 83 to 91

Laelaps macropilis Banks, 1905: 139.
Hypoaspis macropilis (Banks), Banks, 1915:
85.
Phytoseiulus speyeri Evans, 1952: 398.
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Cunliffe
and Baker, 1953: 23.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this species are
readily distinguished from P. persimilis


Phytoseiulus macropilis
(Banks)


7,/
4* o


Athias-Henriot by the presence of 1 pair of
preanal setae and in having macroseta Sti
IV weakly plumose. Males of the two spe-
cies are practically indistinguishable. The
body is about 340) long.
TYPE: The female holotype from water


Fig. 76 to 82. Proprioseiulus paxi (Muma). 76. Dorsal
9. 77. Tip of weakly plumose L, 9. 78. Ventral and leg
Metapodal scuta 9. 80. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
theca structure 8. 82. Spermatodactyl structure &,


and leg structure and station
structure and station 9. 79.
development 9. 81. Sperma-















82


79


77










hyacinth, Eustis, Florida, is in the USNM, GENUS PROPRIOSEIOPSIS MUMA
Washington, D. C.


HABITAT: Recorded host plants include
Amaranthus tricolor, Antirrhinum sp., Bi-
dens pilosa, Chenopodium ambrosiodes,
Citrus spp., Cocos nucifera, Crotalaria sp.,
Eichhornia crassipes, Euphorbia pulcher-
rima, Fragaria sp., Hieracium venosum,
Hydrangea sp., Indigofera sp., Ipomoea
cairica, Ipomoea leptophylla, Lathyrus odor-
atus, Lippia nodiflora, Magnolia grandiflora,
Passiflora sp., Pittosporum sp., Pontederia
sp., Ricinus communis, Quercus stellata,
Rhododendron indicum, Rubus spp., Taxo-
dium sp., Tradescantia sp., Ulmus parvifolia,
Viburnum sp., Viola sp., Zea mays 'Rugosa',
and weeds.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Brevard, Broward, Dade, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Monroe, Orange, Pasco, Palm
Beach, Polk, St. Lucie, Seminole, and Vo-
lusia.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens are pink to
red in color with a milk-white spot over the
posterior part of the dorsum. Although its
host range includes trees, it is found most
commonly on low-growing shrubs, herbs, and
vines where it is usually associated with co-
lonial tetranychids. It has been referred to
locally as the long-legged mite but might be
more properly called the long-legged phyto-
seiid.
The biology of this species was studied by
Smith and Summers (1949) who found that
the life cycle was completed in about 5 days
and that adults lived about 4 weeks. Eval-
uation studies inferred a biological control
potential, but more quantitative data are
needed.
This species has been collected in every
month except January, June, and October.


Proprioseiopsis Muma, 1961: 277 (type
only).
Amblyseiulus Muma, 1961: 278.
Amblyseius Berlese, Schuster and Pritchard,
1963: 255 (in part).
Amblyseius Berlese, Chant, 1965: 371 (in
part).
Amblyseiulus Muma, De Leon, 1966:83.
Proprioseiopsis Muma, Muma and Denmark,
1968: 231.

DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 3 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae, some elongate
and weakly plumose; 2 pairs of sublateral
setae on the interscutal membrane; 3 pairs
of sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal setae.
Dorsal scutum well sclerotized and smooth
except for indistinct lunate areas on most
species. Sternal scutum as wide or wider
than long with straight or concave posterior
margin; most species have the sternum
creased to reticulate. Ventrianal scutum
shield-shaped to pentagonal and creased or
reticulate with preanal pores. Peritreme
long, extending forward to or between verti-
cal setae. Peritremal scutum with an ectal
strip that extends posteriorly to leg IV exo-
podal scutum. Chelicerae normal with the
fixed fingers provided with 6 to 14 denticules
and the movable fingers with 0 to 4 denti-
cules. Leg formula usually 1423 with leg I
slightly to distinctly longer but without
macrosetae, except on P. macrosetae
(Muma) and P. gracilisetae (Muma). Sge
II and Sge III present on some species. All
species have Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV.
Males smaller than females but otherwise
similar. Spermatodactyl of usual form with
foot terminal and heel and lateral process ob-
scure to distinct; the lateral process is fre-


Fig. 83 to 91. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks). 83. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 84. Articulation of L,, 9. 85. Weakly plumose Sti IV 9. 86. Ventral scuta
and station 9. 87. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 88. Spermathecal
structure 9. 89. Positional variations of spermatodactyl structure S. 90. Ventrianal scu-
tum. 91. Larval dorsal station.

















89


91










87









quently elongate. Ventrianal scutum with
3 or 4 pairs of preanal setae and a pair of
preanal pores.
TYPE SPECIES: Typhlodromus (Ambly-
seius) terrestris Chant, 1959, by designa-
tion, Muma (1961).
DISCUSSION: This genus includes at
least 40 known species, most of which are
readily grouped by spermathecal shape.
Two unusual species are recognized: P.
macrosetae (Muma) lacks the ectal peritre-
mal scutal strip, has a unique spermatheca,
and leg I is much longer than usual; P. gra-


cilisetae (Muma) has elongate macrosetae
on all legs and an unusual poculiform sper-
matheca.
Most species of Proprioseiopsis are found
in ground surface litter or on grass, herbs,
or vines; but the dorsatus group, which in-
cludes 5 species with several Amblyseius-
like characters, are arboreal.
This genus is world wide in distribution.
It is common in the Caribbean area. Six-
teen species have been collected in Florida. P.
tropicanus (Garman) is not included in the
key.


Key to Proprioseiopsis Muma in Florida
(Females)


la Leg I without distinguishable mac-
rosetae .-........-- --.. --- ----....----..---......... 3
lb Leg I with macrosetae, leg IV mac-
rosetae long ---------...--......--------............. 2
2a (lb) Leg I with 5 or 6 elongate setae;
L8 much longer than M3 ........
---.-. gracilisetae (Muma) (p. 48)
2b Leg I with at least 8 elongate setae;
M3 longer than L ----...--.....
-...-. macrosetae (Muma) (p. 35)
3a (la) Spermathecae elongate and saccular
or long and fundibuliform ------.... 10
3b Spermathecae short and poculiform
or short and fundibuliform ......------ 4
4a (3b) Spermathecae poculiform with short
atria-clausae group --------....-.-.......... 6
4b Spermathecae short fundibuliform
with long atria--dorsatus group ...5
5a (4b) Ventrianal pores between posterior
preanal setae -..-.-- ...... .-..-...... ......-
--.-........... dorsatus (Muma) (p. 49)
5b Ventrianal pores behind posterior
preanal setae ...................... ..... -...
------------solens (De Leon) (p. 49)
6a (4a) Ventrianal pores between posterior
preanal setae; M, < L8 .-.......... 7
6b Ventrianal pores behind posterior
preanal setae; Ms = > L8 ................
-..------...-.. clausae (Muma) (p. 42)
7a (6a) Preanal pores large and elliptical;
L2 distinctly > L ...--......----------..-...... 8
7b Preanal pores minute and punctate;
L2 and L, subequal ----------. ------
--..----. -----.-... asetus (Chant) (p. 44)
8a (7a) L2 at least twice as long as La; dorsal
scutum smooth except for lunate


areas -------------.....------------------------................. 9
8b L, only 1/3 longer than Ls; dorsal
scutum creased and imbricate -
---------..-------.... lepidus (Chant) p. 46)
9a (8a) Preanale pores closer to posterior
preanal setae -.....-------..---...... temperel-
lus Denmark and Muma (p. 44)
9b Posterior pores closer to each other
-.--...-- mexicanus (Garman) (p. 48)
10a(3a) Spermathecae saccular; well-scle-
rotized species-rotundus group
------.. -.. ----- -...-.-.-.-. ........... 12
10b Spermathecae elongate fundibuli-
form; lightly-sclerotized species-
detritus group ..-..----..---......-----. 11
11a (10b) Spermathecal atrium large and
peanut-shaped; most setae short...-
-..----.. detritus (Muma) (p. 35)
lib Spermathecal atrium small and
nodular; L4, Ms, and L8 long ..-------
----....--..... citri (Muma) (p. 36)
12a (10a) Preanal pores between posterior
preanal setae; La > dorsal setae ..
........... .....................- ...... ..... 14
12b Preanal pores behind posterior
preanal setae; La= dorsal setae..13
13a (12b) L2 slightly longer than La; cervix
only twice as long as wide ------..--
.--.............. tubulus (Muma) p. 40)
13b L2 much longer than L,; cervix
nearly 4 times longer than wide ....
........ sarraceniae (Muma) (p. 40)
14a(12a) Cervix only twice as long as wide
-...-... cannaensis (Muma) (p. 38)
14b Cervix nearly 5 times longer than
w ide ....- ........- ... ....----- .----. -------
-.--------.. rotundus (Muma) (p. 36)








35


Proprioseiopsis macrosetae (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 92 to 98

Amblyseiulus macrosetae Muma, 1962: 3.
DIAGNOSIS: The slender tubular sperma-
theca, the spatulate toe of the spermato-
dactyl, the presence of macrosetae on legs
I, II, and III, and additional elongate setae
on leg I serve to distinguish this species. It
does not have the peritremal scutum extend-


been seen. The biology is unknown.
This species has been collected in January,
February, March, April, May, June, July,
September, and December.

Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 99 to 106

Amblyseiulus detritus Muma, 1961: 280.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished
from the closely-related Proprioseiopsis citri
Muma by the creased dorsal scutum, pro-
portions of setal lengths on the dorsal scu-
tum, and differences in the spermatheca and


Proprioseiopsis macrosetae
(Muma) 0


ing to leg IV exopodal scutum as on most
Proprioseiopsis. In general facies, it closely
resembles Proprioseiulus paxi (Muma). The
body is about 360M long.
TYPE: Female holotype, female paratype,
and male allotype from citrus litter, Malabar,
Florida, January 25, 1960, by Judith A. Mur-
rell, are in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Specimens have been collected
from Casuarina sp., Citrus sp. litter and
Pinus clausa litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Orange,
Osceola, Polk, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens have not


Proprioseiopsis detritus
(Muma) oWO


spermatodactyl. The allotype, collected from
citrus litter, is a misidentified male of Pro-
prioseiopsis mexicanus (Garman). The
spermatodactyl and ventrianal scutum of
the true male of this species are illustrated
here (Fig. 105, 106). The preanal pores
vary considerably in position, frequently ex-
hibiting asymmetry. The body is about 310,
long.
TYPE: The female holotype from pine and
hardwood litter, Moss Bluff, Florida, May
22, 1958, by H. L. Greene and Martin H.







36


Muma, is in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: To date, this species is known
only from litter of pines and hardwood trees.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Charlotte, Marion, Highlands, Osceola,
Orange, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology of this species.
This species has been collected in January,
March, April, May, November, and Decem-
ber.


Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma),
new combination


Fig. 107 to 112


Amblyseiulus citri Muma, 1962: 1.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is readily dis-
tinguished from P. detritus by the relatively
smooth dorsal scutum, longer M,, L1, L4, and
L,, a small but distinctly swollen spermathe-
cal atrium, and a differently shaped sper-
mathecal cervix. The body is about 330/x
long.
TYPE: The female holotype, allotype, and
paratypes from citrus litter, Sebring,
Florida, July 18, 1960, by M. H. Muma, are
in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: To date, this species has been
found only on the bark or in the litter be-
neath citrus trees (p. 10).
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, Polk, Osceola, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens have not
been seen.
This species has been collected in January
and April.


Proprioseiopsis citri
(Muma) 3004


Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma),

new combination

Amblyseiulus rotundus Muma, 1961 : 279.
DIAGNOSIS: The species is distinguished
from the closely-related Proprioseiopsis
cannaensis (Muma) by the longer and more
slender spermatheca and the comparatively
longer lateral process of the spermatodactyl.
Other closely-related species have different
proportional lengths of the lateral setae. The
body is about 360/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype and paratype
from fescue, Spring Water, Oregon, April 16,
1958, by G. W. Krantz, are in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.


