Structure analysis : Lozano cigar factory

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Material Information

Title:
Structure analysis : Lozano cigar factory
Series Title:
Lozano cigar factory preservation documents
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Creator:
Ajami, Bilal Sultan
Publisher:
Bilal Sultan Ajami
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
Completed for Materials and Methods of Preservation, Spring, 1984

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00000571:00003

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    The Lozano cigar factory of Ybor City, Tampa, Florida is today

    a ghost of a building that once housed a bustling cigar manufacturing

    enterprise. The passage of time and cigar economics have not been

    kind to Lozano and his factory. This three story brick building at

    1410 Twenty-first Street presently houses artists studios. Many

    broken windows, shutters removed long ago, and general dilapidation

    characterize the Lozano factory as a forgotten, gutted, and deserted

    relic of the past.

    Initiated in August and completed in early November of 1905,

    the Lozano cigar factory was the brain child of Faustino Lozano, Sr.1

    Born about 1842 in Asturias Province, Spain, Lozano left for Cuba

    at an early age, then to New York City by 1865. In these young

    migratory years, Lozano learned the cigar trade skills. As an accom-

    plished cigar roller, he soon directed his energies towards the

    business of cigar manufacturing. In 1881, he associated with another

    native Asturian, Enrique Pendas, who was also now domiciled in New

    York, and together they formed Lozano, Pendas and Company. The "Webster"

    brand became their leading seller of high grade cigars.3

    Lozano's eye was first attracted to Tampa in 1886 when Vicente

    Martinez Ybor and Ignacia Haya transferred their cigar businesses to

    Tampa. In part, labor unrest compelled Ybor and Haya to move their

    manufacturing plants. Furthermore, poor transportation facilities,

    isolation from both supplies and raw materials, and distant markets

    proved unattractive and unproductive to their cigar manufacturing

    and distribution centers in Key West, Florida. Perhaps most essential

    was the Tampa Board of Trade's concession in 1884 to Ybor and Haya

    for a large quantity of cheap land on which to operate their factories.4












    To varying degrees, and especially that of labor unrest, these same

    factors influenced Lozano and Pendas to relocate their New York

    business to Tampa.

    The date which Lozano, Pendas and Company moved is disputed.

    One author cites January of 1888 as the time of relocation: 15 May

    1887 is presented by a further source in an oral interview conducted

    in the 1930's.5 In either case, Lozano, Pendas and Company was the

    third factory in what was to be called "Ybor City."6 Mr. Pendas had

    been urged by Ybor and Haya to move his business from New York to

    Tampa. The Ybor City Land and Improvement Company offered Pendas

    a three-story factory, rent-free for ten years, if he would make

    the move. And an undisclosed amount of cash from the Tampa Board

    of Trade to relocate was further incentive. The package proposition

    was irresistible for Pendas and Lozano when reduced overhead costs,

    lower taxes, and a financial inducement were factored into their

    production costs. Lastly, cigar labor unions were virtually non-

    existent for the Pendas/Lozano enterprise in Tampa, when compared

    to those in New York City.7

    Lozano, Pendas and Company maintained the production of cigars

    in Tampa from about 1888 through 1895.8 The company first operated

    at the corner of Tenth Avenue and Fifteenth Street, about two blocks

    from the now famous Ybor brick factory. This was the three-story

    wood frame building that Ybor and Haya had promised rent-free to

    Pendas and Lozano in exchange for moving their cigar business to Tampa.

    By June of 1895, Lozano, Pendas and Company were constructing

    a fifty-by-one hundred, ten feet, three-story brick factory at 1416
    .10
    Spring Street. Shortly after this date, Lozano sold his portion











    11
    of the partnership and entered the tobacco leaf business. The firm

    then assumed the new identity of Y. Pendas and Alvarez, and remained
    12
    at the 1416 Spring Street location. Lozano's tobacco leaf importing
    13
    business was a partnership with a Mr. Selgas. Little is known of

    the nature or terms of their business. Sometime before July of 1904,

    Lozano retired from the tobacco importing business.14

    In 1904, Lozano's eldest son, also named Faustino, affiliated

    with Padrino Nistal to form the enterprise Lozano, Nistal y Ca.15

    Their leading cigar, "La Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," was produced

    in a variety of sizes and sold in retail markets for between sixty

    and two-hundred and fifty dollars per thousand. For a house adver-

    tisement in trade magazines like the Tobacco Leaf, Lozano, Nistal

    y Ca adopted the heraldic device of a mailed arm and dagger. This
    17
    firm was located at 1925 Seventh Avenue through the 1904-05 years.

