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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Humidification, a True "Home" Problem...
 A Chemical Engineering Course for...
 Energy Balances on Transient...
 Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or...
 A Step-by-Step Design Methodology...
 The Importance of Oral Communication...
 Teaching Process Design Through...
 Two Minutes of Reflection Improves...
 Index for Graduate Education...
 Back Cover


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Chemical Engineering Education
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Title: Chemical Engineering Education
Alternate Title: CEE
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 217
    Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for a Chemical Engineer
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students -- Indigo: A World of Blues
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    Energy Balances on Transient Processes
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or Won't) Read
        Page 237
        Page 238
    A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
    The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    Teaching Process Design Through Integrated Process Synthesis
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Two Minutes of Reflection Improves Teaching
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Index for Graduate Education Advertisements
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
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        Page 297
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        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
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        Page 325
        Page 326
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        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
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        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
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        Page 348
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        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
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        Page 355
        Page 356
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        Page 358
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        Page 363
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text








chemical engineering education




VOLUME 46 NUMBER 4 FALL 2012







GRADUATE EDUCATION
. Featured article on graduate courses...

The Importance of Oral Communication Skills
and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills, p. 251
SGarth L. Wilkes
T.




- ... and articles of general interest

S218 Humidification, a True "Home" Problem For a Chemical Engineer
Jean-Stdphane Condorer
V 223 A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students-Indigo: A World of Blues
SPolly R. Piergiovanni

231 Energy Balances on Transient Processes
Francisco Ruiz-Bevid, M. Dolores Saquete, Ignacio Aracil,
M. Francisca G6mez

S237 Random Thoughts: Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or Won't) Read
Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent
A a' 239 A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery
Mark Moore, Robert M. Counce, Jack S. Watson,
SThomas A. Zawodzinski, Haresh Kamath

260 Teaching Process Design Through Integrated Process Synthesis
Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, Bilal Patel,
Diane Hildebrandt, David Glasser

271 Teaching Tip: Two Minutes of Reflection Improves Teaching
Matthew Liberatore



V












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Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 46 Number 4 Fall 2012




> GRADUATE EDUCATION
251 The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate
Course to Help Improve These Skills
Garth L. Wilkes


> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
218 Humidification, a True "Home" Problem For a Chemical Engineer
Jean-Stiphane Condoret

> CURRICULUM
223 A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students-
Indigo: A World of Blues
Polly R. Piergiovanni
231 Energy Balances on Transient Processes
Francisco Ruiz-Bevid, M. Dolores Saquete, Ignacio Aracil,
M. Francisca Gdmez


> RANDOM THOUGHTS
237 Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or Won't) Read
Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent

> CLASSROOM
239 A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case
Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery
Mark Moore, Robert M. Counce, Jack S. Watson,
Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Haresh Kamath
260 Teaching Process Design Through Integrated Process Synthesis
Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, Bilal Patel,
Diane Hildebrandt, David Glasser


> OTHER CONTENTS
271 Teaching Tip: Two Minutes of Reflection Improves Teaching
Matthew Liberatore


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION[ISSN 0009-2479 (print); ISSN 2165-6428 (online)] is published quarterly
by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes ofaddress should be sent to CEE, 5200 NW
43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville, FL 32606. Copyright 2012 by the Chemical Engineering Division. American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE. which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, 5200 NW 43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville,
FL 32606. Periodicals Postage Paidat Gainesville, Florida, and additionalpost offices (USPS 101900). www.chc.ufl.eduiCEE


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








class and home problems )


HUMIDIFICATION, A TRUE "HOME"

PROBLEM FOR A CHEMICAL ENGINEER








JEAN-STtPHANE CONDORET
University of Toulouse Toulouse (France)


All teachers have observed that academic knowledge
is more easily transmitted through application, es-
pecially when examples are chosen from everyday
life. Chemical Engineering Education has often published
such examples,'-51 providing interesting matter to illustrate
academic chemical engineering courses.
This paper uses this approach and aims to help students
understand problems dealing with humid air as they are en-
countered in courses about cooling towers, humidification,
dehumidification, or drying. These examples are complex
because they involve coupled heat and mass transfer phenom-
ena, but only basic knowledge about humid air and use of the
psychrometric chart is needed for the example proposed here.
The reader interested in an everyday problem dealing with
evaporative cooling may refer to a previous author's paper. 11
In the present case the problem is suited for early material
and energy balances courses and only needs the knowledge
of the psychrometric chart.


PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
The example is the following:
A cold spell has invaded the country and the temperature
stabilizes below 0 C. The most visible consequence of this
cold is an increased heat duty in our homes. But there is
also a less-known phenomenon that quite it. ,ifly af-
fects the comfort inside the home: using a domestic hygrom-
eter, it can be observed that the relative humidity, e, of the
air inside the house has dropped to very low values (below
e = 0.2). This value is far below what is advised by the
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Condi-
tioning Engineers'6' (ASHRAE), which recommends relative

Jean-Stdphane Condoret is a professor of chemical engineering at the
Institute National Polytechnique of Toulouse (France). He graduated in
1977 from the Institut de Genie Chimique, in Toulouse. His Ph.D. thesis
dealt with heat and mass transfer in packed beds. Since 1987 he has
been involved in supercritical technology for chemistry and biochemistry.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Chemical Engineering Education


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. We request problems that can be used to motivate student
learning by presenting a particular principle in a new light, can be assigned as novel home
problems, are suited for a collaborative learning environment, or demonstrate a cutting-edge
application or principle. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be
accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to
Dr. Daina Briedis (e-mail: briedis@egr.msu.edu), Department of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226.
















humidity values between 0.3 and 0.6. Below E = 0.3, there
is a "dryness zone" where people experiences skin and eye
dryness and stuffy noses. People wearing contact lensesfind
them particularly irritating.
So the chemical engineer may ask himself or herself the
following questions:
1) Why is the indoor relative humidity so low?
In relating to early chemical engineering courses that cover
the humidity psychrometric chart, the student can see that even
saturated, cold air has a very low absolute humidity (around
Yo = 2.5 g/kg of dry air at -5 oC). When this air is heated
inside the house at 20 C, simple computations or reading of
the psychrometric chart indicate that the relative humidity of
this heated air has dropped to e = 0.175.
2) What can be done to improve the situation?
Domestic devices for humidifying air are available. Most of
them are based on ultrasonic generation of very tiny droplets
that are blown into the air to evaporate. The chemical engineer
would like to know how much water is needed to bring the 20 C
air up to e = 0.5 (corresponding to absolute air humidity Yf =
7.18 g/kg of dry air). The question might also be asked as to
what is the duration of the humidification process?
From the dimensions of the house (see Table 1), the mass
of air, Mair, referred to a dry basis (kg of dry air) is readily
computed using the value of the density of air (around 1.2
kg.nr3 at 20 C). The quantity of water Qw to be evaporated
is obtained using the change of absolute humidity of the air:

Q, = Ma, (Y, Y)= 1.34 kg (1)

Most commercial domestic humidifiers claim a maximum
water flow rate W around 0.4 kg h-'. So the duration of the
operation to achieve is:

t-,, = (2)
W
This leads to a few hours duration (tnf1 = 3.3 h). This is a
rather short time. But the observed results are very different:
after one night, the hygrometer still indicates a low value
(around e = 0.32). Even maintaining the humidifier continu-
ously in operation, stopping only to refill the 4 liter tank, the
hygrometer indicates a slowly growing value that stabilizes
around 0.37 after one day and a half.
This experimental contradiction means that an important
parameter has been forgotten. It is obvious that several liters
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


volume V
Output humid air
o oo

0 0
o o



Incoming cold air Water input

Figure 1. Systemic sketch of the humidification of the
house.

of water have been evaporated but they are not present in the
air of the house. It is easy to remember that a house is naturally
ventilated and the ventilation flow rate is very probably the
missing parameter.
Is a chemical engineering student able to describe the
situation with the usual tools? This is indeed quite possible
considering the house as a vessel with mass input and output.
This closely resembles a mixing tank as described in Figure 1.
To propose a simple model, it is necessary to assume per-
fectly mixed air inside the house. This implies a homogeneous
humidity Y in the volume and consequently that air leaves
the house at the instantaneous inner humidity Y (stirred tank
assumption). Different locations for the hygrometer during
the humidification process did not show significant differ-
ences. So, although not initially obvious, the perfectly mixed
hypothesis is quite acceptable.
The universal dynamic mass balance (accumulation = input
- output + generation) is written:
dY
M-, =(W+DYo)-DY (3)
dt
W is the input flow rate of water by the humidifier in kg/s.
D is the renewal mass flow rate (referred on a dry basis, kg/s
of dry air).
Y is the instantaneous inner absolute humidity.
Y0 is the outside absolute humidity (assumed constant).
Eq. (3) is a simple first order differential equation to be
solved with the initial condition:
Y = Y. for t = 0 where Y. is the initial inner absolute humid-
ity, which is equal to Yo in the present case.







The solution is easily found as:

Y(t)= Y, + Y -- e Mr (4)

Indeed, it is a first order system with an asymp-
totic absolute humidity Yf (which corresponds to
the steady state) given by:
W
Y, =Yo+- (5)
D
Computation of the steady state value requires
estimation of the renewal mass flow rate D. It
can be obtained from the value of the time for
air renewal in naturally ventilated houses, which
is usually estimated around t re = 2 hours. The
renewal mass flow rate D is given by:

D= Ma (6)
trenew

From Eq. (5), a value Y, = 5.3 g/kg of dry air is
obtained and the corresponding relative humidity
is Ein, = 0.37.
This is a very encouraging result because it
corresponds to the asymptotic observed value,
meaning that the estimation of the renewal time is
fairly good. Indeed, the value of the final relative
humidity is low because the humidifier does not
bring enough water. Actually, the major part of
the water is evacuated by the renewal air flow rate.
The only solution would be to increase the number
of humidifiers.
Now we can compute the time to reach the
asymptotic value. Theoretically, this time is infinite
so we have to define a criterion. A typical approach
is to calculate for a percentage of the approach,
for instance:
Y(t) Yn, 0.01.
Yi

With this procedure the final time is determined
as tnj = 7.9 hours and is surprisingly short when
steady state has been experimentally obtained after
one and a half days.
Here also an important parameter has been
forgotten. Deeper reflection reveals that the house
contains many materials able to adsorb water and to
equilibrate with the inner air. It could be wall coat-
ings, like plaster or tapestry, or any other hygro-
scopic material. In a first approach, the adsorption
phenomenon can be accounted for by using a linear
equilibrium X = Ka,dY, where X is the absolute
humidity of the solid (dry basis). Also, it can be


assumed that the global dynamics are slow enough so that adsorption
equilibrium is always reached. Introducing the mass of the wall coating
(dry basis) as Mwn, Eq. (4) becomes:
dY dX dY
M +M =-(M,,+Mw1VK.dn) ==W+DYn -DY (7)
"" dt dt dt


The final correct solution for the system is then:

Y(t) + Y e Mair+MwalKads W
Y(t)=Yo+ Y -Y D


The extra term M,,nKad, in the exponential has increased the time
constant of the phenomenon (not the final value) and now explains the
long observed duration.
Actually, Mwa should be considered as the fraction of the hygroscopic
material that is likely to equilibrate rapidly with the air. It could be, for
instance, the first millimetres of plaster on the walls. For plaster, the
water sorption isotherm can be found in the literature17t and a value of Kds
= 40 can be estimated. Let us guess a value Mwa, = 25 kg, then Eq. (8)
yields tnal = 35.7 h, which is quite realistic for our experiment. Anyway,
although our estimation for the wall parameters is probably correct, it
is reasonable to consider these values only as adjustment parameters to
account for the long observed duration.
It is useful to compute the different quantities of water involved in the
operation. In Table 2 the different equations for these values are given.

TABLE 2
Different Equations for Different Quantities of Water Involved
Qw evaporated water Qw= wtil Eq. (9)
Q, water contained in the
inner air at the end = M.Y,, Eq. (10)
Qw,, water contained in the ,
walls at the end Q = M n,,KaYin Eq. (11)
Qi,,p, water input by incoming Eq (2)
cold air Q = DYotp Eq. (12)
Q..., water accumulated in M, (Y Eq.(13)
the walls Eq. (13)
Qh,, water accumulated in Q M(Y Y) Eq.(14)
the air Q = M (Y- Y) Eq. (14)


The water quantity that has been transported outside by the ventilation
is Qevac and can be computed by integration

Q... =D ""' Y(t)dt

using Eq. (8) whose integral is:

D ) D DI
JY(t)dt= Y +- Mai" +K;,Msvi Miir+MwaIIKads (15)

Numerical values are given in Table 3, and the time evolution of the
absolute and relative humidity are presented in Figure 2.
Checking the mass balance Qinpu Q + Q = Qcir + Q cwl ascer-
tains the computation.


Chemical Engineering Education








TABLE 3
Quantities of Water Involved in the Humidification of the House
Q, Q ,, Qwa., Q,,,,, Q. I 2. Qg.7 Q.,,2 .
14.3 kg 1.5 kg 5.25 kg 12.8 kg 23.5 kg 0.79 kg 2.76 kg

0006 .- 04 t


0.


0 10 20 30
time (h)


40 50 60


10 20 30 40 50 60
time (h)


Figure 2. Time evolution of the indoor absolute and relative humidity.


It is very surprising that the quantity of water
effectively brought to the air (Qaccair= 0.79 kg) is
very low in comparison to all other values and
especially to the quantity of water produced,
Qw = 14.3 kg.A lot of water has been inefficiently
produced, adsorbed, or transported! Also, to
maintain E = 0.37,0.4kg/h of water now has to be
continuously injected in the air by the humidifier.
All computations were done using the
Mathcad software and corresponding files can
be found at pers/condoret.htm>.
Finally, the model with the proposed esti-
mated parameters is very likely to give a good
description of the humidification process of a
house. Indeed, one experiment (which could
be done only by measuring the steady state
relative humidity and the needed time to reach
it) allows identifying all parameters and the
model can be used to predict other scenarios.
Indeed, the modeling is also valid for the case
of dehumidification, which is necessary in sum-
mertime. In this case incoming warm humid
air is dehumidified using devices where excess
water in the air is condensed on cooled surfaces
at a temperature below the air dew point. In this
case, the term W in the equations has only to
be set to a negative value.
There is an additional interesting computa-
tion about the energetic cost of humidifying the


air compared to the energetic cost for a simple heating of the air. In other
words, how much does it cost to improve the quality of life in the house?
It is obtained from:

power for humidification D(H,-c H0.c) (H;c H oc) (16)
total power transferred to the air D(H Y- -H c) (H'c H H0 )

where Hc is the enthalpy of humid air at t C and absolute humidity Y.
The computation is done at steady state for the relative humidity of 0.5
that we initially targeted. Eq. (5) gives the needed water flow rate W =
0.67 L/h. It corresponds to the use of two humidifiers. Now, we understand
the sentence "this device is adequate up to 40 m2 rooms" written on the
notice of the device. Nevertheless, note that all computations are done here
without taking account of people in the house, while a four-person family
is estimated to produce 0.2 kg/h of steam.'18
Values of enthalpy can be computed or read on the psychrometric chart. It
yields a humidification power that represents 37% of the total power, which
is an unexpectedly high value. In fact, it corresponds to the heat power for
the vaporization of the water droplets. This heat power is provided by the
heating system of the house, which maintains the inner temperature at 20 OC.
Nevertheless the total power for air (around 1.3 kW in this case) does not
represent the total heating demand for the house. Indeed, the major part of
heating power in the house is used for compensation of heat losses through
walls, windows, and the roof.

CONCLUSIONS
In this example the concept and the importance of the relative humidity
of air, which is not always well understood by students, is pointed out. Fur-
thermore, it is worth remembering that this parameter is always related to
the thermodynamic activity of the water contained in solids in equilibrium


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


0,005

0,004

0.003

S0,002
"0








with the surrounding air. Students usually encounter this
concept during the course about drying of solids. Here the
relation between relative humidity of air and human comfort
is indeed an indirect relation and water activity of physiologi-
cal tissues is the pertinent parameter. This example can be
further commented to students to emphasize the importance
of the water activity (drying, conservation, vegetal extraction,
enzymatic reactions, and many other domains where natural
products are involved).
The main objective of this case study, however, is to show
that the foundational approach that is taught in chemical en-
gineering is able to provide solutions for problems that are
outside this discipline. The pedagogical interest is maximum
if the problem is presented to students in its iterative form, as
is done in this paper. Because this example has dealt with an
everyday problem, it is hoped that the students are interested
and develop their physical sense as well as their critical sense
in facing unexpected experimental results. At least, it has been
shown here that methods of chemical engineering can have
very diverse applications.

REFERENCES
1. Condoret, J.S., "Teaching transport phenomena around a cup of coffee,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 137 (2007)
2. Kaletunc, G., K. Duemmel, et al., "Teaching process engineering prin-
ciples using an ice cream maker," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 131 (2007)
3. Hohn, K.L., "The chemical engineering behind how carbonated bever-
ages goes flat: a hands on experiment for freshmen," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
41(2), 14 (2007)
4. Sad, M.E., M.R. Sad, et al., "Chemical kinetics, heat transfer, and
sensor dynamics revisited in a simple experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
42(1), 17 (2008)
5. Minerick, A.R., "Versatile desktop experiment module (DEMo) on
heat transfer," Chem. Eng. Ed., 44(4), 274 (2010)
6. (ASHRAE) Standard 55 2010 "Thermal Environmental Conditions
for Human Occupancy"
7. Piot,A., "Hygrothermique du bAtiment," Ph.D. thesis, Institut National
des Sciences Appliqudcs de Lyon (2009)
8. Agence Nationale de l'Habitat, "fiche technique humidity," www.lesopah.fr/> 0






















222


NOMENCLATURE
Hw., height of the house wall (m)
Hv. enthalpy of humid air at t "C and (J kg-')
I 'c absolute humidity Y

K water adsorption constant on the (-)
wall coatings
M mass of dry air in the house (kg)
M-, equivalent mass of hygroscopic (kg)
material
Q, evaporated water (kg)
Qr water contained in the inner air (kg)
at the end
Q water contained in the walls at (kg)
the end
Q water input by incoming cold air (kg)
Q.c... water accumulated in the walls (kg)
Q aeair water accumulated in the air (kg)
Q water transported by the ventila- (kg)
tion
Sr surface of the house (m')
temp,, outside air temperature ("C)
temp, inner air temperature ("C)

tfna final time (s)
tr__ time for air renewal (s)
V volume of the house (m3)
W evaporation mass flow-rate (kg s I)
X absolute humidity of the hygro- (-)
scopic material
Y. absolute humidity of the outside (-)
air
Y, absolute air humidity at final time (-)
Y,, absolute air humidity at infinite (-)
time
Greek letters
e relative humidity of the air (-)
Ef relative humidity of the air at (-)
infinite time


Chemical Engineering Education








M curriculum
-- I^-----------------


A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students

INDIGO: A WORLD OF BLUES








POLLY R. PIERGIOVANNI
Lafayette College Easton, PA 18042


ip white fabric in the muddy-colored indigo dye vat,
and the cloth emerges green, then slowly turns azure,
cobalt, or sapphire before your eyes. The chemistry
behind this reaction will be revealed-and practiced-in this
course. This mysterious dye has an intriguing history, and we
will study its societal and environmental impact from antiquity
to the present. We will explore the use of indigo by different
cultures, and each student will have the opportunity to rep-
licate one of the techniques used to dye fabric with indigo.
We will learn about the equipment used in producing indigo
dye, and the three sources of indigo: synthetic, natural, and
biosynthetic. The course will culminate with the design of a
new indigo production facility. Students will need to determine
what type of indigo to produce, the location of the facility (i.e.,
rural or populated area? how will it impact the population?),
what environmental concerns to consider, and other aspects
of a new facility.
This course description was provided to all sophomore
students at Lafayette College and 19 students chose to enroll
in the course. Several of the students had not taken any labo-
ratory science courses in college and over a quarter had not
had a mathematics course since high school. About half were
chemical engineering majors. How does one teach process
engineering to such a diverse group?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
As the National Academy of Engineering and others have
written, our society is driven by technology, and everyone
should understand something about engineering.'02 "Every-
one" includes liberal arts students. The liberal arts education


was created to provide general knowledge, and to help stu-
dents develop rational thought and intellectual capabilities.
It included courses in literature, languages, philosophy, his-
tory, mathematics, and science. As society has become more
dependent on technology, it is more important that citizens
have some understanding of this technology in order to make
wise decisions." A well-educated citizen should not only
have a background in the traditional liberal arts courses,
but should also have some technical literacy. In fact, the
president of Smith College stated that "the study of science
and engineering should enrich and deepen the education of
historians and poets."13]
This is the logic behind the Values and Science/Technology
(VaST) requirement at Lafayette College. Every sophomore
is required to take a VaST course, chosen from a list of about
25 options. Each VaST course covers a different topic, but all
present some aspect of science and/or technology interacting
with a variety of other disciplines. The courses also address
ethical or values-oriented concerns and include processed
writing.'4' The VaST course has been required for many
years, and is considered to be a fundamental component of
the Lafayette students' education.

Polly R. Piergiovanni is an associate professor W -
of chemical and biomolecular engineering at
Lafayette College. She received her bachelor's
degree from Kansas State University and her
Ph.D. from the University of Houston, both in
chemical engineering. Currently she is study-
ing how active learning and directed writing
activities facilitate critical thinking.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Other institutions agree that engineering should be a compo-
nent of the liberal arts education. Union College has embraced
the ideas with its Converging Technologies curriculum, which
integrates the arts, humanities, and sciences with engineering.[51
A review of technical literacy courses for non-engineering
students found that courses are offered at many institutions,
with a variety of names.t61 Many individuals have developed
these courses and obtained encouraging results. Common
course goals include providing an understanding of what
engineering is, describing the engineering process, and help-
ing students develop the ability to make informed decisions
about technological issues facing society.
The challenge to engineers is to encourage students to enroll
in the courses, and to make the information accessible to the
students. Therefore, the courses for non-engineers are often
developed around a theme or concept already familiar to
students, such as robotics,'17 "How Things Work" dissection
projects,181 simple building projects,1' or biological systems.1o
Some hands-on projects reach out to the community along
with discussion questions for technical, ethical, and societal
issues.1"1 While these courses are interesting and exciting,
chemical engineering examples are rare.
In his review of engineering for non-engineers courses,
Krupczakl"2' classified the courses into four types:
The Technology Survey Course
The Technology Focus or Topics Course
The Technology Creation Course (Design)
The Technology Critique, Assess, Reflect, or Connect
Course
The paper also provides a framework for evaluating new
courses. The VaST course described in this paper meets the
requirements for a "Technology Focus or Topics Course." It
focuses on one area of technology, it includes a laboratory,
and social and historical aspects are considered.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR
NON-ENGINEERS
This VaST course, open to all sophomores, needed to be
accessible to those with a background that included little
chemistry and no calculus. The course would expose the
students to some broad concepts and principles that would
help them have a better understanding of what engineering
is, but not prepare them to practice engineering.
For example, after completing the course, I wanted students
to realize that pumps have limitations, to know the purpose
of filtration, and to learn that some chemical reactions result
in colored substances. They would understand why blue
jeans fade, but other fabrics don't. They would not be able to
mathematically model a process, but they would be able to put
unit operations into a useful order to produce a product. By
learning this, the students might change their view of chemi-


cal plants, and have a better understanding of environmental
and safety concerns.
Thus, in developing the course, I began with the following
learning objectives:
By the end of the semester, students will be able to:
I. Use multiple perspectives to answer important questions
about a complicated problem
2. Explain the chemical differences between dyeing with
indigo and dyeing with other natural dyes
3. Create a process flow diagram, identify major process
equipment, and explain briefly how it works
4. Write a technically competent laboratory report on the
processes studied
5. Show an understanding of what a professional is and the
ethical responsibilities of a professional

Experiential learning was an important part of the course
concept, so I developed many active learning and laboratory
exercises for the class. This paper presents descriptions, an
assessment of the results, and lessons learned from teaching
engineering to students who are not engineers.

COURSE ORGANIZATION
The course had two 1-hour lecture times and one 2-hour
laboratory each week. The lecture meetings were seldom
lectures, but most often included active learning exercises
or short presentations by the students. I divided the semes-
ter into four sections, with a short quiz after each section.
The first topic was the history of indigo, followed by the
processing of indigo (including material balances, unit
operations, and plant design), and the chemistry of indigo
synthesis. The third topic was a unit on ethics (required
for all VaST courses) and the final topic was cultural and
artistic uses of indigo. Students purchased a book for
the course,[31] were directed to resources available in the
library,[14, 15] and were given several journal articles we
discussed in class.[16-21
The group of students was diverse, including 10 chemical
engineering majors and nine liberal arts students (major-
ing in economics, psychology, history, and art). Many of
the students had taken a semester of calculus, however I
limited the mathematical content of the course to basic
algebra, and provided extra help outside of class for those
who needed it. We met once in a computer classroom where
I introduced all of the students to Visio (to draw a simple
Process Flow Diagram) and Excel (for creating graphs).
Two of the students were especially concerned about their
lack of chemistry background. I provided multiple explana-
tions (using the chalkboard, manipulatives, and animations)
for the chemical reactions they needed to learn, and, more
importantly, personally helped them perform the synthesis
laboratory experiments.


Chemical Engineering Education


224







ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISES
Most information was presented to the students during the
one-hour time period, and I used active learning exercises
extensively. Four are described below, and Table 1 shows the
objectives of each activity and how they map to the overall
course objectives.
Timeline activity: The first weeks of the class covered
the history of indigo, starting at about 3000 BC. I wanted the
students to be able to mark the events in indigo history with
events they were familiar with, so their first assignment was
to come to class with six events that took place between 3000
BC and 500 BC: three that they had learned in high school,
and three that had something to do with indigo. At the begin-
ning of class, I drew a timeline on the blackboards around
the classroom, and each student wrote his/her events on the
timeline (along with their initials). As we marched through
time, I illustrated important events in indigo history, and we
discussed how the events the students contributed might have
influenced society and the developments I provided. We had
an interesting history lesson and got to know each other.

New York Times articles: From 1874 to about 1918,
the New York Times published more than 30 articles about
the synthesis of indigo by the Germans, the commerce of
indigo, and how artificial indigo would change the world.
These articles are available online, so I printed copies of the
original articles, pasted them to cardstock, and arranged them


around the classroom. The students were divided into groups,
and given questions to discuss after reading the articles. For
example, they learned that as early as 1904, the discovery of
"artificial indigo" was predicted to ruin villages in India and
affect local textile mills. They discussed whether this hap-
pened then--as well as the lingering effects. Other articles
predicted the dominance of the Germans in the dye industry,
and the potential repercussions in the United States. Students
were asked to consider the effect of indigo dye during World
War I (for example, the articles reported the lack of dye for
uniforms). A competition developed as the groups tried to find
the answers and discuss their importance. The students found
the activity more interesting than just reading the articles on
their own. They also learned how journalism and vocabulary
have changed in the last 100 years or so.
Unit Operations examples: I brought samples of differ-
ent schedule pipes and tubing to class, and different types of
propellers and turbine mixers, so the students could hold and
examine them. We discussed the differences, and how they
would affect a process. In addition, I took apart old pumps
and valves, so the students could examine how they worked
while I explained it on the board. We took a tour of the Unit
Operations laboratory to show the students the larger pieces of
equipment. This was likely the first time most of the students
had been in a facility with this type of equipment. The stu-
dents knew something about distillation, filtration, and other
processes, but most had not seen the equipment used in plants.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Plant Design Game: I wanted students to realize that
when designing a plant, decisions must be made, and the
decisions had economic and other consequences. With one
week devoted to the topic, we didn't have time to cover how
the decisions were made (although we did discuss synthesis
trees). Instead, I devised a game where the students made
their decisions (primarily choosing extraction, filtration,
and drying equipment) by pulling slips of paper out of a
hat and rolling dice. For example, they might choose to
dry the final product with a spray dryer (expensive capital
cost, but low labor cost) or with the sun (minimal capital
cost, but higher labor cost). This gave them the informa-
tion needed to construct a basic economic statement for
their plant, and determine their profit (or loss). It was a
lively competition-with a candy bar for the student with
the largest profit-and the role of decisions became clear
to the students.
In addition to these activities, videos on YouTube were used
to demonstrate dye making and printing techniques, a DVD
gave us a tour of the indigo harvest process,[221 and students
gave several presentations on various topics. We were also
fortunate to be invited to tour a nearby pigment plant, where
the students saw the safety measures we had discussed and
full-size examples of the unit operations.


LABORATORIES
The students met weekly in the laboratory for two hours
for different activities. About half the activities were done
individually, and half done in a group of two or three (with
each group including at least one engineer). Table 2 maps
the goals of the laboratory exercises to the course learning
objectives. The exercises are described below.
1. Natural dyes and the necessity of mordants: Most
natural dyes will not bind permanently to a fabric without
the aid of a mordant. The mordant, typically a metal ion, is
fixed to the fabric, and then reacts with the dye to produce
color. The different metal ions produce different shades of
color. Each student was given a bundle of fabric: three pieces
each of linen, wool, cotton, and silk, mordanted with either
chrome, tin, or alum. Each piece of fabric was cut into four
pieces so each combination could be dyed in each of the four
natural dyes logwoodd, fusticwood, Brazilwood, or cochineal,
purchased online'231). Each student thus had 48 pieces of
fabric. The assignment was to dye the fabrics, organize them
creatively, and then draw conclusions on the effect of fabric,
mordant, and dye on color.
2. Beginning and maintaining a vat of natural indigo: A
fermentation process is used to maintain an indigo vat. The


Chemical Engineering Education







fermentation has nothing to do with the indigo, but it is a natu-
ral (vs. a chemical) method to remove oxygen from the liquid.
Natural indigo and the necessary additives to maintain a vat
can be purchased online.1241 The students observed as I added
the ingredients [solid indigo, madder root (for deeper color),
soda ash (to adjust pH) and wheat bran (to feed the bacteria)].
We discussed how the fermentation process removes oxygen,
and related it to fermentation processes familiar to them. I
explained how in the absence of oxygen, indigo changes
from an insoluble form to a soluble form. Each week, when
we entered the laboratory, we "fed" the vat (to maintain the
bacteria responsible for the fermentation) and the students
learned to recognize the strong scent of an indigo vat.
3. Indigo dyeing: Indigo is a vat dye, insoluble in water, and
cannot be applied directly to fabric. The reduced form of the
dye is soluble in water, and will bind to cloth (see Figure 1).
As the cloth is exposed to oxygen, the dye structure changes
and the dye becomes physically embedded in the cloth. Each
student was given pieces of cotton, silk, wool, and linen to dye
with natural indigo. They learned the importance of physically
working the dye into the fabric and saw it turn from green to
blue as oxygen reached the cloth as it was pulled out of the vat.
4. Unit Operations experiments: Using a pump designed
for a small outdoor fountain and different sizes of tubing, the
students collected data for a pump curve, which they created
in Excel. They calibrated a variable area rotameter and wrote
a page describing how it works. Last, using a Girder and Panel
hydrodynamic building set,1251 they constructed a continuous
process (with water circulating) and observed the response of
the system when various valves were closed, and described
how a siphon in the process worked.
5. Synthesis of indigo: Using o-nitrobenzaldeyde, acetone,
and NaOH, each student synthesized indigo (see the Appen-
dix, page 272 for the procedure used). Before beginning the
laboratory, they had to find and summarize the MSDS for each
component. I demonstrated the use of a graduated cylinder,
analytical balance, and Buchner funnel for the nonengineering
students, preweighed 0.5 g of o-nitrobenzaledhyde for each
student, and instructed all students on yield calculations and
waste disposal. The students practiced operations of chemical
engineering (mixing, filtration, and drying) at a small scale,
which gave them a basis for understanding the larger scales
we discussed in class.


