Effects of Mannheima Haemolytica vaccination (One Shot) on feed intake, feed efficiency, and the acute-phase protein res...

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Title:
Effects of Mannheima Haemolytica vaccination (One Shot) on feed intake, feed efficiency, and the acute-phase protein response of heifers
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Arthington, J. D.
Maddock, T. D.
Lamb, G. C.
Publisher:
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2011

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000421:00001


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Effects of Mannheima Haemolytica Vaccination (One Shot) on Feed
Intake, Feed Efficiency, and the Acute-phase Protein Response of Heifers

J. D. Arthington1, T. D. Maddock2, and G. C. Lamb2


Mannheima haemolytica vaccination results in a marked acute phase protein reaction, which
is associated with reduced average daily gain and poorer feed efficiency.


Summary
Twenty-three weaned heifer calves
(Brahman x British) were used in a
completely randomized design u ith two
treatments, 1) vaccinated (One h\,t li',
Mannheima haemolytica, Pfizer Inc.; n =
12), and 2) saline-injected control (n = 11).
Injections were administered
subcutaneously at a volume of 2 mL.
Heifers were allowed free choice access to a
complete diet using an automated feed
intake measuring system (GrowSafe;
Model 4000E). Following vaccination,
blood samples were collected for
determination of the acute phase reaction on
d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Individual body
weight was determined following a 12 hfeed
and water ii id/,ii aal on d 0 (d of
vaccination) and d 16 (end of study). Initial
and final body weight did not differ (P >
0.36) among control and vaccinated heifers
(505 69.5 and 540 71.6 lb on d 0 and 16,
respectively; standard error of mean (SEM)
9.8). Plasma concentrations of
ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin increased (P
< 0.05) sharply in vaccinated heifers, but
not saline-injected control heifers. Daily
dry matter intake did not differ (P = 0.66)
among treatments (20.5 vs. 19.4 lb/d for
control and vaccinated heifers, respectively;
SEM = 0.74); however, average daily gain
(ADG) and gain.feed (G:F) was greater (P


< 0.05) for control vs. vaccinated heifers
(2.54 vs. 1.94 lb/d, and 0.14 and 0.10 kg for
ADG and G:F, respectively; SEM = 0.141
and 0.011). These data indicate that calves
administered a Mannheima haemolytica
vaccination (One .\/iht ') experience an
acute phase protein reaction that is
associated u/ ith reduced ADG and poorer
feed efficiency.

Introduction
Cattle undergo a variety of stressors within
normal production processes. Vaccination,
for example, is a normal beef production
practice that is known to induce
inflammation, which may also contribute to
stress. The ability to link the influence of
stress to livestock performance has been an
essential but difficult task. An occurrence of
stress may be defined in many ways, in
general; it is described as any condition,
derived from an animal's environment,
which causes its homeostasis to be altered.
In many cases, this altered homeostatic
event initiates the inflammatory response.
This may, or may not, result in clinical
disease. It is the animal's ability to readily
respond and adapt to the stress stimuli,
which ultimately decides the disease
outcome. In an attempt to return to a normal
homeostatic state, a broad cascade of


'Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Ona, FL
2North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Marianna, FL









physiological processes takes place. One of
the early and immediate responses to stress,
which precede most other immunological
processes, is the pro-inflammatory, acute
phase reaction. A key component of the
acute phase reaction is the production of a
group of proteins collected referred to as the
acute phase proteins. These proteins are
derived from the liver in response to a group
of proteins called the pro-inflammatory
cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines
are dynamic in their ability to orchestrate a
broad range of physiological responses,
including impacts on apatite, muscle and fat
tissue deposition and turnover, and
attainment of immunity. In an effort to
better understand how vaccination programs
may impact short-term beef calf
performance, we undertook this study with
the objective to assess the effects of
Mannheima haemolytica vaccination on
individual voluntary feed intake, feed
efficiency, and the acute phase protein
reaction in beef heifers.

