- Permanent Link:
- Structure analysis : Lozano cigar factory
- Series Title:
- Lozano cigar factory preservation documents
- Ajami, Bilal Sultan
- Place of Publication:
- Gainesville, Fla.
- Bilal Sultan Ajami
- Publication Date:
- May 28, 1984
- General Note:
- Completed for Materials and Methods of Preservation, Spring, 1984
- Source Institution:
- University of Florida
- Holding Location:
- University of Florida
- Rights Management:
- All rights reserved by the source institution.
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The Lozano cigar factory of Ybor City, Tampa, Florida is today
a ghost of a building that once housed a bustling cigar manufacturing
enterprise. The passage of time and cigar economics have not been
kind to Lozano and his factory. This three story brick building at
1410 Twenty-first Street presently houses artists studios. Many
broken windows, shutters removed long ago, and general dilapidation
characterize the Lozano factory as a forgotten, gutted, and deserted
relic of the past.
Initiated in August and completed in early November of 1905,
the Lozano cigar factory was the brain child of Faustino Lozano, Sr.1
Born about 1842 in Asturias Province, Spain, Lozano left for Cuba
at an early age, then to New York City by 1865. In these young
migratory years, Lozano learned the cigar trade skills. As an accom-
plished cigar roller, he soon directed his energies towards the
business of cigar manufacturing. In 1881, he associated with another
native Asturian, Enrique Pendas, who was also now domiciled in New
York, and together they formed Lozano, Pendas and Company. The "Webster"
brand became their leading seller of high grade cigars.3
Lozano's eye was first attracted to Tampa in 1886 when Vicente
Martinez Ybor and Ignacia Haya transferred their cigar businesses to
Tampa. In part, labor unrest compelled Ybor and Haya to move their
manufacturing plants. Furthermore, poor transportation facilities,
isolation from both supplies and raw materials, and distant markets
proved unattractive and unproductive to their cigar manufacturing
and distribution centers in Key West, Florida. Perhaps most essential
was the Tampa Board of Trade's concession in 1884 to Ybor and Haya
for a large quantity of cheap land on which to operate their factories.4
To varying degrees, and especially that of labor unrest, these same
factors influenced Lozano and Pendas to relocate their New York
business to Tampa.
The date which Lozano, Pendas and Company moved is disputed.
One author cites January of 1888 as the time of relocation: 15 May
1887 is presented by a further source in an oral interview conducted
in the 1930's.5 In either case, Lozano, Pendas and Company was the
third factory in what was to be called "Ybor City."6 Mr. Pendas had
been urged by Ybor and Haya to move his business from New York to
Tampa. The Ybor City Land and Improvement Company offered Pendas
a three-story factory, rent-free for ten years, if he would make
the move. And an undisclosed amount of cash from the Tampa Board
of Trade to relocate was further incentive. The package proposition
was irresistible for Pendas and Lozano when reduced overhead costs,
lower taxes, and a financial inducement were factored into their
production costs. Lastly, cigar labor unions were virtually non-
existent for the Pendas/Lozano enterprise in Tampa, when compared
to those in New York City.7
Lozano, Pendas and Company maintained the production of cigars
in Tampa from about 1888 through 1895.8 The company first operated
at the corner of Tenth Avenue and Fifteenth Street, about two blocks
from the now famous Ybor brick factory. This was the three-story
wood frame building that Ybor and Haya had promised rent-free to
Pendas and Lozano in exchange for moving their cigar business to Tampa.
By June of 1895, Lozano, Pendas and Company were constructing
a fifty-by-one hundred, ten feet, three-story brick factory at 1416
Spring Street. Shortly after this date, Lozano sold his portion
of the partnership and entered the tobacco leaf business. The firm
then assumed the new identity of Y. Pendas and Alvarez, and remained
at the 1416 Spring Street location. Lozano's tobacco leaf importing
business was a partnership with a Mr. Selgas. Little is known of
the nature or terms of their business. Sometime before July of 1904,
Lozano retired from the tobacco importing business.14
In 1904, Lozano's eldest son, also named Faustino, affiliated
with Padrino Nistal to form the enterprise Lozano, Nistal y Ca.15
Their leading cigar, "La Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," was produced
in a variety of sizes and sold in retail markets for between sixty
and two-hundred and fifty dollars per thousand. For a house adver-
tisement in trade magazines like the Tobacco Leaf, Lozano, Nistal
y Ca adopted the heraldic device of a mailed arm and dagger. This
firm was located at 1925 Seventh Avenue through the 1904-05 years.