Fig. 92 to 98. Proprioseiopsis macrosetae
station 9. 93. Ventral scuta and station 9.
peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 96.
dactyl structure S. 98. Ventrianal scutum 8
Fig. 99 to 106. Proprioseiopsis detritus (
station 9. 100. Ventral scuta and station
preanal pores 9. 103. Posterior peritremal a


(Muma). 92.
94. Metapo
Spermathecal
.
Muma). 99.
9. 101 and 1
nd stigmatal d


Dorsal and leg structure and
dal scuta 9. 95. Posterior
structure 9. 97. Spermato-


Dorsal and leg
02. Variations
development 9.


structure and
in position of
104. Sperma-


105. Spermatodactyl structure 8.


thecal structure 9.


106. Ventrianal scutum S.
















1r
100


103

102


98


96


106


r


b a


'9







38


HABITAT: Most specimens have been col-
lected from citrus litter; 1 specimen was
taken from citrus bark. It has also been
taken from can traps, Conocarpus erecta,


Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 119 to 125

Amblyseiulus cannaensis Muma, 1962: 4.
DIAGNOSIS: This mahogany red-brown
species is distinguished from the closely-
related Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma) by
its shorter, wider spermatheca and compara-
tively shorter lateral process of the sperma-
todactyl. Comparative lengths of median and
lateral setae on the dorsal scutum serve to
separate it from P. lindquisti (Schuster and
Pritchard), P. ovatus (Garman), P. fra-
gariae (Kennett), and P. exopodalis (Ken-
nett). The body is about 330M long.
TYPE: The female holotype from canna


Proprioseiopsis rotundus o
(Muma) o0f04


Digitaria decumbens, Gordonia lasianthus,
Paspalum notatum, and Tillandsia usneoides.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Brevard, De Soto, Highlands, Lake, Osceola,
Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about living
specimens.
This species has been collected in January,
February, April, and June.


Proprioseiopsis cannaensis
(Muma) 00


Fig. 107 to 112. Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma). 107. Dorsal and
station 9. 108. Ventral scuta and station 9. 109. Metapodal scuta
peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 111. Spermathecal structure
todactyl structure 8.
Fig. 113 to 118. Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma). 113. Dorsal
and station 9. 114. Ventral scuta and station 9. 115. Posterior pe
matal development 9. 116. Spermathecal structure 9. 117 and 118.
tions of spermatodactyl structure S.


leg structure and
9. 110. Posterior
9. 112. Sperma-

and leg structure
,ritremal and stig-
Positional varia-

















115


114


117


113


A6f


112


110


109


111







40


leaf, Winter Haven, Florida, July 24, 1960,
by M. H. Muma, is in the USNM, Washing-
ton, D. C.
HABITAT: Specimens have been collected
from Canna leaves, Ipomoea leaves, Citrus
litter, and Pinus clausa litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Charlotte, De Soto, Highlands, Lake, Osceola,
Pinellas, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: All living specimens collected
have been associated with Brevipalpus spp.
infestations.
This species has been collected in January,
April, July, August, September, October,
and December.

Proprioseiopsis tubulus (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 126 to 133

Amblyseiulus tubulus Muma, 1965a: 247.
DIAGNOSIS: The combination of the sac-
cular spermatheca, short L.. and L3, and the
location of the preanal pores distinguish this
species from closely-related forms. The
lateral process of the spermatodactyl is very
short. A female of this species was mis-
identified as P. clausae (Muma) and desig-
nated as a paratype, Muma (1962). The
body is about 360tc long.
TYPE: The female holotype from sand
pine litter, Oviedo, Florida, November 15,
1961, by Judith A. Murrell and M. H. Muma
is in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has been found
in can traps, Citrus sp., Pinus clause litter,
and on lake shore.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, Orange, Polk, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known of the biol-
ogy.


Proprioseiopsis tubulus
(Muma) 0 A


This species has been collected in Febru-
ary, March, June, July, August, and Septem-
ber.


Proprioseiopsis sarraceniae
new combination


(Muma),


Fig. 134 to 140

Amblyseiulus sarraceniae Muma, 1965a: 247.
DIAGNOSIS: This species differs from
other Proprioseiopsis with saccular sperma-
thecae in having L3 much smaller than L2,
and M3 distinctly shorter than Ls. It also has
6 to 8 teeth on the fixed finger of the cheli-
cerae. The body is about 350/A long.
TYPE: The female holotype in pitcher


Fig. 119 to 125. Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma). 119. Dorsal and leg structure
and station 9. 120. Ventral scuta and station 9. 121. Metapodal scuta 9. 122. Pos-
terior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 123. Spermathecal structure 9. 124.
Spermatodactyl structure &. 125. Ventrianal scutum S.
Fig. 126 to 133. Proprioseiopsis tubulus (Muma). 126. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 127. Tip of weakly plumose L, 9. 128. Ventral scuta and station ?. 129.
Metapodal scuta 9. 130. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 131. Sper-
mathecal structure 9. 132. Spermatodactyl structure &. 133. Ventrianal scutum &.
















129


130


131


, 9
C,

0


7 124


0 P
op
0
7 T
00
O1
OO
Og


119


132


122


127



121








42


distinguished from closely related species
with poculiform spermathecae by shorter L1,
L4, and L8, widely-separated preanal pores
and minor differences in the spermatodactyl.
This species has the pores associated with
L3, M3, and L, much larger than usual. A


Proprioseiopsis sarraceniae .o *
(Muma) 0,0
plant leaf cup, Polk City, Florida, January
25, 1965, by M. H. Muma and H. L. Greene,
is in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Known only from Sarracenia
leaf cups.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua and
Polk.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
food habits.
This species has been collected in January,
April, and December.

Proprioseiopsis clause (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 141 to 146


Amblyseiulus clausae Muma, 1962: 1.
DIAGNOSIS: This light brown species


is


Proprioseiopsis clause
(Muma) OP


paratype from Titusville, cited at the time
of the original description, was a misidenti-
fled specimen of P. tubulus (Muma). The
body is about 300/, long.
TYPE: The female holotype and male allo-
type from Pinus clausa litter, St. Cloud,
Florida, March 18, 1959, by M. H. Muma, are
in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Most specimens have been col-
lected from Lycopodium on palm trunks,
litter of Pinus clausa (p. 10), litter of Sabal


Fig. 134 to 140. Proprioseiopsis sarraceniae (Muma). 134. Dorsal and leg structure
and station 9. 135. Tip of weakly plumose Ls 9. 136. Ventral scuta and station 9.
137. Metapodal scuta 9. 138. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 139
and 140. Positional variations of spermathecal structure 9.
Fig. 141 to 146. Proprioseiopsis clausae (Muma). 141. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 142. Ventral scuta and station 9. 143. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
development 9. 144. Spermathecal structure 9. 145. Spermatodactyl structure &. 146.
Ventrianal scutum &.














h145





142 o







1 oi
143



/ / V 141
144
146













136
138 137








140







44


palmetto, Stenotaphrum secundatum, and Til-
landsia usneoides.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Brevard, Clay, De Soto, Dixie, Highlands,
Indian River, Lake, Orange, Osceola, Polk,
and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: The food habits are unknown.
This species has been collected in every
month except July.

Proprioseiopsis temperellus (Denmark
and Muma), new combination

Fig. 147 to 150

Amblyseiulus temperellus Denmark and
Muma, 1967: 171.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished


Proprioseiopsis temperellus
(Denmark and Muma) 004


from related species with poculiform sper-
mathecae by the lack of dorsal scutal imbri-
cation, proportionately shorter dorsal scutal
setae, widely-spaced preanal pores, and dif-
ferently proportioned macrosetae on leg IV.
It is most closely related to P. clause
(Muma). The body is about 260, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Pinus
clausa litter, Vineland, Orange County,
Florida, January 16, 1965, M. H. Muma and
H. L. Greene, is in the USNM, Washington,
D. C.
HABITAT: Pinus clausa litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Orange.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology.
This species has been collected only in
the month of January.



Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant),
new combination

Fig. 151 to 157

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) asetus Chant,
1959: 80.
Amblyseiulus asetus (Chant), Muma, 1961:
278.
Amblyseiulus putnami (Chant), Muma,
1964: 16 misidentificationn).
DIAGNOSIS: This species, moderately
sclerotized and pale brown, is distinguished
from the related P. clausae (Muma) and P.
mexicanus (Garman) by having the preanal
pores round and closer to each other than
to the posterior preanal setae, and the sper-
matodactyl L-shaped with the lateral process
near the heel. The body is about 340/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from un-
sprayed apple leaves, Kearneysville, West
Virginia, July 1953, by D. W. Clancy, is in
the USNM, Washington, D. C.


Fig. 147 to 150. Proprioseiopsis temperellus (Denmark and Muma). 147. Dorsal
and leg structure and station 9. 148. Ventral scuta and station 9. 149. Posterior peri-
tremal and stigmatal development 9. 150. Spermathecal structure 9.
Fig. 151 to 157. Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant). 151. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 152. Ventral scuta and station 9. 153. Metasternal scutum 9. 154. Pos-
terior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 155. Spermatodactyl structure 9. 156.
Spermatodactyl structure S. 157. Ventrianal scutum S.













153


152


155


157


149


1 148








46


Proprioseiopsis lepidus (Chant),
_n...- e w w new combination

I LAY JOHNS Fig. 158 to 160

L E Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) lepidus Chant,
1959: 82.
R Amblyseiulus lepidus (Chant), Muma, 1961:
oAD278.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished
from other species with poculiform sper-
mathecae by the weakly-imbricate dorsal
scutum and the longer, thicker L, and La.
The body is about 330/A long.
t 0TYPE: The female holotype from straw-
SBROWA... berry, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, March 29,
"f- V OL-JAC 1951, by J. S. Roussel, is in the USNM,
,A ._" Washington, D. C.



Proprioseiopsis asetus M '~, s-- ER(
(Chant) LIBERTY UA

HABITAT: The species has been taken DXE LUA1 UTNA
only from the leaves, fruit, and litter of LEVY
Citrus sp., Pinus clausa, Senecio confusus,
and Tillandsia usneoides. SE E
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard., H" EA
Charlotte, Dade, De Soto, Highlands, Hills-OUG POLK SCE
borough, Indian River, Lake, Manatee, BREVAR
Marion, Osceola, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie.AREEHIGHLANDSKEEC
and Seminole. SARA DE SOTO
BIOLOGY: The food habits are not ARLOTTEGLA
known. LE E ENDRY
This species has been collected in every___
month except May and November. .[-J \




Proprioseiopsis lepidus o *
(Chant) o fl "


Fig. 158 to 160. Proprioseiopsis lepidus (Chant). 158. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 159. Ventral scuta and station 9. 160. Spermathecal structure 9.
Fig. 161 to 168. Proprioseiopsis mexicanus (Garman). 161. Dorsal and leg structure
and station 9. 162. Ventral scuta and station 9. 163. Metasternal scutum 9. 164.
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 165. Spermathecal structure 9. 166.
Small variation of spermatheca 9. 167. Spermatodactyl structure &. 168. Ventrianal
scutum S.


















168


163


162


166


159







48


HABITAT:
COUNTY D
BIOLOGY:
food habits or
This species


Citrus litter.
DISTRIBUTION: Marion.
Nothing is known about the
life cycle.
has been collected in April.


