Evaluation of whole, in-shell peanuts as a supplement feed for beef cows

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Evaluation of whole, in-shell peanuts as a supplement feed for beef cows
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2009 Florida Beef Report
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Myer, Bob
Hill, Gary
Hansen, Gary
Gorbet, Dan
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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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cattle, in particular as a supplement feed for
mature beef cows.

Procedures
Two experiments were conducted a
digestibility trial conducted at the University of
Georgia, CPES Tifton located in south central
Georgia, and a beef cow feeding trial conducted
at the University of Florida, NFREC Marianna
located in northwest Florida. Both trials were
conducted in accordance with approvals of both
universities animal use committees.

Digestion trial
The digestion trial utilized 18 growing beef
steers (avg. initial weight of 584 26 lb; 9 mo.
of age) of Angus, Angus cross, or Polled
Hereford breeding. The steers were randomly
assigned to three supplement treatments (six per
treatment). The supplement treatments were: 1)
corn and cottonseed meal mix (50:50; CCSM;
control), 2) corn and whole peanuts (50:50;
CWP), and 3) whole peanuts (WP). All
supplements were fed at 3 lb/head/d.
Bermudagrass hay ('Tifton 85') was fed free-
choice, and steers had free-choice access to both
water and a mineral supplement.

The whole peanuts were processed (ground)
before feeding using a hammer mill. The
peanuts were only ground to the extent of
breaking shells, leaving approximately 95% of
the peanut kernels unbroken. Processing was
done to insure intake of the peanuts by the
growing steers. Previous experience at the Tifton
station has noted that growing cattle will not
readily consume whole peanuts. This is contrary
to anecdotal evidence that suggests that mature
cattle will readily consume whole peanuts.

The steers were fed treatment supplements once
daily at 0800 hr. Digestibility was determined
using chromic oxide. Chromic oxide (10 g/steer
daily) was fed with supplements from d 8 to d
17. Fecal samples (12/steer) were collected 3
times daily from d 14 to d 18. Individual steer
fecal samples were dried, ground (1 mm), and
composite over time for each steer. Samples of
hay, corn, peanuts, and fecal samples were
chemically analyzed for DM, CP, ADF and
NDF, and fecal samples were additionally
analyzed for Cr. Apparent digestion coefficients


were then computed for DM, CP, ADF and
NDF. Individual steer DMI was computed as
the difference between daily feed intake and
refusals.

Beef cow trial
The cow feeding trial was a comparison of two
supplement treatments: CCSM (50:50; control)
and WP fed to mature, wintering beef cows fed
grass hay. Trial was conducted during the 2004-
2005 and 2005-2006 winter seasons. For each
year, 40 mature beef cows (primarily Angus and
Brangus), were divided into two blocks of 20
cows each based on body condition: a low BCS
(avg. = 4.8) and a high BCS (avg. = 5.9) block.
The cows averaged 1,158 145 lb for the first
year and 1,262 145 kg for the second yr, and
were 3 to 11 yr of age. Within the low and high
blocks, the cows were further divided into
treatment groups based on BW, age and genetic
background, which resulted in four groups of 10
cows per yr (two groups often of low BCS and
two groups of ten of high BCS cows per
treatment per year). The cattle were divided into
low and high BCS groups to better target
nutritional needs of the cows. Within yr and
within BSC group (block), supplement treatment
was assigned at random. The assignment
process was repeated for the second yr, thus,
cows had an equal chance of being assigned to
another treatment the second yr. The high BCS
groups were fed 2 lb/d of supplement per head
and the low groups, 3 lb/d per head. The
supplements were fed three times weekly -
Monday, Wednesday and Friday mornings
(0730 to 0830 h). All cows received hay
('Tifton 85' bermudagrass) and a cattle mineral
supplement free choice. The cows were
maintained as four groups of ten on four 3.2 ac
dormant warm season bahiagrass pastures. The
cows had free access to water and shade.
Although hay was provided, the cows had access
to dormant bahiagrass. Ample feed bunk space
was provided such that all cows in a group were
able to consume supplement at one time. For
each year, the trial lasted for 84 d from mid-
November to early February.

