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Chemical Engineering Education

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Title:
Chemical Engineering Education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
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American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
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Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
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English
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v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Chemical abstracts
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Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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chemical engineering education




VOLUME 46 NUMBER 4 FALL 2012







GRADUATE EDUCATION
. Featured article on graduate courses...

The Importance of Oral Communication Skills
and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills, p. 251
SGarth L. Wilkes
T.




- ... and articles of general interest

S218 Humidification, a True "Home" Problem For a Chemical Engineer
Jean-Stdphane Condorer
V 223 A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students-Indigo: A World of Blues
SPolly R. Piergiovanni

231 Energy Balances on Transient Processes
Francisco Ruiz-Bevid, M. Dolores Saquete, Ignacio Aracil,
M. Francisca G6mez

S237 Random Thoughts: Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or Won't) Read
Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent
A a' 239 A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery
Mark Moore, Robert M. Counce, Jack S. Watson,
SThomas A. Zawodzinski, Haresh Kamath

260 Teaching Process Design Through Integrated Process Synthesis
Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, Bilal Patel,
Diane Hildebrandt, David Glasser

271 Teaching Tip: Two Minutes of Reflection Improves Teaching
Matthew Liberatore



V












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University of Akron


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 46 Number 4 Fall 2012




> GRADUATE EDUCATION
251 The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate
Course to Help Improve These Skills
Garth L. Wilkes


> CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS
218 Humidification, a True "Home" Problem For a Chemical Engineer
Jean-Stiphane Condoret

> CURRICULUM
223 A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students-
Indigo: A World of Blues
Polly R. Piergiovanni
231 Energy Balances on Transient Processes
Francisco Ruiz-Bevid, M. Dolores Saquete, Ignacio Aracil,
M. Francisca Gdmez


> RANDOM THOUGHTS
237 Why Johnny and Janie Can't (or Won't) Read
Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent

> CLASSROOM
239 A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case
Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery
Mark Moore, Robert M. Counce, Jack S. Watson,
Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Haresh Kamath
260 Teaching Process Design Through Integrated Process Synthesis
Matthew J. Metzger, Benjamin J. Glasser, Bilal Patel,
Diane Hildebrandt, David Glasser


> OTHER CONTENTS
271 Teaching Tip: Two Minutes of Reflection Improves Teaching
Matthew Liberatore


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION[ISSN 0009-2479 (print); ISSN 2165-6428 (online)] is published quarterly
by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes ofaddress should be sent to CEE, 5200 NW
43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville, FL 32606. Copyright 2012 by the Chemical Engineering Division. American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not
necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE. which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if
notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, 5200 NW 43rd St., Suite 102-239, Gainesville,
FL 32606. Periodicals Postage Paidat Gainesville, Florida, and additionalpost offices (USPS 101900). www.chc.ufl.eduiCEE


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








class and home problems )


HUMIDIFICATION, A TRUE "HOME"

PROBLEM FOR A CHEMICAL ENGINEER








JEAN-STtPHANE CONDORET
University of Toulouse Toulouse (France)


All teachers have observed that academic knowledge
is more easily transmitted through application, es-
pecially when examples are chosen from everyday
life. Chemical Engineering Education has often published
such examples,'-51 providing interesting matter to illustrate
academic chemical engineering courses.
This paper uses this approach and aims to help students
understand problems dealing with humid air as they are en-
countered in courses about cooling towers, humidification,
dehumidification, or drying. These examples are complex
because they involve coupled heat and mass transfer phenom-
ena, but only basic knowledge about humid air and use of the
psychrometric chart is needed for the example proposed here.
The reader interested in an everyday problem dealing with
evaporative cooling may refer to a previous author's paper. 11
In the present case the problem is suited for early material
and energy balances courses and only needs the knowledge
of the psychrometric chart.


PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
The example is the following:
A cold spell has invaded the country and the temperature
stabilizes below 0 C. The most visible consequence of this
cold is an increased heat duty in our homes. But there is
also a less-known phenomenon that quite it. ,ifly af-
fects the comfort inside the home: using a domestic hygrom-
eter, it can be observed that the relative humidity, e, of the
air inside the house has dropped to very low values (below
e = 0.2). This value is far below what is advised by the
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Condi-
tioning Engineers'6' (ASHRAE), which recommends relative

Jean-Stdphane Condoret is a professor of chemical engineering at the
Institute National Polytechnique of Toulouse (France). He graduated in
1977 from the Institut de Genie Chimique, in Toulouse. His Ph.D. thesis
dealt with heat and mass transfer in packed beds. Since 1987 he has
been involved in supercritical technology for chemistry and biochemistry.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Chemical Engineering Education


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. We request problems that can be used to motivate student
learning by presenting a particular principle in a new light, can be assigned as novel home
problems, are suited for a collaborative learning environment, or demonstrate a cutting-edge
application or principle. Manuscripts should not exceed 14 double-spaced pages and should be
accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to
Dr. Daina Briedis (e-mail: briedis@egr.msu.edu), Department of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226.
















humidity values between 0.3 and 0.6. Below E = 0.3, there
is a "dryness zone" where people experiences skin and eye
dryness and stuffy noses. People wearing contact lensesfind
them particularly irritating.
So the chemical engineer may ask himself or herself the
following questions:
1) Why is the indoor relative humidity so low?
In relating to early chemical engineering courses that cover
the humidity psychrometric chart, the student can see that even
saturated, cold air has a very low absolute humidity (around
Yo = 2.5 g/kg of dry air at -5 oC). When this air is heated
inside the house at 20 C, simple computations or reading of
the psychrometric chart indicate that the relative humidity of
this heated air has dropped to e = 0.175.
2) What can be done to improve the situation?
Domestic devices for humidifying air are available. Most of
them are based on ultrasonic generation of very tiny droplets
that are blown into the air to evaporate. The chemical engineer
would like to know how much water is needed to bring the 20 C
air up to e = 0.5 (corresponding to absolute air humidity Yf =
7.18 g/kg of dry air). The question might also be asked as to
what is the duration of the humidification process?
From the dimensions of the house (see Table 1), the mass
of air, Mair, referred to a dry basis (kg of dry air) is readily
computed using the value of the density of air (around 1.2
kg.nr3 at 20 C). The quantity of water Qw to be evaporated
is obtained using the change of absolute humidity of the air:

Q, = Ma, (Y, Y)= 1.34 kg (1)

Most commercial domestic humidifiers claim a maximum
water flow rate W around 0.4 kg h-'. So the duration of the
operation to achieve is:

t-,, = (2)
W
This leads to a few hours duration (tnf1 = 3.3 h). This is a
rather short time. But the observed results are very different:
after one night, the hygrometer still indicates a low value
(around e = 0.32). Even maintaining the humidifier continu-
ously in operation, stopping only to refill the 4 liter tank, the
hygrometer indicates a slowly growing value that stabilizes
around 0.37 after one day and a half.
This experimental contradiction means that an important
parameter has been forgotten. It is obvious that several liters
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


volume V
Output humid air
o oo

0 0
o o



Incoming cold air Water input

Figure 1. Systemic sketch of the humidification of the
house.

of water have been evaporated but they are not present in the
air of the house. It is easy to remember that a house is naturally
ventilated and the ventilation flow rate is very probably the
missing parameter.
Is a chemical engineering student able to describe the
situation with the usual tools? This is indeed quite possible
considering the house as a vessel with mass input and output.
This closely resembles a mixing tank as described in Figure 1.
To propose a simple model, it is necessary to assume per-
fectly mixed air inside the house. This implies a homogeneous
humidity Y in the volume and consequently that air leaves
the house at the instantaneous inner humidity Y (stirred tank
assumption). Different locations for the hygrometer during
the humidification process did not show significant differ-
ences. So, although not initially obvious, the perfectly mixed
hypothesis is quite acceptable.
The universal dynamic mass balance (accumulation = input
- output + generation) is written:
dY
M-, =(W+DYo)-DY (3)
dt
W is the input flow rate of water by the humidifier in kg/s.
D is the renewal mass flow rate (referred on a dry basis, kg/s
of dry air).
Y is the instantaneous inner absolute humidity.
Y0 is the outside absolute humidity (assumed constant).
Eq. (3) is a simple first order differential equation to be
solved with the initial condition:
Y = Y. for t = 0 where Y. is the initial inner absolute humid-
ity, which is equal to Yo in the present case.







The solution is easily found as:

Y(t)= Y, + Y -- e Mr (4)

Indeed, it is a first order system with an asymp-
totic absolute humidity Yf (which corresponds to
the steady state) given by:
W
Y, =Yo+- (5)
D
Computation of the steady state value requires
estimation of the renewal mass flow rate D. It
can be obtained from the value of the time for
air renewal in naturally ventilated houses, which
is usually estimated around t re = 2 hours. The
renewal mass flow rate D is given by:

D= Ma (6)
trenew

From Eq. (5), a value Y, = 5.3 g/kg of dry air is
obtained and the corresponding relative humidity
is Ein, = 0.37.
This is a very encouraging result because it
corresponds to the asymptotic observed value,
meaning that the estimation of the renewal time is
fairly good. Indeed, the value of the final relative
humidity is low because the humidifier does not
bring enough water. Actually, the major part of
the water is evacuated by the renewal air flow rate.
The only solution would be to increase the number
of humidifiers.
Now we can compute the time to reach the
asymptotic value. Theoretically, this time is infinite
so we have to define a criterion. A typical approach
is to calculate for a percentage of the approach,
for instance:
Y(t) Yn, 0.01.
Yi

With this procedure the final time is determined
as tnj = 7.9 hours and is surprisingly short when
steady state has been experimentally obtained after
one and a half days.
Here also an important parameter has been
forgotten. Deeper reflection reveals that the house
contains many materials able to adsorb water and to
equilibrate with the inner air. It could be wall coat-
ings, like plaster or tapestry, or any other hygro-
scopic material. In a first approach, the adsorption
phenomenon can be accounted for by using a linear
equilibrium X = Ka,dY, where X is the absolute
humidity of the solid (dry basis). Also, it can be


assumed that the global dynamics are slow enough so that adsorption
equilibrium is always reached. Introducing the mass of the wall coating
(dry basis) as Mwn, Eq. (4) becomes:
dY dX dY
M +M =-(M,,+Mw1VK.dn) ==W+DYn -DY (7)
"" dt dt dt


The final correct solution for the system is then:

Y(t) + Y e Mair+MwalKads W
Y(t)=Yo+ Y -Y D


The extra term M,,nKad, in the exponential has increased the time
constant of the phenomenon (not the final value) and now explains the
long observed duration.
Actually, Mwa should be considered as the fraction of the hygroscopic
material that is likely to equilibrate rapidly with the air. It could be, for
instance, the first millimetres of plaster on the walls. For plaster, the
water sorption isotherm can be found in the literature17t and a value of Kds
= 40 can be estimated. Let us guess a value Mwa, = 25 kg, then Eq. (8)
yields tnal = 35.7 h, which is quite realistic for our experiment. Anyway,
although our estimation for the wall parameters is probably correct, it
is reasonable to consider these values only as adjustment parameters to
account for the long observed duration.
It is useful to compute the different quantities of water involved in the
operation. In Table 2 the different equations for these values are given.

TABLE 2
Different Equations for Different Quantities of Water Involved
Qw evaporated water Qw= wtil Eq. (9)
Q, water contained in the
inner air at the end = M.Y,, Eq. (10)
Qw,, water contained in the ,
walls at the end Q = M n,,KaYin Eq. (11)
Qi,,p, water input by incoming Eq (2)
cold air Q = DYotp Eq. (12)
Q..., water accumulated in M, (Y Eq.(13)
the walls Eq. (13)
Qh,, water accumulated in Q M(Y Y) Eq.(14)
the air Q = M (Y- Y) Eq. (14)


The water quantity that has been transported outside by the ventilation
is Qevac and can be computed by integration

Q... =D ""' Y(t)dt

using Eq. (8) whose integral is:

D ) D DI
JY(t)dt= Y +- Mai" +K;,Msvi Miir+MwaIIKads (15)

Numerical values are given in Table 3, and the time evolution of the
absolute and relative humidity are presented in Figure 2.
Checking the mass balance Qinpu Q + Q = Qcir + Q cwl ascer-
tains the computation.


Chemical Engineering Education








TABLE 3
Quantities of Water Involved in the Humidification of the House
Q, Q ,, Qwa., Q,,,,, Q. I 2. Qg.7 Q.,,2 .
14.3 kg 1.5 kg 5.25 kg 12.8 kg 23.5 kg 0.79 kg 2.76 kg

0006 .- 04 t


0.


0 10 20 30
time (h)


40 50 60


10 20 30 40 50 60
time (h)


Figure 2. Time evolution of the indoor absolute and relative humidity.


It is very surprising that the quantity of water
effectively brought to the air (Qaccair= 0.79 kg) is
very low in comparison to all other values and
especially to the quantity of water produced,
Qw = 14.3 kg.A lot of water has been inefficiently
produced, adsorbed, or transported! Also, to
maintain E = 0.37,0.4kg/h of water now has to be
continuously injected in the air by the humidifier.
All computations were done using the
Mathcad software and corresponding files can
be found at pers/condoret.htm>.
Finally, the model with the proposed esti-
mated parameters is very likely to give a good
description of the humidification process of a
house. Indeed, one experiment (which could
be done only by measuring the steady state
relative humidity and the needed time to reach
it) allows identifying all parameters and the
model can be used to predict other scenarios.
Indeed, the modeling is also valid for the case
of dehumidification, which is necessary in sum-
mertime. In this case incoming warm humid
air is dehumidified using devices where excess
water in the air is condensed on cooled surfaces
at a temperature below the air dew point. In this
case, the term W in the equations has only to
be set to a negative value.
There is an additional interesting computa-
tion about the energetic cost of humidifying the


air compared to the energetic cost for a simple heating of the air. In other
words, how much does it cost to improve the quality of life in the house?
It is obtained from:

power for humidification D(H,-c H0.c) (H;c H oc) (16)
total power transferred to the air D(H Y- -H c) (H'c H H0 )

where Hc is the enthalpy of humid air at t C and absolute humidity Y.
The computation is done at steady state for the relative humidity of 0.5
that we initially targeted. Eq. (5) gives the needed water flow rate W =
0.67 L/h. It corresponds to the use of two humidifiers. Now, we understand
the sentence "this device is adequate up to 40 m2 rooms" written on the
notice of the device. Nevertheless, note that all computations are done here
without taking account of people in the house, while a four-person family
is estimated to produce 0.2 kg/h of steam.'18
Values of enthalpy can be computed or read on the psychrometric chart. It
yields a humidification power that represents 37% of the total power, which
is an unexpectedly high value. In fact, it corresponds to the heat power for
the vaporization of the water droplets. This heat power is provided by the
heating system of the house, which maintains the inner temperature at 20 OC.
Nevertheless the total power for air (around 1.3 kW in this case) does not
represent the total heating demand for the house. Indeed, the major part of
heating power in the house is used for compensation of heat losses through
walls, windows, and the roof.

CONCLUSIONS
In this example the concept and the importance of the relative humidity
of air, which is not always well understood by students, is pointed out. Fur-
thermore, it is worth remembering that this parameter is always related to
the thermodynamic activity of the water contained in solids in equilibrium


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


0,005

0,004

0.003

S0,002
"0








with the surrounding air. Students usually encounter this
concept during the course about drying of solids. Here the
relation between relative humidity of air and human comfort
is indeed an indirect relation and water activity of physiologi-
cal tissues is the pertinent parameter. This example can be
further commented to students to emphasize the importance
of the water activity (drying, conservation, vegetal extraction,
enzymatic reactions, and many other domains where natural
products are involved).
The main objective of this case study, however, is to show
that the foundational approach that is taught in chemical en-
gineering is able to provide solutions for problems that are
outside this discipline. The pedagogical interest is maximum
if the problem is presented to students in its iterative form, as
is done in this paper. Because this example has dealt with an
everyday problem, it is hoped that the students are interested
and develop their physical sense as well as their critical sense
in facing unexpected experimental results. At least, it has been
shown here that methods of chemical engineering can have
very diverse applications.

REFERENCES
1. Condoret, J.S., "Teaching transport phenomena around a cup of coffee,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 137 (2007)
2. Kaletunc, G., K. Duemmel, et al., "Teaching process engineering prin-
ciples using an ice cream maker," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 131 (2007)
3. Hohn, K.L., "The chemical engineering behind how carbonated bever-
ages goes flat: a hands on experiment for freshmen," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
41(2), 14 (2007)
4. Sad, M.E., M.R. Sad, et al., "Chemical kinetics, heat transfer, and
sensor dynamics revisited in a simple experiment," Chem. Eng. Ed.,
42(1), 17 (2008)
5. Minerick, A.R., "Versatile desktop experiment module (DEMo) on
heat transfer," Chem. Eng. Ed., 44(4), 274 (2010)
6. (ASHRAE) Standard 55 2010 "Thermal Environmental Conditions
for Human Occupancy"
7. Piot,A., "Hygrothermique du bAtiment," Ph.D. thesis, Institut National
des Sciences Appliqudcs de Lyon (2009)
8. Agence Nationale de l'Habitat, "fiche technique humidity," www.lesopah.fr/> 0






















222


NOMENCLATURE
Hw., height of the house wall (m)
Hv. enthalpy of humid air at t "C and (J kg-')
I 'c absolute humidity Y

K water adsorption constant on the (-)
wall coatings
M mass of dry air in the house (kg)
M-, equivalent mass of hygroscopic (kg)
material
Q, evaporated water (kg)
Qr water contained in the inner air (kg)
at the end
Q water contained in the walls at (kg)
the end
Q water input by incoming cold air (kg)
Q.c... water accumulated in the walls (kg)
Q aeair water accumulated in the air (kg)
Q water transported by the ventila- (kg)
tion
Sr surface of the house (m')
temp,, outside air temperature ("C)
temp, inner air temperature ("C)

tfna final time (s)
tr__ time for air renewal (s)
V volume of the house (m3)
W evaporation mass flow-rate (kg s I)
X absolute humidity of the hygro- (-)
scopic material
Y. absolute humidity of the outside (-)
air
Y, absolute air humidity at final time (-)
Y,, absolute air humidity at infinite (-)
time
Greek letters
e relative humidity of the air (-)
Ef relative humidity of the air at (-)
infinite time


Chemical Engineering Education








M curriculum
-- I^-----------------


A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students

INDIGO: A WORLD OF BLUES








POLLY R. PIERGIOVANNI
Lafayette College Easton, PA 18042


ip white fabric in the muddy-colored indigo dye vat,
and the cloth emerges green, then slowly turns azure,
cobalt, or sapphire before your eyes. The chemistry
behind this reaction will be revealed-and practiced-in this
course. This mysterious dye has an intriguing history, and we
will study its societal and environmental impact from antiquity
to the present. We will explore the use of indigo by different
cultures, and each student will have the opportunity to rep-
licate one of the techniques used to dye fabric with indigo.
We will learn about the equipment used in producing indigo
dye, and the three sources of indigo: synthetic, natural, and
biosynthetic. The course will culminate with the design of a
new indigo production facility. Students will need to determine
what type of indigo to produce, the location of the facility (i.e.,
rural or populated area? how will it impact the population?),
what environmental concerns to consider, and other aspects
of a new facility.
This course description was provided to all sophomore
students at Lafayette College and 19 students chose to enroll
in the course. Several of the students had not taken any labo-
ratory science courses in college and over a quarter had not
had a mathematics course since high school. About half were
chemical engineering majors. How does one teach process
engineering to such a diverse group?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
As the National Academy of Engineering and others have
written, our society is driven by technology, and everyone
should understand something about engineering.'02 "Every-
one" includes liberal arts students. The liberal arts education


was created to provide general knowledge, and to help stu-
dents develop rational thought and intellectual capabilities.
It included courses in literature, languages, philosophy, his-
tory, mathematics, and science. As society has become more
dependent on technology, it is more important that citizens
have some understanding of this technology in order to make
wise decisions." A well-educated citizen should not only
have a background in the traditional liberal arts courses,
but should also have some technical literacy. In fact, the
president of Smith College stated that "the study of science
and engineering should enrich and deepen the education of
historians and poets."13]
This is the logic behind the Values and Science/Technology
(VaST) requirement at Lafayette College. Every sophomore
is required to take a VaST course, chosen from a list of about
25 options. Each VaST course covers a different topic, but all
present some aspect of science and/or technology interacting
with a variety of other disciplines. The courses also address
ethical or values-oriented concerns and include processed
writing.'4' The VaST course has been required for many
years, and is considered to be a fundamental component of
the Lafayette students' education.

Polly R. Piergiovanni is an associate professor W -
of chemical and biomolecular engineering at
Lafayette College. She received her bachelor's
degree from Kansas State University and her
Ph.D. from the University of Houston, both in
chemical engineering. Currently she is study-
ing how active learning and directed writing
activities facilitate critical thinking.

Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Other institutions agree that engineering should be a compo-
nent of the liberal arts education. Union College has embraced
the ideas with its Converging Technologies curriculum, which
integrates the arts, humanities, and sciences with engineering.[51
A review of technical literacy courses for non-engineering
students found that courses are offered at many institutions,
with a variety of names.t61 Many individuals have developed
these courses and obtained encouraging results. Common
course goals include providing an understanding of what
engineering is, describing the engineering process, and help-
ing students develop the ability to make informed decisions
about technological issues facing society.
The challenge to engineers is to encourage students to enroll
in the courses, and to make the information accessible to the
students. Therefore, the courses for non-engineers are often
developed around a theme or concept already familiar to
students, such as robotics,'17 "How Things Work" dissection
projects,181 simple building projects,1' or biological systems.1o
Some hands-on projects reach out to the community along
with discussion questions for technical, ethical, and societal
issues.1"1 While these courses are interesting and exciting,
chemical engineering examples are rare.
In his review of engineering for non-engineers courses,
Krupczakl"2' classified the courses into four types:
The Technology Survey Course
The Technology Focus or Topics Course
The Technology Creation Course (Design)
The Technology Critique, Assess, Reflect, or Connect
Course
The paper also provides a framework for evaluating new
courses. The VaST course described in this paper meets the
requirements for a "Technology Focus or Topics Course." It
focuses on one area of technology, it includes a laboratory,
and social and historical aspects are considered.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR
NON-ENGINEERS
This VaST course, open to all sophomores, needed to be
accessible to those with a background that included little
chemistry and no calculus. The course would expose the
students to some broad concepts and principles that would
help them have a better understanding of what engineering
is, but not prepare them to practice engineering.
For example, after completing the course, I wanted students
to realize that pumps have limitations, to know the purpose
of filtration, and to learn that some chemical reactions result
in colored substances. They would understand why blue
jeans fade, but other fabrics don't. They would not be able to
mathematically model a process, but they would be able to put
unit operations into a useful order to produce a product. By
learning this, the students might change their view of chemi-


cal plants, and have a better understanding of environmental
and safety concerns.
Thus, in developing the course, I began with the following
learning objectives:
By the end of the semester, students will be able to:
I. Use multiple perspectives to answer important questions
about a complicated problem
2. Explain the chemical differences between dyeing with
indigo and dyeing with other natural dyes
3. Create a process flow diagram, identify major process
equipment, and explain briefly how it works
4. Write a technically competent laboratory report on the
processes studied
5. Show an understanding of what a professional is and the
ethical responsibilities of a professional

Experiential learning was an important part of the course
concept, so I developed many active learning and laboratory
exercises for the class. This paper presents descriptions, an
assessment of the results, and lessons learned from teaching
engineering to students who are not engineers.

COURSE ORGANIZATION
The course had two 1-hour lecture times and one 2-hour
laboratory each week. The lecture meetings were seldom
lectures, but most often included active learning exercises
or short presentations by the students. I divided the semes-
ter into four sections, with a short quiz after each section.
The first topic was the history of indigo, followed by the
processing of indigo (including material balances, unit
operations, and plant design), and the chemistry of indigo
synthesis. The third topic was a unit on ethics (required
for all VaST courses) and the final topic was cultural and
artistic uses of indigo. Students purchased a book for
the course,[31] were directed to resources available in the
library,[14, 15] and were given several journal articles we
discussed in class.[16-21
The group of students was diverse, including 10 chemical
engineering majors and nine liberal arts students (major-
ing in economics, psychology, history, and art). Many of
the students had taken a semester of calculus, however I
limited the mathematical content of the course to basic
algebra, and provided extra help outside of class for those
who needed it. We met once in a computer classroom where
I introduced all of the students to Visio (to draw a simple
Process Flow Diagram) and Excel (for creating graphs).
Two of the students were especially concerned about their
lack of chemistry background. I provided multiple explana-
tions (using the chalkboard, manipulatives, and animations)
for the chemical reactions they needed to learn, and, more
importantly, personally helped them perform the synthesis
laboratory experiments.


Chemical Engineering Education


224







ACTIVE LEARNING EXERCISES
Most information was presented to the students during the
one-hour time period, and I used active learning exercises
extensively. Four are described below, and Table 1 shows the
objectives of each activity and how they map to the overall
course objectives.
Timeline activity: The first weeks of the class covered
the history of indigo, starting at about 3000 BC. I wanted the
students to be able to mark the events in indigo history with
events they were familiar with, so their first assignment was
to come to class with six events that took place between 3000
BC and 500 BC: three that they had learned in high school,
and three that had something to do with indigo. At the begin-
ning of class, I drew a timeline on the blackboards around
the classroom, and each student wrote his/her events on the
timeline (along with their initials). As we marched through
time, I illustrated important events in indigo history, and we
discussed how the events the students contributed might have
influenced society and the developments I provided. We had
an interesting history lesson and got to know each other.

New York Times articles: From 1874 to about 1918,
the New York Times published more than 30 articles about
the synthesis of indigo by the Germans, the commerce of
indigo, and how artificial indigo would change the world.
These articles are available online, so I printed copies of the
original articles, pasted them to cardstock, and arranged them


around the classroom. The students were divided into groups,
and given questions to discuss after reading the articles. For
example, they learned that as early as 1904, the discovery of
"artificial indigo" was predicted to ruin villages in India and
affect local textile mills. They discussed whether this hap-
pened then--as well as the lingering effects. Other articles
predicted the dominance of the Germans in the dye industry,
and the potential repercussions in the United States. Students
were asked to consider the effect of indigo dye during World
War I (for example, the articles reported the lack of dye for
uniforms). A competition developed as the groups tried to find
the answers and discuss their importance. The students found
the activity more interesting than just reading the articles on
their own. They also learned how journalism and vocabulary
have changed in the last 100 years or so.
Unit Operations examples: I brought samples of differ-
ent schedule pipes and tubing to class, and different types of
propellers and turbine mixers, so the students could hold and
examine them. We discussed the differences, and how they
would affect a process. In addition, I took apart old pumps
and valves, so the students could examine how they worked
while I explained it on the board. We took a tour of the Unit
Operations laboratory to show the students the larger pieces of
equipment. This was likely the first time most of the students
had been in a facility with this type of equipment. The stu-
dents knew something about distillation, filtration, and other
processes, but most had not seen the equipment used in plants.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Plant Design Game: I wanted students to realize that
when designing a plant, decisions must be made, and the
decisions had economic and other consequences. With one
week devoted to the topic, we didn't have time to cover how
the decisions were made (although we did discuss synthesis
trees). Instead, I devised a game where the students made
their decisions (primarily choosing extraction, filtration,
and drying equipment) by pulling slips of paper out of a
hat and rolling dice. For example, they might choose to
dry the final product with a spray dryer (expensive capital
cost, but low labor cost) or with the sun (minimal capital
cost, but higher labor cost). This gave them the informa-
tion needed to construct a basic economic statement for
their plant, and determine their profit (or loss). It was a
lively competition-with a candy bar for the student with
the largest profit-and the role of decisions became clear
to the students.
In addition to these activities, videos on YouTube were used
to demonstrate dye making and printing techniques, a DVD
gave us a tour of the indigo harvest process,[221 and students
gave several presentations on various topics. We were also
fortunate to be invited to tour a nearby pigment plant, where
the students saw the safety measures we had discussed and
full-size examples of the unit operations.


LABORATORIES
The students met weekly in the laboratory for two hours
for different activities. About half the activities were done
individually, and half done in a group of two or three (with
each group including at least one engineer). Table 2 maps
the goals of the laboratory exercises to the course learning
objectives. The exercises are described below.
1. Natural dyes and the necessity of mordants: Most
natural dyes will not bind permanently to a fabric without
the aid of a mordant. The mordant, typically a metal ion, is
fixed to the fabric, and then reacts with the dye to produce
color. The different metal ions produce different shades of
color. Each student was given a bundle of fabric: three pieces
each of linen, wool, cotton, and silk, mordanted with either
chrome, tin, or alum. Each piece of fabric was cut into four
pieces so each combination could be dyed in each of the four
natural dyes logwoodd, fusticwood, Brazilwood, or cochineal,
purchased online'231). Each student thus had 48 pieces of
fabric. The assignment was to dye the fabrics, organize them
creatively, and then draw conclusions on the effect of fabric,
mordant, and dye on color.
2. Beginning and maintaining a vat of natural indigo: A
fermentation process is used to maintain an indigo vat. The


Chemical Engineering Education







fermentation has nothing to do with the indigo, but it is a natu-
ral (vs. a chemical) method to remove oxygen from the liquid.
Natural indigo and the necessary additives to maintain a vat
can be purchased online.1241 The students observed as I added
the ingredients [solid indigo, madder root (for deeper color),
soda ash (to adjust pH) and wheat bran (to feed the bacteria)].
We discussed how the fermentation process removes oxygen,
and related it to fermentation processes familiar to them. I
explained how in the absence of oxygen, indigo changes
from an insoluble form to a soluble form. Each week, when
we entered the laboratory, we "fed" the vat (to maintain the
bacteria responsible for the fermentation) and the students
learned to recognize the strong scent of an indigo vat.
3. Indigo dyeing: Indigo is a vat dye, insoluble in water, and
cannot be applied directly to fabric. The reduced form of the
dye is soluble in water, and will bind to cloth (see Figure 1).
As the cloth is exposed to oxygen, the dye structure changes
and the dye becomes physically embedded in the cloth. Each
student was given pieces of cotton, silk, wool, and linen to dye
with natural indigo. They learned the importance of physically
working the dye into the fabric and saw it turn from green to
blue as oxygen reached the cloth as it was pulled out of the vat.
4. Unit Operations experiments: Using a pump designed
for a small outdoor fountain and different sizes of tubing, the
students collected data for a pump curve, which they created
in Excel. They calibrated a variable area rotameter and wrote
a page describing how it works. Last, using a Girder and Panel
hydrodynamic building set,1251 they constructed a continuous
process (with water circulating) and observed the response of
the system when various valves were closed, and described
how a siphon in the process worked.
5. Synthesis of indigo: Using o-nitrobenzaldeyde, acetone,
and NaOH, each student synthesized indigo (see the Appen-
dix, page 272 for the procedure used). Before beginning the
laboratory, they had to find and summarize the MSDS for each
component. I demonstrated the use of a graduated cylinder,
analytical balance, and Buchner funnel for the nonengineering
students, preweighed 0.5 g of o-nitrobenzaledhyde for each
student, and instructed all students on yield calculations and
waste disposal. The students practiced operations of chemical
engineering (mixing, filtration, and drying) at a small scale,
which gave them a basis for understanding the larger scales
we discussed in class.


6. Project weeks: The students were given a white cotton
dish towel, access to the dyes and other materials, and en-
couraged to create something using the artistic techniques we
had learned about in class (batik, shibori,[261 and stamping).
They also created an advertisement that detailed how their
creation was made.
The students enjoyed the time in the laboratory, asked in-
sightful questions, and produced well-written and technically
accurate memos. One student (a chemical engineer) created a
magnificent display from the first project that made it easy for
an observer to draw conclusions on the effect of mordant and
fabric. We used her display to note how fabric type (animal
protein or plant cellulose) affected the dye color. For example,
wool was dyed a darker color than the other fabrics for all
dyes, and mordanting with alum also resulted in darker colors
than chrome or tin. Surprisingly, cochineal dyed the fabrics
pink with tin and alum mordants, but purple with chrome.
These observations could not be explained in this course, but
the students learned to observe and draw conclusions.
We spent two weeks dyeing with indigo to get deeper col-
ors. The first week, many students discovered that rinsing the
fabric before it was dry removed most of the indigo. They
were able to correct this the second week. In class, when
we discussed the different modes of dye attachment, they
understood why this had happened with the indigo and not
the other dyes. Indigo is not chemically bound to the fabric,
but is physically trapped between fibers. The more the fabric
is kneaded in the vat, the more indigo gets trapped between
fibers instead of on the outside surface. Dye on the outside
surface washes or rubs off.
Most engineers and all non-engineers were surprised that
the pump could only lift the water to a certain height, practi-
cal information that may be useful to them someday. I was
impressed by their explanations of how a rotameter works.
Both engineering and liberal arts students were able to use
the resources I provided127 28 to describe how the variable
area influences the measurement. The engineering students
used equations, the liberal arts students used words, but both
communicated effectively.
The engineers had no trouble synthesizing indigo (they had
completed organic chemistry laboratory), and most of the
nonengineers were able to do the laboratory with little help.
One student, howevernever \% a_ ble to qui.e tfollco the steps.
Eventually, after class I
walked her through the
OH H procedure step-by-step
Sand she was able to pro-
duce a small amount of
Sindigo. She was pleased
S3N with her success.
H HO During the project
,T~ r 'n 'lcno ,.=a


Figure 1. Indigo dye in its soluble and insoluble forms.


W s-l3, eLi sLUU eLna cIL -.t-
ed works of art. In order


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


reduction


oxidation
oxidation



































to apply the first learning objective-to answer an important
question-each student researched a dyeing technique from
Africa or India. They discovered what natural materials the
artists use to create the patterns in the cloth, what symbol-
ism is present in the design, and how the cloths are used.
The students then used a variation of the engineering design
process to develop a process to create their own cloths, either
using the cultural symbols or choosing their own symbols. I
was pleased with the different techniques they were willing
to try, their use of chemistry and the engineering process to
create them, and how their efforts turned out.

ASSESSMENT
The main assessment (to measure knowledge of engineering
gained) was performed on the final paper of the class, where
the students had to design a plant to produce either natural,
synthetic, or biosynthetic indigo. I analyzed the papers ac-
cording to the following questions:
1. Were unit operations described correctly and placed in
a logical order (focusing on agitation, extraction, and
filtration)?
2. Did the student exhibit an understanding of the chemis-
try behind the process?
3. Were safety and environmental concerns addressed?
I read the papers multiple times, compiled notes on how
they addressed the questions above in a master sheet, and
gave a grade on each aspect (see Table 3 for the analysis of
two liberal arts students' papers). A summary of the results is
shown in Table 4, along with the type of indigo they planned to
produce. Interestingly, the majority of the engineering students


chose to produce synthetic indigo while most liberal arts stu-
dents chose natural indigo. The liberal arts students were able
to describe the chemistry and unit operations adequately-and
nearly as well as the engineering students, although one liberal
arts student included some misstatements about the chemistry
of nitrogen. The four liberal arts students who attempted to
describe the fermentation process did so correctly. All students
excelled on describing the measures they would take to protect
workers and the environment. For example, an economics stu-
dent wrote "Blue Earth [her company name] uses 19th century
methods but treats workers and uses fanning techniques with a
21st century outlook," and an engineering studies student wrote
"This industrial factory will create blue but stay 'Green'." This
student was creative and described how his factory would meet
LEED certification, and chose his equipment so the factory
could be changed from producing natural indigo to biosynthetic
indigo once the biosynthetic method became more reproducible.
Another student (psychology major) created a contract between
her company and Genocor to share the biosynthetic technology
between them. As I read the papers, I could often discern the
student's interests and major. For example, a history major wrote
"A plant [indigo] that has such an interesting history deserves
to continue making history." After reading and grading these
papers, I was convinced that the liberal arts students had met
the objectives of the course. They could create a process flow
diagram and explain how the major unit operations worked, and
address the plant design from multiple perspectives.
Other assessments included other writing assignments (some
more creative than technical, and not considered in this paper) and
four quizzes. The first quiz covered the history of indigo produc-
tion, and the last quiz covered ethics and moral theory. Table 5
Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 3
Final plant design paper assessment. Sample data from two students, showing the notes taken from their work. This was
used to assign point values for their final papers.
Unit Operations
Student Safety & Environment Chemistry
(type of indigo) (10 pts) (10 points) Agitation Extraction Filtration
(10 points) (10 points) (10 points)
Educate and train
workers. Rotate crops (rice Leaching-takes
Pay well for good and indigo) to avoid Incorporates oxy- he indoxyl out Uses cloth to
Pay well for good the indoxyl Out Uses cloth to
1 workers, nitrogen depletion gen to cause re of the leaves and catch indigotan
(natural) Use leaves as fertilizer. Oxygen dissolves action of indoxyl dissolves it in precipitate
Keep seeds for the next indoxyl producing to indigotan. the water. 9
indigotan. 10 10
crop. 1010
10
"No harmful chemi-
cals are allowed to
be used that would
Leaves make rich be used that would Will extract dye
take nutrients away
compost.take nutrients away Agitate with no leaf frag-
from the soil." "By To remove plant
2 Crop rotation. g p paddles until ments in product leve
(natural) Production will be ethi- avoiding pesticides water is oxidized. but no other leaves
cal and fair to farmers. microorganisms are 10 description
ca killed off." 6
10 6
Indigo plants are
nitrogen hungry.
6

























TABLE 5
Summary of quiz performance. There was no significant
difference in quiz performance between the liberal arts
and engineering students on quizzes covering history,
unit operations, or chemistry (two sample t-test, p < 0.05).
The engineers did perform slightly better on the ethics
quiz, which primarily covered professional ethics.
Liberal Arts Engineering t
Students Students statistic
(n=9) (n=10)
History Quiz
average 81 80
-0.36
median 78 80
Unit Operations Quiz
average 93 95
0.73
median 98 96
Chemistry Quiz
average 88 88
0.36
median 90 93
Ethics quiz
average 86 90
1.39
median 86 90

contains a summary of student performance on the four quizzes.
Quiz 2 covered pumps, pipes, valves, and the unit operations
we had discussed (filtration, leaching, drying, and pumping).
Most of the questions required qualitative answers, but a few
required algebraic equations to find the answers, including some
simple material balances. While the sample size is small, the
liberal arts students performed as well as the engineering stu-
dents (see Table 5). The t-statistic was calculated assuming equal
variance for the two sets of students. Quiz 3 had fill-in-the-blank
questions about the chemistry of color and dyeing, fermenta-
tion and synthesis of indigo, and chemistry of natural fibers.
The students were quizzed about the history of the synthesis of
indigo and its effect on society. They also needed to know what
type of information was contained in an MSDS sheet. Again,
the engineers and liberal arts students performed similarly (see
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Table 5). One liberal arts student always performed worse than
all the other students on Quizzes 2 and 3, which resulted in the
difference between the average and median in Table 5.
The students wrote other papers, including a creative exercise
where they described life as an African indigo dyer. These
papers were analyzed for evidence of three elements of critical
thinking identifyingg problems, considering cultural and social
assumptions, and identifying conclusions and implications).[291
No significant difference in critical thinking skills was noted
between the engineering and liberal arts students.
The last form of assessment came from the anonymous
student evaluations of the course, completed by 18 of the 19
students. A summary of the evaluations is shown in Table 6
(next page), beginning with a content analysis of the written
comments. Overall, the students liked the experiential as-
pects of the course. The numerical evaluations indicate that
the students liked the course, but placed less value on the
specific topic. A rating of 4.0 is still "very good," however.
One student commented that he liked "linking the somewhat
eclectic and esoteric topic back to relevant topics such as
safety and morality," and a second student wrote that "the
mix of science, engineering, writing, and art was something
different and interesting"-comments that show the students
understand the purpose of the VaST course.

