Warm-season legume haylage or soybean meal supplementation effects on the performance of lambs

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Warm-season legume haylage or soybean meal supplementation effects on the performance of lambs
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2009 Florida Beef Report
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Foster, Jamie
Adesogan, Adegbola
Carter, Jeffery
Myer, Bob
Blount
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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Warm-Season Legume Haylage or Soybean Meal Supplementation Effects on
the Performance of Lambs

Jamie Foster1
Adegbola Adesogan
Jeffery Carter
Bob Myer
Ann Blount



This study showed that perennial and annual peanut and cowpea haylages are quality forages that
improve intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention when supplemented to bahiagrass hay basal diets.


Summary
This study determined how ,',,11 ,l. ,urg
bahiagrass htnyluge (Paspalum notatum Flilgge
cv. 'Tifton 9') with soybean (Glycine max (L.)
Merr.) meal or warm-season legume hln'ihges
affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two
Dorper x Katadhin lambs (60 11 lb) were fed
ad libitum bahiagrass htiylage alone, or
supplemented with soybean meal or hl'ilagcs of
annual peanut (Arachis hypogea (L.) cv.
'Florida MDR98'), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata
(L.) Walp. cv. 'Iron clay'), perennial peanut
(Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. 'Florigraze'), or
pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. 'GA-
2'). Legumes were supplemented at 50% of the
diet and soybean meal fed to match the average
crude protein (CP) concentration (12.8%) of
legume diets. HiiVli'ges were harvested, wilted
to 45% dry matter (DM), baled, wrapped in
polyethylene, and ensiled for 180 d. Each diet
was fed to seven lambs for 21 d, and then to four
lambs for 21 d. Supplementation with
pigeonpea decreased DM intake but other
supplements increased DM intake by
approximately the same amount. Soybean meal
supplementation increased DM digestibility but
pigeonpea supplementation decreased DM
digestibility. Nitrogen (N) intake, digestibility,
and retention were increased by all supplements
except pigeonpea hi'latge and these responses
were greatest when soybean meal was
supplemented. In conclusion, perennial peanut,
annual peanut, and cowpea haylages are


promising protein supplements for growing
lambs.
Introduction
Protein supplementation is often necessary to
meet nutrient requirements of ruminant
livestock. Legumes are commonly utilized as
protein supplements because their symbiotic
relationship with microbes that fix atmospheric
N increases their CP concentrations. Legumes
also increase soil N status, and this may be a
more economical method of improving N in
soils than inorganic fertilizer application,
especially with increasing fuel, and thus
fertilizer costs. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is
the most commonly used legume supplement in
ruminant rations in the United States. However,
alfalfa does not persist in southern states due to
diseases, insects, and nematodes; therefore,
research on tropically-adapted warm-season
seeded legumes that can be used as protein
supplements in the Southeast is needed. Due to
inclement weather during harvest in some
subtropical and tropical locations there is
considerable interest in conserving such legumes
as haylage rather than hay, but only a few
studies on the feeding value of ensiled warm-
season legumes exist. This study aimed to
determine the feed intake, digestibility, and N
balance of lambs fed bahiagrass haylage
supplemented with soybean meal or haylages
made from either perennial peanut, annual
peanut, cowpea, or pigeonpea.


2009 Florida BeefReport









Materials and Methods
Forage Production and Ensiling
Legume haylages were produced at the North
Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, FL (31 N). To prepare the field for
planting annual legumes the field was limed,
fertilized, and plowed. Cowpea and pigeonpea
seeds were inoculated with the appropriate
rhizobia, drilled at 50 lb/ac in May of 2006, and
harvested at the recommended maturity stages
which are pod yellowing for cowpea (Twidwell
et al., 2002) and pod setting for pigeonpea (Le
Houerou, 2006). Established stands of perennial
and annual peanut (self reseeding) were
harvested as first cuttings in August 2006. An
established bahiagrass stand was fertilized and
harvested as the third cutting after five-wk of
regrowth. Forages were cut with a mower
conditioner, windows were wilted to 45% DM,
rolled into small round bales, and wrapped with
a single roll wrapper.

