Strategic plan for eliminating the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback turtles in the coastal Gillnet fisher...

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Strategic plan for eliminating the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback turtles in the coastal Gillnet fisheries if Trinidad and Tobago : proceedings of a national consultation. Port of Spain, 16-18 February 2005
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Eckert, Karen L.
Eckert, Scott A.
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Full Text
Strategic Plan for Eliminating the
Incidental Capture and Mortality of
Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet
Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago


PROCEEDINGS OF A NATIONAL
CONSULTATION
Port of Spain, Trinidad, 16-18 February 2005

Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources,
Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in
collaboration with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservatin Network (WIDECAST)



Scott A. Eckert
Karen L. Eckert

WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5

2005


For bibliographic purposes, this publication should be cited as follows:
Eckert, Scott A. and Karen L. Eckert. 2005. Strategic Plan for Eliminating the
Incidental Capture and Mortality of Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet
Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago: Proceedings of a National Consultation. Port
of Spain, 16-18 February 2005. Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine
Resources, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in collaboration
with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST).
WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5. Beaufort, N. Carolina. 30 pp. + appendices


ISSN: 1930-3025
Copies of this publication may be obtained from:

Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST)
135 Duke Marine Lab Road
Beaufort, North CaroHna 28516
Phone: + (252) 504-7597
Fax: + (252) 504 7648
Email: keckert@widecast.org


strategic Plan for Eliminating the
Incidental Capture and Mortality of
Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet
Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago



PROCEEDINGS OF A

NATIONAL CONSULTATION

Port of Spain, Trinidad, 16-18 February 2005

Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources,
Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in
collaboration with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network (WIDECAST)

Scott A. Eckert and Karen L. Eckert
2005




Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
Preface and Intent
For more than two decades the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network
(WIDECAST), with Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean States and territories, has
linked scientists, conservationists, resource managers, resource users, policy-makers, industry
groups, educators, and other stakeholders together in a collective effort to develop a unified
management framework, and to promote a regional capacity to design and implement
scientifically sound sea turtle management programs.

As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, WIDECAST is
designed to address research and management priorities at national and regional levels, both
for sea turtles and for the habitats upon which they depend. We focus on bringing the best
available science to bear on contemporary management and conservation issues, empowering
stakeholders to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing
an operational mechanism and a framework for cooperation at all levels, both within and
among nations. Network participants throughout the region are committed to working
collaboratively to develop their collective capacity to manage shared sea turtle resources. By
bringing people together, and by encouraging inclusive management planning, WIDECAST is
helping to ensure that utilization practices, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, do not
undermine sea turtle survival over the long term.

There can be no doubt that one of the most serious and intractable management issues facing
the Caribbean region is the wastage associated with sea turtle bycatch. Not only does the
capture and mortality of sea turtles incidental to subsistence and commercial fisheries diminish
an already depleted sea turtle resource, compromising recovery efforts at national and regional
scales and reducing the number of turtles that could otherwise enter the marketplace in more
productive ways, but, through gear damage and time spent, it can cripple the ability of fishers,
many of whom subsist in marginal economies, to make a living for their families.

Our intention in convening this meeting was to demonstrate that a community can meet this
challenge even as it reaches crisis proportions as it has along the northeast coast of Trinidad -
and threatens to overwhelm stakeholder sensibilities. We are particularly awed and inspired by
the fishers, who clearly have the most to lose in shifting the delicate dynamics of their
economies. They brought their expertise, their humor, their frustration, their creativity and,
perhaps most importantly, a willingness to visualize a new path. These proceedings are
dedicated to all who gave of their time and talent over those three days, and all who will find
these efforts inspiring and seek to duplicate them in other parts of the world.

Karen L. Eckert
Executive Director
WIDECAST
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


A consultation of this magnitude, bringing together interest groups from every region of the
nation, representing a wide range of life and professional experiences, could not have been
accomplished without the innovative spirit and broad support of the nation's fisher community,
sea turtle scientists, community groups, natural resource managers, and policy-makers, as well
as our logistical coordinators, donors, and invited experts. We gratefully acknowledge the
more than 50 participants who took time from their busy lives to start the important process of
building bridges to span the gap between profitable fisheries and the conservation of
endangered leatherback sea turtles. The enthusiasm and generosity of all participants was
tremendously inspiring.

Such a meeting would never have proceeded without the proactive initiative of the Ministry of
Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, especially Ms. Anne-Marie Jobity (Director of
Fisheries) and Dr. Arthur Potts (Assistant Director of Fisheries). Their realistic appraisals of the
practical, and the commitment of their agency to this process has been invaluable. We also
gratefully acknowledge the following individuals who worked so hard to organize and manage
the myriad of details: Ms. Ruth Davis Ms. Lara Ferreira, Ms. Allys Forte, Ms. Sherma Gomez,
Ms. Michelle Picov-Gill, Ms. Nadia Ramphal, Mr. Mervin Sendall, Ms. Wendy Thomas, and,
especially, Ms. Nerissa Nagassar.

Finally, no progress would have been made without financial support from the World Wide
Fund for Nature (WWF), The CGMK Foundation, and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries
Service. Scott and Karen Eckert's time was partially supported by the Mary Derrickson McCurdy
Visiting Scholar Fellowship at Duke University. These contributions are greatly appreciated by
all.

...With a hopeful eye to the future, and confident that the recommendations herein will be
implemented and the bycatch challenge, a crisis for fishers and endangered turtles alike, solved,
we thank in advance all who will support the work to come.
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
Table of Contents


Preface and Intent 1

Acknowledgements 2

Table of Contents 3

Executive Summary and Recommendations 4

Introduction 6

Background 11
Fishing in Trinidad and Tobago 11
Hook and Line 12
Net Fishing 13
Leatherback Turtles in Trinidad and Tobago 14
National Legal Status 16
International Conservation Status 17
International Legal Status 18

The 2005 National Consultation 18
Recommendations for Priority Action 20
Regulatory Options 20
Fishing Gear Options 20
Fishing Method and Techniques Options 22
Common Themes of the Working Groups 11
Decision and Evaluation Criteria 23

Proposed Experiments 23
New Bait Types 24
Alternative Gear 25
Net Modifications 25
Net Avoidance 25
Fish Attraction Devices (FADs) 26

Project Implementation Notes 27

Literature Cited 28

Appendices 31
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Executive Summary and Recommendations
Accidental entanglement of leatherback sea turtles {Dermochelys coriacea) in the gillnet fisheries
of Trinidad is the most serious conservation problem faced by the species and threatens to undo
several years of proactive conservation and innovative management by the government of
Trinidad and Tobago and many local non-government organizations (NGOs). The entangle-
ment problem also places a severe strain on the ability of Trinidad fishers to operate
economically, and is so severe that many are unable to fish during the sea turtle nesting season.

Undisputed among stakeholders is that incidental capture is the largest single source of
mortality to leatherbacks in the country, killing more leatherbacks than all other factors
combined. Because it supports the second largest known nesting aggregation in the world, the
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species
on a global scale. With this in mind, incidental capture and mortality to reproductively active
females in waters under the Republic's jurisdiction constitute a major threat to this Critically
Endangered (cf. lUCN) species on both Atlantic basin and global scales.

In an attempt to open a dialogue on these issues, and facilitate a stakeholder driven process of
solution-making, a National Consultation was hosted by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network (WIDECAST) and the Fisheries Division (Ministry of Agriculture, Land
and Marine Resources) in February 2005. Invited participants included fishers drawn from all
affected communities, including representatives from Tobago, local and national NGOs, the
government's primary natural resource management agencies, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
and a small number of international fishing and conservation experts.

The goal of the meeting was to review the problem of sea turtle bycatch in coastal gillnet
fisheries, in particular along the north and east coasts of Trinidad where most leatherback
nesting takes place, and to apply the shared expertise of the forum to devising a series of
potential solutions suitable for field-testing and evaluation by fishers and natural resource
management professionals. To this end, twin objectives were proposed: fishers must be better
off economically as a result of any proposed solution to the bycatch crisis, and the incidental
capture and mortality of leatherback sea turtles in coastal fisheries must cease.

The goal of the meeting was met through technical presentations in a conference setting, open-
forum question and answer sessions, an all-day field excursion to coastal fishing communities
and fishing depots. Working Group discussions, plenary consensus on recommendations, and
publication of this Proceedings document.

Participants acknowledged that the problem is a difficult one, and that no single solution would
likely suffice for all areas and all fisheries. Thus it was proposed that a series of investigations
be designed to evaluate, under realistic field conditions, various bycatch reduction options
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5


including: new bait types (e.g. artificial, dead and non-traditional baits) to enhance hook-and-
line fishing as a replacement for gillnets; new technologies, techniques, or gear modifications
(e.g. power take-up reels, alternate net materials, FADs; net-fishing at different depths); and
creative approaches to net avoidance (e.g. sonic 'pingers', shark silhouettes). It was agreed that
each of these options should receive equal weight during the experimental phase, and that the
results of each trial should determine subsequent experimental priorities.

New regulatory regimes, and in particular the implementation of time and area closures, were
also discussed. The recommendation was made that gillnets be banned from 1 March to 31 May
within a region extending from the south end of Fishing Pond Beach to the west end of Paria
Beach, and extending 8km offshore. Other types of gear would be allowed. There was concern
over the government's capacity to enforce the closure, however, and the need for improved
marine resource management capacity was noted. Also noted was the need to harmonize the
Fisheries Act (specifically the 1975 Protection of Turtles and Turtle Eggs Regulations) and the
Conservation of Wild Life Act, such that protection to the leatherback turtle at all times was
unambiguous.

With regard to evaluating fishery alternatives, the meeting uniformly agreed that active
fishermen must be involved in the testing and development of each new method, with
oversight and assistance by relevant experts. It was proposed that the best mechanism for
initiating the field-testing component would be to invite proposals from relevant national and
international experts (see "Project Implementation Notes"), and that fund-raising, including the
paid participation of fishers, would need to occur on a case-by-case basis.

Furthermore, there was consensus that the following criteria be taken into account when
evaluating the various mitigation options:
What will the experiment measure (objectives and variables)?
How will the experiment be conducted (materials and methods)?
Where will the experiment be conducted?
Who will conduct and evaluate the results of the experiment?

There was also consensus that the following Evaluation Criteria be adopted:
Can the new technique catch fish?
Is it economically viable (i.e. producing equivalent or increased revenue)?
Does it reduce adverse impact to leatherback sea turtles?
Can it be managed/regulated?
Is it logistically feasible for local conditions?
Is it biologically and commercially sustainable?
Will it be supported/accepted by the stakeholders?

Finally, there was widespread interest among participants that a mechanism be created,
perhaps by Government, to facilitate an ongoing dialogue between fishers and natural resource
managers, and embracing the expertise of communities and NGOs, on subjects of fisher concern
regarding the bycatch issue and the hardships endured during the seasonal struggle to fish in
the presence of large numbers of leatherback turtles.
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INTRODUCTION
That leatherback sea turtles {Dermochelys coriacea) are accidentally entangled in coastal fishing
gear in Trinidadian waters has been known for many years. In interviews with Matelot
fishermen (April-May 1992), Fournillier and Eckert (1998) reported a capture rate of 10
leatherbacks per 61m of net per season. Between March and August 1995, seven Matelot
fishermen documented the capture of 139 leatherbacks in their nets. In 1997, an estimated 200-
450 leatherbacks were captured in gillnets between Balandra Bay and Salybia on the east coast
of Trinidad (Map 1), and it was suggested that leatherback death rates off Toco Point were so
high that mortality in the northeast region of the country probably exceeded 1,000 egg-bearing
female turtles every year (Fournillier and Eckert, 1998), although the authors could not
speculate on the extent to which the data reflected multiple captures of the same individuals.

3RANCE
Map 1: The major fishing ports on the north and east coasts of Trinidad, West Indies.


Eckert and Lien (1999) published the results of interviews they conducted with fishers on the
east and north coasts of Trinidad, during which fishers were queried about the accidental
capture of leatherbacks in their fishing gear. The following findings are noteworthy: one
Matelot fisherman reported that each of the 25 boats (operating out of Matelot) averaged 1-2
turtles captured per fishing trip (i.e. per day); fishermen from Manzanilla (3 boats) reported
catching one leatherback per day (five days per week) from January to April, with a 50%
mortality; off the coast of Mayaro, where 50 boats operate (25 from Mayaro, 25 are from other
ports), each boat reportedly caught five leatherbacks between January and April; mortality was
estimated to exceed 95% due to an illegal black market in leatherback meat in coastal
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
communities. Eckert and Lien (1999) offered management recommendations based on these
interviews, as well as summarizing current literature and additional information provided to
them by local biologists, resource managers, and community-based conservation organizations.
A follow-up study conducted by the Institute for Marine Affairs (IMA) confirmed the general
conclusions of Eckert and Lien (1999), but estimated that more than 3,000 leatherbacks had been
captured incidental to gillnet fishing in the coastal waters of Trinidad in 2000 and that more
than half likely died as a result of such an encounter (Lee Lum, 2003).

According to Eckert and Lien (1999), two primary factors influence the probability that the
turtle will die. The first variable is gear type. Fishermen report that monofilament nets result in
higher incidental mortality than woven nylon "green-web" netting. Eckert and Lien (1999)
described the entanglement of a leatherback in green-web off Madamas Beach. The turtle was
alive and able to drag the net to the surface to breathe. It exhibited a distinctive net imprint/
scarring that is often seen on nesting females. The authors noted that the 4.25 inch [10.8 cm]
mesh net did not entangle the turtle sufficiently to cause drowning (though escape was clearly
impossible), and that the relatively coarse line appeared not to foul the turtle as seriously as did
the monofilament, possibly leading to lower acute mortality rates. Another possibility may be
that monofilament nets are used primarily as set nets, in which the net is set deeply and
anchored to the bottom, perhaps preventing an entangled turtle from surfacing to breathe. The
second variable is how the turtle is treated after capture. At the time of Eckert and Lien's
writing, leatherbacks were regularly killed either to simplify their release from the net or, as in
the case at Mayaro, to support an illegal market in sea turtle meat. Nesting beach patrols
sometimes encounter turtles severely cut, apparently by fishermen, which successfully escaped
the net. Fishermen report that killing the turtle quickly prevents further damage to the net, and
that dismembering the turtle simplifies its removal.
Figure 1. Multifilament "green-web" netting used by coastal fishers in northeastern
Trinidad. Carlos Drews/ WWF
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Further evidence of unsustainable rates of capture resulted from studies in which leatherback
turtles carrying radio transmitters were reported captured or disappeared offshore for
inexplicable reasons. In 1995, three leatherbacks were equipped with satellite transmitters at
Matura Beach, on the east coast of Trinidad. One of the three (30%) was captured and released
by a gillnet fisherman from Toco. In a follow-up telemetry study in 1996, six leatherbacks were
equipped with VHF radios for tiacking purposes, and all (100%) disappeared abruptly.
Wholesale equipment failure is unlikely, and radio range and coverage were extensive enough
to dismiss the idea that the turtles simply left the area. The most likely explanation is that these
turtles were killed in fishing operations south of Fishing Pond Beach. In 2003, four satellite
transmitters were deployed on nesting leatherbacks (two at Grande Riviere, two at Matura
Beach); both Grande Riviere turtles (50% of the total) are known to have been caught and killed
in coastal gillnets (Eckert, 2006).

To encourage fishers to untangle the turtles rather than to dismember them, and to compensate
fishers for damage caused by the incidental capture of leatherbacks, the United Nations
Develop-ment Program (UNDP)/GEF Small Grants Programme provided a grant in the late
1990s to the Grande Riviere Environmental Action Trust (GREAT) to refund fishers the cost of
net repair when damage was caused by a turtle that was released alive. The program was to be
a pilot project, with intentions of replication if it was successful. It is acknowledged that the
pilot project represented at best a "stop-gap" measure and not a final solution to the problem of
incidental fishing mortality, since there was no attempt to prevent capture in the first place. The
program is currently being evaluated, pending potential renewal.
Figure 2. Adult leatherback entangled in a gillnet off the northeast coast of
Trinidad. Scott A. Eckert/ WIDECAST
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles__________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5


Together, the available data strongly corroborate what fishermen have described for several
years, and that is that many and perhaps most egg-bearing leatherbacks arriving to nest on the
shores of Trinidad, one of the largest and most important rookery areas in the world for this
species, are entangled at least once by coastal gillnets during their seasonal residence in national
waters and many of them die.

The most important conclusion, and one that is undisputed among stakeholders, is that
incidental capture is the largest single source of mortality to leatherbacks in Trinidad and
Tobago, killing more leatherbacks than all other factors combined. The Republic of Trinidad
and Tobago plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species on a global scale, in
that the islands support the second largest nesting aggregation in the world (after French
Guiana/Suriname). With this in mind, incidental capture and mortality to reproductively
active leatherbacks in waters under the Republic's jurisdiction constitute a major threat to this
Critically Endangered (cf. lUCN) species on both Atlantic basin and global scales.
Figure 3. Leatherbacks stranded on Matura Beach, Trinidad, after having been
drowned in fishing nets offshore. Dennis Sammy/ Nature Seekers
Less well-studied, but equally important to understand, is that the impact such accidental
entanglements have on the sustainability of coastal fisheries. Trinidad fishers have long
complained that leatherbacks are increasingly entangling their gear, and that such entangle-
ment is causing economic hardship and mortal risk to the fishers. Between the net repair costs
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles__________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
and loss of fishing time while nets are repaired, it is increasingly clear that coastal gillnet fishing
is virtually impossible during leatherback nesting season. For example, according to Saheed
Mohammed (Toco fisher) and Nigel Gabriel (Balandra Bay fisher), in June 2005 one full night of
fishing with a fillette net (surface-drift gillnet) off the east coast of Trinidad yielded 1001b of
kingfish, 1051b of carite, and 661b of cravalle, with a gross estimated value of $2,600 TT; that
same night, a single entangled leatherback caused ca. $3,000 TT in damage to the net, damage
that would require two weeks to repair. In many areas the problem has reached a crisis level, so
much so that fishermen are unable to fish during much of the time when leatherbacks are most
abundant, accounting for a substantial part of the year (i.e. February-August).

Continued mortality in coastal fisheries would be expected to cause a ripple effect, both within
the local nesting population and throughout the greater Atlantic basin where the species is
known to forage in north-temperate and West African waters (e.g. Eckert, 2006). There can be
no doubt that such mortality could eclipse national, regional and possibly even global
conservation efforts in the same way that the commercial gillnet fisheries of Chile and Peru
have been implicated in the near extinction of some 50% of all reproductively active adults on
Earth, which until recently nested on the Pacific coast of Mexico (Sarti et al., 1996; Eckert and
Sarti, 1997).
Figure 4. Post-nesting movements of six leatherback turtles monitored using satellite telemetry,
showing high-use areas in the Atlantic Ocean (source: Eckert, 2006).


Leatherback nesting populations in Trinidad (the same cannot be said for Tobago) appear to be
stable or rising at the present time, further exacerbating interactions between turtles and fishing
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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles__________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5


gear. From the standpoint of both turtles and fishers, a solution must be found to the incidental
capture crisis. To this end, the objective of the national meeting was to develop a strategic plan
for eliminating the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback turtles in Trinidad and
Tobago by reviewing all available data, convening an inclusive national stakeholders' meeting,
soliciting input from local and international experts, and achieving a national consensus on a
series of experiments designed to test alternatives to coastal gillnetting in its present form.
Background


Fishing in Trinidad and Tobago

The north and east coast fisheries on Trinidad are made up primarily of small-scale artisanal
fleets based at fishing ports distributed along the coastline. Vessels are generally constructed of
fiberglass or polyester-resin covered wood, 5-7m in length and powered by a single outboard
engine. Gear used in the fleet varies by season, location and target species but most use gillnets
for at least part of the year. The most recent survey conducted by the Fisheries Division tallied
41 vessels fishing with gillnets on the east coast and 61 vessels fishing with gillnets on the north
coast in 1998; of 273 gillnet fishermen interviewed in Trinidad, 73% described themselves as
full-time fishermen (Nagassar, 2000).
Figure 5. Typical fishing depot on the north coast of Trinidad. Jordan Gass/ Duke University
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According to Nagassar (2000), "Approximately 1,404 fishermen [are] directly involved in the
Gillnet Fishery of Trinidad and Tobago. These include boat owners, captains and crew on
board vessels operating both monofilament and multifilament gillnets. There are approxi-
mately 1,368 fishermen operating in the gillnet fishery of Trinidad and approximately 36
operating in Tobago." A variety of mid-water and bottom species are targeted by gillnet
fisheries in Trinidad and Tobago, including shark, grouper, snapper and various mackerel
species (Henry, 1992; Hodgkinson-Clarke, 1994; Nagassar, 2000). Nagassar (2000) lists the
following:
Anchovy {Cetengraulis edentulus)
Atlantic Bumper (Chloroscombrus rysurus)
Beechine {Sphyraena guachancho)
Blacktip Shark {Carcharhinus limbatus)
Blinch (Diapterus rhombeus)
Blue bone {Strongylura marine)
Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)
Bonito (Euthynnus alletteratus)
Crevalle Jack (Caranx hippos)
Cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus)
Dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus)
Flying fish {Hirundichthys afilnis)
Grand ecaille (Egalops atlanticus)
Grunt (Haemulon spp.)
Herring
Jack
Kingfish (Scomberomorus cavalla)
Macrio Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)
Mullet (Mugil curema)
Ocean gar
Pampano (Trachinotus carolinus)
Redfish (Lutjanus spp.)
Sailfish (Istiophorus albicans)
Sea Catfish (Bagre spp.)
Shark (Carcharhinus spp.)
Sierra Mackerel (Scomberomorus brasiliensis)
Snook (Centropomus ensiferus)
Tuna (Thunnus spp.)
Weakfish (Cynoscion spp.)
Whitefish
Whitemouth Croaker (Micropogonias furnieri)
Zapate
Fishing techniques can be divided into (i) hook and line, including trolling and (ii) net fishing.
Hook and Line
Banking This type of fishing relies on a weighted vertical line and one or
more horizontal perpendicular lines with 10-20 hooks, each baited with
live or dead bait. The horizontal lines are extended parallel to the bottom
by the current and the boat can be anchored or drifting. In some cases the
fisher can actively work the line by retracting and extending the vertical
line so that the weight bounces along the bottom, or by tying off the line
to the boat and letting the rise and fall of the boat work the line.
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A-la-vive This type of fishing primarily uses live bait hooked on a
weighted line with multiple hooks. The bait line is trailed from a boat
that drifts with the current. Bait movement results from the fact that the
bait is hooked in such a manner as to keep it alive. Depth of fishing is
predominately mid-water: the target species are kingfish and carite. Of
all hook and line styles of fishing, most fishermen prefer a-la-vive as they
believe it has the highest rate of catch of the most valuable commercial
species.

Switchering Switchering uses essentially the same gear as a-la-vive, but
relies on dead bait.

Trolling Trolling is used frequently in Tobago and to a lesser extent in
Trinidad. As practiced in Trinidad, 1-4 lines may be used directly from
the boat with no outriggers. Bait is usually dead, artificial baits are used
only rarely.

Net Fishing Filette Filette netting, or green-web as it is sometimes called, is made of
twisted nylon multifilament line, usually dark green or black in color.
National fisheries regulations limit all nets to a minimum 4.25 inch [10.8
cm] mesh size (measured on the diagonal) to preclude capturing under-
sized fish. Filette nets are most commonly set in the late afternoon for
fishing at night; fishers report that this reduces its visibility to the target
species. Filette nets are usually fished as a surface drift net, extending
from the surface to between 3-6m in depth and extending for up to 2km
in length. Typical soak time: 2-4 hours.

Bottom-set Bottom-set nets are constructed of monofilament and usually
anchored to the bottom for fishing during the day. Like filette nets, these
nets are limited to 4.25 inch [10.8 cm] mesh size and can be as long as 2
km.
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Leatherback Turtles in Trinidad and Tobago

Leatherback sea turtles are the oldest and largest of the seven species of living marine turtles.
Evolved during the Cretaceous Era, the genus Dermochelys is believed to be more than 90
million years old; its precise evolutionary history is poorly understood due to the paucity of
fossil material (Wood et al., 1996). Mature females typically range from 250-500 or more kg in
the Caribbean Region (Boulon et al., 1996; Eckert et al., 1989), but the largest male on record
weighed more than 900 kg (Morgan, 1989). Arguably the most pelagic of the sea turtles,
leatherbacks are well-adapted for life in the open ocean. Their hydrodynamic shape features
broad shoulders and a posteriorly tapered carapace, long front flippers for propulsion, and
dorsal longitudinal ridges that improve laminar flow and increase swimming efficiency. As a
result of these adaptations, leatherbacks expend three times less energy during swimming than
any other turtle species (Wyneken and Salmon, 1992).

Geographic distribution of the species is the broadest of any reptile, ranging from 47N to 71S
(Pritchard and Trebbau, 1984). For populations inhabiting the North Atlantic basin, satellite
telemetry data indicate that adults make annual north-south migrations, presumably to
optimize foraging and reproduction (Eckert and Eckert, 1988; James et al., 2005; Eckert, 2006).
Analyses of stomach samples have shown that adults feed primarily on cnidarians (jellyfish,
siphonophores) and tunicates (salps, pyrosomas) (Brongersma 1969; Hartog and van Nierop
1984; Davenport and Balazs 1991), some (e.g. Physalia: 'Man-O-War') highly noxious.
Figure 6. Leatherback hatchlings crawling to the sea. J. Freestone
Mating has been observed between February and May each year in the nearshore waters of
Trinidad, and Galera Point is one location where regular reports by fishermen and satellite
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telemetry data suggest that mating may occur (James et al., 2005; Eckert, 2006). Gravid females
remain at Caribbean nesting grounds for 1-4 months, depositing as many as 11 clutches of eggs
(Eckert, 1987). During the 10-day interval between nestings (referred to as the "inter-nesting
interval"), there are indications that females feed on jellyfish and related animals, and perhaps
primarily at night (Eckert et al., 1986, 1989). Such behavior is intriguing, as sea turtles are, in
general, believed not to feed substantially during an active nesting season.

Results from satellite telemetry studies indicate that Atlantic leatherbacks leave North Atlantic
waters (Canada and northern Europe) and arrive in the early spring at their primary nesting
beaches in French Guiana and Trinidad, the largest and second-largest nesting colonies,
respectively, for this species in the Western Hemisphere (James et al., 2005). The nesting season
for Trinidad and Tobago begins in early March, although isolated nesting events are
documented throughout the year (D. Sammy, Nature Seekers, pers. observ). Nathai-Gyan et al.
(1987) estimated that 500-900 leatherbacks nested each year in Trinidad. More recent estimates,
based on more thorough data collection, suggest that at least 2,000 females nest at Matura and
Grande Riviere beaches every year (Wildlife Section-Forestry Division, unpubl. data).
Figure 7. Popular tour guiding programs provide seasonal income to communities living near the
nation's largest nesting beaches. Scott A. Eckert. WIDECAST


Matura Beach and Grande Riviere sustain the highest density nesting in Trinidad, but lower
density nesting occurs along the north and east coasts, primarily at Fishing Pond, Paria Bay,
Murphy Bay, Petite and Gran Tacarib, Madamas, Cochipa, Manzanilla, and Mayaro (Map 1),
with lower density nesting on the south coast at Guayaguayare and Moruga, as well as on the
Caribbean coast of Tobago.
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Leatherback population status became a topic of great concern a decade ago as surveys of the
largest nesting colony of leatherbacks in the world indicated that the population had been
reduced more than 90% in less than 10 years (Sarti et al., 1996). The decline was attributed
mainly to mortality incidental to gillnet and longline swordfish fisheries thousands of
kilometers distant to the nesting beaches (Eckert and Sarti, 1997). It is mainly due to these swift
and catastrophic declines in the Pacific Ocean (see Spotila et al., 2000) that the species was
recently re-classified by the World Conservation Union as Critically Endangered (lUCN, 2004).

In the Atlantic basin, the status of this ancient species is less clear. While the scientific
community is guardedly optimistic that the largest populations are not declining at the present
time, data are available only for reproductively active females, ignoring the possibility that
serious threats, such as pollution events, changing patterns of prey distribution and/or
incidental capture in commercial fishing gear, may be affecting juvenile recruitment and
survival rates. It is also quite clear that nesting has "dramatically declined throughout the
Eastern Caribbean" in recent decades (Eckert, 2001). The nation of Trinidad and Tobago,
therefore, has a unique responsibility to the survival of this species on a hemispheric and even
global level.

National Legal Status: The laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago conferred complete
protection to all sea turtle species under the Conservation of Wild Life Act (Act 16 of 1958,
amended by Act 14 of 1963, Chapter 67:01). But more recently, the 1975 Protection of Turtles
and Turtle Eggs Regulations (promulgated under Section 4 of the Fisheries Act of 1916, Chapter
67:51), created a five-month open season for the harvesting of sea turtles. The Fisheries Act
Regulations state that:

No person shall (a) kill, harpoon, catch or otherwise take possession of any female
turtle which is in the sea within any reef or within one thousand yards from the high
water mark of the foreshore where there is no reef; (b) take or remove or cause to be
removed any turtle eggs after they have been laid and buried by a female turtle or after
they have been buried by any person; (c) purchase, sell, offer or expose for sale or case to
be sold or offered or exposed for sale or be in possession of any turtle eggs.

No person shall, between 1 March and 30 September, kill, harpoon catch or otherwise
take possession of or purchase, sell, offer or expose for sale or cause to be sold or offered
or exposed for sale any turtle or turtle meat.

Offenders of these provisions are liable on summary conviction to a fine of $2,000 TT
and imprisonment for six months.

Conflicts and deficiencies in the legislation, coupled with inadequate law enforcement, have
had the result that a largely uncontiolled take of marine turtles continues in and out of season,
especially for hawksbill and green turtles, and this provides meat and eggs (as well as turtle
shell) that are consumed locally and marketed formally and informally throughout the countiy.
In addition, illegal hunting of nesting leatherback turtles has been considered an acute
management challenge since the 1970s. Although this pressure has eased considerably in
Trinidad with the advent of nesting beach protection and community-based conservation
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efforts in the early 1990s, in Tobago the presence of carcasses on the nesting beaches has been
identified as "an immediate management crisis" (Eckert and Herron, 1998) and sparked protests
amongst the tourists on which the island has come to depend so heavily (SOS Tobago, 2003).

Since as early as May 1987, government officials in various Ministries have been urging
regulatory reform on behalf of marine turtles in Trinidad and Tobago. Despite agreement
between the lead agencies more than a decade ago on a legislative proposal to amend the
Fisheries Act to give complete protection to marine turtles (Fournillier and Eckert, 1998),
Parliament has yet to adopt this legislation (Brautigam and Eckert, 2006).
Figure 8. With a long history of involving communities in the conservation of Critically
Endangered (cf. lUCN) leatherback turtles, Trinidad and Tobago is a global leader in innovative
co-management approaches. Scott A. Eckert/ WIDECAST


International Conservation Status: The leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, is classified
as Critically Endangered by the World Conservation Union (lUCN, 2004), a reflection of the
species' global status as defined by quantitative criteria pertaining to past or projected future
population declines, population size and trend (probability of extinction in the wild), and
geographic range. Species qualify for Critically Endangered status when, among other things,
the global population can be shown to have suffered "an observed, estimated, inferred or
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suspected reduction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the
longer" (see http://www.redlist.org).

International Legal Status: The leatherback is listed on Annex II (full protection) of the Protocol
concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) to the UNEP Convention for the
Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region
(Cartagena Convention); Appendix I (full protection) of the Convention for Migratory Species;
Appendix I (full protection) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); and is included in the annexes to the Convention on Nature
Protection and Wild Life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere, a designation intended to
convey that their protection is of "special urgency and importance".

The Republic is Party to the SPAW Protocol which, inter alia, prohibits taking, possession,
killing (including incidentally), and commercial trade in Annex Il-listed species. Significantly,
the Protocol also prohibits the "disturbance" of listed species during periods of breeding,
incubation, aestivation or migration and other periods of biological stress. The Republic is also
Party to the Western Hemisphere Convention (1969) and CITES (1984), demonstrating a strong
commitment to its neighbors and to the international community with regard to the protection
of sea turtles and other species of endangered fauna and flora.

The Republic is not yet Party to the Interamerican Convention on the Protection and
Conservation of Sea Turtles, but noteworthy is the fact that several participants suggested,
during the meeting's final plenary discussion, that accession to the I AC would be a positive step
for Trinidad and Tobago.
The 2005 National Consultation
To develop a solution to the problem of leatherback capture and mortality in the coastal gillnets
of Trinidad and Tobago, with a focus on the north and east coasts of Trinidad, a National
Stakeholders' Consultation was held in Port-of-Spain from 15-18 February 2005 (Appendix I).
The interactive meeting was jointly hosted by the Trinidad Ministry of Agriculture, Land and
Marine Resources (Fisheries Division), with authority for managing fishery resources, and the
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with more than a decade of
service in the role of scientific advisor to the sea turtle conservation and management programs
of Trinidad and Tobago.

The forum was designed to promote the full and transparent exchange of ideas and develop
consensus concerning future directions and options in mitigating the bycatch crisis, fishermen,
research biologists, natural resource managers, policy-makers, and relevant NGOs from
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throughout the Republic were invited to work together to design as many potential solutions as
possible.

The Forum Moderator, Dr. Karen Eckert of WIDECAST, tasked the participants with meeting
twin objectives:

fishers must be better off economically as a result of any proposed solution to the
bycatch crisis, and
the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback sea turtles in coastal fisheries must
cease.

Participants were drawn from stakeholder and resource management groups involved either in
fisheries or in sea turtle management, as well as national and international experts in gear
technology and bycatch reduction (Appendix II). These Proceedings summarize the results of
the meeting, and provide recommendations for reducing the incidental capture and mortality of
leatherback sea turtles in waters under the Republic's jurisdiction, with particular reference to
the coastal gillnet fisheries of the north and east coasts of Trinidad.

Following a formal Opening Ceremony, the meeting featured technical presentations on
leatherback turtles and local fisheries, followed by local perspectives on the entanglement issue
and the conservation status of leatherbacks, international perspectives on how related fishery
challenges are being met elsewhere (Appendix III), a full-day field trip to several of the most
affected fishing ports, and a full day of moderated deliberation in the context of self-selected
Working Groups (Appendix IV).
Figure 9. Participants in the National Consultation. Carlos Drews/ WWF
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To facilitate discussion and the formulation of mitigation stiategies, participants were asked to
join one of four Working Groups. Each Group was assigned one of three subject areas to
consider: Regulatory Options (Working Group 1), Fishing Gear Options (Working Groups 2
and 4), Fishing Methods and Techniques Options (Working Group 3). Each Group selected a
Chairman and a Rapporteur responsible for reporting the Group's major findings and
recommendations to the meeting, and responding to questions and peer discussion concerning
those findings.


Recommendations for Priority Action

Given that a significant number of egg-bearing adult leatherbacks is subject to entanglement in
coastal gillnet fisheries, and that this entanglement threatens both the stability of the turtle
population as well as the livelihood of coastal fisheries off the north and east coasts, there was
consensus that management intervention with an aim to reduce or eliminate this mortality -
while protecting the livelihoods of fishers should be a priority.

There was agreement that no one mitigation option would be adequate, given the level of
variation in fishing techniques used among fishing areas and villages. Ideally, each village or
fishing co-operative should be offered a choice of mitigation methods. Further, to increase the
chance that fishermen will adopt these methods, all viable techniques should be evaluated in
field trials that have direct participation of fishermen with strong oversight and involvement of
all stakeholders. Finally, training and other support (financial or otherwise) should be provided
to fishermen to enhance their willingness to try out and apply new methods.

The meeting culminated in the convening of four Working Groups tasked with comprehen-
sively evaluating possible mitigation options focusing on the regulatory framework (e.g. time
and area closures), gear modification (e.g. how to adapt the gillnet fishery to reduce incidental
capture), and alternative fishing methods (e.g. replacing gillnetting with a-la-vive fishing). The
main conclusions of each Working Group are presented below, with important background
information presented in Appendix III.

Regulatory Options: Working Group 1 focused on the concept of time and area closures as a
mitigation tool. The Group recommended that all gillnet fishing be prohibited from 1 March to
31 May within a region extending from the southern end of Fishing Pond Beach to the western
end of Paria Beach, and extending 8 km offshore. Other types of gear would be allowed in this
region at this time of the year. They noted that lack of marine resource management was of
concern, and that the need for improved marine resource management must be addressed. The
Group also noted the need for harmonizing the Fisheries Act's sea turtle regulations with the
Conservation of Wild Life Act, such that protection to the leatherback at all times was
unambiguous, and urged that increased education and training programs be made available to
stakeholders. Finally, the Group noted that commercialization of recreational fishing should be
encouraged as an alternative to gillnet fishing during sea turtle nesting season.

Fishing Gear Options: Working Group 2 focused primarily on modifying gillnets to reduce sea
turtle bycatch. Specific methods considered were repulsion devices, such as sonic 'pingers' that
have proven successful in reducing small cetacean (e.g. dolphins, small whales) bycatch, or
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repulsion lighting or chemicals that may cause turtles to avoid nets. In all cases a lack of
scientific information on turtle responses to sensory stimulation was noted as a drawback to the
successful development of such methods, and the Group placed high priority on the pursuit of
studies on how sea turtles would respond to potentially repulsive stimuli. It was noted that
studies on these aspects of sea turtle biology would be best if leatherbacks could be kept in
captivity, and further noted that, given the difficulty of keeping leatherbacks in captivity, such
experiments were unlikely to be possible, but that the husbandry of keeping leatherback turtles
in human care should be studied. The Group recommended that field trials of a few promising
gear-modifying techniques be undertaken simply to explore the potential of any proposed
methods.

Working Group 2 also considered whether nets could be constructed and/or deployed in such a
manner as to reduce sea turtle bycatch. In particular, it was suggested that lighter strength
twine might allow turtles to break free more easily (but still retain target fish species), and that
research into this aspect of net constiuction would be useful. It was suggested that breakaway
head-ropes might also reduce sea turtle mortality, or that daytime net fishing might reduce
entanglement since biotelemetry data indicate that nesting females are less likely to be near
shore during daylight hours (S. Eckert, WIDECAST, unpubl. data).

Working Group 2 also considered net fishing techniques that may reduce sea turtle capture. For
example, surface driftnets that drop the float line 1 2m below the surface to allow turtles to
swim over the net (a method that has been successful in reducing the number of porpoises
captured in other areas of the world). They also proposed that tests be conducted to determine
if setting nets perpendicular to the shore could reduce entanglement, and they reinforced the
need to involve fishermen in all aspects of the testing, including supporting them financially to
participate. Finally, they stressed the need for improved public education and awareness.

Working Group 4 also reviewed fishing technology as a means to reduce sea turtle bycatch.
Most of the discussion focused on replacing gillnets with alternate fishing gear. In particular,
this Group promoted the idea that live bait hook-and-line fishing ("a-la-vive") could replace net
fishing if baits were available, which, according to fishermen, are less available during
leatherback nesting season along the northeast coast of the island. With this in mind. Working
Group 4 recommended that artificial baits be tested for effectiveness and that new sources of
bait be developed. Since it was reported that one limitation to bait availability was the reduced
coastal salinity during the rainy season, it was suggested that finding bait sources (e.g. Tilapia)
that could be aquacultured and that were salinity tolerant would be very useful.

Working Group 4 suggested that more work be undertaken to evaluate whether there were
unexploited fish stocks (such as tile fish) that could be caught with bottom lines. It was also
proposed that improved troll fishing could replace net fishing. For example, invited experts
reported that new power gear, called "Bandit Reels", are being used in troll fisheries in Florida
and have replaced gillnet fishing entirely. It was strongly urged that directed trolling methods
using power take up reels such as the Bandit Reel be tested in local waters.

Finally, Working Group 4 proposed that FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices) be tested. Each
fishery co-op could maintain their own FADs and use trolling or various hook-and-line gear in
the vicinity of these FADs. This latter idea received great emphasis by the group for a number
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of reasons: the method could allow an almost complete elimination of gillnets; be inexpensive
to implement; and enhance community control and management of marine resources occurring
in local waters. As an alternate to fishing during the leatherback nesting season, there was also
discussion in this Group surrounding the option that sea turtle ecotourism-related livelihoods
be considered for fishers in some locations and that the necessary training be made available.
[Note: Marine turtles have recently become popular subjects for dive and nature tourism and, in
this context, are increasingly becoming a source of revenue for coastal communities throughout
the Wider Caribbean Region, such as in Costa Rica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and
Tobago; see Troeng and Drews, 2004, for useful background].

Fishing Method and Technique Options: Working Group 3 was assigned the task of evaluating
fishing methods and techniques. This group felt strongly that replacement of gillnets by
alternate fishing techniques should be the highest priority. Target species include kingfish,
carite, and various shark species. The Group proposed a-la-vive fishing replace gillnet fishing
throughout the leatherback turtle season (February to August); however, they felt that
improvements needed to be made in a-la-vive fishing methods to make it a viable alternative.
Those improvements included: testing light attractors as a means to improve catch rates;
addition of bait wells and bait nets to the boats; implementing regulations limiting the sale of
baitfish (Joshua) for fishing only (i.e. not for human consumption); and improved training
programs in the use of a-la-vive. The Group also recommended that other fishing methods be
developed: use of switchering as a dead-bait fishing method; testing of trolling with outriggers
(as is commonly used in Tobago); use of "Bandit Reels" to improve trolling catch rates; and
further improvements to banking as a fishing method.

Finally, Group 3 suggested that alternative livelihoods be established for fishermen during the
leatherback nesting season. These might include developing aquaculture projects in the region,
such as shrimp or freshwater lobster (crayfish), Tilapia farming, or further development of
seamoss mariculture.


Common Themes of the Working Groups

The four Working Groups featured a number of common themes. For example, all Groups
agreed that there is a significant problem both for leatherback sea turtles and for fishers. Most
Groups suggested that gillnet fishing be replaced with alternate methods, although there was
widespread concern that the marine resource regulatory structure and enforcement framework
were inadequate to ensure compliance. Most participants agreed that it was unlikely that a
single solution would emerge, and that fishers would need to be given choices. All agreed that
it was vital for fishers to be directly involved during testing and implementation of new
methods, and that there be fair financial compensation for their involvement.

There was consensus that gillnet fishing should be phased out for at least part of the year, in
favor of hook-and-line or trolling, but that experimentation to develop less destructive gillnet
methods should also receive focused attention. The primary hook-and-line style fishing
methods proposed for use are the following: banking, a-la-vive, switchering, and trolling. All
of these techniques are currently in use in north and east coast fisheries; however, each method
will need improvement to be practical as a replacement for gillnet fishing.
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Decision and Evaluation Criteria

There was consensus that the following Decision Criteria be taken into account when evaluating
the various mitigation options:

What will the experiment measure (objectives and variables)?
How will the experiment be conducted (materials and methods)?
Where will the experiment be conducted?
Who will conduct and evaluate the results of the experiment?

There was also consensus that the following Evaluation Criteria be adopted:

Can the new technique catch fish?
Is it economically viable (i.e. producing equivalent or increased revenue)?
Does it reduce adverse impact to leatherback sea turtles?
Can it be managed/regulated?
Is it logistically feasible for local conditions?
Is it biologically and commercially sustainable?
Will it be supported/accepted by the stakeholders?
Proposed Experiments
Based on recommendations developed by the Working Groups and during Plenary discussions,
the following list of experiments should be conducted as a priority during the 2006-2008 nesting
seasons (February to August). Ideally, funds should be raised to completely support each
experiment, including all equipment, fuel and supply costs, as well as stipends to support those
involved in data collection and/or analysis. Particularly important is that participating fishers
be salaried to conduct the tests, so that they their complete effort and attention can be applied to
each experiment, irrespective of whether fish are being caught. Moreover, the experiments will
proceed best if fishers try to achieve maximal catch rates and use their own substantial expertise
to modify or develop each experimental method to its fullest. To this end, participating fishers
should be entitled to their catch as a bonus for maximizing that particular method's efficiency.

For all experiments, data sheets will need to be designed and prepared. Variables to be
gathered will include a careful description of the gear; e.g. hook-and-line type, distances
between hooks, number of hooks and lines, and fishing depth. Fishing duration (e.g. soak time,
set time, retrieval time) and location (GPS coordinates) should be noted. Species caught,
number of fish of each species, weight, and size of each species must be carefully accounted for,
irrespective of commercial value. Standard size and weighing methods must be utilized,
necessitating that the total catch be brought to a port for documentation. Other factors to be
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documented include boat type and size, engine type and size, and fuel consumption. At pre-
determined intervals, such as monthly, a balanced experimental design will designate how
many days each gear type or bait type will be used.
New Bait Types

Purpose: To determine whether artificial baits, live Tilapia sp., and/or frozen Jashua {Sardinella
aurita) can be used effectively in hook-and-line fisheries.

Methods and Materials:

Artificial baits Recommendations for artificial bait types should be sought from other fisheries
(in other areas) catching kingfish and/or carite on artificial bait. Initially, this project should
conduct a review of all artificial baits, including where they are used, how they are used, and
the species targeted. The evaluation can either be contracted to experts in the field or
undertaken within the Fisheries Division. For artificial baits that can be used with existing
technology, field trials should be initiated with one or two boats in each port of Matelot, Toco
and Balandra Bay. Trials should be evenly structured for banking, switchering, and trolling,
and should be conducted between February and May.

Tilapia and frozen Tashua Baits Because some styles of fishing rely on the action of live bait to
attract target species, the bait must remain alive to be effective. Seasonal lack of live bait along
the northeast coast during times of the year when sea turtles are present is a serious limitation.
Fishers operating from northwest ports do not appear to face the same constraint and regularly
fish along the north coast with bait brought from Los Cuevas and other northwest fishing ports.
Solutions to limitations in bait supply should be investigated. The catch efficiency of easily
maricultured fish such as Tilapia. should be investigated with an eye to replacing traditional
bait species. An efficient means to transport and hold bait from northwest to northeast
Trinidad should also be explored.

Note: Fishers generally catch their own bait, but it may be useful to consider the establishment
of a commercial bait supply program. Some fishers voiced concern over the increasing use of
Jashua (the primary fish used as bait) for human consumption, limiting its availability as an
inexpensive bait fish.

Local aquaculture facilities should be contracted to provide live Tilapia for bait trials. Similarly,
fishers should be contracted to capture and freeze Jashua bait for use in the experiments. As
with artificial baits, one or two boats from Matelot, Toco and Balandra Bay should be contracted
to run these trials. All line gear types should be tested. Finally, research into the availability
and effectiveness of various artificial baits and dead baits is needed.
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Alternative Gear

"Bandit reels" and outriggers

Purpose: To determine whether, based on data presented by Don Nolls (Lindgren-Pitman, Inc.)
showing that the use of outriggers and rapid take-up reels significantly improved catch rates of
kingfish in Florida, this style of fishing could be effective in Trinidad.

Materials and methods: Troll fishing is generally considered to be operationally expensive in
Trinidad, due to fuel and motor costs; most fishers are not enthusiastic about its use. Lindgren-
Pitman, Inc. should be contracted to outfit and train one troll boat from each of three coastal
communities (Matelot, Toco, Balandra Bay) to use "Bandit reels" (rapid power take-up reels,
using deep-cycle marine batteries) and outiiggers in the context of an experimental design.
Testing should involve a balanced design using artificial baits as well as dead (frozen) bait.
Net Modifications

Deep Sets

Purpose: To determine whether setting nets at various depths below the surface will reduce sea
turtle entanglement.

Materials and methods: Using standard 6cm mesh monofilament or nylon (green-web) nets,
cooperating fishers will set the corkline at a series of experimental depths below the surface.

Experimental depths will be determined based on information gleaned from an analysis of high
resolution dive depth data available, from WIDECAST, for leatherbacks in Trinidadian waters
(S. Eckert, unpubl. data). The means to maintain the depth of the net will need to be
determined, but is it likely that the best approach will be to use a standard bottom set net with
large surface buoys on tethers, clipped to the net at regular intervals. The surface buoy tether
lines will need to be at least 3m apart and made of stiff plastic, to preclude turtle entanglement
in the vertical tether. As with other tests, fishers will carefully document all aspects of the gear
used, as well as sea state, weather, time set, time retrieved, and location. Total catch quantities,
size, and species will also be recorded for each set.
Net Avoidance
Shark silhouette
Purpose: To determine whether a simple shark silhouette can reduce sea turtle entanglement.
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Net Avoidance (cont'd)

Materials and Methods: Shark silhouettes will be manufactured out of easily obtained items, such
as fine nylon mesh or flexible plastic. These will be placed in nets at regular intervals. For nets
set at night, illuminated shark outlines may be useful and should form part of the experiment.
For each set, the type, location, and number of silhouettes will be documented, as well as water
clarity, location, time of set and retrieval, and species (number, size, weight) caught. Several
shark silhouettes (different sizes and shapes) should be tested.

Sonic repulsion

Purpose: To determine (i) the maximally sensitive frequency for leatherback hearing; (ii) how
leatherbacks respond to sounds generated in those frequencies; and (iii) whether leatherbacks
will avoid nets equipped with sonic 'pingers'. While hearing in sea turtles is poorly understood,
a few studies have suggested that most sea turtles (leatherbacks have not been successfully
studied) hear well in lower frequencies from 100-lOOOHz, with peak sensitivity between 350 and
500Hz. Behavioral responses to loud noises (e.g. air cannons used in seismic surveys) are also
poorly investigated, but range from increased surfacing periods to avoidance. One successful
method for reducing the entanglement of small whales and dolphins in gillnets is to place
inexpensive sonic 'pingers' in the gillnet; such an approach has never been tested in sea turtles.

Material and Methods: The first part of this study will be to use Auditory Brainstem Response
(ABR) methods to test hearing sensitivity in leatherbacks. Preliminary studies using these
methods were initiated in Trinidad by a team led by Dr. Scott Eckert in the 1990s but, due to
lack of proper instrumentation and some technique problems, they were largely unsuccessful.
Improvements have since been realized in both instrumentation and technique. Once hearing
frequencies are understood, development of prototype 'pingers' that work in the range optimal
for leatherback hearing should be developed and appropriately field-tested.
Fisli Attracting Devices (FADs)

Purpose: To determine whether FADs could be effective at increasing catch rates.

Materials and methods: Optimal FAD construction and design will need to be determined based
on a review of current designs in use elsewhere. Once the optimal design for Trinidad
conditions (e.g. high current flow, low visibility) is determined, two experimental FADs should
be deployed and managed. One off the North coast should be jointly managed by the Toco and
Matelot fishing ports; one off the east coast should be jointly managed by the Balandra Bay and
Salybea fishing ports. Fishers wishing to fish on the FADs will need to be certified by each port,
be willing to record gear and bait types used, and be required to report the details of their catch.

Cautionary Statement: Fishing around FADs is not currently practiced in Trinidadian waters;
however, a large variety of methods from hook-and-line fisheries to purse-seines can be used
around FADs. FADs concentrate fishery resources and can significantly reduce operational
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Fisli Attracting Devices (FADs) (cont'd)

expenses so that the feasibility of FADs should definitely be evaluated. However, it should also
be recognized that FAD fishing can lead to over-fishing. Therefore, the use of FADs must be
carefully matched with improved fishery management capacity and regulatory enforcement.
Project Implementation Notes


Ideally, each budget would be established through formal RFP (Request for Proposals)
procedures whereby a project is described briefly and then published or sent to organizations,
scientists or experts best able to bid on the project. In each case, the experimental design and
proposed budget would then be used to set fundraising targets. Such a process can require
extensive periods of time, however, so that in the interest of expediency it is recommended that
the Division of Fisheries take the lead, in consultation with workshop participants, in inviting
the participation of organizations and experts known to have the capacity to undertake priority
experiments.

Lindgren-Pitman, Inc. (USA) has unique expertise in the manufacture and use of rapid take-up
reels (e.g. "Bandit Reels"), suggesting that they might be invited to oversee that aspect of the
experimental work plan. Similarly, SEAMARCO (The Netherlands) is a global expert in
'pinger' technology and WIDECAST has expertise in sensory biology (e.g. sea turtle hearing
studies), such that these organizations could, in partnership, oversee experiments on hearing
and sonic repulsion. NOAA/ National Marine Fisheries Service (USA) and Memorial
University (Canada) have expertise in experimental design, gear development, and other
bycatch mitigation methods (e.g. shark silhouette experiments) and could be invited to oversee
studies and evaluations of gear modification(s). A number of these groups, particularly
Lindgren-Pitman, Inc., could provide expertise on artificial baits and the Fisheries Division
(MALMR) has the capability to design experiments to test alternate live and frozen baits.

As a priority, funding should be sought to support a full-time Bycatch Mitigation Program
Coordinator to coordinate the activities of the various projects and to communicate results, on a
regular basis, to workshop participants and other stakeholders.
27


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Literature Cited
Boulon, R. H., P. H. Dutton and D. McDonald. 1996. Decline of the world's largest nesting
assemblage of leatherback turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2:141-147.

Brautigam, A. and K. L. Eckert. 2006. Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of
Marine Turtles of the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC
International. Cambridge, UK. (in press)

Brongersma, L. D. 1969. Miscellaneous notes on turtles. IIA, IIB. Proc. Koninkl. Nederl.
Akademie van Wetenschappen Amsterdam. Ser. C 72(1):76-102.