FUTURE WORK
Recently, a chemical engineering senior who took the course
as a sophomore helped develop a simple dyeing kinetics experi-
ment. We have developed the procedure and the basic analysis.
and expect to include the experiment in the next course offering.
Drying is a major unit operation in the processing of indigo. but
is difficult to analyze due to the simultaneous heat and mass
transfer.Achemical en gineerin i r udent has deig ned :nd built
a simple evaporator to demonstrate a pa.n of the dr ini process.
Students will collect mass data as a portion of the water is
evaporated and complete a mass balance on the process. This
experiment will also be included in the next course offering.
Burrowso130 describes other experiments using natural dyes, and
some will be included in the next course offering.


TABLE 4
Final plant design paper assessment.
Summary data for nine liberal arts students and the 10 engineering students.
Unit Operations
Student Safety & Environment Chemistry
(type of indigo) (10 pts) (10 points) Agitation Extraction Filtration
(10 points) (10 points) il p, ,: .,
Liberal Arts Students
Natural: 5
10/10 8.6/10 9.7/10 8.9/10 8.8/10
Synthetic: 2
Biosynthetic: 2
Engineering Students
Natural: 2
10/10 9.7/10 9.8/10 9.7/10 9.7/10
Synthetic: 7
Biosynthetic: 1









CONCLUSIONS
I developed this course to present some basic chemical
engineering concepts to liberal arts students, using hands-or
activities in the classroom and laboratory. By the end of the
course, the students were comfortable in an engineering labo
ratory and wrote technically competent reports. They coulc
explain the chemistry of indigo dyeing. The students' fina
plant design papers incorporated their laboratory experiences
contained a reasonable process flow diagram and description
of several unit operations, and demonstrated that they coulc
look at indigo production from multiple perspectives. The
papers showed that students realized the importance of eco
nomics, safety, and the environment in everyday processes
These liberal arts students had gained a new perspective or
engineering.

REFERENCES
1. Pearson, G., and T.A. Young, Editors, Technically Speaking: Why Al
Americans Need to Know More About Technology, National Academ:
Press, Washington D.C. (2002)
2. Halford, B., "Engineering for Everyone," Prism, 14, prism-magazine.org/dec04/feature_engineering.cfm> (2004)
3. "Engineering and the Liberal Arts: Strangers No Longer," Thi
Chronicle of Higher Education, 55.2 (2008). Academic OneFile. Web
Accessed 5 Jan. 2011
4. Lafayette College website, what-is-a-vast-course/> Accessed 1/16/11
5. Klein, J.D., and R. Balmer, "Engineering, Liberal Arts, and Techno
logical Literacy in Higher Education," IEEE Technology and Societ
Magazine, 26, 23 (2007)
6. Krupczak, J.J., and D. Ollis, "Technological Literacy and Engineerinl
for Non-Engineers: Lessons from Successful Courses," Proceedings o
the 2006 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Confer
ence, American Society for Engineering Education (2006)
7. Turbak, F., and R. Berg, "Robotic Design Studio: Exploring the Bi1
Ideas of Engineering in a Liberal Arts Environment," J. Science Ea
and Tech., 11,237 (2002)
8. Ollis, D., "Technology Literacy: Connecting Through Context, Con
tent and Contraption," Proceedings of the 2005 American Society fo
Engineering Education Annual Conference, American Society fo
Engineering Education, (2005)
9. George, C., E. Amel, and K. Mueller, "A Solar-Powered Decorativ
Water Fountain Hands-on Build to Expose Engineering Concepts t
Non-Majors," Proceedings of the
2006 American Society for Engineer-
ing Education Annual Conference,
American Society for Engineering
Education (2006) Written
10. Thomas,A.,and M.Breitman,"Engi- Labs put into reality wh
neering for Non-Engineers: Learning
from 'Nature's Designs'," Proceed- Hands-on dyeing of clot
ings of the 2007 American Society Liked creative assignme
for Engineering Education Annual
Conference, American Society for Include more ethics
Engineering Education (2007)
11. Weiss,P.T.,and D.J.Weiss,"Hands-
on Projects to Engage Non-engi-
neering Students," Proceedings Three Highest
of the 2001 American Society for
Engineering Education Annual Instructor's enthusiasm
Conference, American Society for Interest in students' lear
Engineering Education (2001)
12. Krupczak,JJ.,"Engineering Courses Examples and illustrate


for Non-Engineers: Identifying and Developing Course Models," Pro-
ceedings of the 2009 American Society for Engineering Education An-
Snual Conference,American Society for Engineering Education (2009)
S 13. Balfour-Paul, J., Indigo,Archetype Publications Ltd., London (2006)
14. Kirk, R.E., and D.F. Othmer, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology, sections on Dyeing; Dyes, Natural; Dyes, Environmen-
talChemistry; Wiley, New York (2000)
1 15. Ullmann, F., and F. Ullman, Ullnann's Encyclopedia of Industrial
l Chemistry, Indigo and Indigo Colorants, Wiley, New York (2000)
16. Wu, E., K. Komolpis, and H.Y. Wang, "Chemical extraction of indigo
from Indigofera tinctoria while attaining biological integrity," Biotech-
Snology Techniques, 13,567 (1999)
S 17. Siva, R., "Status of natural dyes and dye-yielding plants in India,"
SCurrent Science, 92,916 (2007)
18. "Artificial Indigo," Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal
Gardens, Kew), pages 33 35, March 1898
19. Ensley, B.D., B J. Ratzkin,T.D. Osslund, M J. Simon, L.P. Wackett, and
1 D.T. Gibson,"Expression of naphthalene oxidation genes in Escherichia
coli results in the biosynthesis of indigo," Science, 222, 167 (1983)
20. Murdock, D., B.D. Ensley, C. Serdar, and M. Thalen, "Construction
of metabolic operons catalyzing the De Novo synthesis of indigo in
Escherichia coli," BiolTechnology, 11, 381 (1993)
l 21. Moore, S.B., and L.W. Ausley, "Systems thinking and green chemistry
y in the textile industry," J. Cleaner Production, 12,585 (2004)
22. INDIGO- A World of Blue, Maiwa Productions,
(2005). This DVD inspired the course name.
23. DharmaTradingCo., e eng/2499574-AA.shtml> Accessed 10/25/11
24. AuroraSilk html> Accessed 10/25/11. E-mail me if you would like more informa-
/ tion about what I have learned while maintaining my vat.
25. Bridgestreet Toys, -ingsets.html>, Accessed 1/17/11
V 26. Prideaux, V.,A Handbook ofIndigo Dyeing, Search Press, Kent, Great
Britain (2007)
g 27. Felder, R.M., and R. M. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical
f Processes, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York (2004)
28. McCabe, W., J. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York (2004)
g 29. Piergiovanni,P.R., "Experiences Improve Critical Thinking Evidenced
Sin Writing," in preparation.
30. Burrows, V.A., "Experiments and Other Learning Activities Using
Natural Dye Materials," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 132 (2004) 0
r
r

e See "Indigo," continued on page 272
o

TABLE 6
Analysis of Student Evaluations of the Course
Comment Number of Students
at we were learning 3
:h was particularly useful 3
nts 2
2


Numerical Evaluation (Rated 1 to 5, 5 = Excellent)
Characteristics Three Lowest Characteristics
(4.9) Relevance & usefulness of course content (4.0)
ning (4.8) Organization (4.1)
ins (4.8) Use of class time (4.3)

Chemical Engineering Education








_] curriculum
--------------------


ENERGY BALANCES


ON TRANSIENT PROCESSES






FRANCISCO RUIZ-BEVIA, M. DOLORES SAQUETE, IGNACIO ARACIL, AND M. FRANCISCA G6MEZ
University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99 E-03080 Alicante, Spain


This study proposes a set of experiments that will prove
useful to students in understanding and putting into
practice basic concepts involved in energy balances.
These experiments, which form part of a course of Chemical
Engineering Laboratory I, are very simple from the point of
view of the required equipment and operations that students
must carry out, as well as with regard to the concepts in-
volved. The first part of the experiments consists of heating
and later cooling a mass of water contained in a vessel by
means of an electrical resistor of known power, which is first
connected and then disconnected from a power source (batch
process). The results of this experiment necessarily have to be
interpreted in terms of an unsteady-state energy balance. In
a second part, both heating and cooling of the water, by first
connecting and then disconnecting the electrical resistor, are
carried out while at the same time allowing water to flow at
a constant rate through the vessel. Under these conditions the
temperature is fixed at the inlet and obviously changing at the
outlet. In this last case, a stationary state is eventually reached
and the difference of the enthalpy between the incoming and
exit water streams must appear in the energy balance.
These experiments, and others involving unsteady-state
material balances, have been set up and tested in the laborato-
ries of the chemical engineering department at the University
of Alicante, where they are used as a practical complement,
in the first year of the curriculum, to illustrate the concepts
developed in Chapter 11, "Balance on Transient Processes,"
in the textbook by Felder and Rousseau.E" The energy bal-


ances, along with the material balances, are essential tools
for the study of any basic operation of chemical engineer-
ing, and therefore the fundamental concepts of material and
energy balances are usually incorporated in the first year of
all chemical engineering curricula. This is reflected in intro-
ductory chemical engineering textbooks (e.g., Himmelblau,121
Henley and Rosen,[13 and Reklaitis14]), which have followed
the guidelines established by the pioneer book by Hougen and
Watson, Material and Energy Balances ,l5 published in 1943.
The journal Chemical Engineering Education has also shown

Francisco Ruiz-Bevii is professor emeritus of chemical engineering at
the University of Alicante (Spain). He received his Ph.D. from Valencia
University (Spain). He conducts research in phase equilibria and holo-
graphic interferometry applied to mass transfer.
M. Dolores Saquete received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from
Alicante University (Spain) in 2001. She is currently an associate profes-
sor at the University of Alicante (Spain). Her research interests include
phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties.
Ignacio Aracil received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the
University of Alicante (Spain) in 2008. He currently works as an assistant
professor at that university. His research is mainly devoted to the study
of waste treatments, including pollutant emissions derived from thermal
treatments of plastic wastes and process design to recover components
of specific wastes such as waste ink and rice husk.
M. Francisca Gdmez received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from
the University of Alicante (Spain) in 2008. She currently works as an
assistant professor at that university. Her research is mainly focused on
waste treatments, such as thermal treatment, to study the pollution in-
volved and different ways of taking advantage of this waste with minimum
damage to the environment.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







its interest in this topic, e.g., in the two-part article written
by Bullard and Felder,16'7 "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances."
The experiments relating to unsteady-state energy balances
presented here have also been studied by other authors in
CEE, such as Condoret'81 and Luyben.191 Condoret, in his
article "Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of
Coffee," included in the category of ChE Class and Home
Problems, presents the problem like this: We put a cup of cof-
fee on a table. Its initial temperature is around 80 C. What
is the temperature of the coffee after 10 min, for instance?
The paper solves the problem using a simulation model of
the cooling process; the model takes into account the heat
loss at vessel wall of the cup, the heat loss by heat transfer
only at the surface of the liquid, and the heat loss resulting
from evaporation. The paper also describes a simple lab ex-
periment using porcelain cups filled with water, a numerical
thermometer, a balance, and a stopwatch. The didactic value
of the paper comes from showing how using heat transfer
coefficients makes it possible to model and predict the simple
experiment of cooling a cup of hot coffee. Another experiment
relating to unsteady-state energy balances is described by
Luyben191 in the article "The Devil's in the Delta," included in
the ChE Laboratory category. The process consists of a stirred
vessel, 1 m diameter, containing 785 kg of water. The rpm's
of the agitator can be varied to see the effect on the inside
fluid coefficient. A spiral coil is wrapped around the outside
of the vessel. The liquid in the vessel is initially at ambient
temperature. It is heated by introducing steam at the top of
the coil. When the water of the vessel reaches about 80 C
the steam is shut off and cooling water is introduced. The
didactic value of this paper comes from providing a clear dis-
tinction of the three "deltas" as used in chemical engineering;
the author refers to them as "In Minus Out" Delta, "Driving
Force" Delta, and "Time" Delta. As the author mentions in
the paper conclusions, although the distinction of the three
deltas is obvious to the experienced engineer, they are often
misapplied by young students.

EXPERIMENT
Apparatus
The experimental apparatus used is shown in Figure 1. It
consists of a vessel with water inlet and outlet, equipped with
an electrical resistor heater and a magnetic stirrer to ensure
that the temperature is uniform throughout the vessel. The
water, fed to the apparatus at a constant flow rate, comes
from a tank that is kept at a constant water level. Water exits
the vessel at the same flow rate as in the feed. In addition
to the experimental apparatus just described, a stopwatch,
beakers, and a balance will prove useful for measuring the
flow rate properly.
The vessel consists of a stainless steel cylinder of 10 cm
internal diameter, 23 cm length, and 1.63 kg weight. It is
232


Figure 1. Experimental apparatus.

TABLE 1
Details of the Experimental Apparatus
Parameter Value
P(W) 110
M (kg) 1.75
M, (kg) 1.63
M (kg) 0.10
Cpw (J/kg 'C) 4180
Cp, (J/kg "C) 460
Cp, (J/kg 'C) 836
m (kg/s) 4.0-10-3

also insulated at the base to isolate it from the magnetic
stirrer, and in addition, has a methacrylate cover that blocks
evaporation. Therefore, water mass remains constant and
evaporative cooling is avoided. Table 1 shows the power of
the resistor (P), the overflow capacity of the vessel (mass
of water, Mw), the mass of the vessel (M ) and the resistor
(Mr), as well as the heat capacities Cpw, Cpv, and Cpr, of the
water, vessel, and resistor, respectively. It also contains the
value of constant flow rate of water that enters the vessel
(m). Three thermocouples interfaced with a PC measure and
record the temperature of the water in the inlet (Ti ) and at
two other points in the vessel (T, in the uppermost part of
the vessel and T2 in the lowermost). The extent to which the
vessel is well stirred depends upon how close T, and T2 are.
The continuous monitoring and recording of temperatures by
the thermocouples interfaced with the PC makes it possible
to extract numerous experimental data points.
The experimental method consists of the following steps.
Without water circulation:
Experiment Al: The vessel, full of water, is warmed up to 45 C
by connection of the resistor to the power source (nonstation-
ary regime).
Chemical Engineering Education







Figure 2 shows the experimental data obtained in the form
of temperature T of the water in the vessel vs. time t. The mea- Al Heated by resistor with no water inlet
sured values of temperatures T, and T2 are practically equal, 50
with less than two-tenths of a degree difference between them,
which indicates that the vessel is perfectly stirred. These cir- 45 T exp (0C)
cumstances-equal temperatures and good stirring-together T cal eq.(3) (0C)
with the fact that water has a high heat capacity, ensure that 40 T recon eq.(10) (OC)
the heat generated by the resistor is quickly transferred to the 40
mass of water, preventing the resistor surface temperature
from reaching higher than 100 "C, thus avoiding local boiling. 35
The average value of T, and T, has been used to represent
the experimental data graphically, and is shown as the dashed 30
line in Figure 2.
Experiment A2: When the temperature reaches 45 "C, the 25
resistor is disconnected from the power source and the evolu-
tion of temperature with time is studied as an experiment of 20
water cooling under nonstationary conditions. 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Figure 3 shows (dashed line) the experimental data obtained t (s)
in the form of temperature T of the water in the vessel vs. time t. Figure 2. Experiment Al. Water heating to 45 C.

With water circulation:
Experiment B1: The water in the vessel is pre-heated to 45 "C. A2 Cooled with no water inlet
The experiment begins when a valve is opened to allow water
to flow through the vessel at a constant rate without disconnect- 44
ing the resistor from the power source. This implies a cooling 42 T exp (0C)
experiment, and the time and temperatures are recorded until 40 T ca eq.(8) (
--- T calc eq.(8) (PC)
a steady state temperature (constant temperature) is reached. 38
The flow rate of water that enters the vessel is measured when o 36
it exits by means of the "bucket and stopwatch" method. 34
Experiment B2: While maintaining water circulation the re- 32
sister is disconnected. The temperature then decreases until 30
a different stationary state is reached.
28
Experiment B3: The resistor is connected without varying the 0 5000 10000 15000 20000
water flow rate, thus raising the temperature to the stationary t (s)
state temperature that was reached at the end of experiment B 1.
Figure 3. Water cooling with resistor switched off.
Figure 4 represents the data obtained
in experiments B 1, B2, and B3 as three
different but connected portions of a B Heated and cooled under water flow
dashed line. 50
45
DISCUSSION 40
35
Without water circulation: 30
30
Experiment Al is a process of heat- 6 25-
ing in the nonstationary regime where 20 20
the temperature of the mass of water 15
M, the mass of the vessel M and the 10 -Texp(C) -- T calceq.(12) (C)
mass of the electrical resistor M are 5
raised thanks to the difference between 0
the heat received from the electrical 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
resistor of power P and the heat lost t (s)
by convection Q, through the walls of
the vessel. Figure 4. Experiments B1-3. Cooling and heating with flow.
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 233







Experiment Al can be modeled by means of the following
energy balance
dT
(M,C, +MC, +MC) d =P-Q, (1)

The mechanical work is not included in this energy balance
because in the present case it arises only from the magnetic
stirrer and it can be considered negligible.
Neglecting the losses of heat through the walls, Eq. (1)
simplifies to


(MCw +MC, +M,C,, d= P

Integration then leads to
P
T= To + Ct
(MCw + MCp + M'CP')


where To is the initial temperature of the water in the vessel
at the beginning of experiment Al, 22.9 "C in this case.
Notice that Figure 2 contains the plot of the simplified model
embodied in Eq. (3) (equation of a straight line). It can be
observed that the calculated temperatures (represented by the
thin continuous line) are a little higher than the experimental
ones (dashed line), but the difference does not become greater
than 2 C until only after 500s. A small improvement can be
obtained if Eq. (1) is used instead, i.e., by taking into account
the heat lost by convection Q, through the walls of the vessel.
This lost heat can be expressed as
Q, =UA(T-Tmb) (4)

where
A= External surface of the vessel (m2)
U= Global coefficient of heat transfer ( W/m2 "C)
T= Water temperature ('C)
Tamb= Ambient temperature ("C)
The experimental value of product UA can be determined
from the data of experiment A2, where the vessel is cooled.
Applying an energy balance in this case, in which electrical
energy P is not supplied, yields
dT
(M,CP, +MC +MC) d=-Q1 (5)

which combined with Eq. (4) results in
dT
(MCw +MC +M,C ,)- =-UA(T-Tamb) (6)

and the integration leads to
T- T UA
in anbt U (7)
To T, (MCp +MCp +MrCp )

Here, To is the initial temperature of the water at the begin-
ning of experiment A2, and corresponds to the final tempera-
234


n n -


SEE

a~


(3) Figure 5. The slope of the straight line allows calculation
of the parameter UA.


ture at the end of experiment Al, 45.1 "C, while the ambient
temperature is 25.3 "C.
Figure 5 is another plot of the experimental data of the
cooling process but of the form
T- Tm
In
T Tmb

as a function of time t.
According to Eq. (7), the slope of the straight line in Figure
5 is -8.50 10-5 s1, that leads to a value for the parameter UA
of 0.693 W/"C. Since the external surface of the vessel A is
known, 0.07235 (m2), the value for the global coefficient of heat
transfer U can be calculated (9.59 W/m2 "C). In this cooling
experiment A2, there are different heat transfer mechanisms,
namely: internal liquid convection in series with conduction in
the stainless steel wall and external transfer to ambient air. The
internal individual coefficient of heat transfer is high (forced
convection since the water is stirred). Also the heat transfer by
conduction in the stainless steel wall is high. The external coef-
ficient (free convection to air) is low, however, and therefore
this last mechanism is probably the limiting one. In fact, the
value of the overall coefficient computed, U= 9.59 W/m2 "C, is
close to the value of a usual external heat transfer coefficient.
Eq. (7) written in the following format
UA
T-Tmb (MwCpw+MvCpv+M rCpr)
T, Tmb

permits comparison using Figure 3 of the calculated (continu-
ous line) and experimental (dotted line) values of the cooling
experiment A2. It can be observed that there is good agree-
ment between the experimental and calculated data.
In the same way, once the value of UA is known, the
variation of temperature with time in experiment Al can be
recalculated by means of Eq. (9), which includes the losses
of heat through the walls.
Chemical Engineering Education


5000 10000 15000 20

.Texp(*C)
S -- T calc eq.(7) (OC)
'^







dT
(MC +MC +MC) d =P-UA(T-Tb) (9)

An expression that once integrated leads to
P-UA(T-Tb) UA
P-UA(T -Tm) (MwC U +MC, +MCp, )


In the same way, integration of Eq. (14) leads to an equa-
tion similar to Eq. (12) in which P is absent and in which To
must be the initial temperature of water when experiment B2
begins. Therefore, the final temperature of the stationary state
at the end of experiment B 1 must be used. Figure 4 shows the
calculated values (continuous line) of experiment B2, which
exhibit good agreement with the experimental ones (dashed
l n r eim) In lV I, ..eln I th ct i f f;la t i,


Figure 2 shows the variation of water temperature with time -"
calculated using Eq. (10). It can be observed that this simulation reached and dT/dt = 0
with Eq. (10) (bold solid line), which does take into account 0 = mC,
the losses of heat through the walls of the vessel, represents
a very slight improvement on the simulation done using Eq. (3) (thin continuous line),
which neglected those heat losses. This small improvement suggests that the Q, term in
Eq. (1) can be neglected to a first approximation to give Eq. (2). Indeed, the effect of heat
losses on the temperature is greatest toward the end of the experiment when AT reaches
its highest value, around 10 W, which compared to a power of 110 W of the electrical
resistor means a deviation of around 10% when neglecting heat losses through the walls.
With water circulation
The process that takes place in experiment B 1 can be modeled by means of Eq. (1)
extended to include the term mCp (Tn T). This term represents the change in enthalpy
of the water flowing through the vessel between the inlet and outlet. In the experiments
where water is circulating through the vessel, T corresponds to the outlet water tem-
perature if the vessel is well stirred.


dT
(MCw +MC +MCp,)d = mCp (T,-T)+P-UA(T-Tmb)

which after integration leads to:
mC Tn + P+UAT,,, -(mC,,, + UA) T (mCpw +UA)
In p m C t
mCp, Te +P + UAT,,, (mCp, + UA) To (MwCw +MCp, +M,Cpr)


(11)



(12)


In this case, To, the initial temperature of water at the beginning of experiment B 1, has a
value of 45.5 "C. The temperature inside the vessel decreases to a constant value (station-
ary state).
Once a stationary state has been achieved, the temperature will not vary with time
and therefore dT/dt = 0 Upon substitution of this into Eq. (11), the temperature of the
stationary state is easily obtained:
0=mC,, (T, -T)+P-UA(T-Tmb) (13)

Putting known data values into Eq. (12), the variation of temperature T with time t is
obtained. These calculated values for experiment B 1 are plotted alongside the experi-
mental ones in Figure 4. The good agreement between the experimental (dashed line)
and calculated (continuous line) data is evident.
In the experiments involving water circulation the ambient temperature is 21.0 "C.
The temperature at the water inlet is 20.4 "C in this case.
On the other hand, Eq. (13) produces a calculated temperature for the stationary state,
26.8 "C, that is very close to the experimental one.
In cooling experiment B2, the resistor is disconnected while maintaining water flow.
Therefore, this can be modeled by a modified Eq. (11), in which the term P, the power
of the electrical resistor, does not appear:
dT+
(MCw +MC, +M,C,) dT=mC (T, -T)-UA(T-T.mb) (14)
dt v


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


F, p llU13, w 1.I LLIt 1.nary s s
, the following equation will hold true
(Tn -T)-UA(T-Tmb) (15)


and allows calculation of the final
temperature of experiment B2.
Since in this experiment Tin =
Tmb, according to Eq. (15) the final
temperature should be equal or
close to T b. In the present case,
this corresponds to a final tempera-
ture of 20.5 'C. (Tm =21.0 "C)
In experiment B3 the resistor
is reconnected while maintaining
water circulation. Therefore, the
same differential Eq. (11) and the
same integrated Eq. (12) are valid,
the only difference being that To
now corresponds to the final tem-
perature of experiment B2. Figure
4 shows the calculated values and
the experimental ones plotted on the
same graph. The good agreement of
the data is again evident. The final
temperature of the stationary state
will be the same in experiment B3
as in B 1, which is given by Eq. (13).
In experiment B3 the temperature of
the stationary state is 26.8 "C, very
similar to the 26.9 'C reached in B 1.
It should be pointed out that in
the beginning of each experiment a
small period of time passes where
there is some inertia due to the initial
connection or disconnection of the
resistor. What happens during this
time has not been taken into account
because the energy balances in this
case would not correspond exactly to
those (the equations) presented here.

EXPERIENCES GAINED
BY THE STUDENTS
The entire experiment, consisting
of two sessions lasting three hours
each, is conducted in pairs by the
235







students. During the first session, the students observe the
process without water circulation, whereas during the second
one, the process with water circulation is studied. Students
gain ample practical experience, e.g., on measuring tempera-
tures by thermocouples interfaced with a PC, on control and
measurement of flow rates. Most students find the module
effective as an introduction to the concept of unsteady-state
process, of which most of them have only theoretical back-
ground knowledge. In addition to this, the concept of overall
heat transfer coefficient (U) is introduced and its experimental
value is obtained during the experiments.
After the experimental part, the students, still working in
pairs, are expected to submit a report containing all the results
obtained including a discussion that compares experimental
data with those calculated using the theoretical equations. In
this way they test the potential of theoretical models to predict
experimental results. Occasionally something is bound to go
wrong during experimentation (random fluctuations in the
flow rate that is not constant during the experiment, errone-
ous measurement of the flow rate by the student, erroneous
temperature readings caused by improper positioning of the
thermocouples or by the magnetic stirrer that is not work-
ing properly, etc.) and therefore the experimental data end
up not fitting the theoretical models perfectly. In this case,
students also learn the importance of handling and taking
care of the experimental details in order to obtain valid and
reliable experimental results that are predicted by theoretical
models. Regarding safety aspects, the experimental set-up is
very simple and safe, without apparent danger in operation
for students. The product flowing is water and temperatures






























236


are low. The trickiest part of the apparatus is the electric re-
sistance heater, which must be connected and disconnected at
the right time. In order to prevent this part being broken due
to forgetfulness, an electrical safety switch must be installed.
In their reports, students are asked to give an assessment of
the experimental module both in terms of its pedagogical
value and the operation of the equipment. Most students give
very positive feedback. Finally, at the end of the course, each
student is expected to make an oral presentation of the experi-
ment on his/her own in front of lecturers and other students.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York (2000)
2. Himmelblau, D.M., Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, 1 st ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1962),
7th ed. with J.B. Riggs, (2003)
3. Henley, EJ., and E.M.Rosen, Material and Energy Balance Computa-
tions, Wiley, New York, (1969)
4. Reklaitis, G.V., Introduction to Material and Energy Balances, Wiley,
New York, (1983)
5. Hougen, O.A., and K.M. Watson, Chemical Process Priciples- Part I.
Material and Energy Balances, 1st ed., Wiley, New York, (1943)
6. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances. 1. Course Design, Chem.
Eng. Ed., 41(2), 93 (2007)
7. Bullard, L.G., and R.M. Felder, "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances. 2. Course Delivery and As-
sessment, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(3), 167 (2007)
8. Condoret, J.S., "Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of
Coffee," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 137 (2007)
9. Luyben, W.L., "The Devil's in the Delta," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(1), 7
(2007) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








Random Thoughts...









WHY JOHNNY AND JANIE CAN'T


(OR WON'T) READ






RICHARD M. FIELDER AND REBECCA BRENT


question we routinely hear in our workshops is, "How
can we get students to read before class?" The ques-
ioners have a perfectly natural desire not to waste
class time on material they think students can just as easily
get for themselves, and when later most of their students seem
to have no clue about the readings, they conclude that the
students must be lazy or illiterate. Some may be, but that's
not generally the problem.
Assignments intended to introduce new material can be
effective or worthless or anything in-between. The best ones
are interactive multimedia tutorials that provide affirmation or
corrective feedback in response to students' inputs. Less effec-
tive but still acceptable are videos of well-delivered lectures
with lots of visual content, demonstrations, and examples.
Such resources can equip most students to come to class ready
to work, and if the tutorials and videos are particularly well
designed the instructor may flip the classroom, abandoning
lecturing completely and devoting the entire class time to
problem-solving and project work.
On the other hand, simply assigning textbook readings to
introduce new material is generally futile. STEM texts tend to
be dense, dry, and almost indecipherable to anyone without su-
perior reading skills, which relatively few people have. To get
anything but vague general ideas from them, students would
have to read them painstakingly, making sure they understand
definitions, explanations, steps in derivations, and meanings of
diagrams and plots before moving on, and it would normally
take several passes to get a reasonable level of understanding.
Most of our students don't know how to read that way-it's
not self-evident and no one ever taught them to do it. Being
rational, once they find their text incomprehensible they
ignore it. Hobsont"] cites studies showing that over 70% of
students in classes in all subjects ignore reading assignments,
and the percentage is undoubtedly higher in STEM courses.


Instead of introducing challenging new material in reading
assignments, consider doing it in class using a blend of lectur-
ing and active learning,[2] focusing the activities on the more
difficult concepts and methods being presented; then give
assignments that clarify, expand on, and require application
of the material introduced in class. You will cover the same
content that you would if you gave the readings first, but with
the initial guidance they get in class, the students will be much
more likely to understand it.
This is not to say, however, that we should abandon the
idea of asking students to read because many of them are
unwilling or unable to do it. As professionals, they will have
to get information from written documents, and they won't
have classes or online tutorials to help them get started.


Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineer-
ing at North Carolina State University. He is
co-author of Elementary Principles of Chemi-
cal Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering 1
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and
conferences around the world. Many of his
publications can be seen at effectiveteaching>.
Rebecca Brent is an education consultant
specializing in faculty development for ef-
fective university teaching, classroom and
computer-based simulations in teacher
education, and K-12 staff development in
language arts and classroom management.
She codirects the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute and has published articles
on a variety of topics including writing in
undergraduate courses, cooperative learning,
public school reform, and effective university
teaching.
Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







Here are several tips for getting students to read assignments
and helping them learn how to do it, some of which are
adapted from Hobson.'1
* Trim assignments down to what is really essential.
Your reading assignments should be clearly linked to your
learning objectives, problem sets, and tests. If you assign 50
pages of reading of which only five are directly relevant to
what the students will be asked to do because you think the
other 45 contain "useful things for them to know," don't be
surprised if they ignore the assignment. Instead, assign the
five pages and suggest but don't require the rest.
Consider giving in-class quizzes on readings, and also
consider not giving them.
The most common strategy for getting students to read
before class is to give short in-class quizzes on the readings
that count toward the final course grade. This technique may
accomplish its objective but it has several drawbacks. It can
take a lot of out-of-class time to prepare and mark all those
quizzes and substantial in-class time to hand out, administer,
and collect them, especially if the class is large. Since short
quizzes generally test primarily low-level factual information,
the additional learning they produce may not be worth their
cost in time and effort. You should also keep in mind that
your students have many things on their plates besides your
course: some of them are juggling full course loads,jobs, and
extracurricular activities, and anything you do that pressures
them to keep up with your readings on a daily basis may just
force them to neglect other equally important responsibilities
in their lives. In short, the benefits of in-class quizzes are
probably not enough to compensate for their disadvantages.
Some better options follow.
Include self-tests in reading assignments that address
the most important concepts and methods in the readings.
It can help students to know what you think they should
be getting from assigned readings rather than making them
guess. In at least your first few assignments, include one or
two questions for each important idea in the readings and post
the answers so the students can check themselves. If you use
classroom management software like Blackboard or Moodle,
administer the self-tests online; provide corrective feedback
and chances to try again following incorrect responses; and
don't consider the assignment complete until a full set of
correct responses has been submitted.
Use guided reciprocal peer questioning.13'
When you assign a reading with substantial conceptual
content (as opposed to mostly mathematical derivations and


examples), have the students make up and answer several
questions about it, filling in the blanks in stems such as "What
is the main idea of ?" "What's the difference between
and ?" "What if_?" "What assumptions were made in
?" and "What is a real-world application of ?" (More
stems are given by King.131) The students try to answer each
others' questions in small groups at the beginning of the next
class, and the whole class then discusses particularly interest-
ing or controversial questions. You can either collect the ques-
tions and answers and grade them as part of the assignment or
just use them to stimulate deep reading and discussion. This
technique promotes critical thinking as well as reading skills.
* Have students draw concept mapsfor assigned readings.
A concept map is a block diagram or flow chart that shows
interrelations among the key ideas in a body of knowledge.
Getting students to prepare them either completely or from an
instructor-created skeleton promotes a deep understanding of
information structures. Ellis et al.41 review the use of concept
maps in engineering education and illustrate their construc-
tion and application in a second-year course in mechanics.
* Use active learning to teach reading skills.
Early in the semester, put a reading on a class handout or
have the students bring their texts to class and give them a
minute or two to read a short passage. If the passage is straight-
forward, ask a few questions about it to make sure everyone
understands it; if it is more challenging, have the students
individually formulate brief explanations of what they read
and then work in pairs to synthesize better ones. After a short
time, call on several of them to share their explanations, give
your own unless you hear one as good as any you could come
up with, and move on to the next passage. Once the students
have gone through several such activities in class, most should
be prepared to work through out-of-class reading assignments
on their own. That ability will almost certainly be more im-
portant throughout their careers than any technical knowledge
or skill they might acquire in your course.