    Sometime in mid-1905 Lozano arranged to liquidate his part of

    the business, and made preparations with his father and younger brother,

    Jose, to form their own family business. In later years they would

    incorporate the business, but for now they were consumed with the

    construction of a factory for the family cigar business. In mid-May,

    building plans were drawn for their two story brick factory.18 The

    first date revealing any construction at the site was 15 September

    1905.19 By 27 September, the second story was half completed.20 And

    on Saturday, 4 November 1905, the Lozano's began moving equipment

    from the 1925 Seventh Avenue Lozano/Nistal factory into their new

    structure at 1410 Twenty-first Street.21

    The Lozano cigar factory was a two-story brick building, set on

    a basement foundation, half exposed above ground. This basement served










    22
    as the storage and ageing rooms for tobacco leaves. The packing

    and shipping departments were placed on the first floor, while an

    estimated seventy-five cigarmakers were to perform their trade up-

    stairs. Dimensions for the factory, as reported Tampa Morning Trib-

    une, were 50 x 105 feet.23

    No photographs exist of the two-story Lozano factory. The most

    accurate representation of the original factory appears in the con-

    struction plans labeled "Lozano, Nistal and Company-1904," stored in

    the University of Florida's architecture department case studies

    library. These plans depict, and the present day second story belting

    suggests, that the two-story building was capped with a flat roof.

    In all, this roof design is quite likely, for this plan emulates the

    designs of the Ybor factory, the 1895 Lozano, Pendas and Company

    factory, and other Ybor City brick cigar factories of the early 20th

    century. While building plans do not always reflect the finished

    product, there is primary evidence through newspapers of the

    two-story structure, and strong indications through present day

    building inspection and conformity within a neighborhood of cigar

    factories of a flat roof design.24

    Sometime between 1905 and 1915, a third story was added to the

    factory. While a fire insurance map verifies this addition, few

    Tampa building permits exist prior to 1916 which would help substan-

    iate this claim. An estimate may be arrived at, however, for this

    construction through the use of tax records. An increase in property

    assessment for 1906 from $1,400 to $6,700, reflects the initial two-

    story structure. Property assessment increases from $6,700 to $7,800

    in 1906-07, and from $7,800 to $8,300 in 1913-14, are potential

    years for the addition to the factory. The 1907 increase mirrors












    a $1,100 or 16% rise in assessment, while a $500 or 6% tax adjustment

    impacted Lozano's 1914 taxes. With this series of mathematical evalu-

    ations, it is apparent, though not conclusive, that the third story

    was added in 1906.25

    In any case, by 1915 the Lozano building was a three-story,

    rectangular building. Ostensibly, the business was swept along in

    the cigar boom times of the Progressive Era, and expanded to meet

    the ensuing demand. Lozano, Sr. died on 27 December 1906: his life,

    recent illness, and death were sympathetically reviewed in the trade

    magazine, Tobacco Leaf. He left the company to his widow, two sons,

    and two daughters. They incorporated the business under the laws

    of the State of New York in 1907. No business records are available

    to indicate growth cycles, employees, and general economic conditions

    of the Lozano Company.

    For the years 1907-13, Lozano,Jr. lived in Brooklyn, New York,

    and was listed as president of the company. It appears that the

    Lozano's advertising and business headquarters operated out of New

    York, while production and local management were concentrated in

    Tampa. In 1914, Lozano, Jr. resided on Bayshore Boulevard, Tampa:

    and in 1916, his residence was at 2301 Nebraska Avenue, Tampa. On

    17 December 1916, Lozano, Jr. died. His widow and two sons received

    his portion of the business. Lozano's brother, Jose M., became pres-
    27
    ident of the company.

    In 1913, the firm had hired Hansard S. Foley as its local mana-

    ger. Foley maintained that position until 1917, when he was named

    treasurer/manager. This change probably reflects Jose's absence

    in the Tampa management of the company, and the move to New York












    to assume his deceased brother's role of president. By 1919, Foley

    held the position of secretary/treasurer/manager in the Lozano Com-

    pany, and retained that title until the company's demise in 1923.

    Most significantly, Foley was also secretary/treasurer of Garcia,

    Diaz and Company, another Tampa cigar manufacturer, from 1914 into

    the 1920's. Interestingly enough, Garcia, Diaz and Company was

    located one block south of the Lozano Company, at 1403 Twenty-first

    Street. To what extent this arrangement presents a conflict of

    interests, and whether Foley's dual role, in part, led to the Lozano

    Company's collaspe in 1923, bears further investigation. In any case,

    it appears that Jose Lozano assumed the company's presidency from

    1917 through 1923, and resided in Brooklyn, New York, while local

    management was controlled by Poley.28

    On 27 April 1916, F. Lozano, Son and Company filed a permit with

    the City of Tampa for the construction of a "three story brick cigar

    factory." A more accurate description for this permit would have

    read, "two and three story brick addition to existing three story

    brick factory." The exact date of this construction is unknown,

    but by 1931 a two and three story brick addition was placed on the

    south wall of the original factory. This construction may have

    evolved over time, with the three story segment constructed first,

    followed by the two story wing. The entire addition, however, may

    have been erected in one phase.29

    Tax roles show increased assessments in 1916-17, and in 1917-18.

    The first rise was $100, from $8,300 to $8,400, while the latter

    adjustment entailed a $2,700 increase from $8,400 to $11,100. Both

    the three and two story segments of the addition are rather large and,












    even separately, would warrant more than a $100 (1.2%) increase.