Davenport, J. and G.H. Balazs. 1991. Tiery bodies' are pyrosomas an important component of
the diet of leatherback turtles? British Herpetological Society Bulletin 31:33-38.

Eckert, K. L. 1987. Environmental unpredictability and leatherback sea turtle {Dermochelys
coriacea) nest loss. Herpetologica 43(3):315-323.

Eckert, K. L. 2001. Status and Distribution of the Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, in the
Wider Caribbean Region, p.24-31. In: K. L. Eckert and F. A. Abreu Grobois (Editors), Pro-
ceedings of the Regional Meeting: "Marine Turtle Conservation in the Wider Caribbean Region:
A Dialogue for Effective Regional Management," Santo Domingo, 16-18 November 1999.
WIDECAST, IUCN-MTSG, WWF and UNEP-CEP. xx+ 154 pp.

Eckert, K. L. and S. A. Eckert. 1988. Pre-reproductive movements of leatherback sea turtles
{Dermochelys coriacea) nesting in the Caribbean. Copeia 1988:400-406.

Eckert, K. L. and W. Herron. 1998. Tobago's Illegal Leatherback Hunt. Environment Tobago
Newsletter 2:2.

Eckert, S. A. 2006. High-use areas for Atlantic leatherback sea turtles {Dermochelys coriacea) as
identified using satellite telemetered location and dive information. Marine Biology DOI
10.1007 / S00227-006-0262-Z.

Eckert, S. A. and J. Lien. 1999. Recommendations for eliminating incidental capture and
mortality of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, by commercial fisheries in Trinidad and
Tobago, WIDECAST Information Document 1999 001. WIDECAST, Beaufort, North Carolina.

Eckert, S. A. and L. Sarti M. 1997. Distant fisheries implicated in the loss of the world's largest
leatherback nesting population. Marine Turtle Newsletter 78:2-7.
28


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Eckert, S. A., D. W. Nellis, K. L. Eckert and G. L. Kooyman. 1986. Diving patterns of two
leatherback sea turtles {Dermochelys coriacea) during internesting intervals at Sandy Point, St.
Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Herpetologica 42(3):381-388.

Eckert, S. A., K. L. Eckert, P. Ponganis and G. L. Kooyman. 1989. Diving and foraging behavior
by leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2834-2840.

Fournillier, K. and K. L. Eckert. 1998. Draft WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. United Nations Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica.

Hartog den, J.C. and M.M. van Nierop. 1984. A study on the gut contents of six leathery turtles,
Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Testudines: Dermochelyidae) from British waters and
from the Netherlands. Zool. Verh. 209(1984):l-36.

Henry C, M. L. 1992. Description of the artisanal gillnet fishery of Trinidad. Technical Report
from the Project: Establishment of Data Collection Systems and Assessment of Fisheries
Resources. TRI/91/001/TR6. FAO/UNDP, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 35pp.

Hodgkinson-Clarke F. 1994. The construction and operations of artisanal gillnets in Trinidad.
Fisheries Occasional Paper Series 3. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and
Marine Resources. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 49pp.

IUCN (World Conservation Union). 2004. Red List of Threatened Species, www.iucnredlist.org

James, M. C, S. A. Eckert and R. A. Myers. 2005a. Migratory and reproductive movements of
male leatherback turtles {Dermochelys coriacea). Marine Biology 147:845-853.

Lee Lum, L. M. 2003. An assessment of incidental turtle catch in the gillnet fishery in Trinidad
and Tobago. Research Report: Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago. 38pp.

Morgan, P. J. 1989. Occurrence of leatherback turtles {Dermochelys coriacea) in the British Islands
in 1988 with reference to a record specimen, p.119-120. In: S. A. Eckert, K. L. Eckert, and T. H.
Richardson (compilers), Proc. 9th Annual Conference on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology.
NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFC-232. U. S. Department of Commerce.

Nagassar, N. 2000. Frame Survey on Gillnet Fishery of Trinidad & Tobago. Prepared for the
National Consultation of the Monitoring and Advisory Committee on the Fisheries of Trinidad
and Tobago, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

Nathai-Gyan, N., C. James and G. Hislop. 1987. National Report for Trinidad and Tobago.
Presented to the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium II, Puerto Rico. Forestry Division, Ministry
of Food Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry and Environment. 228 pp.

Pritchard, P. C. H. and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. Society for the Study of
Amphibians and Reptiles. 399 pp. + apps.
29


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Sarti M., L., S. A. Eckert, N. T. Garcia and A. R. Barragan. 1996. Decline of the world's largest
nesting assemblage of leatherback turtles. Marine Turtle Newsletter 74: 2-5.

SOS Tobago. 2003. Killing Turtles Affects Fishing and Tourism. SOS Tobago Press Release, June
2003. www.sos-tobago.org

Spotila, J. R., R. D. Reina, A. C. Steyermark, P. T. Plotkin and F. V. Paladino. 2000. Brief
Communications: Pacific leatherback turtles face extinction. Nature 405:529-530.

Troeng, S. and C. Drews. 2004. Money Talks: Economic Aspects of Marine Turtle Use and
Conservation. WWF-International, Gland, Switzerland.

Wood, R. C, J. Johnson-Gove, E. S. Gaffney and K. F. Maley. 1996. Evolution and phylogeny of
leatherback turtles (Dermochelyidae), with descriptions of new fossil taxa. Chelonian Conser-
vation and Biology 2(2):266-286.

Wyneken, J. and M. Salmon. 1992. Frenzy and post-frenzy swimming activity in loggerhead,
green, and leatherback hatchling sea turtles. Copeia 1992:478-484
30


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Appendix I
Agenda for the National Consultation
National Consultation:
"Reducing the Incidental Capture and Mortality of
Leatherback Sea Turtles in Gillnets in Trinidad and Tobago"
A Stakeholders Meeting and Strategic Planning Session

16 18 February 2005
Ambassador Hotel, Port of Spain

Hosted by the Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine
Resources (Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the Wider
Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST)
Programme
Day 1 Wednesday, 16 February 2005
Session I: Opening Ceremony

0900 0905 National Anthem

0905 0910 Chairperson's Opening Remarks Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Director of Fisheries

0910 0920 Welcome Remarks Mr. Trevor Murray, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of
Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources

0920 0935 Remarks Dr. Scott Eckert Director of Science, WIDECAST

0935 0955 Feature Address & Opening of National Consultation The Honourable Jarrette
Marine, Minister of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources

0955 1000 Chairperson's Closing Remarks Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Director of Fisheries


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Session II: Technical Presentations

1000 1015 Objectives and Intended Results Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Fisheries Division
1015- 1030 Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea Turtles Dr. Scott Eckert, Director of Science,
WIDECAST
1030 1045 Description of Gillnet Fisheries in Trinidad & Tobago Ms. Louanna Martin,
Fisheries Division
1045 1100 Entanglement of Leatherbacks by Local Gillnet Fisheries Dr. Lori Lee Lum,
Institute of Marine Affairs
1100- 1130 Conservation of Nesting Leatherbacks in Trinidad & Tobago A4s. Madra Mathai-
Gyan, Head, Wildlife Section, Forestry Division

1130-1200 LUNCH

Session III: Local Perspectives

1330 1345 Entangling Leatherbacks: A Fisher's Perspective Mr. Stephen McClatchie,
Toco Fisherman
1345 1400 Economic Importance of Sea Turtles in Trinidad: The Importance of Reducing
Mortality Mr. Dennis Sammy, Manager, Mature Seekers

Session IV: Global Perspectives How is the Challenge met Elsewhere?

1400 1415 Lessons from the Sea of Cortez (Pacific Mexico) Dr. Paul Winger and Phil
Walsh, Memorial University (Canada)
1415 1500 Research to Reduce Harbour Porpoise Bycatch in Gillnet Fisheries Dr. Ron
Kastelein, Sea Mammal Research Company (SEAMARCO) (The Metherlands)
1500- 1515 Review of Sea Turtle Bycatch Research in the Western Atlantic Mr. John
Mitchell, MOAA (USA)
1515 1530 Latest Developments in Artisanal Longlining Equipment Mr. Don Mells,
Lindgren-Pitman, Inc. (USA)

1530-1600 Coffee Break

Session V: Clarifying the Issues

1600 1700 Panel: Session IV Speakers (with audience Questions and Answers)
Panel Moderator Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director, WIDECAST
1700 1730 Closing Remarks and Adjourn
___________________Day 2 (Field Trip) Thursday, 17 February 2005

0700 1200 Field Trip to East Coast Fishing Ports
Balandra / Salybea / Toco


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
1200 1330 LUNCH at Toco, catered by Nature Seekers

1330 1730 Field Trip to North Coast Fishing Ports
Grande Rivere / Matelot
Day 3 Friday, 18 February 2005
0900 0915 Introductions, Announcements
0915 0930 Working Group Descriptions, Objectives, and the Designation of Chairs

Session VI: Seeking Solutions

0930 0945 Procedural Notes and Expectations Dr. Karen Eckert Executive Director,
WIDECAST

0945 1100 Working Groups: Discussion

Working Group I: Regulatory Options (e.g. time and area closures)
Working Group II: Gear Options (e.g. alternative baits, trolling)
Working Group III: Method Options (e.g. a-la-vive, longlines)
Working Group IV: Gear Options (e.g. repulsion devices, net type/mesh/material)

1100-1130 Coffee Break

1130- 1230 Working Groups: Wrap-up and Recommendations

1230 1400 LUNCH

Session VII: Working Group Presentations

1400-1415 Working Group I
1415 1430 Working Group II
1430 1445 Working Group III
1445 1500 Working Group IV

1500-1530 Coffee Break

Session VIII: Future Directions, Priorities and Recommendations

1530 1700 Panel: Working Group Chairs (with audience Questions and Answers)
Panel Moderator Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director, WIDECAST
1700 1715 Drafting Committee assigned to Final Report

1715 1800 Closing Remarks and Adjourn


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Appendix II
List of Participants ^
Gervais Alkins
Risha AUeyne
Egbert Awai
Carl Baptiste
Terrence Beddoe
Hope Brock
Erol Ceasar
Tanya Clovis
Ruth Davis
Carlos Drews, Ph.D.
Karen Eckert, Ph.D.
Scott Eckert, Ph.D.
Lara Ferreira
Allys Forte
Sarsha Franklin
Sherma Gomez
Salim Gool
Nicholas Hopkins
Anderson Inniss
Ann-Marie Jobity
Ron Kastelein, Ph.D.
Gian Carlo Lalsingh
Jon Lien, Ph.D.
Emile Louis
Lori Lee Lum, Ph.D.
Neela Maharaj
Louanna Martin
Stephen McClatchee
Cecil McLean
Nemme McSweeny
Danny Melville
John Mitchell
Saheed Mohammed
Nadra Nathai-Gyan
Don Nehs
Michelle Picov-Gill
Len Peters
Stephen Poon
Arthur Potts, Ph.D.
Indar Ramnarine, Ph.D.
Nadia Ramphal
Angela Ramsey
Member
Officer
Member
Fisheries Biologist
Fisherman
Graduate Student
Director, Fisheries
Director
Fisheries Biologist
Regional Coordinator
Executive Director
Director of Science
Fisheries Biologist
Fisheries Biologist
Officer
Fisheries Biologist
Fisherman
Fisheries Gear Technologist
Member
Director
Director
Member
Professor
Fisherman
Research Officer
Senior Planning Officer
Fisheries Biologist
Fisherman
Fisherman
Teacher
Fisherman
Fishing Gear Technologist
Fisherman
Head
Fishing Gear Technologist
Fisheries Biologist
Officer
Forester
Deputy Director
Fisheries Biologist
Fisheries Biologist
Wildlife Biologist
SOS, Tobago
Environmental Management Agency
Caribbean Forest Conserv. Assoc.
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Friends of the Sea (Secretary)
Memorial University, Canada
Tobago House of Assembly
SOS, Tobago
Fisheries Division, Trinidad.
WWF-Caribbean, Costa Rica
WIDECAST at Duke University
WIDECAST at Duke University
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
San Fernando Fishing Cooperative
Nat'l Marine Fisheries Service, USA
Nature Seekers
Fisheries Division
SEAMARCO, The Netherlands
Environment Tobago
Memorial University, Canada
All Tobago Fisherfolk Association
Institute of Marine Affairs
Min. Agricul., Land & Marine Res.
Fisheries Division
Toco Fisherman's Association
Las Cuevas
Toco Composite School
Southwest Tobago
Natl Marine Fisheries Service, US
Toco
Wildlife Section, Forestry Division
Lindgren-Pitman, Inc.
Fisheries Division-Trinidad
Grande Riviere T.D.O.
Wildlife Section, Forestry Division
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Department of Life Sciences, UWI
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Dept. Natural Resources, Tobago


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5
Franklyn Roberts
Renwick Roberts
Sherwin Ruiz
Dennis Sammy
Earl Samuel
Reginold Samuel
Mervin Sendall
Jacqueline A. Telfer
Wendy Thomas
William Trim
Richard Wallace
Philip Walsh
Paul Winger, Ph.D.
Fisherman
Member
President
Manager
Fisherman
Fisherman
Fisheries Biologist
Member
Fisheries Biologist
Officer
Member
Fishing Gear Technologist
Fish Behaviouralist
Toco
PAWI Sports, Culture and Eco Club
GREAT, Grande Riviere
Nature Seekers
Tobago
Tobago
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Caribbean Forestry Conserv. Assoc.
Fisheries Division, Trinidad
Dept. Natural Resources, Tobago
Caribbean Forest Conserv. Assoc.
Memorial University, Canada
Memorial University, Canada
1 Participation was not as accurately documented as it could have been. We apologize to those who participated fully
in the Meeting and in the Working Group discussions, but, for whatever reason, did not have their name recorded.
Based on per diem records, at least five (5) additional fishermen participated in the meeting and in the various
Working Groups, but did not record their names or affiliations.


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leattierback Turtles___________WIDECAST Tectinical Report No. 5



Appendix III

Selected Technical Presentations


Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea Turtles
Scott A. Eckert, Ph.D. (WIDECAST)

Lessons from the Sea of Cortez (Pacific Mexico)
Paul Winger, Ph.D. and Phil Walsh (Memorial University)

Research to Reduce Harbour Porpoise Bycatch in Gillnet Fisheries
Ron Kastelein, Ph.D. (SEAMARCO)

Review of Sea Turtle Bycatch Research in the Western Atlantic
John Mitchell (NOAA)

Latest Developments in Artisanal Longlining Equipment
Don Nells (Lindgren-Pitman, Inc.)


g^, <^ ^ '^
Habitat li.^i.^AjteP^lfiL3ypffl
Sea^ft^l§^*" ^ -^

-'/^^^"\
. i-*r-A ^ '^S^*'- -r V^S^fclfeMt^"'"'
1^ -sm
Trinidad Leatiierback Tracking
Turtle Tag Length Masting Date Date of D^ Mninun Date of Nun
ID Type (cm beach deployed last -traded distance last oftr.
CO.) location traveled :. (km) trans.
^,. ^'
^_^ih-''"'f*^
Da SSC3 155.0 Matura Q^17Sfe OBZOTg^ ^aK>,13,S)09 ^SlZiJX 44,
DC2 .S.S(Xf 140.0 Matura osmmJroinmK ^^^ 1,303 07/115 8,6
DC3 SSC3 166.0 'Matura mw'^ ^)4 11,285 05/24^ 29,
w.-i.-;t^'i^jiimisBi..r W'. 1,065 04/29S9 21,
DC5 Ki^ .i^igai*d> 06/2*K, 07M| H ''' 07/27)2 -
f^^^P ^Jjjl^|oi/^B6/is03 >^ ;, WWzhpyjTtB/MOS- 24 Vl;034 05/14^^
^ficp!^^^*'.^ M 0
^^>^m SpM^VOS 05/13/03 23 §51. 05/13TO 12,
^^Ht^'^^W i^>.'.^'f^''- ^^Hir.^^^V
I'd like to begin with my sincere thanks to all of
you for attending this national consultation. We
are very grateful that you are generously
sharing your time, expertise and enthusiasm to
resolving this difficult challenge.

Today, you will hear from a number of experts
on fishing technology, marine resource
management, sea turtle conservation and from
those closely involved in fishing.

My presentation today is on what they do and
where they go during the brief time they are in
Trinidad and Tobago's waters.

Trinidad and Tobago support one of the world's
largest nesting colonies of the leatherback sea
turtle. Current estimates are that more than
6,000 leatherback females nest here annually.

While the conservation of nesting turtles and
their eggs is ongoing in a number of well
developed projects, less understood are the
offshore habitats of the species.

It must first be understood that leatherbacks are
not permanent residents of Trinidad and
Tobago. Females and males arrive in late
January March each year to initiate mating
and nesting. Males remain until May, while
females remain through July. While males may
come to Trinidad annually, females only return
every 2 or 3 years.

As scientists we have two methods that have led
to our understanding of the presence and
activities of this species while in our waters.
One method uses the attachment of satellite
transmitters, or other electronic data reporting
devices to the turtles. The other is through the
use of identity tags on each nesting turtle.



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MAURITANIA UPWELLING

Using those methods we have learned that upon
the completion of nesting and average of 6
times and as many as 12 clutches of eggs on
Trinidad's beaches these turtles move
throughout the Atlantic Ocean, passing through
numerous other country's water as well as
through the high seas. Trinidad's leatherbacks
are actually residents of the entire world!
Each of these lines are individual turtle tracks
for up to one year after leaving Trinidad. We
have learned that leatherbacks travel throughout
the Atlantic Ocean and may swim more than
10,000 km in a single year. The cross-hatched
areas are where the turtles stopped to feed on
this journey. What is particularly amazing is
that the turtles seem to know when and where
the food will be and schedule their journey to
be in the area when food is most available.
For example this is a satellite image off the
west coast of Africa illustrating where the most
biologically productive waters are located from
March July. Notice that based on the previous
map I showed you, our turtles move directly to
this area a year after nesting and arrive in
March. It appears that these turtles can
anticipate good feeding areas well in advance of
the time that food will be available!


Around Trinidad, leatherbacks can also be
highly mobile. Each of the colored lines
illustrate where a single female traveled during
the ten days between each nesting event. It also
shows that they may travel to different beaches
to nest.
We know that from our other studies we have
conducted that leatherbacks rarely stop
swimming. Between nestings she will make
regular and constant dives to 20-150 m, rarely
stopping to rest and probably never sleeping.
Nesting
T Grand Riviere
# l\natura
Y Botii
Internesting KHR
25% UD
50% UD
95% UD
This figure shows the locations of turtles
tracked between nesting events for 10 turtles.
Some were originally instrumented on Grande
Riviere Beach, while others were instrumented
at Matura. The important aspect of this figure
is that it shows were most of the turtles spent
the majority of their time, in the areas labeled
Utilization Distribution or UD. A UD area
indicates that this region is of exceptional
importance to the turtles and in this case those
areas are off the nesting beach and off Galera
Point.


One of the answers to why Galera Point is so
important can be found in studies that we are
conducting elsewhere. One of those studies is
capturing male leatherbacks in Nova Scotia,
Canada and tracking them to the Caribbean.
In this study we found that each year, male
leatherbacks travel to the Caribbean presumably
to mate. Those that come to large nesting
colonies like Trinidad, or Panama will reside in
a very small area near the island, probably in
areas where they have the highest probability of
encountering females. For Trinidad this is
Galera Point! Each male remains until the peak
of the nesting season, by which time all females
are probably mated, so they leave.

One of my reasons for presenting this
information to you today is so that you have an
understanding of where leatherbacks reside in
our waters during the nesting season. These
areas hold critical importance to our efforts to
serve as stewards to this visitor to Trinidad.
They are also the same areas that fisherman
work, and therein lies our challenge. How can
we maintain the fishing livelihoods of
Trinidad's fishers... .and still preserve the
leatherback?

Thank you.
Scott A. Eckert, Ph.D.
Director of Science, WIDECAST


Memorial
University of Newfoundland
Sustainable Harvesting Techniques
Lessons Learned: Canadian Perspective
Paul Winger and Philip Walsh
of
Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Resources
Marine Institute of Memorial University
www.mi.mun.ca/csar
Memorial
University of Newfoundland
ElMAPBLAST!
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Jiunder Bay
., /i'^ P-J i7 i, if

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SS;L--*--4"-' Charlottey
"gE^&SA4cittjtj^jrp. DMTl, GOT ^^
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Canada's Largest University

Student Pop. >17,000
Over 100 Degree Programs
Oceans Focus
www.mun.ca
1


Memorial
University of Newfoundland
^y Fisheries and Marine Institute
Marine Institute
Whale Research Group
'^M Ocean Sciences Centre
^asMMS^S^ Bonne Bay Marine Station
m
Institute Ocean Technology (NRC)
The Marine Institute
North America's most comprehensible institute
dedicated to education, training, applied j
research and industrial support in ocean
industries.


Offshore Safety and
Survival Centre
Centre for Sustainable Aquatic ResoQ
CSAR provides industrial researcin and
development, technology transfer, and
education/training services to the fishing
industry.

Potential clients include fishers, fishing gear
manufacturers, NGO's, government groups,
geophysical equipment manufacturers,
professional divers and ship builders.
www.mi.mun.ca/csar
3


Major Research Areas
Applied Industrial Research
Fishing gear design and testing
Major Research Areas
Applied Industrial Research
Fish Behaviour
Fisheries Development
Survivability of Released Fish


Reducing Seabed Impact of
Bottom Trawls
41, **'
Reduction from
31 to 9 contact points.
Improving Trap Selectivity
for Snow Crab
^u>^
(Chionoecetes opilio)


Design & Evaluation of Baited
Cod Traps
Atlantic Cod
Gadus morhua
Alternative to gillnets

Environmentally friendliness
High discard survivability
Good species and size selectivity
Source of live fish
Collapsible

The main focus was to
see if we could develop
a baited cod trap that
could catch commercial
amounts of cod
Halibut Potting Preliminary ^^1^1^ Assessment zS, {Hippoglossus hippoglossus)
Underwater Observation Perch entering Trap Halibut not entering Lobster by-catch
mm '*"

6


Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita
Porpoise {Phocoena sinus) in
the Sea of Cortez
Upper Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve
The National Institute of Ecology
University of Baja California
National Institute of Fisheries
Government of Mexico
^
Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita
Porpoise {Phocoena sinus) in
the Sea of Cortez
\t: t
Penaeus californiensis
. 1 III.,..
Penaeus stylirostris


Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita
Porpoise {Phocoena sinus) in
the Sea of Cortez
Lessons Learned: S^f^

1) Multi-group approach is necessary,

2) Reproductive behaviour vs. feeding motivation,

3) Pots will be most effective during slack tides,

4) Water turbidity,

5) Continued field tests necessary.
8


1
Research to reduce bycatch of harbor porpoises in gillnet
fisheries


Prepared for workshop on reduction
of bycatch of Leatherback turtles
in gillnet fisheries
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, February 16-18, 2005
R. A. Kastelein Ph.D.
SEAMARCO
(Sea Mammal Research Company)
Julianalaan 46
3843 CC Harderwijk
The Netherlands

Tel (Office): ....31-(0)341-456252
Tel (Mobile): ..3l-(0)6-46-l 1-38-72
Fax: ...31(0)341-456732
E-mail: researchteam@zonnet.nl


2
Background Information
In The Netherlands, research to reduce harbor porpoise bycatch by gillnets started in 1993 and
followed 3 parallel tracks (a stepwise approach):
1. Behavioral studies in captivity around nets
2. Increase gillnet detection by echolocation
3. Deter porpoises from nets with aversive sound
Track 1: Behavioral studies in captivity around nets
Important parameters affecting the chances of
being caught up in the nets were:
1) Age, 2) Context, and 3) Experience of the
animals.

The results of these behavioral studies with
porpoises around nets have been published in
a book (Harbour porpoises, laboratory studies
to reduce bycatch (Eds Nachtigall, P.E., Lien,
J., Au, W.W.L. and Read, A.J.). De Spil
Pubhshers, Woerden, The Netherlands).
Track 2: Increase net detection by echolocation
Question: Can porpoises detect gillnets by
echolocation, and if so at what distance ?
Goal of the study: Determine the distance at
which presently used gillnets can be detected
by porpoises.

To reach the goal, studies were conducted in
the following order:

1) Echolocation signals of the harbor porpoise
2) Echolocation detection ability of the harbor
porpoise
3) Target (echo) strength of gillnets

1) Echolocation signals of harbor porpoises
Porpoise echolocation clicks have:
1. A high frequency (120-130 kHz)
2. A narrow bandwidth (20 kHz)
3. A low Source Level (165 dB re 1 )a,Pa)
4. A long duration.
2) Echolocation detection ability of harbor
porpoise
Two studies were conducted:
1) Detection of stainless steel spheres in
quiet conditions.
2) Detection of stainless steel spheres in
noisy conditions.
Result: detection distances of stainless steel
spheres with known target strengths.


3
3) Target (echo) strength of gillnets
Definition of target (echo) strength: SPL of reflected signal SPL of the incident signal
Study conducted: Measurements of target (echo) strength of gillnets.
Gillnets were collected from areas around the world where porpoise bycatch occurred.
Bottlenose dolphin and Harbor porpoise clicks were projected towards net panels strung
across pontoons. The returning echoes were recorded and analyzed.

Results: knowledge on the range of target strengths of the various gillnets.

Calculating detection distances
With the knowledge of the target detection ability study and gillnet target strength
measurements, detection distances of gillnets by echolocating bottlenose dolphins and
harbor porpoises could be calculated.

Results of the calculations are:
At best (perpendicular approach) Bottlenose dolphins can detect gillnets at a range of 25-
55 m. At best (perpendicular approach) Harbor porpoises can detect gillnets at a range of
3-6 m. Echo strength depends on angle of incidence, so in most cases gillnet detection by
porpoises occurs at less than 2 m.

Conclusion: Harbor porpoises often cannot detect gillnets in time to evade them.

Nets with higher target strength are presently tested in field experiments in North
America with the aim to increase the distance at which porpoises can detect gillnets in
time to evade them.
Perception of echolocation information

If the perceived image by a porpoise (based on the total ensonification of the net by
echolocation) consist of the entire net, this will probably result in no entanglement.
However, if the perceived image by a porpoise (based on only the webbing of the net)
consists of "glimpses", this will probably lead to entanglement, as the glimpses may
resemble the echoes of shrimp or aquatic vegetation. If the perceived image by a porpoise
(based on the ensonification of the float on lateral lines and some webbing consists of
clear images caused by the strong echoes of the float and lateral lines, the animal may not
notice the weak echoes of the webbing and try to swim under the float which results in
entanglement.


4
Track 3: Deter porpoises from nets with aversive sound
When using sound to
deter porpoises
information is needed on
their hearing, behavioral
reactions to sounds, and
the effects of the sounds
on other marine fauna.

Hearing features of
porpoises that were
studies are hearing
sensitivity, directionality
of hearing, and sound
source localization
ability.
B. Test session (15 min): Active alarm
A) Hearing sensitivity of porpoises

Conclusion: Best hearing of harbor porpoise is
at the frequency of its echolocation signals
(around 120 kHz)
B) Directional hearing of porpoises

Hearing of dolphins and porpoises is not
equally sensitive in all directions.
Conclusion: sounds are best heard when
coming from in front of the porpoise


5
C) Sound source localization ability of
porpoises

Non-localized sound may scare porpoises into
the nets.
Signal parameters that were tested were pulse
duration, sound level, and frequency.
Conclusion: Signal duration & level need to
be sufficient to localize a sound source

Reactions of porpoises to sounds:
Goal: Determine optimal signal parameters of
acoustic alarms for porpoises.

Conclusions of pinger experiments:
1) 1994: Small differences in sound signals can elicit large behavioral differences.
2) 1995: Sweep signals have a much stronger effect on the behavior of porpoises than
clicks or tones.
3) 1996: Dukane Netmark 1000 had the strongest effect. A
time bracket of 2-30 s for random pulse interval is too long.
4) 1998: Dukane Netmark XP-10 experimental alarm
(producing 16 different signals) had strongest effect.
Individual variation in reaction to alarms was observed .
5) 2002: Ultrasonic pingers (70 kHz) deter porpoises well,
but cause no dinner bell effect for pinnipeds, as pinniped
hearing goes up to around 60 kHz.


Effects of selected alarm sounds on other fauna:

Goal: Determine the effect of pingers
designed for porpoises on other odontocetes
and marine fish.

Determine the effect of pingers, designed to
deter porpoises, on other odontocetes
Results: Signals that deterred a harbor
porpoise to the other side of floating pen, had
no effect on the behavior of a striped dolphin.

Conclusion: Pingers are, or need to be, species
specific



6
Determine the effect of pingers, designed to deter porpoises, on marine fish
All 7 commercially available pingers in 2004 were collected and tested on 5 marine fish
species.

Results: Behavioral responses (changes in speed and swimming depth) were seen in
Herring to one pinger. Mullet to three pingers, and Sea bass to two pingers. Pout and cod
(close relatives) showed no response to any pinger.

Conclusion: in regard to fish, the signal parameters of pingers need to be specified.


Take home message: A step-wise approach is needed to solve a bycatch problem


PDF files of publications of the studies can be obtained by sending an e-mail to Ron
Kastelein, Seamarco, E-mail address: researchteam@zonnet.nl


Review of Sea turtle Bycatch Research in the Atlantic
Experiments in Western Atlantic Northeast Distant Waters (NOAA Fisheries & BWFA)
Reports from Observer Data (NOAA Fisheries and Canadian observer programs)
Feeding Studies (NOAA Fisheries)

NOAA Fisheries


2001 Experimental Design
:
lOta Mta
Natural
Squid
- ^^^ -' Natural
^^g^ Squid
8/0, 9/0, and
^-^'"'^ ^K^U^ Blue-[
10/0 J hooks ^^^flB ^<^"i^
2001 Results
Effort and Catch: 8 vessels, 186 sets,
164,429 hooks 142 loggerheads and 77
leatherbacks
Blue-dyed Squid bait no significant
effect
Move branch line 20 fathoms away from
buoy no significant effect for
loggerheads
increased catch of leatherbacks
Daylight soak time significant effect for
Caretta


Experimental Design 2002-
2003
Set Configuration
Control: J Hook, 9/0
25-30 Deg. Offset
w/ Squid Bait

Treatments:
Experimental Hool Experimental Baits
Control Control Control Control
Treatment
2002 Experiments
9/0 J & 18/0 non
offset circle
9/0 J & 18/0
10 "offset circle
If
>'
(Jb
9/0 J & 18/0
10 "offset circle
Squid Squid Mackerel
Goal for haulbacl< completion was set 1 hr earlier than average observed during 2001


2002 & 2003 Results
Effort and catch (2002): 13 vessels, 489 sets, 427,385
hooks 100 loggerheads and 158 leatherbacks
Effort and catch (2003): 11 vessels, 539 sets, 578,050
hooks 92 loggerheads, 79 leatherbacks, and 1 olive
rid ley
Reduce daylight hook soak time (2002) Not significant
18/0 (0 offset and 10 offset in 2002; only 0 offset in
2003) circle hooks with squid bait Significant reduction
loggerheads and leatherbacks, decreased swordfish
catch, increased tuna catch
18/0 (10 offset) circle hooks with mackerel bait
Significant reduction loggerheads and leatherbacks,
increased swordfish catch, decreased tuna catch
20/0 (10 offset) circle hooks with mackerel bait (2003)
Significant reduction loggerheads and leatherbacks,
increased swordfish catch, decreased tuna catch


Effect of Treatments Relative to Control
0.00 -r


-20.00 -


40.00 -


-60.00 -


-80.00 -


-100.00 -
0.00 n


-20.00 -


40.00 -
-60.00 -

-80.00 -

-100.00 -
LOGGERHEAD
0 deg' iffset
circle
iacl
9/0 J
LEATHERBACK
0 deg iffeet
ircle
acl
9/0 J
I 10 dsg
3t ciri le
2('0 10 (
of set cirdle
SWORDFISH
100.00
80 00 G3.00
60 00 1^m
40 20 0 -20 00 -00 -30.35 15.62 1 1 7.73 1------1
00 1 squid 1 mackerel mackerel mackerel
40 -60 00 -00 18/0 0 deg offset 9/0 J 18/0 10 deg 20/0 10 deg
circle offeet circle offeet circle
-100 00
BIG EYE TUNA
rBreWf I
18/0 0 deg offeet
circle
2('0 lOdsg
ot set ciri le
results for combined 2002-2003, unless noted: 2002 only 2003 only
LOGGERHEADS
Year n=
2003 88
2002 97
2001 138
frequency
(%)
-^n 35- 40- 45- 50- 55- 60- 65- 70-
t t Z 49 54 59 64 69 74

SCLmin (cm)


LEATHERBACKS
frequency
(%)
Year n=
2003 78
2002 157
2001 77
2003
2002
2001
Estimated CCL (ft)
9/0 "J"
LOGGERHEADS
16/0 Circle 18/0 Circle
Squid^^p^^ /^p^
n = 216
Mackerel
n=13
D Swallowed
Mouth
D External
D Other
n = 28
n=10
n=10


9/0 "J"
Squid
n=144
Mackerel
n=14
LEATHERBACKS
16/0 Circle ig/o Circle
n = 2
n = 32
n = 28
nSwallowecl
Mouth
n External
D Other
B
Short Handled
Dehookers Scotty'$
i'
J-Style
i
i
Mono Cutters
'^.
Dfpnet


Fishery Observer Data
Gulf of Mexico (Garrison, 2003)
Canadian Atlantic waters (Javitech, 2002)

Relative to 9/0 "J" hooks 16/0 circle hooks do
not reduce CPUE of pelagic/oceanic stage
loggerhead turtles when using squid bait.
Compared to 7/0 & 8/0 "J" hooks 16/0 circle
hooks do reduce interactions with loggerhead
turtles
No loggerhead turtle interactions have been
recorded in Gulf of Mexico yellowfin tuna fishery
(1992-2002) using sardine and herring bait with
15/0 and 16/0 circle hooks
Fishery Observer Data
Gulf of Mexico (Garrison, 2003)
Canadian Atlantic waters (Javitech, 2002)

Canadian observer data indicates a 94%
reduction in leatherback CPUE with 16/0 circle
hooks when compared to "J" hooks
GOM data indicates lower average leatherback
catch rate with circle hooks when compared to
^^J" hooks
Recent increase in leatherback interaction rates
in GOM has been associated with increase
proportion of fishery using "J" hooks and squid
bait


Effect of Hook Size on Ingestion
of Hooks by Loggerhead Sea
Turtles
John W. Watson, Bret D. Hataway, and
Charles E. Bergmann
June, 2003
Squid Bait Rigging


Effect of Hook Width on Ingestion of Hooks by Loggerhead Turtles (40-60 cm Length)
90-t' 80' 70-' ^ 60-' c O 50' D. 40-' 30-' 20 10-' y




n Attempted to Swallow Hook


^^
T

<51mm 51mm 57mm 63mm n=21 n=24 n=40 n=20 Hook Width
Summary of Logistic Regression Analysis
on Hook Swallowing Attempts


Hook Dimensions
Hook Type Hook Width Hook Length
9/0 J 41 mm 78 mm
9/0 Tuna 33 mm 78 mm
10/0 Tuna 38 mm 86 mm
11/0 J 51 mm 98 mm
16/0 Circle 51 mm 73 mm
11/0 MJ 56 mm 86 mm
18/0 Circle 57 mm 86 mm
12/0 J 57 mm HI mm
14/0 J 63 mm 130 mm
20/0 Circle 63 mm 100 mm
Summary of Atlantic Longline

Research

Relative to 9/0 "J" hooks 18/0 circle hooks significantly
reduced sea turtle bycatch
16/0 circle hooks reduced cpue of loggerhead turtles
compared to 7/0 and 8/0 "J" hooks, but not compared to
9/0 ^^J" hooks
16/0 circle hooks may significantly reduce loggerhead
cpue when used with fish bait (sardines and "herring)
rather than squid bait
Circle hooks engaged in the jaw and less often were
swallowed by chefoniid turtles than "J" hooks and post
hooking mortality associated with a mouth hook is
estimated to be lower than a swallowed hook


Summary of Atlantic Longline

Research

Effective gear and techniques were developed to safely
remove longline gear from entangled, foul hooked, and
mouth hooked turtles
Hooks with a width larger than 51mm have the potential
to significantly reduce mortality of loggerhead turtles
Circle hooks (16/0 and 18/0) significantly reduced
leatherback bycatch
Mackerel bait (200 500 gram) significantly reduced
turtle bycatch when compared to squid bait
Mackerel bait significantly reduced catch of bigeye tuna
when compared to squid bait
Summary of Atlantic Longline

Research

Mackerel bait significantly increased catch of swordfish but this
effect may be restricted to cold waters
Circle hooks with squid bait significantly reduced swordfish catch
CPUE of bigeye tuna was nominally increased with 18/0 circle hooks
using squid bait
CPUE of yellowfin tuna was reduced with 18/0 circle hooks with
sardine bait when compared with 16/0 circle hooks with sardine bait
Hook timer and other data indicates loggerhead turtle interactions
with longline gear occur during daylight hours and leatherback
interactions occur during nightime hours


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The Lindgren-Pitman LP S-1200 is a rugged high capacity
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allows high performance with 12 volts D.C. input. This level of
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electronics provides for many new features not available before
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us*Foreign Patents Pending
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n Electronic Control and Switching.
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n Gear Driven Level Winder
n Ergonomic Cantilever Design
n Electronics Sealed with Inert Gas Atmosphere
n Anodized Aluminum Alloy Construction
n Changeable Spool Design
n 2 Stage Drag System
n External Preset Drag Control & Vernier Control
n Smooth Wide Span Drag Control (180 degrees)
n 0 to 60 lb. Plus Drag Capability
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'Approximate line capacity
MM Inches Yards Example
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0.9 0.035 1500 1000 yds 100 lb. Test wire line
1.0 0.039 1200 100 lb test monofilament
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1.4 0.056 650 2.2 lbs of 225-250 lb. test monofilament
Designed for Commercial Use


Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles_________WIDECAST Tectinlcal Report No. 5
Appendix IV
Working Group Participants ^
Working Group I: Regulatory Options
Chairperson(s): Indar Ramnarine
Rapporteur: Indar Ramnarine
Members:
Gervais Alkins
Risha AUeyne
Egbert Awai
Terrence Beddoe
Sarsha Franklin
Ann-Marie Jobity
Jon Lien
Lori Lee Lum
Neela Maharaj
Nemme McSweeny
Saheed Mohammed
Stephen Poon
Angela Ramsey
Franklyn Roberts
Sherwin Ruiz
William Trim

Working Group II: Gear Options
Chairperson(s): Ron Kastelein
Rapporteur: Carl Baptiste
Members:
Erol Ceasar
Ruth Davis
Lara Ferreira
Salim Gool
Nicholas Hopkins
Gian Carlo Lalsingh
Arthur Potts
Nadia Ramphal
Wendy Thomas
Richard Wallace
Working Group III: Fishing Methods
AND Techniques
Chairperson(s): Peter Glodon
Rapporteur: (Fisheries)
Members:
Tanya Clovis
Franklin Roberts
Dennis Sammy
William Trim
Paul Winger
Working Group IV: Gear Options
Chairperson(s): Stephen McClatchee,
Len Peters
Rapporteur: Scott Eckert
Members:
Hope Brock
Carlos Drews
Allys Forte
Sherma Gomez
Anderson Inniss
Emile Louis
Cecil McLean
Danny Melville
John Mitchell
Mervin Sendall
Michelle Picov-Gill
Renwick Roberts
Earl Samuel
Reginold Samuel
Jacqueline A. Telfer
Philip Walsh
2 Participation in the Working Groups was not as accurately documented as it could have been. We
apologize to those who participated in these discussions but, for whatever reason, did not have their
name recorded on the Group roster. Based on per diem records, at least five (5) additional fishermen
participated in the various Working Groups, but did not record their names or affiliations.


^WIDECAST
Wider CariOOean Sea Turtfe Comervation NeUi/ord

Working together to build a future where all inhabitants
of the Wider Caribbean Region, human and sea turtle
alike, can live together in balance."
The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Networl< (WIDECAST) is a volunteer expert
network and Partner Organization to the U.N. Environment Programme's Caribbean Environ-
ment Programme. WIDECAST was founded in 1981 in response to a recommendation by the
lUCN/CCA Meeting of Non-Govern mental Caribbean Organizations on Living Resources
Conservation for Sustainable Development in the Wider Caribbean (Santo Domingo, 26-29
August 1981) that a "Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan should be prepared ...
consistent with the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme."

WIDECAST's vision for achieving a regional recovery action plan has focused on bringing the
best available science to bear on sea turtle management and conservation, empowering
stakeholders to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing a
mechanism and a framework for cooperation within and among nations. By involving stake-
holders at all levels and encouraging policy-oriented research, WIDECAST puts science to
practical use in conserving biodiversity and advocates for grassroots involvement in decision-
making and project implementation.

Through information exchange and training, WIDECAST promotes strong linkages between
science, policy, and public participation in the design and implementation of conservation
actions. The network recommends standards for range state adoption, develops pilot projects,
provides technical assistance, supports initiatives that build capacity within participating coun-
tries and institutions, and promotes coordination among Caribbean countries in the collection,
sharing and use of biodiversity data. Working closely with local communities and resource
managers, the network has developed standard management guidelines and criteria that
emphasize best practices and sustainability, ensuring that current utilization practices, whether
consumptive or non-consumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term.

With Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean States and territories, WIDECAST has
been instrumental in facilitating complementary conservation action across range states,
strengthening and harmonizing legislation, encouraging community involvement, and raising
public awareness of the endangered status of the region's six species of migratory sea turtles.
Country Coordinators are drawn from both the governmental and non-governmental sectors,
and must have sea turtle research and/or management experience and responsibility.
WWW.WIDECAST.ORG


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P55_ST00076 1702 0.88
P55_TL00009 829 625
P55_ST00077 234 Calculating 00102100000
P55_SP00069 613 875
P55_ST00078 180 detection 020200000
P55_SP00070 805 865
P55_ST00079 821 distances 004000024
P55_TL00010 887 1639
P55_ST00080 98 With
P55_SP00071 475 923
P55_ST00081 488
P55_SP00072 548
P55_ST00082 561 219
P55_SP00073 780 933
P55_ST00083 795
P55_SP00074 840
P55_ST00084 847
P55_SP00075 907
P55_ST00085 921 892
P55_SP00076 1035
P55_ST00086 1049 000000021
P55_SP00077 1231
P55_ST00087 1245 ability 0.99
P55_SP00078 1371
P55_ST00088 1385 106 study 20500
P55_SP00079 1491
P55_ST00089 1506
P55_SP00080 1576
P55_ST00090 gillnet 0000100
P55_SP00081 1716
P55_ST00091 1729
P55_SP00082 1843
P55_ST00092 1857
P55_TL00011 376 944
P55_ST00093 949 295 38 measurements, 0002500001020
P55_SP00083 671 987
P55_ST00094 688 181
P55_SP00084 869 980
P55_ST00095 884 003001003
P55_SP00085 1064
P55_ST00096 1079 30
P55_SP00086 1124 9
P55_ST00097 1133 144
P55_SP00087 1277 990
P55_ST00098 1291 50 by
P55_SP00088 1341
P55_ST00099 1355 253 echolocating 000203000010
P55_SP00089 1608
P55_ST00100 1621 205 bottlenose 0300001230
P55_SP00090 1826
P55_ST00101 168 dolphins 03040012
P55_SP00091 2010
P55_ST00102 2026
P55_TL00012 1001 741
P55_ST00103 130 harbor
P55_SP00092 506 1037
P55_ST00104 519 190 porpoises 320020303
P55_SP00093 709 1047
P55_ST00105 724 could 02400
P55_SP00094 834
P55_ST00106 846 be
P55_SP00095
P55_ST00107 908 209 calculated. 00004000005
P55_TL00013 1116 608
P55_ST00108 145 Results 0035002
P55_SP00096 522 1152
P55_ST00109 538
P55_SP00097 583
P55_ST00110 590
P55_SP00098 649
P55_ST00111 665 235 calculations 000050000212
P55_SP00099
P55_ST00112 1128 69 are:
P55_TL00014 1174 1780
P55_ST00113 1175 At
P55_SP00100 426
P55_ST00114 438 best 0030
P55_SP00101 1210
P55_ST00115 290 (perpendicular 04004010005000
P55_SP00102 823 1220
P55_ST00116 196 approach) 044020000
P55_SP00103 1033
P55_ST00117 1048 212
P55_SP00104 1260
P55_ST00118 1275
P55_SP00105 1444
P55_ST00119 1459 1186 68 can 001
P55_SP00106 1527
P55_ST00120 118 detect
P55_SP00107 1659
P55_ST00121 1672
P55_SP00108 1817
P55_ST00122 1833 1179 at
P55_SP00109 1867
P55_ST00123 1881 21 23 a
P55_SP00110
P55_ST00124 1914
P55_SP00111 2024
P55_ST00125 2039
P55_SP00112 2084
P55_ST00126 2092 64 25-
P55_TL00015
P55_ST00127 1233
P55_SP00113 423 1267
P55_ST00128 1243 m. 0.72
P55_SP00114 486
P55_ST00129 502 1232
P55_SP00115 552
P55_ST00130
P55_SP00116
P55_ST00131 659 04000010005000
P55_SP00117
P55_ST00132 963
P55_SP00118 1159
P55_ST00133
P55_SP00119 1315
P55_ST00134 1327 0.77 420420303
P55_SP00120 1517
P55_ST00135 1533 67
P55_SP00121 1600
P55_ST00136 1615
P55_SP00122 1732
P55_ST00137
P55_SP00123 1890
P55_ST00138 1906 1236
P55_SP00124 1940
P55_ST00139 1955
P55_SP00125 1976
P55_ST00140 1988 109
P55_SP00126 2097
P55_ST00141 2113
P55_TL00016 1289
P55_ST00142 1290 62 3-6 300
P55_SP00127 440 1325
P55_ST00143 455 1301
P55_SP00128
P55_ST00144 Echo 0002
P55_SP00129 619
P55_ST00145
P55_SP00130 794 1335
P55_ST00146 809 depends 0040103
P55_SP00131 969
P55_ST00147 985
P55_SP00132
P55_ST00148 105 angle 01000
P55_SP00133 1153
P55_ST00149 1168
P55_SP00134 1213
P55_ST00150 1221 201 43 incidence, 0100001000
P55_SP00135 1422 1332
P55_ST00151 1439 40 so 0.70 33
P55_SP00136 1479
P55_ST00152 1495 in 01
P55_SP00137 1324
P55_ST00153 1545 1294 97 most 0230
P55_SP00138 1642
P55_ST00154 1656 102 cases 00203
P55_SP00139
P55_ST00155 1773 127
P55_SP00140 1900
P55_ST00156
P55_SP00141 2096
P55_ST00157 2108
P55_TL00017 1346 666
P55_ST00158 0.82 430020303
P55_SP00142 566 1392
P55_ST00159 582 1358 occurs 300502
P55_SP00143 1382
P55_ST00160 1351
P55_SP00144 759 1381
P55_ST00161 773 71 less 0033
P55_SP00145 844
P55_ST00162 858 86 than 0001
P55_SP00146
P55_ST00163 958 22 2
P55_SP00147
P55_ST00164
P55_TL00018 1604
P55_ST00165 236 Conclusion: 03100530310
P55_SP00148 614 1497
P55_ST00166 631
P55_SP00149 772
P55_ST00167 784
P55_SP00150 974 1507
P55_ST00168 101 often 20001
P55_SP00151 1091
P55_ST00169 1105 1466 cannot 001120
P55_SP00152 1237
P55_ST00170
P55_SP00153 1369
P55_ST00171
P55_SP00154
P55_ST00172 1542 37
P55_SP00155 1579 1496
P55_ST00173 1592 87 time
P55_SP00156 1679
P55_ST00174 1693 to 02
P55_SP00157 1730
P55_ST00175 evade 04000
P55_SP00158 1860
P55_ST00176 1873 them. 00005
P55_TL00019 1625
P55_ST00177 1578 91 Nets
P55_SP00159 466 1612
P55_ST00178 480 89 with
P55_SP00160 569
P55_ST00179 128 higher
P55_SP00161 1622
P55_ST00180 1581
P55_SP00162 835
P55_ST00181 850
P55_SP00163
P55_ST00182 1023 58 are
P55_SP00164 1081
P55_ST00183 presently 400301000
P55_SP00165 1278
P55_ST00184 tested 003000
P55_SP00166 1407
P55_ST00185 1421
P55_SP00167 1611
P55_ST00186 1473 90 field 0.69 68000
P55_SP00168 1563
P55_ST00187 1577 241 experiments 00400000102
P55_SP00169 1818
P55_ST00188
P55_SP00170 1870
P55_ST00189 1882 North
P55_TL00020 1633 1723
P55_ST00190 172 America
P55_SP00171 1669
P55_ST00191 560
P55_SP00172
P55_ST00192 662
P55_SP00173
P55_ST00193 737 73 aim
P55_SP00174 810 1668
P55_ST00194 822 1638
P55_SP00175 859
P55_ST00195 161 increase 01000020
P55_SP00176 1036
P55_ST00196 1050
P55_SP00177 1110
P55_ST00197 1125 distance 00300100
P55_SP00178 1286
P55_ST00198
P55_SP00179 1336
P55_ST00199 1348 which
P55_SP00180 1470
P55_ST00200 1483 420020303
P55_SP00181 1673
P55_ST00201 1689 1645
P55_SP00182
P55_ST00202 1771
P55_SP00183 1888
P55_ST00203 1901
P55_SP00184 2046
P55_ST00204 2061
P55_TL00021 1691 390
P55_ST00205
P55_SP00185 1727
P55_ST00206 477 1696
P55_SP00186 514
P55_ST00207
P55_SP00187 644
P55_ST00208 108
P55_TB00003 1805 628
P55_TL00022 1863 788
P55_ST00209 1865 Perception 1000000000
P55_SP00188 593 1909
P55_ST00210
P55_SP00189 656
P55_ST00211 661 254 echolocation 000000000000
P55_SP00190 915 1899
P55_ST00212 932 231 information 00000000000
P55_TL00023 389 1978
P55_ST00213 If
P55_SP00191
P55_ST00214 434
P55_SP00192 494 2014
P55_ST00215 508 194 perceived 400000400
P55_SP00193 702
P55_ST00216 120 image
P55_SP00194
P55_ST00217 849
P55_SP00195 899
P55_ST00218 913 1990
P55_SP00196 934
P55_ST00219 42042030
P55_SP00197
P55_ST00220 (based 000200
P55_SP00198 1261
P55_ST00221
P55_SP00199 1323
P55_ST00222
P55_SP00200 1396
P55_ST00223 1409 88 total 02000
P55_SP00201
P55_ST00224 1513 281 ensonification 0.80 01231068000021
P55_SP00202 1794
P55_ST00225 1809
P55_SP00203 1854
P55_ST00226 1861
P55_SP00204 1921
P55_ST00227 1934 1983
P55_SP00205 1996
P55_ST00228 2008
P55_TL00024 2035 1653
P55_ST00229 268 echolocation) 0002030000210
P55_SP00206 646 2081
P55_ST00230 consist 0312030
P55_SP00207 799 2071
P55_ST00231 813
P55_SP00208
P55_ST00232 866
P55_SP00209 925
P55_ST00233 111 entire 010000
P55_SP00210 1052
P55_ST00234 1065 2040 net, 1000
P55_SP00211 1136 2078
P55_ST00235 1151 this
P55_SP00212 1222
P55_ST00236 77 will
P55_SP00213 1313
P55_ST00237 1326 178 probably 40200000
P55_SP00214 1504
P55_ST00238 1516 result 003500
P55_SP00215
P55_ST00239 1641
P55_SP00216 1678 2070
P55_ST00240 2047 no
P55_SP00217 1739
P55_ST00241 1755 276 entanglement. 0100100000105
P55_TL00025 2093 1714
P55_ST00242 2095 However, 02004000
P55_SP00218 2136
P55_ST00243 585 if
P55_SP00219 620 2128
P55_ST00244 627
P55_SP00220 687 2129
P55_ST00245 700 195 300000400
P55_SP00221 895 2139
P55_ST00246
P55_SP00222 1028
P55_ST00247 1041
P55_SP00223
P55_ST00248 1106 2105
P55_SP00224 1127 11
P55_ST00249 1138 32032030
P55_SP00225 1309
P55_ST00250
P55_SP00226 1453
P55_ST00251
P55_SP00227
P55_ST00252 1530 only 2100
P55_SP00228 1617
P55_ST00253 1630
P55_SP00229
P55_ST00254 1703 webbing 0000010
P55_SP00230 1874
P55_ST00255
P55_SP00231 1935
P55_ST00256 1942
P55_SP00232
P55_ST00257 2015 net)
P55_TL00026 2150 1692
P55_ST00258 consists 03120302
P55_SP00233 2186
P55_ST00259
P55_SP00234 594
P55_ST00260 615 230 "glimpses", 00000420300
P55_SP00235 845 2196
P55_ST00261 860
P55_SP00236 931
P55_ST00262 945
P55_SP00237 1022
P55_ST00263
P55_SP00238
P55_ST00264 1227 lead
P55_SP00239 1308
P55_ST00265 1321 2155
P55_SP00240
P55_ST00266 1374 278 entanglement, 0100100000100
P55_SP00241 1652
P55_ST00267 2162 as
P55_SP00242 1707
P55_ST00268 1721
P55_SP00243 1781
P55_ST00269 glimpses 00004203
P55_SP00244 1970
P55_ST00270 1984 may
P55_TL00027 2208 1792
P55_ST00271 resemble 00300000
P55_SP00245 555 2244
P55_ST00272 568
P55_SP00246
P55_ST00273
P55_SP00247
P55_ST00274 792
P55_SP00248 10
P55_ST00275 134 shrimp 200004
P55_SP00249 981 2254
P55_ST00276 997 2220 or
P55_SP00250
P55_ST00277 aquatic 0050000
P55_SP00251 1193
P55_ST00278 1206 vegetation. 40000000215
P55_SP00252 1424
P55_ST00279
P55_SP00253 1478 2243
P55_ST00280 1486
P55_SP00254
P55_ST00281 1559
P55_SP00255 1753
P55_ST00282
P55_SP00256 1887
P55_ST00283
P55_SP00257 1950
P55_ST00284 1965
P55_SP00258 1986
P55_ST00285
P55_TL00028 2265
P55_ST00286
P55_SP00259 2311
P55_ST00287 521 2277
P55_SP00260 2301
P55_ST00288
P55_SP00261
P55_ST00289 657
P55_SP00262 938
P55_ST00290 953
P55_SP00263 998
P55_ST00291 1005
P55_SP00264
P55_ST00292 1080 float 00300
P55_SP00265 1170
P55_ST00293 1184
P55_SP00266
P55_ST00294 1246 lateral
P55_SP00267 1368
P55_ST00295 1384 lines 00103
P55_SP00268 1475
P55_ST00296
P55_SP00269 1561
P55_ST00297 1575 some 2300
P55_SP00270 1677
P55_ST00298
P55_SP00271 1862
P55_ST00299 1878
P55_SP00272 2033
P55_ST00300 2048
P55_TL00029 2323 1789
P55_ST00301 clear
P55_SP00273 2359
P55_ST00302 139 images 000003
P55_SP00274 2369
P55_ST00303 caused 005300
P55_SP00275 775
P55_ST00304
P55_SP00276 838
P55_ST00305
P55_SP00277 910
P55_ST00306 926 strong 300210
P55_SP00278
P55_ST00307 1063 133
P55_SP00279 1196
P55_ST00308
P55_SP00280 1257
P55_ST00309 1264
P55_SP00281
P55_ST00310 1339
P55_SP00282 1429
P55_ST00311
P55_SP00283 1514
P55_ST00312
P55_SP00284 1650
P55_ST00313 1666 lines, 001030
P55_SP00285 1768 2366
P55_ST00314 1783
P55_SP00286
P55_ST00315 animal
P55_SP00287 1992 2358
P55_ST00316 2005 2335
P55_SP00288 2091
P55_ST00317 2103 not
P55_TL00030 2380
P55_ST00318 notice 120000
P55_SP00289 497 2416
P55_ST00319 510
P55_SP00290 570
P55_ST00320 584 weak
P55_SP00291 689
P55_ST00321 704
P55_SP00292 836
P55_ST00322 852
P55_SP00293 897
P55_ST00323 904
P55_SP00294 964
P55_ST00324 978
P55_SP00295 1149 2426
P55_ST00325 1165
P55_SP00296 1235
P55_ST00326 1247 2385 56 try
P55_SP00297 1303
P55_ST00327
P55_SP00298 1352
P55_ST00328 107 swim 2000
P55_SP00299
P55_ST00329 1487 under 51000
P55_SP00300
P55_ST00330 1613
P55_SP00301
P55_ST00331 07300
P55_SP00302 1778
P55_ST00332 1791
P55_SP00303 1913
P55_ST00333 1926 129 results
P55_SP00304 2055
P55_ST00334
P55_TL00031 2438
P55_ST00335