Animals, Feeding, and Housing
Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin cross ram lambs
weighing 60 + 11 lb were used for the
experiment. Lambs were stratified by weight
and randomly assigned to six treatments (seven
lambs per treatment during Period 1, and four
lambs per treatment during Period 2) in a
completely randomized design with two periods.
Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation to
diets and 7 d of measurement and each lamb
received a different diet in each period. Lambs
were fitted with canvas feces collection bags and
housed in individual metabolism crates adapted
for collection of urine. Lambs were fed ad
libitum (110% of previous days' intake) diets
consisting of bahiagrass haylage alone or
bahiagrass haylage supplemented (50% of diet
DM) with one of the legume haylages or with
soybean meal at 8% of diet DM. The soybean
meal inclusion level was aimed at matching the
average CP concentration (12.8% DM basis) of
the legume diets.

Sample Collection and Analyses
Samples of each feed were taken daily during
the 7 d collection period and daily refusals were
weighed and stored. Total fecal and urine output
was collected daily from each lamb, weighed,
and a subsample analyzed. Samples of feed


were dried, ground, and analyzed for DM,
organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber
(NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin,
water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and in vitro
true digestibility (IVTD). Feces was analyzed
for DM after drying and grinding, and urine was
analyzed for N.

Statistical Analyses
The experimental design was completely
randomized. Data were analyzed with PROC
MIXED (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The model
for analyzing chemical composition of forage
included forage species and period (random
variable). The model for analyzing intake,
digestibility, and N retention included dietary
treatment, period, dietary treatment x period,
and lamb (random variable). Significance was
declared at P<0.05.

Results and Discussion
Forage Chemical Composition
The DM and OM concentrations of all haylages
were similar (P>0.10) (Table 1). Among the
legumes, the CP concentration of annual peanut
haylage was greater than that of pigeonpea
haylage. Concentration of NDF was greatest
(P<0.10) in pigeonpea and bahiagrass haylages,
but pigeonpea had greater (P<0.10) ADF
concentration than the other haylages. The
lignin concentrations of cowpea and pigeonpea
haylages tended (P<0.08) to be greater than that
of bahiagrass, but WSC concentration was not
different (P>0.10) among haylages. The IVTD
was greater in annual and perennial peanut
haylages than bahiagrass and pigeonpea
haylages, and pigeonpea had the least (P<0.01)
IVTD. Differences in IVTD for these haylages
can be partly explained by differences in their
NDF, ADF, and lignin concentrations. Apart
from pigeonpea, legume haylages had greater
IVTD than bahiagrass haylage because they
contained less NDF. Although the NDF
concentration of pigeonpea was similar to that of
bahiagrass, pigeonpea had a lower IVTD
because it contained more ADF.

Intake, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Retention
All supplements except pigeonpea, increased
DM intake (Table 2) and perennial peanut
supplementation gave greater values than


2009 Florida BeefReport










cowpea supplementation. Apparent digestibility
of DM was greater (P<0.01) in sheep fed
soybean meal than in sheep fed bahiagrass
haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage.
Digestibility of DM was similar in lambs fed
bahiagrass haylage alone and those fed legume
supplements, except pigeonpea which had lower
values. Nitrogen intake was greatest (P<0.01) in
lambs fed soybean meal, followed by annual
peanut haylage, and least (P>0.10) in lambs fed
bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage.
Digestibility of N was greatest (P<0.01) in
lambs supplemented with soybean meal,
followed by annual and perennial peanut and
cowpea haylages, and least (P<0.01) in lambs
fed bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea
haylage. Retained N was greatest in lambs fed
soybean meal, followed by annual or perennial
peanut and cowpea haylages, and least (P<0.01)
in lambs fed bahiagrass haylage alone or
pigeonpea haylage.

When basal grass diets of sheep are
supplemented with legumes, DM intake
increases because legumes have a faster rate of
passage through the rumen. Supplementation
with pigeonpea haylage decreased DM intake
because its thick, woody stems would have
caused greater gut fill than stems of bahiagrass.
In contrast, addition of soybean meal increased
DM intakes because the increased protein supply
to ruminal microbes increased DM digestibility.


The N status of supplemented lambs was better
than that of lambs fed only bahiagrass haylage.
Perennial peanut and annual peanut haylage
were the best legume supplements because they
increased DM intake, N digestibility, and N
retention relative to feeding bahiagrass haylage
alone. Soybean meal supplementation resulted
in the greatest N intake, digestibility, and
retention and the greatest DM digestibility,
indicating that it was the best supplement.
Nevertheless, perennial peanut and annual
peanut and cowpea haylages are promising
supplements for sheep and cattle fed bahiagrass
diets.


