O s I'
r -. **
4, fl' ...
!.> ^ --r ""
~, ~ ;~ I
t- 't to
- r. .
-- C ,
W *4 A
*4 C .
An thoeeads elassnt ofthet Palmesof Kanoesas heb
ato*gh tenaotta pipe These are of taperking fbu. sh
t s haped to give the water a shooting motion that pN9gs
sediment; in this respect Evans judges them better than modern
malel pipes. They are neatly interlocked and cemented at thejoint.
'handles' are not meaningless survivals from the similar vase
forms, but were used to lash the pipes together to prevent displace.
meant These pipes date from about 2000 s.C. Each quarter of the
palace had a. drainage system of its own, passing into great main
sewers, stone-built, large enough for the passage of a sewer-man, and
flushed by the sometimes torrential rainwater. The Minoans evidently
delighted in hydraulic devices, and used such refinements of the
science as parabolic curses in the water channels and the pre-
cipitation of sediment in intermediate catch-pits.
Latrine at Knoss9o
(above) An early Egyptian closet seat. This anatomically shaped
found in Tel-el-Arnana and dates from about 1370 tc:. "he
split nature of the seat anticipates modern versions
hbedow) An eighth-century closet seat of golden limestone from
Paphos in Cyprus
Plate a 2
Wa nat At o aser at Canterr a complete -
was laid on in 1150; the plans still exist. Close to the source was a
conduit-house-a round tower-from which an underground lead
pipe passed through five oblong settling-tanks to purify the water,
each with a 'suspirail or vent to control the pressure; thence under
the city wall and into the monastic precinct. It then ran to a laver, f 0
where it fed a tank raised on a central pillar to give a head of water.
From this ran two pipes: one to the frater. scullery and kitchen; the
other to the bakehouse, brewhouse and guest-hall, and to another i...
laver near the infirmary. In the layers, thin streams of water trickled
constantly into the basins. Further branches fed the bath-house and
a tank for the use of the townsfolk. The waste ran into a stone fish-
pond, and from there to a tank by the Prior's chamber and so to
'the Prior's water-tub',. where it was joined by the waste from the
bath-house and the rainwater from the roofs, to provide a hearty
cleansing flow through the main drain running under the 'rere-
dorter' latrines. There wa.i esen an emergency supply: in the in- o
firmary court was a well, and beside it a hollow column standing on
the main pipe. into which well-water could be poured to keep up the
supply. in times of drouhit Short branches called 'purgatoria' served
for flu-hing the pipes. Th etfficienc\ of this water-system may )
explain as much as the holiness of the inmates the exemption of
the monster\ from the Black Death in 349.
Plans of the water-supply and drainage system of the Cathedral and Monastery
at Canterbwry, completed c. 1 167
k, ofmetal aSths. in 7 Scond Nun's TWe he tells of abathi e
which 'St. Cecie' was
... fast shetten,
SAnd nht and day greet fyre they under better.
The long nyght. and eck a day also,
For al.the Nfre, and eek the baths hecte,
She sat al cold and felt of it no wo;
It made hire nat a drope for to swete.
It is argued that a bath hc.ated thus o er a fire must have been of
metal. But this St. Cecilia (and there were at least two) was a Roman
ladv of about A.D. 200. and the bath. as c.idenced by the words
fasti sheen' (shut fast) and \w't&' (sweat), must have been an
ordinary\ Roman ', ,ni' imou or hot room. Ch.iuccr's medal bath will
not hold water.
oddly, wardrobee wb
'cloak room'. 'Garderobe' a b. tM
term for the medieval privy cosetl. -
In the great house or cate the ps
within the ample thickness of the wa, a
shaft below a stone or wooden ea. Soulin a .