6. Project weeks: The students were given a white cotton
dish towel, access to the dyes and other materials, and en-
couraged to create something using the artistic techniques we
had learned about in class (batik, shibori,[261 and stamping).
They also created an advertisement that detailed how their
creation was made.
The students enjoyed the time in the laboratory, asked in-
sightful questions, and produced well-written and technically
accurate memos. One student (a chemical engineer) created a
magnificent display from the first project that made it easy for
an observer to draw conclusions on the effect of mordant and
fabric. We used her display to note how fabric type (animal
protein or plant cellulose) affected the dye color. For example,
wool was dyed a darker color than the other fabrics for all
dyes, and mordanting with alum also resulted in darker colors
than chrome or tin. Surprisingly, cochineal dyed the fabrics
pink with tin and alum mordants, but purple with chrome.
These observations could not be explained in this course, but
the students learned to observe and draw conclusions.
We spent two weeks dyeing with indigo to get deeper col-
ors. The first week, many students discovered that rinsing the
fabric before it was dry removed most of the indigo. They
were able to correct this the second week. In class, when
we discussed the different modes of dye attachment, they
understood why this had happened with the indigo and not
the other dyes. Indigo is not chemically bound to the fabric,
but is physically trapped between fibers. The more the fabric
is kneaded in the vat, the more indigo gets trapped between
fibers instead of on the outside surface. Dye on the outside
surface washes or rubs off.
Most engineers and all non-engineers were surprised that
the pump could only lift the water to a certain height, practi-
cal information that may be useful to them someday. I was
impressed by their explanations of how a rotameter works.
Both engineering and liberal arts students were able to use
the resources I provided127 28 to describe how the variable
area influences the measurement. The engineering students
used equations, the liberal arts students used words, but both
communicated effectively.
The engineers had no trouble synthesizing indigo (they had
completed organic chemistry laboratory), and most of the
nonengineers were able to do the laboratory with little help.
One student, howevernever \% a_ ble to qui.e tfollco the steps.
Eventually, after class I
walked her through the
OH H procedure step-by-step
Sand she was able to pro-
duce a small amount of
Sindigo. She was pleased
S3N with her success.
H HO During the project
,T~ r 'n 'lcno ,.=a


Figure 1. Indigo dye in its soluble and insoluble forms.


W s-l3, eLi sLUU eLna cIL -.t-
ed works of art. In order


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


reduction


oxidation
oxidation



































to apply the first learning objective-to answer an important
question-each student researched a dyeing technique from
Africa or India. They discovered what natural materials the
artists use to create the patterns in the cloth, what symbol-
ism is present in the design, and how the cloths are used.
The students then used a variation of the engineering design
process to develop a process to create their own cloths, either
using the cultural symbols or choosing their own symbols. I
was pleased with the different techniques they were willing
to try, their use of chemistry and the engineering process to
create them, and how their efforts turned out.

ASSESSMENT
The main assessment (to measure knowledge of engineering
gained) was performed on the final paper of the class, where
the students had to design a plant to produce either natural,
synthetic, or biosynthetic indigo. I analyzed the papers ac-
cording to the following questions:
1. Were unit operations described correctly and placed in
a logical order (focusing on agitation, extraction, and
filtration)?
2. Did the student exhibit an understanding of the chemis-
try behind the process?
3. Were safety and environmental concerns addressed?
I read the papers multiple times, compiled notes on how
they addressed the questions above in a master sheet, and
gave a grade on each aspect (see Table 3 for the analysis of
two liberal arts students' papers). A summary of the results is
shown in Table 4, along with the type of indigo they planned to
produce. Interestingly, the majority of the engineering students


chose to produce synthetic indigo while most liberal arts stu-
dents chose natural indigo. The liberal arts students were able
to describe the chemistry and unit operations adequately-and
nearly as well as the engineering students, although one liberal
arts student included some misstatements about the chemistry
of nitrogen. The four liberal arts students who attempted to
describe the fermentation process did so correctly. All students
excelled on describing the measures they would take to protect
workers and the environment. For example, an economics stu-
dent wrote "Blue Earth [her company name] uses 19th century
methods but treats workers and uses fanning techniques with a
21st century outlook," and an engineering studies student wrote
"This industrial factory will create blue but stay 'Green'." This
student was creative and described how his factory would meet
LEED certification, and chose his equipment so the factory
could be changed from producing natural indigo to biosynthetic
indigo once the biosynthetic method became more reproducible.
Another student (psychology major) created a contract between
her company and Genocor to share the biosynthetic technology
between them. As I read the papers, I could often discern the
student's interests and major. For example, a history major wrote
"A plant [indigo] that has such an interesting history deserves
to continue making history." After reading and grading these
papers, I was convinced that the liberal arts students had met
the objectives of the course. They could create a process flow
diagram and explain how the major unit operations worked, and
address the plant design from multiple perspectives.
Other assessments included other writing assignments (some
more creative than technical, and not considered in this paper) and
four quizzes. The first quiz covered the history of indigo produc-
tion, and the last quiz covered ethics and moral theory. Table 5
Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 3
Final plant design paper assessment. Sample data from two students, showing the notes taken from their work. This was
used to assign point values for their final papers.
Unit Operations
Student Safety & Environment Chemistry
(type of indigo) (10 pts) (10 points) Agitation Extraction Filtration
(10 points) (10 points) (10 points)
Educate and train
workers. Rotate crops (rice Leaching-takes
Pay well for good and indigo) to avoid Incorporates oxy- he indoxyl out Uses cloth to
Pay well for good the indoxyl Out Uses cloth to
1 workers, nitrogen depletion gen to cause re of the leaves and catch indigotan
(natural) Use leaves as fertilizer. Oxygen dissolves action of indoxyl dissolves it in precipitate
Keep seeds for the next indoxyl producing to indigotan. the water. 9
indigotan. 10 10
crop. 1010
10
"No harmful chemi-
cals are allowed to
be used that would
Leaves make rich be used that would Will extract dye
take nutrients away
compost.take nutrients away Agitate with no leaf frag-
from the soil." "By To remove plant
2 Crop rotation. g p paddles until ments in product leve
(natural) Production will be ethi- avoiding pesticides water is oxidized. but no other leaves
cal and fair to farmers. microorganisms are 10 description
ca killed off." 6
10 6
Indigo plants are
nitrogen hungry.
6

























TABLE 5
Summary of quiz performance. There was no significant
difference in quiz performance between the liberal arts
and engineering students on quizzes covering history,
unit operations, or chemistry (two sample t-test, p < 0.05).
The engineers did perform slightly better on the ethics
quiz, which primarily covered professional ethics.
Liberal Arts Engineering t
Students Students statistic
(n=9) (n=10)
History Quiz
average 81 80
-0.36
median 78 80
Unit Operations Quiz
average 93 95
0.73
median 98 96
Chemistry Quiz
average 88 88
0.36
median 90 93
Ethics quiz
average 86 90
1.39
median 86 90

contains a summary of student performance on the four quizzes.
Quiz 2 covered pumps, pipes, valves, and the unit operations
we had discussed (filtration, leaching, drying, and pumping).
Most of the questions required qualitative answers, but a few
required algebraic equations to find the answers, including some
simple material balances. While the sample size is small, the
liberal arts students performed as well as the engineering stu-
dents (see Table 5). The t-statistic was calculated assuming equal
variance for the two sets of students. Quiz 3 had fill-in-the-blank
questions about the chemistry of color and dyeing, fermenta-
tion and synthesis of indigo, and chemistry of natural fibers.
The students were quizzed about the history of the synthesis of
indigo and its effect on society. They also needed to know what
type of information was contained in an MSDS sheet. Again,
the engineers and liberal arts students performed similarly (see
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Table 5). One liberal arts student always performed worse than
all the other students on Quizzes 2 and 3, which resulted in the
difference between the average and median in Table 5.
The students wrote other papers, including a creative exercise
where they described life as an African indigo dyer. These
papers were analyzed for evidence of three elements of critical
thinking identifyingg problems, considering cultural and social
assumptions, and identifying conclusions and implications).[291
No significant difference in critical thinking skills was noted
between the engineering and liberal arts students.
The last form of assessment came from the anonymous
student evaluations of the course, completed by 18 of the 19
students. A summary of the evaluations is shown in Table 6
(next page), beginning with a content analysis of the written
comments. Overall, the students liked the experiential as-
pects of the course. The numerical evaluations indicate that
the students liked the course, but placed less value on the
specific topic. A rating of 4.0 is still "very good," however.
One student commented that he liked "linking the somewhat
eclectic and esoteric topic back to relevant topics such as
safety and morality," and a second student wrote that "the
mix of science, engineering, writing, and art was something
different and interesting"-comments that show the students
understand the purpose of the VaST course.

FUTURE WORK
Recently, a chemical engineering senior who took the course
as a sophomore helped develop a simple dyeing kinetics experi-
ment. We have developed the procedure and the basic analysis.
and expect to include the experiment in the next course offering.
Drying is a major unit operation in the processing of indigo. but
is difficult to analyze due to the simultaneous heat and mass
transfer.Achemical en gineerin i r udent has deig ned :nd built
a simple evaporator to demonstrate a pa.n of the dr ini process.
Students will collect mass data as a portion of the water is
evaporated and complete a mass balance on the process. This
experiment will also be included in the next course offering.
Burrowso130 describes other experiments using natural dyes, and
some will be included in the next course offering.


TABLE 4
Final plant design paper assessment.
Summary data for nine liberal arts students and the 10 engineering students.
Unit Operations
Student Safety & Environment Chemistry
(type of indigo) (10 pts) (10 points) Agitation Extraction Filtration
(10 points) (10 points) il p, ,: .,
Liberal Arts Students
Natural: 5
10/10 8.6/10 9.7/10 8.9/10 8.8/10
Synthetic: 2
Biosynthetic: 2
Engineering Students
Natural: 2
10/10 9.7/10 9.8/10 9.7/10 9.7/10
Synthetic: 7
Biosynthetic: 1









CONCLUSIONS
I developed this course to present some basic chemical
engineering concepts to liberal arts students, using hands-or
activities in the classroom and laboratory. By the end of the
course, the students were comfortable in an engineering labo
ratory and wrote technically competent reports. They coulc
explain the chemistry of indigo dyeing. The students' fina
plant design papers incorporated their laboratory experiences
contained a reasonable process flow diagram and description
of several unit operations, and demonstrated that they coulc
look at indigo production from multiple perspectives. The
papers showed that students realized the importance of eco
nomics, safety, and the environment in everyday processes
These liberal arts students had gained a new perspective or
engineering.

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for Engineering Education Annual
Conference, American Society for Include more ethics
Engineering Education (2007)
11. Weiss,P.T.,and D.J.Weiss,"Hands-
on Projects to Engage Non-engi-
neering Students," Proceedings Three Highest
of the 2001 American Society for
Engineering Education Annual Instructor's enthusiasm
Conference, American Society for Interest in students' lear
Engineering Education (2001)
12. Krupczak,JJ.,"Engineering Courses Examples and illustrate


for Non-Engineers: Identifying and Developing Course Models," Pro-
ceedings of the 2009 American Society for Engineering Education An-
Snual Conference,American Society for Engineering Education (2009)
S 13. Balfour-Paul, J., Indigo,Archetype Publications Ltd., London (2006)
14. Kirk, R.E., and D.F. Othmer, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology, sections on Dyeing; Dyes, Natural; Dyes, Environmen-
talChemistry; Wiley, New York (2000)
1 15. Ullmann, F., and F. Ullman, Ullnann's Encyclopedia of Industrial
l Chemistry, Indigo and Indigo Colorants, Wiley, New York (2000)
16. Wu, E., K. Komolpis, and H.Y. Wang, "Chemical extraction of indigo
from Indigofera tinctoria while attaining biological integrity," Biotech-
Snology Techniques, 13,567 (1999)
S 17. Siva, R., "Status of natural dyes and dye-yielding plants in India,"
SCurrent Science, 92,916 (2007)
18. "Artificial Indigo," Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal
Gardens, Kew), pages 33 35, March 1898
19. Ensley, B.D., B J. Ratzkin,T.D. Osslund, M J. Simon, L.P. Wackett, and
1 D.T. Gibson,"Expression of naphthalene oxidation genes in Escherichia
coli results in the biosynthesis of indigo," Science, 222, 167 (1983)
20. Murdock, D., B.D. Ensley, C. Serdar, and M. Thalen, "Construction
of metabolic operons catalyzing the De Novo synthesis of indigo in
Escherichia coli," BiolTechnology, 11, 381 (1993)
l 21. Moore, S.B., and L.W. Ausley, "Systems thinking and green chemistry
y in the textile industry," J. Cleaner Production, 12,585 (2004)
22. INDIGO- A World of Blue, Maiwa Productions,
(2005). This DVD inspired the course name.
23. DharmaTradingCo., e eng/2499574-AA.shtml> Accessed 10/25/11
24. AuroraSilk html> Accessed 10/25/11. E-mail me if you would like more informa-
/ tion about what I have learned while maintaining my vat.
25. Bridgestreet Toys, -ingsets.html>, Accessed 1/17/11
V 26. Prideaux, V.,A Handbook ofIndigo Dyeing, Search Press, Kent, Great
Britain (2007)
g 27. Felder, R.M., and R. M. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical
f Processes, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York (2004)
28. McCabe, W., J. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York (2004)
g 29. Piergiovanni,P.R., "Experiences Improve Critical Thinking Evidenced
Sin Writing," in preparation.
30. Burrows, V.A., "Experiments and Other Learning Activities Using
Natural Dye Materials," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 132 (2004) 0
r
r

e See "Indigo," continued on page 272
o

TABLE 6
Analysis of Student Evaluations of the Course
Comment Number of Students
at we were learning 3
:h was particularly useful 3
nts 2
2


Numerical Evaluation (Rated 1 to 5, 5 = Excellent)
Characteristics Three Lowest Characteristics
(4.9) Relevance & usefulness of course content (4.0)
ning (4.8) Organization (4.1)
ins (4.8) Use of class time (4.3)

Chemical Engineering Education








_] curriculum
--------------------


ENERGY BALANCES


ON TRANSIENT PROCESSES






FRANCISCO RUIZ-BEVIA, M. DOLORES SAQUETE, IGNACIO ARACIL, AND M. FRANCISCA G6MEZ
University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99 E-03080 Alicante, Spain


This study proposes a set of experiments that will prove
useful to students in understanding and putting into
practice basic concepts involved in energy balances.
These experiments, which form part of a course of Chemical
Engineering Laboratory I, are very simple from the point of
view of the required equipment and operations that students
must carry out, as well as with regard to the concepts in-
volved. The first part of the experiments consists of heating
and later cooling a mass of water contained in a vessel by
means of an electrical resistor of known power, which is first
connected and then disconnected from a power source (batch
process). The results of this experiment necessarily have to be
interpreted in terms of an unsteady-state energy balance. In
a second part, both heating and cooling of the water, by first
connecting and then disconnecting the electrical resistor, are
carried out while at the same time allowing water to flow at
a constant rate through the vessel. Under these conditions the
temperature is fixed at the inlet and obviously changing at the
outlet. In this last case, a stationary state is eventually reached
and the difference of the enthalpy between the incoming and
exit water streams must appear in the energy balance.
These experiments, and others involving unsteady-state
material balances, have been set up and tested in the laborato-
ries of the chemical engineering department at the University
of Alicante, where they are used as a practical complement,
in the first year of the curriculum, to illustrate the concepts
developed in Chapter 11, "Balance on Transient Processes,"
in the textbook by Felder and Rousseau.E" The energy bal-


ances, along with the material balances, are essential tools
for the study of any basic operation of chemical engineer-
ing, and therefore the fundamental concepts of material and
energy balances are usually incorporated in the first year of
all chemical engineering curricula. This is reflected in intro-
ductory chemical engineering textbooks (e.g., Himmelblau,121
Henley and Rosen,[13 and Reklaitis14]), which have followed
the guidelines established by the pioneer book by Hougen and
Watson, Material and Energy Balances ,l5 published in 1943.
The journal Chemical Engineering Education has also shown

Francisco Ruiz-Bevii is professor emeritus of chemical engineering at
the University of Alicante (Spain). He received his Ph.D. from Valencia
University (Spain). He conducts research in phase equilibria and holo-
graphic interferometry applied to mass transfer.
M. Dolores Saquete received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from
Alicante University (Spain) in 2001. She is currently an associate profes-
sor at the University of Alicante (Spain). Her research interests include
phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties.
Ignacio Aracil received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the
University of Alicante (Spain) in 2008. He currently works as an assistant
professor at that university. His research is mainly devoted to the study
of waste treatments, including pollutant emissions derived from thermal
treatments of plastic wastes and process design to recover components
of specific wastes such as waste ink and rice husk.
M. Francisca Gdmez received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from
the University of Alicante (Spain) in 2008. She currently works as an
assistant professor at that university. Her research is mainly focused on
waste treatments, such as thermal treatment, to study the pollution in-
volved and different ways of taking advantage of this waste with minimum
damage to the environment.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







its interest in this topic, e.g., in the two-part article written
by Bullard and Felder,16'7 "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances."
The experiments relating to unsteady-state energy balances
presented here have also been studied by other authors in
CEE, such as Condoret'81 and Luyben.191 Condoret, in his
article "Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of
Coffee," included in the category of ChE Class and Home
Problems, presents the problem like this: We put a cup of cof-
fee on a table. Its initial temperature is around 80 C. What
is the temperature of the coffee after 10 min, for instance?
The paper solves the problem using a simulation model of
the cooling process; the model takes into account the heat
loss at vessel wall of the cup, the heat loss by heat transfer
only at the surface of the liquid, and the heat loss resulting
from evaporation. The paper also describes a simple lab ex-
periment using porcelain cups filled with water, a numerical
thermometer, a balance, and a stopwatch. The didactic value
of the paper comes from showing how using heat transfer
coefficients makes it possible to model and predict the simple
experiment of cooling a cup of hot coffee. Another experiment
relating to unsteady-state energy balances is described by
Luyben191 in the article "The Devil's in the Delta," included in
the ChE Laboratory category. The process consists of a stirred
vessel, 1 m diameter, containing 785 kg of water. The rpm's
of the agitator can be varied to see the effect on the inside
fluid coefficient. A spiral coil is wrapped around the outside
of the vessel. The liquid in the vessel is initially at ambient
temperature. It is heated by introducing steam at the top of
the coil. When the water of the vessel reaches about 80 C
the steam is shut off and cooling water is introduced. The
didactic value of this paper comes from providing a clear dis-
tinction of the three "deltas" as used in chemical engineering;
the author refers to them as "In Minus Out" Delta, "Driving
Force" Delta, and "Time" Delta. As the author mentions in
the paper conclusions, although the distinction of the three
deltas is obvious to the experienced engineer, they are often
misapplied by young students.

EXPERIMENT
Apparatus
The experimental apparatus used is shown in Figure 1. It
consists of a vessel with water inlet and outlet, equipped with
an electrical resistor heater and a magnetic stirrer to ensure
that the temperature is uniform throughout the vessel. The
water, fed to the apparatus at a constant flow rate, comes
from a tank that is kept at a constant water level. Water exits
the vessel at the same flow rate as in the feed. In addition
to the experimental apparatus just described, a stopwatch,
beakers, and a balance will prove useful for measuring the
flow rate properly.
The vessel consists of a stainless steel cylinder of 10 cm
internal diameter, 23 cm length, and 1.63 kg weight. It is
232


Figure 1. Experimental apparatus.

TABLE 1
Details of the Experimental Apparatus
Parameter Value
P(W) 110
M (kg) 1.75
M, (kg) 1.63
M (kg) 0.10
Cpw (J/kg 'C) 4180
Cp, (J/kg "C) 460
Cp, (J/kg 'C) 836
m (kg/s) 4.0-10-3

also insulated at the base to isolate it from the magnetic
stirrer, and in addition, has a methacrylate cover that blocks
evaporation. Therefore, water mass remains constant and
evaporative cooling is avoided. Table 1 shows the power of
the resistor (P), the overflow capacity of the vessel (mass
of water, Mw), the mass of the vessel (M ) and the resistor
(Mr), as well as the heat capacities Cpw, Cpv, and Cpr, of the
water, vessel, and resistor, respectively. It also contains the
value of constant flow rate of water that enters the vessel
(m). Three thermocouples interfaced with a PC measure and
record the temperature of the water in the inlet (Ti ) and at
two other points in the vessel (T, in the uppermost part of
the vessel and T2 in the lowermost). The extent to which the
vessel is well stirred depends upon how close T, and T2 are.
The continuous monitoring and recording of temperatures by
the thermocouples interfaced with the PC makes it possible
to extract numerous experimental data points.
The experimental method consists of the following steps.
Without water circulation:
Experiment Al: The vessel, full of water, is warmed up to 45 C
by connection of the resistor to the power source (nonstation-
ary regime).
Chemical Engineering Education







Figure 2 shows the experimental data obtained in the form
of temperature T of the water in the vessel vs. time t. The mea- Al Heated by resistor with no water inlet
sured values of temperatures T, and T2 are practically equal, 50
with less than two-tenths of a degree difference between them,
which indicates that the vessel is perfectly stirred. These cir- 45 T exp (0C)
cumstances-equal temperatures and good stirring-together T cal eq.(3) (0C)
with the fact that water has a high heat capacity, ensure that 40 T recon eq.(10) (OC)
the heat generated by the resistor is quickly transferred to the 40
mass of water, preventing the resistor surface temperature
from reaching higher than 100 "C, thus avoiding local boiling. 35
The average value of T, and T, has been used to represent
the experimental data graphically, and is shown as the dashed 30
line in Figure 2.
Experiment A2: When the temperature reaches 45 "C, the 25
resistor is disconnected from the power source and the evolu-
tion of temperature with time is studied as an experiment of 20
water cooling under nonstationary conditions. 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Figure 3 shows (dashed line) the experimental data obtained t (s)
in the form of temperature T of the water in the vessel vs. time t. Figure 2. Experiment Al. Water heating to 45 C.

With water circulation:
Experiment B1: The water in the vessel is pre-heated to 45 "C. A2 Cooled with no water inlet
The experiment begins when a valve is opened to allow water
to flow through the vessel at a constant rate without disconnect- 44
ing the resistor from the power source. This implies a cooling 42 T exp (0C)
experiment, and the time and temperatures are recorded until 40 T ca eq.(8) (
--- T calc eq.(8) (PC)
a steady state temperature (constant temperature) is reached. 38
The flow rate of water that enters the vessel is measured when o 36
it exits by means of the "bucket and stopwatch" method. 34
Experiment B2: While maintaining water circulation the re- 32
sister is disconnected. The temperature then decreases until 30
a different stationary state is reached.
28
Experiment B3: The resistor is connected without varying the 0 5000 10000 15000 20000
water flow rate, thus raising the temperature to the stationary t (s)
state temperature that was reached at the end of experiment B 1.
Figure 3. Water cooling with resistor switched off.
Figure 4 represents the data obtained
in experiments B 1, B2, and B3 as three
different but connected portions of a B Heated and cooled under water flow
dashed line. 50
45
DISCUSSION 40
35
Without water circulation: 30
30
Experiment Al is a process of heat- 6 25-
ing in the nonstationary regime where 20 20
the temperature of the mass of water 15
M, the mass of the vessel M and the 10 -Texp(C) -- T calceq.(12) (C)
mass of the electrical resistor M are 5
raised thanks to the difference between 0
the heat received from the electrical 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
resistor of power P and the heat lost t (s)
by convection Q, through the walls of
the vessel. Figure 4. Experiments B1-3. Cooling and heating with flow.
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 233







Experiment Al can be modeled by means of the following
energy balance
dT
(M,C, +MC, +MC) d =P-Q, (1)

The mechanical work is not included in this energy balance
because in the present case it arises only from the magnetic
stirrer and it can be considered negligible.
Neglecting the losses of heat through the walls, Eq. (1)
simplifies to


(MCw +MC, +M,C,, d= P

Integration then leads to
P
T= To + Ct
(MCw + MCp + M'CP')


where To is the initial temperature of the water in the vessel
at the beginning of experiment Al, 22.9 "C in this case.
Notice that Figure 2 contains the plot of the simplified model
embodied in Eq. (3) (equation of a straight line). It can be
observed that the calculated temperatures (represented by the
thin continuous line) are a little higher than the experimental
ones (dashed line), but the difference does not become greater
than 2 C until only after 500s. A small improvement can be
obtained if Eq. (1) is used instead, i.e., by taking into account
the heat lost by convection Q, through the walls of the vessel.
This lost heat can be expressed as
Q, =UA(T-Tmb) (4)

where
A= External surface of the vessel (m2)
U= Global coefficient of heat transfer ( W/m2 "C)
T= Water temperature ('C)
Tamb= Ambient temperature ("C)
The experimental value of product UA can be determined
from the data of experiment A2, where the vessel is cooled.
Applying an energy balance in this case, in which electrical
energy P is not supplied, yields
dT
(M,CP, +MC +MC) d=-Q1 (5)

which combined with Eq. (4) results in
dT
(MCw +MC +M,C ,)- =-UA(T-Tamb) (6)

and the integration leads to
T- T UA
in anbt U (7)
To T, (MCp +MCp +MrCp )

Here, To is the initial temperature of the water at the begin-
ning of experiment A2, and corresponds to the final tempera-
234


n n -


SEE

a~


(3) Figure 5. The slope of the straight line allows calculation
of the parameter UA.


ture at the end of experiment Al, 45.1 "C, while the ambient
temperature is 25.3 "C.
Figure 5 is another plot of the experimental data of the
cooling process but of the form
T- Tm
In
T Tmb

as a function of time t.
According to Eq. (7), the slope of the straight line in Figure
5 is -8.50 10-5 s1, that leads to a value for the parameter UA
of 0.693 W/"C. Since the external surface of the vessel A is
known, 0.07235 (m2), the value for the global coefficient of heat
transfer U can be calculated (9.59 W/m2 "C). In this cooling
experiment A2, there are different heat transfer mechanisms,
namely: internal liquid convection in series with conduction in
the stainless steel wall and external transfer to ambient air. The
internal individual coefficient of heat transfer is high (forced
convection since the water is stirred). Also the heat transfer by
conduction in the stainless steel wall is high. The external coef-
ficient (free convection to air) is low, however, and therefore
this last mechanism is probably the limiting one. In fact, the
value of the overall coefficient computed, U= 9.59 W/m2 "C, is
close to the value of a usual external heat transfer coefficient.
Eq. (7) written in the following format
UA
T-Tmb (MwCpw+MvCpv+M rCpr)
T, Tmb

permits comparison using Figure 3 of the calculated (continu-
ous line) and experimental (dotted line) values of the cooling
experiment A2. It can be observed that there is good agree-
ment between the experimental and calculated data.
In the same way, once the value of UA is known, the
variation of temperature with time in experiment Al can be
recalculated by means of Eq. (9), which includes the losses
of heat through the walls.
Chemical Engineering Education


5000 10000 15000 20

.Texp(*C)
S -- T calc eq.(7) (OC)
'^







dT
(MC +MC +MC) d =P-UA(T-Tb) (9)

An expression that once integrated leads to
P-UA(T-Tb) UA
P-UA(T -Tm) (MwC U +MC, +MCp, )


In the same way, integration of Eq. (14) leads to an equa-
tion similar to Eq. (12) in which P is absent and in which To
must be the initial temperature of water when experiment B2
begins. Therefore, the final temperature of the stationary state
at the end of experiment B 1 must be used. Figure 4 shows the
calculated values (continuous line) of experiment B2, which
exhibit good agreement with the experimental ones (dashed
l n r eim) In lV I, ..eln I th ct i f f;la t i,


Figure 2 shows the variation of water temperature with time -"
calculated using Eq. (10). It can be observed that this simulation reached and dT/dt = 0
with Eq. (10) (bold solid line), which does take into account 0 = mC,
the losses of heat through the walls of the vessel, represents
a very slight improvement on the simulation done using Eq. (3) (thin continuous line),
which neglected those heat losses. This small improvement suggests that the Q, term in
Eq. (1) can be neglected to a first approximation to give Eq. (2). Indeed, the effect of heat
losses on the temperature is greatest toward the end of the experiment when AT reaches
its highest value, around 10 W, which compared to a power of 110 W of the electrical
resistor means a deviation of around 10% when neglecting heat losses through the walls.
With water circulation
The process that takes place in experiment B 1 can be modeled by means of Eq. (1)
extended to include the term mCp (Tn T). This term represents the change in enthalpy
of the water flowing through the vessel between the inlet and outlet. In the experiments
where water is circulating through the vessel, T corresponds to the outlet water tem-
perature if the vessel is well stirred.


dT
(MCw +MC +MCp,)d = mCp (T,-T)+P-UA(T-Tmb)

which after integration leads to:
mC Tn + P+UAT,,, -(mC,,, + UA) T (mCpw +UA)
In p m C t
mCp, Te +P + UAT,,, (mCp, + UA) To (MwCw +MCp, +M,Cpr)


(11)



(12)


In this case, To, the initial temperature of water at the beginning of experiment B 1, has a
value of 45.5 "C. The temperature inside the vessel decreases to a constant value (station-
ary state).
Once a stationary state has been achieved, the temperature will not vary with time
and therefore dT/dt = 0 Upon substitution of this into Eq. (11), the temperature of the
stationary state is easily obtained:
0=mC,, (T, -T)+P-UA(T-Tmb) (13)

Putting known data values into Eq. (12), the variation of temperature T with time t is
obtained. These calculated values for experiment B 1 are plotted alongside the experi-
mental ones in Figure 4. The good agreement between the experimental (dashed line)
and calculated (continuous line) data is evident.
In the experiments involving water circulation the ambient temperature is 21.0 "C.
The temperature at the water inlet is 20.4 "C in this case.
On the other hand, Eq. (13) produces a calculated temperature for the stationary state,
26.8 "C, that is very close to the experimental one.
In cooling experiment B2, the resistor is disconnected while maintaining water flow.
Therefore, this can be modeled by a modified Eq. (11), in which the term P, the power
of the electrical resistor, does not appear:
dT+
(MCw +MC, +M,C,) dT=mC (T, -T)-UA(T-T.mb) (14)
dt v


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


F, p llU13, w 1.I LLIt 1.nary s s
, the following equation will hold true
(Tn -T)-UA(T-Tmb) (15)


and allows calculation of the final
temperature of experiment B2.
Since in this experiment Tin =
Tmb, according to Eq. (15) the final
temperature should be equal or
close to T b. In the present case,
this corresponds to a final tempera-
ture of 20.5 'C. (Tm =21.0 "C)
In experiment B3 the resistor
is reconnected while maintaining
water circulation. Therefore, the
same differential Eq. (11) and the
same integrated Eq. (12) are valid,
the only difference being that To
now corresponds to the final tem-
perature of experiment B2. Figure
4 shows the calculated values and
the experimental ones plotted on the
same graph. The good agreement of
the data is again evident. The final
temperature of the stationary state
will be the same in experiment B3
as in B 1, which is given by Eq. (13).
In experiment B3 the temperature of
the stationary state is 26.8 "C, very
similar to the 26.9 'C reached in B 1.
It should be pointed out that in
the beginning of each experiment a
small period of time passes where
there is some inertia due to the initial
connection or disconnection of the
resistor. What happens during this
time has not been taken into account
because the energy balances in this
case would not correspond exactly to
those (the equations) presented here.

EXPERIENCES GAINED
BY THE STUDENTS
The entire experiment, consisting
of two sessions lasting three hours
each, is conducted in pairs by the
235







students. During the first session, the students observe the
process without water circulation, whereas during the second
one, the process with water circulation is studied. Students
gain ample practical experience, e.g., on measuring tempera-
tures by thermocouples interfaced with a PC, on control and
measurement of flow rates. Most students find the module
effective as an introduction to the concept of unsteady-state
process, of which most of them have only theoretical back-
ground knowledge. In addition to this, the concept of overall
heat transfer coefficient (U) is introduced and its experimental
value is obtained during the experiments.
After the experimental part, the students, still working in
pairs, are expected to submit a report containing all the results
obtained including a discussion that compares experimental
data with those calculated using the theoretical equations. In
this way they test the potential of theoretical models to predict
experimental results. Occasionally something is bound to go
wrong during experimentation (random fluctuations in the
flow rate that is not constant during the experiment, errone-
ous measurement of the flow rate by the student, erroneous
temperature readings caused by improper positioning of the
thermocouples or by the magnetic stirrer that is not work-
ing properly, etc.) and therefore the experimental data end
up not fitting the theoretical models perfectly. In this case,
students also learn the importance of handling and taking
care of the experimental details in order to obtain valid and
reliable experimental results that are predicted by theoretical
models. Regarding safety aspects, the experimental set-up is
very simple and safe, without apparent danger in operation
for students. The product flowing is water and temperatures






























236


are low. The trickiest part of the apparatus is the electric re-
sistance heater, which must be connected and disconnected at
the right time. In order to prevent this part being broken due
to forgetfulness, an electrical safety switch must be installed.
In their reports, students are asked to give an assessment of
the experimental module both in terms of its pedagogical
value and the operation of the equipment. Most students give
very positive feedback. Finally, at the end of the course, each
student is expected to make an oral presentation of the experi-
ment on his/her own in front of lecturers and other students.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York (2000)
2. Himmelblau, D.M., Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, 1 st ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1962),
7th ed. with J.B. Riggs, (2003)
3. Henley, EJ., and E.M.Rosen, Material and Energy Balance Computa-
tions, Wiley, New York, (1969)
4. Reklaitis, G.V., Introduction to Material and Energy Balances, Wiley,
New York, (1983)
5. Hougen, O.A., and K.M. Watson, Chemical Process Priciples- Part I.
Material and Energy Balances, 1st ed., Wiley, New York, (1943)
6. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances. 1. Course Design, Chem.
Eng. Ed., 41(2), 93 (2007)
7. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances. 2. Course Delivery and As-
sessment, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(3), 167 (2007)
8. Condoret, J.S., "Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of
Coffee," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 137 (2007)
9. Luyben, W.L., "The Devil's in the Delta," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(1), 7
(2007) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








Random Thoughts...