    Though inconclusive, these facts indicate that the addition was

    completed in one phase, and before the 1918 Tampa tax assessments

    were adjusted.30

    Building inspection, however, suggests that the three story

    portion was constructed before the two story segment. Mortar dis-

    coloration, the pent eve, hip-and-return design of the two story

    addition, and the structural placement of iron columns in the three

    story basement portion each suggest a progression of construction

    from the third story to the second story sections.31

    To add a further element into this construction confusion, the

    Lozano factory addition plans, located at the Historic Tampa/Hills-

    borough County Preservation Board, show the entire addition as a

    whole. Yet again, building plans are a guide and do not necessarily

    reflect the reality of the situation.

    It is the considered opinion of the author that the Lozano

    factory addition was constructed in two phases. Though the tax

    roles and building plans do not bear this interpretation out, tax

    assessments can be rigged or manipulated through political influence,

    or misrepresent the real property values and improvements. And

    building plans do not always speak to the phases of construction.

    The visible evidence of two phase construction, in the basement

    and on exterior walls, is convincing.



    Cigar economics was a leading cause in the demise of the Lozano

    Company. In the transitory years of World War I, cigarettes became

    more fashionable to smoke than cigars. They were cheaper to manu-












    facture, and in turn, those savings were passed to tobacco consumers.

    Not only were cigarettes less expensive, they did not produce the

    offensive odors often associated with cigars. As a result, cigars

    became less acceptable in social situations. And as cigar mechani-

    zation and strikes racked Tampa's cigar industry in the 1910's and

    1920's, cigar manufacturers established mechanized operations in

    Pennsylvania and New Jersey to produce quality cigars at quick rates

    of production and cheap prices. Meanwhile, the Tampa cigar industry

    resisted mechanization, prefering instead, the older hand method of

    cigar rolling, thereby keeping production costs and retail prices

    high. In sum, these factors combined to reduce Tampa's cigar production

    and create a low demand market.32

    It was unfortunate that the Lozano Company invested in physical

    expansion just prior to the declining demand for their product. And

    if production curtailment, slackening demand, and Lozano, Jr's. death

    in late 1916 did not present management crises, then the Lozano cigar

    strike of late 1917 probably did.

    It seems that as early as September 1917, that the Lozano manage-

    ment was pitting union and non-union cigarmakers against one another.

    Ostensibly, the ploy was to keep wages down, while creating dis-

    harmony among workers in an attempt to stifle any unified actions

    against the Lozano management. What the Lozano management's actions

    actually created was an atmosphere for a labor strike. On 17 Septem-

    ber 1917, a strike was threatened by the Lozano cigar rollers, but

    a vote between one-hundred and twenty workers rejected immediate

    action. Sixty-six workers refused to strike, forty abstained from

    voting, and sixteen others wished to again discuss matters on the












    following Sunday. By 25 November, though some Lozano workers were

    striking the factory, a general strike was not called. Cigar output

    remained high during these events, and the labor disturbance did not

    materialize into a larger general strike of the Lozano factory or

    Ybor City cigarmakers. The small strike was, however, probably a

    source of irritation and concern for both Jose Lozano and H. S. Foley.33

    Among other factors, labor strikes and declining cigar demand

    forced the Lozano Company out of business in the early 1920's. Their

    advertising campaign in city directories beginning in 1919 and lasting

    until 1923, was perhaps a case of too little, too late. Foreclosure

    notices in 1919, while not acted upon by the City of Tampa, were

    signs of eminent doom. And the Lozano Company's consistent habit

    of paying taxes late, indicated financial problems.34

    Perhaps most lethal to the company were labor strikes. Tampa's

    longest strike beginning on 14 April 1920, and lasting ten months,

    and involving ten thousand cigarworkers was the costliest labor

    disturbance in Tampa's cigar industry history. Campbell's Cigar

    Industry claims that the depressed conditions of Tampa's cigar industry,

    during the late 1920's and the 1930's, may be traced to the devastat-

    ing effects of this strike. Many cigar markets and customers were

    lost during this strike, and were never regained. Campbell also

    claims that subsequent to the strike settlement in early 1921, that

    F. Lozano, Son and Company collasped and leased its plant to Corral,

    Wodiska and Company. R. L. Polk's Tampa City Directory, however,

    does not substantiate this fact. Instead, the Directory shows the

    Lozano Company advertising for business until 1923, and then Corral,

    Wodiska and Company leasing the Lozano factory in 1924. Whatever the












    case may be, the Lozano Company did collaspe in the early 1920's.35

    The company leased its factory to several cigar manufacturers

    between 1924 and 1941. As previously discussed, Corral, Wodiska and

    Company took the 1924 lease. The following year the lease went to

    Annis-Gradiaz and Company, who remained at the Lozano factory until

    at least 1928. By 1931, M. Bustillo and Merriam cigar manufacturers

    had secured the Lozano factory lease, and they retained it until

    1941. The same trends of declining cigar demand and increased mechani-

    zation that drove the Lozano Company out of business in the early

    1920's, continued through the 1920's and 1930's at an accelerated

    rate, and also forced the Bustillo Company into bankruptcy. In 1941,

    though the Bustillo Company did not have labor strikes to contend

    with as the earlier Lozano Company had suffered through, they did

    have increased competition from consolidating, mechanized cigar

    factories in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. To demonstrate the depressed

    Tampa cigar manufacturing market between 1928 and 1939, eleven major

    cigar factories left Tampa in search of a more favorable tax base

    and to improve their labor supply; four major Tampa cigar firms

    consolidated to form one corporation; and five major cigar manu-

    facturers closed their doors in Tampa for the last time.36

    After 1941, the Lozano factory no longer housed cigar enter-

    prises. In that year, the building and property were sold to the

    Tampa Casket Company, who made use of the facilities until falling

    into bankruptcy in 1969. After defaulting on their terms in early

    1970, the Casket Company sold the factory and property to the Oliva

    Tobacco Company. More recently, the property was in the hands of

    George Rink, who owned the property through at least June, 1982.