Proprioseiopsis mexicanus (Garman),
new combination

Fig. 161 to 168

Amblyseiopsis mexicanus Garman, 1958: 75.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) mexicanus
(Garman), Chant, 1959: 92.
Amblyseiulus mexicanus (Garman), Muma,
1961: 278.
Amblyseiulus lepidus (Chant), Muma, 1964:
15 misidentificationn).
DIAGNOSIS: This moderately sclerotized


from Mexico near Brownsville, Texas, June
27, 1937, by G. E. Callaghan is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has been taken
principally from Citrus litter and Pinus
clausa litter. Specimens are, however, oc-
casionally found on Beta vulgaris, Casuarina,
Conocarpus erectus litter, Cynodon dactylon
debris, Digitaria decumbens, Eremochloa
ophiuroides, Fraxinus profunda, Gordonia
lasianthus, Lyonia ferruginea, Magnolia sp.,
Pisum sp., Quercus incana, Quercus stellata,
Quercus stellata garetta, Quercus virgini-
ana, Rhus copallina leucantha, Stenotaphrum
secundatum sod, Vitis sp., and in can traps.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua Bre-
vard, Clay, Dade, De Soto, Gadsden, Hillsbo-
rough, Indian River, Lake, Levy, Liberty,
Manatee, Monroe, Orange, Osceola, Palm
Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, St. Lucie,
Seminole, Volusia, and Walton.
BIOLOGY: The food habits of this species
are not known.
This species has been collected in every
month except October.


Proprioseiopsis gracilisetae
new combination


(Muma),


Fig. 169 to 174


Amblyseiulus gracilisetae


Muma,


1962: 4.


Proprioseiopsis mexicanus o '
(Garman) o 0 0


and pale brown species is distinguished by
having L,, M3, and Ls proportionately longer,
the preanal pores elliptical and closer to each
other than posterior preanal setae, and the
spermatodactyl has a lateral process near
the heel of the foot. The body is about 380p.
long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Zinnia,


DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished
from other species with poculiform sper-
mathecae by the presence of macrosetae on
leg I, elongate setae on leg I, the extreme
lengths of L4, Ms, and L8, and the presence
of 2 distinct pores on the stigmatal scutum.
The cheliceral fixed finger has 8 to 14
denticules, the movable finger 3 to 4. The
body is about 3901 long.
TYPE: The female holotype from mixed
hardwood litter, Moss Bluff, Florida, May 22,
1958, by Judith A. Murrell, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species is known only
from the female holotype from hardwood
litter and a series of specimens from Pinus
clausa litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Marion and
Seminole.











Cattleya sp., leaves, bark end litter of
Citrus sp., Fraxinus profunda, Ligustrum
sp., Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ferruginea, Pho-
tenia serrulata, Pinus, sp., Platanus occi-
dentalis, Prunus sp., Quercus nigra, Rubus
sp., Sabal sp., Serenoa repens, Tillandsia
usneoides and Viburnum suspensum.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Baker, Brevard, Charlotte, Dade, Gilchrist,
Highlands, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Lake,


GADSOET LT~

LIBERTY
WAKULLA
FRANKLIN
-pf^


Proprioseiopsis gracilisetae o '
(Muma)


BIOLOGY: Nothing is known on the
biology.
This species has been collected in April
and August.

Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 175 to 181

Amblyseiulus dorsatus Muma, 1961: 278.
DIAGNOSIS: This lightly sclerotized
and pale colored species and P. solens (De
Leon) are closely related but separable by
the preanal pores which are located between,
but slightly behind, the posterior preanal
setae and minor differences in the station
of the dorsal scutum. This species or P.
solens may later prove to be a synonym
of P. elongatus (Garman). The body is
about 380,L long.
TYPE: The female holotype, male allo-
type, and paratypes from citrus, Magnolia,
Louisiana, November 18, 1958, by D. W.
Clancy and A. Selhime, are in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: It has been collected from
Camellia sp., Camphora sp., Casuarina sp.,


Levy, Manatee,
nam, Seminole,
sia.


Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Put-
St. Lucie, Sumter, and Volu-


BIOLOGY: The food habits are not
known.
This species has been collected in January,
February, March, April, May, June, and
July.

Proprioseiopsis solens (De Leon),
new combination

Fig. 182 to 186


Amblyseiulus s(
Amblyseiulus so
18.
DIAGNOSIS:


lens De Leon, 1962:
lens De Leon, Muma,


17.
1964:


Distinguishing characters


49


I N o RIVe


Proprioseiopsis dorsatus *i
(Muma) -18P


SCEOLI\ B
&Lk


DOE SOTO
:-I o *










BIOLOGY: The
known.
This species has
ary, March, April,
and October.


Proprioseiopsis ti
new cc


food habits


been
Way,


are not


collected in Febru-
August, September,


ropicanus
combination


(Garman),


7


Proprioseiopsis solens
(De Leon) 00 4


include the preanal pores located behind
the posterior preanal setae and proportional
lengths of the setae on the dorsal scutum
of this lightly sclerotized and pale colored
species. The body is about 370, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Sider-
oxylon foetidissimum, Coral Gables, Florida,
January 10, 1956, by D. De Leon, is in
the MCZ collection, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: It has been collected from
Callicarpa americana, Carya sp., Citrus
leaves and litter, Cocos nucifera, Cono-
carpus erecta, Cornus sp., Ixora coccinea,
Quercus sp., Sabal palmetto litter, Sider-
oxylon foetidissimum, Tillandsia usneoides,
miscellaneous shrubs in Pinus clause scrub,
and in can trap.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Dade, Highlands, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Put-
nam, St. Lucie, and Seminole.


Amblyseiopsis tropicanus Garman, 1958: 77.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) tropicanus
(Garman), Chant, 1959: 91.
DIAGNOSIS: On this species, L2 is
larger than L3, the preanal pores are
between and closer to the posterior preanal
setae than to each other. Spermatheca
not observed. Male not known.
Our notes and sketches agree with the
description and illustrations given by Chant
(1959). Since the type cannot be located
presently the species is not illustrated here.


Proprioseiopsis tropicanus
(Garman) O


Fig. 169 to 174. Proprioseiopsis gracilisetac
and station 9. 170. Ventral scuta and setatior
terior peritremal and stigmatal development 9.
ture apparently caused by preservative 9. 174.


e (Muma). 169. Dorsal and leg structure
9i 171. Metapodal scuta 9. 172. Pos-
173. Variations of spermathecal struc-
Positional variations of spermatodactyl &.


50


__


y-
40 400













1


00
00


173








52


TYPE: The female holotype from Cyno-
don dactylon, Homestead, Florida, July 12,
1954, by 0. D. Link, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Recorded only from Cyno-
don dactylon in Florida.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade.
BIOLOGY: In Florida, this species is
known only from the type. The biology is
not known.
This species has been collected in July.


DISCUSSION: Although this genus has
the general facies of Proprioseiopsis Muma,
it is readily distinguished by the location
of S, and S2, the sizes of the metapodal
scuta, the reduced cheliceral dentition, and
the distinctive dorsal scutal imbrication.
The genus is monotypic. It has been
found only in Florida.


Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)


Fig. 187 to 191


GENUS NOELEDIUS MUMA AND
DENMARK

Noeledius Muma and Denmark, 1968: 232.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 3 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of
median setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae of
which some are elongate; 2 pairs of sub-
lateral setae of which S2 are on the dorsal
scutum; 3 pairs of sternal setae; 3 pairs
of preanal ventrianal setae.
Dorsal scutum well sclerotized and dis-
tinctly imbricate. Sternum creased and
wider than long. Ventrianal scutum pen-
tagonal and imbricate. Metapodal scuta
with minor scutum ectad of major scutum.
Peritreme long, extending forward to be-
tween vertical setae. Peritremal scutum
with ectal strip that extends posteriorly to
leg IV exopodal scutum. Chelicerae normal
in size but with only 3 denticules on the
fixed finger and none on the movable finger.
Leg formula 1423. There are no macrosetae
on Legs I, II, and III; but Sge IV, Sti IV,
and St IV are present.
Males are unknown.
TYPE SPECIES: Amblyseiulus iphi-
formis Muma, 1962, by designation, Muma
and Denmark (1968).


Amblyseiulus iphiformis Muma, 1962:
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma), Muma
Denmark, 1968: 232.
DIAGNOSIS: This heavilv-scleroti


species
nearly


is readily
equal-sized


6.
and

ized


distinguished by the
metapodal scuta and a


Noeledius iphiformis
(Muma) C3 0


Fig. 175 to 181. Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma). 175. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 176. Ventral scuta and station 9. 177. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
development 9. 178 and 179. Positional variation of spermathecal structure 9. 180.
Spermatodactyl structure S. 181. Ventrianal scutum S. Fig. 182 to 186. Proprioseiopsis
solens (De Leon). 182. Dorsal and leg structure station 9. 183. Ventral scuta and
station 9. 184. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 185. Spermathecal
structure 9. 186. Spermatodactyl structure S.












186





184

o 1183




185



182











18180
n 178 0








\(8) 181









distinctive spermatheca. Males are un-
known. The body is about 450, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from citrus
litter, Turnbull Hammock, north of Mims,
Florida, January 19, 1960, by Judith A.
Murrell, is in the USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: The species has been col-
lected from the leaves, bark, and litter
of Citrus and from Quercus and Sabal
leaves.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, and Marion.
BIOLOGY: Living specimens have not
been observed. The biology is unknown.
This species has been collected in Janu-
ary, February, and August.


GENUS AMBLYSEIELLA MUMA

Amblyseiella Muma, 1955a: 266.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae, 7 pairs of lateral setae, most elongate
and some weakly plumose; 2 pairs of
sublateral setae on the interscutal mem-
brane; 3 pairs of sternal setae; 1 or 2
pairs of preanal ventrianal setae.
Dorsal scutum lightly sclerotized and
smooth except for indistinct thin lunate
areas. Sternum smooth and about as wide
as long. Ventrianal scutum reduced, ovate,
and smooth except for preanal pores. Peri-
treme long, extending forward to vertical
setae. Peritremal, stigmatal, and leg IV
exopodal scuta indistinguishable fused.
Chelicerae normal; fixed finger with 1 to 3
denticules, movable finger with 0 to 1
denticule. Leg formula 4123. Macrosetae
occur on the genu of legs I, II, and III; and
Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV are always
present.
Males are smaller than females but
otherwise similar. The ventrianal scutum


is typically shield-shaped with 3 pairs of
preanal setae. The spermatodactyl is of
the usual form with a well-developed termi-
nal heel but no visible lateral process.
TYPE SPECIES: Amblyseiella setosa
Muma, 1955, by designation.
DISCUSSION: Five species are recog-
nized in this genus at the present time.
A. rusticanus (Athias-Henriot) is quite
closely related to the type species and may
be a synonym. A. irregularis (Evans)
and 2 undescribed species from Asia are
closely related to each other but are readily
distinguished from A. setosa by the posses-
sion of 2 pairs of ventrianal setae and the
different position of L6.
The genus is world wide in distribution.
Only one species, A. setosa has been found
in Florida and in the Caribbean area.


Amblyseiella setosa Muma

Fig. 192 to 197

Amblyseiella setosa Muma, 1955a: 266.
Phytoseiulus setosa (Muma), Garman, 1958:
71.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) setosus (Mu-
ma) Chant, 1959: 70.
Amblyseiella setosa Muma, Muma, 1961:
286.
DIAGNOSIS: This moderately large,
weakly-sclerotized, pale-colored species is
readily identified by the generic characters
and those illustrated. The body is about
450/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from scaly
orange leaves, Tampa, Florida, May 27,
1952, by M. H. Muma, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Citrus leaves, bark, and litter
are the only known habitats.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,


Fig. 187 to 191. Noeledius iphiformis
setae 9. 188. Ventral scuta and station 9


(Muma). 187. Dorsal and leg structure and
189. Metapodal scuta 9. 190. Posterior


peritremal and stigmatal development Y. 191. Spermathecal structure 2.
Fig. 192 to 197. Amblyseiella setosa Muma. 192. Dorsal and leg structure and seta-
tion 9. 193. Ventral scuta and station 9. 194. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal de-
velopment 9. 195. Spermathecal structure 9. 196. Spermatodactyl structure A. 197.
Ventrianal scutum S.





















191


196
196


T8 )

193 /
193 '


194







56


Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Manatee,
Pinellas, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: It is found frequently in
association with six-spotted mites on citrus
leaves, but has also been taken in numbers
from the litter. In Florida, the species is


Amblyseiella setosa
Muma


known as the crowned mite. Some biological
and ecological data were published by Muma
(1964a), but the life cycle and food habits
are not known.
This species has been collected in January,
April, May, and June.