REFERENCES
1. Hobson, E.H.,"Getting students to read: Fourteen tips," Manhattan, KS:
The IDEA Center. pdf> (2004)
2. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, "Active learning: An introduction," ASQ
Higher Education Brief, 2(4). Papers/ALpaper(ASQ).pdf> (2009)
3. King,A.,"From sage on the stage to guide on the side," (. .-, vI..v Teach-
ing, 41(1), 30 (1993)
4. Ellis, G.W., A. Rudnitsky, and B. Silverstein, "Using concept maps
to enhance understanding in engineering education," International
Journal of Engineering Education, 20(6), 1012 (2004) 0


Chemical Engineering Education


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at www.che.ufl.edu/CEE.







classroom


9


A STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN METHODOLOGY

FOR A BASE CASE VANADIUM

REDOX-FLOW BATTERY







MARK MOORE, ROBERT M. COUNCE, JACK S. WATSON, THOMAS A. ZAWODZINSKI, HARESH KAMATH
University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996
and Electric Power Research Institute 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304
he synthesis of chemical processes distinguishes Mark A. Moore is a graduate student at the University of Tennessee. He
chemical engineering process design from that of received his B.S. in chemical engineering from UTin 2011. His research is in
other engineering disciplines. In the work presented computer-aided design of grid-level energy storage batteries and fuel cells.
here, an approach usually applied to the synthesis of a tradi- Robert M.Counce is a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering
tional chemical production process is modified and used in at the University of Tennessee. He received his Ph.D.in chemical engineer-
ing from UT in 1980. He is a fellow in the American Institute of Chemical
the synthesis of an electro-chemical process for the storage Engineers. He teaches process design and sustainable engineering.
of electrical energy. The intended use of this paper is for the Jack S.Watson is a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering
development of case studies and homework problems for the at the University of Tennessee. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineer-
chemical engineering curriculum, especially for the process ing from UTin 1967 He is retired from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
He is a fellow in the American Institute of Chemical Engineering and the
design components of such a curriculum. It is intended to recipient of the 2010 Robert E. Wilson award. He teaches separations and
aid in the education of undergraduate students in the creation process design.
of process flow sheets and base cases for those processes Thomas A. Zawodzinski is the Governor's Chair Professor in Electrical
with chemical reactions as a central element. The vanadium Energy Conversion and Storage at the University ofTennessee and the Oak
Ridge National Laboratory He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from State
redox-flow battery (VRB) has some similarities to standard University of New York (Buffalo) in 1989. He is a fellow in the Electrochemi-
chemical processes usually studied in chemical engineering cal Society. His research is in electrochemical devices for energy applica-
tions, including fundamental and applied studies of batteries and fuel cells;
classes but offering a chance for the students to see these applications of NMR methods to the study of transport and structure in
principles applied to a slightly different situation. As more device components; preparing and understanding advanced functional
materials; and developing molecular device concepts. He teaches thermo-
chemical engineering graduates go to work in a wider variety dynamics and various courses related to energy conversion and storage.
of industries, they may need a wider experience during their
n Haresh Kamath is a program manager in Energy Storage at the Electric
education. Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. He has extensive back-
ground in the electric energy field, with specialized experience in energy
Redox-flow batteries represent one promising approach storage, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and electric transportation.
being considered by electric companies to store electric en- He is currently working in projects in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
ergy produced during periods of low demand (usually in the battery systems, grid electric energy storage, and advanced electrical
evenings) and use the energy during periods of high demand,
usually during the day. The VRB was patented by research- O Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 23







ers at the University of New South Wales, Australia, where
development has continued.4'I Other recent reviews of flow
batteries are also available.1591 Because of the high capital
costs for conventional electric energy generation systems,
especially for hydroelectric and nuclear systems, it is more
economical to operate such units as much as possible since
the fuel costs are essentially zero, or a relatively small part of
the total cost. Even for coal combustion systems, the capital
costs have risen in recent years because of additional flue
gas treatment. Economics usually still favor operating coal
combustion systems as "base load" components that operate
as much of the time as possible. Base load in this instance
refers to the minimum amount of electrical power generated
in order to meet the demand. To avoid installing high capital
cost power (base load power) to meet peak energy needs,
utility companies can use energy storage systems such as
VRBs or make short-term use of gas-fired generators with
high fuel costs but low capital costs. Despite the higher fuel
costs, overall costs can be reduced by using the low-capital
cost systems for short periods of high power demand.
The design methodology used here is adapted from one
developed by Douglas, a step-by-step hierarchical process
often used in chemical engineering classes proceeding through
decision levels where more details are added to the flow sheet
at each step or level of the design procedure.l01 In addition,
the capital costs of the battery system are evaluated at each
level so that uneconomical designs are eliminated as early as
possible and the syntheses efforts can be redirected to more
promising directions as early in the design process as possible.
This paper focuses only on the capital costs of the battery
system. The assignments to the students ended with an evalua-
tion of the capital costs and did not include the operating costs.
As noted earlier, the energy storage devices such as the VRB
are attractive because their potential capital costs are lower
than those of base load systems. The electric power industry
has set targets for how low capital costs must become, and


development efforts are in progress to reach those goals.["1
The goals of the student projects were to determine how close
the current or foreseeable technology can come to the target
for capital cost and to identify those components of the VRBs
that are keeping the cost high and should be targeted for cost
improvements. Only after the capital cost of VRBs can be
reduced to values near the targets will it be useful to study
operating costs in detail. VRBs are likely to be located on the
sites of existing electric power plants. Flow batteries have
few moving parts (such as pumps) and are usually suited for
automated operations. Maintenance costs are expected to oc-
cur from corrosion and maintenance of electrolyte purity, but
estimation of these costs is not reliably predicted by normal
chemical engineering design practices taught in undergraduate
courses and is expected to require pilot operating experience.
The design class was divided into six teams with three to
four members per team. Each team considered a base case
design and one or more variables/parameters to change.
Parameters including membrane cost, efficiency, power ca-
pacity, and energy capacity were assigned to the groups. The
capital costs for the VRBs were plotted vs. these parameters
to show the difference that changing these parameters had on
the capital costs. This provided a basis for direct comparison
of the results from each team and allowed the entire class to
consider and observe the effects of different parameters on
the capital costs. Each change in a parameter represented a
different operating condition or a different cost for a compo-
nent of the battery.

BACKGROUND
A schematic of a vanadium redox battery system is shown
in Figure 1. It may be called a system because it consists of
tanks, pumps, and voltage conversion equipment as well as
the actual battery cells. The battery cells consist of carbon felt
electrodes and a cation exchange membrane (Nafion" 115),
which divides the cell into two compartments. One compart-
ment is filled with a solution of V(II) and V(III) ions while
the other compartment is filled with a solution of V(IV) and
V(V) ions. The vanadium ions are dissolved in sulfuric acid,
usually 1 to 2 mol/liter. The electrochemical reactions occur-
ring at each electrode while the battery is being charged are
given in Eqs. (1) and (2). The reactions occurring while the
battery is being discharged proceed in the opposite direction.
Negative Half-Cell: V3 +e -<- V2 (1)

Positive Half-Cell: VO2++HO VO +2H++e- (2)

Each cell is assumed to produce 1.26 volts at zero current
density, and in order to produce high voltages, the cells are
stacked in series. As discussed later, inefficiencies reduce the
effective voltage to values closer to one volt. Each electrode
other than the end electrodes is "bipolar," with one side acting
as a cathode for the cell on one side and as an anode for the


Chemical Engineering Education


Figure 1. Schematic representation of a vanadium
redox-flow battery.1121







cell on the other side. The unique feature of "flow" batteries
is the liquid electrolyte, which can flow through the cell. As
shown in Figure 1, there are two electrolyte solutions; both
solutions flow through each cell on different sides of the
membrane. The power produced by the battery is determined
by the voltage produced (the number of cells in a stack), and
the current produced is determined by the current density
and the area of the carbon felt electrodes. Voltage can be lost
from inefficiencies that may be affected by operating condi-
tions. The total energy storage capacity is determined largely
by the volume of the electrolyte solutions, the concentration
of vanadium ions in those solutions, and the fraction of the
vanadium ions used in any charge-discharge cycle. It is not
practical to approach full utilization of all of the vanadium in
the solutions. Again,any change in cell efficiencies that affects
voltages produced has effects on stored energy recovered.
The decoupling of power and energy capacities in redox-
flow batteries creates distinct advantages over other forms of
energy storage. It allows for the power and energy capacities
to be scaled independently in order to meet the unique needs
of a particular utility. The power capacity required for the
battery will determine the size of the cell stacks, the power
conditioning system, the pumps, and the heat exchangers.
The energy capacity required for the battery will determine
the mass of vanadium electrolyte and the size of the storage
tanks necessary. The capital costs therefore can be classified
here in three areas:
1. Costs that scale in proportion to the power capacity;
2. Costs that scale in proportion to the energy capacity;
3. Costs that do not scale with size (the control system and
balance of plant).

The step-by-step hierarchical method created by Douglas
consists of several steps that include heuristics for the design
of a chemical system. The first step consists of defining the
process as continuous or batch, and the second step is an anal-
ysis of the raw materials, feed streams, and product streams.
The subsequent steps are for analysis of the recycle system,
the separation system, and the heat exchanger network. This
method used by the students in the design study was adapted
to the design of a VRB, keeping in mind the classification of
the capital costs into the three areas already discussed:
Level 1: Input information for the VRB;
Level 2: Input-output analysis;
Level 3: Power capacity considerations;
Level 4: Energy capacity considerations;
Level 5: Control system, and balance of plant;
Level 6: Total capital investment estimate.
As with the procedure of Douglas, Levels 2, 3, 4, and 5
include a rudimentary economic (profitability) analysis that
is guided by the analysis of previous levels. The profitability


analysis is based on the yearly profit produced by running the
battery minus the capital expenses at every level annualized
over the life of the components. This procedure, as with that
of Douglas, allows for economical designs to be recognized
quickly and uneconomical designs discarded so the process
may begin again at the appropriate level. The procedure cul-
minates in an estimate of total capital investment.

PROCESS SYNTHESIS HIERARCHY
Level 1: Input Information for the VRB
The first level of the adapted design methodology for a
VRB is the definition of the design specifications for the
VRB, as well as the costs for different component parts.
To better illustrate the design method, the base case VRB
used by the students is defined in Tables 1, 2, and 3. These

TABLE 1
Reaction Related Information
V3+ +e- r V2+
Stoichiometry
VO2 + H,O VO, + 2H + e-
Operating Temperature 25 "C
Concentration of Mo
1 Molar
Vanadium
Concentration of HSO4 5 Molar
Power Capacity 1,000 kW
Energy Capacity 12,000 kW-hr
SOC Limits 0.20 < SOC & 0.80
Efficiency 0.91
Electrical Potential of.26 volts
1.26 volts
a Cell


TABLE 2
Design Details
Cycles per Year 328 (90% availability)
Cross Sectional Area of Cell 1 m2
Current Density of Current Collector 40 mA/cm'
Material of Construction: Tanks PVC
Material of Construction: Heat Hh Ni
Exchangers High Ni Steel
Exchangers
Cells in a stack 100 cells/stack

TABLE 3
Cost Information
Price of Output Power $0.45 per kW-hr
Cost of Input Power $0.045 per kW-hr
Vanadium Cost $25.13 per kg of V
Ion-exchange Membrane $500 per m2
Current Collectors $51 per m2
Carbon Felt $20 per m2


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


241








design variables will be used as an example for calculations
throughout this paper except where otherwise noted. The
price of product electricity used in Table 3 is that needed to
bound the spot prices of recent years as reported by the U.S.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This price represents


a. 1.7
16


1.46
3 Charge
5> 1 4 -h e
s U Discharge
1.2
1.1
1
0 20 40 60 80 100
SOC%

b. 1.7
.s***
1.6


a1.4
S1.3 -,i us ei Charge
Z1.2 E Discharge
S1.2 ur
11
1 i
0 50 100
SOC%


Figure 2. The cell voltage at different SOCs for (a) a
current density of 40 mA/cm2 and (b) a current density of
80 mA/cm.['l


$2,000,000.00


$1,500,000.00


$1,000,000.00

$500,000.00


$0.00

-$500,000.00


-$1,000,000.00


-$1,500,000.00


......"" ,- --Level 2
..... ,, ........ Level 3
S--...-------- ..--. Level 4
5p..--o 100 1,.5-. 00 250 300 350el 5

....


Cycles of Battery per Year


Figure 3. Economic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery.

242


the upper bound of (peak) energy prices and is used here in
a comparison mode to develop the base case process. After
the base case is determined it would normally be subjected
to optimization at near to actual market prices. The base case
cost model is examined at near market prices in the final por-
tion of this report.
To calculate the efficiencies for different current densi-
ties, data was taken from two graphs from a paper by You,
et al. and plotted in Figure 2.111 These graphs show that the
cell voltage while charging and discharging is dependent on
the state of charge (SOC) of the VRB. The SOC defines the
concentrations of the reactants and the products at any given
point in time and represents the amount of energy the VRB
is storing relative to its full capacity. SOC is defined with
Eqs. (3) and (4).

SOC -- Cv for the negative electrolyte, or (3)
Cv+ +CV3+

SOC = CV5 for the positive electrolyte, (4)
Cvs+ +CV4+

Graph (a) of Figure 2 represents a current density of 40
mA/cm2 while graph (b) of Figure 2 represents a current
density of 80 mA/cm2. The area beneath the charging curves
represents the amount of energy used to charge the VRB,
and the area beneath the discharging curves represents the
amount of energy discharged from the VRB. The ratio of the
discharged energy to the charging energy can then be used as
the efficiency of that current density for a complete cycle. An
assumption was made that the relationship between current
density and efficiency was linear. The linear dependence of
efficiencies with current density was determined from the
data. The ratio of the discharged energy to the energy used to
charge for the current densities of 40 mA/cm2 and
80 mA/cm2, as well as an assumed efficiency of 1
at 0 mA/cm2, was used to calculate an equation of
a line. The equation is rOA = 1- 0.0021565x, where
x represents the current density in mA/cm2.


Level 1 of the original Douglas procedure in-
cludes fundamental design information and whether
the process is to be a batch or continuous process.
The VRB is considered to be a semi-batch system.
The electrochemical cells are converting the vana-
dium redox species much like a steady-state system,
but the feed concentrations to the cells varies with
time. This is much like a batch tank with a side
stream of fluid circulating through a reactor. Thus,
the work presented here is formulated in a way that
is similar to that of Douglas, and Level 1 provides
the basic information needed for design. The above
input information is a matter of choice and does not
necessarily represent an optimal design. The cost
information used here is generally appropriate for


Chemical Engineering Education







2011 U.S. dollars. The current
densities and the charge and The cell stack
discharge efficiencies have
been assumed to be equal for
the example presented here.
Level 2: Input-Output
Analysis
The costs of the energy re-
quired to charge the battery
represents the majority of
the cost of operating the bat-
tery, while the revenue stream
resulting from operating the
battery comes entirely from
selling the energy discharged by the battery. By consider-
ing these costs and revenues, one can gauge the maximum
economic potential of the VRB. This is much like a chemical
process where the maximum economic potential is the dif-
ference between the product value and the raw material cost
while neglecting any processing costs.
Eq. (5) may be used to calculate the economic potential
for level 2. The cycles per year represent a full cycle, i.e., the
charging and discharging of the battery.

EP, =ED X Wh Ec x kWh)xycle ear (5)

Ec and ED are defined by Eqs. (6) and (7).

Ec Esc
c=- c(6)


E =E,,x D (7)

Example Calculation-Level 2 Economic Potential:


Using the base case design variables defined in Level 1, The number
and Eqs. (3) (5), the maximum economic potential can be density of the c
calculated as follows:
12,000kWh
0.91
Ec = 13,187kWh
ED = 12,000kWh x 0.91
ED= 10,920kWh

EP, =(10,920 kWh $0.45 kWh-' -13,187kWh x $.045 kWh)x 328 cycle

EP, = $1,417,155 yr-'

The economic potential for cycles of up to 350 per year are determined by
plotted in Figure 3 for Levels 2 through 5. stack, both defi
capacity of the
Level 3: Power Capacity Considerations the current cap
The next major costs of a VRB considered by the students the battery is d
are the power capacity considerations. The costs that scale calculated witl


Figure 4. Cell stack construction.1


with the power capacity of a VRB are the cells themselves,
a power conditioning system (PCS) that converts electricity
from AC to DC during charging and DC to AC during dis-
charging while adjusting to the desired voltage, the pumps,
and the heat exchangers.
The materials used to construct the cells consist of carbon
felt electrodes, current collectors, and a membrane permeable
to protons. A diagram of the cell construction is presented in
Figure 4. As noted earlier, the electrical potential of a cell is
dependent on the state of charge (SOC) of the vanadium ion
solution being pumped through the cell.
Since the SOC is constantly changing during the charge and
discharge process, the voltage-and therefore the power-of
the VRB is constantly changing. The power rating of the VRB
in the design methodology used by the students is the average
power of the VRB over the charge/discharge cycle (or at 50%
SOC). By using the average power for the design process, the
correct energy capacity can be calculated without having to
account for the changing voltage over the course of the cycle.


of stacks needed is dependent on the current
:arbon felt electrodes and the number of stacks
in the VRB. The current through all the cells
in a stack is constant and may be calculated
by multiplying the current density of the car-
bon felt electrodes by their area, as in Eq. (8).
Is = ID xAc (8)

In the model used by the students, the
stacks were connected in parallel. In this
manner, the electrical current produced by a
stack is additive to the current produced by
the other stacks. The electrical potential is
the cell potential and the number of cells in a
ned in Level 1 of this methodology. The power
battery is the electrical potential multiplied by
city of the VRB. Since the power capacity of
efined in Level 1, the number of stacks can be
iEq. (9).


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Ns = (9)
Vs x Is x c

The power that is lost due to the inefficiencies of the battery
is released through heat. The heat generation is based on a total
energy balance around the charging or discharging battery
and assumes that the only energy removed from this system
is by the exit fluid stream. To estimate the heat generated by
the VRB, Eq. (10) may be used for charging the battery and
Eq. (11) for discharging the battery.
P
q= x(1-4c) (10)


q=Px(1-5D) (11)

It is assumed that the heat generated is shared equally
between both the cathode solution and the anode solution
with the temperature change of the vanadium ion solutions
dependent on the flow rate of the vanadium solution through
the stack. To calculate the flow rate of the vanadium ion
solutions, it is necessary to calculate the moles of vanadium
ions oxidized per second then divide by the molarity of the
vanadium ions in the solution, as in Eq. (12).

F Is xNc xNs (12)
FxC,


TABLE 4
Annual Expenses Proportional to Fixed Capital
Capital-related cost item Fractions of fixed capital
Maintenance and repairs 0.06
Operating supplies 0.01
Overhead, etc. 0.03
Taxes and insurance 0.03
General 0.01
Total 0.14

FM in Eq. (12) represents the minimum flow rate if all the
vanadium ions in solution are oxidized while flowing through
the cells. One of the sources of inefficiency in a flow battery is
transport loss, which is associated with the complete conver-
sion of all available vanadium ions flowing through the cell.1141
Because of this, it was recommended to the students that a
greater bulk flow of the vanadium ion solution be pumped
through the cells than the minimum flow rate required. In the
example presented here the minimum flow rate represents
10% of the greater bulk flow rate. The flow rates of both anode
and cathode solutions used by the students were calculated
with Eq. (13).

FA= FM (13)
XV,P


With the flow rate, the change in temperature of the cathode
or anode solution is calculated by Eq. (14).1151


(14)


AT= q
2xC xFA


For estimation purposes, the heat capacity of the sulfuric
acid solution is assumed. Because of the increased flow rate
of the vanadium ion solution, the temperature rise of the
vanadium ion solution may be such that heat exchangers are
unnecessary. If the temperature rise during the pass of fluid
through the stacks is less than 100 "C, the heat exchangers
will not be considered in the analysis, however, some heat
exchange may indeed be necessary and will need to be con-
sidered before final process design.
If the temperature of the vanadium ion solution necessitates
the use of heat exchangers, Eq. (15) may be used to determine
the size of the heat exchangers needed to bring the solution
to room temperature.1151

A=- (15)
UAT,

After determining the size of the heat exchangers, the size
of the pumps required for the flow rate can be calculated
if needed. The shaft power of the pumps can be calculated
with Eqs. (16) and (17), for which FA is in m3/s (in all other

TABLE 5
Level 3 Capital Costs
Membrane Area (20 Stacks) 2000 m2
Cost of Membrane $500 m-2
Total Cost of Membrane (20 Stacks) $1,000,000
Cost of Current Collectors $51 m-2
Total Cost of Current Collectors (20 $103,020
Stacks)
Cost of Carbon Felt Electrodes $ 20 m-2
Total Cost of Carbon Felt Electrodes $80,800
Total Cost of Stacks (20 Stacks) $1,657,348
Annualized Cost of Stacks (20 $501,754
Stacks)
Cost of Pumps (2) $86,112
Annualized Cost of Pumps (2) $26,070
Cost of Power Conditioning System $260 kW'
Transformer Cost $36.58 kW'
Cost of Breakers, Contacts, and
Cabling $28.14 kW-
Cabling
Total PCS and Associated Items
Cost$324,720
Annualized Cost of PCS and
Associated Items $19,303
Total Annualized Cost of Level 3
Components $547,127


Chemical Engineering Education


244







equations FA is in liters/s). '5]

W FA A (16)
Ei

e, =(1- 0.12Fo.27) (1-0.8) (17)

The students were given an estimate of the cost of the Power
Conversion System (PCS) to convert AC power to DC power
and to convert the DC product from the battery back to AC
power for returning to the electrical grid. The current cost
of a PCS is estimated at $260 per kW. The costs associated
with the PCS are for the transformer, breakers, contacts, and
cabling, which are estimated by EPRI.1121
To calculate the economic potential for Levels 3 and be-
yond, it is necessary to annualize the capital costs. The an-
nualized capital costs include the annual expenses, the cost
of capital, and equipment depreciation. The annual expenses
used here are those that are directly proportional to fixed
capital, as listed in Table 4.
The cost of capital considers the required return on in-
vestment for a given capital outlay. The required return on
investment will vary by company but is assumed in this
circumstance to be 10%. Annualized interest on invested
capital expressed as a fraction of the initial capital investment
is calculated with Eq. (18).'161

Si(l+i) -

fR = (18)
n
The service life of the components, n in Eq. (18), is 10
years for the stacks and the pumps while the remaining
components have a lifespan of 20 years.[21 To simplify the
calculation, straight line depreciation is used with fractional
annual depreciation calculated as in Eq. (19).

fD= (19)
n
The annualized cost of components may be calculated
with Eq. (20)
AC=C C_, (0.14+ f, + f) 20

The economic potential for Level 3 can then be calculated
with Eq. (21).
EP = EP, AC AC,,, AC AC,,, (21)

Example Calculation of Level 3 Economic Potential
A summary of the components of the cell stack and their
associated costs is given in Table 5. A stack consisting of 100
cells contains 101 current collectors (101 m2/stack, total for 20
stacks = 2020 m2), 202 carbon felt electrodes (202 m2/stack,
total for 20 stacks = 4040 m2), and 100 membranes (100 m2/


stack, total for 20 stacks = 2000 m2). Added into the total costs
for the stacks are manufacturing costs, shipping costs, and
additional costs that were assumed to be 20%, 10%, and 10%,
respectively, of the total capital costs of the components.[121
The annualized costs of an equipment item are the annualized
costs of the installed equipment items; an installation factor
of 1.4 is used to modify the purchased costs of the stacks.
Figure 3 shows that at Level 3 it is necessary to cycle the
battery over 100 times a year in order to make a profit. The
economic potential drops by over $500,000 between Levels
2 and 3, which is significant. Examining the costs of compo-
nents in Table 5 shows that the bulk of this drop in economic
potential is due to the costs of cell ion exchange membranes.

LEVEL 4: ENERGY CAPACITY
CONSIDERATIONS
The energy capacity of a VRB is determined by the mass
of vanadium electrolytes in each solution. The stoichiometric
equations listed in Level 1 show that one mole of vanadium
ions will produce one mole of electrons when oxidized or
reduced. Because of this, the students calculated the moles
of vanadium ions needed by taking the moles of electrons
oxidized by one cell in one second, multiplying by the charge
time, multiplying by the number of cells in a stack, then mul-
tiplying by the number of stacks in the battery as in Eq. (22).


M I X xNc xN,
F


(22)


This calculation will provide the moles of vanadium elec-
trolytes needed for the cathode or the anode solutions and
should be multiplied by two for the total amount needed.
To calculate the amount of vanadium needed, however,
changes in the SOC of the battery must be considered. As
mentioned in Level 3, the electrical potential as a func-
tion of the SOC increases as the SOC increases. The VRB
cannot be fully charged without using very high (infinite)
voltages and cannot be fully discharged without a severe
loss of voltage (efficiency) in the discharge. It is assumed
that the base-case battery will operate between an SOC of
0.20 and 0.80, which means that Mv represents 60% of the
total vanadium needed.
The tanks used to store the vanadium solution will vary in
size with the volume of vanadium ion solution needed, and
therefore with the energy capacity of the VRB. Because of
the corrosive nature of sulfuric acid, the use of double-walled
tanks should be considered. In the current example, the stu-
dents used single-walled fiberglass tanks. The size of the tanks
and amount of vanadium needed is estimated by Eqs. (23)
and (24) (in the current example one liter of solution contains
one mole of vanadium).

V,= Mv (23)
M,, -M,


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








M 2x (24)
(0.6)

The economic potential for Level 4 is then calculated with
Eq. (25).
EP, =EP AC ACT (25)

This Level 4 methodology differs significantly from the
method suggested by Douglas. He uses Level 4 for including
the costs of separation systems in a chemical process. This
is one place where a change was needed to the Douglas ap-
proach for the VRB.

Example Calculation for Level 4 Economic Potential
A summary of the components' associated costs with Level
4 considerations is presented in Table 6. To account for the
costs of preparing the solution, the capital cost of the vana-
dium was multiplied by 1.1. To annualize the costs it was
assumed that the tanks, vanadium, and sulfuric acid could be
used throughout the lifespan of the battery. A reasonable esti-
mate for this lifespan of 20 years was used by the students. 12]
The drop in economic potential between Levels 3 and 4 is
more than $400,000, and Figure 3 shows that it is necessary
to have over 200 cycles per year in order to make a profit.
EP4=$870,027 yr' $393,519 yr- $68,217 yr'
EP4=$408,292 yr-

LEVEL 5: BALANCE OF PLANT
The last of the major costs of a VRB are associated with
the balance of plant costs. These costs may also be associ-
ated with the power and energy capacity of the VRB, but are
included in another level for simplicity.
The balance of plant costs are based on the EPRI calcu-
lations and include the costs for construction (not already


accounted for), costs for the control system, and building and
site preparation costs.121 Building and site preparation costs
are estimated on average to be around $900 per square meter
of the facility in 2007. Accounting for an inflation rate of 3%,
the cost in 2011 was $1,012 per square meter. An estimate
for the size of the facility is 500 m'/MW1121 Adjusting for
inflation, the control system is estimated at $22,509 and the
remaining costs are $56/kW.


EP, = EP4 AC,,


(26)


Level 5 is not comparable to any level of the Douglas model.
It is used to essentially capture all the remaining capital costs
elements that are not functions of power or energy.
Example of Level 5 Annualized Capital Costs Estimation:
EP5=$408,292 yr-1 $150,487 yr-
EP,=$257,804 yr'

Level 6: Capital Investment Estimate
The last step makes use of the information gathered in the
earlier steps to create a capital investment estimate table.

TABLE 6
Level 4 Capital Costs
Concentration of Vanadium 1 mol/L
Volume of Solution 596,984 L
Cost of Vanadium $25.13 kg'
Total Cost of Vanadium $1,528,470
$1 ,528 ,470
Solution
Annualized Cost of Vanadium
Solution
Tank Size 656,680 L
Total Cost of Tanks $264,960
Annualized Cost of Tanks $68,217


TABLE 7
Capital Cost Estimate
Installation and Capital
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Matial a Investmnt
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells V-101 20 stacks $1,183,120 1.4* $1,657,348
per stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 596,984 liters $1,528,470 $1,528,470
656,680 liters,
Tanks T-101 656,680 liters, $88,320 3 $264,960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 7.9 Watts $11,482 7.5 $86,112
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant $584,509 1 $584,509
Costs
Total Cost $3,720,621 $4,446,119
for manufacturing costs, shipping costs, and additional costs

46 Chemical Engineering Education







A table from the example is
presented in Table 7. This meth-
odology has covered only the
capital costs of a VRB; the oper-
ating costs were not included in
the student assignments. While
a complete summary of the total
costs of operating a VRB would
include the operating costs, the
intent of this design methodol-
ogy was to include only the
capital costs.

FUTURE POSSIBLE
COST REDUCTIONS
Table 7 shows that the cost
of the cell stacks and the cost
of vanadium were identified as
major contributors to capital
cost. In this section the possibil-
ity of cost reduction for these
two variables is explored. The
reduced cost of $35/m2 for ion
exchanged membranes reflects


Figure 5. Economic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery at reduced membrane
cost conditions.


one author's expected reduction in manufacturing cost caused
by increased demand for membranes and improved manufac-
turing.191 The reduced cost of vanadium at half of the value in
Table 3 may be more optimistic, but it is based on the observed
volatility of vanadium prices in recent years as reported by
the U.S. Geological Survey. The economic potential in the
following analysis is based on a more realistic market value
of electricity.
The capital cost elements of the base case model reported
in Tables 1, 2, and 3 are only changed by the reduction of
ion exchange membrane costs in the results shown in Table


8. The capital costs per MWh are reduced to $262. The eco-
nomic potential of the reduced cost system shown in Figure
5 is based on the price of product electricity of $0.10/kWh
and a purchased cost of $0.01/kWh and shows that the cost of
Level 4 and 5 are always negative, indicating no opportunity
for profit at the conditions of the study.
The capital costs elements of the base case model reported
in Tables 1, 2, and 3 are changed by both the reduction of
ion exchange membrane costs and reduced vanadium costs
in the results shown in Table 9 (next page). The capital costs
per MWh are reduced to $198. The economic potential of the


TABLE 8
Capital Cost Estimates at Reduced Ion Exchange Membrane Cost
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Installation and Capital
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells
V-101 22 stacks $276,709 1.4* $387,393
per stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 650,820 liters $1,666,307 1 $1,666,307

Tanks T-101 656,680 liters, $88,320 3 $264.960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 20 Watts $11,482 7.5 $86,112
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant $584,509 1 $584.509
Costs
Total Cost $2,952,047 $3,314,001
* for manufacturing costs


$600,000


$400,000


$200,000


$0


-$200,000


-$400,000


-$600,000


-$800,000


-$1,000,000


s0 ....*1V* 150 200 250 300 350 400 P

..
**





-







Cycles of Battery per Year


- EP2
...... EP3
- EP4
- EP5


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


247































reduced cost system shown in $600,000
Figure 6 is based on the price
of product electricity of $0.10/
kWh and purchased cost of $400,000
$0.01/kWh and shows that the
improved cost of Levels 4 and $200,000
5 is still always negative, intro- >.
during no opportunity for profit ,
at the conditions of the study. $
0
The results shown here in- a
dicate that reduced costs for -$200,000
ion exchange membranes and S
vanadium do not appear to be 2 -$400,000
sufficient to make the system
profitable at the conditions of
-$600,000 -
this study. Additional cost re-
ductions will be necessary. Such
cost reductions may be found in -$800,000
activities such as increasing the
range of SOC values for system
Figure 6. Econ
operation and improving the cell
current density and efficiency as
well as other general cost reductions.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
Our current CBE process design classes consist
nior classes (CBE 480 and 488 or 490). CBE 488 is t
version of CBE 490 and typically has industrial spc
CBE 480 covers fundamental chemical process de,
cess creation and definition, flow sheet developme:
and costing of equipment, optimization, economic
and reporting; the textbook is by Ulrich and Vasudev
supplemental information on flow sheet creation by D
CBE 488/490 are both traditional capstone design
with the primary deliverables being oral and writt


'...
... .* **
...****
*****

50,,...*200 150 200 250 300 350 400
..~.*** r, *
,, ''

,,, ** ***
c,, ** ""


-EP2
...... EP3

- EP4
- EP5


Cycles of Battery per Year

omic potential for a vanadium redox-flow battery at reduced membrane
cost conditions and reduced vanadium cost.

reports. Both CBE 480 and CBE 488 or 490 are required
3-semester-hour classes. The case study presented here was
the primary focus of CBE 488 and a shortened version used as
of two se- a homework problem in CBE 480. Different CBE 488 teams
he honors had different design variables, such as current density, in
>nsorship. addition to studying a common base case on which to report.
sign: pro- The development of the case study presented here was
nt, design sponsored by EPRI. One of the co-authors of this study,
analysis, Haresh Kamath, was a primary author of an authoritative study
ant'1 with of all-vanadium redox-flow batteries (EPRI 1014836).1121
ouglas.110l Kamath was instrumental in the study reported here as well
i projects as the design of the problem statement for the students, dis-
en design cussion and explanation of system details, and review of the

Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 9
Capital Cost Estimates at Reduced Ion Exchange Membrane Cost and Reduced Vanadium Costs
Equipment ID Number Capacity Purchased Cost Installation and Capital
Number Capacity Purchased Cost Mo
Material Factor Investment
Cell Stacks (100 cells per
Cell Stacks (100 cells per V-101 22 stacks $276,709 1.4* $387,393
stack)
Vanadium Solution S-101 650.820 liters $828,843 $828,843
Tanks T-656,680 liters,
T-101 $88,320 3 $264,960
Fiberglass
Heat Exchanger C-101 na 0 4 0
Pumps P-101 20 Watts $11,530 7.5 $86,476
PCS System and E-101 1,000 kVA $324,720 1 $324,720
Associated Costs
Balance of Plant Costs $584,509 1 $584,509
Total Cost $2,114,631 $2,476,901
* for manufacturing costs







final presentations and reports. Several students stayed for
continued discussion with Kamath and other EPRI personnel
after the final presentation; all students approved the transmis-
sion of their final report to EPRI. One of the authors of this
paper and an expert on electrochemical technology, Thomas
Zawodzinski, gave lectures on electrochemistry and electrical
storage batteries in CBE 480. The roles of EPRI, Kamath, and
Zawodzinski added authenticity to the project.
The students had a unique opportunity to do process design
work on an electrochemical process; they were also exposed
to experts in the field. They were surprised at the scale of
existing and planned electro-chemical storage facilities and
the relationship between mass and energy balances that is
facilitated by the flow of electrical energy. The students also
learned that the economics of electrochemical processes may
be analyzed similarly to chemical processes. In general, the
students appeared to receive the project very well as indicated
with an overall student evaluation of CBE 488 as 4.6/5.0. If
used again, the future studies may focus on different battery
chemistries. The study may also be shortened for use in a
Mass and Energy Balance class or a Green Engineering class.

CONCLUSIONS
Working through the six levels of this design procedure
allowed the students to modify the chemical engineering
design procedures that are the standard for a chemical engi-
neering education. Applying these traditional procedures to
a nontraditional system gave valuable experience needed to a
field that is no longer restricted to the petroleum or chemical
industries. In addition to the experience of applying chemical
design principles to a different type of system, the students
also received insight into the electric utility industry.
The potential profit at Level 2 and above is shown in
Figure 3 for the original study conditions. The figure shows
the annual profits (the y-axis) at each level for an increasing
number of charge/discharge cycles per year (the x-axis).
The students concluded that capital costs were such that it
would be difficult to construct and operate a VRB at a profit
and because of this, there is no need to look into the details
of the operating costs until the capital costs can be lowered.
The two largest contributions to the capital costs found by the
students were the cost of the permeable membrane and the
cost of the vanadium electrolyte. Any future developments
will need to decrease these costs to make the investment in
a VRB more attractive. The potential profit from a VRB was
also found to be strongly affected by the cost of peak power
electricity. Since the students assumed a ten-fold difference
between the cost of base-load power to feed the battery and
peak load power produced by the battery, further reductions
in the cost of base-load power would have limited effects.
The cost analysis presented here does appear to be sufficient
evidence that further process improvements may indeed make
the VRB a commercially viable technology.


