Feed efficiency of 3-year old suckled beef cows after establishment of feed efficiency as replacement heifers

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Feed efficiency of 3-year old suckled beef cows after establishment of feed efficiency as replacement heifers
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Black, Tera
Bischoff, Kalyn
Marquezini, Guilherme
Mercadante, Vitor
Maddock, Travis
DiLorenzo, Nicolas
Chase, Chad
Coleman, Sam
Lamb, G. Cliff
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.

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Feed Efficiency of 3-Year Old Suckled Beef Cows after Establishment of Feed
Efficiency as Replacement Heifers


Tera Black1, Kalyn Bischoff1, Guilherme Marquezini1, Vitor Mercadante1, Travis Maddock1,
Nicolas DiLorenzo1, Chad Chase2, Sam Coleman2, and G. Cliff Lamb1


Selection for feed efficiency using residual feed intake (RFI) as replacement heifers did not affect
subsequent changes in body composition of the same heifers when they were lactating with their second
calf as 3-year old cows. However, replacement heifers that were more feed efficient required 13.2% less
feed as 3-year old cows compared to replacement heifers that were less efficient. Milk production was
greatest in cows determined to be least efficient (high RFI) as replacement heifers.


Summary
Feed efficiency was measured in 74 replacement
heifers that subsequently were retained until a
second feed efficiency period after the same
females gave birth to their second calf as 3-yr
old cows. For both the heifer and cow phases,
upon arrival into the feed efficiency facility,
females were allowed a 14-d acclimation period
before initiating a 70-dfeed efficiency test. The
diet for heifers was a forage-based growing diet
(0.95Mcal ME/lb DM) formulated to meet
requirements to support growth rates of
approximately 2.2 lb/d, whereas the diet for
cows was a forage-based diet consisting of
86.7% Tifton 85 Bermudagrass silage, 12.4%
dried distillers grains plus solubles, 0. 7% range
mineral, and 0.2% salt, suitable for hlctating
beef cows (NRC, 1996). Milk production was
established at d 28 and 84 of lactation for the
cows. The average daily gain (ADG) for heifers
and cows was calculated using the slope of the
body weights collected weekly or biweekly,
during the test and residual feed intake (RFI)
was calculated by regressing mid-metabolic
weight (MMW, weight halfway ;ii: iig the test
raised to the 0. 75 power), ADG, and dry matter
intake (DMI) for each animal. Heifers were
sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD; n 24),
Medium (<0.5 SD>; n 24), and High (>0.5
SD; n 26) feed efficiency groups based on
their RFI values, with more ,ig,,,t'c values
being efficient and positive values inefficient.


Individual heifer RFI values ranged from -2.2
(most efficient) to 1.9 (least efficient) and
Individual cow RFI values ranged from -4.9
(most efficient) to 7.4 (least efficient). Cows
which were most efficient as heifers (those in the
Low group) had significantly lower DMI than
their counterparts and consumed 4.56 lb less
feed per day than cows that were in the High
group as heifers. Therefore, low RFI heifers
subsequently became cows that consumed less
feed than cows that were categorized as high
RFI as heifers.

Introduction
As the cost of production within the beef
industry continues to rise, producers are
continuously searching for ways to reduce input
costs. Because feed costs are directly associated
with approximately two thirds of total inputs
(Arthur et al., 2001; Basarab et al., 2002), many
producers have broadened their trait selection
criteria to include not only output traits (carcass
yield and quality), but also input traits (feed
efficiency). Residual feed intake (RFI) is one
phenotypic trait used to determine feed
efficiency that measures variation in feed intake
independently of body weight or growth rate.
Simply stated, it is calculated as the difference
between actual intake and the animal's predicted
intake for a given body weight and production
level. Although it has been well established that


'North Florida Research Education Center, University of Florida, Marianna, FL
2Subtropical Agriculture Research Station, USDA, Brooksville, FL










RFI is a moderately heritable trait, there have
been few published studies comparing an
individual's RFI between two different
physiological states, such as growth and
lactation.

Our objectives were: 1) to determine the
correlation of feed efficiency measured in
replacement heifers, to that measured as mature,
lactating cows; and 2) to determine the
relationship between residual feed intake and
milking ability.