GENUS PLATYSEIELLA MUMA

Platyseiella Muma, 1961: 280.
Platyseiella Muma, Chant, 1965: 370.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are distinguished


by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 1 pair of median
setae, 7 pairs of lateral setae, most of
them elongate, flattened and serrate; 1 pair
of sublateral setae on dorsal scutum; 2
pairs of sternal setae; and 2 pairs of pre-
anal setae.
Dorsal scutum lightly sclerotized but ru-
gose. Sternal scutum smooth and about as
long as wide. Ventrianal scutum smooth,
elongate, and vase-shaped. Peritreme long,
extending forward to vertical setae. Peri-
tremal scutum and stigmatal scutum indis-
tinguishably fused. Chelicerae normal; fixed
finger with 2 tiny denticules; movable finger
with 1 tiny denticule. Leg formula 4123
with leg IV distinctly longer. Distinctly
elongate macrosetae present only on tibia of
leg III and genu, tibia, and basitarsus of
leg IV; but clavate bacillate, spatulate, or
otherwise modified setae occur on several
segments of legs I, III, and IV.
We have seen 1 male; it has a typical
spermatodactyl with a terminal foot, dis-
tinct subequal heel and lateral process, and
a distinct crest.
TYPE SPECIES: Phytoseius platypilis
Chant, 1959, by designation, Muma (1961).
DISCUSSION: The genus is monotypic.
It has been found only in Florida.


Platyseiella platypilis (Chant)

Fig. 198 to 204

Phytoseius platypilis Chant, 1959: 107.
Platyseiella platypilis (Chant), Muma, 1961:
280.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distin-
guished by the generic characters, since it
is monotypic. Many specimens such as the
one figured lack D4, but are otherwise
typical. The body is about 260u long.
TYPE: The female holotype from lan-


Fig. 198. to 204. Platyseiella platypilis (Chant). 198. Dorsal and I
station 9. 199. Tip of Sti IV 9. 200. Ventral scuta and station 9.
peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 202. Spermathecal structure 9.
and spermatodactyl structure S. 204. Ventrianal scutum 8.
Fig. 205 to 209. Galendromimus alveolaris (De Leon). 205. Dorsal
and station 9. 206. Ventral scuta and station 9. 207. Posterior per
matal development 9. 208. Cheliceral structure 9. 209. Spermathecal


eg structure and
201. Posterior
203. Cheliceral

and leg structure
itremal and stig-
structure 9.









209


/f


^ ^ /
w''

206


203


199


Y202


P





200




204







58


Platyseiella platypilis ,.
(Chant) '00


tana at Coral Gables, Florida, February 17,
1953, by 0. D. Link, is in the USNM, Wash-
ington, D. C.
HABITAT: Known only from Lantana
sp. and Persea sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology.
This species has been collected in February
and June.

GENUS GALENDROMIMUS MUMA
Galendromimus Muma, 1961: 141, figs. 1-3.
Chanteius Wainstein, 1962: 19.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are distinguished
by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 1 pair of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae most of which
are thickened and serrate; 1 pair of sublat-
eral setae on the interscutal membrane;
2 pairs of sternal setae; 4 pairs of ven-
trianal setae; 1 pair of ventrolateral setae.
Dorsal scutum lightly sclerotized but ru-
gose to alveolate. Sternal scutum smooth
and indistinct. Ventrianal scutum smooth
and pentagonal. Peritreme long, extending
forward to L,; peritremal and stigmatal
scuta fused. Chelicerae small in relation to


the body size; fixed finger with 1 denticule;
movable finger with 2. Leg formula 4123.
All legs with many thickened bacillate or
clavate setae. Macrosetae Sge I-IV, Sti II
and IV, and St IV are present as thickened
setae.
Males are unknown in Florida. De Leon
(1967) reported a male from Trinidad.
TYPE SPECIES: Typhlodromus alveo-
laris De Leon, 1957, by designation, Muma
(1961).
DISCUSSION: This genus was orig-
inally thought to be closely related to
Galendromus Muma, but Galendromimus
has only seven or eight pairs of lateral
setae (De Leon, 1967), (if sanctus De Leon
belongs in Galendromimus) and all lateral
setae except L, tend to be spatulate and may
be serrate. There are also several modified
thickened setae on all legs. Since our in-
terpretation of the Phytoseiinae is 5 or 6
lateral setae well in advance of D3, we
are placing Galendromimus in the Ambly-
seiinae as it has only 4 lateral setae well
in advance of D,. This genus is found in
south Florida, Mexico, Jamaica, and Trini-
dad. Chant and Baker (1965) reported
G. alveolaris (De Leon) from Costa Rica.
However, their illustration differs from
Florida specimens and may represent
another species.

Galendromimus alveolaris (De Leon)

Fig. 205 to 209
Typhlodromus alveolaris De Leon, 1957: 141.
Galendromimus alveolaris (De Leon), Mu-
ma, 1961: 298.
Chanteius alveolaris (De Leon), Wainstein,
1962: 19.
Typhlodromus alveolaris De Leon, Chant
and Baker, 1965: 7.
Galendromimus alveolaris (De Leon), De


Leon, 1967: 13.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is readily
distinguished in Florida by the generic
characters. It can be separated from G.
tunapunensis De Leon from Trinidad by
having only Ms and L, serrated.
The body is about 290/1 long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Cassia
sp., Coral Gables, Florida, October 20, 1955,








59


by D. De Leon, is in the MCZ, Harvard
University, Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: Known only from Cassia sp.
in Florida.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology of the species. The type was taken
from Cassia leaves infested with Brevipalpus
phoenicis (Geijskes) and a large number
of Tarsonemus sp. according to De Leon
(1957).
This species has been collected in March
and October.


/
4 pA


Galendromimus alveolaris
(De Leon)


GENUS CHELASEIUS MUMA AND
DENMARK

Chelaseius Muma and Denmark, 1968: 232.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are
characterized by 4 pairs of dorsal setae,
3 pairs of median setae, 8 pairs of lateral
setae with some elongate; 2 pairs of sub-
lateral setae on the interscutal membrane;
3 pairs of sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal
ventrianal setae.
The dorsal scutum is lightly to moderately
sclerotized and smooth except for indistinct


lunate areas. Sternal scutum smooth except
for lateral creases and wider than long.
Ventrianal scutum pentagonal. Peritreme
long, extending forward to between vertical
setae. Peritremal and stigmatal scuta indis-
tinguishable. Chelicerae very large in pro-
portion to the body size; fixed finger with 2
to 4 denticules, and a basal pilus dentilis;
movable finger with no denticules. Leg for-
mula 1423; legs I, II, and III with macro-
seta on genu, leg I with an erect seta on tar-
sus, and leg IV with Sge IV, Sti IV, and St
IV with Sge IV always longest.
Males are smaller than females, but
similar. Spermatodactyl with terminal foot,
obscure heel, and distinct lateral process;
the tip of the toe is brightly lighted under
phase microscopy. Ventrianal scutum with
3 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae and a
pair of pores. Both pairs of sublateral
setae on the dorsal scutum.
TYPE SPECIES: Amblyseiopsis flori-
danus Muma, 1955, by designation, Muma
and Denmark (1968).
DISCUSSION: This genus presently con-
tains 5 species C. floridanus (Muma), C.
vicinus (Muma), C. austrellus (Athias-Hen-
riot), C. schusterellus (Athias-Henriot), and
an undescribed species from forest litter in
South Carolina.
This genus is world wide in distribution.
It is recorded from only one locality in the
Caribbean area, Florida. Only 2 species
are known from Florida.
All species have been collected primarily
from forest floor litter, so the food habits
are unknown.

Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)
Fig. 210 to 216
Amblyseiopsis floridanus Muma, 1955a: 264.
Amblyseius floridanus (Muma), Athias-
Henriot, 1958: 33.


Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) floridanus
(Muma), Chant, 1959: 85.
Amblyseius (Amblyseius) floridanus (Mu-
ma), Muma, 1961: 287.
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma), Muma and
Denmark, 1968: 233.
DIAGNOSIS: This moderately-sclero-
tized, pale brown species resembles C.










BIOLOGY: We have:
in the living condition.
are not known.
This species has been
month except March, July,


not seen this mite
The food habits


collected in
and August.


every


Chelaseius vicinus (Muma)

Fig. 217 to 222

Typhlodromips vicinus Muma, 1965a: 250.
Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Muma and Den-
mark, 1968: 233.
DIAGNOSIS: This lightly-sclerotized,
pale-colored species is readily distinguished
from its counterpart, C. floridanus (Muma)
by the much shorter L,, L4, Ls, and


vicinus, but is larger, has longer Ms and
L8, and has a slightly different spermatheca
and spermatodactyl. The body is about
370/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from litter
under citrus trees, Lake Weir, Florida, Janu-
ary 15, 1953, by M. H. Muma, is in the
USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: It has been taken from
Citrus leaves and bark, Pinus clausa litter,
under Quercus virginiana, Quercus leaf
mold, and oak-pine-bay litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, Indian River, Lake, Marion,
Orange, Osceola, Polk, St. Lucie, and Semi-
nole.


Chelaseius vicinus a
(Muma) A


Fig. 210 to 216. Chelaseius floridanus
station 9. 211. Ventral scuta and station
development 9. 213. Cheliceral structure
Spermatodactyl structure &. 216. Ventria
Fig. 217 to 222. Chelaseius vicinus (M
station 9. 218. Ventral scuta and station
development 9. 220. Cheliceral structure
Spermatodactyl structure 3.


(Muma). 210. Dorsal and leg structure and
9. 212. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
9. 214. Spermathecal structure 9. 215.
nal scutum 8.
uma). 217. Dorsal and leg structure and
9. 219. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
9. 221. Spermathecal structure 9. 222.


60


Chelaseius floridanus o
(Muma) O l










































220




' 219


218 221









Ms, the longer more slender spermatheca,
more greatly expanded toe of the sper-
matodactyl and slightly smaller chelicerae.
The body is about 350/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Pinus
clause litter, Oviedo, Florida, January 11,
1962, by M. H. Muma, is the USNM, Wash-
ington, D. C.
HABITAT: In Florida, it has been taken
only from Pinus clause litter where it is
common.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, Indian River, Orange, Osceola,
Polk, St. Lucie, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Its food habits and life his-
tory are unknown.
This species has been collected in every
month except June and October.

GENUS AMBLYSEIUS BERLESE

Amblyseius Berlese, 1914: 143.
Amblyseius (Amblyseius) Berlese, Muma,
1961: 287.
Amblyseius (Amblyseiulus) Muma, 1961:
287.
Amblyseius Berlese, De Leon, 1966: 88.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus as
restricted by Muma (1961), De Leon (1966),
and here are distinguished by 4 pairs of
dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median setae of
which M, is elongate, whip-like and in-
distinctly plumose, 8 pairs of lateral setae,
some elongate, whip-like and weakly plu-
mose; 2 pairs of sublateral setae on the
interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of sternal
setae; 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae.
Dorsal scutum lightly to well sclerotized
and smooth except for indistinct, thin
lunate areas. Sternal scutum smooth except


for lateral creases and as wide or wider than
long. Ventrianal scutum pentagonal to
vase-shaped and smooth or lightly creased.
Peritreme long, extending forward to be-
tween the vertical setae. Peritremal scutum
without distinguishable ectal strip extend-
ing to leg IV exopodal scutum. Chelicerae
normal in relation to the body size; fixed
finger bearing 8 or more denticules of which
several lie proximal to pilus dentilis;
movable finger with 1 to 4 denticules. Leg
formula 1423; leg III with macrosetae Sge
III and Sti III, leg II with macroseta Sge
II, leg I with macroseta Sge I, and an erect
seta on tarsus I, and leg IV with macrosetae
Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV of which Sge IV
is the longest.
Males are smaller than females; but other-
wise similar. Spermatodactyl of typical
form with a terminal heel and an obscure
to distinct lateral process. Ventrianal scu-
tum with 3 pairs of preanal setae and a pair
of preanal pores. Both pairs of sublateral
setae on dorsal scutum.
TYPE SPECIES: Zercon obtusus Koch,
1839, by indication, Berlese (1914).
DISCUSSION: More than 60 known
species can be assigned to this genus. Most
are lightly-colored, weakly-sclerotized spe-
cies that are found on the foliage of various
plants. A few are red or brown, heavily-
sclerotized species that are found in ground
surface leaf litter.
This genus is world wide in distribution.
It is common throughout the Caribbean area.
Six species of the genus are known from
Florida.
Biological studies on species of Amblyseius
indicate that they are predators on other
mites, but the information is too fragmen-
tary to permit generic generalizations.


