Chemical Engineering Education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical Engineering Education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00198


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Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 46 Number 3 Summer 2012



> DEPARTMENT
146 Chemical Engineering at Michigan State University
S. Patrick Walton, Robert Y. Ofoli, Jane L. DePriest, Laura A. Seeley

> EDUCATOR
204 David A. Kofke of the University at Buffalo
Jeffrey R. Errington, Carl R.F. Lund, David M. Ford

> CLASSROOM
189 Peer Evaluation in Chemical Engineering Capstone Design Via Wikis
Caryn L. Heldt
213 The Enhancement of Students' Learning in Both Lower-Division and
Upper-Division Classes by a Quiz-Based Approach
Sepideh Faraji

> LABORATORY
152 An Effective and Economical Photometer for Classroom Demonstrations
and Laboratory Use
Anthony E. Butterfield, Colin C. Young
182 Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory
Deniz Rende, Sevinc Rende, Nihat Baysal

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
171 Problems With Faces
Richard M. Felder

> CURRICULUM
157 Implementing Conservation of Life Across the Curriculum
Richard A. Davis, James A. Klein
165 What Carnot's Father Taught His Son About Thermodynamics
Erich A. Miller
196 History of the ChE Summer Schools
Deran Hanesian, Ralph A. Buonopane, Angelo J. Perna

> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
173 Semi-Batch Steam Distillation of a Binary Organic Mixture-
a Demonstration of Advanced Problem-Solving Techniques and Tools
Mordechai Shacham, Michael B. Cutlip, Michael Elly


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION[ISSN 0009-2479 (print); ISSN 2165-6428 (online)] is published quarterly
by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, 5200 NW
43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville, FL 32606. Copyright @ 2012 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division,ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Writefor information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, 5200 NW 43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville,
FL 32606. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900). www.che.ufl.edulCEE


Vol. 46, No. 3, Sunummner 2012






M1 department


Chemical Engineering


(and Materials Science and Engineering)


at Michigan State University


S. PATRICK WALTON,
ROBERT Y. OFOLI,
JANE L. DEPRIEST,
LAURA A. SEELEY
M ichigan State
University
(MSU) was
founded in 1855 as the
Agricultural College of
the State of Michigan.
Since then, it has been
renamed five times, fi-
nally becoming Michi-
gan State University in
1964. Throughout its
history, MSU has served
as a model land-grant
institution. In one form
or another, chemical
engineering has been a
part of that history since
1912 (Table 1). Thus, Th
2012 represents 100
years of chemical engineering at Michigan State University.
As in many programs, chemical engineering emerged from
chemistry, officially joining the Division of Engineering as
the Department of Chemical Engineering in 1931. During
World War II, the department was rechristened the Depart-
ment of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, beginning
an intermittent pairing of chemical engineering and materials
that would culminate in 2001 with the merger of two programs
to form the current Department of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science (ChEMS).
The current faculty count stands at 32, including three
University Distinguished Professors. The faculty has received
numerous awards and honors, including NSF CAREER
146


ie Engineering Building at MSU.


Awards, a Department of Energy PECASE Award, University
Distinguished Faculty Awards (University-level), Withrow
Teaching Excellence Awards (College-level), and Withrow
Research Scholar Awards (College-level). Also included
among the faculty ranks are nine Society Fellows (three of
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and one each
of the American Institute of Chemists, the Society of Plastics
Engineers, ASTM International, the American Ceramic Soci-
ety, ASM International, and the American Physical Society).
The department has positioned itself and established its
research priorities to address critical 21st century challenges
in energy and sustainability, nanotechnology and materials,
@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Chemical Engineering Education






and biotechnology and biomedical engineering. In addition,
the department has a long-standing focus on research in en-
gineering education.
Since its inception as a joint department in 2001, ChEMS
has grown significantly in many ways. The total number of
faculty has increased by over 60%. Total research expendi-
tures are roughly $11,000,000, and the faculty publication rate
is averaging more than 150 papers per year. ChEMS programs
currently enroll 98 Ph.D. students and eight Master's students.
A significant portion of research funding is derived from
ChEMS department participation in major research centers,
including the Composite Materials and Structures Center; the
Center for Revolutionary Materials for Solid State Energy
Conversion (Department of Energy); and the Great Lakes
Bioenergy Research Center (Department of Energy).

ACADEMIC PROGRAMS
The Department operates two fully ABET-accredited pro-
grams, Chemical Engineering (ChE) and Materials Science
and Engineering (MSE). Together, the two programs serve
approximately 100-120 students per year, with consistent
growth in enrollments in recent years. To supplement the core


curricula, each program offers a number of concentrations
(i.e., specializations) that allow students to tailor their pro-
grams according to interest. For the ChE program, the avail-
able concentrations are biochemical engineering, bioenergy,
biomedical engineering, environmental, food science, and
polymer science. For the MSE program, the available concen-
trations are biomedical materials, manufacturing engineering,
metallurgical engineering, and polymeric engineering.
It is the mission of our programs to educate students to
become innovative engineers with a foundation in math-
ematics, physics, chemistry, life sciences, and engineering.
Faculty members excel in research and teaching of chemical
processes, materials evaluation and design, and biotechnol-
ogy. Students enjoy access to outstanding laboratories for
unit operations, biochemical engineering, composite materi-
als processing, and characterization of metals, ceramics, and
polymers. Our students routinely go on to careers in automo-
tive, aerospace, manufacturing, pharmaceutical, design and
construction, paper, petrochemical, food processing, specialty
chemicals, microelectronics, electronic and advanced materi-
als, polymer, business services, biotechnology, environmental,
and safety industries.


TABLE 1
Department Milestones
1912 Chemical engineering courses are administered jointly by the Department of Chemistry and the Division of Engineering.
1918 The first four undergraduates in the formal engineering chemistry option receive bachelor's degrees in chemical engineering.
1929 MSU's Department of Chemistry expands to become the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.
1931 Department of Chemical Engineering splits from the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and joins the Division of
Engineering as a degree-granting program.
1933 First female engineering graduate-Ethel V. Lyon-receives bachelor's degree in chemical engineering.
1941 Department of Chemical Engineering becomes known as the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering.
1949 Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering splits to form two separate departments-the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering and the Department of Metallurgical Engineering.
1962 The Department of Metallurgical Engineering and the Department of Applied Mechanics merge to form the Department of Metallurgy,
Mechanics, and Materials Science (MMM).
1982 Blue-Green Seminar Series inaugurated between Departments of Chemical Engineering at MSU and University of Michigan.
1983 Center for Composite Materials and Structures established.
1988 MSU Board of Trustees approves permanent status for the Composite Materials and Structures Center.
1991 Center on Low-Cost, High-Speed Polymer Composites Processing established-the first National Science Foundation research center
in the college.
1992 Department of Metallurgy, Mechanics, and Materials Science (MMM) becomes Department of Materials Science and Mechanics
(MSM).
1992 First Symposium Day held.
1999 Johansen-Crosby Lectureship in chemical engineering education inaugurated.
2001 Department of Materials Science and Mechanics reorganized; materials science faculty and programs merged into existing chemical
engineering department. Official name becomes Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. Martin Hawley named
first chairperson.
2003 Biomedical Engineering Laboratory opened.
2004 First ChEMS Research Forum held.
2007 Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center established.
2009 Center for Revolutionary Materials for Solid State Energy Conversion established.

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012 14










CH


p s w 1918-
1930
1931-
1936
1936-
1940
1940-
In this 1947 photo, M.F. Obrecht (in suit), assis- 1948
tant professor of chemical engineering, shows 1948-
two students in the Fuels Laboratory how to test 1949
the heat value of commercial natural gas. To the 1949-
right, taking data, is Thomas Christiansen from 1950
Manistee, Mich. Operating the equipment (on
table, left) is Edwin Johansen Crosby of Flint, 1950
Mich. Crosby endowed the Johansen-Crosby
Professorship in the Department of Chemical 1951-
Engineering at MSU shortly before his death in 1952
December 1991. 1952-
1961

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 1961-
1963
The student chapter of the American Institute of 1963-
Chemical Engineers (AIChE) sponsors activities 1977
that create opportunities for students to network 1977-
with industry professionals (many of them recent 1995
MSU ChEMS graduates), enhance their academic 1995-
work, and contribute to the community through 2001
volunteer work. Key educational activities include Depart
Symposium Day (see below), facilitating atten-
dance at national and regional AIChE conferences,
open meetings that enable industry professionals to discuss
life in the "real world" and interact with students, and spon-
sored activities to introduce freshmen and sophomores to
chemical engineering.
The Materials Science and Engineering Society (MSE Soci-
ety) focuses on programming to support students in a variety
of ways. These include help in finding permanent jobs, intern-
ships, and co-operative opportunities; providing opportunities
for students to network with industry personnel; enabling
access to tutoring for underclassmen; "and organizing social
events to help create a sense of community among students.
The student chapter of the International Society of Pharma-
ceutical Engineers (ISPE) is committed to helping its members
improve their technical abilities. It fosters many programs to
promote networking among students and practicing pharma-
ceutical manufacturing professionals. The group is involved in
several community improvement activities, including tutoring
of students in Lansing-area elementary schools.
Other professional organizations in which ChEMS students
have participation on various levels include Omega Chi Ep-
148


Department Heads/Chairpersons


METALLURGICAL ENG.;
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING METALLURGY, MECHANICS,
MATERIALS SCIENCE; MATERIALS
SCIENCE & MECHANICS
Arthur John Clark 1948- R. L. Sweet
1949
H. S. Reed 1949- Austen J. Smith
1964
H. E. Publow 1964- William A. Bradley,
1965 acting
Clyde C. DeWitt 1966- Donald J. Montgomery
1971
J. W. Donnell 1971- Robert W. Summitt
1974
Austen J. Smith 1974- William A. Bradley,
1975 acting
David F. Smith 1975- Robert W. Summitt
1978
R. W. Ludt, acting 1978- George D. Mase, acting
1979
C. Fred Gumrnham 1979- David L. Sikarskie
1984
Austen J. Smith, 1985- Kalinath Mukherjee
acting 1998
Myron H. Chetrick 1998- Nicholas J. Altiero
2000
Donald K. Anderson 2000- Bruce E. Dale, acting
2001
Bruce E. Dale

ment Merger to Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
2001 present Martin C. Hawley

silon (QXE, the honor society for chemical engineering) and
the Biomedical Engineering Society (promotion of biomedical
engineering education and professional opportunities among
all students in the college).

AWARDS AND COMPETITIONS
The department is proud of the awards and recognition
received by our students. For instance, in the last five years,
ChEMS students have been awarded six NSF graduate re-
search fellowships and eight honorable mentions. In addition,
the ChE program has one of the nation's best records in the
annual AIChE design competition (Tables 2 and 3). MSU
students have been recognized in this competition in 30 of
the last 43 years, an outstanding achievement. This recogni-
tion underscores the commitment of our department and the
MSU College of Engineering to a design-oriented education.

CORPORATE INTERACTIONS
The department sponsors two unique activities that allow
our undergraduate and graduate students to interface with
corporate representatives. The first of these is our annual
Chemical Engineering Education







TABLE 2
Record in AIChE Annual Design Contest Individual
1968 3rd Place Carl L. English
1969 1st Place Jerome Trumbley; 2nd Place Jon Branson
1970 Honorable Mention Steven R. Auvil
1971 1st Place -Allen G. Croft
1972 3rd Place Tim 0. Bender
1973 3rd Place Mike Murry
1974 1st Place Larry J. Clink
1975 Honorable Mention Barbara R. (Kreger) Engerer
1976 3rd Place -Alan D. Schmidt
1979 1st Place Thomas W. Calhoun
1980 1st Place Susan J. Barrett; 3rd Place Thomas Bartos
1981 Honorable Mention Timothy S. VanLente
1982 1st Place Ray Murphy
1983 3rd Place Dennis P. Stocker
1987 Honorable Mention Scott E. Booth 1989 1st Place Daniel W. Manson
1991 3rd Place John M. Gilleo
1992 Honorable Mention Michelle Hohlfeld
1993 1st Place Martin Heller
1994 Honorable Mention Jennifer Jewett Antwerp
1995 1 st Place Jeff VanderLaan
1996 2nd Place Rick Sprague; 3rd Place John Pauli
1997 3rd Place Brian Nowak
1999 1st Place Casey Preston
2000 2nd Place Brian Wall
2001 2nd Place Jessica Okonowski
2005 1st Place Benjamin Koenigsknecht
2006 3rd Place Heather Schultz
2010 1st Place Philip Lehman
2011 1st Place Nathan W. Hanna; Honorable Mention Nathaniel C.
Mclntee-Chmielewski


TABLE 3
Record in AIChE Annual Design Contest Team
1999 Honorable Mention Joseph Avore III and Joseph
Campbell
2000 1st Place D. Borowski and T. Maliszewski
2006 1st Place Stephen Shaw and Matthew Yedwabnick
2007 Honorable Mention and Safety Award- Katherine Geer
and Joseph Skuza
2010 1 st Place Christopher Gelinas and David Hasselbeck

Symposium Day. The second, primarily focused on gradu-
ate students and research activities, is the annual ChEMS
Research Forum.
Symposium Day is organized annually by the student
chapter of AIChE and the MSE Society. The event provides
students with exposure to how the chemical process industry
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


Northern Technologies, and MSU's National
Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

LECTURESHIPS AND SEMINARS
The department supports two special seminars each year, in
addition to its regular seminar series. The Johansen-Crosby
Lecture was endowed by Edwin Johansen Crosby, a former
MSU student and faculty member at the University of Wiscon-
sin-Madison. The lecture is dedicated to supporting chemical
engineering education and is given annually by distinguished
contributors in this area. This provides faculty members (and
graduate students thinking of academic careers) an opportunity
to discuss the state of chemical engineering education and
explore visions of the future of education for the discipline.
The Blue-Green Seminar is an annual seminar held jointly
with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Univer-
sity of Michigan. The event involves a visit to one school that
149


(CPI) functions, through presentations by in-
dustry professionals on process design, control,
optimization, and safety. The program also
promotes face-to-face interactions with industry
professionals and faculty from MSU and other
universities, and enhances students' ability to
compete successfully for internships and full-
time jobs by establishing early ties with CPI
professionals. Symposium Day was held for the
21st year in 2012 and has been a key educational
experience for the students who organize it as
well as those who attend the function. It is also a
unique opportunity to bridge our two academic
programs, bringing chemical engineering and
materials science students together to interact
with CPI professionals and faculty members.
The ChEMS department considers the event an
essential part of our students' education; thus
all chemical engineering and materials science
classes are canceled for the day, allowing all
students to attend.
The annual Research Forum is an opportunity
for faculty members and graduate students from
the department to give oral and poster presenta-
tions of their work to an audience of internal
and external attendees. The Forum is generally
organized with sessions focused on the principal
research themes of the department: energy and
sustainability, nanotechnology and materials,
and biotechnology and biomedical engineering.
The event also features presentations by distin-
guished industrial and academic professionals.
Recent presenters have come from Ford, Stryker,
Kimberly-Clark, ExxonMobil, Pfizer, MIT, DTE
Energy, Sandia National Labs, Dow Chemical,
Mississippi State University, Coca-Cola, BioMa-
rin Pharmaceutical, Idaho National Laboratory,






includes a presentation by the speaker,
followed by dinner and a poster com-
petition featuring work by graduate
students from both universities. The
speaker then visits the other school the
following day. MSU and UM alternate
hosting the presentation and dinner.
The choice of speaker is also a shared
responsibility, with one school choos-
ing the speaker from a list of candidates
provided by the other. This seminar fos-
ters relationships between the faculty
members and graduate students of the
two schools and has been a tradition
for 30 years.
The department further facilitates
cross-disciplinary interactions through
its participation in MSU's Science at
the Edge seminar series. This series,
which also is coordinated by col-
leagues from Physics and Astronomy,
Mathematics, Computer Science, Bio-
chemistry and Molecular Biology, and
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics,
brings in nationally recognized pio-
neers in research that merges theories
and techniques across disciplines.

MARTIN C. HAWLEY -
50 YEARS AT MSU
The current chairperson of the
ChEMS Department is Martin C.
Hawley. Of the 100 years of chemical
engineering at MSU, Professor Hawley
has been a part of 50. Hawley received
his bachelor's degree in chemical en-
gineering from MSU in 1961, subse-
quently earning his Ph.D. in 1964 and
joining the department faculty. In 2001,
he was named the first chairperson
of the then-new Department of Chemical
Materials Science.


Hawley originally planned on going into veterinary medi-
cine, until he discovered that it would take more than four
years. So, he explored other opportunities during his fresh-
man year and eventually looked into chemical engineering. "I
liked math, chemistry, and physics, and my advisor said there
would be good jobs in that field with a bachelor's degree. It
seemed like a natural thing for me to do."
As an undergraduate, Hawley became involved in a research
project sponsored by Upjohn. By the end of his four years at
MSU, Hawley had decided to go for a Ph.D., spurred on by
his undergraduate research project. "I never had it in my mind
150


List of Faculty and their Research Areas
Melissa Baumann Biomaterials, bone tissue engineering, ceramics processing
Kris Berglund Fermentation for value-added products, distilled beverage technology
Thomas Bieler Materials properties, electronic heat sink materials, metal composites
Carl Boehlert Titanium alloys and composites, intermetallics, electron microscopy
Daina Briedis Bioengineering, engineering education, assessment
Scott Calabrese Catalysis and transport in electrochemical energy systems
Barton
Eldon Case Ceramics, bioceramics, thermoelectrics, brittle materials processing
Christina Chan Diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, tissue engineering, and systems biology
Martin Crimp Ordered intermetallic alloys, high temperature materials, TEM, SEM
Bruce Dale Biomass conversion, value-added agriculture, life cycle assessments
Lawrence Drzal Polymer composite materials, nanomaterials, nanocomposites
David Grummon Shape-memory materials, thermoelastic transformations
Martin Hawley Carbon nanotube synthesis, electromagnetic processing of materials
David Hodge Biofuels and biochemicals, chemical pretreatments, modeling
K. Jayaraman Processing of polymer blends and polymer nanocomposites
Wei Lai Advanced materials for fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors
Andre Lee Structure-property relationships of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers
Ilsoon Lee Molecular self-assembly, functional thin films, polymer interfaces
Carl Lira Thermodynamics of complex systems, adsorption, simulations
James Lucas Microstructure characterization of alloys and composites
Richard Lunt Solar energy production and utilization, organic electronics
Dennis Miller Chemicals from renewable feedstocks, thermochemical conversions
Donald Morelli Thermoelectric materials, transport properties of solids
Ramani Narayan Biodegradable polymer systems, natural-synthetic copolymers
Jason Nicholas Solid oxide fuel cells, nanostructured composites, Perovskites
Robert Ofoli Colloids, biosensors, nanocatalysis of biorenewables to chemicals
Charles Petty Solid-fluid separations, turbulent transport phenomena
Jeff Sakamoto Thermoelectric materials, batteries, nerve repair technology
K Subramanian Mechanical properties of metals and ceramics, lead-free solders
S. Patrick Walton Nucleic acid engineering, biotechnology, RNAi, education
Tim Whitehead Protein engineering, anti-virals, production of fuels and chemicals
R. Mark Worden Nanostructured biomimetic interfaces, biochemical engineering


Engineering and


Martin C. Hawley: 50 years at MSU.
Chemical Engineering Education

































The department's faculty. Top Row (from left): Melissa Baumann, Kris Berglund, Thomas Bieler, Carl Boehlert,
Daina Briedis, Scott Calabrese Barton, Eldon Case, Christina Chan. Second Row: Martin Crimp, Bruce Dale,
Lawrence Drzal, David Grummon, Martin Hawley, David Hodge, K. Jayaraman, Wei Lai. Third Row: Andre Lee,
Ilsoon Lee, Carl Lira, James Lucas, Richard Lunt, Dennis Miller, Donald Morelli, Ramani Narayan.
Bottom Row: Jason Nicholas, Robert Ofoli, Charles Petty, Jeffrey Sakamoto, K.N. Subramanian, S. Patrick Walton,
Timothy Whitehead, R. Mark Worden.

that I would stay here. Four years became 50 years,"
he says. "I really followed what I liked to do. It was a
matter of discovery of both the field and the profession."
Hawley is proud of the students he has mentored over
the years and the department's award-winning tradition
in the AIChE competition. He has taught the capstone
design course (and hence has selected MSU's submis-
sions to the competition) for more than 40 years. Look-
ing back, Hawley would not do anything differently.
"The best job in the world is being a professor, and I
got to do that in a field filled with new and significant
challenges to better the world."

SUMMARY
The ChEMS Department at MSU is excited to enter
its second century, leading the way in cutting-edge
research and high-caliber undergraduate and graduate
education. We envision continuing to grow the faculty
to meet the demand for degrees in chemical engineering
and materials science and engineering and to broaden
our research portfolio. We look forward to contributing
to the solution of the problems of today and tomorrow,
through an innovative, design-oriented education. 0 The annual ChEMS Research Forum.
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012







]51 laboratory


AN EFFECTIVE AND ECONOMICAL

PHOTOMETER

for Classroom Demonstrations and Laboratory Use








ANTHONY E. BUTTERFIELD AND COLIN C. YOUNG
University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112


Gaining an understanding of a wide variety of analyti-
cal techniques is a necessary component of a quality
undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering.
Furthermore, hands-on experience with equipment design and
operation is important in a student's preparation for work in
industry or academia.1'21 Students often gain such experience
in a unit operations course using commercially manufactured
analytical equipment, but there are also educational benefits
to be gained by bringing hands-on projects into other courses
within the core curriculum.[3,41
There are several difficulties encountered with analytical
equipment within a teaching laboratory setting, and they are
multiplied when one tries to develop hands-on projects for
courses that are traditionally lecture-based. Firstly, the costs
of maintaining analytical capabilities can become a sub-
stantial percentage of a department's budget. As such, many
teaching laboratories rely on outdated equipment and must
budget student time on a single unit. The costs of analytical
equipment further limit the ability to bring hands-on projects
into other courses and outreach events. Secondly, even when
commercial equipment is used, a pedagogical opportunity may
be missed. Students often regard such equipment as a "black
box" and make little attempt to think critically about how the
analytical equipment translates their samples into usable data,
or what might go wrong in that translation. It is therefore use-
ful to introduce students to effective and economical means
of data collection that also give them hands-on experience
with the causal connections between their samples and the
data they ultimately report.


A spectrophotometer is one of the most common pieces of
analytical equipment found within teaching laboratories and
throughout industry, and its basic governing principles are
easily understood.5'1 In this work we constructed simple spec-
trophotometers using a multicolored LED light source and an
amplified photodiode.161 Our $12.00 design was run in series
with a commercial spectrophotometer worth several thousands
of dollars. The performance of the spectrophotometers was
tested on two different projects. First, we used one device as
a cell counter for yeast growth within our bioreactor using

Anthony Butterfield is an assistant profes-
sor (lecturing) in the Chemical Engineering
Department of the University of Utah. He re-
ceived his B.S.and Ph.D. from the University
of Utah and his M.S. from the University of
California, San Diego. His teaching respon-
sibilities include the senior unit operations ai
laboratory and development of a freshman '
design laboratory. His research interests
focus on undergraduate education, targeted
drug delivery, photobioreactor design, and
instrumentation.
Colin Young is a senior in chemical cngi-
neering at the University of Utah. He is team
leader of his department's engineering
outreach program and is planning to enter
graduate school to pursue his Ph.D. in
chemical engineering. His research interests
include nanotechnology and its application
in biological systems, sensor technologies,
and engineering education.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Chemical Engineering Education






a flow cell design. A second embodiment of our photometer
was used to determine batch reaction kinetic parameters for
the second order alkali bleaching of malachite green71' (MG).
Due to the ubiquitous use of photometry in labs, the pho-
tometer presented in this work represents an economical,
effective, and mobile option for chemistry and chemical
engineering departments. This design may be used to reduce
lab equipment costs and as the basis of student projects in
laboratory, bioengineering, and kinetics courses, to offer expe-
rience in equipment design, data collection, and data analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
LED Photometers
Figure IA and B show photographs of two embodiments
(SpecA and SpecB, respectively) of our spectrophotometer,
contained within Altoids tins. Figure 1C and D show sche-
matics of the devices in Figure 1A and B. Samples were
contained in 1 X 1 X4.5 cm disposable spectrophotometer
cuvettes (Fisher 14-955-125). To create a flow cell for either
device, holes were drilled at the top and bottom of a cuvette
and standard couplings for laboratory tubing were attached
using a urethane adhesive. The cuvettes were capped with a
disposable polyethylene stopper (Fisher 14-385-999). When
used as a flow cell, the cuvette cap was sealed with a silicone
adhesive, and a foot of 1 mm inner diameter black tubing
(Master Flex, 06412-13) was attached to each port, and curved
within the Altoids tin in order to diminish the background
effects of stray light.
In both embodiments, a separate cuvette was used to create a
channel for LED light and act as a positioner for both an LED
and photodiode. This cuvette was cut in half and its exterior
was painted black. These halves were glued to the base of the
container using a cyanoacrylate adhesive, at 1 cm apart so that
the sample cuvette would fit securely between them. A 5 mm
hole was drilled in a disposable cuvette stopper in order to hold
a standard LED at one end of the channel. The photodiode
and its associated circuitry is approximately 1 cm square and
fits snugly within the other half of the positioning cuvette.
In both embodiments, a monolithic photodiode with a single
supply transmittance amplifier (OPT 101, Texas Instruments)
was used to measure the transmitted light from the LED. The
spectral responsivity of the OPT101 is strong in the visible
spectrum and peaks at a wavelength of about 850 nm with
0.6 V signal per RxW of luminous power.t81 According to the
manufacturer, the signal voltage increases linearly with light
intensity from zero to the supply voltage minus 1.15 V, where
the signal levels off, making transmittance measurements a
simple matter.
As can be seen in Figure 1, both embodiments are distinct
in several ways, as described below. Various components of
each, however, may be used to create hybrid devices to meet
the needs of students and a range of projects.


SpecA Embodiment
The device depicted in Figure 1A and C was designed to
be a stand-alone and flexible device, which students could
easily alter. The LED in this device can be any standard LED,
and thereby the students may switch out wavelengths to suit
their analytical needs. To account for the various voltages
needed to power various LEDs, and to control the photonic
output of the LEDs, a 0 to 500 ohm trim pot was put in line
with the light source.
This embodiment was also created to have a flexible power
supply to power both the LED and the photodiode integrated
circuit. In Figure 1A the device is using a commercial trans-


From Reactor
E- RGB LED Smple
08L5015RGBC uette OPT101




.. -----


+5 V Analogue Analogue
Outputs Input
0 to +5 V DAQ Card 0 to +5 V

Figure 1. The Spectrophotometer Devices. A) Photograph
of SpecA and accompanying electronics. B) Photograph
of SpecB and accompanying electronics. C) Schematic of
SpecA device. D) Schematic of SpecB device.


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






former to produce a 9V power supply, but the device may just
as easily operate on a 9V battery or any range of voltages from
2.7 to 36V. The signal may be read from the OPT101 device
using a multimeter. To protect against shock and damage to
the electronics in case of a spill, a 65 mA fuse was used and
the power was conditioned with a 10 pF capacitor.
SpecB Embodiment
The device depicted in Figure lB and D was designed to
be used in conjunction with a data acquisition (DAQ) card
and a Matlab graphical user interface (GUI), in order to
give students more precise control over light intensity and a
simpler means for data acquisition. The DAQ card used was
the USB6008 from National Instruments, which was chosen
for its modest cost and ability to interface with Matlab's data
acquisition toolbox. A multicolor LED (RSR Electronics,
08L5015RGBC) was used in this embodiment, capable of
producing red (peak = 632 nm), green (peak = 525 nm), and
blue (peak = 470 nm) light. The analogue outputs for this
DAQ card may range from 0 to 5V and were used to power
and control the light intensity for each LED color. The signal
from this device was measured by the analogue inputs of the
DAQ card, and recorded by the Matlab GUI code.
Commercial Spectrophotometer
A Spectronic 21D spectrophotometer was used simultane-
ously with the SpecA and SpecB devices. Because this piece
of equipment was to be dedicated to a separate experiment,

Lag Exponential Shut
SPhase Growth Phase Down
C6
-- --- i-- l -- -- l -- 6
60% -- ---- --- - .--





Spectronic 21 I -
50% - - - -




1e10 -- ---" ---- --- ....
S I I
- - - --- - >
% - J. - -- -- - -





S21i _DLL ------ .--L......






0 100 200 300
Time (min)

Figure 2. Measures of cell concentration over a bioreac-
tor run. A) The response of the Spectronic 21D and the
SpecA device. B) Cell concentrations measured offline
with the YC-100 cell counter.


it was included in this experiment as a temporary means of
comparison, in the hopes that our spectrophotometers could
solely be used in future experiments. The transmittance of
this device was read off of its display and recorded as a 0 to
1 V signal for 0 to 100% transmittance from its analog output.
Bioreactor Cell Growth
Yeast were grown in a 2 L commercial bioreactor (New
Brunswick Scientific Co., Bio Flo 110). The growth media
consisted of 10 g/L yeast extract (Sigma, Y1126-250G), 40
g/L glucose (Fluka, 50409047), and 20 g/L of bacto peptone
(Sigma, P0556-250G). A 100 ml inoculum of yeast in media
(Fleischmann's Yeast, 2192) was added to make the initial
yeast concentration in the bioreactor 2 g/L and the total fluid
volume 1.5 L. The temperature and pH in the reactor were
set at 35 C and 6.5, respectively. Air was sparged through
the stirred reactor at 120 cm3/min. The bioreactor contents
were continuously pumped using a Cole-Parmer Masterflex
pump (77200-60) through our SpecA and the Spectronic 21D
in series and data was collected for approximately 8 hours. As
an additional check on cell concentration, a Chemometec cell
counter was also used (Chemometec, NeucleoCounter YC-
100). This device is an integrated fluorescence microscope
that uses image analysis to determine the concentration of
yeast cells in solution. Typically, samples had to be diluted
by several orders of magnitude in order to obtain viable cell
concentration measurements from the YC-100 device.
Determination of Kinetic Constants
The reaction between malachite green, MG, and sodium
hydroxide was used as a model reaction in order to determine
the utility of our photometer in determining kinetic param-
eters. MG solutions are a cyan color when dissolved in water
and turn clear when reacted with sodium hydroxide. For the
majority of our experimental runs the alkali bleaching of a 3
mL solution of 2.5E-5 M MG (Acros Organics, 229780250)
and 0.05 M sodium hydroxide (Mallinckodt Chemicals, UN
1823) was tracked using our SpecB and the Spectronic 21 D.
The red LED of our SpecB at 2.04 V was used, and the Spec-
tronic 21D monitored a wavelength of 632 nm. All reactions
were conducted at 27 'C.

