Warm-season legume hay or soybean supplementation effects on the performance of lambs

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Warm-season legume hay or soybean supplementation effects on the performance of lambs
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2009 Florida Beef Report
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Foster, Jamie
Adesogan, Adegbola
Carter, Jeffery
Myer, Bob
Blount, Ann
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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Warm-Season Legume Hay Or Soybean Meal Supplementation Effects On
The Performance Of Lambs

Jamie Foster1
Adegbola Adesogan
Jeffery Carter
Bob Myer
Ann Blount


This study showed that perennial and annual peanut hays are quality forages that improve intake,
digestibility, and nitrogen retention when supplemented to bahiagrass hay. Cowpea and soybean hay
have lower quality, but they are also promising legume supplements.


Summary
This study determined how ,',,11 ,l. ,urg
bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Fliigge cv.
'Pensacola') with soybean (Glycine max (L.)
Merr.) meal or warm-season legumes affects
intake, digestibility, and nitrogen (N) utilization
by lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin
crossbred lambs (67 12 lb) were fed ad libitum
amounts of bahiagrass hay alone (six-wk
regrowth), or bahiagrass hay supplemented
(50% dietary dry matter, DM) with hays of
annual peanut (Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv.
'Florida MDR98'), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata
(L.) Walp. cv. 'Iron clay'), perennial peanut
(Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. 'Florigraze'),
pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. 'GA-
2 '), or soybean (cv. 'Pioneer 97B52'), or with
enough soybean meal (4.25% of dietary DM) to
match the average dietary crude protein (CP;
10.8%) concentration of the legume
supplemented diets. Diets were fed to six lambs
per treatment for two, consecutive 21-d periods.
Annual and perennial peanut, cowpea, and
soybean hays increased DM intake, but DM
digestibility was only increased by
supplementation with annual or perennial
peanut hays. Nitrogen intake, digestibility, and
retention were increased by all supplements and
these responses were greatest when perennial
peanut hay was supplemented followed by
annual peanut hay. Warm-season legumes are
promising supplements for growing ruminants.


Perennial and annual peanut hays were the best
supplements for the lambs.

Introduction
The quantity of bahiagrass and bermudagrass
[Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that is available
for winter grazing is limited because these
grasses become dormant in the winter and do not
provide sufficient nutrients to optimize the
growth of beef cattle through the grazing season.
Supplementing poor quality basal grass diets
with legumes increases total feed intake and
sometimes improves digestibility. In the United
States, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the
legume most commonly fed to livestock, but it
does not persist in the Gulf Coast region.
Perennial peanut is a warm-season legume
adapted to this region and it is the main forage
legume in Florida. However, because it is sprig-
planted, it is more difficult and expensive to
establish than tropically adapted, seeded warm-
season legumes such as cowpea, soybean,
pigeonpea, or annual peanut. Little is known
about how performance of ruminant livestock is
affected by supplementing bahiagrass hay with
seeded warm-season legume hays. This study
aimed to determine feed intake, digestibility, and
nitrogen (N) balance of lambs fed bahiagrass
hay supplemented with soybean meal, or hays of
perennial peanut, annual peanut, soybean,
cowpea, or pigeonpea. Lambs are excellent
models for examining supplementation effects


2009 Florida BeefReport










on nutrient utilization in growing cattle.

Materials and Methods
Forage Production
Legume hays were produced at the North
Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, FL, (310 N) and fed at the
Department of Animal Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida. To prepare the
field for planting seeded legumes, it was limed,
fertilized, and plowed. In May of 2005, seeds
were inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia
drilled at 50 lb/ac and 6-in row spacings.
Legumes were harvested at the following
maturity stages: pod yellowing for cowpea
(Twidwell et al., 2002), pod setting for
pigeonpea (Le Houerou, 2006), and stage R6
(pod with full size seed at one of the four
uppermost nodes and completely unrolled
leaves) for soybean (Sheaffer et al., 2001).
Established stands of perennial and annual
peanut (self reseeding) were harvested as first
cuttings in June and September of 2005,
respectively. A mower-conditioner was used to
harvest the legumes; windows were turned with
an inverter after 24 h, and then rolled into round
bales. An established stand of bahiagrass was
harvested as a six-wk regrowth and rolled into
round bales.