Sometime in mid-1905 Lozano arranged to liquidate his part of
the business, and made preparations with his father and younger brother,
Jose, to form their own family business. In later years they would
incorporate the business, but for now they were consumed with the
construction of a factory for the family cigar business. In mid-May,
building plans were drawn for their two story brick factory.18 The
first date revealing any construction at the site was 15 September
1905.19 By 27 September, the second story was half completed.20 And
on Saturday, 4 November 1905, the Lozano's began moving equipment
from the 1925 Seventh Avenue Lozano/Nistal factory into their new
structure at 1410 Twenty-first Street.21
The Lozano cigar factory was a two-story brick building, set on
a basement foundation, half exposed above ground. This basement served
as the storage and ageing rooms for tobacco leaves. The packing
and shipping departments were placed on the first floor, while an
estimated seventy-five cigarmakers were to perform their trade up-
stairs. Dimensions for the factory, as reported Tampa Morning Trib-
une, were 50 x 105 feet.23
No photographs exist of the two-story Lozano factory. The most
accurate representation of the original factory appears in the con-
struction plans labeled "Lozano, Nistal and Company-1904," stored in
the University of Florida's architecture department case studies
library. These plans depict, and the present day second story belting
suggests, that the two-story building was capped with a flat roof.
In all, this roof design is quite likely, for this plan emulates the
designs of the Ybor factory, the 1895 Lozano, Pendas and Company
factory, and other Ybor City brick cigar factories of the early 20th
century. While building plans do not always reflect the finished
product, there is primary evidence through newspapers of the
two-story structure, and strong indications through present day
building inspection and conformity within a neighborhood of cigar
factories of a flat roof design.24
Sometime between 1905 and 1915, a third story was added to the
factory. While a fire insurance map verifies this addition, few
Tampa building permits exist prior to 1916 which would help substan-
iate this claim. An estimate may be arrived at, however, for this
construction through the use of tax records. An increase in property
assessment for 1906 from $1,400 to $6,700, reflects the initial two-
story structure. Property assessment increases from $6,700 to $7,800
in 1906-07, and from $7,800 to $8,300 in 1913-14, are potential
years for the addition to the factory. The 1907 increase mirrors
a $1,100 or 16% rise in assessment, while a $500 or 6% tax adjustment
impacted Lozano's 1914 taxes. With this series of mathematical evalu-
ations, it is apparent, though not conclusive, that the third story
was added in 1906.25
In any case, by 1915 the Lozano building was a three-story,
rectangular building. Ostensibly, the business was swept along in
the cigar boom times of the Progressive Era, and expanded to meet
the ensuing demand. Lozano, Sr. died on 27 December 1906: his life,
recent illness, and death were sympathetically reviewed in the trade
magazine, Tobacco Leaf. He left the company to his widow, two sons,
and two daughters. They incorporated the business under the laws
of the State of New York in 1907. No business records are available
to indicate growth cycles, employees, and general economic conditions
of the Lozano Company.
For the years 1907-13, Lozano,Jr. lived in Brooklyn, New York,
and was listed as president of the company. It appears that the
Lozano's advertising and business headquarters operated out of New
York, while production and local management were concentrated in
Tampa. In 1914, Lozano, Jr. resided on Bayshore Boulevard, Tampa:
and in 1916, his residence was at 2301 Nebraska Avenue, Tampa. On
17 December 1916, Lozano, Jr. died. His widow and two sons received
his portion of the business. Lozano's brother, Jose M., became pres-
ident of the company.
In 1913, the firm had hired Hansard S. Foley as its local mana-
ger. Foley maintained that position until 1917, when he was named
treasurer/manager. This change probably reflects Jose's absence
in the Tampa management of the company, and the move to New York
to assume his deceased brother's role of president. By 1919, Foley
held the position of secretary/treasurer/manager in the Lozano Com-
pany, and retained that title until the company's demise in 1923.