RESULTS
Bioreactor Results
Figure 2 shows the response of the Spectronic spectropho-
tometer, our SpecA, and the cell counter over a single 5 hour
run of the Bioreactor. Both the signal from the Spectronic
21D and the SpecA device remain relatively stable during
the lag phase of growth as the yeast are acclimating (Figure
2A). The signal from our SpecA device was observed to have
approximately two-thirds the noise present in the Spectronic
21D, as can be seen in Figure 2A as a difference in line thick-
ness. The flow cell in the Spectronic 21D is approximately 4
mm thick, compared to 1 cm in the SpecA device. The thin


Chemical Engineering Education






flow cell in the Spectronic 21D lead to periodic entrapment
of bubbles in the optical path, a likely source of the added
noise. Furthermore, a thin flow cell tends to make optical
measurements more sensitive to entrapped solid particles and
smaller bubbles, both of which were present in our bioreactor.
Both photometric devices were able to give our students an
adequate indication of the beginning of the exponential growth
phase in the reactor and both could be used to determine
Monod constants. These results were found to also agree with
an offline census of cell population using the YC-100 device
(Figure 2B). Because these offline measurements required
repeated dilution to obtain an accurate cell count, they are
deemed less precise than the spectrophotometers.

Determination of Reaction Kinetic Parameters
The calibration curves for the concentration of MG in
water for both our SpecB and the Spectronic 21D are shown
in Figure 3A. Beer's Law predicts a logarithmic relationship
between transmittance and concentration,E51 and that is what
is observed for both spectrophotometers.
Figure 3B is the measured change in concentration through
a single run of the MG reaction for both our SpecB and the
Spectronic 21D. Due to the reaction being first order with
respect to MG in the presence of excess NaOH, it is expected
that the log of the concentration over time will be linear. To
establish the repeatability inherent in our device, this reac-
tion was run a total of six times in both our SpecB and the
Spectronic 21D. The reaction, as described in the literature,T]'
was determined to be pseudo-first order with respect to MG
using both devices, which can be seen in Figure 3C and 3D,
respectively. The SpecB data suggests a pseudo-first order
rate constant of 0.072 0.002 s-', which would indicate a rate
constant of 1.43 0.04 L-mol-'-s-. The results from the Spec-
tronic 21D suggest a pseudo-first order rate constant of 0.057
0.007 s-'. This discrepancy between the two devices is due
to the divergence from linearity seen in Figure 3D, possibly
caused by inaccuracy in the Spectronic 21D's transmittance
measurements at low concentrations of MG. It is apparent,
from the experimental results, that our SpecB photometer has
a higher sensitivity at lower concentrations, displays less vari-
ability, and results in more precise kinetic measurements than
the Spectronic 21D. Other data (not shown) were collected to
demonstrate the device could also be used to determine the
NaOH reaction order and overall rate constant.

CONCLUSIONS
With simple components, a very inexpensive spectrophoto-
metric device was developed and tested within two dissimilar,
yet typical unit operations laboratory projects. Our results
indicate that such a device is effective in tracking cell growth
within a bioreactor and in determining kinetic constants, and
may perform as well as or better than existing commercial
options, which cost several orders of magnitude more.


-2 .
-4

-6
0 50 100 150 200
Time (s)
0

0 -2 .

-4 e- Altoid Spec
-6 Spectronic ~
-6
0 50 100 150 200
Time (s)

Figure 3. MG Reaction Data. A) Calibration curve for
SpecB (black) and Spectronic 21D (gray). B) Concen-
tration measurements over time for a single run in
SpecB (black) and Spectronic 21D (gray). C) Linearized
concentration data for six runs in our SpecB; a linear fit
is shown as a dashed line. D) Linearized concentration
data for six runs in the Spectronic 21D.

In addition to the ability to effectively collect data, such
simple spectrophotometers have several other advantages.
They are small and easily portable; they may easily be taken
home with a student or from class to class. They are simple
to build and economically duplicable; each student may
design and build their own spectrophotometer for under $15
with the greatest additional expense being a multimeter or
DAQ needed to read its signal. The devices seem to require
no warm-up period, as no drift was observed in our designs
over a 60 minute period (the commercial spectrophotometers
in our lab require at least a 60 minute warm-up period). The
most apparent disadvantage in these spectrophotometers is
the limited and broad peaks of wavelengths inherent in most
LEDs. Such a limitation, however, is rarely a significant
problem in structured teaching projects.
In practice, we have found our SpecA and SpecB devices
to be ideal for a chemical engineering academic environ-
ment. The construction of these spectrophotometers and their
comparison with more elaborate equipment has provided a
valuable education for our students regarding electronics,
optics, and physical measurements. Furthermore, our stu-
dents have gained insights into the costs and errors that may


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


Time (s)


[MG] (10- M)






be hidden within the physical measurements on which they
will rely in their professional lives. Such a device may also
serve to facilitate active learning through compact, portable,
and easily understandable hands-on projects in courses that
typically rely only on a traditional lecture. In addition to the
obvious implications for reaction and biochemical engineering
courses presented in this work, our SpecA and SpecB devices
have been used to study the fluid dynamics of mixing and may
be used to study mass transfer using, for example, a diffusion
cell. We have also found these spectrophotometers to be ideal
for outreach demonstrations, where simple, expendable, and
robust equipment is needed.

REFERENCES
1. Aglan, H.A., and F. Ali, "Hands-On Experiences: An Integral Part of
Engineering Curriculum Reform," J. Eng. Ed., 85(4), 327 (1996)
2. Carlson, L., and J.F. Sullivan, "Hands-on Engineering: Learning by


Doing in the Integrated Teaching and Learning Program," Int. J. Eng.
Ed., 15(1), 20 (1999)
3. Keith, J.M., and D.L.S.D.P. Visco, "Ideas to Consider for New Chemical
Engineering Educators: Part 2 (Courses Offered Later in the Curricu-
lum)," in American Society of Engineering Education proceedings,
Austin (2009)
4. Keith, J.M. and D.P. Visco, Jr., "Ideas to Consider for Chemical En-
gineering Educators Teaching a New "Old" Course: Freshman and
Sophomore Level Courses," in AICHE proceedings, Philadelphia
(2008)
5. Gore, M.G., Spectrophotometry and Spectrofluorimetry: A Practical
Approach, New York, Oxford Press, Inc. (2000)
6. Butterfield,A.E., "An Effective and Economical Photometer for Class-
room Demonstrations and Laboratory Use," AICHE Annual Meeting
proceedings, Salt Lake City, UT (2010)
7. Goldacre, RJ., and J.N. Phillips, "The Ionization of Basic Triphenyl-
methane Dyes," J. Chemical Society, 1724 (1949)
8. "Monolythic Photodiode and Single-Supply Transimpedace Amplifier,"
Texas Instruments, ,
(2003) 0


Chemical Engineering Education







curriculum


IMPLEMENTING CONSERVATION OF LIFE

ACROSS THE CURRICULUM









RICHARD A. DAVIS
University of Minnesota Duluth, MN
JAMES A. KLEIN
DuPont, North America Operations Wilmington, DE


At the University of Minnesota Duluth, the faculty in
the Chemical Engineering Department has significant
industry experience that includes industry training in
the practice of chemical process safety (CPS). As a faculty, we
value CPS instruction in our curriculum, foremost because we
do not want our graduates to get hurt or to hurt other people.
Regardless of the industries employing our graduates, or
whatever future engineering assignments or roles they may
take on, there are many benefits in student exposure to CPS
principles. Lessons learned from both historical and recent
incidents remind us of the value of informing our students
about their role in CPS. Starting now to develop a mindset, or
culture, of CPS will help our graduates successfully integrate
into, and contribute to, any organization's CPS management
practices. The more knowledge our students have, the less
likely there will be serious incidents.
We have emphasized safety in our curriculum primarily in
our labs, to remain in compliance with OSHA regulations and
the campus Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) poli-
cies, and in our capstone design course sequence. Since the
mid 1990s, half of the faculty has participated in the SaChE
Faculty Workshops. As a result, our faculty has incorporated
a variety of safety topics into courses at the discretion of in-
dividual faculty members. We were relatively satisfied with


our level of coverage based on exit interviews with graduating
seniors and survey feedback from alums. We began, however,
to see signs that our level of preparation for our students was
no longer serving their needs. Students returning from intern-
ships and industrial co-operative education experiences were
describing training and events involving CPS in the work-
place. With the renewed emphasis on safety in the aftermath
of relatively recent industrial accidents, such as T2,111 and in
anticipation of ABET revisions to program criteria to include
the analysis and control of chemical process hazards, 21 we
have made a concerted effort to coordinate and assess CPS
awareness and skills of our students. We also began to experi-
ence increasing industry outreach to our faculty on this topic
from practicing engineers.

Richard Davis is a professor and the head of chemical engineering at the
University of Minnesota Duluth where he teaches computational methods,
green engineering, and separations. His current research interests include
process modeling and simulation applied to energy conversion, pollution
control, safety, and environmental management in mineral processing.
He received his chemical engineering degrees from Brigham Young
University (B.S.) and the University of California Santa Barbara (Ph.D.).
James Klein is a Sr PSM Competency Consultant, North America PSM
Co-lead, at DuPont. He has more than 30 years of experience in process
engineering, research, operations, and safety. He received his chemical
engineering degrees from MIT (B.S.) and Drexel (M.S.) and also has
an M.S. in management of technology from the University of Minnesota.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






The main challenge we faced was how to add more CPS in-
struction into a full program with little room for new material.
We determined that, rather than add a new required course at
the expense of technical electives credits that are popular with
our students, we would instead weave safety throughout the
curriculum with the aim of graduating engineers that have a
culture of safety and a base set of skills to practice engineer-
ing safely.131 We have four goals:
1. Make students aware of CPS principles, practice, and
the chemical engineer's role.
2. Infuse a culture of lifelong safety in our department
faculty, students, and graduates.
3. Assess student learning, basic skills, and commitment to
CPS.
4. Require minimal additional resources or student credit
hours in a full curriculum.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
To accomplish our goals of training our students in CPS,
we embarked upon a four-step implementation plan:
1. Unify our CPS instruction across the curriculum around
a common theme: Conservation of Life (COL).41
2. Survey the faculty to benchmark our current state of
CPS instruction, identify holes, and add or eliminate
CPS elements to/from the curriculum as needed.
3. Inventory COL teaching resources for instructors and
courses.
4. Develop a set of
student learning
outcomes and rubrics
to assess student COL Principles Methodo
learning as part of our 1. Assess MSD
overall assessment material/process Chen
activities, hazards Char
Reac
As a first step towards Scree
implementation, we engaged BNL
all of our constituents in Asse
the process of planning and
implementation, beginning
with our department's ex- 2. Evaluate What
ternal advisory board. Our hazardous events Cons
Mod
board is primarily composed Root
of practicing chemical en- Anal
gineers with a wide range 3. Manage process HAZ
of industry experience. We risks FME
LOP.
also recruited a new mem- LOP
0 Inher
ber to the board, who has Desij
specific CPS training and 4. Consider real- PSM
professional responsibility, world operations Case
to champion the plan to the
r a r additional 5. Ensure process & Fate
board and provide additional product
guidance to the faculty. sustainability

158


We then unfolded the plan to our students through academic
advisement, in our courses, and in extracurricular program-
ming, such as the student chapter ofAIChE. Graduates of the
program are periodically surveyed about CPS as part of our
program assessment activities. We used polls of alums to get
their feedback on our plan.
Create a Culture of Safety
The first element of process safety management (PSM) is to
establish a strong culture of safety beginning with leadership
and commitment from management.51 Within an academic
department, our process is training students, and we might
think of the faculty members as managers of this process.
We also, however, involve students early in PSM. In our
first-year introductory course, students are made aware of
CPS concepts, terminology, and the role chemical engineers
play. We also teach them the department approach to PSM,
with our theme of COL. All students, faculty, and staff are
held to high standards of operational discipline, whether
teaching the COL principles of CPS in our courses, practic-
ing Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) activities in
our teaching and research labs, or involving students in the
management process.
Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme
Klein and Davis proposed the theme of "Conservation of
Life" to elevate chemical process safety instruction, prin-
ciples, and practice to the same ubiquitous level as other
principles of conservation of energy and mass in chemical

TABLE 1
Conservation of Life in the Curriculum
Where in the
)logies Tools (examples) Curriculum
S NOAA Chemical Reactivity Chemistry
nical Hazard Worksheet reactivity database Intro to ChE
acterization NOAA CAMEO Chemicals: Materials Science
tivity response recommendations and Unit Operations
ening reactivity prediction tool ChE Labs
Hazard DOW Chemical Exposure Index Reaction
ssment Tool ASTM CHETAH: reactive Engineering
hazard screening (commercial) Capstone Design
EPA High Production Volume
Information System (HPVIS)
t if EPA DEGADIS: dispersion Thermodynamics
sequence Model Unit Operations
eling EPA/NOAA ALOHA: hazard Reactor Design
Cause release model Particle Tech
ysis DOW Fire & Explosion Index Capstone Design
OP EPA RMP*Comp: risk Unit Operations
A management plan Process Control
A Capstone Design
ently Safer
gn
OSHA PSM Regulation Intro to ChE
Studies CCPS books Capstone Design
CSB videos
Screening EPA EPI Suite: screening tool for Capstone Design
physical / chemical /
environmental properties
Chemical Engineering Education






engineering education.[') They developed five principles based
on industry standards and practice:
1. Assess material and process hazards (develop basic data
on reactivity, flammability, toxicity, etc.)
2. Evaluate hazardous events (apply methodologies to
estimate potential hazardous impacts)
3. Manage process risks (evaluate risk vs. acceptable risk
criteria, apply inherently safer approaches, evaluate and
design multiple layers of protection)
4. Consider real-world operations (apply comprehensive
PSM systems, recognize importance of human factors,
learn from experience case histories)
5. Ensure process and product sustainability (product safety
stewardship, life-cycle management)

The five COL principles serve as a guide for curriculum de-
velopment, coverage of topics, and implementation. We have
implemented CPS curricula according to a spiral-learning
model[61 that provides students with increasing levels of depth
and breadth in the five COL principles as students move from
lower- to upper-division courses, culminating in a capstone
design experience.

TABLE 2
Initial Benchmark Survey Mapping of Course Content to COL
= introductory, **= intermediate, ***= advanced.


Table 1 identifies some of the methodologies and tools for
each of the five principles of COL, as well as recommenda-
tions for placement within a chemical engineering curriculum.
Instructors introduce or review CPS topics within our theme
of COL to elevate the importance of safety to the level of
conservation of mass and energy in engineering practice.
Benchmark Current Practices and Propose
Curriculum Modifications
Once we had formally identified the guiding principles of
COL, we needed to establish a baseline of current CPS educa-
tion in our curriculum. We surveyed the faculty to identify,
with examples, where they are covering COL principles in
our core courses. We recognize that many elective courses
also incorporate COL principles, which is encouraged. We
restricted our survey and implementation plan to the core
set of courses required of all of our graduates, however. In
this way, we ensure that all of our students are meeting our
standard for CPS education.


co'
the


OL Principles
E 0
,o o




Core ChE Curriculum < 2 c ) 0
c-'i r _
Introduction to Chemical Engineering *
Mass & Energy Balances
Thermodynamics
Design of Engineering Experiments
Computational Methods
Fluid Mechanics
Particle Technology ** *
Heat & Mass Transfer *
Engineering Materials
Process Control *
Separations ** *
Reactor Design *
Unit Operations Laboratory *
Capstone Design *** ** *

Vol. 46, No. 3, Sununer 2012


Fable 2 shows a matrix of a snapshot in time mapping general
average of COL principles to our program's core courses at
beginning of this plan. The faculty survey asked members
to rank their level of coverage from zero (no COL cover-
age), to three (advanced COL coverage). Table 2 gives
a view of where the potential holes existed in the cur-
riculum. At first glance, it appears that we had adequate
coverage with some level indicated for each principle.
Upon further inspection of examples and discussion
with the faculty, however, we realized that the coverage
was weighted towards the introductory level, lacking in
depth. In our labs, for example, the focus was heavy on
personal protective equipment, chemical waste disposal,
and general lab safety; many courses were light on CPS.
There was also a reliance on the capstone design course
to serve as a catchall for most of the topics in any depth.
As an ongoing process, the faculty meets annually for
learning-outcome assessment. Our discussions include
COL instruction. At the start, we identified holes in the
curriculum and made plans to strengthen the delivery
of material and active learning exercises where needed.
For example, we added reactive screening analysis to
our reactor design course as an outcome of this plan.
Inventory of COL Resources
A large cache of CPS instructional resources is avail-
able in the literature, on the web, from our industrial
partnerships, within our community of educators, and
from our professional societies. As we started to build up
our inventory of COL resources, we naturally gravitated
towards the "low-hanging fruit." The two quickest ways
to get started are to require students to participate in the
Safety and Chemical Engineering Education (SaChE)
Student Certificate Program and invite industrial prac-
titioners to make presentations to students."71






The SaChE Student Certificate program involves web-based
delivery of content followed by an online assessment of stu-
dent learning. The certificate modules are self-contained and
do not require any class time for students to complete. Stu-
dents are able to access and work through the online instruc-
tion outside of class on their own. Student members of AIChE
are recognized for successfully completing a module with a
certificate. Instructors may also access a report of successful
student completion. The certificate program satisfies two of
our criteria by making students aware of COL principles with
no additional resources other than a department's SaChE
membership, and by providing feedback for assessment of
student learning and accountability.


We find the industrial community ready and willing to visit
our classes and work with faculty to deliver presentations
and material on COL principles. An industrial safety profes-
sional works with our faculty member teaching the capstone
design course to develop HAZOP active-learning strategies.
Although presentations by visitors do require class time, they
fill gaps in the expertise of the instructor and reinforce the
value, from an industry perspective, of the principles of COL
in our pursuit of a culture of safety in our graduates. In our
case, we find industrial partners occasionally send us news
articles, slide presentations, and video from their own safety
training that they find particularly relevant to undergraduate
engineering education.


TABLE 3
Materials for Implementing COL Across the Chemical Engineering Curriculum
Core Courses SaChE Modules (Year) and Certificates Videos
Intro to ChE PSM & COL (2012) CSB Videos (Variety)
Safety in the CPI (2006) History, Modem Marvels,
Bhopal (2010) Engineering Disaster Series 10
Mini-Case Histories (2003) Union Carbide Explosion
Process Safety 101 Certificate
Mass & Energy SHE for Textbooks (2003)
Balances SaChE Seveso (2008)
Thermodynamics Explosions (2009)
SHE for Textbooks (2003)
Design of Risk Assessment (2008)
Engineering
Experiments
Computational Computer Applications for Process Safety
Methods
Fluid Mechanics Two-Phase Flow/Pressure Relief (2011)
Consequence Modeling Source Models
(2004)
Particle Static Electricity (2007, 2008) CSB Dust Explosion (multiple vids)
Technology Dust Explosions (2006) OSHA Fact Sheet & Poster
Dust Explosion Control Certificate
Heat & Mass SHE for Textbooks (2003)
Transfer
Engineering Properties of Materials (2007)
Materials Chemical Reactivity Hazards Certificate
Process Design for Overpressure and Under pressure
Control Protection (2006)
PSM Safety Valves (2003)
Separations Inherently Safer Design (2006) CSB Anatomy of a Disaster
Packing Fires (2004)
Reaction Explosions (2009) CSB Reactive Hazards
Engineering Polystyrene Reactor Runaway (2011) CSB Runaway at T2
Runaway Reactions Certificate
Unit Operations CCPS Process Safety Beacon OSHA PPE & Safety Videos
Laboratories Process Hazard Analysis (2009)
Project Risk Analysis (2009)
Risk Assessment Certificate
Capstone Piper Alpha (2007) Acceptable Risks [141
Design HAZOP Case Study (2003) National Geographic Seconds from
Layer of Protection Analysis (2011) Disaster series "Texas Oil
Safety Guide for Design Projects (2011) Explosion", "Explosion in the North
Risk Assessment (2008) Sea,"
Venting (2007) History, Modem Marvels,
Green Engineering (2004) Engineering Disaster Series 6 Piper
Safety in the CPI Certificate Alpha, 11 Gas Explosion, 18 BP
Inherently Safer Design Certificate Refinery
CSB Videos


SaChE provides additional
products for academic and
industrial safety education and
training. Many of these products
include video, presentation
slides, homework problems,
and other tools. Table 3 lists
our core classes and how we
have integrated many SaChE
modules, in addition to the Stu-
dent Certificate program, across
our curriculum. The table also
shows where our faculty uses
other videos and case studies in
our courses. For example, in a
weekly class exercise, a student
team is assigned to make a short,
but formal, CPS presentation
to the class based on a Process
Safety Beacon181 of their choos-
ing. We learned from a student
participating in an industrial
internship that she was required
to make a similar presentation at
a weekly safety meeting the first
week on the job. She selected a
Beacon on dust handling that
gave the process engineers
cause to stop and reconsider
how they were handling solid
materials at their loading dock
for improving safety.
Members of AIChE and most
academic professionals now
have access to books produced
by AIChE's Center for Chemi-
cal Process Safety (CCPS)191
through the online resource for
technical references, KnovelJI ]
These books provide detailed
information about CPS prin-
Chemical Engineering Education







ciples, methodologies, tools, and
case studies. For example, the
Failure Scenario tables in Guide-
lines for Design Solutions for
Process Equipment Failures'll are
an important resource for students
applying inherently safer design in
unit operations and process design.

Company websites also have in-
formation about CPS. For example,
DuPont has several case studies
that demonstrate the advantages of
safety in practice. We use these case
studies for short active-learning
exercises in classrooms. Dow has
a website dedicated to product
safety and sustainability. Exxon
Mobil has a website dedicated to
their philosophy and practice of
safety. They have several detailed
documents that are downloadable.
Students can learn what industry is
doing in the area of CPS and the
principles of COL. This brief class
exercise reinforces the value of CPS
and strengthens the culture.

We also visited several government


SaChE ABET
SSafety Content














COL Principles


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TABLE 4
Map of COL Principles to SaChE Recommendations for ABET Safety
Content in Chemical Engineering


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1. Assess material/ / /
process hazards
2. Evaluate/ /
hazardous events
3. Manage process "/ V/ V/ V/
risks
4. Consider real- V/ / V/
world operations
5. Ensure product ,/ / V/
sustainability


and professional society websites for additional materials and
information on CPS that supports the five principles of COL.
Much of the material is available at no cost and ranges from
simple posters for safe dust handling from OSHA and videos
of incident investigation from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board
(CSB), to software tools for dispersion modeling from NOAA
and EPA, as listed in Table 1. In another example, NOAA has
a web-guided tour entitled "Responding to a Chemical Spill."
The American Chemical Council maintains a database helpful
for dealing with product safety and sustainability.

Assessment of Student Learning

We have an assessment process already in place with tools
and measures identified for meeting ABET prescribed learn-
ing outcomes. In keeping with our goal requiring no new re-
sources, we found that we are able to use our existing process
and measurements to assess student-learning outcomes for
COL. The following list of measurement tools was selected
for assessing student learning in CPS:
Process Control Project Report

Separations Final Exam

Reactor Design Final Exam

Unit Operations Laboratory Reports and Presentations

Capstone Design Project and Presentations (projects are
industry sponsored, HAZOP safety reviewed by engi-
neering liaison)
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


Exit interviews with graduating seniors
Alumni and industry surveys

Before graduation, students are expected to demonstrate
their knowledge and application of COL principles in their
reports and presentations for our capstone design course by
addressing subjects such as:
Process hazards

Hazardous events

Hazard/risk analysis

Layers of protection

Human factors issues

Product safety and life-cycle considerations.

Table 4 maps our principles of COL to the SaChE recom-
mendations for ABET Safety content in Chemical Engineer-
ing.1121 COL goes beyond SaChE recommendations, however,
with the addition of product safety and sustainability. We
adopted five learning outcomes and developed rubrics for
assessing student achievement following best practices in
our rubric design.[I3] As shown in Table 5 (next page), each
rubric has four levels, with the highest level of achievement
at the left. The criteria are cumulative as we move from lower
to higher levels of achievement. The criteria for meeting our
standard is placed at level two. We are able use our existing
measurements of student achievement to assess CPS educa-
tion of our graduates.


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We provide students with these rubrics in our introductory
course, and review them periodically throughout the cur-
riculum to develop the sense of personal responsibility in the
student that contributes to our culture of CPS.
Example of COL in the Curriculum
Our unit operations laboratory courses have a communica-
tion component for developing technical writing and verbal
communication skills. A simple way to provide students with
opportunities to practice verbal communication and safety
involves weekly safety presentations by student teams. Stu-
dents are encouraged to tie in their presentation with their
assigned experiment. At a minimum, they are required to ask


four questions about their unit operation:
1. What can go wrong?

2. What is the likelihood that something can go wrong
based on the current conditions of the equipment/pro-
cess?

3. What are the consequences if something does go wrong?
(such as personnel, production, equipment, environment,
financial, etc.)

4. What can be done to reduce/remove the probability of
the identified hazardous events occurring?

This exercise allows the students and faculty to assess their


TABLE 5
Rubrics for Assessment of COL Student Learning Outcomes. Levels are Cumulative.
Outcome 1: Graduate is able to assess material and process hazards.
3. Exceeds Standard 2. At Standard 1. Making 0. Not there yet
Progress
Conduct detailed hazards assessments Demonstrate basic hazard References Minimal or
for toxicity, flammability, reactivity, understanding and evaluation for MSDS no data
and other process hazards, including toxicity, flammability, reactivity, developed
use of appropriate computer tools and other process hazards

Outcome 2: Graduate is able to evaluate hazardous events.
3. Exceeds Standard 2. At Standard 1. Making Progress 0. Not there yet
Evaluate the consequences of Use basic computer tools Identify a range Minimal or No
hazardous events using dispersion for evaluating of possible identification of
models and other consequence consequences of hazardous events hazardous events
modeling methodologies hazardous events

Outcome 3: Graduate is able to manage process risks.
3. Exceeds Standard 2. At Standard 1. Making Progress 0. Not there yet
Performs detailed Evaluates risk using Considers risk using No evaluation of risk
quantitative risk analysis detailed "what if?"/checklist or No PSM included in
Evaluate alternative designs methodologies such as other simple reporting
for risk considerations HAZOP methodologies Does not consider
* Evaluate design options for Qualitative risk Identifies at least one inherent safety or
inherent safety, including assessment using risk layer of protection protection in design of
intensification, substitution, matrix or LOPA Identifies unit operation/process
attenuation, limitation Designs a unit opportunities for Does not consider
operation/process inherent safety inherent safety
considering multiple
layers of protection

Outcome 4: Graduate understands real-world operations.
3. Exceeds Standard 2. At Standard 1. Making Progress 0. Not there yet
* Apply comprehensive PSM Process design demonstrates Cites OSHA No reference to
systems, recognize and compliance with relevant OSHA regulations regulations
evaluate importance of regulations Aware of one Cannot cite an
human factors, learn from General understanding of incident industrial
experience case histories causes/consequences of major incident
* Pre-start-up safety review incidents
Management of change applied to any
modification in design
Written operating procedures

Outcome 5: Graduate is aware ofprinciples ofproduct sustainability.
3. Exceeds Standard 2. At Standard 1. Making Progress 0. Not there yet
* Performs a Lifecycle inventory Holistic design for energy Mass and energy Mass and energy
analysis and mass integration balances closed balances not closed
* System optimization Preliminary Environmental
* Considers Ultimate use and Impact Study
disposition of products and Consider product safety
manufacturing materials issues for downstream users


ability to communi-
cate safety informa-
tion at many levels.

RESULTS
We are in the fourth
academic year of our
COL implementation
effort. Table 6 shows
our current state of
COL in the curricu-
lum. We find it helpful
to keep COL in front
of the faculty by re-
viewing the plan and
activities with the ex-
ternal advisory board
and assessment team
annually. COL is a
common agenda item
in faculty meetings
during discussions of
curriculum develop-
ment and student ad-
visement.
Exit interviews be-
tween the department
head and graduating
seniors provide direct
evidence that we are
approaching our goal
of developing a cul-
ture of process safety
in the program and
in graduates. When
asked to identify cur-
rent issues in chemical
engineering, 100%
of the students inter-
viewed mentioned
their role and steward-


Chemical Engineering Education






ship in process and product safety. Alumni surveys indicate
that our graduates value their education in COL principles,
ranking these topics high in level of importance and providing
comments for inclusion and improvement. Our assessment
also reveals that the majority of our graduates are capable of
using CPS methodologies.
Lessons Learned
The faculty has not wavered in its commitment to our theme
of COL across the curriculum and reports that students are
able to build on their learning as they progress through the
program. If a program's faculty decides not to incorporate
CPS as broadly described in this paper, we recommend they
consider identifying a subset of courses that should normally
include discussions of COL principles. This subset of courses
may be selected to provide students with annual exposure to
CPS in the curriculum. For example, a subset of courses that
typically span a four-year curriculum may include mass and
energy balances, thermodynamics, reaction engineering, unit
operations, and design.
One issue we have identified is the need for consistency

TABLE 6
Curent Map of Course Content to COL
= introductory, **= intermediate, ***= advanced.

COL Principles






Core ChE Curriculum 3< 0 2

Introduction to Chemical Engineering *
Mass & Energy Balances
Thermodynamics **
Design of Engineering Experiments *
Computational Methods *
Fluid Mechanics **
Particle Technology ** *
Heat & Mass Transfer **
Engineering Materials *
Process Control ** **
Separations **
Reactor Design ** ** **
Unit Operations Laboratory ** **
Capstone Design ** *** ***

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


between the same courses delivered by different instructors.
We resolve this issue through our planning efforts, inventory
of materials, and designation of courses where materials are
used in the program. This is also helping to avoid unneces-
sary duplication of effort and coverage in different courses. A
second issue involves the timing of COL coverage in a course.
The faculty has learned to introduce COL principles early in
a course to allow for their integration into the various topics,
rather than an add-on at the end given time constraints. By
including COL principles at the same level as other conserva-
tion principles, students are learning to consider safety in all
aspects of problem-solving and design.
We plan to continue to explore new COL methodologies,
tools, case studies, etc., to continue to enhance CPS instruction
in our courses. Other programs, however, need not start from
scratch or expend effort searching for, or developing their own
materials. The SaChE website includes case studies, lectures,
student problems, video, etc.
Our external advisory board strongly endorses our COL
theme and coverage of CPS topics. The members of the board
are an integral part of our refining process as
we move forward.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND
CONCLUSIONS
Our experience with COL as a unifying
a theme has been positive and productive. The
Guiding principles of COL provide faculty
with a framework for program development.
2 Education resources are distributed across
S the curriculum in a fashion that provides
S N complete coverage of material while giv-
ing students increasing depth of experience
through multiple opportunities to practice
_* using established methodologies. Programs
** may adapt our approach to their needs with-
out significant demands of time and resources
on the department and faculty. By holding
* students and faculty accountable through an
* assessment process, a program may quickly
establish a culture of chemical process
** safety and meet required learning outcomes.
*** Ultimately, CPS/COL in the curriculum has
value for all constituents of a chemical engi-
neering program, including the faculty, staff,
* students, industry, and the public they serve.