Animals, Feeding, and Housing
Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin cross ram lambs
weighing 67 12 lb were used for the
experiment. Lambs were stratified by weight
and randomly assigned to seven treatments (six
lambs per treatment per period). The
experiment had 2 periods each containing 14 d
of adaptation to diets and 7 d of measurement,
and each lamb received a different diet in each
period. Lambs were fitted with canvas feces
collection bags and housed in individual
metabolism crates adapted for collection of
urine. Lambs were fed ad libitum (110% of
previous days' intake) diets consisting of
bahiagrass hay alone or bahiagrass hay
supplemented (50% of diet DM) with perennial
peanut hay, annual peanut hay, cowpea hay,
pigeonpea hay, soybean hay, or soybean meal
(4.25% of diet DM). The soybean meal
inclusion level was aimed at matching the


average CP concentration (10.8% DM basis) of
the legume diets.

Sample Collection and Analyses
Samples of each feed were taken daily during
the 7-d collection period and daily refusals were
weighed and stored. Total fecal and urine output
were collected daily from each lamb, weighed,
and a subsample used for analysis. Samples of
feed were dried, ground, and analyzed for DM,
organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber
(NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, and
in vitro true digestibility (IVTD). Feces was
analyzed for DM after drying and grinding, and
urine was analyzed for N.

Statistical Analyses
The experimental design was completely
randomized. Data were analyzed with PROC
MIXED (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The model
for analyzing chemical composition of forage
included forage species and period (random
variable). The model for analyzing intake,
digestibility, and N retention included dietary
treatment, period, dietary treatment x period,
and lamb (random variable). Significance was
declared at P<0.05.

Results and Discussion
Forage Chemical Composition
Dry matter concentrations were not different
among forages, but OM concentration was
greater in all other hays than in perennial peanut
hay (Table 1). As expected, CP concentration
was least (P<0.01) in bahiagrass hay. Among
legumes, CP concentrations were greater in
annual and perennial peanut hays than in cowpea
and pigeonpea hays. Neutral detergent fiber
concentration was greatest (P<0.01) in
pigeonpea hay followed by bahiagrass hay, and
least in annual and perennial peanut hays. The
greatest (P < 0.01) ADF concentration was in
pigeonpea hay and the least (P<0.01)
concentration was in perennial peanut hay.
Lignin (P<0.10) concentration was greater in
pigeonpea hay than the other hays. In vitro true
DM digestibility was greatest (P<0.01) in
perennial peanut hay followed by annual peanut
hay. Bahiagrass hay contained lower (P<0.01)
IVTD than all legumes except pigeonpea hay


2009 Florida BeefReport










which contained the least (P<0.01) IVTD.
Perennial and annual peanuts had greater IVTD
than other legumes due to their lower NDF and
ADF concentrations.

Intake, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Retention
With the exception of pigeonpea hay, legume
hay supplementation increased intake of DM
(Table 2). Intake of DM was greatest (P<0.01)
in lambs supplemented with perennial peanut
hay, followed by annual peanut hay, and they
were lower in lambs consuming bahiagrass hay
alone or pigeonpea hay than those consuming
other legume hays. Intake of DM was not
improved by addition of soybean meal.
Digestibility of DM was only increased by
perennial or annual peanut hay supplementation,
and the values were greater when perennial
peanut was supplemented. Unlike the other
legumes, annual and perennial peanut are
prostrate, spreading plants with relatively high
leaf-to-stem ratios, therefore they have low
concentrations of NDF and ADF, and
consequently, they are more digestible than the
other legumes. Pigeonpea had higher NDF and
ADF concentrations because of its thick, woody
stems, which probably increased gut fill, thereby
decreasing intake.

Nitrogen intake was increased (P<0.01) by
supplementation regardless of supplement type
and it was greatest (P<0.01) in lambs fed
perennial peanut hay, followed by (P<0.01)
annual peanut hay. Nitrogen retention and
digestibility were increased by all supplements


and the greatest (P<0.01) values occurred in
lambs fed perennial peanut, followed by annual
peanut. Legume hay supplementation increased
N intake because of the greater CP
concentrations of the legumes versus bahiagrass,
as well as the greater DM intake of most of the
legume-supplemented diets. Nitrogen retention
increased accordingly because all supplements
increased N digestibility and most supplements
decreased the proportion of intake N lost as
urine (data not shown).

The fact that supplementation with N from
legume hays or soybean meal increased N
intake, digestion, and retention indicates that
supplementation is necessary for optimizing the
utilization of bahiagrass in lambs. At the
moderate dietary CP concentration evaluated,
supplementation with annual and perennial
peanut hays was more effective than soybean
meal supplementation at improving N intake,
digestion, and retention. Perennial peanut and
annual peanut were the most promising legume
supplements because they resulted in the
greatest DM intakes and digestibility and the
greatest N retention. Pigeonpea hay
supplementation increased N retention, but did
not improve DM intake and it reduced DM
digestibility; therefore, it was the least desirable
supplement. This study suggests that
supplementing bahiagrass with warm-season
legumes can improve the performance of
growing sheep and cattle.


