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Title:
Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural, natural resource, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008
Series Title:
FE829
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Hodges, Alan W.
Rahmani, Mohammad
Publisher:
Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2010

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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FE829
U UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
IFAS Extension



Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural

Resource, Food and Kindred Product Manufacturing and
Distribution, and Service Industries in 20081


Alan W. Hodges and Mohammad Rahmani2

Introduction

The state of Florida has nearly 24 million acres
(36,000 square miles) in forests, croplands, and
ranches-two-thirds of Florida's total land area. The
agricultural and natural resource industries produce
food, fiber, and mineral commodities, and are linked
to a broad range of other economic sectors for food
and kindred product manufacturing, wholesale and
retail distribution, input supplies, support services,
and nature-based recreation/eco-tourism. In addition
to farming, forestry, fisheries, and mining, other
diverse activities are included such as fertilizer
manufacturing, sawmills, fruit and vegetable
processing, landscaping, wholesale food distributors,
retail food stores, restaurants, retail lawn-and-garden
centers, pest-control services, golf courses, and
recreational fishing.

This report provides estimates of these
industries' economic contributions to Florida in 2008,
updating a previous study for 2007 (Hodges and
Rahmani 2009).


Methods

Data for this analysis were obtained from the
IMPLAN Professional database for Florida counties
for 2001-2008 (Minnesota IMPLAN Group/MIG,
Inc.) and other special studies conducted by the
authors. These data were derived from the National
Income and Product Accounts for the United States
(United States Department of Commerce). Over 90
individual industry sectors in Florida were identified
as related to agriculture and natural resource
commodity production, input supply and supporting
services, food and kindred product manufacturing and
distribution, and nature-based recreation. A list of
industry groups and individual sectors included in the
analysis is shown in Table 1. Note that some industry
sectors in this analysis were reclassified from their
original major industry group designation under the
North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) to be included as part of the broadly
defined agriculture and related industries. Economic
contributions were evaluated for several recognizable
commodity groups that have linkages between
production and processing/manufacturing sectors,


1. This is EDIS document FE829, a publication of the Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Published February 2010. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Alan W. Hodges, extension scientist, and Mohammad Rahmani, coordinator of economic analysis, Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,
sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie
Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean






Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 2


including environmental horticulture (nursery and
greenhouse production, landscape services, and retail
lawn-and-garden centers); fruit and vegetable
farming and processing; forestry, logging, and forest
product manufacturing; sugarcane and refined sugar
manufacturing; livestock and animal products
manufacturing; and fishing and seafood products.

The total regional economic impacts for each
sector were estimated using models developed with
the IMPLANProfessional software for social
accounting and impact analysis (MIG, Inc.). This
system enables construction of input-output models
and social accounting matrices that represent the
structure of a regional economy in terms of
transactions among industry sectors, households, and
governments. The IMPLAN model accounts for
industrial commodity production; employment; labor
and property income; household and institutional
consumption; domestic and international trade
(imports, exports); government taxes; transfer
payments such as welfare and retirement; and capital
investment. Economic multipliers for each industry
capture the secondary effects of new money flowing
into the region that generates further economic
activity as it is re-spent in the local economy (Miller
and Blair 2009). Indirect effects multipliers represent
the economic activity generated in the supply chain
through the purchase of intermediate inputs from
vendor firms, while induced effects multipliers
represent the impacts of spending by industry
employee households and governments. The indirect
and induced multipliers were applied only to foreign
and domestic exports, or sales outside the state of
Florida. The total economic impacts are calculated as
the sum of direct effects, plus indirect and induced
effects. Therefore, while the estimates of this analysis
are referred to as "economic impacts," these values
may be better understood as "economic
contributions" because they represent the ongoing
economic activity of existing industries, rather than a
net change in activity resulting from external
influences (Watson et al. 2007).

Measures of economic impacts reported here
include output or revenue, value added, employment
(including full-time, part-time, and seasonal
positions), labor income, property income, and
indirect business taxes paid to local, state, and federal


governments. Value added is a broad measure of net
economic activity that is comparable to the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP), and represents the sum of
labor and property income, indirect business taxes,
and capital consumption (depreciation). Value added
also is equivalent to the difference between industry
revenues and intermediate inputs purchased from
other sectors. A glossary of economic impact analysis
terminology is provided in the Appendix.

Regional economic models were developed for
the state of Florida and for all sixty-seven counties in
the state using the IMPLANPro software and Florida
state/county data package for 2008 (MIG, Inc.). All
model parameters were kept at default settings, with
econometrically estimated regional purchase
coefficients (RPCs) representing the share of
commodities purchased from local sources.
Social/institutional accounts for households; local,
state, and federal governments; and capital
investment were incorporated endogenously within
the model.

Summary information was developed for the
state, all counties, and for nine regions (Figure 6).
These functional economic regions each represent a
core urban area, surrounded by closely linked
nonmetropolitan counties. The regions were defined
by the United States Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis (USDOC/BEA) based
on metropolitan areas, employee commuting patterns,
and other economic data from the 2000 U.S. Census
(Johnson and Kort 2004). It should be noted that
some Georgia counties included in the north Florida
regions were not evaluated in this analysis. Due to
differences in trade flows and accounting adjustments
at the state and county levels, slight discrepancies in
regional results were reconciled by forcing county
and regional estimates to match with state totals.

For some activities that were not specifically
identified in the IMPLAN model, values were
estimated as a share of their parent sector based on
previous studies and other economic data: landscape
services and pest-control services were 49 percent
and 15 percent, respectively, of services to buildings
(sector 388); wholesale food distribution was 20
percent of wholesale trade (sector 319); retail
lawn-and-garden centers were 19 percent of building







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 3


materials and garden stores (sector 323); and golf
courses and recreational fishing were 48 percent and
10 percent, respectively, of amusement and recreation
services (sector 410).

Values for 2001-2008 were expressed in 2008
U.S. dollars using the mid-year (July) indices for the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Implicit Price
Deflator, which is a broad measure that accounts for
the effects of price changes in the measurement of
GDP (USDOC 2001-2008). IMPLAN data were
unavailable for 2005. Note that results for prior years
were revised in light of new information, so findings
presented here do not necessarily match those
previously reported for 2001-2007 (Hodges and
Rahmani 2009).

Results

Economic Contributions by Industry Groups
and Sectors

Economic contributions by major industry
groups and specific industry sectors in Florida in
2008 are shown in Table 1 and summarized in Figures
1-3. The industries are categorized in seven major
groups: Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries
Production; Mining; Agricultural Inputs and
Services; Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing;
Forest Products Manufacturing; Food and Kindred
Products Distribution; and Nature-based Recreation.
Results are reported below for each major group; for
all groups combined; and for all groups excluding
Food and Kindred Products Distribution.


Industry
Input
Purchases


Region


TotalValue
Added
Impacts:
$76.5 billion
Industry
Oulput (Sales
Revenues):
$133.6billion
Foreign &
Domestic
Exports:
$32 5 billion

Employment
l Impacts:
1.609.139

al multiplier effects
.....


Figure 1. Structure of economic activity in agriculture,
natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing
and distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008
[Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]


Direct industry output or sales in 2008 were
about $133.65 billion, including foreign and
domestic exports of goods and services to customers
outside of Florida, which totaled $32.52 billion. As a
result of the indirect and induced multiplier effects
arising from export sales, an additional $29.05 billion
in output was generated in the economy, mostly in
other economic sectors. The total output impacts,
including direct, indirect, and induced effects, were
estimated at $162.70 billion. Direct employment in
the industry was 1.38 million full-time and part-time
jobs, while total employment impacts (including
multiplier effects) were estimated at 1.61 million
jobs. The direct value added contribution of these
industries was $60.89 billion, and total value added
impacts were $76.53 billion. The total labor (earned)
income impact of employee wages and benefits and
business proprietor income was $47.04 billion. Total
property income impacts, such as rents and dividends,
amounted to $20.21 billion. Total indirect business
tax impacts paid to local, state, and federal
governments were $9.28 billion.

Excluding the sectors for Food and Kindred
Products Distribution, such as restaurants, food
stores, and food wholesalers, total economic values
showed output of $66.04 billion; exports of $23.25
billion, output impacts of $86.34 billion; direct
employment of 422,127 jobs; employment impacts of
581,820 jobs; direct value added of $21.93 billion;
value added impacts of $32.54 billion; labor income
impacts of $18.86 billion; property income impacts of
$11.06 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of
$2.62 billion.

Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries
Production includes sectors for the production of
basic unrefined food and fiber commodities. In 2008,
total output of these sectors was $11.57 billion;
exports were $6.09 billion; output impacts were
$16.24 billion; direct value added was $6.59 billion;
value added impacts were $9.22 billion; direct
employment was 178,838 jobs; and total employment
impacts were 230,946 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3).
Among individual industry sectors in this group, the
highest value added and employment impacts were
for Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production
($2.04 billion | 26,046 jobs), Fruit Farming ($1.78
billion | 36,672 jobs), Support Activities for


Direct Value Added
(Personal & Business Net Income): ----
$60.9 billion




Dirt mp m I "mt- Foodi
D LeEtock Food& Produr-
A?,ricural Foresty& Kindred Dis2ibution
nnpui Fishery product --I
Services Producton Manuhfru
during Nature


Direct Employment F ______ 1.381.921 Jobs : E


Values in millions dollars (2008)
Source: fmplan (MIG Inc.)







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 4


Agriculture and Forestry ($1.68 billion 84,057
jobs), and Vegetable and Melon Farming ($1.74
billion | 18,827 jobs). Large value added and
employment impacts were also realized for the
sectors of Forestry and Timber Tracts ($512 million
12,758 jobs), Sugarcane Farming ($310 million |
18,995 jobs), and Commercial Logging ($288 million
S5,007 jobs). Value added impacts of $100-$200
million were obtained for Dairy Farming, Poultry and
Egg Production, Commercial Fishing, and All Other
Crop Farming.


Billion Dollars
) 20 40 60


Food & Kindred Products
Distribution
Crop, Livestock, Forestry
& Fisheries Production
Agricultural Inputs &
Services
Food & Kindred Products
Manufacturing
Nature-based Recreation
Forest Products
Manufacturing
Mining


44.0


16.2
9.2
l 18.3
69
8.1 29.5

5.1

l 10.
3.6
6.2


76.4



SOutput
Value Added


Figure 2. Output and value added impacts of agriculture,
natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing
and distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008
[Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]

Thousand Jobs (full-time, part-time)
0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200
Food & Kindred Products _
Distribution 1,027
Crop, Livestock, Forestry &
Fisheries Production 231
Agricultural Inputs & 64
Services 164
Food& Kindred Products 80
Manufacturing 80
Nature-based Recreation 140
Forest Products
Manufacturing 147
Mining | 20


Figure 3. Employment impacts of agriculture, natural
resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and
distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008
[Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG,Inc.)]

Agricultural Inputs and Services includes a
variety of sectors providing inputs or supporting


services for agricultural operations or landscape
management. Output impacts in 2008 by this group
totaled $18.35 billion; value added impacts were
$6.90 billion; direct employment was 135,496 jobs;
and employment impacts were 164,408 jobs (Table 1,
Figures 2 and 3). Among leading sectors in this
group, Landscape Services had value added impacts
of $2.62 billion and employment impacts of 84,728
jobs, followed by Fertilizer Manufacturing ($2.34
billion | 24,962 jobs), Veterinary Services ($988
million 27,379 jobs), Pest-Control Services ($802
million 25,937 jobs), and Pesticide and Other
Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing ($64 million
322 jobs). Other minor sectors in this group included
Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing, and
Lawn and Garden Equipment Manufacturing.

Mining is a natural resource-based activity for
the extraction of basic mineral commodities such as
oil, natural gas, stone, sand, gravel, clay, phosphate,
and a variety of metals. In 2008, the Mining
industries in Florida collectively had direct output of
$5.02 billion; exports of $1.23 billion; output impacts
of $6.23 billion; value added impacts of $2.29 billion;
direct employment of 12,746 jobs; and employment
impacts of 20,327 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). The
largest individual sector was Extraction of Oil and
Natural Gas, which had value added impacts of $1.12
billion and generated employment impacts of 13,340
jobs. Other individual sectors with significant value
added impacts included Mining and Quarrying of
Other Nonmetallic Minerals ($496 million); Mining
and Quarrying of Stone ($249 million); Mining and
Quarrying of Sand, Gravel, and Clay ($163 million);
and Drilling of Oil and Gas Wells ($73 million).

Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing
industries convert unrefined agricultural commodities
to food products for final consumption or use. In
2008, this group of industries in Florida had direct
output of $24.04 billion, including exports of $5.83
billion, with output impacts of $29.53 billion; value
added impacts of $8.15 billion; direct employment of
41,924 jobs; and total employment impacts of 79,797
jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). This large industry
group included thirty-four individual sectors, of
which the highest value added and employment
impacts were Tobacco Product Manufacturing ($2.26
billion | 4,940 jobs); Fruit and Vegetable Canning,






Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 5


Pickling, and Drying ($811 million 18,110 jobs); Soft
Drink and Ice Manufacturing ($810 million | 10,158
jobs); Sugar Manufacturing ($708 million 12,719
jobs); Breweries ($616 million | 2,114 jobs); Bread
and Bakery Products Manufacturing ($425 million |
8,375 jobs); and Frozen Food Manufacturing ($348
million | 4,435 jobs). Other sectors with significant
value added impacts included Coffee and Tea
Manufacturing ($246 million), Animal Slaughtering
($207 million), Fluid Milk and Butter Manufacturing
($193 million), and Snack Food Manufacturing
($156 million).

Forest Products Manufacturing is a group of
industries for the processing of raw timber or wood
into finished wood and paper products. In 2008, this
industry group had direct output valued at $7.86
billion, with export sales of $3.14 billion; output
impacts of $10.85 billion; direct employment of
25,405 jobs; employment impacts of 46,675 jobs; and
value added impacts of $3.62 billion, including labor
income impacts of $2.43 billion, other property
income impacts of $976 million, and indirect business
tax impacts of $209 million (Table 1, Figures 2 and
3). Leading sectors within this group in terms of
value added and employment impacts were Paper
Mills ($665 million 16,929 jobs), Sanitary Paper
Products Manufacturing ($426 million 2,618 jobs),
Wood Window and Door Manufacturing ($380
million 6,701 jobs), Paperboard Container
Manufacturing ($297 million 3,681 jobs),
Engineered Wood Member and Truss Manufacturing
($296 million 6,083 jobs), Pulp Mills ($392 million
S4,626 jobs), and Paperboard Mills ($388 million
4,109 jobs). Other sectors with significant value
added impacts included Sawmills and Wood
Preservation ($199 million), Stationary Products
Manufacturing ($141 million), and Veneer and
Plywood Manufacturing ($132 million).

Nature-based Recreation includes recreational
activities generally tied to natural resources or
managed landscapes, such as golf, recreational
fishing, and hunting and trapping. In 2008, this
industry group in Florida had total output of $3.64
billion; exports or sales to Florida visitors of $1.39
billion; output impacts of $5.14 billion; direct
employment of 27,699 jobs; employment impacts of
39,667 jobs; and value added impacts of $2.36 billion


(Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3). Among individual
sectors, Golf Courses had value added impacts of
$1.89 billion and employment impacts of 31,462 jobs,
followed by Recreational Fishing ($394 million
6,555 jobs), and Commercial Hunting and Trapping
($69 million | 1,650 jobs).

Food and Kindred Products Distribution
includes activities for wholesale and retail trade in
agricultural and related products. This large group of
industry sectors is only indirectly related to
agriculture and natural resources because it serves to
deliver products to final consumers, but it is included
here for a perspective on the scope of the entire
market chain for food and kindred products. In 2008,
this industry group in Florida had total output of
$67.61 billion; exports of $9.27 billion; output
impacts of $76.36 billion; direct employment of
959,814 jobs; employment impacts of 1,027,319
jobs; and value added impacts of $43.99 billion,
including labor income impacts of $28.17 billion,
other property income impacts of $9.15 billion, and
indirect business tax impacts of $6.67 billion (Table 1
and Figures 2 and 3). Collectively, this group
represented about 57 percent of total value added
impacts and 63 percent of employment impacts for
the entire set of industries defined in this report.
Among individual sectors within this group, Food
Service Establishments and Drinking Places
(restaurants and bars) had by far the greatest value
added impacts ($24.22 billion) and employment
impacts (709,141 jobs), followed by Wholesale Trade
in Food and Kindred Products ($10.49 billion
97,613 jobs), Food and Beverage Stores ($8.35
billion | 204,147 jobs), and Retail Lawn-and-Garden
Centers ($942 million 18,618 jobs).

Economic Contributions by Commodity
Groups

In addition to the industry groups noted above,
economic contributions were also evaluated for
groups of food, fiber, and mineral commodities
having identifiable market chain linkages between
producers, manufacturers, and service sectors. In this
section, some sectors are regrouped to reflect these
linkages, with results summarized in Figures 4 and 5.
Environmental Horticulture, which includes the
sectors Nursery and Greenhouse Production,







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 6


Landscape Services, and Retail Lawn-and-Garden
Centers, had value added impacts of $5.60 billion ai
employment impacts of 127,192 jobs. Forestry and
Forest Products, which includes the sectors for
Forestry and Timber Tracts, Logging, and sixteen
forest product manufacturing sectors, had value add
impacts of $4.42 billion and employment impacts o
64,440 jobs. Fruit and Vegetable Farming and
Processing, including sectors for Frozen Food
Manufacturing; Fruit and Vegetable Canning,
Pickling, and Drying; and Fruit Farming and
Vegetable and Melon Farming, had value added
impacts of $4.68 billion and employment impacts o
68,184 jobs. Sugarcane Farming and Refined Sugar
Manufacturing had value added impacts of $1.02
billion and employment impacts of 31,714 jobs.
Livestock and Dairy Farming and Animal Products
Manufacturing, including the processing sectors
Animal Slaughtering, Poultry Processing, Cheese
Manufacturing, and Ice Cream Manufacturing, had
total value added impacts of $1.07 billion and
employment impacts of 25,007 jobs. Fishing and
Seafood Products had value added impacts of $297
million and employment impacts of 10,341 jobs. Th
commodity group Grain and Oilseed Farming and
Processing had value added and employment impac
of $176 million and 1,380 jobs, respectively.


Billion Dollars
10


Environmental Horticulture 8.9
Fruit& Vegetable Farming & 94
Processing 4.7
Forestry, Wood & Paper 13.0
Product Manuf. 4.4
Livestock & Dairy Farming & 5.2
Animal Products 1.1
Sugarcane Farming, Sugar 3 0 Output
Refining 1.0
:Value Added
Fishing& Seafood Products 21 10
Grain & Oilseed Farming & 0.5
Processing 02


Figure 4. Output and value added impacts of food and
fiber commodity groups in Florida in 2008 [Source:
IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]


nd




ed
f







f


Thousand Jobs (full-time, part-time)
0 50 100 1!
Environmental
Horticulture 127
Fruit & Vegetable Farming 68
& Processing
Forestry, Wood & Paper 64
Product Manuf.
Livestock & Dairy Farming
&Animal Products 2
Sugarcane Farming, Sugar
Refining
Fishing & Seafood
Products
Grain & Oilseed Farming &
Processing


Figure 5. Employment impacts of food and fiber
commodity groups in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN
Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]

Economic Contributions in Florida Regions
and Counties


Regional impacts of agriculture and natural
resources, and their related manufacturing,
distribution, and service industries in 2008 were
evaluated for nine economic regions of Florida, as
Le illustrated in Figure 6, with results summarized in
Table 2 and Figures 7-8. The region with the highest
ts value added and employment impacts was Miami-Ft.
Lauderdale ($25.39 billion | 522,725 jobs), followed
by Orlando ($18.24 billion | 397,051 jobs),
1i Tampa-St. Petersburg ($11.87 billion | 242,059 jobs),
Jacksonville ($7.31 billion 120,265 jobs),
Sarasota-Bradenton ($7.03 billion 161,910 jobs),
Gainesville ($2.04 billion 53,456 jobs), Pensacola
($1.97 billion | 48,906 jobs), Tallahassee ($1.54
billion | 36,744 jobs), and Panama City ($1.16 billion
S26,022 jobs).

Economic impacts were also evaluated for all
sixty-seven counties in Florida as shown in Table 2.
The eight largest counties in terms of value added
impacts and employment impacts in 2008 were
Miami-Dade ($9.27 billion 174,701 jobs), followed
by Hillsborough ($7.02 billion | 137,141 jobs),
Orange ($6.45 billion 129,358 jobs), Broward
($6.17 billion 126,319 jobs), Palm Beach ($5.94
billion | 128,944 jobs), Duval ($5.69 billion | 81,470
jobs), Pinellas ($4.11 billion 80,057 jobs), and Polk
($3.64 billion | 65,353 jobs). Eight other counties
with value added impacts exceeding $1 billion were
Lee ($2.02 billion), Collier ($1.71 billion), Manatee








Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 7


E 500

- 400

S300

200 1,',
|i


o .. .. .. .. .... .. I



4 ^/o
y


SFood & Kindred Products
Distribution
SNature-based Recreation

SMining

* Forest Products
Manufacturing
I Food & Kindred Products
Manufacturing
*Agricultural Inputs &
Services
* Crop, Livestock, Forestry
& Fisheries Production


Figure 6. Economic regions of Florida [Source: United
States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis]


I: I


" Food & Kindred Products
Distribution
SNature-based Recreation


., .j Minng


ii o, ,,

5a i " i .


"' o< R" o s
^


SForest Products
Manufacturing
. Food & Kindred Products
Manufacturing
SAgricultural Inputs &
Services
* Crop, Livestock, Forestry
& Fisheries Production


Figure 7. Value added impacts in Florida regions by
agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product
manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in
2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG,
Inc.)]


($1.71 billion), Seminole ($1.46 billion), Volusia
($1.28 billion), Brevard ($1.14 billion), Sarasota
($1.10 billion), and Marion ($1.03 billion).


Share of Gross State Product and
Employment


The relative importance of the agriculture and
natural resources, and their related manufacturing,
distribution, and service industries in Florida can be
gauged by their share of overall economic activity in
the state. The Gross State Product (GSP) of Florida in
2008 was $722 billion (equivalent to the sum of value

added for all industries), and total employment in the
state was 10.1 million jobs. The direct value added


Figure 8. Employment impacts in Florida regions by
agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product
manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in
2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG,
Inc.)]


contributed by agricultural, natural-resources, and

related industries ($60.89 billion) represented 8.2
percent of Florida's Gross State Product, and ranked
fourth among major industry groups (Figure 9).
Direct employment in these industries represented
13.4 percent of all jobs in the state, ranking second
among major industry groups behind Professional and
Technical Services (Figure 10). Excluding Food and
Kindred Products Distribution, agriculture, natural
resources, and their related industries represented 3.0
percent of Gross State Product and 4.1 percent of total
state employment.


Utilities; 11.3; 1.6%
Wh esaleTrade;
Travel and 4.6
Entrta inment Services;
22.6; 3.1%
Transportation; 20 6;
2.9%
Social Srvics &
Oreanitaions; 9.0; 1.2%1
Retail Tradc; 46.4; 6.4 %

Real Estate and I
Financial Services;.
113.6; 15.7%


Professional an.
Technical Services; 37.7,
12,1%
Manufacturing 30.9;j
4.3%


Agriculture, Natural
Resources, Related
34.9; Manufacturing,
Distribution &Services;
60.9; 8.4%
Construction; 37.3; 5.2%
Consumer Services;
.-- 23.0; 3.2%
.Education; 4.0;0.6%
Government; 907;
12.6%


.th Car.; 52.8; 7.3%

A. | 0ds; 50.4; 7.0%

\Information and
Communications; 25.9;
3.6%


Valuesin BillionsDallars


Figure 9. Contribution to Gross State Product (direct value
added) of Florida by major industry groups in 2008
[Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]


rensac(


Panama City


lacksonville


Gainesville'4



Tampa,
St.Petersburg


Orlando


Sarasota,
Bradenton








Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 8


Thousands Jobs (full-time & part-time)
0 500 1,000 1,500
Agriculture, Natural Resources,...
Construction 7441,382
Consumer Services 369
Education 11 107
Government 1,181
Health Care 861
Households 179
Information and Communications i 191
Manufacturing 321
1.431
Professional and Technical Services
Real Estate and Financial Services 1,068
Retail Trade 955
Social Services & Organizations 330
Transportation 314 i
Travel and Entertainment Services 363
Utilities I 24
Wholesale Trade 294


Figure 10. Direct employment by major industry groups in
Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for
Florida (MIG, Inc.)]