*** ACKNOWLEDGMENT
** The authors express appreciation to
Maryann Johnson, Senior Safety and Health
consultant at Zenith, and Denise Albrecht,
** EHS Engineer at 3M, for their insightful and
*** ** creative recommendations for incorporating
CPS in the chemical engineering curriculum.
163







REFERENCES

1. Willey, RJ., H.S. Fogler, and M.B. Cutlip, "The Integration of Process
Safety into a Chemical Reaction Engineering Course: Kinetic Modeling
of the T2 Incident," Process Safety Progress, 30(1), 39 (2011)
2.
3. Pintar, AJ., "Teaching Chemical Process Safety: A Separate Course
versus Integration into Existing Courses," ASEE Conference Proceed-
ings. Session 3213. Charlotte: ASEE (1999)
4. Klein, J., and R. Davis, "Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme
for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education," Chem. Eng.
Educ., 45(2), 126 (2011)
5. Bruner, J., The Process of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Uni-
versity Press (1977)


6. Klein, J.A., and B.K. Vaughen, "Implement an Operational Discipline
Program to Improve Plant Process Safety," Chem. Eng. Progress, 48-52
(2011, June)
7.
8.
9. CCPS/AIChE, Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment
Failures, New York: Wiley (1998)
10.
11. CCPS/AIChE, Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment
Failures, New York: Wiley (1998)
12.
13.
14. Pitt, M.J., and J.E. Robinson, "Using a Commercial Movie for an
Educational Experience," Chem. Eng. Educ., 37(2), 154 (2003) 0


Chemical Engineering Education







je1=1 curriculum
^________________________________


WHAT CARNOT'S FATHER

TAUGHT HIS SON

ABOUT THERMODYNAMICS







ERICH A. MOLLER
Imperial College London U.K.


Many traits and prejudices are brought down from
generation to generation. The story of the develop-
ment of the second law of Thermodynamics argu-
ably started with a publication by a young man of a manuscript
where the behavior of the recently appearing power-producing
machines of his time was analyzed in a rational way. Thermo-
dynamics, understood in its initial denotation as the study of
the machines that produce mechanical power from heat, was
spawning and was in dire need of a theoretical foundation to
support it. This young man, Sadi Carnot, would eventually be
considered one of the forefathers of modem thermodynamics,
and its second law, one of the cornerstones of modem science.
All of this, however, did not start from a clean slate....
At the start of the 18th century, waterwheels were well-es-
tablished engines and a reliable source of mechanical energy;
even today we have working examples of these machines,
some modem versions powering the large hydroelectric plants
in the world. Researchm" on waterwheels was mature in this
age, the work of John Smeaton[21 stands out as an example of
the comprehensive studies of the time, where detailed mea-
surements of the different waterwheel configurations were
compared among themselves, which led to conclusions with
respect to the efficienciest31 of water wheels. The concept
behind a waterwheel is fairly simple and some of the em-
pirical design features were described by Lazare Carnot, an
illustrious and conflictive soldier, politician, and engineer, in
his first work Essai sur les machines en gindral.41 This book
is based on the premise that all engines may be described by
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


the same general equilibrium principles and that there are
commonalities that may be englobed in some general rules.
Lazare Carnot ignored "heat" engines in his essay, maybe not
on purpose, but possibly out of the novelty and sheer rarity of
such engines in 18th century France. Lazare Carnot's work
is today largely forgotten. Speaking of waterwheels, and
expressed in today's language, he was convinced that in the
ideal waterwheel none of the energy would be lost (or dis-
sipated), and the system could be made reversible if one were
to actuate the waterwheel inputtingg work) to raise water. His
analysis is, by today's standards, accurate.
Further into the Napoleonic era, there was a generalized
interest in understanding of the workings of the newer steam
engines, which were beginning to appear in Europe promising
an apparently inexhaustible source of mechanical power. In
neighboring Britain, an effective alternative to natural (wind


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Erich A. MOller obtained his undergraduate
and M.Sc. degrees in chemical engineering at
Simon Bolivar University in Caracas, Venezuela.
He pursued his Ph.D. at Corell University and
is currently a professor of thermodynamics at
Imperial College London. His research interests
encompass the atomistic and coarse-grained
molecular simulation of homogeneous and
confined fluids and the link of these simulations
to engineering equations of state. He has taught
thermodynamics to under- and post-graduate
students of engineering for more than 25 years.






and hydraulic) and beast power was being explored. Steam
engines were being built, although it is fair to say that there
was little more than empiricism driving their development.
Steam engines appeared to have an enormous potential in
terms of the scalability along with the sheer availability and
portability of their mechanical power output. The massive
steam engines, now in display in museums,El5 were the size
of small houses and of impressive outputs (for the time). In
a now famous lettert6' from Matthew Boulton, (arguably the
entrepreneur behind the rise of the steam era in Britain), to
James Watt, (his partner in business and the engineer behind
the successful steam engine-based machines), Boulton is
quoted saying, "The people in London, Manchester, and Bir-
mingham ... are steam mill mad. I don't mean to hurry you...,"
in an effort to make Watt aware of the immense capabilities
and opportunities that his inventions were opening. The world
was about to change rapidly and that story is well known.
Like father-like son, Sadi Camot-the son of Lazare Car-
not-was trained as a military engineer and also as a scholar.
Following his father's footsteps, it was now the son's turn
to write, and he chose to take on where his father left off,
attempting to understand and describe the workings of these
new steam engines being brought from Britain to France. I
am convinced that Sadi took on his father's ideas and inde-
pendently extrapolated them to these new machines that made
power from a different source of flow: heat flow. It is a remark-
able stroke of luck that the simple concepts behind a water
wheel could be applied to a heat engine almost directly. Few
recognize that the second law, as derived from Sadi Carnot's
comments, was actually stated with the assumption that heat
could be treated as water flowing from a height. An excerpt
from Sadi Carnot's only bookl71 reads remarkably similar to
what his father must have taught him:
"According to established principles at the present time,
we can compare with sufficient accuracy the motive power
of heat to that of a waterfall. Each has a maximum that we
cannot exceed.... The motive power of a waterfall depends
on its height and on the quantity of the liquid; the motive







IA Z
AAz







Figure 1. A waterfall is described mainly by the height
(Az) of the fall.


power of heat depends also on the quantity of [caloric]
used, and on ... the difference of temperatures of the bodies
between which the exchange of [caloric] is made."
As usual with great discoveries, Sadi Carnot's ideas were
not truly understood at his time and Reflexions was not im-
mediately accepted by his peers.'8s The very unorthodox point
of view and the implicit waterwheel analogy was most likely
seen as implausible or irrelevant. The lack of enthusiasm of
his peers was probably even a reflection of Camot's own
disbelief on his own ideas.[9,101 Only posthumously (Carnot
died of cholera when he was 36 years old) was the book
noticed and brought to the attention of the scientists of the
time. From a naive point of view of an operator it would seem
rather obvious that the performance of a steam engine would
depend on the pressure of the steam rather than on its tem-
perature. Although certainly pressure was the driving force of
the pistons and moving parts, one needed to take a step back
and look at the whole picture to understand that there were
more overbearing principles to be sought. Sadi had made,
by comparing his machines to the behavior of more classi-
cal mechanical engines, a link between the water height in a
mechanical device to the temperature in a thermal device and
the fact that power was done by the transfer of a "substance."
"The production of motive power is then due in steam
engines not to an actual consumption of [caloric], but to
its transportation from a warm body to a cold body...." 17
One must envisage the context in which the book was
published: Thermodynamicsm11' did not exist as a science,
and the principle of conservation of energy (the first law of
thermodynamics) was to be only formulated decades later.
The prevailing theory of the time was centered around "ca-
loric," a massless substance that could flow through physical
boundaries and was presumably responsible for changes in
temperature.[12] This, his main and key result, was also prob-
ably the principal reason for the initial demise of Sadi's theory.
If the caloric theory was wrong, it would then follow that
Sadi Camot's theories would also have to be wrong. Only in
hindsight can we see the clear correctness of some of the ideas
in Rgflexions. Sadi made no direct practical recommendations
but expressed overall relationships that, placed in the proper
context some 50 years later, would form the basis of today's
thermodynamic theories. Excellent accounts of the histori-
cal developments with the link to modem nomenclature and
concepts can be found in many places, notably the book by
I. MiillerE~31 and the paper by M.J. Klein.'141
The simplicity and clarity of some of Camot's arguments
can be used today to enlighten the study of classical Thermo-
dynamics. Of course, now we benefit from the accumulated
knowledge base and the fact that energy, as a concept, is un-
derstood colloquially and needs no further introduction. The
first law and the interconversion of different forms of energy
is a well-established principle, taught in most instances at
high school level. This paper focuses on looking back and
Chemical Engineering Education






revisiting the hydraulic analogy with the aim of using it as
production to the description of a classical view of the secol
of Thermodynamics.

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A
WATERWHEEL
A modem pedagogical account of the efficiency of water,
has-been presented by Denny.151 Here, a simpler analysis
drawn.1'61 Consider the case of a waterfall as in Figure 1.
take as our control volume the waterfall plus the upstrea
downstream sections of the river (leaving the fisherman
the problem for the time being, although he is the only one
problem). Since this is a steady state system, with no accuml
of either mass or energy, from the application of the first IE
can write a rate-based version of the first law"171

Q+W+lil h+ vel2 +gz lih+ vel2 +gz


where Q and W refer to the rates of heat and work, rh
to the flow rate of water and the terms in parenthesis repres,
intensive (enthalpy,[18] kinetic, and potential, respectively) coi
tions to the energy of the currents coming in and out of the c
volume. If the river has a similar width and depth before an
the fall, the incompressible nature of the fluid will suggest t
average velocity, vel, of the water will be similar, thus the
in kinetic energy between the upstream and downstream
river will be undetectable. One can further consider the flui
incompressible and isothermal, thus the enthalpy of the wat
remain constant. Finally, since there is no work output, then t
law expression [Eq. (1)] simplifies to1191
Q = -rhg (zup,... Zd, ) = -rhgAz


where g is the acceleration of gravity and z corresponds to a height.
In other words, the change in potential energy [the right hand side


Figure 2. A waterwheel may be placed at the mouth of the
waterfall to extract mechanical work.1211
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


an in- Like father-like son,
nd law
Sadi Carnot-the son of Lazare

Carnot- was trained as a military

wheels engineer and also as a scholar.
will be
Let us
m and
out of of Eq. (2)] is dissipated in the form of heat to the en-
with a vironment.1201 (Figure 2, Reference 21.)
elation It is interesting to note that nothing in these equations
tw one stops us from considering the inverse process, i.e., a
jump in water by extracting heat from the surround-
ings (and saving the fisherman). We see how it is our
= 0 (1) intuition[221 only that will suggest that water is displaced
from top to bottom but it will not spontaneously travel
refers upstream, surmounting the fall. The immediacy of the
ent the irreversible nature of the waterfall is apparent and with
ntribu- it the conclusion that there must be another physical law
control in action that has not been accounted for. The reason
d after and need for a second law of thermodynamics is now
hat the very clear. When placing a waterwheel at the mouth of
change the waterfall (see Figure 2), we manage to extract work
of the from the process. Making the same simplifications and
d to be assumptions as in the case of the free fall, but dismiss-
er will ing the heat losses to the ambient, application of the
he first first law reveals that
W = -rhg (zup... zdow.,, ) = -mhgAz (3)


Note that, of course, this is same amount of energy that
the wheel-less fall dissipated in the form of a heat loss,
which is now converted to work. This new process is
intuitively reversible, suggesting that the energy is be-
ing converted efficiently.
It is the application of an entropy balance (i.e., a
second law analysis) that provides a further clue to
interpreting the situation. An entropy balance on the
river (with or without the waterwheel) provides the
following information
(hs) (ds) +ohs =0 (4)

where the right-hand side of the equation is zero since
a steady state is considered. The term generated is the
rate of entropy generation in the system, which accord-
ing to the second law must be either positive or, in the
best case (of a reversible process), null. Using again an
incompressible fluid model for water (i.e., a constant
heat capacity, C) the change in entropy between the
upstream and downstream is a thermodynamic state
quantity,1231 dependent only on temperature and seen


/\ -* V _
7n,
/ i'. 7 ;;-
.'...2- -, -






to be null if the system remains isothermal,

(stmm sdownstam = =j dh Cd n stm (5)
T T T Tdownstream )

Thus, substituting this result in Eq. (4), the entropy generated by the process
for the system without a waterwheel is,

T (6)

Including the first law expression, Eq. (2) for the system without a waterwheel,
one obtains,

generated mtg(zpst.m -zdownstram aAz (7)

where a= rhg/T is a positive quantity. Note the natural behavior (water falling
down) implies a positive generation of entropy. In the awkward case where
we consider the water to flow in "countercurrent," or upstream, the entropy
generated will be negative and the process impossible both from the second
law expression and from common sense. If we place a waterwheel the heat
dissipation term in Eq. (6) is zero, [since now the change in potential energy
is converted into work and no heat is dissipated to the surroundings; c.f. Eq.
(3)] and the corollary from Eq. (6) is that the generation of entropy is null.
The result tells us that the use of a waterwheel makes the energy conversion
process efficient (we obtain work!) and that the process is reversible (there
is no entropy generation). In particular it is the best scenario, i.e., the maxi-
mum work is attainable. We see how accounting for the entropy generation
can provide a handle on the determination of the reversible, irreversible, or
impossible nature of a process.124] It is of course possible to recognize and thus
include in the above analysis scenarios where the entropy generated is between
0 and that of Eq. (7), e.g., a situation where there is both work produced and
energy dissipation in the form of friction or heat losses. Alternatively, one
can flip the problem around and specify the entropy generated and from it
calculate the relative amount of work (in fact one could end up requiring to
input work into the system).
The above exercise highlights the importance of including the second law in
any engineering analysis and the need for considering entropy in the descrip-
tion of any physical process. The example is intuitive, as many science students
will understand the basic idea behind a waterwheel, while being rigorous
enough to be presented with no unwanted assumptions. It does assume that the


Figure 3. Waterwheel (left) and heat engine (right) diagrams.


students have been exposed, at least initially,
to working versions of the second law (or
entropy balances). This is sometimes done
in textbooks by stating, as an imposition,
the existence of a property called entropy
and performing the appropriate balances, to
later justify it and/or argue its correctness.
The waterwheel analogy is a simple exercise
that can give "peace of mind" to the inquisi-
tive souls who do not wish scientific dogmas
and expect only proofs.

THE HEAT ENGINE ANALOGY
Another avenue in the teaching of the
second law is to attempt to "derive" from
intuitive observations the relationship
between entropy and the ratio of heat and
temperature. To this end, most classical
thermodynamics textbooks1251 will use, as
their starting point, the description of a heat
engine (see Figure 3, right) and discuss how
certain types of these heat engines are com-
monplace and others are not. For example,
according to these textbooks, it should be
obvious to the readers that a heat engine that
produces work continually from a unique
source of heat is unbuildable (i.e., consider
Figure 3, right, with QB = zero). This is far
from being intuitive and is a very poor start-
ing point for any discussion, except maybe in
the case of more experienced readers.
If instead we use the analogy between the
hydraulic system and thermal system we
may have a very useful starting point in the
teaching of the second law. One can extract
the following self-evident conclusions from
the waterwheels (or at least be convinced of
their correctness):[261
Postulate 1: It is impossible to build
a waterwheel that without consuming
work raises water from a low height
to a greater height. (This is a common
experience, as we know water "falls"
but does not "jump up.")
Postulate 2: It is impossible to build
a waterwheel that converts all of the
potential energy of the river water to
work. (There will always be water at
a lower level that would have energy
equal to mgz,).1271
Postulate 3: The maximum work is
obtained by an ideal waterwheel,
i.e., one where no energy is lost by
dissipation, friction, etc. This ideal
Chemical Engineering Education






machine has to be reversible. (This idea, although maybe not
self-evident, is certainly unchallengeable.)
Postulate 4: Regardless of the way we design the waterwheel,
the maximum amount of work extractable depends exclusively
on the difference in the height of the water streams. [c.f. Eq. (3),
where no preconception is made on the nature of the mechani-
cal device used to produce power.]
An experienced lecturer will immediately recognize in thes
simple statements the analogue of the Clausius (postulate 1) an
Kelvin-Planck (postulate 2), statements of the second law, and th
two Camot corollaries (postulates 3 and 4) as enunciated in mo:
classical thermodynamics books[281 if only one exchanges "watei
wheel" for "heat engine"; "raises water" to "transfers heat"; and s
forth, as per the recipe in Table 1. Also, the translation from the wt
terwheel to the standard heat engine diagram (Figure 3) is seamles:
The analogy can be pushed further if one is to introduce the cor
cept of efficiency, Y1. In engineering terms, efficiency is the ratio c
the desired outcome divided by the cost of producing such effect
(or the "costly" input) .[29]
desired outcome
11= (8
costlyinput
In the case of a waterwheel, the desired outcome is power at th
expense of using water from a high altitude, so the efficiency coul
be expressed as

S- dlg (zuupstram downstream) Zdownstram (
mgzupstream rgzupstream Zupstream

where Eq. (3) is used to convert the power into the height diffe:
ence. Using the analogy (Table 1), the efficiency of a heat engine
should be, from Eq. (9)
T,


which is the expected result, rightfully known as the "Carnot el
ficiency." This can be compared to the original definition of th
thermal efficiency;

m IQ.- 01i (11
A A Q I

Thus, by inspection of Eq. (10) and (11) one arrives trivially to th
Kelvin relation,


TA TB


TABLE 1
Analogous Terms in Waterwheels and Heat Engines
Hydraulic system Thermal system
waterwheel ~ heat engine
z ~ T
Source of water at z ~ Reservoir at T
Fall of water ~ Heat flux

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


(12


e
d
e
st
r-
o
a-


which is the classical starting point for defining en-
tropy as a state function.
As an ending note, it is fair to say that the above
rendition of the Camot description of waterwheels is
by no means unique. In a recent paper,t31 Newburgh
has developed a modem reinterpretation of Carnot's
results and shown in a very detailed way how the "flow
of caloric" can be reconciled and restated in terms of
modem variables. Erlichson[311 presents the Carnot
waterwheel results in terms of modem nomenclature.
Thomat321 has presented other analogies, including a
circuit-based analogy.

COROLLARY


S. Nowadays no science student has any problem
a- grasping the concept of energy. Curiously, it would
af be quite a difficult concept to explain, had it not been
ct introduced by colloquial usage from an early stage. No
student thinks of energy as something "with matter"
and the risk of improperly employing the waterwheel
0) analogy is minimal. In spite of this, it is important to
make it clear that the analogy proposed is actually a
ie "crutch" that allows the understanding of the concepts
ld of efficiency and entropy generation, and it should
not be taken at face value. All simplifications and
generalizations inevitably can be abused. Even the
9) commonplace rendition of entropy as the disorder of
a system can be terribly misleading.133]
r- It is important to note that the analysis of these con-
ie cepts does not parallel the historical developments, but
rather stems from the modem analysis of those ideas.t341
Camot was not aware of the nature of energy nor the
3) fact that heat and work are mere manifestations of
energy transfer and its conversion. He did, however,
f- recognize the waterwheel analogy and expressed it
le in the terms of the folklore of those days. Only after
the acceptance of the concept of energy, mainly by
the widespread disclosure of the works of Mayer and
1) Joule, could the world start to relate the concepts of
energy and temperature in a consistent way. The syn-
thesis of modem classical thermodynamics, and the
e coinage of the word entropy, was later to be performed
by Clausius, almost 40 years after Camot's book.

) ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I dedicate this paper to my father, who taught me
all that is important to know.

REFERENCES
1. Note the context of the word "research." Waterwheels are as
old as humanity, and actually boomed in Europe during the
Middle Ages. They were empirically built, and even during
the Carnot era, little was understood on how they could be
improved.







2. Smeaton, J., "An experimental enquiry concerning the natural powers
of water and wind to turn mills, and other machines, depending on
circular motion," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., 51, 100 (1759)
3. Efficiency, or first law efficiency as we understand it now in the ther-
modynamic sense, is the ratio of the desired energy outcome-work,
divided by the energy disposed to produce it, c.f. Eq. (8). It is a concept
that was only correctly coined a century later, and attributed to William
Rankine. However, ad hoc definitions of efficiency were used at the
time.
4. Carnot, L.N.M., Essai sur les machines en gindral, Paris (1783)
5. The Science Museum in London is a premier example; see www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/visitmuseum/galleries/energyhall.aspx>
6. Smiles, S., Lives of Boulton and Watt, John Murray, London, p 293
(1865)
7. Carnot, S., Riflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les
machines propes a developer cette puissance, Paris (1824). See the
commented translation by E. Mendoza (ed.), Reflections on the motive
power offire; Dover, (1988)
8. The book was far from being a best-seller: it was to be sold at 3 Francs
(roughly 45 US$ in today's money), but nobody was known to buy it
at the time.
9. Cardwell, D.S.L.,From Watt to Clausius: The rise of thermodynamics
in the early industrial age, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY (1971)
10. Cardwell, D.S.L., "Science and the steam engine in the early nineteenth
century reconsidered," Tran.Newcomen Soc., 49, 111 (1977)
11. Historically the word "thermodynamics" was coined from the Greek
words t ertri (heat) and 8uvavult (power) by Lord Kelvin in 1849 and
was conceived as the science that would study the link between the
production of mechanical power from heat. Today it is understood as
the description of the physics of energy and entropy.
12. Fox, R., The Caloric Theory of Gases, Clarendon press, Oxford (1971)
13. Miiller, I., A History of Thermodynamics, Springer, pp 59-71 (2007)
14. Klein, MJ., "Carnot's contribution to thermodnamics," Phys. Today,
27,23(1974)
15. Denny, M., "The efficiency of overshot and undershot waterwheels,"
Eur. J. Phys., 25, 193, (2004)
16. Miiller, E.A., Termodindmica Bdsica, 2nd Ed., Kemiteknik (2002)
17. The energy and entropy equations are written here in terms of rate
equations, as is preferred for open systems. The reader is referred to
standard textbooks for a comprehensive treatment, e.g., JR. Elliott
and C.T. Lira, Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics,
Prentice Hall (1999) and/or S.. Sandier, Chemical, Biochemical and
Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th ed., Wiley (2006)
18. The enthalpy, h, is the sum of the internal energy, u, plus the flow term,
pv.


19. The negative sign of Q is a consequence of an arbitrary sign convention
that assigns the addition of energy to a system a positive value. Most
engineering books will have an opposite convention. This, obviously,
has no implication on the results.
20. It is reported that while on his honeymoon in the Alps, James Joule
actually tried unsuccessfully to measure a temperature difference
between the upper and lower parts of the Sallanches waterfall. Heat
was to be found somewhere else.
21. This is a most absurd waterwheel, and just an artist's rendition.
22. Actually it is our experience that suggests the apparent impossibility
of the event. The second law of Thermodynamics can be alternatively
and equivalently formulated from the point of statistical mechanics, as
worked out by Ludwig Boltzmann. From this point of view the inverse
process is understood as a "highly improbable" event.
23. Entropy is a state function defined as the integral of the ratio of heat
to temperature along a reversible path. The path does not have to be
real; here we consider an isobaric path, where the heat is equal to the
enthalpy change.
24. A negative, null, or positive generation implies an impossible, revers-
ible, or irreversible process, respectively.
25. I will avoid being rude and pointing out particular authors, but I believe
this to be a general statement.
26. As a class exercise, groups of students could be "coached" into devel-
oping these laws by themselves.
27. Here, as in the case of temperature, one must establish an absolute
origin from where to measure heights. In the case of the gravitational
potential energy, we could establish this (unattainable) limit z = 0 as
being the center of the Earth.
28. See for example classical engineering textbooks as MJ. Moran and
H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals ofEngineering Thermodynamics, 5th Ed.,
Wiley (2006) and/or C. Borgnakke and RE. Sonntag, Fundamentals
of Thermodynamics, 7th Ed., Wiley (2009)
29. For example, the efficiency of a student may be quantitatively measured
as the ratio of the marks in their exam divided by the number of study
hours.
30. Newburgh, R., "Camot to Clausius: caloric to entropy," Eur. J. Phys.,
30,713 (2009)
31. Erlichson, H., "Sadi Carnot, Founder of the second law of thermody-
namics," Eur. J. Phys., 20, 183 (1999)
32. Thoma, J., private communication, see
33. Lambert, F.L., "Disorder-a cracked crutch for supporting entropy
discussions," J. Chem. Ed., 79,187 (2002)
34. See the excellent paper by S'. Sandler and L.V. Woodcock, "Historical
observations on laws of thermodynamics," J. Chem. Eng. Data, 55,
4485 (2010) 0


Chemical Engineering Education







Random Thoughts ...







PROBLEMS WITH FACES






RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University


The difference between me and upper-level administrators
is that most of my problems have faces.
(Unknown department head)

Have a pretty good sense of what kind of jobs I'm suited
for, and department head is definitely not on the list. I
don't have the salesmanship, patience, or tact to do what
successful heads do, so I've always declined requests to
become a candidate for a vacant headship. It's arguably the
most important position in the university, though, and I was
starting to think that avoiding it might be selfish, so when I
got another invitation I strolled over to consult my department
head friend Jess Frobish. He was on the phone, so I waited
at the door.
Frobish: Hi, Sally-Frobish here...fine, couldn't possibly
be better. Yes, I know the Dean is eagerly waiting for my
contribution to his latest benchmarking study-I'm on it...
Is he in?... ok, when he's available could you please ask
him to call me about this new opportunity hire the Provost
just authorized-I've got someone who would be...eight
of the other nine heads already called about it?...but the
Provost's memo came out only an hour ago-ok, just tell
him I'd like to talk to him...you have a lovely day too.
C'mon in, Rich-what can I do for you?
Me: I've been invited to apply for the ChemE headship at Mi-
shugass U. and wanted to get some advice. Got a minute?
F: Sure, but expect interruptions-my secretary is out with
another migraine and I'm holding the fort here myself.
M: Sorry to hear that-so, I was thinking (phone rings).
F: Excuse me... Hello?... Oh, hi Charlie-how's it going?...
yes, I'm aware that the letter of support on your NSF pro-
posal is due Wednesday-I'll get it to you...no, no word
from Physical Plant yet...I know your fume hood broke
down yesterday and the lab smells like a chicken farm in
July-we've called them twice and they say they're on it...
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


look, you know how they are, and calling them again will
just irritate.. .come on, Charlie, complaining to OSHA will
just guarantee that you'll be drawing your pension before
Physical Plant ever sets foot in your lab...ok, ok, I'll call
them again..., and meanwhile, try getting a can of air
freshener and see if it... look, doing that with a can of air
freshener is physically impossible, and...hello...hello...
OK, back with you, Rich. What were we talking about?
M: Being a head...I'm just not sure I'm right for the job, and
(knock on the door)
F: Just a sec... Come in. (A student enters.) Hello, Eugene-
what's up?
Eugene: It's about Professor Farblunget-I have a petition
here signed by 36 of the 45 students in 338 this semester
asking you to remove him as the instructor.
F: (Scans the petition) Not much detail here-what's the
problem?
E: Where to begin...every day he comes in late, mumbles
incoherently all period, and runs overtime; last week he
gave a midterm mostly on stuff we've never seen and the
average grade was 34 and he said we're idiots; he called
Emily a bimbo when she asked him a question, he...


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineer-
ing at North Carolina State University. He is
co-author of Elementary Principles of Chemi-
cal Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at effective teaching>.






F: OK, I get the picture...I'll have a talk with him and hear
his side of the story, and I'll see if we can...
E: With due respect, Dr. Frobish, we're prepared to go to the
Dean with this, and if that doesn't work we'll get the word
out to the local press that incompetent teachers are toler-
ated as long as they bring in enough research money...
F: Look, Eugene, that won't be necessary...I'm going to do
everything I can to resolve the situation...I'm just asking
you to give me a chance to do it before you go ballistic.
E: Fair enough, sir- thank you.
F: You're welcome. (The student leaves, and Frobish jots
down some notes.) OK, where were we?
S: The department head position?
F: Right, right-well the thing is (phone) Hello...ah, good
morning, George, thanks for returning my call...fine,
thanks...George, we're truly grateful for the generous
support your company has given us over the years.. .as
we discussed last month we're trying to raise 15 million
dollars to renovate this antique building we're in and
we thought that perhaps you could... oh, really?.. .the
Chancellor has asked the company to donate exclusively
through the University Foundation, but you think you could
sponsor a student chapter lunch.. .I see... well, I wonder
if we...ok, take care...bye.
M:That didn't look like much fun.
F: Last time I spoke to them they were making noises in the
3-4 million range, and now it's pizza and cokes... Now,
you're wondering whether you should become a depart-
ment head... well all I can tell you is (phone)... sorry,
it never ends... Hello ...oh hi Sharon, how are you?
(whispering)... got to take this, Rich, it's our superstar
associate professor who got into the National Acad-
emy this year... oh, I can't complain ...what can I do
for you?... what?...an offer from Cal Tech?... I didn't
know you were talking to them...so, what's their of-
fer?... tenured full professor...your own secretary and
office suite.. .your own parking space.. .and a salary of
WHAT???... that's very impressive...ok, you know we've
had budget cuts for the last four years, so I don't know if
we can come close to matching that, but I'd like to try ...I
see... they were in a hurry for a decision and you were sure
we wouldn't be able to match it so you accepted... well, I
guess there's nothing more to say except congratulations
and best of luck... right... bye.
M: I'm guessing this isn't your best day.
F: Good guess ... and you haven't heard it all-I had a student
complaining that a TA hit on her, a mother upset about her


son's grades threatening to complain to her cousin the state
senator, and another industrial supporter bailing because
of the economy, and that was all before 10 a.m. ... and
then...
M: You know what, Jess-I think maybe I've got the answer
to my question. I have another one, though-why do you
keep on doing it? Just being a professor and doing my
research and teaching my courses is looking really good
to me right now-this nice comer office and a salary boost
can't possibly be worth these headaches.
F: I feel that way a lot, but then I think about the other side of
the coin.. .for instance, you know we've brought in three of
the biggest senior research stars in the country in the last
five years? I recruited all of them. Half of the new research
building allocated to us and fully outfitted with labs and
offices? The twenty million I raised in my first five years
made that happen. The 10 fantastic assistant professors
we've hired since I became head who are setting records
in research and also winning teaching awards-and the fact
that we've held on to all...to all but one of them despite
four years of no raises? The mentoring program I created
may have something to do with that. And while I think
national department rankings are generally worthless, the
fact that ours has gone from nowhere to top 15 and climb-
ing makes me feel like I'm doing something worthwhile.
M: No doubt about that, but...
F: The thing is, an effective head can do great things for
a department's faculty and students and a bad one can
make things miserable for everyone. After nine years I'm
about ready to pass the torch, but I don't think we'd have
a chance of getting an external search authorized in this
economy and until I see someone internal who can do the
job right and is willing to step up to it, I'll keep hanging
around.
M: Understood, and I applaud you.. .however, I'm more con-
vinced than ever that after a month in that job either my
faculty would kill me or I'd kill myself, so no Mishugass
for me! Ciao, Jess, and thanks.* 0




Note: This column started out to be a whimsical chronicle of the
headaches department heads have to deal with, and then it took an
unexpected turn and I found myself seriously contemplating every-
thing they have to do and the range of skills and qualities they need
to do it well. That conversation is fictitious, but the situation isn't. I
wouldn't go so far as to wear an "I V my Head" (or Chair) tee shirt
to work, but if yours is doing a good job, a few words of appreciation
would not be out of place.