1Jamie Foster, Former Graduate Student; Adegbola Adesogan, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS,
Department of Animal Sciences, Gainesville, Florida; and Jeffery Carter, Former Assistant
Professor; Bob Myer, Professor; Ann Blount, Professor, North Florida Research and Education
Center, Marianna, Florida.


2009 Florida BeefReport


Literature Cited
Le Houerou, 2006. http://www.fao.org/ag/agP/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/Pf000150.HTM
Sheaffer et al. 2001. Agron. J. 93:99.
Twidwell et al. 2002. S. Dakota State Univ. Circular 8070.












Table 1. Chemical composition and in vitro true DM digestibility (IVTD) of hays.


Annual Perennial
Item2 Bahiagrass peanut peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea Soybean SEM1
DM, % 91.1 91.0 90.8 91.5 91.8 91.6 1.8
OM, % DM 94.5a 92.4b 90.8c 92.6b 94.7a 93.8ab 0.5
CP, % DM 8.1d 14.7ab 15.2 11.7c 12.2c 13.5b 0.4
NDF, % DM 73.8b 46.2e 43.3f 62.2c 78.6a 59.0d 1.0
ADF, % DM 39.8cd 37.8d 32.1e 48.7b 60.2a 42.8c 1.3
Lignin, % DM 6.2b 7.9b 6.7b 9.5b 17.1 9.6b 1.1
IVTD, % 50.7d 71.4b 77.2a 57.9c 35.1e 57.4c 1.1
'Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of samples collected daily and composite within
each of 2 Periods (n=2).
Abbreviations: Dry matter (DM); organic matter (OM); crude protein (CP); neutral detergent fiber
(NDF);
acid detergent fiber (ADF).
Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).







Table 2. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and N retention of lambs fed bahiagrass
hay supplemented with warm-season legume hays or soybean meal (SBM)


Bahia- Annual Perennial
Item grass SBM peanut peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea Soybean SEM'
DM Intake, lb/d 1.5ef 1.6de 2.1b 2.4a 1.8cd 1.3f 1.9c 0.06
DM Digestibility, % 58.5cd 60.3c 64.3b 67.8a 58.8cd 56.3d 60.7c 0.9
N intake, lb/d 0.019e 0.034c 0.039b 0.047a 0.028d 0.026d 0.034c 0.0011
N digestibility, % 46.5e 56.8d 62.4b 66.8a 54.0d 55.6d 58.1c 1.1
Retained N, lb/d 11i144' 0.0092 0.015b 0.023a 0.010C 0.0090C 0.011 0.0012

'Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of measurements taken from each of the lambs on a treatment in
each of 2 periods (n = 12 for intake and digestibility; n = 10 for retained N).
Within a row means without a common
superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).


2009 Florida BeefReport




Full Text

PAGE 1

Warm Season Legume Hay Or Soybean Meal Supplementation Effects On The Performance Of Lambs Jamie Foster 1 Adegbola Adesogan Jeffery Carter Bob Myer Ann Blount Summary This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flgge cv. Glycine max (L.) Merr.) meal or warm-season legumes affects intake, digestibility, and nitrogen (N) utilization by lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin crossbred lambs (67 12 lb) were fed ad libitum amounts of bahiagrass hay alone (six-wk regrowth), or bahiagrass hay supplemented (5 0% dietary dry matter, DM) with hays of annual peanut (Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Vigna unguiculata (Arachis glabrata pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cvenough soybean meal (4.25% of dietary DM) to match the average dietary crude protein (CP; 10.8%) concentration of the legume supplemented diets. Diets were fed to six lambs per treatment for two, consecutive 21-d periods. Annual and perennial peanut, cowpea, and soybean hays increased DM intake, but DM digestibility was only increased by supplementation with annual or perennial peanut hays. Nitrogen intake, digestibility, and retention were increased by all supplements and these responses were greatest when perennial peanut hay was supplemented followed by annual peanut hay. Warm-season legumes are promising supplements for growing ruminants. Perennial and annual peanut hays were the best supplements for the lambs. Introduction The quantity of bahiagrass and bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that is available for winter grazing is limited because these grasses become dormant in the winter and do not provide sufficient nutrients to optimize th e growth of beef cattle through the grazing season. Supplementing poor quality basal grass diets with legumes increases total feed intake and sometimes improves digestibility. In the United States, alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) is the legume most commonly fed to livestock, but it does not persist in the Gulf Coast region. Perennial peanut is a warm-season legume adapted to this region and it is the main forage legume in Florida. However, because it is sprigplanted, it is more difficult and expensive to establish than tropically adapted, seeded warmseason legumes such as cowpea, soybean, pigeonpea, or annual peanut. Little is known about how performance of ruminant livestock is affected by supplementing bahiagrass hay with seeded warm-season legume hays. This study aimed to determine feed intake, digestibility, and nitrogen (N) balance of lambs fed bahiagrass hay supplemented with soybean meal, or hays of perennial peanut, annual peanut, soybean, cowpea, or pigeonpea. Lambs are excellent models for examining supplementation effects This study showed that perennial and annual peanut hays are quality forages that improve intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention when supplemented to bahiagrass hay. Cowpea and soybean hay have lower quality, but they are also promising legume suppl ements.