Trends in Economic Contributions

In addition to the economic contributions in
2008, it is important to understand how these values
have changed over time. Of particular interest are the
changes occurring for the most recent period, from
2007 to 2008, which partly indicates the effect of the
global recession. The recession in the United States
started in December 2007. Trends in the economic
impacts of agriculture, natural resources, and their
related industries between 2001 and 2008 are shown
in Figures 11-13. Annual average growth rates were
estimated for 2001-2007 and for 2007-2008, with
all monetary values adjusted for inflation and
expressed in constant 2008 U.S. dollars. Total output
impacts grew by an average of 5.3 percent annually
from 2001 to 2007, but declined by more than 13
percent from 2007 to 2008. Total employment
impacts increased by 1.7 percent annually from 2001
to 2007, but declined nearly 14 percent from 2007 to
2008 (Figure 11). Overall value added impacts grew
from $76.67 billion in 2001 to $93.39 billion in 2007,
representing an average real annual growth rate of 3.6
percent, but then declined to $76.53 billion in 2008,
or by more than 18 percent (Figure 12). Although
direct output, value added, and employment
(excluding multiplier effects) actually increased
modestly from 2007 to 2008, the severe decline in
export activity for virtually all sectors in 2008 led to
the sharp decrease in estimated total impacts
(including multiplier effects). Note that these trends
may reflect changes in the structure of the Florida


economy and with other changes in industry activity
and commodity prices, as well as the effect of
recession.

S Thousand Jobs(full 1870
1.00 time&part-time) 1.21
1 I,00 746 1775
1700 6
1.600
2,0 TotW Employment
0 1365 1. 12 Impacts

300 Dir ertEmployment
1.200 110
1100 1oo9 4 1.022 1.027
0003 61 --C Kid& Kindrtd
Products
900 Distribution
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 200a
300 -Crop. Lveatock
262 265 Foresrv& Frsherie
252 2522 252 8 Produton
250 238 231 PA c n
2-*-1-A( CuAtoraJifiputs &
201 Setrv-ce
220001
200 185 L
162 14 i -Food& Kindred
14 5 15 FortPr oducts
100 70 37 o o Manufacturng
"'7 4O SO


0 2 22 "2"S M K nr
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Figure 11. Trends in employment impacts for agriculture,
natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing
and distribution, and service industries in Florida during
2001-2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for
Florida (MIG, Inc.) Impact estimates include regional
multiplier effects. Note that data were unavailable for 2005.


Among industry groups, average annual growth
in value added impacts from 2001 to 2007 was
highest for Mining (19.1%) and Crop, Livestock,
Forestry, and Fishery Production (10.2%), followed
by Food and Kindred Products Distribution (4.9%)
and Forest Product Manufacturing (3.0%). From
2007 to 2008, Forest Product Manufacturing and
Agricultural Input and Services suffered the largest
setback, with value added impacts declining by 35
percent, followed by Agricultural Inputs and Services
(-34%); Mining (-33%); Food and Kindred
Products Manufacturing (-27%); and Crop,
Livestock, Forestry, and Fishery Production (-23%).
The only industry group that increased was
Nature-based Recreation (1.5%). Employment
impacts declined the most in 2008 for Mining
(-45%), Forest Products Manufacturing (-34%),
and Agriculture and Input Services (-23%). Output
impacts declined the most in 2008 for Forest Products
Manufacturing (-22%) and Food and Kindred








Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 9


90 19'-.4 *----- -------- -\ v


70 -
600.9

so
5850



30 T
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
16 155 14.7
14,1
14
12A4
121 11.8 11.9
12 1 110-~8 112 0,6


76 3
4.7


21 --- ---* ---- T ~
2
201 i 17 1.7 20 20 2
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


-1-Total Value
Added Impats
-DirectValue
Added
----Food& Kindred
Products
Distribution




--CIlop Livestock.
Foretry& Fisriens
Production
S- Food& lndred
Products
Manufacturing
-A-Agrlcultura Inputs &
Services
---ForestProducts
Manufacturing

Recreatlon
-*-Minng


Figure 12. Trends in value added impacts for agriculture,
natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing
and distribution, and service industries in Florida during
2001-2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for
Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Values expressed in 2008 U.S. dollars
using USDOC GDP Implicit Price Deflator. Impact
estimates include regional multiplier effects. Note that data
were unavailable for 2005.


Products Manufacturing (-22%), but increased for
Nature-based Recreation (40%).


Trends over time in employment impacts of food
and fiber commodity groups in Florida are shown in
Figure 13. All groups experienced substantial decline
in employment impacts in 2008, with the biggest
declines for Fruit and Vegetable Farming and
Processing (-35%); Grain and Oilseed Farming and
Processing (-29%); and Forestry, Wood, and Paper
Manufacturing (-28%), followed by Environmental
Horticulture (-20%), Sugarcane Farming and
Manufacturing (-14%), Livestock and Dairy
Farming and Animal Products Manufacturing
(-11%), and Fishing and Seafood Products (-6%).


Among individual industry sectors, the effect of
the recession from 2007 to 2008 varied widely. While
most sectors experienced a significant decline in
2008, some sectors grew. Sectors with noticeable
growth in value added impacts included
Lawn-and-Garden Equipment Manufacturing
(498%), Tree Nut Farming (234%), Oilseed Farming


181
Thousand Jobs (full-
time& part-time) 159
160 150 -*-Environmental Horticulture
(iur isely greenhouses*,
140 17 1lscapeservices)
120 11 -*-Fruit& Vegetable Fannrming &
120 112 Processing

10 8 103 9 9' --rorer, Wood& Paper
ProductMaiufacluring

-8Sugar canle Farnmug, Refined
60 53 64 Sugr & onfections
40 37
35 Animal Products Manu facturng
20 28 28 25
Fishing& Seafood Products
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


Figure 13. Trends in employment impacts for food and
fiber commodity groups in Florida during 2001-2008
[Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]
Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects. Note
that data were unavailable for 2005


(169%), Coffee and Tea Manufacturing (156%), and
Cheese Manufacturing (79%). Industry sectors with
the highest declines in value added impacts were
Seasoning and Dressing Manufacturing (-122%);
Distillers (-90%); Coal Mining (-82%);
Commercial Hunting and Trapping (-80%); Soft
Drink and Ice Manufacturing (-66%); Fruit and
Vegetable Canning, Pickling, and Drying (-54%);
Forestry, Forest Products, and Timber Tracts
(-48%); and Sugar Manufacturing (-38%).


Changes for major industry groups in growth
rates in direct value added (excluding multiplier
effects) for 2001-2007 and 2007-2008 are shown
in Figure 14. The average annual growth rate for
agriculture, natural resources, and their related
industries for 2001-2007 was 4.1 percent, but then
fell slightly to 3.9 percent for 2007-2008. In
comparison, the growth in value added in 2008 was
higher for Education (22.7%), Households (19.5%),
Consumer Services (11.7%), Utilities (11.1%),
Transportation (9.3%), Health Care (6.9%),
Manufacturing (6.2%), and Travel and Entertainment
Services (5.2%). Growth rates in direct value added
were lower for Real Estate and Financial Services
(2.3%) and for Wholesale Trade (0.4%). Negative
growth was observed for Retail Trade (-1.8%),
Information and Communications (-2.6%), Social
Services and Non-profit Organizations (-5.5%),
Professional and Technical Services (-8.9%),
Government (-16.5%), and Construction (-18.8%).







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 10


S2001-07 AverageAnnual PercentChange
S2007-08 -20% -15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
Agriculture, Natural Resources. Related., I
Construction
ConsurnmerSevices
Education
Government i
Health Care -
Households
Information andCommunications -d
Manufacturing
Professional and Technical Services -- --
Real Estate and Financial Services
Retail Trade
Social Services &Oganizations ,
Transportation
Traveland Entertainment Services
Wholesale Trade
All Industries -

Figure 14. Change in value added impacts for industry
groups in Florida, 2001-2007 versus 2007-2008 [Source:
IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]

Conclusions

This analysis indicated that agriculture and
natural resources are linked to a broad array of
economic sectors for commodity production, food
and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and related service activities. These industries
collectively have a significant economic impact on
the Florida economy, accounting for about 13.7
percent of total employment and 8.4 percent of Gross
State Product, representing the second and fourth
highest, respectively, among major industry groups.
Food and Kindred Products Distribution is by far the
largest segment of the industry, representing 64
percent of value added and employment impacts.
These industries are present throughout the state, with
a major activity in urbanized metro areas as well as
rural areas, where it may be relatively more
important as a share of total economic activity,
although less in absolute magnitude. These industries
have grown substantially since 2001, with direct
activity actually increasing in 2008 in spite of the
global recession. Even while total regional economic
impacts in Florida declined dramatically due to
reduced exports, Agriculture, Natural Resources, and
their Related Industries still fared better than about
half of the other major industry groups in terms of
change between 2007 and 2008, thus entailing their
integral contributions towards the sustainability of
Florida's economy.


References

Hodges, Alan W. and M. Rahmani. 2009.
Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural,
natural resource, food and kindred product
manufacturing and distribution, and service industries
in 2007. Electronic Data Information Source FE800.
Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE800

Hodges, Alan W., M. Rahmani, and W. David
Mulkey. 2008. Economic contributions of
agricultural, food Manufacturing, and natural
resource industries in Florida in 2006. Electronic
Data Information Source FE702. Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE702

Hodges, Alan W., M. Rahmani, and W. David
Mulkey. 2005. Economic impacts of the Florida
citrus industry in 2003-04. Electronic Data
Information Source FE633. Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE633

Johnson, K. and J. Kort. 2004. Redefinition of
the BEA Economic Areas. In Survey of Current
Business. Bureau of Economic Analysis, United
States Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
(November).
http://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/2004/1 November/
1104Econ-Areas.pdf

MIG, Inc. IMPLAN Pro V. 3.0 (data and
software). Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc.,
Stillwater, MN. http://www.implan.com

Miller, R. E. and P.D. Blair. 2009.
Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions,
Second Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press.

USDOC/BEA. 1970-2008. Gross Domestic
Product Implicit Price Deflator. United States
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis, Washington, D.C. (Quarterly).
htt ://research.stlouisfed.ors/fred/data/ldp/ldpdef






Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 11


Watson, P., J. Wilson, D. Thilmany, and S.
Winter. 2007. Determining economic contributions
and impacts: what is the difference and why do we
care? Journal ofRegional Analysis and Policy 37(2):
140-146.
http://www.irap-ioumal.org/pastvolumes/2000/v37/
F37-2-6.pdf

Appendix: Glossary of Economic
Impact Terms

Region defines the geographic area for which
impacts are estimated. Regions are generally an
aggregation of one or more counties. Economic
regions identified in this paper were defined based on
worker commuting patterns.

Sector is a grouping of industries that produce
similar products or services, or production processes.
Most economic reporting and models in the United
States are based on the Standard Industrial
Classification system (SIC code) or the North
American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).

Impact analysis estimates the impact of a
change in output or employment resulting from a
change in final demand to households, governments,
or exports.

Input-output (I-O) model is a representation of
the flows of economic activity between industry
sectors within a region. I-0 models capture what each
business or sector must purchase from every other
sector in order to produce its output of goods or
services. Using such a model, flows of economic
activity associated with any change in spending may
be traced backwards (e.g., purchases of plants that
leads growers to purchase additional inputs such as
fertilizers and containers. Multipliers for a region may
be derived from an I-0 model of the region's
economy.

IMPLAN is a micro-computer-based input
output modeling system and Social Accounting
Matrix (SAM). With IMPLAN, one can estimate I-0
models of up to 440 sectors for any region consisting
of one or more counties. IMPLAN includes
procedures for generating multipliers and estimating
impacts by applying final demand changes to the


model. The current version of the software is
IMPLANPro, version 3.

Direct effects are the changes in economic
activity during the first round of spending.
Secondary effects are the changes in economic
activity from subsequent rounds of re-spending
(there are two types of secondary effects: indirect and
induced). Indirect effects are the changes in sales,
income, or employment within the region in
backward-linked industries supplying goods and
services to businesses (e.g., increased sales in input
supply firms resulting from more nursery industry
sales). Induced effects are the increased sales within
the region from household spending of the income
earned in the direct and supporting industries (i.e.,
employees in the direct and supporting industries
spend the income they earn on housing, utilities,
groceries, and other consumer goods and services,
which generates sales, income and employment
throughout the region's economy). Total effects are
the sum of direct, indirect, and induced effects.