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at www.che.ufl.edu/CEE.

Chemical Engineering Education







[g"q class and home problems )



The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. We request problems that can be used to motivate student
learning by presenting a particular principle in a new light, can be assigned as novel home
problems, are suited for a collaborative learning environment, or demonstrate a cutting-edge
application or principle. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be
accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to Dr. Daina
Briedis (e-mail: briedis@egr.msu.edu), Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226.





SEMI-BATCH STEAM DISTILLATION

OF A BINARY ORGANIC MIXTURE

a Demonstration of Advanced Problem-Solving

Techniques and Tools





MORDECHAI SHACHAM,1 MICHAEL B. CUTLIP,2 AND MICHAEL ELLY1
1 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
2 University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269


Mathematical software packages such as Excel,
MAPLET, MATHCAD, MATLAB, Mathemati-
ca, and POLYMATHTM are currently routinely used
for numerical problem solving in engineering education. "3]
It is equally essential, however, to follow the continuing
development of new tools and techniques in this field. These
new tools may enable effective and efficient solution of more
complex and realistic problems while presenting clear and
precise documentation of the problem and its solution.
In this paper a problem is presented that demonstrates the
use of the following new tools and techniques:
1. A new interface from Polymath Software to the DIPPR
physical property databaset4l that enables transference
of the data and the correlations directly into computer
code for POLYMATH, Excel, or MATLAB.
2. A new technique for grouping the equations and data
according to their role in problem solving, that provides
clear and precise documentation of the model. The use
of this technique is best implemented when software


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


packages are used that allow documentation prior to the
automatic reordering of the code during the generation
of the numerical solution.
3. A demonstration of new tools available for solution
of two-point boundary-value problems and systems of
differential-algebraic equations.

Mordechai Shacham is professor emeritus of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. He received
his B. Sc. and D. Sc. degrees from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology.
His research interest includes analysis, modeling, and regression of data,
applied numerical methods, and prediction and consistency analysis of
physical properties.
Michael B. Cutlip is professor emeritus of the Chemical, Materials, and
Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Connecticut.
He has B.Ch.E. and M.S. degrees from Ohio State and a Ph.D. from the
University of Colorado. His current interests include the development of
general software for numerical problem solving and application to chemical
and biochemical engineering.
Michael Elly holds B.Sc. and MBA degrees from the Ben-Gurion University
of the Negev. He joined Intel Corporation in 1996, serving several senior
IT/Automation positions in Israel and in the United States. He is currently
pursuing a Ph. D. in chemical engineering at Ben-Gurion University and is
the lead programmer for the Polymath software package. He has recently
developed an interface to the DIPPR@ thermodynamic properties DB and
linked it to Polymath.






PROBLEM BACKGROUND
Semi-Batch Steam Distillation of a Binary Organic
Mixture
This illustrative example involves semi-batch steam distil-
lation of binary mixture. A schematic plot of the steam distil-
lation apparatus is shown in Figure 1. The organic mixture
is charged into the still initially, and then steam is bubbled
through continuously until the desired degree of separation
has been reached. There are two different periods in the op-
eration of the still: the heating period, until the boiling point
temperature of the organic mixture is reached, and the distil-
lation period. A brief description of the mathematical models
for the two periods follows.
Heating Period
A simple mass balance on the water phase yields
dmw =W, (1)
dt

where Ws is the steam flow-rate in kmol/s and mw is the mass
of water in the still in kmol. It is assumed that all the steam
condenses in the distillation vessel and that the organic phase
masses remain constant during the heating period.
An energy balance on the still provides the equation for the
change of the temperature T in C
dT_ Ws (Hs -H,) -Q
dt mcpL +m(x,cLI +x,cL,)

where Hs is the enthalpy of the steam in J/kmol, HLw is the
enthalpy of liquid water in J/kmol, Q is the rate of heat transfer
to the surroundings in J/s, cpLw is the molar specific heat of
the water in J/kmol-K, m is the mass of the organic phase in
the still in kmol, xi and x2 are the mole fractions, and c pL and
cpL2 are the molar specific heats of organic compounds No. 1
and 2, respectively, in J/kmol-K. The heat transfer rate to the
surroundings is calculated from Eq. (3)
Q=UA(T-T) (3)

where UA is the product of the overall heat transfer coefficient
U and the contact area A with the surroundings in J/s-K, Ta
is the ambient temperature in K, and T is the temperature of
the liquid in the still in K.
Assuming ideal liquid behavior, Raoult's law can be used
to calculate the vapor mole fraction of the components in the
organic phase

y, = xP, x2 2P2 (4)
P P
where P is the total pressure in Pa and P, and P2 are the vapor
pressures of the organic compounds in Pa. The mole fraction
of the water which is immiscible in the organic phase is given
by yw=Pw/P. The heating period continues until the sum of
vapor pressures of the organic compounds and the water is


equal to the total pressure. Thus, the "bubble point" equation
to be satisfied can be expressed as
f(T)= 1-(y, +y, +yw)= 0 (5)

Distillation Period
During the distillation period, there is output of water vapor
from the still. Thus Eq. (1) must be modified to

dm =Ws -Vy, (6)
dt
where V is the outlet vapor flow rate. Material balances on
the two organic compounds yield two additional differential
equations


d(mx,) -Vy
dt


d(mx2) y
dt


The organic mass in the still at any time is given by: m =
mx, + mx2. The temperature in the still changes in a manner
so that the bubble point equation [Eq. (5)] is satisfied. The
energy balance at a particular temperature yields the momen-
tary vapor flow rate

V= Ws (Hs -H,)-Q
Hv -yhLw +(yhL, +y2hL,) (8)
where Hv is the molar enthalpy of the vapor phase; hLw, hL1,
and hL2 are the liquid phase molar enthalpies of water, n-octane
and n-decane, respectively. Material balances on the water
and organic phases in the still can provide the amount and
the mole fractions of the various components in the distillate.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Prenosill51 and Ingham et al.161 have considered the semi-
batch steam distillation of an n-octane Compp. 1) and n-decane
Compp. 2) mixture. The data provided by Ingham et al.[61 are
the following. Initially M = 0.015 kmol of organic with
composition x, = 0.725 is charged into the still. The initial
temperature in the still is To = 25 oC. Starting at time t = 0,


Steam
Organi
Phases


Distillation -
c and Water
are Mixed P2, P, Y, Y2 yw T



Pha .e ... '.
a...., -
Steam .

Water Phase
Sm,H ,T


I-


Vapor to
Condenser
V

Heat Transfer
Sto Surroundings
at T,I Q


Figure 1. Schematic plot of steam distillation.
Chemical Engineering Education






steam at a temperature Ttem = 99.2 C is bubbled continuously
through the organic phase at the rate of Ms = 3.85e-5 kmol/s.
All the steam is assumed to condense during the heating
period. The ambient temperature is TE = 25 C and the heat
transfer coefficient between the still and the surrounding is
UA = 1.05 J/s-K. The ambient pressure is P = 9.839E+04 Pa.
Assumptions: 1) Ideal behavior of all components in pure
state or mixture; 2) complete immiscibility of the water and
the organic phases; 3) ideal mixing in the boiler; and 4) equi-
librium between the organic vapor and its liquid at all times.
The standard state for enthalpy calculations pure liquids at
0 C and 1 atm. can be used.
a) Calculate and plot the still temperature (T), component
mole fractions inside the still (x,, x2, y,, and y2), and the
component mole fractions in the distillate (xdi,,, and x2d,,t)
using the data and the initial values provided.
b) Determine the lowest n-octane mole fraction in the
feed that can yield a distillate concentration of 90% of
n-octane. Compute the percent recovery of n-octane in
the distillate as function of its concentration in the feed.
Vary the feed concentration in the range where the re-
quirement for the n-octane concentration in the distillate
is attainable.

PROBLEM SOLUTION
Physical Property Data and Equations for the
Steam Distillation Problem
In addition to the mathematical models presented in Eqs.
(1) through (8), physical property data is required for all three
components involved in the steam distillation process. The
data include liquid vapor pressure and heat capacity, heat of
vaporization, and ideal gas heat capacity. These data should
be provided in the form of equations (correlations) that enable


calculation of the pure component properties as function of
the temperature.
In the past various handbooks were used as sources of physi-
cal property correlation. Prenosil,"51 for example, describes
the sources of the correlations and data he used for solving
this problem: "The constants of the Antoine equations for the
vapor pressures of n-octane and n-decane were taken from The
Handbook of Chemistry and Physicst7' and for water they were
obtained by non-linear regression from steam tables (Perry'15).
The C values of the liquid components were also found in
PerrywS and their temperature dependence was neglected. The
C data for the vapor components were calculated as func-
tions of temperature from the equation C = A + BT + CT2
with the constants taken from Balshiser et al.191 The latent
heats of evaporation for the organic material came from Cox
and Pilchert10I and that of water from Landolt-B6rnstein.1"1"
Currently, most of the needed properties can be found in
available databases. The database used in this work is the
DIPPR database.[t4 In order to simplify the transfer of the
data from the database to computer code and thus minimize
the probability of the introduction of errors during the process,
we have developed a Polymath Database Interface (PDI). The
PDI enables searching the database for a particular compound,
marking the desired properties, and obtaining as output the
necessary data and correlations in a format that can be copied
and pasted directly into a computer code. The formats that
are currently supported are for POLYMATH,[121 Excel, and
MATLAB.1131
The information that is provided by the PDI for the POLY-
MATH solution format is demonstrated in Table 1 for the
properties of n-octane that are required for the steam distil-
lation problem. This table shows most of the information
as provided by the PDI when the POLYMATH format is


TABLE 1
Physical properties of n-OCTANE as obtained from the DIPPR database by the Polymath Software Interface
for use in POLYMATH
No. Equation/ # Comment
1 # Liquid Vapor Pressure of n-OCTANE (C8H18)
2 # Uncertainty < 1%; Min_T=216.38, MaxT=568.7, Min_Val=2.1083, Max_Val=2467300 0 [K; Pa]
3 VP_C8H18 = exp(96.084 7900.2 / T 11.003 ln(T) + 7.1802E-06 T ^ 2) # Pa
4 # Liquid heat Capacity (at 1 atm below normal boiling point, saturation pressure at and above) of n-OCTANE (C8H18)
5 # Uncertainty < 1%; MinT=216.38, Max_T=460, Min_Val=229340, Max Val=341890 0 [K ; J/kmol*K]
6 LCP C8H18=0-186.63*T+0.95891*TA2+224830#J/kmol*K
7 # Ideal Gas Heat Capacity of n-OCTANE (C8H18)
8 # Uncertainty < 1%; MinT=200, Max_T=1500, Min_Val=145290, Max_Val=497640
9 #HIG_C8H18 = 135540*T + 443100 *1635.6* (coth(1635.6 / T)) 305400 *746.4* (tanh(746.4 / T))+HCON_C8H18 # J/kmol
10 ICP_C8H18 = 135540 + 443100 (1635.6 / T / sinh(1635.6 / T)) A 2 + 305400 (746.4 / T / cosh(746.4 / T)) ^ 2 # J/kmol*K
11 # Heat of Vaporization of n-OCTANE (C8H 18)
12 # Uncertainty < 3%; Min_T=216.38, Max_T=568.7, Min_Val=45898000, Max_Val-0 [K; J/kmol]
13 HVP_C8H18 = 55180000 (1 T / 568.7) ^A 0.38467 # J/kmol

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012 17'_

















specified. The code that is generated by the interface program
includes correlation equations, definition of constant values,
and comments (text that starts with the "#" sign and ends
with the end of the line). The row numbers shown in Table 1
are not part of the output generated by the interface program;
they were added as references for the explanations that follow.
Lines 1-13 can be generated at once by selecting the desired
"Temperature-dependent Properties" and then "Generating
Report" at the "Basic Report" level. The "Report Level"
determines the amount of information that is to be included
as comments.
Lines 1 through 3 contain the information related to the
vapor pressure of n-octane. In line 1 the full name of the
property, the full name of the compound, and its formula are
shown (as a comment). In line 2, the uncertainty (error) in
the calculated property (vapor pressure) is shown as < 1%.
The additional details given in this line include the range of
validity of the correlation equation. "Min T" is the lower
temperature limit of the range of validity, "Max_T" is the
upper temperature limit, "Min_Val" is the property value
(vapor pressure, in this case) at the lower temperature limit
and "Max_Val" is the property value at the upper temperature
limit. The units of the temperature (K) and the property (Pa)
are shown at the end of line 2.
In line 3, the property correlation is shown. The variable into
which the calculated value of the vapor pressure is entered is
made up from the symbol of the property (VP in this case) and
the chemical formula of the compound involved. The Riedel
equation is used to model the change of the vapor pressure
with the temperature. The units of the property (vapor pressure
in this case) are included in a "comment" in the same line
with the equation. Similar information is provided for liquid
heat capacity (lines 4 through 6) and heat of vaporization
(lines 11 through 13).
The ideal gas heat capacity for n-octane (lines 7 through
10) deserves special discussion. The DIPPR Database pro-
vides the coefficients for the Aly and Leet141 equation that
utilizes transcendental hyperbolic functions. The integrated
form of this transcendental equation for calculating ideal
gas enthalpy is considerably different than the heat capacity
equation. The integrated form of the enthalpy calculation
when the ideal gas heat capacity is a polynomial expres-
sion is uncomplicated. For the benefit of the users, the PDI


provides the equation for ideal gas enthalpy whenever the
ideal gas heat capacity requested by the user involves tran-
scendental functions. This is also included as a comment as
shown in line 9. Note that the enthalpy equation includes an
integration constant HCON_C8H 18. This constant depends
on the standard state selected for the enthalpy calculation.
For example, selecting as standard state pure liquid compo-
nent at 0 TC (273.15 K) yields HCON_C8H18 as ideal gas
enthalpy at 273.15 K subtracted from the heat of vaporization
of the component at the same temperature. The equations for
calculating HCON_C8H 18 for n-octane are shown in Table
2. This set of equations yields: HCON_C8H18 = -4.928E+08
J/kmol. Similar calculations for n-decane and water yield:
HCON_C10H22 = -5.791E+08 J/kmol and HCON_H20 =
-4.471E+07 J/kmol.

Modeling the Heating Period with POLYMATH
The POLYMATH program for modeling the heating period
of the semi-batch distiller is shown in Table 3. The equations
are grouped according to similarity in their roles in order to
provide clear and concise documentation of the model and
the pertinent data. Note that POLYMATH automatically
reorders the equations, as needed, before starting the com-
putations and this allows structuring the program for clarity
rather than requirements of programming syntax. The first
group of statements (lines 1 through 10) contains the model
equations, mostly the ones that were introduced already as
Eqs. (1) through (5). The pure compound property equations
are grouped in lines 12 through 22. The heat capacity of the
liquid phase and the enthalpy of the organic liquid are cal-
culated in lines 25 and 26. Problem-specific data and initial
values, as provided by Ingham et al.161 are included in lines
29 through 39.
The determination of the final time (tf) for the heating period
requires some trial and error until the bubble point condition
of Eq. (5) is satisfied. Linear interpolation can be conveniently
used for determining the correct value of t,. Assigning tf= 180 s
yields a final still temperature of T = 90.14 C with f(T) =
0.01903 [Eq. (5)]. A higher value of tf (= 190 s) yields a final
still temperature ofT = 93.12 C with f(T) = 0.09490. Linear
interpolation between the two t, and f(T) values yields t, =
181.67 s. Additional trials give tf = 181.72 s. This value is
accurate up to four digits, yielding temperature value of T =
90.66 C which is accurate up to three decimal digits.


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 2
Calculation of HCON_C8H18 for n-Octane (reference state for enthalpy: pure liquid at 273.15 K)
No. Equation/ # Comment
1 TO = 273.15 #K
2 HIG_C8H18 = 135540*TO + 443100 *1635.6* (coth(1635.6 / TO)) 305400 *746.4* (tanh(746.4 / TO)) # J/kmol
3 HVP_C8H18 = 55180000 (1 TO / 568.7) ^ 0.38467 # J/kmol
4 HCON C8H18 = HVP_C8H18-HIGC8H 18 # J/kmol








TABLE 3
POLYMATH program for simulating the "heating period" in the steam distiller
No. Equation/ # Comment
1 # Heating period model equations
2 d(T)/d(t) = (MS (HS HL_H20) -Q )/ CpL # Eq. 1. Still temperature from heat balance
3 d(MW)/d(t) = MS # Eq. 2. Mass of water in the still (kmol) from mass balance
4 Q = U* (T Ta) # Eq. 3. Heat transferred from the still to the surroundings (J/s)
5 YI= VP_C8H18* xl / P # Eq. 4. n-octane vapor mole fraction
6 Y2 = VP_C10H22* x2 / P # Eq. 4. n-decane vapor mole fraction
7 YW =VP_H20 / P # Water vapor mole fraction
8 fT = 1 (Yl + Y2 + YW) # Eq. 5. Stop the integration when fT=-0.
9 x2=l-xl #Mole Fraction of n-decane
10 TK = T + 273.15 # Absolute temperature (K)
11 #
12 # Pure compound property equations
13 VP_C8H18 = exp(96.084 7900.2 / TK 11.003 ln(TK) + 7.1802E-06 TK ^ 2) # Pa
14 VP C10H22 = exp(112.73 9749.6 / TK 13.245 ln(TK) + 7.1266E-06 TK ^ 2) # Pa
15 VP H20 = exp(73.649 7258.2 / TK 7.3037 ln(TK) + 4.1653E-06 TK ^ 2) # Pa
16 LCP_C8H18 = (0 186.63 TK + 0.95891 TK ^ 2 + 224830) # J/kmol*K
17 LCP_C10H22 = (0 197.91 TK + 1.0737 TK^ 2 + 278620) # J/kmol*K
18 LCP_H20=(276370-2090.1*TK+8.125*TKA2-0.014116*TKA3+9.3701E-06*TKA4)#J/kmol*K
19 HS = (33363*TSK + 26790 *2610.5* (coth(2610.5 /TSK)) A^ 2 + 8896 1169*(tanh(1169 /TSK)) -4.471E+07)#
Steam Enthalpy (J/kmol)
20 HL_C8H18 = ( 224830*(TK-TO) 186.63 *( TKA2-TO^2)/2 + 0.95891 (TK ^A 3-TOA3)/3) # J/kmol
21 HL_C10H22 = ( 278620*(TK-TO) 197.91 (TKA2-TOA2)/2 + 1.0737 *(TK ^A 3-TOA3)/3)# J/kmol
22 HL_H20 = (276370*(TK-TO) 2090.1 ( TKA2-TO^2)/2 + 8.125 (TK ^A 3-T0^3)/3 0.014116 (TK ^ 4-
TO^4)/4 + 9.3701E-06 (TK ^A 5-TOA5)/5 )# J/kmol)
23 #
24 #Mixture property equations
25 CpL = MW LCP_H20 + M (xl LCP_C8H18 + x2 LCP_C10H22) # Heat capacity of the liquid phase J/kmol*K
26 HL= xl *HL_C8H18+x2*HL_C10H22 # Enthalpy of the liquid organic phase (J/kmol)
27 #
28 #Problem specific data, initial and final values
29 TO=273.15 # Enthalpy reference temperature (K)
30 TSK = 99.2 + 273.15 # Steam temperature (K)
31 P = 9.839E+04 # Ambient Pressure (Pa)
32 MS = 3.85e-5 # Steam flow rate (kmol/s)
33 U = 1.05 # Heat transfer coeff (J/s-K)
34 Ta = 25 # Ambient temperature (deg C)
35 x 1--0.725 #Mole Fraction of n-octane
36 M=0.015 # Initial amount of organic, kmol
37 T(0) = 25 # Temperature in the still (deg. C)
38 MW(0) = 0 # Mass of water in the still (kmol)
39 t(0)=-0
40 t(f) = 181.72 # s


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






Modeling the Distillation Period with POLYMATH
A specific challenge in the solution for the distillation pe-
riod is the need to follow the bubble point temperature curve
[Eq. (5)] during the time of the integration. This requires
solving a nonlinear algebraic equation for each and every
integration step. (This is basically a differential-algebraic
or DAE problem.) A simple method that can be used within
POLYMATH for this purpose is the "controlled integration"
technique of Shacham and Brauner.1151 Using this method,
Eq. (5) is rewritten
e=1-(y, +y2 +yw) (5A)

100
90
80
70
S60

E 40 --------
30
20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (min)
Figure 2. Temperature change during semi-batch steam
distillation (POLYMATH results).

A-1 --------y1- y

0.9
0.8
0.6
S0.5
I 0 ----------..........

0.1
0 - -
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (min)
Figure 3. Change of organic phase composition during
semi-batch steam distillation (POLYMATH results).

1
S0.9 -
S0.8
S 0.7 6 ...... ....... .
0. --x1A (dist)
0 I0 x2(dist)
0.3
0.2
S0.1
0
0 10 20 30
Time (min)

Figure 4. Change of organic phase distillate composition
during semi-batch steam distillation (POLYMATH results).
178


and a "proportional controller" is added to the system of
equations for changing the temperature:
dT
-=Ke (9)
dt

The proportional gain, K is selected large enough so as to
keep s below a pre-specified tolerance. Setting K. at a large
positive value will often lead to a "stiff" system of differential
equations which has to be solved using specific stiff integra-
tion algorithms.
Part of the POLYMATH program for modeling the distillation
period of the semi-batch distiller is shown in Table 4. Most of
the equations that remain the same as in Table 3 were omitted
here, for brevity. The model equations for this period (see lines
1 to 21 in Table 4) include the mass balance equations [Eqs.
(6)-(8)], the equations used for changing the temperature using
the controlled integration technique [Eqs. (8) and (9)], and sup-
porting equations for calculating the amount and composition
of the liquid in the still, vapor composition, and the amount
and composition of the distillate. The value of the proportional
gain KC (KC = 1000) was selected to keep the deviation of Eq.
(5A) below the value of 10-5 (e < 10-5).
The equations for calculating the vapor phase enthalpy
are added to the "pure compound" and "mixture" property
sections. The initial values used for t, T, and mw are the final
values that were obtained in the "heating period." The final
time for integration is set at 2000 s.
Results for the Case where x10 = 0.725
The calculated temperature profile in the steam distiller is
shown in Figure 2. There is a rapid increase within the first
three minutes during which the temperature increases from
the initial value of 25 "C to the boiling temperature of 90.65
C. During the distillation period there is a more gradual
increase of the temperature because of the depletion of the
more volatile n-octane in the still. After 30 min of distillation
the temperature reaches 96 C.
The variation of the concentration of the organic compounds
in the still (liquid and vapor phases) is shown in Figure 3.
At the beginning of the distillation period, there is a steady
decrease in the liquid mole fraction of the more volatile
component and a steady increase in the mole fraction of the
less volatile component. After 30 minutes, the concentration
of n-octane reaches the value of x = 0.085 while the concen-
tration of n-decane reaches: x2 = 0.915. During the heating
period a rapid increase in the concentration n-octane occurs
in the vapor phase. After distillation starts, however, the vapor
phase concentration follows the same trend as the liquid phase.
Figure 4 shows the concentration of the organic compounds
in the distillate. The mole fraction of the n-octane at the start
of the distillation is xldist = 93% and after 30 minutes it is
reduced to Xldit = 82%. If the desired n-octane concentration
is xdist = 90%, the distillation should be stopped after 18 min.


Chemical Engineering Education






TABLE 4
POLYMATH program for simulating the "distillation period" in the steam distiller
No. Equation/ # Comment
1 # Distillation period model equations
2 d(MW)/d(t) = MS V YW # Eq. 6. Mass of water in the still (kmol) from mass balance
3 d(Mxl)/d(t) = -V Y1 # Eq. 7. Mass of n-octane in the still (kmol) from mass balance
4 d(Mx2)/d(t) = -V Y2 # Eq. 7. Mass of n-decane in the still (kmol) from mass balance
5 V =(MS*(HS-HL_H20)+ Q) / (HV (HLH20 YW + (Yl HL_C8H18 + Y2 HL_C10H22))) # Eq. 8. Vapor flow rate (kmol/s)
6 d(T)/d(t) = 1000 eps # Eq. 9. Still temperature by controlled integration
7 M = Mxl + Mx2 # Organic mass in the still (kmol)
8 xl = Mxl / M # n-octane organic liquid mole fraction
9 x2 = Mx2 / M # n-decane organic liquid mole fraction
10 Q = U* (T Ta) # Eq. 3. Heat transferred from the still to the surroundings (J/s)
11 Yl= VP_C8H18* xl / P # Eq. 4. n-octane vapor mole fraction
12 Y2 = VP_C10H22* x2 / P # Eq. 4. n-decane vapor mole fraction
13 YW =VP_H20 / P # Water vapor mole fraction
14 eps = 1 (Y1 + Y2 + YW) # Eq. 5A. Error used in controlled integration
15 Mldist = MO xOl Mxl # Mass of n-octane in the distillate (kmol)
16 M2dist = MO x02 Mx2 # Mass of n-decane in the distillate (kmol)
17 MWdist = MS t MW # Mass of water in the distillate (kmol)
18 Mdist = Mldist + M2dist # Distilled organic phase (kmol)
19 xldist = If (Mdist > 0) Then (Mldist / Mdist) Else (0) # n-octane distillate mole fraction
20 x2dist = If (Mdist > 0) Then (M2dist / Mdist) Else (0) # n-decane distillate mole fraction
21 TK = T + 273.15 #Absolute temperature (K)
22 #
23 #Pure compound property equations
linesl3-22inTable3
24 HIG_C8H18 = (135540*TK + 443100 *1635.6* (coth(1635.6 / TK)) 305400 *746.4* (tanh(746.4 / TK))-4.928E+08) # n-octane vapor
enthalpy (J/kmol)
25 HIG_C10H22= (167200*TK+ 535300 1614.1*(coth(1614.1 / TK)) 378200 *742* (tanh(742 / TK)) -5.791E+08) # n-decane vapor
enthalpy (J/kmol)
26 HIG_H20 = (33363*TK + 26790 *2610.5* (coth(2610.5 / TK)) A^ 2 + 8896 1169*(tanh(1169 / TK)) -4.471E+07) # Water vapor enthalpy
(J/kmol)
27 #
28 #Mixture property equations
line 26 in Table 3
29 HV = YW HIG H20 + Y1 HIG_C8H18 + Y2 HIG_C10H22 # Vapor phase enthalpy (J/kmol)
30 #
31 #Problem specific data, initial and final values
lines 29 -34 in Table 3
32 xOl = 0.725 # Initial n-octane organic liquid mole fraction
33 x02 = 0.275 # Initial n-decane organic liquid mole fraction
34 MO = 0.015 # Initial amount of organic, kmol
35 T(0) = 90.66 # Temperature in the still (deg. C)
36 Mxl(0) = 0.010875 # Mass of n-octane in the still (kmol)
37 Mx2(0) = 0.004125 # Mass of n-decane in the still (kmol)
38 MW(0) = 0.0069955 # Mass of water in the still (kmol)
39 t(0) = 181.72
40 t(f) =2000

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012 17






MATLAB Implementation of the Program
for Parametric Runs
Parametric runs, requested in the second part of the as-
signment, can be carried out with POLYMATH by manually
changing the parameter values. This approach, however,
is inefficient and somewhat cumbersome. A more efficient
approach involves derivation of an algorithm for repetitive
solution of the problem with the various parameter values and
using a programming language to implement the algorithm.
One option is to use MATLAB for implementing the solu-
tion algorithm. The MATLAB functions for modeling the
heating and distillation periods of the steam distiller can be
automatically generated by POLYMATH, as demonstrated,
for example, by Cutlip et al.1161
The key steps of an algorithm that can efficiently solve
the second part of the assignment are 1) Stop the integration
at the heating period when the bubble point condition [Eq.
(5)] is satisfied; 2) Solve the DAE system that represents the
distillation period; and 3) Stop the integration of the distil-
lation period model when the n-octane concentration in the
distillate gets down to 90%.
Stopping the integration when a condition is satisfied (as
in items 1 and 4) can be considered as a "two-point bound-
ary value" problem. Such a problem can be solved using the
secantt" method as demonstrated, for example, in Example
6.4 of the textbook by Cutlip and Shacham.171] MATLAB
provides library functions decic.m and odel5i.m for solv-
ing DAEs. The function decic.m provides consistent initial
conditions that satisfy the DAE system at the starting point.
The function odel5i.m solves fully implicit DAEs of index 1.
The MATLAB program steam_dist.m, which implements
these principles and provides the solution for second part of
the assignment, is available at: SteamDist>. Feed with initial n-octane mole fraction of x10
= 0.635 yields distillate with 90% concentration of n-octane.
The recovery of the n-octane is 3.7% in this case. The n-octane


recovery vs. its feed concentration is shown in Figure 5. A
rapid increase of recovery is achieved for higher values of
x1o, reaching close to 100% for x 0= 0.85. The time period of
the distillation increases as well, from ~ 4 min for x10 = 0.635
to 29 min for x10 = 0.89.

CONCLUSIONS
The example presented here provides an opportunity to
practice effective use of advanced problem-solving tools
and techniques:
Use of consistent physical property data with documented
uncertainty and range of applicability values, extracted
from reliable property databases.
Grouping the equations and data for solution according
to their role in the model: 1. Model equations character-
istic to the problem type; 2. Physical property data and
equations characteristic of the compounds involved; and
3. Problem-specific data and initial and final values.
Constructing and testing the components of the general
model using a user-friendly software package that re-
quires minimal programming effort.
Combining the various components of the model and
carrying out parametric studies by deriving an efficient
algorithm for carrying out these tasks and implementing
the algorithm using a programming language.
Using advanced tools available for solving two-point
boundary value problems and differential algebraic sys-
tems of equations.
Such a combination of the latest tools and techniques
enables the solution of problems of increasing complexity
in the educational setting. The example presented is suitable
for courses in thermodynamics, separation processes, process
simulation, and numerical methods.
The POLYMATH and MATLAB programs used in this
study are available at the site: SteamDist/>.


Figure 5. Percent recovery of
n-octane as function of its initial
mole fraction in the feed
(MATLAB results).


60
50
40
30
20
10 -
0
0.