would be formed within a buttress, a at Stoba w
in a projecting turret with an open drop Instead Ora
of several might be repeated at each floor IowV h
grouped neatly like chimney flues. At Langley Cas tie Nrl
land, four seats on each of three floors were so air. S
thought worthy of the principal tower. At Dodiam Ut
at least twenty seats to choose from. At SoOthwu Pa
radiated round a central shaft, facing outwad on to adie
passage: neighbours were sociably within hearing but dasty e
of sight. As well as such groups, many castes had one for
Garderoles ai.1 anhelei Castle
Garderobe in the Tower of Lomnon
London"n waterou'uw E W -- --
with latrines built over them, had longb
of White Friars protested to King and .M a i
exhalations of the Fleet overcame all the fhnlaknIum a
altars, and caused the deaths of many bethren.m Stmw, thigf U ibr
adds that in 1300 Sherborne Lane, once 'by a long bour ofuwsm
water', had become known as Shiteburn Lane. In 1321 oMit
were made that a London lane called Ebbegate was bhelf by te
effect of its overhanging latrines, 'qawnr pwtre*d rcat super empls
hominum transeuntium'. With such risks to be faced, we can lIke
A. J. Lamb sympathise with
the ingenious woman who constructed her own privy and connected she
outflow by a wooden pipe to the rainwater gutter. Unfortunately, the com.
plaints of the neighbours, when the pipe became blocked, brought a
heavy summons on the unlucky woman's head.
Among the lower crderr. thL ... piteC latrines. as we
know from housinE ordinance., 1-4'. 1-'uirnien lthat garderobc
pMts if not walkd. must be .t : 4, .it rum the party line; if
waited. 24 ft. Thati here Aere pubk re,-, 'C .rn, thom the inelegant
fate of John de Ab\don. d ho as u:; u',n ro rcuecs and killed, in
1291, as be was coming ot ,f a rn.i'r.'mn pri\ in London Wall
wihin Cnpplegate Vard. at the h,-ad of Philips LLine. Others arc
recorded: a 'four-holer at Temple Pier south of ileet Street. built
over the Thames and roofed in. another at Quccenhithe over an open
WWeT; another ser.ine the occupants of the houses on London
bid. Of these houses there were 138. making for a busy privy,
tough many householders no doubt took advantage of the site to
make iLmptI private arrangements, hiLch would add to the known
r ootngh dge' built thehey sabridge' built as they said for wi men to go
ovM and for fools to go under'. The London Bridge privy had two
12z ('OTI'AGI LIFli IN WINTEI.R IN THEI. S1XTIENTH CENTURY.
Fr-nn the Grimani Breviary
Royal Close Stool at Hanmptvn Court,
NO ROYAL FLUSH
A PLAINE PLOT OF
"tr, that oo avre come up from the vault," but onely at you
c, which stands dose stopt, and ever it must be left, after
it is voded, halfe a foote deep in cleane water.
" If water be plentie, the oftener it is used and opened, the
sweeter; but if it be scant, once a day is enough, for a need,
"though twenties persons should use it.
SIf the water will not run to your Cesterne, you may with a
"force'7 of twentie shillings,' and a pype of eighteen pence the
"yard, force it from the lowest part of your house to the
* But now on the other"' side behold the Anatomie.
Here are the parts set done with a rate of the pryses, that a builder may
guess what hKe hath to pay.
A. the cestemc stone or bricke, prise 0.6.8.*
B. D. E. the pype that comes from the cesterne with a stopple
to the washer. 0.3.6.
C. a waste pype.4 10.1.0
F. G. the stem of the great i.otpprc with a key to it. o.1.6.'
H. the forme bf the upper brim of the vessel or stole pot.
M. the stoole pot of stone or lead, pryce of stone. 0.8.0.*
N. the treat braise sluce, to which j," three inches current, to send it
down a gallop into the Jax. 0.10.0.
Else all is vayne.
These forces as also the great washer you shall buy at the Queenes Brasiers
in Lothbery" at the Bores head.
j* f.yrA The pl-.r-cr of a force- pu.ip.. I[ i. is the earliest'example cited in
L.ithbrv] A street in Colman Street Ward, .'possessed for the most by
Founders that cast Candktqickes, Chafingdishes, Spice mortars, and such like
Copper or Latoen workers' (Stow, ed. Kingsford, I, 277).
the other] other MS bricke prise o 6.8. A
Spype, A 42 o;. 6 A
of stone or lead.., stone] A MS; of stone prise A
*..o A to which is] with MS
Stforst bi/l A thick knife or chopper with a hooked end tsed for pruning.
And cakes] not in MS
'"peP detaum] A short beard trimmed, in Nashe's inimitable phrase, to a
let) polywigge sparrcs% tayle pi:ake' (Web'.-T, I, 312).
the whole char-] not in A '. yet like] not in MS
Memorandum the A
.A PRIVIE IN PIRPnCTIQN
'Tris is Don A JAX hoe, of the n fmhio, aai
sunder, that a workman may see what he hato
And least you should mislike with this phase,I had it in a verse of
grave author that was wont to wake up and downe the. Court, with
a forest bill,' I have forgot how it begun (like a beast as he was) but it
ended in ryme.