Literature Cited
Le Houerou, 2006. http://www.fao.org/ag/agP/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/PfO00150.HTM
Twidwell et al. 2002. S. Dakota State Univ. Circular 8070.


1Jamie Foster, Former Graduate Student; Adegbola Adesogan, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS,
Department of Animal Sciences, Gainesville, Florida; and Jeffery Carter, Former Assistant Professor;
Bob Myer, Professor; Ann Blount, Professor, UF/IFAS, North Florida Research and Education
Center, Marianna, Florida.


2009 Florida BeefReport













Table 1. Chemical composition and in vitro true DM digestibility (IVTD) of haylages ensiled for at
least 180 d


Annual


Perennial


Item2 Bahiagrass peanut peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea SEM1
DM, % 52.1 54.3 49.2 53.0 47.6 1.32
OM, % DM 96.9 95.7 95.9 93.9 95.8 0.79
CP, % DM 9.6c 18.7a 15.8ab 16.0ab 13.7bc 1.23
NDF, % DM 67.8a 39.6b 40.0b 44.1b 65.0a 2.40
ADF, % DM 32.2b 25.3bc 24.1c 29.8bc 48.6a 1.99
Lignin, % DM 6.2 11.7 7.1 14.4 14.0 2.54
WSC, % DM 5.1 7.2 4.4 4.4 2.6 1.32
IVTD, % 60.4b 73.8a 76.9a 68.6ab 38.3c 3.11
'Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of samples collected daily and composite
within period (n=2).
2Abbreviations: Dry matter (DM); organic matter (OM); crude protein (CP); neutral detergent fiber
(NDF); acid detergent fiber (ADF); water soluble carbohydrates (WSC).
abcWithin a row means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).


Table 2. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and N retention in lambs fed
bahiagrass hay supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal (SBM).

Annual Perennial
Item Bahiagrass SBM peanut peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea SEM'
DM intake, lb/d 1.4c 1.7ab 1.ab 1.8 1.6b 1.1d 0.05
DM digestibility, % 65.2b 68.0a 65.5ab 66.7ab 67.0ab 58.7c 0.9
N intake, lb/d 0.02d 0.05a 0.04b 0.048c 0.04c 0.02d 0.001
N digestibility, % 58.5c 73.9a 68.0b 67.6b 67.6b 61.1c 1.24
Retained N, lb/d 0.005c 0.020a 0.015b 0.013b 0.013b 0.006c 0.002
'Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of measurements taken on each lamb in each of 2
periods (n = 11 for intake and digestibility; n = 10 for retained N).
abcWithin a row means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).


2009 Florida BeefReport




Full Text

PAGE 1

Warm Season Legume Haylage o r Soybean Meal Supplementation Effects o n t he Performance o f Lambs Jamie Foster 1 Adegbola Adesogan Jeffery Carte r Bob Myer Ann Blount Summary This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage (Paspalum notatum Flgge Glycine max (L.) Merr.) meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin lambs (60 11 lb) were fed ad libitum bahiagrass haylage alone, or supplemented with soybean meal or haylages of annual peanut (Arachis hypogea ( L.) cv. Vigna unguiculata (Arachis glabrata pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. ). Legumes were supplemented at 50% of the diet and soybean meal fed to match the average crude protein (CP) concentration (12.8%) of legume diets. Haylages were harvested, wilted to 45% dry matter (DM), baled, wrapped in polyethylene, and ensiled for 180 d. Each diet was fed to seven lambs for 21 d, and then to four lambs for 21 d. Supplementation with pigeonpea decreased DM intake but other supplements increased DM intake by approximately the same amount. Soybean meal supplementation increased DM digestibility but pigeonpea supplementation decreased DM digestibility. Nitrogen (N) intake, digestibility, and retention were increased by all supplements except pigeonpea haylage and these responses were greatest when soybean meal was supplemented. In conclusion, perennial peanut, annual peanut, and cowpea haylages are promising protein supplements for growing lambs. Introduction Protein supplementation is often necessary to meet nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Legumes are commonly utilized as protein supplements because their symbiotic relationship with microbes that fix atmospheric N increases their CP concentrations. Legumes also increase soil N status, and this may be a more economical method of improving N in soils than inorganic fertilizer application, especially with increasing fuel, and thus fertilizer costs. Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly used legume supplement in ruminant rations in the United States. However, alfalfa does not persist in southern states due to diseases, insects, and nematodes; therefore, research on tropically-adapted warm-season seeded legumes that can be used as protein supplements in the Southeast is needed. Due to inclement weather during harvest in some subtropical and tropical locations there is considerable interest in conserving such legumes as haylage rather than hay, but only a few studies on the feeding value of ensiled warmseason legumes exist. This study aimed to determine the feed intake, digestibility, and N balance of lambs fed bahiagrass haylage supplemented with soybean meal or haylages made from either perennial peanut, annual peanut, cowpea, or pigeonpea. This study showed that perennial and annual peanut and cowpea haylages are quality forages that improve intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention when supplemented to bahiagrass hay basal diets.