Multipliers capture the total effects, both direct
and secondary, in a given region, generally as a ratio
of the total change in economic activity in the region
relative to the direct change. Multipliers may be
expressed as ratios of sales, income, or employment,
or as ratios of total income or employment changes
relative to direct sales. Multipliers express the degree
of interdependency between sectors in a region's
economy and therefore vary considerably across
regions and sectors. Type I multipliers include only
direct and indirect effects. Type II multipliers also
include induced effects. Type SAM multipliers used
by IMPLAN additionally account for capital
investments and transfer payments such as welfare
and retirement income. A sector-specific multiplier
gives the total changes to the economy associated
with a unit change in output or employment in a given
sector.

Purchaser prices are the prices paid by the final
consumer of a good or service. Producer prices are
the prices of goods at the factory or production point.
For manufactured goods the purchaser price equals
the producer price plus a retail margin, a wholesale
margin, and a transportation margin. For services, the
producer and purchaser prices are equivalent.






Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 12


Margins (retail, wholesale, and transportation)
are the portions of the purchaser price accruing to the
retailer, wholesaler, and grower, respectively. Only
the retail margins of many goods purchased by
consumers accrue to the local region, as the
wholesaler, shipper, and manufacturer often lie
outside the local area.

Sales or output is the dollar volume of a good or
service produced or sold. Final Demand is sales to
final consumers, including households, governments,
and exports. Intermediate sales are sales to other
industrial sectors. Income is the money earned within
the region from production and sales. Total income
includes personal income (wage and salary income,
including sole proprietor profits and rents). Jobs or
employment is a measure of the number of jobs
required to produce a given volume of
sales/production, usually expressed as full-time
equivalents, or as the total number including
part-time and seasonal positions. Value Added is the
sum of total income and indirect business taxes.
Value added is the most commonly used measure of
the contribution of a region to the national economy,
as it avoids double counting of intermediate sales and
captures only the "value added" by the region to final
products.







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 13


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Crop, Livestock,
Forestry & Fisheries
Production

Support activities for
agriculture and forestry

Fruit farming

Greenhouse, nursery,
and floriculture
production

Sugar cane and sugar
beet farming

Vegetable and melon
farming

Commercial fishing

Animal (except cattle,
poultry and eggs)
production

Cattle ranching and
farming

Dairy cattle and milk
production

Commercial logging

All other crop farming

Forestry, forest
products, and timber
tract production

Poultry and egg
production

Grain farming

Cotton farming

Oilseed farming

Tree nut farming

Tobacco farming


F P


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


*I I q 1


178,838 230,946


84,057


36,672

26,046



18,995


18,827


8,485

4,851



4,542


4,284


5,007

2,986

12,758


75,771


24,830

19,702



16,740


12,654


7,754

4,745



4,204


4,202


3,516

1,669

1,364


887 2,125


11,566.2 16,241.6



1,564.6 2,654.4


2,884.9

2,613.8



642.4


1,972.0

1,930.2



442.2


2,164.3 2,689.6


259.5

174.8



404.0


463.8


724.3

322.6

658.5




403.0


20.1

42.1

7.5

8.6

4.0


351.2

186.2



442.9


475.2


876.6

440.3

1,233.8




621.8


6,090.2



844.4


1,302.5

1,353.5



264.4


999.3


167.0

21.5



44.4


17.7


102.3

167.6

437.8




295.8


11.3

42.1

7.5

7.1

4.0


6,595.7 9,221.9



1,077.1 1,678.9


1,248.3

1,632.3



194.9


1,775.9

2,037.2



310.1


1,434.7 1,739.2


101.4

99.5


175.9


216.5

120.6

170.4




71.1


181.1


288.4

188.3

512.0




155.7







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 14


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Agricultural Inputs
and Services
Landscape services

Veterinary services
Pest control services

Fertilizer
manufacturing
Farm machinery and
equipment
manufacturing

Pesticide and other
agricultural chemical
manufacturing
Lawn and garden
equipment
manufacturing


Mining

Extraction of oil and
natural gas

Mining and quarrying
other nonmetallic
minerals

Mining and quarrying
stone

Mining and quarrying
sand, gravel, clay, and
ceramic and refractory
minerals
Drilling oil and gas
wells
Support activities for oil
and gas operations

Mining gold, silver, and
other metal ore

Support activities for
other mining

Mining iron ore
Mining coal

Mining copper, nickel,
lead, and zinc


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


135,496 164,408


79,598

26,006
24,367

5,017


84,728

27,379
25,937

24,962


I -


13,548.0 18,346.5


4,201.8

1,936.0
1,286.3

5,696.8

142.6



258.1


4,837.6

2,116.0
1,480.9

9,349.0

234.6



284.3


26.4


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


5,574.7

737.0

184.9
225.6

4,234.0

128.0



39.0



26.2


.1. 1 .1 1


12,746

7,914


1,491



1,362


1,189


20,327

13,340


2,718



1,562


1,453


5,019.3

3,302.7


674.7



374.0


250.6




116.6


51.0


124.1


32.8


61.2
13.5

17.9


6,225.6

4,199.4


847.7



401.4


287.2




126.9


156.2


1,232.8

786.8


243.0



33.3


40.6




18.8


0.0


61.2


0.4


41.2
1.2

6.4


4,598.6 6,902.6


2,256.4
886.2
690.7

685.9


2,619.3
988.4
801.8

2,342.0


64.0


3.7 12.7


1,620.5

622.0


399.0



233.0


142.9




67.3


2,789.3

1,117.1


495.9



248.6


163.4




72.9







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 15


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Food and Kindred
Products
Manufacturing

Soft drink and ice
manufacturing

Bread and bakery
product manufacturing

Fruit and vegetable
canning, pickling, and
drying

Frozen food
manufacturing

Tobacco product
manufacturing

All other food
manufacturing

Animal (except poultry)
slaughtering, rendering,
and processing

Fluid milk and butter
manufacturing

Seafood product
preparation and
packaging

Sugar cane mills and
refining

Poultry processing

Seasoning and dressing
manufacturing

Cookie, cracker, and
pasta manufacturing

Breweries

Coffe and tea
manufacturing

Snack food
manufacturing


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


41,924



7,267


6,770


3,402



3,136


2,342


2,312


2,267



1,947


1,689



1,614


1,302

1,255


968


906

717


665


79,797



10,158


8,375


8,110



4,435


4,940


4,795


4,369



2,188


1,856



12,719


1,552

2,589


1,496


2,114

3,077


1,446


I -


24,400.6 29,534.9


4,787.1


1,046.2


1,878.6



1,036.8


4,668.2


678.2


1,049.1



1,366.1


582.8



1,263.6


286.0

599.2


380.2


1,638.2

502.0


442.9


5,268.0


1,263,9


2,588.9



1,222.3


5,192.0


1,014.5


1,286.6



1,399.1


602.1



2,380.4


324.0

803.2


463.6


1,846.5

791.7


557.9


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


5,832.3



663.0


205.6


769.1



198.4


986.6


321.8


223.3



29.1


22.0



887.2


54.2

247.7


91.7


292.7

267.7


158.8


5,538.7 8,140.0


574.5


303.6


439.0



246.2


1,993.0


131.9


105.2



177.8


86.9



180.8


50.9

83.7


74.5


513.0

81.9


93.5


810.3


424.8


810.7



348.4


2,356.7


318.7


207.2



193.1


97.3



708.2


70.0

188.7


118.9


616.3

245.6


156.0







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 16


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Ice cream and frozen
dessert manufacturing

Confectionery
manufacturing from
purchased chocolate

Other animal food
manufacturing

Wineries

Non-chocolate
confectionery
manufacturing

Flour milling and malt
manufacturing

Distilleries

Dog and cat food
manufacturing

Flavoring syrup and
concentrate
manufacturing

Tortilla manufacturing

Chocolate and
confectionery
manufacturing from
cacao beans

Cheese manufacturing

Dry, condensed, and
evaporated dairy
product manufacturing

Fats and oils reining and
blending

Wet corn milling

Soybean and other
oilseed processing

Breakfast cereal
manufacturing

Beet sugar
manufacturing


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


1,005


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


320.9


163.6



528.0


186.8

101.4



301.4


106.9

123.8


209.4


348.8


224.1



551.0


195.7

143.9



400.9


116.5

129.9


216.3


25.7


27.7


68.0



40.6


9.4

51.5



119.1


18.9

10.5


10.7



0.0

20.2





11.3

16.8



1.0


6.8

0.8


0.0


0.0


61.6


151.9


64.8

23.5


2.6 11.4





5.5 10.5

2.2 10.1







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 17


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Forest Products
Manufacturing

Wood windows and
doors and millwork
manufacturing

Engineered wood
member and truss
manufacturing

Paperboard container
manufacturing

Sawmills and wood
preservation

Sanitary paper product
manufacturing

Wood container and
pallet manufacturing

Paper mills

Sationery product
manufacturing

Veneer and plywood
manufacturing
Paperboard mills

Pulp mills

All other miscellaneous
wood product
manufacturing

All other converted
paper product
manufacturing

Coated and laminated
paper, packaging paper,
and pasltics film
manufacturing

All other paper bag and
coated and treated
paper manufacturing
Reconstituted wood
product manufacturing


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


25,405


25,405



4,532



3,375


2,750


1,597


1,413


1,288

1,061


1,043


891

652


46,675


46,675



6,083



3,681


3,842


2,618


1,465


6,929

1,810


1,930


4,109

4,626


I -


7,858.6 10,848.5


7,858.6 10,848.5


525.1



1,208.1


636.8


1,294.2


176.3


947.3

332.8


213.4


665.0

499.2

92.9



141.2



208.7




125.7


734.3



1,253.3


769.4


1,455.4


183.5


1,769.7

443.4


323.3


1,122.2

1,051.7

104.9



169.8



235.8




156.4


39.7


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


3,137.0


3,137.0



199.3



53.3


84.1


270.4


8.1


934.9

122.9


90.8


466.0

499.2

11.3



32.3



36.7




39.7



16.2


2,087.8 2,435.3


2,087.8 3,620.4


185.7



272.5


137.9


342 8


240.2

80.1


79.4


153.9

118.0


296.0



297.1


198.9


426 4


665.3

140.6


132.5


388.2

391.8


64.7







Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 18


Table 1. Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution,
and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008


Industry Group/Sector


Employment


Output (Revenue)


Direct Total Direct Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact


Full-time/Part-time Jobs


Value Added

Direct Total
Impact Impact


Million Dollars


Nature-based 27,699 39,667 3,643.8 5,141.6 1,388.4 1,487.0 2,357.0
Recreation

Golf courses 21,689 31,462 2,885.8 4,109.6 1,127.1 1,181.6 1,893.1

Recreational fishing 4,518 6,555 601.2 856.2 234.8 246.2 394.4

Commercial hunting 1,492 1,650 156.8 175.8 26.5 59.2 69.5
and trapping

Food and Kindred 959,814 1,027,319 67,611.9 76,365.3 9,268.7 38,957.6 43,991.7
Products Distribution

Food services and 670,117 709,141 40,266.7 45,477.4 5,478.2 21,267.0 24,218.7
drinking places

Retail stores (food and 200,088 204,147 12,504.0 13,013.7 518.4 8,044.2 8,345.8
beverages)

Wholesale trade (food & 73,500 97,613 13,438.2 16,432.3 3,231.1 8,727.3 10,485.1
kindred products)

Retail lawn and garden 16,109 16,418 1,403.0 1,441.9 40.9 919.1 942.1
centers

Grand Total 1,381,921 1,609,139 133,648.3 162,704.0 32,524.2 60,885.9 76,531.9

Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)
Total impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.





Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 19


Table 2. Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred
product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008


Region / County Crop, Livestock, Agricultural Food & Kindred Forest Mining Nature-based Food & Total/ All
Forestry & Inputs & Products Products Recreation Kindred
Fisheries Services Manufacturing Manufacturing Products
Production Distribution

Gainesville 19,816 3,041 2,510 2,823 204 286 24,776 53,456
Alachua 2,040 1,816 365 599 76 70 17,121 22,085
Bradford 434 105 84 229 61 25 837 1,775
Columbia 784 200 148 642 2 52 2,975 4,804
DeSoto 8,064 146 370 0 0 70 628 9,277
Dixie 1,231 28 0 851 1 7 404 2,522
Gilchrist 804 61 101 179 2 3 268 1,418
Lafayette 641 299 0 28 9 31 179 1,188
Levy 1,769 104 22 55 21 11 1,179 3,162
Suwannee 3,791 168 1,414 27 29 3 1,085 6,517
Union 258 113 6 212 4 13 100 708
Jacksonville 5,347 10,138 10,920 11,665 332 2,226 79,637 120,265
Baker 245 177 0 0 0 0 691 1,113
Clay 485 1,183 8 479 151 109 7,366 9,781
Duval 1,106 6,669 10,672 5,610 134 969 54,879 80,038
Nassau 1,290 583 61 2,100 1 211 3,226 7,472
Putnam 1,136 276 0 3,141 34 54 2,007 6648
St. Johns 1,085 1,251 179 334 12 883 11.469 15.213
Miami-Fort Lauderdale 79,973 51,812 24,053 8,191 1,935 14,048 342,713 522,725

Broward 2,221 13,701 4,667 1,235 435 3,241 100,777 126,278
Glades 950 33 33 0 8 43 128 1,196
Hendry 12,858 194 2,810 0 49 17 1,476 17,404
Indian River 7,895 1,899 109 95 31 938 6,438 17,405
Martin 3,858 2,469 568 138 13 1,543 8,007 16,596
Miami-Dade 12,625 14,395 7,345 4,826 778 1,489 133,158 174,616
Monroe 1,856 717 68 8 73 504 9,304 12,530
Okeechobee 3,119 296 307 0 14 25 1,364 5,125
Palm Beach 24,678 16,127 7,442 1,518 468 5,722 73,544 129,498
St. Lucie 9,913 1,983 704 371 66 524 8,517 22,079





Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 20


Table 2. Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred
product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008


Region / County Crop, Livestock, Agricultural Food & Kindred Forest Mining Nature-based Food & Total/ All
Forestry & Inputs & Products Products Recreation Kindred
Fisheries Services Manufacturing Manufacturing Products
Production Distribution

Orlando 59,441 45,494 20,407 8,850 2,231 7,788 252,840 397,051
Brevard 713 2,971 244 453 66 1,245 25,174 30,866
Citrus 580 713 62 65 61 415 4,781 6,676
Flagler 693 610 27 76 40 45 2,713 4,204
Hardee 7,377 136 126 99 69 52 589 8,450
Highlands 12,895 481 64 134 35 309 3,495 17,414
Lake 4,049 2,719 1,125 509 158 317 11,589 20,466
Marion 6,869 2,909 1,098 773 175 543 12,313 24,680
Orange 5,782 11,319 5,126 1,421 122 1,759 103,767 129,297
Osceola 1,697 1,891 296 137 102 418 14,532 19,073
Polk 14,115 11,944 10,840 3,809 1,268 962 21,159 64,098
Seminole 649 6,318 472 998 34 406 24,067 32,944
Sumter 914 387 252 203 78 561 3,027 5,422
Volusia 3,106 3,096 677 172 23 755 25,633 33,461
Panama City 3,405 1,496 148 2,674 197 775 17,327 26,022
Bay 890 1,140 42 1,750 106 497 13,794 18,219
Calhoun 508 16 0 148 8 41 441 1,163
Gulf 298 20 10 127 2 9 494 961
Holmes 443 53 55 38 1 91 389 1,070
Jackson 910 80 24 595 64 82 1,649 3,405
Washington 356 187 16 16 16 55 560 1,205
Pensacola 2,730 4,388 588 2,225 429 788 37,758 48,906
Escambia 1,124 1,354 163 1,961 220 344 15,994 21,160
Okaloosa 503 1,436 201 33 77 313 13,308 15,872
Santa Rosa 714 873 51 94 128 83 4,371 6,314
Walton 389 725 173 136 4 48 4,085 5,560





Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 21


Table 2. Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred
product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008


Region / County Crop, Livestock, Agricultural Food & Kindred Forest Mining Nature-based Food & Total/ All
Forestry & Inputs & Products Products Recreation Kindred
Fisheries Services Manufacturing Manufacturing Products
Production Distribution

Sarasota-Bradenton 29,942 20,841 4,750 1,677 829 9,906 93,964 161,910
Charlotte 1,281 1,542 12 157 61 515 6,673 10,241
Collier 11,681 4,457 183 154 251 3,923 18,751 39,400
Lee 2,509 6,462 521 384 253 2,905 32,290 46,323
Manatee 13,749 3,489 3,944 733 120 1,304 15,155 38,493
Sarasota 723 4,892 91 249 144 1,260 20,095 27,453
Tallahassee 6,067 4,214 990 3,092 337 589 21,455 36,744
Franklin 55 32 23 0 24 26 718 878
Gadsden 2,325 251 46 709 168 71 922 4,493
Hamilton 374 1,092 0 0 0 40 260 1,766
Jefferson 613 91 14 0 0 40 260 1,766
Leon 705 2,477 181 34 68 183 17,172 20,819
Liberty 351 20 0 633 13 150 171 1,337
Madison 757 9 494 88 0 38 502 1,889
Taylor 738 61 148 1,628 53 14 765 3,408
Wakulla 150 180 82 0 1 29 671 1,113
Tampa-St. Petersburg 24,463 22,984 15,431 5,478 13,832 3,260 156,849 242,059

Hernando 596 912 24 33 115 317 6,096 8,094
Hillsborough 19,880 12,525 12,765 3,417 504 1,504 85,503 136,098
Pasco 2,849 3144 555 293 95 506 14,624 22,066
Pinellas 900 6,403 2,087 1,734 13,119 933 50,625 75,802
Total 220,946 164,408 79,797 46,675 20.327 39,667 1,027,319 1,609,139

Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc. 2009)
Impact estimates include multiplier effects. Employment includes full-time and part-time positions.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Alan W. Hodges and Mohammad Rahmani2 1. This is EDIS document FE829, a publication of the Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Published February 2010. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Alan W. Hodges, extension scientist, and Mohammad Rahmani, coordinator of economic analysis, Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. The state of Florida has nearly 24 million acres (36,000 square miles) in forests, croplands, and ranchestwo-thirds of Florida's total land area. The agricultural and natural resource industries produce food, fiber, and mineral commodities, and are linked to a broad range of other economic sectors for food and kindred product manufacturing, wholesale and retail distribution, input supplies, support services, and nature-based recreation/eco-tourism. In addition to farming, forestry, fisheries, and mining, other diverse activities are included such as fertilizer manufacturing, sawmills, fruit and vegetable processing, landscaping, wholesale food distributors, retail food stores, restaurants, retail lawn-and-garden centers, pest-control services, golf courses, and recreational fishing. This report provides estimates of these industries' economic contributions to Florida in 2008, updating a previous study for 2007 (Hodges and Rahmani 2009). Data for this analysis were obtained from the IMPLAN Professional database for Florida counties for 2001 (Minnesota IMPLAN Group/MIG, Inc.) and other special studies conducted by the authors. These data were derived from the National Income and Product Accounts for the United States (United States Department of Commerce). Over 90 individual industry sectors in Florida were identified as related to agriculture and natural resource commodity production, input supply and supporting services, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and nature-based recreation. A list of industry groups and individual sectors included in the analysis is shown in Table 1. Note that some industry sectors in this analysis were reclassified from their original major industry group designation under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to be included as part of the broadly defined agriculture and related industries. Economic contributions were evaluated for several recognizable commodity groups that have linkages between production and processing/manufacturing sectors,

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 2 including environmental horticulture (nursery and greenhouse production, landscape services, and retail lawn-and-garden centers); fruit and vegetable farming and processing; forestry, logging, and forest product manufacturing; sugarcane and refined sugar manufacturing; livestock and animal products manufacturing; and fishing and seafood products. The total regional economic impacts for each sector were estimated using models developed with the IMPLAN Professional software for social accounting and impact analysis (MIG, Inc.). This system enables construction of input-output models and social accounting matrices that represent the structure of a regional economy in terms of transactions among industry sectors, households, and governments. The IMPLAN model accounts for industrial commodity production; employment; labor and property income; household and institutional consumption; domestic and international trade (imports, exports); government taxes; transfer payments such as welfare and retirement; and capital investment. Economic multipliers for each industry capture the secondary effects of new money flowing into the region that generates further economic activity as it is re-spent in the local economy (Miller and Blair 2009). Indirect effects multipliers represent the economic activity generated in the supply chain through the purchase of intermediate inputs from vendor firms, while induced effects multipliers represent the impacts of spending by industry employee households and governments. The indirect and induced multipliers were applied only to foreign and domestic exports, or sales outside the state of Florida. The total economic impacts are calculated as the sum of direct effects, plus indirect and induced effects. Therefore, while the estimates of this analysis are referred to as "economic impacts," these values may be better understood as "economic contributions" because they represent the ongoing economic activity of existing industries, rather than a net change in activity resulting from external influences (Watson et al. 2007). Measures of economic impacts reported here include output or revenue, value added, employment (including full-time, part-time, and seasonal positions), labor income, property income, and indirect business taxes paid to local, state, and federal governments. Value added is a broad measure of net economic activity that is comparable to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and represents the sum of labor and property income, indirect business taxes, and capital consumption (depreciation). Value added also is equivalent to the difference between industry revenues and intermediate inputs purchased from other sectors. A glossary of economic impact analysis terminology is provided in the Appendix. Regional economic models were developed for the state of Florida and for all sixty-seven counties in the state using the IMPLAN Pro software and Florida state/county data package for 2008 (MIG, Inc.). All model parameters were kept at default settings, with econometrically estimated regional purchase coefficients (RPCs) representing the share of commodities purchased from local sources. Social/institutional accounts for households; local, state, and federal governments; and capital investment were incorporated endogenously within the model. Summary information was developed for the state, all counties, and for nine regions (Figure 6). These functional economic regions each represent a core urban area, surrounded by closely linked nonmetropolitan counties. The regions were defined by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis (USDOC/BEA) based on metropolitan areas, employee commuting patterns, and other economic data from the 2000 U.S. Census (Johnson and Kort 2004). It should be noted that some Georgia counties included in the north Florida regions were not evaluated in this analysis. Due to differences in trade flows and accounting adjustments at the state and county levels, slight discrepancies in regional results were reconciled by forcing county and regional estimates to match with state totals. For some activities that were not specifically identified in the IMPLAN model, values were estimated as a share of their parent sector based on previous studies and other economic data: landscape services and pest-control services were 49 percent and 15 percent, respectively, of services to buildings (sector 388); wholesale food distribution was 20 percent of wholesale trade (sector 319); retail lawn-and-garden centers were 19 percent of building

PAGE 3

Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 3 materials and garden stores (sector 323); and golf courses and recreational fishing were 48 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of amusement and recreation services (sector 410). Values for 2001 were expressed in 2008 U.S. dollars using the mid-year (July) indices for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Implicit Price Deflator, which is a broad measure that accounts for the effects of price changes in the measurement of GDP (USDOC 2001). IMPLAN data were unavailable for 2005. Note that results for prior years were revised in light of new information, so findings presented here do not necessarily match those previously reported for 2001 (Hodges and Rahmani 2009). Economic Contributions by Industry Groups and Sectors Economic contributions by major industry groups and specific industry sectors in Florida in 2008 are shown in Table 1 and summarized in Figures 1. The industries are categorized in seven major groups: Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries Production; Mining; Agricultural Inputs and Services; Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing; Forest Products Manufacturing; Food and Kindred Products Distribution; and Nature-based Recreation. Results are reported below for each major group; for all groups combined; and for all groups excluding Food and Kindred Products Distribution. Structure of economic activity in agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Direct industry output or sales in 2008 were about $133.65 billion, including foreign and domestic exports of goods and services to customers outside of Florida, which totaled $32.52 billion. As a result of the indirect and induced multiplier effects arising from export sales, an additional $29.05 billion in output was generated in the economy, mostly in other economic sectors. The total output impacts, including direct, indirect, and induced effects, were estimated at $162.70 billion. Direct employment in the industry was 1.38 million full-time and part-time jobs, while total employment impacts (including multiplier effects) were estimated at 1.61 million jobs. The direct value added contribution of these industries was $60.89 billion, and total value added impacts were $76.53 billion. The total labor (earned) income impact of employee wages and benefits and business proprietor income was $47.04 billion. Total property income impacts, such as rents and dividends, amounted to $20.21 billion. Total indirect business tax impacts paid to local, state, and federal governments were $9.28 billion. Excluding the sectors for Food and Kindred Products Distribution, such as restaurants, food stores, and food wholesalers, total economic values showed output of $66.04 billion; exports of $23.25 billion, output impacts of $86.34 billion; direct employment of 422,127 jobs; employment impacts of 581,820 jobs; direct value added of $21.93 billion; value added impacts of $32.54 billion; labor income impacts of $18.86 billion; property income impacts of $11.06 billion; and indirect business tax impacts of $2.62 billion. Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries Production includes sectors for the production of basic unrefined food and fiber commodities. In 2008, total output of these sectors was $11.57 billion; exports were $6.09 billion; output impacts were $16.24 billion; direct value added was $6.59 billion; value added impacts were $9.22 billion; direct employment was 178,838 jobs; and total employment impacts were 230,946 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). Among individual industry sectors in this group, the highest value added and employment impacts were for Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production ($2.04 billion | 26,046 jobs), Fruit Farming ($1.78 billion | 36,672 jobs), Support Activities for