0.7 0.75 0.8
n-octane mol fraction in feed


Chemical Engineering Education


0.9 0.95


6







ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Parts of this manuscript were previously presented in paper
329f at the 2009 AIChE Annual Meeting, Nashville, TN,
Nov. 8-13, 2009.

REFERENCES
1. Cutlip, M.B., JJ. Hwalek, HE. Nuttall, M. Shacham, J. Brule, J. Wid-
man, T. Han, B. Finlayson, E M. Rosen, and R. Taylor, "A collection
of 10 numerical problems in chemical engineering solved by various
mathematical software packages," Comp.Appl. Eng. Ed., 6,169 (1998)
2. Shacham, M., and M.B. Cutlip, "Selecting the appropriate numerical
software for a chemical engineering course," Comp. & Chem. Eng.,
23(suppl.), S645 (1999)
3. Shacham, M., M.B. Cutlip, and N. Brauner, "From Numerical Problem
Solving to Model Based Experimentation-Incorporating Computer
Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 43(4), 299 (2009)
4. Rowley, R.L., W.V. Wilding, J.L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, and N.A. Zundel,
DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design In-
stitute for Physical Properties, , Brigham Young
University, Provo, Utah, 2006. Design Institute for Physical Properties
and its acronym DIPPR are registered trademarks of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)
5. Prenosil, J.E., "Multicomponent Steam Distillation: Comparison
between Digital Simulation and Experiment," The Chem. Eng. J., 12,
59(1976)
6. Ingham, J., IJ. Dunn, E. Heinzle, and J.E. Prenosil, Chemical Engineer-


ing Dynamics: An Introduction to Modelling and Computer Simulation,
3rd Ed., Wiley-VCH ( 2007)
7. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 51st Ed., Chemical Rubber Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio (1970-71)
8. Perry, J.H., Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill,
New York (1963)
9. Balshiser, R.E., M.R. Samuels, and J.D. Eliassen, Chemical Engineer-
ing Thermodynamics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1972)
10. Cox, J.D., and G. Pilcher, Thermochemistry of Organic and Organo-
merallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York (1970)
11. Landolt-Bdrnstein Tabellen, 6th Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1960)
12. POLYMATH is a product of Polymath Software, polymath-software.com>
13. MATLAB is a product of MathWorks, Inc., corn>
14. Aly, F.A., and LI.. Lee, "Self-Consistent Equations for Calculating the
Ideal Gas Heat Capacity Enthalpy, and Entropy," Fluid Phase Equilib.,
6, 169 (1981)
15. Shacham, M., and N. Brauner, "What To Do if Relative Volatilities
Cannot Be Assumed To Be Constant?-Differential-Algebraic Equa-
tion Systems in Undergraduate Education," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31(2), 86
(1997)
16. Cutlip, M.B., N. Brauner, and M. Shacham," Biokinetic Modeling of
Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat-an Example of Multiscale Model-
ing," Chem. Eng. Ed., 439(3), 243 (2009)
17. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, Problem solving in chemical and
biochemical engineering with POLYMATH, Excel and MATLAB, 2nd
Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2008) 03


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012







2Is laboratory


ADAPTATION OF PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

IN THE UNIT OPERATIONS LABORATORY





DENIZ RENDE,AB SEVINC RENDE,c AND NIHAT BAYSALA'B
A Yeditepe University Istanbul 34755, Turkey
B Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy NY 12180, USA
C Isik University Istanbul 34980, Turkey


The chemical engineering curriculum ensures students
focus on learning the technical details of the profes-
sion. Problems in industry, however, involve not only
finding technical solutionsm" but also require skills such as
proposing ideas, developing practical solutions, working in
teams, meeting deadlines, establishing communication be-
tween technical support and suppliers, overseeing financial
issues, and finally, reporting and presentation skills. Students
benefit if a project management and teamwork orientation is
introduced to the curriculum.12,3]
Unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses in chemical
engineering curricula have two purposes: firstly, introduc-
ing fundamental transport concepts to the students, enabling
them to reinforce core courses; and secondly, teaching how to
design experiments and think critically about the processes.
In industry, engineers are often responsible for practical
laboratory issues in order to meet the requirements for ex-
perimental data in developing a new product and to test a
product to confirm whether the product or design operates as
expected.J41 For these reasons, the UOL is considered to be a
crucial component of chemical engineering education. While
its major goal is to integrate theory and practice, the course
also provides an opportunity to design experiments, develop
projects, and promote teamwork. Previous studies focusing on
the UOL in chemical engineering curriculum either address
skills attained5, 6] or discuss the benefits/drawbacks of virtual
laboratory compared to hands-on laboratory experiments .7-9]
Little attention has been paid to the opportunities to teach
project management that the UOL course design offers.
182


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Chemical Engineering Education


Deniz Rende is currently working as a post-
doctoral researcher at Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute, USA. She received her Ph.D.
degree from the Department of Chemical
Engineering, at Bogazici University, Turkey.
Her current research focuses on supercritical
fluid assisted processing of polymer nano-
composites and foams, and glass transition
temperature phenomena in con fined systems.
Sevinc Rende is
currently a full-time
assistantprofessor
at the Department of Economics, Isik Univer-
sity, Turkey. She received her Ph.D. degree
from the Department of Economics, at the
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA.
She worked extensively on child work and
gendered consequences of social policy Her
academic work maps the web of social and
economic relations in which households are
embedded and analyzes inequities in access
to social service and insurance programs.
Nihat Baysal is currently a full-time assistant
professor at the Department of Chemical
Engineering, Yeditepe University, Turkey. He
received his Ph.D. degree from the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at Bogazici
University, Turkey. He has more than 18 years
of experience in programming, including de-
signing web-based dissemination protocols,
building strategic frameworks on geospatial
data systems, network building with large-
scale data. His research focuses on molecular
dynamics simulations on carbon dioxide
confinement in SWNTs, exfoliation of carbon nanotube bundles, and
crystallization of polymers in the presence of nanofilers.






This paper presents an innovative course design imple-
mented at a Yeditepe University that has approximately
2,000 students enrolled in the School of Engineering and
Architecture. The Department of Chemical Engineering has
been approved by the standards established by the Association
for Evaluation and Accreditation of Engineering Programs
(MUDEK) of Turkey in 2008 for a period of five years.1101
The evaluation process in MUDEK is very similar to that of
the Accreditation Board for Engineering Technology (ABET).
The university is also a part of the Bologna Process,t11i which
aims to standardize higher education curriculum across the
European universities with respect to student achievement
and quality assurance.
One of the essential components of the Bologna process
is to instill lifelong learning in the students. There is a gap,
however, in the literature on measuring the lifelong learn-
ing course outcomes, which cannot be observed without
the feedback of the graduates. Our study contributes to the
literature firstly by introducing innovative design of the UOL
course and secondly by measuring the course effectiveness
by a graduate survey.

COURSE STRUCTURE
The UOL courses are placed in the chemical engineering
curriculum in three consecutive semesters, starting from the
fifth semester. The general framework of the courses and
the contents of the UOL courses are presented in Figure 1.
The gray box represents the lectures, and rounded rectangles
include the topics of the experiments conducted in each UOL
courses.
The first course of the series, Experimental Chemical En-
gineering I (UOL1), introduces the general concepts of unit
operations. In the first seven weeks, faculty members lecture
on unit operations and laboratory safety. By mid-semester,
students are assigned to groups and work in teams. The experi-
ments covered in this period mostly involve fluid mechanics
and basic separation experiments. During the tenth week, the
teams propose two experiments, one of which is chosen as a
project proposal to be presented at the end of the semester.
Successful completion of UOL1 requires writing
a laboratory report, where the project design is a [L--
minor concern.
The Experimental Chemical Engineering II
(UOL2) course is offered to students who success-
fully complete fluid mechanics and heat transfer
courses in addition to Experimental Chemical 0
Engineering I (UOL1). The students register for
UOL2, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics courses
simultaneously. Similar to the UOL1 course, the 0
teams offer two project proposals. In this course, a
project subject, such as fluid mechanics, heat trans- Figur
fer, mass transfer, or reaction kinetics, is assigned indicate
to the teams, which are instructed to propose an
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


experimental design at the end of the semester. The proposal
forms the basis for projects in the following and final semes-
ter of the UOL courses. The focus of UOL2 shifts to ability
to meet deadlines, since approximately 10 experiments are
conducted and a laboratory report is submitted each week.
The project proposal is an important part of the course, since
at this stage the students learn that the proposed projects will
be assigned to the teams in the following course, UOL3, but
not necessarily to the team proposing the project. The selec-
tion and assignment processes generate a win-win situation,
leading all students to design and plan a comprehensive proj-
ect proposal with the details about the technical specifications
and supplier contacts.
The students who successfully complete the transfer
courses, UOL1 and UOL2, are eligible to register for the
Experimental Chemical Engineering III (UOL3) course. In
this final course representative small-scale chemical process
units are studied. The projects submitted during UOL2 are
expected to be designed and implemented by the students who
are now assigned to different teams. All teams have a budget,
approximately 200USD, kindly provided by the university
to implement the proposed projects. Once the drawing and
specification of experimental set-up are completed, the teams
are responsible for the correct assembly of the experimental
set-up by contacting suppliers. First demonstrations are pre-
sented by mid-semester.
The focus of the course content is to design a project in
a detailed framework within the allocated budget, which
includes purchasing necessary supplies and equipment
from business contacts. In order to do so, the students as-
sume full responsibility for contacting suppliers and define
technical specifications. Until the delivery of the purchased
equipment, the teams complete the background study on
experimental design. Following the delivery of equipment
and materials around the eighth week of the semester, the
teams start conducting their experiments and deal with
the technical problems that may result from improper
design of experimental set-up. The experimentation stage
is completed approximately within the third month of the



Introduction, Lectures on Unit
Operations and Laboratory Safety Experiments on Fluid Mechanics and
-- Basic Separation Techniques
ChemCAD Simularion

Experiments on Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics

| Experiments on Bioprocesses
Experiments on Heat Transfer, Mass Experiments on Bioprocesses
Transfer and Reaction Kinetics Project Experiments

e 1. General framework of the UOL courses. The lectures are
ed with the gray box. The topics of the laboratory experiments
conducted are presented in rounded rectangles.






academic semester. After the collection of experimental
data, the students analyze their results as well as prepare
laboratory reports.

Skills Gained Through Projects
In the UOL1 and UOL2 courses, teams propose two experi-
ments, and the selected proposals are presented at the end of
the semester. In the UOL3 course, the selected projects are
designed and conducted by the students. The selection process
encourages UOL1 and UOL2 students to pay attention to the
details, such as specifications of the experimental set-up and
calculations.
During the UOL3 course, approximately four weeks at
the end of the semester are allocated for the projects. To
complete the course requirements, the students tackle tasks
including: project design, project planning, preparation of
experimental set-up, experiment design, report writing, and
presentation. Project design is an important component of the
process: the students work on the necessary background and
determine experimentation needs, equipment availability, and
chemicals. The content encourages students to learn business
transactions, invoice terms, and how to purchase the labora-


tory chemicals and equipment as well as design of experi-
mental set-ups. Students are expected to apply multitasking
skills: dealing with the project design and implementation is
handled concomitantly with the experiments and preparation
of laboratory reports.
At the end of the semester, all UOL teams present their work.
Reserving one day for all UOL project presentations has two
purposes: first is to enable the UOL1 and UOL2 students to
observe the stages of a project implementation and benefit from
the experience of the UOL3 students; second is to enhance com-
munication among junior and senior students. A representative
calendar for three of the courses is provided in Figure 2, explain-
ing the experiments conducted. In this table, the gray boxes
represent the lectures or class hours. The rounded rectangles
represent the laboratory experiments. The three-hour course
duration is marked at the end of the table. UOL1 starts with
the lectures of fluid mechanics (FM), heat transfer (HT), mass
transfer (MT), reaction kinetics (RK), and laboratory safety. The
ChemCAD (CC) lectures in UOL1 are performed in computer
laboratories. All three courses also have experiments on basic
separation (BS) and bioprocesses (BIO). The final four weeks
of UOL3 are allocated to project experiments. During these
weeks, the students prepare bioprocess


UOL1 UOL 2 UOL3

S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
K r__rps annoDunceent (Poet asTeam n assnmntignments)
FM CC HT HT

3 HT CC HT IHT

MT CC HT MT

F RK CC HT MT
LAB SAFETY MT Lab Meeting
6 (Pr I oTe Proasal snmentson Proect P s(Progress Report I submission)
S MIDTERM MT MT
F7 I (ProlecProNposal announcement) anrot'ari no-cemnct'ip
SFM MIDTERM RK
9] FM MT BIO PROJECT
[IIIIIIIIZILZ] EXPERIMENTS
1 FM MT Lab Meeting
(Project Proposal submission) (Project Proposal submission (ProRress Report 2 submission)
11 FM RK BIO PROJECT
(Announcement for selected proposals) (Announcement for selected proposals) c EXPERIMENTS
BS RK BIO PROJECT
12 2S ___ EXPERIMENTS
BS RK BIO PROJECT
r311 _EXPERIMENTS
BS
(Final Project Report submission) (Final Project Reportsubmission) (FinalProject Report submission)
0 1 2 3
course duration (hours)
Figure 2. Example calendar for unit operations courses.


(1iIU) experiments in the first hour and
conduct their project experiments in the
remaining hours.

Evaluation of the projects
The project evaluations are conduct-
ed in a hierarchical structure. Each stu-
dent of UOL1 is assigned two referee
students: a senior student enrolled in
the UOL3 course and a junior student
enrolled in the UOL2 course. Similarly,
each student of the UOL2 course is
assigned a referee student enrolled
in the UOL3 course. This structure
allows senior students to evaluate the
presentations of the junior students and
discuss potential caveats in the project
proposals; in return, the UOL1 students
observe how to ask and answer ques-
tions in a formal presentation.
This evaluative framework enhances
understanding of concepts, project
design, and implementation. It was
previously reported that involving the
students in the task of assessment not
only fosters skills of professional judg-
ment but also increases the reliability
of the assessment.[121
After each team's presentation, the
referee asks questions to the presenters


Chemical Engineering Education






about the background and caveats of the project. A student's
performance as a referee is called offense. A student's knowl-
edge on answering the questions after his/her presentation
is called defense. Hence, the evaluation form is designed to
reflect a multi-scale evaluation. Each student's performance
is a combination of (i) individual presentation performance,
(ii) team performance (which is a unique score for the team),
(iii) defense (according to ability in answering the questions),
and (iv) offense (according to his/her performance as a ref-
eree, which is a separate score). The results of the evaluation
forms are then averaged, and the students are informed of
their evaluation scores and the average presentation scores
for the course.
The UOL1 students only evaluate and grade themselves,
UOL2 students evaluate UOL1 students and themselves, and
UOL3 students evaluate all of the students. Invited faculty and
teaching assistants use the same evaluations scheme for UOL3
students. Figure 3 depicts the hierarchical evaluation structure
employed during the presentations. From the perspective of
students evaluating themselves, the UOL1 and UOL2 proj-
ects are questioned by UOL2 and UOL3 students, yet UOL3
projects are evaluated by instructors, teaching assistants, and
the students enrolled in the UOL3 course.
Two additional evaluation forms are distributed: one for
the evaluation of the teaching assistants, another for the
evaluation of the students themselves as teammates during
the semester. The evaluations about teaching assistants, who
are involved in experiments and projects as junior supervi-
sors, enable students to evaluate supervisor performance. The
second type of evaluation form asks students to evaluate their
teammates and their own performance during the semester
and the projects, thereby enabling students to evaluate self-
performance and the performance of their teammates. The
results of the teaching assistant evaluations are shared with
the assistants at the end of the semester. Self- and teammate
evaluation form results are considered as feed-
back for group assignments for the following
semester. Thi

RESULTS
This elaborate evaluation mechanism across
the three consecutive UOL courses positions
students to be well-prepared for professional Sex (F=1,
life in managing teamwork and projects, meet- Hometow
ing deadlines, and presenting and defending Other=0)
their work, as well as in evaluating other team High scho
members and supervisors. Identifying whether Private=0
the course design helps students attain these Scholarsh
skills requires a follow-up survey targeting the Partly=l,
graduates of the department. For this purpose, CGPA
we designed a survey consisting of 52 ques- Semesters
tions. The survey was disseminated between Years afte
June 2010-August 2010 through an online


Figure 3. Schematic representation of the evaluation
process during the project presentation day.

portal by inviting all graduates via e-mail. The Department
of Chemical Engineering was established in 2001, while
first graduation was in 2005. Among the total number of
115 graduates, 58 responded to the questionnaire. We later
contacted graduates who did not respond to the survey and
inquired about the reasons for non-response. The majority
of the students reported computer access and net connection
problems, allowing us to confirm non-responsiveness did not
cause selected sample properties in our surveyed population.
We also compared the characteristics of the survey popu-
lation with the population of the graduates, using available
administrative student records. As summarized in Table 1,
the population that responded to the survey is representative
of the student population graduated from the department by
demographic characteristics and by high school status. For
instance, of the 58 students, 76% are female, whereas in the
graduate population, this ratio is 73%. The sampled graduates
have somewhat a lower share of students with scholarships,

TABLE 1
e characteristics of graduates who participated in the survey
compared to all chemical engineering graduates
Graduate population Sampled graduates
Averages (stdev) Averages (stdev)
N= 115 N=58
,M-0) 0.73 (0.4457) 0.76 (0.4317)
n (Istanbul=l, 0.47 (0.5013) 0.48 (0.5041)

)ol (Public=l, 0.55 (0.4999) 0.57 (0.4995)

ip status (Full=2, 0.76 (0.7205) 0.64 (0.6675)
None=0)
2.60 (0.4989) 2.74 (0.5060)
until graduation 8.8 (1.6889) 8.5 (1.4414)
r graduation 1.63 (1.28) 1.88 (1.39)


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


INTUCO TACHN ASSSANT


I 4 I







TABLE 2
The distribution of the graduates according to employment
N %
Graduate School
Turkey (9), Europe and USA (6)
Industry
Raw chemical (15), Pharmaceutical (11), 34 58.62
Consumer Goods (4), Real Estate (2), Food (2)
Unemployed 9 15.52
TOTAL 58 100.00


compared to the same share of the graduates with schol-
arships within the graduate population. Furthermore the
average cumulative GPA of participating graduates, 2.74,
is slightly higher than the average cumulative GPA of the
total graduate population.
The survey begins with asking the graduates about their
employment status. Out of 58 graduates, 34 of them are
employed in industry, 15 of them pursue advanced degrees
(six students are enrolled in graduate programs in Europe
and the United States, nine are enrolled in graduate pro-
grams in Turkey), and the remaining nine students were


TABLE 3
Selected questions from the survey evaluating the skills attained during UOL
courses
Could you rate the professional skills you attained in these courses? Please mark the appro-
priate scale from I to 5, 1 indicating "none," 5 indicating "absolutely"
UOL1 UOL2 UOL3
Project Design 1 00I0 5S 1 000I0f5 1 I 5
Project Planning 1 0~0 5 1 0110 5 1 000005
Teamwork 1 0IIII5 1 r00I05 1 0000I'5
Meeting Deadlines 1 000I0Il5 1 I0000l5 1 111115
Report Writing 1 10005 1 I0 5 1 100005
Presentation 1 010II0I5 1 0005 1 I0I 5
At which stage of your work experience, did you make use of these skills? Please mark all
that apply.
O Job interview
O Research
O Product / technology development
o Prototyping / test production
o Production
O Publicity
o Sales
O Logistics
D Never
O Other
Compared to other courses, which skills are specific to unit operations laboratory courses?
Please mark all that apply.
O Learning business transactions
O Managing project budget
O Negotiation with outside suppliers
O Establishing professional contacts
O Public speaking
O Critique own work
O Evaluating team members
O Evaluating supervisors
O Developing my research agenda
None
o Other
Did you use any of these skills in your daily life? Please mark all that apply.
o Self motivation
O Scheduling daily life
O Time management
D Self confidence
o Critical thinking
D Speaking in English
0 None
O Other


unemployed at the time they responded
the survey, the majority of whom are
2010 graduates seeking employment. The
distribution of the graduates according to
employment status is presented in Table 2.
Participating program graduates are
asked to evaluate the UOL courses by the
attributes, which reflect the skills incor-
porated into the course design. We group
these attributes under the headings of proj-
ect design, project planning, working in
teams, meeting deadlines, report writing,
and presentation. The survey then inquires
if and at what stage of their work experi-
ence the participating graduates have used
these skills. Finally, the survey included
questions on whether the students rely on
these skills in their daily life, gauging the
extent to which the outcomes fulfill the
life-long education premises. A sample of
survey questions is summarized in Table 3.
Considering that students who attend
a Masters or Ph.D. program may need a
different set of skills than the participants
employed in the industry, we separated
our analysis into two groups: the gradu-
ates pursuing an academic degree, and
graduates working in industry, leaving the
job-seeking graduates out. The analysis
presented in the rest of the paper therefore
summarizes the survey results obtained
from these two groups of students.
We also asked the graduates at what
stage during their post-graduation careers
they have relied on the skills introduced in
the UOL courses. The results, displayed in
Figure 4, show that the skills gained during
UOL courses are not only valuable for job
interview and research, but also at various
stages of their professional life, including
sales, publicity, product development, and
logistics. Recalling that our analysis in-


Chemical Engineering Education






volves two sets of graduates (academia and industry), 1.c
in this figure, frequency shows the number of students o.9
that selected a particular answer to the number of stu- 0.8
dents in the corresponding cohort. Approximately 30%
of the graduates employed in industry replied that the 0.
skills proved to be valuable during job interviews. The g
response rate for the job interview for the graduates o.
pursuing M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in academia is too 0.
low, since acceptance to a post-graduation program 0.3
relies on, first and foremost, academic achievement. 0.2
In this group, however, approximately 85% report that 0.1
they found the skills useful for conducting research. 0.0
Considering it is also possible that similar skills
are taught in the other courses of the curriculum, the
survey then inquiries about the skills that are attained
solely through the UOL courses. These UOL-specific
skills are divided into two subsections: professional
relations and professional skills. Learning business
transactions, budgeting, establishing business con- Fig
tacts, and negotiating with suppliers are considered
as a part of professional relations. The results are
presented in Figure 5. In terms of professional rela-
tions, learning business transactions and establish- 0o.
ing professional contacts are the two aspects that 0.7
are most important for the graduates employed in g 0.E
industry. Like graduates employed in industry, the 0 o.5
survey participants who pursue academic careers also E 0.4
reported to rely on conducting business transactions 0.3
and negotiating with suppliers frequently, which can
0.1
The professional skills acquired through the UOL o.
courses include public speaking, self-criticism, and
evaluation of team members and supervisors. Figure
5 also summarizes the results pertaining to this set
of skills. Public speaking is frequently required for
the graduates pursuing degrees in academia, such as
presenting their research in various conferences and
research meetings. The graduates placed in academia FJ
frequently reported this skill as gained through the
UOL courses, compared to the graduates employed
in industry. The graduates were also asked if unit opera-
tions laboratory is useful to gain self- and peer assessment
skills, which is an important part of engineering education.
[I3 Self-evaluation was previously incorporated into team
process by completing a self-evaluation form as a part of
project reports. This study showed that self-assessment not
only enhances self-awareness but also helps the students
to overcome learning obstacles.""4] On the other hand, peer
evaluation was used for summative purposes to promote
seriousness and commitment.1121 The results showed that
the graduates pursuing advanced degrees are more likely to
criticize their own work, which is likely due to the fact that
in industry the employees are mostly evaluated by their su-


0

9
8
7
6
5


re 4. Skills experienced at different stages of professional life.


Academia (15)
Industry (34)





1


-


-




11


z oo .
) 5 U)
0 1.
0. a, 0W. ~ .
'6aa
0 g 0 0.

z 0.


figure 5. Skills that are specific to unit operations laboratory
courses.

pervisors. A significant difference between the two groups is
observed in team-member evaluation skill. Relatively more
graduates placed in advanced programs report this skill as
useful compared with their peers in industry. This difference
can be explained by the competitive academic environment
where evaluation and feedback mechanisms are required for
an actively collaborative research agenda.
As a final evaluation, we asked the participating graduates
of the department if, in their daily lives, they rely on the skills
they acquired in the UOL courses. The results are shown in
Figure 6 (next page). For both groups self-motivation and
time management are two comparatively valuable skills.
Scheduling daily life is reported to be an important skill for


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


E aM

*-E >
E
a, C
-S a,
ou,


a, ^ i s ~ 0)s
*I -g i| .g 1


0.






graduates in industry compared with the graduates placed in
academia. A significant difference in the answers between the
two groups is observed in self-confidence. This result may
reflect that the graduates who continue their post-graduate
studies find themselves in a heterogeneous and scientifically
competitive environment.
The results reveal that with the skills gained during the
UOL courses, the graduates employed in industry are well
equipped and well prepared for professional life. A skill that
is important for the graduates employed in industry is critical
thinking, which is crucial to develop new strategies. Speaking
in English is another aspect that is reported by the graduates
in industry, implying that the rigorous presentation schedule
and public speaking required by the UOL course design are
sufficient for the professional work environment.

CONCLUSION
The studies on the UOL course design have tended to focus
exclusively on the curriculum design and the laboratory ex-
periments. We contributed to the literature with describing the
innovative design of the UOL course offered by the Chemical
Engineering Department at Yeditepe University in Turkey.
The course design, in addition to retaining academic rigor of
the UOL courses, supplements the students with additional
career-oriented skills. To measure course outcomes, a survey
targeting the graduates of the program is implemented. The
survey results reveal graduates employed in industry rely on
these skills in job interviews, research, and product develop-
ment. For graduates who attend post-graduate programs, the
skills help during their research. Furthermore, the results
also show that the lifelong learning objective of the Bologna
process is achieved. While we acknowledge that in the future,
studies examining course outcomes in different institutional
contexts are needed, we argue that the UOL course offers
an innovative platform for achieving course outcomes that
introduce the skills necessary for post-graduation careers.
Finally, these results indicate that the participating gradu-
ates who pursue advanced degrees may use skills different
from the skills used by graduates employed in industry,
highlighting the need of an adaptive approach in meeting
different professional career goals of the students.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by the National Science u.
Foundation under Grant No. 1003574. DR is supported
by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of
Turkey 2219 Program. An earlier version of this study was
presented at American Society for Engineering Education
(ASEE) 2011 Annual Conference. The reviewers of this
study are acknowledged with sincere appreciation.

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Figure 6. Skills used to regulate daily life.
Chemical Engineering Education







I,1=11 classroom
^________________________________-


PEER EVALUATION

IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CAPSTONE DESIGN VIA WIKIS









CARYN L. HELDT
Michigan Technological University Houghton MI 49931


Chemical engineering design is the capstone course of
the curriculum that requires the student to integrate the
knowledge gained in the previous years of study into
one overarching project. The successful student is expected
to be able to perform the duties of a chemical engineer in an
industrial setting. The student is given an open-ended problem
and must work within a group to compile and analyze complex
data. There is, however, a missing component in this scenario.
The students have been critiqued by their instructors, but they
have not had the opportunity to critically evaluate another
group's work and to determine the quality of the informa-
tion presented. This critical peer evaluation skill is essential
for entry-level engineers to assess data provided to them, as
well as for students who continue on to graduate studies. Peer
evaluation in engineering education is often used to assess
the individual contributions of a team member11I and has been
used to rank group oral presentations and written deliverables
for engineering projects.[2] It has been shown, however, that
peer evaluation also improves writing in subjects ranging from
teacher educationt31 to biology.1t4 This use of peer evaluation
outside of discrete team evaluation and to specifically enhance
writing and critical thinking skills is not widely documented
within engineering education.
Engineering students receive a thorough education in
technical subjects, but communication skills often receive
secondary emphasis. It has been noted that special training
enhances engineering communication skills.t51 Recent scores
received by chemical engineers on the GRE exam, with an


average of 487 119 on the verbal section (out of a total of
800) and 729 79 on the quantitative section, confirm that
many of our students have significantly stronger quantitative
skills compared to their verbal skills .[6 Online activities have
been developed to enhance chemical engineering writing
skills .7] Purely online, multiple-choice exercises to enhance
writing skills, however, cannot duplicate the benefit gained
by personal evaluation and specific review.
Wikis are showing great use in education as a method for
collaborative learning and peer evaluation. A wiki is defined
by Leuf and Cunningham181 as a "freely expandable collection
of interlinked Web pages, a hypertext system for storing and
modifying information..., a database where each Web page is
easily edited by any user with a forms-capable Web browser
client." The advantages to this system include the ability to
freely edit and create content with little hierarchical structure
and the need for minimal programming knowledge and little
specialized software.191 The implementation requirements

Caryn L. Heldt is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Michigan Technologi-
cal University. She completed a post-doc at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, received her
Ph.D. and M.S. from North Carolina State Uni-
versity and a B.S. in chemistry and chemical
engineering from Michigan Tech. Her educa-
tion interests include incorporating Web 2.0
technologies into the classroom. Her research
interests include the removal, purification, and
detection of viruses and the study of protein
aggregation as related to diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease.


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


























of this type of software are minimal on the instructor and
the students, as compared to many other technology-based
learning tools.
Web 2.0 technologies, including wikis, allow students to
actively participate in their learning, as compared to passively
reading a Web page to gain information.E9' Many uses of Web
2.0 technology take advantage of multiple-choice tutorials
that allow the students to obtain instant feedback on their
ability to answer questions.171 This is a good tool when there
exists a right and wrong answer to the questions being asked.
Writing skills, however, are more difficult to assess in such
a concrete manner. The use of collaborative media and wikis
has been shown to enhance student engagement and provide
a method for enhanced discussions. 10l The requirement to
write about science and also to discuss science among peers
leads to greater retention of skills.(41 Collaborative learning
benefits all levels of students, as documented by Felder and
many others.t111 The weaker students have a chance to be
instructed by stronger students, which in turn strengthens the
stronger students who learn by teaching. It also lets students
who may be behind in the current material be aware of at what
level the rest of the class is currently performing. These are
many of the same attributes that Felder promotes for active
learning in the classroom.t121 While the focus of this project
was on peer evaluation and not collaborative learning, col-
laborative learning also occurred during the preparation of the
design reports. This demonstrates that wikis are a structure
that can be used to enhance many different forms of student
communication and learning.
Here, we provide the students with an online forum to
enhance their communication skills through peer evaluation.
Peer evaluation enhances communication skills by allowing
students to participate as both the assessor and the assessee,
the former being a role not often adopted by students.t31 This
ability to assess data and other students' communication skills
is a valuable skill for undergraduate students to acquire.