PAGE 2

Materials and Methods Forage Production and Ensiling Legume haylages were produced at the North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, FL (31 N). To prepare the field for planting annual legumes the field was limed, fertilized, and plowed. Cowpea and pigeonpea seeds were inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, drilled at 50 lb/ac in May of 2006, and harvested at the recommended maturity stages which are pod yellowing for cowpea (Twidwell et al., 2002) and pod setting for pigeonpea (Le Hourou, 2006). Established stands of perennial and annual peanut (self reseeding) were harvested as first cuttings in August 2006. An established bahiagrass stand was fertilized and harvested as the third cutting after five-wk of regrowth. Forages were cut with a mower conditioner, windrows were wilted to 45% DM, rolled into small round bales, and wrapped with a single roll wrapper. Animals, Feeding, and Housing Forty-two Dorper Katadhin cross ram lambs weighing 60 11 lb were used for the experiment. Lambs were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to six treatments (seven lambs per treatment during Period 1, and four lambs per treatment during Period 2) in a completely randomized design with two periods. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation to diets and 7 d of measurement and each lamb received a different diet in each period. Lambs were fitted with canvas feces collection bags and housed in individual metabolism crates adapted for collection of urine. Lambs were fed ad libitum consisting of bahiagrass haylage alone or bahiagrass haylage supplemented (50% of diet DM) with one of the legume haylages or with soybean meal at 8% of diet DM. The soybean meal inclusion level was aimed at matching the average CP concentration (12.8% DM basis) of the legume diets. Sample Collection and Analyses Samples of each feed were taken daily during the 7 d collection period and daily refusals were weighed and stored. Total fecal and urine output was collected daily from each lamb, weighed, and a subsample analyzed. Samples of fee d were dried, ground, and analyzed for DM, organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD). Feces was analyzed for DM after drying and grinding, and urine was analyzed for N. en-GB Statistical Analyses The experimental design was completely randomized. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The model for analyzing chemical composition of forage included forage species and period (random variable). The model for analyzing intake, digestibility, and N retention included dietary treatment, period, dietary treatment period, and lamb (random variable). Significance was declared at P <0.05. Results and Discussion Forage Chemical Composition The DM and OM concentrations of all haylages were similar ( P >0.10) (Table 1). Among the legumes, the CP concentration of annual peanut haylage was greater than that of pigeonpea haylage. Concentration of NDF was greatest ( P<0.10) in pigeonpea and bahiagrass haylages, but pigeonpea had greater ( P <0.10) ADF concentration than the other haylages. The lignin concentrations of cowpea and pigeonpea haylages tended ( P of bahiagrass, but WSC concentration was not different ( P >0.10) among haylages. The IVTD was greater in annual and perennial peanut haylages than bahiagrass and pigeonpea haylages, and pigeonpea had the least ( P <0.01) IVTD. Differences in IVTD for these haylages can be partly explained by differences in their NDF, ADF, and lignin concentrations. Apart from pigeonpea, legume haylages had greater IVTD than bahiagrass haylage because they contained less NDF. Although the NDF concentration of pigeonpea was similar to that of bahiagrass, pigeonpea had a lower IVTD because it contained more ADF. Intake, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Retention All supplements except pigeonpea, increased DM intake (Table 2) and perennial peanut supplementation gave greater values than