Most significantly, Foley was also secretary/treasurer of Garcia,
Diaz and Company, another Tampa cigar manufacturer, from 1914 into
the 1920's. Interestingly enough, Garcia, Diaz and Company was
located one block south of the Lozano Company, at 1403 Twenty-first
Street. To what extent this arrangement presents a conflict of
interests, and whether Foley's dual role, in part, led to the Lozano
Company's collaspe in 1923, bears further investigation. In any case,
it appears that Jose Lozano assumed the company's presidency from
1917 through 1923, and resided in Brooklyn, New York, while local
management was controlled by Poley.28
On 27 April 1916, F. Lozano, Son and Company filed a permit with
the City of Tampa for the construction of a "three story brick cigar
factory." A more accurate description for this permit would have
read, "two and three story brick addition to existing three story
brick factory." The exact date of this construction is unknown,
but by 1931 a two and three story brick addition was placed on the
south wall of the original factory. This construction may have
evolved over time, with the three story segment constructed first,
followed by the two story wing. The entire addition, however, may
have been erected in one phase.29
Tax roles show increased assessments in 1916-17, and in 1917-18.
The first rise was $100, from $8,300 to $8,400, while the latter
adjustment entailed a $2,700 increase from $8,400 to $11,100. Both
the three and two story segments of the addition are rather large and,
even separately, would warrant more than a $100 (1.2%) increase.
Though inconclusive, these facts indicate that the addition was
completed in one phase, and before the 1918 Tampa tax assessments
Building inspection, however, suggests that the three story
portion was constructed before the two story segment. Mortar dis-
coloration, the pent eve, hip-and-return design of the two story
addition, and the structural placement of iron columns in the three
story basement portion each suggest a progression of construction
from the third story to the second story sections.31
To add a further element into this construction confusion, the
Lozano factory addition plans, located at the Historic Tampa/Hills-
borough County Preservation Board, show the entire addition as a
whole. Yet again, building plans are a guide and do not necessarily
reflect the reality of the situation.
It is the considered opinion of the author that the Lozano
factory addition was constructed in two phases. Though the tax
roles and building plans do not bear this interpretation out, tax
assessments can be rigged or manipulated through political influence,
or misrepresent the real property values and improvements. And
building plans do not always speak to the phases of construction.
The visible evidence of two phase construction, in the basement
and on exterior walls, is convincing.
Cigar economics was a leading cause in the demise of the Lozano
Company. In the transitory years of World War I, cigarettes became
more fashionable to smoke than cigars. They were cheaper to manu-
facture, and in turn, those savings were passed to tobacco consumers.
Not only were cigarettes less expensive, they did not produce the
offensive odors often associated with cigars. As a result, cigars
became less acceptable in social situations. And as cigar mechani-
zation and strikes racked Tampa's cigar industry in the 1910's and
1920's, cigar manufacturers established mechanized operations in
Pennsylvania and New Jersey to produce quality cigars at quick rates
of production and cheap prices. Meanwhile, the Tampa cigar industry
resisted mechanization, prefering instead, the older hand method of
cigar rolling, thereby keeping production costs and retail prices
high. In sum, these factors combined to reduce Tampa's cigar production
and create a low demand market.32
It was unfortunate that the Lozano Company invested in physical
expansion just prior to the declining demand for their product. And
if production curtailment, slackening demand, and Lozano, Jr's. death
in late 1916 did not present management crises, then the Lozano cigar
strike of late 1917 probably did.
It seems that as early as September 1917, that the Lozano manage-
ment was pitting union and non-union cigarmakers against one another.
Ostensibly, the ploy was to keep wages down, while creating dis-
harmony among workers in an attempt to stifle any unified actions
against the Lozano management. What the Lozano management's actions
actually created was an atmosphere for a labor strike. On 17 Septem-
ber 1917, a strike was threatened by the Lozano cigar rollers, but
a vote between one-hundred and twenty workers rejected immediate
action. Sixty-six workers refused to strike, forty abstained from
voting, and sixteen others wished to again discuss matters on the
following Sunday. By 25 November, though some Lozano workers were
striking the factory, a general strike was not called. Cigar output
remained high during these events, and the labor disturbance did not
materialize into a larger general strike of the Lozano factory or
Ybor City cigarmakers. The small strike was, however, probably a
source of irritation and concern for both Jose Lozano and H. S. Foley.33
Among other factors, labor strikes and declining cigar demand
forced the Lozano Company out of business in the early 1920's. Their
advertising campaign in city directories beginning in 1919 and lasting
until 1923, was perhaps a case of too little, too late. Foreclosure
notices in 1919, while not acted upon by the City of Tampa, were
