Taxonomic revision of the Amphilius uranoscopus group ( Teleostei: siluriformes ) in Kenya, with the description of a ne...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Taxonomic revision of the Amphilius uranoscopus group ( Teleostei: siluriformes ) in Kenya, with the description of a new species from the Athi River
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Thomson, Alfred W.
Page, Lawrence M.
Publisher:
Florida Museum of Natural History
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00000404:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text


The FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is Florida's state museum of natural history, dedicated to
understanding, pres H, i _- and interpreting biological diversity and cultural heritage.

The BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is a peer-reviewed journal that
publishes results of original research in zoology, botany, paleontology, archaeology, and museum science. The
Bulletin is published at irregular intervals, and volumes are not necessarily completed in any one year. Volumes
contain between 150 and 300 pages, sometimes more. The number of papers contained in each volume varies,
depending upon the number of pages in each paper, but four numbers is the current standard. Multi-author issues
of related p-' .-"-"-. have been published together, and ;,inj..il;.-, about putting together such issues are welcomed.
Address all inquiries to the Managing Editor of the Bulletin.


Richard C. Hulbert, Jr., i,, ..;:,in: Edifor

Bulletin Committee
Ann S. Cordell
Richard C. Hulbert, Jr.
Jacqueline Miller
Larry M. Page
Roger W. Portell, 7,. ,. I.m,
Irvy R. Quitmyer
David W. Steadman, Lx ,i. i., Member

ISSN: 0071-6154

C, p,. i -r1 2010 by the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. All rights reserved. Text,
images and other media are for nonprofit, educational, and personal use of students, scholars and the public. Any
commercial use or republication by printed or electronic media is strictly prohibited without written permission
of the museum.

Publication Date: August 23, 2010







Send communications concerning purchase or exchange
of this publication and manuscript queries to:

Managing Editor of the Bulletin
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
P.O. Box 117800
(., I-. 1l,_, FL 32611-7800 USA

FAX: 352-846- '-"7.7
Email: bulletin@flmnh.ufl.edu









TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE AMPHILIUS URANOSCOPUS GROUP
(TELEOSTEI: SILURIFORMES) IN KENYA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION
OF A NEW SPECIES FROM THE ATHI RIVER

Alfred W. Thomson1 and Lawrence M. Page1


ABSTRACT

The taxonomy of the Amphilius uranoscopus group in Kenya is revised. Amphilius athiensis
n. sp. is described from the Galana River basin, and Amphilius grandis and Amphilius krefftii are
removed from synonymy with A. uranoscopus and redescribed. All three species are assigned to
the Amphilius uranoscopus group, which is distinguished from other species of Amphilius by the
absence of a crenellated epidermal fold at the base of the caudal fin, having 8+9 (i,7,8,i) principal
caudal-fin rays, usually having 36 to 42 total vertebrae, and by having the leading pterygiophore of
the dorsal fin intercepting the vertebral column at the first, second or third post-Weberian vertebra. Six
species are recognized in the A. uranoscopus group (A. athiensis n. sp., Amphilius chalei, Amphilius
cryptobullatus, A. grandis, A. krefftii, and A. uranoscopus). They are distinguished from each other
by coloration, barbel length, caudal fin shape, body and caudal peduncle depth, number of vertebrae,
and by the development of their bilateral bony swimbladder capsules.

Key Words: catfishes, Amphiliidae, Siluriformes, Africa, new species.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction .............. ..... ............ .............. ............... 46
M materials and M ethods........................................... 48
Taxonomic Descriptions ......................... ................. 49
Amphilius uranoscopus Group .................................49
Amphilius athiensis n. sp ........................................ 51
Amphilius grandis Boulenger 1905 ..........................54
Amphilius krefftii Boulenger 1911 ............................ 58
D discussion ....................................... ..................... 61
Comparative Materials Examined.............................. 63
A cknow ledgem ents....................................... ..................63
L literature C ited .............. ........... .................................64




1Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800 USA
Thomson, A. W., and L. M. Page. 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Amphilius uranoscopus group (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in Kenya, with the description
of a new species from the Athi River. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 49(2):45-66.






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


INTRODUCTION
The catfish family Amphiliidae is widely distributed
throughout sub-Saharan Africa and includes 12
genera and about 66 species (Ferraris 2007; Skelton
2007; Seegers 2008). Most amphiliid species are
found in fast-flowing water of clear, rocky streams
at high elevations or rapids of large lowland rivers
(Berra 2001; Roberts 2003). Recent workers have
recognized three subfamilies within Amphiliidae,
with Amphilius and Paramphilius placed in the
subfamily Amphiliinae (Diogo 2003, 2005).
Twenty-five species are currently recognized in
the genus Amphilius, with most occurring in the
drainages of western Africa and the Congo River
basin. A recent checklist of the fishes of Kenya
recognized two species of Amphilius in Kenya, A.
jacksonii in the Nile River basin andA. uranoscopus
in the Ewaso Ngiro, Tana, Galana, and Pangani
River basins (Seegers et al. 2003).
Species ofAmphilius are adapted for fast flow
and rocky habitats (Skelton 1986). Morphological
adaptations for these habitats include expanded
pectoral and pelvic fins with a thickened first ray,
depressed body, dorsally directed eyes and reduced
swimbladder (Skelton 1986; Walsh et al. 2000).
The large pelvic fins form, in conjunction with the
body, a feeble sucking disc that enables the fish
to cling to rocks (Jackson 1961b). The epidermal
microstructure of the anterior ray of the pectoral
fin, as observed by a scanning electron microscope
(Bell-Cross & Jubb 1973), is similar to the epi-
dermal microstructure of the adhesive organs in
Asian sisorid catfishes (Singh & Agarwal 1991;
Das & Nag 2004, 2005).
Little information is available on the biology
of Amphilius. Skelton (2001) stated that South
African species breed during the summer. Marriott
et al. (1997) studied the reproductive biology of A.
natalensis in South Africa and concluded that the
species had a long breeding period extending from
August to February. They observed that breeding
coincided with the rainy season and postulated that
spawning was initiated in response to increased
water flow rate or changes in water quality
following periods of rainfall (Marriott et al. 1997).


Walsh et al. (2000) were not able to determine the
breeding season of A. jacksonii, but suggested
that it may have two breeding periods per year.
In Kenya, Ngugi et al. (2009) studied the biology
of Amphilius in the Thego River, a tributary of
the Tana River, and found it to have a protracted
spawning season with gonad weights significantly
higher in February, May, and September than in
other months.
The diet of Amphilius species has been
reported to consist predominantly ofbenthic aquatic
insects (Marriott et al. 1997; Skelton 2001; Walsh et
al. 2000). Marriott et al. (1997) conducted a detailed
stomach analysis of A. natalensis, and found the
diet to consist mostly of larval chironomids and
ephemeropterans. Additionally, they found that
small individuals fed predominantly on chironomid
larvae, while in larger individuals, chironomid
and ephemeropteran larvae contributed almost
equally in volume. Walsh et al. (2000) analyzed the
stomach contents of 118 specimens ofA. jacksonii,
and similarly found the diet of this species to
consist mainly of larval Diptera, Ephemeroptera
and Trichoptera.

SYSTEMATIC HISTORY
Gunther (1864) described Amphilius as a
section of the genus Pimelodus for a new species
he named Pimelodus platychir from Sierra Leone,
western Africa. Soon thereafter he recognized
Amphilius as a genus (Gunther 1865). Pfeffer
(1889), apparently unaware of Gunther's (1865)
description, created the genus Anoplopterus for
a new species, Anoplopterus uranoscopus, from
the Wami River basin in Tanzania. Nine years
later, Vaillant (1897) created the genus Chimar-
rhoglanis for a new species, which he described
as C. leroyi from the nearby Ruvu River basin,
Tanzania. Boulenger (1898) synonymized C.
leroyi with Pimelodus platychir, but overlooked
Gunther's description of the genus Amphilius
and synonymized Chimarrhoglanis with Anoplo-
pterus. Boulenger (1898) also recognized Pfeffer's
A. uranoscopus and suggested that the types of A.
platychir did not come from Sierra Leone.






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Poche (1902a) and Gunther (1902) refuted
Boulenger's (1898) suggestion that the types of A.
platychir were not from Sierra Leone, and Poche
(1902b), recognizing Amphilius as the correct name
for the genus, synonymized Anoplopterus and
Chimarrhoglanis with Amphilius. Despite Poche
and Ginther's assertions, Boulenger continued to
question the type locality of Sierra Leone for A.
platychir and recognized A. platychir as a species
in eastern Africa (Boulenger 1902, 1905a, 1907a,
1907b).
Boulenger (1905a) described Amphilius
grandis from the Tana River basin in Kenya. He
distinguished this species from A. uranoscopus by
its longer head (length four times in total length
vs. five times in total length) and shorter barbels
maxillaryy barbel not reaching posterior border of
head vs. extending beyond posterior border of head).
He distinguished A. grandis from A. platychir by its
longer head (length 4 times in total length vs. 4 to 4
1/2 times in total length), longer snout (snout length
1 2/3 interocular width vs. 1 1/3 to 1 1/2 interocular
width), and a shorter caudal peduncle (not longer
than deep vs. longer than deep).
In 1911, Boulenger published volume two
of his "Catalogue of Freshwater Fishes of Africa,"
and recognized four species in the drainages of
east-central Africa: A. uranoscopus, A. platychir,
A. grandis, and A. krefftii, a new species that he
described from the Sigi River, Tanzania. Amphilius
krefftii, like A. grandis, was distinguished from the
other species of Amphilius by relative proportions
of its head, barbel, and caudal-peduncle lengths.
Soon thereafter, he described a fifth species, A.
oxyrhinus, from the Eusso Mara River, a tributary
of the Ewaso Ngiro River, in Kenya (Boulenger,
1912). He only distinguished this species from A.
grandis, the only other species of Amphilius he
recorded from the Ewaso Ngiro River.
Since Boulenger's (1911) description of A.
krefftii, most workers continued to recognize all
of the species that Boulenger recognized (Copley
1941, Harry 1953, Whitehead 1958), but Bailey
(1969:192) questioned the validity of A. krefftii
and stated that it is "very probably a synonym of
A. grandis." Meanwhile, A. grandis was reported


from throughout eastern and southern Africa (Van
der Horst 1931; Poll 1952; Crass 1960 1964; Jubb
1961).
Amphilius platychir was also reported from
eastern and southern Africa (Ricardo 1939a, 1939b;
Jackson 1959, 1961a; Maar 1960; Jubb 1963; Bell-
Cross 1972). Bell-Cross & Jubb (1973) referred
records of A. grandis from eastern and southern
Africa to A. platychir, and A. platychir became
accepted as being widespread throughout eastern
and southern Africa.
Skelton (1984) revised the genus Amphilius
from eastern and southern Africa and identified two
groups within Amphilius. One group is primarily
west African, has a crenellated epidermal fold at the
base of the caudal fin and 6 + 7 principal caudal-fin
rays. The second group is primarily distributed in
eastern and southern Africa, lacks the crenellated
epidermal fold and usually has 8 + 9 principal
caudal-fin rays. Amphilius platychir was identified
as a member of the first group, and all records of
the species from eastern and southern Africa were
determined to be based on a single widespread
species, A. uranoscopus. Skelton (1984) considered
C. leroyi, A. grandis, A. krefftii, and A. oxyrhinus
to all be synonyms of A. uranoscopus. Three other
taxa were also synonymized with A. uranoscopus:
Amphilius hargeri from Mlangi, British Central
Africa (Malawi), Amphilius brevidorsalis from
the Riviere Revue (Mozambique), and Amphilius
platychir cubangoensis from Angola.
Skelton (1984) distinguished Amphilius
uranoscopus from the other eastern species of
Amphilius by two characters that appear to be
derived within Amphilius, its relatively long body
(usually 36-40 total vertebrae) and anteriorly
placed dorsal fin (leading dorsal-fin pterygiophore
intercepts the vertebral column at the first,
second or third post-Weberian vertebra). Since
Skelton's revision, two additional eastern species
of Amphilius with these characters have been
named: Amphilius cryptobullatus from the upper
Congo River basin (Skelton 1986); and A. chalei
from the Rufiji River basin in Tanzania (Seegers
2008). Amphilius cryptobullatus was distinguished
from A. uranoscopus by the development