PAGE 3

cowpea supplementation. Apparent digestibility of DM was greater ( P <0.01) in sheep fed soybean meal than in sheep fed bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage. Digestibility of DM was similar in lambs fed bahiagrass haylage alone and those fed legume supplements, except pigeonpea which had lower values. Nitrogen intake was greatest ( P <0.01) in lambs fed soybean meal, followed by annual peanut haylage, and least ( P>0.10) in lambs fed bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage. Digestibility of N was greatest ( P <0.01) in lambs supplemented with soybean meal, followed by annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages, and least ( P <0.01) in lambs fed bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage. Retained N was greatest in lambs fed soybean meal, followed by annual or perennial peanut and cowpea haylages, and least ( P <0.01) in lambs fed bahiagrass haylage alone or pigeonpea haylage. When basal grass diets of sheep are supplemented with legumes, DM intake increases because legumes have a faster rate of passage through the rumen. Supplementation with pigeonpea haylage decreased DM intake because its thick, woody stems would have caused greater gut fill than stems of bahiagrass. In contrast, addition of soybean meal increased DM intakes because the increased protein suppl y to ruminal microbes increased DM digestibility. The N status of supplemented lambs was better than that of lambs fed only bahiagrass haylage. Perennial peanut and annual peanut haylage were the best legume supplements because they increased DM intake, N digestibility, and N retention relative to feeding bahiagrass haylage alone. Soybean meal supplementation resulted in the greatest N intake, digestibility, and retention and the greatest DM digestibility, indicating that it was the best supplement. Nevertheless, perennial peanut and annual peanut and cowpea haylages are promising supplements for sheep and cattle fed bahiagrass diets. Literature Cited Le Hourou, 2006. http://www.fao.org/ag/agP/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/Pf000150.HTM Twidwell et al. 2002. S. Dakota State Univ. Circular 8070. 1 Jamie Foster, Former Graduate Student; Ade g bola Adesogan, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS, Department of Animal Sciences, Gainesville, Florida; and Jeffery Carter, Former Assistant Prof essor; Bob Myer, Professor; Ann Blount, Professor, UF/IFAS, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, Florida.

PAGE 4

Table 1. Chemical composition and in vitro true DM digestibility (IVTD) of haylages ensiled for at least 180 d Item 2 Bahiagrass Annual peanut Perennial peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea SEM 1 DM, % 52.1 54.3 49.2 53.0 47.6 1.32 OM, % DM 96.9 95.7 95.9 93.9 95.8 0.79 CP, % DM 9.6 c 18.7 a 15.8 ab 16.0 ab 13.7 bc 1.23 NDF, % DM 67.8 a 39.6 b 40.0 b 44.1 b 65.0 a 2.40 ADF, % DM 32.2 b 25.3 bc 24.1 c 29.8 bc 48.6 a 1.99 Lignin, % DM 6.2 11.7 7.1 14.4 14.0 2.54 WSC, % DM 5.1 7.2 4.4 4.4 2.6 1.32 IVTD, % 60.4 b 73.8 a 76.9 a 68.6 ab 38.3 c 3.11 1 Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of samples collected daily and composited within period (n=2). 2 Abbreviations: Dry matter (DM); organic matter (OM); crude protein (CP); neutral detergent fiber (NDF); acid detergent fiber (ADF); water soluble carbohydrates (WSC). abc Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ ( P < 0.05). Table 2. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and N retention in lambs fed bahiagrass hay supplemented with warm season legume haylages or soybean meal (SBM). Item Bahiagrass SBM Annual peanut Perennial peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea SEM 1 DM intake, lb/d 1.4 c 1.7 ab 1.7 ab 1.8 a 1.6 b 1.1 d 0.05 DM digestibility, % 65.2 b 68.0 a 65.5 ab 66.7 ab 67.0 ab 58.7 c 0.9 N intake, lb/d 0.02 d 0.05 a 0.04 b 0.048 c 0.04 c 0.02 d 0.001 N digestibility, % 58.5 c 73.9 a 68.0 b 67.6 b 67.6 b 61.1 c 1.24 Retained N, lb/d 0.005 c 0.020 a 0.015 b 0.013 b 0.013 b 0.006 c 0.002 1 Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of measurements taken on each lamb in each of 2 periods (n = 11 for intake and digestibility; n = 10 for retained N). abc Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ ( P < 0.05).