signs of eminent doom. And the Lozano Company's consistent habit
of paying taxes late, indicated financial problems.34
Perhaps most lethal to the company were labor strikes. Tampa's
longest strike beginning on 14 April 1920, and lasting ten months,
and involving ten thousand cigarworkers was the costliest labor
disturbance in Tampa's cigar industry history. Campbell's Cigar
Industry claims that the depressed conditions of Tampa's cigar industry,
during the late 1920's and the 1930's, may be traced to the devastat-
ing effects of this strike. Many cigar markets and customers were
lost during this strike, and were never regained. Campbell also
claims that subsequent to the strike settlement in early 1921, that
F. Lozano, Son and Company collasped and leased its plant to Corral,
Wodiska and Company. R. L. Polk's Tampa City Directory, however,
does not substantiate this fact. Instead, the Directory shows the
Lozano Company advertising for business until 1923, and then Corral,
Wodiska and Company leasing the Lozano factory in 1924. Whatever the
case may be, the Lozano Company did collaspe in the early 1920's.35
The company leased its factory to several cigar manufacturers
between 1924 and 1941. As previously discussed, Corral, Wodiska and
Company took the 1924 lease. The following year the lease went to
Annis-Gradiaz and Company, who remained at the Lozano factory until
at least 1928. By 1931, M. Bustillo and Merriam cigar manufacturers
had secured the Lozano factory lease, and they retained it until
1941. The same trends of declining cigar demand and increased mechani-
zation that drove the Lozano Company out of business in the early
1920's, continued through the 1920's and 1930's at an accelerated
rate, and also forced the Bustillo Company into bankruptcy. In 1941,
though the Bustillo Company did not have labor strikes to contend
with as the earlier Lozano Company had suffered through, they did
have increased competition from consolidating, mechanized cigar
factories in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. To demonstrate the depressed
Tampa cigar manufacturing market between 1928 and 1939, eleven major
cigar factories left Tampa in search of a more favorable tax base
and to improve their labor supply; four major Tampa cigar firms
consolidated to form one corporation; and five major cigar manu-
facturers closed their doors in Tampa for the last time.36
After 1941, the Lozano factory no longer housed cigar enter-
prises. In that year, the building and property were sold to the
Tampa Casket Company, who made use of the facilities until falling
into bankruptcy in 1969. After defaulting on their terms in early
1970, the Casket Company sold the factory and property to the Oliva
Tobacco Company. More recently, the property was in the hands of
George Rink, who owned the property through at least June, 1982.
In that month, Mr. Rink was denied an Historic Preservation Certifi-
cate for the Lozano factory by the State of Florida. The property
was subsequently sold to the Norbert Fuller Construction Company of
On 6 January 1984, the Lawrence Properties Group purchased the
Lozano factory. They anticipate a renovation of the factory which
includes a (1) restaurant in the basement, (2) Lawrence Properties
offices on the first floor, (3) law offices on the second floor, and
(4) an office for the Fuller Construction Company on the top floor.
Fuller Construction will be responsible for the physical renovation.
The projected date for renovation to begin is December, 1984.
The ravages of time have taken their toll on the Lozano cigar
factory., Over the course of eighty years it housed two cigar manu-
facturing firms and a casket company, all which failed as businesses.
Additionally, as late as 1982, an Historic Preservation Certificate
was denied to the Lozano factory. Floor space in the factory in
now leased to local artists. Presently, with the first floor tin
clad shutters removed and many window openings patched with plastic
signs and cardboard, the Lozano factory appears abused and disheveled.
And the accumulation of junk strewn around the perimeter of the
building and property, does nothing to improve this image. Though
the factory has housed several failing businesses and is now suffering
from the effects of neglect, it remains a stark physical indicator
of the power and money of the cigar industry in early 1900's Tampa.
Perhaps this latest interest in the factory will not only blossom
and survive, but as well preserve the factory from further neglect
and recondition the premises.
1. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,
19 May 1905, 15 & 27 September 1905, 3 October 1905, 2 & 5 November
2. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf, 6 July 1904.
3. Ibid.; "The New Webster Cigar Label," Tobacco, 28 Septem-
4. A. Stuart Campbell, The Cigar Industry of Tampa, Florida
(Gainesville, Florida: Bureau of Economic Research, 1939), 43-4;
Mormino, Gary R., Anthony Pizzo, The Treasure City-Tampa (Tulsa,
Oklahoma: Continental Heritage Press, 1983), 92-6; Durward Long,
"The Historical Beginnings of Modern Tampa," FHQ 45 (July 1966):
5. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscript, "Social
Survey of Ybor City," Ferlita, p. 95-113, this manuscript is located
in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History under the call number
F.2 T15 Wys. The manuscripts are not numbered, and the page numbers
referred to are written in pencil. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 43.
6. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, "Ybor
City: General Description-Latin Populations," unknown author, p. 7;
"Ybor City: Early Days of Ybor City and the Beginnings of the Cigar
Industry," Quien Sabe, p. 65; "History of Ybor City," Felix Cannella,
p. 82-3; "Social History of Ybor City," Ferlita, p. 103-4. For
another date of arrival in Tampa for Lozano, Pendas and Company,
see Campbell, Cigar Industry, p. 43, 127.
7. Long, "Beginnings of Modern Tampa," FHQ, p. 31-44: Harold
C. Livesay, Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America (Boston,
Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1978), 59-108. Livesay
presents an account of cigar labor strife during the 1880's in New
York City that Lozano, Pendas, Haya, and other cigar manufacturers
wished to avoid by moving to Tampa.
8. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, pgs. 7,
65, 82-3, 103-4; for specific titles and authors of FWP manuscripts,
see footnote six. 1895 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, Florida,
9. 1889 and 1892 Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida,
p. 6 for both years. Also see, footnote seven.
10. 1895 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, Florida, p. 14.
See picture of Lozano, Pendas and Company factory in the photograph
section of this paper.
11. Federal Writers Project, Unpublished Manuscripts, pgs. 7,
65, 82-3, 103-4; for specific titles and authors of FWP manuscripts,
see footnote six. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf,
6 July 1904.
12. "Manufacturers Have Been Buying Heavily Also Factories
Again Busy," Tobacco Leaf, 17 January 1906. 1895, 1899, and 1903
Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida, p. 14, p. 11, p. 11.
13. "Flor de Lozano, Nistal y Ca," Tobacco Leaf, 6 July 1904.
17. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1904, 1905. "New Brick
Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 19 May 1905.
18. "New Brick Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 19 May 1905.
19. "Lozano's Brick Cigar Factory is Making Progress," Tampa
Morning Tribune, 15 September 1905.
20. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,
27 September 1905.
21. Ibid., 5 November 1905.
22. "Into New Factory: Lozano, Nistal and Company Will Occupy
It November 15th," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November 1905. Charles
E. Harner, A Pictorial History of Ybor City (Tampa, Florida: Trend
Publications, 1975), 15-6. Mr. Harner refers to the use of cigar
factory basements for the ageing and storage of tobacco. On page
eleven, a picture of the factory appears as a three story rectangular
structure. In a telephone conversation with Mr. Harner (Sarasota,
Florida) on 4 February 1984, he stated that he did not know the era
in which the photograph was taken, or where he found the Lozano
factory picture. The 1915 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa shows
the factory as a three story rectangular structure. A 1916 Tampa
City building permit for the expansion of the Lozano factory, and
a 1931 Sanborn Map of Lozano's factory depicting a U-shaped struc-
ture, much like the present day building, offers evidence that
Harner's photograph date from the 1905-15 era.
23. "Into New Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November
1905. Ybor City Editorial Department, Tampa Morning Tribune,
5 November 1905. In a conversation with Dr. George Pozzetta (Univer-
sity of Florida, Department of History) on 8 March 1984, he stated
that a cigar factory employing seventy-five cigarmakers in 1905
should be considered a large factory, and placed in a cluster of
factories just beneath those of the largest magnitude like the Ybor,
the Haya, and the Rodriguez factories.
24. "Into New Factory," Tampa Morning Tribune, 2 November
1905. For comparison of Lozano factory with other Ybor City cigar
factories, see Harner, Ybor City. For building plans, see Univer-
sity of Florida, Department of Architecture, Case Studies Library,
building plans for "Lozano, Nistal and Company-1904."
25. 1915 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, p. 31. There
is some confusion about this 1915 Tampa Sanborn Fire Insurance Map.
It is marked, in pencil, "1922" and is located in the Map Room of
the University of Florida Library. Questioning this date from a
procedural standpoint, as well as from evidence collected elsewhere
(Tampa City building permit for Lozano addition in 1916), I called
Mr. Jim Flatnuss at the Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress
Archives, Washington, D. C. (202-287-6277). According to the Library
of Congress, Sanborn only produced a 1922 Supplement to Tampa Fire
Insurance Maps, rather than a full edition. This supplement covers
outlying areas of Tampa, and does not include the Lozano factory.