    In that month, Mr. Rink was denied an Historic Preservation Certifi-

    cate for the Lozano factory by the State of Florida. The property

    was subsequently sold to the Norbert Fuller Construction Company of

    Tampa.37

    On 6 January 1984, the Lawrence Properties Group purchased the

    Lozano factory. They anticipate a renovation of the factory which

    includes a (1) restaurant in the basement, (2) Lawrence Properties

    offices on the first floor, (3) law offices on the second floor, and

    (4) an office for the Fuller Construction Company on the top floor.

    Fuller Construction will be responsible for the physical renovation.

    The projected date for renovation to begin is December, 1984.



    EPILOGUE

    The ravages of time have taken their toll on the Lozano cigar
    /
    factory., Over the course of eighty years it housed two cigar manu-

    facturing firms and a casket company, all which failed as businesses.

    Additionally, as late as 1982, an Historic Preservation Certificate

    was denied to the Lozano factory. Floor space in the factory in

    now leased to local artists. Presently, with the first floor tin

    clad shutters removed and many window openings patched with plastic

    signs and cardboard, the Lozano factory appears abused and disheveled.

    And the accumulation of junk strewn around the perimeter of the

    building and property, does nothing to improve this image. Though

    the factory has housed several failing businesses and is now suffering

    from the effects of neglect, it remains a stark physical indicator

    of the power and money of the cigar industry in early 1900's Tampa.

    Perhaps this latest interest in the factory will not only blossom








    12


    and survive, but as well preserve the factory from further neglect

    and recondition the premises.










    NOTES

    1. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,

    19 May 1905, 15 & 27 September 1905, 3 October 1905, 2 & 5 November

    1905.

    2. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf, 6 July 1904.

    3. Ibid.; "The New Webster Cigar Label," Tobacco, 28 Septem-

    ber 1894.

    4. A. Stuart Campbell, The Cigar Industry of Tampa, Florida

    (Gainesville, Florida: Bureau of Economic Research, 1939), 43-4;

    Mormino, Gary R., Anthony Pizzo, The Treasure City-Tampa (Tulsa,

    Oklahoma: Continental Heritage Press, 1983), 92-6; Durward Long,

    "The Historical Beginnings of Modern Tampa," FHQ 45 (July 1966):

    31-44.

    5. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscript, "Social

    Survey of Ybor City," Ferlita, p. 95-113, this manuscript is located

    in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History under the call number

    F.2 T15 Wys. The manuscripts are not numbered, and the page numbers

    referred to are written in pencil. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 43.

    6. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, "Ybor

    City: General Description-Latin Populations," unknown author, p. 7;

    "Ybor City: Early Days of Ybor City and the Beginnings of the Cigar

    Industry," Quien Sabe, p. 65; "History of Ybor City," Felix Cannella,

    p. 82-3; "Social History of Ybor City," Ferlita, p. 103-4. For

    another date of arrival in Tampa for Lozano, Pendas and Company,

    see Campbell, Cigar Industry, p. 43, 127.

    7. Long, "Beginnings of Modern Tampa," FHQ, p. 31-44: Harold

    C. Livesay, Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America (Boston,










    Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1978), 59-108. Livesay

    presents an account of cigar labor strife during the 1880's in New

    York City that Lozano, Pendas, Haya, and other cigar manufacturers

    wished to avoid by moving to Tampa.

    8. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, pgs. 7,

    65, 82-3, 103-4; for specific titles and authors of FWP manuscripts,

    see footnote six. 1895 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, Florida,

    p. 14.

    9. 1889 and 1892 Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida,

    p. 6 for both years. Also see, footnote seven.

    10. 1895 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, Florida, p. 14.

    See picture of Lozano, Pendas and Company factory in the photograph

    section of this paper.

    11. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, pgs. 7,

    65, 82-3, 103-4; for specific titles and authors of FWP manuscripts,

    see footnote six. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf,

    6 July 1904.

    12. "Manufacturers Have Been Buying Heavily Also Factories

    Again Busy," Tobacco Leaf, 17 January 1906. 1895, 1899, and 1903

    Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida, p. 14, p. 11, p. 11.

    13. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf, 6 July 1904.

    14. Ibid.

    15. Ibid.

    16. Ibid.

    17. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1904, 1905. "New Brick

    Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 19 May 1905.

    18. "New Brick Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 19 May 1905.










    19. "Lozano's Brick Cigar Factory is Making Progress," Tampa

    Morning Tribune, 15 September 1905.