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Description
MeasurementUnit pixel
sourceImageInformation
fileName W:\Main\OCR\ABBYY and KIRTAS_PROCESSING\Kirtas\AA00000567\00001\\Eckert_and_Eckert_2005_Trinidad_Bycatch_Meeting_Proceedings_Page_41.tif
OCRProcessing ID OCRPROCESSING_1
preProcessingStep
processingSoftware
softwareCreator Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
softwareName BookScan Editor
softwareVersion 3.6
ocrProcessingStep
Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
OCR Manager
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Layout
Page P41 PHYSICAL_IMG_NR 41 HEIGHT 3300 WIDTH 2550
TopMargin P41_TM00001 HPOS 0 VPOS 302
LeftMargin P41_LM00001 301 2358
RightMargin P41_RM00001 2246 304
BottomMargin P41_BM00001 2660 640
PrintSpace P41_PS00001 1945
TextBlock P41_TB00001 928 703
TextLine P41_TL00001 306 312 228 39
String P41_ST00001 115 CONTENT g^, WC 0.11 CC 8107
SP P41_SP00001 421 351 26
P41_ST00002 447 313 87 32 <^ 0.16 8610
P41_TL00002 574 626 134
P41_ST00003 392 50 44 ^ 0.00 10
P41_SP00002 624 436 360
P41_ST00004 984 216 '^ 0.12 710
P41_TL00003 345 427 211
P41_ST00005 Habitat 0.94 0200020
P41_TL00004 586 398 615 79
P41_ST00006 li.^i.^AjteP^lfiL3ypffl 88710851088888108777888777
P41_TL00005 590 490 607 70
P41_ST00007 505 Sea^ft^l§^*" 0.32 0321087388107710
P41_SP00003 1095 560 14
P41_ST00008 1109 520 19 16
P41_SP00004 1128 536 25
P41_ST00009 1153 511 21 -^
P41_TL00006 606 460 120
P41_ST00010 ¦-'^^^¦"¦\ 10708101010107108
P41_TL00007 475 722 99 34
P41_ST00011 753 4 3 0.46 5
P41_SP00005 479 756 18
P41_ST00012 497 77 i-*r-A 0.30 863868
P41_TL00008 706 503
P41_ST00013 714 43 42
P41_SP00006 617 30
P41_ST00014 647 46 '¦^S^*'- 0.15 61010810777
P41_SP00007 767 20
P41_ST00015 787 744 9 -r 0.22 68
P41_SP00008 805
P41_ST00016 819 258 V^S^fclfeMt^"'"' 0.23 8108107787787107570
P41_TL00009 760 270 240
P41_ST00017 1^ 0.08 810
P41_TL00010
P41_ST00018 ¦-sm 0.14 107788
P41_TB00002 1218 934 160
P41_TL00011 406 1232 799 56
P41_ST00019 210 Trinidad 1.00 00000000
P41_SP00009 616 1276
P41_ST00020 641 324 Leatiierback 0.91 010008100000
P41_SP00010 965 17
P41_ST00021 982 223 Tracking
P41_TL00012 314 1304 920
P41_ST00022 1322 58 Turtle 0.60 077800
P41_SP00011 372 1340
P41_ST00023 404 38 23 Tag 0.78 042
P41_SP00012 442 1345
P41_ST00024 476 Length 0.40 775266
P41_SP00013 546
P41_ST00025 569 74 Masting 0.41 8836652
P41_SP00014 643
P41_ST00026 689 Date 0.53 2870
P41_SP00015 733 55
P41_ST00027 788 45 0.56 2860
P41_SP00016 833
P41_ST00028 838 of 0.36
P41_SP00017 859
P41_ST00029 905 49 D^ 0.37
P41_SP00018 954 1346 35
P41_ST00030 989 90 Mninun 0.38 256885
P41_SP00019 1079
P41_ST00031 1100
P41_SP00020 1145
P41_ST00032 1150
P41_SP00021 1171 24
P41_ST00033 1195 Nun 0.49 077
P41_TL00013 335 1351 901
P41_ST00034 1352 00
P41_SP00022 355 1370
P41_ST00035 399 Type 0.92 0020
P41_SP00023 449 1375
P41_ST00036 491 (cm 0.80 410
P41_SP00024 530 1376
P41_ST00037 575 60 beach 0.55 60176
P41_SP00025 635
P41_ST00038 665 91 deployed 0.68 00308760
P41_SP00026 51
P41_ST00039 807 last 0.64 0436
P41_SP00027 841
P41_ST00040 880 86 -traded 6278880
P41_SP00028 966
P41_ST00041 991 84 distance 0.57 06364570
P41_SP00029 1075
P41_ST00042 1119
P41_SP00030 1154 37
P41_ST00043 1191 oftr. 0.43 74275
P41_TB00003 1382 931 525
P41_TL00014 485
P41_ST00044 CO.) 0872
P41_TL00015 785 78
P41_ST00045 location 0.75 03087010
P41_TL00016 948 125
P41_ST00046 1397 6 8 0.28 7
P41_SP00031 1405
P41_ST00047 82 traveled 0.72 27803000
P41_TL00017 950 104
P41_ST00048 29 ¦:. 0.33 1072
P41_SP00032 968 1434
P41_ST00049 1010 1410 (km) 0.45 2882
P41_TL00018 1105 57
P41_ST00050 trans. 288800
P41_TL00019 696 178 48
P41_ST00051 1418 40
P41_SP00033 736 1444
P41_ST00052 755 1443 15 ,.
P41_SP00034 780 1458
P41_ST00053 36 ^' 0.17 106
P41_TL00020 910 1446 162
P41_ST00054 ^_^ih-''"'f*^ 0.25 10410788346778710
P41_TL00021 1472 315
P41_ST00055 Da 0.27
P41_SP00035 361 1490
P41_ST00056 396 SSC3 0.87 0005
P41_SP00036 451 33
P41_ST00057 484 53 155.0 0.86 03300
P41_SP00037 537
P41_ST00058 571 Matura 0.35 086778
P41_TL00022 670 1464 219
P41_ST00059 81 Q^17Sfe 71003877
P41_SP00038 751 1496 31
P41_ST00060 782 1470 107 OBZOTg^ 78877810
P41_TL00023 889 1462 338
P41_ST00061 176 ^aK>,13,S)09 1088877728860
P41_SP00039 1065 1500
P41_ST00062 1086 22 ^SlZiJX 0.21 10766878
P41_SP00040 1176 1494
P41_ST00063 1198 44, 0.65
P41_TL00024 1501
P41_ST00064 DC2
P41_SP00041 364 1519
P41_ST00065 .S.S(Xf 0.26 7878488
P41_SP00042
P41_ST00066 140.0 0.63 06703
P41_SP00043
P41_ST00067 177788
P41_TL00025 1492
P41_ST00068 osmmJroinmK 86887887788
P41_TL00026 170
P41_ST00069 27 ¦^^^ 10101010
P41_SP00044 970
P41_ST00070 1006 1,303 00030
P41_TL00027 1094 139
P41_ST00071 07115 3280073
P41_SP00045
P41_ST00072 1205 28 8,6 0.77 007
P41_TL00028 1532
P41_ST00073 DC3 604
P41_SP00046 1550
P41_ST00074
P41_SP00047
P41_ST00075 166.0 0.84
P41_SP00048
P41_ST00076 555 'Matura 0.39 2087878
P41_TL00029 648 1525 241 59
P41_ST00077 mw'^ 88710
P41_TL00030
P41_ST00078 ^)4 0.62
P41_SP00049 947 1560 54
P41_ST00079 1001 64 11,285 0.96 000002
P41_TL00031 133
P41_ST00080 0524^ 0.48 0480810
P41_SP00050
P41_ST00081 1199 29, 0.93 002
P41_TL00032 307 1556 341
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P57_ST00023 1183 104 pulse 45030
P57_TL00006 378 772 736
P57_ST00024 174 duration, 040000210
P57_SP00019 552 815 17
P57_ST00025 0.77 22410
P57_SP00020 686 808
P57_ST00026 701 105 level, 0.91 004000
P57_SP00021 806
P57_ST00027 823 70 and 010
P57_SP00022 893
P57_ST00028 907 207 frequency. 0.88 0000401005
P57_TL00007 829 876
P57_ST00029 236 Conclusion: 0.85 02100430210
P57_SP00023 614 865 19
P57_ST00030 633 0.96
P57_SP00024 757 875
P57_ST00031 165 duration 04000021
P57_SP00025 937
P57_ST00032 951 830 &
P57_SP00026 986
P57_ST00033 1002 level 0.90 00400
P57_SP00027
P57_ST00034 1110 need 1000
P57_SP00028 1205
P57_ST00035 1217 834 37 to 02
P57_TL00008 887 776
P57_ST00036 be
P57_SP00029 923
P57_ST00037 437 187 sufficient 0.76 2506800010
P57_SP00030 624
P57_ST00038 637 892 0.86
P57_SP00031
P57_ST00039 690 152 localize 02000000
P57_SP00032 842
P57_ST00040 858 899 21 a
P57_SP00033 879 922
P57_ST00041 23510
P57_SP00034 1010
P57_ST00042 1024 128 335000
P57_TL00009 377 1001 667
P57_ST00043 195 Reactions 0.92 000000212
P57_SP00035 572 1037
P57_ST00044 587 45
P57_SP00036 632 7
P57_ST00045 639 320320303
P57_SP00037 1047
P57_ST00046 843 1006
P57_SP00038 880
P57_ST00047 897 147 sounds: 0.78 3241030
P57_TL00010 1059 920
P57_ST00048 Goal: 03000
P57_SP00039 483 1095
P57_ST00049 500 209 Determine 0.98 000000010
P57_SP00040 709
P57_ST00050 724 150 optimal 2400000
P57_SP00041 874 1105
P57_ST00051 890 116 signal 200100
P57_SP00042
P57_ST00052 1019 1064 218
P57_SP00043 1237
P57_ST00053 1253 30
P57_TL00011 1116 591
P57_ST00054 160 acoustic 00353000
P57_SP00044 538 1152
P57_ST00055 554 130 alarms 000002
P57_SP00045 684
P57_ST00056 700 56 for 030
P57_SP00046 756
P57_ST00057 769 200 porpoises. 4200203035
P57_TL00012 1231 706
P57_ST00058 244 Conclusions 03100530312
P57_SP00047 622 1267
P57_ST00059
P57_SP00048 682
P57_ST00060 pinger 401000
P57_SP00049 818 1277
P57_ST00061 832 252 experiments: 004000001020
P57_TL00013 382 1289 1634
P57_ST00062 1)
P57_SP00050 416 1335
P57_ST00063 1290 1994: 00000
P57_SP00051 540 1325
P57_ST00064 559 113 Small
P57_SP00052 672
P57_ST00065 687 219 differences 00000001003
P57_SP00053 906
P57_ST00066 921 38 in 01
P57_SP00054 959 1324
P57_ST00067 973
P57_SP00055 1091
P57_ST00068 136 signals 3001002
P57_SP00056 1241
P57_ST00069 1256 1301 68 can 001
P57_SP00057
P57_ST00070 1338 98 elicit 000000
P57_SP00058 1436
P57_ST00071 1451 97 large 0.99
P57_SP00059 1548
P57_ST00072 1561 210 behavioral 0000403000
P57_SP00060 1771
P57_ST00073 1787 229 differences. 000000010035
P57_TL00014 1346 1712
P57_ST00074 39 2) 10
P57_SP00061 1392
P57_ST00075 1347 1995:
P57_SP00062 1382
P57_ST00076 Sweep 00004
P57_SP00063 688
P57_ST00077 704 135
P57_SP00064 839
P57_ST00078 853 94 have 0040
P57_SP00065 947
P57_ST00079 962 1358
P57_SP00066 983 1381
P57_ST00080 995 111 much 0500
P57_SP00067 1106
P57_ST00081 1120 1351 162 stronger 20021000
P57_SP00068 1282
P57_ST00082 1296 112 effect
P57_SP00069 1408
P57_ST00083 1423 on
P57_SP00070 1471
P57_ST00084 1483
P57_SP00071 1543
P57_ST00085 1557 175 behavior 00004030
P57_SP00072 1732
P57_ST00086 1746
P57_SP00073 1791
P57_ST00087 1798 191 430420303
P57_SP00074 1989
P57_ST00088 2003 than 0001
P57_TL00015 1404 295
P57_ST00089 clicks
P57_SP00075 491 1440
P57_ST00090 507 1416 40 or
P57_SP00076 547
P57_ST00091 1409 114 tones. 021035
P57_TL00016 1461 1184
P57_ST00092 3) 0.84
P57_SP00077 1507
P57_ST00093 448 1462 1996:
P57_SP00078 1497 18
P57_ST00094 570 153 Dukane 040020
P57_SP00079
P57_ST00095 735 176 Netmark 1000000
P57_SP00080 911
P57_ST00096 930 92 0.60 0555
P57_SP00081 1022
P57_ST00097 1036 72 had
P57_SP00082 1108
P57_ST00098 1121
P57_SP00083 1181
P57_ST00099 1196 1466 179 strongest 300220030
P57_SP00084 1375
P57_ST00100 1389 121 effect. 0000005
P57_SP00085 1510
P57_ST00101 1526 A
P57_TL00017 1519 1190
P57_ST00102 87 time
P57_SP00086 1555
P57_ST00103 477 bracket 0000000
P57_SP00087
P57_ST00104 638
P57_SP00088 683 9
P57_ST00105 692 1520 88 2-30 1030
P57_SP00089
P57_ST00106 797 1531 s 0.70 3
P57_SP00090 813
P57_ST00107
P57_SP00091 885
P57_ST00108 898 random 001030
P57_SP00092 1051 11
P57_ST00109 1062
P57_SP00093 1167 1565
P57_ST00110 1182 151 interval 01000000
P57_SP00094 1333
P57_ST00111 is
P57_SP00095 1378
P57_ST00112 1524 62 too 0.81 023
P57_SP00096 1454
P57_ST00113 1470 long. 03105
P57_TL00018 1576 1065
P57_ST00114 4)
P57_SP00097 1622
P57_ST00115 1577 1998:
P57_SP00098 1612
P57_ST00116 557 154 050010
P57_SP00099 711
P57_ST00117
P57_SP00100
P57_ST00118 912 XP-10 01000
P57_SP00101 1040
P57_ST00119 1057 258 experimental 004000001000
P57_SP00102 1315
P57_ST00120 1330 alarm
P57_TL00019 1633 1045
P57_ST00121 216 (producing 0.83 8002040010
P57_SP00103 594 1679
P57_ST00122 613 42
P57_SP00104 655 1669
P57_ST00123 170 different
P57_SP00105
P57_ST00124 856 signals) 20010020
P57_SP00106 1008
P57_ST00125 1023
P57_SP00107
P57_ST00126 1109 1638 300210030
P57_SP00108 1288
P57_ST00127 1302
P57_TL00020 1691
P57_ST00128 203 Individual 0100400500
P57_SP00109 580 1727
P57_ST00129 177 variation 400000021
P57_SP00110 771
P57_ST00130 785
P57_SP00111 1726
P57_ST00131 161 reaction 00000021
P57_SP00112 996
P57_ST00132 1009 1696
P57_SP00113 1046
P57_ST00133
P57_SP00114 1191
P57_ST00134 1703 77 was 002
P57_SP00115
P57_ST00135 1297 observed 30300400
P57_SP00116 1476
P57_ST00136 1493 1721 6 0.44
P57_TL00021 1748 1163
P57_ST00137 5)
P57_SP00117 1794
P57_ST00138 431 1749 109 2002: 13310
P57_SP00118 1784
P57_ST00139 556 Ultrasonic 0000022100
P57_SP00119 763
P57_ST00140 777 146 pingers 3010002
P57_SP00120
P57_ST00141 939 (70 003
P57_SP00121
P57_ST00142 1016 kHz)
P57_SP00122 1114
P57_ST00143 1130 deter
P57_SP00123 1228
P57_ST00144 320020303
P57_SP00124 1431
P57_ST00145 1445 well,
P57_TL00022 1806 1134
P57_ST00146 64 but 040
P57_SP00125 1842
P57_ST00147 454 1818 108 cause 00430
P57_SP00126 562
P57_ST00148 no
P57_SP00127 623
P57_ST00149 640 126 dinner 001100
P57_SP00128 766
P57_ST00150 778 bell
P57_SP00129 852
P57_ST00151 867
P57_SP00130 979
P57_ST00152 993 020
P57_SP00131 1050
P57_ST00153 204 pinnipeds, 3011030030
P57_SP00132 1266 1852
P57_ST00154 1283 as
P57_SP00133 1321
P57_ST00155 pinniped 30110300
P57_TL00023 1863
P57_ST00156 149 hearing 0000010
P57_SP00134 525 1909
P57_ST00157 539 1875 89 goes 0203
P57_SP00135 628
P57_ST00158 642 up 0.62
P57_SP00136
P57_ST00159 705 1868
P57_SP00137 741 1899
P57_ST00160 758 137 around 002410
P57_SP00138 895
P57_ST00161 909 1864 03
P57_SP00139
P57_ST00162 kHz. 0005
P57_TL00024 2036 964
P57_ST00163 Effects 0002004
P57_SP00140 510 2082
P57_ST00164
P57_SP00141 573
P57_ST00165 576 selected 42120020
P57_SP00142 2072
P57_ST00166
P57_SP00143 866
P57_ST00167 881 sounds 402004
P57_SP00144 1018
P57_ST00168 1033 2049 47
P57_SP00145 1080
P57_ST00169 1096 other 00020
P57_SP00146 1201
P57_ST00170 1204 fauna: 002000
P57_TL00025 2150 744
P57_ST00171
P57_SP00147 2186
P57_ST00172
P57_SP00148
P57_ST00173 722
P57_SP00149 782
P57_ST00174 798
P57_SP00150 910
P57_ST00175 924
P57_SP00151 969
P57_ST00176 976 4010002
P57_TL00026 2208 877
P57_ST00177 designed 00300100
P57_SP00152 553 2254
P57_ST00178 568
P57_SP00153 2244
P57_ST00179
P57_SP00154 827
P57_ST00180 2220
P57_SP00155 891
P57_ST00181 905 101
P57_SP00156
P57_ST00182 1020 235 odontocetes 20210200003
P57_TL00027 2265 318
P57_ST00183
P57_SP00157 2301
P57_ST00184 460 138 marine 000010
P57_SP00158 598
P57_ST00185 82 fish. 0.53 68305
P57_TL00028 2380
P57_ST00186 208
P57_SP00159 585 2416
P57_ST00187
P57_SP00160
P57_ST00188 674
P57_SP00161 786
P57_ST00189 801
P57_SP00162 846
P57_ST00190 pingers, 30100020
P57_SP00163 2426
P57_ST00191 1027
P57_SP00164 1203
P57_ST00192 1215 2385
P57_TL00029 2438
P57_ST00193
P57_SP00165 476 2474
P57_ST00194 202 porpoises, 3203203030
P57_SP00166 2484
P57_ST00195 2450
P57_SP00167 755
P57_ST00196
P57_SP00168 870
P57_ST00197 884
P57_TL00030 2495 761
P57_ST00198 156 Results: 00350020
P57_SP00169 533 2531
P57_ST00199 143 Signals 0001002
P57_SP00170 695 2541
P57_ST00200
P57_SP00171 784 2530
P57_ST00201 deterred 00000000
P57_SP00172 960
P57_ST00202 974 2507
P57_SP00173
P57_ST00203 1007 131 harbor 000030
P57_TL00031 2552
P57_ST00204 171 porpoise 32002030
P57_SP00174 2598
P57_ST00205 560 2557
P57_SP00175 597 2588
P57_ST00206 612 59
P57_SP00176 671
P57_ST00207
P57_SP00177 788
P57_ST00208 802 78 side 2000
P57_SP00178
P57_ST00209 896 44
P57_SP00179 940
P57_ST00210 950 floating 07200010
P57_SP00180 1102
P57_ST00211 1115 2564 83 pen, 3010
P57_SP00181 1198
P57_ST00212 1213
P57_TL00032 2610
P57_ST00213 2622
P57_SP00182 424 2646
P57_ST00214
P57_SP00183
P57_ST00215 566
P57_SP00184
P57_ST00216 627
P57_SP00185
P57_ST00217
P57_SP00186
P57_ST00218
P57_SP00187 935
P57_ST00219
P57_SP00188 965 2645
P57_ST00220 134 striped 2000400
P57_SP00189 1113 2656
P57_ST00221 1127 dolphin. 03040015
P57_TL00033 2725 927
P57_ST00222
P57_SP00190 2761
P57_ST00223 631 Pingers 1010002
P57_SP00191 2771
P57_ST00224 794 2737 69 are,
P57_SP00192 863 2768
P57_ST00225
P57_SP00193
P57_ST00226 932
P57_SP00194
P57_ST00227 1039 2730
P57_SP00195 1076
P57_ST00228 1090 58 be,
P57_SP00196 1148
P57_ST00229 1164 141 species 3300003
P57_TL00034 2782
P57_ST00230 specific 33000680
Illustration P57_CB1_SUB 1344 447 679 TYPE
P57_TB00003 1641 1477
P57_CB2_SUB 2143 984


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sourceImageInformation
fileName W:\Main\OCR\ABBYY and KIRTAS_PROCESSING\Kirtas\AA00000567\00001\\Eckert_and_Eckert_2005_Trinidad_Bycatch_Meeting_Proceedings_Page_70.tif
OCRProcessing ID OCRPROCESSING_1
preProcessingStep
processingSoftware
softwareCreator Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
softwareName BookScan Editor
softwareVersion 3.6
ocrProcessingStep
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TopMargin P70_TM00001 HPOS 0 VPOS 476
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SP P70_SP00001 962 563 29
P70_ST00002 991 72 65 of 1.00 00
P70_SP00002 1063 547 24
P70_ST00003 1087 483 270 64 Atlantic 00000000
P70_SP00003 1357 34
P70_ST00004 1391 300 80 Longline 0.98 00000001
P70_TL00002 621 583 324
P70_ST00005 Research 0.89 11210000
P70_TL00003 728 1274 48
P70_ST00006 736 21 0.00 10
P70_SP00004 639 757 36
P70_ST00007 675 184 39 Effective 000000000
P70_SP00005 859 767 18
P70_ST00008 877 738 97 38 gear 0.95 0010
P70_SP00006 974 776 17
P70_ST00009 77 and 100
P70_SP00007 1068 20
P70_ST00010 1088 235 techniques 0000000000
P70_SP00008 1323
P70_ST00011 1341 106 were 0000
P70_SP00009 1447
P70_ST00012 1465 221 developed
P70_SP00010 1686
P70_ST00013 1706 731 42 to
P70_SP00011 1748 19
P70_ST00014 1767 125 safely 0.97 010000
P70_TL00004 674 782 1214
P70_ST00015 792 161 remove 000000
P70_SP00012 835 821
P70_ST00016 855 167 longline
P70_SP00013 1022 830
P70_ST00017 1039 98 0.96
P70_SP00014 1137 16
P70_ST00018 1153 99 from
P70_SP00015 1252
P70_ST00019 1272 228 entangled, 0001000000
P70_SP00016 1500
P70_ST00020 1520 78 foul
P70_SP00017 1598 23
P70_ST00021 1621 170 47 hooked,
P70_SP00018 1791 829
P70_ST00022 1811 0.94
P70_TL00005 836 469
P70_ST00023 136 mouth 00000
P70_SP00019 810 875 22
P70_ST00024 832 154 hooked
P70_SP00020 986
P70_ST00025 1006 137 turtles
P70_TL00006 902 1299
P70_ST00026 910
P70_SP00021 931
P70_ST00027 130 Hooks
P70_SP00022 805 941
P70_ST00028 823 89 with
P70_SP00023 912
P70_ST00029 932 a 0.88 1
P70_SP00024 954
P70_ST00030 117 width
P70_SP00025 1091
P70_ST00031 1113 124 larger
P70_SP00026 1237 950
P70_ST00032 1254 95 than
P70_SP00027 1349
P70_ST00033 1370 903 133 51mm
P70_SP00028 1503
P70_ST00034 1524 101 have 0100
P70_SP00029 1625
P70_ST00035 1644 68 the 000
P70_SP00030 1712
P70_ST00036 1732 185 potential 000000010
P70_TL00007 672 956 1166
P70_ST00037 959
P70_SP00031 714 995
P70_ST00038 733 256 significantly 0000000010000
P70_SP00032 989 1004
P70_ST00039 1008 145 reduce
P70_SP00033
P70_ST00040 1173 191 mortality 000010000
P70_SP00034 1364
P70_ST00041 1381 44
P70_SP00035 1425
P70_ST00042 1441 240 loggerhead 0000000010
P70_SP00036 1681
P70_ST00043 1701
P70_TL00008 1151
P70_ST00044 1030
P70_SP00037 1051
P70_ST00045 673 Circle
P70_SP00038 790 1061
P70_ST00046 hooks
P70_SP00039 935
P70_ST00047 114 (160
P70_SP00040 1070
P70_ST00048 1089
P70_SP00041 1167 25
P70_ST00049 1192 112 180)
P70_SP00042 1304
P70_ST00050 1324
P70_SP00043 1580
P70_ST00051 1599 reduced
P70_TL00009 1076 435
P70_ST00052 253 leatherback 00100000100
P70_SP00044 927 1115
P70_ST00053 945 164 bycatch 0001000
P70_TL00010 1142 1216
P70_ST00054 1150
P70_SP00045 1171
P70_ST00055 188 Mackerel 0.92 51000000
P70_SP00046 863 1181
P70_ST00056 885 bait
P70_SP00047 964
P70_ST00057 983 96 (200
P70_SP00048 1079 1190
P70_ST00058 1097 1162 27 4 -
P70_SP00049 1124
P70_ST00059 1143 76 500
P70_SP00050 1219
P70_ST00060 1238 gram) 00100
P70_SP00051 1368
P70_ST00061 1388 257
P70_SP00052 1645
P70_ST00062 1663 171
P70_TL00011 1196 960
P70_ST00063 115 turtle
P70_SP00053 787 1235
P70_ST00064 807
P70_SP00054 971 1244
P70_ST00065 990 116 when
P70_SP00055 1106
P70_ST00066 1125 213 compared 00001000
P70_SP00056 1338
P70_ST00067 1359 1199 41
P70_SP00057 1400
P70_ST00068 1419 111 squid
P70_SP00058 1530
P70_ST00069 1553
P70_TL00012 1261 1275
P70_ST00070 1269
P70_SP00059 1290
P70_ST00071
P70_SP00060 1300
P70_ST00072
P70_SP00061
P70_ST00073 981
P70_SP00062 1309
P70_ST00074 1256
P70_SP00063 1427
P70_ST00075 113 catch 01000
P70_SP00064 1560
P70_ST00076
P70_SP00065 1624
P70_ST00077 1640 140 bigeye
P70_SP00066 1780
P70_ST00078 1798 1264 tuna 0001
P70_TL00013 1315 643
P70_ST00079
P70_SP00067 788 1354
P70_ST00080 214
P70_SP00068 1021 1363
P70_ST00081 1041 1318
P70_SP00069 1083
P70_ST00082 1102
P70_SP00070 1213
P70_ST00083 1236
P70_TB00002 1847 694
P70_TL00014 1853
P70_ST00084 1855
P70_SP00071
P70_ST00085
P70_SP00072 1918
P70_ST00086 1854
P70_SP00073
P70_ST00087
P70_TL00015 1954
P70_ST00088
P70_TL00016 2094 1212
P70_ST00089 2101
P70_SP00074 635 2118
P70_ST00090 157 33 0.93 50000000
P70_SP00075 831 2127
P70_ST00091 850
P70_SP00076 915 14
P70_ST00092 929 215 0000000000000
P70_SP00077 1144 2135
P70_ST00093 1160 168 increased
P70_SP00078 1328
P70_ST00094 1345 94
P70_SP00079 1439
P70_ST00095 1456
P70_SP00080 1492 12
P70_ST00096 1504 172 swordfish
P70_SP00081 1676
P70_ST00097 1695 57 but
P70_SP00082 1752 13
P70_ST00098 1765 this
P70_TL00017 2134 709
P70_ST00099 103 effect
P70_SP00083 775 2167
P70_ST00100 791 2143 75 32 may
P70_SP00084 866 2175
P70_ST00101 882 be
P70_SP00085 923
P70_ST00102 939 restricted
P70_SP00086
P70_ST00103 1122 2137 30
P70_SP00087 1158
P70_ST00104 1172 71 cold
P70_SP00088 1243
P70_ST00105 1260 121 waters
P70_TL00018 2184
P70_ST00106 2191
P70_SP00089 2208 37
P70_ST00107
P70_SP00090 771 2217
P70_ST00108 104
P70_SP00091 892
P70_ST00109 906
P70_SP00092 2216
P70_ST00110 997 40
P70_SP00093 2224
P70_ST00111 1110
P70_SP00094 1175
P70_ST00112 1189
P70_SP00095 1404 2225
P70_ST00113 1420 141
P70_SP00096 1561
P70_ST00114 1578
P70_SP00097 1750
P70_ST00115 1766
P70_TL00019 2234 1306
P70_ST00116 2241
P70_SP00098 2258
P70_ST00117 2235 CPUE
P70_SP00099 769 2267 15
P70_ST00118 784
P70_SP00100
P70_ST00119 003000
P70_SP00101 951 2275
P70_ST00120 965 2237
P70_SP00102 1045
P70_ST00121 1062 2243 69 was
P70_SP00103 1131
P70_ST00122 1148 173 nominally
P70_SP00104 1321
P70_ST00123 1336 169
P70_SP00105 1505
P70_ST00124 1522
P70_SP00106 1597 2266
P70_ST00125 1617 180 0002
P70_SP00107 1694 2273
P70_ST00126 1710 92 circle
P70_SP00108 1802
P70_ST00127 1819 105
P70_TL00020 286
P70_ST00128 using 10000
P70_SP00109 766 2315
P70_ST00129 783 0.81 00108
P70_SP00110 879 2314
P70_ST00130 895 2274
P70_TL00021 2324 1221
P70_ST00131 2331
P70_SP00111 2348
P70_ST00132 2325
P70_SP00112 2357
P70_ST00133
P70_SP00113 11
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P30_ST00029 1702 easily 022000
P30_SP00027 1816 501
P30_ST00030 1832 obtained 0.84 20420300
P30_SP00028 2006
P30_ST00031 2022 457 118 items, 0.78 040026
P30_SP00029 2140 495
P30_ST00032 2156 92 such 2400
P30_TL00004 304 512 1943
P30_ST00033 524 22 as 0.68 32
P30_SP00030 546
P30_ST00034 358 75 fine 4030
P30_SP00031 433
P30_ST00035 448 nylon 0.82 30023
P30_SP00032 563 558
P30_ST00036 577 107 mesh 0.93 0020
P30_SP00033 684
P30_ST00037 699 523 40 or 0.73
P30_SP00034 739
P30_ST00038 146 flexible 40000000
P30_SP00035 900
P30_ST00039 915 139 45 plastic. 0.74 40324005
P30_SP00036 1054 557
P30_ST00040 116 These 00020
P30_SP00037 1200
P30_ST00041 1213 77
P30_SP00038 1290 545
P30_ST00042 1304
P30_SP00039 1351
P30_ST00043 1366 131 placed 403000
P30_SP00040 1497
P30_ST00044 1512 514 39 31 in 0.83 03
P30_SP00041 1551
P30_ST00045 1565 517 81 nets 3042
P30_SP00042 1646
P30_ST00046 1662 at 0.59
P30_SP00043 1698
P30_ST00047 1711 regular 3005033
P30_SP00044 1857
P30_ST00048 1872 183 intervals. 0340303025
P30_SP00045 2055
P30_ST00049 2085 513 67 For 023
P30_SP00046 2152
P30_ST00050 2166
P30_TL00005 568 1941
P30_ST00051 54 set 0.75 204
P30_SP00047 602
P30_ST00052 374
P30_SP00048 410
P30_ST00053 night, 500046
P30_SP00049 542 614
P30_ST00054 233 illuminated 0.85 00050033400
P30_SP00050 791 19
P30_ST00055 810 shark 20330
P30_SP00051 920
P30_ST00056 937 158 outlines 0.77 25400302
P30_SP00052 1095
P30_ST00057 1112 579 87 may 0.88 030
P30_SP00053 1199
P30_ST00058 1214
P30_SP00054 1261
P30_ST00059 1277 123 useful 0.69 520450
P30_SP00055 1400
P30_ST00060 1418 73 330
P30_SP00056 1491
P30_ST00061 1510 should 202500
P30_SP00057
P30_ST00062 1664 97 form 4230
P30_SP00058 1761
P30_ST00063 1777 83 part 4334
P30_SP00059 1860 613
P30_ST00064 1876 0.63
P30_SP00060 1914
P30_ST00065 1930 61 the 400
P30_SP00061 1991
P30_ST00066 570 237 43 experiment. 00403000345
P30_TL00006 303 625 1944
P30_ST00067 626 66
P30_SP00062 369 659
P30_ST00068 384 90 each 0300
P30_SP00063 474
P30_ST00069 490 630 64 set, 0.66 2046
P30_SP00064 554 665
P30_ST00070 569 62
P30_SP00065 631
P30_ST00071 646 98 type, 50406
P30_SP00066 671
P30_ST00072 760 170 location, 020340236
P30_SP00067 930
P30_ST00073 947
P30_SP00068 1020
P30_ST00074 1036 number 350003
P30_SP00069 1193
P30_ST00075 1210 37
P30_SP00070 1247
P30_ST00076 1263 215 20002504402
P30_SP00071 1478
P30_ST00077 1492
P30_SP00072 1569 658
P30_ST00078 1583
P30_SP00073 1630
P30_ST00079 1645 263 documented, 0.80 02050034006
P30_SP00074 1908
P30_ST00080 1924 637
P30_SP00075 1963
P30_ST00081 1978 85 well
P30_SP00076 2063
P30_ST00082 2079
P30_SP00077 2118
P30_ST00083 2132 water 03403
P30_TL00007 682
P30_ST00084 137 clarity, 00210406
P30_SP00078 440 728
P30_ST00085 459 020240236
P30_SP00079 722
P30_ST00086 649 89 time 0.89 4000
P30_SP00080 738 716 20
P30_ST00087 758
P30_SP00081 796
P30_ST00088 815 687
P30_SP00082 869
P30_ST00089 888 74 230
P30_SP00083 962
P30_ST00090 982 179 retrieval, 1041000206
P30_SP00084 1161
P30_ST00091 1181
P30_SP00085 1255 21
P30_ST00092 1276 141 species 3400003
P30_SP00086 1417 727
P30_ST00093 1438 182 (number, 03500016
P30_SP00087 1620
P30_ST00094 1641 size, 30006
P30_SP00088 1726
P30_ST00095 1745 152 weight) 0000040
P30_SP00089 1897
P30_ST00096 1918 145 caught. 0250045
P30_SP00090
P30_ST00097 2101 Several 0000120
P30_TL00008 1254
P30_ST00098 30210
P30_SP00091 773
P30_ST00099 428 30002504403
P30_SP00092 643
P30_ST00100 188 (different 0004401034
P30_SP00093 846 784
P30_ST00101 859 94 sizes 30003
P30_SP00094 953
P30_ST00102 968
P30_SP00095 1041
P30_ST00103 1057 147 shapes) 3024030
P30_SP00096 1204
P30_ST00104 1221 302500
P30_SP00097 1357
P30_ST00105 1370
P30_SP00098 1416
P30_ST00106 1430 128 tested. 4034005
P30_TL00009 853 311
P30_ST00107 854 106 Sonic 03501
P30_SP00099 409 887
P30_ST00108 423 repulsion 504701035
P30_TL00010 965
P30_ST00109 966 Purpose: 40071002
P30_SP00100 461 1011
P30_ST00110 482 50 To 02
P30_SP00101 532 999
P30_ST00111 555 203 determine 004030030
P30_SP00102
P30_ST00112 781 (i)
P30_SP00103 818 1010
P30_ST00113 841
P30_SP00104 902
P30_ST00114 922 213 maximally 030003000
P30_SP00105 1135
P30_ST00115 1157 967 173 sensitive 203204000
P30_SP00106 1330
P30_ST00116 200 frequency 430250300
P30_SP00107
P30_ST00117 1571 for 0.65
P30_SP00108 1628
P30_ST00118 1648 232 leatherback 0.87 00340030300
P30_SP00109 1880
P30_ST00119 1900 hearing; 00330302
P30_SP00110
P30_ST00120 2086 51 (ii)
P30_SP00111
P30_ST00121 2159 88 how 020
P30_TL00011 1022
P30_ST00122 250 leatherbacks 003400303002
P30_SP00112 553 1056
P30_ST00123 572 respond 3024230
P30_SP00113 735 1067
P30_ST00124 755 1027 to
P30_SP00114 792
P30_ST00125 812 143 sounds 0.71 225302
P30_SP00115 955
P30_ST00126 974 generated 003033400
P30_SP00116 1172 1068
P30_ST00127 1191 1024
P30_SP00117 1229 1055
P30_ST00128 those 40220
P30_SP00118 1353
P30_ST00129 1371 242 frequencies; 430250300022
P30_SP00119 1613
P30_ST00130 1632
P30_SP00120 1706
P30_ST00131 1727 (iii) 00000
P30_SP00121 1791
P30_ST00132 1811 167 whether 0004003
P30_SP00122
P30_ST00133 1996 251
P30_TL00012 302 1079 1945
P30_ST00134
P30_SP00123
P30_ST00135 394 111 avoid 30200
P30_SP00124 505 1113
P30_ST00136 520 80
P30_SP00125 600
P30_ST00137 615 190 equipped 02504400
P30_SP00126 805 1124
P30_ST00138 819 93 with 0040
P30_SP00127 912
P30_ST00139 926 1081 101 sonic 22300
P30_SP00128
P30_ST00140 1042 184 'pingers'. 4403003205
P30_SP00129 1226 1125
P30_ST00141 1242 120 While
P30_SP00130 1362
P30_ST00142 1376 153 hearing 0033030
P30_SP00131 1529
P30_ST00143 1543
P30_SP00132 1581
P30_ST00144 1596 1091 sea
P30_SP00133 1657
P30_ST00145 1671 turtles 4534002
P30_SP00134 1799
P30_ST00146 1813 is
P30_SP00135 1843
P30_ST00147 1858 132 poorly 422300
P30_SP00136 1990
P30_ST00148 2004 understood, 0.72 53003242206
P30_TL00013
P30_ST00149 1147 a 2
P30_SP00137 324 1169
P30_ST00150 345 few
P30_SP00138 419
P30_ST00151 441 142 studies 3450003
P30_SP00139 583
P30_ST00152 605 95 have 0200
P30_SP00140 700
P30_ST00153 723 suggested 350003400
P30_SP00141 923
P30_ST00154 946 78 that 4024
P30_SP00142
P30_ST00155 1045 1140 99 most 0234
P30_SP00143 1144
P30_ST00156 1166
P30_SP00144 1227
P30_ST00157 1249 127 4514003
P30_SP00145 25
P30_ST00158 1401 (leatherbacks 0002400102003
P30_SP00146 1180
P30_ST00159 1687
P30_SP00147 1782
P30_ST00160 1804 not
P30_SP00148 1870
P30_ST00161 1890 been 0003
P30_SP00149 1985
P30_ST00162 2007 240 successfully 350003345000
P30_TL00014 1192
P30_ST00163 studied) 24500000
P30_SP00150 467 1237
P30_ST00164 483 hear 0033
P30_SP00151
P30_ST00165
P30_SP00152 668
P30_ST00166 1194
P30_SP00153 721 1225
P30_ST00167 734 lower 02003
P30_SP00154 848
P30_ST00168 862 frequencies 42025030002
P30_SP00155 1092
P30_ST00169 1106 from 4220
P30_SP00156
P30_ST00170 1217 245 100-lOOOHz, 0.52 46604666606
P30_SP00157 1462 1232
P30_ST00171 1475
P30_SP00158 1568
P30_ST00172 96 peak
P30_SP00159 1677
P30_ST00173 1691 44 sensitivity 20320400040
P30_SP00160 1896 1238
P30_ST00174 1910 between 0040003
P30_SP00161 2080
P30_ST00175 2093 350 406
P30_SP00162
P30_ST00176 2174
P30_TL00015
P30_ST00177 1250 500Hz. 066605
P30_SP00163 439 1283
P30_ST00178 Behavioral 5003002330
P30_SP00164
P30_ST00179 717 1260 197 responses 302423202
P30_SP00165 914 1294
P30_ST00180
P30_SP00166
P30_ST00181 983 91 loud 0250
P30_SP00167 1074
P30_ST00182 1251 noises 320202
P30_SP00168
P30_ST00183 79 (e.g. 00505
P30_SP00169 1295
P30_ST00184 1331 air
P30_SP00170 1382
P30_ST00185 1398 cannons 0333232
P30_SP00171 1563
P30_ST00186 1579 used 5200
P30_SP00172 1673
P30_ST00187 1689
P30_SP00173 1728 1282
P30_ST00188 1744 seismic 2002000
P30_SP00174 1889
P30_ST00189 1906 168 surveys) 25300020
P30_SP00175 2074
P30_ST00190 60 are
P30_SP00176 2153
P30_ST00191 2169 also 3022
P30_TL00016 1306
P30_ST00192
P30_SP00177 434 1352
P30_ST00193 453 258 investigated, 0300240034006
P30_SP00178 711
P30_ST00194 but 054
P30_SP00179 1340
P30_ST00195 1317 113 range 33300
P30_SP00180 925
P30_ST00196 943
P30_SP00181
P30_ST00197 1058 189 increased 030303200
P30_SP00182
P30_ST00198 1267 186 surfacing 253430030
P30_SP00183 1453
P30_ST00199 1471 151 periods 4030202
P30_SP00184 1622
P30_ST00200 1640
P30_SP00185
P30_ST00201 1696 avoidance. 3020033005
P30_SP00186 1909
P30_ST00202 1307 82 One
P30_SP00187 2027
P30_ST00203 201 successful 2500022450
P30_TL00017 1363
P30_ST00204 method 004020
P30_SP00188 456 1397
P30_ST00205 480
P30_SP00189 537
P30_ST00206 560 reducing 20050030
P30_SP00190 1409
P30_ST00207 762
P30_SP00191 823
P30_ST00208 277 entanglement 034330000034
P30_SP00192 1123
P30_ST00209 1146
P30_SP00193 1184
P30_ST00210 1207 small 20300
P30_SP00194 1313
P30_ST00211 1335 whales 003002
P30_SP00195 1476
P30_ST00212 1501
P30_SP00196 1574
P30_ST00213 1599 176 dolphins 02040032
P30_SP00197 1775 1408
P30_ST00214 1365
P30_SP00198 1837 1396
P30_ST00215 1861 gillnets 00003042
P30_SP00199
P30_ST00216 2029
P30_SP00200 2059
P30_ST00217 2083 1368
P30_SP00201 2120
P30_ST00218 2144 104 place 40300
P30_TL00018 1420 1915
P30_ST00219 1422 inexpensive 03004032000
P30_SP00202 543 1465
P30_ST00220
P30_SP00203 1454
P30_ST00221 672 'pingers' 440300320
P30_SP00204 845 1466
P30_ST00222 861
P30_SP00205
P30_ST00223 913
P30_SP00206
P30_ST00224 989 gillnet;
P30_SP00207
P30_ST00225 2500
P30_SP00208
P30_ST00226 1246 an
P30_SP00209 1293
P30_ST00227 approach 34432300
P30_SP00210 1495
P30_ST00228 1508 has 032
P30_SP00211
P30_ST00229 1588 112 never
P30_SP00212 1700
P30_ST00230 1713
P30_SP00213 1808
P30_ST00231 1821 tested 402400
P30_SP00214 1939
P30_ST00232 1954
P30_SP00215 1992
P30_ST00233 1432
P30_SP00216 2067
P30_ST00234 2081 turtles. 45340025
P30_TL00019 1533 1946
P30_ST00235 159 Material 02100020
P30_SP00217 1567
P30_ST00236
P30_SP00218 547
P30_ST00237 564
P30_SP00219
P30_ST00238 The
P30_SP00220 829
P30_ST00239 847 first 40124
P30_SP00221 928
P30_ST00240 945 1538 3214
P30_SP00222 1028 1578
P30_ST00241
P30_SP00223 1085
P30_ST00242 1103 this 4002
P30_SP00224 1175
P30_ST00243 1196 study 24400
P30_SP00225 1308
P30_ST00244 1326
P30_SP00226 1403 1566
P30_ST00245 1421
P30_SP00227 1467
P30_ST00246 1487
P30_SP00228 1524
P30_ST00247 1545 use 420
P30_SP00229 1610
P30_ST00248 1629 Auditory 04004210
P30_SP00230 1815
P30_ST00249 1534 Brainstem 512032400
P30_SP00231 2039
P30_ST00250 2057 Response 00232320
P30_TL00020 1590 1942
P30_ST00251 (ABR) 00500
P30_SP00232 26
P30_ST00252 449 methods 0040202
P30_SP00233 623 1624
P30_ST00253 648 1595
P30_SP00234
P30_ST00254 709 71 test 0.70
P30_SP00235 780
P30_ST00255 802 154
P30_SP00236 956 1636
P30_ST00256 980 1592
P30_SP00237 1185
P30_ST00257
P30_SP00238 1248 1623
P30_ST00258 1272 260 leatherbacks. 0034003030025
P30_SP00239 1532
P30_ST00259 1580 239 Preliminary 62000003330
P30_SP00240 1819
P30_ST00260 1844 2450002
P30_SP00241 1986
P30_ST00261 2010 using 52030
P30_SP00242 2121
P30_ST00262 103 these 40020
P30_TL00021 1647
P30_ST00263
P30_SP00243 476 1681
P30_ST00264 1658 were 0030
P30_SP00244 593
P30_ST00265 611 initiated 030403400
P30_SP00245 778
P30_ST00266 797 1649
P30_SP00246 835 1680
P30_ST00267 175 Trinidad 02030030
P30_SP00247
P30_ST00268 1046 by
P30_SP00248 1096 1693
P30_ST00269 1115 1659
P30_SP00249
P30_ST00270 1154 1652 team
P30_SP00250 1252
P30_ST00271 led
P30_SP00251
P30_ST00272 1348 49
P30_SP00252
P30_ST00273 Dr. 225
P30_SP00253
P30_ST00274 Scott 00244
P30_SP00254
P30_ST00275 1612 100034
P30_SP00255 1740
P30_ST00276 1757
P30_SP00256 1796
P30_ST00277 1814
P30_SP00257 1875
P30_ST00278 1893 1990s 40062
P30_SP00258 2002
P30_ST00279 2019 but, 0546
P30_SP00259 2097
P30_ST00280 2117 due 050
P30_SP00260 2191
P30_ST00281 2209
P30_TL00022 1704
P30_ST00282 lack
P30_SP00261 383 1738
P30_ST00283 402
P30_SP00262
P30_ST00284 1715 proper 432403
P30_SP00263 1749
P30_ST00285 325 instrumentation 032435003430023
P30_SP00264 936
P30_ST00286 954
P30_SP00265
P30_ST00287 1048 some 2200
P30_SP00266 1151
P30_ST00288 technique 400030250
P30_SP00267
P30_ST00289 1384 problems, 432000026
P30_SP00268
P30_ST00290 1602 86 they
P30_SP00269 1750
P30_ST00291
P30_SP00270 1805
P30_ST00292 largely 0330000
P30_SP00271 1961
P30_ST00293 1979 266 unsuccessful. 5325000224505
P30_TL00023
P30_ST00294 1762 Improvements 204220000342
P30_SP00272 598 1806
P30_ST00295 616
P30_SP00273 1795
P30_ST00296 729 1763 since
P30_SP00274 828
P30_ST00297
P30_SP00275 940
P30_ST00298 957 realized 20300000
P30_SP00276 1116
P30_ST00299
P30_SP00277 1173 1794
P30_ST00300 1189 both 0240
P30_SP00278 1280
P30_ST00301 1297 326 032435003434023
P30_SP00279
P30_ST00302
P30_SP00280 1714
P30_ST00303 1733 206 technique. 4000302505
P30_SP00281
P30_ST00304 1974 Once
P30_SP00282 2077
P30_ST00305 2095
P30_TL00024 1818
P30_ST00306 229 41015030003
P30_SP00283 1863
P30_ST00307 549 1829 210
P30_SP00284 609 1852
P30_ST00308 624 53001342206
P30_SP00285 867
P30_ST00309 884 265 development 00000240034
P30_SP00286 1149
P30_ST00310 1164
P30_SP00287 1202
P30_ST00311 prototype 412424040
P30_SP00288 1415 1864
P30_ST00312 240300130
P30_SP00289 1603
P30_ST00313 1621
P30_SP00290
P30_ST00314 work 0210
P30_SP00291
P30_ST00315 1820
P30_SP00292 1851
P30_ST00316 1887
P30_SP00293 1949
P30_ST00317 1964 12300
P30_SP00294
P30_ST00318 optimal 2440020
P30_TL00025
P30_ST00319 56 421
P30_SP00295 359
P30_ST00320 372 00240010200
P30_SP00296 604
P30_ST00321 617 0021030
P30_SP00297 771 1921
P30_ST00322
P30_SP00298
P30_ST00323 934
P30_SP00299
P30_ST00324 994 developed 000002400
P30_SP00300 1920
P30_ST00325 1219
P30_SP00301
P30_ST00326 275 appropriately 2441241024000
P30_SP00302
P30_ST00327 1597 235 field-tested. 4000004034005
P30_TB00003 2107 850
P30_TL00026 2113
P30_ST00328 2114 Fisli 00208
P30_SP00303 380 2149
P30_ST00329 396 Attracting 0112001000
P30_SP00304 2157
P30_ST00330 629 Devices 0400052
P30_SP00305 799
P30_ST00331 817 (FADs) 700027
P30_TL00027 2224 1619
P30_ST00332 2225
P30_SP00306 2270
P30_ST00333 475
P30_SP00307 525 2258
P30_ST00334 541
P30_SP00308 745
P30_ST00335 757
P30_SP00309
P30_ST00336 938 FADs 0012
P30_SP00310 1052
P30_ST00337 1066 could 02500
P30_SP00311 1177
P30_ST00338 1190
P30_SP00312
P30_ST00339 169 effective 044004000
P30_SP00313 1419
P30_ST00340 1433 2229
P30_SP00314 1469
P30_ST00341 1482 2226 increasing 0303032030
P30_SP00315
P30_ST00342 1701 catch 03400
P30_SP00316
P30_ST00343 rates. 234025
P30_TL00028 2338
P30_ST00344 043001400
P30_SP00317 2372
P30_ST00345 404
P30_SP00318
P30_ST00346 161 methods: 00303404
P30_SP00319 740
P30_ST00347 166 Optimal 0440020
P30_SP00320 2383
P30_ST00348 2339 FAD 0.99
P30_SP00321 1034 2371
P30_ST00349 2340 construction 023341504023
P30_SP00322 1302
P30_ST00350 1319
P30_SP00323 1393
P30_ST00351 1412 design 003003
P30_SP00324 1544 2384
P30_ST00352 1559
P30_SP00325
P30_ST00353 1653 need 3000
P30_SP00326 1748
P30_ST00354 1766 2343
P30_SP00327 1803
P30_ST00355
P30_SP00328 1866
P30_ST00356 1883 231 determined 0040100300
P30_SP00329
P30_ST00357 2131 based 02300
P30_TL00029 2395
P30_ST00358 2406 on
P30_SP00330 353 2429
P30_ST00359 2407
P30_SP00331
P30_ST00360 427 2397 review 0.95 200000
P30_SP00332
P30_ST00361 591
P30_SP00333
P30_ST00362 655 current 0532034
P30_SP00334
P30_ST00363 150 designs 0020032
P30_SP00335 979 2441
P30_ST00364 1006
P30_SP00336 2428
P30_ST00365 1071
P30_SP00337 1138
P30_ST00366 1165 elsewhere. 0020000305
P30_SP00338 1375
P30_ST00367 1429 2396
P30_SP00339
P30_ST00368 1558
P30_SP00340
P30_ST00369 2440030
P30_SP00341 1802 2440
P30_ST00370 1830 002003
P30_SP00342 1962
P30_ST00371 1988
P30_SP00343 2044
P30_ST00372 2071
P30_TL00030 2452
P30_ST00373 conditions 0230040232
P30_SP00344 2486
P30_ST00374 530
P30_SP00345 2498
P30_ST00375 627 high 0.97 1000
P30_SP00346
P30_ST00376 732 2457
P30_SP00347 879
P30_ST00377 893 100 flow, 40206
P30_SP00348 993 2492
P30_ST00378 1009 low
P30_SP00349 1083
P30_ST00379 1099 visibility) 00200000400
P30_SP00350 1287
P30_ST00380 1305 2454
P30_SP00351
P30_ST00381 determined, 00403003006
P30_SP00352 1594
P30_ST00382 two
P30_SP00353 1685
P30_ST00383 264 experimental 004030003430
P30_SP00354 1965 2497
P30_ST00384 1981 2453
P30_SP00355 2094
P30_ST00385 2111 135
P30_TL00031 2508
P30_ST00386
P30_SP00356 348 2542
P30_ST00387 363 187 deployed 00402000
P30_SP00357 550 2554
P30_ST00388 566
P30_SP00358 640
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P54_TL00027 2093 916
P54_ST00168
P54_SP00142 2139
P54_ST00169 Echolocation
P54_SP00143 619 2129
P54_ST00170 signals 2001002
P54_SP00144
P54_ST00171 784
P54_SP00145
P54_ST00172
P54_SP00146
P54_ST00173 910 130
P54_SP00147 1040
P54_ST00174 1053 170 0.78 42042030
P54_TL00028 2150
P54_ST00175
P54_SP00148 2196
P54_ST00176
P54_SP00149 2186
P54_ST00177
P54_SP00150
P54_ST00178 125 ability 0.99
P54_SP00151
P54_ST00179
P54_SP00152 1014
P54_ST00180 1021
P54_SP00153 1081
P54_ST00181 1094
P54_TL00029 2208 710 103
P54_ST00182 32032030
P54_SP00154 472 2254 -169
P54_ST00183 2265
P54_SP00155 2311
P54_ST00184 2267 Target
P54_SP00156
P54_ST00185 500 124 (echo) 000020
P54_SP00157 624
P54_ST00186 640 159 strength 20001000
P54_SP00158
P54_ST00187 813
P54_SP00159 858 2301
P54_ST00188
P54_TL00030 2380
P54_ST00189
P54_SP00160 2426
P54_ST00190 265 000010000000
P54_SP00161 2416
P54_ST00191 634 140 4000014
P54_SP00162
P54_ST00192 789
P54_SP00163
P54_ST00193 840 139
P54_SP00164 979
P54_ST00194 985 2383 198 000000424
P54_TL00031 2438
P54_ST00195 Porpoise 13002030
P54_SP00165 475 2484
P54_ST00196 254
P54_SP00166 2474
P54_ST00197 758 113 clicks
P54_SP00167 871
P54_ST00198 885 105 have: 00400
P54_TL00032 2495 700
P54_ST00199 2496 28 1. 06
P54_SP00168 2531
P54_ST00200 A
P54_SP00169 387 2530
P54_ST00201 399 high 4104
P54_SP00170 488 2541
P54_ST00202 197 frequency 000060501
P54_SP00171
P54_ST00203 715 179 (120-130 00450045
P54_SP00172 894
P54_ST00204 99 kHz) 0200
P54_TL00033 2552 652
P54_ST00205 2553
P54_SP00173 2588
P54_ST00206
P54_SP00174 2587
P54_ST00207 2564 142 narrow 100020
P54_SP00175 541
P54_ST00208 553 211 bandwidth 001000000
P54_SP00176 764
P54_ST00209 779 62 (20
P54_SP00177 2598
P54_ST00210
P54_TL00034 2610 819
P54_ST00211 2611
P54_SP00178 2646
P54_ST00212
P54_SP00179 2645
P54_ST00213 401 73 low 020
P54_SP00180
P54_ST00214 134 Source 024000
P54_SP00181
P54_ST00215 639 Level
P54_SP00182
P54_ST00216 766 87 (165
P54_SP00183 2656
P54_ST00217 870 dB
P54_SP00184
P54_ST00218 939 2622 re
P54_SP00185
P54_ST00219 996
P54_SP00186 1009
P54_ST00220 1031 )a,Pa) 0.61 686100
P54_TL00035 2667 374
P54_ST00221 2668 4. 05
P54_SP00187 2703
P54_ST00222
P54_SP00188 2702
P54_ST00223 86 long 0210
P54_SP00189 487 2713
P54_ST00224 duration. 050000215
Illustration P54_CB1_SUB 1272 678 TYPE
P54_CB2_SUB 1606
P54_TB00005 1330 2370 517
P54_TL00036 1351 859
P54_ST00225
P54_SP00190 1390
P54_ST00226 1403 266
P54_SP00191
P54_ST00227 1684 180 020200000
P54_SP00192 1864
P54_ST00228 1880 0001000
P54_SP00193 2006
P54_ST00229 2020
P54_SP00194 2068
P54_ST00230 2071
P54_TL00037 1344 2441 586
P54_ST00231 00000042
P54_SP00195 1524 -173
P54_ST00232 2497 Two 002
P54_SP00196 1440
P54_ST00233 1456 3040003
P54_SP00197 1591
P54_ST00234 1605 2507
P54_SP00198 1701
P54_ST00235 1717 213 conducted: 0210400000
P54_TL00038 1356 796
P54_ST00236
P54_SP00199
P54_ST00237 1405 193 Detection
P54_SP00200 1598
P54_ST00238 1613
P54_SP00201 1658
P54_ST00239 1667 stainless 300010033
P54_SP00202 1833
P54_ST00240 1849 steel 30000
P54_SP00203 1938
P54_ST00241 1953 146 spheres 3400003
P54_SP00204 2099
P54_ST00242 2114
P54_TL00039 1352 328
P54_ST00243 quiet 04000
P54_SP00205 1450
P54_ST00244 1464 216 conditions. 02100002125
P54_TL00040
P54_ST00245
P54_SP00206
P54_ST00246
P54_SP00207
P54_ST00247
P54_SP00208
P54_ST00248 200010033
P54_SP00209
P54_ST00249
P54_SP00210
P54_ST00250
P54_SP00211
P54_ST00251
P54_TL00041 1350 2725
P54_ST00252 noisy 12030
P54_SP00212 1458 2771
P54_ST00253 1473 215 03100002125
P54_TL00042 2782
P54_ST00254 Result: 0035000
P54_SP00213 1488 2818
P54_ST00255 1506
P54_SP00214 1687
P54_ST00256 1702 distances 003001003
P54_SP00215 1881
P54_ST00257 1897
P54_SP00216 1942
P54_ST00258
P54_SP00217 2117
P54_ST00259 2133
P54_TL00043 2840 726
P54_ST00260
P54_SP00218 1498 2886
P54_ST00261 1512
P54_SP00219 1601 2876
P54_ST00262 1614 known 01201
P54_SP00220 1750
P54_ST00263 1762 2845 114 target
P54_SP00221 1876
P54_ST00264 1890 strengths. 2000100025