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


and extremely large size of its bilateral bony
swimbladder capsules, and A. chalei by its
extremely slender body and caudal peduncle
(Skelton 1986, Seegers 2008).
In this study, we address the identification
of A. uranoscopus in Kenya by examining all
available museum specimens from Kenya and
recently collected material from the Sigi, Pangani,
and Wami River basins in Tanzania. We conclude
that A. uranoscopus does not occur in Kenya, and
that references to that species in Kenya are based
on three different species. Two of these species,
A. grandis and A. krefftii, have been considered
synonyms of A. uranoscopus, while the third is a
new species described in this paper. These species
are part of the Amphilius uranoscopus group as
diagnosed below.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Measurements were made point-to-point with
digital calipers, and data were recorded to tenths
of a millimeter. Subunits of the head are presented
as proportions of head length (HL). Head length
and measurements of other body parts are given
as proportions of standard length (SL). Use of the
terms origin and insertion to designate, respectively,
the most anterior and posterior points on the bases
of all fins follows Cailliet et al. (1986). Counts
and measurements were made on the left side of a
specimen when possible and follow Skelton (1981,
1984, 1986) with the additional measurements of
body depth at anus, prepectoral-fin length, preanal-
fin length, dorsal-fin base length, adipose-fin base
length, pelvic- and pectoral-fin lengths, prepelvic-
fin length, postpelvic-fin length, and preanus
length. Only specimens 40.0 mm SL or larger were
measured, but counts were made on all specimens.
For fin-ray counts, numbers ofunbranched soft rays
are indicated by lower case Roman numerals, and
branched soft rays by Arabic numerals. The number
of anterior unbranched rays in the anal fin is difficult
to determine, and the counts were checked with
radiographs wheneverpossible. Amphiliids typically
have a small spinelet in front of the first unbranched
dorsal-fin ray. The spinelet is not included in the
counts. Branchiostegal ray counts only include


rays that articulate with the ceratohyal (anterohyal).
Vertebrae were counted by means of radiographs;
counts exclude the five Weberian vertebrae.
Abdominal vertebrae include all vertebrae in
front of or exactly parallel to the anterior anal
pterygiophore. Caudal vertebrae include all
vertebrae posterior to the abdominal vertebrae,
with the ural centrum counted as one vertebra.
Vertebral counts for A. cryptobullatus are from
Skelton (1986). The first dorsal pterygiophore
intercept count is the number of vertebrae up to and
including the vertebra opposite, or anterior to, the
spine of the leading dorsal pterygiophore.
Material examined is given under each
species account and is listed by drainage followed
by catalog number, country, locality, geographic
coordinates and, in parentheses, the number of
specimens and the size range in mm SL. Materials
examined in this study are deposited in the following
institutions: the Natural History Museum, London
(BMNH), the California Academy of Sciences,
San Francisco, California (CAS), the Cornell
University, Vertebrate Collections, Ithaca, New
York (CU), the Field Museum of Natural History,
Chicago, Illinois (FMNH), the Harvard Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
(MCZ), the Royal Museum of Central Africa,
Tervuren, Belgium (MRAC), the South African
Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Grahamstown,
South Africa (SAIAB), the Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville, Florida (UF), and
the Universitat Hamburg, Biozentrum Grindel und
Zoologisches Museum, Ichthyology, Hamburg,
Germany (ZMH).
Synonymies include all references to the
species in east-central Africa. The first page of the
reference to the species and all figures are listed.
If the species is also listed in a key on a separate
page from the account, that page is also listed.
The type of information in the reference is given
followed by the locality for the species as given in
the account. Additionally, any specimens that the
account is known to be based on are listed. If the
account is only based in part on the species, only
the information that is applicable to that species
is listed. Accounts of species outside east-central






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Africa that give only a general distribution in east-
central Africa are excluded.

TAXONOMIC DESCRIPTIONS
AMPHILIUS URANOSCOPUS GROUP
Species of the Amphilius uranoscopus group, A.
athiensis, n. sp., A. krefftii, A. grandis. A. chalei,
A. cryptobullatus, and A. uranoscopus, are
distinguished from all other species ofAmphilius by
the following combination of characters: absence
(vs. presence) of a crenellated epidermal fold at
the base of the caudal fin, 8+9 (i,7,8,i) principal
caudal-fin rays (vs. 6+7 or 7+8), usually 36-42 (vs.
32-35) total vertebrae, leading pterygiophore of
the dorsal fin intercepts the vertebral column at the
first, second or third post-Weberian vertebra (vs. at
the fourth, fifth or sixth post-Weberian vertebra).
Species of the Amphilius uranoscopus
group differ from all other species of Amphilius


except A. natalensis, A. lampei, A. kivuensis, A.
laticaudatus, and A. zairensis by the absence (vs.
presence) of the crenulated epidermal fold and
by having 8+9 (i,7,8,i) principal caudal-fin rays
(vs. 6+7 or 7+8). Species of the A. uranoscopus
group differ from A. natalensis, A. lampei, and A.
kivuensis by having the leading pterygiophore of
the dorsal fin intercepting the vertebral column
after the third post-Weberian vertebra (vs. at the
fourth, fifth or sixth post-Weberian vertebra).
Species of the A. uranoscopus group differ from A.
laticaudatus and A. zairensis by having relatively
longer bodies (usually 36-42 total vertebrae vs.
32-35). Following are diagnoses and descriptions
of the three species of the A. uranoscopus group in
Kenya: A. athiensis, A. krefftii, and A. grandis. The
three species of the A. uranoscopus group found
elsewhere are A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, and A.
uranoscopus (Fig. 1).


Figure 1. Lateral views of A: Amphilius uranoscopus, UF 170723, 96.2 mm SL, Wami River basin,
Tanzania; B: Amphilius cryptobullatus, CU 91072, 88.5 mm SL, Congo River basin, Zambia; C: Amphilius
chalei, UF 170728, 123.9 mm SL, Rufiji River basin, Tanzania. Scale bars equal 1 cm. Color version
available online at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/bulletin/vol49no2/figurel.pdf.







50 BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)






a "





< i (C
C)l






00-. C 00

-ae



O J I
C. Co A I I *


00
na 0 m .

-e
So o 0







to
u 0









0_ C C


... 0 r. 00




00 ^ >o
n -e 00 0




II I I l

Cl It A



," -e
+^ \ m


'- -e Cl 0 Crl d l





3 II I I




0
CA t-0
cr -
s-e
-e tO O ee el
HCC ~ 0






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Amphilius athiensis new species
(Fig. 2; Tables 1-2)

Amphilius grandis (non Boulenger) Boulenger 1916: 306
(in part), [Nairobi] [BMNH 1910.10.31.31]; Copley 1941:
15 (in part), [Galana River basin] [BMNH 1937.12.11.16-
18, BMNH 1969.3.24.61-62]; Copley 1958: 98 (in part),
[Galana River basin] [BMNH 1937.12.11.16-18, BMNH
1969.3.24.61-62].

Amphilius uranoscopus Skelton 1994: 126 (in part) [Galana
River basin]; Seegers 1996: 255, fig. 16 (in part), Athi River;
Seegers et al. 2003: 37 (in part), Athi River system.

Holotype.-BMNH 1910.10.31.31, Nairo-
bi, Kenya, ca. 116'28"S, 36048'47"E (1: 150.0).
Paratypes.-BMNH 1905.12.11.2, Kenya,
Nairobi River, Kikaya, ca. 110'33"S, 36056'24"E


(1: 160.3); BMNH 1909.11.15.21-23, Nairobi River,
elev. 2500 ft., ca. 110'33"S, 36056'24"E (2: 89.1-
119.5); BMNH 1928.11.10.11-12, Nairobi River, elev.
6500 ft., ca. 110'33"S, 36056'24"E (3: 59.6-140.5);
BMNH 1928.11.10.13-18, Kenya, Riara River,
elev. 5700 ft., ca. 18'49"S, 36057'47"E (2: 37.6-
87.2); BMNH 1937.12.11.16-18, Kenya, Mbakasi
River, ca. 118'10"S, 36055'10"E (3: 58.1-110.3);
BMNH 1937.6.4.43, Kenya, Athi River, Fourteen
Falls, ca. 17'40"S, 37021'25"E (1: 44.0); BMNH
1969.3.24.61-62, Kenya, Ngong River, tributary of
Nairobi River, ca. 118'25"S, 36053'23"E (2: 123.6-
146.9); BMNH 1987.3.23.4, Kenya, Athi River, SE
of Nairobi, ca. 1026'32"S, 36059'25"E (1: 36.0);
CAS SU 24169, ex. BMNH 1928.11.10.13-18,


Figure 2. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of the holotype of Amphilius athiensis, BMNH 1910.10.31.
31, 150.0 mm SL, Galana River basin, Kenya. Scale bar equals 1 cm. Color version available online at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/bulletin/vol49no2/figure2.pdf.






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


(1: 87.1); MCZ 32518, ex. BMNH 1928.11.10.13-
18, (1: 96.5); MRAC A7-25-P-1-2, ex. BMNH
1928.11.10.13-18, (2: 78.0-82.0); SAIAB 87475,
ex. BMNH 1909.11.15.21-23, (1: 106.0); UF
167873, ex. BMNH 1928.11.10.13-18, (2: 79.4-
92.6); USNM 72922, Kenya, Nairobi R., near
Nairobi, ca. 110'33"S, 36056'24"E (2: 113.4-
159.4).
Diagnosis.-Diagnostic characters are
summarized in Table 1. Amphilius athiensis is
distinguished from all other species of the A.
uranoscopus group by its distinctive coloration


consisting of many small dark spots on its head,
body, and fins (vs. head, body, and fins not finely
spotted). Amphilius athiensis also differs from
A. grandis by having longer inner mandibular
barbels (33.3-42.0% HL vs. 20.2-33.6% HL),
from A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, A. krefftii, and
A. uranoscopus by the absence of distinct pale
patches at the origin and insertion of the dorsal
fin, and from A. cryptobullatus and A. krefftii
by its forked (vs. emarginate) caudal fin. It also
differs from A. krefftii by its more elongate body
with 38-40 total vertebrae (vs. short body with


Table 2. Morphometric data for Amphilius /thien\i\ n. sp. Range and mean include the holotype.


Holotype Range (n=21) MeanSD


%SL
Head length
Head width
Head height
Body depth
Body depth at anus
Predorsal-fin length
Prepectoral-fin length
Preanal-fin length
Dorsal-fin base length
Adipose-fin base length
Anal-fin base length
Pelvic-fin length
Pectoral-fin length
Anal-fin length
Caudal-peduncle length
Caudal-peduncle depth
Prepelvic-fin length
Postpelvic-fin length
Preanus length

%HL
Snout length
Interorbital distance
Maxillary barbel length
Inner mandibular barbel length
Outer mandibular barbel length
Eye diameter


150.0


28.9
22.7
11.3
13.0
11.8
37.9
24.1
79.6
9.2
18.7
8.7
16.1
18.7
15.7
15.8
10.1
56.1
49.9
66.3


50.1
24.9
69.2
35.1
57.4
8.4


58.1-160.3


25.4-
20.5-
11.3-
12.4-
11.1-
35.2-
19.5-
72.3-
8.0-
18.5-
8.6-
16.0-
17.4-
14.5-
14.6-
10.1-
50.9-
42.8-
58.1-


46.6-
23.5-
69.2-
33.3-
46.7-
8.4-


-30.6
-26.2
-14.9
-17.3
-15.3
-39.6
-25.6
-79.6
11.7
-23.5
16.6
-19.7
-22.0
-19.2
-18.3
-12.6
-58.3
-51.2
-66.3


-55.2
-32.3
-88.0
-42.0
-69.0
14.6


26.81.2
22.01.3
12.60.9
14.71.4
13.31.1
37.41.3
22.21.7
75.51.9
9.40.8
20.31.6
10.41.8
17.71.2
19.5+1.3
16.91.4
16.5+1.1
11.00.7
54.21.9
47.22.3
62.1+2.0