    20. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,

    27 September 1905.

    21. Ibid., 5 November 1905.

    22. "Into New Factory: Lozano, Nistal and Company Will Occupy

    It November 15th," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November 1905. Charles

    E. Harner, A Pictorial History of Ybor City (Tampa, Florida: Trend

    Publications, 1975), 15-6. Mr. Harner refers to the use of cigar

    factory basements for the ageing and storage of tobacco. On page

    eleven, a picture of the factory appears as a three story rectangular

    structure. In a telephone conversation with Mr. Harner (Sarasota,

    Florida) on 4 February 1984, he stated that he did not know the era

    in which the photograph was taken, or where he found the Lozano

    factory picture. The 1915 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa shows

    the factory as a three story rectangular structure. A 1916 Tampa

    City building permit for the expansion of the Lozano factory, and

    a 1931 Sanborn Map of Lozano's factory depicting a U-shaped struc-

    ture, much like the present day building, offers evidence that

    Harner's photograph date from the 1905-15 era.

    23. "Into New Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November

    1905. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,

    5 November 1905. In a conversation with Dr. George Pozzetta (Univer-

    sity of Florida, Department of History) on 8 March 1984, he stated

    that a cigar factory employing seventy-five cigarmakers in 1905

    should be considered a large factory, and placed in a cluster of

    factories just beneath those of the largest magnitude like the Ybor,










    the Haya, and the Rodriguez factories.

    24. "Into New Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November

    1905. For comparison of Lozano factory with other Ybor City cigar

    factories, see Harner, Ybor City. For building plans, see Univer-

    sity of Florida, Department of Architecture, Case Studies Library,

    building plans for "Lozano, Nistal and Company-1904."

    25. 1915 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, p. 31. There

    is some confusion about this 1915 Tampa Sanborn Fire Insurance Map.

    It is marked, in pencil, "1922" and is located in the Map Room of

    the University of Florida Library. Questioning this date from a

    procedural standpoint, as well as from evidence collected elsewhere

    (Tampa City building permit for Lozano addition in 1916), I called

    Mr. Jim Flatnuss at the Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

    Archives, Washington, D. C. (202-287-6277). According to the Library

    of Congress, Sanborn only produced a 1922 Supplement to Tampa Fire

    Insurance Maps, rather than a full edition. This supplement covers

    outlying areas of Tampa, and does not include the Lozano factory.

    Furthermore, the Library of Congress' 1915 Fire Insurance Map of

    Tampa neatly correlates, page for page, with the University of

    Florida map marked in pencil, "1922." It is believed that this

    "1922" map is, in all probability, a 1915 Sanborn. For tax asses-

    ments, see Hillsborough County Courthouse, Tampa, Florida, Clerk's

    Office, Tax Rolls, 1905 reel 18, p. 581: 1906 reel 19, p. 678:

    1907 reel 20, p. 742; reel and page numbers for 1913-14 are unknown.

    For purposes of more accuracy, tax assessments for each year reflect

    property values several months before October of each year, when

    taxes in Tampa are due.










    26. For statistics and commentary on the burgeoning Tampa

    cigar business, see Campbell, Cigar Industry, 30-6. For genealogical

    information on the Lozano family, see Hillsborough County Courthouse,

    Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Platted Land, 1906-1912, 1912-1920,

    Book 142, Page 241 & Book 90, Page 474. "Pioneer Manufacturer of

    Domestic Havana Cigars Passes Away His Career," Tobacco Leaf,

    2 January 1907.

    27. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1907-1917. For further

    genealogical materials on the Lozano's, see Hillsborough County

    Courthouse, Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Book 1186, Page 43,

    19 August 1941. It is apparent that the Lozano's headquarters

    operated out of New York: the company was incorporated under the

    laws of New York, Lozano, Sr. lived and died in Brooklyn, as did his

    son, and the Lozano's advertising agent, Ben Lesser, operated out

    of New York. See "Manufacturers Have Been Buying Heavily Also -

    Factories Again Busy," Tobacco Leaf, 17 January 1906.

    28. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1913-1923.

    29. Tampa City Hall, Building Permits, Ledger Sheets, Roll 1 -

    1915-1923 By Year, p. 27. 1931 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa,

    unknown page.

    30. Hillsborough County Courthouse, Clerk's Office, Tax Rolls,

    1916 reel and page unknown, 1917 reel ?, page 982, 1918 reel 39,

    page ?. The Lozano property is located in the Clarkson Brother's

    Addition to East Tampa, Section 18, Township 29, Range 19.

    31. This plan of construction was suggested by Gary Smith and

    Dan Seggebruch. They are architecture students enrolled in this

    documentation course of the Lozano cigar factory conducted by Blair










    Reeves and Susan Tate of the University of Florida, Department of

    Architecture faculty. See the photographs and architectural plans

    which this paper supplements.

    32. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 30-3, 104-7, 116.

    33. Editorial, Tampa Morning Tribune, 17 September 1917. Edi-

    torial, Tampa Morning Tribune, 25 November 1917. Editorial, El

    National, 14 September 1917.