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P26_ST00028 1944 be 00
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P26_ST00029 338 240 43 inexpensive 0.88 03003032000
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P26_ST00030 397 37 to 41
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P26_ST00040 1850 404 189 resources 102151002
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P26_ST00043 92 local 01030
P26_SP00040 448 483
P26_ST00044 462 454 143 waters. 0.74 0340125
P26_SP00041 605
P26_ST00045 646 450 53 As 02
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P26_ST00046 714 461
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P26_ST00047 776 174 alternate 0.77 304013340
P26_SP00044 950
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P26_SP00045 1001
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P26_SP00046 1155 495
P26_ST00050 1170 136 during 051030
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P26_ST00051 1320
P26_SP00048 1381
P26_ST00052 1395 233 leatherback 00340010300
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P26_ST00053 1641 147 nesting 3024030
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P26_ST00054 1803 season, 0.71 2032136
P26_SP00051 1946 489
P26_ST00055 1960 102 there 40010
P26_SP00052 2062
P26_ST00056 2075 79 was 032
P26_SP00053 2154
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P26_TL00005 506 1942
P26_ST00058 210 discussion 0020522013
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P26_ST00060 587 72 this 4002
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P26_ST00062 827 253 surrounding 25111530030
P26_SP00058 1080
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P26_SP00059 1159
P26_ST00064 1177 130 option 130013
P26_SP00060 1307
P26_ST00065 1324 78 that 4034
P26_SP00061 1402
P26_ST00066 1420 sea
P26_SP00062 1481
P26_ST00067 1499 turtle 0.72 451400
P26_SP00063 1608
P26_ST00068 1625 379 ecotourism-related 001415102001003400
P26_SP00064 2004
P26_ST00069 2023 223 livelihoods 0.94 00000001102
P26_TL00006 302 563
P26_ST00070
P26_SP00065 349 597
P26_ST00071 367 219 considered 0132000100
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P26_ST00072 for 411
P26_SP00067 662
P26_ST00073 680 fishers 4020012
P26_SP00068 811
P26_ST00074 830 565
P26_SP00069 868 596
P26_ST00075 887 575 104 some 2100
P26_SP00070 991
P26_ST00076 1009 178 locations 010340132
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P26_ST00077 1207
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P26_ST00080 1474 194 necessary 300022310
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P26_ST00081 1686 training 41303030
P26_SP00076 1846
P26_ST00082 1862
P26_SP00077 1908
P26_ST00083 1927 made 0300
P26_SP00078 2038
P26_ST00084 2057 187 available. 3030030005
P26_TL00007 306 620 1941
P26_ST00085 108 [Note: 101508
P26_SP00079 663
P26_ST00086 431 621 145 Marine
P26_SP00080 576 654
P26_ST00087 590 128 turtles 4514002
P26_SP00081 718
P26_ST00088 733 95 have
P26_SP00082 828
P26_ST00089 842 recently 10003400
P26_SP00083 1002 666
P26_ST00090 become 0.97 000100
P26_SP00084
P26_ST00091 1184 popular 3135031
P26_SP00085 1344 665
P26_ST00092 1359 subjects 25060042
P26_SP00086 1515
P26_ST00093 1530 56
P26_SP00087 1586
P26_ST00094 1602 86 dive 0000
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P26_ST00095 1703 74
P26_SP00089 1777
P26_ST00096 1792 625 nature 0.69 334510
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P26_ST00097 1936 622 157 tourism 0.76 4151020
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P26_TL00008 676
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P26_ST00101 391 681 35 context, 01340046
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P26_TL00009
P26_ST00113
P26_SP00105 365 767
P26_ST00114 384 126 Wider 0.96 00001
P26_SP00106
P26_ST00115 532 206 Caribbean 531000033
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P26_ST00116 758 734 152 Region, 0000136
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P26_ST00117 932 91 such 2500
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P26_ST00139 640
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P26_SP00133 1476
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P26_ST00151
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P26_ST00164
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P26_SP00156
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P26_SP00216
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P26_SP00217
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P26_ST00236 1045
P26_SP00219 1082
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P26_ST00240 1616 226 regulations 10050340132
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PAGE 1

WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 2005Scott A. Eckert Karen L. EckertStrategic Plan for Eliminating the Incidental Capture and Mortality of Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago PROCEEDINGS OF A NATIONAL CONSULTATIONPort of Spain, Trinidad, 16-18 February 2005 Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in collaboration with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservatin Network (WIDECAST)

PAGE 2

For bibliographic purposes, this publication should be cited as follows: Eckert, Scott A. and Karen L. Eckert. 2005. Strategic Plan for Eliminating the Incidental Capture and Mortality of Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago: Proceedings of a National Consultation. Port of Spain, 16…18 February 2005. Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in collaboration with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST). WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5. Beaufort, N. Carolina. 30 pp. + appendices ISSN: 1930-3025 Copies of this publication may be obtained from: Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) 135 Duke Marine Lab Road Beaufort, North Carolina 28516 Phone: + (252) 504-7597 Fax: + (252) 504 7648 Email : keckert@widecast.org

PAGE 3

Strategic Plan for Eliminating the Incidental Capture and Mortality of Leatherback Turtles in the Coastal Gillnet Fisheries of Trinidad and TobagoPROCEEDINGS OF A NATIONAL CONSULTATION Port of Spain, Trinidad, 16…18 February 2005 Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, in collaboration with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) Scott A. Eckert and Karen L. Eckert 2005

PAGE 5

Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 1 PREFACE AND INTENT For more than two decades the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean States and territories, has linked scientists, conservationists, resource managers, resource users, policy-makers, industry groups, educators, and other stakeholders together in a collective effort to develop a unified management framework, and to promote a regional capacity to design and implement scientifically sound sea turtle management programs. As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, WIDECAST is designed to address research and management priorities at national and regional levels, both for sea turtles and for the habitats upon which they depend. We focus on bringing the best available science to bear on contemporary management and conservation issues, empowering stakeholders to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing an operational mechanism and a framework for cooperation at all levels, both within and among nations. Network participants throughout the region are committed to working collaboratively to develop their collective capacity to manage shared sea turtle resources. By bringing people together, and by encouraging inclusive management planning, WIDECAST is helping to ensure that utilization practices, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term. There can be no doubt that one of the most serious and intractable management issues facing the Caribbean region is the wastage associated with sea turtle bycatch. Not only does the capture and mortality of sea turtles incidental to subsistence and commercial fisheries diminish an already depleted sea turtle resource, compromising recovery efforts at national and regional scales and reducing the number of turtles that could otherwise enter the marketplace in more productive ways, but, through gear damage and time spent, it can cripple the ability of fishers, many of whom subsist in marginal economies, to make a living for their families. Our intention in convening this meeting was to demonstrate that a community can meet this challenge even as it reaches crisis proportions … as it has along the northeast coast of Trinidad … and threatens to overwhelm stakeholder sensibilities. We are particularly awed and inspired by the fishers, who clearly have the most to lose in shifting the delicate dynamics of their economies. They brought their expertise, their humor, their frustration, their creativity and, perhaps most importantly, a willingness to visualize a new path. These proceedings are dedicated to all who gave of their time and talent over those three days, and all who will find these efforts inspiring and seek to duplicate them in other parts of the world. Karen L. Eckert Executive Director WIDECAST

PAGE 6

Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A consultation of this magnitude, bringing together interest groups from every region of the nation, representing a wide range of life and professional experiences, could not have been accomplished without the innovative spirit and broad support of the nations fisher community, sea turtle scientists, community groups, natural resource managers, and policy-makers, as well as our logistical coordinators, donors, and invited experts. We gratefully acknowledge the more than 50 participants who took time from their busy lives to start the important process of building bridges to span the gap between profitable fisheries and the conservation of endangered leatherback sea turtles. The enthusiasm and generosity of all participants was tremendously inspiring. Such a meeting would never have proceeded without the proactive initiative of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, especially Ms. Anne-Marie Jobity (Director of Fisheries) and Dr. Arthur Potts (Assistant Director of Fisheries). Their realistic appraisals of the practical, and the commitment of their agency to this process has been invaluable. We also gratefully acknowledge the following individuals who worked so hard to organize and manage the myriad of details: Ms. Ruth Davis Ms. Lara Ferreira, Ms. Allys Forte, Ms. Sherma Gomez, Ms. Michelle Picov-Gill, Ms. Nadia Ramphal, Mr. Mervin Sendall, Ms. Wendy Thomas, and, especially, Ms. Nerissa Nagassar. Finally, no progress would have been made without financial support from the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), The CGMK Foundation, and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Scott and Karen Eckerts time was partially supported by the Mary Derrickson McCurdy Visiting Scholar Fellowship at Duke University. These contributions are greatly appreciated by all. ƒWith a hopeful eye to the future, and confident that the recommendations herein will be implemented and the bycatch challenge, a crisis for fishers and endangered turtles alike, solved, we thank in advance all who will support the work to come.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface and Intent 1 Acknowledgements 2 Table of Contents 3 Executive Summary and Recommendations 4 Introduction 6 Background 11 Fishing in Trinidad and Tobago 11 Hook and Line 12 Net Fishing 13 Leatherback Turtles in Trinidad and Tobago 14 National Legal Status 16 International Conservation Status 17 International Legal Status 18 The 2005 National Consultation 18 Recommendations for Priority Action 20 Regulatory Options 20 Fishing Gear Options 20 Fishing Method and Techniques Options 22 Common Themes of the Working Groups 22 Decision and Evaluation Criteria 23 Proposed Experiments 23 New Bait Types 24 Alternative Gear 25 Net Modifications 25 Net Avoidance 25 Fish Attraction Devices (FADs) 26 Project Implementation Notes 27 Literature Cited 28 Appendices 31

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 4 EXECUTIVESUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Accidental entanglement of leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) in the gillnet fisheries of Trinidad is the most serious conservation problem faced by the species and threatens to undo several years of proactive conservation and innovative management by the government of Trinidad and Tobago and many local non-government organizations (NGOs). The entanglement problem also places a severe strain on the ability of Trinidad fishers to operate economically, and is so severe that many are unable to fish during the sea turtle nesting season. Undisputed among stakeholders is that incidental capture is the largest single source of mortality to leatherbacks in the country, killing more leatherbacks than all other factors combined. Because it supports the second largest known nesting aggregation in the world, the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species on a global scale. With this in mind, incidental capture and mortality to reproductively active females in waters under the Republics jurisdiction constitute a major threat to this Critically Endangered (cf. IUCN) species on both Atlantic basin and global scales. In an attempt to open a dialogue on these issues, and facilitate a stakeholder driven process of solution-making, a National Consultation was hosted by the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) and the Fisheries Division (Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources) in February 2005. Invited participants included fishers drawn from all affected communities, including representatives from Tobago, local and national NGOs, the governments primary natural resource management agencies, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and a small number of international fishing and conservation experts. The goal of the meeting was to review the problem of sea turtle bycatch in coastal gillnet fisheries, in particular along the north and east coasts of Trinidad where most leatherback nesting takes place, and to apply the shared expertise of the forum to devising a series of potential solutions suitable for field-testing and evaluation by fishers and natural resource management professionals. To this end, twin objectives were proposed: fishers must be better off economically as a result of any proposed solution to the bycatch crisis, and the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback sea turtles in coastal fisheries must cease. The goal of the meeting was met through technical presentations in a conference setting, openforum question and answer sessions, an all-day field excursion to coastal fishing communities and fishing depots, Working Group discussions, plenary consensus on recommendations, and publication of this Proceedings document. Participants acknowledged that the problem is a difficult one, and that no single solution would likely suffice for all areas and all fisheries. Thus it was proposed that a series of investigations be designed to evaluate, under realistic field conditions, various bycatch reduction options

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 5 including: new bait types (e.g. artificial, dead and non-traditional baits) to enhance hook-andline fishing as a replacement for gillnets; new technologies, techniques, or gear modifications (e.g. power take-up reels, alternate net materials, FADs; net-fishing at different depths); and creative approaches to net avoidance (e.g. sonic pingers, shark silhouettes). It was agreed that each of these options should receive equal weight during the experimental phase, and that the results of each trial should determine subsequent experimental priorities. New regulatory regimes, and in particular the implementation of time and area closures, were also discussed. The recommendation was made that gillnets be banned from 1 March to 31 May within a region extending from the south end of Fishing Pond Beach to the west end of Paria Beach, and extending 8km offshore. Other types of gear would be allowed. There was concern over the governments capacity to enforce the closure, however, and the need for improved marine resource management capacity was noted. Also noted was the need to harmonize the Fisheries Act (specifically the 1975 Protection of Turtles and Turtle Eggs Regulations) and the Conservation of Wild Life Act, such that protection to the leatherback turtle at all times was unambiguous. With regard to evaluating fishery alternatives, the meeting uniformly agreed that active fishermen must be involved in the testing and development of each new method, with oversight and assistance by relevant experts. It was proposed that the best mechanism for initiating the field-testing component would be to invite proposals from relevant national and international experts (see Project Implementation NotesŽ), and that fund-raising, including the paid participation of fishers, would need to occur on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, there was consensus that the following criteria be taken into account when evaluating the various mitigation options: What will the experiment measure (objectives and variables)? How will the experiment be conducted (materials and methods)? Where will the experiment be conducted? Who will conduct and evaluate the results of the experiment? There was also consensus that the following Evaluation Criteria be adopted: Can the new technique catch fish? Is it economically viable (i.e. producing equivalent or increased revenue)? Does it reduce adverse impact to leatherback sea turtles? Can it be managed/regulated? Is it logistically feasible for local conditions? Is it biologically and commercially sustainable? Will it be supported/accepted by the stakeholders? Finally, there was widespread interest among participants that a mechanism be created, perhaps by Government, to facilitate an ongoing dialogue between fishers and natural resource managers, and embracing the expertise of communities and NGOs, on subjects of fisher concern regarding the bycatch issue and the hardships endured during the seasonal struggle to fish in the presence of large numbers of leatherback turtles.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 6 INTRODUCTION That leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) are accidentally entangled in coastal fishing gear in Trinidadian waters has been known for many years. In interviews with Matelot fishermen (April-May 1992), Fournillier and Eckert (1998) reported a capture rate of 10 leatherbacks per 61m of net per season. Between March and August 1995, seven Matelot fishermen documented the capture of 139 leatherbacks in their nets. In 1997, an estimated 200450 leatherbacks were captured in gillnets between Balandra Bay and Salybia on the east coast of Trinidad (Map 1), and it was suggested that leatherback death rates off Toco Point were so high that mortality in the northeast region of the country probably exceeded 1,000 egg-bearing female turtles every year (Fournillier and Eckert, 1998), although the authors could not speculate on the extent to which the data reflected multiple captures of the same individuals. Map 1: The major fishing ports on the north and east coasts of Trinidad, West Indies. Eckert and Lien (1999) published the results of interviews they conducted with fishers on the east and north coasts of Trinidad, during which fishers were queried about the accidental capture of leatherbacks in their fishing gear. The following findings are noteworthy: one Matelot fisherman reported that each of the 25 boats (operating out of Matelot) averaged 1-2 turtles captured per fishing trip (i.e. per day); fishermen from Manzanilla (3 boats) reported catching one leatherback per day (five days per week) from January to April, with a 50% mortality; off the coast of Mayaro, where 50 boats operate (25 from Mayaro, 25 are from other ports), each boat reportedly caught five leatherbacks between January and April; mortality was estimated to exceed 95% due to an illegal black market in leatherback meat in coastal

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 7 communities. Eckert and Lien (1999) offered management recommendations based on these interviews, as well as summarizing current literature and additional information provided to them by local biologists, resource managers, and community-based conservation organizations. A follow-up study conducted by the Institute for Marine Affairs (IMA) confirmed the general conclusions of Eckert and Lien (1999), but estimated that more than 3,000 leatherbacks had been captured incidental to gillnet fishing in the coastal waters of Trinidad in 2000 and that more than half likely died as a result of such an encounter (Lee Lum, 2003). According to Eckert and Lien (1999), two primary factors influence the probability that the turtle will die. The first variable is gear type. Fishermen report that monofilament nets result in higher incidental mortality than woven nylon green-webŽ netting. Eckert and Lien (1999) described the entanglement of a leatherback in green-web off Madamas Beach. The turtle was alive and able to drag the net to the surface to breathe. It exhibited a distinctive net imprint/ scarring that is often seen on nesting females. The authors noted that the 4.25 inch [10.8 cm] mesh net did not entangle the turtle sufficiently to cause drowning (though escape was clearly impossible), and that the relatively coarse line appeared not to foul the turtle as seriously as did the monofilament, possibly leading to lower acute mortality rates. Another possibility may be that monofilament nets are used primarily as set nets, in which the net is set deeply and anchored to the bottom, perhaps preventing an entangled turtle from surfacing to breathe. The second variable is how the turtle is treated after capture. At the time of Eckert and Liens writing, leatherbacks were regularly killed either to simplify their release from the net or, as in the case at Mayaro, to support an illegal market in sea turtle meat. Nesting beach patrols sometimes encounter turtles severely cut, apparently by fishermen, which successfully escaped the net. Fishermen report that killing the turtle quickly prevents further damage to the net, and that dismembering the turtle simplifies its removal. Figure 1. Multifilament green-webŽ netting used by coastal fishers in northeastern Trinidad. Carlos Drews/ WWF

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 8 Further evidence of unsustainable rates of capture resulted from studies in which leatherback turtles carrying radio transmitters were reported captured or disappeared offshore for inexplicable reasons. In 1995, three leatherbacks were equipped with satellite transmitters at Matura Beach, on the east coast of Trinidad. One of the three (30%) was captured and released by a gillnet fisherman from Toco. In a follow-up telemetry study in 1996, six leatherbacks were equipped with VHF radios for tracking purposes, and all (100%) disappeared abruptly. Wholesale equipment failure is unlikely, and radio range and coverage were extensive enough to dismiss the idea that the turtles simply left the area. The most likely explanation is that these turtles were killed in fishing operations south of Fishing Pond Beach. In 2003, four satellite transmitters were deployed on nesting leatherbacks (two at Grande Riviere, two at Matura Beach); both Grande Riviere turtles (50% of the total) are known to have been caught and killed in coastal gillnets (Eckert, 2006). To encourage fishers to untangle the turtles rather than to dismember them, and to compensate fishers for damage caused by the incidental capture of leatherbacks, the United Nations Develop-ment Program (UNDP)/GEF Small Grants Programme provided a grant in the late 1990s to the Grande Riviere Environmental Action Trust (GREAT) to refund fishers the cost of net repair when damage was caused by a turtle that was released alive. The program was to be a pilot project, with intentions of replication if it was successful. It is acknowledged that the pilot project represented at best a stop-gapŽ measure and not a final solution to the problem of incidental fishing mortality, since there was no attempt to prevent capture in the first place. The program is currently being evaluated, pending potential renewal. Figure 2. Adult leatherback entangled in a gillnet off the northeast coast of Trinidad. Scott A. Eckert/ WIDECAST

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 9 Together, the available data strongly corroborate what fishermen have described for several years, and that is that many and perhaps most egg-bearing leatherbacks arriving to nest on the shores of Trinidad, one of the largest and most important rookery areas in the world for this species, are entangled at least once by coastal gillnets during their seasonal residence in national waters … and many of them die. The most important conclusion, and one that is undisputed among stakeholders, is that incidental capture is the largest single source of mortality to leatherbacks in Trinidad and Tobago, killing more leatherbacks than all other factors combined. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago plays a uniquely important role in the survival of this species on a global scale, in that the islands support the second largest nesting aggregation in the world (after French Guiana/Suriname). With this in mind, incidental capture and mortality to reproductively active leatherbacks in waters under the Republics jurisdiction constitute a major threat to this Critically Endangered (cf. IUCN) species on both Atlantic basin and global scales. Figure 3. Leatherbacks stranded on Matura Beach, Trinidad, after having been drowned in fishing nets offshore. Dennis Sammy/ Nature Seekers Less well-studied, but equally important to understand, is that the impact such accidental entanglements have on the sustainability of coastal fisheries. Trinidad fishers have long complained that leatherbacks are increasingly entangling their gear, and that such entanglement is causing economic hardship and mortal risk to the fishers. Between the net repair costs

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 10 and loss of fishing time while nets are repaired, it is increasingly clear that coastal gillnet fishing is virtually impossible during leatherback nesting season. For example, according to Saheed Mohammed (Toco fisher) and Nigel Gabriel (Balandra Bay fisher), in June 2005 one full night of fishing with a fillette net (surface-drift gillnet) off the east coast of Trinidad yielded 100lb of kingfish, 105lb of carite, and 66lb of cravalle, with a gross estimated value of $2,600 TT; that same night, a single entangled leatherback caused ca. $3,000 TT in damage to the net, damage that would require two weeks to repair. In many areas the problem has reached a crisis level, so much so that fishermen are unable to fish during much of the time when leatherbacks are most abundant, accounting for a substantial part of the year (i.e. February-August). Continued mortality in coastal fisheries would be expected to cause a ripple effect, both within the local nesting population and throughout the greater Atlantic basin where the species is known to forage in north-temperate and West African waters (e.g. Eckert, 2006). There can be no doubt that such mortality could eclipse national, regional and possibly even global conservation efforts in the same way that the commercial gillnet fisheries of Chile and Peru have been implicated in the near extinction of some 50% of all reproductively active adults on Earth, which until recently nested on the Pacific coast of Mexico (Sarti et al., 1996; Eckert and Sarti, 1997). Figure 4. Post-nesting movements of six leatherback turtles monitored using satellite telemetry, showing high-use areas in the Atlantic Ocean (source: Eckert, 2006). Leatherback nesting populations in Trinidad (the same cannot be said for Tobago) appear to be stable or rising at the present time, further exacerbating interactions between turtles and fishing

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 11 gear. From the standpoint of both turtles and fishers, a solution must be found to the incidental capture crisis. To this end, the objective of the national meeting was to develop a strategic plan for eliminating the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback turtles in Trinidad and Tobago by reviewing all available data, convening an inclusive national stakeholders meeting, soliciting input from local and international experts, and achieving a national consensus on a series of experiments designed to test alternatives to coastal gillnetting in its present form. BACKGROUND Fishing in Trinidad and Tobago The north and east coast fisheries on Trinidad are made up primarily of small-scale artisanal fleets based at fishing ports distributed along the coastline. Vessels are generally constructed of fiberglass or polyester-resin covered wood, 5-7m in length and powered by a single outboard engine. Gear used in the fleet varies by season, location and target species but most use gillnets for at least part of the year. The most recent survey conducted by the Fisheries Division tallied 41 vessels fishing with gillnets on the east coast and 61 vessels fishing with gillnets on the north coast in 1998; of 273 gillnet fishermen interviewed in Trinidad, 73% described themselves as full-time fishermen (Nagassar, 2000). Figure 5. Typical fishing depot on the north coast of Trinidad. Jordan Gass/ Duke University

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 12 According to Nagassar (2000), Approximately 1,404 fishermen [are] directly involved in the Gillnet Fishery of Trinidad and Tobago. These include boat owners, captains and crew on board vessels operating both monofilament and multifilament gillnets. There are approximately 1,368 fishermen operating in the gillnet fishery of Trinidad and approximately 36 operating in Tobago.Ž A variety of mid-water and bottom species are targeted by gillnet fisheries in Trinidad and Tobago, including shark, grouper, snapper and various mackerel species (Henry, 1992; Hodgkinson-Clarke, 1994; Nagassar, 2000). Nagassar (2000) lists the following: Anchovy ( Cetengraulis edentulus ) Atlantic Bumper (Chloroscombrus rysurus) Beechine ( Sphyraena guachancho ) Blacktip Shark ( Carcharhinus limbatus) Blinch (Diapterus rhombeus) Blue bone ( Strongylura marine ) Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) Bonito (Euthynnus alletteratus) Crevalle Jack (Caranx hippos) Cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) Dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus) Flying fish ( Hirundichthys affinis) Grand ecaille (Egalops atlanticus) Grunt (Haemulon spp.) Herring Jack Kingfish (Scomberomorus cavalla) Macrio Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Mullet (Mugil curema) Ocean gar Pampano (Trachinotus carolinus) Redfish (Lutjanus spp.) Sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) Sea Catfish (Bagre spp.) Shark (Carcharhinus spp.) Sierra Mackerel (Scomberomorus brasiliensis) Snook (Centropomus ensiferus) Tuna (Thunnus spp.) Weakfish (Cynoscion spp.) Whitefish Whitemouth Croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) Zapate Fishing techniques can be divided into (i) hook and line, including trolling and (ii) net fishing. Hook and Line Banking This type of fishing relies on a weighted vertical line and one or more horizontal perpendicular lines with 10-20 hooks, each baited with live or dead bait. The horizontal lines are extended parallel to the bottom by the current and the boat can be anchored or drifting. In some cases the fisher can actively work the line by retracting and extending the vertical line so that the weight bounces along the bottom, or by tying off the line to the boat and letting the rise and fall of the boat work the line.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 13 A-la-vive This type of fishing primarily uses live bait hooked on a weighted line with multiple hooks. The bait line is trailed from a boat that drifts with the current. Bait movement results from the fact that the bait is hooked in such a manner as to keep it alive. Depth of fishing is predominately mid-water: the target species are kingfish and carite. Of all hook and line styles of fishing, most fishermen prefer a-la-vive as they believe it has the highest rate of catch of the most valuable commercial species. Switchering … Switchering uses essentially the same gear as a-la-vive, but relies on dead bait. Trolling Trolling is used frequently in Tobago and to a lesser extent in Trinidad. As practiced in Trinidad, 1 4 lines may be used directly from the boat with no outriggers. Bait is usually dead, artificial baits are used only rarely. Net Fishing Filette … Filette netting, or green-web as it is sometimes called, is made of twisted nylon multifilament line, usually dark green or black in color. National fisheries regulations limit all nets to a minimum 4.25 inch [10.8 cm] mesh size (measured on the diagonal) to preclude capturing undersized fish. Filette nets are most commonly set in the late afternoon for fishing at night; fishers report that this reduces its visibility to the target species. Filette nets are usually fished as a surface drift net, extending from the surface to between 3-6m in depth and extending for up to 2km in length. Typical soak time: 2-4 hours. Bottom-set … Bottom-set nets are constructed of monofilament and usually anchored to the bottom for fishing during the day. Like filette nets, these nets are limited to 4.25 inch [10.8 cm] mesh size and can be as long as 2 km.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 14 Leatherback Turtles in Trinidad and Tobago Leatherback sea turtles are the oldest and largest of the seven species of living marine turtles. Evolved during the Cretaceous Era, the genus Dermochelys is believed to be more than 90 million years old; its precise evolutionary history is poorly understood due to the paucity of fossil material (Wood et al., 1996). Mature females typically range from 250-500 or more kg in the Caribbean Region (Boulon et al., 1996; Eckert et al., 1989), but the largest male on record weighed more than 900 kg (Morgan, 1989). Arguably the most pelagic of the sea turtles, leatherbacks are well-adapted for life in the open ocean. Their hydrodynamic shape features broad shoulders and a posteriorly tapered carapace, long front flippers for propulsion, and dorsal longitudinal ridges that improve laminar flow and increase swimming efficiency. As a result of these adaptations, leatherbacks expend three times less energy during swimming than any other turtle species (Wyneken and Salmon, 1992). Geographic distribution of the species is the broadest of any reptile, ranging from 47N to 71S (Pritchard and Trebbau, 1984). For populations inhabiting the North Atlantic basin, satellite telemetry data indicate that adults make annual north-south migrations, presumably to optimize foraging and reproduction (Eckert and Eckert, 1988; James et al., 2005; Eckert, 2006). Analyses of stomach samples have shown that adults feed primarily on cnidarians (jellyfish, siphonophores) and tunicates (salps, pyrosomas) (Brongersma 1969; Hartog and van Nierop 1984; Davenport and Balazs 1991), some (e.g. Physalia : Man-O-War) highly noxious. Figure 6. Leatherback hatchlings crawling to the sea. J. Freestone Mating has been observed between February and May each year in the nearshore waters of Trinidad, and Galera Point is one location where regular reports by fishermen and satellite

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 15 telemetry data suggest that mating may occur (James et al., 2005; Eckert, 2006). Gravid females remain at Caribbean nesting grounds for 1-4 months, depositing as many as 11 clutches of eggs (Eckert, 1987). During the 10-day interval between nestings (referred to as the inter-nesting intervalŽ), there are indications that females feed on jellyfish and related animals, and perhaps primarily at night (Eckert et al., 1986, 1989). Such behavior is intriguing, as sea turtles are, in general, believed not to feed substantially during an active nesting season. Results from satellite telemetry studies indicate that Atlantic leatherbacks leave North Atlantic waters (Canada and northern Europe) and arrive in the early spring at their primary nesting beaches in French Guiana and Trinidad, the largest and second-largest nesting colonies, respectively, for this species in the Western Hemisphere (James et al., 2005). The nesting season for Trinidad and Tobago begins in early March, although isolated nesting events are documented throughout the year (D. Sammy, Nature Seekers, pers. observ). Nathai-Gyan et al. (1987) estimated that 500-900 leatherbacks nested each year in Trinidad. More recent estimates, based on more thorough data collection, suggest that at least 2,000 females nest at Matura and Grande Riviere beaches every year (Wildlife Section-Forestry Division, unpubl. data). Figure 7. Popular tour guiding programs provide seasonal income to communities living near the nations largest nesting beaches. Scott A. Eckert. WIDECAST Matura Beach and Grande Riviere sustain the highest density nesting in Trinidad, but lower density nesting occurs along the north and east coasts, primarily at Fishing Pond, Paria Bay, Murphy Bay, Petite and Gran Tacarib, Madamas, Cochipa, Manzanilla, and Mayaro (Map 1), with lower density nesting on the south coast at Guayaguayare and Moruga, as well as on the Caribbean coast of Tobago.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 16 Leatherback population status became a topic of great concern a decade ago as surveys of the largest nesting colony of leatherbacks in the world indicated that the population had been reduced more than 90% in less than 10 years (Sarti et al., 1996). The decline was attributed mainly to mortality incidental to gillnet and longline swordfish fisheries thousands of kilometers distant to the nesting beaches (Eckert and Sarti, 1997). It is mainly due to these swift and catastrophic declines in the Pacific Ocean (see Spotila et al., 2000) that the species was recently re-classified by the World Conservation Union as Critically Endangered (IUCN, 2004). In the Atlantic basin, the status of this ancient species is less clear. While the scientific community is guardedly optimistic that the largest populations are not declining at the present time, data are available only for reproductively active females, ignoring the possibility that serious threats, such as pollution events, changing patterns of prey distribution and/or incidental capture in commercial fishing gear, may be affecting juvenile recruitment and survival rates. It is also quite clear that nesting has dramatically declined throughout the Eastern CaribbeanŽ in recent decades (Eckert, 2001). The nation of Trinidad and Tobago, therefore, has a unique responsibility to the survival of this species on a hemispheric and even global level. National Legal Status : The laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago conferred complete protection to all sea turtle species under the Conservation of Wild Life Act (Act 16 of 1958, amended by Act 14 of 1963, Chapter 67:01). But more recently, the 1975 Protection of Turtles and Turtle Eggs Regulations (promulgated under Section 4 of the Fisheries Act of 1916, Chapter 67:51), created a five-month open season for the harvesting of sea turtles. The Fisheries Act Regulations state that: No person shall … (a) kill, harpoon, catch or otherwise take possession of any female turtle which is in the sea within any reef or within one thousand yards from the high water mark of the foreshore where there is no reef; (b) take or remove or cause to be removed any turtle eggs after they have been laid and buried by a female turtle or after they have been buried by any person; (c) purchase, sell, offer or expose for sale or case to be sold or offered or exposed for sale or be in possession of any turtle eggs. No person shall, between 1 March and 30 September, kill, harpoon catch or otherwise take possession of or purchase, sell, offer or expose for sale or cause to be sold or offered or exposed for sale any turtle or turtle meat. Offenders of these provisions are liable on summary conviction to a fine of $2,000 TT and imprisonment for six months. Conflicts and deficiencies in the legislation, coupled with inadequate law enforcement, have had the result that a largely uncontrolled take of marine turtles continues in and out of season, especially for hawksbill and green turtles, and this provides meat and eggs (as well as turtle shell) that are consumed locally and marketed formally and informally throughout the country. In addition, illegal hunting of nesting leatherback turtles has been considered an acute management challenge since the 1970s. Although this pressure has eased considerably in Trinidad with the advent of nesting beach protection and community-based conservation

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 17 efforts in the early 1990s, in Tobago the presence of carcasses on the nesting beaches has been identified as an immediate management crisisŽ (Eckert and Herron, 1998) and sparked protests amongst the tourists on which the island has come to depend so heavily (SOS Tobago, 2003). Since as early as May 1987, government officials in various Ministries have been urging regulatory reform on behalf of marine turtles in Trinidad and Tobago. Despite agreement between the lead agencies more than a decade ago on a legislative proposal to amend the Fisheries Act to give complete protection to marine turtles (Fournillier and Eckert, 1998), Parliament has yet to adopt this legislation (Brutigam and Eckert, 2006). Figure 8. With a long history of involving communities in the conservation of Critically Endangered (cf. IUCN) leatherback turtles, Trinidad and Tobago is a global leader in innovative co-management approaches. Scott A. Eckert/ WIDECAST International Conservation Status : The leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea is classified as Critically Endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, 2004), a reflection of the species global status as defined by quantitative criteria pertaining to past or projected future population declines, population size and trend (probability of extinction in the wild), and geographic range. Species qualify for Critically Endangered status when, among other things, the global population can be shown to have suffered an observed, estimated, inferred or

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 18 suspected reduction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longerŽ (see http://www.redlist.org). International Legal Status : The leatherback is listed on Annex II (full protection) of the Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) to the UNEP Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention); Appendix I (full protection) of the Convention for Migratory Species; Appendix I (full protection) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); and is included in the annexes to the Convention on Nature Protection and Wild Life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere, a designation intended to convey that their protection is of special urgency and importanceŽ. The Republic is Party to the SPAW Protocol which, inter alia prohibits taking, possession, killing (including incidentally), and commercial trade in Annex II-listed species. Significantly, the Protocol also prohibits the disturbanceŽ of listed species during periods of breeding, incubation, aestivation or migration and other periods of biological stress. The Republic is also Party to the Western Hemisphere Convention (1969) and CITES (1984), demonstrating a strong commitment to its neighbors and to the international community with regard to the protection of sea turtles and other species of endangered fauna and flora. The Republic is not yet Party to the Interamerican Convention on the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, but noteworthy is the fact that several participants suggested, during the meetings final plenary discussion, that accession to the IAC would be a positive step for Trinidad and Tobago. THE2005NATIONALCONSULTATION To develop a solution to the problem of leatherback capture and mortality in the coastal gillnets of Trinidad and Tobago, with a focus on the north and east coasts of Trinidad, a National Stakeholders' Consultation was held in Port-of-Spain from 15-18 February 2005 (Appendix I). The interactive meeting was jointly hosted by the Trinidad Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (Fisheries Division), with authority for managing fishery resources, and the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with more than a decade of service in the role of scientific advisor to the sea turtle conservation and management programs of Trinidad and Tobago. The forum was designed to promote the full and transparent exchange of ideas and develop consensus concerning future directions and options in mitigating the bycatch crisis, fishermen, research biologists, natural resource managers, policy-makers, and relevant NGOs from

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 19 throughout the Republic were invited to work together to design as many potential solutions as possible. The Forum Moderator, Dr. Karen Eckert of WIDECAST, tasked the participants with meeting twin objectives: fishers must be better off economically as a result of any proposed solution to the bycatch crisis, and the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback sea turtles in coastal fisheries must cease. Participants were drawn from stakeholder and resource management groups involved either in fisheries or in sea turtle management, as well as national and international experts in gear technology and bycatch reduction (Appendix II). These Proceedings summarize the results of the meeting, and provide recommendations for reducing the incidental capture and mortality of leatherback sea turtles in waters under the Republics jurisdiction, with particular reference to the coastal gillnet fisheries of the north and east coasts of Trinidad. Following a formal Opening Ceremony, the meeting featured technical presentations on leatherback turtles and local fisheries, followed by local perspectives on the entanglement issue and the conservation status of leatherbacks, international perspectives on how related fishery challenges are being met elsewhere (Appendix III), a full-day field trip to several of the most affected fishing ports, and a full day of moderated deliberation in the context of self-selected Working Groups (Appendix IV). Figure 9. Participants in the National Consultation. Carlos Drews/ WWF

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 20 To facilitate discussion and the formulation of mitigation strategies, participants were asked to join one of four Working Groups. Each Group was assigned one of three subject areas to consider: Regulatory Options (Working Group 1), Fishing Gear Options (Working Groups 2 and 4), Fishing Methods and Techniques Options (Working Group 3). Each Group selected a Chairman and a Rapporteur responsible for reporting the Groups major findings and recommendations to the meeting, and responding to questions and peer discussion concerning those findings. Recommendations for Priority Action Given that a significant number of egg-bearing adult leatherbacks is subject to entanglement in coastal gillnet fisheries, and that this entanglement threatens both the stability of the turtle population as well as the livelihood of coastal fisheries off the north and east coasts, there was consensus that management intervention with an aim to reduce or eliminate this mortality … while protecting the livelihoods of fishers … should be a priority. There was agreement that no one mitigation option would be adequate, given the level of variation in fishing techniques used among fishing areas and villages. Ideally, each village or fishing co-operative should be offered a choice of mitigation methods. Further, to increase the chance that fishermen will adopt these methods, all viable techniques should be evaluated in field trials that have direct participation of fishermen with strong oversight and involvement of all stakeholders. Finally, training and other support (financial or otherwise) should be provided to fishermen to enhance their willingness to try out and apply new methods. The meeting culminated in the convening of four Working Groups tasked with comprehensively evaluating possible mitigation options focusing on the regulatory framework (e.g. time and area closures), gear modification (e.g. how to adapt the gillnet fishery to reduce incidental capture), and alternative fishing methods (e.g. replacing gillnetting with a-la-vive fishing). The main conclusions of each Working Group are presented below, with important background information presented in Appendix III. Regulatory Options : Working Group 1 focused on the concept of time and area closures as a mitigation tool. The Group recommended that all gillnet fishing be prohibited from 1 March to 31 May within a region extending from the southern end of Fishing Pond Beach to the western end of Paria Beach, and extending 8 km offshore. Other types of gear would be allowed in this region at this time of the year. They noted that lack of marine resource management was of concern, and that the need for improved marine resource management must be addressed. The Group also noted the need for harmonizing the Fisheries Acts sea turtle regulations with the Conservation of Wild Life Act, such that protection to the leatherback at all times was unambiguous, and urged that increased education and training programs be made available to stakeholders. Finally, the Group noted that commercialization of recreational fishing should be encouraged as an alternative to gillnet fishing during sea turtle nesting season. Fishing Gear Options :Working Group 2 focused primarily on modifying gillnets to reduce sea turtle bycatch. Specific methods considered were repulsion devices, such as sonic pingers that have proven successful in reducing small cetacean (e.g. dolphins, small whales) bycatch, or

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 21 repulsion lighting or chemicals that may cause turtles to avoid nets. In all cases a lack of scientific information on turtle responses to sensory stimulation was noted as a drawback to the successful development of such methods, and the Group placed high priority on the pursuit of studies on how sea turtles would respond to potentially repulsive stimuli. It was noted that studies on these aspects of sea turtle biology would be best if leatherbacks could be kept in captivity, and further noted that, given the difficulty of keeping leatherbacks in captivity, such experiments were unlikely to be possible, but that the husbandry of keeping leatherback turtles in human care should be studied. The Group recommended that field trials of a few promising gear-modifying techniques be undertaken simply to explore the potential of any proposed methods. Working Group 2 also considered whether nets could be constructed and/or deployed in such a manner as to reduce sea turtle bycatch. In particular, it was suggested that lighter strength twine might allow turtles to break free more easily (but still retain target fish species), and that research into this aspect of net construction would be useful. It was suggested that breakaway head-ropes might also reduce sea turtle mortality, or that daytime net fishing might reduce entanglement since biotelemetry data indicate that nesting females are less likely to be near shore during daylight hours (S. Eckert, WIDECAST, unpubl. data). Working Group 2 also considered net fishing techniques that may reduce sea turtle capture. For example, surface driftnets that drop the float line 1 2m below the surface to allow turtles to swim over the net (a method that has been successful in reducing the number of porpoises captured in other areas of the world). They also proposed that tests be conducted to determine if setting nets perpendicular to the shore could reduce entanglement, and they reinforced the need to involve fishermen in all aspects of the testing, including supporting them financially to participate. Finally, they stressed the need for improved public education and awareness. Working Group 4 also reviewed fishing technology as a means to reduce sea turtle bycatch. Most of the discussion focused on replacing gillnets with alternate fishing gear. In particular, this Group promoted the idea that live bait hook-and-line fishing (a-la-viveŽ) could replace net fishing if baits were available, which, according to fishermen, are less available during leatherback nesting season along the northeast coast of the island. With this in mind, Working Group 4 recommended that artificial baits be tested for effectiveness and that new sources of bait be developed. Since it was reported that one limitation to bait availability was the reduced coastal salinity during the rainy season, it was suggested that finding bait sources (e.g. Tilapia) that could be aquacultured and that were salinity tolerant would be very useful. Working Group 4 suggested that more work be undertaken to evaluate whether there were unexploited fish stocks (such as tile fish) that could be caught with bottom lines. It was also proposed that improved troll fishing could replace net fishing. For example, invited experts reported that new power gear, called Bandit ReelsŽ, are being used in troll fisheries in Florida and have replaced gillnet fishing entirely. It was strongly urged that directed trolling methods using power take up reels such as the Bandit Reel be tested in local waters. Finally, Working Group 4 proposed that FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices) be tested. Each fishery co-op could maintain their own FADs and use trolling or various hook-and-line gear in the vicinity of these FADs. This latter idea received great emphasis by the group for a number