0 that I were at Oxenford, to eat4 some Ban cakt.
I. the scate with a peke devaunt for elbow roo the whole charge
30. shillings eight pence, yet a mson of my masters was off1ed thirn .
pounds for the like." Memorandum, the scale is about. ale an ince
to a foote.
A. the Cesterne.
B. the little washer.
C. the wast pipe.
D. the seate bootd.
E. the pipe that comes from the Cesterne.
F. the Screw.
G. the Scallop shell to cover it when it is shut downe"
H. the stoole pot.
I. the stopple.
K. the current.
L. the sluce.s
'M. Nthe vault into which it falls: always remember that ( )
fyratnoone and at night, emptie it and leave it halfe a foote deep in
fare water. And this being well done, and orderly kept, your worst
ivie may be sweet as our bes chamber.
9( F o r P n1t n S o p. )
PAN, Pl NtNG R AND PLUG
Patent Dr-tin Trap was an equally Object'-
the later aidtdon, of a eually objectionIble variation. Even with
(but often waithons ofa ng rim and the n ;in, of the container
oilPe) these horrid made worse by connecting the vent to the
ended They had an ndesices might need to be 'taken up to be sweet-
eed'. T hey had a udesropered run of over a century; Stevens Hellyer,
the great preachern 189of and proper numbing, says that hundreds were still
beingorh mdeof a nobler ending: Is condemnation with a piece of prose
The light of a candle does not die down all at once. Often in its last
flikering moments it extends its flame ow c ga
t o its w a ys m ay w ith o stron m u
tog iswand msy clPdned for thinking that recovered its lost
pan cluset coming back to life and light had recover its lost
p c, again. And so it is with the
in the plunger or plug closet a
close the outlet, until a handle was i boe was supposed to
Noisomwater-tight and like the pan closet it had, butoo this did not remain
soil-ppes, and hemseIc, th e were oo many foul crannies
oil-pipes, and so fed sewer gases iere eted
defects must have been a gas nto the hted to unventilated
water-closet of any al too evident, not hse. Though their
Briish patents (~ 7- s take" out.n th single patent for a
5). first 158 years of
CUMMINGS AND BRAMAH
Cum'mins' Valve closet. 1775
The first such patent. 179 yearsafter *Ajax', was taken out in 1775
by Alcxind4,r Cummings, a watchmaker of Bond Street. In this are
found all the elements of the'modern valve closet (so called from the
vale that closes the outlet of the basin, not from the flushing-water
SUPPly-valve): it has the overhead supply cistern, the valve inter-
connected with the flush and with the pull-up handle, and the
is yphon-trap. The water is brought into the basin very low down, and
kept in the basin by what Cummings calls 'the slider'.
The advantages of the said water closet depend upon the shape of the
stinkor ason, the manner of admitting water into it, and on having the
timnk-trap so constructed that its contents shall, or may, be emptied every
tmeC the closet is used.
siny the valve was unreliable; the Wvords 'shall, or may' are
Significant. With Bramah's improvements to Cummings' .yalve, a
ign resulted that was to serve for well over a century.
Joseph Bramah was a cabinet-maker, but one of his jobs was to fit
U water-closets, and he greatly improved on Cummings' with a
vslve that seated itself with a cranking motion instead of loosely
sliding Bramah's patent is dated 1778. By 1797 he had, he said, made
about 6,000 closets, and the firm went on making them until about.
190 For all that time they were the accepted pattern, and as
TYPICAL "ScHbL SINK" IN EiZAMETH STRBrrT.