    34. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1919-1923. Notice of

    Foreclosure, 9 May 1919, Book 7, Page 5, #14741-43. Notice of Fore-

    closure, 9 May 1919, Book 7, Page 336, #14734-45.

    35. Mormino, et al., Tampa, 151. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 50.

    The reasons for the Lozano Company's collaspe are undocumented, though

    Campbell claims that the 1920 strike forced the doors closed on the

    business. This simple explanation, however, seems inadequate. The

    cigar industry's total performance and technological advancements,

    as well as the Lozano management's failure to detect those trends,

    and their overextension of capital paints a more comprehensive and

    more accurate picture of the Lozano collaspe.

    36. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1924-1941. 1931 Sanborn

    Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, p. ?. Hillsborough County Courthouse,

    Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Book 1186, Page 43, 19 August 1941.

    Campbell, Cigar Industry, 60-1, 70-7, 104, 111, 124, 128.

    37. See Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board truncated

    abstract of the Lozano property contained in the "photograph and

    source materials" section of this study. In the same section, see

    letter to George A. Rink from the State of Florida. In a telephone

    conversation on 9 April 1984 with a representative of the present













    owners of the factory (Lawrence Properties Group), Mary Ann Caratta

    stated that Lawrence Properties purchased the Lozano factory from

    the Norbert Fuller Construction Company.

    38. Telephone conversation between the author and Mary Ann

    Caratta.










    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    PRIMARY SOURCES

    Federal Writers Project. Unpublished Government Workers Collected

    Manuscripts. Tampa, Florida. See specific notations.

    Hillsborough County Courthouse. Tampa, Florida. Clerk's Office.

    Tax Rolls: Deed Books. See specific notations.

    Polk, R. L. Tampa City Directory.

    Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida. 1884, 1887, 1889,

    1892, 1895, 1899, 1903, 1915, 1922 Supplement, 1931 in Four

    Volumes, 1951 (1931 Revision with paste on corrections).

    Tampa City Hall Annex. Building Permits. Ledger Sheets. See

    specific notations.

    Tampa Public Library. Special Collections. Burgert Brother's

    Photograph Collection of Tampa.

    Tampa Morning Tribune. See specific notations.

    Tobacco. 28 September 1894.

    Tobacco Leaf. 6 July 1904; 17 January 1906; 2 January 1907.


    SECONDARY SOURCES

    Campbell, A. Stuart. The Cigar Industry of Tampa, Florida. Gaines-

    ville, Florida: Bureau of Economic Research, 1939.

    Harner, Charles E. A Pictorial History of Ybor City. Tampa, Florida:

    Trend Publications, 1975.

    Long, Durward. "The Historical Beginnings of Modern Tampa." FHQ

    45 (July 1966): 31-44.

    -----. "The Open-Closed Shop Battle in Tampa's Cigar Industry,

    1919-1921." FHQ 47 (October 1968): 101-121.









    Mack, Russell H. The Cigar Manufacturing Industry. Philadelphia,

    Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1933.

    Mormino, Gary R., Anthony Pizzo. The Treasure City-Tampa. Tulsa,

    Oklahoma: Continental Heritage Press, 1983.

    Pozzetta, George E. "Alerta Tabaqueros! Tampa's Striking Cigar-

    workers." Tampa Bay History 3 (Fall/Winter 1981): 19-29.


    Addenda

    Several people deserve credit for helping reduce the total hours
    I invested in researching the Lozano factory. Dave Rigney, at the
    Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board, supplied factory plans
    and assorted legal citations on the Lozano's. Dr. George Pozzetta,
    Professor of History at the University of Florida, offered his notes
    on the 1917 Lozano Factory Strike. Dr. Glen Westfall's (Hillsborough
    Community College) Tobacco and Tobacco Leaf articles were invaluable,
    and otherwise inaccessible, sources. Tony Pizzo's thoughts on the
    Lozano factory were quite helpful. He did not, however, know the
    translation of the Lozano factory's nickname, "El Sama." According
    to Pizzo, cigarworkers and foremen often named factories in which
    they worked after the appearance or some other facet of their work
    environment.
































    photographs

    and other

    source materials





    Rendition of Lozano, pendas and Company tory located)
    at 1416 spring Street, Tampa. (Courtesy of Glen westfall)


    i o -

















    The following three pages contain photographs of the Lozano cigar
    factory as represented by Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa.
    Supplied below is a key to the symbols found on the photographs.


    IM


    Nowm
    aimm am



































    jr.. ..


    W CLO a#NO, CSaW.A
    .0/veo MnsOtO


    twwrr teccnn A*.w




    These photographs depict the Lozano cigar factory in 1915.













    ,


    o r.t..... .... ..
    f. o '"' :


    3 .P AV.


    6
    S ~?


    I 7 7 8 s s

    6 M. BUr TiL 0 & RRI/#M Ci/#R
    FVCrTORY HNP S.
    I/& IS iELEC ERfr SfTRM#. N/I7T W TMRI.


    cak


    0.n
    F SrW
    6a


    The above photographs depict the Lozano Factory in 1931.
    1:T. Bustillo & M!erriam Cigar Manufactures leased the Lozano Factory
    from 1931 to 1941.