50.71.8
27.22.2
75.94.9
36.92.5
58.56.0
10.81.8






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


usually 36 total vertebrae). Amphilius athiensis
also differs from A. chalei by having a deeper body
(body depth at anus 11.1-15.3% SLvs. 8.9-10.8%
SL), a deeper caudal peduncle (caudal peduncle
depth 10.1-12.6% SLvs. 7.1-9.7% SL), and shorter
caudal peduncle (caudal peduncle length 14.6-
18.3% SL vs. 19.0-21.9% SL). It also differs from
A. cryptobullatus by having normally developed
bilateral bony swimbladder capsules (vs. bilateral
bony swimbladder capsules extremely large).
Description.-Morphometric data as in
Table 2. Body elongate, ventral profile flattened
ventrally to anal-fin base, then tapered dorsally to
end of caudal peduncle. Dorsal profile rising gently
from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin, then nearly
horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Greatest body
depth at dorsal-fin origin. Caudal peduncle laterally
compressed, without crenellated epidermal fold.
Anus and urogenital openings located just posterior
to base of pelvic fin, closer to insertion of pelvic fin
than to origin of anal fin. Skin smooth. Lateral line
complete, extending from dorsal edge of opercular
cavity to base of caudal fin. Total vertebrae 38 (8),
39* (3), or 40 (2). Abdominal vertebrae 21 (4), 22
(4), or 23* (4). Caudal vertebrae 15* (2), 16 (5), or
17 (5). First dorsal pterygiophore intercept count
1* (12) or 2 (1).
Head and anterior part of body depressed and
broad. Head wedge-shaped in lateral view. Snout
broad, moderately pointed when viewed from
above. Head becoming wider from tip of snout
to pectoral-fin base. Branchiostegal membranes
moderately joined at isthmus forming a V-shaped
or deeply concave connection.
Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal.
Lips moderately fleshy, papillate. Rictal lobe large
and papillate. Anterior portion ofpremaxillary tooth
band exposed with mouth closed. Premaxillary
tooth patches joined, forming U-shaped band, with
short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short and conical,
tooth patches forming U-shaped band, separated
medially.
Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral
barbels. Maxillary barbel large, fleshy and
flattened with pointed tip; barbel extending
posterolaterally from corer of mouth to just short


of pectoral-fin base. Outer mandibular barbel thin
with pointed tip, origin at posterior corner of lower
jaw, extending to edge ofbranchiostegal membrane.
Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally
of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge
of branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal
membrane with 6 (1) or 7* (21) rays. Gill rakers
on first epibranchial 3* (18) or 4 (3); rakers on first
ceratobranchial 6* (8) or 7 (13); total gill rakers on
first arch 9* (7), 10 (12), or 11 (2).
Eyes small, positioned dorsolaterally
approximately midway between tip of snout and
posterior margin ofoperculum. Horizontal diameter
of eye slightly wider than vertical diameter. Eye
without free orbit; covered with skin confluent
with dorsal surface of head. Anterior and posterior
nares with prominent tubular rims; nares separate
but relatively close to each other. Posterior nare
located about midway between eye and tip of snout.
Dorsal-fin origin at point over tip of
pectoral fin. Dorsal fin with i,6 (22) rays, and
fin margin straight. Pectoral fin with i,9* (12) or
i, 10 (8) rays with first ray unbranched and greatly
thickened. Pectoral fin with 4 or 5 innermost rays
progressively shorter making posterior fin margin
rounded. Pelvic fin inserted posteriorly to dorsal-
fin base. Pelvic fin with i,5 (22) rays with first ray
unbranched and greatly thickened. Pelvic fin with
straight posterior margin.
Adipose-fin base longer than anal-fin base;
origin anterior to origin of anal-fin base; fin
extending past anal-fin insertion. Margin strongly
convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply
incised posteriorly. Caudal fin deeply emarginate
or forked with tips of lobes rounded, with i,5,6,i
(1), i,6,7,i (1), i,7,7,i (2), i,7,8,i* (16), or i,8,8,i
(1) principal rays. Anal fin with short base; origin
posterior to origin of adipose-fin base; fin with iii,5
(7), iii,6* (13), or iii,7 (2) rays. Anal fin margin
almost straight.
Coloration.-Dorsal and lateral surfaces
of head and body brown with many small black
spots. Ventral region of head dark yellow or
brown. Ventral region of body brown to dark
yellow. Light dorsal saddles absent. Dorsal,
adipose, caudal, and anal fins brown. Pectoral and






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


pelvic fins positioned horizontally with upper
surfaces brown with light distal edge and lower
surfaces light yellow. Small black spots on all fins.
Maxillary and mandibular barbels brown. Caudal
fin with dark crescent-shaped band at base.
Distribution.-Known only from the Athi
River system, Galana River basin, Kenya (Fig. 3).
Etymology.-Athiensis refers to the Athi
River system, where the species appears to be
endemic; used as a noun in apposition.

Amphilius grandis Boulenger 1905
(Fig, 4; Tables 1, 3)
Amphilius grandis Boulenger 1905a: 63, Pl. 7 (fig. 3),
Original description, Type locality: Chania R. of Tetse,
Tana system, Kenya, elev. 7000 ft., [BMNH 1904.12.23.50-
52]; Boulenger 1905b: 48, Headwaters of the Tana system;
Boulenger 1911: 353, 355, fig. 275 (in part), in key,
description, East Africa (Tana to Athi River systems) [Tana
River basin only]; Boulenger 1912: 675, diagnosis from


Amphilius oxyrhinus, [Ewaso Ngiro River basin], [BMNH
1912.3.22.119]; Boulenger 1916: 306, Nairobi, Ewaso Ngiro,
below falls; Pellegrin 1936: 57, similarity to Amphilius
platychir var. cubangoensis; Copley 1941: 15 [Ewaso Ngiro
and Tana River basins], Harry 1953: 189 (in part), synonymy;
Copley 1958: 98, [Tana River basin], [BMNH 1937.6.4.36-
42], Whitehead 1958: 198 (in part), [Kenya], Bailey 1969:
192 (in part), eastern rivers of Kenya; Skelton 1984: 45, in
synonymy ofA. uranoscopus.

Amphilius oxyrhinus Boulenger 1912: 675, Pl. 80, Original
description, Type locality: Eusso Mara, a swift mountain
stream, Kenya [Ewaso Ngiro River basin], [BMNH
1912.22.120]; Boulenger 1916: 306, [Ewaso Ngiro River
basin]; Skelton 1984: 45, in synonymy ofA. uranoscopus.

Amphilius platychir (non Giinther) Whitehead 1958: 198 (in
part), [Ewaso Ngiro River basin].

Amphilius uranoscopus (non Pfeffer) Skelton 1994: 126,
(in part) [Tana River basin]; Seegers et al. 2003: 37 (in part)
[Ewaso Ngiro and Tana River basins].


Figure 3. Known distribution of Amphilius athiensis, Amphilius grandis and Amphilius krefftii.






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Material Examined.-Ewaso Ngiro River
basin: BMNH 1912.22.120, Kenya, Eusso Mara,
a swift mountain stream, tributary of Ewaso Ngiro,
ca. 046'13"N, 370 33'27"E (1: 166.0, holotype of
A. oxyrhinus); BMNH 1908.9.17.13-18, Kenya,
Nyiro-Narok; Niro-Narok system, elev. 4000-
5000 ft., ca. 015'18"N, 360 32'21"E (5: 93.4-
181.4); BMNH 1912.3.22.119, Kenya, Eusso


Nyiro, below falls, ca. 047'02"N, 380 05'04"E (1:
113.6), SAIAB 87474, ex. BMNH 1908.9.17.13-
18, (1: 135.3); UF 177478, ex. BMNH 1908.9.17.13-
18, (1: 120.2). Tana River basin: BMNH 1904.12.
23.50-52, Kenya, Chania River of Tetse, Kenya,
elev. 7000 ft., ca. 101'26"N, 3704'07"E (2:
136.1-160.0, Syntypes); BMNH 1937.6.4.36-42,
Kenya, Thika River, Ndula Falls, ca. 102'58"N,


Figure 4. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of Amphilius grandis, UF 177478, 120.2 mm SL, Ewaso
Ngiro River basin, Kenya. Scale bar equals 1 cm. Color version available online at http://www.flmnh.
ufl.edu/bulletin/vol49no2/figure4.pdf.






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


3705'34"E (12: 32.1-65.9); BMNH 1965.12.7.
125, Kenya, Rogati River, Sagana, ca. 039'53"N,
3712'07'E(1: 42.9);BMNH 1965.12.7.126-128, same
locality (3: 60.9-89.7); BMNH 1965.12.7.129, same
locality (1: 156.8); BMNH 1965.12.7.130-131,
same locality (2: 74.9-98.7); BMNH 1965.12.7.132,
same locality (1: 51.8); BMNH 1966.6.28.2-3, same
locality (2: 65.9-102.6); BMNH 1966.8.25.18,
same locality (1: 34.8); MRAC 74-48-P-12-13,
Kenya, upper Tana, side creek, ca. 00050'S, 3715'E
(2: 52.6-60.3). Unknown river basin: CAS SU
66020, Kenya, East Macania [Makania] River (1:
43.5).
Diagnosis.-Diagnostic characters are
summarized in Table 1. Amphilius grandis is dis-
tinguished from A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, A.
krefftii, and A. uranoscopus by the absence of
distinct pale patches at the origin and insertion of
the dorsal fin. It differs from A. athiensis by the
absence of small dark spots on head, body, and
fins (vs. head, body, and fins finely spotted), and
by having shorter inner mandibular barbels (20.2-
33.6% HL vs. 33.3-42.0% HL). It also differs from
A. cryptobullatus and A. krefftii by its forked (vs.
emarginate) caudal fin, and from A. krefftii by its
more elongate body with 37-40 total vertebrae
(vs. usually 36 total vertebrae). It also differs from
A. uranoscopus by its body coloration, uniformly
brown or brown with large dark spots or blotches
(vs. body grey with diffuse black stripe along side).
Amphilius grandis also differs from A. chalei by
having a deeper body (body depth at anus 11.0-
14.4 % SL vs. 8.9-10.8% SL) and a shorter cau-
dal peduncle (caudal peduncle length 14.6-19.0%
SL vs. 19.0-21.9% SL), and it also differs from
A. cryptobullatus by having normally developed
bilateral bony swimbladder capsules (vs. bilateral
bony swimbladder capsules extremely large).
Description.-Morphometric data as in
Table 3. Body elongate, ventral profile flattened
ventrally to anal-fin base, then tapered dorsally
to end of caudal peduncle. Dorsal profile rising
gently from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin,
then nearly horizontal to end of caudal peduncle.
Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Caudal
peduncle laterally compressed, without crenellated


epidermal fold. Anus and urogenital openings
located at posteriormost extent of pelvic fin, closer
to insertion of pelvic fin than to origin of anal fin.
Skin smooth. Lateral line complete, extending from
dorsal edge of opercular cavity to base of caudal
fin. Total vertebrae 37 (8), 38 (15), 39* (11), or 40
(1). Abdominal vertebrae 20 (1), 21 (10) 22* (16),
or 23 (5). Caudal vertebrae 15 (4), 16 (14), 17*
(12), or 18 (2). First dorsal pterygiophore intercept
count 1 (22) or 2* (13).
Head and anterior part of body depressed
and broad. Head wedge-shaped in lateral view.
Snout broad, blunt when viewed from above. Head
becoming wider from tip of snout to pectoral-
fin base. Branchiostegal membranes moderately
joined at isthmus forming a V-shaped connection.
Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal.
Lips moderately fleshy, papillate. Rictal lobe
large and papillate. Anterior portion of premaxil-
lary tooth band exposed with mouth closed. Pre-
maxillary tooth patches joined, forming U-shaped
band, with short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short
and conical, tooth patches forming U-shaped band,
separated medially.
Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral
barbels. Maxillary barbel large, fleshy and
flattened with pointed tip; barbel extending
posterolaterally from corer of mouth to just short
of pectoral-fin base. Outer mandibular barbel
thin with pointed tip, origin at posterior corer
of lower jaw, extending to origin of pectoral-fin.
Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally
of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge of
branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal mem-
brane with 7* (15), 8 (19), or 9 (2) rays. Gill rakers
on first epibranchial 2 (7) or 3* (29); rakers on first
ceratobranchial 4 (2), 5(6), 6 (16), 7 (10), or 8 (1);
total gill rakers on first arch 6 (1), 7* (3), 8 (5), 9
(18), 10 (7), or 11 (1).
Eye small, positioned dorsolaterally approx-
imately midway between tip of snout and posterior
margin of operculum. Horizontal diameter of eye
slightly widerthan vertical diameter. Eyewithoutfree
orbit; covered with skin confluent with dorsal surface
of head. Anterior and posterior nares with prominent
tubular rims; nares separate but relatively close to






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


each other. Posterior nare located about midway
between eye and tip of snout.
Dorsal-fin origin at point over tip of pectoral
fin. Dorsal fin with i,6* (35) or i,7 (1) rays, and
fin margin straight. Pectoral fin with i,9 (3), i,10*
(30), or i,ll (3) rays with first ray unbranched
and greatly thickened. Pectoral fin with 4 or 5
innermost rays progressively shorter making
posterior fin margin rounded. Pelvic fin inserted
posteriorly to dorsal-fin base. Pelvic fin with i,5
(36) rays with first ray unbranched and greatly
thickened. Pelvic fin with straight posterior margin.


Adipose-fin base longer than anal-fin base
origin anterior to origin of anal-fin base, fin
extending past anal-fin insertion. Margin strongly
convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply
incised posteriorly. Caudal fin deeply emarginate
or forked with tips of lobes pointed; fin with i,7,8,i*
(34), or i,8,9,i (1) principal rays. Anal fin with short
base, origin posterior to origin of adipose-fin base,
with iii,6 (36) rays. Anal fin margin almost straight.
Coloration.-Dorsal and lateral surfaces of
head and body brown. Dorsal and lateral regions
of head and body sometimes with large black spots


Table 3. Morphometric data for Amphilius grandis. Range and mean include the syntypes.