TENEMENT HOUSE SANITATION
washed out of the trough must lodge in the drain until the next
flush or until washed out by a rain storm. It is generally the
case that the rain leader of the building connects with the drain
from the school sink, and in many cases these leaders do not appear
to be trapped. The air from the foul drain would, in these cases,
escape through the loose joints of the rain leader near the rear win-
dows of the building. The foul odor from the leaders at the roof
in a few cases examined indicated that these conditions undoubtedly
DIAGRAM BnOWING CONSTRUCTION 03 "SCHOOL SINK."
exist. It is my opinion that the school sinks of all types should be
absolutely removed. It is a condition that warrants drastic reme-
dies. As a substitute for the school sinks there is room for differ'"
ence of opinion. I should advise properly constructed and ventilated
water-closets on each floor otr the building.. If this should be found
impracticable, a great improvement could be made by substituting,
individual long hopper water-4losets in the yard building in place of
th school minks. T Are some objections to this type of close,
but it would be ey d edly better than any form of school
SBCTIONAL VIEW SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL SINK.
A 0SCWtOL 1Nx- A CoxoITIoN .orTNW FOUND.
\ 1 *,m .
CONCRETE PUBLIC COMFORT STATIONS
of public hospital dispensaries, of tuberew-.
losis clinics, milk stations, day nurse ipq
S- public baths, etc., and other facts which ami
now obtainable only through unreliable d
private sources. Concerning the distuih&
A FEW HUNDRED DOLLARS FURNISHES THIS
SPACE-CONSERVING URINAL IN BIRMING-
of desirable concessions, it would be easily
possible to establish, especially in the
women's stations, bureaus of information
which could be advertised as such, and
through which could be given out safe and
authenticated information concerning re-
liable employment agencies, the situation
PUBLIC COMFORT STATION, VIENNA
tion of these facts, the city should acce
S lthe responsibility. At the present time the
ione place where a municipal information
bureau is most needed in New York City
is at the Battery, where thousands of immi-
. \\ \Ill ',\ I,', n t\I \N i, a i\> I (LI T STA'
.11 1 I I>. \1< I, C;.R.KMANY .
s desirable. I hold the vsew ma=, 1n we
interest of economy in construction, and
to reduce the labor of keeping the metal
work bright, it would be a better practice
to use rough brass and galvanized iron for
1pies, fittings and traps, and to enamel
paint then with best white or cream enamel
lThe equipment should, in general, be such
to "create an atmosphere of absolute
a01liness and due regard for decorum."
*:Bl habits should be encouraged by pro-
than one person, for they are apt to become
disease-spreaders. Accordingly, roller tow-
els, drinking cups or glasses, combs, hair
and nail brushes, cakes of soap, and s,
forth, should be absolutely prohibited. The
,essential supplies required are toilet paper,
liquid or powdered soal, paper towels, and
individual drinking cups, though the latter
are not needed when bubble fountains arc
This article would become unduly long
were I to discuss in detail the important
matter of plumbing installations and fix-
- .Sn~S at SW' S S
-PLAN OF UNDERGROUND COMFORT STATION IN PITTSBURGH, PA. f
C4 imw- W
11 o r 1
d do _rdo e
"' #0 '.
Fig St. *'hoppe' was* .ndi ned an Ixygienic grounds ly 'any
(above) The twin-basin closet was an early trapless basin whidh
quite unsatisfactory for the job. It was impossible to keep clean
Plate 4 (below) The closet and trap in one. piece
Jennings had many shortcomings
claiming that iooooo of the 'N were n .
Robert Park, in a letter entitled 'Sanitation at the Sea
Coast' wrote: 'Of wash-out closet basins there are now
several int vogue, but the best I have seen are those called
Twyford's Natioral and Alliance and a cheaper sort on the
same principal called the Crown.' Prices ranged for the
National from-x Ios in white to 2 2a in printed flown
colourS. Each closet was tested at the works with a 2 gallon
cistern and was guaranteed to work satisfactorily.
Fig 3 P. J. Davi the famous Victorian plumber, believed this to
be the first wnsh-mit closet made. Unfortunately no date was given
Plate It (above) The pxoor man's decorated closet. The
dark rim reveals a cheap caineware basin and the later addi-
tion of a brick surround suggests it was not built to last. The
tulip decoration is nevertheless ornate
Plate 12 (belou,)' Though Hellyer detested the 'architec-
tural' style he produced this model 'to meet the wishes of my
friends for some little ornamentation'
Plate 23 (above) This simple and functional pedestal was intended for
use with Ducketts slopwater closet
Plate 24 (below) The famous 'Beaufort' of Humphersons
the 'Original Pedestal Wash-Down Closet'
claimed to be
"Beaufort Pedestal Closet
MTOWM. MOKAP RaBLuAt.