COURSE OBJECTIVES AND WIKI LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
Chemical engineering capstone design courses at Michigan
Technological University involve two required semesters,
each consisting of two credits of lecture and one credit of
laboratory. Total enrollment for this cohort was 59 students.
The first semester laboratory experience introduces the
students to a full plant evaluation. Students are provided
with an existing plant, and they must evaluate the plant to
determine if it is profitable and what possible optimizations
will increase profits. The students are asked to write three
reports, which include two progress reports and one final
report on their conclusions and recommendations. The
learning objectives of this course are to apply process and
project engineering skills to realistic industrial problems,
to become familiar with the profit motivation in industry
and analyze how decisions are made, and to complete an
open-ended project assignment that requires the student to
define the scope and cost of a project.
The second semester involves two design projects. The
first is an open-ended project where the students are asked
to perform a level one scoping study design and economi-
cally evaluate ( 30%) a chemical plant to make a product
of their choosing given a list of about 30 projects. There
were a total of 15 groups (14 four-person groups and one
three-person group) across three sections of the class and
every group was required to select a different project. The
mid-semester progress report required for this open-ended
project was integrated with wikis to allow students to peer-
evaluate the progress reports. This is described in more detail
in the next section. The last project was the 30-day AIChE
design competition problem that could be done either in
groups or individually, depending on a student's preference.
The objectives of the second semester are similar to those of
the first semester, but the projects are larger and even less
defined for the students.


Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
ABET Outcomes for Capstone Senior Design Course
Graduates will have:
ABET Outcomes Activity to Promote Accomplishment of Outcome
b* an ability to design and conduct experiments as well as Critical evaluation of other projects allowed students to analyze and
to analyze and interpret data interpret data presented by others utilizing wikis.
c an ability to design a system, component, or process to The student groups were given open-ended design projects to
meet desired needs strengthen their ability to design a process.
e an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering Unit operations were required to be designed and sized using engi-
problems neering principles.
f* an understanding of professional and ethical respon- Students were expected to be professional and ethical when com-
sibility meeting on others' reports.
g* an ability to communicate effectively The students presented their design reports both orally and in writ-
ing. They also evaluated other student reports in writing utilizing
wikis.
* the wiki peer evaluation was designed to enhance outcomes b, f, and g








Week 1


Figure 1 (above). Flow chart for assignment
requirements for second-semester capstone design
laboratory.
Figure 2 (right). Flow chart for completion of the
open-ended design project. Students were asked to
focus on the economical feasibility of the process
while reducing environmental impact and keeping
the process inherently safe.

The ABET objectives of the design courses are found in
Table 1 .[13] The Wiki portion of the course was designed to
enhance objectives b, f, and g, which include analysis and
interpretation of data, professional and ethical conduct,
and effective communication, respectively. The students
were asked to analyze and interpret data, not only for their
own project, but also for the projects they were evaluating.
Students were graded on their written progress reports,
final reports, oral presentation, and completion of the wiki
analysis. The peer evaluation with wikis was reviewed by
the instructors, with 60% of the grade assigned to the timely
completion of the wiki portion of the assignment and 40%
of the grade to the assessment of the comments provided.
Special emphasis was placed on the comments for improving
the final report. This was a first iteration of this project, and
the instructors were unsure of the quality and the engagement
the students would have with the wiki project. Therefore, the
quality of the comments was a smaller part of the grade than
timely participation. It is projected that increased emphasis
will be placed on the content of the students' comments in
the future as we improve the presentation and formatting of
the wiki using student and instructor input.

PRESENTATION OF WIKI MATERIAL
We chose to use the interactive wiki platform (using the
free, open source MediaWiki software) to allow students to
critically evaluate other students' progress reports for their


capstone design project. The students were placed into self-
selected groups of three to four students. They were given
about 15 minutes to chose a design topic from a list, and it
was determined that no project could be duplicated across dif-
ferent sections of the class. At the beginning of week 5 of the
semester, groups were required to submit a progress report on
their design project, with the final design being due on week
11. This timeline can be seen in Figure 1. The students were
also given the flow diagram in Figure 2 to guide their assess-
ment of the feasibility of their design project to be profitable
within a 10-year project life.
The peer-evaluation process was introduced in the first class
period. The students were given a memo containing the wiki
site Internet address and instructions on how to sign onto the
wiki. This wiki was access controlled so that only students
and instructors in the class could access the wiki. The memo
also contained some qualitative suggestions for how to assess
other groups' work. The suggestions were:


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


Week 5


Week 7



Week 11


Week 12


Overriding Issues:
* Safety and
Environmental
Business Objectives
Government Regulations
Corporate Standards






Technical
Does the process appear to be feasible within the limits
set by management?
Are environmental and safety issues being addressed?
Does the market survey seem complete?
Is the base case selection technically feasible?
Communication
How can the report be written in a more clear and con-
cise manner?
Are there missing elements in the report?
At week 3, the students were given a 15-minute tutorial on
how to use the wiki site. It was pre-loaded with each of the
design project names and a link to a new page. The students
were encouraged to make additional pages for collaborative
work, but none of the groups took advantage of this oppor-
tunity. Pre-formatted wikis have been successfully used for
collaborative work with students[14]; the instructors may use
these in the future to encourage the use of the wiki during
the development of the design reports and foster increased
collaboration between group members.
On the same day as the progress report was due, the students
were required to upload their progress report, including fig-
ures, to the wiki site. Most groups designated one student to be
in charge of uploading the files. Some students had difficulty
with the formatting, especially the requirement that figures
could only be in .png, .gif, or .jpg. Most groups uploaded the
file with little trouble.
The students were assigned to qualitatively evaluate dif-
ferent groups. Each group was assigned two other groups
to evaluate. The assignments were based on the relative
strengths of each group, as judged by faculty from the previ-
ous semester design course. The faculty rated each group as
strong, average, or weak. We then used the following criteria
to pair groups for evaluation:
Pair weak groups with strong group reviewers. Also, weak
groups evaluated at least one strong group so that they
could see in which areas they were below expectations.
Mix the groups among class sections. There were three
sections being taught, so each group was assigned one
group in their class and one group outside their class.
Mix project subject areas (i.e., biotechnology, petroleum,
organic synthesis) to expose the students to different
areas of chemical engineering.
Do not allow groups to evaluate their assessors.
Students were given two weeks to make their comments.
In this time, the instructors also evaluated the projects, but
did not post their comments on the wiki site, as this could be
viewed as an invasion of FERPA regulations.[s15]
This mixing of student ability was intended to engage
and enlighten students at all levels. The higher-level student
192


was given the challenge of assisting a lower-level group in
improving its project. The lower-level students were exposed
to higher-level thinking and allowed to discern if their perfor-
mance was adequate for senior-level students.[12] The students
were also mixed across sections, giving them exposure to
additional projects that they would not have seen otherwise.
This appeared to benefit the students, since several responses
on the post-project survey expressed that they enjoyed learn-
ing what other groups were doing and seeing the levels other
groups were attaining. Future iterations of this project will
include similar methods to distribute evaluating groups. One
student suggested that they could have given better technical
feedback if the subject areas were not mixed. At this level in
their education, however, the instructors feel that exposing the
student to different technical areas may benefit the students
more than allowing them to specialize in one area.

STUDENT RESPONSE

The quality of the student feedback varied with the level of
the student. The lower-level students often found a statement
that was unclear or a grammatical error. This was the extent
of their peer review. The higher-level students took time
to reflect and understand what they were reading and gave
technical advice. For example, one student commented that
there were some missing considerations when comparing two
catalytic reactions, including the requirement of a PFR vs. a
CSTR. This student also noticed fluctuations in the market-
ing data that were not explained by the authors. The peer
reviewer stated that the trends during the past few years for
crude and purified product were different and understanding
these trends could impact future decisions. In the future, the
students will be given more guidance on how to conduct their
peer review to help the lower-level students achieve deeper
understanding and evaluation.
The student opinion of the use of wikis in senior design
was evaluated by pre- and post-project surveys and the results
can be found in Table 2. The open-ended questions were not
included in the table. Between 56-59 responses were tallied in
the pre-project survey for each question and 53-56 responses
for the post-project survey questions. The students were
asked a series of questions about their use of online media,
their method of communication, and how important publicly
engaging in technical discussions will be in their future. The
students' method of communication outside the classroom was
not affected by this project, with students preferring face-to-
face meetings, e-mail, and text messaging. The students did,
however, change their communication during the semester
for in-class projects. The preference of face-to-face meetings
(47% pre-project vs. 33% post-project) was replaced with e-
mail (16% pre-project vs. 33% post-project). This can either
have a negative or a positive contribution to the students'
education. It is more difficult to effectively communicate by
e-mail than face-to-face meetings. The negative contribution


Chemical Engineering Education






of the shift from oral (face-to-face meetings) to written (e-
mail) communication between project team members may
result in the students communicating poorly with their team-
mates. Lack of communication within a team can lead to lower
grades or one person taking responsibility for the project. The
positive aspect of this shift to written communication is that
the students may have enhanced their written communica-
tion skills through e-mail. It is not clear if the wiki project
caused the shift from face-to-face meeting to e-mail or if the
heavy load that most students were experiencing in their final
semester as an undergraduate chemical engineering student
was contributing to this shift.
The students were asked about their overall reading and
contribution to the public Wikipedia project. Over the course
of the semester, the students' daily reading of Wikipedia
increased from 25% to 32%, and the students who had con-
tributed to Wikipedia increased from 12% to 37%, which
was statistically significant, as shown in Table 2, Question 2.
The contribution to Wikipedia should be viewed as a positive
outcome. We believe that the students now feel empowered
and confident enough to share their knowledge with others.
This could be promoted as a method of lifelong learning and
sharing that should be encouraged in our student popula-
tion. A recent survey of Wikipedia users showed that 65%
of responders had not contributed to the resource, and the


most common reason for not contributing was the lack of
information to contributedt11 The same survey also demon-
strated that contributors had a small, but significant, increase
in education level as compared to people who only were
readers of Wikipedia. Chemical engineering graduates have
significant knowledge in areas that could use increased input
on Wikipedia, including areas of energy and biotechnology.
There was a minor, but not statistically significant shift from
neutral to somewhat confident when the students were asked
how they felt about publicly engaging in scientific or technical
discussions either oral or written (Table 2, Question 6). Now
46% of students were either confident or very confident in
contributing to online wikis in the future (Question 10). This
confidence is important in chemical engineering students as
they enter industry and academia.
At the end of the post-project survey, the students were
asked what they liked the most, the least, and what they would
change about this project. They liked reading others' reports,
which gave them a new perspective on their own work. They
also liked having additional feedback than only from the
instructor. Other positive remarks included getting instant
feedback and the ability to refer back to the wiki as they pro-
gressed with their project. The negative responses included:
the project felt forced and the timelines were too strict, the
text-only formatting was difficult, and the feedback was not


TABLE 2
Survey Responses of the Available Quantitative Data
Question Pre-results Post-results p-value^
I* How often do you read Wikipedia 2.2 1.1 2.1 1.0 0.40
2* How often do you contribute content to Wikipedia 4.9 0.4 4.6 0.6 <0.005
3* How often do you contribute content to social networking sites (Facebook, 2.2 1.1 2.2 1.0
MySpace, Twitter)
4+ How do you feel about posting content online for other students to read 3.3 0.9 3.3 0.9
5+ How do you feel about posting content online for anyone to read 3.1 1.1 3.0 1.1
6+ How do you feel about publicly engaging in scientific/professional dialog 3.2 1.1 3.3 1.0 0.38
either oral or written
7# How important do you think publicly engaging in scientific/professional 4.3 0.9 4.4 0.9
dialog will be in your career
8+ How do you feel about your ability to publicly engage in oral scientific/pro- 3.5 1.0 3.5 1.2
fessional dialog
9+ How do you feel about your ability to publicly engage in written scientific/ 3.7 0.9 3.7 0.8
professional dialog
10+ After completing this project, how do you feel about contributing to public 3.4 0.9
wikis
11** After completing this project, how likely are you to contribute to Wikipedia 2.4 1.0
or other public wikis
*1 Daily, 2 Weekly, 3 Monthly, 4 Less than monthly, 5 Never
+1 Nervous, 2 Somewhat nervous, 3 Neutral, 4 Somewhat confident, 5 Confident
#1 Not important, 2 Somewhat not important, 3 Neutral, 4 Somewhat important, 5 Important
**1- Unlikely, 2 Somewhat unlikely, 3 Neutral, 4 Somewhat likely, 5 Likely
A^ The p-value was calculated using the Student t-test for unpaired events

Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012 19






useful or repetitive. Some students suggested not doing it
again, whereas others suggested an additional progress report
so that they could improve, having more formatting options,
or conducting the peer-review through paper copies and not
the wiki. A few students suggested that the comments remain
private to each group so that others could not copy responses.
In general, the students were positive about the wiki experi-
ence and the feedback they received from their colleagues.
Over half of the students said they received helpful sugges-
tions on their project, and 26% of the students reported that
they spent more time writing their progress report knowing
that other students would be reading it. This extra time spent
writing and improving communication helps students learn to
evaluate their own ability to relay technical information. The
students that used the wiki comments also had additional time
to reflect on their work. Quiet time to reflect on events has
been shown to improve the performance of rats in a maze,171]
and can often improve learning. With additional encourage-
ment from the faculty on the use of the student comments,
we hope to increase the number of students who not only
carefully craft their reports but also the number of students
who provide thoughtful peer feedback and who view peer
feedback positively.

SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS
In the capstone design course at Michigan Tech, we have
implemented wikis as a method of peer-evaluation of mid-
semester progress reports. This project was designed to engage
students in the analysis and interpretation of data, as well as
enhance communication skills. The students were required to
analyze and interpret data for their particular project in previ-
ous iterations of this class, but now they were also asked to
apply the same skills to other students' projects. They were
also asked to effectively communicate their own progress
as well as their evaluation of others' projects. The students
enthusiastically engaged the project and gave helpful sugges-
tions to their peers with minimal instructor input. Based on
surveys given to the students, their confidence in their ability
to effectively communicate technical information improved
over the semester, leading us to believe that the wiki project
was worthwhile.
We plan to continue to use wikis in the capstone design
class, with modifications to address specific opportunities
for improvement. As mentioned earlier, we will likely place
more emphasis on the quality of the comments when grading
the peer-evaluation of the students. It was not known how
much the students would be engaged in this project, so we
conservatively only distributed 40% of the grade to the quality
of the comments. A second improvement will be to add pre-
formatted wikis pages for the students to use as templates.
The pre-formatted pages will be designed to encourage col-
laborative work in the wiki environment, along with giving
more structure to the peer-evaluation portion of the wiki. A


third improvement will be to add anonymous quantitative
evaluation of the progress reports, along with the currently
performed qualitative evaluation. Anonymous quantitative
evaluation has been found to correlate well with instructor
scores, and students were most satisfied when they received
both qualitative and quantitative feedback.[3]1 This additional
information will give the students a clear picture of the level
at which they are performing, not just in their instructor's
opinion, but also in the opinion of their peers. Finally, we
would like to add industrial advisors who will also evaluate
the students' progress reports, in addition to review from
peers and the instructor. The industrial advisors would give
qualitative evaluation of the technical and communication
skills of the progress reports, similar to the evaluation given
by peer-review detailed in this manuscript. They would also
give a quantitative score so the students can see where they
rate compared to other entry-level engineers. This should
increase the value that the students place on the wiki evalua-
tion, as they will be visible to potential employers.
This use of wikis in the classroom engages a generation of
students who are technology savvy at a level that they nor-
mally use for communication. It is important for instructors
to embrace Web 2.0 technology and other up-and-coming
methods to engage students who are willing to embrace in-
novative educational approaches.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to thank the other instructors of
the capstone design lecture and laboratories, Daniel Crowl,
Wenzhen Li, and Tony Rogers, for encouragement, sugges-
tions, and assistance in implementation of this project. She
also thanks Kedmon Hungwe for helpful discussions, Daniel
Crowl for the design of Figure 2, and Amna Zahid for compil-
ing the survey information. All surveys and student partici-
pation forms were approved by the Michigan Tech Office of
Research Integrity and Compliance.

REFERENCES
1. Ohland, M.W., R.A. Layton, M.L. Loughry, and A.G. Yuhasz, "Effects
of behavioral anchors on peer evaluation reliability," J. Eng. Educ.,
94(3), 319 (2005)
2. -Rojas, E.M., "Use of web-based tools to enhance collaborative learn-
ing," J. Eng. Educ., 91(1), 89 (2002)
3. Xiao, Y., and R. Lucking, "The impact of two types of peer assessment
on students' performance and satisfaction within a wiki environment,"
Internet High. Educ., 11(3-4), 186 (2008)
4. Liang, J.-C., and C.-C. Tsai, "Learning through science writing via
online peer assessment in a college biology course," Internet High.
Educ., 13(4), 242 (2010)
5. Roeckel, M., E. Parra, C. Donoso, 0. Mora, and X. Garcia, "An in-
novative method for developing communication skills in engineering
students," Chem. Eng. Educ., 38(4), 302 (2004)
6. E.T.S., Graduate record examinations: Guide to the use of scores 2010-
2011
7. Drury, H., P. O'Carroll, and T. Langrish, "Online approach to teaching
report writing in chemical engineering: Implementation and evalua-
tion," Int. J. Eng. Educ., 22(4), 858 (2006)


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8. Leuf, B., and W. Cunningham, The Wiki Way, Boston, MA, Addison-
Wesley Professional (2001)
9. Karasavvidis, I., "Wiki uses in higher education: Exploring barriers
to successful implementation," Interact. Learn. Environ., 18(3), 219
(2010)
10. Williams, D.P., J.R. Woodward, S.L. Symons, and D.L. Davies, "A
tiny adventure: The introduction of problem based learning in an
undergraduate chemistry course," Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 11(1), 33
(2010)
11. Felder, R.M., "Student-centered teaching and learning," [cited 2011
September 25]; Available from: users/f/felder/public/Student-Centered.html#Publications-Coop>
12. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Learning by doing," Chem. Eng. Educ.,


37(4), 282 (2003)
13. ABET, Criteria for accrediting engineering programs -effective for
evaluations during the 2010-2011 accreditation cycle (2009)
14. Larusson, J.A., and R. Alterman, "Wikis to support the 'Collaborative'
Part of collaborative learning," Int. J. Comp.-Support. Collab. Learn.,
4(4) 371 (2009)
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quences in hippocampal place cells during the awake state," Nature,
440(7084), 680 (2006) 0


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






M curriculumm
A U_________________


HISTORY OF

THE ChE SUMMER SCHOOLS









DERAN HANESIAN
New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NJ 07102
RALPH A. BUONOPANE
Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115
ANGELO J. PERNA
New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NJ 07102


Since 1931 the Chemical Engineering Summer Schools
have remained a unique educational experience devel-
oped as a means of transferring the latest educational
methods and technical information to new faculty; in essence,
a mentoring process by experienced faculty to improve teach-
ing and update curricula. Its impetus came from the Summer
Schools for Engineering Teachers program developed by
the precursor of American Society for Engineering Educa-
tion (ASEE), the Society for the Promotion of Engineering
Education (SPEE), founded at the World's Columbian Expo-
sition held in Chicago, IL, in 1893. Before considering the
development of these Summer Schools, it is helpful to briefly
consider the history of chemical engineering and chemical
engineering education.

HISTORY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
Although chemical engineering can be traced back to
1572 -when Paracelsus first described the seven basic
"Unit Operations" and "Unit Processes" as calcining, sub-
limation, dissolving, putrefaction, distillation, coagulation,
and coloration in his book, Von Naturlichen Dingen'121-the
major development of chemical engineering waited until
the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which makes chemi-


cal engineering the newest of the four major engineering
professions [3-51 In the 19th century chemical industries,
operated by industrial chemists and mechanical engineers,
rapidly developed. The concept of the Chemical Engineer
was introduced: ". the word chemical engineer appeared
in 1839 in a Dictionary of Arts, Manufacturers, and Mines,
and ... in 1879 the words were used also on a published
drawing."[6] In 1881, George E. Davis, an industrial inspec-
tor from Manchester, England, made a serious attempt to
form the society of chemical engineering.[61 In 1887, Davis
presented a series of 12 seminal lectures at the Manchester
Technical Institute (now the University of Manchester) on
chemical engineering. Davis introduced the concept of "Unit
Operations," although he did not use the term (coined by
Arthur D. Little in 1915). Later, in 1901, Davis published
the First Edition of the Handbook of Chemical Engineering
with the 2nd Edition appearing in 1904.
Initially, engineering education was not accepted in univer-
sity programs. "The then-traditional universities viewed engi-
neering as too pragmatic and utilitarian for higher education." [7
In 1845 Union College in Schenectady, New York, opened
its doors and offered a degree in civil engineering. Although
engineering became more acceptable in universities after the
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Chemical Engineering Education






























Fig. 8,2 SECOND SUMMER SCHOOL FOR CHEMICAL E.NG
Tl is phto.grapih wta taken at the Second Sunmer Schoolfor Chl
sponsored by the Sr-,riry for the Pvrynowiiwr Einginieering Educri
Pe Isylvania State C.lcgcr in 1939, See die list of prticlpants in i
to right, -lt.i year-of PhD and nujor pnmf iuir.


Associate Professor Roland A Ragatz
Graduate Student W Robert Mairsihall, fr.
Graduate struierit Wilhamn A. Bain, Jjr
Associate Professor Allan P Colburn
Professor Olaf A. Hougen
Assistant Pr.fejsor RogerJ. Alt"_er


PhD 1931
PhD 1941
PhD 1943
PhD 19299
PhD 1925
PhD 1,934


In 1939, Colbum n s ont the fiwclty at the Unhiersrty ofDe x~ re
Question: Why is Olaf laughing ahurnt ti: pancake tumr til:t is s
(Photo by floger Altpeter)


This image provided by Professor Bird at Wisconsin highlight
Chemical Engineering who attended the 1939 Sun


passage of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1863,171 chemistry
had a longer history and more acceptance in universities. In
the United States most early chemical engineering programs
were founded in chemistry departments [8,91 The first four-year
curriculum in chemical engineering was offered at the Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology in 1888 when Lewis Mills
Norton, professor of industrial chemistry in the Chemistry
Department, introduced a course on industrial chemistry
practice called "Course X." In 1920 it became a separate
Department of Chemical Engineering. Other early chemical


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


engineering programs were the
University of Pennsylvania in
1892, Tulane University in 1894,
the University of Michigan
and Tufts University in 1898,
and the University of Illinois-
Urbana Champaign in 1901.1s]
The first independent chemical
engineering department in the
United States was the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin in 1905.t[r The
Newark Technical School (now
New Jersey Institute of Tech-
nology) in 1881, Case Western
Reserve University in 1884, and
other schools offered courses in
industrial chemistry that were
eventually converted into chemi-
cal engineering programs. [8-1l
American engineers started to
organize with the founding of
the American Society of Civil
NEetIS Engineers in 1852, the American
chemical Engineers Institute of Mining Engineers in
Tinm and hEd at the 1871, the American Society of
er-tirn &. From left Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
in 1880, and the American In-
stitute of Electrical Engineers
Kou',ide in 1884.[3] At the beginning of
Hoatgen the 20th century the chemical
Hougen industry was developing rapidly
and the need for a professional
tHougee society for chemical engineers in
Kowake the United States became appar-
Kowalke ent. Richard K. Meade, a chemist
by education, was the editor and
founder of The Chemical Engi-
tuck in his Ivt? neer in November 1904. Near
the end of its first year of pub-
lication, in October 1905, in an
s some of the leaders in editorial, he asked the question,
mer School. "Why not the American Society
of Chemical Engineers?" Final-
ly, after much opposition from
The American Chemical Society and ASME, officers were
elected, committees formed, and the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers (AIChE) was founded on June 22, 1908.
The AIChE committee on Chemical Engineering Education,
chaired by Arthur D. Little, studied chemical engineering
programs and in 1922 came to the controversial conclusion
that chemical engineering was based on the unit operations
and involved industrial-scale chemical processes. In 1922 an
AIChE committee chaired by H.C. Parmelee started to study
the 78 programs that claimed to teach chemical engineering to
197







TABLE 1
11 Decades of Chemical Engineering
1. 1905-1915 Industrial Chemistry
2. 1915-1925 Unit Operations
3. 1925-1935 Material and Energy Balances and Unit
Processes
4. 1935-1945 Thermodynamics and Process Control
5. 1945-1955 Applied Kinetics and Process Design
6. 1955-1965 Transport Phenomena, Process Dynamics,
Process Design, and Computer Technology
7. 1965-1975 Polymers, Reaction Engineering, Process
Optimization, Model Building,
and Applied Statistics
8. 1975-1985 Biotechnology, Catalysis, and Computer
Aided Process Design
and Control
9. 1985-1995 Processing of Microelectronic Materials
10. 1995-2005 Molecular Engineering and Nanotechnology
11. 2005-current Biosciences surge including Biology, Bio-
chemistry and Cell Biology.



determine which programs were satisfactory. The June 1925
Parmelee report, with the names of 14 acceptable programs,
constitutes the beginning of engineering accreditation in the
United States.111 After the Parmelee report, most industrial
chemistry programs converted to chemical engineering.
Olaf Hougen,112,131 in the Bicentennial Lecture, "Seven
Decades of Chemical Engineering," identified the principal
areas of chemical engineering in the first seven decades.
The University of Wisconsin's description of "110 Years of
Chemical Engineering" expanded Hougen's seven decades of
chemical engineering to 10, and Armstrong1141 added decade
11 (Table 1).


TABLE 2
The First 12 Summer Schools of SPEE
1 1927 Cornell University Mechani
2 1927 University of Wisconsin Mechani
3 1928 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physics
4 1928 University of Pittsburgh Electrica
5 1929 Purdue University, Mechani
6 1930 Carnegie Institute of Technology Drawing
7 1930 Yale University Civil En
8 1931 University of Michigan Chemica
9 1931 University of Minnesota Mathem
10 1932 Stevens Institute of Technology Econom
11 1932 Ohio State University English
12 1933 University of Wisconsin Mining


SPEE SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR
ENGINEERING FACULTY
In 1925, William E. Wickenden, director of Investi-
gations and Coordination for SPEE, was a guest of the
English Board of Education as an unofficial observer of
the Summer School for Engineering Teachers at Oriel
College, Oxford University, England, UK. He was very
impressed and felt that the concept could be transplanted
to the United States. He suggested that SPEE "might
organize and conduct one or more such schools as a
cooperative undertaking of the colleges."[15 With fund-
ing received from the Carnegie Foundation, the Summer
School for Engineering Teachers was held following the
June 1927 Annual SPEE Meeting in two sessions, two
and one-half to three weeks long, on Mechanics; first at
Comell and second at Wisconsin. The first 12 Summer
Schools of SPEE are listed in Table 2.
Hammondt161 stated, ". when the Summer School
was established it was planned to follow this system of
rotation of subjects so that in time all of the important
divisions of engineering study would be considered." The
first cycle was completed in 1933.

SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING FACULTY
After the initial period of Summer Schools for Engineering
Teachers, 1927-1933, SPEE gave them up to the individual
professions.1171 After 1931, the ChE Summer Schools were
organized by the Chemical Engineering Division (ChED)
of ASEE.

The 1st Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty
held at the University of Michigan from June 22-July 15,
1931, was directed by Alfred H. White with W. L. McCabe
as secretary. It was followed on July 10 and 11 by the fourth
Conference on Chemical Engineering sponsored by AIChE
at Ann Arbor, Michigan. The
program included: Principles
of Teaching, Teaching ChE and
-ics Allied Subjects, Applications
ics of Principles of ChE, and Mis-
cellaneous (including History,
al Engineering Recreation, and Inspections).
ical Engineering '181 The presenters were a who's
who of chemical engineer-
and Descriptive Geometry ing117: W.K. Lewis, The Place
gineering of Unit Operations in a ChE
al Engineering Curriculum; W.L. Badger,
atics Historical Development of
ics ChE; W.H. McAdams, Drying;
H.C. Hottel, Radiation at High
and Metallurgical Engineering Temperature Heat Flow; and
J.V.N. Dorr, Filtration.


Chemical Engineering Education









































Class of '82: These double group shots attest to the strong turnout at the 9th Annual Summer School, held at the
University of California-Santa Barbara in 1982.


The 2nd ChE Summer School was held at Pennsylvania
State College in State College, PA, from June 21-30, 1939, in
conjunction with the 47th Annual Meeting of SPEE from June
19-23. During the Summer School period there were three
periods of one hour each in the morning and one period of
one and a half hours in the afternoon (sessions ended at 3:00
p.m.). This schedule left time for informal discussions. R. C.
Kintner, Armour Institute of Technology, director of the Sum-
mer School, announced the general theme, "What Should We
Teach and How Can We Teach It?"'I71 Unit Processes appears
to have been an informal theme. The presentations were again
done by well-known chemical engineers[t17: B.F. Dodge, The
Teaching of Thermodynamics; R.N. Shreve, The Teaching
of Unit Processes; R.C. Kintner, Inorganic Unit Processes;
R.N. Shreve and R.K. Toner, Unit Processes Laboratory;
A.P. Colbum, The Teaching of Absorption; W.M. Cobleigh,
Engineering Economy; C.P. Baker, Plant Design Instruction;
O.A. Hougen, Comprehensive Problems; K.M. Watson and
C.S. Keevil, Kinetics; and R.A. Ragatz, Instruments for the
Measurement and Control of Process Variables.