WHY JOHNNY AND JANIE CAN'T


(OR WON'T) READ






RICHARD M. FIELDER AND REBECCA BRENT


question we routinely hear in our workshops is, "How
can we get students to read before class?" The ques-
ioners have a perfectly natural desire not to waste
class time on material they think students can just as easily
get for themselves, and when later most of their students seem
to have no clue about the readings, they conclude that the
students must be lazy or illiterate. Some may be, but that's
not generally the problem.
Assignments intended to introduce new material can be
effective or worthless or anything in-between. The best ones
are interactive multimedia tutorials that provide affirmation or
corrective feedback in response to students' inputs. Less effec-
tive but still acceptable are videos of well-delivered lectures
with lots of visual content, demonstrations, and examples.
Such resources can equip most students to come to class ready
to work, and if the tutorials and videos are particularly well
designed the instructor may flip the classroom, abandoning
lecturing completely and devoting the entire class time to
problem-solving and project work.
On the other hand, simply assigning textbook readings to
introduce new material is generally futile. STEM texts tend to
be dense, dry, and almost indecipherable to anyone without su-
perior reading skills, which relatively few people have. To get
anything but vague general ideas from them, students would
have to read them painstakingly, making sure they understand
definitions, explanations, steps in derivations, and meanings of
diagrams and plots before moving on, and it would normally
take several passes to get a reasonable level of understanding.
Most of our students don't know how to read that way-it's
not self-evident and no one ever taught them to do it. Being
rational, once they find their text incomprehensible they
ignore it. Hobsont"] cites studies showing that over 70% of
students in classes in all subjects ignore reading assignments,
and the percentage is undoubtedly higher in STEM courses.


Instead of introducing challenging new material in reading
assignments, consider doing it in class using a blend of lectur-
ing and active learning,[2] focusing the activities on the more
difficult concepts and methods being presented; then give
assignments that clarify, expand on, and require application
of the material introduced in class. You will cover the same
content that you would if you gave the readings first, but with
the initial guidance they get in class, the students will be much
more likely to understand it.
This is not to say, however, that we should abandon the
idea of asking students to read because many of them are
unwilling or unable to do it. As professionals, they will have
to get information from written documents, and they won't
have classes or online tutorials to help them get started.


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineer-
ing at North Carolina State University. He is
co-author of Elementary Principles of Chemi-
cal Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering 1
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at effectiveteaching>.
Rebecca Brent is an education consultant
specializing in faculty development for ef-
fective university teaching, classroom and
computer-based simulations in teacher
education, and K-12 staff development in
language arts and classroom management.
She codirects the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute and has published articles
on a variety of topics including writing in
undergraduate courses, cooperative learning,
public school reform, and effective university
teaching.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Here are several tips for getting students to read assignments
and helping them learn how to do it, some of which are
adapted from Hobson.'1
* Trim assignments down to what is really essential.
Your reading assignments should be clearly linked to your
learning objectives, problem sets, and tests. If you assign 50
pages of reading of which only five are directly relevant to
what the students will be asked to do because you think the
other 45 contain "useful things for them to know," don't be
surprised if they ignore the assignment. Instead, assign the
five pages and suggest but don't require the rest.
Consider giving in-class quizzes on readings, and also
consider not giving them.
The most common strategy for getting students to read
before class is to give short in-class quizzes on the readings
that count toward the final course grade. This technique may
accomplish its objective but it has several drawbacks. It can
take a lot of out-of-class time to prepare and mark all those
quizzes and substantial in-class time to hand out, administer,
and collect them, especially if the class is large. Since short
quizzes generally test primarily low-level factual information,
the additional learning they produce may not be worth their
cost in time and effort. You should also keep in mind that
your students have many things on their plates besides your
course: some of them are juggling full course loads,jobs, and
extracurricular activities, and anything you do that pressures
them to keep up with your readings on a daily basis may just
force them to neglect other equally important responsibilities
in their lives. In short, the benefits of in-class quizzes are
probably not enough to compensate for their disadvantages.
Some better options follow.
Include self-tests in reading assignments that address
the most important concepts and methods in the readings.
It can help students to know what you think they should
be getting from assigned readings rather than making them
guess. In at least your first few assignments, include one or
two questions for each important idea in the readings and post
the answers so the students can check themselves. If you use
classroom management software like Blackboard or Moodle,
administer the self-tests online; provide corrective feedback
and chances to try again following incorrect responses; and
don't consider the assignment complete until a full set of
correct responses has been submitted.
Use guided reciprocal peer questioning.13'
When you assign a reading with substantial conceptual
content (as opposed to mostly mathematical derivations and


examples), have the students make up and answer several
questions about it, filling in the blanks in stems such as "What
is the main idea of ?" "What's the difference between
and ?" "What if_?" "What assumptions were made in
?" and "What is a real-world application of ?" (More
stems are given by King.131) The students try to answer each
others' questions in small groups at the beginning of the next
class, and the whole class then discusses particularly interest-
ing or controversial questions. You can either collect the ques-
tions and answers and grade them as part of the assignment or
just use them to stimulate deep reading and discussion. This
technique promotes critical thinking as well as reading skills.
* Have students draw concept mapsfor assigned readings.
A concept map is a block diagram or flow chart that shows
interrelations among the key ideas in a body of knowledge.
Getting students to prepare them either completely or from an
instructor-created skeleton promotes a deep understanding of
information structures. Ellis et al.41 review the use of concept
maps in engineering education and illustrate their construc-
tion and application in a second-year course in mechanics.
* Use active learning to teach reading skills.
Early in the semester, put a reading on a class handout or
have the students bring their texts to class and give them a
minute or two to read a short passage. If the passage is straight-
forward, ask a few questions about it to make sure everyone
understands it; if it is more challenging, have the students
individually formulate brief explanations of what they read
and then work in pairs to synthesize better ones. After a short
time, call on several of them to share their explanations, give
your own unless you hear one as good as any you could come
up with, and move on to the next passage. Once the students
have gone through several such activities in class, most should
be prepared to work through out-of-class reading assignments
on their own. That ability will almost certainly be more im-
portant throughout their careers than any technical knowledge
or skill they might acquire in your course.

REFERENCES
1. Hobson, E.H.,"Getting students to read: Fourteen tips," Manhattan, KS:
The IDEA Center. pdf> (2004)
2. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Active learning: An introduction," ASQ
Higher Education Brief, 2(4). Papers/ALpaper(ASQ).pdf> (2009)
3. King,A.,"From sage on the stage to guide on the side," (. .-, vI..v Teach-
ing, 41(1), 30 (1993)
4. Ellis, G.W., A. Rudnitsky, and B. Silverstein, "Using concept maps
to enhance understanding in engineering education," International
Journal of Engineering Education, 20(6), 1012 (2004) 0


Chemical Engineering Education


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at www.che.ufl.edu/CEE.







classroom


9


A STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN METHODOLOGY

FOR A BASE CASE VANADIUM

REDOX-FLOW BATTERY







MARK MOORE, ROBERT M. COUNCE, JACK S. WATSON, THOMAS A. ZAWODZINSKI, HARESH KAMATH
University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996
and Electric Power Research Institute 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304
he synthesis of chemical processes distinguishes Mark A. Moore is a graduate student at the University of Tennessee. He
chemical engineering process design from that of received his B.S. in chemical engineering from UTin 2011. His research is in
other engineering disciplines. In the work presented computer-aided design of grid-level energy storage batteries and fuel cells.
here, an approach usually applied to the synthesis of a tradi- Robert M.Counce is a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering
tional chemical production process is modified and used in at the University of Tennessee. He received his Ph.D.in chemical engineer-
ing from UT in 1980. He is a fellow in the American Institute of Chemical
the synthesis of an electro-chemical process for the storage Engineers. He teaches process design and sustainable engineering.
of electrical energy. The intended use of this paper is for the Jack S.Watson is a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering
development of case studies and homework problems for the at the University of Tennessee. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
chemical engineering curriculum, especially for the process ing from UTin 1967 He is retired from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
He is a fellow in the American Institute of Chemical Engineering and the
design components of such a curriculum. It is intended to recipient of the 2010 Robert E. Wilson award. He teaches separations and
aid in the education of undergraduate students in the creation process design.
of process flow sheets and base cases for those processes Thomas A. Zawodzinski is the Governor's Chair Professor in Electrical
with chemical reactions as a central element. The vanadium Energy Conversion and Storage at the University ofTennessee and the Oak
Ridge National Laboratory He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from State
redox-flow battery (VRB) has some similarities to standard University of New York (Buffalo) in 1989. He is a fellow in the Electrochemi-
chemical processes usually studied in chemical engineering cal Society. His research is in electrochemical devices for energy applica-
tions, including fundamental and applied studies of batteries and fuel cells;
classes but offering a chance for the students to see these applications of NMR methods to the study of transport and structure in
principles applied to a slightly different situation. As more device components; preparing and understanding advanced functional
materials; and developing molecular device concepts. He teaches thermo-
chemical engineering graduates go to work in a wider variety dynamics and various courses related to energy conversion and storage.
of industries, they may need a wider experience during their
n Haresh Kamath is a program manager in Energy Storage at the Electric
education. Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. He has extensive back-
ground in the electric energy field, with specialized experience in energy
Redox-flow batteries represent one promising approach storage, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and electric transportation.
being considered by electric companies to store electric en- He is currently working in projects in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
ergy produced during periods of low demand (usually in the battery systems, grid electric energy storage, and advanced electrical
evenings) and use the energy during periods of high demand,
usually during the day. The VRB was patented by research- O Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 23







ers at the University of New South Wales, Australia, where
development has continued.4'I Other recent reviews of flow
batteries are also available.1591 Because of the high capital
costs for conventional electric energy generation systems,
especially for hydroelectric and nuclear systems, it is more
economical to operate such units as much as possible since
the fuel costs are essentially zero, or a relatively small part of
the total cost. Even for coal combustion systems, the capital
costs have risen in recent years because of additional flue
gas treatment. Economics usually still favor operating coal
combustion systems as "base load" components that operate
as much of the time as possible. Base load in this instance
refers to the minimum amount of electrical power generated
in order to meet the demand. To avoid installing high capital
cost power (base load power) to meet peak energy needs,
utility companies can use energy storage systems such as
VRBs or make short-term use of gas-fired generators with
high fuel costs but low capital costs. Despite the higher fuel
costs, overall costs can be reduced by using the low-capital
cost systems for short periods of high power demand.
The design methodology used here is adapted from one
developed by Douglas, a step-by-step hierarchical process
often used in chemical engineering classes proceeding through
decision levels where more details are added to the flow sheet
at each step or level of the design procedure.l01 In addition,
the capital costs of the battery system are evaluated at each
level so that uneconomical designs are eliminated as early as
possible and the syntheses efforts can be redirected to more
promising directions as early in the design process as possible.
This paper focuses only on the capital costs of the battery
system. The assignments to the students ended with an evalua-
tion of the capital costs and did not include the operating costs.
As noted earlier, the energy storage devices such as the VRB
are attractive because their potential capital costs are lower
than those of base load systems. The electric power industry
has set targets for how low capital costs must become, and


development efforts are in progress to reach those goals.["1
The goals of the student projects were to determine how close
the current or foreseeable technology can come to the target
for capital cost and to identify those components of the VRBs
that are keeping the cost high and should be targeted for cost
improvements. Only after the capital cost of VRBs can be
reduced to values near the targets will it be useful to study
operating costs in detail. VRBs are likely to be located on the
sites of existing electric power plants. Flow batteries have
few moving parts (such as pumps) and are usually suited for
automated operations. Maintenance costs are expected to oc-
cur from corrosion and maintenance of electrolyte purity, but
estimation of these costs is not reliably predicted by normal
chemical engineering design practices taught in undergraduate
courses and is expected to require pilot operating experience.
The design class was divided into six teams with three to
four members per team. Each team considered a base case
design and one or more variables/parameters to change.
Parameters including membrane cost, efficiency, power ca-
pacity, and energy capacity were assigned to the groups. The
capital costs for the VRBs were plotted vs. these parameters
to show the difference that changing these parameters had on
the capital costs. This provided a basis for direct comparison
of the results from each team and allowed the entire class to
consider and observe the effects of different parameters on
the capital costs. Each change in a parameter represented a
different operating condition or a different cost for a compo-
nent of the battery.

BACKGROUND
A schematic of a vanadium redox battery system is shown
in Figure 1. It may be called a system because it consists of
tanks, pumps, and voltage conversion equipment as well as
the actual battery cells. The battery cells consist of carbon felt
electrodes and a cation exchange membrane (Nafion" 115),
which divides the cell into two compartments. One compart-
ment is filled with a solution of V(II) and V(III) ions while
the other compartment is filled with a solution of V(IV) and
V(V) ions. The vanadium ions are dissolved in sulfuric acid,
usually 1 to 2 mol/liter. The electrochemical reactions occur-
ring at each electrode while the battery is being charged are
given in Eqs. (1) and (2). The reactions occurring while the
battery is being discharged proceed in the opposite direction.
Negative Half-Cell: V3 +e -<- V2 (1)

Positive Half-Cell: VO2++HO VO +2H++e- (2)

Each cell is assumed to produce 1.26 volts at zero current
density, and in order to produce high voltages, the cells are
stacked in series. As discussed later, inefficiencies reduce the
effective voltage to values closer to one volt. Each electrode
other than the end electrodes is "bipolar," with one side acting
as a cathode for the cell on one side and as an anode for the


Chemical Engineering Education


Figure 1. Schematic representation of a vanadium
redox-flow battery.1121







cell on the other side. The unique feature of "flow" batteries
is the liquid electrolyte, which can flow through the cell. As
shown in Figure 1, there are two electrolyte solutions; both
solutions flow through each cell on different sides of the
membrane. The power produced by the battery is determined
by the voltage produced (the number of cells in a stack), and
the current produced is determined by the current density
and the area of the carbon felt electrodes. Voltage can be lost
from inefficiencies that may be affected by operating condi-
tions. The total energy storage capacity is determined largely
by the volume of the electrolyte solutions, the concentration
of vanadium ions in those solutions, and the fraction of the
vanadium ions used in any charge-discharge cycle. It is not
practical to approach full utilization of all of the vanadium in
the solutions. Again,any change in cell efficiencies that affects
voltages produced has effects on stored energy recovered.
The decoupling of power and energy capacities in redox-
flow batteries creates distinct advantages over other forms of
energy storage. It allows for the power and energy capacities
to be scaled independently in order to meet the unique needs
of a particular utility. The power capacity required for the
battery will determine the size of the cell stacks, the power
conditioning system, the pumps, and the heat exchangers.
The energy capacity required for the battery will determine
the mass of vanadium electrolyte and the size of the storage
tanks necessary. The capital costs therefore can be classified
here in three areas:
1. Costs that scale in proportion to the power capacity;
2. Costs that scale in proportion to the energy capacity;
3. Costs that do not scale with size (the control system and
balance of plant).

The step-by-step hierarchical method created by Douglas
consists of several steps that include heuristics for the design
of a chemical system. The first step consists of defining the
process as continuous or batch, and the second step is an anal-
ysis of the raw materials, feed streams, and product streams.
The subsequent steps are for analysis of the recycle system,
the separation system, and the heat exchanger network. This
method used by the students in the design study was adapted
to the design of a VRB, keeping in mind the classification of
the capital costs into the three areas already discussed:
Level 1: Input information for the VRB;
Level 2: Input-output analysis;
Level 3: Power capacity considerations;
Level 4: Energy capacity considerations;
Level 5: Control system, and balance of plant;
Level 6: Total capital investment estimate.
As with the procedure of Douglas, Levels 2, 3, 4, and 5
include a rudimentary economic (profitability) analysis that
is guided by the analysis of previous levels. The profitability


analysis is based on the yearly profit produced by running the
battery minus the capital expenses at every level annualized
over the life of the components. This procedure, as with that
of Douglas, allows for economical designs to be recognized
quickly and uneconomical designs discarded so the process
may begin again at the appropriate level. The procedure cul-
minates in an estimate of total capital investment.

PROCESS SYNTHESIS HIERARCHY
Level 1: Input Information for the VRB
The first level of the adapted design methodology for a
VRB is the definition of the design specifications for the
VRB, as well as the costs for different component parts.
To better illustrate the design method, the base case VRB
used by the students is defined in Tables 1, 2, and 3. These

TABLE 1
Reaction Related Information
V3+ +e- r V2+
Stoichiometry
VO2 + H,O VO, + 2H + e-
Operating Temperature 25 "C
Concentration of Mo
1 Molar
Vanadium
Concentration of HSO4 5 Molar
Power Capacity 1,000 kW
Energy Capacity 12,000 kW-hr
SOC Limits 0.20 < SOC & 0.80
Efficiency 0.91
Electrical Potential of.26 volts
1.26 volts
a Cell


TABLE 2
Design Details
Cycles per Year 328 (90% availability)
Cross Sectional Area of Cell 1 m2
Current Density of Current Collector 40 mA/cm'
Material of Construction: Tanks PVC
Material of Construction: Heat Hh Ni
Exchangers High Ni Steel
Exchangers
Cells in a stack 100 cells/stack

TABLE 3
Cost Information
Price of Output Power $0.45 per kW-hr
Cost of Input Power $0.045 per kW-hr
Vanadium Cost $25.13 per kg of V
Ion-exchange Membrane $500 per m2
Current Collectors $51 per m2
Carbon Felt $20 per m2


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


241








design variables will be used as an example for calculations
throughout this paper except where otherwise noted. The
price of product electricity used in Table 3 is that needed to
bound the spot prices of recent years as reported by the U.S.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This price represents


a. 1.7
16


1.46
3 * Charge
5> 1 4 -h e
s U Discharge
1.2
1.1
1
0 20 40 60 80 100
SOC%

b. 1.7
.s***
1.6


a1.4
S1.3 -,i us ei Charge
Z1.2 E Discharge
S1.2 ur
11
1 i
0 50 100
SOC%


Figure 2. The cell voltage at different SOCs for (a) a
current density of 40 mA/cm2 and (b) a current density of
80 mA/cm.['l


$2,000,000.00


$1,500,000.00


$1,000,000.00

$500,000.00


$0.00

-$500,000.00


-$1,000,000.00


-$1,500,000.00


......"" ,- --Level 2
..... ,, ........ Level 3
S--...-------- ..--. Level 4
5p..--o 100 1,.5-. 00 250 300 350el 5

....


Cycles of Battery per Year


Figure 3. Economic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery.

242


the upper bound of (peak) energy prices and is used here in
a comparison mode to develop the base case process. After
the base case is determined it would normally be subjected
to optimization at near to actual market prices. The base case
cost model is examined at near market prices in the final por-
tion of this report.
To calculate the efficiencies for different current densi-
ties, data was taken from two graphs from a paper by You,
et al. and plotted in Figure 2.111 These graphs show that the
cell voltage while charging and discharging is dependent on
the state of charge (SOC) of the VRB. The SOC defines the
concentrations of the reactants and the products at any given
point in time and represents the amount of energy the VRB
is storing relative to its full capacity. SOC is defined with
Eqs. (3) and (4).

SOC -- Cv for the negative electrolyte, or (3)
Cv+ +CV3+

SOC = CV5 for the positive electrolyte, (4)
Cvs+ +CV4+

Graph (a) of Figure 2 represents a current density of 40
mA/cm2 while graph (b) of Figure 2 represents a current
density of 80 mA/cm2. The area beneath the charging curves
represents the amount of energy used to charge the VRB,
and the area beneath the discharging curves represents the
amount of energy discharged from the VRB. The ratio of the
discharged energy to the charging energy can then be used as
the efficiency of that current density for a complete cycle. An
assumption was made that the relationship between current
density and efficiency was linear. The linear dependence of
efficiencies with current density was determined from the
data. The ratio of the discharged energy to the energy used to
charge for the current densities of 40 mA/cm2 and
80 mA/cm2, as well as an assumed efficiency of 1
at 0 mA/cm2, was used to calculate an equation of
a line. The equation is rOA = 1- 0.0021565x, where
x represents the current density in mA/cm2.


Level 1 of the original Douglas procedure in-
cludes fundamental design information and whether
the process is to be a batch or continuous process.
The VRB is considered to be a semi-batch system.
The electrochemical cells are converting the vana-
dium redox species much like a steady-state system,
but the feed concentrations to the cells varies with
time. This is much like a batch tank with a side
stream of fluid circulating through a reactor. Thus,
the work presented here is formulated in a way that
is similar to that of Douglas, and Level 1 provides
the basic information needed for design. The above
input information is a matter of choice and does not
necessarily represent an optimal design. The cost
information used here is generally appropriate for


Chemical Engineering Education







2011 U.S. dollars. The current
densities and the charge and The cell stack
discharge efficiencies have
been assumed to be equal for
the example presented here.
Level 2: Input-Output
Analysis
The costs of the energy re-
quired to charge the battery
represents the majority of
the cost of operating the bat-
tery, while the revenue stream
resulting from operating the
battery comes entirely from
selling the energy discharged by the battery. By consider-
ing these costs and revenues, one can gauge the maximum
economic potential of the VRB. This is much like a chemical
process where the maximum economic potential is the dif-
ference between the product value and the raw material cost
while neglecting any processing costs.
Eq. (5) may be used to calculate the economic potential
for level 2. The cycles per year represent a full cycle, i.e., the
charging and discharging of the battery.

EP, =ED X Wh Ec x kWh)xycle ear (5)

Ec and ED are defined by Eqs. (6) and (7).

Ec Esc
c=- c(6)


E =E,,x D (7)

Example Calculation-Level 2 Economic Potential:


Using the base case design variables defined in Level 1, The number
and Eqs. (3) (5), the maximum economic potential can be density of the c
calculated as follows:
12,000kWh
0.91
Ec = 13,187kWh
ED = 12,000kWh x 0.91
ED= 10,920kWh

EP, =(10,920 kWh $0.45 kWh-' -13,187kWh x $.045 kWh)x 328 cycle

EP, = $1,417,155 yr-'

The economic potential for cycles of up to 350 per year are determined by
plotted in Figure 3 for Levels 2 through 5. stack, both defi
capacity of the
Level 3: Power Capacity Considerations the current cap
The next major costs of a VRB considered by the students the battery is d
are the power capacity considerations. The costs that scale calculated witl


Figure 4. Cell stack construction.1


with the power capacity of a VRB are the cells themselves,
a power conditioning system (PCS) that converts electricity
from AC to DC during charging and DC to AC during dis-
charging while adjusting to the desired voltage, the pumps,
and the heat exchangers.
The materials used to construct the cells consist of carbon
felt electrodes, current collectors, and a membrane permeable
to protons. A diagram of the cell construction is presented in
Figure 4. As noted earlier, the electrical potential of a cell is
dependent on the state of charge (SOC) of the vanadium ion
solution being pumped through the cell.
Since the SOC is constantly changing during the charge and
discharge process, the voltage-and therefore the power-of
the VRB is constantly changing. The power rating of the VRB
in the design methodology used by the students is the average
power of the VRB over the charge/discharge cycle (or at 50%
SOC). By using the average power for the design process, the
correct energy capacity can be calculated without having to
account for the changing voltage over the course of the cycle.


of stacks needed is dependent on the current
:arbon felt electrodes and the number of stacks
in the VRB. The current through all the cells
in a stack is constant and may be calculated
by multiplying the current density of the car-
bon felt electrodes by their area, as in Eq. (8).
Is = ID xAc (8)

In the model used by the students, the
stacks were connected in parallel. In this
manner, the electrical current produced by a
stack is additive to the current produced by
the other stacks. The electrical potential is
the cell potential and the number of cells in a
ned in Level 1 of this methodology. The power
battery is the electrical potential multiplied by
city of the VRB. Since the power capacity of
efined in Level 1, the number of stacks can be
iEq. (9).


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Ns = (9)
Vs x Is x c

The power that is lost due to the inefficiencies of the battery
is released through heat. The heat generation is based on a total
energy balance around the charging or discharging battery
and assumes that the only energy removed from this system
is by the exit fluid stream. To estimate the heat generated by
the VRB, Eq. (10) may be used for charging the battery and
Eq. (11) for discharging the battery.
P
q= x(1-4c) (10)


q=Px(1-5D) (11)

It is assumed that the heat generated is shared equally
between both the cathode solution and the anode solution
with the temperature change of the vanadium ion solutions
dependent on the flow rate of the vanadium solution through
the stack. To calculate the flow rate of the vanadium ion
solutions, it is necessary to calculate the moles of vanadium
ions oxidized per second then divide by the molarity of the
vanadium ions in the solution, as in Eq. (12).

F Is xNc xNs (12)
FxC,


TABLE 4
Annual Expenses Proportional to Fixed Capital
Capital-related cost item Fractions of fixed capital
Maintenance and repairs 0.06
Operating supplies 0.01
Overhead, etc. 0.03
Taxes and insurance 0.03
General 0.01
Total 0.14

FM in Eq. (12) represents the minimum flow rate if all the
vanadium ions in solution are oxidized while flowing through
the cells. One of the sources of inefficiency in a flow battery is
transport loss, which is associated with the complete conver-
sion of all available vanadium ions flowing through the cell.1141
Because of this, it was recommended to the students that a
greater bulk flow of the vanadium ion solution be pumped
through the cells than the minimum flow rate required. In the
example presented here the minimum flow rate represents
10% of the greater bulk flow rate. The flow rates of both anode
and cathode solutions used by the students were calculated
with Eq. (13).

FA= FM (13)
XV,P


With the flow rate, the change in temperature of the cathode
or anode solution is calculated by Eq. (14).1151


(14)


AT= q
2xC xFA


For estimation purposes, the heat capacity of the sulfuric
acid solution is assumed. Because of the increased flow rate
of the vanadium ion solution, the temperature rise of the
vanadium ion solution may be such that heat exchangers are
unnecessary. If the temperature rise during the pass of fluid
through the stacks is less than 100 "C, the heat exchangers
will not be considered in the analysis, however, some heat
exchange may indeed be necessary and will need to be con-
sidered before final process design.
If the temperature of the vanadium ion solution necessitates
the use of heat exchangers, Eq. (15) may be used to determine
the size of the heat exchangers needed to bring the solution
to room temperature.1151

A=- (15)
UAT,

After determining the size of the heat exchangers, the size
of the pumps required for the flow rate can be calculated
if needed. The shaft power of the pumps can be calculated
with Eqs. (16) and (17), for which FA is in m3/s (in all other

TABLE 5
Level 3 Capital Costs
Membrane Area (20 Stacks) 2000 m2
Cost of Membrane $500 m-2
Total Cost of Membrane (20 Stacks) $1,000,000
Cost of Current Collectors $51 m-2
Total Cost of Current Collectors (20 $103,020
Stacks)
Cost of Carbon Felt Electrodes $ 20 m-2
Total Cost of Carbon Felt Electrodes $80,800
Total Cost of Stacks (20 Stacks) $1,657,348
Annualized Cost of Stacks (20 $501,754
Stacks)
Cost of Pumps (2) $86,112
Annualized Cost of Pumps (2) $26,070
Cost of Power Conditioning System $260 kW'
Transformer Cost $36.58 kW'
Cost of Breakers, Contacts, and
Cabling $28.14 kW-
Cabling
Total PCS and Associated Items
Cost$324,720
Annualized Cost of PCS and
Associated Items $19,303
Total Annualized Cost of Level 3
Components $547,127


Chemical Engineering Education


244







equations FA is in liters/s). '5]

W FA A (16)
Ei

e, =(1- 0.12Fo.27) (1-0.8) (17)

The students were given an estimate of the cost of the Power
Conversion System (PCS) to convert AC power to DC power
and to convert the DC product from the battery back to AC
power for returning to the electrical grid. The current cost
of a PCS is estimated at $260 per kW. The costs associated
with the PCS are for the transformer, breakers, contacts, and
cabling, which are estimated by EPRI.1121
To calculate the economic potential for Levels 3 and be-
yond, it is necessary to annualize the capital costs. The an-
nualized capital costs include the annual expenses, the cost
of capital, and equipment depreciation. The annual expenses
used here are those that are directly proportional to fixed
capital, as listed in Table 4.
The cost of capital considers the required return on in-
vestment for a given capital outlay. The required return on
investment will vary by company but is assumed in this
circumstance to be 10%. Annualized interest on invested
capital expressed as a fraction of the initial capital investment
is calculated with Eq. (18).'161

Si(l+i) -

fR = (18)
n
The service life of the components, n in Eq. (18), is 10
years for the stacks and the pumps while the remaining
components have a lifespan of 20 years.[21 To simplify the
calculation, straight line depreciation is used with fractional
annual depreciation calculated as in Eq. (19).

fD= (19)
n
The annualized cost of components may be calculated
with Eq. (20)
AC=C C_, (0.14+ f, + f) 20

The economic potential for Level 3 can then be calculated
with Eq. (21).
EP = EP, AC AC,,, AC AC,,, (21)

Example Calculation of Level 3 Economic Potential
A summary of the components of the cell stack and their
associated costs is given in Table 5. A stack consisting of 100
cells contains 101 current collectors (101 m2/stack, total for 20
stacks = 2020 m2), 202 carbon felt electrodes (202 m2/stack,
total for 20 stacks = 4040 m2), and 100 membranes (100 m2/


stack, total for 20 stacks = 2000 m2). Added into the total costs
for the stacks are manufacturing costs, shipping costs, and
additional costs that were assumed to be 20%, 10%, and 10%,
respectively, of the total capital costs of the components.[121
The annualized costs of an equipment item are the annualized
costs of the installed equipment items; an installation factor
of 1.4 is used to modify the purchased costs of the stacks.
Figure 3 shows that at Level 3 it is necessary to cycle the
battery over 100 times a year in order to make a profit. The
economic potential drops by over $500,000 between Levels
2 and 3, which is significant. Examining the costs of compo-
nents in Table 5 shows that the bulk of this drop in economic
potential is due to the costs of cell ion exchange membranes.

LEVEL 4: ENERGY CAPACITY
CONSIDERATIONS
The energy capacity of a VRB is determined by the mass
of vanadium electrolytes in each solution. The stoichiometric
equations listed in Level 1 show that one mole of vanadium
ions will produce one mole of electrons when oxidized or
reduced. Because of this, the students calculated the moles
of vanadium ions needed by taking the moles of electrons
oxidized by one cell in one second, multiplying by the charge
time, multiplying by the number of cells in a stack, then mul-
tiplying by the number of stacks in the battery as in Eq. (22).


M I X xNc xN,
F


(22)


This calculation will provide the moles of vanadium elec-
trolytes needed for the cathode or the anode solutions and
should be multiplied by two for the total amount needed.
To calculate the amount of vanadium needed, however,
changes in the SOC of the battery must be considered. As
mentioned in Level 3, the electrical potential as a func-
tion of the SOC increases as the SOC increases. The VRB
cannot be fully charged without using very high (infinite)
voltages and cannot be fully discharged without a severe
loss of voltage (efficiency) in the discharge. It is assumed
that the base-case battery will operate between an SOC of
0.20 and 0.80, which means that Mv represents 60% of the
total vanadium needed.
The tanks used to store the vanadium solution will vary in
size with the volume of vanadium ion solution needed, and
therefore with the energy capacity of the VRB. Because of
the corrosive nature of sulfuric acid, the use of double-walled
tanks should be considered. In the current example, the stu-
dents used single-walled fiberglass tanks. The size of the tanks
and amount of vanadium needed is estimated by Eqs. (23)
and (24) (in the current example one liter of solution contains
one mole of vanadium).

V,= Mv (23)
M,, -M,


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








M 2x (24)
(0.6)

The economic potential for Level 4 is then calculated with
Eq. (25).
EP, =EP AC ACT (25)

This Level 4 methodology differs significantly from the
method suggested by Douglas. He uses Level 4 for including
the costs of separation systems in a chemical process. This
is one place where a change was needed to the Douglas ap-
proach for the VRB.