Individual cow BW and BCS were determined at
the start and end, and every 28 d during the
trials. Weights were determined after a 16 hr


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withdrawal from feed and water. Body
condition scores (1 through 9; 1 = emaciated, 9
obese) were assigned by the same two
individuals throughout the trials.

The peanuts used in the cow trial were "oil
stock" peanuts obtained from the peanut
breeding program at NFREC Marianna. The
bermudagrass hay was grown and harvested at
the center. Representative samples of the
peanuts and hay used were analyzed for nutrient
composition by a commercial feed analysis
laboratory.

Subsequent calf data were collected which
included birth wt, weaning wt and adjusted 210
d calf weaning wt. Calving was from early
February to mid-April each year. All calves
were weaned in early September.

Statistical
The steer intake and apparent digestibility data
were statistically analyzed using Proc MIXED
(SAS, 2002). Steer DMI and apparent digestion
coefficients for DM, CP, ADF and NDF were
analyzed as a completely random design, since
steers were individually fed supplement
treatments. Steer DMI and apparent digestion
data were adjusted for initial BW as a covariate.

Data collected from the cow trial included cow
body wt and BCS changes, and subsequent calf
performance. Since the cows were group fed,
the experimental unit was the group of ten cows.
The data were analyzed as a RCB using Proc
MIXED (SAS, 2002) with treatment as fixed
and year as a random effect; BCS group was
treated as a block.

Results
The nutritional analysis of the raw whole, in-
shell peanuts indicated that peanuts can be a
good source of energy and protein when used as
a supplement feed for beef cattle (Tables 1 and
2). For example, when fed at 2 lb/d per head
along with medium quality grass hay (- 54%
TDN, 8% CP), the resulting total daily diet for a
1,200 lb beef cow would be about 58% TDN
and 9% CP, more than adequate for a mature
gestating beef cow in good body condition
(NRC, 2000).


In the steer digestion trial, the dietary
supplements were formulated to mimic expected
usage of the raw, whole, in-shell peanuts as a
supplement feed for beef cattle. The CWP
treatment was a simple 50:50 mixture which
may be a logical choice for some producers.
Dietary CP intake varied because of the varied
CP of the supplements (total diet CP, including
hay, was 17.8, 13.1 and 15.4% for the CCSM,
CWP, and WP treatments, respectively). All
diet CP levels exceed NRC (2000)
recommended levels of CP for growing beef
steers. Hay used in the digestibility trial would
be considered good quality based on analyses
(Table 1).

Hay DMI and total diet DMI were reduced
(P<0.02) for steers receiving the WP supplement
compared with the CCSM and CWP treatments
(Table 3). Apparent digestibility coefficients
obtained were relatively high, about 10% higher
than anticipated. Differences due to supplement
treatment were noted. Apparent digestibility of
DM, ADF and NDF were reduced (P<0.01;
Table 3) from steers on the WP treatment
compared to the CCSM and CWP treatments.
The lower intake and digestibility's may be the
result of the peanut hulls and (or) relatively high
fat (oil) concentration of the WP. Peanut hulls
are high in fiber and lignin, and are poorly
utilized by beef cattle (Hill, 2002). However,
the hulls would only comprise about 5% of the
total diet. On the other hand, the estimated ether
extract (fat) level of the total diet (WP + hay)
was 13% (DM basis). The estimated ether
extract level of the CWP diet was 7%, just above
the level (6 %) above which interference with
fiber digestion and DM intake can be expected
(Moore et al., 1986; Coppock and Wilks, 1991;
Funston, 2004). In spite of the estimated 7% fat
level, digestibility of DM, ADF and NDF of the
CWP treatment were similar (P>0.10) to those
of the control (CCSM).

In the mature beef cow trial, the feeding of WP
did not (P>0.10) influence BCS at the end of the
84 d feeding phases during late gestation when
compared to control CCSM supplement
treatment (Table 4). Cow body wt gain,
however, tended to be lower for WP vs. CCSM
(P =0.09; Table 4). Subsequent calf birth wt,


2009 Florida BeefReport










calf wt gain and weaning wt were not affected
(P>0.10) by supplement treatment. Subsequent

AI conception rate was not affected by
treatment, however, only a total of 40 cows were
used per treatment.