The 3rd ChE Summer School, delayed by World War H, was
held at the University of Wisconsin from Aug. 30 to Sept. 4,
1948, during the University's centennial year."71 The ChED
Executive Committee chaired by Ronald A. Ragatz, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, organized the event. The general theme was
again "What Should We Teach and How Can We Teach It."
The program included sessions on: Unit Processes; Report
Writing; Thermodynamics; Electrochemistry; Mathematics;
Chemical Reaction Kinetics; Graduate Programs; The Newer
Unit Operations; Plastics Technology; and Teacher Quali-
fications and Development. Consensus was that chemical
reaction kinetics had completed its apprenticeship in research
laboratories and was ready to rank with thermodynamics and
applied mechanics as a working engineering tool. The best
way to teach kinetics was as part of reactor design.12o1 In 1977,
Ragatz wrote, "One unique thing about the third Summer
School was that it was completely self-supporting, there were
no subsidies from ASEE or from industry."
The 4th ChE Summer School was held at Pennsylvania State
University at University Park, PA, from June 27 to July 2,1955,


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012














































5-1




Scenes from the 2007 Summer School:
Evening socializing, top; the Poster Session, bottom.


during the university's centennial year. The continuing large
influx of students into chemical engineering following World
War II had caused a large influx of young, new teachers, who
would benefit from a summer school. 171 The theme of the fourth
Summer School was "What's Ahead in Chemical Engineering
Education." KennethA. Kobe from the University of Texas was
General Chairman and F.L. Carnahan of Penn State served as
Local Arrangements Chairman. The sessions were on: Process
Rates, Design and Economics, Nuclear Curricula, Engineer-
ing Science Approach in ChE Teaching, Instrumentation and


Process Control, Applied
Mathematics, ChE Labora-
tory, The First Course in
ChE, Teaching of Thermo-
dynamics, Teaching of Unit
Operations, Teaching of
Plant Design and Econom-
ics, and Studies of Instruc-
tion by Television.
The 5th ChE Summer
School, held at the Uni-
versity of Colorado at
Boulder, Colorado, from
Aug. 20-25, 1962, fol-
lowed the 69th Annual
ASEE Meeting at the U.S.
Air Force Academy. This
summer school started the
current five-year cycle.
General Chairman Lloyd
Berg of Montana State
College and Chairman of
Local Arrangements B.E.
Lauer of the University of
Colorado obtained partial
support from NSF. The theme was "Advances in Chemical
Engineering Education." The program included sessions
on Unit Operations and Physical Separations, Materials
Engineering, Materials Instruction for Chemical Engineers,
Computers in Engineering Education, Optimization of
Chemical Processes, Undergraduate Kinetics, Chemical
Content of the ChE Curricula, Modern Industrial Design,
The Purpose of the Undergraduate Laboratory, Industry's
Opinion of the ChE Graduate, Advances in Heat and
Mass Transfer, Material and Chemical Process Design
Calculations, Use of Computers in Teaching ChE, and
Use of Analog Computers to Teach Process Control.0IT
This Summer School appears to be the first to devote an
entire morning of sessions to the use of computers in ChE
Education. It is very clear that significant changes had
taken place in ChE education and practice since the 1948
Summer School.
The 6th ChE Summer School was held from June 20-24,
1967, concurrently with the 74th Annual Meeting of ASEE at
Michigan State University. For the second time Lloyd Berg of
Montana State University was the general chairman. Donald
K. Anderson of Michigan State University was chairman for
Facilities and Housing. The theme was "Dynamic Objectives
of Chemical Engineering Education." The program included
sessions on Chemical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Pro-
cess Dynamics and Optimization, Teaching of Transport Phe-
nomenon and Applications, Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor
Engineering, Future Trends in ChE Education, Are Engineers


Chemical Engineering Education






Selling Their Birthrights for a Place in the Ivory Tower?,
Industry Needs Scientific Engineers NOT Engineering Sci-
entists, Current Problems in Computer Control, Equations
of State from Statistical Thermodynamics, Mass Transport
Phenomena in the Human Circulatory System, Reactor Design
Engineering, and Undergraduate Laboratory Experiments in
Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design.7"1
The University of Colorado at Boulder was the site for the
7th ChE Summer School from Aug. 13-18, 1972. L. Bryce
Andersen of Newark College of Engineering was the chair-
man of the Planning Committee. The three objectives were:
(1) to upgrade ChE subject matter in important developing
areas; (2) to share new teaching approaches and; (3) to explore
new educational objectives. The five-day program included
parallel morning workshops on Chemical Process Design and
Engineering, Integration of Biomedical and Environmental
Applications of ChE into Undergraduate Courses, Applica-
tions of Molecular Concepts of Predicting Properties Needed
for Design, Numerical Methods for ChE Problems, and New
Developments in Undergraduate Laboratories. Attendees
selected which extended workshop to attend. The evening
program included panels on: Effectiveness of Graduate
Engineering Education-Industry vs. Academic Viewpoint;
Training of Foreign Graduate Students-Problems and Solu-
tions; and Trends in Engineering Education-Will the M.S.
Program become the First Professional Degree in ChE?1171 Two
afternoon sessions were presented by CACHE (Computer
Aids for ChE Education).
The 8th ChE Summer School, held at Snowmass Village
in Snowmass, Colorado, from July 31-Aug. 5, 1977, was the
first summer school not held on a university campus. The
co-chairmen, C. Judson King and Michael C. Williams of
the University of California-Berkeley, organized the school
in a Gordon Conference format, with programs in the mom-
ing and evening and afternoons free. The co-chairs obtained
significant financial support from 31 companies, NSF, and the
Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. J. Peter Clark of
Virginia Tech was in charge of Local Arrangements.J17] The
theme was "New Applications of Chemical Engineering,"
organized in a series of one- or two-day workshops arranged
in seven simultaneous morning and evening sessions. Work-
shop topics included Biochemical Engineering; Chemical
Reactions; Economics and Industry; Applied Chemistry; and
Surfaces, Teaching, Administrative, and special 'potpourri'
workshops.
The 9th ChE Summer School, held at the University of
California-Santa Barbara from Aug. 1-6, 1982, again used
the Gordon Conference format. The school was organized
by T.W. Fraser Russell and Stanley T. Sandler, University of
Delaware. Dale E. Seaborg of the University of California at
Santa Barbara was in charge of local arrangements. Finan-
cial support was provided by 36 industrial companies. The
general theme was "Chemical Engineers Need to Have an


Impact on Society in a Broader Sense." The program was
organized in a series of one- or two-session workshops ar-
ranged in six simultaneous morning and evening "threads of
interest."'171 The threads were New Technical Directions in
ChE, The Expanding Role of Computers in ChE Education,
ChE in the Classroom and Laboratory, Industrial-University
Interactions, The Social Responsibilities of the Engineer, and
Chemical Sciences and Chemical Engineering. "Hands-on"
computer sessions were held on Tuesday, Wednesday, and
Thursday afternoons and there was a Special Poster Session
on ChE Teaching.
Glenn L. Schrader and Maurice A. Larson from Iowa State
University organized the 10th ChE Summer School held at
Southeastern Massachusetts University at North Dartmouth,
Mass., from Aug. 9 to 14, 1987. L. Bryce Anderson, dean of
Engineering at Southeastern Massachusetts University, and
Stanley M. Barnett of the University of Rhode Island, were in
charge of local arrangements. Financial support was provided
by 16 industrial companies. The theme was "The Revitaliza-
tion of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum" in response to
the changing technological needs of modem society.171' The
program was organized with five plenary sessions followed
by a series of four parallel workshops (blocks) arranged in
eight simultaneous morning and evening sessions. The five
plenary sessions were: Future Curriculum Directions in ChE,
Industrial Needs in Biotechnology, Industrial Needs in Elec-
tronic Materials Processing, Industrial Needs in Advanced
materials and Composites, and Computers in ChE Education.
The four blocks were: Emerging Technology; Computers and
Computation in ChE Education; Applied Chemistry in ChE;
and Curricula, Courses, and Laboratories. Phil Wankat, Rich
Felder, and Dendy Sloan presented an afternoon teaching
workshop for new faculty.
The 11th ChE Summer School was held at Montana State
University in Bozeman, Montana, from Aug. 9-15, 1992, at
the start of the ASEE Centennial Year. Ralph A. Buonopane
of Northeastern University was the chairman and John T.
Sears and Ron Larson of Montana State University were in
charge of local arrangements. Financial support was provided
by NSF and 10 industrial companies. The theme was "Fron-
tiers in Chemical Engineering Education-Curriculum and
Needs for the Next Century." The program was organized in
four parallel workshops arranged in simultaneous morning
and evening sessions. A thematic plenary session-"The
Future Belongs to Those Who Prepare," "Interactive Dy-
namics of Convection and Crystal Growth," "How Modem
Chemical Engineering Came About," and "ChE Education
Needs Industry's Viewpoint"-opened each of the morning
workshop sessions. The workshops were on Biotechnology,
Computers-CACHE, Mixing, Effective Electronic Materials,
Environmental, Process Safety, Separations, and Undergradu-
ate Laboratory and Computer Data Acquisition. Reaching
out to younger faculty, women, and minorities was a goal of


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






this summer school. On Sunday NSF sponsored an effective
teaching workshop for new faculty by Phil Wankat and Helen
Hanesian. Of the 147 participants, 50 were new faculty, 21
were female chemical engineering participants (of whom 16
were faculty), three were graduate students and two were
industrial participants. The program was developed to allow
all to make new and lasting friendships and to have the older
faculty share their experiences with the new generation of
chemical engineering teachers J171
Bruce Finlayson of the University of Washington directed
the 12th ChE Summer School held at the Snowbird Confer-
ence Center in Snowbird, Utah, on Aug. 9-14, 1997. Lamont
Tyler and Edward Trujillo, University of Utah, were in charge
of local arrangements. Financial support was provided by
NSF, the Universities of Utah and Washington, and eight in-
dustrial companies. The plenary sessions included: "Learning
Styles and Problem Based Learning" and "Synergism between
Research and Teaching in Separations." Phil Wankat presented
a workshop on "Teaching Effectiveness for New Faculty."
There were parallel workshops on: Use of Computers and
Computer Technology, Written Communications, Chemical
Process Safety Education, Electronic Materials, Environmen-
tal Protection and Pollution Prevention, Biotechnology and
Biomaterials, Fluid Particle Processes, Undergraduate Labo-
ratories: Their Importance to ChE Education, Outcomes As-
sessment & ABET Criteria 2000, Preparing Graduate Students
to Teach, and Freshman Engineering Design and Capstone
Design. With 33 sessions from 95 presenters and organizers,
over 99 universities were represented by 180 participants.
The 2002 ChE Summer School, the 13th, was held at the
University of Colorado in Boulder from July 27 through Aug.
1, 2002. The co-chairs were H. Scott Fogler, University of
Michigan, and Michael Cutlip, University of Connecticut.
Robert H. Davis, University of Colorado, was in charge of
local arrangements. Financial support was provided by NSF,
Minorities in CHE Faculty-Christine S. Grant-NCSU, Uni-
versity of Michigan, University of Colorado, EPA, CACHE
Corporation, and eight industrial companies. This summer
school strived to promote development of primarily new
faculty with the assistance of established faculty and indus-
trial organizations, and included representatives of NSF and
EPA. The 2002 summer school was planned for an especially
auspicious time, as interest in teaching was greater than it
had been in the last 25 years. Many ChE departments were
revising their curricula in response to new ABET criteria,
and knowledge was rapidly changing in a number of impor-
tant areas. The Effective Teaching workshop was presented
by Richard Felder, Rebecca Brent, and Phil Wankat. Poster
sessions included presentations of: learning styles, general
approaches and outreach, strategies for lecture and laboratory
courses, and computer-based strategies. Additionally, materi-
als from the summer school were placed on the Internet for
faculty who were not able to participate.


The 14th ChE Summer School was held at Washington State
University in Pullman, Wash., from July 28- Aug. 2,2007. The
theme for the Summer School was Education for the 21 st Cen-
tury. Co-chairs were Steven LeBlanc, University of Toledo;
Kirk Schulz, Mississippi State University; Douglas Ludlow,
University of Missouri-Rolla and Richard Zollars, Washington
State University. Richard Zollars was also in charge of local
arrangements. Financial support was provided by NSF and
two industrial companies. The Effective Teaching workshop
was presented by Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent. The
session workshops included: Molecular Simulation, Process
Design, Outcomes Assessment, New Approaches, Sustain-
ability, Spreadsheets, Safety, Career Development and Pre-
College Activities, Quantum Chemistry, Product Design,
ChE Problem Solving, Bio-Basics, CFD, New Teaching &
Learning, How to Succeed as a Female Engineer in Academia:
Lessons Learned, Remote Labs, CACHE Systems Biology,
Novel Experiments, Nano, and Process Design. The Plenary
Sessions were: "Workforce Planning and Development: Uni-
versity/Industry Collaboration," "Unboiling the Egg: Protein
-Disaggregation and Refolding under Hydrostatic Pressure,"
and "The Innovation Imperative."

CONCLUSION
Today only Chemical Engineering has continued its Sum-
mer School program! The 15th ChE Summer School was
held at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine, July 21-
27, 2012. Although we could not present all the details here,
the complete "History of the Summer Schools for Chemical
Engineering Teachers (Faculty)" will be available at www.asee-ched.org> and in libraries at AIChE, ASEE, ACS,
Library of Congress, Linda Hall Library, Chemical Heritage
Foundation, NJIT, and Northeastern University.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many thanks to Dendy Sloan for requesting this history
project, and to the great many individuals, far too numerous
to name here, who helped make this effort possible. Thanks,
also, to all those who are no longer with us and those who
are present who helped to make the ChE Summer Schools
successful, enjoyable, and educational adventures.

REFERENCES
1. Davies, J.T., "Chemical Engineering: How Did It Begin and Develop?"
Chapter 2, History of Chemical Engineering, William F. Furter (Ed.),
Advances in Chemistry Series 190, American Chemical Society,
Washington, DC (1980)
2. Badger, W.L., "Some Phases of the History of Chemical Engineering,"
J. Engr. Educ., 22,691 (1932)
3. Reynolds, T.S., The Engineer in America, pp 24, 101, 343, The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago (1991)
4. Peppas, N.A., One Hundred Years of Chemical Engineering, p 15,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands (1989)
5. Kim, I., "A Rich and Diverse History," Chem. Engr. Progr., 265-315
(January 2002)


Chemical Engineering Education







6. Van Antwerpen, F. J., "The Origins of Chemical Engineering," Chapter
1, History of Chemical Engineering, William F. Furter (Ed.),Advances
in Chemistry Series 190,American Chemical Society, Washington DC,
(1980)
7. Grayson, L.P., The Making ofan Engineer, ppx, 5,6,15,40,180, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, (1993)
8. Westwater, J. W., "The Beginnings of Chemical Engineering Education
in the USA", pp 140-152, History of Chemical Engineering, William F.
Furter (Ed.), Advances in Chemistry Series 190, American Chemical
Society, Washington DC (1980)
9. Dahlstrom, D.A., "Chemical Engineering, Notes on its Past and Its
Future," Chem. Engr. Educ., 227 (Fall 1994)
10. Freshwater, D.C., "George E. Davis, Norman Swindlin, and the Empiri-
cal Tradition in Chemical Engineering," Chapter 8, History of Chemical
Engineering, William F. Furter (Ed.), Advances in Chemistry Series
190, American Chemical Society, Washington DC (1980)
11. Reynolds, T.S., 75 Years of Progress a History of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers 1908-1983, New York,AIChE (1983)
12. Hougen, O.A., "Seven Decades of Chemical Engineering," Bicenten-
nial Lecture of Chemical Engineering History, AIChE 82nd National
Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ
13. Hougen, O.A., "Fifty years of Chemical Engineering Education in
the United States," Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library,


University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
14. Armstrong, R.C., "A Vision of the Curriculum of the Future," Chem.
Engr. Educ., 40(2), 104 (2006)
15. Wickenden, W.E., "A Summer School for Engineering Teachers,"
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, XXXIII, pp 169,
255-258 (1925)
16. Hammond, H. P., "Report of the Investigation of Engineering Educa-
tion 1927-1933", Volume II, Society for the Promotion of Engineering
Education, 244- 247, and the "General Report of the Summer Schools
for Engineering Teachers, 1927-1933", 1117-1144, University of Pitts-
burgh, Pittsburgh (1934); Proc. SPEE, XXXIX, 39-49 (1932) and J.
Engr. Educ., XXII, (1), 39-49 (Sept. 1931)
17. Buonopane, R.A., "History of the Summer Schools for Chemical
Engineering Faculty," llth ChED Summer School, Montana State
University, Bozeman, Montana, Aug. 9-15,1992
18. Hammond, H.P., "The 1931 Sessions of the Summer School for En-
gineering Teachers," Proc. SPEE, XXXVIII, pp 263-264, 500-503,
602-608, (1931) and J. Engr. Educ., XXI, (4), 263-264, (Dec. 1930),
(7), 500-503 (March 1931), and (9), 602-608 (May 1931)
19. Kintner, R.C., "Summer School for Chemical Engineering Teachers,"
J. Engr. Educ., XXIX (8), 640 (April 1939)
20. Industrial Engineering Chemistry, News Edition, 26, (38), 2831, (Sept.
20, 1948) O


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012






educator


David A. Kofke


of the University at Buffalo


JEFFREY R. ERRINGTON, J
CARL R.E LUND, AND
DAVID M. FORD
D avid A. Kofke dis-
played an inclination F'
for chemistry at a
rather early age. As a toddler
he was found inspecting his
brother's chemistry set with
a bottle of phenolphthalein
in hand. Uncertain if he had
drunk any, his parents rushed
him to the emergency room
where they administered the
necessary treatment ... etha-
nol (ethanol inhibits alcohol
dehydrogenase from convert-
ing the methanol solvent to
formaldehyde, which would
have made him blind). At
the time, his parents were
simply happy to recover with
a healthy, if somewhat loopy,
toddler. Little did they know
that this event foreshadowed
their son's lifelong commit- Dave Kfke pays h
Dave Kofke pays hoi
ment to pushing the frontiers of
science and engineering. Perhaps it is also this first ominous
foray into experimental chemistry that propelled Dave to a
career focused on modeling.
Dave was born in Philadelphia and moved to Hempfield, PA,
a suburb of Pittsburgh, at the age of one. Dave's brother, W.
Andrew Kofke, Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, describes
a nurturing Kofke household. Their mother, an English-bomrn
fever nurse during the Second World War, loved poetry and
the works of Shakespeare. She maintained a "high print"
204


nage to Boltzmann at Boltzmann's burial site in Vienna.
household in which books were omnipresent and reading
was encouraged. It is their mother that Andrew points to as
the one who often promoted the virtues of research. Andrew
describes their father as a "handy" guy who was proficient in
carpentry and electronics. It was their father who constructed
for them custom-made digital alarm clocks well before they
were commonplace, and who made Dave a simple knob-
operated calculator that he could use to learn his arithmetic
tables when he was young.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012
Chemical Engineering Education






Dave continues in a long line of chemists within the Kofke
family. His great uncle, Charles Kofke, received a degree in
chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania. His father
obtained a B.S. degree in chemistry from Penn State on the
GI Bill and spent his career at Gulf Oil. His brother, Andrew,
majored in chemistry at Bucknell University before obtaining
an M.D. from the University of Pittsburgh. Finally, Andrew's
son Matt is defending his doctoral dissertation in chemistry
this summer at the University of Pittsburgh. This passion for
chemistry made for interesting family events. Andrew con-
veys stories of their father bringing home pure sodium from
the lab and using it to produce "fireworks" on the fourth of
July. He also introduced the kids to a paste that exploded upon
touch and taught his sons how to make gunpowder.
People who know Dave well often point to his work ethic
as a key to his success. This hard-working attitude was shaped
at a young age. During his high school years he worked as
a "runner" at auctions, and was employed as a sales clerk at
Montgomery Ward. In the summer after his freshman year at
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) he worked as a security
guard (this is hard for some of us to envision given Dave's
generally gentle demeanor). It was during the summers after
his sophomore and junior year that he obtained his first techni-
cal work experience, at Gulf Oil in Harmarville, PA, as part
of their sons-and-daughters program. During his senior year
at CMU he received a DuPont Ph.D Fellowship in Chemical
Engineering that led to a summer position at DuPont after his
senior year. While the experiments he conducted were inter-
esting, it is his interactions with Tammy Gricus that form the
lasting memories from this experience ... more on this below.
Dave has always had an inclination for sports. He par-
ticipated on the high school football team as an offensive
lineman. He remains a fan of the game today; he is known to
travel to Pittsburgh to catch a Steelers game with his brother
or his kids. Sporting activities have also rendered some rather
practical discoveries. It was while teaching Dave how to play


Dave and his brother Andrew wait to run Pittsburgh's 10k
"Great Race."
Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


School days: Dave in first
grade, and as a member of the
varsity football team.


baseball that his brother
Andrew realized that he u
was left handed. The skills
his brother taught him have
been found on display at
local softball fields. When-
ever the graduate students "
organize a team, Dave is
one of the first to sign up.
If you're considering organizing a team, pencil Dave in as
your first baseman. Dave's more recent passion is running.
He and his brother use their collective interest in running
as an opportunity to get together each year to participate in
Pittsburgh's 10k "Great Race."
On the education front, there were a number of teachers and
experiences that shaped Dave early on. Those of us who are
fortunate to work with Dave are familiar with his excellence
in writing. For example, Sang Kyu Kwak, Ph.D. 2005, now
assistant professor at the Ulsan National Institute of Science
and Technology, refers to Dave as a "magician of language."
Dave credits his English teacher during his senior year, Mrs.
Simmons, as having a profound impact on his development.
It was she who gave Dave confidence that he could write
well-prior to her influence he saw writing as a chore to
be avoided if at all possible. Dave really hit his stride as an
undergraduate student at CMU. It was a step change from
high school, and in this new environment Dave found he
enjoyed meeting the challenges that CMU presented, includ-
ing those involving writing. In fact, a history professor once
tried to persuade him to switch majors, but fortunately for us
Dave was not swayed. He found the coursework in chemi-
cal engineering, particularly the teaching of Steve Rosen, to
be fascinating, and he never doubted his intention to get his
degree in chemical engineering.

GRADUATE SCHOOL
Dave arrived at the University of Pennsylvania in the fall
of 1983 to start his graduate studies in the Department of
Chemical Engineering. Doug Lauffenberger had played a
key role in recruiting him, and in fact Dave was planning to
work on a project in the bio area. By chance or by destiny,
all of the bio projects were oversubscribed, and in looking
205



























The "Glandt ensemble," circa 1985, from left to right, Pat
Nigel Seaton, Steve Netemeyer, Al Post, Lisa Fanti, amn


around, Dave found that Eduardo Glandt's research program
in statistical mechanics piqued his interest.
Eduardo's well-known charisma and sense of humor also
played a role in attracting Dave to his group. "I recall meeting
with Eduardo to talk about his research," says Dave. "In his
usual animated manner he waved his arms and his pen slipped
and flew out of his hand and struck him in the neck. Without
missing a beat he picked it up and muttered 'What a way to
go' while proceeding with his discussion, and I somehow
knew then I wanted to work with him."
Dave's Ph.D. research focused on the statistical thermody-
namics of polydisperse mixtures, in which the composition is
described by a continuous probability distribution over some
particle characteristic (e.g., size) rather than a discrete set of
species mole fractions. Most notably he proposed the concept
of an "infinitely polydisperse" fluid, which has a distribution
of chemical potential differences that is logarithmic in the
particle descriptor. When particle size is used as the descriptor,
the infinitely polydisperse fluid has no characteristic length
scale and its thermodynamic properties exhibit a trivial density
dependence. Dave also played a role in developing molecular
simulations in the semigrand ensemble to study these remark-
able fluids. A friend and former groupmate, Nigel Seaton, now
principal and vice-chancellor of the University of Albertay,
Scotland, remarks that, "Dave's talent for using physical
intuition to generate innovative simulation methods to study
phase equilibrium was already evident, foreshadowing his
important work later in his career. We all knew he was the guy
to go to, to check out our thinking on simulation methods."
Nigel also has fond memories of working with Dave on the
state-of-the-art computer hardware in the mid-1980s. "One
206


S, day Dave and I wired up the various, dis-
parate computers in Eduardo's group. We
worked it all out, went to Radio Shack to
buy the components, and then spent a day
doing the wiring. In those days it was a
question of opening everything up and con-
necting the individual wires in the parallel
cables to the right pin in the socket. Every-
thing worked, except for one ancient (even
in those days) printer. I suppose it wasn't
terribly advanced, but a matter of pride for
a couple of theoreticians. Nowadays you
wouldn't need to, or be allowed to, do that,
of course. By the way, this was at about the
same time that we upgraded the memory
of the group's IBM AT. We ordered, very
expensively, 1 Mb of memory, which I
seem to remember came in quite a big box,
and was a source of wonder and envy to all
McMahon,
ae the other groups in the department." Dave
d Dave.
adds that he remembers the boxes of punch
cards from Eduardo's thesis work that were
idly kept on a high shelf in Dave's office, providing another
reminder of how wonderfully modem their own research
equipment was.
Those who know Dave today will be surprised to hear that
he was not always a master at scientific presentation. Dave
calls his first attempt at practicing a presentation in group
meeting "pathetically bad" and credits Eduardo and Nigel
for teaching him how to speak from a set of slides. Clearly
they were successful in their tutelage, as Dave is now known
for the clarity and impact of his presentations and seminars.
Penn's Department of Chemical Engineering was (and is)
a collegial environment for students and faculty. The accom-
panying photo shows Eduardo's research group assembling
as the "Glandt Ensemble" for a skit at a department party. In
the next year they moved from classical to punk, posing as
"The Swollen Glandts," for which Dave spiked and dyed his
hair. Many lasting friendships and professional relationships
were forged. Another friend and former classmate, Steven
Weinstein, now professor and head of the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the Rochester Institute of Technol-
ogy, says, "Dave has a great sense of humor that is outwardly
contained ... he was always a cordial and great classmate,
always unflappable regardless of the pressures of school.
He is the kind of guy whose finger you want on the nuclear
button." Talk about the ultimate compliment! Eduardo says,
"Dave has the unusual combination of being scarily smart
and of being impossibly nice. Not surprisingly, he was the
most beloved member of the graduate community in the
department, since he is such a noble soul. In addition to his
big mind and heart, what always strikes me most about Dave
is his deliberate style. It's not that he cannot be spontaneous
or speak 'stream of consciousness' but one gets the feeling
Chemical Engineering Education





















Fellow Carnegie Mellon alums Dave and his wife Tammy
only met when both were working summer jobs at the
DuPont Experimental Station in Wilmington, DE.


that in most cases he has mused in advance about what he is
saying or writing. I was stunned when he once told me that
he sometimes would set time aside ... to think! Who else does
that? That's how he discovered some profound concepts, like
infinitely polydisperse fluids. He was a totally self-starting
student, who initiated most projects himself."
These remarks regarding Dave's humble nature and remark-
able dry wit are commonplace when discussing Dave with
his friends and family. His brother, Andrew, notes the comic
relief he provides during the 10k "Great Race" that they
participate in, this past year drawing analogies between the
manner in which runners segregate into groups as the race
proceeds and the manner in which a fluid mixture separates
within a chromatographic column. Donald Visco, a 1999.
Ph.D. graduate from Dave's group, now the Associate Dean
for Undergraduate Studies within the College of Engineering
at The University of Akron, recalls the following interaction
with Dave, "I was walking with Dave to a meeting somewhere
on campus. I must have been confused or exasperated by
something in thermodynamics because I asked him, 'When
did you finally understand thermodynamics?' Without missing
a beat, he deadpanned, 'I'll let you know when I do.' I chuck-
led, but I took comfort in the fact that someone as brilliant
as Dave, someone who I thought (and still think) was one of
the smartest people I know, would allow me to hear such an
answer. It made a big impact on me at the time and let me
know that my struggle was actually a journey."
Dave started a post-doctoral position with Martin Yarmush
at Rutgers in 1988. He wanted to stay close to Philadelphia
as his wife, Tammy, finished up her Ph.D. at Penn with Ray
Gorte, and perhaps also to indulge his original interest in bio-
oriented research. He was at Rutgers for a year and contributed
to a paper on energy conservation in the molecular dynamics
simulation of proteins. During this time, Dave was offered
a National Research Service Award (NRSA) post-doctoral
grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), but he had


to decline as he had accepted a faculty position at the State
University of New York at Buffalo.

FAMILY LIFE
Despite growing up near the same city, having attended the
same university (Carnegie Mellon) and having the same major
(although in different years), Dave did not meet Tammy in
Pittsburgh. Instead it was in the summer of 1983, after Dave
was graduated and both were working summer jobs at the
DuPont Experimental Station in Wilmington, DE. It is that
odd effect where perfect strangers from the same town can
feel like old friends when they happen to meet somewhere far
away from home. Their friendship blossomed into romance
during their graduate-school years as Tammy joined Dave at
Penn, and they were married in October 1987. Looking back,
they realized that as an undergraduate teaching assistant at
CMU, Dave had graded Tammy's thermodynamics homework
(they still have them), and that in one semester they had taken
the same elective course: Genetics!
Like many couples in similar fields, Dave and Tammy
faced the "two-body problem" when they sought employ-
ment. As Dave started his academic career at the University
at Buffalo, Tammy was employed as a Research Engineer at
Occidental Chemical's Technology Center in nearby Grand
Island, NY. Outside of work in the early years of marriage,
Dave and Tammy enjoyed travelling on Tammy's frequent-
flyer points. To indulge his inner experimentalist, Dave took
up home remodeling as something of a hobby, and made
many improvements to their house (wiring projects being his
favorite). During this time, Dave also discovered a passion
for woodworking. He embarked on many projects for the
house and garden, including the construction of a very large
picnic table that was used in later years for seating for all
the graduate students in Dave's group. To Tammy's dismay,
however, most of the projects ended up being fancy tables and
stands needed to house the growing collection of woodwork-
ing tools. Alas, before Dave managed to build that showcase
dining room set, his time became much less elastic. The year
1994 brought two momentous events: Dave received tenure
at UB, and his son Alex was born. Three years later daughter
Jocelyn arrived. With the combined demands of an academic
career and fatherhood, Dave's handyman hobbies have taken
a back seat for a while.

UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO
Dave started at the University at Buffalo (UB) in the Fall
of 1989. His academic career got off to a rapid start with a
series of early accomplishments. Before arriving at UB he
secured a Research Initiation Grant from the National Science
Foundation (NSF). In his first year at UB he received a Presi-
dential Young Investigator award from the NSF. These awards
jump-started Dave's research program, which is focused on
the development and implementation of molecular simula-


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


207







"He is the kind of guy whose finger you

want on the nuclear button."