Syntypes (n=2) Range (n=29) MeanSD


136.1-160.0


%SL
Head length
Head width
Head height
Body depth
Body depth at anus
Predorsal-fin length
Prepectoral-fin length
Preanal-fin length
Dorsal-fin base length
Adipose-fin base length
Anal-fin base length
Pelvic-fin length
Pectoral-fin length
Anal-fin length
Caudal-peduncle length
Caudal-peduncle depth
Prepelvic-fin length
Postpelvic-fin length
Preanus length

%HL
Snout length
Interorbital distance
Maxillary barbel length
Inner mandibular barbel length
Outer mandibular barbel length
Eye diameter


40.4-181.4


27.4-
22.1-
12.9-
14.6-
11.9-
36.1-
22.3-
75.1-
8.4-
18.6-
8.2-
14.6-
17.1-
14.3-
18.6-
9.9-
55.9-
47.0-
61.0-


45.6-
25.0-
53.5-
23.5-
36.7-
10.3-


-28.5
-22.1
-13.0
-15.4
-14.4
-37.8
-23.8
-77.1
-9.2
-19.0
-8.9
-16.7
-18.4
-15.1
-19.0
10.1
-56.3
-48.2
-62.5


-49.2
-25.1
-55.9
-28.7
-41.8
-11.2


23.4-
20.0-
11.3-
9.6-
11.0-
33.7-
17.3-
70.2-
7.9-
15.0-
8.2-
14.6-
17.1-
14.3-
14.6-
9.0-
48.5-
46.0-
58.9-


43.0-
22.1-
49.7-
20.2-
30.5-
7.6-


-28.7
-23.9
-14.8
17.6
-14.4
-40.4
-24.5
-78.4
13.9
-26.0
17.8
-22.1
-26.5
-21.0
-19.0
12.6
-57.4
-52.1
-66.0


-55.1
-32.6
-83.8
-33.6
-62.0
16.3


26.71.3
21.5+1.0
13.00.9
13.41.6
12.90.9
37.01.6
21.3+1.7
74.12.0
10.41.5
20.62.7
10.8+1.8
19.02.0
21.92.5
17.7+1.6
17.01.1
10.90.9
53.12.0
49.01.5
61.71.5


48.43.3
26.32.4
66.98.5
29.03.5
48.87.3
12.42.5






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


or blotches. Ventral region of head dark yellow.
Ventral region of body brown to dark yellow. Light
dorsal saddles absent. Dorsal, adipose, caudal, and
anal fins brown. Pectoral and pelvic fins positioned
horizontally with upper surfaces brown with light
distal edge and lower surfaces light yellow. Dorsal
and caudal fins often with medial bands of dark
pigment. Maxillary and mandibular barbels brown.
Caudal fin with dark crescent-shaped band at base.
Distribution.-Tana and Ewaso Ngiro
(Ewaso Ngiro) River basins, Kenya (Fig. 3).

Amphilius krefftii Boulenger 1911
(Fig. 5; Tables 1, 4)
Amphilius kretaii Boulenger 1911: 356, fig. 276, Original
description, Type locality: Usambara, in rivulet running
from Anani Hills to Sigi River. [Sigi River basin, Tanzania];
Harry 1953: 189, synonymy; Copley 1958: 100 [Pangani
River basin]; Whitehead 1958: 198 [Kenya and Tanzania];
Bailey 1969: 192 [Sigi and Pangani drainages]; Bemacek
1980: 36 [Tanzania]; Skelton 1984: 45, in synonymy of A.
uranoscopus.

Pimelodus (Amphilius) uranoscopus (nonPfeffer) Hilgendorf
1905: 411 (in part), [Pangani drainage].

Amphilius grandis (non Boulenger) Copley 1941: 15 (in
part), [Galana River basin] [BMNH 1969.3.24.63-69,
BMNH 1969.3.24.70]; Copley 1958: 100 [Galana River
basin] [BMNH 1969.3.24.63-69, BMNH 1969.3.24.70];
Bailey 1969: 192 (in part), [Pangani River basin].

Amphilius uranoscopus (non Pfeffer) Harry 1953: 189 (in
part), synonymy; Skelton 1994: 126 (in part), [Galana and
Pangani River basins]; Seegers et al. 2003: 37 (in part),
[Pangani River basin].

Amphilius platychir (non Giinther) Copley 1958: 100 (in
part), [Pangani River basin].

Material Examined.-Galana River basin:
BMNH 1969.3.24.63-69, Kenya, Tsabo [Tasvo]
River tributary of Athi [Galana] River, mountain
Mbololo, ca. 314'50"S, 38027'45"E, (7:43.6-99.5);
BMNH 1969.3.24.70, Kenya, Voi River, Teita hills,
Voi District, 326'51"S, 38029'16"E (1: 106.6).
Lake Jipe basin: BMNH 1966.6.28.1, Tanzania,
Jipe River, ca. 343'45"S, 3745'06"E (1: 69.7).
Pangani River basin: BMNH 1905.7.25.41-42,
Kenya, Kibosho, Kilimandjaro, ca. 3 15'S, 3719'E


(2: 77.9-94.9); BMNH 1968.10.25.3, Tanzania,
River Lume (upper reaches of Pangani River) at
source, 5 miles east of Lake Chala, ca. 323'22"S,
3743'45"E (1: 106.6); BMNH 1968.10.25.8,
Tanzania, River Lume (upper reaches of Pangani
River) east of Taveta, ca. 3023'22"S, 3743'45"E
(1: 67.2); BMNH 1969.1.15.1, Tanzania, From a
stream at Arusha in the foothills of Mount Meru,
ca. 317'23"S, 360 45'37"E (1: 84.7); CU 93726,
Tanzania, Una River directly below Kinukamori
Falls near Marangu, altitude 1343 m, 316'39"S,
3731'10"E (5: 37.1-208.0); CU 93728, Tanzania,
Kikuletwa River at below dam along road from
Moshi to Samanga, altitude 757 m, 326'30"S, 370
18'11"E (13: 30.1-80.3); CU 93729, Tanzania,
Kikavu River at bridge on road from Moshi to
Arusha, altitude 413 m, 319'08"S, 3713'05"E
(5: 36.8-85.1); CU 93736, Tanzania, Mkuzi River
directly below Soni Falls on road from Mombo to
Loshoto, altitude 1428 m, 450'51"S, 38021'58"E
(17: 37.3-118.3); CU 93737, Tanzania, Mkuzi
River along road from Mombo to Loshoto, altitude
384 m, 452'04"S, 38020'52"E (34: 34.7-109.4);
CU 93738, Tanzania, Pangani River at bridge in
Hale on road from Muheza to Segera, altitude 226
m, 517'50"S, 3836'13"E (6: 34.9-60.7); FMNH
111684, Tanzania, West Usambara Mts., in river
(stream) near Ambangulu Tea Estate factory, ca.
504'54"S, 380 25'55"E (1: 29.0); MRAC 2010-
08-P-3-5, ex. UF 170744, (3: 46.6-51.5); SAIAB
87473, ex. UF 170744, (3: 43.0-53.2); UF 170704,
Tanzania, Pangani River along road from Same to
Korogwe, altitude 350 m, 5008'06"S, 38023'4"E
(1: 65.3); UF 170712, same data as CU 93738,
(6: 32.4-72.2); UF 170719, same data as CU
93729, (5: 42.9-89.7); UF 170721, same data as
CU 93728, (12: 30.0-115.9); UF 170722, same
data as CU 93736, (18: 40.5-139.3); UF 170724,
same data as CU 93726, (7: 39.9-201.5); UF
170744, same data as CU 93737, (28: 33.4-123.9).
Sigi River basin: BMNH 1909.10.19.26-27,
Tanzania, Usambara, in rivulet running from
Anani Hills to Sigi R., ca. 50'S, 3848'E (2:
47.5-86.0, Syntypes); BMNH 1968.10.25.5-6,
Tanzania, Kisiwani, near Amani, East Usambura
mountains, elev. 1,475 ft., ca. 511'34"S,






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


3837'39"E (2: 36.2-43.1); BMNH 1968.10.25.7,
Tanzania, River Sigi, east Usumbura Mountains, ca.
50'S, 3848'E (1: 72.7); CAS 63737, Tanzania, Zigi
[Sigi] R., Corn mill, in the Usambara Mountains,
10 km southeast (via the Amani-Muheza Road) of
Amani, ca. 5007'44"S, 3842'57"E (1: 47.8); CU
93735, Tanzania, Kihuhwi River at bridge on road
from Muheza to Amani, altitude 225 m, 5007'39"S,
38041'23"E(1:63.0);FMNH 111678, Tanzania, East
Usambara Mountains, 4.5 km ESE Amani, Monga
Tea Estate, ca. 505'S, 3836'E (1: 112.0); MCZ


05'S, 380 36'E (1: 90.0); UF 170713, same data as
CU 93735, (2: 70.3-73.0).
Diagnosis.-Diagnostic characters are
summarized in Table 1. Amphilius krefftii is
distinguished from A. chalei, A. grandis, A.
athie,\i\, and A. uranoscopus by its emarginate
(vs. forked) caudal fin, and from A. grandis and A.
athie'\i\ by the presence of distinct pale patches
at the origin and insertion of the dorsal fin. It also
differs from A. chalei, A. ithiein\i\, A. grandis,
and A. uranoscopus by having a short body with


51041, Tanzania, Amani, Usambara Mts., ca. 5 usually 36 vertebrae (vs. elongate body with 37-


Figure 5. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of Amphilius krefftii, UF 170722, 139.3 mm SL, Pangani
River basin, Tanzania. Scale bar equals 1 cm. Color version available online at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/
bulletin/vol49no2/figure5 .pdf






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


40 vertebrae). It also differs from A. crypto-
bullatus, A. athie'n\i\, and A. uranoscopus by the
absence of dark marking on the body (vs. body
mottled in A. cryptobullatus, finely spotted in A.
athiensis and with diffuse black stripe along side
in A. uranoscopus). Amphilius krefftii also differs
from A. athiensis by the absence of spots on the
fins (vs. fins heavily spotted). Amphilius krefftii
also differs from A. chalei by having a deeper
body (body depth at anus 11.1-16.5 % SLvs. 8.9-
10.8% SL) and a deeper caudal peduncle (caudal
peduncle depth 10.2-13.5 % SL vs. 7.1-9.7% SL).


It also differs from A. cryptobullatus by having
normally developed bilateral bony swimbladder
capsules (vs. bilateral bony swimbladder capsules
extremely large).
Description.-Morphometric data as in
Table 4. Body elongate, ventral profile flattened
ventrally to anal-fin base, then tapered dorsally to
end of caudal peduncle. Dorsal profile rising gently
from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin, then nearly
horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Greatest body
depth at dorsal-fin origin. Caudal peduncle laterally
compressed, without crenellated epidermal fold.


Table 4. Morphometric data for Amphilius krefftii. Range and mean include the syntypes.

Syntypes (n=2) Range (n=164) MeanSD


%SL
Head length
Head width
Head height
Body depth
Body depth at anus
Predorsal-fin length
Prepectoral-fin length
Preanal-fin length
Dorsal-fin base length
Adipose-fin base length
Anal-fin base length
Pelvic-fin length
Pectoral-fin length
Anal-fin length
Caudal-peduncle length
Caudal-peduncle depth
Prepelvic-fin length
Postpelvic-fin length
Preanus length

%HL
Snout length
Interorbital distance
Maxillary barbel length
Inner mandibular barbel length
Outer mandibular barbel length
Eye diameter


47.5-86.0


23.5-
20.2-
12.6-
10.9-
12.2-
34.3-
19.8-
72.8-
8.8-
21.0-
10.6-
19.3-
19.0-
16.2-
17.3-
10.5-
52.1-
47.4-
61.3-


43.8-
23.8-
69.6-
27.2-
46.4-
12.4-


23.6
20.6
12.8
-11.6
13.5
34.5
20.8
73.7
9.53
23.7
10.7
19.8
21.3
17.9
18.6
-11.5
52.6
50.0
-63.2


-44.1
25.9
-82.2
29.5
-54.0
-16.1


40.5-208.0


22.1-30.0
19.8-24.0
9.1-14.1
9.7-18.3
11.1-16.5
31.8-38.3
16.9-23.9
70.1-77.7
7.3-12.9
19.2-28.2
7.7-13.1
14.2-20.9
17.7-24.8
15.2-21.7
14.5-22.7
10.2-13.5
48.7-55.3
46.8-52.9
58.1-64.9


43.0-54.6
22.5-29.6
41.3-93.6
19.8-46.9
32.0-67.3
5.9-17.5


25.01.2
21.30.8
12.30.8
14.11.5
14.01.0
35.91.2
19.71.2
73.41.4
10.5+1.0
24.92.0
10.5+1.0
18.8+1.2
21.71.2
17.91.2
17.61.2
12.00.6
50.91.4
40.01.3
61.21.5