NOMENCLATURE

Term Description Units
A Surface area of heat exchanger m2
Ac Electrode area m2
AC,, Annualized cost of balance of $/yr
plant costs
ACHEX Annualized cost of heat $/yr
exchangers
AC Annualized cost of pumps $/yr
ACPcs Annualized cost of power $/yr
conditioning system
ACs Annualized cost of stacks $/yr
ACT Annualized cost of storage $/yr
tanks
ACv Annualized cost of vanadium $/yr
C Capital cost of a component $
C Heat capacity of vanadium ion J 1)
solution
Cv2 Concentration of V (II) ions mol/l
Cv+ Concentration of V (III) ions mol/l
C4+ Concentration of V (IV) ions mol/l
Cv5 Concentration of V (V) ions mol/l
Ea Intrinsic efficiency of pump
Ec Charging efficiency
_D Discharging efficiency
Ec Energy used to charge the kW-hr
battery
E, Energy discharged from the kW-hr
battery
Esc Energy capacity of the battery kW-hr
EP, Economic potential for Level 2 $/yr
EP3 Economic potential for Level 3 $/yr
EP4 Economic potential for Level 4 $/yr
EP, Economic potential for Level 5 $/yr
f, Depreciation factor
f.R Return on investment factor
F Faraday's constant C/mol
F, Actual flow rate of vanadium 1/s
ion solution
FM Minimum flow rate of vana- 1/s
dium ion solution
ID Current density of electrodes amp/m2
Is Current through a stack amp
ML Concentration of V (II) at mol/1
lower charging limit of 0.20
M Total concentration of mol/l
vanadium
M Concentration of V (V) at up- mol/1
per charging limit of 0.80


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








M, Total amount of vanadium mol
needed for battery
Nc Number of cells in a stack
N, Number of stacks in the
battery
110A Overall efficiency of battery
Ap Pressure drop Pa
P Power capacity of battery W
q Heat W
SOC State of charge of battery
Tc Time to charge or discharge hr
battery
AT Temperature change of vana- C
dium through stack
ATL Log mean temperature
difference
U Heat transfer coefficient W/(m2 "C)

p. Viscosity of vanadium solution Pa*s
V, Potential of a stack V
V,. Volume of tank

Xv.p Fraction of vanadium ions
converted per pass

REFERENCES
1. Sum, E., and M. Skyllas-Kazacos, "Investigation of the V(V)/V(IV)
system for use in the positive half-cell of a redox battery," J. Power
Sources, 16(2), 85 (1985)
2. Sum, E., and M. Rycheik, "A study of the V(II)/V(III) redo couple for
redo flow cell applications," J. Power Sources, 15(2), 179 (1985)




































250


3. Linden, D.,T.B. Reddy, ,eds., Handbook ofBatteries, 3rd Ed.,McGraw-
Hill, New York (2002)
4. Li, X., H. Zhang, and Z. Mai,"Vankelecom, I. Ion exchange membranes
for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) applications," Energy Environ.
Sci.,No. 4, 1147 (2011)
5. bl.,. I .KI. ,K-. :.,1 l H Chakrabarti,S.A. Hajimolana,F.S.Mjalli,
and M. Saleem, "Progress in Flow Batter Research and Development,"
The Electrochem. Soc., 158(8), R55 (2011)
6. Weber, A.Z., M.M. Mench, J.P. Meyers, P.N. Ross, J.T. Gostick, and
Q. Liu, "Redox flow batteries: a review," J. Applied Electrochemistry,
41(10), 1137 (2011)
7. Yang, Z., J. Zhang, C.W. Kintner-Meyer, L. Xiaochuan, D. Choi, J.
Lemmon, and J. Liu, "Electrochemical energy storage for green grid,"
Chem. Rev., 111(5), 3577 (2011)
8. Menictas, M., M. Cheng, and M. Skyllas-Kazacos, "Evaluation of an
NH4VO3-derived electrolyte for the vanadium-redo flow battery," J.
Power Sources. 45(1), 43 (1993)
9. Kear, G.,A.A. Shah, and F.C. Walsh, "Development of the all-vanadium
redox flow battery for energy storage: a review of technological, finan-
cial and policy aspects," Int. J. Energy Res., 35, (2011)
10. Douglas, J.M., "A hierarchical decision procedure for process synthe-
sis." AIChE J., 31(3), 353 (1985)
11. NETL homepage fuelcells/seca/>
12. Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: An In-Depth Analysis, EPRI: Palo
Alto, CA (2007)
13. You, D., H. Zhang, and J. Chen, "A simple model for the vanadium
redox battery," Electrochim Acta, 54, 6827 (2009)
14. Aaron, D.. Z. Tan, A. Papandrew, and T. Zawodzinski, "Polarization
curve analysis of all-vanadium redox flow batteries," J. Appl Electro-
chem., 41, 1175 (2011)
15. Ulrich, G., and P. Vasudevan, Chemical Engineering Process Design
and Economics: A Practical Guide, 2nd Ed.; Process Publishing,
Durham, NC (2004)
16. NCEES, Fundamentals of Engineering Discipline Specific Reference
Handbook, 3rd Ed.; National Council of Examiners for Engineering
and Surveying: Clemson (1997) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








Graduate Education


THE IMPORTANCE OF

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills





GARTH L. WILKES
Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061


What are likely to be two of the main requirements/
prerequisites listed on a job description for which
a student is considering interviewing? The answer
is almost universally "Excellent Oral and Written Communi-
cation Skills." While this article will not address the latter, it
will focus on the former. The author's objective is to provide
some basis for why oral communication is such an important
quality for any individual who is moving on from college to
a career. A second objective is to address how a one-semester
course, particularly aimed at the graduate level, can assist
students in helping make this quality a reality or at least assist
in moving the student in the right direction.
Before addressing the components of oral communication
the author believes will help fortify an individual's oral com-
munication skills, the author would first like to provide the
reason for initiating such a course at Virginia Tech within the
Department of Chemical Engineering. In brief, the inspiration
stemmed from the fact that after being part of many graduate
student committees, the author noted the relatively weak oral
presentations of many students, even while their written docu-
ments (research plan or thesis) may have been well composed.
Restated, the author distinctly recognized that there were
numerous cases whereby the student at the front of the room
may have written an excellent proposal or thesis/dissertation,
yet what was orally presented by that same individual led to
very poor support of that document and/or the work done to
achieve it. This was most disappointing. In fact, it was easy
to see that if that same person were to leave the university
with such poor oral communication skills, his or her future
might well be very dim in locating a career of choice due to
this weakness-even though such graduates may really be
excellent scientists/engineers on the basis of technical skills
and work ethics. For that reason, a new one-semester elec-


tive course was developed to try to address at least some of
the issues that would otherwise restrain students from career
success or possibly life success in general. While the author
will return near the end of this article to describe some of the
organizational aspects of the course, let us first focus on the
elements of oral communication. We will begin with three
"reminder" statements.

ORAL COMMUNICATION REMINDERS
One such reminder is that "we may live in an age of super
computers, high-speed fiber-optic networks, and the Internet,
yet in the final analysis, the 'spoken word'still dominates. We
certainly recognize that politicians rise and fall, lawyers win
or lose in courts, business, social, and family relationships
thrive or fail ... all because of what people say and how they
say it."11I A second reminder is that an individual receives
hundreds of verbal messages each day (both written and oral);
if you are the communicator (the sender) how can you make
the listener (the receiver) remember yours? A third and final
reminder and one close to home for students is an individual
may be a very talented academic student grade-wise, yet if


Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Garth Wilkes is presently a University
Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at
Virginia Tech in Blacksburg Virginia. He
earned his Ph.D degree in physical chem-
istry from the University of Massachusetts
in 1969. In 1978, he was recruited by
Virginia Tech to help initiate the interdisci-
plinary Macromolecular MS/PhD program
at Virginia Tech and served as a co-director
of that program for more than 20 years.







people do not perceive that from the way he or she presents
or speaks, he or she will lose credibility and the listener's at-
tention. Hence, it is critical to try to develop the appropriate
communication skills to support not only one's career goals
but essentially almost all parts of life. How can this be done?
Presented in this report are some methods that, if practiced,
can help promote success.
As was stated above, the person communicating the mes-
sage can be viewed as the "sender" and the listener is the
"receiver." The success of that transmission of information,
however, and whether it is truly received and fully imprinted
in the memory bank of the receiver, is dependent on a number
of items. Typically all can be included under the headings
given in Figure 1.
As this figure illustrates, there are two fundamental compo-
nents associated with oral communication. They are the verbal
and the nonverbal -each of which we will address. While oral




COMMUNICA TION



SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER
I ------- _- t- ______-


t
VERBAL
COMMUNICATION


NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION


Figure 1. Factors affecting whether communication is
truly received and fully imprinted on listener.


Figure 2. Three aspects can help diminish the fear that
comes with speaking in front of a group.


252


communication occurs in myriad different venues, much of
this article will emphasize presentations used in research and
related technical "group meetings." It is hoped, however, that
the reader will also appreciate the principles covered in this
article and that the principles will thus have a much broader
application to oral communication as a whole.

REFLECTIONS ON WEAKNESSES IN ORAL
COMMUNICATION AND HOW TO MINIMIZE
For many individuals, one of the main causes of poor oral
communications in public speaking is the fear that comes
with being in this position i.e., up front! As Figure 2 in-
dicates, three things can help diminish this fear. First is to
develop confidence when addressing an audience. To do that
often takes considerable practice. One's initial ability to be
confident in public speaking often varies depending on per-
sonality (e.g., introverted vs. extroverted), which the author
has noted many times when teaching the communication
course. Confidence, which helps generate persuasiveness
and trust, can improve with careful preparation/organization
of the material. When preparing, feedback is desirable ahead
of the actual presentation. This is why, particularly in the
early stages of developing oral communication skills, it is
useful to "test out" your presentations ahead of time in front
of a peer or two that will be honest with you about what you
have said (verbal communication) and how you have said it
(nonverbal communication)-both topics we will address.
By building on the three items given in Figure 2, fear can
generally be diminished. If one does not have a peer or two
to listen to a practice session, then setting up a video camera
or even a simple voice recording device can also be of great
assistance. A video camera is better for reasons that will be
made apparent later on.
Besides fear and lack of confidence, some other potential
pitfalls may well limit success in the communication of an
oral presentation. Some of these will now be briefly addressed.
One is recognizing the nature of the audience. In this respect,
there are several points to consider ahead of time -some are
listed below in Scheme 1.
Scheme 1. A Few Characteristics About the
Audience/Listener the Speaker Should Consider
Age and Its Distribution
Occupations/Professions
Educational Level(s)
Size
Mood
Possible Expectations of the Listener(s)
In brief, when giving a presentation, one should generally
not aim the subject matter too high or too low with regard to the
audience. This is not always easy to avoid unless one knows
some information ahead of time, but it is worth considering.
Chemical Engineering Education







If the age distribution or the educational levels/
backgrounds vary greatly, this challenge can be
met if the sender specifically and openly addresses
the subject with some added remarks that show
the receivers he or she is trying to make sincere
accommodations during the presentation. The
issue of audience educational backgrounds dif-
fering from that of a technical/scientific presenter
can be a fairly large barrier with regard to trying
to convey some science-based subjects to a lay
group. It seems today's non-scientists are quite
skeptical about what a scientist/engineer has
to say-particularly when addressing such hot
topics as global warming or related subjects that
impact their daily world. Hence, particular care
must be taken to not use detailed, sophisticated
science language when addressing such subjects.
Instead, employ terminology that is more broadly
understandable. For example, terms such as "an-
thropogenic," "spatial," and "temporal" may be
better changed to "human-caused," "space," and
"time."'21 Recognizing the latter point will assist
in marketing or selling one's presentation with the
appropriate choice of language.


There is also the choice of phraseology that can make a
major difference to an audience and its desire to listen to what
you have to say. For example, one often hears a speaker state
at the beginning of a talk, "I am going to tell you about ...."
In short, most people do not wish to be told! The speaker is
usually better off by using phrases like "Today we will ex-
plore together .. ," or, "We will discuss the topic of....."
Such phraseology can promote a closer bonding with the
audience right from the beginning, which is clearly desirable
in most instances. One point the speaker should remember in
preparing a presentation is that the audience can essentially be
viewed as the "jury," in judging the material given and how
it is presented. In fact, a silent "verdict" will be reached by
each listener even if there is no chance for discussion of this
at the end of the presentation.

OVERUSED WORDS, PHRASES, OR SOUNDS
Some audience distractors/irritators used inadvertently by
speakers include such sounds as "umh," "aah," and overused
phases such as "and a," "you know," "like, you know" and
even unintentional repetitious sounds. If you do not believe
this, inject several of these within a talk and watch the atten-
tion of the audience/listener begin to fade. In fact, the author
recalls a graduate class he took in the subject of inorganic
chemistry where the lecturer would often clear his throat to
the extent that members of the class used to place bets on how
many times this would happen in a given lecture -sometimes
the number exceeded 100! Needless to say, we were count-
ing the throat-clearings, not focusing on the subject matter
being presented.
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Modified From Present Like a Pro (McGraw-Hill [3].

Figure 3. One simple schematic that can assist in
organizing a talk.


ORGANIZING A PRESENTATION
There is the well-known old phrase that states when plan-
ning to deliver a presentation, "Tell them what you are going
to tell them, tell them, and then tell them what you told them."
Indeed, this simple summation of what to do actually has
merit, for the attention span of listeners is often quite short.
As studies have shown, attention generally peaks at the begin-
ning of a talk and may also show a second peak near the end
where a summary may be given. Thus, if the speaker has the
time to do it, restating or repackaging some of the important
points in the presentation is useful for re-enforcement. The
percentage of time a speaker holds the attention of someone
in the audience depends on lots of variables, however, some
of which the speaker has little control over (such as, is the
listener distracted due to an argument he or she had with a
significant other earlier that day?) While the speaker cannot
easily offset such situations, he or she can improve them by
taking earlier note of the backgrounds of the audience, (e.g.,
potential common interests, etc.) and including suitable
remarks that provide coupling of such interests with various
aspects of the material presented. Also, the organization of
the talk will be a critical factor as well. If the talk can be logi-
cally followed, the associated message it brings will have a
much better chance of being truly received and grasped by
the listener.
One simple schematic that can assist in organizing a talk
is shown in Figure 3. This comes from a text the author has
found useful in supporting his communications course.31
While the figure is in many ways self-explanatory, a few
253


OBJECTIVE--"What Do I Want To

Accomplish With My Presentation?"
"To Do"
Summary
Key Point 3
Supports/ Ke Point 2 Transitions
S pr SKevPoint2








Eye contact in conjunction with vocal

tone and pace play major roles in pro-

viding the mood the speaker may want

at a given point in the presentation.



comments may be useful. First, the speaker must try to suc-
cinctly answer the question of what he or she wants to ac-
complish with the message/presentation. Also, what are the
specific points that are critical to make? To make each one
stand alone as it is delivered, it is necessary as a rule to be
sure there is a clear transition made between each. Thus, a
statement such as, "Now let us turn our attention to the next
important message I wish to share with you," can be useful.
The very beginning of the presentation is also quite critical.
It is here the speaker clearly desires to catch the attention of
the listener. Sometimes this can be done nicely by use of a
related question that makes the listener come to attention if
possible-note the initial sentence of this article! Of course,
whatever this opening remark is, as a rule it should be coupled
to the general theme of the message to be delivered. This will
be quite dependent on the make-up of the audience as well as
the subject to be addressed, and thus this author will not try
to focus on such issues here. In fact, note in Figure 3 that the
"opener" may often appear ahead of the actual title (if, for
example, PowerPoint slides are being used).
Another notable element regarding Figure 3 is the term
"supports" that appears on the left. This term refers to what
this author generally calls show & tell-items that may be
used to support the content of the message being delivered.
Since this author expects readers of this article are likely in
the business of science and engineering, using show & tell
usually gives us a real chance to couple the listener into our
message. One can often show or demonstrate a principle be-
ing discussed by use of an actual example or a product that
functions based on a given theory, etc. The author is a major
believer in using such examples, for if the listeners can see
an item (and possibly touch or inspect it as well) there is a
stronger tendency for the principle it illustrates to be embed-
ded in their minds. In fact, the author is noted for carrying
a large bag of show & tell samples for use in the courses
he teaches on the processing/structure/property behavior of
polymeric materials. One of the comments from students
enrolled in these courses is how important the use of those
samples was in driving home key points being made in the
lectures. Having said that, however, there is a price to pay
at times with use of such show & tell items: It is the time
required for the speaker to pick up and comment on each one
and, in some cases if the audience is not large, to possibly


allow passage of the item through the audience to allow di-
rect contact with each listener. Passing the show & tell item
around also has the potential disadvantage that, while each
member of the audience is inspecting the item, he or she may
be distracted from listening to what is being discussed at that
point in time. Nonetheless, the author is still a big believer
that if your listener can see and possibly have direct contact
with an example, it will help make the overall discussion of
the associated principle stick in his or her mind more than if
you had not used it. Clearly, another limitation of a show &
tell item is when the audience is very large and a small show
& tell item may not be seen well by those in the back of the
presentation room. In this case, the best approach may be to
show a photo or video clip of the item.

THOUGHTS ON USING FIGURES AND
TABLES IN PRESENTATIONS
The old saying that a picture is worth a thousand words is
certainly true in many cases (particularly in science). If the
picture or figure is one that can clearly meet this criterion, then
certainly the presenter should use it if appropriate audio-visual
(AV) means are available. Today, however, it is very easy to
overload a figure with so much material and color by the use
of PowerPoint or other software that the listener can lose focus
of the main feature the presenter really wants to highlight. For
example, often students like to add the university logo and
related material such as the name of a research sponsor on
every slide. I find that distracting. Hence, it is urged that one
try to avoid such overloading and only show what is intended,
using a readable font size and minimal color accents, etc. One
can always start or finish the presentation with the research
sponsor's information as well as the university logo or photo.
As for the use of tables in a typical presentation, I am biased
in that I find tables with lots of entries to be less valuable
than a clear figure with the data plotted to display the trend
one often wishes to show. The important point, however, is
not to overload a table and to be sure the listener in the back
of the room can easily see the table entries. A final point is
that often in scientific or technical presentations, figures and
tables are lifted from the open literature and these have been
designed for publications and not necessarily for use in an oral
presentation. Hence, remaking or modifying such literature
material so that font size, color accentuation, etc., will reach
the audience sitting in the back of the room can be of great
advantage. Including the reference to that corresponding
figure should always be done whenever possible.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:
ITS ELEMENTS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE
We have focused on a number of issues related to improving
oral communication by what is said and by how a presenta-
tion is organized. We have not, however, considered the
issue of nonverbal communication (recall Figure 1), which


Chemical Engineering Education







is an equally important and critical facet of achieving a suc-
cessful presentation. Another more common phrase that also
encompasses the topic of nonverbal communication is body
language. In fact it is worth remembering that in the animal
kingdom, except for a few growls or roars and mating calls,
body language is the only language. Do the visible fangs of
a large lion, the wagging tail of a friendly dog, or the flat-
tened ears of a frightened horse not send a distinct message
to an observer? Thus, just what are the elements comprising
nonverbal communication and why are they important? The
author considers there to be six such aspects-four of which
should never be overlooked when making a presentation
(particularly when its outcome may influence one's career
advancement). The six elements are paralanguage, kinesics,
proxemics, dress/appearance, iconic images, and haptics-the
latter two are generally of lesser importance than the first four.
Paralanguage is, in brief, the way you say something with
your voice-examples being the tone, volume, pace or de-
livery rate, distinct hesitations, use of voice inflections vs. a
monotonal delivery, etc. Most readers will quickly relate to
these aspects of speaking for we have all heard presentations
being given in a monotone-the longer the talk, the more apt
the listener will be to fall asleep or become bored and not pay
attention. Hence, voice inflections are an extremely effective
means of placing emphasis on what points are important-
such as inserting a hesitation just prior to delivering the point
with emphasis (a short silence followed with enhanced volume
stating the point of importance). Certainly, however, there are
times when a soft voice is better than a harsh or loud one;
the mood of the presentation should make it easy to select
which mode is most desirable. For example, just think about
a presentation or talk that is of a eulogistical nature vs. that of,
say, a political speech-the use of strong accents in the latter
will generally win more votes, but would not be appreciated
in the opposing example.
In contrast to the use of the voice itself, kinesics has to do
with eye usage, facial expression, and body posture. In short,
if the message being delivered is to excite the audience, then
it is less likely to happen if there is no excitement expressed
facially by the speaker at appropriate times. Likewise, if some
remark is meant to generate a somber thought, then provid-
ing such verbiage with a big smile on the speaker's face is
essentially a contradiction to the verbal communication (the
somber message). Eye contact in conjunction with vocal tone
and pace play major roles in providing the mood the speaker
may want at a given point in the presentation. It is critical that
one is always striving to support the verbal components with
those of the nonverbal. It should also be mentioned that in
addition to striving for good use of eye contact and posture,
public speakers should generally avoid using a podium when
possible-particularly for longer presentations since a podium
serves as sort of a "wall" or "shield" between the speaker and
the audience. It also "ties" the speaker to a single position up


front. In short, standing behind a podium typically causes a
loss of body dynamics and often promotes less direct con-
nection of the speaker to the audience.
The third element, proxemics, is how one utilizes the space
around oneself. To put this into perspective, have you ever
sat through a presentation and felt the speaker never seemed
to address you or at least the audience? Instead, the speaker
was either off in space (maybe just that "space" occupied by
the speaker and the screen for the slides!). Or in some other
case, the speaker may have only talked to the first few rows
of the audience. Good proxemics is when the speaker is well
aware of all audience members and during the presentation
makes an effort to reach out or project to each one. This can
be done by walking now and then from side to side to allow
better voice projection and eye contact with each person in
attendance. In some instances (not generally scientific-based
presentations) the speaker may even go out into the audience.
This is not usually suggested although it certainly draws the
attention of those who may have been dozing off. In summary,
the speaker should try to include all of the audience into the
talk by eye usage and body dynamics up front, and now and
then possibly even ask if those in the back of the lecture room
can hear the speaker. In fact, it never hurts to ask that question
very early on in a presentation so the speaker finds out if his
or her own speaking volume or that supplied by a wireless
microphone is suitable enough for all to hear. In fact, if one
is planning to give a long presentation or a series of lectures,
use of a wireless microphone is highly recommended. This
not only helps hold the attention of the audience but it also
conserves the speaker's voice that might otherwise give out
later. Finally, in the case where a speaker finds the audience
is small relative to the number of available seats in the pre-
sentation room, the speaker may well wish to suggest prior to
beginning his or her talk that those listeners far from the front
take a moment to move to the available seats near the front
of the room; this will generally promote a closer "bonding"
of the full audience with the presenter.
The element of dress/appearance is clearly an obvious one.
The author is not saying that one should always be "dressed to
the nines" in order to score well it will depend on the nature
of the presentation and the surroundings. For example, many
of the readers of this article have likely attended scientific-
based conferences or workshops where a suit and tie are not
the desired dress but rather something more casual is expected.
On the other hand, when one is going to interview for a job,
it is clearly best to err on the professional side. For example,
for men a suit and tie or at least a sport coat and tie are a bet-
ter choice than a pair of blue jeans and a sport shirt. Clearly,
today's world is distinctly less formal than it was 40 years ago
when the author was in the market for his first job, but still an
interviewee should try to display an image of professionalism.
The last two elements of nonverbal communication are
haptics and iconic images. These, however, may not neces-


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







sarily be directly applicable to all presentations. Haptics is the
use of direct physical contact or touch as a means of making
a point or trying to gain someone's attention. For example,
while speaking highly of an employee, a boss may go over
and give that person a handshake or a pat on the back to help
make it clear that the individual is being viewed as special
for that moment. Another place where you see haptics greatly
practiced is in the political arena where giving hugs or hand-
shakes (or even holding a number of babies) will encourage
the vote count to grow! The final element of nonverbal com-
munication is simply to use icons (symbols) as a means of
silently sending or reinforcing a message when visual material
is being presented. Certainly we are all familiar with icons
used for an upcoming railroad crossing, or the "golden arches"
of a McDonald's restaurant. Applying this to the tone of this
article, note Figure 4 which shows a number of intermeshing
gears that work together. Such a figure can also be appropri-
ately used when talking about how important it is to fit all
parts of a "group talk" together so the group of presentations
is the sum of its parts and not a series of separate, shorter,
independent presentations.

ADDRESSING QUESTIONS DURING OR
AFTER AN ORAL PRESENTATION
Generally, even if the presenter has done his or her job in
giving a memorable and moving presentation, there may be
questions that arise in listeners' minds that they hope to have
addressed by the speaker. It is therefore important to try and
provide a portion of time that allows for this-most often at
the completion of the talk. Yes, questions may come during
a presentation as well but typically trying to address them at
the end is a better plan; questions taken during a presentation
often limit the flow or continuity of the theme. There are,
however, exceptions to this. For example, often in scientific
talks there may be a need for clarification along the way in
order to maintain the continuity of the theme. While I will
not address any example cases of this, speakers should try to
judge if opening the floor for questions during a presentation
is suitable or not, and consider letting the audience know
early on where in their delivery questions will be addressed.
The means of addressing open questions from an audience
can also vary depending on the audience and its size. First,
if the audience is large and no floor microphone is available,
it may be useful for the speaker to repeat the question to the
entire audience. There is another real advantage to this prac-
tice: It gives the speaker's brain a chance to begin addressing
the question before starting a spoken answer. Any answer, of
course, should aim to be concise, clear, and delivered with
sincereness and appropriate body language such that the
questioner knows they have been given their due time and the
audience is fully coupled to the response as well. The bottom
line is that the speaker does not want to appear to admonish the
questioner or play down what may be an irrelevant question;


rather, leave all members of the audience with the belief that
the presenter has tried to address their questions in an honest
and positive manner.

AN ELECTIVE GRADUATE COURSE TO
IMPROVE ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Having discussed many of the aspects of oral communica-
tion and the critical role it plays in one's career and life, we
will now turn our attention to a brief discussion of an elective
graduate course established and taught for several years at
Virginia Tech that was focused on improving students' oral
communication skills. What will be briefly provided is how
the author designed the course and its contents. It is safe to say,
however, there are other modifications that could be used to
achieve similar results depending on the specific group to be
taught. Furthermore, there are now newer means of electronic
equipment that can facilitate and accentuate oral presentations
such as video clips, etc.
Concerning the makeup of the class, the author taught the
course not just to chemical engineering students but students
from other departments in the sciences such as chemistry
and materials engineering. In fact, by design the instructor
always desired to have the class composed of students from
several scientific disciplines in order to make the "audience"
somewhat "diversified" in scientific interests, which meant
any class presenter would have to take this fact into account
when organizing his or her presentations.
Before outlining and discussing the nature of the seven as-
signed presentations, it is worth pointing out that the author
also strived to obtain a suitable classroom. That is, for this
type of course it was very desirable to have a very good pro-
jection screen as well as a quality blackboard or whiteboard
in addition to good light control. Since the class was always
restricted to no more than 10 students, one might think a very
small room would suffice. When possible, however, the author
always preferred a mid-size room in which to spread the class
out a bit to more uniformly cover the classroom space. This
prevents a speaker from being able to talk directly to only a
small group of listeners in the front of the room. Rather, the
speaker would have to consider listeners in the back of the
room as well in terms of eye contact and good voice projec-
tion (recall our earlier discussion of maintaining the attention
of a large audience).
Prior to initiating the student presentations, the author
would spend two class periods addressing the importance of
oral communication and just how and why developing skills
in this area is important not only for one's future scientific
career but also for one's overall life in "everyday" commu-
nications. I would also provide, by short example snippits,
the do's and don't regarding oral communication. I also
promoted a specific text (Reference 3) as a good guide to
students as they prepared presentations. No specific lectures


Chemical Engineering Education







were focused on particular chapters, however, for I believed
the class members needed to become immersed in deliver-
ing-as well as carefully listening to and grading-the seven
required presentations.
With respect to grading the presentations, each student in
the class also served as a graderfor each presentation other
than his or her own. Not only does this result in the students
becoming more involved with the course but they also further
honed their listening skills as well. In fact, the fundamental
process of listening is a topic that is as important as that of
speaking. I will not go off on a tangent on this topic other than
to say that by being graders, the students learned to become
more aware of nuances or idiosyncrasies speakers may un-
intentionally use
that can be major
distractors. This, Group/Team Preser
in turn, helps each
studentavoidsim- Points to Consider
ilar mistakes. A
final reason for us-
ing each student as A seamless orchestrated present
a grader was that
the author believes Eachteam member should have
that what a single Try to match each presenter's sti
person (listener)
picks up from a Each presenter must stay on tim
presentation is not
pree* Each team member must focus c
always complete
and it may depend members
on where you are
in the room, what Consider what question may aris
your mindset is
for that day, etc. Figure 4. Use of an icon (the inte
Restated, not ev-
ery listener is sensitive to the same issues when hearing a
presentation. Therefore, having each set of eyes and ears in
the room pass judgment on a given presentation provides a
much better overall appraisal of that event. In fact, is this not
one of the reasons that in a court of law, the jury is made of
several individuals rather than just one person?
The five specific topic areas graded on a scale of 1-10 were:
organization, voice quality, materials (quality of slides, board
usage, poster materials, etc.), interest factor, and audience
interaction. While one could add more subtopics, these five
seemed to capture the needed information. In addition, for
each of these categories, the grader could add a "one liner"
to try to make clear the basis for their topic grade. Finally,
there were places for five lines of writing at the end of the
grading form for each presentation such that the grader could
add any comments he or she believed useful (and likely aside
from the five specific categories). As instructor, I would also
fill out the same grading sheet, then combine all the relevant
comments and scores onto a "master" grade sheet that would


ita





atio

at I

reng

e

n th


e fr4


'rme


be given back to the student presenters at the time of the next
class so they would have a written record of the scores and
the associated commentsfor each talk they gave.
In addition to the feedback that came through the master
grading sheets, each presentation was orally reviewed by
the class after all the presentations had been made. This was
typically done at the end of a given class meeting which, for
this course, was usually scheduled for a "double class period"
in order to allow all students to give their presentations, or
at least half of them- see later discussion below. In this oral
review the author generally found a presenter's peers often did
not have as much to say as did their grading sheets -probably
since they did not wish to openly constructively criticize their
equals. (This is
another rea-
tions: A Few son why mul-
tiple feedback
mechanisms are
needed.) Hence,
this instructor
in was principally
the one who
east one objective provided feed-

th with the topicthey address back in the vo-
cal review part
of the grading
ie audience and not other team process.
One of the
other most im-
portant feed-
om the audience back mecha-
nisms for the
shed gears) to illustrate a message. class members
was for all stu-
dents to bring to class a means of video-recording their pre-
sentation (i.e., a flash drive, etc.). These were recorded then
returned to the students to take home and review. From the
author's point of view, there is no better way to judge one's
self than to hear and see video of yourself presenting. This
provides the student an opportunity to not only hear what
he or she said (the verbal) but to also view his or her body
language (the nonverbal). This system worked well and the
students greatly appreciated this helpful practice as noted in
their course evaluations.
As stated above, this instructor typically required each class
participant to make seven separate presentations, which means
each student had multiple times "up front." Thus, there was a
very good opportunity for each person to really make advances
in his or her oral communication skills. Improved presenta-
tions over the course of the semester indeed did happen in
most all cases no matter how low or high a level the student
started from. Restated, the author feels quite strongly about
the importance of having a small class for this course since


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


257







it allows for multiple presentations by each class member.
Oral presentation, while easier for some than others, is a bit
like playing any musical instrument-to do it well, one must
practice and also have the chance to perform several times
since the latter is a necessary means of developing confidence
in front of a group.
Regarding the topics assigned for presentations, the first
was always a five-minute presentation using absolutely no
audio-visual aids of any kind. The required topic was about
the presenter. That is, each speaker talked in one form or
another about him- or herself. The instructor found this topic
gave the speakers a chance to not only avoid having to worry
about slide preparation, AV setup, etc., but also forced them
to boil down their life stories, or some segment thereof, to
try helping the audience get to know them and a bit about
their interests. Some did this by choosing their childhood or
family structure. What came out of this was a chance to really
learn about each person in the class and it led to some very
interesting and revealing five-minute presentations, to say
the least. The fact that AV equipment was not allowed meant
the presenters had to rely on body language (the nonverbal
component) to support their presentations. This gave the class
and instructor the opportunity to see how presenters used their
hands, eyes, stance, etc.-revealing just how comfortable each
speaker was to start with when up front.
The second and third presentations were first a nontechni-
cal talk followed with a technical talk, both using overheads/
transparencies. This course was initially taught in the days
when overheads were still the common means of making pre-
sentations. Today it would likely be PowerPoint presentations
so the reader can make the appropriate adjustment. Each talk
was 6-7 minutes in length. These presentations were intended
to start the presenter thinking about preparing quality visuals
that were well-organized and clear. It also began to give them
the opportunity to talk not only about science (the technical)
but also make presentations on other subjects to see how they
could judge their audience now that they knew a bit about
each class member based on the initial presentation. Also, they
now had the benefit of being able to use visuals as a means to
help guide them through the talk (since clearly that is what
those AV supports often do in most cases if used correctly).
Following these three presentations, the same general as-
signment was given for a nontechnical and then a technical
presentation on a blackboard (or whiteboard). In the case of
the technical topic, it was also required to use mathematics
in the presentation. Again, the time for each presentation was
7 minutes with a time warning at 6 minutes. Now, it is safe
to say a blackboard-type presentation is without a doubt the
most difficult for most speakers and this is no real surprise.
This occurs since not only is the speaker trying to make eye
contact with the audience but now they are also required to
write on a board (often with their back to the audience) and
yet make the presentation flow with the spoken word as well.


In short, this is not so easy to do in a brief time period without
practice. It is even more difficult when trying to use a series
of mathematical equations to cover some topic and keep it
well organized on a blackboard so the audience can clearly
read the material. In addition to requiring organization of the
material on the board, the presenter must practice all other
principles/rules we have discussed as well. Needless to say,
it was this specific presentation that sometimes was so poorly
done the entire class had to repeat the assignment.
For the sixth talk, a poster presentation was used. The rea-
son was that a good share of scientific meetings today make
much use of poster presentations. In fact, it is often where
science students first make their debut in the world of scientific
presentations. Not only do they have to learn about the visual
aspects of the poster itself and how to organize this with color
accents, font size, etc., but when giving such a presentation, as
likely the reader knows, one is often interrupted by questions.
Hence, the presenter must be particularly careful in staying
organized but also maintain the flexibility of answering ques-
tions along the way. The length of this presentation was on
the order of 10 minutes and thus only about five or so poster
presentations could be given in a double period due to poster
setup, open class evaluations, etc.
The final or seventh talk was a PowerPoint presentation-in
the early years of this class it was a 35mm slide presentation.
The topic was the student's research area and it was to be 15
minutes in length-the longest of all the presentations so at
least two class meetings were needed to cover all the class
presentations for that assignment. This gave the students a
good opportunity to focus on their own research yet have to
present it in a way other students working in other research
fields could gain knowledge from the talk. Generally by the
time of the seventh talk, the students were doing quite well
and it was very satisfying to see the degree of progress made
during the semester.
It might be useful to comment on how members of the class
were often enlisted into the course. First, some students were
urged to take this course by their respective graduate advisor
if the student was believed deficient in oral communications.
Secondly, after the course was taught a few semesters, the
author unfortunately had to be selective since the course had
become viewed as very useful for enhancing an individual's
ability as an oral presenter. It is again pointed out that a
larger class size would not allow for each class member to
be able to undertake seven presentations that varied in type
and time allotment. Hence, while a small class size was pos-
sibly one drawback to the course, there is little doubt in the
author's mind that the general format should not be given
up in order to raise the class size, for it would have diluted
the overall goals of this rather specialized graduate course.
In fact, in conversing with other graduate faculty at several
other universities, the author is not aware of any similar oral
communications course taught elsewhere with a similar


Chemical Engineering Education







format. Most graduate science or engineering departments
do not offer a focused course in oral communications. It is
often common for graduate students to just give their graduate
seminar in a departmental setting ahead of their final exam!
defense, and by that time it is likely too late to promote major
changes in their style of oral communication.

SUMMARY
In reflecting on the subject of oral communication and
its importance to not only one's career but also to one's
life as a whole, it is hoped the contents of this article, in
which the author has tried to outline many of the basic
considerations behind providing a quality presentation,
will be absorbed by or taught accordingly to others in the
future. While this author certainly enjoyed the teaching of
core courses in his field of polymeric materials and their
structure property behavior, designing and teaching this
communications course was one of my real enjoyments as
an academician. This was particularly so when several of
the students had little or no training in oral communication
and I could therefore watch them "grow" in their ability to
communicate. It is hoped that some of the academicians


reading this article will, in turn, be prompted to initiate
such a course for there is a major need for scientists and
engineers to hone their skills in this area. Without such
skills, the benefits/value of their scientific/engineering
work may well be greatly diminished from low-quality
oral presentations made during their careers.

REFERENCES
1. American Speaker- Your Guide To Successfid Speaking, Aram Bak-
shian, ed., Georgetown Publishing House, Washington, DC (1995)
2. Somerville, R.C.J., and S.J. Hassol, Physics Today, Oct. 2011, pg. 48
3. Arredondo, L., How to Present Like A Pro, McGraw Hill Inc., New
York (1991)

OTHER RELEVANT REFERENCES
Kinny, P., Public Speaking For Scientists and Engineers,Adam Hilger
Ltd, Bristol, England (1984)
Cain, B.E., The Basics of Technical Commnunicating,American Chemi-
cal Society, Washington, DC (1988)
Alley,M., The Craft of Scientific Presentations, Springer-Verlag, New
York (2003)
Decker, B., You've Got To Be Heard To Be Believed, St. Martin's Press,
New York (1992) L


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Mn classroom
-- ._______________--


TEACHING PROCESS DESIGN THROUGH


INTEGRATED PROCESS SYNTHESIS




MATTHEW J. METZGER,' BENJAMIN J. GLASSER,1 BILAL PATEL,2 DIANE HILDEBRANDT,2 DAVID GLASSER2
1 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, NJ 08854
2 The University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa


What is the minimum amount of carbon dioxide that
a process can produce? This may seem like a trivial
question but it is not a question usually asked when
processes are being designed. In many cases, there is a lack
of a quantitative description of what is the highest efficiency,
least amount of energy, or lowest amount of carbon dioxide
that can be achieved for a particular process, i.e., what is the
theoretical achievable target. Without being able to answer
such simple questions it is hard to make good decisions in
the design of processes.
In this regard, a novel approach to the chemical process
design course was recently introduced at the University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, called Integrated
Process Synthesis. The course aimed to introduce students
to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating
performance targets for processes as well as gaining insight
into how these targets can be achieved. The main objectives,
in terms of the targets set for the process design, were efficient
use of raw materials and energy and improved environmental
performance (reducing CO2 emissions).