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 22 of reasons: the method could allow an almost complete elimination of gillnets; be inexpensive to implement; and enhance community control and management of marine resources occurring in local waters. As an alternate to fishing during the leatherback nesting season, there was also discussion in this Group surrounding the option that sea turtle ecotourism-related livelihoods be considered for fishers in some locations and that the necessary training be made available. [ Note : Marine turtles have recently become popular subjects for dive and nature tourism and, in this context, are increasingly becoming a source of revenue for coastal communities throughout the Wider Caribbean Region, such as in Costa Rica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago; see Trong and Drews, 2004, for useful background]. Fishing Method and Technique Options : Working Group 3 was assigned the task of evaluating fishing methods and techniques. This group felt strongly that replacement of gillnets by alternate fishing techniques should be the highest priority. Target species include kingfish, carite, and various shark species. The Group proposed a-la-vive fishing replace gillnet fishing throughout the leatherback turtle season (February to August); however, they felt that improvements needed to be made in a-la-vive fishing methods to make it a viable alternative. Those improvements included: testing light attractors as a means to improve catch rates; addition of bait wells and bait nets to the boats; implementing regulations limiting the sale of baitfish (Joshua) for fishing only (i.e. not for human consumption); and improved training programs in the use of a-la-vive. The Group also recommended that other fishing methods be developed: use of switchering as a dead-bait fishing method; testing of trolling with outriggers (as is commonly used in Tobago); use of Bandit ReelsŽ to improve trolling catch rates; and further improvements to banking as a fishing method. Finally, Group 3 suggested that alternative livelihoods be established for fishermen during the leatherback nesting season. These might include developing aquaculture projects in the region, such as shrimp or freshwater lobster (crayfish), Tilapia farming, or further development of seamoss mariculture. Common Themes of the Working Groups The four Working Groups featured a number of common themes. For example, all Groups agreed that there is a significant problem both for leatherback sea turtles and for fishers. Most Groups suggested that gillnet fishing be replaced with alternate methods, although there was widespread concern that the marine resource regulatory structure and enforcement framework were inadequate to ensure compliance. Most participants agreed that it was unlikely that a single solution would emerge, and that fishers would need to be given choices. All agreed that it was vital for fishers to be directly involved during testing and implementation of new methods, and that there be fair financial compensation for their involvement. There was consensus that gillnet fishing should be phased out for at least part of the year, in favor of hook-and-line or trolling, but that experimentation to develop less destructive gillnet methods should also receive focused attention. The primary hook-and-line style fishing methods proposed for use are the following: banking, a-la-vive, switchering, and trolling. All of these techniques are currently in use in north and east coast fisheries; however, each method will need improvement to be practical as a replacement for gillnet fishing.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 23 Decision and Evaluation Criteria There was consensus that the following Decision Criteria be taken into account when evaluating the various mitigation options: What will the experiment measure (objectives and variables)? How will the experiment be conducted (materials and methods)? Where will the experiment be conducted? Who will conduct and evaluate the results of the experiment? There was also consensus that the following Evaluation Criteria be adopted: Can the new technique catch fish? Is it economically viable (i.e. producing equivalent or increased revenue)? Does it reduce adverse impact to leatherback sea turtles? Can it be managed/regulated? Is it logistically feasible for local conditions? Is it biologically and commercially sustainable? Will it be supported/accepted by the stakeholders? PROPOSED EXPERIMENTS Based on recommendations developed by the Working Groups and during Plenary discussions, the following list of experiments should be conducted as a priority during the 2006-2008 nesting seasons (February to August). Ideally, funds should be raised to completely support each experiment, including all equipment, fuel and supply costs, as well as stipends to support those involved in data collection and/or analysis. Particularly important is that participating fishers be salaried to conduct the tests, so that they their complete effort and attention can be applied to each experiment, irrespective of whether fish are being caught. Moreover, the experiments will proceed best if fishers try to achieve maximal catch rates and use their own substantial expertise to modify or develop each experimental method to its fullest. To this end, participating fishers should be entitled to their catch as a bonus for maximizing that particular methods efficiency. For all experiments, data sheets will need to be designed and prepared. Variables to be gathered will include a careful description of the gear; e.g. hook-and-line type, distances between hooks, number of hooks and lines, and fishing depth. Fishing duration (e.g. soak time, set time, retrieval time) and location (GPS coordinates) should be noted. Species caught, number of fish of each species, weight, and size of each species must be carefully accounted for, irrespective of commercial value. Standard size and weighing methods must be utilized, necessitating that the total catch be brought to a port for documentation. Other factors to be

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 24 documented include boat type and size, engine type and size, and fuel consumption. At predetermined intervals, such as monthly, a balanced experimental design will designate how many days each gear type or bait type will be used. New Bait Types Purpose: To determine whether artificial baits, live Tilapia sp. and/or frozen Jashua ( Sardinella aurita ) can be used effectively in hook-and-line fisheries. Methods and Materials : Artificial baits … Recommendations for artificial bait types should be sought from other fisheries (in other areas) catching kingfish and/or carite on artificial bait. Initially, this project should conduct a review of all artificial baits, including where they are used, how they are used, and the species targeted. The evaluation can either be contracted to experts in the field or undertaken within the Fisheries Division. For artificial baits that can be used with existing technology, field trials should be initiated with one or two boats in each port of Matelot, Toco and Balandra Bay. Trials should be evenly structured for banking, switchering, and trolling, and should be conducted between February and May. Tilapia and frozen Jashua Baits … Because some styles of fishing rely on the action of live bait to attract target species, the bait must remain alive to be effective. Seasonal lack of live bait along the northeast coast during times of the year when sea turtles are present is a serious limitation. Fishers operating from northwest ports do not appear to face the same constraint and regularly fish along the north coast with bait brought from Los Cuevas and other northwest fishing ports. Solutions to limitations in bait supply should be investigated. The catch efficiency of easily maricultured fish … such as Tilapia. … should be investigated with an eye to replacing traditional bait species. An efficient means to transport and hold bait from northwest to northeast Trinidad should also be explored. Note : Fishers generally catch their own bait, but it may be useful to consider the establishment of a commercial bait supply program. Some fishers voiced concern over the increasing use of Jashua (the primary fish used as bait) for human consumption, limiting its availability as an inexpensive bait fish. Local aquaculture facilities should be contracted to provide live Tilapia for bait trials. Similarly, fishers should be contracted to capture and freeze Jashua bait for use in the experiments. As with artificial baits, one or two boats from Matelot, Toco and Balandra Bay should be contracted to run these trials. All line gear types should be tested. Finally, research into the availability and effectiveness of various artificial baits and dead baits is needed.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 25 Alternative Gear Bandit reelsŽ and outriggers Purpose: To determine whether, based on data presented by Don Nolls (Lindgren-Pitman, Inc.) showing that the use of outriggers and rapid take-up reels significantly improved catch rates of kingfish in Florida, this style of fishing could be effective in Trinidad. Materials and methods: Troll fishing is generally considered to be operationally expensive in Trinidad, due to fuel and motor costs; most fishers are not enthusiastic about its use. LindgrenPitman, Inc. should be contracted to outfit and train one troll boat from each of three coastal communities (Matelot, Toco, Balandra Bay) to use Bandit reelsŽ (rapid power take-up reels, using deep-cycle marine batteries) and outriggers in the context of an experimental design. Testing should involve a balanced design using artificial baits as well as dead (frozen) bait. Net Modifications Deep Sets Purpose: To determine whether setting nets at various depths below the surface will reduce sea turtle entanglement. Materials and methods: Using standard 6cm mesh monofilament or nylon (green-web) nets, cooperating fishers will set the corkline at a series of experimental depths below the surface. Experimental depths will be determined based on information gleaned from an analysis of high resolution dive depth data available, from WIDECAST, for leatherbacks in Trinidadian waters (S. Eckert, unpubl. data). The means to maintain the depth of the net will need to be determined, but is it likely that the best approach will be to use a standard bottom set net with large surface buoys on tethers, clipped to the net at regular intervals. The surface buoy tether lines will need to be at least 3m apart and made of stiff plastic, to preclude turtle entanglement in the vertical tether. As with other tests, fishers will carefully document all aspects of the gear used, as well as sea state, weather, time set, time retrieved, and location. Total catch quantities, size, and species will also be recorded for each set. Net Avoidance Shark silhouette Purpose: To determine whether a simple shark silhouette can reduce sea turtle entanglement.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 26 Net Avoidance (contd) Materials and Methods: Shark silhouettes will be manufactured out of easily obtained items, such as fine nylon mesh or flexible plastic. These will be placed in nets at regular intervals. For nets set at night, illuminated shark outlines may be useful and should form part of the experiment. For each set, the type, location, and number of silhouettes will be documented, as well as water clarity, location, time of set and retrieval, and species (number, size, weight) caught. Several shark silhouettes (different sizes and shapes) should be tested. Sonic repulsion Purpose: To determine (i) the maximally sensitive frequency for leatherback hearing; (ii) how leatherbacks respond to sounds generated in those frequencies; and (iii) whether leatherbacks will avoid nets equipped with sonic pingers. While hearing in sea turtles is poorly understood, a few studies have suggested that most sea turtles (leatherbacks have not been successfully studied) hear well in lower frequencies from 100-1000Hz, with peak sensitivity between 350 and 500Hz. Behavioral responses to loud noises (e.g. air cannons used in seismic surveys) are also poorly investigated, but range from increased surfacing periods to avoidance. One successful method for reducing the entanglement of small whales and dolphins in gillnets is to place inexpensive sonic pingers in the gillnet; such an approach has never been tested in sea turtles. Material and Methods: The first part of this study will be to use Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) methods to test hearing sensitivity in leatherbacks. Preliminary studies using these methods were initiated in Trinidad by a team led by Dr. Scott Eckert in the 1990s but, due to lack of proper instrumentation and some technique problems, they were largely unsuccessful. Improvements have since been realized in both instrumentation and technique. Once hearing frequencies are understood, development of prototype pingers that work in the range optimal for leatherback hearing should be developed and appropriately field-tested. Fish Attracting Devices (FADs) Purpose: To determine whether FADs could be effective at increasing catch rates. Materials and methods: Optimal FAD construction and design will need to be determined based on a review of current designs in use elsewhere. Once the optimal design for Trinidad conditions (e.g. high current flow, low visibility) is determined, two experimental FADs should be deployed and managed. One off the North coast should be jointly managed by the Toco and Matelot fishing ports; one off the east coast should be jointly managed by the Balandra Bay and Salybea fishing ports. Fishers wishing to fish on the FADs will need to be certified by each port, be willing to record gear and bait types used, and be required to report the details of their catch. Cautionary Statement: Fishing around FADs is not currently practiced in Trinidadian waters; however, a large variety of methods from hook-and-line fisheries to purse-seines can be used around FADs. FADs concentrate fishery resources and can significantly reduce operational

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 27 Fish Attracting Devices (FADs) (contd) expenses so that the feasibility of FADs should definitely be evaluated. However, it should also be recognized that FAD fishing can lead to over-fishing. Therefore, the use of FADs must be carefully matched with improved fishery management capacity and regulatory enforcement. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATIONNOTES Ideally, each budget would be established through formal RFP (Request for Proposals) procedures whereby a project is described briefly and then published or sent to organizations, scientists or experts best able to bid on the project. In each case, the experimental design and proposed budget would then be used to set fundraising targets. Such a process can require extensive periods of time, however, so that in the interest of expediency it is recommended that the Division of Fisheries take the lead, in consultation with workshop participants, in inviting the participation of organizations and experts known to have the capacity to undertake priority experiments. Lindgren-Pitman, Inc. (USA) has unique expertise in the manufacture and use of rapid take-up reels (e.g. Bandit ReelsŽ), suggesting that they might be invited to oversee that aspect of the experimental work plan. Similarly, SEAMARCO (The Netherlands) is a global expert in pinger technology and WIDECAST has expertise in sensory biology (e.g. sea turtle hearing studies), such that these organizations could, in partnership, oversee experiments on hearing and sonic repulsion. NOAA/ National Marine Fisheries Service (USA) and Memorial University (Canada) have expertise in experimental design, gear development, and other bycatch mitigation methods (e.g. shark silhouette experiments) and could be invited to oversee studies and evaluations of gear modification(s). A number of these groups, particularly Lindgren-Pitman, Inc., could provide expertise on artificial baits and the Fisheries Division (MALMR) has the capability to design experiments to test alternate live and frozen baits. As a priority, funding should be sought to support a full-time Bycatch Mitigation Program Coordinator to coordinate the activities of the various projects and to communicate results, on a regular basis, to workshop participants and other stakeholders.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 28 LITERATURE CITED Boulon, R. H., P. H. Dutton and D. McDonald. 1996. Decline of the world's largest nesting assemblage of leatherback turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2: 141-147. Brutigam, A. and K. L. Eckert. 2006. Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles of the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC International. Cambridge, UK. (in press) Brongersma, L. D. 1969. Miscellaneous notes on turtles. IIA, IIB. Proc. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen -Amsterdam. Ser. C 72(1):76-102. Davenport, J. and G.H. Balazs. 1991. 'Fiery bodies' -are pyrosomas an important component of the diet of leatherback turtles? British Herpetological Society Bulletin 31:33-38. Eckert, K. L. 1987. Environmental unpredictability and leatherback sea turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) nest loss. Herpetologica 43(3):315-323. Eckert, K. L. 2001. Status and Distribution of the Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea in the Wider Caribbean Region, p.24-31. In : K. L. Eckert and F. A. Abreu Grobois (Editors), Proceedings of the Regional Meeting: Marine Turtle Conservation in the Wider Caribbean Region: A Dialogue for Effective Regional Management,Ž Santo Domingo, 16-18 November 1999. WIDECAST, IUCN-MTSG, WWF and UNEP-CEP. xx+ 154 pp. Eckert, K. L. and S. A. Eckert. 1988. Pre-reproductive movements of leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) nesting in the Caribbean. Copeia 1988:400-406. Eckert, K. L. and W. Herron. 1998. Tobagos Illegal Leatherback Hunt. Environment Tobago Newsletter 2:2. Eckert, S. A. 2006. High-use areas for Atlantic leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) as identified using satellite telemetered location and dive information. Marine Biology DOI 10.1007 / s00227-006-0262-z. Eckert, S. A. and J. Lien. 1999. Recommendations for eliminating incidental capture and mortality of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea by commercial fisheries in Trinidad and Tobago, WIDECAST Information Document 1999 … 001. WIDECAST, Beaufort, North Carolina. Eckert, S. A. and L. Sarti M. 1997. Distant fisheries implicated in the loss of the world's largest leatherback nesting population. Marine Turtle Newsletter 78:2-7.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 29 Eckert, S. A., D. W. Nellis, K. L. Eckert and G. L. Kooyman. 1986. Diving patterns of two leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) during internesting intervals at Sandy Point, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Herpetologica 42(3):381-388. Eckert, S. A., K. L. Eckert, P. Ponganis and G. L. Kooyman. 1989. Diving and foraging behavior by leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriace a). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2834-2840. Fournillier, K. and K. L. Eckert. 1998. Draft WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Trinidad and Tobago. United Nations Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica. Hartog den, J.C. and M.M. van Nierop. 1984. A study on the gut contents of six leathery turtles, Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Testudines: Dermochelyidae) from British waters and from the Netherlands. Zool. Verh. 209(1984):1-36. Henry C., M. L. 1992. Description of the artisanal gillnet fishery of Trinidad. Technical Report from the Project: Establishment of Data Collection Systems and Assessment of Fisheries Resources. TRI/91/001/TR6. FAO/UNDP, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 35pp. Hodgkinson-Clarke F. 1994. The construction and operations of artisanal gillnets in Trinidad. Fisheries Occasional Paper Series 3. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 49pp. IUCN (World Conservation Union). 2004. Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org James, M. C., S. A. Eckert and R. A. Myers. 2005a. Migratory and reproductive movements of male leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ). Marine Biology 147:845…853. Lee Lum, L. M. 2003. An assessment of incidental turtle catch in the gillnet fishery in Trinidad and Tobago. Research Report: Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago. 38pp. Morgan, P. J. 1989. Occurrence of leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) in the British Islands in 1988 with reference to a record specimen, p.119-120. In : S. A. Eckert, K. L. Eckert, and T. H. Richardson (compilers), Proc. 9th Annual Conference on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFC-232. U. S. Department of Commerce. Nagassar, N. 2000. Frame Survey on Gillnet Fishery of Trinidad & Tobago. Prepared for the National Consultation of the Monitoring and Advisory Committee on the Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Nathai-Gyan, N., C. James and G. Hislop. 1987. National Report for Trinidad and Tobago. Presented to the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium II, Puerto Rico. Forestry Division, Ministry of Food Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry and Environment. 228 pp. Pritchard, P. C. H. and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 399 pp. + apps.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles W IDEC AS T Technical Report No. 5 3 0 Sa rt i M., L., S. A. Ecke rt N T. G a r cia and A. R. Ba rr a g an. 1996. Decline of t he wo r ld's la rg es t nes t in g assembla g e of lea t he r back t u rt les. Ma r ine Tu rt le N ewsle tt e r 74: 2-5. SOS Toba g o. 200 3 Killin g Tu rt les Affec t s Fishin g and Tou r ism. SOS Toba g o P r ess Release, June 200 3 www.sost oba g o.o rg Spo t ila, J. R., R. D. Reina, A. C. S t e y e r ma r k, P. T. Plo t kin and F. V. Paladino. 2000. B r ief Communica t ions: Pacific lea t he r back tu rt les face ex t inc t ion. N a t u r e 405:529-5 3 0. T r on g S. and C. D r ews. 2004. Mone y Talks: Economic Aspec t s of Ma r ine Tu rt le Use and Conse rv a t ion. WW F-In t e r na t ional, G land, Swi tz e r land. W ood, R. C., J. JohnsonG o v e, E. S. G affne y and K. F. Male y 1996. E v olu t ion and ph y lo g en y of lea t he r back t u rt les (De r mochel y idae), wi t h desc r ip t ions of new fossil t axa. Chelonian Conse r v a t ion and Biolo gy 2(2):266-286. Wyneken, J. and M. Salmon. 1992. F r en zy and pos t -f r en zy swimmin g ac t i v i ty in lo gg e r head, gr een, and lea t he r back ha t chlin g sea t u rt les. Copeia 1992:478-484

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 Appendix I Agenda for the National Consultation National Consultation: Reducing the Incidental Capture and Mortality of Leatherback Sea Turtles in Gillnets in Trinidad and TobagoŽ ______ A Stakeholders Meeting and Strategic Planning Session 16 … 18 February 2005 Ambassador Hotel, Port of Spain Hosted by the Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) ProgrammeDay 1 … Wednesday, 16 February 2005 Session I: Opening Ceremony 0900 … 0905 National Anthem 0905 … 0910 Chairpersons Opening Remarks … Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Director of Fisheries 0910 … 0920 Welcome Remarks … Mr. Trevor Murray, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources 0920 … 0935 Remarks … Dr. Scott Eckert, Director of Science, WIDECAST 0935 … 0955 Feature Address & Opening of National Consultation … The Honourable Jarrette Narine, Minister of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources 0955 … 1000 Chairpersons Closing Remarks … Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Director of Fisheries

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 Session II: Technical Presentations 1000 … 1015 Objectives and Intended Results … Ms. Ann Marie Jobity, Fisheries Division 1015 … 1030 Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea Turtles … Dr. Scott Eckert, Director of Science, WIDECAST 1030 … 1045 Description of Gillnet Fisheries in Trinidad & Tobago … Ms. Louanna Martin, Fisheries Division 1045 … 1100 Entanglement of Leatherbacks by Local Gillnet Fisheries … Dr. Lori Lee Lum, Institute of Marine Affairs 1100 … 1130 Conservation of Nesting Leatherbacks in Trinidad & Tobago … Ms. Nadra NathaiGyan, Head, Wildlife Section, Forestry Division 1130 … 1200 LUNCH Session III: Local Perspectives 1330 … 1345 Entangling Leatherbacks: A Fishers Perspective … Mr. Stephen McClatchie, Toco Fisherman 1345 … 1400 Economic Importance of Sea Turtles in Trinidad: The Importance of Reducing Mortality … Mr. Dennis Sammy, Manager, Nature Seekers Session IV: Global Perspectives … How is the Challenge met Elsewhere? 1400 … 1415 Lessons from the Sea of Cortez (Pacific Mexico) … Dr. Paul Winger and Phil Walsh, Memorial University (Canada) 1415 … 1500 Research to Reduce Harbour Porpoise Bycatch in Gillnet Fisheries … Dr. Ron Kastelein, Sea Mammal Research Company (SEAMARCO) (The Netherlands) 1500 … 1515 Review of Sea Turtle Bycatch Research in the Western Atlantic … Mr. John Mitchell, NOAA (USA) 1515 … 1530 Latest Developments in Artisanal Longlining Equipment … Mr. Don Nells, Lindgren-Pitman, Inc. (USA) 1530 … 1600 Coffee Break Session V: Clarifying the Issues 1600 … 1700 Panel: Session IV Speakers (with audience Questions and Answers) Panel Moderator … Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director, WIDECAST 1700 … 1730 Closing Remarks and Adjourn Day 2 (Field Trip) Thursday, 17 February 2005 0700 … 1200 Field Trip to East Coast Fishing Ports Balandra / Salybea / Toco

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 1200 … 1330 LUNCH at Toco, catered by Nature Seekers 1330 … 1730 Field Trip to North Coast Fishing Ports Grande Rivere / Matelot Day 3 … Friday, 18 February 2005 0900 … 0915 Introductions, Announcements 0915 … 0930 Working Group Descriptions, Objectives, and the Designation of Chairs Session VI: Seeking Solutions 0930 … 0945 Procedural Notes and Expectations … Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director, WIDECAST 0945 … 1100 Working Groups: Discussion Working Group I: Regulatory Options (e.g. time and area closures) Working Group II: Gear Options (e.g. alternative baits, trolling) Working Group III: Method Options (e.g. a-la-vive, longlines) Working Group IV: Gear Options (e.g. repulsion devices, net type/mesh/material) 1100 … 1130 Coffee Break 1130 … 1230 Working Groups: Wrap-up and Recommendations 1230 … 1400 LUNCH Session VII: Working Group Presentations 1400 … 1415 Working Group I 1415 … 1430 Working Group II 1430 … 1445 Working Group III 1445 … 1500 Working Group IV 1500 … 1530 Coffee Break Session VIII: Future Directions, Priorities and Recommendations 1530 … 1700 Panel: Working Group Chairs (with audience Questions and Answers) Panel Moderator … Dr. Karen Eckert, Executive Director, WIDECAST 1700 … 1715 Drafting Committee assigned to Final Report 1715 … 1800 Closing Remarks and Adjourn

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles W IDEC AS T Technical Report No. 5 App e ndix II List of Participants 1G e rv ais Alkins Membe r SOS, Toba g o Risha Alle y ne Office r En v i r onmen t al Mana g emen t A g enc y E g be rt Awai Membe r Ca r ibbean Fo r es t Conse rv Assoc. Ca r l Bap t is t e Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad Te rr ence Beddoe Fishe r man F r iends of t he Sea (Sec r e t a ry ) Hope B r ock Gr adua t e S t uden t Memo r ial Uni v e r si ty Canada E r ol Ceasa r Di rec t o r Fishe r ies Toba g o House of Assembl y Tan y a Clo v is Di r ec t o r SOS, Toba g o Ru t h Da v is Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad. Ca r los D r ews, Ph.D. Re g ional Coo r dina t o r WW F-Ca r ibbean, Cos t a Rica Ka r en Ecke rt Ph.D. Execu t i v e Di r ec t o r W IDECAST a t Duke Uni v e r si ty Sco tt Ecke rt Ph.D. Di r ec t o r of Science W IDECAST a t Duke Uni ve r si ty La r a Fe rr ei r a Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad All y s Fo rt e Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad Sa r sha F r anklin Office r Minis try of Fo r ei g n Affai r s She r ma G ome z Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad Salim G ool Fishe r man San Fe r nando Fishin g Coope r a t i v e N icholas Hopkins Fishe r ies G ea r Technolo g is t N a t l Ma r ine Fishe r ies Se rv ice, USA Ande r son Inniss Membe r N a t u r e Seeke r s Ann-Ma r ie Jobi ty Di r ec t o r Fishe r ies Di v ision Ron Kas t elein, Ph.D. Di r ec t o r SEAMARCO, The N e t he r lands G ian Ca r lo Lalsin g h Membe r En v i r onmen t Toba g o Jon Lien, Ph.D. P r ofesso r Memo r ial Uni v e r si ty Canada Emile Louis Fishe r man All Toba g o Fishe r folk Associa t ion Lo r i Lee Lum, Ph.D. Resea r ch Office r Ins t it u t e of Ma r ine Affai r s N eela Maha r a j Senio r Plannin g Office r Min. A gr icul., Land & Ma r ine Res. Louanna Ma rt in Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision S t ephen McCla t chee Fishe r man Toco Fishe r mans Associa t ion Cecil McLean Fishe r man Las Cue v as N emme McSween y Teache r Toco Composi t e School Dann y Mel v ille Fishe r man Sou t hwes t Toba g o John Mi t chell Fishin g G ea r Technolo g is t N a t l Ma r ine Fishe r ies Se rv ice, US Saheed Mohammed Fishe r man Toco Nad r a N a t haiGy an Head W ildlife Sec t ion, Fo r es try Di v ision Don N ells Fishin g G ea r Technolo g is t Lind gr en-Pi t man, Inc. Michelle Pico v G ill Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision-T r inidad Len Pe t e r s Office r Gr ande Ri v ie r e T.D.O. S t ephen Poon Fo r es t e r W ildlife Sec t ion, Fo r es try Di v ision A rt hu r Po tt s, Ph.D. Depu ty Di r ec t o r Fishe ries Di v ision, T r inidad Inda r Ramna r ine, Ph.D. Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Depa rt men t of Life Sciences, U W I N adia Ramphal Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad An g ela Ramse y W ildlife Biolo g is t Dep t N a t u r al Resou r ces, Toba g o

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles W IDEC AS T Technical Report No. 5 F r ankl y n Robe rt s Fishe r man Toco Renwick Robe rt s Membe r PA W I Spo rt s, Cul t u r e and Eco Club She r win Rui z P r esiden t G REAT, Gr ande Ri v ie r e Dennis Samm y Mana g e r N a t u r e Seeke r s Ea r l Samuel Fishe r man Toba g o Re g inold Samuel Fishe r man Toba g o Me rv in Sendall Fishe r ies Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad Jacqueline A. Telfe r Membe r Ca r ibbean Fo r es try Conse rv Assoc. W end y Thomas Fishe ries Biolo g is t Fishe r ies Di v ision, T r inidad W illiam T r im Office r Dep t N a t u r al Resou r ces, Toba g o Richa r d W allace Membe r Ca r ibbean Fo r es t Conse rv Assoc. Philip W alsh Fishin g G ea r Technolo g is t Memo r ial Uni v e r si ty Canada Paul W in g e r Ph.D. Fish Beha v iou r alis t Memo r ial Uni v e r si ty Canada _____________________________________ 1Pa rt icipa t ion was no t as accu r a t el y documen t ed as i t could ha v e been. W e apolo g i z e t o t hose who pa rt icipa t ed full y in t he Mee t in g and in t he W o r kin g Gr oup discussions, bu t fo r wha t e v e r r eason, did no t ha v e t hei r name r eco r ded. Based on pe r diem r eco r ds, a t leas t fi v e (5) addi t ional fishe r men pa rt icipa t ed in t he mee t ing and in t he v a r ious W o r kin g Gr oups, bu t did no t r eco r d t hei r names o r affilia t ions.

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Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles WIDECAST Technical Report No. 5 Appendix III Selected Technical Presentations Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea Turtles Scott A. Eckert, Ph.D. (WIDECAST) Lessons from the Sea of Cortez (Pacific Mexico) Paul Winger, Ph.D. and Phil Walsh (Memorial University) Research to Reduce Harbour Porpoise Bycatch in Gillnet Fisheries Ron Kastelein, Ph.D. (SEAMARCO) Review of Sea Turtle Bycatch Research in the Western Atlantic John Mitchell (NOAA) Latest Developments in Artisanal Longlining Equipment Don Nells (Lindgren-Pitman, Inc.)

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Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea Turtles Habitat Use by Leatherback Sea TurtlesScott A. Eckert, Ph.D. WIDECAST Scott A.Eckert, Ph.D. WIDECAST Id like to begin with my sincere thanks to all of you for attending this national consultation. We are very grateful that you are generously sharing your time, expertise and enthusiasm to resolving this difficult challenge. Today, you will hear from a number of experts on fishing technology, marine resource management, sea turtle conservation and from those closely involved in fishing. My presentation today is on what they do and where they go during the brief time they are in Trinidad and Tobagos waters. Trinidad Leatherback TrackingTurtle ID Tag Type Length (cm CCL) Nesting beach Date deployed Date of last location Days tracked Minimum distance traveled (km) Date of last trans. Nu m of tr a DC1SSC3155.0Matura05/17/9505/20/9636913,90905/22/9644, 0 DC2SSC3140.0Matura05/17/9507/11/95551,30307/11/958,6 0 DC3SSC3166.0Matura05/26/9503/25/9630411,28505/24/9629, 6 DC4SSC3162.0Matura03/26/9904/29/99341,06504/29/9921, 1 DC5Kiwisat154.0Grand Riviere 06/24/0207/27/02332,11807/27/02-DC6SPOT3155.0Matura04/18/0304/22/043708,73404/27/04125, 4 DC7SPOT3140.0Matura04/18/0306/15/03581,60406/15/0322, 2 DC8SPOT3166.0Grand Riviere 04/20/0305/14/03241,03405/14/0311, 2 DC9SPOT3154.0Grand Riviere 04/20/0305/13/032356105/13/0312, 0 Trinidad and Tobago support one of the worlds largest nesting colonies of the leatherback sea turtle. Current estimates are that more than 6,000 leatherback females nest here annually. While the conservation of nesting turtles and their eggs is ongoing in a number of well developed projects, less understood are the offshore habitats of the species. It must first be understood that leatherbacks are not permanent residents of Trinidad and Tobago. Females and males arrive in late January … March each year to initiate mating and nesting. Males remain until May, while females remain through July. While males may come to Trinidad annually, females only return every 2 or 3 years. As scientists we have two methods that have led to our understanding of the presence and activities of this species while in our waters. One method uses the attachment of satellite transmitters, or other electronic data reporting devices to the turtles. The other is through the use of identity tags on each nesting turtle.

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Using those methods we have learned that upon the completion of nesting and average of 6 times and as many as 12 clutches of eggs on Trinidads beaches these turtles move throughout the Atlantic Ocean, passing through numerous other countrys water as well as through the high seas. Trinidads leatherbacks are actually residents of the entire world! Each of these lines are individual turtle tracks for up to one year after leaving Trinidad. We have learned that leatherbacks travel throughout the Atlantic Ocean and may swim more than 10,000 km in a single year. The cross-hatched areas are where the turtles stopped to feed on this journey. What is particularly amazing is that the turtles seem to know when and where the food will be and schedule their journey to be in the area when food is most available. MAURITANIA UPWELLING For example this is a satellite image off the west coast of Africa illustrating where the most biologically productive waters are located from March July. Notice that based on the previous map I showed you, our turtles move directly to this area a year after nesting and arrive in March. It appears that these turtles can anticipate good feeding areas well in advance of the time that food will be available!

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Around Trinidad, leatherbacks can also be highly mobile. Each of the colored lines illustrate where a single female traveled during the ten days between each nesting event. It also shows that they may travel to different beaches to nest. We know that from our other studies we have conducted that leatherbacks rarely stop swimming. Between nestings she will make regular and constant dives to 20 … 150 m, rarely stopping to rest and probably never sleeping. # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # #Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y YY Y Y Y Y Y Y YY T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y YY Y YY Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 200 100 500 50 1000 1500 2000 1000 500 50 200 200 500 100 Venezuela TrinidadT o b a g oTrinidad GrenadaNesting BeachYBoth#Matura Grand RiviereT 050100km 25% UD 50% UD 95% UD Internesting KHR This figure shows the locations of turtles tracked between nesting events for 10 turtles. Some were originally instrumented on Grande Riviere Beach, while others were instrumented at Matura. The important aspect of this figure is that it shows were most of the turtles spent the majority of their time, in the areas labeled Utilization Distribution or UD. A UD area indicates that this region is of exceptional importance to the turtles … and in this case those areas are off the nesting beach and off Galera Point.

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Movements of LeatherbackSea Turtles in the Atlantic Oceanas Determined Using SatelliteTransmitters. One of the answers to why Galera Point is so important can be found in studies that we are conducting elsewhere. One of those studies is capturing male leatherbacks in Nova Scotia, Canada and tracking them to the Caribbean. Movements ofmale leatherback sea turtles from Nova Scotiaforaging grounds to Caribbeannestingareas. James,Eckert and Myers, 2005 In this study we found that each year, male leatherbacks travel to the Caribbean presumably to mate. Those that come to large nesting colonies like Trinidad, or Panama will reside in a very small area near the island, probably in areas where they have the highest probability of encountering females. For Trinidad this is Galera Point! Each male remains until the peak of the nesting season, by which time all females are probably mated, so they leave. One of my reasons for presenting this information to you today is so that you have an understanding of where leatherbacks reside in our waters during the nesting season. These areas hold critical importance to our efforts to serve as stewards to this visitor to Trinidad. They are also the same areas that fisherman work, and therein lies our challenge. How can we maintain the fishing livelihoods of Trinidads fishersƒ.and still preserve the leatherback? Thank you. Scott A. Eckert, Ph.D. Director of Science, WIDECAST

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1 Sustainable Harvesting TechniquesLessons Learned: Canadian Perspective Paul Winger and Philip Walshof Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Resources Marine Institute of Memorial Universitywww.mi.mun.ca/csar www.mun.caAtlantic Canadas Largest University Student Pop. >17,000 Over 100 Degree Programs Oceans Focus

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2 Fisheries and Marine Institute Whale Research Group Ocean Sciences Centre Bonne Bay Marine Station Institute Ocean Technology (NRC) North Americas most comprehensive institute dedicated to education, training, applied research and industrial support in ocean industries The Marine Institute

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3 Industrial Centres Centre for Sustainable Aquatic ResourcesCSAR provides industrial research and development, technology transfer, and education/training services to the fishing industry. Potential clients include fishers, fishing gear manufacturers, NGOs, government groups, geophysical equipment manufacturers, professional divers and ship builders. www.mi.mun.ca/csar

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4 Fishing gear design and testing Fish Behaviour Fisheries Development Survivability of Released Fish

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5 Reducing Seabed Impact of Reducing Seabed Impact of Bottom Trawls Bottom Trawls Reduction from 31 to 9 contact points. Improving Trap Selectivity Improving Trap Selectivity for Snow Crab for Snow Crab 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.235 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195 95 mm Escape 100mm Escape Wire 5.5" mesh 6.0" mesh (Chionoecetesopilio)

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6 Design & Evaluation of Baited Design & Evaluation of Baited Cod Traps Cod Traps Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua Alternative to gillnets Environmentally friendliness High discard survivability Good species and size selectivity Source of live fish Collapsible The main focus was to The main focus was to see if we could develop see if we could develop a baited cod trap that a baited cod trap that could catch commercial could catch commercial amounts of cod amounts of cod Halibut Potting Preliminary Halibut Potting Preliminary Assessment Assessment Underwater Observation Perch entering Trap Halibut not entering Lobster by-catch Atlantic Halibut, ( Hippoglossushippoglossus)

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7 Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Porpoise ( Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Phocoena sinus)in in the Sea of Cortez the Sea of Cortez (Walsh 2004) Upper Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve The National Institute of Ecology University of Baja California National Institute of Fisheries Government of Mexico Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Porpoise ( Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Phocoena sinus)in in the Sea of Cortez the Sea of Cortez (Walsh 2004) Penaeuscaliforniensis Penaeusstylirostris Total Length (mm) 160180200220240 Whole weight (g) 20 40 60 80 100 120 a) W = 1.86 x 10-5 TL2.86 r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 n = 321 Total Length 160180200220240260 Number of Individuals 0 20 40 60 80 100 Male Female

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8 Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Reducing Bycatch of Vaquita Porpoise ( Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Phocoena sinus)in in the Sea of Cortez the Sea of Cortez (Walsh 2004) Lessons Learned: 1) Multi-group approach is necessary. 2) Reproductive behaviour vs. feeding motivation. 3) Pots will be most effective during slack tides. 4) Water turbidity. 5) Continued field tests necessary.

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1Research to reduce bycatch of harbor porpoises in gillnet fisheriesPrepared for workshop on reduction of bycatch of Leatherback turtles in gillnet fisheries Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, February 16-18, 2005 R. A. Kastelein Ph.D. SEAMARCO (Sea Mammal Research Company) Julianalaan 46 3843 CC Harderwijk The Netherlands Tel (Office): ....31-(0)341-456252 Tel (Mobile): ..31-(0)6-46-11-38-72 Fax: ...31(0)341-456732 E-mail: researchteam@zonnet.nl

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2 Background Information In The Netherlands, research to reduce harbor porpoise bycatch by gillnets started in 1993 and followed 3 parallel tracks (a stepwise approach): 1. Behavioral studies in captivity around nets 2. Increase gillnet detection by echolocation 3. Deter porpoises from nets with aversive sound Track 1: Behavioral studies in captivity around nets Important parameters affecting the chances of being caught up in the nets were: 1) Age, 2) Context, and 3) Experience of the animals. The results of these behavioral studies with porpoises around nets have been published in a book (Harbour porpoises, laboratory studies to reduce bycatch (EdsNachtigall, P.E., Lien, J., Au, W.W.L. and Read, A.J.). De Spil Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands). Track 2: Increase net detection by echolocation Question: Can porpoises detect gillnets by echolocation, and if so at what distance ? Goal of the study: Determine the distance at which presently used gillnets can be detected by porpoises. To reach the goal, studies were conducted in the following order : 1) Echolocation signals of the harbor porpoise 2) Echolocation detection ability of the harbor porpoise 3) Target (echo) strength of gillnets 1) Echolocation signals of harbor porpoises Porpoise echolocation clicks have: 1. A high frequency (120-130 kHz) 2. A narrow bandwidth (20 kHz) 3. A low Source Level (165 dB re 1 Pa) 4. A long duration. 2) Echolocation detection ability of harbor porpoise Two studies were conducted: 1) Detection of stainless steel spheres in quiet conditions. 2) Detection of stainless steel spheres in noisy conditions. Result: detection distances of stainless steel spheres with known target strengths.

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3 3) Target (echo) strength of gillnets Definition of target (echo) strength: SPL of reflected signal SPL of the incident signal Study conducted: Measurements of target (echo) strength of gillnets. Gillnets were collected from areas around the world where porpoise bycatch occurred. Bottlenose dolphin and Harbor porpoise clicks were projected towards net panels strung across pontoons. The returning echoes were recorded and analyzed. Results: knowledge on the range of target strengths of the various gillnets. Calculating detection distances With the knowledge of the target detection ability study and gillnet target strength measurements, detection distances of gillnets by echolocating bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises could be calculated. Results of the calculations are: At best (perpendicular approach) Bottlenose dolphins can detect gillnets at a range of 2555 m. At best (perpendicular approach) Harbor porpoises can detect gillnets at a range of 3-6 m. Echo strength depends on angle of incidence, so in most cases gillnet detection by porpoises occurs at less than 2 m. Conclusion: Harbor porpoises often cannot detect gillnets in time to evade them. Nets with higher target strength are presently tested in field experiments in North America with the aim to increase the distance at which porpoises can detect gillnets in time to evade them. Perception of echolocation information If the perceived image by a porpoise (based on the total ensonification of the net by echolocation) consist of the entire net, this will probably result in no entanglement. However, if the perceived image by a porpoise (based on only the webbing of the net) consists of glimpsesŽ, this will probably lead to entanglement, as the glimpses may resemble the echoes of shrimp or aquatic vegetation. If the perceived image by a porpoise (based on the ensonification of the float on lateral lines and some webbing consists of clear images caused by the strong echoes of the float and lateral lines, the animal may not notice the weak echoes of the webbing and try to swim under the float which results in entanglement.

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4 Track 3: Deter porpoises from nets with aversive sound When using sound to deter porpoises information is needed on their hearing, behavioral reactions to sounds, and the effects of the sounds on other marine fauna. Hearing features of porpoises that were studies are hearing sensitivity, directionality of hearing, and sound source localization ability. A) Hearing sensitivity of porpoises Conclusion: Best hearing of harbor porpoise is at the frequency of its echolocation signals (around 120 kHz) B) Directional hearing of porpoises Hearing of dolphins and porpoises is not equally sensitive in all directions. Conclusion: sounds are best heard when coming from in front of the porpoise B. Test session (15 min): Active alarm A. Baseline session (15 min): Inactive alarm Inactive alarm Active alarm Location where porpoise breathed

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5 C) Sound source localization ability of porpoises Non-localized sound may scare porpoises into the nets. Signal parameters that were tested were pulse duration, sound level, and frequency. Conclusion: Signal duration & level need to be sufficient to localize a sound source Reactions of porpoises to sounds: Goal: Determine optimal signal parameters of acoustic alarms for porpoises. Conclusions of pinger experiments: 1) 1994: Small differences in sound signals can elicit large behavioral differences. 2) 1995: Sweep signals have a much stronger effect on the behavior of porpoises than clicks or tones. 3) 1996: Dukane Netmark 1000 had the strongest effect. A time bracket of 2-30 s for random pulse interval is too long. 4) 1998: Dukane Netmark XP-10 experimental alarm (producing 16 different signals) had strongest effect. Individual variation in reaction to alarms was observed 5) 2002: Ultrasonic pingers (70 kHz) deter porpoises well, but cause no dinner bell effect for pinnipeds, as pinniped hearing goes up to around 60 kHz. Effects of selected alarm sounds on other fauna: Goal: Determine the effect of pingers designed for porpoises on other odontocetes and marine fish. Determine the effect of pingers, designed to deter porpoises, on other odontocetes Results: Signals that deterred a harbor porpoise to the other side of floating pen, had no effect on the behavior of a striped dolphin. Conclusion: Pingers are, or need to be, species specific

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6 Determine the effect of pingers, designed to deter porpoises, on marine fish All 7 commercially available pingers in 2004 were collected and tested on 5 marine fish species. Results: Behavioral responses (changes in speed and swimming depth) were seen in Herring to one pinger, Mullet to three pingers, and Sea bass to two pingers. Pout and cod (close relatives) showed no response to any pinger. Conclusion: in regard to fish, the signal parameters of pingers need to be specified. Take home message: A step-wise approach is needed to solve a bycatch problem PDF files of publications of the studies can be obtained by sending an e-mail to Ron Kastelein, Seamarco, E-mail address: researchteam@zonnet.nl

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Review of Sea turtle BycatchResearch in the Atlantic€Experiments in Western Atlantic Northeast Distant Waters (NOAA Fisheries & BWFA)€Reports from Observer Data (NOAA Fisheries and Canadian observer programs)€Feeding Studies (NOAA Fisheries) NOAA Fisheries -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 CAR GOM FEC SAB MAB NEC NED SNA SNA OFS OFSThe US Atlantic Pelagic Longline FisheryCourtesy of Mauricio Ortiz

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8/0, 9/0, and 10/0 J hooks Blue-Dyed Squid Natural Squid2001 Experimental Design Natural Squid 2001 Results€Effort and Catch: 8 vessels, 186 sets, 164,429 hooks …142 loggerheads and 77 leatherbacks€Blue-dyed Squid bait …no significant effect€Move branch line 20 fathoms away from buoy -no significant effect for loggerheads increased catch of leatherbacks€Daylight soak time …significant effect for Caretta

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Experimental Design 20022003 Control Treatment ControlControl Control Treatment TreatmentSet ConfigurationControl: J Hook, 9/0 25-30 Deg. Offset w/ Squid Bait Treatments: Experimental Hooks Experimental Baits 9/0 J & 18/0 nonoffset circle 9/0 J & 18/0 10 offset circle 9/0 J & 18/0 10 offset circle Mackerel SquidSquid2002 Experiments Goal for haulback completion was set 1 hr earlier than average observed during 2001

PAGE 62

2003 Experiments 9/0 J & 18/0 nonoffset circle 18/0 10offset circle & 20/0 10offset circle 16/0 offset circle & 18/0 non-offset circleSwordfish Directed Sets Tuna Sets 2002 & 2003 Results€Effort and catch (2002): 13 vessels, 489 sets, 427,385 hooks …100 loggerheads and 158 leatherbacks€Effort and catch (2003): 11 vessels, 539 sets, 578,050 hooks …92 loggerheads, 79 leatherbacks, and 1 olive ridley€Reduce daylight hook soak time (2002) …Not significant€18/0 (0 offset and 10 offsetin 2002; only 0 offset in 2003) circle hooks with squid bait Significant reduction loggerheads and leatherbacks, decreased swordfish catch, increased tuna catch€18/0 (10 offset) circle hooks with mackerel bait Significant reduction loggerheads and leatherbacks, increased swordfish catch, decreased tuna catch€20/0 (10 offset) circle hooks with mackerel bait (2003) Significant reduction loggerheads and leatherbacks, increased swordfish catch, decreased tuna catch

PAGE 63

LOGGERHEAD-74.03 -90.58 -71.00 -90.92 -100.00 -80.00 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 squidmackerelmackerelmackerel 18/0 0 deg offset circle 9/0 J18/0 10 deg offset circle 20/0 10 deg offset circle LEATHERBACK-75.38 -67.26 -66.00 -71.82 -100.00 -80.00 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 squidmackerelmackerelmackerel 18/0 0 deg offset circle 9/0 J18/0 10 deg offset circle 20/0 10 deg offset circle SWORDFISH15.62 -30.35 63.00 7.73 -100.00 -80.00 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 squidmackerelmackerelmackerel 18/0 0 deg offset circle 9/0 J18/0 10 deg offset circle 20/0 10 deg offset circle BIGEYE TUNA-90.19 -83.84 -90.00 25.23 -100.00 -80.00 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 squidmackerelmackerelmackerel 18/0 0 deg offset circle 9/0 J18/0 10 deg offset circle 20/0 10 deg offset circle results for combined 2002-2003, unless noted:2002 only2003 onlyEffect of Treatments Relative to Control 3034 3539 4044 4549 5054 5559 6064 6569 7074 2001 2003 0 10 20 30 40 SCLmin (cm) frequency (%)LOGGERHEADS Year n= 2003 88 2002 97 2001 138

PAGE 64

3 4 5 6 7 2001 2002 2003 0 10 20 30 40 50 Estimated CCL (ft) frequency (%)LEATHERBACKS Year n= 2003 78 2002 157 2001 77 Squid 9/0 JŽLOGGERHEADS18/0 Circle 16/0 Circle Mackerel Swallowed Mouth External Othern = 216 n = 28 n = 13 n = 10n = 10

PAGE 65

LEATHERBACKS9/0 JŽ 18/0 Circle 16/0 Circle Squid Mackerel Swallowed Mouth External Othern = 144n = 32 n = 2 n = 14 n = 28 A B C D E

PAGE 66

Fishery Observer DataGulf of Mexico (Garrison, 2003) Canadian Atlantic waters(Javitech, 2002)€Relative to 9/0 JŽhooks 16/0 circle hooks do not reduce CPUE of pelagic/oceanic stage loggerhead turtles when using squid bait.€Compared to 7/0 & 8/0 JŽhooks 16/0 circle hooks do reduce interactions with loggerhead turtles€No loggerhead turtle interactions have been recorded in Gulf of Mexico yellowfin tuna fishery (1992-2002) using sardine and herring bait with 15/0 and 16/0 circle hooks Fishery Observer DataGulf of Mexico (Garrison, 2003) Canadian Atlantic waters (Javitech, 2002)€Canadian observer data indicates a 94% reduction in leatherback CPUE with 16/0 circle hooks when compared to JŽhooks €GOM data indicates lower average leatherback catch rate with circle hooks when compared to JŽhooks €Recent increase in leatherback interaction rates in GOM has been associated with increase proportion of fishery using JŽhooks and squid bait

PAGE 67

Effect of Hook Size on Ingestion of Hooks by Loggerhead Sea TurtlesJohn W. Watson, Bret D. Hataway, and Charles E. Bergmann June, 2003 Squid Bait Rigging

PAGE 68

Effect of Hook Width on Ingestion of Hooks by Loggerhead Turtles (40-60 cm Length) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 < 51mm51mm57mm63mm Attempted to Swallow HookHook WidthPercentn=21 n=24 n=40 n=20 Summary of Logistic Regression Analysis on Hook Swallowing AttemptsExplanatory VariableOdds Ratio (90% CI) p value Turtle Size CCL (mm)0.015(0.006)1.015 (1.004-1.026)0.0196 Hook Width (mm)-0.157(0.045)0.855 (0.794-0.921)0.0005 Hook Length (mm)-0.043(0.024)0.958 (0.920-0.997)0.0772 Squid Bait only, n=105 Stepwise technique used with a sig level of 0.1 for model entry and retention Hosmer and Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test: Chi-Sqr=8.38, df=7, p = 0.2998 Coefficient (SE)

PAGE 69

Hook Dimensions130 mm 63 mm 14/0 J 100 mm 63 mm 20/0 Circle 111 mm 57 mm 12/0 J 86 mm 57 mm 18/0 Circle 86 mm 56 mm 11/0 MJ 73 mm 51 mm 16/0 Circle 98 mm 51 mm 11/0 J 86 mm 38 mm 10/0 Tuna 78 mm 33 mm 9/0 Tuna 78 mm 41 mm 9/0 J Hook Length Hook Width Hook Type Summary of Atlantic Longline Research€Relative to 9/0 JŽhooks 18/0 circle hooks significantly reduced sea turtle bycatch€16/0 circle hooks reduced cpue of loggerhead turtles compared to 7/0 and 8/0 JŽhooks, but not compared to 9/0 JŽhooks €16/0 circle hooks may significantly reduce loggerhead cpue when used with fish bait (sardines and herring) rather than squid bait€Circle hooks engaged in the jaw and less often were swallowed by cheloniid turtles than JŽhooks and post hooking mortality associated with a mouth hook is estimated to be lower than a swallowed hook

PAGE 70

Summary of Atlantic Longline Research€Effective gear and techniques were developed to safely remove longline gear from entangled, foul hooked, and mouth hooked turtles€Hooks with a width larger than 51mm have the potential to significantly reduce mortality of loggerhead turtles €Circle hooks (16/0 and 18/0) significantly reduced leatherback bycatch €Mackerel bait (200 …500 gram) significantly reduced turtle bycatch when compared to squid bait€Mackerel bait significantly reduced catch of bigeye tuna when compared to squid bait Summary of Atlantic Longline Research€Mackerel bait significantly increased catch of swordfish but this effect may be restricted to cold waters€Circle hooks with squid bait significantly reduced swordfish catch€CPUE of bigeye tuna was nominally increased with 18/0 circle hooks using squid bait€CPUE of yellowfin tuna was reduced with 18/0 circle hooks with sardine bait when compared with 16/0 circle hooks with sardine bait€Hook timer and other data indicates loggerhead turtle interactions with longline gear occur during daylight hours and leatherback interactions occur during nightime hours

PAGE 72

Eckert and Eckert (2005) Coastal Gillnets & Leatherback Turtles W IDEC AS T Technical Report No. 5 App e ndix I V Working Group Participants 2WORKI N GGROUPI:REGULATORY OPTIO N SChairp e rson (s): Inda r Ramna r ine Rapport e ur : Inda r Ramna r ine M e mb e rs : G e rv ais Alkins Risha Alle y ne E g be rt Awai Te rr ence Beddoe Sa r sha F r anklin Ann-Ma r ie Jobi ty Jon Lien Lo r i Lee Lum N eela Maha r a j N emme McSween y Saheed Mohammed S t ephen Poon An g ela Ramse y F r ankl y n Robe rt s She r win Rui z W illiam T r im WORKI N GGROUPII:GEAROPTIO N SChairp e rson (s): Ron Kas t elein Rapport e ur : Ca r l Bap t is t e M e mb e rs : E r ol Ceasa r Ru t h Da v is La r a Fe rr ei r a Salim G ool N icholas Hopkins G ian Ca r lo Lalsin g h A rt hu r Po tt s N adia Ramphal W end y Thomas Richa r d W allace WORKI N GGROUPIII:FISHI N GMETHODS A N D TECH N IQUESChairp e rson (s): Pe t e r G lodon Rapport e ur : (Fishe r ies) M e mb e rs : Tan y a Clo v is F r anklin Robe rt s Dennis Samm y W illiam T r im Paul W in g e r WORKI N GGROUPI V :GEAROPTIO N SChairp e rson (s): S t ephen McCla t chee, Len Pe t e r s Rapport e ur : Sco tt Ecke rt M e mb e rs : Hope B r ock Ca r los D r ews All y s Fo rt e She r ma G ome z Ande r son Inniss Emile Louis Cecil McLean Dann y Mel v ille John Mi t chell Me rv in Sendall Michelle Pico v G ill Renwick Robe rt s Ea r l Samuel Re g inold Samuel Jacqueline A. Telfe r Philip W alsh __________________________________2Pa rt icipa t ion in t he W o r kin g Gr oups was no t as accu r a t el y documen t ed as i t could ha v e been. W e apolo g i z e t o t hose who pa rt icipa t ed in t hese discussions bu t fo r wha t e v e r r eason, did no t ha v e t hei r name r eco r ded on t he Gr oup r os t e r Based on pe r diem r eco r ds, a t leas t fi v e (5) addi t ional fishe r men pa rt icipa ted in t he v a r ious W o r kin g Gr oups, bu t did no t r eco r d t hei r names o r affilia t ions.