48.72.3
26.51.8
71.1+9.2
31.74.6
50.76.9
12.51.8






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Anus and urogenital openings located at insertion
pelvic fin. Skin smooth. Lateral line complete,
extending from dorsal edge of opercular cavity to
base of caudal fin. Total vertebrae 36 (9), 37 (1), or
38* (1). Abdominal vertebrae 20 (10) or 21* (2).
Caudal vertebrae 16 (10) or 17* (1). First dorsal
pterygiophore intercept count 1 (11) or 2* (1).
Head and anterior part of body depressed
and broad. Head wedge-shaped in lateral view.
Snout broad, blunt when viewed from above. Head
becoming wider from tip of snout to pectoral-
fin base. Branchiostegal membranes moderately
joined at isthmus forming a V-shaped or deeply
concave connection.
Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal.
Lips moderately fleshy, papillate. Rictal lobe large
and papillate. Anterior portion ofpremaxillary tooth
band exposed with mouth closed. Premaxillary
tooth patches joined, forming U-shaped band, with
short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short and conical,
tooth patches forming U-shaped band, separated
medially.
Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral
barbels. Maxillary barbel large, fleshy, and flattened
with pointed tip; barbel extending posterolaterally
from corner of mouth to middle of pectoral-fin
base. Outer mandibular barbel thin with pointed
tip, origin at posterior corer of lower jaw,
extending to edge of branchiostegal membrane.
Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally
of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge
of branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal
membrane with 6 (25) or 7* (159) rays. Gill rakers
on first epibranchial, 2* (48), 3* (129), or 4 (1);
rakers on first ceratobranchial 5, (23), 6 (103), 7
(50), or 8 (3); total gill rakers on first arch 7 (11),
8* (37), 9* (89), 10 (39), or 11 (3).
Eyes small, positioned dorsolaterally
approximately midway between tip of snout and
posterior margin of operculum. Horizontal diameter
of eye slightly wider than vertical diameter. Eye
without free orbit; covered with skin confluent
with dorsal surface of head. Anterior and posterior
nares with prominent tubular rims; nares separate
but relatively close to each other. Posterior nare
located about midway between eye and tip of snout.


Dorsal-fin origin at point over tip of pectoral
fin. Dorsal fin with i, 5 (1) or i,6* (185) rays, and
fin margin slightly convex. Pectoral fin with i,8 (1),
i,9 (59), i,10* (124), or i,11 (2) rays with first ray
unbranched and greatly thickened. Pectoral fin with
4 or 5 innermost rays progressively shorter making
posterior fin margin rounded. Pelvic fin inserted
posteriorly to dorsal-fin base. Pelvic fin with i,5
(186) rays with first ray unbranched and greatly
thickened. Pelvic fin with straight posterior margin.
Adipose-fin base longer than anal-fin base;
origin anterior to origin of anal-fin base, fin
extending past anal-fin insertion. Margin strongly
convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply
incised posteriorly. Caudal fin emarginate with tips
of lobes rounded, with i,5,6,i (1), i,6,7,i (1), i,7,7,i
(11), or i,7,8,i* (169) principal rays. Anal fin with
short base, origin posterior to origin of adipose-fin
base; fin with iii,5* (32), iii,6* (133), or iii,7 (21)
rays. Anal fin margin almost straight.
Coloration.-Dorsal and lateral surfaces of
head and body brown. Ventral region light brown.
Light dorsal saddles at origin and insertion of
dorsal-fin and adipose-fin. Dorsal, adipose, caudal,
and anal fins brown. Pectoral and pelvic fins
positioned horizontally with upper surfaces brown
and lower surfaces light yellow. Maxillary and
mandibular barbels brown. Caudal fin with dark
crescent-shaped band at base. Juvenile coloration
similar to that of adult, except all fins light yellow,
with small blotches of brown pigment on branched
rays. Pectoral and pelvic fins with first unbranched
ray dark brown dorsally.
Distribution.-Tsavo River system of the
Galana River basin, Kenya; Sigi and Pangani River
basins, and Lake Jipe basin, Tanzania.

DISCUSSION
Amphilius uranoscopus was described from
four specimens from the Wami River basin
in eastern Tanzania (Pfeffer 1889). The poor
condition of the two surviving type specimens
(ZMH 11944 and ZMH 8401), and the lack of
additional specimens from the Wami River basin
made it difficult to determine the exact identity
of A. uranoscopus and led to the recognition of






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


A. uranoscopus as a widespread and extremely
variable species. In the fall of 2007, the first author
collected 57 specimens of A. uranoscopus from
three localities in the Wami River basin which,
for the first time, allowed a detailed comparison
of A. uranoscopus to specimens identified as A.
uranoscopus from Kenya. We concluded, based
on our detailed comparisons of this new material
to specimens of Amphilius from Kenya and
the Pangani and Sigi River basins in northern
Tanzania, that two species previously considered
synonyms of A. uranoscopus should be removed
from synonymy, and a new species should be
recognized from the Athi River.
Amphilius grandis was described by
Boulenger from the Tana River basin in Kenya,
and soon after he described A. oxyrhinus from the
Ewaso Ngiro River basin (Boulenger 1912). We
provisionally considerA. oxyrhinustobe a synonym
ofA. grandis, but study of additional material from
the Tana and Ewaso Ngiro River basins may reveal
it to be a distinct species. Amphilius oxyrhinus was
diagnosed from A. grandis by Boulenger primarily
by its more pointed snout. We found the holotype of
A. oxyrhinus to have a more pointed snout then the
syntypes of A. grandis, and to have dark blotches
on the body (vs. body uniformly light brown in the
syntypes of A. grandis). We initially identified all
specimens that had back spots or blotches on the
body as A. oxyrhinus. These specimens tended to
have a more pointed snout and fewer gill rakers,
but all of these specimens were much smaller then
the holotype of A. oxyrhinus. Also, the smallest
specimens that we identified as A. oxyrhinus did
not appear to have a more pointed snout than the
specimens we identified asA. grandis. Additionally,
all of the specimens we identified as A. oxyrhinus
were from the Tana River basin while almost all
of the material we identified as A. grandis was
from the Ewaso Ngiro River basin, which was
not consistent with the type localities of these
two species. For these reasons we feel it is best to
consider A. oxyrhinus a synonym of A. grandis.
The recognition of A. uranoscopus as a
single widespread species has been based largely
on the lack of clear meristic and morphometric


differences between populations. Although
differences in pigment pattern and caudal-fin
shape have been noticed previously (Copley 1958;
Seegers 1996), this is the first study to examine
variation in these characters among populations.
Although there is some degree ofintraspecific
variation in pigment pattern, certain aspects are
consistent and are useful in distinguishing the
species. Amphilius t/hie'li,\ and sometimes A.
grandis have dark markings on the body in the form
of blotches or spots. Dark blotches or spots are
generally absent in A. krefftii and A. uranoscopus.
Amphilius krefftii may have a few dark areas on
its body, but it never has distinct dark blotches or
spots. In A. athiensis, the dark markings are almost
always in the form of small dark spots (although
a few larger blotches may also be present), and
spots are also always present on the head. In A.
grandis, the dark markings are mostly in the form
of large blotches or spots, with only a few smaller
spots or blotches. Spots on the head are usually
absent or indistinct. The pectoral, pelvic, dorsal,
anal, adipose, and caudal fins of A. athiei\i\ are
also heavily spotted. Amphilius grandis, A. krefftii,
and A. uranoscopus lack spots on the fins, although
some dark pigment may be present. Light saddles
are present at the base of the dorsal and adipose fins
in A. krefftii and A. uranoscopus, but are absent in
A. grandis and A. athiensis.
InA. athiensis, A. grandis andA. uranoscopus,
the caudal fin is deeply emarginate or moderately
forked, but it is weakly emarginate in A. krefftii.
The degree of forking decreases with the size of
the specimen, so large specimens of A. athiensis,
A. grandis, and A. uranoscopus have less deeply
forked caudal fins than smaller specimens; however,
the degree of forking is still greater than what is
typically seen in A. krefftii. The largest specimens
of A. krefftii examined had truncate caudal fins.
In addition to caudal fin shape, A. krefftii
is distinctive in having a shorter body than does
A. athiensis, A. grandis, and A. uranoscopus.
Amphilius krefftii usually has 36 post-Weberian
vertebrae, while A. grandis usually has 37-40, and
A. athiensis and A. uranoscopus usually have 38-
39 post-Weberian vertebrae (Table 5).






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


COMPARATIVE MATERIAL EXAMINED
Amphilius chalei: Rufiji River basin: CU
93744, Tanzania, Little Ruaha River at bridge in
Ihembe on road from Iringa to Dabaga, altitude 1680
m, 7054'41"S, 35047'44"E (63: 32.2-108.5); UF
170728, same data as CU 93744, (63: 26.6-123.9).
Amphilius cryptobullatus: Congo River
basin: CU 91072, Zambia, Lubulafita River at
bridge on Mwenda-Kawambwa road, 9059'17"S,
29006'54"E (20: 48.9-112.9). Vertebrae data from
Skelton (1986).
Amphilius uranoscopus: Wami River
basin: BMNH 2010.2.16.1-2, ex. UF 170723, (2:
53.5-70.7); CU 93740, Tanzania, Divue River
above and below falls along road from Dumila to
Turiani, altitude 374 m, 6010'27"S, 37035'00"E


(21: 31.7-97.8); CU 93741, Tanzania, Mbulumi
River at bridge in Turiani on road from Dumila
to Turiani, altitude 377 m, 6008'38"S, 37035'47"E
(5: 61.0-109.4); CU 93742, Tanzania, Wami River
at rapids above bridge on road from Chalinze to
Segera, altitude 60 m, 6014'42"S, 38023'00"E (1:
81.4); MRAC 2010-08-P-1-2, ex. UF 170723, (2:
58.6-68.3); SAIAB 87472, ex. UF 170723, (2:
49.0-62.7); UF 170716, same data as CU 93741,
(7: 26.3-108.5); UF 170718, same data as CU
93742, (2: 43.3-46.8); UF 170723, same data as
CU 93740, (19: 31.1-96.2); ZMH 8401, Tanzania,
Bad bei Ushonda (Unguu), ca. 6020'S, 37010'E
(paralectotype; photographs and x-rays examined);
ZMH 11944, same data as ZMH 8401, (lectotype;
photographs and x-rays examined).


Table 5. Frequency distribution in total number of vertebrae in
species of the Amphilius uranoscopus group.

Total Vertebrae 35 36 37 38 39 40

A. grandis 8 15 11 1
A. (/ihie'ni 8 3 2
A. krefftii 9 1 1
A. uranoscopus 9 5
A. chalei 9 1
A. cryptobullatus 4 73 42 2


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Funding for this study was provided by the All
Catfish Species Inventory project funded by
the U.S. National Science Foundation (DEB-
0315963). The authors would like to thank
Jonathan Armbruster, Rebecca Kimball, and
Colette St. Mary for suggesting many useful
improvements to this study. John Friel, Tom
Vigliotta, George Kazumbe, and Samuel Limbu
provided help in the field. Loans and access to
institutional specimens were provided by Ralf
Britz and James Maclaine of the Natural History


Museum, Tomio Iwamoto and Dave Catania of
the California Academy of Sciences, John Friel
of the Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates,
Mary Rogers of the Field Museum of Natural
History, Karsten Hartel of the Harvard Museum
of Comparative Zoology, and Jos Snoeks, Mark
Hanssens and Miguel Parrent of the Royal Museum
of Central Africa. This study benefited from many
discussions of Amphilius taxonomy with Rebecca
Blanton, Andres Lopez, Robert Robins, and Jeremy
Wright.