PHILOSOPHY
The decisions made in the early stage of the design process
or the conceptual phase are of vital importance as the eco-
nomics of the process are usually set at this stage. Biegler, et
al.111 estimate that the decisions made during the conceptual
design phase fix about 80% of the total cost of the process.
Once the process structure has been fixed, only minor cost
improvements can be achieved. Thus, the success of the pro-
cess is largely determined by the conceptual design.12] There
is therefore a need for systematic procedures to generate, as
well as identify, the most promising alternatives. Without such
procedures, even an experienced designer might not be able
to uncover the best process structure and will be stuck with
a poorly operating process. Ideally, these procedures should


be applied in the early stages of the design and should require
minimum information since the use of rigorous design meth-
ods to evaluate alternatives can be time and capital intensive.
The philosophy underlying the course is to look at the
process holistically. The design of a flow sheet is approached
with this overall analysis as its foundation. We address the
overall process by tools and techniques developed within

Matthew Metzger is a post-doctoral associate at Rutgers University,
where he received his Ph.D. He spent two years working with the COMPS
group at the University of the Witwatersrand as a graduate student and
post-doc. His interests include granular materials, identifying promising
processes from an energy and emissions perspective, and sustainable
energy production.
Benjamin J. Glasser is a professor of chemical and biochemical
engineering at Rutgers University. He earned degrees in chemical
engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand (B.S., M.S.) and
Princeton University (Ph.D.). His research interests include granular
flows, gas-particle flows, multiphase reactors, and nonlinear dynamics
of transport processes.
Bilal Patel is a consultant at the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
thesis (COMPS), the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
South Africa. He obtained his B.Sc. (chem. eng.) in 2002 and Ph.D.
from the University of the Witwatersrand in 2007 His field of interest is
process synthesis and integration, particularly in developing systematic
methods and tools to aid in flowsheet synthesis, especially tools that can
be implemented in the conceptual phase of the design process. These
tools should aid in setting targets for processes in order to ensure that
processes are designed to be efficient, environmentally friendly, and
sustainable.
Diane Hildebrandt is the co-founder of COMPS at the University of
the Witwatersrand. She received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. from the
University of the Witwatersrand and currently leads the academic and
consultant research teams at the university She has published more than
50 referred journal articles on topics ranging from process synthesis to
thermodynamics.
David Glasser is a director of the Centre of Material and Process Syn-
thesis at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is acknowledged as a
world-leading researcherin the field of reactor and process optimization,
and is an NRFA 1 rated researcher. His extensive publication record and
research areas extend from reactor design and optimization to distillation
and process optimization and intensification.

@ Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2012


Chemical Engineering Education







the framework of process synthesis and integration, which
provides a holistic approach to process design, i.e., consider-
ing "the big picture first, and the details later."[3] We aim to
introduce a method of providing insights and setting targets
for the overall process based on fundamental concepts, as well
as developing systematic procedures to attain these targets.
Targeting allows one to identify a benchmark for the per-
formance of a system before the actual design of the system
is carried out.[4,51 These benchmarks are the ideal or ultimate
performance of such a system and provide useful insight into
the process. These targets are usually based on fundamental
engineering principles-for example, thermodynamic princi-
ples -but can be based on heuristics or cost estimates. Targets
are usually independent of the structure of the process, i.e., the
ultimate performance of the system can be determined without
identifying how it can be reached.141 Thus, these targets reduce
the dimensionality of the problem to a manageable size.[14
These targets are also useful in evaluating existing systems as
one can easily compare the current performance of the system
to the ideal performance of the system, even identifying ways
to minimize waste from a process.161
Every chemical process can be considered in terms of a
number of inputs and outputs. These inputs or outputs can
be classified into three variables: mass, heat, and work. Mass
and energy balances are used in the analysis of individual
units and flow sheets, as well as in the synthesis of chemical
processes. Another tool, the second law of thermodynamics
(or the entropy balance) is also useful for synthesizing or
analyzing chemical processes, especially since it can quanti-
tatively assess the efficiency and sustainability of processes.
The law of mass conservation (mass balance) and the first law
of thermodynamics (energy balance), as well as the second
law of thermodynamics (work balance), will be employed
as the basis of the approach. One can assemble processes
through decision making about the mass, energy, and work
balance, rather than arbitrarily connecting unit operations.
This is useful not only for the design of new processes but
for retrofitting as well.
Unlike the traditional approach to process design17'1 where
the flow sheet is normally chosen from existing literature
or from prior knowledge, the flow sheet emerges from the
analysis. No longer is it necessary for the lecturer to hand out
a design brief to the students with the desired process route,1101
but students are challenged to select the most promising
synthesis route with limited information, training them for
similar instances encountered in industry.111 One can then use
the more detailed design approach to include costing, sizing,
etc. In addition, this approach works equally well for product
design1121 and to include additional factors such as designing
for controllability[131 and risk due to uncertainty,114' as well
as reactor optimization." As always, design is an iterative
procedure, so in most cases the assumptions made at this
point will need to be revisited, but this approach provides


a framework to register those assumptions and provide a
philosophy of why they were implemented.
A back-to-front synthesis approach based on determining
the target overall mass balance for a process is proposed. The
overall mass balance can be determined by applying atomic
species balances based on the inputs and outputs of the pro-
cess. This is referred to as the mass balance subject to atomic
balance constraints, i.e., all atoms entering must also exit. In
addition, it is also possible to develop a process mass balance
subject to energy constraints, by determining the energy re-
quirements of the overall process mass balance. In this work,
an adiabatic target is chosen (no heat rejected to or required
from the environment). Finally, the work requirements are
also determined for each overall mass balance based on the
entropy, or work, balance. The target for the work balance is
a reversible process that does not require or produce work.
An understanding of which of the three variables is the limit-
ing target is also very important, in that it gives insight into
what is the important or limiting parameter in the design and
operation of the process. Changing the target often results in
a change to the overall process mass balance, so these three
tools work in conjunction, rather than independently. There-
fore, the design is also an iterative process. Regardless, once
a mass balance is chosen subject to any constraint, the energy
and work requirements of the process are set, and determined
through a simple calculation. It is true that cost must always
be considered during design, but it is also true that a work-
ing process may not be economically feasible, whereas an
economically feasible process may not work. Therefore, one
must ensure the process is possible first and foremost, and
then consider the economic aspects.
Consider a flow process at steady-state as shown Figure 1,
operating in an ambient environment where all the mass and
energy flows are accounted for. This is our process "universe."
The pure component inputs to the process enter with a certain


Input

mi
Hi
Si
To
Po




Ws


Output

mo
0
To
Po


Figure 1. General schematic of a process "universe."


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







flow rate (m) at a standard temperature and pressure of the
environment (To and Po), and possess a certain enthalpy
(H) and entropy (S). The pure component outputs leave the
process at identical conditions to the inlets, but with poten-
tially different flow rates, enthalpies, and entropies. Mass
is conserved across the process, allowing one to develop a
process mass balance relating the entering flow rates to the
exiting flow rates. Also flowing into (or out of) the system
is a heat stream Qc(To)and a work stream Ws. The values of
these streams are determined using the first and second laws
of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics states
that the energy flows entering and leaving a system must be
equal at steady state. Energy flows can be in the form of heat
or work. The energy balance can be applied to individual
units as well as entire processes. Therefore, we can write an
energy balance over the entire process (dashed box number
1) shown in Figure 1, as shown in Eq. (1).

AH+ 1Au +gAz = Q+Ws, (1)
2


Here AH is the difference in enthalpy of the streams leaving
and entering (AH=moHo-miHi), Au is the difference in veloc-
ity of the outlet and inlet streams (kinetic energy), Az is the
difference in height of the output and input streams relative
to a reference plane (potential energy), g is the gravitational
constant, IQ refers to all heat flows in or out of the process,
which we represent as only Qc(To), and XWs refers to all shaft
work entering or leaving the system, which we represent as
only Ws. A positive value of Qc(To) would mean that heat is
required whereas a negative value indicates that heat has to
be released from the process. A positive value of W means
that work is required to upgrade heat from the environment
to the level necessary to run the process, whereas a negative
value means that work can be produced by downgrading the
heat leaving the process as it returns to the environment. As-
suming Au and Az are negligible, Eq. (1) reduces to:
AH =Qc (To)+W, (2)

Performing the same energy balance over the dotted box
number 2 in Figure 1 we can also develop the following
relationship:

Q (T)=Q (TO)+W, (3)

As a result, we can then substitute Eq. (3) into Eq. (2) and
find that
AH=Q, (T) (4)

or, an identical result to if the energy balance were performed
over the solid box number 3. Therefore, the amount of heat that
is required to convert the given feeds to the products is equal
to the enthalpy difference between the outlet and inlet streams.
From this point on QH(T) is simplified to Q. Here we note
that the difference between QH(T) and Qc(To) is the quality

262


of the heat, with Qc(To) having a low quality and QH(TO) hav-
ing a high quality, meaning that there is work associated with
the heat at higher temperature, as given by Eq. (3).
To determine the relationship for W,, we utilize the second
law of thermodynamics and follow the steps outlined by
Denbigh.[16' The second law of thermodynamics states that
in order for the process in Figure 1 to operate, the entropy
change must be greater than or equal to zero, where zero re-
fers to a reversible process and is the limit of operation. The
entropy balance over the dashed box number 1 in Figure 1
is shown in Eq. (5).

AS+c =Sg, (5)
To
where AS is the entropy difference between the outlet and inlet
streams (AS=moSo-miSi) and S ge is the entropy generated by
the process. Replacing Qc(To) in Eq. (5) with the relationship
in Eq. (2) and rearranging, we can then write the following
expression:
W, + Sg, =AH+ToAS (6)

Using the definition of Gibbs free energy (G=H-TS), Eq.(6)
reduces to
W +S, =AG (7)

Finally, as AS ge> 0 (the equality assuming a reversible
process), we can determine the limit of operation,
W > AG (8)


Thus, for our "process universe," we can determine the
amount of work required to run the process reversibly (or
amount of work rejected from the process) by calculating
the change in Gibbs free energy between the outlet and inlet
streams. This "available work" is also called exergy when
T=T0. Exergy considers both the quantity and quality of
work associated with a process and is particularly useful for
identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency within a
process.[17-'19 More information on this derivation and its util-
ity is given elsewhere,t20-231 along with additional case studies
and development of this approach.[24,251
To demonstrate the procedure of using Integrated Process
Synthesis to determine process targets, we will consider the
following example of methanol synthesis. The example will
go step-by-step through the Integrated Process Synthesis
approach, increasing in complexity, starting with a process
mass, energy, and work balance and ending with the basic
outline of a process flow diagram.

THE PROCESS MASS BALANCE
We wish to produce methanol, while maximizing the
amount of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that ends up in the
desired product, i.e., minimize by-products. As a result, the


Chemical Engineering Education







ideal process to produce 1 mole of methanol
will consume only those elements present in Overall
methanol and in the correct proportions. A efficiencies f
simple mass balance across the process can
tell us how to run our process optimally. The Overall I
ideal methanol production requires 1 mole of
carbon, 4 moles of hydrogen, and 1 mole of 20
oxygen, as shown in Figure 2. 1.5C (+2H 0
If these elements are introduced as feeds to CH4,,+H
the process in any other ratio besides C:H:O CH 4)+0
1:4:1, then another species besides methanol
must be produced, reducing the efficiency
of the process. Two metrics will be used to compare various
processes based upon how much of each element from the feed
ends up in the desired product. First, the carbon efficiency is
the percentage of the carbon in the feed that ends up as carbon
in the desired product, and the calculation is given in Eq. (9).
CE number of moles of Carbon in the desired product
number of moles of Carbon in the feed
In the schematic shown in Figure 2, 1 mole of carbon is
fed into the process and that 1 mole of carbon ends up in the
desired methanol product. Therefore, the carbon efficiency
is 1 (CE=1/1=1). Similarly, a hydrogen efficiency can be
defined, performing the same calculation, but with hydrogen
as the element of interest, as given by Eq. (10).
Number of moles of Hydrogen in the desired product(10)
HE = (10)
number of moles of Hydrogen in the feed

For Figure 2, the hydrogen efficiency is also 1 (HE=4/4= 1).
A similar function can be described for oxygen efficiency, but
that will not be included in this example. Thus, the process
described in Figure 2 is ideal from a carbon and hydrogen ef-
ficiency standpoint, but how would we create such a process?
What resources are readily available as sources of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, and how well do they match with the
desired C:H:O=1:4:1 ratio?
Let us assume that the compounds available to us that
contain some combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
are liquid water (HO2), coal (we assume this to be pure car-
bon C), methane (CH4), oxygen (0,), and carbon dioxide
(CO2). These species can be combined in an effort to match
the required elemental ratios and begin to develop a mass
balance over the entire process, or a process mass balance.


Figure 2. Schematic representing ideal mass inputs for
the production of methanol.


TABLE 1
I process mass balances, carbon efficiences, and hydrogen
or processes using a single carbon source to produce methanol
from readily available species.
processs Mass Balance Eq. No. CE HE
S= CH3OH,.+0.50, 11 1 1
z =- CHOH,,+0.5CO 2 12 0.67 1
), => CH3OH,+H2. 13 1 0.67
.50,2 = CH3OHI, 14 1 1


Start with coal as a carbon source. One mole of coal meets
our requirement of 1 mole of carbon. Water can be used as
the source of both hydrogen and oxygen, but one mole of
water does not provide enough hydrogen (2 moles and we
need 4 moles), so we will need at least 2 moles of water. Now,
however, we have an additional mole of oxygen, which must
end up as another product. A product of oxygen is possible, as
well as a product of CO,. For an oxygen product, the process
mass balance is straightforward: coal plus water makes one
mole of methanol, with the balance of oxygen ending up as
elemental oxygen. This is shown in Eq. (11).
1C(, + 2H0,,) = CH,OH,, +0.502(g (11)

An additional amount of carbon is needed, however, to
provide the carbon for both methanol and carbon dioxide.
The resulting process mass balance is thus,
1.5C(,) +2H,0,, = CH,OH, + 0.5CO2(g) (12)

Notice the use of = to denote a process mass balance and
not a reaction. We know that at least one reaction will have
to take place to chemically convert the feed to the products,
but those details are contained within the "Process" box in
Figure 2 and are nonessential at this point in the analysis. We
can see that the carbon and hydrogen efficiency of the process
represented by Eq. (11) are 1, whereas the same values for
the process represented by Eq. (12) are 0.67 and 1, for carbon
and hydrogen, respectively.
Following the same procedure, one can develop alternative
process mass balances using methane as the carbon and hy-
drogen source and water or atmospheric oxygen as the oxygen
source. The resulting set of process mass balances is shown
in Table 1, along with their carbon and hydrogen efficiencies.
There are other combinations of the species, but only these
three will be considered here. From both a carbon and hydro-
gen efficiency perspective, the process represented in Eq. (14)
(methane plus oxygen yields methanol) is most attractive.
The by-product, however, from the process represented by
Eq. (13) (methane plus water yields methanol and hydrogen)
is hydrogen, which is an attractive product in its own right,
so this process is also considered. If one was deciding on


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







processes to produce methanol with minimal environm
impact, by using coal you are forced to have a minimum
33% of your feed carbon ending up as carbon dioxide, wh
it may be possible to produce methanol with no CO, emis
by using methane. This procedure provides a quick and
methodology to screen potential feeds against one ane
when deciding on various process routes. All this was pos
by just performing a simple mass balance.
The consequence of not providing the desired elemer
the desired proportions is the production of unwanted
products, adversely affecting the efficiency of the overall
cess. On the other hand, removing products from interme
steps also adversely affects the overall process efficiency)
example, the industrial approach to methanol synthesis i,
two-step process producing syngas (a mixture of carbon I
oxide and hydrogen) from methane, water and oxygen
then producing both methanol and water from the syng;
None of the overall process mass balances presented in 1
1 have water as a product, which therefore means that
tional reactants are required to satisfy the overall process:
balance. Instead, one could identify that recycling the v
as a feed to the process would be a more desirable apprn
instead of removing what appears to be a harmful by-proi
This demonstrates that optimizing each individual part
process may not be the best for the optimization of the ov
process. Therefore, the approach is not only a tool for prc
designers, but also a tool for process operators.

THE PROCESS ENERGY BALANCE
Although the processes listed in Table 1 seem attrac
they may not be feasible. In order to determine if the,
feasible, i.e., do not require additional energy to conver
reactants to the products, one must perform an energy bal
over each of those processes. The basic schematic use
calculate the heat requirements for the process combining
gen and methane to produce methanol is shown in Figu
As discussed earlier, the difference between the enth
of the inlet streams and enthalpy of the outlet streams ca
used to determine the energy requirements of the process:
For reference, the enthalpy of each compound discuss
this text is included in Table 2.
Using the values in Table 2, one can calculate the
requirements of the process mass balances in Table 1. T
values are shown in Table 3.
Remember that AH pro> 0 means the pro-
cess is endothermic and requires an external
source of heat to convert the reactants into
the products, whereas AH < 0 means
the process is exothermic and produces 1Csi
heat when converting the reactants into the 1.5Cs
products. Additionally, heat normally comes Cl
from combustion, which results in a change

264


to the overall process mass balance. As a result, the overall
process mass balances for producing methanol from coal and
methanol from methane and water will be different than those
shown in Table 1 and Table 3. Also, note the extremely large
value for AHproc of the process represented by Eq. (11). This
is because the formation of oxygen is highly unlikely from a
thermodynamics perspective.
To demonstrate this, consider the production of methanol
from methane and water [the process represented by Eq. (13)].
One can see that the by-product from this process is hydrogen,
or a potential energy source through combustion. Therefore,
it may be possible to combust the extra hydrogen in order
to meet the energy requirements of the process. Hydrogen
combustion is shown in Eq. (15), along with its enthalpy,
calculated using the values in Table 2.
H2(g) +0.502(g) H,20, AHH.,b =-285.8kJ/mol (15)

Comparing the heat requirements of the process repre-
sented by Eq. (13) to the hydrogen combustion enthalpy,
combusting all of the hydrogen results in an energy excess


Figure 3. Energy balance for the production of methanol
from the more efficient feed components.


TABLE 2
and Gibbs free energies for each
species used.
AH* (kJ/mol) AG (kJ/mol)
0.0 0.0
-74.8 -50.7
0.0 0.0
-393.5 -394.4
0.0 0.0
-285.8 -237.1
-238.7 -166.9


TABLE 3
Heats of reaction for each of the overall process mass balances
presented in Table 1.
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. AHp.. (kJ/mol)
+2H20,,, CH3OH,,,+0.5 02,,( 11 333.0
+2H0,,,0 CH3OH,,+0.5 CO2,, 12 136.2
I4l+HzO CH3OH,,,+H,,, 13 122.0
CH4(,1+0.502(, = CH3OH, 14 -163.9

Chemical Engineering Education


Heats of formation







(122 kJ required, 285.8 kJ available). In addition, the overall
process mass balance is different as a result of the inclusion
of the hydrogen combustion. The resulting schematic of the
conversion of methane and water to methanol and hydrogen,
producing the required energy from hydrogen combustion,
is shown in Figure 4.
Notice that when the overall process feeds and products
are considered, the resulting overall process mass balance
is identical to that given by Eq. (14), or the conversion of
methane and oxygen to methanol. The heat required by the
process represented by Eq. (4) is provided by combusting the
hydrogen by-product, with the excess energy produced (Q)
equal to the overall of AHprocess of Eq. (13). This example dem-
onstrates how one can utilize the Integrated Process Synthesis
approach to begin to assemble preliminary process flow sheets
with the use of readily available thermodynamic information
about the species present and the process requirements.
The same approach can be applied to each of the overall
process mass balances given in Table 3 to determine the
overall process mass balance for a feasible process convert-
ing the given feeds to the desired products, with the energy
requirements coming from either combusting additional
amounts of the carbon source or combusting a combustible
by-product, e.g., hydrogen. For each case, the target of the
analysis is to combust only enough of a fuel source to provide
enough energy to make the overall process adiabatic (AHprocess
= 0), because combusting additional amounts of fuel will also
result in the conversion of a usable fuel source into undesired
by-products (some combination of CO, and/or H20). To do
this, the enthalpy of the process as given in Table 3 is divided
by the absolute value of the enthalpy of combustion to deter-
mine the amount of combustion required to make the process
adiabatic. Then the two resulting mass balances are summed
to produce the results in Table 4.
Eq. (16) represents the overall process mass balance that,
from a heat point of view, is feasible to convert coal and
water into methanol. This result is obtained from the analy-
sis considering both processes represented by Eqs. (11) and
(12). The oxygen produced in the process represented by
Eq. (11) is used to combust additional coal, which produces
an identical process mass balance for the adiabatic result


from Eq. (12). This is a powerful result
showing that some rules of thumb (e.g.,
oxygen is normally not a product) come
naturally from the analysis, rather than
through assumptions. In addition, one
can see that the carbon efficiency of the
coal to methanol process has decreased
from 1 and 0.67 to 0.54, as compared to
Eqs. (11) and (12), as more coal is com-
busted to provide the necessary energy,
resulting in an increase in CO2 produc-
tion. Eq. (17) represents the methane and


A process produces excess work,
requires additional work,
or is reversible if AG < 0,
Process
AG >0,or AG =0,
process process
respectively.


water to methanol and hydrogen process, where instead of
combusting the hydrogen by-product, additional amounts
of methane are combusted to provide the necessary energy.
As a result, the carbon efficiency decreases, whereas the
hydrogen efficiency remains unchanged. Eq. (18) represents
a process very similar to that shown in Figure 4, but only the
amount of hydrogen necessary to yield an adiabatic process
is combusted. Therefore, both hydrogen and methanol are
products and the overall mass balance is different than that
given by Eq. (14). At this point, the methane plus oxygen to
methanol [Eq. (14)] is still the most attractive process, as it
has a carbon and hydrogen efficiency of unity and AH <0,
meaning that there is excess heat produced, which may be
used for other purposes.


Q Q=-163.9 kJ mol"1

Figure 4. Schematic representing the production of
methanol from methane and water, burning the hydrogen
by-product to provide the required additional energy.
Resulting overall process mass balance is identical to the
methane plus oxygen to methanol process.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


0.5 02


TABLE 4
Overall process mass balances, carbon efficiencies, and hydrogen efficiencies
for heat neutral processes.

Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. AHproce CE HE
(kJ/mol)
1.85 C(,+0.350(g +2 H2g) 16 0.0 0.54 1
= CH3OH(D+0.85 CO2,')
1.14 CH,4()+0.28 O(g)+0.73 H20() 17 0.0 0.88 0.67
= CH3OH,0+H2(+0.14 CO2_
CH4(g)+0.22 O(g)+0.57 H,~O 18 0.0 1 0.78
> CH3OHm,+0.57 H,, _


CH30H







THE PROCESS WORK BALANCE
So far we have looked at the mass and heat balance as design
tools, but we must also consider the process work balance.
Since a process that requires heat is not feasible, a process
that requires work will also not be feasible. To determine if
a process is feasible from a work perspective, a difference in


I AG = W, I


Figure 5. Schematic representing the entropy/work
balance over the process to produce methanol from
methane, water, and oxygen at the adiabatic target.


the Gibbs free energy of the products and reactants is used.
The basic schematic used to calculate the work requirements
for the process combining oxygen and methane to produce
methanol is shown in Figure 5.
A process produces excess work, requires additional work,
or is reversible if AG ess < 0, AGpo > 0, or AG = 0,
respectively. Using the values for Gibbs free energy given
in Table 2, the value for AG .for the process represented
by Eq. (14) is AG cess = -116.2 kJ/mol. Therefore, when 1
mole of methane is converted to 1 mole of methanol with 0.5
moles of oxygen, the conversion releases 116.2 kJ of work
for use elsewhere. This is thus an attractive process from a
mass (ideal elemental ratio), energy (AHp -oces < 0), and work
(AGprocess < 0) perspective.
What about the other processes shown in Table 4? AGprocess
of each of the process mass balances given in Table 3 and
Table 4 is shown in Table 5.
One can see that all processes except
those in Eq. (14) and Eq. (16) require
additional work (AGprocess > 0). The pro-
cess represented by Eq. (18) is shown
\r..nn schematically in Figure 6.


Figure 6. Schematic representing methanol production from methane, water,
and oxygen at the adiabatic limit, with the additional heat required produced by
combusting additional hydrogen.

TABLE 5
Overall process mass balances and work requirements
for methanol production processes.


Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. process
No. (kJ/mol)
IC,0,+2H20,, = CH3 OH()+0.5 02(g) 11 307.4
1.5C(,,+2H,O, 20 CH3 OHo+0.5CO2,g 12 110.2
CH4()+H20, ,, CH, OH,,+H,,) 13 121.0
CH4()+0.502(,) CH3 OHM 14 -116.2
1.85C(s+0.3502(g)+2H2O CH3 OH(+0.85CO2(, 16 -26.4
1.14CH,,4,+0.2802(0)+0.73H20~ = CH3 OH, +H (,+0.14CO2) 17 8.9
CH4(,+0.2202(,+0.57H 2O CH3 OH,,+0.57H2(, 18 19.8


The energy required for the process
to proceed comes from combusting the
hydrogen by-product in the presence of
oxygen, with the water produced sent
to the process to make methanol. This
process is infeasible because the Ws =
19.8 kJ/mol of work must come from
somewhere, usually from combustion,
which will result in a different mass
balance. For those processes represented
by Eqs. (17) and (18), they are feasible
from an energy or heat perspective, but
not so from a work perspective. These
processes are referred to as work lim-
ited, i.e., AG >0 when AH =0.
process process
They will not proceed without
the additional amount of work
required, and this additional work
comes from additional combus-


tion.
The work target is a process with
AGrocess = 0, or a reversible process.
Therefore, additional combustion
is performed to produce only the
amount required by the overall
process. The procedure for this
is similar to that to determine the
amount to combust to provide the
required excess heat. Taking the
process represented by Eq. (18),
the amount of additional work
Chemical Engineering Education







required is 19.8 kJ. There is still some
excess H, produced, so we can com-
bust this as the fuel following Eq. (15).
19.8/237.1 = 0.08, so an additional 0.08
moles of hydrogen are combusted and
the mass balances are integrated again to
produce the process shown schematically
in Figure 7.
Notice now that there is an excess heat
stream leaving the process (Q = -23.8
kJ/mol), but all of the work necessary
to run the process is provided by the
combustion of the hydrogen by-product.
This excess heat can be used for other
purposes or lost to the environment. In
order for the process to operate, however,
this is the minimum amount of heat to
be released. Inputting additional work
through additional combustion (of the
hydrogen or another
fuel) will result in ad- Heat and
ditional heat produced.


This procedure can
be repeated for all pro-
cesses represented in
Table 4. For the pro-
cess represented by Eq.
(17), it assumed that the
additional work comes
from combustion of ad-
ditional methane, rather


Figure 7. Schematic representing methanol production from methane, water,
and oxygen at the reversible limit, with the additional work required produced
by combusting additional hydrogen.

TABLE 6
work specifications and carbon and hydrogen efficiencies for each of the reversible
overall process mass balances.


than combustion of the hydrogen by-product. The results are
shown in Table 6.
The processes represented by Eqs. (20) and (21) are work
limited (AH pcs< 0 when AG = 0) but the process repre-
process process
sented by Eq. (19) is heat limited (AHp res > 0 when AG
process process
= 0). Therefore, for this process, it is necessary to meet the
heat requirements of the process, whereby the process will
produce excess work.
We can now look at all processes that are feasible and have


some benefit, as shown in
Table 7.
One can see that the
process represented by
Eq. (14) is still the most
desirable process, as it
has the highest carbon and
hydrogen efficiency and
produces both heat and
work. The technology to
perform this conversion
does not exist, however,
as combining oxygen with
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


methane results in combustion of the methane and the produc-
tion of CO, and H20 (not CH3OH and H,). Therefore, if one
were to develop a catalyst that could perform this conversion
(in one or many steps) it could greatly increase the efficiency
of methanol production. Regardless, the process synthesis
approach has identified the process shown in Eq. (14) as the
optimal process and further development to achieve such a
conversion is warranted. Eq. (14) is now the process target,
to which all other alternatives should be compared.


CH4

0.49 H20


0.26 02


Q = -23.8 kJ mol1


AH AG
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. press process CE HE
(kJ/mol) (kJ/mol)
1.78C ,+0.280,(g)+2H0O ) 19 26.3 0.0 0.56 1
1: CH3 O0Hm+0.78C02
1.15CH4(g)+0.3002(g)+0.70H2O( 20 -9.7 0.0 0.87 0.67
: CH, 3OH,+H2) +0.15CO2
CH4,(g,+ 0260,(g)+0 .49H200) 21 -23.8 0.0 1 0.80
CH, 0H,+0.49H,_)


TABLE 7
Heat and work specifications and carbon and hydrogen efficiencies for each of the most
attractive, feasible, overall process mass balances.
AH AG
Overall Process Mass Balance Eq. No. process process CE HE
(kJ/mol) (kJ/mol)
CH4,,+0.50,,,) CH3 OH,, 14 -163.9 -116.2 1 1
1.85C(s)+0.350 ,(g+2HO2(g) 16 0.0 -26.4 0.54 1
-= CH3OH +0.85CO~,
1.15CH(g) +0.3002(g+0.70H20 ) 20 -9.7 0.0 0.87 0.67
SCH OH3 0 +H,2 +0.15CO020
CH4(g)+0.260,(g) +0 .49H,Oo) 21 -23.8 0.0 1 0.80
=CH3OH3, +0.49H2,)







The process represented by Eq. (16) shows the best one
can hope to do in converting coal to methanol. Particularly
undesirable about this process is the fact that almost half of
the carbon in the feed ends up as carbon dioxide. Such an
analysis justifies the perception of coal as a "dirty" fuel. On
the other hand, producing methanol from methane is a much
more environmentally friendly pathway, in that one can either
produce a small amount of CO2 with an equal amount of useful
by-product of hydrogen [Eq. (20)], or produce no CO2 with
a smaller amount of useful hydrogen by-product [Eq. (21)].
Industrially, the preferred path to methanol synthesis from
methane is following Eq. (21), in a two-step process using
syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) as an
intermediate. Such industrial processes operate well below
their theoretical target carbon efficiency, however, with actual
carbon efficiency closer to 0.75 rather than 1. 271 As a result,
the process mass balance shown in Eq. (21) can be used as
a target to identify and eliminate sources of inefficiency in
industrial methanol synthesis routes. At this point, one can
return to the traditional approaches to teaching process design
to incorporate reaction pathways, equipment size and cost,
separation equipment, return on investment, etc. Therefore,
the proposed framework fits naturally as a first step in the
selection of potential design routes to achieve a goal, incor-
porating a broad range of engineering skills to develop the
big picture first, and then enforcing the concepts through the
steps included in the more detailed design.

STRUCTURE OF COURSE
These synthesis techniques are offered as part of a senior-
level design course, taught over half a semester. Students are
required to apply these tools to projects chosen from literature,
working through the examples in class, where they are encour-
aged to develop their own process alternatives and discuss
the merits of each with the class. Recent projects include the
synthesis of ammonia and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Each
project begins by following the targeting approach presented
here for the initial design and then follows more traditional


design approaches for process economics, life-cycle analy-
ses, etc., as provided in such classic texts of Turton, et al.,17]
Douglas,[81 and Peters and Timmerhaus.191 Some projects
involve validating the resulting flow sheets using ASPEN.
A three-day course covering these techniques is also given
to post-graduate students and members of industry. More
recently, a full-day workshop was incorporated at the end of
the course to test the students' grasp of the concepts. The task
was to design a methanol synthesis plant, using the concepts
presented here to identify the most promising route, followed
by the inclusion of reactions and the selection of optimal oper-
ating conditions. This approach ensures that the fundamentals
of engineering design are utilized (hand-calculations, assump-
tions, and evaluation of those assumptions) along with the new
design approaches of teamwork and computer simulation.[28]
Student feedback on these techniques was very positive. The
students filled out a questionnaire asking them to respond to
the following statements about their experience in the course.
The options given were 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree,
3 = neutral, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree. No control
group was tested.
Q1: I learned a great deal in this course.
Q2: Ifeel I had adequate thermodynamics background to
understand the material in this class.
Q3: This course taught me to evaluate process alter-
natives and understand the consequences of various
choices.
Q4: This course helped me understand that decisions
made early on in the design process are often the most
important decisions.
Q5: This course gave me the tools to make early process
decisions.
Q6: From this course, I learned one should design the
process to obtain the overall process mass balance one
wants.
Q7: I would recommend this course to another student.
The results from the questionnaire are included in Table 8.


TABLE 8
Results from the questionnaire given to students to evaluate the course.
QI Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Senior Design Fall Average 4.1 3.1 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.1 4.4
2011
59 students Stdev 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8
QI_ Q2 Q3 (4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Post-graduate Short Course Fall Average 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.6
2011
24 students Stdev 1.0 1.2 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.7
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
Overall Average 4.2 3.4 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.4
Stdev 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.7
'68 Chemical Engineering Education







Generally, the opinion of the course was favorable from
both groups, with the strongest agreement in response to
"decisions early on affect the overall process design" and
in regards to recommending the course to other students.
Across the board, the students claim their thermodynamics
background was lacking. Generally, the negative comments
from the students were focused around three main areas: the
need for more detailed design aspects, assignments being too
open-ended, and requests for more examples. In response to
these comments the lecturers emphasized that the more de-
tailed aspects of design were covered in the third-year design
course, and this approach was meant to develop the "bigger
picture." Along those lines, assignments were purposefully
kept broad to resemble poorly constrained problems encoun-
tered in industry, which most likely led to the second batch of
criticism. To address this point, the broader questions were
broken down into smaller pieces, which were then solved in
stages to keep the class moving towards the solution together.
Finally, to incorporate more examples, recently published
postgraduate research (<5 years) was worked into the lecture
material, connecting the undergraduate students with real
applications of the approach.
The authors believe this course should be presented shortly
following the traditional thermodynamics courses as a way to
utilize the concepts learned and discussed but not implement-
ed to their fullest extent. Once these tools are used to decide
on the most promising process path, then the students can dig
deeper into the important design information related to siz-
ing, economics, and safety. The approach is not suggested as
a replacement for the traditional approach to teaching design
and does not include all relevant aspects of a complete design,
e.g., economics, safety measures, life-cycle analysis. Rather,
the approach should complement the traditional approach as a
means to decide on preliminary process flow sheets for further
development. This analysis is only a high-level starting point
and much more work is required to develop a realistic flow
sheet. With that in mind, more complex problems can be bro-
ken down into smaller pieces, focusing on the mass, energy,
and work balances containing only the major components.
From that point, the way forward depends on requirements/
restrictions on the particular task at hand in order to choose
the most attractive process arrangement.

CONCLUSION
A new design approach was introduced that presents a
unique and systematic approach to the conceptual design
of chemical processes. The approach focuses on the syn-
thesis aspects of chemical engineering design and provides
a comprehensive analysis of mass, energy, and work flows
in a process. The approach allows students to develop a bet-
ter understanding of developing processes that are efficient
and environmentally friendly. The responses from students
towards the course content and structure were very favorable.


The authors believe this course

should be presented shortly follow-

ing the traditional thermodynamics

courses as a way to utilize the con-

cepts learned and discussed but not

implemented to their fullest extent.