PAGE 2

on nutrient utilization in growing cattle. Materials and Methods Forage Production Legume hays were produced at the North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, FL, (31 N) and fed at the Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. To prepare the field for planting seeded legumes, it was limed fertilized, and plowed. In May of 2005, seeds were inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia drilled at 50 lb/ac and 6-in row spacings. Legumes were harvested at the following maturity stages: pod yellowing for cowpea (Twidwell et al., 2002), pod setting for pigeonpea (Le Hourou, 2006), and stage R6 (pod with full size seed at one of the four uppermost nodes and completely unrolled leaves) for soybean (Sheaffer et al., 2001). Established stands of perennial and annual peanut (self reseeding) were harvested as first cuttings in June and September of 2005, respectively. A mower-conditioner was used to harvest the legumes; windrows were turned with an inverter after 24 h, and then rolled into round bales. An established stand of bahiagrass was harvested as a six-wk regrowth and rolled into round bales. Animals, Feeding, and Housing Forty-two Dorper Katadhin cross ram lambs weighing 67 12 lb were used for the experiment. Lambs were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to seven treatments (si x lambs per treatment per period). The experiment had 2 periods each containing 14 d of adaptation to diets and 7 d of measurement, and each lamb received a different diet in each period. Lambs were fitted with canvas feces collection bags and housed in individual metabolism crates adapted for collection of urine. Lambs were fed ad libitum (110% of bahiagrass hay alone or bahiagrass hay supplemented (50% of diet DM) with perennial peanut hay, annual peanut hay, cowpea hay, pigeonpea hay, soybean hay, or soybean meal (4.25% of diet DM). The soybean meal inclusion level was aimed at matching the average CP concentration (10.8% DM basis) of the legume diets. Sample Collection and Analyses Samples of each feed were taken daily during the 7-d collection period and daily refusals were weighed and stored. Total fecal and urine output were collected daily from each lamb, weighed, and a subsample used for analysis. Samples of feed were dried, ground, and analyzed for DM, organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD). Feces was analyzed for DM after drying and grinding, and urine was analyzed for N. en-GB Statistical Analyses The experimental design was completely randomized. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The model for analyzing chemical composition of forage included forage species and period (random variable). The model for analyzing intake, digestibility, and N retention included dietary treatment, period, dietary treatment period, and lamb (random variable). Significance was declared at P <0.05. Results and Discussion Forage Chemical Composition Dry matter concentrations were not different among forages, but OM concentration was greater in all other hays than in perennial peanut hay (Table 1). As expected, CP concentration was least ( P <0.01) in bahiagrass hay. Among legumes, CP concentrations were greater in annual and perennial peanut hays than in cowpea and pigeonpea hays. Neutral detergent fiber concentration was greatest ( P <0.01) in pigeonpea hay followed by bahiagrass hay, and least in annual and perennial peanut hays. The greatest ( P < 0.01) ADF concentration was in pigeonpea hay and the least ( P <0.01) concentration was in perennial peanut hay. Lignin ( P <0.10) concentration was greater in pigeonpea hay than the other hays. In vitro true DM digestibility was greatest ( P <0.01) in perennial peanut hay followed by annual peanut hay. Bahiagrass hay contained lower ( P <0.01) IVTD than all legumes except pigeonpea hay