Fig. 223 to 228. Amblyseius curious (Chant and Baker). 223. Dorsal and leg
structure and station 9. 224. Ventral scuta and station 9. 225. Posterior peri-
tremal and stigmatal development 9. 226. Spermathecal structure 9. 227. Spermato-
dactyl structure 3. 228. Ventrianal scutum 3.
Fig. 229 to 234. Amblyseius aerialis (Muma). 229. Dorsal and leg structure and
station 9. 230. Ventral scuta and station 9. 231. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal
development 9. 232. Spermathecal structure 9. 233. Spermatodactyl structure S.
234. Ventrianal scutum .














23 3







V>N *' 234 1



230








232 227

2292














224 225





228 226 223







64


Key to Amblyseius Berlese in Florida


(Females)


la


lb


2a(la)


2b


3a(lb)


3b


4a(3a)


4b


5a(3b)


5b


Sternum as long as wide; ventrianal
scutum vase-shaped, or elongated
with concave lateral margins -- 2
Sternum wider than long; ventrianal
scutum shield-shaped, or nearly pen-
tagonal 3----------------------3

Cervix of spermathecum wider in-
ternally than at atrium --------------------
-........ deleoni, new name (p.68)
Cervix of spermathecum parallel-
sided .........-.........................................
-...... largoensis (Muma) (p. 69)
L, distinctly longer than L3; preanal
pores elliptical ---..------........---... --......---- 4
L, subequal with L3; preanal pores
punctate ---------------...... 5
Preanal pores much closer together
than posterior preanal setae; atrium
of spermatheca swollen ....................
---..-......-....... aerialis (Muma) (p. 66)
Preanal pores almost as widely sep-
arated as posterior preanal seta;
atrium of spermatheca not swollen
.. curious (Chant and Baker) (p. 64)
Preanal pores much closer together
than posterior preanal setae; sper-
mathecal cervix saccular ......
-.---- multidentatus (Chant) (p. 66)
Preanal pores almost as widely sep-
arated as posterior preanal setae;
spermathecal cervix rod-like ....
....... rhabdus Denmark (p. 68)


Amblyseius curious (Chant and Baker)

Fig. 223 to 228
Iphiseius curious Chant and Baker, 1965:
11.
Amblyseius arenus Muma, 1965: 250 (new
synonymy).
DIAGNOSIS: This moderately-sclero-
tized, brown species is distinguished from


the apparently closely-related
Muma by the spermathecal
placement of the preanal pores.
is about 380/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype
type on shrub leaves, Turrialba,
April 3, 1959, by E. W. Baker,
USNM, Washington, D. C.


HABITAT:
a pair taken


This species is
in Pinus clausa


k
1:


A. aerialis
form, and
The body

and para-
Costa Rica,
are in the

nown from
itter, a fe-


Amblyseius curious o
(Chant and Baker) 7 o


Fig. 235 to 238.
and station 9. 236.
stigmatal development
Fig. 239 to 241.
and station 9. 240.


Amblyseius multidentatus (Chant). 235. Dorsal and leg structure
Ventral scuta and station 9. 237. Posterior peritremal and
9. 238. Spermathecal structure 9.
Amblyseius rhabdus Denmark. 239. Dorsal and leg structure
Ventral scuta and station 9. 241. Spermathecal structure 9.











00











223938
2 236 I




/ \235








\ /241









male from fern litter, and series taken
from oak-bay-sweet gum litter, oak-hickory-
ironwood litter, and oak-pine-bay litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Highlands,
Indian River, Osceola, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the


biology
This


of this
species


mite.
has been collected in


April.


Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)


Fig. 229
Amblyseiopsis aerialis
Amblyseius aerialis
Henriot, 1957: 338.


to 234
Muma, 1955a: 264.
(Muma), Athias-


Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) aerialis
(Muma), Chant, 1959: 88.
Amblyseius (Amblyseius) aerialis (Muma),
Muma, 1961: 287.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguishing characters
of this species include elliptical preanal
pores located between and behind the pos-
terior preanal setae, spermathecal cervix
tubular and much smaller than swollen
atrium, and spermatodactyl with small lat-
eral process, lobate heel and short club-
shaped foot. The body is about 400A long.
TYPE: The female holotype from citrus
leaf, Lucerne Park, Florida, May 22, 1952,
by M. H. Muma and W. L. Thompson, is
in the USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: This species has been col-
lected from Citrus bark, leaves, fruit, twigs
and litter, and Tillandsia usneoides.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Dade, De Soto, Highlands, Lake, Marion,
Orange, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie and Volusia.
BIOLOGY: This is a pale lightly-sclero-
tized species that is fairly common on
Citrus leaves, Muma (1964a). It is fre-
quently associated with and feeds on in-
festations of Brevipalpus sp. In Florida, it
is known as the long-haired mite.
This species has been collected in Janu-
ary, February, March, April, May, June,
August, November, and December.


Amblyseius multidentatus
new combination


(Chant),


Fig. 235 to 238
Typhlodromus multidentatus Chant, 1959:
84.
DIAGNOSIS: The short saccular sper-
matheca and the round mesallv located


Fig. 242 to 246. Amblyseius deleoni Muma and DenmA
structure and station 9. 243. Ventral scuta and setatior
tremal and stigmatal development 9. 245. Spermathecal stf
dactyl structure S.
Fig. 247 to 252. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma). 247.
and station 9. 248. Ventral scuta and station 9. 249.
stigmatal development 9. 250. Spermathecal structure 9.
ture 252. Ventrianal scutum S.


ark. 2
i 9.
ructure


!42.
244.
9.


Dorsal and leg
Posterior peri-
246. Spermato-


Dorsal and leg structure
Posterior peritremal and
251. Spermatodactyl struc-


66


Amblyseius aerialis
(Muma) C0 0


I %.oP-p%.VJL L JL%.F%0 OWw l.O 41


- v









Ti/


\ /7
~

7

r~ -~
r'~T


243


6r


248
..


248


612








68


dorsal station and ventrianal pores differ-
ent. Chelicerae slightly larger than usual
with 7 to 8 denticules on the fixed finger and
none on the movable finger. The body is
about 370/ long.


Amblyseius multidentatus o o
(Chant)
preanal, ventrianal pores distinguish this
species. The body is about 340/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype and para-
type from sabal palm, St. Petersburg,
Florida, July 11, 1952, by E. W. Baker,
are in the USNM, Washington, D. C. The
3 males on the type slide are indistinguish-
able from A. aerialis (Muma), and there
is also a female of T. dentilis (De Leon).
HABITAT: This species has been re-
corded from Cupressus sp., Sabal palmetto,
Senecio confusus, Tillandsia usneoides, and
palm sheath debris.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade, High-
lands, Pinellas, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known of the food
habits or life cycle.
This species has been collected in March,
April, July, and September.


Amblyseius rhabdus
Denmark 004


TYPE: The female holotype in sod of
St. Augustine grass, Stenotaphrum secun-
datum, Gainesville, Florida, October 1, 1964,
by H. A. Denmark, USNM Type No. 3113,
is in the USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: Stenotaphrum secundatum,
Sarracenia sp., Tillandsia usneoides on
ground, and in can trap at lake shore and
residential areas.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Lake, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
food habits or life cycle.


Amblyseius rhabdus Denmark


Amblyseius deleoni
Denmark, new


Muma and
name


Fig. 239 to 241


Amblyseius rhabdus ]
DIAGNOSIS: This
identified by the dist
It is similar to A.


Fig. 242 to 246


Denmark, 1965: 95.
Species is readily
inctive spermatheca.
aerialis Muma, but


Amblyseius (Amblyseialus)
Muma, Muma, 1961: 287 (not
Muma, 1955).


largoensis
largoensis








69


Amblyseius largoensis Muma, Schuster and
Pritchard, 1963: 237.
Amblyseius (Amblyseialus) largoensis Mu-
ma, Muma, 1964: 22.
DIAGNOSIS: This species has been
mixed and confused with A. largoensis
since Muma 1961. De Leon (1966) first
noted the error. A type has been selected
for the species which is here dedicated to
the late Dr. Donald De Leon by the two
senior authors.
Distinguishing characters of the species
include an elongate and vase-shaped ven-
trianal scutum, an elongate fundibuliform


Amblyseius deleoni
Muma and Denmark 0


sp., Sabal palmetto litter, Tillandsia us-
neoides, and several ornamental shrubs.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Dade, Highlands, Hillsborough, Marion,
Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinel-
las, Polk, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Seminole, and
Volusia.
BIOLOGY: This is a weakly-sclerotized
species that is pale colored in life. Speci-
mens feeding on dark hosts have typical
gut markings. The species is relatively
common in spider mite and Brevipalpus
spp. infestations. Living specimens are
indistinguishable from A. aerialis and are
also referred to as long-haired mites.
This species has been collected in every
month, except January, August, and Novem-
ber.

Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)
Fig. 247 to 252
Amblyseiopsis largoensis Muma, 1955a: 266.
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma, Ehara,
1959: 293.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) largoensis
(Muma), Chant, 1959: 96.


T


spermathecal cervix with a greatly swollen
atrium and an L-shaped spermatodactyl with
a weakly-bifurcate toe on the foot. The
body is about 420,/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from citrus
leaves, at Ft. Pierce, Florida, March 20,
1959, by Helen Louise Greene, is in the
USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: This species, which has been
collected under a wide variety of conditions,
has been taken from Amaranthus tricolor,
fruit, leaves, bark, and litter of Citrus sp.,
Podocarpus, Quercus hammock litter, Rubus


Amblyseius largoensis a
(Muma) %










Amblyseius neolargoensis van der Merwe,
1965: 59 (new synonymy).
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), De Leon,
1966: 90.
DIAGNOSIS: This species resembles A.
deleoni from which it is distinguished by
the parallel-sided spermathecal cervix and
slight differences in the spermatodactyl.
The body is about 400/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from key
lime leaves, Key Largo, Florida, December
1952, by M. H. Muma, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: In Florida, this species has
been collected only from Citrus sp. and
Caryota sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Monroe, St.
Lucie, and Sarasota.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
food habits or life cycle. Our Sarasota
specimens were collected from leaves in-
fested with six-spotted mites.
This species has been collected in Febru-
ary, March, April, May, July, August, and
December.


GENUS IPHISEIODES DE LEON

Iphiseiodes De Leon, 1966: 84, fig. 104-105.
Iphiseiodes De Leon, De Leon, 1967: 18.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are
distinguished by 4 pairs of dorsal setae,
3 pairs of median setae, 8 pairs of lateral
setae with L4 and/or La much longer than
others; 2 pairs of sublateral setae on the
interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of sternal
setae; 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae.
All scuta are heavily sclerotized and dis-
tinct. The sternum is much wider than long
and concave posteriorly. The preanal ven-
trianal setae are much closer to the anterior
margin of the ventrianal scutum than to
the anus. Peritreme variable but extending
forward to L,. The peritremal scutum ex-
tends posteriorly to leg IV exopodal scutum.
The chelicerae are small; fixed finger with
9 to 10 denticules, movable with 2 to 3.
Macrosetae are usually present on the genu
of all legs and Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV are
present. Leg formula 4132.