PAGE 4

Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 4 Agriculture and Forestry ($1.68 billion | 84,057 jobs), and Vegetable and Melon Farming ($1.74 billion | 18,827 jobs). Large value added and employment impacts were also realized for the sectors of Forestry and Timber Tracts ($512 million | 12,758 jobs), Sugarcane Farming ($310 million | 18,995 jobs), and Commercial Logging ($288 million | 5,007 jobs). Value added impacts of $100$200 million were obtained for Dairy Farming, Poultry and Egg Production, Commercial Fishing, and All Other Crop Farming. Output and value added impacts of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Employment impacts of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG,Inc.)] Agricultural Inputs and Services includes a variety of sectors providing inputs or supporting services for agricultural operations or landscape management. Output impacts in 2008 by this group totaled $18.35 billion; value added impacts were $6.90 billion; direct employment was 135,496 jobs; and employment impacts were 164,408 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). Among leading sectors in this group, Landscape Services had value added impacts of $2.62 billion and employment impacts of 84,728 jobs, followed by Fertilizer Manufacturing ($2.34 billion | 24,962 jobs), Veterinary Services ($988 million | 27,379 jobs), Pest-Control Services ($802 million | 25,937 jobs), and Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing ($64 million | 322 jobs). Other minor sectors in this group included Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing, and Lawn and Garden Equipment Manufacturing. Mining is a natural resource-based activity for the extraction of basic mineral commodities such as oil, natural gas, stone, sand, gravel, clay, phosphate, and a variety of metals. In 2008, the Mining industries in Florida collectively had direct output of $5.02 billion; exports of $1.23 billion; output impacts of $6.23 billion; value added impacts of $2.29 billion; direct employment of 12,746 jobs; and employment impacts of 20,327 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). The largest individual sector was Extraction of Oil and Natural Gas, which had value added impacts of $1.12 billion and generated employment impacts of 13,340 jobs. Other individual sectors with significant value added impacts included Mining and Quarrying of Other Nonmetallic Minerals ($496 million); Mining and Quarrying of Stone ($249 million); Mining and Quarrying of Sand, Gravel, and Clay ($163 million); and Drilling of Oil and Gas Wells ($73 million). Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing industries convert unrefined agricultural commodities to food products for final consumption or use. In 2008, this group of industries in Florida had direct output of $24.04 billion, including exports of $5.83 billion, with output impacts of $29.53 billion; value added impacts of $8.15 billion; direct employment of 41,924 jobs; and total employment impacts of 79,797 jobs (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). This large industry group included thirty-four individual sectors, of which the highest value added and employment impacts were Tobacco Product Manufacturing ($2.26 billion | 4,940 jobs); Fruit and Vegetable Canning,

PAGE 5

Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 5 Pickling, and Drying ($811 million | 8,110 jobs); Soft Drink and Ice Manufacturing ($810 million | 10,158 jobs); Sugar Manufacturing ($708 million | 12,719 jobs); Breweries ($616 million | 2,114 jobs); Bread and Bakery Products Manufacturing ($425 million | 8,375 jobs); and Frozen Food Manufacturing ($348 million | 4,435 jobs). Other sectors with significant value added impacts included Coffee and Tea Manufacturing ($246 million), Animal Slaughtering ($207 million), Fluid Milk and Butter Manufacturing ($193 million), and Snack Food Manufacturing ($156 million). Forest Products Manufacturing is a group of industries for the processing of raw timber or wood into finished wood and paper products. In 2008, this industry group had direct output valued at $7.86 billion, with export sales of $3.14 billion; output impacts of $10.85 billion; direct employment of 25,405 jobs; employment impacts of 46,675 jobs; and value added impacts of $3.62 billion, including labor income impacts of $2.43 billion, other property income impacts of $976 million, and indirect business tax impacts of $209 million (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). Leading sectors within this group in terms of value added and employment impacts were Paper Mills ($665 million | 6,929 jobs), Sanitary Paper Products Manufacturing ($426 million | 2,618 jobs), Wood Window and Door Manufacturing ($380 million | 6,701 jobs), Paperboard Container Manufacturing ($297 million | 3,681 jobs), Engineered Wood Member and Truss Manufacturing ($296 million | 6,083 jobs), Pulp Mills ($392 million | 4,626 jobs), and Paperboard Mills ($388 million | 4,109 jobs). Other sectors with significant value added impacts included Sawmills and Wood Preservation ($199 million), Stationary Products Manufacturing ($141 million), and Veneer and Plywood Manufacturing ($132 million). Nature-based Recreation includes recreational activities generally tied to natural resources or managed landscapes, such as golf, recreational fishing, and hunting and trapping. In 2008, this industry group in Florida had total output of $3.64 billion; exports or sales to Florida visitors of $1.39 billion; output impacts of $5.14 billion; direct employment of 27,699 jobs; employment impacts of 39,667 jobs; and value added impacts of $2.36 billion (Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3). Among individual sectors, Golf Courses had value added impacts of $1.89 billion and employment impacts of 31,462 jobs, followed by Recreational Fishing ($394 million | 6,555 jobs), and Commercial Hunting and Trapping ($69 million | 1,650 jobs). Food and Kindred Products Distribution includes activities for wholesale and retail trade in agricultural and related products. This large group of industry sectors is only indirectly related to agriculture and natural resources because it serves to deliver products to final consumers, but it is included here for a perspective on the scope of the entire market chain for food and kindred products. In 2008, this industry group in Florida had total output of $67.61 billion; exports of $9.27 billion; output impacts of $76.36 billion; direct employment of 959,814 jobs; employment impacts of 1,027,319 jobs; and value added impacts of $43.99 billion, including labor income impacts of $28.17 billion, other property income impacts of $9.15 billion, and indirect business tax impacts of $6.67 billion (Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3). Collectively, this group represented about 57 percent of total value added impacts and 63 percent of employment impacts for the entire set of industries defined in this report. Among individual sectors within this group, Food Service Establishments and Drinking Places (restaurants and bars) had by far the greatest value added impacts ($24.22 billion) and employment impacts (709,141 jobs), followed by Wholesale Trade in Food and Kindred Products ($10.49 billion | 97,613 jobs), Food and Beverage Stores ($8.35 billion | 204,147 jobs), and Retail Lawn-and-Garden Centers ($942 million | 18,618 jobs). Economic Contributions by Commodity Groups In addition to the industry groups noted above, economic contributions were also evaluated for groups of food, fiber, and mineral commodities having identifiable market chain linkages between producers, manufacturers, and service sectors. In this section, some sectors are regrouped to reflect these linkages, with results summarized in Figures 4 and 5. Environmental Horticulture, which includes the sectors Nursery and Greenhouse Production,

PAGE 6

Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 6 Landscape Services, and Retail Lawn-and-Garden Centers, had value added impacts of $5.60 billion and employment impacts of 127,192 jobs. Forestry and Forest Products, which includes the sectors for Forestry and Timber Tracts, Logging, and sixteen forest product manufacturing sectors, had value added impacts of $4.42 billion and employment impacts of 64,440 jobs. Fruit and Vegetable Farming and Processing, including sectors for Frozen Food Manufacturing; Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling, and Drying; and Fruit Farming and Vegetable and Melon Farming, had value added impacts of $4.68 billion and employment impacts of 68,184 jobs. Sugarcane Farming and Refined Sugar Manufacturing had value added impacts of $1.02 billion and employment impacts of 31,714 jobs. Livestock and Dairy Farming and Animal Products Manufacturing, including the processing sectors Animal Slaughtering, Poultry Processing, Cheese Manufacturing, and Ice Cream Manufacturing, had total value added impacts of $1.07 billion and employment impacts of 25,007 jobs. Fishing and Seafood Products had value added impacts of $297 million and employment impacts of 10,341 jobs. The commodity group Grain and Oilseed Farming and Processing had value added and employment impacts of $176 million and 1,380 jobs, respectively. Output and value added impacts of food and fiber commodity groups in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Employment impacts of food and fiber commodity groups in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Economic Contributions in Florida Regions and Counties Regional impacts of agriculture and natural resources, and their related manufacturing, distribution, and service industries in 2008 were evaluated for nine economic regions of Florida, as illustrated in Figure 6, with results summarized in Table 2 and Figures 7. The region with the highest value added and employment impacts was Miami-Ft. Lauderdale ($25.39 billion | 522,725 jobs), followed by Orlando ($18.24 billion | 397,051 jobs), Tampa-St. Petersburg ($11.87 billion | 242,059 jobs), Jacksonville ($7.31 billion | 120,265 jobs), Sarasota-Bradenton ($7.03 billion | 161,910 jobs), Gainesville ($2.04 billion | 53,456 jobs), Pensacola ($1.97 billion | 48,906 jobs), Tallahassee ($1.54 billion | 36,744 jobs), and Panama City ($1.16 billion | 26,022 jobs). Economic impacts were also evaluated for all sixty-seven counties in Florida as shown in Table 2. The eight largest counties in terms of value added impacts and employment impacts in 2008 were Miami-Dade ($9.27 billion | 174,701 jobs), followed by Hillsborough ($7.02 billion | 137,141 jobs), Orange ($6.45 billion | 129,358 jobs), Broward ($6.17 billion | 126,319 jobs), Palm Beach ($5.94 billion | 128,944 jobs), Duval ($5.69 billion | 81,470 jobs), Pinellas ($4.11 billion | 80,057 jobs), and Polk ($3.64 billion | 65,353 jobs). Eight other counties with value added impacts exceeding $1 billion were Lee ($2.02 billion), Collier ($1.71 billion), Manatee

PAGE 7

Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 7 Economic regions of Florida [Source: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis] Value added impacts in Florida regions by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Employment impacts in Florida regions by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] ($1.71 billion), Seminole ($1.46 billion), Volusia ($1.28 billion), Brevard ($1.14 billion), Sarasota ($1.10 billion), and Marion ($1.03 billion). Share of Gross State Product and Employment The relative importance of the agriculture and natural resources, and their related manufacturing, distribution, and service industries in Florida can be gauged by their share of overall economic activity in the state. The Gross State Product (GSP) of Florida in 2008 was $722 billion (equivalent to the sum of value added for all industries), and total employment in the state was 10.1 million jobs. The direct value added contributed by agricultural, natural-resources, and related industries ($60.89 billion) represented 8.2 percent of Florida's Gross State Product, and ranked fourth among major industry groups (Figure 9). Direct employment in these industries represented 13.4 percent of all jobs in the state, ranking second among major industry groups behind Professional and Technical Services (Figure 10). Excluding Food and Kindred Products Distribution, agriculture, natural resources, and their related industries represented 3.0 percent of Gross State Product and 4.1 percent of total state employment. Contribution to Gross State Product (direct value added) of Florida by major industry groups in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)]