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


LITERATURE CITED

Bailey, R. G. 1969. The non-cichlid fishes of the
eastward flowing rivers of Tanzania, East
Africa. Revue de Zoologie et Botanique
Africaines 80:170-199.
Bell-Cross, G. 1972. The fish fauna of the Zambezi
River system. Amoldia (Rhodesia) 5:1-19.
Bell-Cross, G., & R. A. Jubb. 1973. TheAmphiliidae
of southern Africa and record of Amphilius
lampei Pietschmann, 1913, from the Inyanga
Mountains, Rhodesia. Aronoldia (Rhodesia)
6:1-9.
Bernacek, G. M. 1980. Introduction to the
Freshwater Fishes of Tanzania. University of
Dar es Salaam, Department of Zoology, Dar
es Salaam, 79 p.
Berra, T. M. 2001. Freshwater Fish Distribution.
Academic Press, San Diego, California, 606 p.
Boulenger, G. A. 1898. On the habit of the siluroid
fish Anoplopterus platychir, Gthr. Annals
and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 7)
8:447-448.
Boulenger, G. A. 1902. Additions a la faune
ichthyologique debassin du Congo. Materiaux
pour la faune du Congo. Annales du Musee
du Congo, Zoologie 2:19-57, pls. 7-16.
Boulenger, G. A. 1905a. On a second collection of
fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Kenya
District, East Africa. Proceedings of the
Zoological Society of London 1:62-64, pl. 7.
Boulenger, G. A. 1905b. Alist offreshwaters fishes
of Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural
History (Ser. 7) 16:36-60.
Boulenger, G. A. 1907a. Descriptions of three
new fishes from Central Africa. Annals and
Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 7) 20:487-
489.
Boulenger, G. A. 1907b. On a collection of fishes,
batrachians and reptiles, made by Mr. S. A.
Neave in Rhodesia, north of the Zambesi
with field notes by the collector. Memoirs
and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary
& Philosophical Society 51:1-12.
Boulenger, G. A. 1911. Catalogue of the Fresh-
water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum


(Natural History), Vol. 2. British Museum
(Natural History) Trustees, London, 529 p.
Boulenger, G. A. 1912. On a collection of fishes
made by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in British
East Africa to the East of Lake Baringo.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of
London 1912:672-676, pls. 78-80.
Boulenger, G. A. 1916. Catalogue of the Fresh-
water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum
(Natural History), Addenda. British Museum
(Natural History) Trustees, London, pp.
149-336.
Cailliet, G. M., M. S. Love, & A. W. Ebeling. 1986.
Fishes: A Field and Laboratory Manual on
Their Structure, Identification, and Natural
History. Wadsworth Publishing Company,
Belmont, CA, 194 p.
Copley, H. 1941. A short account of the freshwater
fishes of Kenya. Journal of the East Africa
and Uganda Natural History Society 16:1-
24, 8 pls.
Copley, H. 1958. Common Freshwater Fishes
of East Africa. H. F. & G. Witherby Ltd.,
London, 172 p.
Crass, R. S. 1960. Notes on the freshwater fishes of
Natal with descriptions of four new species.
Annals of the Natal Museum 14: 405-458.
Crass, R. S. 1964. Freshwater Fishes of Natal.
Shuter & Shooter, Pietermaritzburg, 167 p.,
6 pls.
Das, D., & T. C. Nag. 2004. Adhesion by paired
pectoral and pelvic fins in a mountain-
stream catfish, Pseudocheneis [sic.] sul-
catus (Sisoridae). Environmental Biology of
Fishes 71:1-5.
Das, D., & T. C. Nag. 2005. Structure of adhesive
organ of the mountain-stream catfish,
Pseudocheneis [sic.] sulcatus (Teleostei:
Sisoridae). Acta Zoologica 86:231-237.
Diogo, R. 2003. Anatomy, phylogeny, and
taxonomy of Amphiliidae. Pp. 401-438 in
G. Arratia, B. G. Kapoor, M. Chardon, & R.
Diogo, eds. Catfishes. Science Publishers,
Enfield, NH, USA, 487 p.
Diogo, R. 2005. Morphological Evolution,
Aptations, Homoplasies, Constraints and






THOMSON AND PAGE: Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya


Evolutionary Trends: Catfishes as a Case
Study on General Phylogeny and Macro-
evolution. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH,
USA, 491 p.
Ferraris, C. J., Jr. 2007. Checklist of catfishes, recent
and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes),
and catalogue of siluriform primary types.
Zootaxa 1418:1-628.
Gunther, A. 1864. Catalogue of the Fishes in
the British Museum, vol. 5. Catalogue of
the Physostomi, Containing the Families
Siluridae, Characinidae, Haplochitonidae,
Sternoptychidae, Scopelidae, Stomiatidae
in the Collection of the British Museum.
Trustees, London, 455 p.
Gunther, A. 1865. Pisces. The record of zoological
literature. Zoological Record 1864:133-188.
Gunther, A. 1902. Last account of fishes collected
by Mr. R. B. N. Walker, C. M. Z. S., on the
Gold Coast. Proceeding of the Zoological
Society of London 2:330-339.
Harry, R. R. 1953. A contribution to the
classification of the African catfishes of
the family Amphiliidae, with description
of collections from Cameroon. Revue de
Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 47:177-
200; 201-232.
Hilgendorf, F. M. 1905. Fische von Deutsch und
English Ost-Africa. Zoologische Jahr-
bicher. Abteilung fur Systematik, Geog-
raphie und Biologie der Tiere (Jena) 22:405-
420.
Jackson, P. B. N. 1959. New records and little-
known species of fish from Rhodesia
and Nyasaland. Occasional papers of the
National Museums of Southern Rhodesia,
Natural Sciences 3:295-305.
Jackson, P. B. N. 1961a. Check-list of the fishes
of Nyasaland. Occasional Papers of the
National Museums of Southern Rhodesia,
Natural sciences 3:535-621.
Jackson, P. B. N. 1961b. The Fishes of Northern
Rhodesia: A Checklist of Indigenous Species.
The Government Printer, Lusaka:,140 p.
Jubb, R. A. 1961. An Illustrated Guide to the
Freshwater Fishes of the Zambezi River, Lake


Kariba, Pungwe, Subi, Lundi and Limpopo
Rivers. Stuart Manning, Bulawayo, 171 p.
Jubb, R. A. 1963. A revised list of the freshwater
fishes of southern Africa. Annals of the
Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History)
3:40-43.
Maar, A. 1960. Introductory check list of fish of the
Ethiopian region. Proceedings of the Federal
Science Congress 1:1-8.
Marriott, M.S., A. J. Booth, & P. H. Skelton. 1997.
Reproductive and feeding biology of the
Natal mountain catfish Amphilius natalensis
(Siluroidei: Amphiliidae). Environmental
Biology of Fishes 49:461-470.
Ngugi, C. C., J. O. Manyala, M. Njiru and C. M.
Mlewa. 2009. Some aspects of the biology
of the stargazer mountain catfish, Amphil-
ius uranoscopus (Pfeffer); (Siluriformes:
Amphiliidae) indigenous to Kenya streams.
African Journal of Ecology 47:606-613.
Pellegrin, J. 1936. Contribution a l'Ichtyologie
de l'Angola. Arquivos do Museu Bocage,
Lisboa 7:45-62.
Pfeffer, G. J. 1889. Ubersicht der von Herrn Dr.
Franz Stuhlmann in Agypten, auf Sanzibar
und dem gegenaberliegenden Festlande
gesammelten Reptilien, Amphibien,
Fische, Mollusken und Krebse. Jahrbuch
der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen
Anstalten, Hamburg 6:1-36.
Poche, F. 1902a. Uber das Vorkommen von
Anoplopterus platychir (Gthr) in Westafrika.
Zoologischer Anzeiger 25:121-122.
Poche, F. 1902b. Richtigstellung eines Gattung-
snamens unter den Siluriden. Zoologischer
Anzeiger 25:211.
Poll, M. 1952. Poissons de rivieres de la region
des lacs Tanganika et Kivu recuellis par G.
Marlier. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique
Africaines 46:221-236.
Ricardo, C. K. 1939a. The fishes of Lake Rukwa.
Journal of the Linnean Society of London,
Zoology 40:625-657.
Ricardo, C. K. 1939b. Report on the Fish and
Fisheries of Lake Rukwa in Tanganika
Territory and the Bangweulu Regions in






BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(2)


Northern Rhodesia. Crown Agent, London,
78 p.
Roberts, T. R. 2003. Systematics and osteology
of Leptoglaninae, a new subfamily of the
African catfish family Amphiliidae, with
descriptions of three new genera and six
new species. Proceedings of the California
Academy of Sciences 54:81-132.
Seegers, L. 1996. Die Amphilius-Arten Ostafrikas.
Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift
(DATZ) 49:249-255.
Seegers, L. 2008. The Catfishes of Africa. A
Handbook for Identification and Mainten-
ance. Aqualog Verlag, Rodgau, Germany,
604 p.
Seegers, L., L. De Vos, & D. O. Okeyo. 2003.
Annotated checklist of the freshwater
fishes of Kenya (excluding the lacustrine
haplochromines from Lake Victoria). Journal
of East African Natural History 92:11-47.
Singh, A., & N. K. Agarwal. 1991. SEM surface
structure of the adhesive organ of the
hillstream fish Glyptothorax pectinopterus
(Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Garhwal Hills.
Functional and Developmental Morphology
1:11-13.
Skelton, P. H. 1981. The description and osteology
of a new species of Gephyroglanis
(Siluriformes, Bagridae) from the Olifants
River, South West Cape, South Africa.
Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums,
Natural History 13:217-249.
Skelton, P. H. 1984. A systematic revision of species
of the catfish genus Amphilius (Siluroidei,
Amphiliidae) from east and southern Africa.
Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums,
Natural History 16:41-71.


Skelton, P. H. 1986. Two new Amphilius (Pisces,
Siluroidei, Amphiliidae) from River system,
Africa. Revue de Zoologie Africaine 99:263-
291.
Skelton, P. H., 1994. Diversity and distribution
of freshwater fishes in East and Southern
Africa. Pp. 95-131 in G.G.Teugels, J.F.
Guegan & J.J. Albaret, eds. Biological
diversity of African fresh- and brackish water
fishes. Geographical overviews presented at
the PARADI Symposium, Senegal, 15-20
November 1993. Annales Musee Royal de
l'Afrique Centrale Zoologiques.
Skelton, P. H. 2001. A Complete Guide to the
Freshwater Fishes of Southern Africa, Second
Edition. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 395 p.
Skelton, P. H. 2007. New species of the amphiliid
catfish genera Amphilius, Doumea and
Phractura and the taxonomy ofParamphilius
from West Central Africa (Siluriformes,
Amphiliidae). Zootaxa 1578:41-68.
Vaillant, L. L. 1897. Siluroide nouveau de l'Afrique
orientale (Chimarrhoglanis leroyi). Bulletin
du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 3:81-
84.
Van Der Horst, C. J. 1931. Some South African
siluroid fishes. Annals of the Transvaal
Museum 14:246-250.
Walsh, S. J., L. J. Chapman, A. E. Rosenberger,
& C. A. Chapman. 2000. Redescription of
Amphilius jacksonii (Siluriformes: Amphi-
liidae) with habitat and life-history notes.
Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters
11:163-174.
Whitehead, P. J. P. 1958. A new species of
Chiloglanis (Pisces, Mochocidae) in Kenya.
Annals and Magazine of Natural History
(Ser. 13) 1:197-208.






The BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY publishes original research
conducted by our faculty, staff, students, and research associates. We also accept submissions of appropriate,
fully funded manuscripts from external researchers. Priority is given to monograph-length papers describing
specimen-based research. Forty-five double-spaced pages (including references and appendices but excluding
figures, tables, and supplemental materials) is the minimum length for submitted manuscripts, although there can
be exceptions as determined by the Managing Editor. Starting in 2010, the Bulletin is published simultaneously
in two formats. Approximately 400 printed copies are distributed to libraries and museums world-wide by the
University of Florida Library system. Authors have the option of purchasing additional printed copies at cost for
distribution to colleagues and associates. An identical, electronic version is posted in PDF format on the Florida
Museum of Natural History web site simultaneously with the availability of the printed version and is available
free of charge for reading or downloading. Supplemental materials are available only through the web site.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

Detailed instructions are posted on the web site http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/bulletin/bulletininst.htm. All taxonomic
papers must adhere to the rules published in the appropriate international code of systematic nomenclature.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLMNH BULLETIN

Franz, R., & S. E. Franz. 2009. A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae)
from the northern Bahamas, with an osteological assessment of other Neotropical tortoises. 49(1):1-44. $8.00

Snelson, F. F., Jr., T. J. Krabbenhoft, & J. M. Quattro. 2009. Elassoma gilbert, a new species of pygmy sunfish
(Elassomatidae) from Florida and Georgia. 48(4):119-144. $7.00

Zaspel, J. M., S. J. Weller, & R. T. Carde. 2008. A review of Virbia (formerly Holomelina) of North America.
48(3):59-118. $10.00

Webb, S. D. 2008. Revision of the extinct Pseudoceratinae (Artiodactyla: Ruminantia: Gelocidae). 48(2):17-58.
$7.00

Steadman, D. W. 2008. Doves (Columbidae) and cuckoos (Cuculidae) from the early Miocene of Florida. 48(1): 1-
16. $7.00

Borden, W. C., & M. M. Colburn. 2008. Striated muscles of the black basses (Micropterus, Centrachidae):
myological stasis in a generalized group ofPercomorph fishes. 47(4):109-136. $7.00

Wilkins, L., J. M. Allen, & D. Reed. 2007. Methods of assessing health and diet of Florida panthers (Puma
concolor) using museum specimens, parts 1 & 2. 47(3):73-108. $7.00

Ehret, D. J. 2007. Skeletochronology: A method for determining the individual age and growth of modern and
fossil tortoises (Reptilia: Testudines). 47(2):49-72. $7.00

Hayes, F. G. 2007. Magnetostratigraphy and paleontology of Wagner Quarry, (late Oligocene, early Arikareean)
basal Arikareean Group of the Pine Ridge Region, Dawes County, Nebraska. 47(1): 1-48. $7.00


A complete list of available issues and current prices of the Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History
and instructions for purchasing them can be found at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/bulletin/bulletinvols.htm. Digital
versions of out-of-print issues can be found at http://ufdcwebl.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?a=ufirg&m=hitflmnh.