PAGE 73

Working together to build a future where all inhabitants of the Wider Caribbean Region, human and sea turtle alike, can live together in balance.Ž The Wider C a ribbe a n S e a Turtle Conserv a tion Net w or k (WIDEC AS T) is a volunteer expert net w or k a nd P a rtner Or ga niz a tion to the U.N. Environ m ent Pro g r amm es C a ribbe a n Environm ent Pro g r amm e. WIDEC AS T wa s f ounded in 1981 in response to a reco mm end a tion by the IUCN/CC A Meeting of Non-Governmental Caribbean Organizations on Living Resources Conservation for Sustainable Development in the Wider Caribbean ( Sa nto Do m in g o, 26 2 9 A u g ust 1981) th a t a Wider C a ribbe a n S e a Turtle Recovery A ction Pl a n should be prep a red ... consistent w ith the Action Pl a n f or the C a ribbe a n Environ m ent Pro g r amm e.Ž WIDEC AS Ts vision f or a chievin g a re g ion a l recovery a ction pl a n h a s f ocused on brin g in g the best a v a il a ble science to be a r on se a turtle ma n ag e m ent a nd conserv a tion, e m po w erin g st ak eholders to mak e e ff ective use o f th a t science in the policymak in g process, a nd providin g a m ech a nis m a nd a fr am e w or k f or cooper a tion w ithin a nd am on g n a tions. By involvin g st ak eholders a t a ll levels a nd encour ag in g policy-oriented rese a rch, WIDEC AS T puts science to pr a ctic a l use in conservin g biodiversity a nd a dvoc a tes f or g r a ssroots involve m ent in decisionmak in g a nd project i m ple m ent a tion. Throu g h in f or ma tion exch a n g e a nd tr a inin g WIDEC AS T pro m otes stron g lin kag es bet w een science, policy, a nd public p a rticip a tion in the desi g n a nd i m ple m ent a tion o f conserv a tion a ctions. The net w or k reco mm ends st a nd a rds f or r a n g e st a te a doption, develops pilot projects, provides technic a l a ssist a nce, supports initi a tives th a t build c a p a city w ithin p a rticip a tin g countries a nd institutions, a nd pro m otes coordin a tion am on g C a ribbe a n countries in the collection, sh a rin g a nd use o f biodiversity d a t a Wor k in g closely w ith loca l co mm unities a nd resource ma n ag ers, the net w or k h a s developed st a nd a rd ma n ag e m ent g uidelines a nd criteri a th a t e m ph a size best pr a ctices a nd sust a in a bility, ensurin g th a t current utiliz a tion pr a ctices, w hether consu m ptive or non-consu m ptive, do not under m ine se a turtle surviv a l over the lon g ter m With Country Coordin a tors in m ore th a n 40 C a ribbe a n S t a tes a nd territories, WIDEC AS T h a s been instru m ent a l in fa cilit atin g co m ple m ent a ry conserv a tion a ction a cross r a n g e st a tes, stren g thenin g a nd h a r m onizin g le g isl a tion, encour ag in g co mm unity involve m ent, a nd r a isin g public awa reness o f the end a n g ered st a tus o f the re g ions six species o f m i g r a tory se a turtles. Country Coordin a tors a re dr aw n f ro m both the g overn m ent a l a nd nong overn m ent al sectors, a nd m ust h a ve se a turtle rese a rch a nd/or ma n ag e m ent experience a nd responsibility. WWW.WIDECAST.ORG


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P29_SP00195 849
P29_ST00215 867 190 available, 3030030006
P29_SP00196
P29_ST00216 1075
P29_SP00197 1172
P29_ST00217 1188 1996 254 WIDECAST, 022140006
P29_SP00198 1442
P29_ST00218 1460 56 for 423
P29_SP00199 1516
P29_ST00219 1534 250 leatherbacks 003400303002
P29_SP00200 1784
P29_ST00220 1997
P29_SP00201 1841 2028
P29_ST00221 Trinidadian 02030030033
P29_SP00202 2097
P29_ST00222 2113 2000 134 waters 034032
P29_TL00021 2052
P29_ST00223 (S. 005
P29_SP00203 349
P29_ST00224 379 138 Eckert, 1000346
P29_SP00204 517
P29_ST00225 545 unpubl. 5345005
P29_SP00205
P29_ST00226 731 data). 034305
P29_SP00206 841
P29_ST00227 897 75 The
P29_SP00207 972 2086
P29_ST00228 2063 128 means 00332
P29_SP00208 1128
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P29_SP00209 1194
P29_ST00230 1222 2054 maintain 03034303
P29_SP00210 1402
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P29_SP00211 1491
P29_ST00232 1519 117
P29_SP00212 1636
P29_ST00233
P29_SP00213 1702
P29_ST00234 1729
P29_SP00214 1791
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P29_ST00236 1907
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P29_SP00218 2173
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P29_SP00224 938
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P29_ST00254 1657
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P29_SP00235 2065
P29_ST00257
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P29_ST00260 420 3514200
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P29_ST00261 579 121 buoys 05203
P29_SP00239
P29_ST00262 2176
P29_SP00240 767
P29_ST00263 147 tethers, 40400136
P29_SP00241 2205
P29_ST00264 948 149 clipped 0004400
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P29_SP00243
P29_ST00266 1170
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P29_ST00267 1249
P29_SP00245
P29_ST00268 1328
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P29_ST00279
P29_SP00256 713
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P29_SP00261
P29_ST00285 1173 made
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P29_ST00286 1301
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P29_ST00289
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P29_SP00272 722
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P29_ST00298 819
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P29_ST00300 2284 100 tests, 402426
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P29_ST00301 1162
P29_SP00277 1293
P29_ST00302 1308
P29_SP00278 1385
P29_ST00303 1400 176 carefully 033045000
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P29_ST00304 1592 document 02050034
P29_SP00280
P29_ST00305 1811 all 300
P29_SP00281
P29_ST00306 1873 aspects 3240042
P29_SP00282 2016 2324
P29_ST00307
P29_SP00283 2071
P29_ST00308
P29_SP00284 2147
P29_ST00309 2163 2290 gear 0033
P29_TL00026 2336
P29_ST00310 used, 53006
P29_SP00285 408 2376
P29_ST00311 2348
P29_SP00286 464 2370
P29_ST00312
P29_SP00287
P29_ST00313
P29_SP00288 618
P29_ST00314 635 302
P29_SP00289 696
P29_ST00315 2341 state, 342406
P29_SP00290
P29_ST00316 175 weather, 00240016
P29_SP00291 1003
P29_ST00317 1018 2338 89 time 4000
P29_SP00292 1107
P29_ST00318 65 set, 3046
P29_SP00293 1187
P29_ST00319 1202
P29_SP00294 1291
P29_ST00320 1306 193 retrieved, 1041000006
P29_SP00295
P29_ST00321 1515
P29_SP00296 1589
P29_ST00322 1605 168 location. 020240235
P29_SP00297
P29_ST00323 1803 Total 02420
P29_SP00298 1905
P29_ST00324 1920 02400
P29_SP00299 2024
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P29_TL00027 2393 1012
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P29_ST00327
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P29_ST00328 493 species 2400002
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P29_ST00329 646
P29_SP00303 2426
P29_ST00330 also 3022
P29_SP00304
P29_ST00331
P29_SP00305
P29_ST00332 887 recorded 30023000
P29_SP00306 1066
P29_ST00333 1080
P29_SP00307 1136
P29_ST00334 1150
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P29_ST00335 1254 2398 set. 2045
P29_TB00004 2558
P29_TL00028 2632 329
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P29_ST00344 2868
P29_SP00314 959
P29_ST00345 133 simple 300400
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P29_ST00346 shark 30210
P29_SP00315 1231
P29_ST00347 1244
P29_TL00033 1454 2867
P29_ST00348 can 023
P29_TL00034 1535
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P29_ST00350
P29_TL00036
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P18_ST00059 1190 history 0034110
P18_SP00055 1330
P18_ST00060 1350 31
P18_SP00056 1381
P18_ST00061 1401 132 poorly 311100
P18_SP00057 1533
P18_ST00062 1553 231 understood 5300134110
P18_SP00058 1784
P18_ST00063 1806 due 050
P18_SP00059 1880
P18_ST00064 1900 566
P18_SP00060 1937
P18_ST00065
P18_SP00061 2019
P18_ST00066 2039 149 44 paucity 3250040
P18_SP00062 2188
P18_ST00067 2210
P18_TL00006 618 1944
P18_ST00068 104 fossil 0.80 412200
P18_SP00063 407 652
P18_ST00069 424 material 03401030
P18_SP00064 589
P18_ST00070 608 134 (Wood 0.93 00110
P18_SP00065 663
P18_ST00071 623 35 et 04
P18_SP00066 795
P18_ST00072 812 56 al., 0.62 3056
P18_SP00067 868 658
P18_ST00073 885 114 1996). 400005
P18_SP00068 999
P18_ST00074 1032 Mature 034510
P18_SP00069 1179
P18_ST00075 1195 153 females 4003002
P18_SP00070 1348
P18_ST00076 1365 174 typically 0.87 403003000
P18_SP00071 1539 664
P18_ST00077 630 range 13300
P18_SP00072 1669
P18_ST00078 1685 98 from 4110
P18_SP00073 1783
P18_ST00079 1799 250-500 0040044
P18_SP00074 1948
P18_ST00080 1967 or
P18_SP00075
P18_ST00081 2023
P18_SP00076 2127
P18_ST00082 2143 50 kg
P18_SP00077 2193
P18_ST00083 2209 620
P18_TL00007 675
P18_ST00084
P18_SP00078 365 709
P18_ST00085 385 206 Caribbean 421000023
P18_SP00079 591
P18_ST00086 610 676 142 Region 000013
P18_SP00080 721
P18_ST00087 773 157 (Boulon 0515013
P18_SP00081 930 720
P18_ST00088 949 680
P18_SP00082 985
P18_ST00089 1004 0.65 2056
P18_SP00083 1060 715
P18_ST00090 1080 100 1996; 40001
P18_SP00084 1180
P18_ST00091 1200 000014
P18_SP00085 1328
P18_ST00092 1346
P18_SP00086 1382
P18_ST00093
P18_SP00087 1457
P18_ST00094 1477 116 1989), 400006
P18_SP00088 1593
P18_ST00095 1612 68 but 054
P18_SP00089 1680
P18_ST00096 1698
P18_SP00090 1759
P18_ST00097 1779 0210034
P18_SP00091 1914
P18_ST00098 97 male 0200
P18_SP00092 2029
P18_ST00099 2049 49 on
P18_SP00093 2098
P18_ST00100 2117 record 0.91 100110
P18_TL00008
P18_ST00101 weighed
P18_SP00094 476 778
P18_ST00102 501 744
P18_SP00095 605 766
P18_ST00103
P18_SP00096 718
P18_ST00104 743 733 65 900 033
P18_SP00097 808
P18_ST00105 834
P18_SP00098 883
P18_ST00106 909 184 (Morgan, 00110236
P18_SP00099 1093
P18_ST00107 1117 1989).
P18_SP00100 1231 777
P18_ST00108 1281 190 Arguably 01052000
P18_SP00101 1471
P18_ST00109 1496
P18_SP00102 1558
P18_ST00110 737 99 most 0134
P18_SP00103 1681
P18_ST00111 1704 143 pelagic 3002000
P18_SP00104 1847
P18_ST00112 1873
P18_SP00105 1911
P18_ST00113
P18_SP00106 1996
P18_ST00114 2021
P18_SP00107 2083
P18_ST00115 139 turtles, 45140036
P18_TL00009 788
P18_ST00116 251 leatherbacks 003400103002
P18_SP00108 554 822
P18_ST00117 574 800
P18_SP00109 634
P18_ST00118 266 well-adapted 000003033400
P18_SP00110 918 833
P18_ST00119 938 for 411
P18_SP00111 994
P18_ST00120 1013 life 0040
P18_SP00112 1075
P18_ST00121 790
P18_SP00113 1132 821
P18_ST00122 1150
P18_SP00114 1212
P18_ST00123 1232 open 1303
P18_SP00115
P18_ST00124 122 ocean. 100335
P18_SP00116 1472
P18_ST00125 1511 105 Their 00001
P18_SP00117 1616
P18_ST00126 298 hydrodynamic 000110033000
P18_SP00118 1933
P18_ST00127 1953 shape 20330
P18_SP00119 2068
P18_ST00128 2087 159 features 40345102
P18_TL00010 845
P18_ST00129 118 broad 01120
P18_SP00120 420 879
P18_ST00130 444 196 shoulders 301500013
P18_SP00121 640
P18_ST00131 230
P18_SP00122
P18_ST00132 761 857 a 2
P18_SP00123 781
P18_ST00133 803 220 posteriorly 31340101100
P18_SP00124 1023 891
P18_ST00134 1046 152 tapered 4230100
P18_SP00125 1198
P18_ST00135 1221 186 carapace, 021232006
P18_SP00126 1407
P18_ST00136 1430 long 0130
P18_SP00127 1519
P18_ST00137 1540 front 41134
P18_SP00128 1639
P18_ST00138 1661 flippers 40033013
P18_SP00129 1814
P18_ST00139 1837
P18_SP00130 1893
P18_ST00140 1916 232 propulsion, 31135030136
P18_SP00131 2148
P18_ST00141 2172
P18_TL00011 304 902
P18_ST00142 124 dorsal 011230
P18_SP00132 428 936
P18_ST00143 445 248 longitudinal 013004500330
P18_SP00133 693 948
P18_ST00144 711 ridges 100002
P18_SP00134 835
P18_ST00145 853 78 that 4034
P18_SP00135 931
P18_ST00146 947 improve 0031100
P18_SP00136
P18_ST00147 1134 156 laminar 0300331
P18_SP00137 1290
P18_ST00148 1307 flow 4010
P18_SP00138 1397
P18_ST00149 1415
P18_SP00139 1489
P18_ST00150 1507 163 increase 03010320
P18_SP00140 1670
P18_ST00151 1688 214 swimming 20000030
P18_SP00141 1902
P18_ST00152 1919 201 efficiency. 04400003005
P18_SP00142 2120
P18_ST00153 2155 903 52 As 02
P18_SP00143
P18_ST00154 2227 914 3
P18_TL00012 959
P18_ST00155 result 102504
P18_SP00144 418 993
P18_ST00156 433
P18_SP00145 471
P18_ST00157 486 these 40020
P18_SP00146
P18_ST00158 246 adaptations, 303343401326
P18_SP00147 851
P18_ST00159 866
P18_SP00148
P18_ST00160 1133 146 expend 003030
P18_SP00149 1279
P18_ST00161 1295 102 three 40100
P18_SP00150
P18_ST00162 1412 961 108 times 40002
P18_SP00151 1520
P18_ST00163 1535 72 less 0022
P18_SP00152 1607
P18_ST00164 1623 971 energy 030100
P18_SP00153 1005
P18_ST00165 1776 051030
P18_SP00154 1912
P18_ST00166 1928 215
P18_SP00155
P18_ST00167 2158 4033
P18_TL00013 1016 1079
P18_ST00168 1028 any
P18_SP00156 376 1062
P18_ST00169 391 other 14001
P18_SP00157 1050
P18_ST00170 508 turtle 451400
P18_SP00158 616
P18_ST00171 1018
P18_SP00159 771 1061
P18_ST00172 787 205 (Wyneken 00030003
P18_SP00160 992
P18_ST00173 1006
P18_SP00161
P18_ST00174 1094 161 Salmon, 0300136
P18_SP00162 1255 1056
P18_ST00175 1269 1992).
P18_TL00014 1129
P18_ST00176 234 Geographic 0010133000
P18_SP00163 537 1175
P18_ST00177 distribution 002410054013
P18_SP00164 791
P18_ST00178
P18_SP00165 846
P18_ST00179 861
P18_SP00166 922
P18_ST00180 939 1131
P18_SP00167 1174
P18_ST00181 1095
P18_SP00168 1126
P18_ST00182 1142
P18_SP00169 1203
P18_ST00183 1218 175 broadest 01130024
P18_SP00170 1393
P18_ST00184 1409
P18_SP00171 1447
P18_ST00185 1463 1141 71
P18_SP00172 1534
P18_ST00186 1550 reptile, 10340006
P18_SP00173 1690
P18_ST00187 1707 ranging 1330030
P18_SP00174 1863
P18_ST00188 1879
P18_SP00175 1976
P18_ST00189 1990 1130 101 47N 0501
P18_SP00176 2091
P18_ST00190
P18_SP00177 2144
P18_ST00191 2162 85 71S 5400
P18_TL00015 1186 1941
P18_ST00192 (Pritchard 0610400310
P18_SP00178
P18_ST00193 528
P18_SP00179 1220
P18_ST00194 178 Trebbau, 01000356
P18_SP00180 801 1226
P18_ST00195 1984).
P18_SP00181 935 42
P18_ST00196 977 1187 66 For 011
P18_SP00182 1043
P18_ST00197 1064 240 populations 31350340132
P18_SP00183 1304
P18_ST00198 1325 207 inhabiting 0303004030
P18_SP00184 1532
P18_ST00199 1552
P18_SP00185 1613
P18_ST00200 1633 121 North 11140
P18_SP00186 1754
P18_ST00201 1775 Atlantic 04033400
P18_SP00187
P18_ST00202 1954 basin, 0.73 032036
P18_SP00188 2072
P18_ST00203 2093 satellite 234000040
P18_TL00016 1243
P18_ST00204 191 telemetry 400000410
P18_SP00189 1289
P18_ST00205 527 data 0343
P18_SP00190 612 1277
P18_ST00206 644 indicate 03000340
P18_SP00191
P18_ST00207 79
P18_SP00192 913
P18_ST00208 944 123 adults 305042
P18_SP00193 1067
P18_ST00209 1099 make 0300
P18_SP00194 1207
P18_ST00210 1240 annual 333530
P18_SP00195 1376
P18_ST00211 1408 238 north-south 31140021540
P18_SP00196 1646
P18_ST00212 1677 1245 229 migrations, 00013401326
P18_SP00197 1906
P18_ST00213 239 presumably 3102503000
P18_SP00198 2177
P18_ST00214 1248
P18_TL00017 1300
P18_ST00215 1302 177 optimize 13400000
P18_SP00199 1345
P18_ST00216 499 foraging 41120030
P18_SP00200 669
P18_ST00217 688
P18_SP00201 762
P18_ST00218 264 reproduction 103110504013
P18_SP00202 1045
P18_ST00219 (Eckert 0100014
P18_SP00203 1206
P18_ST00220 1224
P18_SP00204 1297
P18_ST00221 1316 Eckert, 0000146
P18_SP00205 1454 1340
P18_ST00222 1473 1301 1988;
P18_SP00206 1573
P18_ST00223 1590 119 James 62003
P18_SP00207 1709 1342
P18_ST00224 1728 1305
P18_SP00208 1764
P18_ST00225 1782 55
P18_SP00209
P18_ST00226 1856 2005; 03301
P18_SP00210 1957
P18_ST00227 1975 137
P18_SP00211 2112
P18_ST00228 2131 2006). 033005
P18_TL00018 1357
P18_ST00229 182 Analyses 03300202
P18_SP00212 485 1403
P18_ST00230 507
P18_SP00213 545 1391
P18_ST00231 167 stomach 2410300
P18_SP00214
P18_ST00232 753 samples 2303002
P18_SP00215 915 1402
P18_ST00233 96 have
P18_SP00216 1031
P18_ST00234 133 shown 20103
P18_SP00217 1185
P18_ST00235 1205
P18_SP00218 1283
P18_ST00236
P18_SP00219 1426
P18_ST00237 84 feed 4000
P18_SP00220 1531
P18_ST00238 primarily 310031000
P18_SP00221 1742
P18_ST00239 1369
P18_SP00222 1813
P18_ST00240 1833 cnidarians 0300310332
P18_SP00223 2042
P18_ST00241 181 (jellyfish, 08000040206
P18_TL00019 1413
P18_ST00242 312 siphonophores) 30301313011030
P18_SP00224 1458
P18_ST00243 641
P18_SP00225
P18_ST00244 tunicates 453002403
P18_SP00226 917
P18_ST00245 941 (salps, 0320336
P18_SP00227
P18_ST00246 1088 233 pyrosomas) 3011310230
P18_SP00228 1459
P18_ST00247 1347 257 (Brongersma 05113001302
P18_SP00229 1604
P18_ST00248 1626 1414 1969;
P18_SP00230 1727 1453
P18_ST00249 1749 Hartog 321410
P18_SP00231 1892
P18_ST00250
P18_SP00232 1987
P18_ST00251 2010 1425 van 023
P18_SP00233 2084
P18_ST00252 2105 Nierop 100113
P18_TL00020 1470 1705
P18_ST00253 1984; 30000
P18_SP00234 404 1510
P18_ST00254 217 Davenport 020032104
P18_SP00235 635 1515
P18_ST00255 649
P18_SP00236 1504
P18_ST00256 126 Balazs 420202
P18_SP00237 863
P18_ST00257 877 1991), 300306
P18_SP00238
P18_ST00258 1007 1482 some 2100
P18_SP00239 1111
P18_ST00259 (e.g. 00505
P18_SP00240 1516
P18_ST00260 Physalia: 304020028
P18_SP00241 1385
P18_ST00261 282 'Man-O-War') 202300002000
P18_SP00242 1683
P18_ST00262 1699 highly
P18_SP00243 1827
P18_ST00263 1841 noxious. 21001425
Illustration P18_CB1_SUB 461 1630 1628 TYPE
P18_TB00002 2685 1373
P18_TL00021 2691 1361
P18_ST00264 Figure 0.98 000001
P18_SP00244 713 2731
P18_ST00265 728 6.
P18_SP00245 759 2723
P18_ST00266 776 253 01050106000
P18_SP00246 1029
P18_ST00267 202 hatchlings 0050000002
P18_SP00247
P18_ST00268 1260 169 crawling
P18_SP00248 1429
P18_ST00269 1444 2692 0.64
P18_SP00249 1481
P18_ST00270 1495
P18_SP00250
P18_ST00271 1571 2699 80 sea.
P18_SP00251 1651
P18_ST00272
P18_SP00252 1708 2722 12
P18_ST00273 1720 J.
P18_SP00253 1748
P18_ST00274 1765 Freestone 001125201
P18_TB00003 297 2850 1956
P18_TL00022 2856
P18_ST00275 2857 145 Mating 034030
P18_SP00254 448 2902
P18_ST00276 469 has 032
P18_SP00255 535 2890
P18_ST00277 555 95 been 0003
P18_SP00256 650
P18_ST00278 672 observed 10201000
P18_SP00257
P18_ST00279 874 between 0040003
P18_SP00258 1044
P18_ST00280 February 00015310
P18_SP00259 1247
P18_ST00281
P18_SP00260 1343
P18_ST00282 May 030
P18_SP00261
P18_ST00283 1476 each
P18_SP00262 1566
P18_ST00284 1585 2868 87 year 0031
P18_SP00263 1672
P18_ST00285 1693 2858
P18_SP00264 1732 2889
P18_ST00286 1752
P18_SP00265
P18_ST00287 1835 198 nearshore 303120110
P18_SP00266 2033
P18_ST00288 2053 2861 waters 034012
P18_SP00267 2187
P18_ST00289
P18_TL00023 2912
P18_ST00290 187 Trinidad, 010300306
P18_SP00268 490 2952
P18_ST00291 514
P18_SP00269 588 2946
P18_ST00292 611 Galera 030013
P18_SP00270
P18_ST00293 765 2913 Point 61034
P18_SP00271 872
P18_ST00294 2914
P18_SP00272 923
P18_ST00295 2924 70 one 130
P18_SP00273 1017
P18_ST00296 160 location 01034013
P18_SP00274 1199
P18_ST00297 where 00010
P18_SP00275
P18_ST00298 1368 regular 1005031
P18_SP00276 1513 2958
P18_ST00299 2917 reports 1031142
P18_SP00277 1678 2957
P18_ST00300 1700 by
P18_SP00278
P18_ST00301 1772 fishermen 402001003
P18_SP00279 1973
P18_ST00302
P18_SP00280 2070
P18_ST00303 2094
P18_TB00004 3094
P18_TL00024 1253 3100
P18_ST00304