Materials And Methods
Phase 1.
In November 2007, 102 Angus, Brahman, or
Romosinuano crossbred heifers were randomly
allocated into pens within the University of
Florida-North Florida Research and Education
Center's Feed Efficiency Facility (Marianna,
FL). Upon arrival, heifers were fitted with
electronic identification (EID) tags and weighed,
and allowed a 14-d acclimation period before
starting the 70-d feed efficiency test. Within
each pen, heifers had ad libitum access to water
and two GrowSafe feed bunks. The diet was a
forage-based growing diet (0.95 Mcal ME/lb
DM) formulated to meet requirements to support
growth rates of approximately 2.2 lb/d (NRC,
1996). Once the 70-d test-period was initiated,
weights were collected on d 0, 14, 28, 42, 56,
and 70. Individual daily feed intakes were
recorded using the GrowSafe System (GrowSafe
Systems Ltd., Alberta, Canada) in order to
determine each animal's average daily feed
intake for the 70-d test. At the end of the test,
the heifers were removed from the Feed
Efficiency Facility, and were required to breed,
calve, become pregnant, and calve again in order
to be enrolled in phase two. The ADG for
heifers was calculated using the slope of the
body weights collected weekly or biweekly,
during the test. RFI was calculated by
regressing mid-metabolic weight (MMW;
weight halfway through the test raised to the
0.75 power), ADG, and DMI for each animal.
Heifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5
SD; n = 24), Medium (<0.5 SD>; n = 24), and
High (>0.5 SD; n = 26) feed efficiency groups
based on their RFI values, with more negative


values being efficient and positive values
inefficient.

Phase 2.
Beginning in January 2010, 74 females from
phase one were allowed to calve in pasture as
second parity, 3-year old cows. Every 7 d, cows
that had successfully delivered live calves were
brought into the Feed Efficiency Facility. Upon
entry into the facility, calves were fitted with
EID tags and cows were checked to ensure their
EID was intact. Cow-calf pairs within each
group were then randomly assigned to pens
consisting of no more than six pairs per pen. A
14-d acclimation period was allowed before
initiating the 70-d test. Pairs in each pen had ad
libitum access to water and two GrowSafe feed
bunks. The forage-based diet consisted of
86.7% Tifton 85 Bermudagrass silage, 12.4%
dried distillers grains plus solubles, 0.7% range
mineral, and 0.2% salt, suitable for lactating
beef cows (NRC, 1996). Weights of cows were
collected on a weekly basis starting on d 0 of the
test, and weights of calves were collected on d 0
and 70. Individual daily feed intake values for
cows and calves were determined using the
GrowSafe System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd.,
Alberta, Canada).

Cows were milked on d 14 (lactation d 28 7)
and d 70 (lactation d 84 7) of the test in order
to determine individual energy corrected milk
production. On the morning of milking, cows
were separated away from the calves. Each cow
was restrained in the chute and injected with 40
IU of oxytocin intravenously. Once milk let-
down occurred, cows were milked immediately
using a vacuum pump connected to a four claw
milking machine. When all four quarters were
dry, machine milking ceased and residual milk
from all quarters was stripped by hand
(procedure adapted from Marston et al., 1992).
Following a minimum separation period of 6 h,
cows were milked again as previously described.
Collected milk was weighed, and daily
production was estimated by calculating milk
produced per minute, and extrapolating it over
24 h. Energy corrected milk (ECM) was
determined using the equation: ECM =
(0.327*lb of milk) + (lb of fat* 12.95) + (lb of
protein*7.2).










The ADG for cows was calculated using
theslope of the body weights collected weekly
or biweekly, during the test. RFI was calculated
similar to that for heifers in phase I, but cows
remained in the same RFI group (Low, Medium,
or High) that they were categorized in phase I.
The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to
determine if differences existed between Low,
Medium, and High groups for initial weight,
final weight, ADG, DMI, and RFI of heifers and
cows (also ECM for cows). PROC CORR was
used to identify any Pearson correlations
existing between performance as heifers and
cows.

Results
Heifers performance at the beginning and end of
the feed efficiency phase I did not differ among
RFI groups (Low, Medium, High), as illustrated
in Table 1. As expected, average heifer DMI
was significantly lower for those placed in the
Low RFI group compared to the High group.
Individual heifer RFI values ranged from -2.2
(most efficient) to 1.9 (least efficient).