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 8 Direct employment by major industry groups in Florida in 2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Trends in Economic Contributions In addition to the economic contributions in 2008, it is important to understand how these values have changed over time. Of particular interest are the changes occurring for the most recent period, from 2007 to 2008, which partly indicates the effect of the global recession. The recession in the United States started in December 2007. Trends in the economic impacts of agriculture, natural resources, and their related industries between 2001 and 2008 are shown in Figures 11. Annual average growth rates were estimated for 2001 and for 2007, with all monetary values adjusted for inflation and expressed in constant 2008 U.S. dollars. Total output impacts grew by an average of 5.3 percent annually from 2001 to 2007, but declined by more than 13 percent from 2007 to 2008. Total employment impacts increased by 1.7 percent annually from 2001 to 2007, but declined nearly 14 percent from 2007 to 2008 (Figure 11). Overall value added impacts grew from $76.67 billion in 2001 to $93.39 billion in 2007, representing an average real annual growth rate of 3.6 percent, but then declined to $76.53 billion in 2008, or by more than 18 percent (Figure 12). Although direct output, value added, and employment (excluding multiplier effects) actually increased modestly from 2007 to 2008, the severe decline in export activity for virtually all sectors in 2008 led to the sharp decrease in estimated total impacts (including multiplier effects). Note that these trends may reflect changes in the structure of the Florida economy and with other changes in industry activity and commodity prices, as well as the effect of recession. Trends in employment impacts for agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in Florida during 2001 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.) Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects. Note that data were unavailable for 2005. Among industry groups, average annual growth in value added impacts from 2001 to 2007 was highest for Mining (19.1%) and Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fishery Production (10.2%), followed by Food and Kindred Products Distribution (4.9%) and Forest Product Manufacturing (3.0%). From 2007 to 2008, Forest Product Manufacturing and Agricultural Input and Services suffered the largest setback, with value added impacts declining by 35 percent, followed by Agricultural Inputs and Services (%); Mining (%); Food and Kindred Products Manufacturing (%); and Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Fishery Production (%). The only industry group that increased was Nature-based Recreation (1.5%). Employment impacts declined the most in 2008 for Mining (%), Forest Products Manufacturing (%), and Agriculture and Input Services (%). Output impacts declined the most in 2008 for Forest Products Manufacturing (%) and Food and Kindred

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 9 Trends in value added impacts for agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in Florida during 2001 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Values expressed in 2008 U.S. dollars using USDOC GDP Implicit Price Deflator. Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects. Note that data were unavailable for 2005. Products Manufacturing (%), but increased for Nature-based Recreation (40%). Trends over time in employment impacts of food and fiber commodity groups in Florida are shown in Figure 13. All groups experienced substantial decline in employment impacts in 2008, with the biggest declines for Fruit and Vegetable Farming and Processing (%); Grain and Oilseed Farming and Processing (%); and Forestry, Wood, and Paper Manufacturing (%), followed by Environmental Horticulture (%), Sugarcane Farming and Manufacturing (%), Livestock and Dairy Farming and Animal Products Manufacturing (%), and Fishing and Seafood Products (%). Trends in employment impacts for food and fiber commodity groups in Florida during 2001-2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] Impact estimates include regional multiplier effects. Note that data were unavailable for 2005 Among individual industry sectors, the effect of the recession from 2007 to 2008 varied widely. While most sectors experienced a significant decline in 2008, some sectors grew. Sectors with noticeable growth in value added impacts included Lawn-and-Garden Equipment Manufacturing (498%), Tree Nut Farming (234%), Oilseed Farming (169%), Coffee and Tea Manufacturing (156%), and Cheese Manufacturing (79%). Industry sectors with the highest declines in value added impacts were Seasoning and Dressing Manufacturing (%); Distillers (%); Coal Mining (%); Commercial Hunting and Trapping (%); Soft Drink and Ice Manufacturing (%); Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling, and Drying (%); Forestry, Forest Products, and Timber Tracts (%); and Sugar Manufacturing (%). Changes for major industry groups in growth rates in direct value added (excluding multiplier effects) for 2001 and 2007 are shown in Figure 14. The average annual growth rate for agriculture, natural resources, and their related industries for 2001 was 4.1 percent, but then fell slightly to 3.9 percent for 2007. In comparison, the growth in value added in 2008 was higher for Education (22.7%), Households (19.5%), Consumer Services (11.7%), Utilities (11.1%), Transportation (9.3%), Health Care (6.9%), Manufacturing (6.2%), and Travel and Entertainment Services (5.2%). Growth rates in direct value added were lower for Real Estate and Financial Services (2.3%) and for Wholesale Trade (0.4%). Negative growth was observed for Retail Trade (.8%), Information and Communications (.6%), Social Services and Non-profit Organizations (.5%), Professional and Technical Services (.9%), Government (.5%), and Construction (.8%).

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 10 Change in value added impacts for industry groups in Florida, 2001-2007 versus 2007-2008 [Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.)] This analysis indicated that agriculture and natural resources are linked to a broad array of economic sectors for commodity production, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and related service activities. These industries collectively have a significant economic impact on the Florida economy, accounting for about 13.7 percent of total employment and 8.4 percent of Gross State Product, representing the second and fourth highest, respectively, among major industry groups. Food and Kindred Products Distribution is by far the largest segment of the industry, representing 64 percent of value added and employment impacts. These industries are present throughout the state, with a major activity in urbanized metro areas as well as rural areas, where it may be relatively more important as a share of total economic activity, although less in absolute magnitude. These industries have grown substantially since 2001, with direct activity actually increasing in 2008 in spite of the global recession. Even while total regional economic impacts in Florida declined dramatically due to reduced exports, Agriculture, Natural Resources, and their Related Industries still fared better than about half of the other major industry groups in terms of change between 2007 and 2008, thus entailing their integral contributions towards the sustainability of Florida's economy. Hodges, Alan W. and M. Rahmani. 2009. Economic contributions of Florida's agricultural, natural resource, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2007. Electronic Data Information Source FE800. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE800 Hodges, Alan W., M. Rahmani, and W. David Mulkey. 2008. Economic contributions of agricultural, food Manufacturing, and natural resource industries in Florida in 2006. Electronic Data Information Source FE702. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE702 Hodges, Alan W., M. Rahmani, and W. David Mulkey. 2005. Economic impacts of the Florida citrus industry in 2003. Electronic Data Information Source FE633. Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE633 Johnson, K. and J. Kort. 2004. Redefinition of the BEA Economic Areas. In Survey of Current Business. Bureau of Economic Analysis, United States Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). http://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/2004/11November/ 1104Econ-Areas.pdf MIG, Inc. IMPLAN Pro V. 3.0 (data and software). Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc., Stillwater, MN. http://www.implan.com nMiller, R. E. and P.D. Blair. 2009. Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions, Second Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. USDOC/BEA. 1970. Gross Domestic Product Implicit Price Deflator. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, D.C. (Quarterly). http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred/data/gdp/gdpdef

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 11 Watson, P., J. Wilson, D. Thilmany, and S. Winter. 2007. Determining economic contributions and impacts: what is the difference and why do we care? Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 37(2): 140-146. http://www.jrap-journal.org/pastvolumes/2000/v37/ F37-2-6.pdf Region defines the geographic area for which impacts are estimated. Regions are generally an aggregation of one or more counties. Economic regions identified in this paper were defined based on worker commuting patterns. Sector is a grouping of industries that produce similar products or services, or production processes. Most economic reporting and models in the United States are based on the Standard Industrial Classification system (SIC code) or the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). Impact analysis estimates the impact of a change in output or employment resulting from a change in final demand to households, governments, or exports. Input-output (I-O) model is a representation of the flows of economic activity between industry sectors within a region. I-O models capture what each business or sector must purchase from every other sector in order to produce its output of goods or services. Using such a model, flows of economic activity associated with any change in spending may be traced backwards (e.g., purchases of plants that leads growers to purchase additional inputs such as fertilizers and containers. Multipliers for a region may be derived from an I-O model of the region's economy. IMPLAN is a micro-computer-based input output modeling system and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). With IMPLAN, one can estimate I-O models of up to 440 sectors for any region consisting of one or more counties. IMPLAN includes procedures for generating multipliers and estimating impacts by applying final demand changes to the model. The current version of the software is IMPLAN Pro, version 3. Direct effects are the changes in economic activity during the first round of spending. Secondary effects are the changes in economic activity from subsequent rounds of re-spending (there are two types of secondary effects: indirect and induced). Indirect effects are the changes in sales, income, or employment within the region in backward-linked industries supplying goods and services to businesses (e.g., increased sales in input supply firms resulting from more nursery industry sales). Induced effects are the increased sales within the region from household spending of the income earned in the direct and supporting industries (i.e., employees in the direct and supporting industries spend the income they earn on housing, utilities, groceries, and other consumer goods and services, which generates sales, income and employment throughout the region's economy). Total effects are the sum of direct, indirect, and induced effects. Multipliers capture the total effects, both direct and secondary, in a given region, generally as a ratio of the total change in economic activity in the region relative to the direct change. Multipliers may be expressed as ratios of sales, income, or employment, or as ratios of total income or employment changes relative to direct sales. Multipliers express the degree of interdependency between sectors in a region's economy and therefore vary considerably across regions and sectors. Type I multipliers include only direct and indirect effects. Type II multipliers also include induced effects. Type SAM multipliers used by IMPLAN additionally account for capital investments and transfer payments such as welfare and retirement income. A sector-specific multiplier gives the total changes to the economy associated with a unit change in output or employment in a given sector. Purchaser prices are the prices paid by the final consumer of a good or service. Producer prices are the prices of goods at the factory or production point. For manufactured goods the purchaser price equals the producer price plus a retail margin, a wholesale margin, and a transportation margin. For services, the producer and purchaser prices are equivalent.

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 12 Margins (retail, wholesale, and transportation) are the portions of the purchaser price accruing to the retailer, wholesaler, and grower, respectively. Only the retail margins of many goods purchased by consumers accrue to the local region, as the wholesaler, shipper, and manufacturer often lie outside the local area. Sales or output is the dollar volume of a good or service produced or sold. Final Demand is sales to final consumers, including households, governments, and exports. Intermediate sales are sales to other industrial sectors. Income is the money earned within the region from production and sales. Total income includes personal income (wage and salary income, including sole proprietor profits and rents). Jobs or employment is a measure of the number of jobs required to produce a given volume of sales/production, usually expressed as full-time equivalents, or as the total number including part-time and seasonal positions. Value Added is the sum of total income and indirect business taxes. Value added is the most commonly used measure of the contribution of a region to the national economy, as it avoids double counting of intermediate sales and captures only the "value added" by the region to final products.

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 13 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars 178,838230,946 11,566.216,241.6 6,090.2 6,595.79,221.9 Support activities for agriculture and forestry 75,77184,057 1,564.62,654.4 844.4 1,077.11,678.9 Fruit farming 24,83036,672 1,972.02,884.9 1,302.5 1,248.31,775.9 Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production 19,70226,046 1,930.22,613.8 1,353.5 1,632.32,037.2 Sugar cane and sugar beet farming 16,74018,995 442.2642.4 264.4 194.9310.1 Vegetable and melon farming 12,65418,827 2,164.32,689.6 999.3 1,434.71,739.2 Commercial fishing 7,7548,485 259.5351.2 167.0 50.2101.4 Animal (except cattle, poultry and eggs) production 4,7454,851 174.8186.2 21.5 93.699.5 Cattle ranching and farming 4,2044,542 404.0442.9 44.4 69.587.1 Dairy cattle and milk production 4,2024,284 463.8475.2 17.7 175.9181.1 Commercial logging 3,5165,007 724.3876.6 102.3 216.5288.4 All other crop farming 1,6692,986 322.6440.3 167.6 120.6188.3 Forestry, forest products, and timber tract production 1,36412,758 658.51,233.8 437.8 170.4512.0 Poultry and egg production 8872,125 403.0621.8 295.8 71.1155.7 Grain farming 287345 20.125.8 11.3 10.713.9 Cotton farming 284602 42.171.3 42.1 19.736.4 Oilseed farming 83117 7.510.8 7.5 4.26.1 Tree nut farming 74140 8.613.3 7.1 5.07.7 Tobacco farming 73106 4.0 7.1 4.0 1.02.8

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 14 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars 135,496 164,408 13,548.0 18,346.5 5,574.7 4,598.6 6,902.6 Landscape services 79,59884,728 4,201.84,837.6 737.0 2,256.42,619.3 Veterinary services 26,00627,379 1,936.02,116.0 184.9 886.2988.4 Pest control services 24,36725,937 1,286.31,480.9 225.6 690.7801.8 Fertilizer manufacturing 5,01724,962 5,696.89,349.0 4,234.0 685.92,342.0 Farm machinery and equipment manufacturing 277897 142.6234.6 128.0 25.374.3 Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturing 161322 258.1284.3 39.0 50.464.0 Lawn and garden equipment manufacturing 71183 26.443.5 26.2 3.712.7 12,746 20,327 5,019.3 6,225.6 1,232.8 1,620.5 2,789.3 Extraction of oil and natural gas 7,91413,340 3,302.74,199.4 786.8 622.01,117.1 Mining and quarrying other nonmetallic minerals 1,4912,718 674.7847.7 243.0 399.0495.9 Mining and quarrying stone 1,3621,562 374.0401.4 33.3 233.0248.6 Mining and quarrying sand, gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals 1,1891,453 250.6287.2 40.6 142.9163.4 Drilling oil and gas wells 315386 116.6126.9 18.8 67.372.9 Support activities for oil and gas operations 207207 51.051.0 0.0 19.019.0 Mining gold, silver, and other metal ore 83281 124.1156.2 61.2 77.695.8 Support activities for other mining 82 85 32.833.2 0.4 9..29.4 Mining iron ore 63222 61.286.7 41.2 30.945.0 Mining coal 25 31 13.514.4 1.2 7.98.4 Mining copper, nickel, lead, and zinc 16 41 17.921.6 6.4 11.713.9