Results indicated that whole in-shell peanuts can
be a suitable feed supplement for mature beef
cows. These peanuts were readily consumed by
the mature cows. However, it took nearly all
day for the peanuts to be consumed. As noted in
the steer digestibility trial, some decrease in
DMI and total diet digestibility may occur if WP
is fed to cows. The slightly lowered weight gain
noted for the WP treatment in the cow trial may
be a reflection of these effects. Banta et al.
(2006) also noted some decrease in cow weight
change upon interval feeding of whole
sunflower seeds which contain about 40% fat
(oil) that were fed at 3.6 lb/d per head.

Implications
Results indicated that raw, whole in-shell
peanuts could be an easy to use energy and
protein supplement feed for mature beef cows.
However, poor intakes have been noted with
growing beef cattle (Hill, unpublished results).
Some processing (i.e. coarse grinding) and
blending with another feedstuff (i.e. corn) would
be needed to insure intake by growing cattle.
Also, like any high fat feed, caution should be
taken to insure that total diet fat content is not
excessive (i.e. above 6 to 8%).


2009 Florida BeefReport










Literature Cited
Banta et al. 2006. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2410-2417.
Funston R. N. 2004. J. Anim. Sci. 82(E. Suppl.):E154-E161.
Hill, G. M. 2002. Peanut By-products Fed to Cattle. In Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle. The
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, v 18. pp. 295-315.
Hill et al. 2008. Proc. 19th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symp., Dept. of Animal Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville. pp. 98-115.
Long et al. 2008. Prof Anim. Sci. (in press).
Moore et al. 1986. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1267-1273.
NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th rev. ed. (2000 update). Nat'l. Acad.
Press, Washington, DC.

SAS. 2002. SAS/C OnlineDOCTM, Ver. 8.2. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
















Acknowlegement
This study was supported by funding from the Florida Peanut Producers Association, and the Florida
and Georgia Peanut Check-Offs. The assistance of Mary Chambliss, Harvey Standland, Don
Jones, Todd Matthews, and Brook Hand is gratefully acknowledged.









'Bob Myer; Professor, Gary Hansen; former Assistant Professor, Dan Gorbert; Professor
Emeritus, UF-IFAS, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL; Gary Hill;
Professor, University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia.


2009 Florida BeefReport












Table 1. Composition (%) of supplements and hay fed to steers in the digestion trial.

Item DM CP ADF NDF
CCSMb 89 33 6 9
CWPc 90 16 15 26
WPd 92 23 28 41
Corn 89 9 2 10
Haye 92 12 39 79
"Percent DM basis.
bCorn and cottonseed meal (50:50 mix).
cCorn and whole, raw peanuts (50:50 mix).
dWhole, raw in-shell peanuts.
e'Tifton 85' bermudagrass.


Table 2. Nutritional composition of raw whole, in-shell peanuts and hay used in the mature beef
cow trial.

Whole peanuts Hayb
Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2
Moisture 4.2 7.1 13.9 12.9
Crude protein 23.0 20.6 7.8 7.8
Crude fat 45 40 NDc ND
Crude fiber 22 33 31 36
ADF 24 26 40 46
NDF 32 37 72 79
TDN 121 109 57 56
Ash 2.8 2.8 5.5 6.1
Ca 0.28 0.18 0.32 0.34
P 0.36 0.34 0.25 0.26
"Analyses done by a commercial laboratory; values are on an as-fed basis.
b'Tifton 85' bermudagrass.
Not determined.


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Table 3. Dietary intake of hay and apparent digestibility coefficients of total diet (supplement +
hay) for the growing steer digestion trial.


Hay DMI,a
Supplement lb/d DM
CCSMb 7.7 86.8h
CWPc 7.9' 85.6h
WPd 6.69 81.61
SEe 0.31 0.68
aDry matter intake.
bCorn and cottonseed meal (50:50 mix).
Corn and whole peanuts (50:50 mix).
dWhole peanuts.
eStandard error; n = 6.
'gP<0.02.
hiP<0.01.