Furthermore, the Library of Congress' 1915 Fire Insurance Map of
Tampa neatly correlates, page for page, with the University of
Florida map marked in pencil, "1922." It is believed that this
"1922" map is, in all probability, a 1915 Sanborn. For tax asses-
ments, see Hillsborough County Courthouse, Tampa, Florida, Clerk's
Office, Tax Rolls, 1905 reel 18, p. 581: 1906 reel 19, p. 678:
1907 reel 20, p. 742; reel and page numbers for 1913-14 are unknown.
For purposes of more accuracy, tax assessments for each year reflect
property values several months before October of each year, when
taxes in Tampa are due.
26. For statistics and commentary on the burgeoning Tampa
cigar business, see Campbell, Cigar Industry, 30-6. For genealogical
information on the Lozano family, see Hillsborough County Courthouse,
Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Platted Land, 1906-1912, 1912-1920,
Book 142, Page 241 & Book 90, Page 474. "Pioneer Manufacturer of
Domestic Havana Cigars Passes Away His Career," Tobacco Leaf,
2 January 1907.
27. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1907-1917. For further
genealogical materials on the Lozano's, see Hillsborough County
Courthouse, Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Book 1186, Page 43,
19 August 1941. It is apparent that the Lozano's headquarters
operated out of New York: the company was incorporated under the
laws of New York, Lozano, Sr. lived and died in Brooklyn, as did his
son, and the Lozano's advertising agent, Ben Lesser, operated out
of New York. See "Manufacturers Have Been Buying Heavily Also -
Factories Again Busy," Tobacco Leaf, 17 January 1906.
28. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1913-1923.
29. Tampa City Hall, Building Permits, Ledger Sheets, Roll 1 -
1915-1923 By Year, p. 27. 1931 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Tampa,
30. Hillsborough County Courthouse, Clerk's Office, Tax Rolls,
1916 reel and page unknown, 1917 reel ?, page 982, 1918 reel 39,
page ?. The Lozano property is located in the Clarkson Brother's
Addition to East Tampa, Section 18, Township 29, Range 19.
31. This plan of construction was suggested by Gary Smith and
Dan Seggebruch. They are architecture students enrolled in this
documentation course of the Lozano cigar factory conducted by Blair
Reeves and Susan Tate of the University of Florida, Department of
Architecture faculty. See the photographs and architectural plans
which this paper supplements.
32. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 30-3, 104-7, 116.
33. Editorial, Tampa Morning Tribune, 17 September 1917. Edi-
torial, Tampa Morning Tribune, 25 November 1917. Editorial, El
National, 14 September 1917.
34. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1919-1923. Notice of
Foreclosure, 9 May 1919, Book 7, Page 5, #14741-43. Notice of Fore-
closure, 9 May 1919, Book 7, Page 336, #14734-45.
35. Mormino, et al., Tampa, 151. Campbell, Cigar Industry, 50.
The reasons for the Lozano Company's collaspe are undocumented, though
Campbell claims that the 1920 strike forced the doors closed on the
business. This simple explanation, however, seems inadequate. The
cigar industry's total performance and technological advancements,
as well as the Lozano management's failure to detect those trends,
and their overextension of capital paints a more comprehensive and
more accurate picture of the Lozano collaspe.
36. R. L. Polk, Tampa City Directory, 1924-1941. 1931 Sanborn
Fire Insurance Map of Tampa, p. ?. Hillsborough County Courthouse,
Clerk's Office, Direct Deed Index, Book 1186, Page 43, 19 August 1941.
Campbell, Cigar Industry, 60-1, 70-7, 104, 111, 124, 128.
37. See Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board truncated
abstract of the Lozano property contained in the "photograph and
source materials" section of this study. In the same section, see
letter to George A. Rink from the State of Florida. In a telephone
conversation on 9 April 1984 with a representative of the present
owners of the factory (Lawrence Properties Group), Mary Ann Caratta
stated that Lawrence Properties purchased the Lozano factory from
the Norbert Fuller Construction Company.
38. Telephone conversation between the author and Mary Ann
Federal Writers Project. Unpublished Government Workers Collected
Manuscripts. Tampa, Florida. See specific notations.
Hillsborough County Courthouse. Tampa, Florida. Clerk's Office.
Tax Rolls: Deed Books. See specific notations.
Polk, R. L. Tampa City Directory.
Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa, Florida. 1884, 1887, 1889,
1892, 1895, 1899, 1903, 1915, 1922 Supplement, 1931 in Four
Volumes, 1951 (1931 Revision with paste on corrections).
Tampa City Hall Annex. Building Permits. Ledger Sheets. See
Tampa Public Library. Special Collections. Burgert Brother's
Photograph Collection of Tampa.