Cow performance data based on heifer RFI
category (Low, Medium, High) is represented in
Table 2. Initial weight as 3-year old lactating
cows was significantly affected by heifer RFI
ranking for the medium and high groups. Cows
considered to be the least efficient as heifers


(those in the High group), weighed 59 lb more
than those in the Medium group, on d 0. Final
weight and ADG of cows was not affected by
RFI ranking as heifers. Cows which were most
efficient as heifers (those in the Low group) had
significantly lower DMI than their counterparts
and consumed 4.56 lb less feed per day than
cows that were in the High group as heifers.
Individual cow RFI values ranged from -4.9
(most efficient) to 7.4 (least efficient). For
heifers that were regarded as the least efficient
they produced significantly greater quantities of
energy correct milk than the Medium group,
whereas the Low group was intermediate. This
is consistent on d 28 and d84 of lactation.

Table 3 represents correlation coefficients of
various traits of cows and heifers. There was a
tendency (P = 0.07) for a correlation to exist
between RFI measured in heifers and that
measured in mature, lactating cows. However,
strong correlations exist between heifer and cow
DMI intake and a strong correlation exists
between heifer RFI and cow DMI. Therefore,
heifers that have low RFI as replacement heifers
likely will have lower DMI as mature cows. In
addition, those females consuming more feed
and gaining more as cows were those with
higher ADG and DMI as heifers, as illustrated
by moderate, significant correlations.


Literature Cited
Arthur et al. 2001. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2805.
Basarab et al. 2002. Alberta Agric. Food Rural Dev. Ctr. p. 12.
Marston et al. 1992. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3304.


Acknowledgements
Appreciation is greatly expressed to Mark Foran, Olivia Helms, Don Jones, Mary Maddox, Butch
Nowell, Harvey Standland, Brad Stephens, and David Thomas for their assistance with data collection
and laboratory analysis.











Table 1. Heifer performance statistics ( standard error) for Low, Medium, and High RFI ranked
animals (Phase 1)

RFI Classificationa


Trait


Low


No. of heifers

Initial Weight, lb

Final Weight, lb


ADGb, lb /d

DMIc, lb /d

RFId, lb /d


573.3 12.8

689.6 13.7

1.78 + 0.07

17.8 + 0.51

-2.49 + 0.18x


Medium

24


558.1 12.8

677.8 13.7

1.85 + 0.07

20.3 + 0.51

-0.04 + 0.18


High


571.8 12.3

690.7 13.2

1.81 + 0.07

22.8 + 0.48y

2.36 + 0.18y


aHeifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD), Medium (<0.5 SD >), and High (>0.5 SD)
efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values (Low) being efficient and
positive values (High) inefficient.
b ADG = average daily gain.
c RFI = residual feed intake
d DMI = dry matter intake.
xy Values within a row differ (P<0.05)


p-value


0.63

0.76

0.76


<0.0001

<0.0001











Table 2. Cow performance parameters based on heifer rankings considered as Low, Medium, and
High feed efficiency categories (Phase 2).

RFI Classificationa

Trait Low Medium High p-value

No. of cows 24 24 26


Initial Weight, lb

Final Weight, lb

ADGb, lb/d


DMIc, lb/d

RFId, lb/d


d 28 ECMe, lb/d

d 84 ECMe, lb/d


933.7 + 18.2y

954.8 + 19.6

0.66 + 0.22

30.0 + 1.32x

-2.40 + 1.19

13.0 + 0.93

10.95 + 0.81


918.5 + 18.3x

969.6 + 19.6

1.19 + 0.22

34.1 + 1.32

1.65 + 1.19

11.23 + 0.93x

9.58 + 0.81X


979.3 + 17.6y

986.5 + 18.7

1.04 + 0.22

34.6 + 1.32y

0.68 + 1.12

15.4 + 0.88y

12.6 + 0.77y


aHeifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD), Medium (<0.5 SD >), and High (>0.5 SD)
efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values (Low) being efficient and positive
values (High) inefficient.
bADG = average daily gain.
c RFI = residual feed intake.
d DMI = dry matter intake.
e ECM = energy corrected milk.
x"y Values differ (P<0.05)


Table 3. Pearson correlation coefficients among cow and heifer feed efficiency performance
parametersa
Heifer ADG Heifer DMI Heifer RFI
------------Correlation coefficient (P-value)----------