REFERENCES
1. Biegler, L.T., I.E. Grossman, and A.W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods
of Chemical Process Design, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey (1997)
2. Meeuse, F.M., "On the design of chemical processes with improved
controllability characteristics," Delft University of Technology, The
Netherlands, Ph.D. Thesis (2002)
3. Srinivas, B.K.,"An overview of mass integration and its application to
process development," Technical Information Series, General Electric
Company (1996)
4. El-Halwagi, M.M., Process Integration, Academic Press, Amsterdam
(2006)
5. El-Halwagi, M.M., and H.D. Spriggs, "Solve Design Puzzles with
Mass Integration," Chem. Eng. Progress, 94, 25-45 (1998)
6. El-Halwagi, M., and H.D. Spriggs, "Educational Tools for Pollution
Prevention Through Process Integration," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(4), 246
(1998)
7. Turton, R., R.C. Bailie, W.B. Whiting, and J.A. Shaeiwitz, Analysis,
Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall,
Uppper Saddle River, NJ (2009)
8. Douglas, J., Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, 1st ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York (1988)
9. Peters, M.S., and K.D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1991)
10. Kentish, S.A., and D.C. Shallcross, "An International Comparison
of Final-Year Design Project Curricula," Chem. Eng. Ed., 40(4), 275
(2006)
11. Abbas, A., H.Y. Alhammadi, and J.A. Romagnoli, "Process Systems
Engineering Education: Learning by Research," Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(1),
58 (2009)
12. Shaeiwitz, J.A., and R. Turton, "Chemical Product Design," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 35(4), 280 (2001)
13. Grassi, V.G., W.L. Luyben, and C.A. Silebi, "Lehigh Design Course,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(3), 165 (2011)
14. Kosmopoulou, G., M. Freeman, and D.V. Papavassiliou, "Introducing
Risk Analysis and Calculation of Profitability Under Uncertainty in
Engineering Design," Chem. Eng. Ed., 45(3), 170 (2011)
15. Metzger, M.J., B.J. Glasser, D. Glasser, B. Hausberger, and D. Hildeb-
randt, "Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(4), 258 (2007)
16. Denbigh, K.G., "The second-law efficiency of chemical processes,"
Chem. Eng. Science, 6, 1-9 (1956)
17. Kotas,T.J., "Exergy concepts for thermal plant: First of two papers on


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








exergy techniques in thermal plant analysis," Int. J. Heat and Fluid
Flow, 2, 105-114(1980)
18. Wall,G., "Exergy tools," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 217, 125-136 (2003)
19. Sciubba, E., "Exergo-economics: thermodynamic foundation for a more
rational resource use," Int. J. Energy Research, 29, 613-636 (2005)
20. Glasser, D., D. Hildebrandt, B. Hausberger, B. Patel, and B.J. Glasser,
"Systems approach to reducing energy usage and carbon dioxide emis-
sions," AIChE Journal, 55, 2202-2207 (2009)
21. Patel, B., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and B. Hausberger, "Synthesis
and Integration of Chemical Processes from a Mass, Energy, and
Entropy Perspective," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,
46,8756-8766 (2007)
22. Sempuga, B.C., B. Hausberger, B. Patel, D. Hildebrandt, and D.
Glasser, "Classification of Chemical Processes: A Graphical Approach
to Process Synthesis To Improve Reactive Process Work Efficiency,"



























































270


Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 8227-8237 (2010)
23. Sempuga, B.C., D. Hildebrandt, B. Patel, and D. Glasser, "Work to
Chemical Processes: The Relationship between Heat, Temperature,
Pressure, and Process Complexity," Industrial & Engineering Chem-
istry Research, 50, 8603-8619 (2011)
24. Hildebrandt, D., D. Glasser, B. Hausberger, B. Patel, and B.J. Glasser,
"Producing Transportation Fuels with Less Work," Science,323,1680-
1681 (2009)
25. Patel, B., D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, and B. Hausberger, "Thermody-
namics Analysis of Processes. 1. Implications of Work Integration,"
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,44, 3529- 3537 (2005)
26. Haddeland, G.E.,"Synthetic Methanol," SRI International (1981)
27. Cheng, W.-H., and H. Kung, Methanol Production and Use, Marcel
Dekker, New York (1994)
28. Flach, L., "Experience with Teaching Design: Do We Blend the Old
With the New?," Chem. Eng. Ed., 33(2), 158-161 (1999) 0


Chemical Engineering Education








I=ql-1 teaching tips


This one-page column will present practical teaching tips in sufficient detail that ChE educa-
tors can adopt the tip. The focus should be on the teaching method, not content. With no tables
or figures the column should be approximately 450 words. If graphics are included, the length
needs to be reduced. Tips that are too long will be edited to fit on one page. Please submit a
Word file to Phil Wankat , subject: CEE Teaching Tip.




TWO MINUTES OF REFLECTION

IMPROVES TEACHING


MATTHEW LIBERATORE
Colorado School of Mines
A laboratory notebook has great utility in recording
procedures, measurements, calculations, and ideas in
eal time, sometimes in a very methodical way and
other times as a stream of consciousness. With the develop-
ment of any experimental technique, a standard operating
procedure is written and refined. Analogously, a university
classroom is like a laboratory and teaching is sometimes
very structured and other times improvisational, and the key
result is learning, which is measured on exams and quizzes in
most engineering classes. Historically, a professor's standard
operating procedures are his/her lecture notes. These notes
are generally static and commonly show their age (wrinkled
edges, yellowing paper, coffee stains, etc.). Also like labora-
tory measurements, good teaching practices are reproducible
and backed by significant findings in the literature (e.g.,[l.2').
From this literature, one practice that encourages student
learning is reflection (e.g., allowing students 1 to 2 minutes
to think about the last concept or example'21). Reflection en-
courages students to organize their thoughts and find ways to
tie new material with their existing knowledge. Faculty also
benefit from reflection.11 I feel my courses have improved
every semester by implementing a simple reflective exercise
immediately after each class that I lead (even before check-
ing messages).
Nominally, the reflective exercise takes 1 to 2 minutes and
employs free writing to analyze the just-completed class ses-
sion. Some of the major areas to address include:
Assessing what worked and what could be improved
Logging how long each segment of the class
(e.g., concept) took to cover
Listing any pertinent questions that the students asked
(or ones that I stumbled on answering)
Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Gauging the energy level of class and potential reason
(e.g., exam last night, just returned an exam)
Recording ideas for adding/subtracting content
(e.g., too easy, too far off topic)
Generating ideas to start the next class period
(e.g.,finish or review a topic, clarify a concept)
Cataloging ideas for future quiz or exam problems (and
filing separately)
The reflective statements are read over in preparation for
teaching that specific course material the next time. Another
benefit of this technique is improved organization, including
not scrambling to squeeze in content before the homework
is due or an exam or quiz.
While data on student learning based on reflective change
will be difficult to collect, this type of attention to detail
can improve the quantity and quality of material learned,
the classroom learning environment, and instructor-class
dynamic. Overall, the teaching "lab notebook" documents
and organizes ideas, criticisms, and questions immediately
following a classroom "experiment," and has led to improved
organization and student learning of course concepts in the
author's experience. Finally, the importance of reflection is
not a new idea in education as reflective exercises date back to
St. Ignatius Loyola and persevere as an integral part of Jesuit
schools and universities for more than 450 years.
1. How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school, National
Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (2000)
2. Bruning, R.H., G.J. Schraw, and R.R. Ronning, Cognitive psychology
and instruction, Merrill, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)
3. McAlpine,L.,and C.Weston,"Reflection: Issues related to improving
professors' teaching and students' learning," Instructional Science, 28,
363 (2000) 0
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2012








Appendix A
Procedure for Indigo Synthesis coninuedfro "Indigo," page 230.


Laboratory: Synthesis of Indigo

Adolf von Baeyer first synthesized indigo by this reaction in the 1880s.

Reaction:


0

SH 0

2 IH OFI + 2CCOOH

HO
o-nitrobenzaldehyde acetone indigo acetic acid

Reference for image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Nitrobenzaldehyde

Procedure:
Bring copies of the MSDS sheets for o-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetone, NaOH and acetic acid to lab. You must show them to me before
beginning the experiment and correctly answer safety questions I will ask.

1. Take a weigh boat with a measured amount of o-nitrobenzaldehyde in it. Carefully transfer the o-nitrobenzaldehyde into the
50 ml plastic beaker. [Side note: Benzaldehyde is an artificial essential oil of almond!]
2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 5 ml of acetone.
3. Add the 5 ml of acetone to the solid o-nitrobenzaldehyde and swirl it to dissolve.
4. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 5 ml of 1 M NaOH.
5. Slowly add the NaOH to the beaker. If you add it too quickly, the acetone will evaporate. Note what you observe as you add
the NaOH.



6. Let the beaker set for 5 minutes to allow the reaction to go to completion.
7. Weigh a piece of filter paper.
8. Place the filter paper in the Buchner funnel. Set the funnel in a beaker, and pour a small amount of water in the funnel to help
the paper adhere to the funnel.
9. Carefully pour the indigo solution onto the center of the filter paper. Rinse the beaker with a small amount of water to remove
the last of the crystals. Note what you observe as the filtration begins.




10. Allow some time for the liquid to drip through the filter.
11. Clean your 50 ml beaker with glassware cleaner and water. Place it at your spot to dry.
12. When the filtration is done, carefully lift out the filter paper and set it near the back of your spot to dry overnight.
13. Pour the filtrate into the dye waste container, and clean your Buchner funnel and the large beaker.
14. On Monday, weigh the filter paper with indigo on it to estimate the yield.





Memo Due to WA: Final memo due:

Use the format as before to describe the experiment and your results.

Introduction: Provide background information about the synthesis. Include the mechanism (explained in Ullman's Encyclopedia) if you
have taken organic chemistry. Add other information you consider useful or interesting.

Procedure: Summarize the procedure you followed (main steps only, not all the details). Use Visio to draw a process flow diagram.

Results and Conclusions: Prepare a table with the raw data (g benzaldehyde, g filter paper, g final product) and calculated results (g
indigo, % yield). How well did you do? How could you improve your results or the process? What are sources of error? Consider an
economic analysis (For small quantities: Benzaldehyde: 5 g costs $19.10; 100 g costs $24.00, 18 kg costs $242.50. Acetone: 1 L costs
$23.50, NaOH: 100 ml costs $9.60; 2 L costs $30.50. Indigo: 25 g costs $28.30; 100 g costs $90.50. Bulk prices would be different.)



Chemical Engineering Education









= IND EX Graduate Education Advertisements


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Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012
















ii


Graduate Education in Chemical


and Biomolecular Engineering

Teaching and research
assistantships as well as
ndustrially sponsored fellowships F E
available. In addition to stipends,


tuition and most fees are waived.
PhD students may get some
incentive scholarships.











H. CASTANEDA J. R. ELLIOTT










G. G. CHASE E. A. EVANS


G. CHENG


H. M. CHEUNG


M. IANUZZI


L.-K. JU, Chair


N. D. LEIPZIG


R. S. LILLARD


L.LIU


J. H. PAYER


J. E. PUSKAS


H. C. QAMMAR


C. MONTY


B. Z. NEWBY


J. ZHENG


* Castaneda: Electrochemistry & Corrosion,
Corrosion evolution, Modeling, Coatings
damage/performance, special alloys.
* Chase: Multiphase Processes, Nanofibers,
Filtration, Coalescence
* Cheng: Biomaterials, Protein Engineering,
Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine
* Cheung: Nanocomposite Materials, So-
nochemical Processing, Polymerization in
Nanostructured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid
Processing
* Elliott: Molecular Simulation, Phase Be-
havior, Physical Properties, Process Model-
ing, Supercritical Fluids
* Evans: Materials Processing and CVD
Modeling, Plasma Enhanced Deposition
and Crystal Growth Modeling
* lannuzzi: Corrosion Engineering, Environ-
mentally Assistaced Cracking
* Ju: Renewable Bioenergy Environmental
Bioengineering
* Leipzig: Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology,
Biomaterials, Tissue Engienering
* Lillard: Corrosion, Oxide Films, SCC and
Hydrogen Interactions with Metals
* Liu: Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosen-
sors, Tissue Engineering
* Monty: Reaction Engineering, Biomimicry
Microsensors
* Newby: Surface Modification, Alternative
Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient
Surfaces
* Payer: Corrosion & Electrochemistry,
Systems Health Monitoring and Reliability,
Materials Performance and Failure Analysis
* Puskas: Biomaterials, Green Polymer
Chemistry and Engineering, Biomimetic
Processes
* Qammar: Nonlinear Control, Chaotic
Processes, Engineering Education
* Visco: Thermodynamics, Computer-aided
molecular design
* Zheng: Computational Biophysics, Bio-
molecular Interfaces, Biomatierials

Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering
The University of Akron
Akron, OH 44325-3906
Phone (330) 972-7250
Fax (330) 972-5856
www.chemical.uakron.edu


Chemical Engineering Education






THE UNIVERSITY OF


ALABAMA

Chemical

& Biological

Engineering


A dedicated faculty with state of the art
facilities, offering research programs
leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master
of Science degrees. In 2009, the department
moved into its new home, the $70 million
Science and Engineering Complex.
Research Areas:
Biological Applications of Nanomaterials,
Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design,
Drug Delivery, Electronic Materials, Energy
and CO2 Separation and Sequestration, Fuel
Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic
Materials, Membrane Separations and
Reactors, Pharmaceutical Synthesis and
Microchemical Systems, Polymer Rheology,
Simulations and Modeling


Faculty:
David Arnold (Purdue)
Yuping Bao (Washington)
Jason Bara (Colorado)
Christopher Brazel (Purdue)
Eric Carlson (Wyoming)
Peter Clark (Oklahoma State)
Nagy El-Kaddah (Imperial College)
Arun Gupta (Stanford)
Ryan Hartman (Michigan)
John Kim (Maryland, Baltimore)
Tonya Klein (NC State)
Alan Lane (Massachusetts)
Margaret Liu (Ohio State)
Stephen Ritchie (Kentucky)
C. Heath Turner (NC State)
Mark Weaver (Florida)
John Wiest (Wisconsin)
For Information
Contact:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical & Biological Engineering
The University of Alabama
Box 870203
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203
(205) 348-6450
alane@eng.ua.edu
http://che.eng.ua.edu
An equal employment/ equal educational opporluniy, institution


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012























UNIVERSITY OF



ALBERTA


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Our Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering offers students
the opportunity to study and conduct leading research with world-class
academics in the top program in Canada, and one of the very best in North
America. Our graduate student population is culturally diverse, academically
strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging and supportive
environment from all areas of the world.
- Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical engineering,
materials engineering, and process control.
- All full-time graduate students in research programs receive a stipend to
cover living expenses and tuition.
Our graduates are sought-after professionals who will be international leaders of
tomorrow's chemical and materials engineering advances. Research topics include:
biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and interfacial
phenomenon, computational chemistry, computational fluid dynamics,
computer process control, corrosion and wear engineering, drug deliv-
ery, electrochemistry, fluid-particle dynamics, fuel cell modeling and
control, heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis,
hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, micro-alloy steels,
micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular sieves, multiphase
mixing, nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum thermody-
namics, pollution control, polymers, powder metallurgy, process and
performance monitoring, rheology, surface science, system identifica-
tion, thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.
P The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one million square feet of
outstanding teaching, research, and personnel space in the past six years.
We offer outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities,
including access to one of the most technologically advanced nanotechnology
facilities in the world the National Institute for Nanotechnology, connected
by pedway to the Chemical and Materials Engineering Building.
- Annual research funding for our Department is over $14 million. Externally
sponsored funding to support engineering research in the entire Faculty of
Engineering has increased to over $50 million each year- the largest amount
of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada.

www.cme.engineering.ualberta.ca


S. Bradford, PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus
R.E. Burrell, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K. Cadien, PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana)
W. Chen, PhD (University of Manitoba)
P. Choi, PhD (University of Waterloo)
K.T. Chuang, PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus
I. Dalla Lana, PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus
A. de Klerk, PhD (University of Pretoria)
G. Dechaine, PhD (University of Alberta)
J. Derksen, PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology)
S. Dubljevic, PhD (University of California, Los Angeles)
R.L. Eadie, PhD (University of Toronto)
A. Elias, PhD ( University of Alberta)
J.A.W. Elliott, PhD (University of Toronto)
T.H. Etsell, PhD (University of Toronto)
G. Fisher, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
J.F. Forbes, PhD (McMaster University) Chair
A. Gerlich, PhD (University of Toronto)
M.R. Gray, PhD (California Institute of Technology)
R. Gupta, PhD (University of Newcastle)
R.E. Hayes, PhD (University of Bath)
H. Henein, PhD (University of British Columbia)
B. Huang, PhD (University of Alberta)
D.G. Ivey, PhD (University of Windsor)
S.M Kresta, PhD (McMaster University)
S.M. Kuznicki, PhD (University of Utah)
D. Li, PhD (McGill University)
J. Liu, PhD (University of California, Los Angeles)
Q. Liu, PhD (University of British Columbia)
Q. Liu, PhD (China University of Mining & Technology)
J. Luo, PhD (McMaster University)
D.T. Lynch, PhD (University of Alberta) Dean v F,. .. ....
J.H. Masliyah, PhD (University of British Columbia)
Distinguished University Professor Emeritus
A.E. Mather, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
W.C. McCaffrey, PhD (McGill University)
P.F. Mendez, PhD (MIT)
D. Mitlin, PhD (University of California, Berkeley)
K. Nandakumar, PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus
R. Narain, PhD (University of Mauritius)
N. Nazemifard, PhD (University of Alberta)
J. Nychka, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
F. Otto, PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus
B. Patchett, PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus
V. Prasad, PhD (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)
S. Sanders, PhD (University of Alberta)
D. Sauvageau, PhD (McGill University)
N. Semagina, PhD (Tver State Technical Univ.)
S.L. Shah, PhD (University of Alberta)
J.M. Shaw, PhD (University of British Columbia)
T. Thundat, PhD (University of Albany, New York)
H. Uludag, PhD (University of Toronto)
L. Unsworth, PhD (McMaster University)
S.E. Wanke, PhD (University of California, Davis) Emeritus
M. Wayman, PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus
M.C. Williams, PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus
G. Winkel, MSc (University of Alberta)
R. Wood, PhD (Northwestern University) Emeritus
Z. Xu, PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
T. Yeung, PhD (University of British Columbia)
H. Zeng, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara)
H. Zhang, PhD (Princeton University)
For further information, contact:
Graduate Program Office
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2V4
Phone: 780-492-1823 Fax: 780-492-2881
Chemical Engineering Education










ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech)
Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicit)
JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor and
Associate Dean of Engineering (Princeton)
Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations
PAUL BLOWERS, Distinguished Associate Professor
(Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design
WENDELL ELA, Professor (Stanford)
Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry
JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford)
Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils
JAMES A. FIELD, Professor and Chair (Wageningen University)
Bioremediation, Environmental Microbiology, Hazardous Waste Treatment
DOMINIC GERVASIO, Research Professor (Case Western Reserve)
Electrocatalysis, Ion Conductors, Electrochemistry including: Electro-
plating, Corrosion and Energy Storage and Power Sources including
Fuel Cells, Batteries, Fuels, Fuel Reforming and Solar Cells
ROBERTO GUZMAN, Professor (North Carolina State)
Affinity Protein Separations, Polymeric Surface Science
ANTHONY MUSCAT, Professor (Stanford)
Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing, Microcontamination
KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado)
Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils
THOMAS PETERSON, National Science Foundations'
Directorate for Engineering (CalTech)
Global Education, Semiconductor Research, Energy Sustainability
ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts)
Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing
EDUARDO SAEZ, Distinguished Professor (UC, Davis)
Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids
GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor and Associate Dean
of Engineering (Wisconsin)
Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics,
Solar Energy
FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents' Professor (Berkeley)
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes,
Microcontamination, Semiconductor Manufacturing
REYES SIERRA, Professor (Wageningen University)
Environmental Biotechnology, Semiconductor Manufacturing,
Wastewater Treatment
SHANE A. SNYDER, Professor (Michigan State University)
Endocrine Disruptor and Emerging Contaminant Detection and
Treatment, Water Reuse i,_. li,,. .t.'.,,.. and Applications
ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (CalTech)
Aerosol Composition and HI I, -. i';. ;ir Climate Change
For further information
http://www.chee.arizona.edu
Chairman, Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
P.O. BOX 210011
The University ofArizona
Tucson,AZ 85721
The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.


Chemical and Environmental

Engineering

at

THE UNIVERSITY OF


ARIZONA

TUCSON ARIZONA



The Department of Chemical and
SEnvironmental Engineering at the
University of Arizona offers a wide
range of research opportunities in all
major areas of chemical engineering
and environmental engineering. Our
department offers a comprehensive
approach to sustainability which is
grounded on the principles of conserva-
tion and responsible management of water, energy, and material
resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable
energy, desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nano-
technology are providing innovative solutions to the challenges
of environmental sustainability. A significant portion of research
effort is devoted to areas at the boundary between chemical and
environmental engineering, including environmentally benign
semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation,
environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment tech-
nologies.The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate
degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD degrees
in both chemical and environmental engineering.
Financial support is available through fellowships, govern-
ment and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and
research assistantships.

Tucson has an excellent climate and many
recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that
retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


J








| I Ira A. Fulton

Schools of Engineering


ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Lenore L. Dai, Ph.D., Illinois.
Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and
microrheology, materials at the nanoscale, synthesis of novel
polymer composites and "smart" materials
Erica Forzani, Ph.D., Cordoba National University.
Chemical and biosensors, non-invasive sensors, sensor
integration, wireless and lab-on-cell-phone sensors
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
Mary Laura Lind, Ph.D., Caltech.
Advanced membrane materials synthesis and characterization,
environmental nanotechnology, sustainable energy and water
production, amorphous metals
David Nielsen, Ph.D., Queen's University at Kingston.
Biochemical engineering, metabolic engineering, bioreactor
and bioprocess engineering, product recovery
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties, fluidization,
mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured
particulates, filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration,
sintering and granulation of fine particles
Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis


Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, optimized interventions for behavioral health,
supply chain management
Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Cesar Torres, Ph.D., Arizona State.
Bioenergy, microbial electrochemical cells, microbial and biofilm
kinetics, microscopic techniques to image biofilms


Affiliate Faculty
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering

Graduate Faculty
Terry Alford (Materials Science and Engineering), Michael Caplan
(Biomedical Engineering), Peter Crozier (Materials Science and
Engineering), Hanqing Jiang (Mechanical Engineering), and Robert
Wang (Mechanical Engineering)


For additional details visit
http://engineering.asu.edu/semte/Chemical.html
or contact (480) 965-4979 or semtegrad@asu.edu


Chemical Engineering Education







Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


University of Arkansas


ias. c The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate
Programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees.
,N Qualified applicants are eligible for financial aid. Annual departmental Ph.D. stipends pro-
SR. vide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $30,000, and Distinguished
] d > ^ Doctoral Fellowships provide $40,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is
waived. Applications received before April 1 will be given first consideration. Fellowship
applications must be made before January 15.

Areas of Research ,.__


E[ Biochemical engineering
EN Biological and food systems
E[ Biomolecular nanophotonics
1E Electronic materials processing
EN Fate of pollutants in the environment
EU Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis
0E Integrated passive electronic components
E0 Membrane separations
[E Micro channel electrophoresis
E0 Renewable fuels M.D.
EU Phase equilibria and process design R.E. I


Faculty


Ackerson
3abcock


R.R. Beitle
E.C. Clausen
JA. Havens
C.N. Hestekin
J.A. Hestekin
W.R. Penney
X..Qian
D*K. Roper
S.LC Ser\ oss .
T.O. Spicer-
G.J. Thonin


R.K. Ulrich
S.R. Wickramasinghe


H1


For more information contact
Dr. Jerry Havens or 479-575-4951
Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: http://www.cheg.uark.edu/gradprogram.php

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 275













T 4tT


Chemical Engineering Education
















Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
the 3rd most livable place in the world* Vancouver's and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times
natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
outdoor pursuits throughout the year- hiking, canoeing,


mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city hosted the
Olympic and Paraolympic Winter Games.


Chemical and Biological Engineering Building, officially opened in 2006

Faculty
Susan A. Baldwin (Toronto)
Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia)
Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R. Grace (Cambridge)
Christina Gyenge (British Columbia)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
C. Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
James M. Piret'(MIT)
Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad)
Kevin J. Smith (McMaster)
Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto)
Heather Trajano (California, Riverside)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)

Professors Emeriti
Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branion (Saskatchewan)
Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill)
Norman Epstein (New York)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)


UBC




Faculty of Applied Science

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www.chbe.ubc.ca

MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).

Currently about 170 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The
program dates back to the 1920s. The department has a strong emphasis
on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael
Smith Laboratories (MSL), Pulp and Paper Centre (PPC), Clean Energy
Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public


health, engineering and policy research.



Main Areas of Research
Biological Engineering Environmental and Green
Biochemical Engineering Enineering
Biomedical Engineering Emissions Control Green
Protein Engineering Blood Process Engineering Life
research Stem Cells Cycle Analysis Water and
Energy Wastewater Treatment Waste
Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil Management Aquacultural
and Bio-diesel Combustion, Engineering
Gasification and Pyrolysis Particle Technoloqy
Electrochemical Engineering Fluidization Multiphase Flow *
SFuel Cells Hydrogen Fluid-Particle Systems Particle
Production Natural Gas Processing Electrostatics
Hydrates Kinetics and Catalysis
Process Control Polymer Rheologv
Pulp and Paper
Reaction Engineering


Financial Aid
Students admitted to the
graduate programs leading to
the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D.
degrees receive at least a
minimum level of financial
support regardless of citizenship
(approx. $17,500/year for
M.A.Sc and M.Sc and $19,000/
year for Ph.D). Teaching
assistantships are available (up
to approx. $1,000 per year).
All incoming students will be
considered for several Graduate
Students Initiative (GSI)
Scholarships of $5,000/year
and 4-year Doctoral Fellowships
Scholarships of approx.
$18,000/year.


*August 2011, The Economist Intelligence Unit's Liveability Survey Mailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chbe.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012
















UNIVERSITY OF

CALGARY

FACULTY

U. Sundararaj, Head (Minnesota)
J. Abedi (Toronto)
R. Aguilera (Colorado School)
J. Azaiez (Stanford)
L.A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. Bergerson (Carnegie-Mellon)
S. Chen (Regina)
Z. Chen (Purdue)
M. Clarke (Calgary)
A. De Visscher (Ghent, Belgium)
M. Dong (Waterloo)
M.W. Foley (Queens)
I. D. Gates (Minnesota)
G. Hareland (Oklahoma State)
H. Hassanzadeh (Calgary)
J.M. Hill (Wisconsin)
M. Husein (McGill)
A.A. Jeje (MIT)
J. Jensen (Texas, Austin)
M.S. Kallos (Calgary)
A. Kantzas (Waterloo)
K. Karan (Calgary)
N. Mahinpey (Toronto)
B.B. Maini (Univ. Washington)
A.K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
S.A. Mehta (Calgary)
R.G. Moore (Alberta)
P. Pereira (France)
K.D. Rinker (North Carolina)
E. Roberts (Cambridge)
A. Sen (Calgary)
A. Settari (Calgary)
H. Song (Ohio State)
H.W. Yarranton (Alberta)


SCHULICH
School of Engineering


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D.
degrees with specializations in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering,
Energy & Environmental Engineering, and Bi..'i,,.lIdI Engineering. Financial
assistance is available to all qualified applicants.
The areas of research include:

* Chemical: Catalysis; modeling, simulation & optimization; process control &
dynamics; reaction engineering & chemical kinetics; rheology (polymers,
suspensions & emulsions); separation operations; thermodynamics & phase
equilibria; transport phenomena (deposition in pipelines, diffusion, dispersion,
flow in porous media, heat transfer), nanotechnology, nanoparticle research,
polymer nanocomposites;

* Petroleum: Drilling engineering; improved gas recovery (coal bed methane, gas
hydrates, tight gas); improved oil recovery (SAGD, VAPEX, EOR, in-situ
combustion); production engineering; reservoir characterization; reservoir
engineering & modeling; reservoir geomechanics & simulation;

* Environmental: Air pollution control; alternate energy sources; greenhouse gas
control & CO2 sequestration; life cycle assessment; petroleum waste management
& site remediation; solid waste management; water & wastewater treatment

* Biomedical: Cell & tissue engineering (cardiovascular systems, bone & joint
repair); bacterial infection; biopolymers; bioproduct development; blood filtration;
microvascular systems; stem cell bioprocess engineering (media & reagent
development, bioreactor protocols).

For additional information, contact:
Dr. J. Azaiez, Associate Head, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
chemandpetenggrad @ucalgary.ca


The University of Calgary is located in Calgary, which is called the Oil and Engineering
Capital of Canada, and the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988
Winter Olympics. Most Canadian oil & petroleum companies are headquartered in
Calgary. With a population of over one million, the city combines the traditions of the Old
West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110
km west of the city. Ski resorts and numerous hiking trails are readily accessible.


I
Chemical Engineering Education


..~ .' '.
" 1 ... ,.-:.. -d. r -." "'-.






Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Polymers and Complex Fluids
Microsystems Technology and Microelectronics
Molecular Simulations and Theory
Interfacial Engineering T.
Product Development Masters Program 9
Biochemical & Bioprocess Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
S~i Synthetic Biology










Chemical & Biomolecular



t Engineering

at the University of California, Berkeley (


-I


The Chemical & Biomolecular
Engineering Department at the
University of California, Berkeley,
one of the preeminent departments
in the field, offers graduate programs
leading to the Doctor of Philosophy
or a Master of Science in Product
Development.


For more information visit our website at:

http//chme erkeey S


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT









FOCUS AREAS FACULTY

Biomolecular and Cellular J. P. Chang
Engineering (William F. Sever Chair in Mate-
*, jF trials Electrochemistry)
Process Systems Engi- 4 Y. Chen
neering (Simulation, 4
Design, Optimization, P. D. Christofides
Dynamics, and Control) Y. Cohen
Semiconductor rr C J. Davis
Manufacturing and (ViceProvost
Electronic Materials Ilformation Technology)
R.F. Hicks

GENERAL THEMES L. Ignarro
ET(Nobel Laureate)
D Energy and the t er J. C. Liao
Environment q (Parsons Chair and Dept. Chair)
Y. Lu
SNanoengineering
V.I. Manousiouthakis
S. ... H.G. Monbouquette
PROGRAMS. Orkoulas

Biomolecular Engineering T. Segura
Department offers a S.M. Senkan
program of teaching and Y. Tang
research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in
Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and
Process and Control Systems Engineering.
Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a
waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's attractive 417-acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood
Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of experiences
in theatre, music, art, and sports on campus.
CONTACT







284 Chemical Engineering Education





























































































Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








UC SANTA BARBARA I


chemical engineering ,
SBA-16 (cubic mesoporous silica)


Award-winning faculty

Bradley F. Chmelka
Patrick S. Daugherty
Michael F. Doherty
Francis J. Doyle III
Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE
Michael J. Gordon
Song-I Han
Matthew E. Helgeson
Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS
Edward J. Kramer, NAE
L. Gary Leal, NAE
Glenn E. Lucas
Eric McFarland
Samir Mitragotri
Michelle A. O'Malley
Baron G. Peters
Susannah L. Scott
M. Scott Shell
Todd M. Squires
Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE


Interdisciplinary research .

California Nanosystems Institute
Center for Control Engineering
and Computation
Center for Polymers and Organic Solids
Center for Risk Studies and Safety
Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies
Institute for Energy Efficiency
Institute for Quantum Engineering,
Science & Technology
International Center for Materials Research
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
Materials Research Laboratory

Interdisciplinary research and entrepreneurship are hallmarks of Engineering
at UC Santa Barbara. Many graduate students choose to be co-advised.


.O~~t- 6 -- 6'----
--. :




,,, 6
The UCSB campus, located on the Pacific Coast about 100 miles
northwest of Los Angeles, has more than 20,000 students.

Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research
assistantships. For additional information and to complete an application,
visit www.chemengr.ucsb.edu or contact chegrads@engineering.ucsb.edu


Chemical Engineering Education

































































I;i


::!r
" '


tq~

~i~


.. .. I .



















research in industry or academia. Research opportunities,

especially in our core strengths of energy, advanced
Materials, and biological applications of chemical

engineering, are many. You will find CWRU to be an exciting
Environment in which to carry out your graduate studies.
Join us to invent the future.




























Faculty Members
John C. Angus, Ph.D. Harihara Baskaran, Ph.D. Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. Daniel J. Lacks, Ph.D.
University of Michigan Pennsylvania State University Princeton University Harvard University
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. Heidi B. Martin, Ph.D.
UC Berkeley Case Institute of Technology Iowa State University Case Western Reserve University

Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. R. Mohan Sankaran, Ph.D. Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. Jesse S. Wainright, Ph.D.
Carnegie-Mellon University California Institute of Technology University of Pittsburgh Case Western Reserve University

For more information on research opportunities, admission, and financial support:
Graduate Coordinator e CASE WESTERN RESERVE
Department of Chemical Engineering 1 UN IVE RS IT rT ,826 E-mail: chemeng@case.edu
10900 Euclid Avenue Visit: www.case.edu/cse/eche
Sythetc Dimon
,J .Mi rosensors
CoatngsThinFils an Surace
Poymr aocmpsie
Nanonateial andNansyntesi



























10900 Euclid Avenue Visit: www.case.edu/cse/eche


Chemical Engineering Education









I nnnrtivnitipc fnr Crnnintp .tuadf iflinn homminl Poinanvin f fAtl


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in

Chemical Engineering


Chia-chi Ho

Yuen-Koh Kao

Soon-Jai Khang

Vikram Kuppa

Joo-Youp Lee

Dale Schaefer

Vesselin Shanov

Peter Smirniotis

Stephen W. Thiel


Financial Aid

Available

The University of Cincinnati is
committed to a policy of
non-discrimination in awarding
financial aid.
For Admission Information Contact
Barbara Carter
Graduate Studies Office
College of Engineering and Applied Science
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0077
513-556-5157
Barbara.carter@uc.edu
or
Professor Peter Smirniotis
The Chemical Engineering Program
The School of En,.., E, i,, ,,iit hal
Biological and Medical Engineering
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221
panagiotis.smirniotis@uc.edu


[ Emerging Energy Systems
Catalytic conversion offossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid
alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation;fuel cells, hydrogen storage
nanomaterials
O Environmental Research
Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxAcombustion; wastewa-
ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors
O Molecular Engineering
Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)
molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules
O Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering
Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and
design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors
[ Membrane and Separation Technologies
Membrane synthesis and characterization, membrane gas separation, membrane filtration processes, pervapora-
tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology,
natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical
reaction-based separation processes
0 Biotechnology
Nano/microbiotechnology, novel bioseparation techniques, affinity separation, biodegradation of toxic wastes,
controlled drug delivery, two-phase flow
O Polymers
Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology,
computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial
phenomena
0 Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology
This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering,
science, medicine, or pharmacy with above focus. This program is supported by a Jive-year renewable grant from
the National Science Foundation. The IGERTfellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three
years.
[ Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST)
INST brings together three centers of excellence-the Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for
BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonics-composed of faculty from the C. -,.'. of En-
gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure
of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 28









U


GROVE SCHOOL MS & PhD Programs in
oF ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


K\


RESEARCH AREAS


Biomaterials and Biotransport
biomatl ni-ier bio-fluid flow, :as-::.
biomaterials


Catalysis
Catalyst design, reaction kinetics,
electrocatalysis


Colloid Science and Engineering
directed assembly, novel particle '-,:liIrloi:,'
Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow
:ililnl heat transfer, emulsions, lh- l:1,:, .
suspensions


Energy Generation and Storage
batteries, gas hydrates, thermal ii'-'-:,
storage
Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter
device design, dynamic interfacial processes
Nanomaterials and Self Assembly
catalysts, patchy particles, sensors
Polymer Science and Engineering
polymer processing, rheology
Powder Science and Technology
i- 11ai n.: iiac : il form ulations, ,:, .'der i:.


INSTITUTES


Levich Institute for Physicochemical
Hydrodynamics
directed by Morton M. Denn
Albert Einstein Professor of Science and
Engineering


Energy Institute
directed by Sanjoy Banerjee
Distinguished Professor of Chemical
Engineering


212 650 6671


Chemical Engineering Education


b L~
)
)i) 'rr

11









CLEMSEON

CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR
ENGINEERING
Clemson University boasts a 1,400 acre campus on the
shores of Lake Hartwell at the foothills of the Blue Ridge
Mountains. The warm campus environment, great
weather, and recreational activities make Clemson
University an ideal place to live and learn.
ChBE GRADUATE PROGRAM
The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
offers strong research programs in biotechnology,
advanced materials, energy, and modeling and simulation.

Biotechnology: bioelectronics, biosensors and biochips,
biopolymers, drug delivery, protein design, bioseparations,
bioremediation, and biomass conversion.

Advanced materials: polymer fibers, films and composites,
nanoscale design of catalysts, biomaterials, nanomaterials,
membranes, directed assembly, and interfacial engineering.

Energy: hydrogen production and storage, biofuels
synthesis, sustainable engineering, nanotechnology,
reaction engineering, separations, kinetics and catalysis.

Modeling and simulation: rational catalyst design,
biological self-assembly, gas hydrates, ice nucleation and
growth, and polymer microstructure.