WATER CLOSET, URINAL; AND SLOP CLOSET.
Plate 2 (above) In many countries, especially in the East,
wcs are not fitted with seats. The Armitage 'Artesia' is a
Plate 22 (below) The 'Unisyla' of Armitage Shanks shows
a modern double-trap siphonieosuite
Plate 23 (above) I1
Plate 24 (beloit, I he
the ( )r
.: ;, .k
LtSPLE 8 XS U
"The Dolphin', 1882
IIL'O*j.d Smtes I .1895
T. Laet eth', 1895
SMulberry Peach Decoration', Iv 7
Blue ifntia Desi*n', 1895
Swiqngi Wa Aun, 1W
Adamsez come out with a series of sanitary conjuring tricks. A
swinging wash-basin swivels over the bath, into which its waste-falls,
and with which it presumably shares the taps. The 'Patent Concealed
Closet Set' has a cylindrical water-closet over which a cylindrical
wash-basin nests neatly, or swings aside. Another portmanteau series
culminates in an arrangement whereby the water-closet, its overhead
tank, the wash-basin, the medicine cabinet and the mirror all occupy
the same plan space. Of some of these devices it must be remarked,
that if there was space to swing the wash-basin as shown, this space
might surely have been used for a fixed basin, and a lot of hinges t
and nuts and bolts saved.
Solid Copper Hospital Bath
Patent Concealed Closet Set, 1907 2 5
Plate 27 The opulent Edwardian Ladies' Rest Room at Harrods had
water closets with magnificently carved rosewood doors
1 hough the privy has now claimed the name,
,uthouse" was once the name for any added
building g on the early American farmland.
S .o ,e, ....-.
the ea,*/.pv/y lfo^ gv
C'resce.4 (I dVAR IS FE /NIN E)
r .//iy a fS" (MASCULINE)
.AEN aien WOM"E
GEMS OIf AAMEJCAN ACICHITECTVILU GEMS Of AMERICAN AIRCHITECTVjB
SON.K cannot look at these doohes without thinking of sper-
kling sunbeams playing upon tiny ripples of the placid canals
Designed by an Italian artist,.our Venetian willies faidy
exude the atmosphere of the city of canals. Sold either with
stikts or guy wires, as shown in the illustrations, these models
make suitable gifts for artistic friends.
66 P 9342 THE VENETIANS $51.23
66 P 9 343 with splashproof attachments $55.63
(Running water as shown is not shipped with the Venetians)
S-E T I A 'N
'A1x AEAERJCAN ARCXI1TECTVR-*
"I~ F IF, ;k
*~ ~ r e -
0%^ .- 6 0,0 ,|: '. ^
GEMS Of AMEBUICAN AI.CHMITECTVR$
T (Corinthian ,foers a small willie Iultr of the same
('(iCCclnt materials as the Heavy Durv model
S. intcd an applir grren, and enilihisIhd ith itr .._
ross Wattict which conceals the doors, this model s .ne .Ir
rhi ,esir two-holers ,n a six-hole frame that .iwne,'.s'an 11u%
\ six hife t rare does nor mean the r-'lte takes up "he 'a. .-
4 si x h(er, b ut that. ir. has the aime pe ind .a. i,
rt'i rTt )rct mntn t
Ic h uu trrhjit ma, it a -igh, .,hrra cost, In upiW
ith rhO cw-nr,6 iclaniny nanlte Uir i etr "cr
i6r I* 44'4 11 'k(.\ I i A\
-. I x.;'
Gb Or AAMrJCAN APdCHiTECTVP-
S/Ae (d ofMe Qrah
GEM Of AMERICAN AIUR Ti4T!
SFnd mi of the Trail iends. a home .rmospher ftr trhe
..h,, desire pcacetul rhiughts while performing their d aiiv
r. \\.liking down -a hin path hankr;i h ,r h,,r c rfthwer.,
i ainnot help hainvipni liautiiful rhouihr- while 4"ini our to
"kAN hs mn,,rninv cAlL.
1 ) pck.ie-i iof riower seed, selecred iik he purchaser,
i-c rih'.nhi wirh ctah Fnd of rhf Trail. We suggest that, -
I n il>r,, iL iiwincr piant i package <, rirchush seed rn
i .s .i p.trh marker during the w'nrer m,,nrhc.