Male spermatodactyls have the foot ter-
minal, heel obscure, and lateral process dis-
tinct.
TYPE SPECIES: Sejus quadripilis Banks,
1905, by designation, De Leon (1966).
DISCUSSION: Three species are pres-
ently recognized in this genus: I. quadri-
pilis (Banks), I. nobilis (Chant and Baker),
and I. kamahorae De Leon. They are closely
related and obviously congeneric, but are
readily distinguished by striking differences
in dorsal setal lengths.
De Leon (1966) obviously intended that
De Leon (1967) be published first since the
1966 paper only gives an indication of the
genus and refers to the 1967 paper which
contains a complete description. Owing to
Dr. De Leon's untimely death the 1966 paper
predates the 1967 paper which is even
differently titled from that indicated by De
Leon (1966). Since the 1966 paper contains
a generic indication this publication is cited
in accordance with the International Code
of Zoological Nomenclature.
This genus has been recorded from several
localities in the Caribbean area, Costa Rica,
Florida, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico
and Trinidad. One species of the genus
has been found in Florida.


Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)

Fig. 253 to 259

Seius quadripilis Banks, 1905: 138.
Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks), Cunliffe
and Baker, 1953: 26.
Iphiseius quadripilis (Banks), Chant, 1959:
110.
Amblyseius (Iphiseius) quadripilis (Banks),
Muma, 1961: 288.
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks), De Leon,
1966: 84.
DIAGNOSIS: This, the typical species,
is easily distinguished by the minute M3,
and the broadly-knobbed macrosetae on leg
IV. The body is about 450/ long.
As discussed in Muma (1964), this species
differs somewhat from the mite originally
described by Banks (1905).







71


GENUS FUNDISEIUS MUMA AND
DENMARK, new name


Iphiseiodes quadripilis
(Banks) IS "


TYPE: The female holotype from Citrus
sinensis leaves, Eustis, Florida, is in the
USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: It is common on Citrus leaves
and fruit and occurs on the bark and in
the litter. Other recorded host plants are
Hibiscus sp., Myrica cerifera, Persea ameri-
cana, Quercus falcata, Quercus laurifolia,
Quercus sp., and Serenoa repens.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Charlotte, Dade, De Soto, Highlands, Hills-
borough, Lake, Manatee, Marion, Orange,
Pinellas, Polk, St. Luice, Sarasota, and Vo-
lusia.
BIOLOGY: This is a hemispherical,
heavily-sclerotized species that is deep red-
brown in color, both living and preserved.
Biological studies have not as yet re-
vealed the primary food of this species. It is
known, however, to be nocturnal (Muma,
1955). Additional biological notes were pub-
lished by Muma (1964a).
This species has been collected throughout
the year.


Athiasia Muma and Denmark,
(Preoccupied by Athiaseius,
1962: 17.)


1968: 233.
Wainstein,


DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are
distinguished by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3
pairs of median setae, 8 pairs of lateral
setae with some much longer than others;
2 pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal
membrane; 3 pairs of sternal setae; 3 pairs
of preanal ventrianal setae.
All scuta are well sclerotized and distinct.
The sternal scutum is wider than long and
creased. Ventrianal scutum imbricate. Peri-
treme extending forward to or between verti-
cal setae. Peritremal scutum with ectal
strip that extends along and around leg IV
exopodal scutum. Chelicerae normal in pro-
portion to the body size; fixed finger with 2
to 4 denticules, movable finger with none.
Macrosetae are absent from legs I, II, and
III but Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV are present
with St IV longest. Leg formula 1423 or
1432.
Males are smaller than females, but
otherwise similar. The spermatodactyl may
have either the heel or foot terminal but the
lateral process is always distinct. Ventri-
anal scutum very large, shield-shaped, and
with 3 pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae.
TYPE SPECIES: Typhlodromips cesi
Muma, 1965, by designation, Muma and Den-
mark (1968).
DISCUSSION: This genus may be dis-
tinguished from the closely-related Iphi-
seiodes De Leon by the reduced dentition,
the large ventrianal scuta, the extended
ectal strip of the peritremal scutum, and
the lack of macrosetae on legs I, II, and
III.
In addition to the 4 species known from
Florida, Amblyseius gonzalezi Athias-
Henriot belongs here. To date this genus
is known only from the southeastern United
States and South America.







72


Key to Fundiseius Muma and Denmark
in Florida


(Females)


la


lb


2a(la)



2b



3a(lb)


3b


L, distinctly longer than L3; ventri-
anal scutum only as wide as genital
scutum-- --..---.--.-.--------- 2
L2 and L, subequal in length; ventri-
anal scutum much wider than genital
scutum .--------.-- -----.----- 3
Small species, 325, long; dorsal scu-
tum faintly creased at margins but
otherwise smooth ..............------------
------.-----..... arenicola (Muma) (p. 74)
Large species, 405, long; dorsal scu-
tum distinctly imbricate marginally
and posteriorly -..-----------imbri-
cata Muma and Denmark (p. 76)
Round species; dorsal scutum
creased laterally but smooth centrally
-...........-..- hystrix (Muma) (p. 72)
Elongate species; dorsal scutum dis-
tinctly imbricate and punctate cen-
trally ------..----. cesi (Muma) (p. 74)


Fundiseius hystrix .o o
(Muma) OI


Fundiseius hystrix (Muma)

Fig. 260 to 264

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) hystrix Muma,
1962: 6.
Iphiseiodes hystrix (Muma), Muma, et al
1967: 204.
Athiasia hystrix (Muma), Muma and Den-
mark, 1968: 234.
DIAGNOSIS: This heavily-sclerotized,
hemispherical deep red-brown species is
distinguished by an elongate Ms and details
of the spermatheca and spermatodactyl.
Other characters of value in separating
this from related species are the nearly
round, large metasternal scuta, the medially-
located elliptical preanal pores, and the
circular form of the secondary metapodal


scutum. The spermatodactyl is not dis-
tinctive. The body is about 420/ long.
The strikingly developed ectal strip of
the peritremal scutum is somewhat atypical
of the genus.
TYPE: The female holotype and para-
types from palmetto leaves, Highlands Ham-
mock State Park, near Sebring, Florida, Jan-
uary 29, 1961, by M. H. Muma, are in the
USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: It has been collected from
Citrus litter and the leaves of Sabal pal-
metto and Serenoa repens.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade, High-
lands, Levy, Osceola, and Seminole.
BIOLOGY: Its food habits are not
known.
This species has been collected in Janu-
ary, February, March, April, and June.


Fig. 253 to 259. Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks).
and station 9. 254. Ventral scuta and station 9.
stigmatal development 9. 256. Cheliceral structure 9
9. 258. Cheliceral and spermatodactyl structure 259.
dactyl 3.


253. Dorsal and leg structure
255. Posterior peritremal and
. 257. Spermathecal structure
Positional variation of spermato-


___~ ._.. I _~ _I_~__
















258

256


259


255


I








74


Fundiseius cesi (Muma)

Fig. 265 to 269

Typhlodromips cesi Muma, 1965a: 254.
Athiasia cesi (Muma), Muma and Den-
mark, 1968: 234.
DIAGNOSIS: This distinctive moder-
ately-sclerotized, brown species has a unique
dorsal imbrication which separates it from
all other related species. The large primary
metapodals, the wide separation of the
preanal pores, and the short macroseta, Sti
IV, are also diagnostic. Male unknown.
The body is about 460, long.
The lack of macrosetae on legs I, II, III,
the thin ectal strip of the peritremal scutum,


TYPE: The female holotype and para-
types from grapefruit leaves, Lake Alfred,
Florida, April 16, 1964, by H. L. Greene, are
in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has been taken
from Citrus spp., Juniperus sp., and an
unidentified weed.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Polk.
BIOLOGY: Feeding and limited repro-
duction of the species has been obtained
using six-spotted mites as a host.
This species has been collected in March
and April.


Fundiseits arenicola (Muma)


Fig. 270 to 275


and the presence of only 6
cheliceral fixed finger are
genus.


denticules on the
typical of this


Amblyseius (Iphiseius) arenicolus Muma,
1965a: 247.
Iphiseiodes arenicolus (Muma), Muma, et al
1967: 203.
Athiasia arenicola (Muma), Muma and Den-
mark, 1968: 234.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguishing characters
of this highly-arched, moderately-sclerotized,
pale brown species are the generally larger
size of the dorsal setae, M3 as long or longer
than L,, and details of the spermatheca and
spermatodactyl. The species is more lightly
sclerotized than is normal for the genus,
and S, and S2 are not normally visible from
above. The thin ectal strip of the peritremal
scutum, the reduced number, 4 to 5, of denti-
cules on the cheliceral fixed finger, and the
lack of macroseta on legs I, II, and III are
typical. The body is about 3301 long.
TYPE: The female holotype and 2 para-
types from sand pine litter, east of Fern
Park, Florida, November 15, 1965, by M. H.
Muma. The holotype is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.


Fig. 260 to 264. Fundiseius hystrix (Mum a). 260. Dorsal and leg structure and seta-
tion 9. 261. Ventral scuta and station 9. 262. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal de-
velopment 9. 263. Spermathecal structure 9. 264. Spermatodactyl structure $.
Fig. 265 to 269. Fundiseius cesi (Muma). 265. Dorsal and leg structure and station
9. 266. Detail of dorsal scutal ornamentation 9. 267. Ventral scuta and station 9.
268. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development 9. 269. Spermathecal structure
9.


Fundiseius cesi o4
(Muma) "



















261


263


266

266


268


267 -


262


269


i rb "


260 |







76


(that on arenicola is smooth), and by hav-
ing the vertical setae 2/3 rather than 1/2 the
length of L,.
TYPE: The female holotype and female
paratype collected from moist Pinus clausa
litter, St. Cloud, Florida, September 21,
1965, by M. H. Muma and H. L. Greene,
are in the USNM, Washington, D.C.
HABITAT: Pinus clausa litter.


Fundiseius arenicola ,
(Muma) oy


HABITAT: It has been collected only in
the litter of Pinus clausa.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Highlands, Indian River, Orange, Osceola,
Polk, Seminole, and St. Lucie.
BIOLOGY: This species has been collect-
ed in all months except February and May.

Fundiseius imbricata Muma and
Denmark


Fig. 276 to 279


Athiasia imbricata Muma and Denmark,
1969: 233.
DIAGNOSIS: This species may be dis-
tinguished from the closely allied A. areni-
cola by its larger average dorsal scutal size,
405, long as opposed to 325M, by its later-
ally and posteriorly imbricate dorsal scutum


COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Orange and
Osceola.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology of the species.
This species has been collected in Sep-
tember and December.


Fig.
station


270 to 275. Fundiseius
9. 271. Ventral scuta


arenicola (M
and station


uma). 270. Dorsal and leg
9. 272. Posterior peritremal


structure and
and stigmatal


development 9. 273. Spermathecal structure
Ventrianal scutum S.
Fig. 276 to 279. Fundiseius imbricata M
ture and station 9. 277. Ventral scuta and
stigmatal development 9. 279. Spermathe


e


9.


274. Spermatodactyl structure


275.


uma and Denmark. 276. Dorsal and leg struc-
setation 9. 278. Posterior peritremal and
cal structure 9.


Fundiseius imbricata 4
Muma and Denmark o l














275


/''7^ 272


f\ I' ^ -^^"
271



273


270 ( Y
278








277 27 6 29.