Materials and Methods
This study was conducted at the UF-IFAS,
North Florida Research and Education
Center, Marianna. Weaned Brahman x
British heifers (n = 23; average body weight
= 505 + 69.5 lb), without previous exposure
Mannheima haemolytica vaccination, were
randomly allotted to receive either Vaccine
(n = 12; Mannheima haemolytica
vaccination, 2 mL subcutaneous; One
Shot, Pfizer Inc.), or Control (n = 11;
sterile saline 2 mL subcutnaeous). Heifers
were maintained in a common pen and
provided individual, free-choice access to a
total mixed ration (12 and 54% crude
protein and total digestible nutrients,
respectively) using the GrowSafe feeding
system (Model 4000E). Heifers were


acclimated to the diet and GrowSafe
feeding system for 14 d prior to the start of
the experiment. Relative to vaccination,
blood samples were collected on d 0, 3, 6, 9,
12, and 15. Heifer ADG was calculated
from individual body weights collected on d
0 and 16 following a 12 h withdrawal from
feed and water. To assess the impact of
vaccination on the acute phase protein
reaction, plasma concentrations of
ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were
determined.

Data were analyzed using the MIXED
procedure of SAS. The model statement
included treatment, day, and the interaction.
Mean separation was performed using
PDIFF and all results are expressed as LS
means.

Results
Plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin
concentrations increased in vaccinated
calves and were greater than saline-injected
control calves on d 3, 6, 9, and 12
(ceruloplasmin), and d 3 (haptoglobin),
respectively (Figure 1). Individual heifer
dry matter intake did not differ (P = 0.66)
among vaccinated and control calves;
however, vaccinated calves had reduced
ADG (P < 0.05; Table 1). Thus, feed
efficiency was almost 30% poorer for
vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated calves during
the 14-d evaluation period.

These results suggest that Mannheima
haemolytica vaccination (One Shot)
results in a marked acute phase protein
reaction in beef calves, which is associated
with reduced ADG and feed efficiency.










Table 1. Effects of Mannheima haemolytica vaccination on performance of beef
heifers. 1
Item Vaccinated Control SEM2 P-value

Dry matter intake, lb/d 19.4 20.4 0.74 0.66

Average daily gain, lb/d 1.93 2.52 0.14 < 0.05

Feed efficiency (G:F) 0.103 0.135 0.0113 0.05

'Vaccinated = Mannheima haemolytica vaccine, 2 mL s.q.; One Shot) and
Control = sterile saline 2 mL s.q.). Heifers provided individual, free-choice
access to a total mixed ration using the GrowSafe feeding system. Values are
presented as least squares means estimates.
Standard error of the mean.


-A- Vaccinated
-9- Control


4 8 12
Day relative to vaccination


Figure 1. Effects ofMannheima haemolytica vaccination on the acute phase
protein reaction in beef heifers. = means differ; P < 0.05.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Summary Twenty three weaned heifer calves (Brahman x British) were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments, 1) vaccinated (One Shot; Mannheima haemolytica, Pfizer Inc.; n = 12), and 2) saline injected control (n = 11). Injections were administered subcutaneously at a volume of 2 mL. Heifers were allowed free choice access to a complete diet using an automated feed intake measuring system (GrowSafe; Model 4000E). Foll owing vaccination, blood samples were collected for determination of the acute phase reaction on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Individual body weight was determined following a 12 h feed and water withdrawal on d 0 (d of vaccination) and d 16 (end of study). Initial and final body weight did not differ (P > 0.36) among control and vaccinated heifers ( 505 69.5 and 540 71.6 lb on d 0 and 16, respectively; standard error of mean (SEM) = 9.8). Plasma concentrations of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin increased (P < 0.05) sharply in vaccinated heifers, but not saline injected control heifers. Daily dry matter intake did not differ (P = 0.66) among treatments (20.5 vs. 19.4 lb/d for control and vaccinated heifers, respectively; SEM = 0.74); however, average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) was greater (P (2.54 vs. 1.94 lb/d, and 0.14 and 0.10 kg for ADG and G : F, respectively; SEM = 0.141 and 0.011). These data indicate that calves administered a Mannheima haemolytic a vaccination (One Shot) experience an acute phase protein reaction that is associated with reduced ADG and poorer feed efficiency. Introduction Cattle undergo a variety of stressors within normal production processes. Vaccination, for example, is a norm al beef production practice that is known to induce inflammation, which may also contribute to stress. The ability to link the influence of stress to livestock performance has been an essential but difficult task. An occurrence of stress may be defined i n many ways, in general; it is described as any condition, which causes its homeostasis to be altered. In many cases, this altered homeostatic event initiates the inflammatory response. This may, or may not, result i n clinical respond and adapt to the stress stimuli, which ultimately decides the disease outcome. In an attempt to return to a normal homeostatic state, a broad cascade of Effects of Mannheima Haemolytica Vaccination (One Shot) on Feed Intake, Feed Efficiency, and the Acute phase Protein Response of Heifers J. D. Arthington 1 T. D. Maddock 2 and G. C. Lamb 2 Mannheima haemolytica vaccination results in a marked acute phase protein reaction, which is associated with reduced average daily gain and poorer feed efficiency 1 Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Ona, FL 2 North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Marianna, FL