PAGE 3

which contained the least ( P <0.01) IVTD. Perennial and annual peanuts had greater IVTD than other legumes due to their lower NDF and ADF concentrations. Intake, Digestibility, and Nitrogen Retention With the exception of pigeonpea hay, legume hay supplementation increased intake of DM (Table 2). Intake of DM was greatest ( P <0.01) in lambs supplemented with perennial peanut hay, followed by annual peanut hay, and they were lower in lambs consuming bahiagrass hay alone or pigeonpea hay than those consuming other legume hays. Intake of DM was not improved by addition of soybean meal. Digestibility of DM was only increased by perennial or annual peanut hay supplementation, and the values were greater when perennial peanut was supplemented. Unlike the other legumes, annual and perennial peanut are prostrate, spreading plants with relatively high leafto -stem ratios, therefore they have low concentrations of NDF and ADF, and consequently, they are more digestible than the other legumes. Pigeonpea had higher NDF and ADF concentrations because of its thick, woody stems, which probably increased gut fill, thereby decreasing intake. Nitrogen intake was increased ( P <0.01) by supplementation regardless of supplement type and it was greatest ( P <0.01) in lambs fed perennial peanut hay, followed by ( P <0.01) annual peanut hay. Nitrogen retention and digestibility were increased by all supplements and the greatest ( P <0.01) values occurred in lambs fed perennial peanut, followed by annual peanut. Legume hay supplementation increased N intake because of the greater CP concentrations of the legumes versus bahiagrass, as well as the greater DM intake of most of the legume-supplemented diets. Nitrogen retention increased accordingly because all supplements increased N digestibility and most supplements decreased the proportion of intake N lost as urine (data not shown). The fact that supplementation with N from legume hays or soybean meal increased N intake, digestion, and retention indicates that supplementation is necessary for optimizing the utilization of bahiagrass in lambs. At the moderate dietary CP concentration evaluated, supplementation with annual and perennial peanut hays was more effective than soybean meal supplementation at improving N intake, digestion, and retention. Perennial peanut and annual peanut were the most promising legume supplements because they resulted in the greatest DM intakes and digestibility and the greatest N retention. Pigeonpea hay supplementation increased N retention, but did not improve DM intake and it reduced DM digestibility; therefore, it was the least desirable supplement. This study suggests that supplementing bahiagrass with warm-season legumes can improve the performance of growing sheep and cattle. Literature Cited Le Hourou, 2006. http://www.fao.org/ag/agP/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/Pf000150.HTM Sheaffer et al. 2001. Agron. J. 93:99. Twidwell et al. 2002. S. Dakota State Univ. Circular 8070. 1 Jamie Foster, Former Graduate Student; Ade g bola Adesogan, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS, Department of Animal Sciences, Gainesville, Florida; and Jeffery Carter, Former Assistant Professor; Bob Myer, Professor; Ann Blount, Professor, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, Florida.

PAGE 4

Table 1. Chemical composition and in vitro true DM digestibility (IVTD) of hays Item 2 Bahiagrass Annual peanut Perenn ial peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea Soybean SEM 1 DM, % 91.1 91.0 90.8 91.5 91.8 91.6 1.8 OM, % DM 94.5 a 92.4 b 90.8 c 92.6 b 94.7 a 93.8 ab 0.5 CP, % DM 8.1 d 14.7 ab 15.2 a 11.7 c 12.2 c 13.5 b 0.4 NDF, % DM 73.8 b 46.2 e 43.3 f 62.2 c 78.6 a 59.0 d 1.0 ADF, % DM 39.8 cd 37.8 d 32.1 e 48.7 b 60.2 a 42.8 c 1.3 Lignin, % DM 6.2 b 7.9 b 6.7 b 9.5 b 17.1 a 9.6 b 1.1 IVTD, % 50.7 d 71.4 b 77.2 a 57.9 c 35.1 e 57.4 c 1.1 1 Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of samples collected daily and composited within each of 2 Periods (n=2). Abbreviations: Dry matter (DM); organic matter (OM); crude protein (CP); neutral detergent fiber (NDF); acid detergent fiber (ADF). Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ ( P < 0.05). Table 2. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and N retention of lambs fed bahiagrass hay supplemented with warm season legume hays or soybean meal (SBM) Item Bahia grass SBM Annual peanut Perennial peanut Cowpea Pigeonpea Soybean SEM 1 DM Intake, lb/d 1.5 ef 1.6 de 2.1 b 2.4 a 1.8 cd 1.3 f 1.9 c 0.06 DM Digestibility, % 58.5 cd 60.3 c 64.3 b 67.8 a 58.8 cd 56.3 d 60.7 c 0.9 N intake, lb/d 0.019 e 0.034 c 0.039 b 0.047 a 0.028 d 0.026 d 0.034 c 0.0011 N digestibility, % 46.5 e 56.8 cd 62.4 b 66.8 a 54.0 d 55.6 cd 58.1 c 1.1 Retained N, lb/d 0.0044 d 0.0092 c 0.015 b 0.023 a 0.010 c 0.0090 c 0.011 c 0.0012 1 Standard error of the mean values reflect the variation of measurements taken from each of the lambs on a treatment in each of 2 periods (n = 12 for intake and digestibility; n = 10 for retained N). Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ ( P < 0.05).