Cow DMI 0.444 (0.0001) 0.633 (0.0001) 0.299 (0.0098)
Cow RFI 0.358 (0.0017) 0.422 (0.0002) 0.214 (0.067)
d28 ECM 0.116 (0.326) 0.243 (0.036) 0.223 (0.0561)
d 84 ECM 0.141 (0.230) 0.299 (0.0123) 0.21 (0.0728)
a ADG = average daily gain; DMI = dry matter intake; ECM = energy corrected milk


0.05

0.51

0.24

0.02

0.05




Full Text

PAGE 1

Summary Feed efficiency was measured in 74 replacement heifers that subsequently were retained until a second feed efficiency period after the same females gave birth to their second calf as 3 y r old cows. For both the heifer and cow phases, upon arrival into t he feed efficiency facility, females were allowed a 14 d acclimation period before initiating a 70 d feed efficiency test. The diet for heifers was a forage based growing diet ( 0.95 Mcal ME/ lb DM) formulated to meet requirements to support growth rates of approximately 2.2 lb /d, whereas the diet for cows was a forage based diet consisting of 86.7% Tifton 85 Bermudagrass silage, 12.4% dried distillers grains plus solubles, 0.7% range mineral, and 0.2% salt, suitable for lactating beef cows (NRC, 1996). Milk production was established at d 28 and 84 of lactation for the cows. The average daily gain ( ADG ) for heifers and cows was calculated using the slope of the body weights collected weekly or biweekly, during the test and residual feed intake ( RFI ) was calc ulated by regressing mid metabolic weight (MMW; weight halfway through the test raised to the 0.75 power), ADG, and dry matter intake ( DMI ) for each animal. Heifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD; n = 24), Medium (<0.5 SD>; n = 24), and High (>0 .5 SD; n = 26) feed efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values being efficient and positive values inefficient. Individual heifer RFI values ranged from 2.2 (most efficient) to 1.9 (least efficient) and Individual cow RFI values ranged from 4.9 (most efficient) to 7.4 (least efficient). Cows which were most efficient as heifers (those in the Low group) had significantly lower DMI than their counterparts and consumed 4.56 lb less feed per day than cows that were in the High group as heifers. Therefore, low RFI heifers subsequently became cows that consumed less feed than cows tha t were categorized as high RFI as heifers. Introduction As the cost of production within the beef industry continues to rise, producers are continuously searching for ways to reduce input costs. Because feed costs are directly associated with approximat ely two thirds of total inputs (Arthur et al., 2001; Basarab et al., 2002), many producers have broadened their trait selection criteria to include not only output traits (carcass yield and quality), but also input traits (feed efficiency). Residual feed intake (RFI) is one phenotypic trait used to determine feed efficiency that measures variation in feed intake independently of body weight or growth rate. Simply stated, it is calculated as the difference i ntake for a given body weight and production level. Although it has been well established that Feed Effic iency of 3 Year Old Suckled Beef Cows after Establishment of Feed Efficiency as Replacement Heifers Tera Black 1 Kalyn Bischoff 1 Guilherme Marquezini 1 Vitor Mercadante 1 Travis Maddock 1 Nicolas DiLorenzo 1 Chad Chase 2 Sam Coleman 2 and G. Cliff Lamb 1 Selection for feed efficiency using residual feed intake (RFI) as replacement heifers did not affect subsequent changes in body composition of the same heifers when they were lactating with their second calf as 3 year old cows. However, replacement heifer s that were more feed efficient required 13.2% less feed as 3 year old cows compared to replacement heifers that were less efficient. Milk production was greatest in cows determined to be least efficient (high RFI) as replacement heifers. 1 North Florida Research Education Center, University of Florida, Marianna, FL 2 Subtropical Agriculture Research Station, USDA, Brooksville, FL