Example Calculation for Level 4 Economic Potential
A summary of the components' associated costs with Level
4 considerations is presented in Table 6. To account for the
costs of preparing the solution, the capital cost of the vana-
dium was multiplied by 1.1. To annualize the costs it was
assumed that the tanks, vanadium, and sulfuric acid could be
used throughout the lifespan of the battery. A reasonable esti-
mate for this lifespan of 20 years was used by the students. 12]
The drop in economic potential between Levels 3 and 4 is
more than $400,000, and Figure 3 shows that it is necessary
to have over 200 cycles per year in order to make a profit.
EP4=$870,027 yr' $393,519 yr- $68,217 yr'
EP4=$408,292 yr-

LEVEL 5: BALANCE OF PLANT
The last of the major costs of a VRB are associated with
the balance of plant costs. These costs may also be associ-
ated with the power and energy capacity of the VRB, but are
included in another level for simplicity.
The balance of plant costs are based on the EPRI calcu-
lations and include the costs for construction (not already


accounted for), costs for the control system, and building and
site preparation costs.121 Building and site preparation costs
are estimated on average to be around $900 per square meter
of the facility in 2007. Accounting for an inflation rate of 3%,
the cost in 2011 was $1,012 per square meter. An estimate
for the size of the facility is 500 m'/MW1121 Adjusting for
inflation, the control system is estimated at $22,509 and the
remaining costs are $56/kW.


EP, = EP4 AC,,


(26)


Level 5 is not comparable to any level of the Douglas model.
It is used to essentially capture all the remaining capital costs
elements that are not functions of power or energy.
Example of Level 5 Annualized Capital Costs Estimation:
EP5=$408,292 yr-1 $150,487 yr-
EP,=$257,804 yr'

Level 6: Capital Investment Estimate
The last step makes use of the information gathered in the
earlier steps to create a capital investment estimate table.

TABLE 6
Level 4 Capital Costs
Concentration of Vanadium 1 mol/L
Volume of Solution 596,984 L
Cost of Vanadium $25.13 kg'
Total Cost of Vanadium $1,528,470
$1 ,528 ,470
Solution
Annualized Cost of Vanadium
Solution
Tank Size 656,680 L
Total Cost of Tanks $264,960
Annualized Cost of Tanks $68,217


TABLE 7
Capital Cost Estimate
Installation and Capital
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Matial a Investmnt
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells V-101 20 stacks $1,183,120 1.4* $1,657,348
per stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 596,984 liters $1,528,470 $1,528,470
656,680 liters,
Tanks T-101 656,680 liters, $88,320 3 $264,960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 7.9 Watts $11,482 7.5 $86,112
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant $584,509 1 $584,509
Costs
Total Cost $3,720,621 $4,446,119
for manufacturing costs, shipping costs, and additional costs

46 Chemical Engineering Education







A table from the example is
presented in Table 7. This meth-
odology has covered only the
capital costs of a VRB; the oper-
ating costs were not included in
the student assignments. While
a complete summary of the total
costs of operating a VRB would
include the operating costs, the
intent of this design methodol-
ogy was to include only the
capital costs.

FUTURE POSSIBLE
COST REDUCTIONS
Table 7 shows that the cost
of the cell stacks and the cost
of vanadium were identified as
major contributors to capital
cost. In this section the possibil-
ity of cost reduction for these
two variables is explored. The
reduced cost of $35/m2 for ion
exchanged membranes reflects


Figure 5. Economic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery at reduced membrane
cost conditions.


one author's expected reduction in manufacturing cost caused
by increased demand for membranes and improved manufac-
turing.191 The reduced cost of vanadium at half of the value in
Table 3 may be more optimistic, but it is based on the observed
volatility of vanadium prices in recent years as reported by
the U.S. Geological Survey. The economic potential in the
following analysis is based on a more realistic market value
of electricity.
The capital cost elements of the base case model reported
in Tables 1, 2, and 3 are only changed by the reduction of
ion exchange membrane costs in the results shown in Table


8. The capital costs per MWh are reduced to $262. The eco-
nomic potential of the reduced cost system shown in Figure
5 is based on the price of product electricity of $0.10/kWh
and a purchased cost of $0.01/kWh and shows that the cost of
Level 4 and 5 are always negative, indicating no opportunity
for profit at the conditions of the study.
The capital costs elements of the base case model reported
in Tables 1, 2, and 3 are changed by both the reduction of
ion exchange membrane costs and reduced vanadium costs
in the results shown in Table 9 (next page). The capital costs
per MWh are reduced to $198. The economic potential of the


TABLE 8
Capital Cost Estimates at Reduced Ion Exchange Membrane Cost
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Installation and Capital
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells
V-101 22 stacks $276,709 1.4* $387,393
per stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 650,820 liters $1,666,307 1 $1,666,307

Tanks T-101 656,680 liters, $88,320 3 $264.960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 20 Watts $11,482 7.5 $86,112
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant $584,509 1 $584.509
Costs
Total Cost $2,952,047 $3,314,001
* for manufacturing costs


$600,000


$400,000


$200,000


$0


-$200,000


-$400,000


-$600,000


-$800,000


-$1,000,000


s0 ....*1V* 150 200 250 300 350 400 P

..
**





-







Cycles of Battery per Year


- EP2
...... EP3
- EP4
- EP5


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


247































reduced cost system shown in $600,000
Figure 6 is based on the price
of product electricity of $0.10/
kWh and purchased cost of $400,000
$0.01/kWh and shows that the
improved cost of Levels 4 and $200,000
5 is still always negative, intro- >.
during no opportunity for profit ,
at the conditions of the study. $
0
The results shown here in- a
dicate that reduced costs for -$200,000
ion exchange membranes and S
vanadium do not appear to be 2 -$400,000
sufficient to make the system
profitable at the conditions of
-$600,000 -
this study. Additional cost re-
ductions will be necessary. Such
cost reductions may be found in -$800,000
activities such as increasing the
range of SOC values for system
Figure 6. Econ
operation and improving the cell
current density and efficiency as
well as other general cost reductions.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
Our current CBE process design classes consist
nior classes (CBE 480 and 488 or 490). CBE 488 is t
version of CBE 490 and typically has industrial spc
CBE 480 covers fundamental chemical process de,
cess creation and definition, flow sheet developme:
and costing of equipment, optimization, economic
and reporting; the textbook is by Ulrich and Vasudev
supplemental information on flow sheet creation by D
CBE 488/490 are both traditional capstone design
with the primary deliverables being oral and writt


'...
... .* **
...****
*****

50,,...*200 150 200 250 300 350 400
..~.*** r, *
,, ''

,,, ** ***
c,, ** ""


-EP2
...... EP3

- EP4
- EP5


Cycles of Battery per Year

omic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery at reduced membrane
cost conditions and reduced vanadium cost.

reports. Both CBE 480 and CBE 488 or 490 are required
3-semester-hour classes. The case study presented here was
the primary focus of CBE 488 and a shortened version used as
of two se- a homework problem in CBE 480. Different CBE 488 teams
he honors had different design variables, such as current density, in
>nsorship. addition to studying a common base case on which to report.
sign: pro- The development of the case study presented here was
nt, design sponsored by EPRI. One of the co-authors of this study,
analysis, Haresh Kamath, was a primary author of an authoritative study
ant'1 with of all-vanadium redox-flow batteries (EPRI 1014836).1121
ouglas.110l Kamath was instrumental in the study reported here as well
i projects as the design of the problem statement for the students, dis-
en design cussion and explanation of system details, and review of the

Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 9
Capital Cost Estimates at Reduced Ion Exchange Membrane Cost and Reduced Vanadium Costs
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Installation and Capital
Number Capacity Purchased Cost Mo
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells per
Cell Stacks (100 cells per V-101 22 stacks $276,709 1.4* $387,393
stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 650.820 liters $828,843 $828,843
Tanks T-656,680 liters,
T-101 $88,320 3 $264,960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 20 Watts $11,530 7.5 $86,476
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant Costs $584,509 1 $584,509
Total Cost $2,114,631 $2,476,901
* for manufacturing costs







final presentations and reports. Several students stayed for
continued discussion with Kamath and other EPRI personnel
after the final presentation; all students approved the transmis-
sion of their final report to EPRI. One of the authors of this
paper and an expert on electrochemical technology, Thomas
Zawodzinski, gave lectures on electrochemistry and electrical
storage batteries in CBE 480. The roles of EPRI, Kamath, and
Zawodzinski added authenticity to the project.
The students had a unique opportunity to do process design
work on an electrochemical process; they were also exposed
to experts in the field. They were surprised at the scale of
existing and planned electro-chemical storage facilities and
the relationship between mass and energy balances that is
facilitated by the flow of electrical energy. The students also
learned that the economics of electrochemical processes may
be analyzed similarly to chemical processes. In general, the
students appeared to receive the project very well as indicated
with an overall student evaluation of CBE 488 as 4.6/5.0. If
used again, the future studies may focus on different battery
chemistries. The study may also be shortened for use in a
Mass and Energy Balance class or a Green Engineering class.

CONCLUSIONS
Working through the six levels of this design procedure
allowed the students to modify the chemical engineering
design procedures that are the standard for a chemical engi-
neering education. Applying these traditional procedures to
a nontraditional system gave valuable experience needed to a
field that is no longer restricted to the petroleum or chemical
industries. In addition to the experience of applying chemical
design principles to a different type of system, the students
also received insight into the electric utility industry.
The potential profit at Level 2 and above is shown in
Figure 3 for the original study conditions. The figure shows
the annual profits (the y-axis) at each level for an increasing
number of charge/discharge cycles per year (the x-axis).
The students concluded that capital costs were such that it
would be difficult to construct and operate a VRB at a profit
and because of this, there is no need to look into the details
of the operating costs until the capital costs can be lowered.
The two largest contributions to the capital costs found by the
students were the cost of the permeable membrane and the
cost of the vanadium electrolyte. Any future developments
will need to decrease these costs to make the investment in
a VRB more attractive. The potential profit from a VRB was
also found to be strongly affected by the cost of peak power
electricity. Since the students assumed a ten-fold difference
between the cost of base-load power to feed the battery and
peak load power produced by the battery, further reductions
in the cost of base-load power would have limited effects.
The cost analysis presented here does appear to be sufficient
evidence that further process improvements may indeed make
the VRB a commercially viable technology.


NOMENCLATURE

Term Description Units
A Surface area of heat exchanger m2
Ac Electrode area m2
AC,, Annualized cost of balance of $/yr
plant costs
ACHEX Annualized cost of heat $/yr
exchangers
AC Annualized cost of pumps $/yr
ACPcs Annualized cost of power $/yr
conditioning system
ACs Annualized cost of stacks $/yr
ACT Annualized cost of storage $/yr
tanks
ACv Annualized cost of vanadium $/yr
C Capital cost of a component $
C Heat capacity of vanadium ion J 1)
solution
Cv2 Concentration of V (II) ions mol/l
Cv+ Concentration of V (III) ions mol/l
C4+ Concentration of V (IV) ions mol/l
Cv5 Concentration of V (V) ions mol/l
Ea Intrinsic efficiency of pump
Ec Charging efficiency
_D Discharging efficiency
Ec Energy used to charge the kW-hr
battery
E, Energy discharged from the kW-hr
battery
Esc Energy capacity of the battery kW-hr
EP, Economic potential for Level 2 $/yr
EP3 Economic potential for Level 3 $/yr
EP4 Economic potential for Level 4 $/yr
EP, Economic potential for Level 5 $/yr
f, Depreciation factor
f.R Return on investment factor
F Faraday's constant C/mol
F, Actual flow rate of vanadium 1/s
ion solution
FM Minimum flow rate of vana- 1/s
dium ion solution
ID Current density of electrodes amp/m2
Is Current through a stack amp
ML Concentration of V (II) at mol/1
lower charging limit of 0.20
M Total concentration of mol/l
vanadium
M Concentration of V (V) at up- mol/1
per charging limit of 0.80


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








M, Total amount of vanadium mol
needed for battery
Nc Number of cells in a stack
N, Number of stacks in the
battery
110A Overall efficiency of battery
Ap Pressure drop Pa
P Power capacity of battery W
q Heat W
SOC State of charge of battery
Tc Time to charge or discharge hr
battery
AT Temperature change of vana- C
dium through stack
ATL Log mean temperature
difference
U Heat transfer coefficient W/(m2 "C)

p. Viscosity of vanadium solution Pa*s
V, Potential of a stack V
V,. Volume of tank

Xv.p Fraction of vanadium ions
converted per pass

REFERENCES
1. Sum, E., and M. Skyllas-Kazacos, "Investigation of the V(V)/V(IV)
system for use in the positive half-cell of a redox battery," J. Power
Sources, 16(2), 85 (1985)
2. Sum, E., and M. Rycheik, "A study of the V(II)/V(III) redo couple for
redo flow cell applications," J. Power Sources, 15(2), 179 (1985)




































250


3. Linden, D.,T.B. Reddy, ,eds., Handbook ofBatteries, 3rd Ed.,McGraw-
Hill, New York (2002)
4. Li, X., H. Zhang, and Z. Mai,"Vankelecom, I. Ion exchange membranes
for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) applications," Energy Environ.
Sci.,No. 4, 1147 (2011)
5. bl.,. I .KI. ,K-. :.,1 l H Chakrabarti,S.A. Hajimolana,F.S.Mjalli,
and M. Saleem, "Progress in Flow Batter Research and Development,"
The Electrochem. Soc., 158(8), R55 (2011)
6. Weber, A.Z., M.M. Mench, J.P. Meyers, P.N. Ross, J.T. Gostick, and
Q. Liu, "Redox flow batteries: a review," J. Applied Electrochemistry,
41(10), 1137 (2011)
7. Yang, Z., J. Zhang, C.W. Kintner-Meyer, L. Xiaochuan, D. Choi, J.
Lemmon, and J. Liu, "Electrochemical energy storage for green grid,"
Chem. Rev., 111(5), 3577 (2011)
8. Menictas, M., M. Cheng, and M. Skyllas-Kazacos, "Evaluation of an
NH4VO3-derived electrolyte for the vanadium-redo flow battery," J.
Power Sources. 45(1), 43 (1993)
9. Kear, G.,A.A. Shah, and F.C. Walsh, "Development of the all-vanadium
redox flow battery for energy storage: a review of technological, finan-
cial and policy aspects," Int. J. Energy Res., 35, (2011)
10. Douglas, J.M., "A hierarchical decision procedure for process synthe-
sis." AIChE J., 31(3), 353 (1985)
11. NETL homepage fuelcells/seca/>
12. Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: An In-Depth Analysis, EPRI: Palo
Alto, CA (2007)
13. You, D., H. Zhang, and J. Chen, "A simple model for the vanadium
redox battery," Electrochim Acta, 54, 6827 (2009)
14. Aaron, D.. Z. Tan, A. Papandrew, and T. Zawodzinski, "Polarization
curve analysis of all-vanadium redox flow batteries," J. Appl Electro-
chem., 41, 1175 (2011)
15. Ulrich, G., and P. Vasudevan, Chemical Engineering Process Design
and Economics: A Practical Guide, 2nd Ed.; Process Publishing,
Durham, NC (2004)
16. NCEES, Fundamentals of Engineering Discipline Specific Reference
Handbook, 3rd Ed.; National Council of Examiners for Engineering
and Surveying: Clemson (1997) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








Graduate Education


THE IMPORTANCE OF

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills





GARTH L. WILKES
Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061


What are likely to be two of the main requirements/
prerequisites listed on a job description for which
a student is considering interviewing? The answer
is almost universally "Excellent Oral and Written Communi-
cation Skills." While this article will not address the latter, it
will focus on the former. The author's objective is to provide
some basis for why oral communication is such an important
quality for any individual who is moving on from college to
a career. A second objective is to address how a one-semester
course, particularly aimed at the graduate level, can assist
students in helping make this quality a reality or at least assist
in moving the student in the right direction.
Before addressing the components of oral communication
the author believes will help fortify an individual's oral com-
munication skills, the author would first like to provide the
reason for initiating such a course at Virginia Tech within the
Department of Chemical Engineering. In brief, the inspiration
stemmed from the fact that after being part of many graduate
student committees, the author noted the relatively weak oral
presentations of many students, even while their written docu-
ments (research plan or thesis) may have been well composed.
Restated, the author distinctly recognized that there were
numerous cases whereby the student at the front of the room
may have written an excellent proposal or thesis/dissertation,
yet what was orally presented by that same individual led to
very poor support of that document and/or the work done to
achieve it. This was most disappointing. In fact, it was easy
to see that if that same person were to leave the university
with such poor oral communication skills, his or her future
might well be very dim in locating a career of choice due to
this weakness-even though such graduates may really be
excellent scientists/engineers on the basis of technical skills
and work ethics. For that reason, a new one-semester elec-


tive course was developed to try to address at least some of
the issues that would otherwise restrain students from career
success or possibly life success in general. While the author
will return near the end of this article to describe some of the
organizational aspects of the course, let us first focus on the
elements of oral communication. We will begin with three
"reminder" statements.

ORAL COMMUNICATION REMINDERS
One such reminder is that "we may live in an age of super
computers, high-speed fiber-optic networks, and the Internet,
yet in the final analysis, the 'spoken word'still dominates. We
certainly recognize that politicians rise and fall, lawyers win
or lose in courts, business, social, and family relationships
thrive or fail ... all because of what people say and how they
say it."11I A second reminder is that an individual receives
hundreds of verbal messages each day (both written and oral);
if you are the communicator (the sender) how can you make
the listener (the receiver) remember yours? A third and final
reminder and one close to home for students is an individual
may be a very talented academic student grade-wise, yet if


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Garth Wilkes is presently a University
Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at
Virginia Tech in Blacksburg Virginia. He
earned his Ph.D degree in physical chem-
istry from the University of Massachusetts
in 1969. In 1978, he was recruited by
Virginia Tech to help initiate the interdisci-
plinary Macromolecular MS/PhD program
at Virginia Tech and served as a co-director
of that program for more than 20 years.







people do not perceive that from the way he or she presents
or speaks, he or she will lose credibility and the listener's at-
tention. Hence, it is critical to try to develop the appropriate
communication skills to support not only one's career goals
but essentially almost all parts of life. How can this be done?
Presented in this report are some methods that, if practiced,
can help promote success.
As was stated above, the person communicating the mes-
sage can be viewed as the "sender" and the listener is the
"receiver." The success of that transmission of information,
however, and whether it is truly received and fully imprinted
in the memory bank of the receiver, is dependent on a number
of items. Typically all can be included under the headings
given in Figure 1.
As this figure illustrates, there are two fundamental compo-
nents associated with oral communication. They are the verbal
and the nonverbal -each of which we will address. While oral




COMMUNICA TION



SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER
I ------- _- t- ______-


t
VERBAL
COMMUNICATION


NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION


Figure 1. Factors affecting whether communication is
truly received and fully imprinted on listener.


Figure 2. Three aspects can help diminish the fear that
comes with speaking in front of a group.


252


communication occurs in myriad different venues, much of
this article will emphasize presentations used in research and
related technical "group meetings." It is hoped, however, that
the reader will also appreciate the principles covered in this
article and that the principles will thus have a much broader
application to oral communication as a whole.

REFLECTIONS ON WEAKNESSES IN ORAL
COMMUNICATION AND HOW TO MINIMIZE
For many individuals, one of the main causes of poor oral
communications in public speaking is the fear that comes
with being in this position i.e., up front! As Figure 2 in-
dicates, three things can help diminish this fear. First is to
develop confidence when addressing an audience. To do that
often takes considerable practice. One's initial ability to be
confident in public speaking often varies depending on per-
sonality (e.g., introverted vs. extroverted), which the author
has noted many times when teaching the communication
course. Confidence, which helps generate persuasiveness
and trust, can improve with careful preparation/organization
of the material. When preparing, feedback is desirable ahead
of the actual presentation. This is why, particularly in the
early stages of developing oral communication skills, it is
useful to "test out" your presentations ahead of time in front
of a peer or two that will be honest with you about what you
have said (verbal communication) and how you have said it
(nonverbal communication)-both topics we will address.
By building on the three items given in Figure 2, fear can
generally be diminished. If one does not have a peer or two
to listen to a practice session, then setting up a video camera
or even a simple voice recording device can also be of great
assistance. A video camera is better for reasons that will be
made apparent later on.
Besides fear and lack of confidence, some other potential
pitfalls may well limit success in the communication of an
oral presentation. Some of these will now be briefly addressed.
One is recognizing the nature of the audience. In this respect,
there are several points to consider ahead of time -some are
listed below in Scheme 1.
Scheme 1. A Few Characteristics About the
Audience/Listener the Speaker Should Consider
Age and Its Distribution
Occupations/Professions
Educational Level(s)
Size
Mood
Possible Expectations of the Listener(s)
In brief, when giving a presentation, one should generally
not aim the subject matter too high or too low with regard to the
audience. This is not always easy to avoid unless one knows
some information ahead of time, but it is worth considering.
Chemical Engineering Education







If the age distribution or the educational levels/
backgrounds vary greatly, this challenge can be
met if the sender specifically and openly addresses
the subject with some added remarks that show
the receivers he or she is trying to make sincere
accommodations during the presentation. The
issue of audience educational backgrounds dif-
fering from that of a technical/scientific presenter
can be a fairly large barrier with regard to trying
to convey some science-based subjects to a lay
group. It seems today's non-scientists are quite
skeptical about what a scientist/engineer has
to say-particularly when addressing such hot
topics as global warming or related subjects that
impact their daily world. Hence, particular care
must be taken to not use detailed, sophisticated
science language when addressing such subjects.
Instead, employ terminology that is more broadly
understandable. For example, terms such as "an-
thropogenic," "spatial," and "temporal" may be
better changed to "human-caused," "space," and
"time."'21 Recognizing the latter point will assist
in marketing or selling one's presentation with the
appropriate choice of language.


There is also the choice of phraseology that can make a
major difference to an audience and its desire to listen to what
you have to say. For example, one often hears a speaker state
at the beginning of a talk, "I am going to tell you about ...."
In short, most people do not wish to be told! The speaker is
usually better off by using phrases like "Today we will ex-
plore together .. ," or, "We will discuss the topic of....."
Such phraseology can promote a closer bonding with the
audience right from the beginning, which is clearly desirable
in most instances. One point the speaker should remember in
preparing a presentation is that the audience can essentially be
viewed as the "jury," in judging the material given and how
it is presented. In fact, a silent "verdict" will be reached by
each listener even if there is no chance for discussion of this
at the end of the presentation.

OVERUSED WORDS, PHRASES, OR SOUNDS
Some audience distractors/irritators used inadvertently by
speakers include such sounds as "umh," "aah," and overused
phases such as "and a," "you know," "like, you know" and
even unintentional repetitious sounds. If you do not believe
this, inject several of these within a talk and watch the atten-
tion of the audience/listener begin to fade. In fact, the author
recalls a graduate class he took in the subject of inorganic
chemistry where the lecturer would often clear his throat to
the extent that members of the class used to place bets on how
many times this would happen in a given lecture -sometimes
the number exceeded 100! Needless to say, we were count-
ing the throat-clearings, not focusing on the subject matter
being presented.
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Modified From Present Like a Pro (McGraw-Hill [3].

Figure 3. One simple schematic that can assist in
organizing a talk.


ORGANIZING A PRESENTATION
There is the well-known old phrase that states when plan-
ning to deliver a presentation, "Tell them what you are going
to tell them, tell them, and then tell them what you told them."
Indeed, this simple summation of what to do actually has
merit, for the attention span of listeners is often quite short.
As studies have shown, attention generally peaks at the begin-
ning of a talk and may also show a second peak near the end
where a summary may be given. Thus, if the speaker has the
time to do it, restating or repackaging some of the important
points in the presentation is useful for re-enforcement. The
percentage of time a speaker holds the attention of someone
in the audience depends on lots of variables, however, some
of which the speaker has little control over (such as, is the
listener distracted due to an argument he or she had with a
significant other earlier that day?) While the speaker cannot
easily offset such situations, he or she can improve them by
taking earlier note of the backgrounds of the audience, (e.g.,
potential common interests, etc.) and including suitable
remarks that provide coupling of such interests with various
aspects of the material presented. Also, the organization of
the talk will be a critical factor as well. If the talk can be logi-
cally followed, the associated message it brings will have a
much better chance of being truly received and grasped by
the listener.
One simple schematic that can assist in organizing a talk
is shown in Figure 3. This comes from a text the author has
found useful in supporting his communications course.31
While the figure is in many ways self-explanatory, a few
253


OBJECTIVE--"What Do I Want To

Accomplish With My Presentation?"
"To Do"
Summary
Key Point 3
Supports/ Ke Point 2 Transitions
S pr SKevPoint2








Eye contact in conjunction with vocal

tone and pace play major roles in pro-

viding the mood the speaker may want

at a given point in the presentation.



comments may be useful. First, the speaker must try to suc-
cinctly answer the question of what he or she wants to ac-
complish with the message/presentation. Also, what are the
specific points that are critical to make? To make each one
stand alone as it is delivered, it is necessary as a rule to be
sure there is a clear transition made between each. Thus, a
statement such as, "Now let us turn our attention to the next
important message I wish to share with you," can be useful.
The very beginning of the presentation is also quite critical.
It is here the speaker clearly desires to catch the attention of
the listener. Sometimes this can be done nicely by use of a
related question that makes the listener come to attention if
possible-note the initial sentence of this article! Of course,
whatever this opening remark is, as a rule it should be coupled
to the general theme of the message to be delivered. This will
be quite dependent on the make-up of the audience as well as
the subject to be addressed, and thus this author will not try
to focus on such issues here. In fact, note in Figure 3 that the
"opener" may often appear ahead of the actual title (if, for
example, PowerPoint slides are being used).
Another notable element regarding Figure 3 is the term
"supports" that appears on the left. This term refers to what
this author generally calls show & tell-items that may be
used to support the content of the message being delivered.
Since this author expects readers of this article are likely in
the business of science and engineering, using show & tell
usually gives us a real chance to couple the listener into our
message. One can often show or demonstrate a principle be-
ing discussed by use of an actual example or a product that
functions based on a given theory, etc. The author is a major
believer in using such examples, for if the listeners can see
an item (and possibly touch or inspect it as well) there is a
stronger tendency for the principle it illustrates to be embed-
ded in their minds. In fact, the author is noted for carrying
a large bag of show & tell samples for use in the courses
he teaches on the processing/structure/property behavior of
polymeric materials. One of the comments from students
enrolled in these courses is how important the use of those
samples was in driving home key points being made in the
lectures. Having said that, however, there is a price to pay
at times with use of such show & tell items: It is the time
required for the speaker to pick up and comment on each one
and, in some cases if the audience is not large, to possibly


allow passage of the item through the audience to allow di-
rect contact with each listener. Passing the show & tell item
around also has the potential disadvantage that, while each
member of the audience is inspecting the item, he or she may
be distracted from listening to what is being discussed at that
point in time. Nonetheless, the author is still a big believer
that if your listener can see and possibly have direct contact
with an example, it will help make the overall discussion of
the associated principle stick in his or her mind more than if
you had not used it. Clearly, another limitation of a show &
tell item is when the audience is very large and a small show
& tell item may not be seen well by those in the back of the
presentation room. In this case, the best approach may be to
show a photo or video clip of the item.

THOUGHTS ON USING FIGURES AND
TABLES IN PRESENTATIONS
The old saying that a picture is worth a thousand words is
certainly true in many cases (particularly in science). If the
picture or figure is one that can clearly meet this criterion, then
certainly the presenter should use it if appropriate audio-visual
(AV) means are available. Today, however, it is very easy to
overload a figure with so much material and color by the use
of PowerPoint or other software that the listener can lose focus
of the main feature the presenter really wants to highlight. For
example, often students like to add the university logo and
related material such as the name of a research sponsor on
every slide. I find that distracting. Hence, it is urged that one
try to avoid such overloading and only show what is intended,
using a readable font size and minimal color accents, etc. One
can always start or finish the presentation with the research
sponsor's information as well as the university logo or photo.
As for the use of tables in a typical presentation, I am biased
in that I find tables with lots of entries to be less valuable
than a clear figure with the data plotted to display the trend
one often wishes to show. The important point, however, is
not to overload a table and to be sure the listener in the back
of the room can easily see the table entries. A final point is
that often in scientific or technical presentations, figures and
tables are lifted from the open literature and these have been
designed for publications and not necessarily for use in an oral
presentation. Hence, remaking or modifying such literature
material so that font size, color accentuation, etc., will reach
the audience sitting in the back of the room can be of great
advantage. Including the reference to that corresponding
figure should always be done whenever possible.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:
ITS ELEMENTS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE
We have focused on a number of issues related to improving
oral communication by what is said and by how a presenta-
tion is organized. We have not, however, considered the
issue of nonverbal communication (recall Figure 1), which


Chemical Engineering Education







is an equally important and critical facet of achieving a suc-
cessful presentation. Another more common phrase that also
encompasses the topic of nonverbal communication is body
language. In fact it is worth remembering that in the animal
kingdom, except for a few growls or roars and mating calls,
body language is the only language. Do the visible fangs of
a large lion, the wagging tail of a friendly dog, or the flat-
tened ears of a frightened horse not send a distinct message
to an observer? Thus, just what are the elements comprising
nonverbal communication and why are they important? The
author considers there to be six such aspects-four of which
should never be overlooked when making a presentation
(particularly when its outcome may influence one's career
advancement). The six elements are paralanguage, kinesics,
proxemics, dress/appearance, iconic images, and haptics-the
latter two are generally of lesser importance than the first four.
Paralanguage is, in brief, the way you say something with
your voice-examples being the tone, volume, pace or de-
livery rate, distinct hesitations, use of voice inflections vs. a
monotonal delivery, etc. Most readers will quickly relate to
these aspects of speaking for we have all heard presentations
being given in a monotone-the longer the talk, the more apt
the listener will be to fall asleep or become bored and not pay
attention. Hence, voice inflections are an extremely effective
means of placing emphasis on what points are important-
such as inserting a hesitation just prior to delivering the point
with emphasis (a short silence followed with enhanced volume
stating the point of importance). Certainly, however, there are
times when a soft voice is better than a harsh or loud one;
the mood of the presentation should make it easy to select
which mode is most desirable. For example, just think about
a presentation or talk that is of a eulogistical nature vs. that of,
say, a political speech-the use of strong accents in the latter
will generally win more votes, but would not be appreciated
in the opposing example.
In contrast to the use of the voice itself, kinesics has to do
with eye usage, facial expression, and body posture. In short,
if the message being delivered is to excite the audience, then
it is less likely to happen if there is no excitement expressed
facially by the speaker at appropriate times. Likewise, if some
remark is meant to generate a somber thought, then provid-
ing such verbiage with a big smile on the speaker's face is
essentially a contradiction to the verbal communication (the
somber message). Eye contact in conjunction with vocal tone
and pace play major roles in providing the mood the speaker
may want at a given point in the presentation. It is critical that
one is always striving to support the verbal components with
those of the nonverbal. It should also be mentioned that in
addition to striving for good use of eye contact and posture,
public speakers should generally avoid using a podium when
possible-particularly for longer presentations since a podium
serves as sort of a "wall" or "shield" between the speaker and
the audience. It also "ties" the speaker to a single position up


front. In short, standing behind a podium typically causes a
loss of body dynamics and often promotes less direct con-
nection of the speaker to the audience.
The third element, proxemics, is how one utilizes the space
around oneself. To put this into perspective, have you ever
sat through a presentation and felt the speaker never seemed
to address you or at least the audience? Instead, the speaker
was either off in space (maybe just that "space" occupied by
the speaker and the screen for the slides!). Or in some other
case, the speaker may have only talked to the first few rows
of the audience. Good proxemics is when the speaker is well
aware of all audience members and during the presentation
makes an effort to reach out or project to each one. This can
be done by walking now and then from side to side to allow
better voice projection and eye contact with each person in
attendance. In some instances (not generally scientific-based
presentations) the speaker may even go out into the audience.
This is not usually suggested although it certainly draws the
attention of those who may have been dozing off. In summary,
the speaker should try to include all of the audience into the
talk by eye usage and body dynamics up front, and now and
then possibly even ask if those in the back of the lecture room
can hear the speaker. In fact, it never hurts to ask that question
very early on in a presentation so the speaker finds out if his
or her own speaking volume or that supplied by a wireless
microphone is suitable enough for all to hear. In fact, if one
is planning to give a long presentation or a series of lectures,
use of a wireless microphone is highly recommended. This
not only helps hold the attention of the audience but it also
conserves the speaker's voice that might otherwise give out
later. Finally, in the case where a speaker finds the audience
is small relative to the number of available seats in the pre-
sentation room, the speaker may well wish to suggest prior to
beginning his or her talk that those listeners far from the front
take a moment to move to the available seats near the front
of the room; this will generally promote a closer "bonding"
of the full audience with the presenter.
The element of dress/appearance is clearly an obvious one.
The author is not saying that one should always be "dressed to
the nines" in order to score well it will depend on the nature
of the presentation and the surroundings. For example, many
of the readers of this article have likely attended scientific-
based conferences or workshops where a suit and tie are not
the desired dress but rather something more casual is expected.
On the other hand, when one is going to interview for a job,
it is clearly best to err on the professional side. For example,
for men a suit and tie or at least a sport coat and tie are a bet-
ter choice than a pair of blue jeans and a sport shirt. Clearly,
today's world is distinctly less formal than it was 40 years ago
when the author was in the market for his first job, but still an
interviewee should try to display an image of professionalism.
The last two elements of nonverbal communication are
haptics and iconic images. These, however, may not neces-


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







sarily be directly applicable to all presentations. Haptics is the
use of direct physical contact or touch as a means of making
a point or trying to gain someone's attention. For example,
while speaking highly of an employee, a boss may go over
and give that person a handshake or a pat on the back to help
make it clear that the individual is being viewed as special
for that moment. Another place where you see haptics greatly
practiced is in the political arena where giving hugs or hand-
shakes (or even holding a number of babies) will encourage
the vote count to grow! The final element of nonverbal com-
munication is simply to use icons (symbols) as a means of
silently sending or reinforcing a message when visual material
is being presented. Certainly we are all familiar with icons
used for an upcoming railroad crossing, or the "golden arches"
of a McDonald's restaurant. Applying this to the tone of this
article, note Figure 4 which shows a number of intermeshing
gears that work together. Such a figure can also be appropri-
ately used when talking about how important it is to fit all
parts of a "group talk" together so the group of presentations
is the sum of its parts and not a series of separate, shorter,
independent presentations.