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P33_ST00002 427 67 and 000
P33_SP00002 494 16
P33_ST00003 510
P33_SP00003 619
P33_ST00004 632 36 (2005) 0.66 700067
P33_SP00004 741 200 14
P33_ST00005 755 135 29 Coastal 0000000
P33_SP00005 890 193
P33_ST00006 904 129 Gillnets 0.92 42000000
P33_SP00006 1033
P33_ST00007 1047 166 23 27 & 0.44 5
P33_SP00007 1070
P33_ST00008 1084 227 Leattierback 0.86 000088000000
P33_SP00008 1311 10
P33_ST00009 1321 110 Turtles 0500000
P33_SP00009 1431
P33_ST00010 203 212 3 0.41
P33_SP00010 1643 206
P33_ST00011 180 WIDECAST 00000000
P33_SP00011 1823 11
P33_ST00012 1834 173 Tectinical 0.81 0008802000
P33_SP00012 2007 15
P33_ST00013 2022 165 115 34 Report 400000
P33_SP00013 2137 199
P33_ST00014 2150 57 No.
P33_SP00014 2207
P33_ST00015 2221 18 0.40 6
P33_TB00002 330 2556
P33_TL00002 303 336 1943 46
P33_ST00016 138 40 Eckert, 0.80 0000146
P33_SP00015 441 376 24
P33_ST00017 465 337 31 S. 0.73 05
P33_SP00016 496 370 26
P33_ST00018 522 56 39 A., 0.61 056
P33_SP00017 578
P33_ST00019 602 D. 0.72
P33_SP00018 644 25
P33_ST00020 669 54 W.
P33_SP00019 723
P33_ST00021 748 Nellis, 0.85 1000026
P33_SP00020 877
P33_ST00022 901 K. 0.71
P33_SP00021 941
P33_ST00023 967 35 L.
P33_SP00022 1002
P33_ST00024 1027 128 0.88 100014
P33_SP00023 1155
P33_ST00025 1178 74 0.78
P33_SP00024 1252
P33_ST00026 1276 G.
P33_SP00025 1318
P33_ST00027 1344
P33_SP00026 1379
P33_ST00028 1405 205 45 Kooyman. 01100335
P33_SP00027 1610 382
P33_ST00029 1636 98 1986. 40005
P33_SP00028 1734
P33_ST00030 1760 139 Diving 0.94 000030
P33_SP00029 1899 22
P33_ST00031 1921 341 patterns 0.70 33440132
P33_SP00030 2085 381
P33_ST00032 2110 38 of 0.67
P33_SP00031 2148
P33_ST00033 2171 75 two 0.79 401
P33_TL00003 392 1942
P33_ST00034 233 leatherback 0.89 00240010200
P33_SP00032 536 426 21
P33_ST00035 557 404 61 sea 0.82 302
P33_SP00033 618
P33_ST00036 639 turtles 4514003
P33_SP00034 767
P33_ST00037 790 250 {Dermochelys 800001000070
P33_SP00035 1040 438
P33_ST00038 1063 156 coriacea) 0.84 010030037
P33_SP00036 1219 437
P33_ST00039 1243 137 during 0.83 051020
P33_SP00037 1380 20
P33_ST00040 1400 394 242 44 internesting 024012034030
P33_SP00038 1642
P33_ST00041 1663 174 intervals 024010203
P33_SP00039 1837
P33_ST00042 1859 397 at 0.64
P33_SP00040 1895
P33_ST00043 1915 124 Sandy 02300
P33_SP00041 2039
P33_ST00044 2061 393 116 Point, 0.65 510346
P33_SP00042 2177 432
P33_ST00045 2199 St. 045
P33_TL00004 304 449 1106
P33_ST00046 450 121 Croix, 0.76 411006
P33_SP00043 425 489
P33_ST00047 439 78 U.S. 0505
P33_SP00044 517 483
P33_ST00048 533 Virgin 001002
P33_SP00045 661 495
P33_ST00049 674 152 Islands. 03023035
P33_SP00046 826
P33_ST00050 842 285 Herpetologica 3013041010002
P33_SP00047 1127
P33_ST00051 1140 270 42(3):381-388. 00030030403005
P33_TL00005 563 1944
P33_ST00052
P33_SP00048 603
P33_ST00053 457 564
P33_SP00049 488 597
P33_ST00054 506
P33_SP00050 562
P33_ST00055
P33_SP00051 19
P33_ST00056 637
P33_SP00052 672
P33_ST00057 690 1000146
P33_SP00053 827
P33_ST00058 843 P. 0.42 65
P33_SP00054 878
P33_ST00059 896 184 Ponganis 0.75 61303302
P33_SP00055 1080 609 17
P33_ST00060 1097
P33_SP00056 1171
P33_ST00061 1188 41
P33_SP00057 1229
P33_ST00062 1248
P33_SP00058 1282
P33_ST00063 1300
P33_SP00059 1506
P33_ST00064 1524 1989.
P33_SP00060 1622
P33_ST00065 1640
P33_SP00061 1779
P33_ST00066 1795 73
P33_SP00062 1868
P33_ST00067 1885 170 foraging 41130030
P33_SP00063 2055
P33_ST00068 2069 178 behavior 00030011
P33_TL00006 620 1841
P33_ST00069 50 by 0.98 00
P33_SP00064 352 666
P33_ST00070 366 232 0.91 00240000200
P33_SP00065 598 654
P33_ST00071 612 202
P33_SP00066 673
P33_ST00072 686 4404002
P33_SP00067 814
P33_ST00073 831 248 (Dermochelys 000005000040
P33_SP00068 1079
P33_ST00074 1095 coriacea). 0500200672
P33_SP00069 1265 665
P33_ST00075 Canadian 42320023
P33_SP00070 1475
P33_ST00076 1486 148 Journal 0.74 6140220
P33_SP00071 1634 662
P33_ST00077 1649 0.68
P33_SP00072 1687 12
P33_ST00078 1699 168 Zoology 0.93 0110100
P33_SP00073 1867
P33_ST00079 1882 621 261 67:2834-2840. 0500030000035
P33_TL00007 733
P33_ST00080 225 Fournillier, 015130000016
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P10_ST00032 745 815 133 waters 0.75 034034
P10_SP00029 878
P10_ST00033 66 has 034
P10_SP00030 971 26
P10_ST00034 997 95 been 0003
P10_SP00031 1092
P10_ST00035 1117 140 known 03103
P10_SP00032 1257
P10_ST00036 1283 for 513
P10_SP00033 1339
P10_ST00037 1366 112 many 0330
P10_SP00034 1478
P10_ST00038 1504 115 years. 0.73 003345
P10_SP00035 1619
P10_ST00039 1672 811 40 32 In 0.84
P10_SP00036 1712
P10_ST00040 1738 interviews 0340300004
P10_SP00037 1949
P10_ST00041 1974 93 with 0040
P10_SP00038 2067
P10_ST00042 2092 154 Matelot 0340014
P10_TL00005 304 866
P10_ST00043 202 fishermen 504003003
P10_SP00039 506 900
P10_ST00044 537 225 (April-May 0.89 0033000030
P10_SP00040 762 912
P10_ST00045 793 1992), 500006
P10_SP00041 908 911 30
P10_ST00046 938 214 Fournillier 21433000003
P10_SP00042 1152
P10_ST00047 1183 74 330
P10_SP00043
P10_ST00048 1288 126 100034
P10_SP00044 1414
P10_ST00049 1446 116 (1998) 050000
P10_SP00045 1562
P10_ST00050 1594 172 reported 30313400
P10_SP00046 1766
P10_ST00051 1798 a 0.65
P10_SP00047 1818
P10_ST00052 1847 871 152 capture 0.72 0334430
P10_SP00048 1999
P10_ST00053 2029 75 rate 3340
P10_SP00049 2104
P10_ST00054 2135 of
P10_SP00050 2173
P10_ST00055 2202 867 43 33 0.51 54
P10_TL00006 923 1942
P10_ST00056 251 leatherbacks 003400303004
P10_SP00051 555 957 24
P10_ST00057 579 935 per
P10_SP00052 968
P10_ST00058 670 924 84 61m 050
P10_SP00053 754
P10_ST00059 779 0.67
P10_SP00054 817
P10_ST00060 840 928 62 net
P10_SP00055 902
P10_ST00061 926 65
P10_SP00056 991
P10_ST00062 1017 141 season. 0.69 4034135
P10_SP00057 1158 49
P10_ST00063 1207 Between 3040003
P10_SP00058 1379
P10_ST00064 1403 March 03300
P10_SP00059 1532
P10_ST00065 1557
P10_SP00060 1631
P10_ST00066 1656 148 August 040444
P10_SP00061 1804 969
P10_ST00067 1829 100 1995, 50006
P10_SP00062 1929 963
P10_ST00068 1955 113 seven 40003
P10_SP00063 2068
P10_ST00069
P10_TL00007 980
P10_ST00070
P10_SP00064 1014
P10_ST00071 522 250 documented 0104003400
P10_SP00065 772 17
P10_ST00072 789 the 400
P10_SP00066 850
P10_ST00073 985 151
P10_SP00067 1025
P10_ST00074
P10_SP00068 1072
P10_ST00075 1087 981 139 0.64 550
P10_SP00069
P10_ST00076 1169
P10_SP00070 1419
P10_ST00077 1435 982
P10_SP00071 1473 1013
P10_ST00078 1488 their
P10_SP00072 1581
P10_ST00079 1597 90 nets. 30445
P10_SP00073 1687
P10_ST00080 1719
P10_SP00074 1759
P10_ST00081 1774 101 1997, 50046
P10_SP00075 1875 1020
P10_ST00082 1892 992 an
P10_SP00076 1938
P10_ST00083 1954 estimated 044003400
P10_SP00077 2148
P10_ST00084 2164 82 200- 0.79 0440
P10_TL00008 1037
P10_ST00085 1038 450 004
P10_SP00078 370
P10_ST00086 387
P10_SP00079 637
P10_ST00087 653 1049 99 were 0030
P10_SP00080 752
P10_ST00088 769 178 captured 03344300
P10_SP00081 947 1082
P10_ST00089 964 1039
P10_SP00082 1002 1070
P10_ST00090 144 gillnets 00003044
P10_SP00083 1164 1083
P10_ST00091 1180 170 between 0040003
P10_SP00084 1350
P10_ST00092 181 Balandra 0.74 33033033
P10_SP00085 1547
P10_ST00093 1563 Bay
P10_SP00086 1637
P10_ST00094 1655 73
P10_SP00087 1728
P10_ST00095 1746 145 Salybia 0300003
P10_SP00088 1891
P10_ST00096 1909 on
P10_SP00089 1958
P10_ST00097 0.87
P10_SP00090 2035
P10_ST00098 2052 1042 77 east 0.71 0344
P10_SP00091 2129
P10_ST00099 2145 coast 01344
P10_TL00009 1093 1940
P10_ST00100
P10_SP00092 343 1127
P10_ST00101 359 176 Trinidad 03020020
P10_SP00093 535
P10_ST00102 105 (Map 0023
P10_SP00094 660 1138
P10_ST00103 678 47 1), 0.62
P10_SP00095
P10_ST00104
P10_SP00096
P10_ST00105 836 1095 it 04
P10_SP00097 862
P10_ST00106 879 1105 79 was 024
P10_SP00098 958
P10_ST00107 977 suggested 440004400
P10_SP00099 1176 1139
P10_ST00108 1194 78 that 4024
P10_SP00100 1272
P10_ST00109 1289
P10_SP00101 1521
P10_ST00110 1539 111 death 00240
P10_SP00102 1650
P10_ST00111 1668 1098 94 rates 32404
P10_SP00103 1762
P10_ST00112 1781 off 0.59 155
P10_SP00104 1834
P10_ST00113 1850 1094 97 Toco 0101
P10_SP00105 1947
P10_ST00114 1965 Point 41034
P10_SP00106 2070
P10_ST00115 2087
P10_SP00107 2186
P10_ST00116 2204 so
P10_TL00010 1150
P10_ST00117 91 high 0000
P10_SP00108 1196
P10_ST00118 410
P10_SP00109 488 1184
P10_ST00119 504 186 mortality 013420040
P10_SP00110 690
P10_ST00120 706
P10_SP00111
P10_ST00121 760
P10_SP00112
P10_ST00122 838 189 northeast 313400244
P10_SP00113 1027
P10_ST00123 44 region 300013
P10_SP00114 1171
P10_ST00124 1188
P10_SP00115 1226
P10_ST00125 1242
P10_SP00116 1303
P10_ST00126 1155 country 0143430
P10_SP00117 1475
P10_ST00127 1491 probably 33102000
P10_SP00118
P10_ST00128 1688 185 exceeded 0.99
P10_SP00119 1873
P10_ST00129 1890 1151 1,000 0.56 56333
P10_SP00120 1990 1190
P10_ST00130 2007 egg-bearing 00000023020
P10_TL00011
P10_ST00131 134 female 500300
P10_SP00121 438 1241
P10_ST00132 467
P10_SP00122 595
P10_ST00133 625 1219 every 0.93 00030
P10_SP00123 735 1253
P10_ST00134 764 88 year
P10_SP00124 852
P10_ST00135 883 (Fournillier 021433000003
P10_SP00125 1110 1252
P10_ST00136 1141
P10_SP00126 1214
P10_ST00137 1245 137 Eckert, 1000346
P10_SP00127 1382 1247
P10_ST00138 1412 1998),
P10_SP00128 1528
P10_ST00139 1559 179 although 30401400
P10_SP00129
P10_ST00140 1767
P10_SP00130
P10_ST00141 1859 authors 3440134
P10_SP00131 2010
P10_ST00142 2040 could 01400
P10_SP00132 2151
P10_ST00143 2182 1212 64 not 314
P10_TL00012 1264 1870
P10_ST00144 187 speculate 430040240
P10_SP00133 492 1309
P10_ST00145 1276
P10_SP00134 1298
P10_ST00146 568
P10_SP00135 630
P10_ST00147 643 1269 122 extent 004034
P10_SP00136
P10_ST00148 778 37 to
P10_SP00137
P10_ST00149 828 125 which 00000
P10_SP00138 953
P10_ST00150 966
P10_SP00139
P10_ST00151 1041 86 data 0242
P10_SP00140
P10_ST00152 1140 reflected 305000400
P10_SP00141 1312
P10_ST00153 1327 multiple 04040300
P10_SP00142 1497
P10_ST00154 1510 captures 02344304
P10_SP00143 1680
P10_ST00155 1695
P10_SP00144 1733 12
P10_ST00156 1745
P10_SP00145 1807
P10_ST00157 1821 102 same 4200
P10_SP00146 1923
P10_ST00158 1936 individuals. 020000042045
P10_TL00013 1426 1392
P10_ST00159 3RANCE 0.30 765787
Illustration P10_CB1_SUB 588 1422 1210 821 TYPE
P10_TB00004 298 2288 677
P10_TL00014 454 2294 1653
P10_ST00160 2295 Map 0.68 702
P10_SP00147 544 2333
P10_ST00161 561 1 0.97
P10_SP00148 572 2325
P10_ST00162 583 2302 :
P10_SP00149 589 2326
P10_ST00163 603 68 The 001
P10_SP00150 671
P10_ST00164 687 major 00230
P10_SP00151 801 2334
P10_ST00165 813 124 0010000
P10_SP00152 937
P10_ST00166 954 ports 23051
P10_SP00153
P10_ST00167 1063
P10_SP00154 1109
P10_ST00168 1125 501
P10_SP00155 1186
P10_ST00169 1203 96 north 03050
P10_SP00156 1299
P10_ST00170 1315 76
P10_SP00157 1391
P10_ST00171 1407 1015
P10_SP00158 1489
P10_ST00172 1503 coasts 030151
P10_SP00159 1629
P10_ST00173 1644
P10_SP00160
P10_ST00174 1692 Trinidad, 000000000
P10_SP00161 2330
P10_ST00175 1874 West 0115
P10_SP00162 1967
P10_ST00176 1983 Indies. 0000110
P10_TL00015 2458
P10_ST00177 127
P10_SP00163 431 2492
P10_ST00178
P10_SP00164 524
P10_ST00179 543 2459 Lien
P10_SP00165 631
P10_ST00180 651 (1999)
P10_SP00166 767 2503
P10_ST00181 published 340004000
P10_SP00167 987
P10_ST00182 1006
P10_SP00168 1068
P10_ST00183 1086 132 results 3044044
P10_SP00169 1218
P10_ST00184 1238
P10_SP00170
P10_ST00185 1294 2460 210
P10_SP00171
P10_ST00186 1523 87 they 4000
P10_SP00172 1610 2504
P10_ST00187 1628 conducted 013040400
P10_SP00173 1838
P10_ST00188 1856
P10_SP00174 1948
P10_ST00189 1966 fishers 5040034
P10_SP00175 2098
P10_ST00190 2118 2470
P10_SP00176 2167
P10_ST00191 2185
P10_TL00016 2515
P10_ST00192 2520
P10_SP00177 381 2549
P10_ST00193 406
P10_SP00178
P10_ST00194 505 31340
P10_SP00179 614
P10_ST00195 638 119 013444
P10_SP00180 757
P10_ST00196 783
P10_SP00181
P10_ST00197 188 030300306
P10_SP00182 1031 2555
P10_ST00198 1057 during 043030
P10_SP00183 1193 2561
P10_ST00199 1216
P10_SP00184 1340
P10_ST00200 1364 131
P10_SP00185 1495
P10_ST00201 1519 2527
P10_SP00186 1618
P10_ST00202 153 queried 0403000
P10_SP00187 1795 2560
P10_ST00203 about 30144
P10_SP00188 1934
P10_ST00204
P10_SP00189 2020
P10_ST00205 2045 accidental 3000003430
P10_TL00017 2572
P10_ST00206 2577
P10_SP00190 2617
P10_ST00207 481
P10_SP00191 519 2606
P10_ST00208
P10_SP00192 794
P10_ST00209 819 2574
P10_SP00193 858 2605
P10_ST00210
P10_SP00194 975
P10_ST00211 1000 5040030
P10_SP00195 2618
P10_ST00212 2584 gear. 00335
P10_SP00196 1259
P10_ST00213 1308
P10_SP00197 1384
P10_ST00214 1409 following 510010030
P10_SP00198 1602
P10_ST00215 1627 findings 50300304
P10_SP00199 1792
P10_ST00216 1819 60
P10_SP00200 1879
P10_ST00217 1904 243 noteworthy: 31400134000
P10_SP00201 2147
P10_ST00218 2176 70 one 130
P10_TL00018 2629
P10_ST00219 0240014
P10_SP00202 458 2663
P10_ST00220 478 fisherman 504003023
P10_SP00203 680
P10_ST00221 699
P10_SP00204 2674
P10_ST00222 892
P10_SP00205
P10_ST00223 988 each 0.94 0200
P10_SP00206 1078
P10_ST00224
P10_SP00207 1136
P10_ST00225
P10_SP00208 1217
P10_ST00226 1236 2630 00
P10_SP00209 1279
P10_ST00227 106 boats 01244
P10_SP00210 1404
P10_ST00228 (operating 0130324030
P10_SP00211 1633 2675
P10_ST00229 2634 out
P10_SP00212 1717
P10_ST00230
P10_SP00213 1776
P10_ST00231 1794 Matelot) 02400140
P10_SP00214 1961
P10_ST00232 1984 183 averaged 20032000
P10_SP00215
P10_ST00233 2187 1-2 500
P10_TL00019 2686
P10_ST00234
P10_SP00216 432 2720
P10_ST00235 453
P10_SP00217 2731
P10_ST00236 2698
P10_SP00218 718
P10_ST00237 739
P10_SP00219 877 2732
P10_ST00238 897 2688 72 trip 4303
P10_SP00220
P10_ST00239 (i.e. 00505
P10_SP00221 1059
P10_ST00240
P10_SP00222 1147
P10_ST00241 day); 03002
P10_SP00223 1268
P10_ST00242
P10_SP00224
P10_ST00243 1511 from 5310
P10_SP00225 1608
P10_ST00244 226 Manzanilla 0330330003
P10_SP00226 1854
P10_ST00245 (3 05
P10_SP00227 1910
P10_ST00246 1930 120 boats) 013440
P10_SP00228 2050
P10_ST00247 2073
P10_TL00020 2742 1937
P10_ST00248 169 catching 03400030
P10_SP00229 473 2788
P10_ST00249 497 2754 71
P10_SP00230 2776
P10_ST00250 592 00340030300
P10_SP00231 824
P10_ST00251 847
P10_SP00232 913 2787
P10_ST00252 day 030
P10_SP00233 1010
P10_ST00253 (five 05000
P10_SP00234
P10_ST00254 1149 days 0304
P10_SP00235
P10_ST00255 1266
P10_SP00236 1331
P10_ST00256 1354 week)
P10_SP00237 1474
P10_ST00257 1500
P10_SP00238
P10_ST00258 2743 158 January 0334330
P10_SP00239
P10_ST00259 1801 2747
P10_SP00240
P10_ST00260 1863 April, 033006
P10_SP00241 1979
P10_ST00261 2003
P10_SP00242 2095
P10_ST00262 2120
P10_SP00243 2140
P10_ST00263 35 50% 040
P10_TL00021 2799
P10_ST00264 197 mortality; 0134300402
P10_SP00244 2845
P10_ST00265 520
P10_SP00245 573 2833
P10_ST00266
P10_SP00246
P10_ST00267 668 2804
P10_SP00247 768
P10_ST00268
P10_SP00248
P10_ST00269 841 2800 Mayaro, 0303316
P10_SP00249 1007
P10_ST00270 1023 where
P10_SP00250
P10_ST00271 1166 50
P10_SP00251 1209
P10_ST00272
P10_SP00252 1332
P10_ST00273 1351 149 operate 1303340
P10_SP00253 2844
P10_ST00274 55 (25
P10_SP00254 1574
P10_ST00275 1592 98
P10_SP00255 1690
P10_ST00276 1706
P10_SP00256 1872
P10_ST00277
P10_SP00257 1933
P10_ST00278 1952 2811
P10_SP00258 2012
P10_ST00279
P10_SP00259 2125
P10_ST00280 2143 103 other 14003
P10_TL00022 2856
P10_ST00281 ports), 3134406
P10_SP00260 433 2901
P10_ST00282 449
P10_SP00261 539 2890
P10_ST00283 553 boat 0124
P10_SP00262 640
P10_ST00284 655 reportedly 3031340000
P10_SP00263 2902
P10_ST00285 882 caught 024004
P10_SP00264
P10_ST00286 1033 five 5000
P10_SP00265 1107
P10_ST00287 1122 002400302004
P10_SP00266 1372
P10_ST00288 1387
P10_SP00267
P10_ST00289 1570 2857 0234230
P10_SP00268
P10_ST00290 1744
P10_SP00269
P10_ST00291 117 April; 033001
P10_SP00270 1951
P10_ST00292
P10_SP00271 2152
P10_ST00293 2868
P10_TL00023 2913
P10_ST00294 195 044002400
P10_SP00272 499 2947
P10_ST00295 530 2918
P10_SP00273 566
P10_ST00296 598 exceed
P10_SP00274 732
P10_ST00297 763 95%
P10_SP00275 2948
P10_ST00298 876 due
P10_SP00276 951
P10_ST00299
P10_SP00277 1018
P10_ST00300 1050 2925
P10_SP00278 1097
P10_ST00301 1126 121 illegal 0.96 0000020
P10_SP00279 2959
P10_ST00302 1277 black 0.95 00200
P10_SP00280 1383
P10_ST00303 1413 market 023004
P10_SP00281 1554
P10_ST00304 1584 2915
P10_SP00282 1623 2946
P10_ST00305 1652
P10_SP00283 1884
P10_ST00306 1914 meat
P10_SP00284
P10_ST00307 2042
P10_SP00285 2080
P10_ST00308 2110
P10_TB00005 1260 3093
P10_TL00024 3099
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P22_ST00013 2022 165 115 34 Report 400000
P22_SP00013 2137 199
P22_ST00014 2150 57 No.
P22_SP00014 2207
P22_ST00015 2221 18 0.40 6
P22_TB00002 330 1363
P22_TL00002 304 336 1943 46
P22_ST00016 197 45 suspected 0.78 252300400
P22_SP00015 501 381 17
P22_ST00017 518 194 reduction 100504013
P22_SP00016 712 370
P22_ST00018 728 38 of 0.68
P22_SP00017 766
P22_ST00019 781 341 at 0.59
P22_SP00018 817
P22_ST00020 831 92 least 00324
P22_SP00019 923
P22_ST00021 937 78 35 80% 040
P22_SP00020 1015 371 21
P22_ST00022 1036 348 87 over 1001
P22_SP00021 1123
P22_ST00023 1139 61 the 0.85 400
P22_SP00022 1200
P22_ST00024 1216 69 last 0.72 0324
P22_SP00023 1285
P22_ST00025 1299 337 43 33 0.55 44
P22_SP00024 1342
P22_ST00026 1357 106 years 0.83 00312
P22_SP00025 1463 382
P22_ST00027 1480 40 or
P22_SP00026 1520
P22_ST00028 1536 101 three 0.87 40100
P22_SP00027 1637
P22_ST00029 1653 338 244 generations, 0.77 003013401326
P22_SP00028 1897
P22_ST00030 1912 whichever 0.98 000000001
P22_SP00029 2124
P22_ST00031 2139 31 32 is 02
P22_SP00030 2170
P22_ST00032 2185 62 0.84
P22_TL00003 303 392 762
P22_ST00033 149 longer" 0.90 0130010
P22_SP00031 452 438
P22_ST00034 470 75 (see 0.93 0300
P22_SP00032 545 437
P22_ST00035 558 507 http:www.redlist.org). 044300000051000034511005
P22_TL00004 504
P22_ST00036 260 International 0.67 1470443702430
P22_SP00033 563 538
P22_ST00037 578 Legal 0.73 10830
P22_SP00034 687 550
P22_ST00038 702 505 131 Status: 0.56 0737714
P22_SP00035 833
P22_ST00039 862 The
P22_SP00036
P22_ST00040 951 232 leatherback 0.88 00340010300
P22_SP00037 1183
P22_ST00041 1197 506 30
P22_SP00038 1227
P22_ST00042 1242 108 listed 002400
P22_SP00039 1350
P22_ST00043 1366 516 49 on 0.75
P22_SP00040 1415
P22_ST00044 1429 Annex 03300
P22_SP00041 1560
P22_ST00045 1575 II 00
P22_SP00042 1604 537
P22_ST00046 1621 80 (full 0.79 04500
P22_SP00043 1701 549
P22_ST00047 1716 218 protection) 0.80 31140040130
P22_SP00044
P22_ST00048 1952
P22_SP00045 1990
P22_ST00049 2004
P22_SP00046 2065
P22_ST00050 2080 Protocol 61141010
P22_TL00005 561 1944
P22_ST00051 223 concerning 0130013030
P22_SP00047 526 607
P22_ST00052 547 179 Specially 030003000
P22_SP00048 726
P22_ST00053 748 190 Protected 611400400
P22_SP00049 938 595
P22_ST00054 960 562 Areas 01032
P22_SP00050 1075
P22_ST00055 1098 73
P22_SP00051 1171
P22_ST00056 1193 163 Wildlife 0.94 00000040
P22_SP00052 1356
P22_ST00057 1379 157 (SPAW) 006000
P22_SP00053 606 24
P22_ST00058 566 37 to 41
P22_SP00054 1597
P22_ST00059 1619
P22_SP00055 1681
P22_ST00060 1702 127 UNEP 0106
P22_SP00056 1829
P22_ST00061 1851 236 Convention 5130034013
P22_SP00057 2087
P22_ST00062 2108 56 for 411
P22_SP00058 2164
P22_ST00063
P22_TL00006 618
P22_ST00064 Protection 0.76 6114004013
P22_SP00059 509 652
P22_ST00065
P22_SP00060 611
P22_ST00066 641 273 Development 00000130034
P22_SP00061 914 663
P22_ST00067 942
P22_SP00062 980
P22_ST00068 1007
P22_SP00063 1069
P22_ST00069 1097 144 Marine 031030
P22_SP00064 1241
P22_ST00070 1269 266 Environment 13001130034
P22_SP00065 1535
P22_ST00071 1563
P22_SP00066 1601
P22_ST00072 1628
P22_SP00067 1690
P22_ST00073 1717 126 Wider 0.96 00001
P22_SP00068 1843
P22_ST00074 1872 Caribbean 531000033
P22_SP00069 2078
P22_ST00075 2105 141 Region 000013
P22_TL00007 675 1941
P22_ST00076 220 (Cartagena 0421420032
P22_SP00070 525 721
P22_ST00077 542 261 Convention); 413003401301
P22_SP00071 803 720
P22_ST00078 821 201 Appendix 03303000
P22_SP00072 1022
P22_ST00079 1040 676 I
P22_SP00073 1053 708 19
P22_ST00080 1072 81
P22_SP00074 1153
P22_ST00081 1170 219
P22_SP00075 1389 20
P22_ST00082 1409 0.69
P22_SP00076 1447 709
P22_ST00083
P22_SP00077 1524
P22_ST00084 1542 4130034013
P22_SP00078 1778
P22_ST00085 1794
P22_SP00079 1850
P22_ST00086 1867 205 Migratory 000124110
P22_SP00080 2072
P22_ST00087 2089 Species; 0.91 03000031
P22_TL00008 732 1945
P22_ST00088 202
P22_SP00081 777
P22_ST00089 520 733
P22_SP00082 533 765
P22_ST00090 551
P22_SP00083 631
P22_ST00091 647
P22_SP00084 865
P22_ST00092 883
P22_SP00085 921
P22_ST00093 935
P22_SP00086 997
P22_ST00094 1013 235
P22_SP00087 1248
P22_ST00095 1264 744
P22_SP00088 1313
P22_ST00096 1327 0340133401330
P22_SP00089 1587
P22_ST00097 1603 116 Trade 01300
P22_SP00090 1719
P22_ST00098 1734 734 39 in 03
P22_SP00091 1773
P22_ST00099 1787 245 Endangered 1303300100
P22_SP00092 2032 778
P22_ST00100 2047 146 Species 0300002
P22_SP00093 2193
P22_ST00101 2210
P22_TL00009 302 788
P22_ST00102 99 Wild 0000
P22_SP00094 401 822
P22_ST00103 422 789 124 Fauna 03533
P22_SP00095 546
P22_ST00104 567
P22_SP00096 640
P22_ST00105 662 103 Flora 00113
P22_SP00097
P22_ST00106 787 (CITES); 05001002
P22_SP00098 952
P22_ST00107 974 74
P22_SP00099 1048
P22_ST00108 790
P22_SP00100 1099
P22_ST00109 1120 176 included 0.89 03005000
P22_SP00101 1296
P22_ST00110 1317
P22_SP00102 1355
P22_ST00111 1375
P22_SP00103 1437
P22_ST00112 1458 800 160 annexes 0.82 3330002
P22_SP00104 1618
P22_ST00113 1639 793
P22_SP00105 1675
P22_ST00114 1697
P22_SP00106 1758
P22_ST00115 1780
P22_SP00107 2015
P22_ST00116 2036
P22_SP00108 2085
P22_ST00117 142 Nature 0.71 134510
P22_TL00010 845 1942
P22_ST00118 846
P22_SP00109 879
P22_ST00119 530
P22_SP00110 603
P22_ST00120 623 98
P22_SP00111
P22_ST00121 742 76 Life 0040
P22_SP00112 818
P22_ST00122 838 254 Preservation 610201030013
P22_SP00113 1092
P22_ST00123 1111 847
P22_SP00114 1149 878
P22_ST00124 1169
P22_SP00115 1230
P22_ST00125 1249 168 Western 0024013
P22_SP00116 1417
P22_ST00126 1436 258 Hemisphere, 40002300106
P22_SP00117 1694
P22_ST00127 1715 857 a 0.65
P22_SP00118 1735
P22_ST00128 1756 234 designation 00200334013
P22_SP00119 891
P22_ST00129 2010 178 intended 03403000
P22_SP00120 2188
P22_ST00130 2208 850
P22_TL00011 902 1367
P22_ST00131 143 convey 013000
P22_SP00121 446 948
P22_ST00132 460 that 4034
P22_SP00122 936 12
P22_ST00133 93 their 40001
P22_SP00123 643
P22_ST00134 657 protection 3114004013
P22_SP00124 863 947
P22_ST00135 876
P22_SP00125 906
P22_ST00136
P22_SP00126 959
P22_ST00137 971 159 "special 02300030
P22_SP00127 1130
P22_ST00138 1144 urgency 5100300
P22_SP00128 1307
P22_ST00139 1322
P22_SP00129 1395
P22_ST00140 1410 importance". 003114330005
P22_TL00012 1016
P22_ST00141
P22_SP00130 378 1050
P22_ST00142 402 177 Republic 00350000
P22_SP00131 579 1061 25
P22_ST00143 604 1018
P22_SP00132 634
P22_ST00144 659 1017 Party 52140
P22_SP00133 1062
P22_ST00145 1021
P22_SP00134 827
P22_ST00146 852
P22_SP00135 913
P22_ST00147 130 SPAW 0500
P22_SP00136 1068
P22_ST00148 167 51141010
P22_SP00137 1259
P22_ST00149 1282 which, 000006
P22_SP00138 1056
P22_ST00150 1442 88 inter 04702
P22_SP00139 1530
P22_ST00151 1553 alia, 60060
P22_SP00140
P22_ST00152 181 prohibits 311000043
P22_SP00141
P22_ST00153 1858 138 taking, 4200306
P22_SP00142 1996
P22_ST00154 2020 226 possession, 31330330136
P22_TL00013
P22_ST00155 killing 0.95 0000030
P22_SP00143 433 1118
P22_ST00156 451 207 (including 0030050030
P22_SP00144 658
P22_ST00157 674 264 incidentally), 03000034300006
P22_SP00145
P22_ST00158 957
P22_SP00146 1030 1106
P22_ST00159 1049 233 commercial 0100010030
P22_SP00147
P22_ST00160 104 trade 41300
P22_SP00148 1403
P22_ST00161 1420 1074
P22_SP00149 1459 1105
P22_ST00162 1475 1073 132
P22_SP00150 1607
P22_ST00163 1625 154 Il-listed 000002400
P22_SP00151 1779
P22_ST00164 1798 150 species. 23000025
P22_SP00152 1948 1117
P22_ST00165 1983 263 Significantly, 00030400334006
P22_TL00014 1129
P22_ST00166
P22_SP00153 365 1163
P22_ST00167 390
P22_SP00154 557
P22_ST00168 584 also 2031
P22_SP00155 660
P22_ST00169
P22_SP00156 868 1174 26
P22_ST00170 894
P22_SP00157 956
P22_ST00171 981 279 "disturbance" 0003451023000
P22_SP00158 1260
P22_ST00172 1289
P22_SP00159
P22_ST00173 1352 003400
P22_SP00160 1460
P22_ST00174 1488 1131 140 species 3300003
P22_SP00161
P22_ST00175 1655 137 during 051020
P22_SP00162 1792 1175
P22_ST00176 1817 periods 3010103
P22_SP00163 1967
P22_ST00177 1994
P22_SP00164
P22_ST00178 2056 191 breeding, 010000306
P22_TL00015 1186
P22_ST00179 225 incubation, 03050340136
P22_SP00165 528 1226
P22_ST00180 1188 aestivation 30240034013
P22_SP00166 764 1220
P22_ST00181 779 1198
P22_SP00167 819
P22_ST00182 835 198 migration 000134013
P22_SP00168 1232
P22_ST00183
P22_SP00169 1122
P22_ST00184 other 14001
P22_SP00170 1243
P22_ST00185 1258 151 3010102
P22_SP00171 1231
P22_ST00186 1425
P22_SP00172
P22_ST00187 1477 196 biological 0010100030
P22_SP00173 1673
P22_ST00188 1689 1191 120 stress. 2410225
P22_SP00174 1809
P22_ST00189 1839
P22_SP00175 1914
P22_ST00190 1929
P22_SP00176 2107
P22_ST00191 2122
P22_SP00177 2153
P22_ST00192 2169 77 3021
P22_TL00016
P22_ST00193 1244 107 63140
P22_SP00178 410
P22_ST00194 426
P22_SP00179 463 1277
P22_ST00195 480
P22_SP00180
P22_ST00196 556
P22_SP00181 724
P22_ST00197 740 247 Hemisphere 4000230010
P22_SP00182 987 1288
P22_ST00198 1004 5130030013
P22_SP00183 1240
P22_ST00199 1257 (1969) 040000
P22_SP00184 1373
P22_ST00200 1392
P22_SP00185 1466
P22_ST00201 1484 CITES 50010
P22_SP00186 1608
P22_ST00202 1626 (1984), 0400006
P22_SP00187 1755
P22_ST00203 1772 295 demonstrating 0001324130030
P22_SP00188 2067
P22_ST00204 2084 1255
P22_SP00189 2104
P22_ST00205 2121 strong 241130
P22_TL00017 1300
P22_ST00206 1302 commitment 0100040034
P22_SP00190 1334
P22_ST00207 576 1305
P22_SP00191 613
P22_ST00208 630 its 042
P22_SP00192
P22_ST00209 692 neighbors 300000112
P22_SP00193 1346
P22_ST00210 908
P22_SP00194 982
P22_ST00211 999
P22_SP00195
P22_ST00212
P22_SP00196 1115
P22_ST00213 international
P22_SP00197
P22_ST00214 1405 community 010053040
P22_SP00198
P22_ST00215 with
P22_SP00199 1745
P22_ST00216 1761 regard 100310
P22_SP00200 1892
P22_ST00217 1909
P22_SP00201
P22_ST00218 1964
P22_SP00202 2025
P22_ST00219 2041
P22_TL00018 1251
P22_ST00220
P22_SP00203 342 1391
P22_ST00221 356 1369 sea
P22_SP00204 417
P22_ST00222 431 turtles 4514002
P22_SP00205
P22_ST00223 573
P22_SP00206
P22_ST00224
P22_SP00207
P22_ST00225 780 1359 2300002
P22_SP00208 920 1402
P22_ST00226
P22_SP00209 973
P22_ST00227 986 238 endangered 0303300100
P22_SP00210 1224
P22_ST00228 1238 113 fauna 43533
P22_SP00211 1351
P22_ST00229
P22_SP00212 1439
P22_ST00230 1454 flora. 401135
P22_TL00019 1470
P22_ST00231
P22_SP00213 1504
P22_ST00232
P22_SP00214 588 1515
P22_ST00233 620 1472
P22_SP00215 651
P22_ST00234 683 66 not 314
P22_SP00216 749
P22_ST00235 63 yet 004
P22_SP00217 842 1516
P22_ST00236 873 1471
P22_SP00218 979
P22_ST00237 1012
P22_SP00219
P22_ST00238 1082
P22_SP00220
P22_ST00239 1176 281 Interamerican 0340130010033
P22_SP00221 1457
P22_ST00240 1490
P22_SP00222 1726
P22_ST00241 1759 1482
P22_SP00223 1807
P22_ST00242 1840
P22_SP00224 1901
P22_ST00243 1933
P22_SP00225
P22_ST00244 2172
P22_TL00020 1527
P22_ST00245 1528 270 Conservation 413301020013
P22_SP00226 574 1561
P22_ST00246 598
P22_SP00227 636
P22_ST00247 Sea 002
P22_SP00228 725
P22_ST00248 152 Turtles, 05140036
P22_SP00229 901 1567
P22_ST00249 68 but 054
P22_SP00230 991
P22_ST00250 1014 noteworthy 2140011400
P22_SP00231 1573
P22_ST00251 1272 1529
P22_SP00232
P22_ST00252 1326
P22_SP00233 1387
P22_ST00253 1411 72 fact 0.70 4204
P22_SP00234 1483
P22_ST00254 1505 79 4024
P22_SP00235 1584
P22_ST00255 several 3000120
P22_SP00236 1747
P22_ST00256 1771 239 participants 321400032343
P22_SP00237 1572
P22_ST00257 2035 suggested, 3500034006
P22_TL00021
P22_ST00258 051030
P22_SP00238 441 1630
P22_ST00259 454
P22_SP00239
P22_ST00260 529 meeting's 000403002
P22_SP00240 723
P22_ST00261 737 89 final 40330
P22_SP00241 826
P22_ST00262 840 plenary 3003310
P22_SP00242 994
P22_ST00263 1008 discussion, 00205220136
P22_SP00243 1228 1624
P22_ST00264
P22_SP00244
P22_ST00265 1586 187 accession 300022013
P22_SP00245 1521
P22_ST00266 1534 1589
P22_SP00246 1571
P22_ST00267
P22_SP00247 1647
P22_ST00268 1660 1585
P22_SP00248 1617
P22_ST00269 1676 AC 05
P22_SP00249 1742
P22_ST00270 1754 would 01500
P22_SP00250 1884
P22_ST00271 1898 be
P22_SP00251
P22_ST00272 1959 1596
P22_SP00252 1979
P22_ST00273 1992 positive 31204000
P22_SP00253 2152 1629
P22_ST00274 2166 step 2403
P22_TL00022 1641
P22_ST00275
P22_SP00254 360
P22_ST00276 373 175 Trinidad 01030030
P22_SP00255 548
P22_ST00277 564
P22_SP00256 637
P22_ST00278 Tobago. 0103015
Illustration P22_CB1_SUB 1168 209 TYPE
P22_TB00003 806 2033 53
P22_TL00023 812 2039 926
P22_ST00279 102 013
P22_SP00257 2079
P22_ST00280 928 114 2005 0552
P22_SP00258 1042
P22_ST00281 1057 269 National 30000200
P22_SP00259
P22_ST00282 1341 397 Consultation 402001000002
P22_TB00004
P22_TL00024 2216
P22_ST00283 2217 50 To 01
P22_SP00260 353 2250
P22_ST00284 develop 0000013
P22_SP00261 2261
P22_ST00285 2228
P22_SP00262 565
P22_ST00286 580 solution 21054013
P22_SP00263 743
P22_ST00287 757
P22_SP00264 794
P22_ST00288 809
P22_SP00265 870
P22_ST00289 885 170 problem 3110000
P22_SP00266 1055
P22_ST00290
P22_SP00267 1107
P22_ST00291 1121
P22_SP00268 1353
P22_ST00292 capture 0334510
P22_SP00269 1518
P22_ST00293 1533
P22_SP00270 1606
P22_ST00294 186 mortality 011430040
P22_SP00271 2262
P22_ST00295 1822 2218
P22_SP00272 1860 2249
P22_ST00296 1874
P22_SP00273 1935
P22_ST00297 1949 coastal 0132430
P22_SP00274 2086
P22_ST00298 2101 145 gillnets 00003042
P22_TL00025 2273
P22_ST00299
P22_SP00275 2307
P22_ST00300 364
P22_SP00276 539
P22_ST00301
P22_SP00277 638
P22_ST00302 661 Tobago, 0103016
P22_SP00278 2319
P22_ST00303 844
P22_SP00279
P22_ST00304 2285
P22_SP00280
P22_ST00305 1002 105 focus 41052
P22_SP00281
P22_ST00306
P22_SP00282 1180
P22_ST00307 1202
P22_SP00283
P22_ST00308 1286 north 31140
P22_SP00284
P22_ST00309 1419
P22_SP00285 1492
P22_ST00310 2278 east
P22_SP00286 1594
P22_ST00311 1615 coasts 0.74 013242
P22_SP00287
P22_ST00312
P22_SP00288 1797
P22_ST00313 1819 Trinidad, 010300306
P22_SP00289 2006 2313
P22_ST00314 2030
P22_SP00290 2050
P22_ST00315 13401330
P22_TL00026 2330
P22_ST00316 267 Stakeholders' 0430001000120
P22_SP00291 570 2364
P22_ST00317 592 513250430013
P22_SP00292
P22_ST00318 2342 was 032
P22_SP00293
P22_ST00319 968 held
P22_SP00294
P22_ST00320 2332
P22_SP00295 1113 2363
P22_ST00321 1132 Port-of-Spain 6114014003303
P22_SP00296 1401 2375
P22_ST00322 97 from 4110
P22_SP00297 1517
P22_ST00323 2331 15-18 40040
P22_SP00298 1640
P22_ST00324 182 February 00015310
P22_SP00299 1842 2376
P22_ST00325 1862 0440
P22_SP00300 1950
P22_ST00326 1972 215 (Appendix 003303000
P22_SP00301 2187
P22_ST00327 I). 005
P22_TL00027 2386
P22_ST00328
P22_SP00302 2420
P22_ST00329 396 2388 interactive 03401304000
P22_SP00303 608
P22_ST00330 626 meeting 0004030
P22_SP00304 2432
P22_ST00331 805 2398
P22_SP00305 884
P22_ST00332 900 jointly 6103400
P22_SP00306
P22_ST00333 133 hosted 012400
P22_SP00307 1181
P22_ST00334 1199 by
P22_SP00308
P22_ST00335 1267
P22_SP00309 1328
P22_ST00336
P22_SP00310
P22_ST00337 1540 2387 172 Ministry 00302410
P22_SP00311 1712
P22_ST00338 1732
P22_SP00312 1770
P22_ST00339 Agriculture, 001005045106
P22_SP00313
P22_ST00340 Land 0330
P22_SP00314
P22_ST00341 2173
P22_TL00028 2443
P22_ST00342 2444
P22_SP00315 447 2477
P22_ST00343 465 Resources 002151002
P22_SP00316 667
P22_ST00344 (Fisheries 0002001002
P22_SP00317 2488
P22_ST00345 896 Division), 0000201306
P22_SP00318
P22_ST00346 1110
P22_SP00319
P22_ST00347 1221 184 authority 354011040
P22_SP00320 2489
P22_ST00348 1424
P22_SP00321
P22_ST00349 1498 2445 managing 03330030
P22_SP00322 1700
P22_ST00350 fishery 4020010
P22_SP00323 1855
P22_ST00351 1873 2455 resources, 1021510026
P22_SP00324 2073 2483
P22_ST00352 2093
P22_SP00325
P22_ST00353
P22_TL00029 2500
P22_ST00354
P22_SP00326 428 2534
P22_ST00355
P22_SP00327 653
P22_ST00356 669 2501 003
P22_SP00328 736
P22_ST00357 753 122 Turtle 051400
P22_SP00329 875
P22_ST00358 893 513201034013
P22_SP00330
P22_ST00359 1179 Network 1040110
P22_SP00331
P22_ST00360 1378 282 (WIDECAST), 00001500006
P22_SP00332 2545
P22_ST00361 1677
P22_SP00333 1769
P22_ST00362 1786 2512 more 0110
P22_SP00334 1889
P22_ST00363 1907 than 4033
P22_SP00335
P22_ST00364 2013
P22_SP00336
P22_ST00365 2052 139 decade 000300
P22_SP00337 2191
P22_ST00366
P22_TL00030 2557
P22_ST00367 2559 service 2010000
P22_SP00338 442 2591
P22_ST00368 457
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P20_SP00130 892
P20_ST00140 1037
P20_SP00131 1115
P20_ST00141
P20_SP00132 1191
P20_ST00142 1207 134 0210034
P20_SP00133 1341
P20_ST00143 populations 31350200133
P20_SP00134
P20_ST00144 1613 859 60 are 210
P20_SP00135 1673
P20_ST00145 1688 66 not 314
P20_SP00136 1754
P20_ST00146 1769 declining 0.94 000003020
P20_SP00137
P20_ST00147 1971 at
P20_SP00138
P20_ST00148
P20_SP00139 2083
P20_ST00149 2098 150 present 3103034
P20_TL00011
P20_ST00150 906 100 time, 40006
P20_SP00140 403 944
P20_ST00151 86 data 0.71 0343
P20_SP00141 938
P20_ST00152 536 916 310
P20_SP00142 596
P20_ST00153 178 available 303003000
P20_SP00143 798
P20_ST00154 87 only 1300
P20_SP00144 909 950
P20_ST00155 932 for 411
P20_SP00145 988
P20_ST00156 1011 reproductively 10311050400000
P20_SP00146 1310
P20_ST00157 1334 active 304000
P20_SP00147 1450
P20_ST00158 1472 females, 40030026
P20_SP00148 1637
P20_ST00159 1660 172 ignoring 00311030
P20_SP00149 1832
P20_ST00160 1854
P20_SP00150 1915
P20_ST00161 possibility 31220000040
P20_SP00151
P20_ST00162
P20_TL00012 961
P20_ST00163 963 142 serious 3010153
P20_SP00152 446
P20_ST00164 148 threats, 40102436
P20_SP00153 624 1001
P20_ST00165 656 91 such 3500
P20_SP00154 747
P20_ST00166 778 973
P20_SP00155 817
P20_ST00167 848 pollution 310054013
P20_SP00156 1032 1006
P20_ST00168 1063 966 events, 0003436
P20_SP00157 1202
P20_ST00169 1233 changing 00230020
P20_SP00158 1419 1007
P20_ST00170 1448 patterns 32440123
P20_SP00159 1612
P20_ST00171 1644
P20_SP00160 1682
P20_ST00172 1711 prey 3100
P20_SP00161 1802
P20_ST00173 237 distribution 003410050013
P20_SP00162
P20_ST00174 98 2300
P20_SP00163 2200 1004 7
P20_ST00175 or
P20_TL00013 1017
P20_ST00176
P20_SP00164 502 1051
P20_ST00177 531 1022 capture 0334510
P20_SP00165 1062
P20_ST00178 1019
P20_SP00166 748 1050
P20_ST00179 776 233 commercial 0100010030
P20_SP00167 1009
P20_ST00180 1038 fishing 4020030
P20_SP00168 1177
P20_ST00181 1205 1029 96 gear, 00316
P20_SP00169 1301
P20_ST00182 1330 may
P20_SP00170 1416
P20_ST00183 1444 be
P20_SP00171 1490
P20_ST00184 1519 affecting 344000030
P20_SP00172 1692
P20_ST00185 1717 162 juvenile 65003000
P20_SP00173 1879
P20_ST00186 1907 recruitment 10015050034
P20_SP00174 2144
P20_ST00187 2172
P20_TL00014 1074
P20_ST00188 survival 25100030
P20_SP00175 467 1108
P20_ST00189 490 1079 rates. 134025
P20_SP00176 594
P20_ST00190 639 1075
P20_SP00177
P20_ST00191 689 1076
P20_SP00178 720
P20_ST00192 743 77 also 3021
P20_SP00179 820
P20_ST00193 844 quite 15040
P20_SP00180 945 1119
P20_ST00194 967 clear 00031
P20_SP00181
P20_ST00195
P20_SP00182
P20_ST00196 1184
P20_SP00183 1120
P20_ST00197 1352 has
P20_SP00184
P20_ST00198 1441 276 "dramatically 0013034003000
P20_SP00185
P20_ST00199 1741 169 declined 00000300
P20_SP00186 1910
P20_ST00200 1933 231 throughout 4011500154
P20_SP00187 2164
P20_ST00201
P20_TL00015 1131
P20_ST00202 1132 Eastern 0324013
P20_SP00188 1165
P20_ST00203 479 225 Caribbean" 5310000330
P20_SP00189 704
P20_ST00204 732 1133
P20_SP00190 770 1164
P20_ST00205 1136 123 recent 100034
P20_SP00191 918
P20_ST00206 943 159 decades 0003002
P20_SP00192 1102
P20_ST00207 1129 (Eckert, 00000146
P20_SP00193 1176
P20_ST00208 1305 2001). 044405
P20_SP00194 50
P20_ST00209 1469
P20_SP00195 1544
P20_ST00210 1569 nation 334013
P20_SP00196 1696
P20_ST00211 1722
P20_SP00197 1760
P20_ST00212 1784 Trinidad 01030030
P20_SP00198 1959
P20_ST00213 1986
P20_SP00199 2060
P20_ST00214 2086 Tobago, 0103016
P20_TL00016 1188
P20_ST00215 therefore, 4001041106
P20_SP00200 496 1228
P20_ST00216
P20_SP00201 579 1222
P20_ST00217 1200
P20_SP00202 617
P20_ST00218 633 1190 unique 530250
P20_SP00203 773
P20_ST00219 274 responsibility 10231320000040
P20_SP00204 1234
P20_ST00220 1081 1193
P20_SP00205 1118
P20_ST00221 1135
P20_SP00206
P20_ST00222 1214
P20_SP00207 1377
P20_ST00223 1394
P20_SP00208
P20_ST00224
P20_SP00209
P20_ST00225 1537
P20_SP00210 1678
P20_ST00226 1695 on
P20_SP00211 1744
P20_ST00227 1761
P20_SP00212 1781
P20_ST00228 1797 hemispheric 00002300100
P20_SP00213 2044
P20_ST00229 2062
P20_SP00214 2135
P20_ST00230 even
P20_TL00017 1245 239
P20_ST00231 122 global 001020
P20_SP00215 1291
P20_ST00232 440 level. 000005
P20_TL00018 1358
P20_ST00233 National 53702430
P20_SP00216 478 1392
P20_ST00234 499 Legal 10830
P20_SP00217 1404
P20_ST00235 628 1359 Status: 0.56 0737714
P20_SP00218 759
P20_ST00236 782
P20_SP00219 857
P20_ST00237 92 laws 0302
P20_SP00220
P20_ST00238 990
P20_SP00221 1028
P20_ST00239 1048
P20_SP00222
P20_ST00240 177 Republic 00350000
P20_SP00223 1307 1403
P20_ST00241
P20_SP00224 1367
P20_ST00242
P20_SP00225 1562
P20_ST00243 1585
P20_SP00226 1658
P20_ST00244 1680 Tobago 010301
P20_SP00227 1828
P20_ST00245 1850 conferred 013401100
P20_SP00228 2042
P20_ST00246 2063 183 complete 01030040
P20_TL00019 1415
P20_ST00247 1417 protection 3114004013
P20_SP00229 509 1460
P20_ST00248 1420
P20_SP00230 1449
P20_ST00249 590 all
P20_SP00231 636
P20_ST00250 659 1427 sea 302
P20_SP00232
P20_ST00251 turtle 451400
P20_SP00233
P20_ST00252 872
P20_SP00234 1013
P20_ST00253 under 53001
P20_SP00235 1155
P20_ST00254
P20_SP00236 1237
P20_ST00255 1260 269 413301024013
P20_SP00237 1529
P20_ST00256 1551
P20_SP00238 1589
P20_ST00257 1608 Wild 0000
P20_SP00239 1707
P20_ST00258 1729 76 Life 0040
P20_SP00240 1805
P20_ST00259 1826 70 Act 004
P20_SP00241 1896
P20_ST00260 1918 84 (Act 0004
P20_SP00242 2002
P20_ST00261
P20_SP00243 2065
P20_ST00262
P20_SP00244 2126
P20_ST00263 1958,
P20_TL00020 1941
P20_ST00264 amended 3003000
P20_SP00245 1506
P20_ST00265 508
P20_SP00246 557 1518
P20_ST00266 575 1473
P20_SP00247 645
P20_ST00267 662
P20_SP00248 705 1505
P20_ST00268 725
P20_SP00249
P20_ST00269 780 1963, 40046
P20_SP00250 1512
P20_ST00270 900 Chapter 5033401
P20_SP00251 1061 1517
P20_ST00271 1080 124 67:01). 0504405
P20_SP00252 1204
P20_ST00272 1241 But 0.49 554
P20_SP00253
P20_ST00273 1327 1484
P20_SP00254 1430
P20_ST00274 171 recently, 100034006
P20_SP00255 1619
P20_ST00275 1638
P20_SP00256 1699
P20_ST00276 1975 4050
P20_SP00257 1806
P20_ST00277 1825 Protection 6114004013
P20_SP00258
P20_ST00278 2049
P20_SP00259 2087
P20_ST00279 2105 0514002
P20_TL00021
P20_ST00280
P20_SP00260 1563
P20_ST00281 393 Turtle 051400
P20_SP00261
P20_ST00282 529 1530 Eggs 1002
P20_SP00262 1575
P20_ST00283 640 238 Regulations 00050340132
P20_SP00263 878
P20_ST00284 895 275 (promulgated 031105003400
P20_SP00264 1170
P20_ST00285 1186
P20_SP00265 1306
P20_ST00286 1320 Section 0004013
P20_SP00266 1464
P20_ST00287 1477 4
P20_SP00267 1498
P20_ST00288 1515
P20_SP00268
P20_ST00289 1566
P20_SP00269 1627
P20_ST00290 1642 Fisheries 002001002
P20_SP00270 1819
P20_ST00291
P20_SP00271 1903
P20_ST00292
P20_SP00272 1956
P20_ST00293 1969 1916, 40406
P20_SP00273 2070
P20_ST00294
P20_TL00022 1586
P20_ST00295 126 67:51), 0500406
P20_SP00274 430 1631
P20_ST00296 145 created 0103400
P20_SP00275 1620
P20_ST00297 1598
P20_SP00276
P20_ST00298 223 five-month 4000001340
P20_SP00277
P20_ST00299 903 open
P20_SP00278
P20_ST00300 season 203213
P20_SP00279
P20_ST00301 1175
P20_SP00280 1231
P20_ST00302 1252
P20_SP00281 1313
P20_ST00303 1333 214 harvesting 0310024030
P20_SP00282 1547 1632
P20_ST00304 1568
P20_SP00283 1606
P20_ST00305 1626
P20_SP00284 1687
P20_ST00306 1708 137 turtles. 45140025
P20_SP00285 1845
P20_ST00307 1886
P20_SP00286
P20_ST00308 1981
P20_SP00287 2158
P20_ST00309 2178 1587
P20_TL00023 444
P20_ST00310 00050240133
P20_SP00288 542
P20_ST00311 state 34240
P20_SP00289 648
P20_ST00312 661 that: 40240
P20_TL00024 379 1758 1867
P20_ST00313 1770 0.00
P20_SP00290 396
P20_ST00314 453 1759 No
P20_SP00291
P20_ST00315 136 person 301213
P20_SP00292 671 1803
P20_ST00316 693 shall 20300
P20_SP00293 785
P20_ST00317 1779 -
P20_SP00294 827 1782
P20_ST00318 47 (a)
P20_SP00295 897
P20_ST00319 920 kill, 00006
P20_SP00296 994 1798
P20_ST00320 1016 harpoon, 03131136
P20_SP00297 1196
P20_ST00321 1217 catch 03400
P20_SP00298
P20_ST00322 1342
P20_SP00299 1382
P20_ST00323 196 otherwise 140010020
P20_SP00300 1600
P20_ST00324 1621 83 take 4300
P20_SP00301 1704
P20_ST00325 1725 215 possession 3122022013
P20_SP00302 1940
P20_ST00326 1961
P20_SP00303 1999
P20_ST00327 2020 any
P20_SP00304 2092 1804
P20_ST00328 2113 female 400300
P20_TL00025 1815 1794
P20_ST00329
P20_SP00305 562 1849
P20_ST00330 which
P20_SP00306
P20_ST00331 1817
P20_SP00307 753
P20_ST00332 772
P20_SP00308 1848
P20_ST00333 828
P20_SP00309
P20_ST00334 1827
P20_SP00310 971
P20_ST00335 within 004003
P20_SP00311 1121
P20_ST00336 1140
P20_SP00312 1211 1861
P20_ST00337 reef
P20_SP00313
P20_ST00338 1325
P20_SP00314 1365
P20_ST00339 1383 132
P20_SP00315
P20_ST00340 one 130
P20_SP00316 1605
P20_ST00341 187 thousand 40152330
P20_SP00317
P20_ST00342 1830 112 yards 03102
P20_SP00318
P20_ST00343 97 from 4110
P20_SP00319 2058
P20_ST00344 2076
P20_SP00320 2138
P20_ST00345 2157 90 high 0.97 1000
P20_TL00026 452 1872
P20_ST00346 1877 water 03401
P20_SP00321 1906
P20_ST00347 586 105 mark 0310
P20_SP00322 691
P20_ST00348 711
P20_SP00323 749
P20_ST00349 768
P20_SP00324
P20_ST00350 189 foreshore 411020110
P20_SP00325
P20_ST00351 1056 where 00010
P20_SP00326 1182
P20_ST00352 1201 there 40010
P20_SP00327
P20_ST00353 1322
P20_SP00328
P20_ST00354 1372 1884 no
P20_SP00329 1421
P20_ST00355 reef; 10042
P20_SP00330 1527
P20_ST00356 1549 (b)
P20_SP00331 1917
P20_ST00357
P20_SP00332 1703
P20_ST00358
P20_SP00333
P20_ST00359 remove 100100
P20_SP00334
P20_ST00360
P20_SP00335 1994
P20_ST00361 2014 cause 03520
P20_SP00336 2124
P20_ST00362
P20_SP00337 2181
P20_ST00363
P20_TL00027
P20_ST00364 removed 1001000
P20_SP00338 631 1962
P20_ST00365 649
P20_SP00339 1974
P20_ST00366 736
P20_SP00340 845
P20_ST00367 861 eggs 0002
P20_SP00341
P20_ST00368 after 34401
P20_SP00342 1057
P20_ST00369 1073 they 4000
P20_SP00343 1159
P20_ST00370 have
P20_SP00344 1270
P20_ST00371 1285
P20_SP00345
P20_ST00372 1395 laid
P20_SP00346
P20_ST00373 1487
P20_SP00347 1560
P20_ST00374 1576 buried 051000
P20_SP00348
P20_ST00375 1723
P20_SP00349 1773
P20_ST00376 1790
P20_SP00350 1810
P20_ST00377
P20_SP00351
P20_ST00378
P20_SP00352 2084
P20_ST00379 2100
P20_SP00353 2140
P20_ST00380
P20_TL00028 1985
P20_ST00381
P20_SP00354
P20_ST00382 0200
P20_SP00355 2019
P20_ST00383
P20_SP00356 757
P20_ST00384
P20_SP00357 902
P20_ST00385
P20_SP00358
P20_ST00386 980 1997
P20_SP00359 1052
P20_ST00387 1066 147 person; 3013131
P20_SP00360 1213 2030
P20_ST00388 1229 (c)
P20_SP00361 1274
P20_ST00389 1290 194 purchase, 351002306
P20_SP00362
P20_ST00390 1499 sell, 30006
P20_SP00363 2025
P20_ST00391 1591 offer 14401
P20_SP00364 1683
P20_ST00392 1698
P20_SP00365 1738
P20_ST00393 1751 expose 003130
P20_SP00366 1889
P20_ST00394 1902
P20_SP00367
P20_ST00395 sale 3200
P20_SP00368
P20_ST00396
P20_SP00369 2103
P20_ST00397 2117 case 0230
P20_SP00370
P20_ST00398 2214 1990
P20_TL00029 1511
P20_ST00399
P20_SP00371 498
P20_ST00400 81 sold
P20_SP00372
P20_ST00401 610
P20_SP00373 650
P20_ST00402 664 offered 1440100
P20_SP00374
P20_ST00403 821
P20_SP00375
P20_ST00404 874 exposed 0031300
P20_SP00376
P20_ST00405 1053
P20_SP00377 1109
P20_ST00406 1124
P20_SP00378 1198
P20_ST00407 1212
P20_SP00379
P20_ST00408
P20_SP00380
P20_ST00409
P20_SP00381 1363 2075
P20_ST00410 1376 3133033013
P20_SP00382
P20_ST00411
P20_SP00383
P20_ST00412 1657
P20_SP00384 1728
P20_ST00413 1742
P20_SP00385 1851
P20_ST00414 1864 eggs. 00035
P20_TL00030 1868
P20_ST00415 2170
P20_SP00386 2186
P20_ST00416 2159
P20_SP00387 2192
P20_ST00417 533
P20_SP00388 669 2203
P20_ST00418 shall, 203006
P20_SP00389 2198
P20_ST00419 170 between 0040003
P20_SP00390
P20_ST00420 999 1 0.51
P20_SP00391 1018 2191
P20_ST00421 March 03100
P20_SP00392 1168
P20_ST00422 1187
P20_SP00393
P20_ST00423 0.57
P20_SP00394 1323
P20_ST00424 September, 0034000016
P20_SP00395 1567
P20_ST00425
P20_SP00396 1661
P20_ST00426 harpoon 0313113
P20_SP00397
P20_ST00427
P20_SP00398 1972
P20_ST00428 1991
P20_SP00399
P20_ST00429 2051
P20_TL00031 2215
P20_ST00430 4200
P20_SP00400 2249
P20_ST00431 2217
P20_SP00401 765 2260
P20_ST00432
P20_SP00402 818
P20_ST00433 832 2227
P20_SP00403
P20_ST00434 887
P20_SP00404
P20_ST00435 1095
P20_SP00405 1171 2255
P20_ST00436
P20_SP00406 1279
P20_ST00437 1294
P20_SP00407
P20_ST00438 1348
P20_SP00408
P20_ST00439 1500
P20_SP00409 1556
P20_ST00440 1571
P20_SP00410 1646
P20_ST00441
P20_SP00411 1700
P20_ST00442 1715 02530
P20_SP00412
P20_ST00443 1839 2220
P20_SP00413 1876
P20_ST00444
P20_SP00414 1936
P20_ST00445 1951 82
P20_SP00415 2033
P20_ST00446
P20_SP00416 2089
P20_ST00447 2104
P20_TL00032 2271 883
P20_ST00448 2283
P20_SP00417 2305
P20_ST00449
P20_SP00418 672 2316
P20_ST00450 686
P20_SP00419 742
P20_ST00451
P20_SP00420 831
P20_ST00452 846
P20_SP00421 917 2317
P20_ST00453 931
P20_SP00422 1040
P20_ST00454 1054
P20_SP00423 1094
P20_ST00455 108
P20_SP00424 1216
P20_ST00456 2276 meat. 00245
P20_TL00033 2384
P20_ST00457 2385 Offenders 044030012
P20_SP00425 2419
P20_ST00458 674
P20_SP00426 712
P20_ST00459
P20_SP00427 833
P20_ST00460 2387 211 provisions 3110020132
P20_SP00428 2430
P20_ST00461 2397
P20_SP00429 1144
P20_ST00462 1163 liable 003000
P20_SP00430 1272
P20_ST00463 1292
P20_SP00431
P20_ST00464 1361 190 summary 2500310
P20_SP00432 2431
P20_ST00465 conviction 0130004013
P20_SP00433
P20_ST00466 1800 2390
P20_SP00434 1837
P20_ST00467 1858
P20_SP00435 1878
P20_ST00468 1897 fine 4030
P20_SP00436
P20_ST00469 1993
P20_SP00437
P20_ST00470 $2,000 006444
P20_SP00438 2425
P20_ST00471 2193 2386 54 TT
P20_TL00034 2442 684
P20_ST00472
P20_SP00439 527 2476
P20_ST00473 2444 286 imprisonment 003102130034
P20_SP00440 2487
P20_ST00474 841
P20_SP00441
P20_ST00475 911 53 six
P20_SP00442 964
P20_ST00476 978 months. 0134025
P20_TL00035 2555
P20_ST00477 Conflicts 513400042
P20_SP00443 481 2589
P20_ST00478 504
P20_SP00444 577
P20_ST00479 601 deficiencies 004000030002
P20_SP00445
P20_ST00480 854 2557
P20_SP00446 2588
P20_ST00481
P20_SP00447
P20_ST00482 218 legislation, 000020340136
P20_SP00448 2601
P20_ST00483 1236 coupled 0153000
P20_SP00449 2600
P20_ST00484 93 with
P20_SP00450 1510
P20_ST00485 224 inadequate 0330015340
P20_SP00451
P20_ST00486 1775 law
P20_SP00452 1847
P20_ST00487 262 enforcement, 034110000346
P20_SP00453 2130 2595
P20_ST00488 2151
P20_TL00036 2612
P20_ST00489
P20_SP00454 2646
P20_ST00490 395
P20_SP00455 456
P20_ST00491 472 result 102504
P20_SP00456
P20_ST00492
P20_SP00457 679
P20_ST00493 695 2624
P20_SP00458 715
P20_ST00494 largely 0310000
P20_SP00459 868 2658
P20_ST00495 884 258 uncontiolled 530137710000
P20_SP00460 1142
P20_ST00496
P20_SP00461 1242
P20_ST00497 1259
P20_SP00462 1297
P20_ST00498 1312 2614 marine 031030
P20_SP00463 1453
P20_ST00499 turtles 4514002
P20_SP00464
P20_ST00500 continues 013003502
P20_SP00465
P20_ST00501 1822
P20_SP00466 1860 2645
P20_ST00502
P20_SP00467 1950
P20_ST00503 1968 2617 65 out
P20_SP00468
P20_ST00504
P20_SP00469
P20_ST00505 season, 2032136
P20_TL00037 2669
P20_ST00506 197 especially 0230003000
P20_SP00470 500 2715
P20_ST00507 520
P20_SP00471 576 2703
P20_ST00508 595 hawksbill 030020000
P20_SP00472
P20_ST00509 811
P20_SP00473 885
P20_ST00510 2681 111 green 01003
P20_SP00474
P20_ST00511 1036 turtles, 45140026
P20_SP00475 2709
P20_ST00512
P20_SP00476
P20_ST00513
P20_SP00477 1362
P20_ST00514 176 provides 31100002
P20_SP00478 2714
P20_ST00515 1578 2674 meat 0034
P20_SP00479 1677
P20_ST00516
P20_SP00480
P20_ST00517
P20_SP00481
P20_ST00518 (as
P20_SP00482
P20_ST00519 1973 well
P20_SP00483 2059
P20_ST00520 2079
P20_SP00484 2118
P20_ST00521
P20_TL00038 2726
P20_ST00522 shell) 200000
P20_SP00485 409 2771
P20_ST00523
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P28_ST00149 1304
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P28_SP00138 1584
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P28_SP00143 2070
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P28_ST00157 234 technology, 40004303006
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P28_ST00158 553
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P28_ST00159 660 100 trials 450300
P28_SP00146 760
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P28_SP00158 1952
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P28_SP00159 2134 1341
P28_ST00173 1302 Toco 0303
P28_TL00015 1358
P28_ST00174
P28_SP00160 376 1392
P28_ST00175 397 Balandra 0.68 53034053
P28_SP00161 577
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P28_ST00177 719 Trials 050300
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P28_ST00178 853
P28_SP00164 989
P28_ST00179 1009
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P28_ST00187
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P28_ST00188 392
P28_SP00173 528
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P28_ST00193 1205
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P28_TL00017 1529
P28_ST00195 0002802
P28_SP00179 429 1575
P28_ST00196 446
P28_SP00180 520 1563
P28_ST00197 163005
P28_SP00181 665
P28_ST00198 Tashua 730073
P28_SP00182 812 1566
P28_ST00199 828 1530 96 Baits 53060
P28_SP00183
P28_ST00200 1550
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P28_ST00201 976 160 Because 5003500
P28_SP00185 1136
P28_ST00202 some
P28_SP00186 1256
P28_ST00203 1273 111 styles 040000
P28_SP00187 1384
P28_ST00204 1401
P28_SP00188 1439
P28_ST00205 138 fishing 4000040
P28_SP00189 1592
P28_ST00206 1607 rely
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P28_ST00207
P28_SP00191 1751
P28_ST00208 1765
P28_SP00192 1826
P28_ST00209 121 action 304034
P28_SP00193 1964
P28_ST00210 1979
P28_SP00194 2018
P28_ST00211
P28_SP00195 2105
P28_ST00212 2120
P28_SP00196 2196
P28_ST00213 2211
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P28_ST00217 62
P28_SP00200
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P28_ST00226 80 lack
P28_SP00209 1893
P28_ST00227 1909
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P28_SP00211 2033
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P28_SP00227 1867
P28_ST00246 1884 141 serious 0050350
P28_SP00228 2025
P28_ST00247 2041 205 limitation. 00004300345
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P28_ST00248 142 Fishers 0000050
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P28_SP00230 654 1746
P28_ST00250 668
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P28_ST00253 1118 49 do
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P28_ST00256
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P28_ST00258 1564
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P28_SP00243
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P28_ST00265 514
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P28_SP00247 815
P28_ST00268
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P28_SP00251
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P28_ST00274 1556
P28_SP00254 1630
P28_ST00275 1646
P28_SP00255 1750
P28_ST00276 1764
P28_SP00256
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P28_ST00280 510 1819
P28_SP00259 547
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P28_ST00282 1816
P28_SP00261
P28_ST00283 863
P28_SP00262
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P28_ST00285
P28_SP00264
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P28_SP00277
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P28_SP00278 1193
P28_ST00301
P28_SP00279 1254
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P28_ST00303
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P28_SP00292
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P28_SP00293
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P28_ST00318 1545
P28_SP00295 1621
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P28_SP00296
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P28_SP00297 1973
P28_ST00321 1997
P28_SP00298
P28_ST00322
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P28_SP00299 477
P28_ST00324 492
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P28_ST00325 644 also 3003
P28_SP00301 720
P28_ST00326 734
P28_SP00302
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P28_ST00329
P28_SP00304
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P28_ST00393 608
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P16_ST00049 1648 155 gillnets. 0.82 000030425
P16_SP00046 1803
P16_ST00050 1852 114 There 0.96 00010
P16_SP00047 1966
P16_ST00051 1991 461 60 are 310
P16_SP00048 2051
P16_ST00052 2076 approxi 3331100 SUBS_TYPE HypPart1 SUBS_CONTENT approximately
P16_TL00005 506 1943
P16_ST00053 137 mately 034000 HypPart2
P16_SP00049 440 552
P16_ST00054 467 507 1,368 46400
P16_SP00050 567 546
P16_ST00055 594 202
P16_SP00051 796 540
P16_ST00056 823 508 130130030
P16_SP00052 1016 26
P16_ST00057 1042
P16_SP00053 1080 539
P16_ST00058 1107
P16_SP00054 1168
P16_ST00059 1196 127 gillnet
P16_SP00055 1323
P16_ST00060 1348 fishery 4020010
P16_SP00056 1486
P16_ST00061 1514
P16_SP00057 1552
P16_ST00062 1578
P16_SP00058 1753
P16_ST00063 1781
P16_SP00059 1855
P16_ST00064 1883 293 3331100034000
P16_SP00060 2176
P16_ST00065 2204 33 40
P16_TL00006 304 563
P16_ST00066 565
P16_SP00061 497
P16_ST00067 521
P16_SP00062 560 596
P16_ST00068 181 Tobago." 01030150
P16_SP00063 765 50
P16_ST00069 815 564 32 A
P16_SP00064 849
P16_ST00070 873 140 variety 0310040
P16_SP00065 1013
P16_ST00071 1039 0.67
P16_SP00066 1077 597
P16_ST00072 1101 210 mid-water 000003401
P16_SP00067
P16_ST00073 1337
P16_SP00068 1410
P16_ST00074 1435 145 bottom 014410
P16_SP00069 1580
P16_ST00075 1605 species 2300002
P16_SP00070 1745 608
P16_ST00076 1771 575
P16_SP00071 1831
P16_ST00077 targeted 43100400
P16_SP00072 2020
P16_ST00078 2045 by 00
P16_SP00073 2094
P16_ST00079 2120
P16_TL00007 620
P16_ST00080 167 fisheries 402001002
P16_SP00074 470 654
P16_ST00081 622
P16_SP00075 533 653
P16_ST00082 557
P16_SP00076 732
P16_ST00083 759
P16_SP00077 832
P16_ST00084 858 160 Tobago, 0103016
P16_SP00078 1018 666
P16_ST00085 1043 including 0.87 030050030
P16_SP00079 1236
P16_ST00086 1261 120 shark, 0.76 203106
P16_SP00080 1381 660
P16_ST00087 1407 172 grouper, 0.74 01153016
P16_SP00081 1579
P16_ST00088 1604 161 snapper 2333301
P16_SP00082 1765 665
P16_ST00089 1791
P16_SP00083 1864
P16_ST00090 1889 150 various 0310152
P16_SP00084 2039
P16_ST00091 2064 182 mackerel 03000100
P16_TL00008 676
P16_ST00092 678 141 3300003
P16_SP00085 721
P16_ST00093 472 153 (Henry, 0303106
P16_SP00086 625 722
P16_ST00094 650 677 101 1992; 40001
P16_SP00087 751 716
P16_ST00095 776 411 Hodgkinson-Clarke, 310000331304021006
P16_SP00088 1187
P16_ST00096 1212 1994;
P16_SP00089 1313
P16_ST00097 1338 198 Nagassar, 120233216
P16_SP00090 1536
P16_ST00098 1561 2000). 033305
P16_SP00091 1675
P16_ST00099 1725 02023321
P16_SP00092 1912
P16_ST00100 1939 (2000) 003330
P16_SP00093
P16_ST00101 2082 78 lists 00343
P16_SP00094 2160 710
P16_ST00102 2185 62
P16_TL00009 733
P16_ST00103 following: 4100100300
P16_TB00003 836 864 908
P16_TL00010 845 651
P16_ST00104 183 Anchovy 0200100
P16_SP00095 486 891
P16_ST00105 502 247 {Cetengraulis 8001002030010
P16_SP00096 749
P16_ST00106 763 191 edentulus) 0300100007
P16_TL00011 902 830
P16_ST00107 Atlantic 04023400
P16_SP00097 463 936
P16_ST00108 477 903 Bumper 440200
P16_SP00098 638 947
P16_ST00109 308 (Chloroscombrus 000050500503000
P16_SP00099 962 943
P16_ST00110 978 rysurus) 0.91 07000000
P16_TL00012 959 643
P16_ST00111 179 Beechine 40000020
P16_SP00100 482 993
P16_ST00112 207 {Sphyraena 8070402002
P16_SP00101 704 1005 12
P16_ST00113 230 guachancho) 30200200057
P16_TL00013 757
P16_ST00114 163 Blacktip 40200402
P16_SP00102 466 1061
P16_ST00115 480 Shark 00200
P16_SP00103 1050
P16_ST00116 611 263 {Carcharhinus 8020002000000
P16_SP00104 874
P16_ST00117 889 171 limbatus) 000322000
P16_TL00014 1072 542
P16_ST00118 Blinch 400200
P16_SP00105 430 1106
P16_ST00119 446 195 (Diapterus 0002720000
P16_SP00106 641 1118
P16_ST00120 656 189 rhombeus) 005030000
P16_TL00015 1129 606
P16_ST00121 89 Blue 4040
P16_SP00107 1163
P16_ST00122 405 97 bone 0130
P16_SP00108
P16_ST00123 518 236 {Strongylura 802050340002
P16_SP00109 754 1175
P16_ST00124 768 marine) 0200007
P16_TL00016 1186 614
P16_ST00125
P16_SP00110 1220
P16_ST00126 133 marlin 020002
P16_SP00111 538 17
P16_ST00127 555 (Makaira 00202002
P16_SP00112 719 1227
P16_ST00128 184 nigricans) 0030002000
P16_TL00017 1243 599
P16_ST00129 1244 Bonito 413041
P16_SP00113 433 1277
P16_ST00130 217 (Euthynnus 0302040000
P16_SP00114 668 1289
P16_ST00131 682 220 alletteratus) 2000220022000
P16_TL00018 1300 570
P16_ST00132 Crevalle 40002000
P16_SP00115 471 1334
P16_ST00133 Jack 6200
P16_SP00116 1342
P16_ST00134 583 147 (Caranx 0020200
P16_SP00117 730 1341
P16_ST00135 742 132 hippos) 0077500
P16_TL00019 1357 626
P16_ST00136 222 Cutlassfish 44402224020
P16_SP00118 526 1391
P16_ST00137 208 (Trichiurus 0.99 00000000000
P16_SP00119 750 1398
P16_ST00138 766 lepturus) 007200000
P16_TL00020 1413
P16_ST00139 Dolphin 0102002
P16_SP00120 469 1458
P16_ST00140 485 231 (Coryphaena 00504702002
P16_SP00121 1459
P16_ST00141 729 hippurus) 007700000
P16_TL00021 1470 652
P16_ST00142 128 Flying 000020
P16_SP00122 431 1516
P16_ST00143 444 fish 4020
P16_SP00123 517 1504
P16_ST00144 532 283 {Hirundichthys 82000020002040
P16_SP00124
P16_ST00145 829 126 afilnis) 0.51 55582037
P16_TL00022 1527 646
P16_ST00146 Grand 00230
P16_SP00125
P16_ST00147 125 ecaille 0.97 0020000
P16_SP00126
P16_ST00148 586 (Egalops 0.50 48550483
P16_SP00127 1573
P16_ST00149 194 atlanticus) 0.58 57052704137
P16_TL00023 1584
P16_ST00150 1585 121 Grunt 00434
P16_SP00128 424 1618
P16_ST00151 (Haemulon 0.65 485501042
P16_SP00129 1625
P16_ST00152 657 86 spp.) 0.43 38807
P16_TL00024 1642
P16_ST00153 Herring 4011030
P16_TL00025 301 1698
P16_ST00154
P16_TB00004 1296 932 910
P16_TL00026 644
P16_ST00155 Kingfish 00204020
P16_SP00130 1485
P16_ST00156 1501 (Scomberomorus 34004875040501
P16_SP00131 1804 886
P16_ST00157 1819 cavalla) 04242247
P16_TL00027 679
P16_ST00158 Macrio 020001
P16_SP00132 1453
P16_ST00159 1468 103 Tuna 0432
P16_SP00133 1571
P16_ST00160 1587 241 (Katsuwonus 0.56 48573154213
P16_SP00134 1828
P16_ST00161 1840 152 pelamis) 0.62 85050037
P16_TL00028 436
P16_ST00162 134 Mullet 040004
P16_SP00135 1447
P16_ST00163 1462 (Mugil 0.72 451500
P16_SP00136 1588
P16_ST00164 1603 146 curema) 0.57 4165057
P16_TL00029 1017 204
P16_ST00165 Ocean 00023
P16_SP00137 1439
P16_ST00166 1028 64 gar 021
P16_TL00030 637
P16_ST00167 1073 190 Pampano 4202231
P16_SP00138 1503 1117
P16_ST00168 1521 233 (Trachinotus 485544024713
P16_SP00139 1754 1113
P16_ST00169 1770 carolinus) 0.64 4564002137
P16_TL00031 447
P16_ST00170 154 Redfish 0004020
P16_SP00140 1467
P16_ST00171 1483 (Lutjanus 561755213
P16_SP00141 1660
P16_ST00172 1674
P16_TL00032 554
P16_ST00173 Sailfish 02004020
P16_SP00142 1460
P16_ST00174 1476 (Istiophorus 443703744613
P16_SP00143 1693 1232
P16_ST00175 1708 159 albicans) 0.61 505045237
P16_TL00033 456
P16_ST00176 Sea 002
P16_SP00144 1380
P16_ST00177 1395 142 Catfish 4244020
P16_SP00145 1537
P16_ST00178 1553 117 (Bagre 575565
P16_SP00146 1670
P16_ST00179 1683
P16_TL00034
P16_ST00180
P16_SP00147 1429
P16_ST00181 1445 262 (Carcharhinus 4656445640213
P16_SP00148 1707
P16_ST00182 1721 38707
P16_TL00035 866
P16_ST00183 1358 Sierra 000002
P16_SP00149 1430
P16_ST00184 1443 185 Mackerel 02000000
P16_SP00150 1628
P16_ST00185 1644 44440556404613
P16_SP00151 1947
P16_ST00186 1963 216 brasiliensis) 5653000553037
P16_TL00036 589
P16_ST00187 Snook 03110
P16_SP00152 1438
P16_ST00188 1454 258 (Centropomus 465276374013
P16_SP00153 1712
P16_ST00189 1726 176 ensiferus) 0.60 5230456137
P16_TL00037
P16_ST00190 1471 104
P16_SP00154 1417
P16_ST00191 1433 (Thunnus 0.70 47012213
P16_SP00155 1613 1511
P16_ST00192 1627
P16_TL00038 1312
P16_ST00193 Weakfish
P16_SP00156
P16_ST00194 1518 (Cynoscion 4662434042
P16_SP00157 1722
P16_ST00195 1736
P16_TL00039 197
P16_ST00196 Whitefish 000405020
P16_ST00197 1641 257 Whitemouth 0004001440
P16_SP00158 1569
P16_ST00198 1583 Croaker 4012000
P16_SP00159 1743
P16_ST00199 1760 284 (Micropogonias 0.59 45046374542053
P16_SP00160 2044 1687
P16_ST00200 2050 furnieri) 0.63 416205607
P16_TL00040 1325
P16_ST00201 Zapate 023240
P16_TB00005 288 1800 1926
P16_TL00041 1809 1894
P16_ST00202 Fishing 0020030
P16_SP00161 452
P16_ST00203 465 215 techniques 4000302502
P16_SP00162 680 1854
P16_ST00204 694 1821 68 can 033
P16_SP00163 762 1843
P16_ST00205 774 47 be
P16_SP00164 821
P16_ST00206 835 divided
P16_SP00165 989
P16_ST00207 1004 1811 77 into 0341
P16_SP00166 1081
P16_ST00208 1097 (i)
P16_SP00167 1135
P16_ST00209 1150 hook 0110
P16_SP00168 1251
P16_ST00210 1265
P16_SP00169
P16_ST00211 1353 84 line, 00306
P16_SP00170 1437 1849
P16_ST00212 1451
P16_SP00171
P16_ST00213 1656 trolling 41100030
P16_SP00172 1805
P16_ST00214
P16_SP00173 1892
P16_ST00215 51 (ii) 0000
P16_SP00174 1959
P16_ST00216 1975 1814 63 net
P16_SP00175 2038
P16_ST00217 fishing. 40200305
P16_TB00006 290 344
P16_TL00042 306 1986 311 35
P16_ST00218 113 Hook
P16_SP00176 419 2021
P16_ST00219 83
P16_SP00177 516
P16_ST00220 536 81 Line
P16_TB00007 736 1532
P16_TL00043 752 1987 1495
P16_ST00221 Banking 8506005
P16_SP00178 906 2033
P16_ST00222 920 2008 -
P16_SP00179 933 2011
P16_ST00223 948 This 0002
P16_SP00180
P16_ST00224 1048 1992 type 6030
P16_SP00181 1136
P16_ST00225 1151
P16_SP00182 1189
P16_ST00226 1203 fishing 4020030
P16_SP00183
P16_ST00227 1356 105 relies 100002
P16_SP00184 1461
P16_ST00228 1477 1999
P16_SP00185 1526
P16_ST00229 1542 a
P16_SP00186 1562
P16_ST00230 1575 188 weighted 00000400
P16_SP00187 1763
P16_ST00231 1779 vertical 00140030
P16_SP00188 1927
P16_ST00232 1942 line 0030
P16_SP00189 2015
P16_ST00233 2031
P16_SP00190 2104
P16_ST00234 2121 70 one
P16_SP00191 2191
P16_ST00235 or
P16_TL00044 2043
P16_ST00236 more
P16_SP00192 856 2077
P16_ST00237 875 horizontal 0110013430
P16_SP00193
P16_ST00238 perpendicular 3013030005031
P16_SP00194 1386 2088
P16_ST00239 1406 92 lines 00302
P16_SP00195 1498
P16_ST00240 1517 with 0040
P16_SP00196 1609
P16_ST00241 10-20 44004
P16_SP00197
P16_ST00242 1752 131 hooks, 011026
P16_SP00198 2083
P16_ST00243 1903 90 each 0300
P16_SP00199 1993
P16_ST00244 124 baited 030400
P16_SP00200 2135
P16_ST00245 2155
P16_TL00045 2100
P16_ST00246 live
P16_SP00201 2134
P16_ST00247 840 2112
P16_SP00202 880
P16_ST00248 895 dead
P16_SP00203 992
P16_ST00249 1006 bait. 03045
P16_SP00204 1091
P16_ST00250 1120 The
P16_SP00205 1194
P16_ST00251 1208
P16_SP00206 1415
P16_ST00252
P16_SP00207
P16_ST00253
P16_SP00208 1597
P16_ST00254 1611 extended 00403000
P16_SP00209 1795
P16_ST00255 1810 parallel 33130000
P16_SP00210 1961 2145
P16_ST00256 2105
P16_SP00211 2012
P16_ST00257 2028
P16_SP00212 2089
P16_ST00258 2102
P16_TL00046 2157 1500
P16_ST00259
P16_SP00213 2203
P16_ST00260
P16_SP00214 877
P16_ST00261 2162 current 0511034
P16_SP00215 1037
P16_ST00262 1051
P16_SP00216 1125
P16_ST00263 1139
P16_SP00217 1201
P16_ST00264 1213
P16_SP00218 1302
P16_ST00265 1314 2169 69
P16_SP00219 1383
P16_ST00266
P16_SP00220 1442
P16_ST00267 1456 anchored 33001100
P16_SP00221
P16_ST00268 1657
P16_SP00222 1697
P16_ST00269 drifting. 010440305
P16_SP00223 1873
P16_ST00270 1901 2158 In
P16_SP00224 2190
P16_ST00271 1956 some
P16_SP00225 2060
P16_ST00272 2074 cases 03202
P16_SP00226 2175
P16_ST00273
P16_TL00047 2214 1494
P16_ST00274 fisher 402001
P16_SP00227 865 2248
P16_ST00275 882 2226
P16_SP00228 950
P16_ST00276 968 actively 30400000
P16_SP00229 1123 2260
P16_ST00277 106 work
P16_SP00230 1245
P16_ST00278 1262
P16_SP00231 1324
P16_ST00279
P16_SP00232 1414
P16_ST00280
P16_SP00233 1479
P16_ST00281 1497 2216 retracting 1041304030
P16_SP00234 1692
P16_ST00282 1710
P16_SP00235 1784
P16_ST00283 1802 extending 004030030
P16_SP00236 2003
P16_ST00284 2019
P16_SP00237 2081
P16_ST00285 2098
P16_TL00048 2270
P16_ST00286
P16_SP00238 826 2304
P16_ST00287 843 2282 so
P16_SP00239 883
P16_ST00288 901 that 4034
P16_SP00240 979
P16_ST00289 994
P16_SP00241 1056
P16_ST00290 1071 weight 000004
P16_SP00242 1211 2316
P16_ST00291 1226 bounces 0153002
P16_SP00243 1390
P16_ST00292 1408 111 along 30130
P16_SP00244 1519
P16_ST00293 1535
P16_SP00245 1596
P16_ST00294 bottom, 0144106
P16_SP00246 1766 2310
P16_ST00295
P16_SP00247 1824
P16_ST00296
P16_SP00248
P16_ST00297 1906 2272 tying 50030
P16_SP00249 2010
P16_ST00298 2027 53 off 144
P16_SP00250 2080
P16_ST00299 2096
P16_SP00251
P16_ST00300
P16_TL00049 2327 1282
P16_ST00301 2332
P16_SP00252 789 2361
P16_ST00302 804
P16_SP00253
P16_ST00303 878
P16_SP00254
P16_ST00304
P16_SP00255 1052
P16_ST00305 1067 letting 0044030
P16_SP00256 2373
P16_ST00306 1209
P16_SP00257 1270
P16_ST00307 1284 2329 rise 1020
P16_SP00258 1354
P16_ST00308 1369
P16_SP00259
P16_ST00309 1457 fall 4300
P16_SP00260
P16_ST00310 1534
P16_SP00261 1572
P16_ST00311
P16_SP00262 1646
P16_ST00312 1658
P16_SP00263 1746
P16_ST00313 1758
P16_SP00264
P16_ST00314 1877
P16_SP00265 1938
P16_ST00315 1952 82 line. 00305
Illustration P16_CB1_SUB 2430 488 TYPE
P16_TB00008 1247 3094 56
P16_TL00050 1253 3100
P16_ST00316 52