    \



























































    These photographs show the Lozano factory as of 1951. The Tampa
    Casket Company owned this property from 1941 through 1970.










    The following is a listing of the years that F. Lozano, Son and
    Company advertised and were listed in R.L. Polk's Tampa City Directory:


    LISTED


    ADVERTISEMENT


    1901
    1902
    1903
    1904
    * 1905
    1906
    1907
    1908
    1909
    1910
    1911
    1912
    1913
    1914
    1915
    1916
    1917
    1918
    1919
    1920
    1921
    1922
    1923
    1924
    1925


    *This year the company was listed as Lozano, Nistal and Company
    located on 1925 7th Avenue.

    For all remaining years, F. Lozano, Son and Company is listed at
    21st Street, Corner of 4th Avenue.

    From 1919-1921 Lozano uses an one-third page advertisement, while
    in 1922-1923 they use an one-quarter page ad.

    A near complete selection of R.L. Polk's Tampa City Directory is
    located at the Tampa Public Library, Special Collections Department.





    Supplied by the Ta
    Lo-wao feldo rq
    ClarksoN BIRobherfa
    BL IO

    tLczoano- Fc+or3


    unpa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board.

    .Deed (coarr.t.y)
    i Suvbd.lrvfs BK -t16 P ..L43
    SF Lo7ZNo Son Kd Co to
    T l. cpO casket cb
    ........ .... A A 5 '
    (. .....-. "5 936 /10,oo)


    "FTtle. Records -Loz7No Fac_+...

    Deed recorded. March ;7O l90(FsIame)
    ...Book 89 cpS 17(
    rFeradao L. Alvarez (backelor)0+ .
    F usI-' No C. L2No
    (Lcids f & dc o ReSc cP 8kV IO

    _5)ee Au 11,1 3 uq Is 1 90
    Fous+INC LaozoNc "o TG, C. LozaNO
    -___cs Trustee ___.
    __(L- l a IO.__BK _O). _


    _"Ne3 AusfQ S, 1909 Augut- 31, 90?
    BK I4; Q a" qe 1 I
    Faus+o IN To.Se A, Lo-zaN& N im
    F. Lz62AN.oSonr' d ies
    (_. C-L'_oF N _oP F_8k_i e)


    R6cA+ E. L ear, Successor Trutiee
    oF tu|i oF FoUIhNG
    7 "_ '"_________ "
    S19L4 ___"
    . beed affi dvt -
    'eptcmhber IS, I .I. .
    4o Tuskv Rod ez FrvN
    LeBroM Ktck ._-_-
    ( o' oF Lr c& L*s or 0o)
    T-orcuaW FLO' 31 -
    -- F-5" S0L1 .63
    Fr. -u "N 634 Y5qvNC"
    \Forei9 -Txe-' Z 73 554 D6

    0. 6, FI I t)ecree.
    .Fitc Qncn recordecl. J--4N -/I9.1
    C I sofo -OJrk T p soe _ss
    tSo' orJ rJ '/2 oF Bic _d
    __Lc*5 7-10 ^frs. oFbJ.CIEB --33) --
    *^* 5^f 8 __


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    -1 I -- 5- __F_67 __
    beedc Apil 5 19)/ ApR ?i, I 1 07~R. _G1K7 P, -1____
    eooK 0 9 a9' __E _Etd YuNe a3 158?corip Me..te
    Faus4iNo G.___L-z o Qao coFe _1--.MRc 7, I91 ...__ __-_
    ___MarqueRi+e fc F. LoZ-CNo_ So .____Lilerv Ia-, LiFe.. INsurance Cf
    __ncC3o. (corpo a'ot) .,"a x. CcsKedCo, _______ _
    __ of E -/I '- 5 npoF I- d-- __ ___ OF ..
    O4 as I1i'Glley 4 via. B I0 /
    13- _____~_ ____ TRpsiee' -Dee ~
    _Nih-ce o" forecios Re ______GA -Au 19196 -____
    -K 7- Pege S kra Scrois +rustee !N baNkrupcy
    ___ON CorNelia Lozano -esta.-e
    _r-y _9, v"i/ 7y., ~/ A+9 a_. m-ei--cCatC( -pr_ -)--
    ______7I-q___________ iA+In-kwi Cask-d Co. INc (party seco
    I\~i g.1 _I.__ __ __
    Atoice 0 4o Rpese. (nbio-sc iN~e'fur ___ __________
    __K fe a1 3 Tqr 7,/ 1970
    Tay 9, 19 f-ly )o, l9/7 tl /73 -17.S' __T-ck.Skims acr AN-aMt Cz4efCo /NC
    -C.1y oF T ZripoA4 fl PQRVeRi+e o4_ -Qr, Frank- Sc INS .
    __ _..__--"_- __ LO._ .. -.._ -- -_Tack Sms an, A1ir Casket Co / c
    : .."; -- ..- :..: *. ::" :-":!m f.7 ojF 1 on "ferms Trustee N oe d '
    -[ : 'S* --- se bF taid O ,-a Tobac".o Co .
    : :. : _: ". : .... .. ..b.
    .':.U; : :: _:. _: _'" ." ''-_ :" '. .*"._ <._ _.:.'? .':.. p :':-."":::.::".... :.* .... *."