Learn more at
www.clemson.edu/ces/chbe


Clemson ChBE Faculty
Mark A. Blenner, Asst. Professor
David A. Bruce, Professor
Rachel B. Getman, Asst. Professor
Charles H. Gooding, Professor
Anthony Guiseppi-Elie, Prof. & C3B Dir.
Douglas E. Hirt, Professor & Chair
Scott M. Husson, Prof. & Grad. Coord.
Christopher L. Kitchens, Assoc. Professor
Amod A. Ogale, Professor & CAEFF Dir.
Mark E. Roberts, Asst. Professor
Sapna Sarupria, Asst. Professor
Mark C. Thies, Professor


For More Information, Contact:
Graduate Coordinator
shusson@clemson.edu
864-656-3055

Department of Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering
Clemson University, Box 340909
Clemson, South Carolina 29634


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012










Chemical & Biological Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER


Why The University of Colorado Boulder?
-25 faculty performing field-leading research in a
variety of areas
-Internationally recognized faculty with numerous
awards for their research and teaching
-Outstanding facilities and scientific interactions

Cutting-Edge Research

BIOMATERIALS AND TISSUE ENGINEERING:
biocompatible coatings, biosensors, development The recently constructed Jennie Smoly Caruthers Biotechnology
of new approaches for regenerating damaged or Building is the new ultramodern home to the Department of
diseased tissues K.S. Anseth, C.N. Bowman, S.J. Chemical and Biological Engineering
Bryant, J.N. Cha, A.P. Goodwin, J.L. Koar, M.J. Mahoney,
P. Nagal, T.W. Randolph, D.K. Schwartz, J. W. Stansbury

BIOPHARMACEUTICALS: delivery technologies and stable formulations for new drugs, metabolic engineering, drug
delivery K.S. Anseth, A. Chatterjee, R.T. Gill, A.P. Goodwin, A. Jayaraman, J.L. Kor, T. W. Randolph, D.K. Schwartz

CATALYSIS, SURFACE SCIENCE AND THIN FILM MATERIALS: heterogeneous catalysis, catalysis for biomass
conversion, zeolites, atomic and molecular layer deposition CN. Bowman, J.N. Cha, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, D.L. Gin,
J.W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, A. W. Weimer

COMPLEX FLUIDS AND MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES: fluid mechanics of suspensions, gas-particle fluidization, granular
flow mechanics R.H. Davis, CM. Hrenya, A. Jayaraman, T. W. Randolph, A. W. Weimer

COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE: classical and quantum simulations, computational biology, statistical mechanics,
continuum modeling -A. Chatterjee, R.H. Davis, C.M. Hrenya, A. Jyaraman, J. W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrove

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CLEAN ENERGY APPLICATIONS: biofuel, solar energy, carbon capture, high-efficiency
synthesis -J.N. Cha, A. Chatterjee, R.H. Davis, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, R.T. Gill, D.L. Gin, A.P. Goodwin, C.M. Hrenya, A.
Jyaraman, J.W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, P. Nagal, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, M.P. Stoykovich, A.W. Weimer
MEMBRANES AND SEPARATIONS: inorganic membranes, polymer membranes, ionic liquids R.H. Davis, J.L. Falconer,
D.L. Gin, R.D. Noble, D.K. Schwartz, A. W. Weimer

PROTEIN/METABOLIC/GENOMIC ENGINEERING AND SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY: a new
approach to understanding and using metabolic processes -A. Chatterjee, R.T. Gill, J.L. Kaar

NANOSTRUCTURED FILMS AND DEVICES: engineering materials at the nanoscale C.N.
Bowman, J.N. Cha, J.L. Falconer, S.M. George, D.L. Gin, A.P. Goodwin, J. W. Medlin, C.B. Musgrave, P.
Nagal, D.K. Schwartz, J. W. Stansbury, M.P. Stoykovich, A. W. Weimer

I ; POLYMER CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING: chemical synthesis, applications of polymers and
S macromolecules K.S. Anseth, C.N. Bowman, S.J. Bryant, J.N. Cha, S.M. George, D.L. Gin, A.P.
\ Goodwin, A. Jayaraman, CB. Musgrave, T.W. Randolph, J. W. Stansbury, M.P. Stoykovich

University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, JSCBB, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309
Phone: (303) 492-7471 Fax: (303) 492-8425 Web: www.colorado.edu/che Email: chbegrad@colorado.edu


Chemical Engineering Education

































Research Areas
Systems and Synthetic Biology
Sustainable Energy
Biomedical Engineering
Soft Materials
Bioanalytical Devices

Faculty
Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota
Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech
J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U.
Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U.
Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech
Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U.
Christopher D. Snow. Ph.D., Stanford U.
Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech



View faculty and student research
videos, find application information,
and get other information at
http://cbe.colostate.edu


Research
The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological
Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of
cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts
in their respective fields. Opportunities for collaboration with many other
department across the University are abundant, including departments in
the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and
Biomedical Sciences.

Financial Support
Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on assistantships
also receive tuition support. The department has a number of research
assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of interest
from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional University
fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.

Fort Collins
Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as
a gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
With its superb climate (over 300
days of sunshine per year), there
are exceptional opportunities for
outdoor pursuits including hiking,
biking, skiing, and rafting.


For additional information or
to schedule a visit of campus:
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370
Phone: (970) 491-5253
Fax: (970) 491-7369
E-mail: cbegrad@colostate.edu


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012













Evolving from its origins as a
school of mining founded in 1873,
CSM is a unique, highly-focused
University dedicated to scholar-
ship and research in materials,
energy, and the environment.


SWith approximately 600-total
undergraduate and graduate
students and $7-8 million in
annual research funding, the Chemical and Biological Engineering
Department at CSM maintains a high-quality and dynamic program.
Research funding sources include federal agencies such as the NSF, DOE,
DARPA, ONR, NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple industries. Our research
areas include:

Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way, Herring)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, D.T. Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, D.T. Wu, Liberatore, N. Wu)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)
Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, D.T. Wu, Sum, Maupin)

Biomedical and Biophysics Research
licro-rluidics (Marr, Neeves)
Biological membranes (Sum)
Tisz.-ue engineering (Krebs)

Energy Research
Fuel rell catalysts and kinetics (Dean,
He rinrg)
H: separation and fuel cell membranes
wo.a,. Herring)
Natu al gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum)
Biofuels: Biochemical and thermochemical
routes (Liberatore, Herring, Dean, Maupin)
Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains less than 60 miles from world-
class skiing and only 15 miles from
downtown Denver, Golden, Colorado
enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per .a
year. These factors combine to provide
year-round cultural, recreational, and
entertainment opportunities
virtually unmatched anywhere
in the United States.

Jhttp://chemeng.mines.edu


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB 2003)

SA.M. Dean (Harvard 1971)

* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley 1991)

* J.F. Ely (Indiana 1971)

* A. Herring (Leeds 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel 1990)

* M.D. Krebs (Case 2010)

* M.W. Liberatore (Illinois 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford 1993)

* C.M. Maupin (Utah 2008)

* R.L. Miller (CSM 1982)

* K.B. Neeves (Cornell 2006)

* E.D. Sloan (Clemson 1974)

* A.K. Sum (Delaware 2001)

* J.D. Way (Colorado 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT 1995)

* D.T. Wu (Berkeley 1991)

* N. Wu (Princeton 2008)


Chemical Engineering Education


itt, I








COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY


Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and PhD Programs


jv 6 i- M *
-AN&*4*9.9- -i 40), mkL


Financial Assistance
is Available

Columbia University
New York, NY 10027
(212) 854-4453


I WWWlCH M .Cll M BIA. ED[ULI


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


-Faculty and Research Areas
S. BANTA Protein & Metabolic Engineering
J 3. CHEN Surface Science, Catalysis,
Electrocatalysis & Alternative Energy
C.J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry
M. HILL Design & M.S. Program
J. JU Genomics
J. KOBERSTEIN Polymers, Biomaterials, Surfaces,
Membranes
S.K. KUMAR Synthetic & Natural Polymers,
Nanomaterials
E.F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering,
Transport Phenomena
V. FAYE MCNEILL Environmental Chemical Engineering,
Atmospheric Chemistry, Aerosols
V. ORTIZ Molecular Modeling, Thermodynamics
& Statistical Mechanics in Biology
B. O'SHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics
Sustainable Energy, Carbon Capture
SA.-H. ALISSA PARK e & Storage, Particle Technology
i. TURRO Supramolecular Photochemistry,
Interface & Polymer Chemistry
Complex Adaptive Systems
V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN Engineering, Systemic Risks
Management, Materials Design,
Informatics and Artificial Intelligence
A.C. WEST Electrochemical Engineering








- Chemical Engineering Graduate Program at the


University of


Connecticut


The Chemical Engineering
Program at UConn provides stu-
dents with a thorough grounding
in fundamental chemical engi-
neering principles while offering
opportunities and resources to
specialize in a wide variety of
focus areas.
Faculty are engaged in cutting-
edge research, with expertise in
fields including but not limited to
nanotechnology, biomolecular
engineering, green energy, water
research, and polymer engineer-
ing. Several multidisciplinary
centers leverage expertise from
diverse departments, colleges,
and from the medical school,
resulting in a unique set of
resources and an extraordinary
breadth of education.
Located in idyllic Storrs, the cam-
pus maintains its New England
charm while being only 20 min-
utes from Hartford, 75 minutes
from Boston and 2 hours from
New York.

* Booth Engineering Center
for Advanced Technologies
Center for Clean Energy
Engineering
Center for Environmental
Sciences & Engineering
Institute of Materials Science


Alexander Agrios, Northwestern U
Applications of Nanoparticulate Semi-
conductors to Solar Energy
George Bollas, Aristotle U Thessaloniki
Simulation of Energy Processes, Property
Models Development I
C. Barry Carter, Oxford U, Cambridge U
Interfaces & Defects; Ceramics, Materials,
TEM, SEM, AFM, Energy
Douglas Cooper, U Colorado
Process Modeling & Control
Chris Cornelius, Virginia Tech
Structure, Property and Function of Polymers,
lonomers, Glasses and Composite Materials
Russell Kunz, RPI
Fuel Cell Technology and Electrochemistry
Cato Laurencin, MIT, Harvard U
Advanced Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering,
Biodegradable Polymers, Nanotechnology
Yu Lei, UC Riverside
Bionanotechnology, Bio/nanosensor, Bio/nano-
materials, Remediation
Anson Ma, Cambridge U
Nanomaterials, Complex Fluids, Rheology,
Microstructure, Processing, Polymers and Carbon
Nanotubes
Radenka Maric, Kyoto U
Novel Materials for Fuel Cells & Batteries, Process-
ing Materials, Aerosole & Flame Synthesis
Jeffrey McCutcheon, Yale
Membrane Separations, Polymer Electrospinning,
Forward Osmosis/Osmotic Power
Ashish Mhadeshwar, U Delaware
Modeling of Catalytic Fuel Processing, Emissions
Reduction, Energy Generation
Trent Molter, UConn
Regenerative Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Production,
Electrochemical Compressors, Fuel Cell Materials
and Hydrogen Electrolyzers


Willliam Mustain, lIT
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Aerobic
Biocathodes for Oxygen Reduction, Electro-
chemical Kinetics and Ionic Transport
Mu-Ping Nieh, UMass Amherst
Structural Characterization of Soft Materials
Richard Pamas, UCLA
Biodiesel Power Generation, PEM Fuel Cell,
Polymer Gels and Filled Polymers
Rampi Ramprasad, U Illinois-Urbana
Materials Modeling and Computation, Nano-
materials, Thin Films & Interfaces
Leslie Shor, Rutgers
Biotechnology, Microfluidics, Microbial Assay
Systems
Prabhakar Singh, U Sheffield
High Temperature Materials, Oxidation and
Corrosion, Electrochemistry, Fuel Cells
Ranjan Srivastava, U Maryland
Systems Biology & Metabolic Engineering
Steve Suib, U Illinois-Urbana
Inorganic Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry
Kristina Wagstrom, Carnegie Mellon U
Atmosphere Modeling
Yong Wang, Duke U
Nanobiotechnology, Nanomedicine and
Drug Delivery
Brian Willis, MIT
Nanotechnology, Molecular, Electronics, Semi-
conductor Devices and Fuel Cells


Chemical Engineering Education












26 ChE Faculty with 13 Named Professors


* Maciek R. Antoniewicz
* Mark A. Barteau
* Antony N. Beris
*Douglas J. Buttrey
* Wilfred Chen
* David W. Colby
* Pamela L. Cook
* Prasad S. Dhurjati
*Thomas H. Epps, III
* Eric M. Furst
* Feng Jiao
* Michael T. Klein
* April Kloxin


* Kelvin H. Lee
* Abraham M. Lenhoff
* RaulF. Lobo
*Babtunde A. Ogunnaike
* E.Terry Papoutsakis
* Christopher J. Roberts
* T.W. Frasier Russell
*Stanley I. Sander
* Millicent 0. Sullivan
* Dionisios G. Vlachos
*Norman J.Wagner
* Richard P. Wool
* Yushan Yan


UNIVERSITY PA
OF DELAWARE a.-lu


. To Pflurh


VA -W

The University of Delaware's central location on the
eastern seaboard to New York, Washington, Philadelphia
and Baltimore is convenient both culturally and
strategically to The greatest concentration of industrial
and government research laboratories in the U.S.


Research Centers & Training Programs

Centers and programs provide unique environments & experiences
for graduate students. These include:

Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI)
Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST)
Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics (CME T
Center for Neutron Science ICNS)
Center for Composite Material CCMI
Chemistry-Biology Interface ICBI)
Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions IIMMBII
*Solar Hydrogen IGERT


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 29;

















I


'J
., : .. .


EAMERON F. ABRAMS
PhD. University of California, Berkeley
Molecular simulmlrons In blphysls and molenals. Imoeiors fo Insulil
and growh factors, 1itV1 emelope nrudure and unction
JASDN B. BAXTER
PhD, Universny of California. Sonia Barbara
Solar ells; Semlcondudor nanmonierals Ulirfgst spetdrocopy
flIu~Ofl A ruinhirainrr


RAJ MUTHARASAN
PhD, Drexel University
(oilllevear sl orr fr r gene deledion; Raeonna
modeling Dynamics ofl lullsolld Inleradions
51USEPPE R. PALMESE, HEAD
PhD, University of Delaware
lhernnosetrag polyners and bionaterials; (omrposeit and
Interfaces; Procesingr ictumiproperiy reianships


nlLnnnu H. LlnfmLnuE]f:
PhD, Univerniy of Minnesola JOSHUA SNYDER (2014)
IIroDdigrdbll polymers; Bldolsel prdudlo: Transpolltn prolymin PhD, John Hopkins University
Dlecncolpsis; Hlanoporonus Iostiatores; Fuiel(ls, -
NILY R. DAN .' ,: .. o :ewolirEl dioslsi
PhD. University of Minnesotn '. i, '
Sel aemblyln amphhlrio and polysnmkdrela ", ai.; -. "" '
w .. : sti ;i biia iarilor-i'i.aM. Polymerironl
Y55SEF A. ELABO F rmdon IilneeRg: Pmi syl ro lns segilreing
PhD. Johns Hopkins Universiry
Fuel calls Polymer membrones Dilfusion in polymerns HARLE WEINBER5ER
Emerilucs Faciul


VIBHA KALRA
PhD, lornell Unrersily
lerosplrnning of o goriiinorgonhl hybrid material; Mioleular/misnHole
simulfalons; tflrorihcallylordend molerlbli For fuel call elarrnfes
KENNETH K. 5. LAU
PhD, Massachusens Insttute of Technology .
Polymer thin ilms and devsIs; Solar tell; nineleral l
.' & :. : *. ^-.: -


5TEVEN P. WRENN
PhD. University of Delaware
Ulntraeoundnggerd drug delivery Blologlicl ncllolds and
membranes; AlhuoidemoIs and gollstone iolhoginesis


NO.


m L.'


-i Drexel University
. cultural centers,.r
~ cens .f!r


nUiWW aml (6 WD.2Mi


Chemical Engineering Education


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Award-winning faculty
Cutting-edge facilities
Extensive engineering resources
An hour from the Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf of Mexico
Third in US in ChE PhD graduates
(C&E News, December 15, 2008)


Faculty
Tim Anderson
Jason E. Butler
Anul Chauhan
Oscar D Cnsalle
Jennifer Sinclair Curtis
Richard B. Dickinson
Helena Hagelin-Weaver
Gar Hoflund
Peng Jiang
Lewis E. Johns
Dmitry Kopelevich
Anthony J. Ladd
Tanmay Lele
Ranga Narayanan
Mark E. Orazem
Chang-Won Park
Fan Ren
Dinesh 0 Shah
Spyros Svoronos
Yiider Tseng
Sergey Vasenkov
Jason F. Weaver
Kirk Ziegler


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


>; 1,


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L














Graduate studies inChemical Engineering

Want a graduate program where you have leading technologies at your fingertips, the support
of expert faculty who care about your success, and access to an exciting network of research
partners and industry leaders? Choose Florida Tech for your M.S. or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.

Faculty
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D., Dept. Head
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D.
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
Biomedical Engineering
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology

Research Partners
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center'
Florida Department of Agriculture

*Graduate student sponsor
For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975
(321) 674-8068
http://coe.fit.edu/chemical
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SIGNATURE RESEARCH AREAS:
Sustainability of the Environment Intelligent Systems Assured Information and Cyber Security
New Space Systems and Commercialization of Space Communication Systems and Signal Processing Biomedical Systems

..... ...... .. ....... 4. rijl. .12


300 Chemical Engineering Education









































Big Career
Prospects
Big Network


Big City of Atlanta

DEGREES
Chemical
Engineering
Bioengineering
Paper Science
and Engineering


Georgia I

Tech
=


CONTACT
Dr. J. Carson Meredith
Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
311 Ferst Drive NW Atlanta, GA 30332-0100
grad.info@chbe.gatech.edu www.chbe.gatech.edu
404.894.1838 404.894.2866 fax


-I


KEY RESEARCH
AREAS


Energy & Sustainability Biotechnology Materials & Nanotechnology Complex Systems
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Complex Fluids, Microelectronics, Polymers, Microfluidics, Pulp & Paper,
Separations, Thermodynamics, MEMS, Environmental Science, C02 Capture, Biomedicine, Modeling,
Solar Energy, Cancer Diagnostics & Therapeutics, Biofuels, Air Quality, Optimization, Bioinformatics,
Process Synthesis & Control, Fuel Cells


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012










University of Houston

Graduate Studies in Chemical and
Biomolecular
Engineering




M- jt


>Z~sL


J. J
a I.


HOUSTON -
Dynamic Hub of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering Research Areas:


Houston is at the center of the U.S. energy and
chemical industries and is the home of NASA's
Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned
Texas Medical Center.

The highly ranked University of Houston Department
of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers
excellent facilities, competitive financial support,
industrial internships and an environment conducive
to personal and professional growth.

Houston offers an abundance of educational, cultural,
business and entertainment opportunities. For a large
and diverse city, Houston's cost of living is much lower
than average.


Advanced Materials
Alternative Energy
Biomolecular Engineering
Catalysis


Multi-Phase Flows
Nanotechnology
Plasma Processing
Reaction Engineering


Affiliated Research Centers:


Alliance for NanoHealth
www.nanohealthalliance.org

Western Regional Center of
Excellence for Biodefense and
Emerging Infectious Diseases
http://rce.swmed.edu

Texas Diesel Testing and
Research Center
www.chee.uh.edu/dleselfacility


National Large Scale Wind
Turbine Testing Facility
www.thewindalliance.com

Department of Energy Plasma
Science Center for Predictive
Control of Plasma Kinetics
http://doeplasma.eecs.umlch.edu


UNIVERSITYof HOUSTON ENGINEERING
For more information:
www.chee.uh.edu grad-che@uh.edu
University of Houston, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate Admission, S222 Engineering Buiialrni 1, Houston, TX 77204-4004

The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution. Minorities, women, veterans and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply.


Chemical Engineering Education


y,












The Department of

CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING


In addition to receiving a world-class education at the
University of Notre Dame, graduate students in CBE
perform unique research with distinguished faculty, receive
teaching opportunities and training, benefit from an award-
winning professional development program, and apply their
skills to a professional career in industry, academia, or
government upon graduation.

The department offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs.

Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which
include full tuition waiver and stipend, are available to
students.


cbe.nd.edu
chegdept@nd.edu
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Notre Dame
182 Fitzpatrick Hall
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(574) 631-5580

UNIVERSITY OF

SNOTRE DAME


I ResIeareJ ICa[ ego ri


Biological Systems
Chemical Systems
Computation & Theory
Energy & Environment
Materials
Microscale Devices


* 19 Faculty
* 2 members of the National Academy
of Engineering
* Diverse research projects
* Recipients of national research and
teaching awards


* About 90 graduate students
* Travel to national and international
conferences
* Recipients of major internal and
external awards, fellowships, and
scholarships
* Excellent placement record in
industry, governments labs, and
academia


* Kaneb Center for Teaching and
Learning
* Professional development program
* Career services
* Departmental lecture series


SLike
UJ The Graduate School
on Facebook.


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

FACULTY


Gary A. Aurand
North Carolina State U.
1995
Supercritical fluids/
High pressure biochem-
ical reactors


Julie L.P. Jessop
Michigan State U. 1999
Polymers/
Microlithography/
Spectroscopy


Greg Carmichael
U. of Kentucky 1979
Global change/
Supercomputing/
Air pollution modeling


David
Murhammer
U. of Houston 1989
Insect cell culture/
Oxidative Stress/Baculo-
virus biopesticides


Jennifer Fiegel
Johns Hopkins 2004
Drug delivery/
Nano and
microtechnology/
Aerosols


Eric E. Nuxoll
U. of Minnesota 2003


Vicki H. Grassian
U. of Calif.-Berkeley 1987
Surface science of envi-
ronmental interfaces/
Heterogeneous atmospheric
chemistry/Applications and
implications of nanosci-
ence and nanotechnology in
environmental processes and
human health


Tonya L. Peeples
Johns Hopkins 1994


Controlled release/ Extremophile biocataly-
microfabrication/ sis/Sustainable energy/
drug delivery Green chemistry/
Bioremediation


I
C. Allan Guymon
U. of Colorado 1997
Polymer reaction
engineering/UV curable
coatings/Polymer liquid
crystal composites


David Rethwisch
U. of Wisconsin 1985
Membrane science/
Polymer science/
Catalysis


Venkiteswaran
Subramanian
Indian Institute of Science
1978
Biocatalysis/Metabolism/
Gene expression/
Fermentation/Protein
purification/Biotechnology


For information
and application:
THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering
4133 Seamans Center
Iowa City IA 52242-1527


1-800-553-IOWA
(1-800-553-4692)
chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu
www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~chemeng/

Chemical Engineering Education


Aliasger K. Salem
U. of Nottingham 2002
Tissue engineering/
Drug delivery/Polymeric
biomaterials/Immuno-
cancer therapy/Nano
and microtechnology


Alec B. Scranton
Purdue U. 1990
Photopolymerization/
Reversible emulsifiers/
Polymerization kinetics


Charles O. Stanier
Carnegie Mellon
University 2003
Air pollution chemis-
try, measurement, and
modeling/Aerosols


































THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING
offers excellent prog] i nI i, L ,; jlu; L i.,: rLcs: i i c L ,_ ld i'i Jr r, : it I It .-' I t.':
today's national and ilbtal co.irti .-n : 1 j tid t a.. i id Ln", ,ri.i .: uir..di n r-l.a
biorenewables, catal, ind rL, '. .rt-_r ._rn ..:,n.pur,. ti l IIlu.d l,rTam i.-:
healthcare technology. -,nrid bonaiii.d.i::i t:,nniri'l:'ir n r:rnL .nc -, r nr,r-. 'r.ll
research crosses tradit rn il a rnd di:iplanrir', In 1 pr,'- .' ...., riri ...pp ,'ii rlin
to graduate students L'-u. di' *r_; l].:ul. I ,: .a r-_ 1- hai r iih :d wI.j h .- r.,e .:d
national and internal ,:, I r .,.ria I..r ir r h..ii r r. 'i arid d,.,. ,., ri

Laboratories are state .'.- ii.. art F r i i r i- tI ,r, pro :: :. .:'i,,pl.Il r-
renovate lab space ir 5 .. ,:,n H. ill I : i 'l.: ] .hi .:'i e'ni'i ,... rii p : ThIl
Biorenewables Resear.. t li i.l ..r ,. r ,, :.p n r n .d tr 2 ilii .-. pr,..i. i. :.t ih,: a. d:,a IiJ
top interdisciplinary, systems-level research and collaboration in biorenewables.
In addition, the U.S. DOE Ames Laboratory, NSF Engineering Research Center for
Biorenewable Chemicals, the Plant Sciences Institute, the Office of Biotechnology and
the Bioeconomy Institute offer graduate students the best and most comprehensive
chemical engineering education.

The department offers MEngr, MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. We
offer full financial support with tuition coverage and competitive stipends to all our
MS and PhD students. The department also offers several competitive scholarships to
graduate students, so they can succeed and excel.

Iowa State University resides in Ames, Iowa, which was named one of the top ten
places to live in the United States in a 2010 CNN Money Magazine poll.


RI W IN I.

I.. n









www.cbe. iastate.edu


FACULTY

MufitAkinc
PhD, Iowa State University
Processing of bioinspired hybrid materials
Kaitlin Bratlie
PhD, University of California-Berkeley
Surface science and catalytic research
Robert C. Brown
PhD, Michigan State University
Biorenewable resources for energy
Rebecca Cademartiri
PhD, University of Potsdam, Germany
Interactions of biological entities with
materials
Eric W. Cochran
PhD, University of Minnesota
Self-assembled polymers
Liang Dong
PhD, Tsinghua University, China
Bioengineering, microelectronics andphotonics
Rodney 0. Fox
PhD, Kansas State University
Computational fluid dynamics and reaction
engineering


Charles E. Glatz
PhD, University of Wisconsin
Bioprocessing and bioseparations
Kurt R. Hebert
PhD, University of Illinois
Corrosion and electrochemical engineering
James C. Hill
PhD, University of Washington
Turbulence and computational fluid dynamics
Andrew C. Hillier
PhD, University of Minnesota
Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry
Laura R. Jarboe
PhD, University of California, Los Angeles
Biorenewables production by metabolic
engineering
Monica H. Lamm
PhD, North Carolina State University
Molecular simulation of advanced materials
Surya K. Mallapragada
PhD, Purdue University
Tissue engineering and gene delivery


Balaji Narasimhan
PhD, Purdue University
Biomaterials and drug delivery
Jennifer M. O'Donnell
PhD, University of Delaware
Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled
polymerizations
Michael G. Olsen
PhD, University of Illinois
Experimental fluid mechanics and turbulence
Derrick K. Rollins
PhD, Ohio State University
Statistical process control
lan C. Schneider
PhD, North Carolina State University
Cell migration and mechanotransduction
Brent H. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
Jacqueline V. Shanks
PhD, California Institute of Technology
Metabolic engineering and plant
biotechnology


ZengyiShao
PhD, University of Illinois
Biorenewables production by metabolic
engineering
Jean-Philippe Tessonnier
PhD, Universite de Strasbourg, France
Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables
R. Dennis Vigil
PhD, University of Michigan
Transport phenomena and reaction
engineering in multiphase systems


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012








The University of Kansas
Graduate Study in
Chemical & Petroleum
Engineering

The University of Kansas is a comprehensive educational and research institution with more
than 30,000 students and 2,500 faculty. We are located on the main campus in Lawrence, on
Mount Oread in the beautiful forested hills of eastern Kansas. Our faculty are authors, editors,
inventors, internationally-known researchers and award-winning instructors. Educating and
training our students is our passion and commitment. Join us!


Our Faculty
Reza Barati, University of Kansas
Cory Berkland, University of Illinois
Kyle Camarda, University of Illinois
R.V. Chaudhari, Bombay University
Michael Detamore, Rice University
Prajna Dhar, Florida State University
Stevin Gehrke, University of Minnesota
Jenn-Tai Liang, University of Texas
Trung Nguyen, Texas A&M University

Our Research
Biofuels and Biorefining
Biomedical Product Design & Developmen
Biomimetic Materials
Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineerinj
Catalytic Materials & Membrane Processinj
Controlled Drug Delivery
Electrochemical Reactors and Processes
Enzyme Catalysis in Non-aqueous Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Interfacial Nanomedicine
Molecular Design and Optimization
Process Intensification
Protein and Tissue Engineering
Supercritical Fluid Process Applications

Financial Aid
We offer research and teaching assistantships,
fellowships and scholarships.
Check out the following premium program:
Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship
http://www2.ku.edu/~selfpro/


Karen Nordheden, University of Illinois
Russell Ostermann, University of Kansas
Aaron Scurto, Notre Dame
Marylee Southard, University of Kansas
Bala Subramaniam, Notre Dame
Shapour Vossoughi, University of Alberta
Laurence Weatherley, Chair, Cambridge
G. Paul Willhite, Northwestern
Susan Stagg-Williams, University of
Oklahoma



t
















Contact Us
Application and Information --
http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/prospect
ive/graduate.html


Chemical Engineering Education













Study chemical


engineering's hottest


topics at one of the top


U.S. research universities.
Kansas State University is indexed in the Carnegie
Foundation's list of top 96 U.S. universities with
"very high research activity." Graduate students
perform research in areas like bio/nanotechnology,
reaction engineering, materials science and trans-
port phenomena.

K-State offers modern, well-equipped laboratories
and expert faculty on a campus nationally recog-
nized for its great community relationship. The
department of chemical engineering offers M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and the
interdisciplinary areas of bio-based materials sci-
ence and engineering, food science, environmental
engineering and materials science. A certificate in
air quality is also available.

Faculty, Research Areas
P Jennifer L. Anthony, advanced materials, molecular
sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids
SVikas Berry, graphene technologies, blonanotechnol-
ogy, nanoelectronics and sensors
) James H. Edgar (head), crystal growth, semiconduc-
tor processing and materials characterization
I Larry E. Erickson, environmental engineering,
biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment
process design and synthesis
) L.T. Fan, process systems engineering including
process synthesis and control, chemical reaction
engineering, particle technology
) Larry A. Glasgow, transport phenomena, bubbles,
droplets and particles in turbulent flows, coagulation
and flocculation
) Keith L. Hohn, catalysis and reaction engineering,
nanoparticle catalysts and biomass conversion
SPeter Pfromm, polymers in membrane separations
and surface science
) Mary E. Rezac, polymer science, membrane separa-
tion processes and their applications to biological
systems, environmental control and novel materials
) John R.Schlup, blobased industrial products,
applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis and intel-
ligent processing of materials

Our instrumental capabilities include:
) Laser-Doppler velocimetry 0 Mass spectrometry
) Polymer characterization equipment I High-speed videography
) Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry ) Gas adsorption analysis
) Chemical vapor deposition reactors I Catalyst preparation equipment
) Electrodialysis P Membrane permeation systems
) Fermentors ) Ultra-high temperature furnaces
) Tubular gas reactors I More
) Gas and liquid chromatography





Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012


Financial support and tuition
is available through research
assistantships and fellowships.




307




















Advanced Separations Aerosols
Biopharmaceutical and Biocellular
Engineering Drug Delivery
Energy Resources and Alternative Energy
Environmental Engineering
Interfacial Engineering
Materials Synthesis Nanomaterials
Polymers and Membranes
Supercritical Fluids Processing


Chemical Engineering Faculty


The CAME Department offers graduate
programs leading to the M.S. and Ph D


D. Kalika, Chair University of California, Berkeley
K. Anderson Carnegie-Mellon University
R. Andrews University of Kentucky
D. Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology
B. Berron Vanderbilt University
T. Dziubla Drexel University
D. Englert Texas A&M University
E. Grulke Ohio State University
J. Z. Hilt University of Texas
B. Knutson Georgia Institute of Technology
D. Pack California Institute of Technology
C. Payne Vanderbilt University
S. Rankin University of Minnesota
A. Ray Clarkson University
J. Seay Auburn University
D. Silverstein Vanderbilt University
J. Smart University of Texas


degrees in oomn chemical anr materials T. Tsang University of Texas
engineering The combination of these
disci,pines in a single department fosters Materials Engineering Faculty
collatoration among faculty and a strong
interdisciplinar) enturonment Our tacult) T. J. Balk Johns Hopkins University
and graduate students pursue research M. Beck Northwestern University
projects that encompass a broad range Y. T. Cheng California Institute of Technology
or cLhemrcal engineering endeavor, and R. Eitel Pennsylvania State University
that include interactions rth researchers B. Hinds Northwestern University
in Agriculture Chemistry, Medicine and F. Yang University of Rochester
Pharma,:c T. Zhai University of Oxford







308 Chemical Engineering Education








LEHIGH UNIVERSITY


Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in...

Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering
Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis
Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control
Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer
Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biological Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering




OUR FACULTY


Bryan W. Berger, University of Delaware
membrane biophysics protein engineering surfactant science
* signal transduction

Philip A. Blythe, University of Manchester
fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics

Hugo S. Caram, University of Minnesota
high temperature processes and materials environmental
processes reaction engineering

Manoj K. Chaudhury, SUNY- Buffalo
adhesion thin films surface chemistry

Mohamed S. EI-Aasser, McGill University
polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization *
polymer synthesis and characterization

Alice P. Gast, Princeton University
complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces

James F. Gilchrist, Northwestern University
particle self-organization mixing microfluidics

Vincent G. Grassi II, Lehigh University
process systems engineering

Lori Herz, Rutgers University
cell culture and fermentation pharmaceutical process
development and manufacturing

James T. Hsu, Northwestern University
bioseparation applied recombinant DNA technology

Anand Jagota, Cornell University
biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule-materials
interactions

Andrew Klein, North Carolina State University
emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in
polymerization

Christopher J. Kiely, Bristol University
catalyst materials nanoparticle self-assembly, carbonaceous
materials, heteroepitaxial interface structures


Mayuresh V. Kothare, California Institute of Technology
model predictive control constrained control microchemical
systems

William L. Luyben, University of Delaware
process design and control distillation

Anthony J. McHugh, University of Delaware
polymer rheology and rheo-optics polymer processing and
modeling membrane formation drug delivery

Steven Mclntosh, University of Pennsylvania
fuel cells solid state ionics heterogeneous catalysis *
functional materials electrochemistry

Jeetain Mittal, University of Texas
protein folding macromolecular crowding hydrophobic
effects nanoscale transport

Susan F. Perry, Pennsylvania State University
cell adhesion and migration cellular biomechanics

Arup K. Sengupta, University of Houston
use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers *
membranes in environmental pollution

Cesar A. Silebi, Lehigh University
separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass
transfer

Shivaji Sircar, University of Pennsylvania
adsorption gas and liquid separation

Mark A. Snyder, University of Delaware
inorganic nanoparticles and porous thin films *
membrane separations multiscale modeling

Kemal Tuzla, Istanbul Technical University
heat transfer two-phase flows fluidization thermal energy
storage

Israel E. Wachs, Stanford University
materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous
catalysis environmental catalysis


An application and additional information may be obtained by writing to:
Dr. Jeetain Mittal or Dr. Steve Mclntosh: Co-chairs, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University 111 Research Drive, lacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015
Fax: (610) 758-4261 *Email: inchegs@lehigh.edu Web: www.che.lehigh.edu


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012







MANHATTAN



COLLEGE



This well-established graduate program emphasizes
the application of basic principles to the solution of
modem engineering problems, with new features in
engineering management, sustainable and alternative
energy, safety, and biochemical engineering.

A

Financial aid in the form of
graduate fellowships is available.
For information and application form, write to
Graduate Program Director
Chemical Engineering Department
Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471
chmldept@manhattan.edu

BE SURE TO ASK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT
OUR NEW COSMETIC ENGINEERING OPTION
http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu/academics/
engineering/chemical/graduate/cosmetics


http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu


Offering a
Practice-Oriented
Master's Degree
Program
in
Chemical
Engineering

t


Manhattan College is located
in Riverdale,
an attractive area in the
northwest section of
New York City.