-P !>"(X) IH F M) ()OF THE IR AI:
LEGEND OF FAMILY CAMP GROUNDS
* Main Living Room
Wash and Storeroom
* "Master Bedroom" on Porch
* Guest Cabin
* Guest Tent
. Windmill and Water System
| Shade Trees
Tennis Court or Vegetable Plot
K. Parking Lot
L Swimming Pool 9 by l5 feet
M. Lily Pond
0. Hot Water Heater
R. Fruit Trew
S. Sunken Garden Outdoor Pirepha
T. Shower under veranda
L ret 1n ta/t' '6-MP 5f
.r* : *'
* V ,
Vof 'pcIctiitive housing; tract houseC
o- often rigidly repetit.lv.
people c's priviLs rCaLhcd lhUight i( t4 iLV, uineiqualed in others houses Ti
ineteenth ctcnturv ncess.arv in (corg town. L'olo with'its machine-nma
Itiv L t pIl.a L(irnice. and enitrairiL minav h. the star in its claSS.
'he mid-nineteenth-century population boom in th(
ted States, caused by natural growth and by the vasi
migrations from Ireland, Germany, and eastern Eu
:, swelled the large cities. By 1890, Philadelphia
v York, and Chicago each passed the million mark
1900, New York City was second only to Londor
on. Tenement apartnients (houses with ten
ng trolley lines built to serve those without
influx of non-English-speaking people:
W.N s .*a t CAT A5A 0M4 of p4t)
M( I OtTA-L O tSf., f^0ws 0010W Pf>A*rrMM
sf fose A& > T-* *-*I Xl-)
* DG I kL S Ci. .N A
CN AM CLEAT.
- ,q .
, y luw I
.!! i \' U. .... -J .* i^.^. l ; .... .^-.,,^ -
I t .. \ -) ". '--rii ./ ( .. j n, f "* -" -ftw
j i ,, ." 1 1 .P 6 v m
I i ivu:Oii XM I6"1- *
::, -.. ^ ',jr( .. ........... t; 4 .
ii L as m f -Ii
b' PFO ,MS-CO .-CASTING-. l SEg.- --
* & SLAft-AS+A UNITf^....).u ^- e j1fl '''**""^
*TOP '.*O SO TO -9 i.- ? '-o.V, '; M" OICAS TI'NG I 'j '-
,1, L. .. .-J.x S. .. OP .-. I 's -& A, Si
Vv-LJ-' "J-'!0--- .tJK^.,- >*-- r -*-fw ae'u~~ >f^- "
G A L L
*C T- 4Li Y VIEi W' -
TIOM' A-A DL LII I*U cIffOl '-
C LOLI -A -"STE p at -
..,_ .. .* *A
09 m $ 1
. . .
-P RJP./ CT IV.
CAP d ie /3 sc d
5WA G .E. -ILrPo./AL
Fig. 105. Utilities,
....... .! -'-' : /
- 1 I v: v t ~rii l. i i i. a n 'et With& piropir care 1i iinl-
tary i.id un t- j lii ... -
--.-'** ."'- .. .'.^ ^.-...
"" ..- 'i I c,'" 8' s da
-4 4 -G y
-.i _--- 4.^- .... .
': \. a ;, ,^ i-,, ?- vi9*'
' ;'i -.i.., -'. J. i- i t
*-.. : Sf-':' '.: .-... ... ._ :- ..;.* ....i m~
-.C ... i ..t .,,
;itiM l::, ,
SECTION A-A SECTION -
FIc. 13.---Two ent- v:iul priv N.tsI (It, h:llw, water tight, easily clhrdl :screi' v
pt .L 4- cr Y'. ".
NCAP~-4 "TPC$ C
/ ^ u, inw- pW e-e .
I otNew cAt I4 r4
V ,'"~^ ^ JT^1 ^^ A4TIC4Ce*
,., c-u4K HieR, PE-)
AFTErO em 'S
At WIi IpyUA
: -. : i let prepared by Ed Allen:
rFEL D GUIDE TO
FI(;. 217: enTtMOI or PaeiI
From Japanese Homes and their Surrtounding
lbfe Bathroom Criterui for DI)rg, Alexander Kits. 233 pp.