    6~f~


    46~ 992~3


    /


    5 -













    FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    George Firestone
    Secretary of State
    DIVISION OF ARCHIVES,
    HISTORY AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT
    The Capitol, Tallahassee, Florida 32301
    (904) 488-1480


    June 18, 1982



    Mr. George A. Rink
    601 West River Drive
    Tampa, Florida 33617

    Re: Lozano Cigar Factory, 21st Street and 4th Avenue, Ybor City, Tampa, Florida

    Dear Mr. Rink:

    Please excuse our delay in reviewing your submission of the Historic
    Preservation Certification Application Part 1 for the Lozano Cigar Factory.
    Although we recognize the significance of the Lozano Cigar Factory and other
    Structures associated with the cigar industry of Ybor City, we are unable to
    process your Part 1 Application. Please note that, for the purposes of the historic
    preservation tax incentives program established pursuant to the Economic Recovery
    Tax Act of 1981, eligibility for certification is restricted to properties which
    are subject to depreciation, as defined by the Interndk Revenue Code, and are:

    a. individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places,
    or

    b. located in a registered historic district and certified by the
    Secretary of the Interior as being of historic significance to
    the district.

    A "registered historic district" is a National Register district or a state
    or local district which has been certified by the Secretary of the Interior.

    A review of our files indicates that the above referenced property is neither
    individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places, nor located within
    the boundaries of a registered historic district. Therefore, at the present time,
    the Lozano Cigar Factory is not eligible for certification.

    Brochures which provide specific information regarding eligibility requirements,
    and the benefits and responsibilities associated with participation in the historic
    preservation tax incentives program have been enclosed for your review.


    FLORIDA-State of the Arts






















    George A. Rink
    ne 18, 1982
    Page Two





    Should you be interested in pursuing the individual listing of your property
    in the National Register, information regarding this program and a preliminary
    site information questionnaire have also been enclosed for your review. In your
    consideration of this course of action, please be aware that National Register
    nomination procedures are complex and lengthy (commonly requiring in excess of
    one year from initial inquiry to listing), and there is no guarantee that your
    endeavor will culminate in your property being listed.

    If you have any questions regarding our comments, the enclosed material, or
    other preservation related matters, please contact us at (904) 487-2333. We look
    forward to assisting you in any way possible.

    Secretary of State George Firestone appreciates your interest in preserving
    Florida's historic resources.

    Sincerely,




    Paul L. Weaver, III
    Historic Sites Specialist



    PLW:dmc

    Enclosures


    cc: Stephanie Ferrell







    STATE OF FLORIDA
    DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Division of Archives, History
    and Records Management
    DS HSP 3AAA 1-77


    FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE

    Site Inventory Form


    FDAHRM 802==
    Site No. 7808 1009==


    Site Name Lozano, Niztal and Co., 830==
    Instruction or locating (or address) 14o08-1410


    Survey Date
    21st Street


    7RiR 820==


    813==
    Location: Resub. Clarkson Add. / 10/ 1 868==
    subdivision name block no. lot no.
    County: Hillsborough 808==
    Owner of Site: Name: Rink, George A.
    Address: 1638 75t.1 court
    Elmwood Parik, Illinois 60635 902==


    Occupant, Tenant, or Manager:
    Name:
    Type of Ownership Pr ivat


    Recorder:
    Name & Title:


    Address:


    ?12-3&43 150
    IA
    Condition of Site: Integ
    Check one
    o Excellent 863== Alt
    QI Good 863-- Un
    0 Fair 863-- I Ori
    o Deteriorated 863-- 0 Res
    0 Mo
    NR Classification Category:
    Threats to Site:
    Check one or more
    l. Zoning ( I
    O Development ( )
    O Deterioration )I
    O Borrowing ( )
    0 Other ISee Remarks below):
    Areas of Significance:


    904==
    832==


    848== Recording Date


    CA?'L sHVAft


    Kaekel, Julie


    HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH


    -9 EIGHTH AVENUE UA.)
    9 EIGHTH AVENUE


    MwrA,- -LUkRIA 33605
    rity of Site:
    Check one or more
    ered 858--
    altered 858--
    ginal Sirte 858--
    tored ( ) Date: ( ) 858-=
    ved ( ) Date: ( ) 858--


    ( ) 878--
    11 )878-
    1( ) 878-
    ( ) 878--


    Architecture, 'industrial


    I5W 04 AA 6AtLro


    Original Use Industrial 838==
    Present Use Artists' Studios 850==
    Dates: Beginning 1905 844==
    Culture/Phase American 840==
    Developmental Stage 20th Centur,842==
    916==


    () 878--
    1> 878--
    ( ) 878-


    910==


    Photographic Record Numbers -


    - --. .-- 860==


    O Transportation ( )
    O Fill ( )
    1J Dredge ( )

    878--


    Significance:
    See continuation sheet.


    t4fi(C P -a Sm J fk4r 9
    ,q" qq -_fit&00P eCA, 14 PM A 91 9==