% digestibility
CP ADF
86.7h 85.3h
82.7' 84.0h
84.9h 79.4'
0.77 0.81


Table 4. Mean performance parameters of wintering mature gestating beef cows fed hay and
supplement, and effects on subsequent calf crop and cow reproduction.

Supplement treatment
Item CCSMb WPc SEd P-value
Body condition score:
Start 5.5 5.5 0.05 NS
End 5.5 5.5 0.06 NS
Cow body wt. change, lb +108 +79 7.9 0.09
Calf birth wt., lb 79 79 0.3 NS
Calf weaning wt., lb 515 542 12.8 0.23
Calf wt. gain, lb 436 468 12.3 0.16
Calf survival rate, % 100 95 1.8 0.18
Cow conception rate', % 70 68 6.2 NS
aTwo year study, 40 cows per yr (10 cows per paddock).
bRolled corn-cottonseed meal mix (50:50).
cWhole peanuts.
dn =4.
eScores of 1 to 9 with 1 = very thin and 9 = obese.
fSubsequent breeding via AI.


2009 Florida BeefReport


NDF
87.2t
86.4'
83.2g
0.81













































































90 2009 Florida BeefReport




Full Text

PAGE 1

Evaluation of Whole, In s hell Peanuts as a Supplement Feed for Beef Cows Bob Myer 1 Gary Hill Gary Hansen Dan Gorbet Summary A cow feeding trial and a digestion trial were conducted to evaluate the suitability of using whole, in-shell raw peanuts (WP) as an energy and protein supplement feed for beef cattle. The digestion trial utilized 18 growing beef steers (584 lb avg. initial wt.). The steers were fed bermudagrass free choice plus one of three supplement treatments: 1) corn and cottonseed meal mix (50:50; CCSM; control), 2) corn and WP mix (50:50; CWP), or 3) WP. Hay and diet dry matter (DM) consumption, and apparent digestibility of DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber NDF were slightly reduced (P<0.05) for steers on the WP treatment compared to CCSM and CWP treatments; CCSM and CWP were similar. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) of WP treatment was similar to CCSM. The cow feeding trial utilized 80 mature late gestating cows (1,210 lb avg. initial wt.). The cows were fed bermudagrass hay free choice and fed either CCSM (50:50) or WP as a supplement feed 3x weekly that provided an average of 2.5 lb/d per head. Supplement treatment did not affect cow body condition (BCS), but body weight (BW) gain over the 84 d trials tended to be lower for WP vs. CCSM supplement treatment (P=0.09). Subsequent calf birth wt, survival rate and weaning wt, and subsequent cow AI conception rate were not affected by supplement treatment. Results indicate that WP may be a suitable, easy to feed energy and protein supplement for wintering mature beef cows; however, as noted from the steer digestibility trial, some decrease in total diet digestibility may occur. Introduction Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is a legume crop commonly grown in the southeastern USA for pod/seed production for human consumption. Changes in the U.S. peanut program have resulted in decreased peanut prices. Those peanuts not suitable for human consumption (i.e. easy to use energy and protein supplement for beef cattle when fed whole. These peanuts, which are about 10 to 20% shell by weight, contain about 20% CP 40% fat (oil) and 6% moisture. Previous research with other intact whole oil seeds, such as sunflower seeds (Banta et al., 2006), raw soybeans (Long et al., 2008) and whole cottonseed (Hill et al., 2008) have shown these oilseeds to be a simple, convenient way to provide supplemental energy and protein for beef cattle (Funston, 2004). The high oil content of raw, whole in-shell peanuts would be an effective way to increase diet energy density. We are not aware of any published reports on using whole in-shell peanuts in beef cattle feeding, but field observations have noted that mature beef cattle will consume in-shell peanuts. Thus, our objective was to evaluate raw whole, in -shell peanuts as a supplement feed for beef Results indicated that raw, whole in shell peanuts may have potential as an energy and protein supplement feed for mature beef cows.