A












U
U






























Ak









XF









.4
V













mmll




Full Text

PAGE 1

BULLETIN TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE AMPHILIUS URANOSCOPUS GROUP (TELEOSTEI: SILURIFORMES) IN KENYA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM THE ATHI RIVER Alfred W. Thomson and Lawrence M. Page Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 45 2010 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA GAINESVILLE

PAGE 2

The FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is Floridas state museum of natural history, dedicated to understanding, preserving, and interpreting biological diversity and cultural heritage. The BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes results of original research in zoology, botany, paleontology, archaeology, and museum science. The Bulletin is published at irregular intervals, and volumes are not necessarily completed in any one year. Volumes contain between 150 and 300 pages, sometimes more. The number of papers contained in each volume varies, depending upon the number of pages in each paper, but four numbers is the current standard. Multi-author issues of related papers have been published together, and inquiries about putting together such issues are welcomed. Address all inquiries to the Managing Editor of the Bulletin. Richard C. Hulbert, Jr., Managing Editor Bulletin Committee Ann S. Cordell Richard C. Hulbert, Jr. Jacqueline Miller Larry M. Page Roger W. Portell, Treasurer Irvy R. Quitmyer David W. Steadman, ISSN: 0071-6154 Copyright 2010 by the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. All rights reserved. Text, commercial use or republication by printed or electronic media is strictly prohibited without written permission of the museum. Publication Date: August 23, 2010 Send communications concerning puchase or exchange of this publication and manuscript queries to: Managing Editor of the Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida P.O. Box 117800 Gainesville, FL 32611-7800 USA FAX: 352-846-0287

PAGE 3

TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE AMPHILIUS URANOSCOPUS GROUP (TELEOSTEI: SILURIFORMES) IN KENYA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM THE ATHI RIVER Alfred W. Thomson1 and Lawrence M. Page1ABSTRACTThe taxonomy of the Amphilius uranoscopus group in Kenya is revised. Amphilius athiensis n. sp. is described from the Galana River basin, and Amphilius grandis and Amphilius krefftii are removed from synonymy with A. uranoscopus and redescribed. All three species are assigned to the Amphilius uranoscopus group, which is distinguished from other species of Amphilius by the species are recognized in the A. uranoscopusA. athiensis n. sp., Amphilius chalei Amphilius cryptobullatus A. grandis, A. krefftii and A. uranoscopus and by the development of their bilateral bony swimbladder capsules. Key Words: Amphilius uranoscopus 1TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction . ........................................................................ Materials and Methods . ....................................................... T axonomic Descriptions . .................................................... Amphilius uranoscopus Group . ................................... Amphilius athiensis n. sp. . .......................................... Amphilius grandis . ............................ Amphilius kr efftii . .............................. Discussion . .......................................................................... Comparative Materials Examined . ...................................... Acknowledgements . ............................................................ Literature Cited . ..................................................................

PAGE 4

I ntroNTRO DU ctionCTION at high elevations or rapids of large lowland rivers recognized three subfamilies within Amphiliidae, with Amphilius and Paramphilius placed in the the genus Amphilius, with most occurring in the drainages of western Africa and the Congo River recognized two species of Amphilius in Kenya, A. jacksonii in the Nile River basin and A. uranoscopus in the Ewaso Ngiro, Tana, Galana, and Pangani Amphilius adaptations for these habitats include expanded depressed body, dorsally directed eyes and reduced microstructure of the anterior ray of the pectoral dermal microstructure of the adhesive organs in Little information is available on the biology of Amphilius African species breed during the summer. Marriott A. natalensis species had a long breeding period extending from August to February. They observed that breeding coincided with the rainy season and postulated that spawning was initiated in response to increased breeding season of A. jacksonii but suggested that it may have two breeding periods per year. of Amphilius in the Thego River, a tributary of the Tana River, and found it to have a protracted other months. The diet of Amphilius species has been stomach analysis of A. natalensis, and found the diet to consist mostly of larval chironomids and ephemeropterans. Additionally, they found that small individuals fed predominantly on chironomid larvae, while in larger individuals, chironomid and ephemer opteran larvae contributed almost A. jacksonii and similarly found the diet of this species to consist mainly of larval Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. SYsSTEMATIC HIsSTORY Amphilius as a section of the genus Pimelodus for a new species he named Pimelodus platychir Amphilius description, created the genus Anoplopterus for a new species, Anoplopterus uranoscopus, from the Wami River basin in Tanzania. Nine years Chimarrhoglanis for a new species, which he described as C. leroyi from the nearby Ruvu River basin, C. leroyi with Pimelodus platychir but overlooked Amphilius and synonymized Chimarrhoglanis with Anoplopterus A. uranoscopus and suggested that the types of A. platychir

PAGE 5

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya A. platychir Amphilius as the correct name for the genus, synonymized Anoplopterus and Chimarrhoglanis with Amphilius. Despite Poche A. platychir and recognized A. platychir as a species Amphilius grandis from the Tana River basin in Kenya. He distinguished this species from A. uranoscopus by He distinguished A. grandis from A. platychir by its of his Catalogue of Freshwater Fishes of Africa, and recognized four species in the drainages of A. uranoscopus, A. platychir, A. grandis, and A. krefftii, a new species that he Amphilius krefftii like A. grandis, was distinguished from the other species of Amphilius by relative proportions of its head, barbel, and caudal -peduncle lengths. A. oxyrhinus, from the Eusso Mara River, a tributary A. grandis, the only other species of Amphilius he recorded from the Ewaso Ngiro River. A. krefftii most workers continued to recognize all A. krefftii and stated that it is very probably a synonym of A. grandis. Meanwhile, A. grandis was reported Amphilius platychir was also reported from records of A. grandis from eastern and southern Africa to A. platychir, and A. platychir became accepted as being widespread throughout eastern and southern Africa. Amphilius groups within Amphilius. One group is primarily west African, has a crenellated epidermal fold at the rays. The second group is primarily distributed in eastern and southern Africa, lacks the crenellated Amphilius platychir the species from eastern and southern Africa were determined to be based on a single widespread species, A. uranoscopus C. leroyi, A. grandis, A. krefftii, and A. oxyrhinus to all be synonyms of A. uranoscopus. Three other taxa were also synonymized with A. uranoscopus Amphilius hargeri from Mlangi, British Central Amphilius brevidorsalis from Amphilius platychir cubangoensis from Angola. Amphilius uranoscopus from the other eastern species of Amphilius by two characters that appear to be derived within Amphilius, its relatively long body of Amphilius with these characters have been Amphilius cryptobullatus from the upper A. chalei Amphilius cryptobullatus was distinguished from A. uranoscopus by the development

PAGE 6

and extremely large size of its bilateral bony swimbladder capsules, and A. chalei by its extremely slender body and caudal peduncle of A. uranoscopus in Kenya by examining all available museum specimens from Kenya and and Wami River basins in Tanzania. We conclude that A. uranoscopus does not occur in Kenya, and that references to that species in Kenya are based on three different species. Two of these species, A. grandis and A. krefftii have been considered synonyms of A. uranoscopus, while the third is a new species described in this paper. These species are part of the Amphilius uranoscopus group as diagnosed below. MATERIALS AN DD METHO DD S Measurements were made point -to -point with digital calipers, and data were recorded to tenths and measurements of other body parts are given terms origin and insertion to designate, respectively, the most anterior and posterior points on the bases and measurements were made on the left side of a measured, but counts were made on all specimens. are indicated by lower case Roman numerals, and branched soft rays by Arabic numerals. The number to determine, and the counts were checked with radiographs whenever possible. Amphiliids typically counts. Branchiostegal ray counts only include Abdominal vertebrae include all vertebrae in front of or exactly parallel to the anterior anal pterygiophore. Caudal vertebrae include all vertebrae posterior to the abdominal vertebrae, with the ural centrum counted as one vertebra. A. cryptobullatus are from intercept count is the number of vertebrae up to and including the vertebra opposite, or anterior to, the spine of the leading dorsal pterygiophore. Material examined is given under each species account and is listed by drainage followed by catalog number, country, locality, geographic coordinates and, in parentheses, the number of examined in this study are deposited in the following BMNH CAS C UU FMNH Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts MCZ MRAC SAIAB UU F the Universitt Hamburg, Biozentrum Grindel und Zoologisches Museum, Ichthyology, Hamburg, ZMH If the species is also listed in a key on a separate page from the account, that page is also listed. The type of information in the reference is given followed by the locality for the species as given in the account. Additionally, any specimens that the account is known to be based on are listed. If the account is only based in part on the species, only the information that is applicable to that species is listed. Accounts of species outside east -central

PAGE 7

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Africa that give only a general distribution in east -central Africa are excluded. T aA X onomicONOMIC DescriDESCRI P tionsTIONS AMPHILIUS URaANOSCOPUS GROUP Amphilius uranoscopus group, A. athiensis, n. sp., A. krefftii, A. grandis. A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, and A. uranoscopus, are distinguished from all other species of Amphilius by Amphilius uranoscopus group differ from all other species of Amphilius except A. natalensis, A. lampei, A. kivuensis, A. laticaudatus, and A. zairensis A. uranoscopus group differ from A. natalensis, A. lampei, and A. kivuensis by having the leading pterygiophore of A. uranoscopus group differ from A. laticaudatus and A. zairensis by having relatively of the three species of the A. uranoscopus group in A. athiensis, A. krefftii, and A. grandis. The three species of the A. uranoscopus group found elsewhere are A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, and A. uranoscopus Figure 1. Amphilius uranoscopus Amphilius cryptobullatus Amphilius chalei

PAGE 8

Table 1. Diagnostic characters of species of the Amphilius uranoscopus group. Modes in parentheses. Character A. athiensis A. grandis A. krefftii A. uranoscopus A. chaleiA. cryptobullatus Total vertebrae 38 (38)37 (38)36 (36)38 (38)38 (38)35 (36) shape ForkedForked EmarginateForkedForked Emarginate Body colorationBrown and Uniformly light brown or brown with large dark spots or blotches Brown/yellow, blotches rarely present Grey with diffuse black stripe along side Usually dark blotches along side but may be uniformly brown Mottled black and light brown/cream PresentAbsent AbsentAbsentAbsent Absent Distinct pale patches at origin and insertion of AbsentAbsent PresentPresentUsually presentPresent Inner mandibular barbel length/HL Body depth at Caudal -peduncle Caudal -peduncle

PAGE 9

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Amphilius athiensis new species Amphilius grandis Amphilius uranoscopus thi Figure 2. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of the holotype of Amphilius athiensis

PAGE 10

Diagnosis.Diagnostic characters are summarized in Table 1. Amphilius athiensis is distinguished from all other species of the A. uranoscopus group by its distinctive coloration consisting of many small dark spots on its head, Amphilius athiensis also differs from A. grandis by having longer inner mandibular from A. chalei, A. cryptobullatus, A. krefftii, and A. uranoscopus by the absence of distinct pale patches at the origin and insertion of the dorsal A. cryptobullatus and A. krefftii differs from A. krefftii by its more elongate body Table 2. Morphometric data for Amphilius athiensis n. sp. Range and mean include the holotype. Holotype SL %SL Head length Head width Head height Body depth Body depth at anus Caudal -peduncle length Caudal -peduncle depth Preanus length %HL Interorbital distance Maxillary barbel length Inner mandibular barbel length Outer mandibular barbel length Eye diameter

PAGE 11

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Amphilius athiensis also differs from A. chalei by having a deeper body A. cryptobullatus by having normally developed Description.Morphometric data as in horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Greatest body compressed, without crenellated epidermal fold. complete, extending from dorsal edge of opercular Head and anterior part of body depressed and broad, moderately pointed when viewed from above. Head becoming wider from tip of snout V -shaped or deeply concave connection. Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal. and papillate. Anterior portion of premaxillary tooth band exposed with mouth closed. Premaxillary U -shaped band, with short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short and conical, tooth patches forming U -shaped band, separated medially. Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral with pointed tip, origin at posterior corner of lower Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge of branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal Eyes small, positioned dorsolaterally approximately midway between tip of snout and posterior margin of operculum. Horizontal diameter of eye slightly wider than vertical diameter. Eye with dorsal surface of head. Anterior and posterior but relatively close to each other. Posterior nare located about midway between eye and tip of snout. straight posterior margin. convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply almost straight. Coloration.Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body brown with many small black yellow. Light dorsal saddles absent. Dorsal,