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 15 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars 41,924 79,797 24,400.6 29,534.9 5,832.3 5,538.7 8,140.0 Soft drink and ice manufacturing 7,26710,158 4,787.15,268.0 663.0 574.5810.3 Bread and bakery product manufacturing 6,7708,375 1,046.21,263,9 205.6 303.6424.8 Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling, and drying 3,4028,110 1,878.62,588.9 769.1 439.0810.7 Frozen food manufacturing 3,1364,435 1,036.81,222.3 198.4 246.2348.4 Tobacco product manufacturing 2,3424,940 4,668.25,192.0 986.6 1,993.02,356.7 All other food manufacturing 2,3124,795 678.21,014.5 321.8 131.9318.7 Animal (except poultry) slaughtering, rendering, and processing 2,2674,369 1,049.11,286.6 223.3 105.2207.2 Fluid milk and butter manufacturing 1,9472,188 1,366.11,399.1 29.1 177.8193.1 Seafood product preparation and packaging 1,6891,856 582.8602.1 22.0 86.997.3 Sugar cane mills and refining 1,61412,719 1,263.62,380.4 887.2 180.8708.2 Poultry processing 1,3021,552 286.0324.0 54.2 50.970.0 Seasoning and dressing manufacturing 1,2552,589 599.2803.2 247.7 83.7188.7 Cookie, cracker, and pasta manufacturing 9681,496 380.2463.6 91.7 74.5118.9 Breweries 9062,114 1,638.21,846.5 292.7 513.0616.3 Coffe and tea manufacturing 7173,077 502.0791.7 267.7 81.9245.6 Snack food manufacturing 6651,446 442.9557.9 158.8 93.5156.0

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 16 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturing 651828 320.9348.8 27.7 48.061.6 Confectionery manufacturing from purchased chocolate 6161,005 163.6224.1 68.0 23.354.0 Other animal food manufacturing 560693 528.0551.0 40.6 44.255.3 Wineries 371437 186.8195.7 9.4 36.741.8 Non-chocolate confectionery manufacturing 360637 101.4143.9 51.5 15.637.7 Flour milling and malt manufacturing 200866 301.4400.9 119.1 95.4151.9 Distilleries 125190 106.9116.5 18.9 59.364.8 Dog and cat food manufacturing 124163 123.8129.9 10.5 20.423.5 Flavoring syrup and concentrate manufacturing 113161 209.4216.3 10.7 43.446.7 Tortilla manufacturing 90 90 15.815.9 0.0 4.14.2 Chocolate and confectionery manufacturing from cacao beans 71189 40.157.4 20.2 2.611.4 Cheese manufacturing 49128 45.155.6 11.3 5.510.5 Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy product manufacturing 24141 25.742.1 16.8 2.210.1 Fats and oils reining and blending 9 11 14.514.8 1.0 0.80.9 Wet corn milling 4 37 8.012.7 6.8 0.93.6 Soybean and other oilseed processing 1 3 4.2 4.5 0.8 0.10.3 Breakfast cereal manufacturing 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 Beet sugar manufacturing 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 17 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars 25,405 46,675 7,858.6 10,848.5 3,137.0 2,087.8 2,435.3 Wood windows and doors and millwork manufacturing 25,40546,675 7,858.610,848.5 3,137.0 2,087.83,620.4 Engineered wood member and truss manufacturing 4,5326,083 525.1734.3 199.3 185.7296.0 Paperboard container manufacturing 3,3753,681 1,208.11,253.3 53.3 272.5297.1 Sawmills and wood preservation 2,7503,842 636.8769.4 84.1 137.9198.9 Sanitary paper product manufacturing 1,5972,618 1,294.21,455.4 270.4 342.8426.4 Wood container and pallet manufacturing 1,4131,465 176.3183.5 8.1 68.071.8 Paper mills 1,2886,929 947.31,769.7 934.9 240.2665.3 Sationery product manufacturing 1,0611,810 332.8443.4 122.9 80.1140.6 Veneer and plywood manufacturing 1,0431,930 213.4323.3 90.8 79.4132.5 Paperboard mills 8914,109 665.01,122.2 466.0 153.9388.2 Pulp mills 6524,626 499.21,051.7 499.2 118.0391.8 All other miscellaneous wood product manufacturing 556646 92.9104.9 11.3 37.343.7 All other converted paper product manufacturing 496696 141.2169.8 32.3 33.349.3 Coated and laminated paper, packaging paper, and pasltics film manufacturing 470647 208.7235.8 36.7 50.464.7 All other paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturing 429636 125.7156.4 39.7 30.346.8 Reconstituted wood product manufacturing 163255 39.752.7 16.2 11.117.5

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 18 Economic contributions of agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industry groups and sectors in Florida in 2008 Employment Output (Revenue) Exports Value Added Industry Group/Sector Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Direct Impact Total Impact Full-time/Part-time Jobs Million Dollars 27,699 39,667 3,643.8 5,141.6 1,388.4 1,487.0 2,357.0 Golf courses 21,68931,462 2,885.84,109.6 1,127.1 1,181.61,893.1 Recreational fishing 4,5186,555 601.2856.2 234.8 246.2394.4 Commercial hunting and trapping 1,4921,650 156.8175.8 26.5 59.269.5 959,814 1,027,319 67,611.9 76,365.3 9,268.7 38,957.6 43,991.7 Food services and drinking places 670,117709,141 40,266.745,477.4 5,478.2 21,267.024,218.7 Retail stores (food and beverages) 200,088204,147 12,504.013,013.7 518.4 8,044.28,345.8 Wholesale trade (food & kindred products) 73,50097,613 13,438.216,432.3 3,231.1 8,727.310,485.1 Retail lawn and garden centers 16,10916,418 1,403.01,441.9 40.9 919.1942.1 1,381,921 1,609,139 133,648.3 162,704.0 32,524.2 60,885.9 76,531.9 Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc.) Total impact estimates include regional multiplier effects.

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 19 Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008 Region / County Crop, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries Production Agricultural Inputs & Services Food & Kindred Products Manufacturing Forest Products Manufacturing Mining Nature-based Recreation Food & Kindred Products Distribution Total / All 19,8163,041 2,510 2,823204 28624,77653,456 Alachua 2,0401,816 365 59976 7017,12122,085 Bradford 434 105 84 22961 25 8371,775 Columbia 784 200 148 642 2 52 2,9754,804 DeSoto 8,064 146 370 0 0 70 6289,277 Dixie 1,231 28 0 851 1 7 4042,522 Gilchrist 804 61 101 179 2 3 2681,418 Lafayette 641 299 0 28 9 31 1791,188 Levy 1,769 104 22 5521 11 1,1793,162 Suwannee 3,791 168 1,414 2729 3 1,0856,517 Union 258 113 6 212 4 13 100 708 5,347 10,138 10,920 11,665 332 2,226 79,637 120,265 Baker 245 177 0 0 0 0 6911,113 Clay 4851,183 8 479151 1097,3669,781 Duval 1,1066,669 10,672 5,610134 96954,87980,038 Nassau 1,290 583 61 2,100 1 2113,2267,472 Putnam 1,136 276 0 3,14134 54 2,0076648 St. Johns 1,0851,251 179 33412 88311,46915,213 79,973 51,812 24,053 8,191 1,935 14,048 342,713 522,725 Broward 2,22113,701 4,667 1,235435 3,241100,777126,278 Glades 950 33 33 0 8 43 1281,196 Hendry 12,858 194 2,810 049 17 1,47617,404 Indian River 7,8951,899 109 9531 9386,43817,405 Martin 3,8582,469 568 13813 1,543 8,00716,596 Miami-Dade 12,62514,395 7,345 4,826778 1,489133,158174,616 Monroe 1,856 717 68 873 5049,30412,530 Okeechobee 3,119 296 307 014 25 1,3645,125 Palm Beach 24,67816,127 7,442 1,518468 5,72273,544129,498 St. Lucie 9,9131,983 704 37166 5248,51722,079

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 20 Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008 Region / County Crop, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries Production Agricultural Inputs & Services Food & Kindred Products Manufacturing Forest Products Manufacturing Mining Nature-based Recreation Food & Kindred Products Distribution Total / All 59,441 45,494 20,407 8,850 2,231 7,788 252,840 397,051 Brevard 7132,971 244 45366 1,24525,17430,866 Citrus 580 713 62 6561 4154,7816,676 Flagler 693 610 27 7640 45 2,7134,204 Hardee 7,377 136 126 9969 52 5898,450 Highlands 12,895 481 64 13435 3093,49517,414 Lake 4,0492,719 1,125 509158 31711,58920,466 Marion 6,8692,909 1,098 773175 54312,31324,680 Orange 5,78211,319 5,126 1,421122 1,759103,767129,297 Osceola 1,6971,891 296 137102 41814,53219,073 Polk 14,11511,944 10,840 3,8091,268 96221,15964,098 Seminole 6496,318 472 99834 40624,06732,944 Sumter 914 387 252 20378 5613,0275,422 Volusia 3,1063,096 677 17223 75525,63333,461 3,405 1,496 148 2,674 197 775 17,327 26,022 Bay 8901,140 42 1,750106 49713,79418,219 Calhoun 508 16 0 148 8 41 4411,163 Gulf 298 20 10 127 2 9 494 961 Holmes 443 53 55 38 1 91 3891,070 Jackson 910 80 24 59564 82 1,6493,405 Washington 356 187 16 1616 55 5601,205 2,730 4,388 588 2,225 429 788 37,758 48,906 Escambia 1,1241,354 163 1,961220 34415,99421,160 Okaloosa 5031,436 201 3377 31313,30815,872 Santa Rosa 714 873 51 94128 83 4,3716,314 Walton 389 725 173 136 4 48 4,0855,560

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Economic Contributions of Florida's Agricultural, Natural Resource, Food and Kindred.... 21 Employment impacts (jobs) in Florida regions and counties by agriculture, natural resources, food and kindred product manufacturing and distribution, and service industries in 2008 Region / County Crop, Livestock, Forestry & Fisheries Production Agricultural Inputs & Services Food & Kindred Products Manufacturing Forest Products Manufacturing Mining Nature-based Recreation Food & Kindred Products Distribution Total / All 29,942 20,841 4,750 1,677 829 9,906 93,964 161,910 Charlotte 1,2811,542 12 15761 5156,67310,241 Collier 11,6814,457 183 154251 3,92318,75139,400 Lee 2,5096,462 521 384253 2,90532,29046,323 Manatee 13,7493,489 3,944 733120 1,30415,15538,493 Sarasota 7234,892 91 249144 1,26020,09527,453 6,067 4,214 990 3,092 337 589 21,455 36,744 Franklin 55 32 23 024 26 718 878 Gadsden 2,325 251 46 709168 71 9224,493 Hamilton 3741,092 0 0 0 40 2601,766 Jefferson 613 91 14 0 0 40 2601,766 Leon 7052,477 181 3468 18317,17220,819 Liberty 351 20 0 63313 150 1711,337 Madison 757 9 494 88 0 38 5021,889 Taylor 738 61 148 1,62853 14 7653,408 Wakulla 150 180 82 0 1 29 6711,113 24,463 22,984 15,431 5,478 13,832 3,260 156,849 242,059 Hernando 596 912 24 33115 3176,0968,094 Hillsborough 19,88012,525 12,765 3,417504 1,50485,503136,098 Pasco 2,849 3144 555 29395 50614,62422,066 Pinellas 9006,403 2,087 1,73413,119 93350,62575,802 220,946 164,408 79,797 46,675 20.327 39,667 1,027,319 1,609,139 Source: IMPLAN Professional data for Florida (MIG, Inc. 2009) Impact estimates include multiplier effects. Employment includes full-time and part-time positions.