PAGE 2

physiological processes takes place. One of the early and immediate responses to stress, which precede most other immunological processes, is the pro inflammatory, acute phase reaction. A key component of the acute phase reaction is the production of a group of proteins collected referred to as the acute phase proteins. These proteins are derived from the liver in response to a group of proteins called the pro inflammatory cytokines. The pro inflammatory cytokines are dynamic in their ability to orchestrate a broad range of physiological responses, including impacts on apatite, muscle and fat tissue deposition and turnover, and attainment of immunity. In an effort to better understand how vaccination programs may impact short term beef calf performance, we undertook this study with the ob jective to assess the effects of Mannheima haemolytica vaccination on individual voluntary feed intake, feed efficiency and the acute phase protein reaction in beef heifers. Materials and Methods This study was conducted at the UF IFAS, North Florida Res earch and Education Center, Marianna. Weaned Brahman x British heifers (n = 23; average body weight = 505 69.5 lb), without previous exposure Mannheima haemolytica vaccination, were randomly allotted to receive either Vaccine (n = 12; Mannheima haemolyt ica vaccination, 2 mL subcutaneous ; One Shot, Pfizer Inc.), or Control (n = 11; sterile saline 2 mL subcutnaeous ). Heifers were maintained in a common pen and provided individual, free choice access to a total mixed ration (12 and 54% crude protein and t otal digestible nutrients, respectively) using the GrowSafe feeding system (Model 4000E). Heifers were acclimated to the diet and GrowSafe feeding system for 14 d prior to the start of the experiment. Relative to vaccination, blood samples were collect ed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Heifer ADG was calculated from individual body weights collected on d 0 and 16 following a 12 h withdrawal from feed and water. To assess the impact of vaccination on the acute phase protein reaction, plasma concentrations of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were determined. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model statement included treatment, day, and the interaction. Mean separation was performed using PDIFF and all results are expressed as LS mea ns. Results Plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin concentrations increased in vaccinated calves and were greater than saline injected control calves on d 3, 6, 9, and 12 (ceruloplasmin), and d 3 (haptoglobin), respectively (Figure 1). Individual heifer d ry matter intake did not differ ( P = 0.66) among vaccinated and control calves; however, vaccinated calves had reduced ADG ( P < 0.05; Table 1). Thus, feed efficiency was almost 30% poorer for vaccinated vs. non vaccinated calves during the 14 d evaluation period. These results suggest that Mannheima haemolytica vaccination (One Shot) results in a marked acute phase protein reaction in beef calves, which is associated with reduced ADG and feed efficiency.

PAGE 3

Table 1. Effects of Mannheima haemolytica vaccination on performance of beef heifers. 1 Item Vaccinated Control SEM 2 P value Dry matter intake, lb/d 19.4 20.4 0.74 0.66 Average daily gain lb/d 1.93 2.52 0.14 < 0.05 Feed efficiency (G:F) 0.103 0.135 0.0113 0.05 1 Vaccinated = Mannheima haemolytica vaccine, 2 mL s.q.; One Shot) and Control = sterile saline 2 mL s.q.). Heifers provided individual, free choice access to a total mixed ration using the GrowSafe feeding system. Values are presented as least squares means estimates. 2 Stan dard error of the mean. Figure 1. Effects of Mannheima haemolytica vaccination on the acute phase protein reaction in beef heifers. = means differ; P < 0.05.