PAGE 2

cattle, in particular as a supplement feed for mature beef cows. Procedures Two experiments were conducted a digestibility trial conducted at the University of Georgia, CPES Tifton located in south central Georgia, and a beef cow feeding trial conducted at the University of Florida, NFREC Marianna located in northwest Florida. Both trials were conducted in accordance with approvals of both universities animal use committees. Digestion trial The digestion trial utilized 18 growing beef steers (avg. initial weight of 584 26 lb; 9 mo. of age) of Angus, Angus cross, or Polled Hereford breeding. The steers were randomly assigned to three supplement treatments (six per treatment). The supplement treatments were: 1) corn and cottonseed meal mix (50:50; CCSM; control), 2) corn and whole peanuts (50:50; CWP), and 3) whole peanuts (WP). All supplements were fed at 3 lb/head/d. choice, and steers had free-choice access to both water and a mineral supplement. The whole peanuts were processed (ground) before feeding using a hammer mill. The peanuts were only ground to the extent of breaking shells, leaving approximately 95% of the peanut kernels unbroken. Processing was done to insure intake of the peanuts by the growing steers. Previous experience at the Tifton station has noted that growing cattle will not readily consume whole peanuts. This is contrary to anecdotal evidence that suggests that mature cattle will readily consume whole peanuts. The steers were fed treatment supplements once daily at 0800 hr. Digestibility was determined using chromic oxide. Chromic oxide (10 g/steer daily) was fed with supplements from d 8 to d 17. Fecal samples (12/steer) were collected 3 times daily from d 14 to d 18. Individual steer fecal samples were dried, ground (1 mm), and composited over time for each steer. Samples of hay, corn, peanuts, and fecal samples were chemically analyzed for DM, CP, ADF and NDF, and fecal samples were additionally analyzed for Cr. Apparent digestion coefficients were then computed for DM, CP, ADF and NDF. Individual steer DMI was computed as the difference between daily feed intake and refusals. Beef cow trial The cow feeding trial was a comparison of two supplement treatments: CCSM (50:50; control) and WP fed to mature, wintering beef cows fed grass hay. Trial was conducted during the 20042005 and 2005-2006 winter seasons. For each year, 40 mature beef cows (primarily Angus and Brangus), were divided into two blocks of 20 cows each based on body condition: a low BCS (avg. = 4.8) and a high BCS (avg. = 5.9) block. The cows averaged 1,158 145 lb for the first year and 1,262 145 kg for the second yr, and were 3 to 11 yr of age. Within the low and high blocks, the cows were further divided into treatment groups based on BW age and genetic background, which resulted in four groups of 10 cows per yr (two groups of ten of low BCS and two groups of ten of high BCS cows per treatment per year). The cattle were divided into low and high BCS groups to better target nutritional needs of the cows. Within yr and within BSC group (block), supplement treatment was assigned at random. The assignment process was repeated for the second yr, thus, cows had an equal chance of being assigned to another treatment the second yr. The high BCS groups were fed 2 lb/d of supplement per head and the low groups, 3 lb/d per head. The supplements were fed three times weekly Monday, Wednesday and Friday mornings (0730 to 0830 h). All cows received hay a cattle mineral supplement free choice. The cows were maintained as four groups of ten on four 3.2 ac dormant warm season bahiagrass pastures. The cows had free access to water and shade. Although hay was provided, the cows had access to dormant bahiagrass. Ample feed bunk space was provided such that all cows in a group were able to consume supplement at one time. For each year, the trial lasted for 84 d from midNovember to early February. Individual cow BW and BCS were determined at the start and end, and every 28 d during the trials. Weights were determined after a 16 hr