7277 276








78

GENUS TYPHLODROMIPS DE LEON

Typhlodromopsis De Leon, 1959a: 133 (in
part, not typical species).
Typhlodromips De Leon, 1965: 23.
Typhlodromips De Leon, Muma, 1965: 250.
Typhlodromips De Leon, 1966: 93.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae with M, stout and serrate or plumose,
8 pairs of lateral setae with L8 usually
longer than others, stout and serrate or
plumose; 2 pairs of sub-lateral setae on
the interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of sternal
setae; 3 pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae.
Chelicerae normal in size in proportion to
the body. Fixed finger of chelicerae usually
with 8 or more denticules, several of which
lie proximal to the pilus dentilis. Sternum
as wide or wider than long and with a
straight or concave posterior margin. Peri-
treme long, extending forward to or between
the ventrical setae. Peritremal scutum al-
most indistinguishable or indistinguishable
fused to stigmatal scutum and leg IV exopo-
dal scutum. Ventrianal scutum pentagonal
to shield-shaped. Macrosetae are usually
present on the genu and occasionally on the
tibia of legs I, II, and III; leg IV has Sge
IV, Sti IV, and St IV, with the latter
usually longest. Additional elongate, thick-
ened or otherwise modified setae occur on
some species. Leg formula 1423 to 1432.
Males are smaller than but similar to
females, except that the sublateral setae
are on the dorsal scutum. Ventrianal
scutum with 3 or 4 pairs of preanal setae.
Spermatodactyl with typical terminal foot,
distinct heel, and distinct to obscure lateral
process.
TYPE SPECIES: Typhlodromopsis sim-
plicissimus De Leon, 1959, by designation, De
Leon (1965).
DISCUSSION: This is a large genus re-
presented by at least 50 known species.
Typhlodromips is most readily distin-
guished from Neoseiulus Hughes by pro-
portions of the sternum, greater number of
cheliceral denticules, and presence of mac-
rosetae on legs I, II, and III. It differs
from Typhlodromalus Muma in the form of


sternal and ventrianal scuta and in the de-
velopment of the spermatodactyl.
There is some variation among the
species of this genus in peritremal cheli-
ceral, and leg setae characters. It is pos-
sible that further study will indicate a com-
plex of genera.
This genus is world wide in distribution.
It is common in the Caribbean area. Nine
species are recorded from Florida.

Key to Typhlodromips De Leon in
Florida
(Females)
la M, subequal with, or only slightly
longer than L,; leg IV macrosetae
pointed ........ ..............--- ....... ............ 2
lb M:, much longer than L ; leg IV mac-
rosetae knobbed ............ ........ 4
2a(la) L, more than twice as long as M2;
spermatheca saccular ...--. -.
mastus Denmark and Muma (p. 80)
2b L, only slightly longer than M,;
spermatheca fundibuliform ...----- 3
3a (2b) Spermatheca less than twice as long
as wide; spermatodactyl toe straight
-- ..-------- deleoni (Muma) (p. 79)
3b Spermatheca more than twice as long
as wide; spermatodactyl toe bent for-
w ard .... .................... ......................
-- simplicissimus (De Leon) (p. 79)
4a(lb) M, subequal with, or longer than L.,
-.....--- .......-...-.. .. ..... .. .5 .. ... 5
4b M, distinctly shorter than L, -- 7
5a (4a) M, longer than L,; spermatheca fun-
dibuliform; spermatodactyl foot
short ..... dillus (De Leon) (p. 80)
5b M, subequal with L,; spermatheca
tubular; spermatodactyl foot long....
.- -.- -- -- -. ---. --- -. 6
6a (5b) Spermatodactyl foot slender, toe
nodular; spermathecal cervix 20
times longer than wide ........- .....
---.............. dentilis (De Leon) (p. 82)
6b Spermatodactyl foot massive, toe
ovate; spermathecal cervix 10 times
longer than wide ......--- ....... are-
nillus Denmark and Muma (p. 83)
7a (4b) M, about 1/3 the length of L, .... hel-
lougrewu Denmark and Muma (p. 84)
7b M, about 1/2 the length of L, .... 8








79


8a (7b) Spermathecal cervix long and slen-
der, about 40, long ......-......... ..--.
---.-.... dimidiatus (De Leon) (p. 83)
8b Spermathecal cervix short and broad,
about 25, long ---.--....---.------.. -.....-......-
....---.-.-. digitulus Denmark (p. 86)

Typhlodromips simplicissimus
(De Leon)


Fig. 280 to 288
Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis )
cissimus De Leon, 1959b: 117.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis)
simus (De Leon) Muma, 1961: 2
Typhlodromips simplicissimus (D
De Leon, 1965: 23.
DIAGNOSIS: The location of
terior preanal setae and preanal r


simpli-


simplicis-
87.
e Leon),


the
3ores


pos-
dis-


sclerotized species is about 320, long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Eu-
genia jambos, Cordoba, Veracruz, Mexico,
February 4, 1957, by D. De Leon, is in the
MCZ, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: It has been collected from
Amelanchier arborea, Ardisia sp., leaves,
fruit, twigs and litter of Citrus, Magnolia,
Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Persea bor-
bonia, Quercus sp., Ricinus communis,
Serenoa repens, Thea sp., and fern.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard,
Dade, Highlands, Hillsborough, Marion,
Pasco, Polk, Seminole, St. Lucie, De Soto,
Pinellas, and Volusia.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known of its food
habits.
This species has been collected in Janu-
ary, February, March, April, July, Septem-
ber, October, and November.

Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma),
new combination

Fig. 289 to 292


Typhlodromips simplicissimus &t
(De Leon) .l


tinguish this species from most other Typh-
lodromips. T. deleoni (Muma) is closely
related, but the bent transverse arm of the
spermatodactyl serves to separate this mite.
This is the only species of the genus in which
an ectal strip of the peritremal scutum
extends to leg IV exopodal scutum. The
body of this common, pale-colored, lightly-


Typhlodromips deleoni
(Muma) jC 0








80


Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis)
Muma, 1962: 7.
Typhlodromus simplicissimus
Hirschmann, 1962: 6.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis)
Muma, Muma, 1964: 24.


deleoni


De Leon,

deleoni


DIAGNOSIS: Males of this lightly-scle-
rotized, pale-colored species are distin-
guished from males of A. simplicissimus
(De Leon) by the broad, spatulate, unflexed
toe of the spermatodactyl. Females of the
two species are either indistinguishable, ex-
cept for spermathecal length, or females of
this species are as yet unknown. The body
is about 300,u long.
TYPE: The male holotype from citrus
leaf, Turnbull Hammock, north of Mims,
Florida, January 16, 1969, by Judith A. Mur-
rell, is in the USNM, Washington, D. C.


HABITAT: This species has been
elected only from the leaves of citrus.


col-


COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Brevard and
Highlands.
BIOLOGY: The food habits are unknown.
This species has been collected in Febru-
ary and November.

Typhlodromips mastus Denmark
and Muma


Fig. 293 to 298


Typhlodromips mastus Denmark and Muma,
1967: 175.
DIAGNOSIS: T. mastus is distinguished
from a closely related Mexican species, T.
sanblasensis (De Leon), by shorter dorsal
scutal setae, a shorter, narrower saccular
spermatheca with a large atrium, and details
of the ventrianal scutum. Also, there are
only 6 to 7 denticules on the cheliceral fixed
finger. The body is about 310,u long.
TYPE: The female holotype from golden-
rod, Solidago sp., Alva, Florida, June 10,


Typhlodromips mastus
Denmark and Muma ,0


1965, by W. T. Walsh, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: Solidago sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Lee.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology.
This species has been collected in June.

Typhlodromips dillus (De Leon),
new combination

Fig. 299 to 307

Typhlodromus dillus De Leon, 1960: 106.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) dillus (De
Leon), Muma, 1961: 287.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is closely re-
lated to T. dimidiatus (De Leon) from which
it is distinguished by differently propor-
tioned M2 and L5,, the shorter spermatheca,
and the presence of 4 pairs of preanal setae


Fig.
ture and


280 to 288.
station 9.


tremal and stigmatal
mathecal structure 9


Typhlodromips simplicissimus (D
281 and 282. Ventral scuta and


e Leon).
station


development 9. 284, 285, and 286.
287. Spermatodactyl structure S.


280.
9.


Dorsal and leg struc-
283. Posterior peri-


Positional variations of
288. Ventrianal scutum


sper-
S.








172







287
288 2T8


286
282
285









284




283 1






281 1



S 280








82


Typhlodromips dillus
(De Leon)


on the male ventrianal scutum. Although
the dorsal scutum is heavily imbricate, the
species is lightly sclerotized and pale in color.
The body is about 300M long.
TYPE: The male holotype from Hicoria
sp., Barwell, Florida, September 1, 1956, by
D. De Leon, is in the MCZ, Harvard Uni-
versity, Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: It has been collected from
Amelanchier arborea, Citrus sp., Cornus sp.,
Cupressus sp., Cyperus papyrus, Diospyros
sp., Eriobotrya japonica, Fraxinus carolin-
iana, Geranium sp., Gordonia lasianthus,
Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ilex sp., Juniperus vir-
giniana, Magnolia grandiflora, Phytolacca
americana, Pinus clausa, Pinus palustris,
Pinus taeda, Pittosporum tobira, Polysti-
chum adiantiforme, Quercus laevis, Quercus
prinus, Quercus virginiana, Rhododendron
sp., Rubus sp., Styrax americana, Thea sp.,
Viburnum suspensum, and Vitis sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Baker, Bradford, Brevard, Clay, Dade, De
Soto, Gilchrist, Highlands, Indian River,
Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Okeechobee, Orange,
Putnam, Suwannee, Seminole, and Volusia.


BIOLOGY: Its food habits are unknown.
This species has been collected in every
month except June and August.

Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon),
new combination

Fig. 308 to 317

Typhlodromus dentilis De Leon, 1960: 105.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) dentilis (De
Leon), Muma, 1961: 287.
DIAGNOSIS: Details of the spermatheca
and spermatodactyl distinguish this species
from closely related forms. Knobbed macro-
setae on leg IV are also usable characters.
The body is about 310,u long.
This species seems to be more closely re-
lated to T. arenillus Denmark and Muma
than to T. dillus (De Leon) or T. sabali (De
Leon) as originally distinguished.
TYPE: The male holotype from Rhus co-
pallina at Miami, Florida, May 24, 1956, by
D. De Leon, is in the MCZ, Harvard Univer-
sity, Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: Collected from Acalypha wil-


Typhlodromips dentilis
(De Leon) 0








83


kesiana, Acer negundo, Arecastrum roman-
zoffianum, Bidens pilosa, Casimiora sp., Cas-
tanea sp., Citrus limon, Citrus leaves and
litter, Erigeron sp., Eriobotrya japonica, Eu-
phorbia pulcherrima, Gardenia sp., Juni-
perus chinensis 'Hetzii', Juniperus sylvestris,
Juniperus sp., Litchi chinensis, Magnolia vir-
giniana australis, Malva sp., Petrea volubilis,
Pinus clausa litter, Pinus sp., Psidium sp.,
Quercus incana, Rhus copallina, Rhus copal-
lina leucantha, Solidago sp., Tillandsia us-
neoides in swamp, and feed bin litter.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Broward, Charlotte, Clay, Dade, Highlands,
Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Sarasota,
and St. Lucie.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
biology of this species.
This species has been collected in every
month, except August.

Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark
and Muma

Fig. 318 to 324

Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark and
Muma, 1967: 172.
DIAGNOSIS: T. arenillus seems to be
most closely related to T. dentilis (De Leon)
from which it is distinguished by propor-
tional lengths of dorsal scutal setae, larger
pores on the ventrianal scutum, a shorter,
wider spermatheca, and a larger spermato-
dactyl with a bent toe. The body is about
290M long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Lake
Placid, Florida, August 23, 1965, by M. H.
Muma and H. L. Greene, on pea vine in sand
dune, is in the USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has been found
on Carya sp., Geobalanus sp., Quercus sp.,


Serenoa repens, Vaccinium sp., Vicia sp.,
and an unidentified plant on Pinus clausa
sand dunes.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Highlands, Orange, and Polk.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known about the
food habits or life cycle of this species.
This species has been collected in March,
April, and August.