ADDRESSING QUESTIONS DURING OR
AFTER AN ORAL PRESENTATION
Generally, even if the presenter has done his or her job in
giving a memorable and moving presentation, there may be
questions that arise in listeners' minds that they hope to have
addressed by the speaker. It is therefore important to try and
provide a portion of time that allows for this-most often at
the completion of the talk. Yes, questions may come during
a presentation as well but typically trying to address them at
the end is a better plan; questions taken during a presentation
often limit the flow or continuity of the theme. There are,
however, exceptions to this. For example, often in scientific
talks there may be a need for clarification along the way in
order to maintain the continuity of the theme. While I will
not address any example cases of this, speakers should try to
judge if opening the floor for questions during a presentation
is suitable or not, and consider letting the audience know
early on where in their delivery questions will be addressed.
The means of addressing open questions from an audience
can also vary depending on the audience and its size. First,
if the audience is large and no floor microphone is available,
it may be useful for the speaker to repeat the question to the
entire audience. There is another real advantage to this prac-
tice: It gives the speaker's brain a chance to begin addressing
the question before starting a spoken answer. Any answer, of
course, should aim to be concise, clear, and delivered with
sincereness and appropriate body language such that the
questioner knows they have been given their due time and the
audience is fully coupled to the response as well. The bottom
line is that the speaker does not want to appear to admonish the
questioner or play down what may be an irrelevant question;


rather, leave all members of the audience with the belief that
the presenter has tried to address their questions in an honest
and positive manner.

AN ELECTIVE GRADUATE COURSE TO
IMPROVE ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Having discussed many of the aspects of oral communica-
tion and the critical role it plays in one's career and life, we
will now turn our attention to a brief discussion of an elective
graduate course established and taught for several years at
Virginia Tech that was focused on improving students' oral
communication skills. What will be briefly provided is how
the author designed the course and its contents. It is safe to say,
however, there are other modifications that could be used to
achieve similar results depending on the specific group to be
taught. Furthermore, there are now newer means of electronic
equipment that can facilitate and accentuate oral presentations
such as video clips, etc.
Concerning the makeup of the class, the author taught the
course not just to chemical engineering students but students
from other departments in the sciences such as chemistry
and materials engineering. In fact, by design the instructor
always desired to have the class composed of students from
several scientific disciplines in order to make the "audience"
somewhat "diversified" in scientific interests, which meant
any class presenter would have to take this fact into account
when organizing his or her presentations.
Before outlining and discussing the nature of the seven as-
signed presentations, it is worth pointing out that the author
also strived to obtain a suitable classroom. That is, for this
type of course it was very desirable to have a very good pro-
jection screen as well as a quality blackboard or whiteboard
in addition to good light control. Since the class was always
restricted to no more than 10 students, one might think a very
small room would suffice. When possible, however, the author
always preferred a mid-size room in which to spread the class
out a bit to more uniformly cover the classroom space. This
prevents a speaker from being able to talk directly to only a
small group of listeners in the front of the room. Rather, the
speaker would have to consider listeners in the back of the
room as well in terms of eye contact and good voice projec-
tion (recall our earlier discussion of maintaining the attention
of a large audience).
Prior to initiating the student presentations, the author
would spend two class periods addressing the importance of
oral communication and just how and why developing skills
in this area is important not only for one's future scientific
career but also for one's overall life in "everyday" commu-
nications. I would also provide, by short example snippits,
the do's and don't regarding oral communication. I also
promoted a specific text (Reference 3) as a good guide to
students as they prepared presentations. No specific lectures


Chemical Engineering Education







were focused on particular chapters, however, for I believed
the class members needed to become immersed in deliver-
ing-as well as carefully listening to and grading-the seven
required presentations.
With respect to grading the presentations, each student in
the class also served as a graderfor each presentation other
than his or her own. Not only does this result in the students
becoming more involved with the course but they also further
honed their listening skills as well. In fact, the fundamental
process of listening is a topic that is as important as that of
speaking. I will not go off on a tangent on this topic other than
to say that by being graders, the students learned to become
more aware of nuances or idiosyncrasies speakers may un-
intentionally use
that can be major
distractors. This, Group/Team Preser
in turn, helps each
studentavoidsim- Points to Consider
ilar mistakes. A
final reason for us-
ing each student as A seamless orchestrated present
a grader was that
the author believes Eachteam member should have
that what a single Try to match each presenter's sti
person (listener)
picks up from a Each presenter must stay on tim
presentation is not
pree* Each team member must focus c
always complete
and it may depend members
on where you are
in the room, what Consider what question may aris
your mindset is
for that day, etc. Figure 4. Use of an icon (the inte
Restated, not ev-
ery listener is sensitive to the same issues when hearing a
presentation. Therefore, having each set of eyes and ears in
the room pass judgment on a given presentation provides a
much better overall appraisal of that event. In fact, is this not
one of the reasons that in a court of law, the jury is made of
several individuals rather than just one person?
The five specific topic areas graded on a scale of 1-10 were:
organization, voice quality, materials (quality of slides, board
usage, poster materials, etc.), interest factor, and audience
interaction. While one could add more subtopics, these five
seemed to capture the needed information. In addition, for
each of these categories, the grader could add a "one liner"
to try to make clear the basis for their topic grade. Finally,
there were places for five lines of writing at the end of the
grading form for each presentation such that the grader could
add any comments he or she believed useful (and likely aside
from the five specific categories). As instructor, I would also
fill out the same grading sheet, then combine all the relevant
comments and scores onto a "master" grade sheet that would


ita





atio

at I

reng

e

n th


e fr4


'rme


be given back to the student presenters at the time of the next
class so they would have a written record of the scores and
the associated commentsfor each talk they gave.
In addition to the feedback that came through the master
grading sheets, each presentation was orally reviewed by
the class after all the presentations had been made. This was
typically done at the end of a given class meeting which, for
this course, was usually scheduled for a "double class period"
in order to allow all students to give their presentations, or
at least half of them- see later discussion below. In this oral
review the author generally found a presenter's peers often did
not have as much to say as did their grading sheets -probably
since they did not wish to openly constructively criticize their
equals. (This is
another rea-
tions: A Few son why mul-
tiple feedback
mechanisms are
needed.) Hence,
this instructor
in was principally
the one who
east one objective provided feed-

th with the topicthey address back in the vo-
cal review part
of the grading
ie audience and not other team process.
One of the
other most im-
portant feed-
om the audience back mecha-
nisms for the
shed gears) to illustrate a message. class members
was for all stu-
dents to bring to class a means of video-recording their pre-
sentation (i.e., a flash drive, etc.). These were recorded then
returned to the students to take home and review. From the
author's point of view, there is no better way to judge one's
self than to hear and see video of yourself presenting. This
provides the student an opportunity to not only hear what
he or she said (the verbal) but to also view his or her body
language (the nonverbal). This system worked well and the
students greatly appreciated this helpful practice as noted in
their course evaluations.
As stated above, this instructor typically required each class
participant to make seven separate presentations, which means
each student had multiple times "up front." Thus, there was a
very good opportunity for each person to really make advances
in his or her oral communication skills. Improved presenta-
tions over the course of the semester indeed did happen in
most all cases no matter how low or high a level the student
started from. Restated, the author feels quite strongly about
the importance of having a small class for this course since


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


257







it allows for multiple presentations by each class member.
Oral presentation, while easier for some than others, is a bit
like playing any musical instrument-to do it well, one must
practice and also have the chance to perform several times
since the latter is a necessary means of developing confidence
in front of a group.
Regarding the topics assigned for presentations, the first
was always a five-minute presentation using absolutely no
audio-visual aids of any kind. The required topic was about
the presenter. That is, each speaker talked in one form or
another about him- or herself. The instructor found this topic
gave the speakers a chance to not only avoid having to worry
about slide preparation, AV setup, etc., but also forced them
to boil down their life stories, or some segment thereof, to
try helping the audience get to know them and a bit about
their interests. Some did this by choosing their childhood or
family structure. What came out of this was a chance to really
learn about each person in the class and it led to some very
interesting and revealing five-minute presentations, to say
the least. The fact that AV equipment was not allowed meant
the presenters had to rely on body language (the nonverbal
component) to support their presentations. This gave the class
and instructor the opportunity to see how presenters used their
hands, eyes, stance, etc.-revealing just how comfortable each
speaker was to start with when up front.
The second and third presentations were first a nontechni-
cal talk followed with a technical talk, both using overheads/
transparencies. This course was initially taught in the days
when overheads were still the common means of making pre-
sentations. Today it would likely be PowerPoint presentations
so the reader can make the appropriate adjustment. Each talk
was 6-7 minutes in length. These presentations were intended
to start the presenter thinking about preparing quality visuals
that were well-organized and clear. It also began to give them
the opportunity to talk not only about science (the technical)
but also make presentations on other subjects to see how they
could judge their audience now that they knew a bit about
each class member based on the initial presentation. Also, they
now had the benefit of being able to use visuals as a means to
help guide them through the talk (since clearly that is what
those AV supports often do in most cases if used correctly).
Following these three presentations, the same general as-
signment was given for a nontechnical and then a technical
presentation on a blackboard (or whiteboard). In the case of
the technical topic, it was also required to use mathematics
in the presentation. Again, the time for each presentation was
7 minutes with a time warning at 6 minutes. Now, it is safe
to say a blackboard-type presentation is without a doubt the
most difficult for most speakers and this is no real surprise.
This occurs since not only is the speaker trying to make eye
contact with the audience but now they are also required to
write on a board (often with their back to the audience) and
yet make the presentation flow with the spoken word as well.


In short, this is not so easy to do in a brief time period without
practice. It is even more difficult when trying to use a series
of mathematical equations to cover some topic and keep it
well organized on a blackboard so the audience can clearly
read the material. In addition to requiring organization of the
material on the board, the presenter must practice all other
principles/rules we have discussed as well. Needless to say,
it was this specific presentation that sometimes was so poorly
done the entire class had to repeat the assignment.
For the sixth talk, a poster presentation was used. The rea-
son was that a good share of scientific meetings today make
much use of poster presentations. In fact, it is often where
science students first make their debut in the world of scientific
presentations. Not only do they have to learn about the visual
aspects of the poster itself and how to organize this with color
accents, font size, etc., but when giving such a presentation, as
likely the reader knows, one is often interrupted by questions.
Hence, the presenter must be particularly careful in staying
organized but also maintain the flexibility of answering ques-
tions along the way. The length of this presentation was on
the order of 10 minutes and thus only about five or so poster
presentations could be given in a double period due to poster
setup, open class evaluations, etc.
The final or seventh talk was a PowerPoint presentation-in
the early years of this class it was a 35mm slide presentation.
The topic was the student's research area and it was to be 15
minutes in length-the longest of all the presentations so at
least two class meetings were needed to cover all the class
presentations for that assignment. This gave the students a
good opportunity to focus on their own research yet have to
present it in a way other students working in other research
fields could gain knowledge from the talk. Generally by the
time of the seventh talk, the students were doing quite well
and it was very satisfying to see the degree of progress made
during the semester.
It might be useful to comment on how members of the class
were often enlisted into the course. First, some students were
urged to take this course by their respective graduate advisor
if the student was believed deficient in oral communications.
Secondly, after the course was taught a few semesters, the
author unfortunately had to be selective since the course had
become viewed as very useful for enhancing an individual's
ability as an oral presenter. It is again pointed out that a
larger class size would not allow for each class member to
be able to undertake seven presentations that varied in type
and time allotment. Hence, while a small class size was pos-
sibly one drawback to the course, there is little doubt in the
author's mind that the general format should not be given
up in order to raise the class size, for it would have diluted
the overall goals of this rather specialized graduate course.
In fact, in conversing with other graduate faculty at several
other universities, the author is not aware of any similar oral
communications course taught elsewhere with a similar


Chemical Engineering Education







format. Most graduate science or engineering departments
do not offer a focused course in oral communications. It is
often common for graduate students to just give their graduate
seminar in a departmental setting ahead of their final exam!
defense, and by that time it is likely too late to promote major
changes in their style of oral communication.

SUMMARY
In reflecting on the subject of oral communication and
its importance to not only one's career but also to one's
life as a whole, it is hoped the contents of this article, in
which the author has tried to outline many of the basic
considerations behind providing a quality presentation,
will be absorbed by or taught accordingly to others in the
future. While this author certainly enjoyed the teaching of
core courses in his field of polymeric materials and their
structure property behavior, designing and teaching this
communications course was one of my real enjoyments as
an academician. This was particularly so when several of
the students had little or no training in oral communication
and I could therefore watch them "grow" in their ability to
communicate. It is hoped that some of the academicians


reading this article will, in turn, be prompted to initiate
such a course for there is a major need for scientists and
engineers to hone their skills in this area. Without such
skills, the benefits/value of their scientific/engineering
work may well be greatly diminished from low-quality
oral presentations made during their careers.

REFERENCES
1. American Speaker- Your Guide To Successfid Speaking, Aram Bak-
shian, ed., Georgetown Publishing House, Washington, DC (1995)
2. Somerville, R.C.J., and S.J. Hassol, Physics Today, Oct. 2011, pg. 48
3. Arredondo, L., How to Present Like A Pro, McGraw Hill Inc., New
York (1991)

OTHER RELEVANT REFERENCES
Kinny, P., Public Speaking For Scientists and Engineers,Adam Hilger
Ltd, Bristol, England (1984)
Cain, B.E., The Basics of Technical Commnunicating,American Chemi-
cal Society, Washington, DC (1988)
Alley,M., The Craft of Scientific Presentations, Springer-Verlag, New
York (2003)
Decker, B., You've Got To Be Heard To Be Believed, St. Martin's Press,
New York (1992) L


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Mn classroom
-- ._______________--


TEACHING PROCESS DESIGN THROUGH


INTEGRATED PROCESS SYNTHESIS




MATTHEW J. METZGER,' BENJAMIN J. GLASSER,1 BILAL PATEL,2 DIANE HILDEBRANDT,2 DAVID GLASSER2
1 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, NJ 08854
2 The University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa


What is the minimum amount of carbon dioxide that
a process can produce? This may seem like a trivial
question but it is not a question usually asked when
processes are being designed. In many cases, there is a lack
of a quantitative description of what is the highest efficiency,
least amount of energy, or lowest amount of carbon dioxide
that can be achieved for a particular process, i.e., what is the
theoretical achievable target. Without being able to answer
such simple questions it is hard to make good decisions in
the design of processes.
In this regard, a novel approach to the chemical process
design course was recently introduced at the University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, called Integrated
Process Synthesis. The course aimed to introduce students
to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating
performance targets for processes as well as gaining insight
into how these targets can be achieved. The main objectives,
in terms of the targets set for the process design, were efficient
use of raw materials and energy and improved environmental
performance (reducing CO2 emissions).

PHILOSOPHY
The decisions made in the early stage of the design process
or the conceptual phase are of vital importance as the eco-
nomics of the process are usually set at this stage. Biegler, et
al.111 estimate that the decisions made during the conceptual
design phase fix about 80% of the total cost of the process.
Once the process structure has been fixed, only minor cost
improvements can be achieved. Thus, the success of the pro-
cess is largely determined by the conceptual design.12] There
is therefore a need for systematic procedures to generate, as
well as identify, the most promising alternatives. Without such
procedures, even an experienced designer might not be able
to uncover the best process structure and will be stuck with
a poorly operating process. Ideally, these procedures should


be applied in the early stages of the design and should require
minimum information since the use of rigorous design meth-
ods to evaluate alternatives can be time and capital intensive.
The philosophy underlying the course is to look at the
process holistically. The design of a flow sheet is approached
with this overall analysis as its foundation. We address the
overall process by tools and techniques developed within

Matthew Metzger is a post-doctoral associate at Rutgers University,
where he received his Ph.D. He spent two years working with the COMPS
group at the University of the Witwatersrand as a graduate student and
post-doc. His interests include granular materials, identifying promising
processes from an energy and emissions perspective, and sustainable
energy production.
Benjamin J. Glasser is a professor of chemical and biochemical
engineering at Rutgers University. He earned degrees in chemical
engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S., M.S.) and
Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include granular
flows, gas-particle flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear dynamics
of transport processes.
Bilal Patel is a consultant at the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
thesis (COMPS), the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
South Africa. He obtained his B.Sc. (chem. eng.) in 2002 and Ph.D.
from the University of the Witwatersrand in 2007 His field of interest is
process synthesis and integration, particularly in developing systematic
methods and tools to aid in flowsheet synthesis, especially tools that can
be implemented in the conceptual phase of the design process. These
tools should aid in setting targets for processes in order to ensure that
processes are designed to be efficient, environmentally friendly, and
sustainable.
Diane Hildebrandt is the co-founder of COMPS at the University of
the Witwatersrand. She received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from the
University of the Witwatersrand and currently leads the academic and
consultant research teams at the university She has published more than
50 referred journal articles on topics ranging from process synthesis to
thermodynamics.
David Glasser is a director of the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
thesis at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is acknowledged as a
world-leading researcherin the field of reactor and process optimization,
and is an NRFA 1 rated researcher. His extensive publication record and
research areas extend from reactor design and optimization to distillation
and process optimization and intensification.

@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Chemical Engineering Education







the framework of process synthesis and integration, which
provides a holistic approach to process design, i.e., consider-
ing "the big picture first, and the details later."[3] We aim to
introduce a method of providing insights and setting targets
for the overall process based on fundamental concepts, as well
as developing systematic procedures to attain these targets.
Targeting allows one to identify a benchmark for the per-
formance of a system before the actual design of the system
is carried out.[4,51 These benchmarks are the ideal or ultimate
performance of such a system and provide useful insight into
the process. These targets are usually based on fundamental
engineering principles-for example, thermodynamic princi-
ples -but can be based on heuristics or cost estimates. Targets
are usually independent of the structure of the process, i.e., the
ultimate performance of the system can be determined without
identifying how it can be reached.141 Thus, these targets reduce
the dimensionality of the problem to a manageable size.[14
These targets are also useful in evaluating existing systems as
one can easily compare the current performance of the system
to the ideal performance of the system, even identifying ways
to minimize waste from a process.161
Every chemical process can be considered in terms of a
number of inputs and outputs. These inputs or outputs can
be classified into three variables: mass, heat, and work. Mass
and energy balances are used in the analysis of individual
units and flow sheets, as well as in the synthesis of chemical
processes. Another tool, the second law of thermodynamics
(or the entropy balance) is also useful for synthesizing or
analyzing chemical processes, especially since it can quanti-
tatively assess the efficiency and sustainability of processes.
The law of mass conservation (mass balance) and the first law
of thermodynamics (energy balance), as well as the second
law of thermodynamics (work balance), will be employed
as the basis of the approach. One can assemble processes
through decision making about the mass, energy, and work
balance, rather than arbitrarily connecting unit operations.
This is useful not only for the design of new processes but
for retrofitting as well.
Unlike the traditional approach to process design17'1 where
the flow sheet is normally chosen from existing literature
or from prior knowledge, the flow sheet emerges from the
analysis. No longer is it necessary for the lecturer to hand out
a design brief to the students with the desired process route,1101
but students are challenged to select the most promising
synthesis route with limited information, training them for
similar instances encountered in industry.111 One can then use
the more detailed design approach to include costing, sizing,
etc. In addition, this approach works equally well for product
design1121 and to include additional factors such as designing
for controllability[131 and risk due to uncertainty,114' as well
as reactor optimization." As always, design is an iterative
procedure, so in most cases the assumptions made at this
point will need to be revisited, but this approach provides


a framework to register those assumptions and provide a
philosophy of why they were implemented.
A back-to-front synthesis approach based on determining
the target overall mass balance for a process is proposed. The
overall mass balance can be determined by applying atomic
species balances based on the inputs and outputs of the pro-
cess. This is referred to as the mass balance subject to atomic
balance constraints, i.e., all atoms entering must also exit. In
addition, it is also possible to develop a process mass balance
subject to energy constraints, by determining the energy re-
quirements of the overall process mass balance. In this work,
an adiabatic target is chosen (no heat rejected to or required
from the environment). Finally, the work requirements are
also determined for each overall mass balance based on the
entropy, or work, balance. The target for the work balance is
a reversible process that does not require or produce work.
An understanding of which of the three variables is the limit-
ing target is also very important, in that it gives insight into
what is the important or limiting parameter in the design and
operation of the process. Changing the target often results in
a change to the overall process mass balance, so these three
tools work in conjunction, rather than independently. There-
fore, the design is also an iterative process. Regardless, once
a mass balance is chosen subject to any constraint, the energy
and work requirements of the process are set, and determined
through a simple calculation. It is true that cost must always
be considered during design, but it is also true that a work-
ing process may not be economically feasible, whereas an
economically feasible process may not work. Therefore, one
must ensure the process is possible first and foremost, and
then consider the economic aspects.
Consider a flow process at steady-state as shown Figure 1,
operating in an ambient environment where all the mass and
energy flows are accounted for. This is our process "universe."
The pure component inputs to the process enter with a certain


Input

mi
Hi
Si
To
Po




Ws


Output

mo
0
To
Po


Figure 1. General schematic of a process "universe."


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







flow rate (m) at a standard temperature and pressure of the
environment (To and Po), and possess a certain enthalpy
(H) and entropy (S). The pure component outputs leave the
process at identical conditions to the inlets, but with poten-
tially different flow rates, enthalpies, and entropies. Mass
is conserved across the process, allowing one to develop a
process mass balance relating the entering flow rates to the
exiting flow rates. Also flowing into (or out of) the system
is a heat stream Qc(To)and a work stream Ws. The values of
these streams are determined using the first and second laws
of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics states
that the energy flows entering and leaving a system must be
equal at steady state. Energy flows can be in the form of heat
or work. The energy balance can be applied to individual
units as well as entire processes. Therefore, we can write an
energy balance over the entire process (dashed box number
1) shown in Figure 1, as shown in Eq. (1).

AH+ 1Au +gAz = Q+Ws, (1)
2


Here AH is the difference in enthalpy of the streams leaving
and entering (AH=moHo-miHi), Au is the difference in veloc-
ity of the outlet and inlet streams (kinetic energy), Az is the
difference in height of the output and input streams relative
to a reference plane (potential energy), g is the gravitational
constant, IQ refers to all heat flows in or out of the process,
which we represent as only Qc(To), and XWs refers to all shaft
work entering or leaving the system, which we represent as
only Ws. A positive value of Qc(To) would mean that heat is
required whereas a negative value indicates that heat has to
be released from the process. A positive value of W means
that work is required to upgrade heat from the environment
to the level necessary to run the process, whereas a negative
value means that work can be produced by downgrading the
heat leaving the process as it returns to the environment. As-
suming Au and Az are negligible, Eq. (1) reduces to:
AH =Qc (To)+W, (2)

Performing the same energy balance over the dotted box
number 2 in Figure 1 we can also develop the following
relationship:

Q (T)=Q (TO)+W, (3)

As a result, we can then substitute Eq. (3) into Eq. (2) and
find that
AH=Q, (T) (4)

or, an identical result to if the energy balance were performed
over the solid box number 3. Therefore, the amount of heat that
is required to convert the given feeds to the products is equal
to the enthalpy difference between the outlet and inlet streams.
From this point on QH(T) is simplified to Q. Here we note
that the difference between QH(T) and Qc(To) is the quality

262


of the heat, with Qc(To) having a low quality and QH(TO) hav-
ing a high quality, meaning that there is work associated with
the heat at higher temperature, as given by Eq. (3).
To determine the relationship for W,, we utilize the second
law of thermodynamics and follow the steps outlined by
Denbigh.[16' The second law of thermodynamics states that
in order for the process in Figure 1 to operate, the entropy
change must be greater than or equal to zero, where zero re-
fers to a reversible process and is the limit of operation. The
entropy balance over the dashed box number 1 in Figure 1
is shown in Eq. (5).

AS+c =Sg, (5)
To
where AS is the entropy difference between the outlet and inlet
streams (AS=moSo-miSi) and S ge is the entropy generated by
the process. Replacing Qc(To) in Eq. (5) with the relationship
in Eq. (2) and rearranging, we can then write the following
expression:
W, + Sg, =AH+ToAS (6)

Using the definition of Gibbs free energy (G=H-TS), Eq.(6)
reduces to
W +S, =AG (7)

Finally, as AS ge> 0 (the equality assuming a reversible
process), we can determine the limit of operation,
W > AG (8)


Thus, for our "process universe," we can determine the
amount of work required to run the process reversibly (or
amount of work rejected from the process) by calculating
the change in Gibbs free energy between the outlet and inlet
streams. This "available work" is also called exergy when
T=T0. Exergy considers both the quantity and quality of
work associated with a process and is particularly useful for
identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency within a
process.[17-'19 More information on this derivation and its util-
ity is given elsewhere,t20-231 along with additional case studies
and development of this approach.[24,251
To demonstrate the procedure of using Integrated Process
Synthesis to determine process targets, we will consider the
following example of methanol synthesis. The example will
go step-by-step through the Integrated Process Synthesis
approach, increasing in complexity, starting with a process
mass, energy, and work balance and ending with the basic
outline of a process flow diagram.

THE PROCESS MASS BALANCE
We wish to produce methanol, while maximizing the
amount of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that ends up in the
desired product, i.e., minimize by-products. As a result, the


Chemical Engineering Education







ideal process to produce 1 mole of methanol
will consume only those elements present in Overall
methanol and in the correct proportions. A efficiencies f
simple mass balance across the process can
tell us how to run our process optimally. The Overall I
ideal methanol production requires 1 mole of
carbon, 4 moles of hydrogen, and 1 mole of 20
oxygen, as shown in Figure 2. 1.5C (+2H 0
If these elements are introduced as feeds to CH4,,+H
the process in any other ratio besides C:H:O CH 4)+0
1:4:1, then another species besides methanol
must be produced, reducing the efficiency
of the process. Two metrics will be used to compare various
processes based upon how much of each element from the feed
ends up in the desired product. First, the carbon efficiency is
the percentage of the carbon in the feed that ends up as carbon
in the desired product, and the calculation is given in Eq. (9).
CE number of moles of Carbon in the desired product
number of moles of Carbon in the feed
In the schematic shown in Figure 2, 1 mole of carbon is
fed into the process and that 1 mole of carbon ends up in the
desired methanol product. Therefore, the carbon efficiency
is 1 (CE=1/1=1). Similarly, a hydrogen efficiency can be
defined, performing the same calculation, but with hydrogen
as the element of interest, as given by Eq. (10).
Number of moles of Hydrogen in the desired product(10)
HE = (10)
number of moles of Hydrogen in the feed

For Figure 2, the hydrogen efficiency is also 1 (HE=4/4= 1).
A similar function can be described for oxygen efficiency, but
that will not be included in this example. Thus, the process
described in Figure 2 is ideal from a carbon and hydrogen ef-
ficiency standpoint, but how would we create such a process?
What resources are readily available as sources of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, and how well do they match with the
desired C:H:O=1:4:1 ratio?
Let us assume that the compounds available to us that
contain some combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
are liquid water (HO2), coal (we assume this to be pure car-
bon C), methane (CH4), oxygen (0,), and carbon dioxide
(CO2). These species can be combined in an effort to match
the required elemental ratios and begin to develop a mass
balance over the entire process, or a process mass balance.


Figure 2. Schematic representing ideal mass inputs for
the production of methanol.


TABLE 1
I process mass balances, carbon efficiences, and hydrogen
or processes using a single carbon source to produce methanol
from readily available species.
processs Mass Balance Eq. No. CE HE
S= CH3OH,.+0.50, 11 1 1
z =- CHOH,,+0.5CO 2 12 0.67 1
), => CH3OH,+H2. 13 1 0.67
.50,2 = CH3OHI, 14 1 1


Start with coal as a carbon source. One mole of coal meets
our requirement of 1 mole of carbon. Water can be used as
the source of both hydrogen and oxygen, but one mole of
water does not provide enough hydrogen (2 moles and we
need 4 moles), so we will need at least 2 moles of water. Now,
however, we have an additional mole of oxygen, which must
end up as another product. A product of oxygen is possible, as
well as a product of CO,. For an oxygen product, the process
mass balance is straightforward: coal plus water makes one
mole of methanol, with the balance of oxygen ending up as
elemental oxygen. This is shown in Eq. (11).
1C(, + 2H0,,) = CH,OH,, +0.502(g (11)

An additional amount of carbon is needed, however, to
provide the carbon for both methanol and carbon dioxide.
The resulting process mass balance is thus,
1.5C(,) +2H,0,, = CH,OH, + 0.5CO2(g) (12)

Notice the use of = to denote a process mass balance and
not a reaction. We know that at least one reaction will have
to take place to chemically convert the feed to the products,
but those details are contained within the "Process" box in
Figure 2 and are nonessential at this point in the analysis. We
can see that the carbon and hydrogen efficiency of the process
represented by Eq. (11) are 1, whereas the same values for
the process represented by Eq. (12) are 0.67 and 1, for carbon
and hydrogen, respectively.
Following the same procedure, one can develop alternative
process mass balances using methane as the carbon and hy-
drogen source and water or atmospheric oxygen as the oxygen
source. The resulting set of process mass balances is shown
in Table 1, along with their carbon and hydrogen efficiencies.
There are other combinations of the species, but only these
three will be considered here. From both a carbon and hydro-
gen efficiency perspective, the process represented in Eq. (14)
(methane plus oxygen yields methanol) is most attractive.
The by-product, however, from the process represented by
Eq. (13) (methane plus water yields methanol and hydrogen)
is hydrogen, which is an attractive product in its own right,
so this process is also considered. If one was deciding on


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







processes to produce methanol with minimal environm
impact, by using coal you are forced to have a minimum
33% of your feed carbon ending up as carbon dioxide, wh
it may be possible to produce methanol with no CO, emis
by using methane. This procedure provides a quick and
methodology to screen potential feeds against one ane
when deciding on various process routes. All this was pos
by just performing a simple mass balance.
The consequence of not providing the desired elemer
the desired proportions is the production of unwanted
products, adversely affecting the efficiency of the overall
cess. On the other hand, removing products from interme
steps also adversely affects the overall process efficiency)
example, the industrial approach to methanol synthesis i,
two-step process producing syngas (a mixture of carbon I
oxide and hydrogen) from methane, water and oxygen
then producing both methanol and water from the syng;
None of the overall process mass balances presented in 1
1 have water as a product, which therefore means that
tional reactants are required to satisfy the overall process:
balance. Instead, one could identify that recycling the v
as a feed to the process would be a more desirable apprn
instead of removing what appears to be a harmful by-proi
This demonstrates that optimizing each individual part
process may not be the best for the optimization of the ov
process. Therefore, the approach is not only a tool for prc
designers, but also a tool for process operators.

THE PROCESS ENERGY BALANCE
Although the processes listed in Table 1 seem attrac
they may not be feasible. In order to determine if the,
feasible, i.e., do not require additional energy to conver
reactants to the products, one must perform an energy bal
over each of those processes. The basic schematic use
calculate the heat requirements for the process combining
gen and methane to produce methanol is shown in Figu
As discussed earlier, the difference between the enth
of the inlet streams and enthalpy of the outlet streams ca
used to determine the energy requirements of the process:
For reference, the enthalpy of each compound discuss
this text is included in Table 2.
Using the values in Table 2, one can calculate the
requirements of the process mass balances in Table 1. T
values are shown in Table 3.
Remember that AH pro> 0 means the pro-
cess is endothermic and requires an external
source of heat to convert the reactants into
the products, whereas AH < 0 means
the process is exothermic and produces 1Csi
heat when converting the reactants into the 1.5Cs
products. Additionally, heat normally comes Cl
from combustion, which results in a change

264


to the overall process mass balance. As a result, the overall
process mass balances for producing methanol from coal and
methanol from methane and water will be different than those
shown in Table 1 and Table 3. Also, note the extremely large
value for AHproc of the process represented by Eq. (11). This
is because the formation of oxygen is highly unlikely from a
thermodynamics perspective.
To demonstrate this, consider the production of methanol
from methane and water [the process represented by Eq. (13)].
One can see that the by-product from this process is hydrogen,
or a potential energy source through combustion. Therefore,
it may be possible to combust the extra hydrogen in order
to meet the energy requirements of the process. Hydrogen
combustion is shown in Eq. (15), along with its enthalpy,
calculated using the values in Table 2.
H2(g) +0.502(g) H,20, AHH.,b =-285.8kJ/mol (15)

Comparing the heat requirements of the process repre-
sented by Eq. (13) to the hydrogen combustion enthalpy,
combusting all of the hydrogen results in an energy excess


Figure 3. Energy balance for the production of methanol
from the more efficient feed components.