Tampa Morning Tribune. See specific notations.
Tobacco. 28 September 1894.
Tobacco Leaf. 6 July 1904; 17 January 1906; 2 January 1907.
Campbell, A. Stuart. The Cigar Industry of Tampa, Florida. Gaines-
ville, Florida: Bureau of Economic Research, 1939.
Harner, Charles E. A Pictorial History of Ybor City. Tampa, Florida:
Trend Publications, 1975.
Long, Durward. "The Historical Beginnings of Modern Tampa." FHQ
45 (July 1966): 31-44.
-----. "The Open-Closed Shop Battle in Tampa's Cigar Industry,
1919-1921." FHQ 47 (October 1968): 101-121.
Mack, Russell H. The Cigar Manufacturing Industry. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1933.
Mormino, Gary R., Anthony Pizzo. The Treasure City-Tampa. Tulsa,
Oklahoma: Continental Heritage Press, 1983.
Pozzetta, George E. "Alerta Tabaqueros! Tampa's Striking Cigar-
workers." Tampa Bay History 3 (Fall/Winter 1981): 19-29.
Several people deserve credit for helping reduce the total hours
I invested in researching the Lozano factory. Dave Rigney, at the
Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board, supplied factory plans
and assorted legal citations on the Lozano's. Dr. George Pozzetta,
Professor of History at the University of Florida, offered his notes
on the 1917 Lozano Factory Strike. Dr. Glen Westfall's (Hillsborough
Community College) Tobacco and Tobacco Leaf articles were invaluable,
and otherwise inaccessible, sources. Tony Pizzo's thoughts on the
Lozano factory were quite helpful. He did not, however, know the
translation of the Lozano factory's nickname, "El Sama." According
to Pizzo, cigarworkers and foremen often named factories in which
they worked after the appearance or some other facet of their work
Rendition of Lozano, pendas and Company tory located)
at 1416 spring Street, Tampa. (Courtesy of Glen westfall)
i o -
The following three pages contain photographs of the Lozano cigar
factory as represented by Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Tampa.
Supplied below is a key to the symbols found on the photographs.
W CLO a#NO, CSaW.A
twwrr teccnn A*.w
These photographs depict the Lozano cigar factory in 1915.
o r.t..... .... ..
f. o '"' :
3 .P AV.
I 7 7 8 s s
6 M. BUr TiL 0 & RRI/#M Ci/#R
FVCrTORY HNP S.
I/& IS iELEC ERfr SfTRM#. N/I7T W TMRI.
The above photographs depict the Lozano Factory in 1931.
1:T. Bustillo & M!erriam Cigar Manufactures leased the Lozano Factory
from 1931 to 1941.
These photographs show the Lozano factory as of 1951. The Tampa
Casket Company owned this property from 1941 through 1970.
The following is a listing of the years that F. Lozano, Son and
Company advertised and were listed in R.L. Polk's Tampa City Directory:
*This year the company was listed as Lozano, Nistal and Company
located on 1925 7th Avenue.
For all remaining years, F. Lozano, Son and Company is listed at
21st Street, Corner of 4th Avenue.
From 1919-1921 Lozano uses an one-third page advertisement, while
in 1922-1923 they use an one-quarter page ad.
A near complete selection of R.L. Polk's Tampa City Directory is
located at the Tampa Public Library, Special Collections Department.
Supplied by the Ta
Lo-wao feldo rq
unpa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board.
i Suvbd.lrvfs BK -t16 P ..L43
SF Lo7ZNo Son Kd Co to
T l. cpO casket cb
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Deed recorded. March ;7O l90(FsIame)
...Book 89 cpS 17(
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__ncC3o. (corpo a'ot) .,"a x. CcsKedCo, _______ _
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___ON CorNelia Lozano -esta.-e
_r-y _9, v"i/ 7y., ~/ A+9 a_. m-ei--cCatC( -pr_ -)--
______7I-q___________ iA+In-kwi Cask-d Co. INc (party seco
I\~i g.1 _I.__ __ __
Atoice 0 4o Rpese. (nbio-sc iN~e'fur ___ __________
__K fe a1 3 Tqr 7,/ 1970
Tay 9, 19 f-ly )o, l9/7 tl /73 -17.S' __T-ck.Skims acr AN-aMt Cz4efCo /NC
-C.1y oF T ZripoA4 fl PQRVeRi+e o4_ -Qr, Frank- Sc INS .