Typhlodromips arenillus o 4
Denmark and Muma OWA#


Typhlodromips dimidiatus (De Leon),
new combination

Fig. 325 to 330

Amblyseius (Typhlodromopsis) dimidiatus
De Leon, 1962: 25.
DIAGNOSIS: A combination of dorsal
setal, spermathecal, spermatodactyl, macro-
setal, and ventrianal scutal characters is re-
quired to distinguish this species from others
of the complex. T. dillus is the most closely
related species, but has more distinct imbri-
cation, and shorter spermatheca. The body
is about 320, long. The male is unknown.
TYPE: The female holotype from Ilex sp.,
Florida City, Florida, March 19, 1959, by D.
De Leon is in the MCZ, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Mass.
HABITAT: Ilex sp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Dade.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known of the food
habits.
This species has been collected in March.










tian, Florida, February 25, 1966, b3
Muma, on sand pine, Pinus clausa, i,
USNM, Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: This species has beez
only on Pinus clausa and an unid
plant in sand dune.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION:
River, Polk, and St. Lucie.
BIOLOGY: The food habits a
known.
This species has been collected in
ary and March.


S
s


M. H.
in the


n found
lentified

Indian

ire not

Febru-


Typhlodromips dimidiatus '
(De Leon) Of I


Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark
and Muma

Fig. 331 to 337

Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark and
Muma, 1967: 173.
DIAGNOSIS: T. hellougreus is closely re-
lated in some respects to T. simplicissimus
(De Leon) and in others to T. auratus (De
Leon). It is distinguished from the former
by the reticulated dorsal scutum, shorter
dorsal scutal setae, and differently positioned
preanal pores; from the latter by having M3
much shorter than L., and much narrower
spermatheca. The body is about 3401/ long.
TYPE: The female holotype from Sebas-


Typhlodromips hellougreus
Denmark and Muma (wBp


Fig. 289 to 292. Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma). 28.
station 9. 290. Ventral scuta and station 9. 291. Sp
Cheliceral and spermatodactyl structure 3.
Fig. 293 to 298. Typhlodromips mastus Denmark and
structure and station 9. 294. Ventral scuta and station
and stigmatal development 9. 296. Cheliceral structure
variations of spermathecal structure 9.


). Dorsal and leg structure and
ermathecal structure 9. 292.


Muma.
9. 295
9. 297


293. Dorsal and leg
Posterior peritremal
and 298. Positional


84













296 -
~'t" ~ 295



294 j' $- ^

298



297 293




/ W 292


S'r ^ ^^ ^<





291 290

289 290\ /










Typhlodromips digitulus (Denmark),
new combination

Fig. 338 to 344


Amblyseius digitulus Denmark, 1965: 91.
DIAGNOSIS: Typhlodromips digitulus


is


Typhlodromips digitulus .
(Denmark) 0w"


closely related to T. dimidiatus (De Leon),
and T. dillus (De Leon), but differs in that
Ms is much smaller than L5, L, and Ms are
longer and only slightly serrate, and the
spermatheca is distinct in having a cleft
atrium. This species is weakly sclerotized
and is pale white in life. The body is about
330p long.
TYPE: The female holotype from 2 miles


south of Winter Garden, Florida, April 2,
1963, by H. A. Denmark, on Bermuda grass,
Cynodon dactylon, is in the USNM, Washing-
ton, D. C.
HABITAT: Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum
notatum, and Tillandsia usneoides in swamp.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Orange and
Polk.
BIOLOGY: Nothing is known of its life
history or food habits.
This species has been collected in March,
April, and May.
GENUS TYPHLODROMALUS MUMA

Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) Muma, 1961:
288.
Typhlodromalus Muma, De Leon, 1966: 87.
DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized
by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae of which Li,
L4, and Ls are longer and stouter and L8 is
usually serrate; 2 pairs of sublateral setae
on the interscutal membrane; 3 pairs of ster-
nal setae; 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal
setae.
Chelicerae normal in size in relation to the
body. Fixed finger of chelicerae with 8 or
more denticules about half of which lie proxi-
mal to the pilus dentilis. Sternal scutum
longer than wide and lobate posteriorly. Peri-
treme long, extending forward to or between
vertical setae. Peritremal scutum indistin-
guishably fused with stigmatal scutum and
leg IV exopodal scutum. Ventrianal scutum
elongate, frequently vase-shaped with the
preanal setae forming 2 triangles. Macro-
setae are usually present on the genu and
occasionally on the tibia of legs I, II, and III,
and leg IV has Sge IV, Sti IV, and St IV with
the latter usually longest. Leg formula 4123.


Fig. 299 to 307.


Typlodromips dillus


(De Leon).


299. Dorsal and leg structure


and


station 9. 300, 301 and 302. Ventral scuta and station 9. 303. Posterior peritremal
and stigmatal development 9. 304. Positional variations of spermathecal structure 9.
305 and 306. Cheliceral and spermatodactyl structure &. 307. Ventrianal scutum &.
Fig. 308 to 317. Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon). 308. Dorsal and leg structure
and station 9. 309, 310 and 311. Ventral scuta and station ?. 312. Posterior peritre-
mal and stigmatal development 9. 313 and 314. Positional variations of spermathecal
structure 9. 315 and 316. Cheliceral and spermatodactyl structure S. 317. Ventrianal
scutum &.


86


































315

- 316






312





313 314


309



311


vI.'1/ 317


305


N

V ~
7~77 1
M' I


'3N
J3
300


r
306




*)


301


307


\ '4


310


y







88


Males are smaller than, but similar to, fe-
males except that the sublateral setae are on
the dorsal scutum. Ventrianal scutum with
3 pairs of preanal setae. Spermatodactyl
with an elongate shank, a broad spatulate
foot, and a smaller but distinct heel and lat-
eral process.


TYPE SPECIES:
nus Muma, 1955,
(1961).


Typhlodromus peregri-
by designation, Muma


DISCUSSION: The species of this genus
have been confused with those of Euseius
Wainstein. They may be distinguished by
the large multidentate chelicerae, the posi-
tion of the preanal ventrianal setae and the
form of the spermatodactyl.
About 12 species can presently be as-
signed to this genus. All of them live on
shrubs and trees. The food habits are known
only for T. peregrinus (Muma), which seems
to be an omnivorous predator (Muma, 1969).
In California, Chant and Fleschner (1960)
and McMurtry and Scriven (1965) have
found that T. limonicus (Garman and Mc-
Gregor) will feed on both pollen and tetrany-
chids, but other food hosts have not been
tested.
This genus is widely distributed. It is
common in the Caribbean area. Two spe-
cies are known from Florida.


Typhlodromalus peregrinus
new combination


(Muma),


Fig. 345 to 362


Typhlodromus peregrinus Muma, 1955a:
270.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) peregrinus
(Muma), Chant, 1959: 97.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) robiniae Chant,


1959: 98.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) ev
1959: 99.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius)
Chant, 1959: 99.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus)
(Muma), Muma, 1961: 288.


DIAGNOSIS:


This species is


Key to Typhlodromalus Muma in
Florida

(Females)

la M. much larger than L, and plumose;
dorsal scutum rugose -------. --...- ......
.....-.............. peregrinus (Muma) (p. 88)
lb M. subequal with L, and setiform; dor-
sal scutum smooth --..-....--------.limoni-
cus (Garman and McGregor) (p. 90)


Typhlodromalus peregrinus o
(Muma) 0 0


Fig. 318 to 324. Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark and Muma. 318. Dorsal and leg
structure and station 9. 319. Ventral scuta and station 9. 320. Posterior peritremal
and stigmatal development 9. 321. Cheliceral structure 9. 322. Spermathecal structure
9. 323. Positional variations of spermatodactyl structure &. 324. Ventrianal scutum &.
Fig. 325 to 330. Typhlodromips dimidiatus (De Leon). 325. Dorsal and leg struc-
ture and station 9. 326 and 327. Ventral scuta and station 9. 328. Spermathecal
structure 9. 329. Spermatodactyl structure S. 330. Ventrianal scutum & .


ansi Chant,

primulae

peregrinus

closely re-











S 321







323
319 323 :

\ .. 3 324V










\ 327
328


'K 329





326 \

325 330







90

lated to T. planetarius (De Leon) from Mex-
ico and T. olombo (Pritchard and Baker)
from Africa. Proportions of setae on the
dorsal scutum and genitalic details separate
it from these species. The body is about
380j long.
Muma and Denmark (1962) have shown
that this species is highly variable and in-
cludes the synonyms cited above.
TYPE: The female holotype from scaly
orange leaves, Minneola, Florida, January
24, 1952, by M. H. Muma, is in the USNM,
Washington, D. C.
HABITAT: As the name implies, this spe-
cies wanders over a large number of plant
hosts including Acera sp., Acer negundo,
Arecastrum romanzoffianum, Asparagus plu-
mosus, Bambusa sp., Begonia sp., Bucida bu-
ceras, Buxus microphylla 'Japonica', Buxus
sp., Callistemon salignus, Carya illinoensis,
Citrus mitis, Citrus nobilis, Citrus sinensis,
Citrus sp. bark, fruit and litter, Coffea ara-
bica, Cornus floridanus, Diospyros sp., Eri-
geron sp., Euphorbia sp., Gardenia sp., Gor-
donia lasianthus, Ilex glabra, Ilex opaca, Ipo-
moea purpurea, Juniperus conferta, Lantana
sp., Ligustrum sp., Litchi chinensis, Melan-
thera deltoidea, Nyssa sylvatica, Passiflora
sp., Phoenix sp., Pinus elliottii, Pinus sp.,
Pittosporum tobira, Pityothamnus (=Asi-
mina) pygamea, Platanus occidentalis, Plu-
meria sp., Primrose family, Prunus carolin-
iana, Prunus laurocerasus, Prunus sp., Psid-
ium guajava, Psidium sp., Quercus falcata,
Quercus hemisphaerica, Quercus laurifolia,
Quercus nigra, Quercus virginiana, Quercus
sp., Rhododendron sp., Rhus sp., Ricinus
communis, Rosa sp., Rubus sp., Salix caro-
liniana, Sambucus sp., Schefflera sp., Schinus
terebinthifolius, Serenoa repens, Solanum
sp., Solidago sp., Stokesia laevis, Thespesia


populnea, Thuja sp., Tillandsia usneoides in
swamp and under Quercus sp., Vaccinium
sp., Viburnum odoratissimum, Vitis sp.,
Zamia sp., and unidentified weeds and cover
crops.
COUNTY DISTRIBUTION: Alachua,
Baker, Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Clay,
Dade, De Soto, Gadsden, Highlands, Hills-
borough, Indian River, Jefferson, Lake, Lee,
Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Martin,
Monroe, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas,
Polk, Putnam, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Seminole,
Sumter, Union, and Volusia.
BIOLOGY: This species is known locally
as the yellow mite because it is most fre-
quently colored a milk-white to pale yellow.
Dark gut markings are infrequent under
field conditions. Laboratory studies indicate
a wide host food range.
This is the most common phytoseiid on
Florida citrus; it has been discussed in a
number of reports including Muma (1961,
1964, 1964a, 1965a, and 1970) and Muma,
et al (1961).
This species has been collected in every
month of the year.

Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman
and McGregor)

Fig. 363 to 368

Amblyseius limonicus Garman and McGre-
gor, 1956: 11.
Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) limonicus
(Garman and McGregor), Chant, 1959:
96.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) limonicus
Garman and McGregor, Muma, 1961: 288.
Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman and Mc-
Gregor), De Leon, 1967: 22.


Fig. 331 to 337. Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark and Muma. 331. Dorsal and
leg structure and station 9. 332. Ventral scuta and station 9. 333. Posterior peritre-
mal and stigmatal development 9. 334. Cheliceral structure 9. 335. Spermathecal struc-
ture 9. 336. Spermatodactyl structure S. 337. Ventrianal scutum S.
Fig. 338 to 344. Typhlodromips digitulus (Denmark). 338. Dorsal and leg structure
and station 9. 339. Ventral scuta and station 9. 340. Posterior peritremal and stig-
matal development 9. 341. Cheliceral structure 9. 342, 343, and 344. Positional varia-
tion of spermathecal structure 9.




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