PAGE 2

RFI is a moderately heritable trait, there have been few published studies comparing an physiological states, such as growth and lactation. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the correlation of feed efficiency measured in replacement heifers, to that measured as mature, lactating cows; and 2) to dete rmine the relationship between residual feed intake and milking ability. Materials And Methods Phase 1. In November 2007, 102 Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano crossbred heifers were randomly allocated into pens within the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education FL). Upon arrival, heifers were fitted with e lectronic i dentification (EID) tags and weighed, and allowed a 14 d acclimation period before starting the 70 d feed efficiency test. Within each pen, heifers had ad libitum access to water and two GrowSafe feed bunks. The diet was a forage based growing diet ( 0.95 Mcal ME/ lb DM) formulated to meet requirements to support growth rates of approximately 2.2 lb /d (NRC, 1996). Once the 70 d test period was initiated, weights were collected on d 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70. Individual daily feed intakes were recorded using the GrowSafe System (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Alberta, Canada) in order to intake for t he 70 d test. At the end of the test, the heifers were removed from the Feed Efficiency Facility, and were required to breed, calve, become pregnant, and calve again in order to be enrolled in phase two. The ADG for heifers was calculated using the slope of the body weights collected weekly or biweekly, during the test. RFI was calculated by regressing mid metabolic weight (MMW; weight halfway through the test raised to the 0.75 power), ADG, and DMI for each animal. Heifers were sorted and placed into Lo w (<0.5 SD; n = 24), Medium (<0.5 SD>; n = 24), and High (>0.5 SD; n = 26) feed efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values being efficient and positive values inefficient. Phase 2. Beginning in January 2010, 74 females from phase one were allowed to calve in pasture as second parity, 3 year old cows. Every 7 d, cows that had successfully delivered live calves were brought into the Feed Efficiency Facility. Upon entry into the facility, calves were fitted with EID tags and cows were checked to ensure their EID was intact. Cow calf pairs within each group were then randomly assigned to pens consisting of no more than six pairs per pen. A 14 d acclimation period was allowed before initiating the 70 d test. Pair s in each pen had ad libitum access to water and two GrowSafe feed bunks. The forage based diet consisted of 86.7% Tifton 85 Bermudagrass silage, 12.4% dried distillers grains plus solubles, 0.7% range mineral, and 0.2% salt, suitable for lactating beef c ows (NRC, 1996). Weights of cows were collected on a weekly basis starting on d 0 of the test, and weights of calves were collected on d 0 and 70. Individual daily feed intake values for cows and calves were determined using the GrowSafe System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Alberta, Canada). Cows were milked on d 14 (lactation d 28 7) and d 70 (lactation d 84 7) of the test in order to determine individual energy corrected milk production. On the morning of milking, cows were separated away from the ca lves. Each cow was restrained in the chute and injected with 40 IU of oxytocin intravenously. Once milk let down occurred, cows were milked immediately using a vacuum pump connected to a four claw milking machine. When all four quarters were dry, machin e milking ceased and residual milk from all quarters was stripped by hand (procedure adapted from Marston et al., 1992). Following a minimum separation period of 6 h, cows were milked again as previously described. Collected milk was weighed, and daily p roduction was estimated by calculating milk produced per minute, and extrapolating it over 24 h. Energy corrected milk (ECM) was determined using the equation: ECM = (0.327*lb of milk) + (lb of fat*12.95) + (lb of protein*7.2).

PAGE 3

The ADG for cows was calc ulated using the slope of the body weights collected weekly or biweekly, during the test. RFI was calculated similar to that for heifers in phase I, but cows remained in the same RFI group (Low, Medium, or High) that they were categorized in phase I. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to determine if differences existed between Low, Medium, and High groups for initial weight, final weight, ADG, DMI, and RFI of heifers and cows (also ECM for cows). PROC CORR was used to identify any Pearson correlations e xisting between performance as heifers and cows. Results Heifers performance at the beginning and end of the feed efficiency phase I did not differ among RFI groups (Low, Medium, High), as illustrated in Table 1. As expected, average heifer DMI was significantly lower for those placed in the Low RFI group compa red to the High group. Individual heifer RFI values ranged from 2.2 (most efficient) to 1.9 (least efficient). Cow performance data based on heifer RFI category (Low, Medium, High) is represented in Table 2. Initial weight as 3 year old lactating cow s was significantly affected by heifer RFI ranking for the medium and high groups. Cows considered to be the least efficient as heifers (those in the High group), weighed 59 lb more than those in the Medium group, on d 0. Final weight and ADG of cows was not affected by RFI ranking as heifers. Cows which were most efficie nt as heifers (those in the Low group) had significantly lower DMI than their counterparts and consumed 4.56 lb less feed per day than cows that were in the High group as heifers. Individual cow RFI values ranged from 4.9 (most efficient) to 7.4 (least e fficient). For heifers that were regarded as the least efficient they produced significantly greater quantities of energy correct milk than the Medium group, whereas the Low group was intermediate. This is consistent on d 28 and d84 of lactation. Table 3 represents correlation coefficients of various traits of cows and heifers. There was a tendency ( P = 0.07) for a correlation to exist between RFI measured in heifers and that measured in mature, lactating cows. However, strong correlations exist betwee n heifer and cow DMI intake and a strong correlation exists between heifer RFI and cow DMI. Therefore, heifers that have low RFI as replacement heifers likely will have lower DMI as mature cows. In addition, those females consuming more feed and gaining more as cows were those with higher ADG and DMI as heifers, as illustrated by moderate, significant correlations. Literature Cited Arthur et al. 2001. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2805 Basarab et al. 2002. Alberta Agric. Food Rural Dev Ctr. p. 12. Marston et al. 1992 J. Anim. Sci. 70:3304 Acknowledgements Appreciation is greatly expressed to Mark Foran, Olivia Helms, Don Jones, Mary Maddox, Butch Nowell, Harvey Standland, Brad Stephens, and David Thomas for their assistance with data collection and laboratory analysis.