TABLE 2
and Gibbs free energies for each
species used.
AH* (kJ/mol) AG (kJ/mol)
0.0 0.0
-74.8 -50.7
0.0 0.0
-393.5 -394.4
0.0 0.0
-285.8 -237.1
-238.7 -166.9


TABLE 3
Heats of reaction for each of the overall process mass balances
presented in Table 1.
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. AHp.. (kJ/mol)
+2H20,,, CH3OH,,,+0.5 02,,( 11 333.0
+2H0,,,0 CH3OH,,+0.5 CO2,, 12 136.2
I4l+HzO CH3OH,,,+H,,, 13 122.0
CH4(,1+0.502(, = CH3OH, 14 -163.9

Chemical Engineering Education


Heats of formation







(122 kJ required, 285.8 kJ available). In addition, the overall
process mass balance is different as a result of the inclusion
of the hydrogen combustion. The resulting schematic of the
conversion of methane and water to methanol and hydrogen,
producing the required energy from hydrogen combustion,
is shown in Figure 4.
Notice that when the overall process feeds and products
are considered, the resulting overall process mass balance
is identical to that given by Eq. (14), or the conversion of
methane and oxygen to methanol. The heat required by the
process represented by Eq. (4) is provided by combusting the
hydrogen by-product, with the excess energy produced (Q)
equal to the overall of AHprocess of Eq. (13). This example dem-
onstrates how one can utilize the Integrated Process Synthesis
approach to begin to assemble preliminary process flow sheets
with the use of readily available thermodynamic information
about the species present and the process requirements.
The same approach can be applied to each of the overall
process mass balances given in Table 3 to determine the
overall process mass balance for a feasible process convert-
ing the given feeds to the desired products, with the energy
requirements coming from either combusting additional
amounts of the carbon source or combusting a combustible
by-product, e.g., hydrogen. For each case, the target of the
analysis is to combust only enough of a fuel source to provide
enough energy to make the overall process adiabatic (AHprocess
= 0), because combusting additional amounts of fuel will also
result in the conversion of a usable fuel source into undesired
by-products (some combination of CO, and/or H20). To do
this, the enthalpy of the process as given in Table 3 is divided
by the absolute value of the enthalpy of combustion to deter-
mine the amount of combustion required to make the process
adiabatic. Then the two resulting mass balances are summed
to produce the results in Table 4.
Eq. (16) represents the overall process mass balance that,
from a heat point of view, is feasible to convert coal and
water into methanol. This result is obtained from the analy-
sis considering both processes represented by Eqs. (11) and
(12). The oxygen produced in the process represented by
Eq. (11) is used to combust additional coal, which produces
an identical process mass balance for the adiabatic result


from Eq. (12). This is a powerful result
showing that some rules of thumb (e.g.,
oxygen is normally not a product) come
naturally from the analysis, rather than
through assumptions. In addition, one
can see that the carbon efficiency of the
coal to methanol process has decreased
from 1 and 0.67 to 0.54, as compared to
Eqs. (11) and (12), as more coal is com-
busted to provide the necessary energy,
resulting in an increase in CO2 produc-
tion. Eq. (17) represents the methane and


A process produces excess work,
requires additional work,
or is reversible if AG < 0,
Process
AG >0,or AG =0,
process process
respectively.


water to methanol and hydrogen process, where instead of
combusting the hydrogen by-product, additional amounts
of methane are combusted to provide the necessary energy.
As a result, the carbon efficiency decreases, whereas the
hydrogen efficiency remains unchanged. Eq. (18) represents
a process very similar to that shown in Figure 4, but only the
amount of hydrogen necessary to yield an adiabatic process
is combusted. Therefore, both hydrogen and methanol are
products and the overall mass balance is different than that
given by Eq. (14). At this point, the methane plus oxygen to
methanol [Eq. (14)] is still the most attractive process, as it
has a carbon and hydrogen efficiency of unity and AH <0,
meaning that there is excess heat produced, which may be
used for other purposes.


Q Q=-163.9 kJ mol"1

Figure 4. Schematic representing the production of
methanol from methane and water, burning the hydrogen
by-product to provide the required additional energy.
Resulting overall process mass balance is identical to the
methane plus oxygen to methanol process.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


0.5 02


TABLE 4
Overall process mass balances, carbon efficiencies, and hydrogen efficiencies
for heat neutral processes.

Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. AHproce CE HE
(kJ/mol)
1.85 C(,+0.350(g +2 H2g) 16 0.0 0.54 1
= CH3OH(D+0.85 CO2,')
1.14 CH,4()+0.28 O(g)+0.73 H20() 17 0.0 0.88 0.67
= CH3OH,0+H2(+0.14 CO2_
CH4(g)+0.22 O(g)+0.57 H,~O 18 0.0 1 0.78
> CH3OHm,+0.57 H,, _


CH30H







THE PROCESS WORK BALANCE
So far we have looked at the mass and heat balance as design
tools, but we must also consider the process work balance.
Since a process that requires heat is not feasible, a process
that requires work will also not be feasible. To determine if
a process is feasible from a work perspective, a difference in


I AG = W, I


Figure 5. Schematic representing the entropy/work
balance over the process to produce methanol from
methane, water, and oxygen at the adiabatic target.


the Gibbs free energy of the products and reactants is used.
The basic schematic used to calculate the work requirements
for the process combining oxygen and methane to produce
methanol is shown in Figure 5.
A process produces excess work, requires additional work,
or is reversible if AG ess < 0, AGpo > 0, or AG = 0,
respectively. Using the values for Gibbs free energy given
in Table 2, the value for AG .for the process represented
by Eq. (14) is AG cess = -116.2 kJ/mol. Therefore, when 1
mole of methane is converted to 1 mole of methanol with 0.5
moles of oxygen, the conversion releases 116.2 kJ of work
for use elsewhere. This is thus an attractive process from a
mass (ideal elemental ratio), energy (AHp -oces < 0), and work
(AGprocess < 0) perspective.
What about the other processes shown in Table 4? AGprocess
of each of the process mass balances given in Table 3 and
Table 4 is shown in Table 5.
One can see that all processes except
those in Eq. (14) and Eq. (16) require
additional work (AGprocess > 0). The pro-
cess represented by Eq. (18) is shown
\r..nn schematically in Figure 6.


Figure 6. Schematic representing methanol production from methane, water,
and oxygen at the adiabatic limit, with the additional heat required produced by
combusting additional hydrogen.

TABLE 5
Overall process mass balances and work requirements
for methanol production processes.


Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. process
No. (kJ/mol)
IC,0,+2H20,, = CH3 OH()+0.5 02(g) 11 307.4
1.5C(,,+2H,O, 20 CH3 OHo+0.5CO2,g 12 110.2
CH4()+H20, ,, CH, OH,,+H,,) 13 121.0
CH4()+0.502(,) CH3 OHM 14 -116.2
1.85C(s+0.3502(g)+2H2O CH3 OH(+0.85CO2(, 16 -26.4
1.14CH,,4,+0.2802(0)+0.73H20~ = CH3 OH, +H (,+0.14CO2) 17 8.9
CH4(,+0.2202(,+0.57H 2O CH3 OH,,+0.57H2(, 18 19.8


The energy required for the process
to proceed comes from combusting the
hydrogen by-product in the presence of
oxygen, with the water produced sent
to the process to make methanol. This
process is infeasible because the Ws =
19.8 kJ/mol of work must come from
somewhere, usually from combustion,
which will result in a different mass
balance. For those processes represented
by Eqs. (17) and (18), they are feasible
from an energy or heat perspective, but
not so from a work perspective. These
processes are referred to as work lim-
ited, i.e., AG >0 when AH =0.
process process
They will not proceed without
the additional amount of work
required, and this additional work
comes from additional combus-


tion.
The work target is a process with
AGrocess = 0, or a reversible process.
Therefore, additional combustion
is performed to produce only the
amount required by the overall
process. The procedure for this
is similar to that to determine the
amount to combust to provide the
required excess heat. Taking the
process represented by Eq. (18),
the amount of additional work
Chemical Engineering Education







required is 19.8 kJ. There is still some
excess H, produced, so we can com-
bust this as the fuel following Eq. (15).
19.8/237.1 = 0.08, so an additional 0.08
moles of hydrogen are combusted and
the mass balances are integrated again to
produce the process shown schematically
in Figure 7.
Notice now that there is an excess heat
stream leaving the process (Q = -23.8
kJ/mol), but all of the work necessary
to run the process is provided by the
combustion of the hydrogen by-product.
This excess heat can be used for other
purposes or lost to the environment. In
order for the process to operate, however,
this is the minimum amount of heat to
be released. Inputting additional work
through additional combustion (of the
hydrogen or another
fuel) will result in ad- Heat and
ditional heat produced.


This procedure can
be repeated for all pro-
cesses represented in
Table 4. For the pro-
cess represented by Eq.
(17), it assumed that the
additional work comes
from combustion of ad-
ditional methane, rather


Figure 7. Schematic representing methanol production from methane, water,
and oxygen at the reversible limit, with the additional work required produced
by combusting additional hydrogen.

TABLE 6
work specifications and carbon and hydrogen efficiencies for each of the reversible
overall process mass balances.


than combustion of the hydrogen by-product. The results are
shown in Table 6.
The processes represented by Eqs. (20) and (21) are work
limited (AH pcs< 0 when AG = 0) but the process repre-
process process
sented by Eq. (19) is heat limited (AHp res > 0 when AG
process process
= 0). Therefore, for this process, it is necessary to meet the
heat requirements of the process, whereby the process will
produce excess work.
We can now look at all processes that are feasible and have


some benefit, as shown in
Table 7.
One can see that the
process represented by
Eq. (14) is still the most
desirable process, as it
has the highest carbon and
hydrogen efficiency and
produces both heat and
work. The technology to
perform this conversion
does not exist, however,
as combining oxygen with
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


methane results in combustion of the methane and the produc-
tion of CO, and H20 (not CH3OH and H,). Therefore, if one
were to develop a catalyst that could perform this conversion
(in one or many steps) it could greatly increase the efficiency
of methanol production. Regardless, the process synthesis
approach has identified the process shown in Eq. (14) as the
optimal process and further development to achieve such a
conversion is warranted. Eq. (14) is now the process target,
to which all other alternatives should be compared.


CH4

0.49 H20


0.26 02


Q = -23.8 kJ mol1


AH AG
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. press process CE HE
(kJ/mol) (kJ/mol)
1.78C ,+0.280,(g)+2H0O ) 19 26.3 0.0 0.56 1
1: CH3 O0Hm+0.78C02
1.15CH4(g)+0.3002(g)+0.70H2O( 20 -9.7 0.0 0.87 0.67
: CH, 3OH,+H2) +0.15CO2
CH4,(g,+ 0260,(g)+0 .49H200) 21 -23.8 0.0 1 0.80
CH, 0H,+0.49H,_)


TABLE 7
Heat and work specifications and carbon and hydrogen efficiencies for each of the most
attractive, feasible, overall process mass balances.
AH AG
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. process process CE HE
(kJ/mol) (kJ/mol)
CH4,,+0.50,,,) CH3 OH,, 14 -163.9 -116.2 1 1
1.85C(s)+0.350 ,(g+2HO2(g) 16 0.0 -26.4 0.54 1
-= CH3OH +0.85CO~,
1.15CH(g) +0.3002(g+0.70H20 ) 20 -9.7 0.0 0.87 0.67
SCH OH3 0 +H,2 +0.15CO020
CH4(g)+0.260,(g) +0 .49H,Oo) 21 -23.8 0.0 1 0.80
=CH3OH3, +0.49H2,)







The process represented by Eq. (16) shows the best one
can hope to do in converting coal to methanol. Particularly
undesirable about this process is the fact that almost half of
the carbon in the feed ends up as carbon dioxide. Such an
analysis justifies the perception of coal as a "dirty" fuel. On
the other hand, producing methanol from methane is a much
more environmentally friendly pathway, in that one can either
produce a small amount of CO2 with an equal amount of useful
by-product of hydrogen [Eq. (20)], or produce no CO2 with
a smaller amount of useful hydrogen by-product [Eq. (21)].
Industrially, the preferred path to methanol synthesis from
methane is following Eq. (21), in a two-step process using
syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) as an
intermediate. Such industrial processes operate well below
their theoretical target carbon efficiency, however, with actual
carbon efficiency closer to 0.75 rather than 1. 271 As a result,
the process mass balance shown in Eq. (21) can be used as
a target to identify and eliminate sources of inefficiency in
industrial methanol synthesis routes. At this point, one can
return to the traditional approaches to teaching process design
to incorporate reaction pathways, equipment size and cost,
separation equipment, return on investment, etc. Therefore,
the proposed framework fits naturally as a first step in the
selection of potential design routes to achieve a goal, incor-
porating a broad range of engineering skills to develop the
big picture first, and then enforcing the concepts through the
steps included in the more detailed design.

STRUCTURE OF COURSE
These synthesis techniques are offered as part of a senior-
level design course, taught over half a semester. Students are
required to apply these tools to projects chosen from literature,
working through the examples in class, where they are encour-
aged to develop their own process alternatives and discuss
the merits of each with the class. Recent projects include the
synthesis of ammonia and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Each
project begins by following the targeting approach presented
here for the initial design and then follows more traditional


design approaches for process economics, life-cycle analy-
ses, etc., as provided in such classic texts of Turton, et al.,17]
Douglas,[81 and Peters and Timmerhaus.191 Some projects
involve validating the resulting flow sheets using ASPEN.
A three-day course covering these techniques is also given
to post-graduate students and members of industry. More
recently, a full-day workshop was incorporated at the end of
the course to test the students' grasp of the concepts. The task
was to design a methanol synthesis plant, using the concepts
presented here to identify the most promising route, followed
by the inclusion of reactions and the selection of optimal oper-
ating conditions. This approach ensures that the fundamentals
of engineering design are utilized (hand-calculations, assump-
tions, and evaluation of those assumptions) along with the new
design approaches of teamwork and computer simulation.[28]
Student feedback on these techniques was very positive. The
students filled out a questionnaire asking them to respond to
the following statements about their experience in the course.
The options given were 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree,
3 = neutral, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree. No control
group was tested.
Q1: I learned a great deal in this course.
Q2: Ifeel I had adequate thermodynamics background to
understand the material in this class.
Q3: This course taught me to evaluate process alter-
natives and understand the consequences of various
choices.
Q4: This course helped me understand that decisions
made early on in the design process are often the most
important decisions.
Q5: This course gave me the tools to make early process
decisions.
Q6: From this course, I learned one should design the
process to obtain the overall process mass balance one
wants.
Q7: I would recommend this course to another student.
The results from the questionnaire are included in Table 8.


TABLE 8
Results from the questionnaire given to students to evaluate the course.
QI Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Senior Design Fall Average 4.1 3.1 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.1 4.4
2011
59 students Stdev 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8
QI_ Q2 Q3 (4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Post-graduate Short Course Fall Average 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.6
2011
24 students Stdev 1.0 1.2 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.7
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Overall Average 4.2 3.4 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.4
Stdev 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.7
'68 Chemical Engineering Education







Generally, the opinion of the course was favorable from
both groups, with the strongest agreement in response to
"decisions early on affect the overall process design" and
in regards to recommending the course to other students.
Across the board, the students claim their thermodynamics
background was lacking. Generally, the negative comments
from the students were focused around three main areas: the
need for more detailed design aspects, assignments being too
open-ended, and requests for more examples. In response to
these comments the lecturers emphasized that the more de-
tailed aspects of design were covered in the third-year design
course, and this approach was meant to develop the "bigger
picture." Along those lines, assignments were purposefully
kept broad to resemble poorly constrained problems encoun-
tered in industry, which most likely led to the second batch of
criticism. To address this point, the broader questions were
broken down into smaller pieces, which were then solved in
stages to keep the class moving towards the solution together.
Finally, to incorporate more examples, recently published
postgraduate research (<5 years) was worked into the lecture
material, connecting the undergraduate students with real
applications of the approach.
The authors believe this course should be presented shortly
following the traditional thermodynamics courses as a way to
utilize the concepts learned and discussed but not implement-
ed to their fullest extent. Once these tools are used to decide
on the most promising process path, then the students can dig
deeper into the important design information related to siz-
ing, economics, and safety. The approach is not suggested as
a replacement for the traditional approach to teaching design
and does not include all relevant aspects of a complete design,
e.g., economics, safety measures, life-cycle analysis. Rather,
the approach should complement the traditional approach as a
means to decide on preliminary process flow sheets for further
development. This analysis is only a high-level starting point
and much more work is required to develop a realistic flow
sheet. With that in mind, more complex problems can be bro-
ken down into smaller pieces, focusing on the mass, energy,
and work balances containing only the major components.
From that point, the way forward depends on requirements/
restrictions on the particular task at hand in order to choose
the most attractive process arrangement.

CONCLUSION
A new design approach was introduced that presents a
unique and systematic approach to the conceptual design
of chemical processes. The approach focuses on the syn-
thesis aspects of chemical engineering design and provides
a comprehensive analysis of mass, energy, and work flows
in a process. The approach allows students to develop a bet-
ter understanding of developing processes that are efficient
and environmentally friendly. The responses from students
towards the course content and structure were very favorable.


The authors believe this course

should be presented shortly follow-

ing the traditional thermodynamics

courses as a way to utilize the con-

cepts learned and discussed but not

implemented to their fullest extent.





REFERENCES
1. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossman, and A.W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods
of Chemical Process Design, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey (1997)
2. Meeuse, F.M., "On the design of chemical processes with improved
controllability characteristics," Delft University of Technology, The
Netherlands, Ph.D. Thesis (2002)
3. Srinivas, B.K.,"An overview of mass integration and its application to
process development," Technical Information Series, General Electric
Company (1996)
4. El-Halwagi, M.M., Process Integration, Academic Press, Amsterdam
(2006)
5. El-Halwagi, M.M., and H.D. Spriggs, "Solve Design Puzzles with
Mass Integration," Chem. Eng. Progress, 94, 25-45 (1998)
6. El-Halwagi, M., and H.D. Spriggs, "Educational Tools for Pollution
Prevention Through Process Integration," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(4), 246
(1998)
7. Turton, R., R.C. Bailie, W.B. Whiting, and J.A. Shaeiwitz, Analysis,
Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall,
Uppper Saddle River, NJ (2009)
8. Douglas, J., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, 1st ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1988)
9. Peters, M.S., and K.D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1991)
10. Kentish, S.A., and D.C. Shallcross, "An International Comparison
of Final-Year Design Project Curricula," Chem. Eng. Ed., 40(4), 275
(2006)
11. Abbas, A., H.Y. Alhammadi, and J.A. Romagnoli, "Process Systems
Engineering Education: Learning by Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(1),
58 (2009)
12. Shaeiwitz, J.A., and R. Turton, "Chemical Product Design," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 35(4), 280 (2001)
13. Grassi, V.G., W.L. Luyben, and C.A. Silebi, "Lehigh Design Course,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(3), 165 (2011)
14. Kosmopoulou, G., M. Freeman, and D.V. Papavassiliou, "Introducing
Risk Analysis and Calculation of Profitability Under Uncertainty in
Engineering Design," Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(3), 170 (2011)
15. Metzger, M.J., B.J. Glasser, D. Glasser, B. Hausberger, and D. Hildeb-
randt, "Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(4), 258 (2007)
16. Denbigh, K.G., "The second-law efficiency of chemical processes,"
Chem. Eng. Science, 6, 1-9 (1956)
17. Kotas,T.J., "Exergy concepts for thermal plant: First of two papers on


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








exergy techniques in thermal plant analysis," Int. J. Heat and Fluid
Flow, 2, 105-114(1980)
18. Wall,G., "Exergy tools," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 217, 125-136 (2003)
19. Sciubba, E., "Exergo-economics: thermodynamic foundation for a more
rational resource use," Int. J. Energy Research, 29, 613-636 (2005)
20. Glasser, D., D. Hildebrandt, B. Hausberger, B. Patel, and B.J. Glasser,
"Systems approach to reducing energy usage and carbon dioxide emis-
sions," AIChE Journal, 55, 2202-2207 (2009)
21. Patel, B., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and B. Hausberger, "Synthesis
and Integration of Chemical Processes from a Mass, Energy, and
Entropy Perspective," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,
46,8756-8766 (2007)
22. Sempuga, B.C., B. Hausberger, B. Patel, D. Hildebrandt, and D.
Glasser, "Classification of Chemical Processes: A Graphical Approach
to Process Synthesis To Improve Reactive Process Work Efficiency,"



























































270


Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 8227-8237 (2010)
23. Sempuga, B.C., D. Hildebrandt, B. Patel, and D. Glasser, "Work to
Chemical Processes: The Relationship between Heat, Temperature,
Pressure, and Process Complexity," Industrial & Engineering Chem-
istry Research, 50, 8603-8619 (2011)
24. Hildebrandt, D., D. Glasser, B. Hausberger, B. Patel, and B.J. Glasser,
"Producing Transportation Fuels with Less Work," Science,323,1680-
1681 (2009)
25. Patel, B., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and B. Hausberger, "Thermody-
namics Analysis of Processes. 1. Implications of Work Integration,"
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,44, 3529- 3537 (2005)
26. Haddeland, G.E.,"Synthetic Methanol," SRI International (1981)
27. Cheng, W.-H., and H. Kung, Methanol Production and Use, Marcel
Dekker, New York (1994)
28. Flach, L., "Experience with Teaching Design: Do We Blend the Old
With the New?," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(2), 158-161 (1999) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








I=ql-1 teaching tips


This one-page column will present practical teaching tips in sufficient detail that ChE educa-
tors can adopt the tip. The focus should be on the teaching method, not content. With no tables
or figures the column should be approximately 450 words. If graphics are included, the length
needs to be reduced. Tips that are too long will be edited to fit on one page. Please submit a
Word file to Phil Wankat , subject: CEE Teaching Tip.




TWO MINUTES OF REFLECTION

IMPROVES TEACHING


MATTHEW LIBERATORE
Colorado School of Mines
A laboratory notebook has great utility in recording
procedures, measurements, calculations, and ideas in
eal time, sometimes in a very methodical way and
other times as a stream of consciousness. With the develop-
ment of any experimental technique, a standard operating
procedure is written and refined. Analogously, a university
classroom is like a laboratory and teaching is sometimes
very structured and other times improvisational, and the key
result is learning, which is measured on exams and quizzes in
most engineering classes. Historically, a professor's standard
operating procedures are his/her lecture notes. These notes
are generally static and commonly show their age (wrinkled
edges, yellowing paper, coffee stains, etc.). Also like labora-
tory measurements, good teaching practices are reproducible
and backed by significant findings in the literature (e.g.,[l.2').
From this literature, one practice that encourages student
learning is reflection (e.g., allowing students 1 to 2 minutes
to think about the last concept or example'21). Reflection en-
courages students to organize their thoughts and find ways to
tie new material with their existing knowledge. Faculty also
benefit from reflection.11 I feel my courses have improved
every semester by implementing a simple reflective exercise
immediately after each class that I lead (even before check-
ing messages).
Nominally, the reflective exercise takes 1 to 2 minutes and
employs free writing to analyze the just-completed class ses-
sion. Some of the major areas to address include:
Assessing what worked and what could be improved
Logging how long each segment of the class
(e.g., concept) took to cover
Listing any pertinent questions that the students asked
(or ones that I stumbled on answering)
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Gauging the energy level of class and potential reason
(e.g., exam last night, just returned an exam)
Recording ideas for adding/subtracting content
(e.g., too easy, too far off topic)
Generating ideas to start the next class period
(e.g.,finish or review a topic, clarify a concept)
Cataloging ideas for future quiz or exam problems (and
filing separately)
The reflective statements are read over in preparation for
teaching that specific course material the next time. Another
benefit of this technique is improved organization, including
not scrambling to squeeze in content before the homework
is due or an exam or quiz.
While data on student learning based on reflective change
will be difficult to collect, this type of attention to detail
can improve the quantity and quality of material learned,
the classroom learning environment, and instructor-class
dynamic. Overall, the teaching "lab notebook" documents
and organizes ideas, criticisms, and questions immediately
following a classroom "experiment," and has led to improved
organization and student learning of course concepts in the
author's experience. Finally, the importance of reflection is
not a new idea in education as reflective exercises date back to
St. Ignatius Loyola and persevere as an integral part of Jesuit
schools and universities for more than 450 years.
1. How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school, National
Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (2000)
2. Bruning, R.H., G.J. Schraw, and R.R. Ronning, Cognitive psychology
and instruction, Merrill, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
3. McAlpine,L.,and C.Weston,"Reflection: Issues related to improving
professors' teaching and students' learning," Instructional Science, 28,
363 (2000) 0
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012








Appendix A
Procedure for Indigo Synthesis coninuedfro "Indigo," page 230.


Laboratory: Synthesis of Indigo

Adolf von Baeyer first synthesized indigo by this reaction in the 1880s.

Reaction:


0

SH 0

2 IH OFI + 2CCOOH

HO
o-nitrobenzaldehyde acetone indigo acetic acid

Reference for image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Nitrobenzaldehyde

Procedure:
Bring copies of the MSDS sheets for o-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetone, NaOH and acetic acid to lab. You must show them to me before
beginning the experiment and correctly answer safety questions I will ask.

1. Take a weigh boat with a measured amount of o-nitrobenzaldehyde in it. Carefully transfer the o-nitrobenzaldehyde into the
50 ml plastic beaker. [Side note: Benzaldehyde is an artificial essential oil of almond!]
2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 5 ml of acetone.
3. Add the 5 ml of acetone to the solid o-nitrobenzaldehyde and swirl it to dissolve.
4. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 5 ml of 1 M NaOH.
5. Slowly add the NaOH to the beaker. If you add it too quickly, the acetone will evaporate. Note what you observe as you add
the NaOH.



6. Let the beaker set for 5 minutes to allow the reaction to go to completion.
7. Weigh a piece of filter paper.
8. Place the filter paper in the Buchner funnel. Set the funnel in a beaker, and pour a small amount of water in the funnel to help
the paper adhere to the funnel.
9. Carefully pour the indigo solution onto the center of the filter paper. Rinse the beaker with a small amount of water to remove
the last of the crystals. Note what you observe as the filtration begins.




10. Allow some time for the liquid to drip through the filter.
11. Clean your 50 ml beaker with glassware cleaner and water. Place it at your spot to dry.
12. When the filtration is done, carefully lift out the filter paper and set it near the back of your spot to dry overnight.
13. Pour the filtrate into the dye waste container, and clean your Buchner funnel and the large beaker.
14. On Monday, weigh the filter paper with indigo on it to estimate the yield.





Memo Due to WA: Final memo due:

Use the format as before to describe the experiment and your results.

Introduction: Provide background information about the synthesis. Include the mechanism (explained in Ullman's Encyclopedia) if you
have taken organic chemistry. Add other information you consider useful or interesting.

Procedure: Summarize the procedure you followed (main steps only, not all the details). Use Visio to draw a process flow diagram.

Results and Conclusions: Prepare a table with the raw data (g benzaldehyde, g filter paper, g final product) and calculated results (g
indigo, % yield). How well did you do? How could you improve your results or the process? What are sources of error? Consider an
economic analysis (For small quantities: Benzaldehyde: 5 g costs $19.10; 100 g costs $24.00, 18 kg costs $242.50. Acetone: 1 L costs
$23.50, NaOH: 100 ml costs $9.60; 2 L costs $30.50. Indigo: 25 g costs $28.30; 100 g costs $90.50. Bulk prices would be different.)



Chemical Engineering Education









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Colorado State University .......................................293
Colorado School of M ines............................................... 294
Columbia University ...................... .....................295
Connecticut, University of .............................................296
Dayton, University of ....................... ...................376
Delaware, University of .........................................297
Drexel University ....................... .........................298
Florida, University of .............................................. .....299
Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering..............368
Florida Institute of Technology ..........................................300
Georgia Institute of Technology .........................................301
Houston, University of ...........................................302
Idaho, University of.................................................369
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of... inside back cover
Iowa, University of................................................................. 304
Iowa State University ..........................................305
Kansas, University of ........................ ....................306
Kansas State University.......................... ................. 307
Kentucky, University of .........................................308
Lam ar University.............................................. 369
Lehigh University ....................... ........................... 309
M anhattan College ........................................................310
Maryland, Baltimore County; University of ......................311
Maryland, College Park; University of ............................312
Massachusetts, Amherst; University of ..............................313
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.............................314
M cGill University.......................... ....................... 315
M cM aster University........................ ...................... 316
Miami University ...................... ........................370
Michigan, University of ..........................................317
Michigan State University ...............................................318
Michigan Technological University ...................................370
Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of .............................319
Misissippi State University ...................................... 320


Missouri, Columbia; University of.................................... 321
Missouri S&T............................................................ ...... 322
M ontana State University ...................... ..................... 371
Nevada, Reno; University of ............................................ 371
New Hampshire, University of........................................ 376
New Jersey Institute of Technology ................................323
New Mexico, University of.......................................... 324
New Mexico State University ...........................................325
North Carolina State University...................................... 326
Northwestern University .......................................... 327
Notre Dame, University of .............................................303
Ohio State University .............................. ........ 328
Oklahoma, University of ......................................... 329
Oklahoma State University ......................................... 330
Oregon State University ...............................................331
Pennsylvania, University of ........................................ 332
Pennsylvania State University........................................... 333
Polytechnic University ............................................... 334
Princeton University....................... ........................... 335
Purdue University...................................... ........... ....... 336
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute........................................ 337
Rhode Island, University of.................................... 372
Rice University................................................. 338
Rochester, Chemical Program; University of.................... 339
Rochester, Energy Program; University of...................... 340
Rose-H ulm an.................................... ....... ............. 372
Row an U niversity.................................... ...................... 341
Rutgers..................................... ........... 376
Ryerson........................................ .............................. 342
Sherbrooke, University of ...................................... 343
Singapore, National University of.................................... 344
South Alabama, University of .......................................... 345
South Carolina, University of........................................ 346
South Dakota School of Mines.......................................... 373
State University of New York........................................... 347
Syracuse University........................... .... ................ 373
Tennessee, Knoxville; University of ................................ 348
Tennessee Technological University ................................. 349
Texas A&M University, College Station......................... 350
Texas A&M University, Kingsville................................... 374
Texas Tech University .......................... ..................... 351
Toledo, University of............................ ... ..... 352
Toronto, University of ........................ ...................... 353
Tufts U university ..................................... ....................... 354
Tulane University ....................................................... 355
Tulsa, University of ........................... ... ...... 356
Vanderbilt University .............................................. 357
Villanova University......................... .... .................... 374
Virginia, University of........................... ............... 358
Virginia Tech University ......................................... 359
Washington, University of.............................................. 360
Washington State University .......................................... 361
Waterloo, University of ........................................... 362
West Virginia University .......................................... 363
Western Michigan University........................................ 375
W isconsin, University of ........................ ......................364
Worcester Polytechnic Institute......................................... 365
Yale U university ................................................................. 366


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012
















ii


Graduate Education in Chemical


and Biomolecular Engineering

Teaching and research
assistantships as well as
ndustrially sponsored fellowships F E
available. In addition to stipends,


tuition and most fees are waived.
PhD students may get some
incentive scholarships.