PAGE 3

withdrawal from feed and water. Body condition scores (1 through 9; 1 = emaciated, 9 obese) were assigned by the same two individuals throughout the trials. The peanuts used in breeding program at NFREC Marianna. The bermudagrass hay was grown and harvested at the center. Representative samples of the peanuts and hay used were analyzed for nutrient composition by a commercial feed analysis laboratory. Subsequent calf data were collected which included birth wt, weaning wt and adjusted 210 d calf weaning wt. Calving was from early February to mid-April each year. All calves were weaned in early September. Statistical The steer intake and apparent digestibility data were statistically analyzed using Proc MIXED (SAS, 2002). Steer DMI and apparent digestion coefficients for DM, CP, ADF and NDF were analyzed as a completely random design, since steers were individually fed supplement treatments. Steer DMI and apparent digestion data were adjusted for initial BW as a covariate. Data collected from the cow trial included cow body wt and BCS changes, and subsequent calf performance. Since the cows were group fed, the experimental unit was the group of ten cows. The data were analyzed as a RCB using Proc MIXED (SAS, 2002) with treatment as fixed and year as a random effect; BCS group was treated as a block. Results The nutritional analysis of the raw whole, inshell peanuts indicated that peanuts can be a good source of energy and protein when used as a supplement feed for beef cattle (Tables 1 and 2). For example, when fed at 2 lb/d per head along with medium quality grass hay (~ 54% TDN, 8% CP), the resulting total daily diet for a 1,200 lb beef cow would be about 58% TDN and 9% CP, more than adequate for a mature gestating beef cow in good body condition (NRC, 2000). In the steer digestion trial, the dietary supplements were formulated to mimic expected usage of the raw, whole, in-shell peanuts as a supplement feed for beef cattle. The CWP treatment was a simple 50:50 mixture which may be a logical choice for some producers. Dietary CP intake varied because of the varied CP of the supplements (total diet CP, including hay, was 17.8, 13.1 and 15.4% for the CCSM, CWP, and WP treatments, respectively). All diet CP levels exceed NRC (2000) recommended levels of CP for growing beef steers. Hay used in the digestibility trial would be considered good quality based on analyses (Table 1). Hay DMI and total diet DMI were reduced ( P<0.02) for steers receiving the WP supplement compared with the CCSM and CWP treatments (Table 3). Apparent digestibility coefficients obtained were relatively high, about 10% higher than anticipated. Differences due to supplement treatment were noted. Apparent digestibility of DM, ADF and NDF were reduced ( P <0.01; Table 3) from steers on the WP treatment compared to the CCSM and CWP treatments. The lower intake and may be the result of the peanut hulls and (or) relatively high fat (oil) concentration of the WP. Peanut hulls are high in fiber and lignin, and are poorly utilized by beef cattle (Hill, 2002). However, the hulls would only comprise about 5% of the total diet. On the other hand, the estimated ether extract (fat) level of the total diet (WP + hay) was 13% (DM basis). The estimated ether extract level of the CWP diet was 7%, just above the level (6 %) above which interference with fiber digestion and DM intake can be expected (Moore et al., 1986; Coppock and Wilks, 1991; Funston, 2004). In spite of the estimated 7% fat level, digestibility of DM, ADF and NDF of the CWP treatment were similar ( P>0.10) to those of the control (CCSM). In the mature beef cow trial, the feeding of WP did not ( P >0.10) influence BCS at the end of the 84 d feeding phases during late gestation when compared to control CCSM supplement treatment (Table 4). Cow body wt gain, however, tended to be lower for WP vs. CCSM ( P = 0.09; Table 4). Subsequent calf birth wt,

PAGE 4

calf wt gain and weaning wt were not affected ( P >0.10) by supplement treatment. Subsequent AI conception rate was not affected by treatment, however, only a total of 40 cows were used per treatment. Results indicated that whole in-shell peanuts can be a suitable feed supplement for mature beef cows. These peanuts were readily consumed by the mature cows. However, it took nearly all day for the peanuts to be consumed. As noted in the steer digestibility trial, some decrease in DMI and total diet digestibility may occur if WP is fed to cows. The slightly lowered weight gain noted for the WP treatment in the cow trial may be a reflection of these effects. Banta et al. (2006) also noted some decrease in cow weight change upon interval feeding of whole sunflower seeds which contain about 40% fat (oil) that were fed at 3.6 lb/d per head. Implications Results indicated that raw, whole in-shell peanuts could be an easy to use energy and protein supplement feed for mature beef cows. However, poor intakes have been noted with growing beef cattle (Hill, unpublished results). Some processing (i.e. coarse grinding) and blending with another feedstuff (i.e. corn) would be needed to insure intake by growing cattle. Also, like any high fat feed, caution should be taken to insure that total diet fat content is not excessive (i.e. above 6 to 8%).