PAGE 4

Table 1. Heifer performance statistics ( standard error) for Low, Medium, and Hi gh RFI ranked animals (Phase 1) RFI Classification a Trait Low Medium High p value No. of heifers 24 24 26 Initial Weight, lb 573 .3 12 .8 558.1 12 .8 571.8 12.3 0.63 Final Weight, lb 689.6 13.7 677.8 13.7 690.7 13.2 0.7 6 ADG b lb /d 1.78 0.0 7 1.85 0.0 7 1.81 0.0 7 0.76 DMI c lb /d 17.8 0. 51 x 20.3 0. 51 22.8 0. 48 y <0.0001 RFI d lb /d 2.49 0. 1 8 x 0.0 4 0. 1 8 2.36 0. 1 8 y <0.0001 a Heifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD), Medium (<0.5 SD >), and High (> 0.5 SD) efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values (Low) being efficient and positive values (High) inefficient. b ADG = average daily gain. c RFI = residual feed intake d DMI = dry matter intake. xy Values within a row differ ( P<0.05)

PAGE 5

Table 2. Cow performance parameters based on heifer rankings considered as Low, Medium, and High feed efficiency catgories (Phase 2). RFI Classification a Trait Low Medium High p value No. of cows 24 24 26 Initial Weight, lb 933.7 1 8.2 xy 918.5 1 8.3 x 979.3 17.6 y 0.0 5 Final Weight, lb 954.8 19.6 969.6 19.6 986.5 18.7 0. 51 ADG b lb /d 0. 66 0. 22 1.19 0. 22 1.04 0. 22 0. 24 DMI c lb /d 30.0 1.32 x 34.1 1.32 34.6 1.32 y 0.02 RFI d lb /d 2.40 1.19 1.65 1.19 0. 68 1.12 0.0 5 d 28 ECM e lb /d 13.0 0. 93 11.23 0. 93 x 15.4 0. 88 y 0.01 d 84 ECM e lb /d 10.95 0. 81 9.58 0.81 x 12.6 0. 77 y 0.0 4 a Heifers were sorted and placed into Low (<0.5 SD), Medium (<0.5 SD >), and High (> 0.5 SD) efficiency groups based on their RFI values, with more negative values (Low) being efficient and positive values (High) inefficient. b ADG = average daily gain. c RFI = residual feed intake. d DMI = dry matter intake. e ECM = energy corrected milk. x y Values differ (P<0.05) Table 3. Pearson correlation coefficients among cow and heifer feed efficiency performance parameters a Heifer ADG Heifer DMI Heifer RFI -----------Correlation coefficient (P value) ---------Cow DMI 0.444 (0.0001) 0.633 (0.0001) 0.299 (0.0098) Cow RFI 0.358 (0.0017) 0.422 (0.0002) 0.214 (0.067) d 28 ECM 0.116 (0.326) 0.243 (0.036) 0.223 (0.0561) d 84 ECM 0.141 (0.230) 0.299 (0.0123) 0.21 (0.0728) a ADG = average daily gain; DMI = dry matter intake; ECM = energy corrected milk