-friend and former classmate Steven Weinstein


tion tools for the prediction of thermophysical properties
and understanding the behaviors of complex systems. These
awards also marked the beginning of a long and productive
relationship with the National Science Foundation, as Dave
continues to be supported by this organization.
Dave is perhaps best known for development of "Gibbs-
Duhem integration," a technique for tracing phase coexis-
tence lines of model systems. At the time the method was
introduced, very few techniques existed for locating phase
coexistence points, and those available were not suitable for
working with condensed ordered phases (e.g., crystalline
solids, liquid crystals). The Gibbs-Duhem technique was
designed in a way that avoided a key Monte Carlo move that
rendered alternative methods ineffective. The new approach
was quickly employed by numerous investigators, includ-
ing Dave and his students, to tackle problems previously
deemed intractable. Dave developed the initial ideas for this
approach during a month spent as a visiting researcher at the
FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics located in
The Netherlands, where he was hosted by Daan Frenkel, a
prominent member of the molecular simulation community
and now a professor within the Department of Chemistry,
Trinity College, University of Cambridge. When reflecting
upon the time he spent with Dave at FOM, Frenkel writes,
"In 1991, when I invited Dave to spend some time at FOM,
I had never met him in person. I had read his papers on the
semi-grand ensemble and on chemical equilibria in multi-
component fluids. It was just amazing work: very creative,
very clear. I wanted to meet this person. Dave stayed for just
under a month in May/June 1992. We discussed many topics,
but time was too short to start on any specific project. Only
a few months later, Dave sent me a preprint on his Gibbs-
Duhem work. Again, a very elegant idea-we later used this
method, but I was not involved in the creation. A few years
later, my then-student Peter Bolhuis spent a few months with
Dave at Buffalo. This visit was a great success. Dave wrote:
'Peter's productivity is exceptional, but the real satisfaction
I had from his stay was the regular opportunity to discuss
research with him.' Together, they wrote a seminal paper on
the freezing of polydisperse hard-sphere systems. I consider
it a privilege to be able call Dave not just a (greatly admired)
colleague but also a personal friend." Frenkel's comments
regarding the creativity, clarity, and elegance of Dave's work
are frequently echoed by his peers.
Many of Dave's current research activities grew out of a
sabbatical leave spent at the University of Tennessee, where he


was hosted by Peter Cummings, now the John R. Hall Profes-
sor of Chemical Engineering in the Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering at Vanderbilt University. As
chemical engineers can appreciate, the free-energy surface
of a system plays an important role in dictating the behavior
it exhibits. As a result, molecular simulation is often used to
compute various free energies. During his sabbatical, Dave
initiated an effort aimed at obtaining a better understanding
of the relative accuracy, precision, and limitations of meth-
ods used to compute free energy information. The outcome
of this work was a series of seminal papers in which he and
his coworkers brought clarity to this important issue by
outlining metrics that one can use to ascertain the accuracy
and precision of various free energy methods. They showed
that some methods were fundamentally flawed, while others
were robust. Dave is now recognized as one of a handful of
people who truly understand the intricacies of free energy
calculations. Reflecting upon the time that Dave spent at the
University of Tennessee, Peter Cummings writes, "I remem-
ber Dave's sabbatical with me as one during which I learned
a great deal from him about the subtleties of free energy
methods. I had known Dave since he was a graduate student
at Penn, and had always admired his insight and originality,
and I truly enjoyed the opportunity to interact with him for an
extended period on a daily basis. It was during this time that
we also wrote a successful proposal to develop a web-based
textbook for molecular simulation, using web constructs that
were way ahead of their time. Etomica was initiated during
this period, as the methodology for producing illustrative
simulation applets for the web-based text. All in all, it was a
very productive time for Dave and for me."
More recently, Dave and his students are working on the
development of computer simulation methods to compute so-
called cluster integrals. These calculations provide a means
to obtain the virial coefficients necessary for implementa-
tion of the virial equation of state (VEOS). Leveraging their
knowledge regarding free energy calculations, Dave's group
developed a novel formalism for computing cluster integrals.
Their advancements in this area have transformed the utility
of the overall VEOS approach and have reenergized the pros-
pects of using the VEOS as a practical engineering tool for
describing the thermodynamic properties of fluids. Moreover,
these developments have enabled the community to better
understand various fundamental aspects of virial coefficients.
The direction of Dave's research endeavors often follows
the path less traveled. This approach, however, has not hin-
dered his peers from noticing the high quality of his contribu-
tions. Now with nearly 120 refereed journal publications, the
impact of Dave's work is conveyed by a long list of awards,
including the Presidential Young Investigator Award, the Dow
Outstanding New Faculty Award of the ASEE, the John M.
Prausnitz Award in Applied Chemical Thermodynamics, and
the Jacob F. Schoellkopf Medal. At UB and within the SUNY


Chemical Engineering Education






system he has been recognized by the UB Exceptional Scholar
Award and the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in
Research and Creative Activity.

TEACHING
Dave is an accomplished teacher, as recognized in 1994 by
his selection for the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence
in Teaching. His teaching portfolio includes a range of courses
that extends from introductory level (introduction to engineer-
ing, engineering computations) through chemical engineer-
ing core topics (mass and energy balances; fluid mechanics;
thermodynamics; unit ops lab) to advanced undergraduate,
honors and graduate topics (molecular simulation, molecular
modeling, advanced chemical engineering thermodynamics,
and statistical mechanics). He is recognized as an excellent
teacher by students at all levels.
Professor Kofke's classroom teaching style is largely con-
ventional, at least on the surface. When asked what makes
his teaching special, former students point to his mastery of
the subject matter, the clarity with which he explains difficult
concepts, his ability to make analogies to everyday life, his
ability to see course material from the students' perspective,
the quality of his homework and exam questions as teaching/
learning vehicles, his preparation for class and organization,
and his mentoring skills. Of all the positive qualities they men-
tion, however, the one that comes through most consistently


and strongly is the amount of time he makes available to the
students in his classes. David Ford, who did undergraduate
research with Dave, went on to obtain a Ph.D. in statistical
thermodynamics and now is a professor himself at the Uni-
versity of Massachusetts recalls one example, "One lasting
memory I have is going to see Dave for help with a homework
problem from the fluids class that I was taking from another
instructor. I was looking for the fluids instructor, but he wasn't
in, and I happened to see that Dave was in his office so I asked
him. It turned out that the solution wasn't obvious to Dave
either, but he spent at least half an hour thinking through it
with me and searching though his transport books. We finally
found the answer in an example in Perry's Chemical Engi-
neer's Handbook, of all places. Only later, when I became a
faculty member and experienced the many pressures and time
constraints on an assistant professor, did I truly appreciate
Dave's generosity in helping me that day."
Dave recognized the important role that computer technol-
ogy could play in education early in his career. One of his
early educational technology projects was a simulator for
teaching chemical engineering concepts. From those begin-
nings, Dave led the development of etomica, an open-source
library that can be used to construct molecular simulations
using JAVA. Recognizing that molecular simulation could
be applied to teaching in a very wide range of subject areas,
Dave was instrumental in the creation of the etomica modules


File Help


Configuration r Solute
State Membrane L
Potential Selection----.
Core Diameter (A)
|3. 000
Epsilon (J/mol)
110.90
mass (Da)
80.00 I
Tether Constant (J/mol)
4.768E5

Membrane thickness -


1 2 3 4
Membrane width


2 3 4


I Configuration 'Energy Profiles Osmotic Pressure Flux Metrics
i- P-1


[I Reinitialize II


Snapshot of the Osmosis molecular simulation module.


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012










































Group party at the Kofke home in 2003. Back row (left to right): Chris lacovella, Jayant Singh, Sang Kyu Kwak,
Scott Wierzchowski, Dave, Jhumpa Adhikari. Front row: Children Jocelyn and Alex, Nancy Cribbin, Di Wu.


(). With funding from NSF, through
CACHE, a process was devised whereby experts from a given
field could propose the creation of a molecular simulation
module. Twelve simulation modules were created via col-
laboration with the experts who had proposed them. These
experts produced the documentation for the modules with
examples and problems that used them. Working closely with
Andrew Schultz, Dave created many additional modules of
his own device and included them in the etomica modules.
The educational effectiveness of the modules was established
through an independent assessment conducted at more than 10
institutions. The modules now receive more than 4,000 hits
per month, not counting internal access and search engine
web crawlers.
The etomica modules now enjoy widespread use. Dave
has conducted molecular simulation workshops at the ASEE
Chemical Engineering Summer School and at FOMMS
(Foundations of Molecular Modeling and Simulation) Meet-

210


ings. Dave has also collaborated with the Center for Compu-
tational Research at UB in hosting workshops on molecular
simulation for high school students. Peter Cummings notes
that etomica "has become THE tool for introducing molecular
concepts to students (e.g., answering, with visualization and
virtual experiments, what is the molecular basis for diffusion?
for viscosity? for phase equilibria? of the Joule-Thompson
effect?, of pressure?, etc)," and he points out that "... we al-
ways find that it is the quickest way for a neophyte to obtain
a hands-on idea of what molecular simulation is all about.
Etomica modules can be used in any course by any instruc-
tor wanting students to learn about the molecular basis for a
particular phenomenon."
Professor Kofke's service contributions to the profession
and to his department also have been significant. Upon his
arrival at UB, he became a member of the department's
Undergraduate Committee, and within two years he became
its chair. He created the department's first website and has


Chemical Engineering Education






been active in its expansion and evolution ever since. He
guided the department through a significant curriculum revi-
sion during that time, as well. His philosophy is reflected
in a colleague's recollection of Dave's participation on a
different school-wide teaching oversight committee. In light
of concerns over student retention and graduation rates, the
committee had drifted into a discussion of ways to change one
particular course so students would struggle less to pass it.
Dave quickly pointed out that the focus needed to be placed
on better ways to teach the more difficult material, not on
reducing the rigor of the course. As such, it perhaps is not
surprising that Dave implemented a web-based platform for
departmental curriculum evaluation and assessment. It has
served as a model for other departments in the School of
Engineering and Applied Science.
Dave was a founding member of an ad hoc committee
for high-performance computing that led to the creation of
the Center for Computational Research at the University at
Buffalo. He has served as chair of its Scientific Board since
1999. He is currently nearing the end of his second term as
the chairperson of the Chemical and Biological Engineering
Department (which for the past two years has coincided with
his co-chairing of a new Biomedical Engineering department
at UB). His tenure has been characterized by an increase in the
number of faculty, planning a 33% expansion of the Depart-
ment's space, creation and endowment of a symposium series
that honors Eli Ruckenstein, rejuvenation of the Department's
advisory board, and continuation of a department atmosphere
that is open to comment, suggestion, and debate.
Notable among his other professional service activities,
Professor Kofke was elected a trustee of CACHE in 1999. He
served as its secretary from 2004 to 2006, vice-president from
2008 to 2010, and is now completing a two-year term as its
president. Dave has been an active member of CACHE's Task
Force on Molecular Modeling since 1996. He is a member
of the AIChE, ACS, and AAAS, and has served as an AIChE
Area 1 a programming chair. He has been a member of the
editorial board of Molecular Physics since 2007.

MENTORSHIP
David Kofke has mentored more than 20 Ph.D. students,
10 M.S. students, and countless undergraduates. Discussions
with his former students paint a picture of a man who is influ-
ential, inspirational, intelligent, patient, respectful, ambitious,
and of high integrity. Donald Visco writes, "Dave Kofke was
the most influential person in my academic career. He was
incredibly patient, treated everyone with respect, and was a
tremendous role model for someone who wanted to obtain a
faculty position, like me. In fact, he still is a great mentor and
I continue to seek his counsel on a variety of items." From
Jayant Singh, Ph.D. 2005, now an associate professor within
the Department of Chemical Engineering at IIT Kanpur,
"Dave has been inspirational for me, as a teacher, guide, and


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


human being. I remember clearly coming to UB to work with
Prof. Ruckenstein. However, after talking to Dave and seeing
his eyes fill with zeal, I immediately decided to work with
him.... As I have got to know Dave more, my admiration and
respect have grown exponentially. Such a wonderful teacher
and guide who allows one to grow in person and academi-
cally is difficult to find. I have been lucky and blessed to be
associated with Dave and I know that it is difficult to walk on
his footstep." Sang Kyu Kwak adds, "He made the greatest
and most delightful impact on my life, which I will cherish
as long as I live."
As noted above, Dave is known for his humble nature. As
Durgesh Vaidya, Ph.D. 1997, now senior manager of Re-
search and Development at OFS, points out, this should not
be associated with a lack of ambition, "Most people surmise
Dave to be brilliant, yet soft-spoken and easy-going. Those
that work closely with him will recognize that, like all good
leaders, he is ambitious-not for himself but for his cause.
I once recall working very hard over several weeks to come
up with something that was about 20-25% better than the
best of the previously published record. When I discussed
this with Dave, he listened patiently and then remarked,
'Good idea, yet it is incremental research. We are here to do
radical research. That's where the real fun is!' By the time
our project was over, we had found a way to improve it by
an order of magnitude." While Dave encourages his students
to strive for greatness, he reminds them that integrity mat-
ters. Again from Durgesh Vaidya, "One day Dave came to
our workstations with photocopies of a letter someone had
written to a well-known journal. The letter was a rather harsh
criticism of a previously published research article, in which
the authors had made a small error that rendered their claims
of significant achievements flawed. Dave quietly remarked
to all in his group, 'Remember, please make sure your work
is correct first. We will worry if it is interesting later.' I have
never forgotten those words."
Dave and Tammy regularly host dinners for the group.
Many of his students have lasting memories of these social
gatherings. Scott Wierzchowski, Ph.D. 2003, now a research
engineer with Shell, writes, "I remember all the times he
would have us to his house for the holidays and parties. It sure
made our group feel like a little family. It was very genuine
and appreciative." Jhumpa Adhikari, Ph.D. 2003, now an
associate professor within the Department Of Chemical En-
gineering at IIT Bombay, adds, "... as an international student
I especially enjoyed the group visit to his home where one of
my oft-recounted stories is of the decorated Christmas tree
that I saw for the first time in a family setting, about which I
had only read in books before."
One of the authors of this article (JRE) has also benefited
tremendously from Dave's mentorship. As an undergraduate
student at UB, he introduced me to the field of molecular
modeling and guided me towards the profession I enjoy today.

211






At the time, I was fairly ignorant about graduate school and
had questions like 'do you get to go home over the summer?'
and 'is it worth taking on additional student loans?' He took
me under his wing and helped clarify what now seem like
trivial issues and provided confidence that graduate school
was appropriate for me. He also alerted me to more signifi-
cant issues, like the importance of identifying an advisor and
institution that provide the right environment for success. It
is this experience that often motivates me now to make the
extra effort with our undergraduates. In my current position
as a faculty member at UB I continue to seek his advice,
support, and, at times, motivation. For me, Dave is the ideal
mentor. His advice is direct, but never dogmatic, and the
motivation for his comments is never derived from his own
self-interests. I also appreciate how he leads by example,
always pushing for excellence in research, teaching, and
service. His high standards, self-sacrificing nature, atten-
tion to detail, and positive attitude make those around him
better. I often find motivation to improve by benchmarking
my professional progress against Dave's trajectory. It's a
hard act to follow!

AWAY FROM THE OFFICE
These days much of Dave's life away from the office re-
volves around his family's activities. Alex is now finishing
his senior year in high school, and Jocelyn is a freshman.
Music has a very strong presence in their home, as Alex has
developed into an accomplished oboist, and has shown a
strong natural ability with other instruments (he performed
a movement from a Rachmaninoff piano concerto for his


senior concerto, after only two years learning the instru-
ment). He also has a strong passion for classical music in
general, and Dave and Tammy's appreciation for this genre
has grown enormously just by being around him. After seri-
ously considering going to college as a music performance
major, Alex examined the career options in this direction and
decided to pursue physics instead, perhaps with a minor in
piano. Jocelyn's instrument is the baritone saxophone. She
is still unsure of her career path; she inclines toward art, but
excels in all her courses. Dave has found a connection with
her through their mutual enjoyment of softball, as well as
some traveling adventures (most recently to New York City,
and with a trip to Paris in the works now). Family vacations
usually entail a week in the Adirondacks.
When not with the family, Dave participates in a philos-
ophy-oriented book club that meets monthly; also, over the
past 10 years he's taught himself piano-he particularly likes
playing Bach, but is definitely not at a performance-ready
level. In slightly less cerebral pursuits, he enjoys watching
both recent and classic movies. He built a home theater to
enhance this activity, but anymore he's happy if he is just
able to stay awake through the whole show. And as much as
he likes music, most often he prefers the calming white noise
provided by a good fan. His favorite is the vintage Vornado
that was built in the 1950s, and that was a constant presence in
his childhood (he's amassed quite a collection of them, thanks
to eBay). And while this and the many other factors recounted
above have made Dave what he is today, fortunately, one
childhood influence he did not carry into adulthood is any
taste for phenolphthalein! O


Chemical Engineering Education







I,= classroom


The Enhancement of Students' Learning

in Both Lower-Division and Upper-Division Classes by

A QUIZ-BASED APPROACH


SEPIDEH FARAJI
California State University. Long Beach, CA
Increasing students' learning and success is very important
in any engineering school. The ABET accreditation pro-
gram values the students' learning and success in chemical
engineering (ChE) programs nationwide. The Department
of Chemical Engineering at California State University at
Long Beach (CSULB) has established program objectives
that include developing pedagogical techniques to enhance
the students' ability to learn and solve complex problems.
Material and Energy Balance (ChE 200), which is the first
core course in ChE curriculum at California State University,
is a very important and challenging class with a historically
high failure rate. Usually, students take this course in their
third semester (sophomore year). The required textbook for
this class is the last edition of the Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes.t11 According to the literature, the solution
manual for this textbook is easily obtainable from the Internet
for most students .21 Many of the students often complain that
the course is very hard and demanding for them. In other
universities, modifications have been made to this course
to make it easier to understand for undergraduate students.
[2-71 For example, it has been shown previously that using
personalized online homework assignments can improve
student achievement.121 Using such technologies in a class-
room, however, depends on the availability of resources. At
CSULB, a simple and cheap quiz-based method was applied
to modify the Material and Energy Balance course (ChE 200).
Homework assignments are invaluable educational tools
used to help students to acquire critical-thinking and problem-
solving skills.1[21 If students possess weak math skills or do
not know how to properly set up and solve the problems, the
instructor can have them practice more by giving them more
homework assignments. Traditionally, an important compo-
nent of the ChE 200 course was the individual homework
assignments, which were worth about 15% of the total grade.
Most of the homework (HW) problems were taken from the


textbook.P11 Since most students wish to get this 15% to boost
their final grade, many used the easily available solution
manual or copied each other's work without understanding
the concept.J81 To overcome the problem of cheating, the
use of personalized online homework assignments has been
previously tried in other schools.J21 At the CSULB Chemical
Engineering Department, a different approach was recently
adopted to overcome this problem and ultimately enhance the
students' learning. In ChE 200 course, the traditional home-
work assignments were completely replaced with weekly
paper quizzes that were worth 15% of the total grade. In order
to ensure the effectiveness of this approach, the author applied
the same approach to an upper-division course (Chemical
Reactor Kinetics, ChE 430). The results of this change were
compared with those for the lower-division class (ChE 200).
It should be mentioned that both classes were curved.
The goal of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of
the quizzes on students' learning in teaching upper-division
and lower-division courses in chemical engineering. Specific
emphasis has been placed on the study of replacing traditional
homework assignments with weekly quizzes in Material and
Energy Balance (ChE 200) and Chemical Reactor Kinetics
(ChE 430) classes.

Sepideh Faraji received both her B.S. and M.S. degrees in chemical en-
gineering with honors from University of Tehran.
After receiving her B.S. degree, she worked as a
process engineer in oil, gas, and petrochemical
industries for six years. In June 2010, she was
awarded a Ph.D. degree in chemical engineer-
ing from the University of Kansas. Farajijoined
the Chemical Engineering Department at
CSULB in August 2010. Her current research
areas are development of new heterogeneous
catalysts, CO2 capture and utilization, ceramic
materials, hydrogen production (for fuel cell ap-
plications), water treatment, and alternative fuels.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012





IMPLEMENTATION
The author taught both the lower-division (ChE 200) and the
upper-division (ChE 430) courses in this study with similar
class sizes (between 32 and 42 students in each class). The
HW-based approach was used in the Fall 2010 semester and
the quiz-based approach was introduced and tried in the Fall
2011 semester. Three exams were given throughout these se-
mesters in each class. The lecture notes were identical before
the change and after for both cases. The exams given to the
quiz-based class were similar (with similar difficulties) to the
HW-based class and the exam problems were not drawn from
the HW solutions. A teaching assistant helped with grading
both HW-based and quiz-based classes. The instructor and
the TA were the same before and after the change. The only
difference between the Fall 2010 class and that of Fall 2011
was the homework assignments.
In both studies, a set of the textbook problems was posted
to the course website (Blackboard) each week. There were a
total of nine different sets of HW in a semester. In the HW-
based approach, students were assigned to solve the weekly
problems and submit their handwritten solutions individually.
The homework assignments were graded for credit (15% of
the total grade) and returned to students. In the quiz-based
approach, after posting the weekly HW, the students were
highly encouraged to work in groups to solve the homework
problems. The students were not, however, required to submit
their HW assignments. Subsequently, a 15-minute paper quiz
was scheduled five days after posting the HW problems. One
of the problems from the HW was chosen randomly and given
to students as a quiz. The weekly quiz was closed-book and
closed-notes and was given to students in the beginning of the
class. It should be noted that the solutions to the homework
problems were posted to the course website one day ahead of
the scheduled weekly quiz so that students had enough time to
go through the solutions. The weekly HW consisted of six to
10 problems and some of these HW problems had long solu-


tions. The students did not know which problem would be on
the weekly quiz and they had to learn the solution methods to
all problems to get full quiz credit. Thus, the students were less
likely to memorize the solutions and still be able to do well
on the closed-book/closed-notes quizzes. Also, the students
were not allowed to bring anything to the quiz session except
pencils and simple calculators. Laptops and cell phones were
not allowed during the quiz. Since there was no requirement
to submit the HW to the instructor, students had no incentive
to cheat. The students did not use the solution manual or
did not copy each other's work because no HW submission
was required. After the solutions were posted and in order to
help students understand the solutions better, the instructor
was available during office hours in the day before the quiz.
Similarly, the weekly quizzes were graded for credit (15% of
the total grade) and were returned to students so they could
see their mistakes. To support weaker students in the class,
the lowest score of their HWs and quizzes was eliminated in
2010 and 2011 respectively.

RESULTS AND COURSE ASSESSMENT
To assess the learning outcomes, the quantitative data from
students' work in both ChE 200 and ChE 430 courses were
collected and analyzed. After implementation of the quiz-
based learning idea, the students' performance in the two
midterms and final exams was studied and analyzed using
statistical tools and compared with the old procedure. The
results are shown in Table 1.
According to Table 1, a comparison between the HW-based
approach and the quiz-based approach indicates an improve-
ment in the students' performance in both lower-division
and upper-division courses. In both courses, students earned
higher exam grades when traditional HWs were completely
replaced with weekly quizzes. The class GPA was also
higher; as an example, the class GPA in ChE 200 increased
from 2.2 to 2.95. Based on the study, more students earned


TABLE 1
Exam Results in Lower-Division and Upper-Division Courses
Course Average midterm exam #1 Average midterm exam #2 Average final exam
(Max: 100) (Max: 100) (Max:100)
Before After Before After Before After
(HW-based) (Quiz-based) (HW-based) (Quiz-based) (HW-based) (Quiz-based)
ChE 200: Material and 63.93 80.53 50.05 64.35 60.44 64.34
Energy Balance (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size:
32) 34) 32) 34) 32) 34)
(Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard
deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation:
28.75) 15.88) 30.47) 21.76) 23.64) 19.32)
ChE 430: Chemical 67.50 73.90 60.46 66.39 68.89 71.23
Reactor Kinetics (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size: (Class size:
42) 32) 42) 32) 42) 32)
(Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard (Standard
deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation: deviation:
24.45) 18.70) 22.56) 20.06) 25.08) 18.30)

14 Chemical Engineering Education






A's and B's in the newer approach. In the
lower-division class, the percentage of stu-
dents who received A and B after the change
was respectively 10.5% and 11% higher than
before the change. The standard deviations
were smaller for the results of exams in the
new approach. To compare the exam aver-
ages, t test was performed. The t test showed
that in the lower-division class (ChE 200) the
results were more statistically significant than
those in the upper-division class (ChE 430).
Most of students at the senior level are more
mature and they usually can find their own
ways to study and learn. For this reason, the
quiz-based approach shows more impact on
students at the sophomore level (i.e., lower-
division class). It is worth noting that the
instructor effectiveness was also rated higher
after this change in the two courses.
According to Table 1 for the lower-division
class, there is a 26 and 28 percent rise in
midterm scores after replacing HWs with
quizzes, but only a 6.5 percent increase in the
final exam. This is because final exams are
longer, cumulative, and usually more stressful
for students compared to midterms. The grade
improvement for the upper-division class dur-
ing the exams (9.5 and 9.8 percent increase for
midterms and 3.4 percent increase for the final)
is less than that for the lower-division class.
As discussed before, this could be due to the
maturity of students in upper-division classes.
In addition to collecting and analyzing the
students' scores on the exams throughout
the semester, another course assessment was
conducted at the end of semester. A course as-
sessment survey consisting of four questions
was given to students at the last class meeting
day. The survey form is shown in Table 2.
The students were requested to answer the
questions in the survey anonymously. By
completing the survey, the students provided
their feedback on how the course's expected


Question #4


Question #3


Question #2


Question #1


0 1 2 3 4 5
Students' response (average)


* After (Quiz-based)
= Before (HW-based)


Figure 1. Course survey results for the Material and Energy Balance class
(ChE 200). For listing of items surveyed, see Table 2.



Question #4


Question #3

M After (Quiz-based)
Question #2 -:H Before (HW-based)


Question #1 ..


0 1 2 3 4 5
Students' response (average)


Figure 2. Course survey results for the Reactor Kinetics class (ChE 430).
For listing of items surveyed, see Table 2.
outcomes were achieved. There were five scales in the survey form, with 5
being strongly agree and 1 being strongly disagree.
The students' responses to the survey are shown in Figures 1 and 2. As seen
in the figures, after implementing the new strategy, the students' problem-
solving skills were improved (23.5% improvement for ChE 200 and 6%


Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 2012


TABLE 2
Course Assessment Survey for ChE 2001
Question Scale
1 This course developed my ability to solve problems. Strongly agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly disagree
2 I learned to write mass balance equations for simple and complicated systems. Strongly agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly disagree
3 This course developed my ability to work with others. Strongly agree 5 4 3 2 1Strongly disagree
4 About how many hours per week did you spend studying for this course? Five hours or more 5 4 3 2 1 One hour or less
Note 1: For ChE 430, a similar survey form was used. The only difference was question #2. For ChE 430, question #2 was changed to:
I am able to design a simple reactor using hand calculations.







improvement for ChE 430 according to Question #1). Before
using this approach, a large group of students was struggling
to grasp the key concepts and constantly finding themselves in
danger of failing. For this reason, they had a strong incentive
to cheat. Replacing HWs with quizzes led to more studying
hours for each student in the class (17.8% increase for ChE
200 and 6.5% increase for ChE 430 according to Question
#4 in Figures 1 and 2). More time spent on the course mate-
rials resulted in improved learning and better performance.
The results of students' answers to Question #2 in Figures 1
and 2 clearly showed that students learned the concept and
that students' learning increased by 8.25% and 3.13% in two
classes after implementing the new approach. Furthermore,
according to Question #3 in Figures 1 and 2, the students'
teamwork skills improved (for example, 26% improvement
for ChE-200 class) because most of them worked with their
classmates to get prepared for the quizzes.
In the author's opinion, the new approach has some ben-
efits compared to the old approach. Based on the author's
observations, the quiz-based method appeared to be more
interactive when compared to the old approach. The author
observed more student engagement in the new approach. The
class attendance increased and more questions were asked by
students during the lecture. Also, more students showed up in
the weekly office hours. Moreover, the quizzes were easier
and took much less time to grade, allowing the instructor to
focus more on lecture notes and other class materials. This
is because quizzes are usually shorter in length than HWs
(each HW has at least six problems, while each quiz contains
only one problem). Most importantly, in the new approach,
students had to study every week to pass the weekly quizzes.
This gradual studying over the semester not only helped them
retain knowledge, it helped them to get prepared for the exams
and prevented them from cramming at the last minute before
the tests. In summary, the list of benefits of the quiz-based
approach is given below:
Improves problem-solving skills and enhances students'
learning.
Limits cheating (limits using the solution manual or
copying other students'work).
Increases class attendance.
Motivates students to study.
Encourages students to show up in office hours.
Encourages students to study in groups.
Easy to grade.
Maybe the only noticeable disadvantage of this approach


will be that quizzes will take 15 minutes of the class time
each week. By condensing the time spent on less-important
class materials, however, the instructor prevented this lost
time from adversely affecting the class coverage.

CONCLUSIONS
Some modifications were made to lower-division (Material
and Energy Balance) and upper-division (Chemical Reactor
Kinetics) classes to improve the students' study habits and
enhance students' performance and learning. The results
indicated that students performed better and were more suc-
cessful when grading for weekly homework assignments was
completely replaced with grading for weekly quizzes. Accord-
ing to the comparison between the lower-division and upper-
division classes, the author believes that the modification
made in lower-division class (Material and Energy Balance)
has more impact on students compared to the upper-division
class. The new approach motivated students and created a
driving force for them to work harder and study more, and
was more effective to prevent them from cheating. Overall,
the quiz-based approach was found to be effective to enhance
students' learning and problem-solving skills.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author thanks the Chemical Engineering Department at
CSULB for supporting this study. The author would also like
to express thanks to Hamidreza Farrokhpayam, who helped
with manuscript preparation.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau "Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes," New York, John Wiley & Sons (2005)
2. Liberatore, M.W., "Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized
Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(3), 184 (2011)
3. Miller, D.C., M.H. Hariri, M. Misovich, M. Anklam, and R. Artigue,
"A Modified Approach to Material and Energy Balances," Proceedings
of the ASEE Annual Conference (2002)
4. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances 1. Course Design," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 41(2), 93, (2007)
5. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances 2. Course Delivery and As-
sessment," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(3), 167, (2007)
6. Scranton,A.B., R.M. Russell, N. Basker, and L.C. Scranton, "Teach-
ing Material and Energy Balances on the Internet," Proceedings of the
ASEE Annual Conference (1999)
7. Rossiter, D., R. Petrulis, and C.A. Biggs, "A Blended Approach to
Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
44(7), 23, (2010)
8. Felder, R.M., "How to Stop Cheating (or at Least Slow it Down),"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(1), 37, (2011) 0


Chemical Engineering Education











Author Guidelines for the

LABORATORY

Feature

The laboratory experience in chemical engineering education has long been an integral part
of our curricula. CEE encourages the submission of manuscripts describing innovations in the
laboratory ranging from large-scale unit operations experiments to demonstrations appropriate
for the classroom. The following guidelines are offered to assist authors in the preparation of
manuscripts that are informative to our readership. These are only suggestions, based on the
comments of previous reviewers; authors should use their own judgment in presenting their
experiences. A set of general guidelines and advice to the author can be found at our Web site:
.


> Manuscripts should describe the results of original and laboratory-tested ideas.
The ideas should be broadly applicable and described in sufficient detail to
allow and motivate others to adapt the ideas to their own curricula. It is noted
that the readership of CEE is largely faculty and instructors. Manuscripts must
contain an abstract and often include an Introduction, Laboratory Description,
Data Analysis, Summary of Experiences, Conclusions, and References.
An Introduction should establish the context of the laboratory experi-
ence (e.g., relation to curriculum, review of literature), state the learning
objectives, and describe the rationale and approach.
The Laboratory Description section should describe the experiment in
sufficient detail to allow the reader to judge the scope of effort required
to implement a similar experiment on his or her campus. Schematic dia-
grams or photos, cost information, and references to previous publica-
tions and Web sites, etc., are usually of benefit. Issues related to safety
should be addressed as well as any special operating procedures.
If appropriate, a Data Analysis section should be included that concisely
describes the method of data analysis. Recognizing that the audience
is primarily faculty, the description of the underlying theory should be
referenced or brief. The purpose of this section is to communicate to the
reader specific student-learning opportunities (e.g., treatment of reac-
tion-rate data in a temperature range that includes two mechanisms).
The purpose of the Summary of Experiences section is to convey the
results of laboratory or classroom testing. The section can enumerate,
for example, best practices, pitfalls, student survey results, or anecdotal
material.
A concise statement of the Conclusions (as opposed to a summary) of
your experiences should be the last section of the paper prior to listing
References.
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