H. CASTANEDA J. R. ELLIOTT










G. G. CHASE E. A. EVANS


G. CHENG


H. M. CHEUNG


M. IANUZZI


L.-K. JU, Chair


N. D. LEIPZIG


R. S. LILLARD


L.LIU


J. H. PAYER


J. E. PUSKAS


H. C. QAMMAR


C. MONTY


B. Z. NEWBY


J. ZHENG


* Castaneda: Electrochemistry & Corrosion,
Corrosion evolution, Modeling, Coatings
damage/performance, special alloys.
* Chase: Multiphase Processes, Nanofibers,
Filtration, Coalescence
* Cheng: Biomaterials, Protein Engineering,
Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine
* Cheung: Nanocomposite Materials, So-
nochemical Processing, Polymerization in
Nanostructured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid
Processing
* Elliott: Molecular Simulation, Phase Be-
havior, Physical Properties, Process Model-
ing, Supercritical Fluids
* Evans: Materials Processing and CVD
Modeling, Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth Modeling
* lannuzzi: Corrosion Engineering, Environ-
mentally Assistaced Cracking
* Ju: Renewable Bioenergy Environmental
Bioengineering
* Leipzig: Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology,
Biomaterials, Tissue Engienering
* Lillard: Corrosion, Oxide Films, SCC and
Hydrogen Interactions with Metals
* Liu: Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosen-
sors, Tissue Engineering
* Monty: Reaction Engineering, Biomimicry
Microsensors
* Newby: Surface Modification, Alternative
Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient
Surfaces
* Payer: Corrosion & Electrochemistry,
Systems Health Monitoring and Reliability,
Materials Performance and Failure Analysis
* Puskas: Biomaterials, Green Polymer
Chemistry and Engineering, Biomimetic
Processes
* Qammar: Nonlinear Control, Chaotic
Processes, Engineering Education
* Visco: Thermodynamics, Computer-aided
molecular design
* Zheng: Computational Biophysics, Bio-
molecular Interfaces, Biomatierials

Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron
Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250
Fax (330) 972-5856
www.chemical.uakron.edu


Chemical Engineering Education






THE UNIVERSITY OF


ALABAMA

Chemical

& Biological

Engineering


A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities, offering research programs
leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master
of Science degrees. In 2009, the department
moved into its new home, the $70 million
Science and Engineering Complex.
Research Areas:
Biological Applications of Nanomaterials,
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery, Electronic Materials, Energy
and CO2 Separation and Sequestration, Fuel
Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic
Materials, Membrane Separations and
Reactors, Pharmaceutical Synthesis and
Microchemical Systems, Polymer Rheology,
Simulations and Modeling


Faculty:
David Arnold (Purdue)
Yuping Bao (Washington)
Jason Bara (Colorado)
Christopher Brazel (Purdue)
Eric Carlson (Wyoming)
Peter Clark (Oklahoma State)
Nagy El-Kaddah (Imperial College)
Arun Gupta (Stanford)
Ryan Hartman (Michigan)
John Kim (Maryland, Baltimore)
Tonya Klein (NC State)
Alan Lane (Massachusetts)
Margaret Liu (Ohio State)
Stephen Ritchie (Kentucky)
C. Heath Turner (NC State)
Mark Weaver (Florida)
John Wiest (Wisconsin)
For Information
Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical & Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
(205) 348-6450
alane@eng.ua.edu
http://che.eng.ua.edu
An equal employment/ equal educational opporluniy, institution


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012























UNIVERSITY OF



ALBERTA


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers students
the opportunity to study and conduct leading research with world-class
academics in the top program in Canada, and one of the very best in North
America. Our graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging and supportive
environment from all areas of the world.
- Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical engineering,
materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs receive a stipend to
cover living expenses and tuition.
Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be international leaders of
tomorrow's chemical and materials engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and interfacial
phenomenon, computational chemistry, computational fluid dynamics,
computer process control, corrosion and wear engineering, drug deliv-
ery, electrochemistry, fluid-particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and
control, heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-alloy steels,
micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular sieves, multiphase
mixing, nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum thermody-
namics, pollution control, polymers, powder metallurgy, process and
performance monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identifica-
tion, thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.
P The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one million square feet of
outstanding teaching, research, and personnel space in the past six years.
We offer outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced nanotechnology
facilities in the world the National Institute for Nanotechnology, connected
by pedway to the Chemical and Materials Engineering Building.
- Annual research funding for our Department is over $14 million. Externally
sponsored funding to support engineering research in the entire Faculty of
Engineering has increased to over $50 million each year- the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

www.cme.engineering.ualberta.ca


S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
A. de Klerk, PhD (University of Pretoria)
G. Dechaine, PhD (University of Alberta)
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
S. Dubljevic, PhD (University of California, Los Angeles)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
A. Elias, PhD ( University of Alberta)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.F. Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
A. Gerlich, PhD (University of Toronto)
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
J. Liu, PhD (University of California, Los Angeles)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
Q. Liu, PhD (China University of Mining & Technology)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean v F,. .. ....
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
Distinguished University Professor Emeritus
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
P.F. Mendez, PhD (MIT)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus
R. Narain, PhD (University of Mauritius)
N. Nazemifard, PhD (University of Alberta)
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
F. Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
V. Prasad, PhD (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
D. Sauvageau, PhD (McGill University)
N. Semagina, PhD (Tver State Technical Univ.)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
T. Thundat, PhD (University of Albany, New York)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis) Emeritus
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
G. Winkel, MSc (University of Alberta)
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zeng, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)
For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2V4
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
Chemical Engineering Education










ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicit)
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor and
Associate Dean of Engineering (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
PAUL BLOWERS, Distinguished Associate Professor
(Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design
WENDELL ELA, Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor and Chair (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Environmental Microbiology, Hazardous Waste Treatment
DOMINIC GERVASIO, Research Professor (Case Western Reserve)
Electrocatalysis, Ion Conductors, Electrochemistry including: Electro-
plating, Corrosion and Energy Storage and Power Sources including
Fuel Cells, Batteries, Fuels, Fuel Reforming and Solar Cells
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS PETERSON, National Science Foundations'
Directorate for Engineering (CalTech)
Global Education, Semiconductor Research, Energy Sustainability
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
EDUARDO SAEZ, Distinguished Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor and Associate Dean
of Engineering (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics,
Solar Energy
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination, Semiconductor Manufacturing
REYES SIERRA, Professor (Wageningen University)
Environmental Biotechnology, Semiconductor Manufacturing,
Wastewater Treatment
SHANE A. SNYDER, Professor (Michigan State University)
Endocrine Disruptor and Emerging Contaminant Detection and
Treatment, Water Reuse i,_. li,,. .t.'.,,.. and Applications
ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (CalTech)
Aerosol Composition and HI I, -. i';. ;ir Climate Change
For further information
http://www.chee.arizona.edu
Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721
The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at

THE UNIVERSITY OF


ARIZONA

TUCSON ARIZONA



The Department of Chemical and
SEnvironmental Engineering at the
University of Arizona offers a wide
range of research opportunities in all
major areas of chemical engineering
and environmental engineering. Our
department offers a comprehensive
approach to sustainability which is
grounded on the principles of conserva-
tion and responsible management of water, energy, and material
resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable
energy, desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nano-
technology are providing innovative solutions to the challenges
of environmental sustainability. A significant portion of research
effort is devoted to areas at the boundary between chemical and
environmental engineering, including environmentally benign
semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation,
environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment tech-
nologies.The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate
degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD degrees
in both chemical and environmental engineering.
Financial support is available through fellowships, govern-
ment and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


J








| I Ira A. Fulton

Schools of Engineering


ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Lenore L. Dai, Ph.D., Illinois.
Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and
microrheology, materials at the nanoscale, synthesis of novel
polymer composites and "smart" materials
Erica Forzani, Ph.D., Cordoba National University.
Chemical and biosensors, non-invasive sensors, sensor
integration, wireless and lab-on-cell-phone sensors
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Mary Laura Lind, Ph.D., Caltech.
Advanced membrane materials synthesis and characterization,
environmental nanotechnology, sustainable energy and water
production, amorphous metals
David Nielsen, Ph.D., Queen's University at Kingston.
Biochemical engineering, metabolic engineering, bioreactor
and bioprocess engineering, product recovery
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties, fluidization,
mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured
particulates, filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration,
sintering and granulation of fine particles
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis


Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, optimized interventions for behavioral health,
supply chain management
Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Cesar Torres, Ph.D., Arizona State.
Bioenergy, microbial electrochemical cells, microbial and biofilm
kinetics, microscopic techniques to image biofilms


Affiliate Faculty
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering

Graduate Faculty
Terry Alford (Materials Science and Engineering), Michael Caplan
(Biomedical Engineering), Peter Crozier (Materials Science and
Engineering), Hanqing Jiang (Mechanical Engineering), and Robert
Wang (Mechanical Engineering)


For additional details visit
http://engineering.asu.edu/semte/Chemical.html
or contact (480) 965-4979 or semtegrad@asu.edu


Chemical Engineering Education







Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas


ias. c The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate
Programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
,N Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental Ph.D. stipends pro-
SR. vide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $30,000, and Distinguished
] d > ^ Doctoral Fellowships provide $40,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is
waived. Applications received before April 1 will be given first consideration. Fellowship
applications must be made before January 15.

Areas of Research ,.__


E[ Biochemical engineering
EN Biological and food systems
E[ Biomolecular nanophotonics
1E Electronic materials processing
EN Fate of pollutants in the environment
EU Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis
0E Integrated passive electronic components
E0 Membrane separations
[E Micro channel electrophoresis
E0 Renewable fuels M.D.
EU Phase equilibria and process design R.E. I


Faculty


Ackerson
3abcock


R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
JA. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
W.R. Penney
X..Qian
D*K. Roper
S.LC Ser\ oss .
T.O. Spicer-
G.J. Thonin


R.K. Ulrich
S.R. Wickramasinghe


H1


For more information contact
Dr. Jerry Havens or 479-575-4951
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/gradprogram.php

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 275













T 4tT


Chemical Engineering Education
















Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3rd most livable place in the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
outdoor pursuits throughout the year- hiking, canoeing,


mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city hosted the
Olympic and Paraolympic Winter Games.


Chemical and Biological Engineering Building, officially opened in 2006

Faculty
Susan A. Baldwin (Toronto)
Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia)
Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R. Grace (Cambridge)
Christina Gyenge (British Columbia)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
C. Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
James M. Piret'(MIT)
Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad)
Kevin J. Smith (McMaster)
Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto)
Heather Trajano (California, Riverside)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)

Professors Emeriti
Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branion (Saskatchewan)
Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill)
Norman Epstein (New York)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)


UBC




Faculty of Applied Science

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www.chbe.ubc.ca

MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).

Currently about 170 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. The department has a strong emphasis
on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael
Smith Laboratories (MSL), Pulp and Paper Centre (PPC), Clean Energy
Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public


health, engineering and policy research.



Main Areas of Research
Biological Engineering Environmental and Green
Biochemical Engineering Enineering
Biomedical Engineering Emissions Control Green
Protein Engineering Blood Process Engineering Life
research Stem Cells Cycle Analysis Water and
Energy Wastewater Treatment Waste
Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil Management Aquacultural
and Bio-diesel Combustion, Engineering
Gasification and Pyrolysis Particle Technoloqy
Electrochemical Engineering Fluidization Multiphase Flow *
SFuel Cells Hydrogen Fluid-Particle Systems Particle
Production Natural Gas Processing Electrostatics
Hydrates Kinetics and Catalysis
Process Control Polymer Rheologv
Pulp and Paper
Reaction Engineering


Financial Aid
Students admitted to the
graduate programs leading to
the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D.
degrees receive at least a
minimum level of financial
support regardless of citizenship
(approx. $17,500/year for
M.A.Sc and M.Sc and $19,000/
year for Ph.D). Teaching
assistantships are available (up
to approx. $1,000 per year).
All incoming students will be
considered for several Graduate
Students Initiative (GSI)
Scholarships of $5,000/year
and 4-year Doctoral Fellowships
Scholarships of approx.
$18,000/year.


*August 2011, The Economist Intelligence Unit's Liveability Survey Mailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chbe.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012
















UNIVERSITY OF

CALGARY

FACULTY

U. Sundararaj, Head (Minnesota)
J. Abedi (Toronto)
R. Aguilera (Colorado School)
J. Azaiez (Stanford)
L.A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. Bergerson (Carnegie-Mellon)
S. Chen (Regina)
Z. Chen (Purdue)
M. Clarke (Calgary)
A. De Visscher (Ghent, Belgium)
M. Dong (Waterloo)
M.W. Foley (Queens)
I. D. Gates (Minnesota)
G. Hareland (Oklahoma State)
H. Hassanzadeh (Calgary)
J.M. Hill (Wisconsin)
M. Husein (McGill)
A.A. Jeje (MIT)
J. Jensen (Texas, Austin)
M.S. Kallos (Calgary)
A. Kantzas (Waterloo)
K. Karan (Calgary)
N. Mahinpey (Toronto)
B.B. Maini (Univ. Washington)
A.K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
S.A. Mehta (Calgary)
R.G. Moore (Alberta)
P. Pereira (France)
K.D. Rinker (North Carolina)
E. Roberts (Cambridge)
A. Sen (Calgary)
A. Settari (Calgary)
H. Song (Ohio State)
H.W. Yarranton (Alberta)


SCHULICH
School of Engineering


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D.
degrees with specializations in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering,
Energy & Environmental Engineering, and Bi..'i,,.lIdI Engineering. Financial
assistance is available to all qualified applicants.
The areas of research include:

* Chemical: Catalysis; modeling, simulation & optimization; process control &
dynamics; reaction engineering & chemical kinetics; rheology (polymers,
suspensions & emulsions); separation operations; thermodynamics & phase
equilibria; transport phenomena (deposition in pipelines, diffusion, dispersion,
flow in porous media, heat transfer), nanotechnology, nanoparticle research,
polymer nanocomposites;

* Petroleum: Drilling engineering; improved gas recovery (coal bed methane, gas
hydrates, tight gas); improved oil recovery (SAGD, VAPEX, EOR, in-situ
combustion); production engineering; reservoir characterization; reservoir
engineering & modeling; reservoir geomechanics & simulation;

* Environmental: Air pollution control; alternate energy sources; greenhouse gas
control & CO2 sequestration; life cycle assessment; petroleum waste management
& site remediation; solid waste management; water & wastewater treatment

* Biomedical: Cell & tissue engineering (cardiovascular systems, bone & joint
repair); bacterial infection; biopolymers; bioproduct development; blood filtration;
microvascular systems; stem cell bioprocess engineering (media & reagent
development, bioreactor protocols).

For additional information, contact:
Dr. J. Azaiez, Associate Head, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
chemandpetenggrad @ucalgary.ca


The University of Calgary is located in Calgary, which is called the Oil and Engineering
Capital of Canada, and the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988
Winter Olympics. Most Canadian oil & petroleum companies are headquartered in
Calgary. With a population of over one million, the city combines the traditions of the Old
West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110
km west of the city. Ski resorts and numerous hiking trails are readily accessible.


I
Chemical Engineering Education


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Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Polymers and Complex Fluids
Microsystems Technology and Microelectronics
Molecular Simulations and Theory
Interfacial Engineering T.
Product Development Masters Program 9
Biochemical & Bioprocess Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
S~i Synthetic Biology










Chemical & Biomolecular



t Engineering

at the University of California, Berkeley (


-I


The Chemical & Biomolecular
Engineering Department at the
University of California, Berkeley,
one of the preeminent departments
in the field, offers graduate programs
leading to the Doctor of Philosophy
or a Master of Science in Product
Development.


For more information visit our website at:

http//chme erkeey S


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT









FOCUS AREAS FACULTY

Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William F. Sever Chair in Mate-
*, jF trials Electrochemistry)
Process Systems Engi- 4 Y. Chen
neering (Simulation, 4
Design, Optimization, P. D. Christofides
Dynamics, and Control) Y. Cohen
Semiconductor rr C J. Davis
Manufacturing and (ViceProvost
Electronic Materials Ilformation Technology)
R.F. Hicks

GENERAL THEMES L. Ignarro
ET(Nobel Laureate)
D Energy and the t er J. C. Liao
Environment q (Parsons Chair and Dept. Chair)
Y. Lu
SNanoengineering
V.I. Manousiouthakis
S. ... H.G. Monbouquette
PROGRAMS. Orkoulas

Biomolecular Engineering T. Segura
Department offers a S.M. Senkan
program of teaching and Y. Tang
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in
Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and
Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a
waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood
Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of experiences
in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.
CONTACT







284 Chemical Engineering Education





























































































Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








UC SANTA BARBARA I


chemical engineering ,
SBA-16 (cubic mesoporous silica)


Award-winning faculty

Bradley F. Chmelka
Patrick S. Daugherty
Michael F. Doherty
Francis J. Doyle III
Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE
Michael J. Gordon
Song-I Han
Matthew E. Helgeson
Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS
Edward J. Kramer, NAE
L. Gary Leal, NAE
Glenn E. Lucas
Eric McFarland
Samir Mitragotri
Michelle A. O'Malley
Baron G. Peters
Susannah L. Scott
M. Scott Shell
Todd M. Squires
Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE


Interdisciplinary research .

California Nanosystems Institute
Center for Control Engineering
and Computation
Center for Polymers and Organic Solids
Center for Risk Studies and Safety
Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies
Institute for Energy Efficiency
Institute for Quantum Engineering,
Science & Technology
International Center for Materials Research
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
Materials Research Laboratory

Interdisciplinary research and entrepreneurship are hallmarks of Engineering
at UC Santa Barbara. Many graduate students choose to be co-advised.


.O~~t- 6 -- 6'----
--. :




,,, 6
The UCSB campus, located on the Pacific Coast about 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles, has more than 20,000 students.

Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research
assistantships. For additional information and to complete an application,
visit www.chemengr.ucsb.edu or contact chegrads@engineering.ucsb.edu


Chemical Engineering Education

































































I;i


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" '


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research in industry or academia. Research opportunities,

especially in our core strengths of energy, advanced
Materials, and biological applications of chemical

engineering, are many. You will find CWRU to be an exciting
Environment in which to carry out your graduate studies.
Join us to invent the future.




























Faculty Members
John C. Angus, Ph.D. Harihara Baskaran, Ph.D. Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. Daniel J. Lacks, Ph.D.
University of Michigan Pennsylvania State University Princeton University Harvard University
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. Heidi B. Martin, Ph.D.
UC Berkeley Case Institute of Technology Iowa State University Case Western Reserve University

Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. R. Mohan Sankaran, Ph.D. Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. Jesse S. Wainright, Ph.D.
Carnegie-Mellon University California Institute of Technology University of Pittsburgh Case Western Reserve University

For more information on research opportunities, admission, and financial support:
Graduate Coordinator e CASE WESTERN RESERVE
Department of Chemical Engineering 1 UN IVE RS IT rT ,826 E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
10900 Euclid Avenue Visit: www.case.edu/cse/eche
Sythetc Dimon
,J .Mi rosensors
CoatngsThinFils an Surace
Poymr aocmpsie
Nanonateial andNansyntesi



























10900 Euclid Avenue Visit: www.case.edu/cse/eche


Chemical Engineering Education









I nnnrtivnitipc fnr Crnnintp .tuadf iflinn homminl Poinanvin f fAtl


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in

Chemical Engineering


Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Vikram Kuppa

Joo-Youp Lee

Dale Schaefer

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis

Stephen W. Thiel


Financial Aid

Available

The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in awarding
financial aid.
For Admission Information Contact
Barbara Carter
Graduate Studies Office
College of Engineering and Applied Science
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0077
513-556-5157
Barbara.carter@uc.edu
or
Professor Peter Smirniotis
The Chemical Engineering Program
The School of En,.., E, i,, ,,iit hal
Biological and Medical Engineering
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221
panagiotis.smirniotis@uc.edu


[ Emerging Energy Systems
Catalytic conversion offossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid
alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation;fuel cells, hydrogen storage
nanomaterials
O Environmental Research
Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxAcombustion; wastewa-
ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
O Molecular Engineering
Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)
molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules
O Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and
design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
[ Membrane and Separation Technologies
Membrane synthesis and characterization, membrane gas separation, membrane filtration processes, pervapora-
tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology,
natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical
reaction-based separation processes
0 Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, affinity separation, biodegradation of toxic wastes,
controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
O Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology,
computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial
phenomena
0 Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering,
science, medicine, or pharmacy with above focus. This program is supported by a Jive-year renewable grant from
the National Science Foundation. The IGERTfellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three
years.
[ Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
INST brings together three centers of excellence-the Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for
BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the C. -,.'. of En-
gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure
of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 28









U


GROVE SCHOOL MS & PhD Programs in
oF ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


K\


RESEARCH AREAS


Biomaterials and Biotransport
biomatl ni-ier bio-fluid flow, :as-::.
biomaterials


Catalysis
Catalyst design, reaction kinetics,
electrocatalysis


Colloid Science and Engineering
directed assembly, novel particle '-,:liIrloi:,'
Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow
:ililnl heat transfer, emulsions, lh- l:1,:, .
suspensions


Energy Generation and Storage
batteries, gas hydrates, thermal ii'-'-:,
storage
Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter
device design, dynamic interfacial processes
Nanomaterials and Self Assembly
catalysts, patchy particles, sensors
Polymer Science and Engineering
polymer processing, rheology
Powder Science and Technology
i- 11ai n.: iiac : il form ulations, ,:, .'der i:.


INSTITUTES


Levich Institute for Physicochemical
Hydrodynamics
directed by Morton M. Denn
Albert Einstein Professor of Science and
Engineering


Energy Institute
directed by Sanjoy Banerjee
Distinguished Professor of Chemical
Engineering


212 650 6671


Chemical Engineering Education


b L~
)
)i) 'rr

11









CLEMSEON

CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR
ENGINEERING
Clemson University boasts a 1,400 acre campus on the
shores of Lake Hartwell at the foothills of the Blue Ridge
Mountains. The warm campus environment, great
weather, and recreational activities make Clemson
University an ideal place to live and learn.
ChBE GRADUATE PROGRAM
The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
offers strong research programs in biotechnology,
advanced materials, energy, and modeling and simulation.

Biotechnology: bioelectronics, biosensors and biochips,
biopolymers, drug delivery, protein design, bioseparations,
bioremediation, and biomass conversion.

Advanced materials: polymer fibers, films and composites,
nanoscale design of catalysts, biomaterials, nanomaterials,
membranes, directed assembly, and interfacial engineering.

Energy: hydrogen production and storage, biofuels
synthesis, sustainable engineering, nanotechnology,
reaction engineering, separations, kinetics and catalysis.

Modeling and simulation: rational catalyst design,
biological self-assembly, gas hydrates, ice nucleation and
growth, and polymer microstructure.

Learn more at
www.clemson.edu/ces/chbe


Clemson ChBE Faculty
Mark A. Blenner, Asst. Professor
David A. Bruce, Professor
Rachel B. Getman, Asst. Professor
Charles H. Gooding, Professor
Anthony Guiseppi-Elie, Prof. & C3B Dir.
Douglas E. Hirt, Professor & Chair
Scott M. Husson, Prof. & Grad. Coord.
Christopher L. Kitchens, Assoc. Professor
Amod A. Ogale, Professor & CAEFF Dir.
Mark E. Roberts, Asst. Professor
Sapna Sarupria, Asst. Professor
Mark C. Thies, Professor


For More Information, Contact:
Graduate Coordinator
shusson@clemson.edu
864-656-3055

Department of Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering
Clemson University, Box 340909
Clemson, South Carolina 29634


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012










Chemical & Biological Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER


Why The University of Colorado Boulder?
-25 faculty performing field-leading research in a
variety of areas
-Internationally recognized faculty with numerous
awards for their research and teaching
-Outstanding facilities and scientific interactions

Cutting-Edge Research

BIOMATERIALS AND TISSUE ENGINEERING:
biocompatible coatings, biosensors, development The recently constructed Jennie Smoly Caruthers Biotechnology
of new approaches for regenerating damaged or Building is the new ultramodern home to the Department of
diseased tissues K.S. Anseth, C.N. Bowman, S.J. Chemical and Biological Engineering
Bryant, J.N. Cha, A.P. Goodwin, J.L. Koar, M.J. Mahoney,
P. Nagal, T.W. Randolph, D.K. Schwartz, J. W. Stansbury

BIOPHARMACEUTICALS: delivery technologies and stable formulations for new drugs, metabolic engineering, drug
delivery K.S. Anseth, A. Chatterjee, R.T. Gill, A.P. Goodwin, A. Jayaraman, J.L. Kor, T. W. Randolph, D.K. Schwartz

CATALYSIS, SURFACE SCIENCE AND THIN FILM MATERIALS: heterogeneous catalysis, catalysis for biomass
conversion, zeolites, atomic and molecular layer deposition CN. Bowman, J.N. Cha, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, D.L. Gin,
J.W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, A. W. Weimer

COMPLEX FLUIDS AND MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES: fluid mechanics of suspensions, gas-particle fluidization, granular
flow mechanics R.H. Davis, CM. Hrenya, A. Jayaraman, T. W. Randolph, A. W. Weimer

COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE: classical and quantum simulations, computational biology, statistical mechanics,
continuum modeling -A. Chatterjee, R.H. Davis, C.M. Hrenya, A. Jyaraman, J. W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrove

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CLEAN ENERGY APPLICATIONS: biofuel, solar energy, carbon capture, high-efficiency
synthesis -J.N. Cha, A. Chatterjee, R.H. Davis, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, R.T. Gill, D.L. Gin, A.P. Goodwin, C.M. Hrenya, A.
Jyaraman, J.W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, P. Nagal, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, M.P. Stoykovich, A.W. Weimer
MEMBRANES AND SEPARATIONS: inorganic membranes, polymer membranes, ionic liquids R.H. Davis, J.L. Falconer,
D.L. Gin, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, A. W. Weimer

PROTEIN/METABOLIC/GENOMIC ENGINEERING AND SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY: a new
approach to understanding and using metabolic processes -A. Chatterjee, R.T. Gill, J.L. Kaar

NANOSTRUCTURED FILMS AND DEVICES: engineering materials at the nanoscale C.N.
Bowman, J.N. Cha, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, D.L. Gin, A.P. Goodwin, J. W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, P.
Nagal, D.K. Schwartz, J. W. Stansbury, M.P. Stoykovich, A. W. Weimer

I ; POLYMER CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING: chemical synthesis, applications of polymers and
S macromolecules K.S. Anseth, C.N. Bowman, S.J. Bryant, J.N. Cha, S.M. George, D.L. Gin, A.P.
\ Goodwin, A. Jayaraman, CB. Musgrave, T.W. Randolph, J. W. Stansbury, M.P. Stoykovich

University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, JSCBB, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309
Phone: (303) 492-7471 Fax: (303) 492-8425 Web: www.colorado.edu/che Email: chbegrad@colorado.edu


Chemical Engineering Education

































Research Areas
Systems and Synthetic Biology
Sustainable Energy
Biomedical Engineering
Soft Materials
Bioanalytical Devices

Faculty
Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota
Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech
J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U.
Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U.
Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech
Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U.
Christopher D. Snow. Ph.D., Stanford U.
Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech



View faculty and student research
videos, find application information,
and get other information at
http://cbe.colostate.edu


Research
The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological
Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of
cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts
in their respective fields. Opportunities for collaboration with many other
department across the University are abundant, including departments in
the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and
Biomedical Sciences.

Financial Support
Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on assistantships
also receive tuition support. The department has a number of research
assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of interest
from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional University
fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.

Fort Collins
Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as
a gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
With its superb climate (over 300
days of sunshine per year), there
are exceptional opportunities for
outdoor pursuits including hiking,
biking, skiing, and rafting.


For additional information or
to schedule a visit of campus:
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370
Phone: (970) 491-5253
Fax: (970) 491-7369
E-mail: cbegrad@colostate.edu


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012













Evolving from its origins as a
school of mining founded in 1873,
CSM is a unique, highly-focused
University dedicated to scholar-
ship and research in materials,
energy, and the environment.


SWith approximately 600-total
undergraduate and graduate
students and $7-8 million in
annual research funding, the Chemical and Biological Engineering
Department at CSM maintains a high-quality and dynamic program.
Research funding sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE,
DARPA, ONR, NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Our research
areas include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way, Herring)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, D.T. Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, D.T. Wu, Liberatore, N. Wu)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)
Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, D.T. Wu, Sum, Maupin)

Biomedical and Biophysics Research
licro-rluidics (Marr, Neeves)
Biological membranes (Sum)
Tisz.-ue engineering (Krebs)

Energy Research
Fuel rell catalysts and kinetics (Dean,
He rinrg)
H: separation and fuel cell membranes
wo.a,. Herring)
Natu al gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum)
Biofuels: Biochemical and thermochemical
routes (Liberatore, Herring, Dean, Maupin)
Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains less than 60 miles from world-
class skiing and only 15 miles from
downtown Denver, Golden, Colorado
enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per .a
year. These factors combine to provide
year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities
virtually unmatched anywhere
in the United States.

Jhttp://chemeng.mines.edu


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB 2003)

SA.M. Dean (Harvard 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley 1991)

* J.F. Ely (Indiana 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel 1990)

* M.D. Krebs (Case 2010)

* M.W. Liberatore (Illinois 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford 1993)

* C.M. Maupin (Utah 2008)

* R.L. Miller (CSM 1982)

* K.B. Neeves (Cornell 2006)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson 1974)

* A.K. Sum (Delaware 2001)

* J.D. Way (Colorado 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley 1991)

* N. Wu (Princeton 2008)


Chemical Engineering Education


itt, I








COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY


Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and PhD Programs


jv 6 i- M *
-AN&*4*9.9- -i 40), mkL


Financial Assistance
is Available

Columbia University
New York, NY 10027
(212) 854-4453


I WWWlCH M .Cll M BIA. ED[ULI


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


-Faculty and Research Areas
S. BANTA Protein & Metabolic Engineering
J 3. CHEN Surface Science, Catalysis,
Electrocatalysis & Alternative Energy
C.J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry
M. HILL Design & M.S. Program
J. JU Genomics
J. KOBERSTEIN Polymers, Biomaterials, Surfaces,
Membranes
S.K. KUMAR Synthetic & Natural Polymers,
Nanomaterials
E.F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering,
Transport Phenomena
V. FAYE MCNEILL Environmental Chemical Engineering,
Atmospheric Chemistry, Aerosols
V. ORTIZ Molecular Modeling, Thermodynamics
& Statistical Mechanics in Biology
B. O'SHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics
Sustainable Energy, Carbon Capture
SA.-H. ALISSA PARK e & Storage, Particle Technology
i. TURRO Supramolecular Photochemistry,
Interface & Polymer Chemistry
Complex Adaptive Systems
V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN Engineering, Systemic Risks
Management, Materials Design,
Informatics and Artificial Intelligence
A.C. WEST Electrochemical Engineering








- Chemical Engineering Graduate Program at the


University of


Connecticut


The Chemical Engineering
Program at UConn provides stu-
dents with a thorough grounding
in fundamental chemical engi-
neering principles while offering
opportunities and resources to
specialize in a wide variety of
focus areas.
Faculty are engaged in cutting-
edge research, with expertise in
fields including but not limited to
nanotechnology, biomolecular
engineering, green energy, water
research, and polymer engineer-
ing. Several multidisciplinary
centers leverage expertise from
diverse departments, colleges,
and from the medical school,
resulting in a unique set of
resources and an extraordinary
breadth of education.
Located in idyllic Storrs, the cam-
pus maintains its New England
charm while being only 20 min-
utes from Hartford, 75 minutes
from Boston and 2 hours from
New York.

* Booth Engineering Center
for Advanced Technologies
Center for Clean Energy
Engineering
Center for Environmental
Sciences & Engineering
Institute of Materials Science


Alexander Agrios, Northwestern U
Applications of Nanoparticulate Semi-
conductors to Solar Energy
George Bollas, Aristotle U Thessaloniki
Simulation of Energy Processes, Property
Models Development I
C. Barry Carter, Oxford U, Cambridge U
Interfaces & Defects; Ceramics, Materials,
TEM, SEM, AFM, Energy
Douglas Cooper, U Colorado
Process Modeling & Control
Chris Cornelius, Virginia Tech
Structure, Property and Function of Polymers,
lonomers, Glasses and Composite Materials
Russell Kunz, RPI
Fuel Cell Technology and Electrochemistry
Cato Laurencin, MIT, Harvard U
Advanced Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering,
Biodegradable Polymers, Nanotechnology
Yu Lei, UC Riverside
Bionanotechnology, Bio/nanosensor, Bio/nano-
materials, Remediation
Anson Ma, Cambridge U
Nanomaterials, Complex Fluids, Rheology,
Microstructure, Processing, Polymers and Carbon
Nanotubes
Radenka Maric, Kyoto U
Novel Materials for Fuel Cells & Batteries, Process-
ing Materials, Aerosole & Flame Synthesis
Jeffrey McCutcheon, Yale
Membrane Separations, Polymer Electrospinning,
Forward Osmosis/Osmotic Power
Ashish Mhadeshwar, U Delaware
Modeling of Catalytic Fuel Processing, Emissions
Reduction, Energy Generation
Trent Molter, UConn
Regenerative Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Production,
Electrochemical Compressors, Fuel Cell Materials
and Hydrogen Electrolyzers


Willliam Mustain, lIT
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Aerobic
Biocathodes for Oxygen Reduction, Electro-
chemical Kinetics and Ionic Transport
Mu-Ping Nieh, UMass Amherst
Structural Characterization of Soft Materials
Richard Pamas, UCLA
Biodiesel Power Generation, PEM Fuel Cell,
Polymer Gels and Filled Polymers
Rampi Ramprasad, U Illinois-Urbana
Materials Modeling and Computation, Nano-
materials, Thin Films & Interfaces
Leslie Shor, Rutgers
Biotechnology, Microfluidics, Microbial Assay
Systems
Prabhakar Singh, U Sheffield
High Temperature Materials, Oxidation and
Corrosion, Electrochemistry, Fuel Cells
Ranjan Srivastava, U Maryland
Systems Biology & Metabolic Engineering
Steve Suib, U Illinois-Urbana
Inorganic Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry
Kristina Wagstrom, Carnegie Mellon U
Atmosphere Modeling
Yong Wang, Duke U
Nanobiotechnology, Nanomedicine and
Drug Delivery
Brian Willis, MIT
Nanotechnology, Molecular, Electronics, Semi-
conductor Devices and Fuel Cells


Chemical Engineering Education












26 ChE Faculty with 13 Named Professors


* Maciek R. Antoniewicz
* Mark A. Barteau
* Antony N. Beris
*Douglas J. Buttrey
* Wilfred Chen
* David W. Colby
* Pamela L. Cook
* Prasad S. Dhurjati
*Thomas H. Epps, III
* Eric M. Furst
* Feng Jiao
* Michael T. Klein
* April Kloxin


* Kelvin H. Lee
* Abraham M. Lenhoff
* RaulF. Lobo
*Babtunde A. Ogunnaike
* E.Terry Papoutsakis
* Christopher J. Roberts
* T.W. Frasier Russell
*Stanley I. Sander
* Millicent 0. Sullivan
* Dionisios G. Vlachos
*Norman J.Wagner
* Richard P. Wool
* Yushan Yan


UNIVERSITY PA
OF DELAWARE a.-lu


. To Pflurh


VA -W

The University of Delaware's central location on the
eastern seaboard to New York, Washington, Philadelphia
and Baltimore is convenient both culturally and
strategically to The greatest concentration of industrial
and government research laboratories in the U.S.