1966; $1.45 from Bantam Books, 2771 Madin Ave., N.Y.,
Waste Water Treatment for Rwral Coamuntliesi. (:Commison
on Rural Water, 197 3; $1 3.O from Information learningg
House, Demonstration water project. 221 No. LaSalic St.,
Chicago, ill. 60601.
Best single source on septic itnks and why current uandards
have little scientific basis. Includes compendium of 50
alternative system from mfr's. spec. iheets. Sim Van Jer R.y
Mmsn' natural attitb dwe 9 defaaeetiian e a i
one, suchbas may be hWderdaJW Md worjts".,
natives. Fashion, is he gsk of the ordWny M
clour, fWrbids the supryin of the 1ower botl hi Ahe
way Namwue intended ...It is no overstatement to say
- that tbe adoption of the squatting altitude would hi
itself sip in no smalS measure to remedy the 'eatet
pbys dl vice of the bwite race, the constipation that
bas become a contentment.
From The Bathroom.
sPoo P*^ %IF
- ,*~ '~~OY .2 .000
I t us 3/2. eater
4 4- 4 .4 -I 1
re .rn L
Wsates biodMerrde in
pit and seen into
soil. Pit gradul-ly
fills a"d outhouse
must be roved.
Waste are siphoned
tnrcnr. a trap by a
sudden rouh of water
Pedal opens valve to
bottom of bowl and
actuates swirl of
fresh water to rinse
,-est lo 4
Arproxtateo Monthly ateI 7,t Liquid Watse
Oer.tina "oat, Pr ener ted
elPer UIs Per tIe
La- than one plat
Ersy, texpenl ve,
no pipes, no iater
required, no movingB
Depends on cost of
oter; family oft 4
would ses about
W000 gallons. per
month for .nfluhsg.
Depends on coat of
mter; fally of 4
would use about
100 gelloes per
month for flushing.
llle 51 ? gll*os
Approx. 1 i
(quaut ty I
w to. tak..
Wastes drop dirltly
-into bucket of 4.o-
Bucket is dmped and
VeTree, but low
Apprsx. 1 pint
Las the I Jant
relatively *eac to
cheap to buy
Preget tfr fluah but
very low mter use.
eo chbAteals or
recitrelettag. Can be
used an mobile unit
with holdtin tank.
ChI p, slea*
Rand pump usa effluo a
-et for flush. S3ll
out flo-of hauloee.
cleari nffu '
Gprbege med kujems
-s are dlaste
by acro rtalui.i
About 1i f elc,-
tricity (C rmn
eretoer) and 1 tf
"MU as ftvLUU
megligiblel mewh is
o" tmfd tbroegb
Wee ma meter, Po-
deO little Of -
&eM boeoMp. S3e0
04e 9m e be aed
IPet the 0 trite -
bs& se the %sa.
M ">*e bu .
j W 9~ beU Lt
Dis eadvan tages
cold in winter,
secee., car. cOrtam-l
nate water source*
go. enorwcue quan-
title9 of water to
dilute small quan-
title* of wast..
Ultimate disposal of
eeseg is a prot
otr expensive and
than flush toilet.
Semer lines clClI
more asily due t'
Little nWee. the
sin indoor outbowo.
DispOsal of mat-e
rgtioe of micr-
sea-t f bW
oal. wit $A *
ft 0 2 -a mmwaoelaA &=I. !kmi uaiv fto ft.9M V_ -
- i,--- ...... i
": "" ;
* 4 "
OI. '. .
bJLY 9.or :lW'J Ae A$an1 IL UkC'LVKJF-
An. the advantages of the great oatofdoors coupled with
a high cdass depository are offered by the Sportsman:
It affords a greater back-to-nature atmosphere because it
can be ser directly on the ground tor quick stops, as wefi as
bilng aaip,'i tior'vault use permanently at vour own home.
Th e.. :Ien rrug unit has been added to one of or
best dJ m.i in such a manner that it swings into an Air-ot-
the waI ii.st' iin when the eduicts PLpur I n'operarmn
l)sprc Tth coivenlencc i gues inrio actln the vmanr-tt
the r--,t ,,t %,our ,utrit is readyV to travel.
Limpi.t wih a traIier Ihrch a. u t monts fir ar .
thi, stru.'urf s a bargain at anS prI) c.
ST YVI I A
S 'V ~
bull the Yenl v- Pc .Ut. .i' ,t t
for the Atcoa satle .tt t t -