PAGE 12

surfaces brown with light distal edge and lower Maxillary and mandibular barbels brown. Caudal Distribution.Known only from the Athi Etymology.Athiensis refers to the Athi River system, where the species appears to be Amphilius grandis Boulenger 1905 Amphilius grandis Amphilius oxyrhinus Amphilius platychir var. cubangoensis synonymy of A. uranoscopus. Amphilius oxyrhinus A. uranoscopus. Amphilius platychir Amphilius uranoscopus Figure 3. Known distribution of Amphilius athiensis Amphilius grandis and Amphilius krefftii

PAGE 13

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Figure 4. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of Amphilius grandis Material Examined.Ewaso Ngiro River basin: a swift mountain stream, tributary of Ewaso Ngiro, A. oxyrhinus Tana River basin:

PAGE 14

UU nknown river basin: Diagnosis.Diagnostic characters are summarized in Table 1. Amphilius grandis is distinguished from A. chalei A. cryptobullatus A. krefftii, and A. uranoscopus by the absence of distinct pale patches at the origin and insertion of A. athiensis by the absence of small dark spots on head, body, and A. cryptobullatus and A. krefftii A. krefftii by its A. uranoscopus by its body coloration, uniformly brown or brown with large dark spots or blotches Amphilius grandis also differs from A. chalei by A. cryptobullatus by having normally developed Description.Morphometric data as in then nearly horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. peduncle laterally compressed, without crenel lated epidermal fold. Anus and urogenital open ings dorsal edge of opercular cavity to base of caudal Head and anterior part of body depressed and broad. Head wedge -shaped in lateral view. becoming wider from tip of snout to pectoral -V -shaped connection. Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal. large and papillate. Anterior portion of premaxillary tooth band exposed with mouth closed. PreU -shaped band, with short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short and conical, tooth patches forming U -shaped band, separated medially. Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral thin with pointed tip, origin at posterior corner Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge of branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal memEye small, positioned dorsolaterally approx -imately midway between tip of snout and posterior margin of operculum. Horizontal diameter of eye slightly wider than vertical diameter. Eye without free of head. Anterior and posterior nares with prominent

PAGE 15

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya each other. Posterior nare located about midway between eye and tip of snout. innermost rays progressively shorter making convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply Coloration.Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body brown. Dorsal and lateral regions of head and body sometimes with large black spots Table 3. Morphometric data for Amphilius grandis. Range and mean include the syntypes. SL %SL Head length Head width Head height Body depth Body depth at anus Caudal -peduncle length Caudal -peduncle depth Preanus length %HL Interorbital distance Maxillary barbel length Inner mandibular barbel length Outer mandibular barbel length Eye diameter

PAGE 16

dorsal saddles absent. Dorsal, adipose, caudal, and horizontally with upper surfaces brown with light distal edge and lower surfaces light yellow. Dorsal pigment. Maxillary and mandibular barbels brown. Distribution.Tana and Ewaso Ngiro Amphilius krefftii Boulenger 1911 Amphilius krefftii A. uranoscopus. Pimelodus Amphilius uranoscopus Amphilius grandis Amphilius uranoscopus Amphilius platychir Material Examined. Galana River basin: Lake Jipe basin: PP angani River basin: stream at Arusha in the foothills of Mount Meru, Tanzania, Una River directly below Kinukamori Kikuletwa River at below dam along road from Kikavu River at bridge on road from Moshi to River along road from Mombo to Loshoto, altitude Sigi River basin: Tanzania, Usambara, in rivulet running from Tanzania, Kisiwani, near Amani, East Usambura

PAGE 17

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Diagnosis.Diagnostic characters are summarized in Table 1. Amphilius krefftii is distinguished from A. chalei, A. grandis, A. athiensis, and A. uranoscopus by its emarginate A. grandis and A. athiensis by the presence of distinct pale patches differs from A. chalei, A. athiensis, A. grandis, and A. uranoscopus by having a short body with Figure 5. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of Amphilius krefftii

PAGE 18

A. cryptobullatus, A. athiensis, and A. uranoscopus by the mottled in A. cryptobullatus, A. athiensis and with diffuse black stripe along side in A. uranoscopus Amphilius krefftii also differs from A. athiensis by the absence of spots on the Amphilius krefftii also differs from A. chalei by having a deeper It also differs from A. cryptobullatus by having normally developed bilateral bony swimbladder Description.Morphometric data as in horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Greatest body compressed, without crenellated epidermal fold. Table 4. Morphometric data for Amphilius krefftii Range and mean include the syntypes. SL %SL Head length Head width Head height Body depth Body depth at anus Caudal -peduncle length Caudal -peduncle depth Preanus length %HL Interorbital distance Maxillary barbel length Inner mandibular barbel length Outer mandibular barbel length Eye diameter

PAGE 19

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya Anus and urogenital openings located at insertion extending from dorsal edge of opercular cavity to Head and anterior part of body depressed and broad. Head wedge -shaped in lateral view becoming wider from tip of snout to pectoral -V -shaped or deeply concave connection. Mouth broad, gently curved, subterminal. and papillate. Anterior portion of premaxillary tooth band exposed with mouth closed. Premaxillary U -shaped band, with short conical teeth. Dentary teeth short and conical, tooth patches forming U -shaped band, separated medially. Three pairs of simple, tapered circumoral base. Outer mandibular barbel thin with pointed extending to edge of branchiostegal membrane. Inner mandibular barbel originates anterolaterally of inner mandibular barbel, extending to edge of branchiostegal membrane. Branchiostegal Eyes small, positioned dorsolaterally approximately midway between tip of snout and posterior margin of operculum. Horizontal diameter of eye slightly wider than vertical diameter. Eye with dorsal surface of head. Anterior and posterior but relatively close to each other. Posterior nare located about midway between eye and tip of snout. convex with sharply rounded edge, not deeply Coloration.Dorsal and lateral surfaces of Light dorsal saddles at origin and insertion of positioned horizontally with upper surfaces brown and lower surfaces light yellow. Maxillary and with small blotches of brown pigment on branched ray dark brown dorsally. Distribution.Tsavo River system of the DD ISC UU SSION Amphilius uranoscopus was described from four specimens from the Wami River basin condition of the two surviving type specimens additional specimens from the Wami River basin of A. uranoscopus and led to the recognition of

PAGE 20

A. uranoscopus as a widespread and extremely A. uranoscopus from three localities in the Wami River basin which, of A. uranoscopus A. uranoscopus from Kenya. We concluded, based on our detailed comparisons of this new material to specimens of Amphilius from Kenya and Tanzania, that two species previously considered synonyms of A. uranoscopus should be removed from synonymy, and a new species should be recognized from the Athi River. Amphilius grandis was described by Boulenger from the Tana River basin in Kenya, and soon after he described A. oxyrhinus from the provisionally consider A. oxyrhinus to be a synonym of A. grandis, but study of additional material from the Tana and Ewaso Ngiro River basins may reveal it to be a distinct species. Amphilius oxyrhinus was diagnosed from A. grandis by Boulenger primarily by its more pointed snout. We found the holotype of A. oxyrhinus to have a more pointed snout then the syntypes of A. grandis, and to have dark blotches syntypes of A. grandis specimens that had back spots or blotches on the body as A. oxyrhinus. These specimens tended to have a more pointed snout and fewer gill rakers, but all of these specimens were much smaller then the holotype of A. oxyrhinus. Also, the smallest A. oxyrhinus did not appear to have a more pointed snout than the A. grandis. Additionally, A. oxyrhinus were from the Tana River basin while almost all A. grandis was from the Ewaso Ngiro River basin, which was not consistent with the type localities of these two species. For these reasons we feel it is best to consider A. oxyrhinus a synonym of A. grandis. The recognition of A. uranoscopus as a single widespread species has been based largely on the lack of clear meristic and morphometric differences between populations. Although variation in these characters among populations. variation in pigment pattern, certain aspects are consistent and are useful in distinguishing the species. Amphilius athiensis and sometimes A. grandis have dark markings on the body in the form of blotches or spots. Dark blotches or spots are generally absent in A. krefftii and A. uranoscopus. Amphilius krefftii may have a few dark areas on its body, but it never has distinct dark blotches or spots. In A. athiensis, the dark markings are almost spots are also always present on the head. In A. grandis, the dark markings are mostly in the form of large blotches or spots, with only a few smaller absent or indistinct. The pectoral, pelvic, dorsal, A. athiensis are also heavily spotted. Amphilius grandis, A. krefftii, and A. uranoscopus some dark pigment may be present. Light saddles in A. krefftii and A. uranoscopus, but are absent in A. grandis and A. athiensis In A. athiensis, A. grandis and A. uranoscopus, forked, but it is weakly emarginate in A. krefftii. The degree of forking decreases with the size of the specimen, so large specimens of A. athiensis, A. grandis, and A. uranoscopus have less deeply the degree of forking is still greater than what is typically seen in A. krefftii. The largest specimens of A. krefftii A. krefftii is distinctive in having a shorter body than does A. athiensis, A. grandis, and A. uranoscopus. Amphilius krefftii vertebrae, while A. grandis A. athiensis and A. uranoscopus

PAGE 21

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya COM PP ARATIVE MATERIAL E XX AMINE DD Amphilius chalei CU Amphilius cryptobullatus Congo River basin: Amphilius uranoscopus Wami River basin: above and below falls along road from Dumila to River at bridge in Turiani on road from Dumila at rapids above bridge on road from Chalinze to Table 5. species of the Amphilius uranoscopus group. A. grandis 11 1 A. athiensis A. krefftii 11 A. uranoscopus A. chalei 1 A. cryptobullatus ACKNOWLE DD GEMENTS Funding for this study was provided by the All institutional specimens were provided by Ralf Museum, Tomio Iwamoto and Dave Catania of Mary Rogers of the Field Museum of Natural History, Karsten Hartel of the Harvard Museum Hanssens and Miguel Parrent of the Royal Museum discussions of Amphilius taxonomy with Rebecca Wright.

PAGE 22

LITERAT UU RE CITE DD of southern Africa and record of Amphilius lampei Freshwater Fishes of Tanzania. University of Anoplopterus platychir Gthr. Annals pour la faune du Congo. Annales du Muse District, East Africa. Proceedings of the of Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural Neave in Rhodesia, north of the Zambesi and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum made by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in British East Africa to the East of Lake Baringo. water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum History. Wadsworth Pub lishing Company, Natal with descriptions of four new species. Pseudocheneis sulcatus Pseudocheneis sulcatus in Aptations, Homoplasies, Constraints and

PAGE 23

Amphilius uranoscopus Group in Kenya and catalogue of siluriform primary types. the Physostomi, Containing the Families in the Collection of the British Museum. Gold Coast. Proceeding of the Zoological the family Amphiliidae, with description of collections from Cameroon. Revue de and Nyasaland. Occasional papers of the of Nyasaland. Occasional Papers of the Freshwater Fishes of the Zambezi River, Lake Ethiopian region. Proceedings of the Federal Reproductive and feeding biology of the Amphilius natalensis Am philius uranoscopus und dem gegenberliegenden Festlande gesammelten Reptilien, Amphibien, der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anoplopterus platychir des lacs Tanganika et Kivu recuellis par G. Fisheries of Lake Rukwa in Tanganika Territory and the Bangweulu Regions in

PAGE 24

Northern Rhodesia. Crown Agent, London, of Leptoglaninae, a new subfamily of the descriptions of three new genera and six new species. Proceedings of the California Annotated checklist of the freshwater structure of the adhesive organ of the Glyptothorax pectinopterus Functional and Developmental Morphology of a new species of Gephyro glanis Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums, Amphilius Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums, Amphilius in diversity of African fresh -and brackish water Amphilius, Doumea and Phractura and the taxonomy of Paramphilius Chimarrhoglanis leroyi Amphilius jacksonii Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters Chiloglanis Annals and Magazine of Natural History

PAGE 25

The B ulletinULLETIN ofOF theTHE F loridaLORIDA M useumUSEUM ofOF N aturalATURAL H istoryISTOR Y publishes original research conducted by our faculty staff, students, and research associates. We also accept submissions of appropriate, fully funded manuscripts from external researchers. Priority is given to monograph-length papers describing be exceptions as determined by the Managing Editor. Starting in 2010, the Bulletin is published simultaneously in two formats. Approximately 400 printed copies are distributed to libraries and museums world-wide by the University of Florida Library system. Authors have the option of purchasing additional printed copies at cost for distribution to colleagues and associates. An identical, electronic version is posted in PDF format on the Florida Museum of Natural History web site simultaneously with the availability of the printed version and is available free of charge for reading or downloading. Supplemental materials are available only through the web site. INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS papers must adhere to the rules published in the appropriate international code of systematic nomenclature. RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLMNH BULLETIN Franz, R., & S. E. Franz. 2009. A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis Snelson, F. F., Jr., T. J. Krabbenhoft, & J. M. Quattro. 2009. Zaspel, J. M., S. J. Weller, & R. T. Carde. 2008. A review of A complete list of available issues and current prices of the Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History