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P46_ST00004 1274 237 Newfoundland 0.67 204450250860
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P46_TL00002 798 702 873 45
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P46_TL00004 891 463
P46_ST00012 128 Whale 0.99 00000
P46_SP00009 1204 927
P46_ST00013 1219 182 Research 0.96 00300000
P46_SP00010 1401 14
P46_ST00014 1415 892 124 Group 0.75 00254
P46_TB00004 942 1068 608 44
P46_TL00005 592 42
P46_ST00015 72 '^M 0.25 4107
P46_SP00011 1014 1110 63
P46_ST00016 1077 1071 125 Ocean 0.97 00001
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P46_ST00019 288 ^asMMS^S^ 0.12 108888710710
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P46_ST00020 1252 34 Bonne 0.89 02110
P46_SP00015 1286
P46_ST00021 79 40 Bay 001
P46_SP00016 1298
P46_ST00022 1311 1250
P46_SP00017 1453 17
P46_ST00023 1470 139 Station 0000021
P46_TB00006 752 1432 104 68
P46_TL00007 1439 57
P46_ST00024 m
P46_TB00007 1420 730
P46_TL00008 1429
P46_ST00025
P46_SP00018 1237 1465
P46_ST00026 1253 1430
P46_SP00019 1378
P46_ST00027 1392 Technology 0.92 0000120300
P46_SP00020 1629 1475
P46_ST00028 1643 133 (NRC) 1.00
P46_TB00008 590 1904 802
P46_TL00009 606 1913 771 58
P46_ST00029 137 The 000
P46_SP00021 1971 29
P46_ST00030 772 252 010000
P46_SP00022 1024 27
P46_ST00031 1051 000000000
P46_TB00009 2520 270
P46_TL00010 600 2531 1360 56
P46_ST00032 168 North 0.39 67566
P46_SP00023 768 2576
P46_ST00033 781 292 America's 0.45 456585256
P46_SP00024 1073
P46_ST00034 1087 2534 152 most 5766
P46_SP00025 1239 12
P46_ST00035 1251 445 comprehensible 0.34 5755566636810106
P46_SP00026 1696 2587
P46_ST00036 1710 250 institute 836686466
P46_TL00011 687 2601
P46_ST00037 293 dedicated 0.44 656831556
P46_SP00027 980 2646
P46_ST00038 993 2604 to 0.36
P46_SP00028 18
P46_ST00039 1069 303 55 education, 5653158656
P46_SP00029 1372 2656 22
P46_ST00040 1394 244 training, 0.79 200505004
P46_SP00030 1638 2657 20
P46_ST00041 1658 222 applied 0005520
P46_SP00031 1880
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alto xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation http:schema.ccs-gmbh.commetaealto-1-2.xsd xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.orgTRxlink
Description
MeasurementUnit pixel
sourceImageInformation
fileName W:\Main\OCR\ABBYY and KIRTAS_PROCESSING\Kirtas\AA00000567\00001\\Eckert_and_Eckert_2005_Trinidad_Bycatch_Meeting_Proceedings_Page_12.tif
OCRProcessing ID OCRPROCESSING_1
preProcessingStep
processingSoftware
softwareCreator Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
softwareName BookScan Editor
softwareVersion 3.6
ocrProcessingStep
Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
OCR Manager
3.0.0.0
Layout
Page P12 PHYSICAL_IMG_NR 12 HEIGHT 3300 WIDTH 2550
TopMargin P12_TM00001 HPOS 0 VPOS 158
LeftMargin P12_LM00001 296 2981
RightMargin P12_RM00001 2254
BottomMargin P12_BM00001 3139 161
PrintSpace P12_PS00001 1958
TextBlock P12_TB00001 299 1946 48
TextLine P12_TL00001 305 164 1934 42
String P12_ST00001 109 28 CONTENT Eckert WC 1.00 CC 000000
SP P12_SP00001 414 192 13
P12_ST00002 427 67 and 000
P12_SP00002 494 16
P12_ST00003 510
P12_SP00003 619
P12_ST00004 632 36 (2005) 0.66 700067
P12_SP00004 741 200 14
P12_ST00005 755 135 29 Coastal 0000000
P12_SP00005 890 193
P12_ST00006 904 129 Gillnets 0.92 42000000
P12_SP00006 1033
P12_ST00007 1047 166 23 27 & 0.44 5
P12_SP00007 1070
P12_ST00008 1084 227 Leattierback 0.86 000088000000
P12_SP00008 1311 10
P12_ST00009 1321 110 Turtles 0500000
P12_SP00009 1431
P12_ST00010 203 212 3 0.41
P12_SP00010 1643 206
P12_ST00011 180 WIDECAST 00000000
P12_SP00011 1823 11
P12_ST00012 1834 173 Tectinlcal 0.76 0008807000
P12_SP00012 2007 15
P12_ST00013 2022 165 115 34 Report 400000
P12_SP00013 2137 199
P12_ST00014 2150 57 No.
P12_SP00014 2207
P12_ST00015 2221 18 0.40 6
P12_TB00002 330 1251
P12_TL00002 303 336 1944 45
P12_ST00016 151 Further 0.80 0514001
P12_SP00015 454 370
P12_ST00017 472 178 evidence 0.96 00000300
P12_SP00016 650 19
P12_ST00018 669 38 of 0.67
P12_SP00017 707 17
P12_ST00019 724 280 unsustainable 0.73 5325243033000
P12_SP00018 1004
P12_ST00020 1022 341 95 rates 0.74 13402
P12_SP00019 1117
P12_ST00021 1136
P12_SP00020 1174
P12_ST00022 1192 40 capture 0.72 0334510
P12_SP00021 1343 381
P12_ST00023 1361 162 resulted 0.81 10250400
P12_SP00022 1523 20
P12_ST00024 1543 97 from 4110
P12_SP00023 1640
P12_ST00025 1658 141 studies 0.77 2450002
P12_SP00024 1799
P12_ST00026 1818 338 31 in 0.84 03
P12_SP00025 1856 369
P12_ST00027 1873 124 which 00000
P12_SP00026 1997
P12_ST00028 2015 232 leatherback 0.88 00340010300
P12_TL00003 392 1943 46
P12_ST00029 128 turtles 4514002
P12_SP00027 431 426
P12_ST00030 465 394 169 44 carrying 0.87 03110030
P12_SP00028 634 438 33
P12_ST00031 667 104 radio 13001
P12_SP00029 771 35
P12_ST00032 806 242 32 transmitters 0.75 413320044012
P12_SP00030 1048
P12_ST00033 1082 404 99 22 were 0.95 0010
P12_SP00031 1181
P12_ST00034 1215 172 reported 0.83 10311400
P12_SP00032 1387 437
P12_ST00035 1421 captured 03345100
P12_SP00033 1599
P12_ST00036 1635 or
P12_SP00034 1675
P12_ST00037 1710 247 disappeared 00233303100
P12_SP00035 1957
P12_ST00038 1993 163 offshore 0.78 14420110
P12_SP00036 2156
P12_ST00039 2190 56 for 0.71 411
P12_TL00004 449 1945
P12_ST00040 inexplicable 0.91 030030003000
P12_SP00037 545
P12_ST00041 564 461 reasons. 10321325
P12_SP00038 725 483 39
P12_ST00042 764 450 41 In
P12_SP00039 805 482
P12_ST00043 824 100 1995, 40006
P12_SP00040 924 489
P12_ST00044 944 102 three 40100
P12_SP00041 1046
P12_ST00045 1066 250 leatherbacks 003400103002
P12_SP00042 1316
P12_ST00046 1335
P12_SP00043 1434
P12_ST00047 1454 190 equipped 01503300
P12_SP00044 1644
P12_ST00048 1663 93 with 0.89 0040
P12_SP00045 1756
P12_ST00049 1776 153 satellite 0.82 234000040
P12_SP00046 1929
P12_ST00050 1948 451 243
P12_SP00047 2191 21
P12_ST00051 2212 at 0.59
P12_TL00005 506
P12_ST00052 507 148 Matura 0.69 025612
P12_SP00048 540
P12_ST00053 466 Beach, 502006
P12_SP00049 595 546
P12_ST00054 612 518 49 on
P12_SP00050 661
P12_ST00055 675 62 the 0.85 400
P12_SP00051 737
P12_ST00056 752 511 78 east 0234
P12_SP00052 830
P12_ST00057 844 coast 01234
P12_SP00053 946
P12_ST00058 961
P12_SP00054 999
P12_ST00059 1014 185 Trinidad. 010200205
P12_SP00055 1199
P12_ST00060 1230 82 One 0.90 030
P12_SP00056 1312
P12_ST00061 1329
P12_SP00057 1367
P12_ST00062 1381
P12_SP00058 1443
P12_ST00063 1458 101
P12_SP00059 1559
P12_ST00064 1576 (30%) 03300
P12_SP00060 1685 551
P12_ST00065 1701 79 was 023
P12_SP00061 1780
P12_ST00066 1796 02356100
P12_SP00062 1974
P12_ST00067 1991 74 230
P12_SP00063 2065
P12_ST00068 2081 released 10002300
P12_TL00006 302 563
P12_ST00069 50 by 00
P12_SP00064 352 609
P12_ST00070 368 575 a 0.65
P12_SP00065 388 597
P12_ST00071 403 127 gillnet 0000304
P12_SP00066 530
P12_ST00072 544 fisherman 402001033
P12_SP00067 747
P12_ST00073 762
P12_SP00068 859
P12_ST00074 873 105 Toco. 01015
P12_SP00069 978 30
P12_ST00075 1008
P12_SP00070 1049 596
P12_ST00076 1064
P12_SP00071
P12_ST00077 1099 197 follow-up 410010053
P12_SP00072 1296 608
P12_ST00078 telemetry 400000410
P12_SP00073 1501
P12_ST00079 1518 112 study 24500
P12_SP00074 1630
P12_ST00080 1645 565
P12_SP00075 1683
P12_ST00081 1698 1996,
P12_SP00076 1798 603
P12_ST00082 1814 53 six
P12_SP00077 1867
P12_ST00083 1882 251
P12_SP00078 2133
P12_ST00084 2147
P12_TL00007 620 1941
P12_ST00085 191
P12_SP00079 665
P12_ST00086 524 92
P12_SP00080 616 654
P12_ST00087 646 621 94 VHF
P12_SP00081 740
P12_ST00088 radios 120013
P12_SP00082 895
P12_ST00089 926
P12_SP00083 982
P12_ST00090 1013 tiacking 77200030
P12_SP00084 1178 666
P12_ST00091 1208 195 purposes, 0.70 351313036
P12_SP00085 1403
P12_ST00092 1435 73
P12_SP00086 1508
P12_ST00093 1540 47 all
P12_SP00087 1587
P12_ST00094 1619 131 (100%) 043300
P12_SP00088 1750
P12_ST00095 1784 00323302100
P12_SP00089 2031
P12_ST00096 2063 181 abruptly. 201534005
P12_TL00008 676
P12_ST00097 209 Wholesale 001002300
P12_SP00090 710
P12_ST00098 528 678 218 43 equipment 0.79 015030034
P12_SP00091 746 721
P12_ST00099 761 failure 4300510
P12_SP00092 892
P12_ST00100 908 is 02
P12_SP00093 938
P12_ST00101 955 176 unlikely, 530000006
P12_SP00094 1131 722
P12_ST00102 1149
P12_SP00095 1222
P12_ST00103 1239
P12_SP00096
P12_ST00104 688 range 13300
P12_SP00097 1473
P12_ST00105 1491
P12_SP00098 1564
P12_ST00106 1582 179 coverage 01001300
P12_SP00099 1761
P12_ST00107
P12_SP00100 1875
P12_ST00108 1892 187 extensive 004032000
P12_SP00101 2079
P12_ST00109 2095 152 enough 031500
P12_TL00009 733
P12_ST00110 738 37 to 0.68
P12_SP00102 340 767
P12_ST00111 357 149 dismiss 0020022
P12_SP00103
P12_ST00112 521 61
P12_SP00104 582
P12_ST00113 84 idea 0003
P12_SP00105 681
P12_ST00114 695 that 4034
P12_SP00106 773
P12_ST00115 786
P12_SP00107 848
P12_ST00116 862
P12_SP00108 990
P12_ST00117 1005 136 simply 200300
P12_SP00109 1141 779
P12_ST00118 1156 64 left 0044
P12_SP00110 1220
P12_ST00119 1234
P12_SP00111 1295
P12_ST00120 1310 745 area. 31035
P12_SP00112 1402
P12_ST00121 75 The
P12_SP00113 1506
P12_ST00122 1520 98 most 0124
P12_SP00114 1618
P12_ST00123 1632 likely
P12_SP00115 1742
P12_ST00124 1757 237 explanation 00303334013
P12_SP00116 1994 778
P12_ST00125 2008 735
P12_SP00117 2038
P12_ST00126 2053
P12_SP00118 2131
P12_ST00127 2144 103 these 40020
P12_TL00010 790
P12_ST00128
P12_SP00119
P12_ST00129 802
P12_SP00120 550
P12_ST00130 571 killed
P12_SP00121 683
P12_ST00131 705 792
P12_SP00122 743 823
P12_ST00132 763 138 fishing 4020030
P12_SP00123 901 836
P12_ST00133 922 211 operations 1301300132
P12_SP00124 1133 835
P12_ST00134 1155 111 south 21540
P12_SP00125 1266
P12_ST00135 1287
P12_SP00126 1325
P12_ST00136 1345 Fishing 0020030
P12_SP00127 1493
P12_ST00137 1513 Pond 6130
P12_SP00128 1617
P12_ST00138 1639 126 Beach. 503005
P12_SP00129 1765
P12_ST00139 1807 791
P12_SP00130 1847
P12_ST00140 2003, 0.61 04446
P12_SP00131 1967
P12_ST00141 1988 four 4151
P12_SP00132 2072
P12_ST00142 2094
P12_TL00011 847
P12_ST00143 849
P12_SP00133 881
P12_ST00144 568
P12_SP00134 24
P12_ST00145 691 deployed 0.93 00301000
P12_SP00135 878 893 25
P12_ST00146 903
P12_SP00136 952
P12_ST00147 975 146 nesting 3020030
P12_SP00137 1121
P12_ST00148 1144
P12_SP00138 1394 26
P12_ST00149 1420 88 (two 0401
P12_SP00139
P12_ST00150 1533 852
P12_SP00140 1569
P12_ST00151 1591 150 Grande 013300
P12_SP00141 1741
P12_ST00152 1764 154 Riviere, 00000106
P12_SP00142 1918 887
P12_ST00153 two 401
P12_SP00143 2016
P12_ST00154 2041
P12_SP00144 2077
P12_ST00155 2099 034513
P12_TL00012
P12_ST00156 144 Beach); 5030002
P12_SP00145 447 949
P12_ST00157 both 0140
P12_SP00146 553
P12_ST00158 567
P12_SP00147 717
P12_ST00159 732 905 143 Riviere 0.97 0000010
P12_SP00148 875
P12_ST00160 889
P12_SP00149 1017
P12_ST00161 1034 91 (50%
P12_SP00150 1125
P12_ST00162 1145
P12_SP00151 1183
P12_ST00163 1197
P12_SP00152 1259
P12_ST00164 1273 total) 414300
P12_SP00153 1375
P12_ST00165 1393 916 60 are 310
P12_SP00154 1453
P12_ST00166 1468 140 known 03103
P12_SP00155 1608
P12_ST00167 1622 909
P12_SP00156 1659
P12_ST00168 have 0300
P12_SP00157 1770
P12_ST00169 1783 96 been
P12_SP00158 1879
P12_ST00170 1893 137 caught 035004
P12_SP00159 2030 950
P12_ST00171 2044
P12_SP00160 2118
P12_ST00172 113
P12_TL00013 642
P12_ST00173 963
P12_SP00161 342 994
P12_ST00174 355 coastal 0123420
P12_SP00162 491 995
P12_ST00175 145 gillnets 00003043
P12_SP00163 651 1007
P12_ST00176 (Eckert, 00000146
P12_SP00164 817 1006
P12_ST00177 831 114 2006). 033005
P12_TL00014 1074
P12_ST00178 1075 To 01
P12_SP00165 353 1108
P12_ST00179 1086 208 encourage 030151300
P12_SP00166 577 1120
P12_ST00180 592 fishers 4020012
P12_SP00167 723
P12_ST00181 739 1079
P12_SP00168 776
P12_ST00182 untangle 53433000
P12_SP00169 969
P12_ST00183 984
P12_SP00170 1045
P12_ST00184 1060
P12_SP00171 1188
P12_ST00185 1203 120 rather 134001
P12_SP00172 1323
P12_ST00186 1339 89 than 4033
P12_SP00173 1428
P12_ST00187 1442
P12_SP00174 1479
P12_ST00188 1496 225 dismember 002000001
P12_SP00175 1721
P12_ST00189 1736 them,
P12_SP00176 1849 1114
P12_ST00190 1866
P12_SP00177 1939
P12_ST00191 1955
P12_SP00178 1992
P12_ST00192 239 compensate 0103032340
P12_TL00015
P12_ST00193 132
P12_SP00179 435 1165
P12_ST00194 464
P12_SP00180 520
P12_ST00195 549 159 damage 030300
P12_SP00181 708 1177
P12_ST00196 736 caused 035200
P12_SP00182
P12_ST00197
P12_SP00183
P12_ST00198 979
P12_SP00184 1041
P12_ST00199 1069 198 incidental 0300003430
P12_SP00185 1267
P12_ST00200
P12_SP00186 1447 1176
P12_ST00201 1476
P12_SP00187 1514
P12_ST00202 1542 262 leatherbacks, 0034001030026
P12_SP00188 1804 1171
P12_ST00203 1832
P12_SP00189 1894
P12_ST00204 1922 United 030400
P12_SP00190 2059
P12_ST00205 2088 1132 Nations 1340132
P12_TL00016
P12_ST00206 289 Develop-ment 000001300034
P12_SP00191 1233
P12_ST00207 1189 Program 6110130
P12_SP00192 788
P12_ST00208 811 278 (UNDP)GEF 0010600000
P12_SP00193 1089
P12_ST00209 1111 Small 00300
P12_SP00194
P12_ST00210 1244 134 Grants 013342
P12_SP00195 1378
P12_ST00211 1399 238 Programme 611013000
P12_SP00196 1637
P12_ST00212 provided 31100000
P12_SP00197 1843
P12_ST00213 1200
P12_SP00198 1886
P12_ST00214 1908 1193 106 grant 01334
P12_SP00199 2014
P12_ST00215 2034 1190
P12_SP00200 1221
P12_ST00216 2093
P12_SP00201 2154
P12_ST00217 2175 72 late 0340
P12_TL00017 1245
P12_ST00218 1246 1990s 40042
P12_SP00202 412 1279
P12_ST00219 429 1250
P12_SP00203
P12_ST00220
P12_SP00204
P12_ST00221 562
P12_SP00205 712
P12_ST00222 728
P12_SP00206 871
P12_ST00223 888 301 Environmental 1300113003430
P12_SP00207
P12_ST00224 1206 Action 004013
P12_SP00208 1340
P12_ST00225 1356 107 Trust 01524
P12_SP00209 1463
P12_ST00226 1481 (GREAT) 0.99
P12_SP00210 1662 1290
P12_ST00227 1681
P12_SP00211 1718
P12_ST00228 refund 104530
P12_SP00212 1870
P12_ST00229 1887
P12_SP00213 2019
P12_ST00230 2036
P12_SP00214 2098
P12_ST00231 2114 cost
P12_SP00215 2193
P12_ST00232 2209
P12_TL00018 1302
P12_ST00233 1307 63 net 304
P12_SP00216 366 1336
P12_ST00234 379 1304 repair 103301
P12_SP00217 499 1347
P12_ST00235 512 when
P12_SP00218 625
P12_ST00236 640
P12_SP00219 799 1348
P12_ST00237 812 1314 032
P12_SP00220 891
P12_ST00238 906
P12_SP00221 1043
P12_ST00239 1057
P12_SP00222 1106
P12_ST00240 1122
P12_SP00223 1142
P12_ST00241 1157 108 turtle 571400
P12_SP00224 1265
P12_ST00242
P12_SP00225 1358
P12_ST00243 1370
P12_SP00226 1449
P12_ST00244 1464 10003200
P12_SP00227 1629
P12_ST00245 alive. 300005
P12_SP00228 1748
P12_ST00246 1777
P12_SP00229 1852
P12_ST00247 175 program 3110130
P12_SP00230 2042
P12_ST00248 2055
P12_SP00231 2134
P12_ST00249 2149
P12_SP00232 2186
P12_ST00250 2201 be
P12_TL00019
P12_ST00251 2
P12_SP00233 324 1392
P12_ST00252 343 pilot 30014
P12_SP00234 436
P12_ST00253 1360 project, 31150046
P12_SP00235 602 1404
P12_ST00254
P12_SP00236
P12_ST00255 731 intentions 0240340133
P12_SP00237 931
P12_ST00256 951
P12_SP00238 989
P12_ST00257 215 replication 10300024013
P12_SP00239 1223
P12_ST00258 1242 if 04
P12_SP00240 1269 1391
P12_ST00259 it
P12_SP00241
P12_ST00260 1331
P12_SP00242 1410
P12_ST00261 1430 210 successful. 35000334505
P12_SP00243
P12_ST00262 1679 1359 It
P12_SP00244 1708
P12_ST00263 1726
P12_SP00245
P12_ST00264 293 acknowledged 0.94 200310000000
P12_SP00246 2069
P12_ST00265 2089 4024
P12_SP00247 2167
P12_ST00266 2185
P12_TL00020 1415
P12_ST00267
P12_SP00248 397 1460
P12_ST00268 410 1417 project 3115004
P12_SP00249 547 1461
P12_ST00269 561 represented 10310303400
P12_SP00250 798
P12_ST00270 814 0.64
P12_SP00251 850
P12_ST00271 best 0034
P12_SP00252
P12_ST00272 958 1427
P12_SP00253
P12_ST00273 992 219 "stop-gap" 0341300230
P12_SP00254 1211
P12_ST00274 1228 170 measure 0023510
P12_SP00255 1398
P12_ST00275 1413
P12_SP00256 1487
P12_ST00276 1502 66 not 314
P12_SP00257 1568
P12_ST00277
P12_SP00258 1602
P12_ST00278 1616 final 40220
P12_SP00259 1705
P12_ST00279 1720 solution 31054013
P12_SP00260 1883
P12_ST00280 1896
P12_SP00261 1933
P12_ST00281 1949
P12_SP00262 2010
P12_ST00282 2025 problem 3110000
P12_SP00263 2195
P12_ST00283 2210
P12_TL00021 1472
P12_ST00284
P12_SP00264 502
P12_ST00285 516
P12_SP00265
P12_ST00286 mortality, 0114300406
P12_SP00266 864
P12_ST00287 879 1474 since 20300
P12_SP00267
P12_ST00288 991 there 40010
P12_SP00268 1093
P12_ST00289 1105 1484
P12_SP00269 1184
P12_ST00290 1198 no
P12_SP00270 1247
P12_ST00291 1262 1477 155 attempt 3440034
P12_SP00271 1517
P12_ST00292 1429
P12_SP00272 1466
P12_ST00293 prevent 3100034
P12_SP00273 1636
P12_ST00294 1648
P12_SP00274 1800
P12_ST00295 1813
P12_SP00275 1851 1505
P12_ST00296 1864
P12_SP00276 1926
P12_ST00297 80 first 40124
P12_SP00277
P12_ST00298 place. 303005
P12_SP00278
P12_ST00299 2172
P12_TL00022 1529 1319
P12_ST00300 1541
P12_SP00279 479 1575
P12_ST00301 492 1531
P12_SP00280 522 1563
P12_ST00302 536 184 currently 051103400
P12_SP00281 720
P12_ST00303 being 00030
P12_SP00282 845
P12_ST00304 858 evaluated, 0030534006
P12_SP00283
P12_ST00305 1080 168 pending 3030030
P12_SP00284 1248
P12_ST00306 1260 potential 314034030
P12_SP00285 1438 1574
P12_ST00307 1452 renewal. 10300305
Illustration P12_CB1_SUB 469 1689 1612 1130 TYPE
P12_TB00003 526 2880 1500
P12_TL00023 532 2886 1488
P12_ST00308 118 Figure 0.98 000001
P12_SP00286 2926
P12_ST00309 664 2.
P12_SP00287 696 2918
P12_ST00310 711 Adult 00005
P12_SP00288 815
P12_ST00311 829 246 01050106000
P12_SP00289
P12_ST00312 1088 entangled 105000010
P12_SP00290 1291
P12_ST00313 1306
P12_SP00291 1337 2917
P12_ST00314 1354 2894 0.48
P12_SP00292 1377
P12_ST00315 119 0000015
P12_SP00293 1512
P12_ST00316 1526 off
P12_SP00294 1573
P12_ST00317 1586 501
P12_SP00295
P12_ST00318 1664 183 northeast 020501025
P12_SP00296
P12_ST00319 1862 2887 02025
P12_SP00297 1971
P12_ST00320 1985
P12_TL00024 902 2937
P12_ST00321 167 060300002
P12_SP00298 2969
P12_ST00322 1083
P12_SP00299 2968
P12_ST00323 1127 Scott 10355
P12_SP00300 1225
P12_ST00324 1238 2938 A.
P12_SP00301 1277
P12_ST00325 1294 0000653
P12_SP00302 2973
P12_ST00326 201 00000010
P12_TB00004 3094
P12_TL00025 3100
P12_ST00327 8


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
alto xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation http:schema.ccs-gmbh.commetaealto-1-2.xsd xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.orgTRxlink
Description
MeasurementUnit pixel
sourceImageInformation
fileName W:\Main\OCR\ABBYY and KIRTAS_PROCESSING\Kirtas\AA00000567\00001\\Eckert_and_Eckert_2005_Trinidad_Bycatch_Meeting_Proceedings_Page_53.tif
OCRProcessing ID OCRPROCESSING_1
preProcessingStep
processingSoftware
softwareCreator Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
softwareName BookScan Editor
softwareVersion 3.6
ocrProcessingStep
Kirtas Technologies, Inc.
OCR Manager
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P37_SP00159
P37_ST00184 120 Panel: 101000
P37_SP00160 722
P37_ST00185 739
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P37_ST00187
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P37_SP00167 1804
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P37_SP00171 1048
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P37_ST00200 1564
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P37_ST00201 1767 2702
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P37_ST00202 2760
P37_SP00176 2795
P37_ST00203 2781
P37_SP00177 2783
P37_ST00204
P37_SP00178
P37_ST00205 167 Drafting 00000010
P37_SP00179 2805
P37_ST00206 784 219 Committee 030000000
P37_SP00180 1003
P37_ST00207 assigned 02300100
P37_SP00181 1189
P37_ST00208 1201 2764 02
P37_SP00182 1238
P37_ST00209 1254 Final 00100
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P37_ST00210 1369 2761 004300
P37_TL00028 2874
P37_ST00211 2875
P37_SP00184 2910
P37_ST00212 2896
P37_SP00185 2898
P37_ST00213 1800
P37_SP00186
P37_ST00214 152 Closing 0033010
P37_SP00187 755 2920
P37_ST00215 770 Remarks 0000002
P37_SP00188
P37_ST00216
P37_SP00189
P37_ST00217 1043 166 Adjourn 0003500


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P11_SP00014 2208
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P11_ST00016 336 270 32 communities. 0.80 030056200005
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P11_ST00029 603 86 well 0000
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P11_ST00040 416 49 by 00
P11_SP00037 465
P11_ST00041 479 93 local 03030
P11_SP00038
P11_ST00042 585 204 biologists, 00303000406
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P11_ST00043 803 458 171 resource 50035500
P11_SP00040 974
P11_ST00044 987 207 35 managers, 034300506
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P11_ST00045 1209
P11_SP00042 1282
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P11_ST00047 1675 449 259 conservation 034005034034
P11_SP00044
P11_ST00048 282 organizations. 0.73 35034003403405
P11_TL00005 504
P11_ST00049 505 A
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P11_ST00050 353 198 follow-up 0.77 430030054
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P11_ST00057 1337 144 Marine 0.78 035040
P11_SP00053 1481
P11_ST00058 1499 137 Affairs 0443050
P11_SP00054 1636
P11_ST00059 1657 118 (IMA)
P11_SP00055 1775
P11_ST00060 1796 206 confirmed 034405000
P11_SP00056 2002
P11_ST00061 2021 61
P11_SP00057 2082
P11_ST00062 2101 general 0040530
P11_TL00006 561
P11_ST00063 234 conclusions 03400500340
P11_SP00058 536 595
P11_ST00064 552 of
P11_SP00059 590
P11_ST00065 604 127
P11_SP00060 731
P11_ST00066 746
P11_SP00061 819
P11_ST00067 834 562 90
P11_SP00062 924
P11_ST00068 939 (1999), 0400006
P11_SP00063 1067 606
P11_ST00069 1081 68 but 0.67 054
P11_SP00064 1149
P11_ST00070 1162 195 estimated 000003400
P11_SP00065 1357
P11_ST00071 1372 79 that 0.69 4034
P11_SP00066 1451
P11_ST00072 1464 103 more 0350
P11_SP00067 1567
P11_ST00073 1581 91 than
P11_SP00068 1672
P11_ST00074 1685 100 3,000 06555
P11_SP00069 1785 601
P11_ST00075 1800 250 leatherbacks 003400503000
P11_SP00070 2050
P11_ST00076 2065 75 had 030
P11_SP00071 2140
P11_ST00077 2154 96 been
P11_TL00007
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P11_SP00072 480 663
P11_ST00079 501 199 incidental 0400004420
P11_SP00073 700 652
P11_ST00080 720 623
P11_SP00074 757
P11_ST00081 779 gillnet 0.87 0000404
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P11_SP00080 1511
P11_ST00087 1532
P11_SP00081 1570
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P11_ST00089
P11_SP00083 1825
P11_ST00090 1843 619 2000 0.66 0444
P11_SP00084 1932
P11_ST00091 1953 74 240
P11_SP00085 2027
P11_ST00092 2048 78 4024
P11_SP00086 2126
P11_ST00093 2145 629 0330
P11_TL00008 675 1398
P11_ST00094
P11_SP00087 709
P11_ST00095 77 half 0304
P11_SP00088
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P11_SP00089 721
P11_ST00097 87 died
P11_SP00090 706
P11_ST00098 722 687
P11_SP00091 761
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P11_SP00093
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P11_SP00095 1080
P11_ST00103 1094 686 an 0.59
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P11_ST00105 1371 83 (Lee
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P11_ST00106 1467 676 105 Lum, 0.70 0506
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P11_ST00107 1586 2003). 055005
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P11_ST00109 535 794 0.62
P11_SP00101 823
P11_ST00110 596
P11_SP00102 724
P11_ST00111
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P11_SP00104 933
P11_ST00113 956
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P11_SP00116
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P11_SP00126 2069
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P11_ST00137
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P11_ST00141
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P11_ST00144 1304 150 "green- 0030040
P11_SP00134 1
P11_ST00145 1455 web"
P11_SP00135 1560
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P11_SP00136 1738
P11_ST00147 1765 000034
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P11_ST00148 1917
P11_SP00138 1991
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P11_ST00158 1287 green-web 050040000
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P11_ST00159 1518 53 off 344
P11_SP00148 1571
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P11_SP00149
P11_ST00161 1804 126 Beach. 503005
P11_SP00150 1930
P11_ST00162 1951
P11_SP00151 2025
P11_ST00163 2043
P11_SP00152
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P11_TL00013 1016 1942
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P11_SP00153 397 1050
P11_ST00166
P11_SP00154 489
P11_ST00167 508 able 3000
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P11_ST00168 1021
P11_SP00156 643
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P11_ST00170 771
P11_SP00158 833
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P11_ST00172
P11_SP00160 966
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P11_SP00161 1046
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P11_TL00014
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P11_SP00173
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P11_SP00175
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P11_ST00191 1288
P11_SP00178 1363
P11_ST00192 1383 authors 3540350
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P11_ST00194 1686
P11_SP00181
P11_ST00195 1782
P11_SP00182 1844
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P11_SP00183 1939
P11_ST00197 1959 inch 0400
P11_SP00184 2044
P11_ST00198 [10.8 04550
P11_SP00185 2155 1116
P11_ST00199 2174 71 cm]
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P11_ST00202 503 65 did
P11_SP00188 568
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P11_SP00189
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P11_SP00191 916
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P11_ST00208 1299
P11_SP00194 1336
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P11_ST00216
P11_SP00201 635
P11_ST00217 650
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P11_ST00218 742
P11_SP00203
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P11_SP00208
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P11_SP00209 1568
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P11_ST00230 2128
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P11_TL00017
P11_ST00232
P11_SP00216
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P11_ST00235 884 leading
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P11_SP00224
P11_ST00241 1693 Another 0434005
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P11_ST00243 2100 1255 may
P11_SP00227 2186
P11_ST00244 2201 47 be
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P11_ST00245
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P11_ST00246
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P11_SP00230 792
P11_ST00248 818 1312 60 are 350
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P11_ST00249 902 used 5000
P11_SP00232 996
P11_ST00250 1022 primarily 450035000
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P11_ST00251 1313
P11_SP00234 1276
P11_ST00252 1302 54 set 004
P11_SP00235 1356
P11_ST00253 1380 nets, 40406
P11_SP00236 1472 1341
P11_ST00254 1497 1303
P11_SP00237 1536 1334
P11_ST00255 1558 125 which 00000
P11_SP00238 1683
P11_ST00256 1707
P11_SP00239 1768
P11_ST00257 1793
P11_SP00240
P11_ST00258 1879
P11_SP00241 1909
P11_ST00259 1935
P11_SP00242
P11_ST00260 2013 deeply 000400
P11_SP00243 2148
P11_ST00261
P11_TL00019
P11_ST00262 anchored 34003500
P11_SP00244 488 1392
P11_ST00263
P11_SP00245 541
P11_ST00264 557
P11_SP00246
P11_ST00265 633 156 bottom, 0344306
P11_SP00247
P11_ST00266 804 perhaps 4050340
P11_SP00248 1403
P11_ST00267 1360 221 preventing 4500044040
P11_SP00249 1404
P11_ST00268 1218 1369
P11_SP00250 1266
P11_ST00269 1279 entangled 044340000
P11_SP00251 1478
P11_ST00270 1494
P11_SP00252 1603
P11_ST00271 1618 from 4530
P11_SP00253 1715
P11_ST00272 1731 surfacing 055430040
P11_SP00254 1918
P11_ST00273
P11_SP00255 1969
P11_ST00274 1984
P11_SP00256 2144
P11_ST00275 2173
P11_TL00020 1415
P11_ST00276 second
P11_SP00257 440 1449
P11_ST00277 463
P11_SP00258 625
P11_ST00278 647 1417
P11_SP00259 677
P11_ST00279 699 how
P11_SP00260 787
P11_ST00280
P11_SP00261 871
P11_ST00281 893
P11_SP00262 1002
P11_ST00282 1024
P11_SP00263 1054
P11_ST00283 1076 140 treated 4503400
P11_SP00264 1216
P11_ST00284 1240 after 34405
P11_SP00265 1330
P11_ST00285 1352 1420 capture. 03445505
P11_SP00266 1512 1460
P11_ST00286 1416 At
P11_SP00267 1607
P11_ST00287 1628
P11_SP00268 1689
P11_ST00288 1711 time
P11_SP00269
P11_ST00289 1823
P11_SP00270
P11_ST00290 1882
P11_SP00271 2010
P11_ST00291 2032
P11_SP00272
P11_ST00292 120 Lien's
P11_TL00021 301 1949
P11_ST00293 1474 writing, 05040406
P11_SP00273 461
P11_ST00294 477 251
P11_SP00274 1506
P11_ST00295 743 1483 were 0050
P11_SP00275 843
P11_ST00296 858 184 regularly 500503500
P11_SP00276 1042
P11_ST00297 killed
P11_SP00277 1171
P11_ST00298 1188 either 004005
P11_SP00278
P11_ST00299 1477
P11_SP00279
P11_ST00300 1374 165 simplify 00040040
P11_SP00280 1539
P11_ST00301 1555 their 40005
P11_SP00281 1648
P11_ST00302 1664 release 5000300
P11_SP00282 1802
P11_ST00303 1818
P11_SP00283 1915
P11_ST00304
P11_SP00284 1992
P11_ST00305
P11_SP00285 2071
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P31_ST00005 754 136 29 Coastal 0000000
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P31_ST00057 1147 575 262 management 0333000034
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P31_ST00060 1690 210 regulatory 3005034230
P31_SP00056 1900
P31_ST00061 1914 260 enforcement. 034230000345
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P31_ST00124 505 151 periods 4030202
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P31_ST00169 677 1737 Inc. 2305
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P31_ST00173 1143 181 expertise 004034020
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P31_SP00165 1955
P31_ST00180 1970 107 rapid 33400
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P31_ST00181 take-up 4300054
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P31_SP00177 1699
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P31_ST00194 1889
P31_SP00179 1968
P31_ST00195 1986 125 aspect 234004
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P31_SP00181 2168
P31_ST00197 2186
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P31_SP00182 567 1895 26
P31_ST00199 593 106 work 0210
P31_SP00183 699 1884
P31_ST00200 726 98 plan. 40235
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P31_ST00201 879 193 Similarly, 0000021006
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P31_ST00202 1100 1851 263 SEAMARCO 01000040
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P31_SP00189 1830
P31_ST00206 1859 1862
P31_SP00190 1879
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P31_ST00208 2056 1855 127 expert 004014
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P31_ST00210 'pinger' 44030030
P31_SP00193 1953
P31_ST00211 480 222 technology 4000320200
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P31_SP00195 798 1941
P31_ST00213 819 1908 243 02214000
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P31_SP00197 1149
P31_ST00215 1171 1909
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P31_ST00217 1432 152 sensory 2032230
P31_SP00200 1584
P31_ST00218 1605 biology 0020200
P31_SP00201 1756
P31_ST00219 1780
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P31_ST00220 1883 1919 sea 203
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P31_ST00221 1965 turtle 453400
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P31_ST00223 167 studies), 245000206
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P31_ST00224 493 91 such 2500
P31_SP00206 584 1997
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P31_ST00227 272
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P31_ST00228 1118 123 could, 025006
P31_SP00210 1241 2003
P31_ST00229 1261
P31_SP00211 1996
P31_ST00230 1319 246 partnership, 433430320046
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P31_ST00231 1586 1974 2003200
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P31_ST00232 1758 247 experiments 00403000342
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P31_SP00215 2075
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P31_SP00221 1368
P31_ST00241 1401 003001003
P31_SP00222 1578
P31_ST00242 Service 0.98 0010000
P31_SP00223 1754
P31_ST00243 1789 119
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P31_ST00245 2051 Memorial 00021020
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P31_ST00246 2078 University 0300032040
P31_SP00226 515 2123
P31_ST00247 (Canada) 04333030
P31_SP00227 2122
P31_ST00248 756
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P31_ST00252 1448 design, 0020036
P31_SP00232 1591
P31_ST00253 1621 2088 85 gear 0033
P31_SP00233 1706
P31_ST00254 276 development, 000002400346
P31_SP00234 2011
P31_ST00255 2040
P31_SP00235 2114
P31_ST00256 2144 104 other 24003
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P31_ST00257 155 bycatch 0003400
P31_SP00236 2180
P31_ST00258 472 2136 mitigation 0040034023
P31_SP00237 681
P31_ST00259 696 methods 0040202
P31_SP00238 870
P31_ST00260 888
P31_SP00239 967
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P31_SP00243 1678
P31_ST00265 1695 111 could
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P31_SP00245 1868
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P31_ST00269 2097 2145
P31_TL00022 2191
P31_ST00270 studies 2450002
P31_SP00248 445 2225
P31_ST00271 474
P31_SP00249 548
P31_ST00272 576 231 evaluations 00305340232
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P31_SP00251 875
P31_ST00274 903 2202
P31_SP00252 988 2237
P31_ST00275 315 modification(s). 0200400340230205
P31_SP00253 1331 2236
P31_ST00276 1388 2192 A
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P31_ST00277 1449 number 350003
P31_SP00255 1606
P31_ST00278 1635
P31_SP00256 1673
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P31_ST00281 2012 235 particularly 433400503300
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P31_ST00289 1574 baits 03042
P31_SP00266 1668
P31_ST00290 1693
P31_SP00267 1766
P31_ST00291 1791
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P31_SP00269 2053
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P31_ST00297 680 capability 0343000040
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P31_ST00298 891 2310
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P31_ST00299 944 002003
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P31_SP00276 1336
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P31_ST00302 70 test
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P31_SP00279 1659
P31_ST00304 72 live
P31_SP00280 1745
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P31_SP00291 1399 2463
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P31_SP00293 1637
P31_ST00319 Bycatch 5002400
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P31_ST00320 Mitigation 0040024023
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P31_ST00321 Program 5120120
P31_TL00026 2475
P31_ST00322 Coordinator 42230033423
P31_SP00296 550 2509
P31_ST00323 564 2480
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P31_ST00324 214 coordinate 0223003340
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P31_SP00300 1098
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P31_SP00301 1152
P31_ST00328 1165
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P31_ST00329 various 0330252
P31_SP00303 1391
P31_ST00330 projects 43260042
P31_SP00304 1562 2521
P31_ST00331 1577
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P31_SP00307 1990
P31_ST00334 results, 30250426
P31_SP00308 2148 2515
P31_ST00335 2164 2486
P31_SP00309 2212
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P31_ST00338 460 basis, 023036
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P31_ST00339 2537
P31_SP00312 621 2566
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P31_SP00313 838 2577
P31_ST00341 2534 240 participants 421400042343
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P31_SP00316 1299
P31_ST00344 1314 stakeholders. 3420002000135
P31_TB00004 3095
P31_TL00028 1253 3101
P31_ST00345 0.61


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P1_ST00005 2050 176 the 0.90 020
P1_TL00002 258 662 2038
P1_ST00006 576 Incidental 0460004000
P1_SP00005 834 756
P1_ST00007 874 666 448 120 Capture 0.71 0070640
P1_SP00006 1322 786
P1_ST00008 1362 210 and 0.69 242
P1_SP00007 1572
P1_ST00009 1608 538 Mortality 0.92 014000000
P1_SP00008 2146
P1_ST00010 2182 114 of 0.55 18
P1_TL00003 80 812 2396 92
P1_ST00011 696 Leatherback 40304076350
P1_SP00009 776 904
P1_ST00012 810 404 Turtles 0.81 0660000
P1_SP00010 1214 38
P1_ST00013 1252 88 in 0.82 03
P1_SP00011 1366 902
P1_ST00014 1398 0.91
P1_SP00012 1574
P1_ST00015 1614 416 Coastal 0.84 4030030
P1_SP00013 2030
P1_ST00016 2070 406 Gillnet 0.99 0000000
P1_TL00004 324 958 126
P1_ST00017 960 506 Fisheries 200407000
P1_SP00014 830 1052
P1_ST00018 870 112 0.59 08
P1_SP00015 982
P1_ST00019 1016 504 Trinidad 0.86 06000032
P1_SP00016 1520
P1_ST00020 1556 332
P1_SP00017 1766
P1_ST00021 1800 424 Tobago 006300
P1_TL00005 264 1410 2024
P1_ST00022 940 PROCEEDINGS 50012030500
P1_SP00018 1204 1498 42
P1_ST00023 1246 168 OF
P1_SP00019 1414
P1_ST00024 1450 86 A 1.00
P1_SP00020 1544 1496
P1_ST00025 1578 710 NATIONAL 00003004
P1_TL00006 744 1558 1062 90
P1_ST00026 CONSULTATION 0.93 000114000000
P1_TB00002 308 1984 1936 1240
P1_TL00007 528 1990 1493 75
P1_ST00027 1994 139 52 Port 0.58 4057
P1_SP00021 667 2046 21
P1_ST00028 688 1991 68 55 0.67 06
P1_SP00022 23
P1_ST00029 779 1992 213 72 Spain, 0.72 054006
P1_SP00023 992 2064
P1_ST00030 1013 320 Trinidad, 040000406
P1_SP00024 1333 2058 22
P1_ST00031 1355 1993 171 53 16-18 0.73 30333
P1_SP00025 1526 25
P1_ST00032 1551 303 February 0.66 00556450
P1_SP00026 1854 2065
P1_ST00033 1876 145 2005 0.74 0550
P1_TL00008 369 2168 1812
P1_ST00034 2170 296 73 Ministry 00000750
P1_SP00027 665 2243
P1_ST00035 2169
P1_SP00028 2224
P1_ST00036 777 411 Agriculture, 0.64 024046076506
P1_SP00029 1188
P1_ST00037 1210 56 Land 0.77 4400
P1_SP00030 1381 24
P1_ST00038 1405 400
P1_SP00031 1529
P1_ST00039 1552 245 54 Marine 045000
P1_SP00032 1797
P1_ST00040 1822 2172 359 64 Resources, 0.78 0000654006
P1_TL00009 314 2257 1924
P1_ST00041 2260 431 Government 2000500007
P1_SP00033 745 2313
P1_ST00042 766 2258
P1_SP00034 20
P1_ST00043 854 105 720
P1_SP00035 959
P1_ST00044 983 306 Republic 00665004
P1_SP00036 1289 2331
P1_ST00045 1314
P1_SP00037 1382
P1_ST00046 1402 301 0.88 04000040
P1_SP00038 1703
P1_ST00047 1727
P1_SP00039 1851
P1_ST00048 1873 274 Tobago, 0054206
P1_SP00040 2147 2332
P1_ST00049 2259 00
P1_TL00010 408 2346 1733
P1_ST00050 452 collaboration 0.76 4000450547000
P1_SP00041 860 2402 19
P1_ST00051 879 2347 157 with 2072
P1_SP00042 1036
P1_ST00052 1057
P1_SP00043 1162
P1_ST00053 1182 212 Wider 0.89 00005
P1_SP00044 1394
P1_ST00054 1417 355 Caribbean 645055040
P1_SP00045 1772
P1_ST00055 1795 2349 116 Sea 004
P1_SP00046 1911
P1_ST00056 1932 209 Turtle 065700
P1_TL00011 663 2435 1220
P1_ST00057 2437 413 Conservatin 43000505600
P1_SP00047 1076 2491
P1_ST00058 1098 2436 Network 0.70 1072350
P1_SP00048 1399
P1_ST00059 1424 459 (