PAGE 5

Literature Cited Banta et al 2006. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2410 2417. Funston R. N. 2004. J. Anim. Sci. 82(E. Suppl.):E154 E161. Hill, G. M. 2002. Peanut By products Fed to Cattle. In Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, v 18. pp. 295 315. Hill et al. 2008. Proc. 19 th Annual F lorida Ruminant Nutrition Symp., Dept. of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. pp. 98 115. Long et al. 2008. Prof. Anim. Sci. (in press). Moore et al. 1986. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1267 1273. NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattl e. 7 th Press, Washington, DC. 1 Bob Myer; Professor, Gary Hansen; former Assistant Professor, Dan Gorbert; Professor Emeritus, UF I FAS, North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL; Gary Hill; Professor, Univ ersity of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, G eorgia Acknowlegement This study was supported by funding from the Florida Peanut Producers Association, and the Florida a nd Georgia Peanut Check Offs. The assistance of Mary Chambliss, Harvey Standland, Don Jones, Todd Matthews, and Brook Hand is gratefully acknowledged.

PAGE 6

Table 1. Composition (%) of supplements and hay fed to steers in the digestion trial a Item DM CP ADF NDF CCSM b 89 33 6 9 CWP c 90 16 15 26 WP d 92 23 28 41 Corn 89 9 2 10 Hay e 92 12 39 79 a Percent DM basis. b Corn and cottonseed meal (50:50 mix). c Corn and whole, raw peanuts (50:50 mix). d Whole, raw in shell peanuts. e 'Tifton 85 bermudagrass. Table 2. Nutritional composition of raw whole, in shell peanuts and hay used in the mature beef cow trial a Whole peanuts Hay b Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 Moisture 4.2 7.1 13.9 12.9 Crude protein 23.0 20.6 7.8 7.8 Crude fat 45 40 ND c ND Crude fiber ADF NDF 22 24 32 33 26 37 31 40 72 36 46 79 TDN 121 109 57 56 Ash 2.8 2.8 5.5 6.1 Ca 0.28 0.18 0.32 0.34 P 0.36 0.34 0.25 0.26 a Analyses done by a commercial laboratory; values are on an as fed basis. b 'Tifton 85' bermudagrass. c Not determined.

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Table 3. Dietary intake of hay and apparent digestibility coefficients of total diet (supplement + hay) for the growing steer digestion trial. Hay DMI, a % digestibility Supplement lb/d DM CP ADF NDF CCSM b 7.7 f 86.8 h 86.7 h 85.3 h 87.2 f CWP c 7.9 f 85.6 h 82.7 i 84.0 h 86.4 f WP d 6.6 g 81.6 i 84.9 h 79.4 i 83.2 g SE e 0.31 0.68 0.77 0.81 0.81 a Dry matter intake. b Corn and cottonseed meal (50:50 mix). c Corn and whole peanuts (50:50 mix). d Whole peanuts. e Standard error; n = 6. f,g P<0.02. h,i P<0.01. Table 4. Mean performance parameters of wintering mature gestating beef cows fed hay and supplement, and effects on subsequent calf crop and cow reproduction a Supplement treatment Item CCSM b WP c SE d P value Body condition score e : Start 5.5 5.5 0.05 NS End 5.5 5.5 0.06 NS Cow body wt. change, lb + 108 + 79 7.9 0.09 Calf birth wt., lb 79 79 0. 3 NS Calf weaning wt., 1b 515 542 12.8 0.23 Calf wt. gain, lb 436 468 12.3 0.16 Calf survival rate, % 100 95 1.8 0.18 Cow conception rate f % 70 68 6.2 NS a Two year study, 40 cows per yr (10 cows per paddock). b Rolled corn cottonseed meal mix (50:50). c Whole peanuts. d n = 4. e Scores of 1 to 9 with 1 = very thin and 9 = obese. f Subsequent breeding via AI.