__ _..__--"_- __ LO._ .. -.._ -- -_Tack Sms an, A1ir Casket Co / c
: .."; -- ..- :..: *. ::" :-":!m f.7 ojF 1 on "ferms Trustee N oe d '
-[ : 'S* --- se bF taid O ,-a Tobac".o Co .
: :. : _: ". : .... .. ..b.
.':.U; : :: _:. _: _'" ." ''-_ :" '. .*"._ <._ _.:.'? .':.. p :':-."":::.::".... :.* .... *."
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Secretary of State
DIVISION OF ARCHIVES,
HISTORY AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT
The Capitol, Tallahassee, Florida 32301
June 18, 1982
Mr. George A. Rink
601 West River Drive
Tampa, Florida 33617
Re: Lozano Cigar Factory, 21st Street and 4th Avenue, Ybor City, Tampa, Florida
Dear Mr. Rink:
Please excuse our delay in reviewing your submission of the Historic
Preservation Certification Application Part 1 for the Lozano Cigar Factory.
Although we recognize the significance of the Lozano Cigar Factory and other
Structures associated with the cigar industry of Ybor City, we are unable to
process your Part 1 Application. Please note that, for the purposes of the historic
preservation tax incentives program established pursuant to the Economic Recovery
Tax Act of 1981, eligibility for certification is restricted to properties which
are subject to depreciation, as defined by the Interndk Revenue Code, and are:
a. individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places,
b. located in a registered historic district and certified by the
Secretary of the Interior as being of historic significance to
A "registered historic district" is a National Register district or a state
or local district which has been certified by the Secretary of the Interior.
A review of our files indicates that the above referenced property is neither
individually listed in the National Register of Historic Places, nor located within
the boundaries of a registered historic district. Therefore, at the present time,
the Lozano Cigar Factory is not eligible for certification.
Brochures which provide specific information regarding eligibility requirements,
and the benefits and responsibilities associated with participation in the historic
preservation tax incentives program have been enclosed for your review.
FLORIDA-State of the Arts
George A. Rink
ne 18, 1982
Should you be interested in pursuing the individual listing of your property
in the National Register, information regarding this program and a preliminary
site information questionnaire have also been enclosed for your review. In your
consideration of this course of action, please be aware that National Register
nomination procedures are complex and lengthy (commonly requiring in excess of
one year from initial inquiry to listing), and there is no guarantee that your
endeavor will culminate in your property being listed.
If you have any questions regarding our comments, the enclosed material, or
other preservation related matters, please contact us at (904) 487-2333. We look
forward to assisting you in any way possible.
Secretary of State George Firestone appreciates your interest in preserving
Florida's historic resources.
Paul L. Weaver, III
Historic Sites Specialist
cc: Stephanie Ferrell
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Division of Archives, History
and Records Management
DS HSP 3AAA 1-77
FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE
Site Inventory Form
Site No. 7808 1009==
Site Name Lozano, Niztal and Co., 830==
Instruction or locating (or address) 14o08-1410
Location: Resub. Clarkson Add. / 10/ 1 868==
subdivision name block no. lot no.
County: Hillsborough 808==
Owner of Site: Name: Rink, George A.
Address: 1638 75t.1 court
Elmwood Parik, Illinois 60635 902==
Occupant, Tenant, or Manager:
Type of Ownership Pr ivat
Name & Title:
Condition of Site: Integ
o Excellent 863== Alt
QI Good 863-- Un
0 Fair 863-- I Ori
o Deteriorated 863-- 0 Res
NR Classification Category:
Threats to Site:
Check one or more
l. Zoning ( I
O Development ( )
O Deterioration )I
O Borrowing ( )
0 Other ISee Remarks below):
Areas of Significance:
848== Recording Date
-9 EIGHTH AVENUE UA.)
9 EIGHTH AVENUE
MwrA,- -LUkRIA 33605
rity of Site:
Check one or more
ginal Sirte 858--
tored ( ) Date: ( ) 858-=
ved ( ) Date: ( ) 858--
( ) 878--
1( ) 878-
( ) 878--
I5W 04 AA 6AtLro
Original Use Industrial 838==
Present Use Artists' Studios 850==
Dates: Beginning 1905 844==
Culture/Phase American 840==
Developmental Stage 20th Centur,842==
( ) 878-
Photographic Record Numbers -
- --. .-- 860==
O Transportation ( )
O Fill ( )
1J Dredge ( )
See continuation sheet.
t4fi(C P -a Sm J fk4r 9
,q" qq -_fit&00P eCA, 14 PM A 91 9==
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