Research Centers & Training Programs

Centers and programs provide unique environments & experiences
for graduate students. These include:

Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI)
Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST)
Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics (CME T
Center for Neutron Science ICNS)
Center for Composite Material CCMI
Chemistry-Biology Interface ICBI)
Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions IIMMBII
*Solar Hydrogen IGERT


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 29;

















I


'J
., : .. .


EAMERON F. ABRAMS
PhD. University of California, Berkeley
Molecular simulmlrons In blphysls and molenals. Imoeiors fo Insulil
and growh factors, 1itV1 emelope nrudure and unction
JASDN B. BAXTER
PhD, Universny of California. Sonia Barbara
Solar ells; Semlcondudor nanmonierals Ulirfgst spetdrocopy
flIu~Ofl A ruinhirainrr


RAJ MUTHARASAN
PhD, Drexel University
(oilllevear sl orr fr r gene deledion; Raeonna
modeling Dynamics ofl lullsolld Inleradions
51USEPPE R. PALMESE, HEAD
PhD, University of Delaware
lhernnosetrag polyners and bionaterials; (omrposeit and
Interfaces; Procesingr ictumiproperiy reianships


nlLnnnu H. LlnfmLnuE]f:
PhD, Univerniy of Minnesola JOSHUA SNYDER (2014)
IIroDdigrdbll polymers; Bldolsel prdudlo: Transpolltn prolymin PhD, John Hopkins University
Dlecncolpsis; Hlanoporonus Iostiatores; Fuiel(ls, -
NILY R. DAN .' ,: .. o :ewolirEl dioslsi
PhD. University of Minnesotn '. i, '
Sel aemblyln amphhlrio and polysnmkdrela ", ai.; -. "" '
w .. : sti ;i biia iarilor-i'i.aM. Polymerironl
Y55SEF A. ELABO F rmdon IilneeRg: Pmi syl ro lns segilreing
PhD. Johns Hopkins Universiry
Fuel calls Polymer membrones Dilfusion in polymerns HARLE WEINBER5ER
Emerilucs Faciul


VIBHA KALRA
PhD, lornell Unrersily
lerosplrnning of o goriiinorgonhl hybrid material; Mioleular/misnHole
simulfalons; tflrorihcallylordend molerlbli For fuel call elarrnfes
KENNETH K. 5. LAU
PhD, Massachusens Insttute of Technology .
Polymer thin ilms and devsIs; Solar tell; nineleral l
" .' & :. : *. ^-.: -


5TEVEN P. WRENN
PhD. University of Delaware
Ulntraeoundnggerd drug delivery Blologlicl ncllolds and
membranes; AlhuoidemoIs and gollstone iolhoginesis


NO.


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. cultural centers,.r
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Chemical Engineering Education


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Award-winning faculty
Cutting-edge facilities
Extensive engineering resources
An hour from the Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf of Mexico
Third in US in ChE PhD graduates
(C&E News, December 15, 2008)


Faculty
Tim Anderson
Jason E. Butler
Anul Chauhan
Oscar D Cnsalle
Jennifer Sinclair Curtis
Richard B. Dickinson
Helena Hagelin-Weaver
Gar Hoflund
Peng Jiang
Lewis E. Johns
Dmitry Kopelevich
Anthony J. Ladd
Tanmay Lele
Ranga Narayanan
Mark E. Orazem
Chang-Won Park
Fan Ren
Dinesh 0 Shah
Spyros Svoronos
Yiider Tseng
Sergey Vasenkov
Jason F. Weaver
Kirk Ziegler


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


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Graduate studies inChemical Engineering

Want a graduate program where you have leading technologies at your fingertips, the support
of expert faculty who care about your success, and access to an exciting network of research
partners and industry leaders? Choose Florida Tech for your M.S. or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.

Faculty
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D., Dept. Head
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D.
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
Biomedical Engineering
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology

Research Partners
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center'
Florida Department of Agriculture

*Graduate student sponsor
For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975
(321) 674-8068
http://coe.fit.edu/chemical
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SIGNATURE RESEARCH AREAS:
Sustainability of the Environment Intelligent Systems Assured Information and Cyber Security
New Space Systems and Commercialization of Space Communication Systems and Signal Processing Biomedical Systems

..... ...... .. ....... 4. rijl. .12


300 Chemical Engineering Education









































Big Career
Prospects
Big Network


Big City of Atlanta

DEGREES
Chemical
Engineering
Bioengineering
Paper Science
and Engineering


Georgia I

Tech
=


CONTACT
Dr. J. Carson Meredith
Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
311 Ferst Drive NW Atlanta, GA 30332-0100
grad.info@chbe.gatech.edu www.chbe.gatech.edu
404.894.1838 404.894.2866 fax


-I


KEY RESEARCH
AREAS


Energy & Sustainability Biotechnology Materials & Nanotechnology Complex Systems
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Complex Fluids, Microelectronics, Polymers, Microfluidics, Pulp & Paper,
Separations, Thermodynamics, MEMS, Environmental Science, C02 Capture, Biomedicine, Modeling,
Solar Energy, Cancer Diagnostics & Therapeutics, Biofuels, Air Quality, Optimization, Bioinformatics,
Process Synthesis & Control, Fuel Cells


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012










University of Houston

Graduate Studies in Chemical and
Biomolecular
Engineering




M- jt


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J. J
a I.


HOUSTON -
Dynamic Hub of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Research Areas:


Houston is at the center of the U.S. energy and
chemical industries and is the home of NASA's
Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned
Texas Medical Center.

The highly ranked University of Houston Department
of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers
excellent facilities, competitive financial support,
industrial internships and an environment conducive
to personal and professional growth.

Houston offers an abundance of educational, cultural,
business and entertainment opportunities. For a large
and diverse city, Houston's cost of living is much lower
than average.


Advanced Materials
Alternative Energy
Biomolecular Engineering
Catalysis


Multi-Phase Flows
Nanotechnology
Plasma Processing
Reaction Engineering


Affiliated Research Centers:


Alliance for NanoHealth
www.nanohealthalliance.org

Western Regional Center of
Excellence for Biodefense and
Emerging Infectious Diseases
http://rce.swmed.edu

Texas Diesel Testing and
Research Center
www.chee.uh.edu/dleselfacility


National Large Scale Wind
Turbine Testing Facility
www.thewindalliance.com

Department of Energy Plasma
Science Center for Predictive
Control of Plasma Kinetics
http://doeplasma.eecs.umlch.edu


UNIVERSITYof HOUSTON ENGINEERING
For more information:
www.chee.uh.edu grad-che@uh.edu
University of Houston, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate Admission, S222 Engineering Buiialrni 1, Houston, TX 77204-4004

The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution. Minorities, women, veterans and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply.


Chemical Engineering Education


y,












The Department of

CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING


In addition to receiving a world-class education at the
University of Notre Dame, graduate students in CBE
perform unique research with distinguished faculty, receive
teaching opportunities and training, benefit from an award-
winning professional development program, and apply their
skills to a professional career in industry, academia, or
government upon graduation.

The department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs.

Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which
include full tuition waiver and stipend, are available to
students.


cbe.nd.edu
chegdept@nd.edu
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Notre Dame
182 Fitzpatrick Hall
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(574) 631-5580

UNIVERSITY OF

SNOTRE DAME


I ResIeareJ ICa[ ego ri


Biological Systems
Chemical Systems
Computation & Theory
Energy & Environment
Materials
Microscale Devices


* 19 Faculty
* 2 members of the National Academy
of Engineering
* Diverse research projects
* Recipients of national research and
teaching awards


* About 90 graduate students
* Travel to national and international
conferences
* Recipients of major internal and
external awards, fellowships, and
scholarships
* Excellent placement record in
industry, governments labs, and
academia


* Kaneb Center for Teaching and
Learning
* Professional development program
* Career services
* Departmental lecture series


SLike
UJ The Graduate School
on Facebook.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

FACULTY


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
1995
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors


Julie L.P. Jessop
Michigan State U. 1999
Polymers/
Microlithography/
Spectroscopy


Greg Carmichael
U. of Kentucky 1979
Global change/
Supercomputing/
Air pollution modeling


David
Murhammer
U. of Houston 1989
Insect cell culture/
Oxidative Stress/Baculo-
virus biopesticides


Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and
microtechnology/
Aerosols


Eric E. Nuxoll
U. of Minnesota 2003


Vicki H. Grassian
U. of Calif.-Berkeley 1987
Surface science of envi-
ronmental interfaces/
Heterogeneous atmospheric
chemistry/Applications and
implications of nanosci-
ence and nanotechnology in
environmental processes and
human health


Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994


Controlled release/ Extremophile biocataly-
microfabrication/ sis/Sustainable energy/
drug delivery Green chemistry/
Bioremediation


I
C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites


David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/
Catalysis


Venkiteswaran
Subramanian
Indian Institute of Science
1978
Biocatalysis/Metabolism/
Gene expression/
Fermentation/Protein
purification/Biotechnology


For information
and application:
THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527


1-800-553-IOWA
(1-800-553-4692)
chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu
www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~chemeng/

Chemical Engineering Education


Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
biomaterials/Immuno-
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology


Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Photopolymerization/
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics


Charles O. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try, measurement, and
modeling/Aerosols


































THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING
offers excellent prog] i nI i, L ,; jlu; L i.,: rLcs: i i c L ,_ ld i'i Jr r, : it I It .-' I t.':
today's national and ilbtal co.irti .-n : 1 j tid t a.. i id Ln", ,ri.i .: uir..di n r-l.a
biorenewables, catal, ind rL, '. .rt-_r ._rn ..:,n.pur,. ti l IIlu.d l,rTam i.-:
healthcare technology. -,nrid bonaiii.d.i::i t:,nniri'l:'ir n r:rnL .nc -, r nr,r-. 'r.ll
research crosses tradit rn il a rnd di:iplanrir', In 1 pr,'- .' ...., riri ...pp ,'ii rlin
to graduate students L'-u. di' *r_; l].:ul. I ,: .a r-_ 1- hai r iih :d wI.j h .- r.,e .:d
national and internal ,:, I r .,.ria I..r ir r h..ii r r. 'i arid d,.,. ,., ri

Laboratories are state .'.- ii.. art F r i i r i- tI ,r, pro :: :. .:'i,,pl.Il r-
renovate lab space ir 5 .. ,:,n H. ill I : i 'l.: ] .hi .:'i e'ni'i ,... rii p : ThIl
Biorenewables Resear.. t li i.l ..r ,. r ,, :.p n r n .d tr 2 ilii .-. pr,..i. i. :.t ih,: a. d:,a IiJ
top interdisciplinary, systems-level research and collaboration in biorenewables.
In addition, the U.S. DOE Ames Laboratory, NSF Engineering Research Center for
Biorenewable Chemicals, the Plant Sciences Institute, the Office of Biotechnology and
the Bioeconomy Institute offer graduate students the best and most comprehensive
chemical engineering education.

The department offers MEngr, MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. We
offer full financial support with tuition coverage and competitive stipends to all our
MS and PhD students. The department also offers several competitive scholarships to
graduate students, so they can succeed and excel.

Iowa State University resides in Ames, Iowa, which was named one of the top ten
places to live in the United States in a 2010 CNN Money Magazine poll.


RI W IN I.

I.. n









www.cbe. iastate.edu


FACULTY

MufitAkinc
PhD, Iowa State University
Processing of bioinspired hybrid materials
Kaitlin Bratlie
PhD, University of California-Berkeley
Surface science and catalytic research
Robert C. Brown
PhD, Michigan State University
Biorenewable resources for energy
Rebecca Cademartiri
PhD, University of Potsdam, Germany
Interactions of biological entities with
materials
Eric W. Cochran
PhD, University of Minnesota
Self-assembled polymers
Liang Dong
PhD, Tsinghua University, China
Bioengineering, microelectronics andphotonics
Rodney 0. Fox
PhD, Kansas State University
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction
engineering


Charles E. Glatz
PhD, University of Wisconsin
Bioprocessing and bioseparations
Kurt R. Hebert
PhD, University of Illinois
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering
James C. Hill
PhD, University of Washington
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics
Andrew C. Hillier
PhD, University of Minnesota
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry
Laura R. Jarboe
PhD, University of California, Los Angeles
Biorenewables production by metabolic
engineering
Monica H. Lamm
PhD, North Carolina State University
Molecular simulation of advanced materials
Surya K. Mallapragada
PhD, Purdue University
Tissue engineering and gene delivery


Balaji Narasimhan
PhD, Purdue University
Biomaterials and drug delivery
Jennifer M. O'Donnell
PhD, University of Delaware
Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled
polymerizations
Michael G. Olsen
PhD, University of Illinois
Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
Derrick K. Rollins
PhD, Ohio State University
Statistical process control
lan C. Schneider
PhD, North Carolina State University
Cell migration and mechanotransduction
Brent H. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Jacqueline V. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Metabolic engineering and plant
biotechnology


ZengyiShao
PhD, University of Illinois
Biorenewables production by metabolic
engineering
Jean-Philippe Tessonnier
PhD, Universite de Strasbourg, France
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
R. Dennis Vigil
PhD, University of Michigan
Transport phenomena and reaction
engineering in multiphase systems


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








The University of Kansas
Graduate Study in
Chemical & Petroleum
Engineering

The University of Kansas is a comprehensive educational and research institution with more
than 30,000 students and 2,500 faculty. We are located on the main campus in Lawrence, on
Mount Oread in the beautiful forested hills of eastern Kansas. Our faculty are authors, editors,
inventors, internationally-known researchers and award-winning instructors. Educating and
training our students is our passion and commitment. Join us!


Our Faculty
Reza Barati, University of Kansas
Cory Berkland, University of Illinois
Kyle Camarda, University of Illinois
R.V. Chaudhari, Bombay University
Michael Detamore, Rice University
Prajna Dhar, Florida State University
Stevin Gehrke, University of Minnesota
Jenn-Tai Liang, University of Texas
Trung Nguyen, Texas A&M University

Our Research
Biofuels and Biorefining
Biomedical Product Design & Developmen
Biomimetic Materials
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineerinj
Catalytic Materials & Membrane Processinj
Controlled Drug Delivery
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Enzyme Catalysis in Non-aqueous Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Interfacial Nanomedicine
Molecular Design and Optimization
Process Intensification
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Process Applications

Financial Aid
We offer research and teaching assistantships,
fellowships and scholarships.
Check out the following premium program:
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship
http://www2.ku.edu/~selfpro/


Karen Nordheden, University of Illinois
Russell Ostermann, University of Kansas
Aaron Scurto, Notre Dame
Marylee Southard, University of Kansas
Bala Subramaniam, Notre Dame
Shapour Vossoughi, University of Alberta
Laurence Weatherley, Chair, Cambridge
G. Paul Willhite, Northwestern
Susan Stagg-Williams, University of
Oklahoma



t
















Contact Us
Application and Information --
http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/prospect
ive/graduate.html


Chemical Engineering Education













Study chemical


engineering's hottest


topics at one of the top


U.S. research universities.
Kansas State University is indexed in the Carnegie
Foundation's list of top 96 U.S. universities with
"very high research activity." Graduate students
perform research in areas like bio/nanotechnology,
reaction engineering, materials science and trans-
port phenomena.

K-State offers modern, well-equipped laboratories
and expert faculty on a campus nationally recog-
nized for its great community relationship. The
department of chemical engineering offers M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and the
interdisciplinary areas of bio-based materials sci-
ence and engineering, food science, environmental
engineering and materials science. A certificate in
air quality is also available.

Faculty, Research Areas
P Jennifer L. Anthony, advanced materials, molecular
sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids
SVikas Berry, graphene technologies, blonanotechnol-
ogy, nanoelectronics and sensors
) James H. Edgar (head), crystal growth, semiconduc-
tor processing and materials characterization
I Larry E. Erickson, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment
process design and synthesis
) L.T. Fan, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction
engineering, particle technology
) Larry A. Glasgow, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation
and flocculation
) Keith L. Hohn, catalysis and reaction engineering,
nanoparticle catalysts and biomass conversion
SPeter Pfromm, polymers in membrane separations
and surface science
) Mary E. Rezac, polymer science, membrane separa-
tion processes and their applications to biological
systems, environmental control and novel materials
) John R.Schlup, blobased industrial products,
applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis and intel-
ligent processing of materials

Our instrumental capabilities include:
) Laser-Doppler velocimetry 0 Mass spectrometry
) Polymer characterization equipment I High-speed videography
) Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry ) Gas adsorption analysis
) Chemical vapor deposition reactors I Catalyst preparation equipment
) Electrodialysis P Membrane permeation systems
) Fermentors ) Ultra-high temperature furnaces
) Tubular gas reactors I More
) Gas and liquid chromatography





Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Financial support and tuition
is available through research
assistantships and fellowships.




307




















Advanced Separations Aerosols
Biopharmaceutical and Biocellular
Engineering Drug Delivery
Energy Resources and Alternative Energy
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Synthesis Nanomaterials
Polymers and Membranes
Supercritical Fluids Processing


Chemical Engineering Faculty


The CAME Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph D


D. Kalika, Chair University of California, Berkeley
K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University
R. Andrews University of Kentucky
D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology
B. Berron Vanderbilt University
T. Dziubla Drexel University
D. Englert Texas A&M University
E. Grulke Ohio State University
J. Z. Hilt University of Texas
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
D. Pack California Institute of Technology
C. Payne Vanderbilt University
S. Rankin University of Minnesota
A. Ray Clarkson University
J. Seay Auburn University
D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University
J. Smart University of Texas


degrees in oomn chemical anr materials T. Tsang University of Texas
engineering The combination of these
disci,pines in a single department fosters Materials Engineering Faculty
collatoration among faculty and a strong
interdisciplinar) enturonment Our tacult) T. J. Balk Johns Hopkins University
and graduate students pursue research M. Beck Northwestern University
projects that encompass a broad range Y. T. Cheng California Institute of Technology
or cLhemrcal engineering endeavor, and R. Eitel Pennsylvania State University
that include interactions rth researchers B. Hinds Northwestern University
in Agriculture Chemistry, Medicine and F. Yang University of Rochester
Pharma,:c T. Zhai University of Oxford







308 Chemical Engineering Education








LEHIGH UNIVERSITY


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in...

Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis
Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer
Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biological Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering




OUR FACULTY


Bryan W. Berger, University of Delaware
membrane biophysics protein engineering surfactant science
* signal transduction

Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials environmental
processes reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY- Buffalo
adhesion thin films surface chemistry

Mohamed S. EI-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton University
complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces

James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization mixing microfluidics

Vincent G. Grassi II, Lehigh University
process systems engineering

Lori Herz, Rutgers University
cell culture and fermentation pharmaceutical process
development and manufacturing

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparation applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-materials
interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in
polymerization

Christopher J. Kiely, Bristol University
catalyst materials nanoparticle self-assembly, carbonaceous
materials, heteroepitaxial interface structures


Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control constrained control microchemical
systems

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing and
modeling membrane formation drug delivery

Steven Mclntosh, University of Pennsylvania
fuel cells solid state ionics heterogeneous catalysis *
functional materials electrochemistry

Jeetain Mittal, University of Texas
protein folding macromolecular crowding hydrophobic
effects nanoscale transport

Susan F. Perry, Pennsylvania State University
cell adhesion and migration cellular biomechanics

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers *
membranes in environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass
transfer

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pennsylvania
adsorption gas and liquid separation

Mark A. Snyder, University of Delaware
inorganic nanoparticles and porous thin films *
membrane separations multiscale modeling

Kemal Tuzla, Istanbul Technical University
heat transfer two-phase flows fluidization thermal energy
storage

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous
catalysis environmental catalysis


An application and additional information may be obtained by writing to:
Dr. Jeetain Mittal or Dr. Steve Mclntosh: Co-chairs, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University 111 Research Drive, lacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-4261 *Email: inchegs@lehigh.edu Web: www.che.lehigh.edu


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







MANHATTAN



COLLEGE



This well-established graduate program emphasizes
the application of basic principles to the solution of
modem engineering problems, with new features in
engineering management, sustainable and alternative
energy, safety, and biochemical engineering.

A

Financial aid in the form of
graduate fellowships is available.
For information and application form, write to
Graduate Program Director
Chemical Engineering Department
Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471
chmldept@manhattan.edu

BE SURE TO ASK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT
OUR NEW COSMETIC ENGINEERING OPTION
http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu/academics/
engineering/chemical/graduate/cosmetics


http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu


Offering a
Practice-Oriented
Master's Degree
Program
in
Chemical
Engineering

t


Manhattan College is located
in Riverdale,
an attractive area in the
northwest section of
New York City.

Chemical Engineering Education











* CHEMICAL &



-BIOCHEMICAL



ENGINEERING




APPLY FOR FREE!
SThe Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at UMBC is pleased to
offer citizens and permanent residents of the United States and Canada, and students
receiving degrees from U.S. and Canadian institutions, the opportunity to apply for
admission to the Ph.D. program in Chemical & Biochemical Engineering without
admission fees. Details are available on our Web site (www.umbc.edu/cbe).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION LOCATION RAO, GOVIND, Ph.D., Drexel University;
Students pursuing advanced studies UMBC is a suburban campus, Fluorescence-based sensors and
in the Department of Chemical and located in the Baltimore-Washington instrumentation, fermentation, cell
Biochemical Engineering at UMBC corridor, with easy access to both culture
explore fundamental concepts metropolitan areas. A number of
in biochemical, biomedical and government research facilities such ROSS, JULIA, Ph.D., CHAIR; Rice
bioprocess engineering, with faculty as NIH, FDA, USDA, NSA, and a large University; Cell and tissue engineering,
at the leading-edge of engineering number of biotechnology companies cell adhesion in microbial infection,
research. The department offers are located nearby and provide thrombosis
graduate programs leading to B.S./ excellent opportunities for research
M.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. These interactions. Research Associate Professors
graduate programs provide students KOSTOV, YORDAN, Ph.D., Bulgarian
with the opportunity to play an active FACULTY Academy of Sciences; Low-cost
role in breakthrough research and BAYLES, TARYN, Ph.D., University of optical sensors, instrumentation
*t specific projects cover a wide range Pittsburgh; Engineering education and development, biomaterials
of areas including: fermentation, cell outreach, transport phenomena
culture, downstream processing, TOLOSA, LEAH, Ph.D., University of
cellular and tissue engineering as well CASTELLANOS, MARIAJOSE, Ph.D., Connecticut, Storrs; Fluorescence
as mathematical modeling. Cornell University; Biocomplexity, based sensors, protein engineering,
modeling of biological systems biomedical diagnostics, molecular
DEGREES OFFERED switches
M.S. (thesis and non-thesis), Ph.D. FREY, DOUGLAS, Ph.D., University of
California, Berkeley; Chromatographic Research Assistant Professor
Accelerated Bachelor's/Master's separations, electrophoresis GE, XUDONG, Ph.D., UMBC; Sensor
Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in matrix development, dialysis based
Biochemical Regulatory Engineering GOOD, THERESA, Ph.D., University sensor
of Wisconsin-Madison; Cellular
FACILITIES AND SPECIAL RESOURCES engineering, protein aggregation and FOR MORE INFORMATION
The program's research facilities disease, biomedical engineering Department Web Site:
include state-of-the-art laboratories www.umbc.edu/cbe
in the Engineering Building and at the LEACH, JENNIE, Ph.D., University of
Technology Research Center. These Texas at Austin; Biomaterials, tissue CONTACT:
facilities are extensively equipped engineering Graduate Program Director
with modern fermentation, cell UMBC, Chemical & Biochemical
culture, separations, protein structure MARTEN, MARK, Ph.D., Purdue Engineering
and materials characterization, University; Systems biology, 1000 Hilltop Circle
biomaterials synthesis and other proteomics and genomics, Baltimore, MD 21250
analytical equipment. In addition, bioprocessing
campus core facilities in areas such 410-455-3400
as microscopy and mass spectrometry MOREIRA, ANTONIO R., Ph.D., cbegrad@umbc.edu
provide students opportunities for University of Pennsylvania;
hands-on exposure to cutting edge Regulatory/GMP issues, scale up,
analytical techniques and equipment. downstream processing, product
comparability

www.umbc.edu/cbe


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012











UNIVERSITY OF


MARYLAND



CHEMICAL & BIOMOLECULAR

L ENGINEERING IN THE NATION'S

CAPITAL REGION


Located in a vibrant international community just outside
S of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories
Including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory,
r.*-. and NIST, the University of Maryland's Department of
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James
Clark School of Engineering, offers educational opportunities
leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree
in Chemical Engineering.



FACULTY


SHERYL H. EHRMAN, CHAIR
Aerosol science, particle technology,
air pollution.
RAYMOND A. ADOMAITIS
Systems modeling/simulation,
semiconductor materials manufacturing.
MIKHAIL ANISIMOV
Mesoscopic and nanoscale
thermodynamics, critical phenomena,
phase transitions in soft matter.
RICHARD V. CALABRESE
Multiphase flow, turbulence and mixing.
KYU YONG CHOI
Polymer reaction engineering and polymer
nanomaterials.
PANAGIOTIS DIMITRAKOPOULOS
Computational fluid dynamics, bio/micro-
fluidics, biophysics and numerical analysis.
AMY J. KARLSSON
Protein engineering, biomolecular
recognition, fungal disease.
JEFFERY KLAUDA
Cell membrane biophysics,
thermodynamics, molecular simulations.


DONGXIA LIU
Materials synthesis and engineering,
reaction engineering, heterogeneous
catalysis, fuel cells, biofuels, energy.
SRINIVASA R. RAGHAVAN
Complex fluids, polymeric and
biomolecular self-assembly, soft
nanostructures.
GANESH SRIRAM
Systems biology, metabolic engineering,
biorenewable fuel, genetically inherited
metabolic disorders.
CHUNSHENG WANG
Li-ion batteries, electric energy storage,
fuel cells, electroanalytical technologies,
nanostructured materials.
NAM SUN WANG
Biochemical engineering, biofuels,
drug delivery.
WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
Biochemical engineering, bioprocess
control and optimization.
ERIC D. WACHSMAN
Fuel cells, gas separation membranes,
solid-state gas sensors, electrocatalytic
conversion of CO2 and CH4, post-
combustion reduction of NO .


To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

www.chbe.umd.edu


Chemical Engineering Education









Ut of M Am


EXPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN
CHMIA ENGINERIN


For application forms and further information on
fellowships and assistantships, academic and
research programs, and student housing, see:
http://che.umass.edu/
or contact:
Graduate Program Director
Department of Chemical Engineering
159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St.
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003-9303
Email: chegradprog@ecs.umass.edu


Facilities:
Instructional, research, and administrative facilities are
housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to
space in Goessmann Laboratory, the Department
occupies modern research space in Engineering La-
boratory II and the Conte National Center for Polymer
Research. In 2013, several faculty with research in-
terests in the life sciences will occupy modern re-
search space in the New Laboratory Sciences Build-
ing that is currently under construction.


Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western
Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the
area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recrea-
tional opportunities. Urban pleasures are easily accessible.


FACULTY:
Surita R. Bhatia (Princeton)
W. Curtis Conner, Jr. (Johns Hopkins)
Paul J. Dauenhauer (Minnesota)
Jeffrey M. Davis (Princeton)
Wei Fan (Tokyo)
Neil S. Forbes (California, Berkeley)
David M. Ford (Pennsylvania)
Michael A. Henson (California, Santa Barbara)
Michael F. Malone (Massachusetts, Amherst)
Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT)
Peter A. Monson (London)
T. J. (Lakis) Mountziaris, Department Head (Princeton)
Shelly R. Peyton (California, Irvine)
Constantine Pozrikidis (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Susan C. Roberts (Cornell)
Jessica D. Schiffman (Drexel)
H. Henning Winter (Stuttgart)


Current areas of Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering re-
ceive support at a level of over $6 million per year through external research
grants. Examples of research areas include, but are not limited to, the following.
* Bioengineering: cellular engineering; metabolic engineering ; targeted bac-
teriolytic cancer therapy; synthesis of small molecules; systems biology; bi-
opolymers; nanostructured materials for clinical diagnostics.

* Biofuels and Sustainable Energy: conversion of biomass to fuels and
chemicals; catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass; microkinetics; microwave reac-
tion engineering; biorefining; high-throughput testing; reactor design and
optimization; fuel cells; energy engineering.

* Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena: biofluid dynamics and blood
flow; hydrodynamics of microencapsulation; mechanics of cells, capsules,
and suspensions; modeling of microscale flows; hydrodynamic stability and
pattern formation; interfacial flows; gas-particle flows.

* Materials Science and Engineering: design and characterization of new
catalytic materials; nanostructured materials for microelectronics and photon-
ics; synthesis and characterization of microporous and mesoporous materi-
als; colloids and biomaterials; membranes; biopolymers; rheology and phase
behavior of associative polymer solutions; polymeric materials processing.
* Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation: computational quan-
tum chemistry and kinetics; molecular modeling of nanostructured materials;
molecular-level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-to-
reactor scale modeling of transport and reaction processes in materials syn-
thesis; atomistic-to-continuum scale modeling of thin films and nanostruc-
tures; systems-level analysis using stochastic atomic-scale simulators; mod-
eling and control of biochemical reactors; nonlinear process control theory.


The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status,
national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 313









Massachusetts Institute

of Technology


Materials
Polymers
Research in Biotechnology
Energy Engineering
Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics
Colloid Science and Separations
Microchemical Systems, Microfluidics
Statistical Mechanics & Molecular Simulation
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Process Systems Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Transport Processes
Thermodynamics
Nanotechnology


With the largest research faculty in the country, the Department
of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and
teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with
unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications. The
Department offers graduate programs leading to the master's
and doctor's degrees. Graduate students may also earn a
professional master's degree through the David H. Koch School
of Chemical Engineering Practice, a unique internship program
that stresses defining and solving industrial problems by applying
chemical engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the
Sloan School of Management, the Department also offers a
doctoral program in Chemical Engineering Practice, which
integrates chemical engineering, research and management.


D. G. Anderson
R. C. Armstrong
P. I. Barton
M. Z. Bazant
D. Blankschtein
R. D. Braatz
F. R. Brushett
A. K Chakraborty
R. E Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. L. Cooney
P. S. Doyle


K. K. Gleason
W. H. Green
P. T. Hammond
T. A. Hatton
K. F. Jensen, Head
J. H. Kroll
R. S. Langer
D. A. Lauffenburger
J. C. Love
N. Maheshri
A. S. Myerson
B. D. Olsen

For more information, conta


K. J. Prather
Y. Roman
G. Rutledge
H. D. Sikes
George Stephanopoulos
Greg Stephanopoulos
M.S. Strano
W. A. Tisdale
B. L. Trout
P. S. Virk
D. I. C. Wang
K. D. Wittrup


MIT Chemical Engineering Graduate Office, 66-366
77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
web.mit.edu/cheme/


Chemical Engineering Education


&