Chemical Engineering Education











* CHEMICAL &



-BIOCHEMICAL



ENGINEERING




APPLY FOR FREE!
SThe Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at UMBC is pleased to
offer citizens and permanent residents of the United States and Canada, and students
receiving degrees from U.S. and Canadian institutions, the opportunity to apply for
admission to the Ph.D. program in Chemical & Biochemical Engineering without
admission fees. Details are available on our Web site (www.umbc.edu/cbe).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION LOCATION RAO, GOVIND, Ph.D., Drexel University;
Students pursuing advanced studies UMBC is a suburban campus, Fluorescence-based sensors and
in the Department of Chemical and located in the Baltimore-Washington instrumentation, fermentation, cell
Biochemical Engineering at UMBC corridor, with easy access to both culture
explore fundamental concepts metropolitan areas. A number of
in biochemical, biomedical and government research facilities such ROSS, JULIA, Ph.D., CHAIR; Rice
bioprocess engineering, with faculty as NIH, FDA, USDA, NSA, and a large University; Cell and tissue engineering,
at the leading-edge of engineering number of biotechnology companies cell adhesion in microbial infection,
research. The department offers are located nearby and provide thrombosis
graduate programs leading to B.S./ excellent opportunities for research
M.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. These interactions. Research Associate Professors
graduate programs provide students KOSTOV, YORDAN, Ph.D., Bulgarian
with the opportunity to play an active FACULTY Academy of Sciences; Low-cost
role in breakthrough research and BAYLES, TARYN, Ph.D., University of optical sensors, instrumentation
*t specific projects cover a wide range Pittsburgh; Engineering education and development, biomaterials
of areas including: fermentation, cell outreach, transport phenomena
culture, downstream processing, TOLOSA, LEAH, Ph.D., University of
cellular and tissue engineering as well CASTELLANOS, MARIAJOSE, Ph.D., Connecticut, Storrs; Fluorescence
as mathematical modeling. Cornell University; Biocomplexity, based sensors, protein engineering,
modeling of biological systems biomedical diagnostics, molecular
DEGREES OFFERED switches
M.S. (thesis and non-thesis), Ph.D. FREY, DOUGLAS, Ph.D., University of
California, Berkeley; Chromatographic Research Assistant Professor
Accelerated Bachelor's/Master's separations, electrophoresis GE, XUDONG, Ph.D., UMBC; Sensor
Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in matrix development, dialysis based
Biochemical Regulatory Engineering GOOD, THERESA, Ph.D., University sensor
of Wisconsin-Madison; Cellular
FACILITIES AND SPECIAL RESOURCES engineering, protein aggregation and FOR MORE INFORMATION
The program's research facilities disease, biomedical engineering Department Web Site:
include state-of-the-art laboratories www.umbc.edu/cbe
in the Engineering Building and at the LEACH, JENNIE, Ph.D., University of
Technology Research Center. These Texas at Austin; Biomaterials, tissue CONTACT:
facilities are extensively equipped engineering Graduate Program Director
with modern fermentation, cell UMBC, Chemical & Biochemical
culture, separations, protein structure MARTEN, MARK, Ph.D., Purdue Engineering
and materials characterization, University; Systems biology, 1000 Hilltop Circle
biomaterials synthesis and other proteomics and genomics, Baltimore, MD 21250
analytical equipment. In addition, bioprocessing
campus core facilities in areas such 410-455-3400
as microscopy and mass spectrometry MOREIRA, ANTONIO R., Ph.D., cbegrad@umbc.edu
provide students opportunities for University of Pennsylvania;
hands-on exposure to cutting edge Regulatory/GMP issues, scale up,
analytical techniques and equipment. downstream processing, product
comparability

www.umbc.edu/cbe


Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012











UNIVERSITY OF


MARYLAND



CHEMICAL & BIOMOLECULAR

L ENGINEERING IN THE NATION'S

CAPITAL REGION


Located in a vibrant international community just outside
S of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories
Including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory,
r.*-. and NIST, the University of Maryland's Department of
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James
Clark School of Engineering, offers educational opportunities
leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree
in Chemical Engineering.



FACULTY


SHERYL H. EHRMAN, CHAIR
Aerosol science, particle technology,
air pollution.
RAYMOND A. ADOMAITIS
Systems modeling/simulation,
semiconductor materials manufacturing.
MIKHAIL ANISIMOV
Mesoscopic and nanoscale
thermodynamics, critical phenomena,
phase transitions in soft matter.
RICHARD V. CALABRESE
Multiphase flow, turbulence and mixing.
KYU YONG CHOI
Polymer reaction engineering and polymer
nanomaterials.
PANAGIOTIS DIMITRAKOPOULOS
Computational fluid dynamics, bio/micro-
fluidics, biophysics and numerical analysis.
AMY J. KARLSSON
Protein engineering, biomolecular
recognition, fungal disease.
JEFFERY KLAUDA
Cell membrane biophysics,
thermodynamics, molecular simulations.


DONGXIA LIU
Materials synthesis and engineering,
reaction engineering, heterogeneous
catalysis, fuel cells, biofuels, energy.
SRINIVASA R. RAGHAVAN
Complex fluids, polymeric and
biomolecular self-assembly, soft
nanostructures.
GANESH SRIRAM
Systems biology, metabolic engineering,
biorenewable fuel, genetically inherited
metabolic disorders.
CHUNSHENG WANG
Li-ion batteries, electric energy storage,
fuel cells, electroanalytical technologies,
nanostructured materials.
NAM SUN WANG
Biochemical engineering, biofuels,
drug delivery.
WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
Biochemical engineering, bioprocess
control and optimization.
ERIC D. WACHSMAN
Fuel cells, gas separation membranes,
solid-state gas sensors, electrocatalytic
conversion of CO2 and CH4, post-
combustion reduction of NO .


To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

www.chbe.umd.edu


Chemical Engineering Education









Ut of M Am


EXPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN
CHMIA ENGINERIN


For application forms and further information on
fellowships and assistantships, academic and
research programs, and student housing, see:
http://che.umass.edu/
or contact:
Graduate Program Director
Department of Chemical Engineering
159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St.
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003-9303
Email: chegradprog@ecs.umass.edu


Facilities:
Instructional, research, and administrative facilities are
housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to
space in Goessmann Laboratory, the Department
occupies modern research space in Engineering La-
boratory II and the Conte National Center for Polymer
Research. In 2013, several faculty with research in-
terests in the life sciences will occupy modern re-
search space in the New Laboratory Sciences Build-
ing that is currently under construction.


Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western
Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the
area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recrea-
tional opportunities. Urban pleasures are easily accessible.


FACULTY:
Surita R. Bhatia (Princeton)
W. Curtis Conner, Jr. (Johns Hopkins)
Paul J. Dauenhauer (Minnesota)
Jeffrey M. Davis (Princeton)
Wei Fan (Tokyo)
Neil S. Forbes (California, Berkeley)
David M. Ford (Pennsylvania)
Michael A. Henson (California, Santa Barbara)
Michael F. Malone (Massachusetts, Amherst)
Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT)
Peter A. Monson (London)
T. J. (Lakis) Mountziaris, Department Head (Princeton)
Shelly R. Peyton (California, Irvine)
Constantine Pozrikidis (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Susan C. Roberts (Cornell)
Jessica D. Schiffman (Drexel)
H. Henning Winter (Stuttgart)


Current areas of Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering re-
ceive support at a level of over $6 million per year through external research
grants. Examples of research areas include, but are not limited to, the following.
* Bioengineering: cellular engineering; metabolic engineering ; targeted bac-
teriolytic cancer therapy; synthesis of small molecules; systems biology; bi-
opolymers; nanostructured materials for clinical diagnostics.

* Biofuels and Sustainable Energy: conversion of biomass to fuels and
chemicals; catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass; microkinetics; microwave reac-
tion engineering; biorefining; high-throughput testing; reactor design and
optimization; fuel cells; energy engineering.

* Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena: biofluid dynamics and blood
flow; hydrodynamics of microencapsulation; mechanics of cells, capsules,
and suspensions; modeling of microscale flows; hydrodynamic stability and
pattern formation; interfacial flows; gas-particle flows.

* Materials Science and Engineering: design and characterization of new
catalytic materials; nanostructured materials for microelectronics and photon-
ics; synthesis and characterization of microporous and mesoporous materi-
als; colloids and biomaterials; membranes; biopolymers; rheology and phase
behavior of associative polymer solutions; polymeric materials processing.
* Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation: computational quan-
tum chemistry and kinetics; molecular modeling of nanostructured materials;
molecular-level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-to-
reactor scale modeling of transport and reaction processes in materials syn-
thesis; atomistic-to-continuum scale modeling of thin films and nanostruc-
tures; systems-level analysis using stochastic atomic-scale simulators; mod-
eling and control of biochemical reactors; nonlinear process control theory.


The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status,
national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in employment.

Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall 2012 313









Massachusetts Institute

of Technology


Materials
Polymers
Research in Biotechnology
Energy Engineering
Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics
Colloid Science and Separations
Microchemical Systems, Microfluidics
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229 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 45 Number 4 Fall 2011 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engi neering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Cor respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2011 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pub lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS TER: Send address changes to business address: Chemical Engineering Education, PO Box 142097, Gainesville, FL 32614-2097. PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education c/o Department of Chemical Engineering 723 Museum Road PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR Daina Briedis, Michigan State William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Jennifer Sinclair Curtis University of Florida John OConnell University of Virginia Pedro Arce Tennessee Tech University Lisa Bullard North Carolina State David DiBiasio Worcester Polytechnic Institute Stephanie Farrell Rowan University Richard Felder North Carolina State Jim Henry University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Jason Keith Mississippi State University Milo Koretsky Oregon State University Suzanne Kresta University of Alberta Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Marcel Liauw Aachen Technical University David Silverstein University of Kentucky Margot Vigeant Bucknell University GRADUATE EDUCATION Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations Sundararajan V. Madihally 238 Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatogra phy for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up Giorgio Carta and Alois Jungbauer 248 A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills Silas J. Leavesley and Kevin N. West RANDOM THOUGHTS 257 How Learning Works Rebecca Brent and Richard M. Felder CURRICULUM Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course Kai Liang Zheng, Doyle P. Bean Jr., Helen H. Lou, Thomas C. Ho, and Yinlun Huang LABORATORY 285 Shivaun D. Archer Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion James J. Norman, Samantha N. Andrews, and Mark R. Prausnitz LEARNING IN INDUSTRY 259 From Learning to Earning: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide Keith Marchildon BOOK REVIEWS 283 An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience by John C. Berg Richard L. Zollars 284 A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice by Sullivan, W.M., and M.S. Rosin Lisa Bullard OTHER CONTENTS 230 Guest Editorial: Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D Phil Wankat 290 inside front cover Teaching Tip: The Importance of Saying Thank You Lisa Bullard

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230 Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D Phil Wankat, Purdue University O ne possible contributor to the slow rate of dis semination of proven engineering education inno vations is that engineering educators in different engineering disciplines seldom communicate with each the nine U.S. engineering education journals/proceedings CEE authors are most likely to cite papers in CEE and rarely cite other engineering edu cation journals/proceedings. The converse of this is also true: CEE is rarely cited in the other engineering education journals/proceedings. Results for other engineering educa ) show that there is very little cross-citing of journals/proceedings. This data is consistent with the hypothesis that there are individual silos in each engineering education discipline that seldom communicate with each other. The following recommendations are made for CEE to help reduce the silo effect and increase the dissemination CEE papers should be strongly encouraged by reviewers and editors to read and cite appropriate papers from other en Citation Summary. The 43 papers in 2009 issues of CEE Journal cited # citations in CEE of journal/ proceedings studied % of all citations in CEE # citations of CEE in jour nal/proceedings studied % all citations in journal/proceedings ASEE Proc. 35 J. Engr. Ed. (JEE) FIE Proc. 5 IEEE Trans. Ed. CEE PRISM J. Prof. Iss. 3 J. STEM Ed. Advances Engr. Ed. Total CEE were in one paper. Results ignoring this paper are in shown in parenthesis. gineering education journals (e.g., JEE ) and proceedings. ing professors to take a how-to-teach course or workshop ) to improve teaching, make them more aware of innovations, increase their understanding of the engineering education research, and help them write the education section in NSF Career proposals. 3. ChE professors who are familiar with advanced pedagogical methods should volunteer to teach how-to-teach courses. 4. Minimize jargon, and if jargon is necessary, clearly de is an example of demystifying jargon. 5. After a oneor two-year lag, CEE should make all papers available free on the Internet. REFERENCES IEEE Trans. Educ., J. STEM Educ. and J. Prof. Issues Engr. Ed. Practice J. Eng. Educ. acknowledged. The authors opinions do not represent CEE or NSF. GUEST EDITORIAL Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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231 G raduate programs in various institutions are developed to advance the technical competency of the students. As a degree requirement, graduate students enroll in some mandatory classes dealing with advanced chemical engineering topics such as thermodynamics, transport phe nomena, reaction engineering, and experimental design. In addition, a common course that most graduate programs have is a seminar series. Some programs offer the seminar series as a mandatory course for all the graduate students with or with out earning credit hours towards their graduation. Seminars are primarily used as a method to introduce i) contemporary research topics, ii) applications of fundamental concepts in diverse areas, and iii) networking. The presentations also help reinforce technical concepts, and provide alternative research strategies or methods of analyzing experimental results. Many colleagues would agree that as a graduate student, the impression of a seminar series is that it is less important than technical courses, adds little value, and is a waste of time. Multiple factors contribute to this impression. Since the chemical engineering discipline has a broad range of re search topics, some presentations could address only a select population of graduate students. For example, a presentation on tissue regeneration may not be interesting to students re searching thermodynamic modeling of fossil fuels. Similarly, a presentation on nanotechnology may seem irrelevant to students working on optimization of control systems. This problem may be compounded by two additional attributes of the presenter: i) poor presentation skills and ii) lack of cognizance about the audience background in a chosen topic. Lack of interest in the presentation could be evidenced during the Question and Answer (Q&A) session, which may or may not have many questions from the students. This suggests a need to revive the seminar series by incorporating concepts that are not addressed in core courses, but are important to the success of graduate students. Recognizing the importance of soft skills for the success cies by developing courses or workshops. Research design methods courses have been developed in different programs to introduce literature review, hypothesis testing, peer-review process, grant writing, and grant submission process ; OSU also offers a Research Methods course to teach skills related to hypothesis testing, experimental design, grant writing, and research ethics. Workshop format has been reported in the literature. Some have addressed teaching skills issues by i) pairing a graduate student with a mentor or ii) develop Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 REVIVING GRADUATE SEMINAR SERIES THROUGH NON-TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS SUNDARARAJAN V. MADIHALLY Sundararajan V. Madihally is an associate professor and the graduate program director in the School of Chemical Engineering at Oklahoma State University. He received his Ph.D. from Wayne State University in chemical engineering. He held a research fellow position at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School/Shriners Hospital for Children. His research interests include stem cell based tissue regeneration, development of therapies for traumatic condi tions, and engineering education. He served as the chair of the Chemical Engineering Division 2009 ASEE Annual Conference. He is the author of the textbook Principles of Biomedical Engineering published by Artech House (2010). Graduate Education

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232 ing coursework. Apart from research topics and teaching methods, there are a number of topics and issues one has to address to train graduate students in soft skills, an area that has been predominantly ignored with the expectation of acquiring those skills on the job, or the hard way. Further, these approaches address only a few students in the program, depending on their interest level and when they started graduate school. This study describes using the graduate seminar series as an alternative approach to integrate soft skills into the gradu ate program. Diverse topics could be incorporated in every seminar series avoiding repetition in different semesters, while adding value to the seminar series. The advantage of using the graduate seminar series instead of another course is that every graduate student about recent developments rather than creating additional courses. Some of the topics, the approach adapted, and the feedback from the students are discussed. INCORPORATION OF SOFT SKILLS. While adding soft-skill seminars, the number of invited technical presentations was kept constant from the previous semesters. In our program, the seminar series used to have six to eight invited speakers in a semester with the total of were a few weeks that were not utilized in a semester, which could be used to introduce soft skills by inviting non-technical presenters. The available resources on campus were assessed by interacting with faculty members within the department. Some individuals were requested to present in the seminar 1. Technical Writing. Personnel from the Writing Center, Library Sciences, and Research Administration were invited to provide information regarding technical writing in differ ent semesters. Some of the seminar topics addressed by the Writing Center faculty members included i) communicating technical information to others, ii) elements of research ar ticles, iii) approaches to improving writing habits, iv) audience considerations in writing, and v) the most frequent grammar mistakes. A workshop format can also be adapted in which students are required to write some technical paragraphs as a in a subsequent seminar. Students need training in different styles of referencing using software packages such as Endnote and Reference Manager. Library personnel explained how to build a search library and how to cite articles in a document. In a subsequent search engines, and in creating alert systems with the release of new publications. Personnel from the college of Engineer ing Research Administration, who deal with proposals, were invited to introduce students to grant writing and the role of research administration. They introduced topics such as in a grant, grant submission process through web portals such as , and management of a grant post-award. 2. Safety Demonstrations. One topic commonly addressed in most graduate programs is laboratory safety, where the laboratory manager or instructor responsible for undergradu ate teaching laboratories performs the safety instructions. Graduate students are reminded about the importance of the material safety data sheet, safe experimental practice, and waste disposal constraints within the organization. Repeat ing the same content every semester may not be an effective methodology, however, particularly for Ph.D. students who may be in the program for many semesters. Since one semi some programs have a course on chemical safety in which all graduate students must enroll. There are also a number of general safety topics one has to consider, however, with ever-changing global issues. For example, educating students Tech incident. Example of a Class Schedule Week Topic Introduction and Review of Departmental Safety 3 Workplace 4 5 Soft Skill 3: Intellectual Property of Research Research Presentation 3: Thermodynamics of Protein Folding Research Presentation 4: Carbon Sequestration Soft Skill 4: Using Endnote and Referencing Research Presentation 5: Drug Delivery tion in Medicine tion Graduate Education

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233 Graduate Education One strategy we adapted was to introduce a short reminder semester. Students took an online quiz to retrain on the day-today laboratory safety issues on a regular basis. Incoming new graduate students were told to meet the laboratory manager separately to learn about the procedural issues. This helped reduce the redundancy for returning graduate students in ad dition to saving a day of the seminar for other safety topics. Personnel from the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) department were invited. This was coordinated by the labora tory manager who regularly interacts with safety-related is sues. Each presentation addresses a different safety topic. For example, one seminar dealt with providing a hands-on training equipment and organized the session in an open area. After a few minutes of initial discussion, students had an opportunity Other topics discussed in the seminar include workplace safety and industrial safety (a video presentation entitled Shots Fired ), good day-to-day laboratory practices, and First Aid (a video presentation ). 3. Cultural presentation. With increased globalization of business, it is recognized that understanding other cultures is important for student success. At the undergraduate level, study-abroad programs have gained traction in many universi ties with the development of departments to carry out these functions. Graduate students, however, do not have simi lar opportunities except through a few attempts in achieving this possibility by institutional collaborations. Although these approaches provide an opportunity for cross-cultural the programs and students. Thus, long-term sustainability is contingent upon budgetary issues. An alternative approach, which is less expensive, is to utilize the resources present in the program. Most graduate programs contain a wealth of diverse cultures due to the pres ence of international students in addition to domestic students. This provides a plethora of opportunity to understand other cultures from students with similar technical background. To take advantage of this opportunity, a seminar is dedicated to a cultural presentation every semester. This seminar is scheduled a week before the Finals week to provide a relaxing social environment for the graduate students. In the beginning of the semester, student volunteers from different cultures are sought. During these presentations, students are encouraged to obtain the help of staff members within the department, and their expenses are also reimbursed. One presentation dealing with the Native American culture was done by a graduate student who grew up in that envi ronment. The presenter also invited other tribal members to discuss various cultural aspects during this seminar. There was a demonstration of clothing and other paraphernalia used on various occasions and a discussion about the Native American involvement with the Federal government. Other presenta tions were from graduate students from Nigeria, India, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand. Nigerian students came dressed in their snacks from the region for all the students. They presented the history of Nigeria, their cultures and school system, and job opportunities for chemical engineering graduates. 4. Other soft skills. There are a number of other soft-skill topics such as ethics, legal studies, management skills, in tellectual property protection, contractual agreements, and teaching methodology that could be considered as seminar topics. We had seminars on i) intellectual property (such as the importance of maintaining a laboratory notebook, and Figure 1. Fire extinguisher demonstration. (a) Photograph of the setup to demonstrate usage of re extinguishers. (b) Hands-on experience of pulling the pin on the re extinguisher, aiming the nozzle at the base of the re, and then sweeping from side to side (P.A.S.S.) to extinguish the re.

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how to apply for a patent), ii) contractual agreements, iii) ethics, and iv) engineering attributes. Within the department, we have a faculty member who has a degree in patent law in addition to a degree in chemi cal engineering. This individual discusses topics related to intel lectual property. Faculty members from the psychology department whose research is on ethics were also invited to present. Another faculty member who worked in industry prior to his/her academic career discussed differences be tween academic environment and industrial practice. topics (in different categories ex cluding cultural presentations) of soft skills that can be incorporated into the seminar. Based on the re sources available in each graduate program and by surveying student interests, additional topics could be incorporated. These topics are rotated between semesters based on the convenience of the faculty members. This also reduces the burden on the speakers who are willing to present in addition to en riching the seminar series. Hence, unique topics can be incorporated for six to seven semesters based on (excluding cultural presentations) per semester. Using the average graduation time of Ph.D. students some topics are repeated for a few students depending on when they joined the program. IMPROVING STUDENT INTEREST DURING PRESENTATIONS Typically, seminar ends with a Q&A session where the audience is allowed to ask questions of the speaker. Based on the presentation topic and the presenter, there may be few questions. Faculty members or some graduate students working in that research area might ask more questions. The majority of the students do not ask questions due to multiple in asking a question, and 3) no requirement to do anything else after the presentation, i.e. there is no homework or exam on that topic. To encourage participation in each seminar, students were required to submit homework for every seminar electronically through the web portal Desire to Learn, set up for the course. Since all graduate students have to enroll in this one-credit course, the homework was applied towards their grades. They were also given instructions about the required homework content to submit: a) presentation title; b) what they liked in the seminar; c) what they disliked about the seminar; and d) other useful comments to the speaker. Students were told that the primary alternative option to get an exemption from the home work is participating in the discus sion (such as asking a question) at the end of that seminar. The instructor kept track of who asked questions, or a student could send alternative is a graduate student presenting a seminar in the series, which requires consultation with the research advisor and the in structor. When a graduate student is the presenter, the comments from the peers are summarized and given as a feedback to the pre senter. During these presentations, students who do not ask questions in external speaker presentations are thus encouraged to ask questions. This is done to encour age public speaking. STUDENT FEEDBACK their experience in the seminar series. The response has been very positive and helpful in deciding the contents for the subsequent seminar series. When asked about what they have liked in the seminar series, some comments are as follows: The seminars have become more useful and well planned. I enjoy most of them and learn from them. The cultural pre sentations are great and I like the safety seminars; more non-technical presentations would make the seminar series Figure 2. Cultural presentation. (a) Photograph of a graduate student presenter dressed in traditional clothing. (b) Photograph displaying some of the paraphernalia used during various occasions. Graduate Education

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235 Graduate Education more interesting; I have liked most of the non-technical seminars. When asked about what they have disliked, some comments are as follows: homework submission; asking questions should not be made a substitute for homework. I have heard a few dumb questions as a result. When asked about the type of presentations in which they are interested (Figure 3a), many students selected presenta tions on management skills as a topic of interest. Interest presentation. In a subsequent survey, students were asked to hear. Many of the topics were related to the industrial prac tice of chemical engineering such as i) best practices used in chemical engineering, ii) the role of chemical engineers in industry, iii) preparing for industrial jobs, and iv) experience of new graduates in the industrial environment. A few topics relevant to the research interest of some students were also that can be integrated into the graduate seminar. Students also expressed more interest in topics related to writing skills. To better understand what category of writing skills students were interested in, they were asked to rank four major categories (Figure 3b). The majority of the students expressed a high level of interest in writing a technical paper in a peer-reviewed journal. Addressing the technical paper writing in a peer-reviewed journal in research methods is an option, similar to other reports. Less interest in grant writ ing could be attributed to prior exposure to the concept in the Research Methods course taught in the program. A subsequent question in the survey asked the students to describe a course they took that dealt with technical writing, engineering ethics, and safety. Students who indicated grant writing as a choice were either concurrently enrolled in the Research Methods course or soon to be enrolled in a different semester. Interestingly, only few students ranked the topic on teaching skills as interesting and many suggested that it is not as im portant as management skills. This opinion could be a reason why a course to introduce teaching may not be successful for a longer period of time. Multiple factors could be attributing to this opinion, however, including: a) interest in pursuing an industrial job opportunity rather than an academic job, and b) lack of awareness in pedagogical research/require ment. Introducing the importance of teaching skills through the training of teaching assistants is an option that is under consideration. When asked about the appropriate ratio of technical and non-technical presentations in a seminar series (Figure 4), Figure 3. Students preference on type of presentation. (a) Number of students preferring a topic as the rst choice. (b) Number of students preferring a specic tech nical writing skill as the rst choice. Figure 4. Preference to number of technical and nontechnical presentations. Box plot showing the distribution of number of presentations in a seminar series that stu dents would prefer with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles and the mean value (thick line within each box). Values that were outside 95th and 5th percentiles were treated as outliers.

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236 a broad distribution was obtained. The average response, in a series. This outcome could be somewhat skewed as the number is similar to the current schedule. EVIDENCE OF LEARNING tions to the seminar series. With the altered method of safety training, an immediate effect that the laboratory manager has response from the graduate students towards safety require ments. Increased awareness of safety has helped decrease the number of unlabeled containers and improper usage of personnel protection equipment. Those students who have graduated and work in industry have also given encouraging feedback on the seminar series while helping identify other safety topics to consider. Further, some of the students have asked for other types of safety training such as CPR. An encouraging observation is that more students have started using the Writing Center after faculty members from that area presented in the seminar series. This suggests that skills. Obtaining help on grammar and formatting corrections from the Writing Center helps the faculty advisor to focus on technical content. In addition, a few students have taken courses on legal studies and technical writing upon receiving relevant information in the seminar. tions. Providing an exact increase in number of questions is hindered by time constraints, i.e. there are many occasions where the instructor has cut short the Q&A session due to shortage of time. Unsolicited comments from a few technical presenters have been positive on the number and quality of questions they received. One of the external technical present ers wrote in an e-mail to the instructor, I like the seminar format, there were some good questions after. The increase in the number of questions suggests that students are attentive during the presentation. REFLECTIONS OF THE INSTRUCTOR AND COURSE REVISIONS To accommodate all the presentations, developing the entire schedule very early (preferably a semester before) is impor tant. One has to identify the resources available on campus and coordinate the schedule. Based on the feedback from stu dents, some of the research topics have been incorporated into subsequent seminars. For example, recent graduates from the program who have been working in the industry were invited. They are advised a priori that the purpose of the presentation is providing their transitional experience rather than technical content related to their work. Also, a faculty member in the department who is an editor of a journal was invited to address the peer-review process. In addition, plagiarism in the modern digital world was also discussed using a case study. Incorporating a cross-disciplinary conversation has some For example, while presentations from the library personnel are useful, they have to be informed about the student background and niche areas to discuss. In terms of the safety presentations, two seminars per semester were dedicated for four semesters. Student feedback suggested that one seminar per semester may be optimum to address many topics, however. Subsequent seminars had one seminar per semester (or two seminars per year), which also saved a seminar day for incorporating other soft skills. Feedback from students also suggested that tions were repeated in the sixth semester. Graduate students enjoy the cultural presentations and there has been a positive response to these presentations. Similar presentations from various cultures can be integrated and the topics could vary as well. If the graduate program has little diversity in the the university, which typically advises international student organizations, is recommended. These students could be invited to give presentations. The instructor also plays an active role during the Q&A session to improve the interactions. One approach adapted to improve the quality of questions is for the instructor to identify students who ask irrelevant questions (which some students perceive as dumb) and advise them about relevancy. Further, submitting homework electronically has helped this process SUMMARY Graduate seminar series provides a unique opportunity to incorporate soft skills into the graduate program every semes ter. Adapting this approach has three primary advantages: i) Making the seminar series more effective by eliminating redundancies in the schedule while utilizing the entire available time ii) Enriching their learning experience by incorporating soft skills, and iii) Decreasing the monetary burden on the department to invite external speakers for every seminar in the semester. Coordinating the seminar series to incorporate soft skills member. Although a seminar in many of these topics may Graduate Education

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Graduate Education skill, they are intended to provide an opportunity to recognize whether each student has the skill set to perform these func tions. In other words, the intention is similar to a technical seminar. The non-technical seminars provide an opportunity to see whether students are interested in enhancing a particular skill set. REFERENCES Methods, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Articles in Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 3. Holles, J.H., A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 4. Aucoin, M.G., and M. Jolicoeur, Is There Room in the Graduate Cur riculum To Learn How To Be a Graduate Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Tool for Teaching Research Ethics in Science and Engineering for Graduate Students, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper Training Programs at Michigan State UniversityA Doctoral Students Perspective, Chem. Eng. Ed. 38 Graduate Students at North Carolina State University, Proceedings Graduate Students, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper Int. J. Electrical Eng. Ed. 40 Planting a Seed of Leadership in Engineering Classes, Leadership and Management in Engineering 7 Making the Writing Process Work: Strate gies for Composition and Self-regulation, Shots Fired on Campus (Student Edition): Guidance for Surviving an Active Shooter Situation Produced by The Center for Personal Protec tion and Safety First Aid on the Job: Initial Response Produced by Coastal Training. gram in Engineering, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper lenges, Best Practices, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper tion of ChE Education and Research: An NUS-UIUC Mode, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Workshop in Chemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Education, Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 Challenge and Reality, Educational Psychology Review

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C hromatography has become an essential unit operation in the production of biopharmaceuticals. This method facilitates the processing of the complex mixtures encountered in this industry using readily available stationary phases and equipment suitable for large-scale sanitary opera recognized by regulatory agencies so that chromatography is an integral part of essentially all licensed biopharmaceutical bacterial systems ( e.g., E. coli ) and for monoclonal antibodies expressed in mammalian cells. In both cases, chromatography plays a dominant role in the three major tasks of: (a) Capture devoted primarily to concentrating and separating the protein product from water and productunrelated impurities; (b) focused on the separation of major forms; and (c) Polishing focused on the removal of trace contami nants and adventitious agents. Since the process characteristics, the optimum stationary phase properties, and the design requirements are very dif ferent for each of these operations, an in-depth understanding reliability is desirable and is increasingly being sought by regulatory agencies. As a result, chemists, engineers, and life the theory and practice of process chromatography. Process scale economics also plays a major role. Figure stream processing material costs for recombinant proteins produced in bacterial systems and for monoclonal antibod ies produced by mammalian cell culture. Increasing product titers obtained from improved genetic engineering and cell g/L levels, create new technological challenges and capacity bottlenecksincreasingly shifting the costs from upstream to downstream. The evolving regulatory environment for INTEGRATED GRADUATE AND CONTINUING EDUCATION IN PROTEIN CHROMATOGRAPHY for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up GIORGIO CARTA ALOIS JUNGBAUER Alois Jungbauer is the head of protein tech nology and downstream processing at the Department of Biotechnology of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (Austria). For more than 20 years, Pro fessor Jungbauer has worked in biochemical engineering, with a focus on biosparation, where he has published widely and holds 15 patents. For more than 10 years, he has orga nized a biennial professional course in protein chromatography focused on mass transfer, dispersion, and scale-up. Giorgio Carta received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Delaware in 1984. Since then he has been a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Uni versity of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA), where his research focuses on transport phenomena and bioseparations. He regularly organizes professional courses on various aspects of bioseparations, including a course together with Alois Jungbauer on protein chromatography development and scale-up. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Graduate Education

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239 Graduate Education biopharmaceuticals and the introduction of so-called biosimilars will also offer new opportunities for improving production and reducing costs. Unlike many small molecule drugs, protein-based therapeutics are characterized by ex treme molecular complexity. As a result, current U.S. FDA biological drugs by the process used to produce them. As a consequence, process changes after product licensing have quality by design (QbD), however, is gradually moving the regulatory framework toward a more rational approach. QbD refers to the achievement of certain predictable quality with subsequent versions of approved biological drugs produced by a follow-on manufacturer generally through a different process, also create opportunities for process engineering since they tend to separate product qualities from the exact process used to produce them. While, in general, the theory and practice of liquid chro matography is well established for small molecule separa tions ( e.g. remain largely empirical. Thus, optimum designs often remain elusive. On one hand, engineers, while possessing a strong foundation in transport phenomena and unit operations, often have a limited understanding of biomolecular properties. On the other, biochemists and biologists often have limited understanding of the key scale-up relationships and models needed for optimum design. aim of merging the theory and practice of biochromatography Mammalian cell culture Harvest (centrifugation) Clarification (depth filtration) Capture (Protein A affinity or cation exchange) Low pH viral inactivation Polishing (CEX, HIC, hydroxyapatite) Final Ultrafiltration Purification (anion exchange) Viral filtration Fermentation Harvest (centrifugation) Primary recovery (homogenization, osmotic shock, chemical extraction) Flocculation, enzyme treatment Clarification (centrifugation, filtration) Capture (ion exchange IEX) Purification (HIC, RPC, IEX, etc.) Polishing (HIC, RPC, IEX, etc.) Final Ultrafiltration (a) Soluble recombinant bacterial protein (b) Monoclonal antibody (mAb) Figure 1 (left). Downstream processing schemes for a soluble protein expressed in a bacterial fermentation (a) and for a monoclonal antibody expressed in mam malian cells (b). Chroma tography steps are shown in gray-shaded boxes. Courtesy of Alan Hunter, MedImmune. 1990 2010 E. Coli process CHO cells process Figure 2 (below). Typical distribution of production costs for biopharmecauticals produced in E. coli and Chi nese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in the nineties according to Datar, et. al., [1] (top), and in 2010 (bottom); upstream (fermentation) is in white and downstream is in gray. Note that increasing monoclonal antibody titers obtained from mammalian cell cultivation, now easily approaching 5 to 10 g/L, and tightening purity requirements increasingly shift the costs from upstream to down stream pro cessing. The total areas of the pie charts indicate the relative mag nitude of the total process ing cost.

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Graduate Education I Biophysical properties of proteins Size; Folding; Adiabatic compressibility; Charge; Hydrophobicity; Solution viscosity; Diffusivity; Properties of contaminants and adventitious agents II Chromatography principles Column characteristics; Porosities and flow; Adsorption isotherms; Retention and chromatographic velocity; Plate model; Measurement and estimation of HETP; Heuristics for scale-up and design III Laboratory and process equipment Columns and column packing; Chromatographic workstations; Pumps, detectors and auxiliaries; extracolumn factors IV Stationary phases Chemistry; Pore size, porosity, and surface area; Particle size and morphology; Mechanical/flow properties; Experimental characterization V Protein mass transfer fundamentals Diffusivity; Boundary layer mass transfer; Hindered diffusion in macropores; Diffusion in the adsorbed phase; Kinetic resistance to binding VI Effect of mass transfer on performance Rate models to describe adsorption kinetics; Relationship between equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity; Prediction of column efficiency VII Capture with selective adsorbents Protein A based adsorbents; Equilibrium isotherms and mass transfer limitations in affinity-based adsorption; Effects of residence time VIII Chromatographic purification Principles of preparative isocratic and gradient elution chromatography; Flow and gradient slope effects; Applications in IEX, HIC and RPC; pH gradients IX Biomolecular perspectives Protein-surface and protein-protein interactions; Effects of aggregation and unfolding; Thermodynamic and molecular modeling approaches X Chromatographic process design Technical and regulatory constraints; Purity and robustness requirements; Optimization of column design for capture and for purification Laboratory II Column properties Extraparticle and intraparticle porosities; Hydraulic permeability; Protein retention and band broadening in linear chromatography; Calculation and significance of HETP for proteins Laboratory III Adsorption and mass transfer effects Equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity; Effective diffusivity and film mass transfer; Modeling and prediction of breakthrough curve Laboratory IV Gradient elution chromatography Determination of retention and mass transfer properties from gradient elution; Resolution as a function of flow and gradient slope; Predictions with Yamamotos model Laboratory I Column packing and equipment Flow and pressure packing; Validation of packing quality; AKTA workstations; UNICORN software for equipment control and data analysis Design Exercise Column design and productivity optimization using data from Laboratories 2-4 subject to equipment and operational constraints

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Graduate Education to achieve optimum design and scale-up of process units. Our goal was to help educate engineers who understand the bio physical properties of proteins and other bio-macromolecules and can implement this understanding in the bioprocess set ting; and life scientists who understand transport phenomena and engineering models and who can apply these tools to the design of process units. The course has been held annually hands-on components. In the lectures, the participants learn the fundamentals of protein productionthe structural and biophysical properties of proteins and the varied nature of their contaminants; the theory of chromatography; the properties of stationary phases; how to describe the equilibrium and kinetic factors that govern process performance; and how to achieve the laboratory, they learn to pack columns that are useful as scale-down models; to plan experiments to identify critical parameters; and to use advanced chromatography worksta tions to measure the critical physiochemical properties needed to model retention and band broadening in different types of chromatographic operations. Ultimately, the participants complete a design exercise, in which they are asked to design an optimized column on the basis of the laboratory measure ments and theories learned during the course. It should be noted that the main value of this course is not in de novo process developmentrather, it mainly focuses on the optimal design and scale-up of columns for a process we consider the case of a monoclonal antibody process produced by mammalian cell culture for which a platform with many applications in the treatment of serious diseases and with market volume in the tens of billions of dollars per year. The bottleneck in their manufacture is often the capture step, which requires large columns (because of the limited binding capacity) and long times (because of severe mass transfer limitation). Our course offers the tools for optimally designing columns that can perform this task at maximum productivity with available stationary phases. Nevertheless, understanding these design concepts also aids the scientist who is involved in early process development to identify from the laboratory to the manufacturing suite. COURSE CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION Several approaches to teaching bioseparations, including computer simulations of adsorption and chromatography, illustrating chromatography with colorful model proteins, and chemical engineering laboratory courses covering mul tiple bioseparation operations, have been presented. Our approach is substantially different both in scope and delivery, however. It consists of an intensive short course comprising that integrates academic and industrial participants. The course program has evolved over the years, but the typical unit covers the biophysical properties of proteins and related cations, charge, and hydrophobicity as well as solution proper ties including solubility, viscosity, and diffusivity. While life scientists are generally familiar with these concepts, they have typically not thought about them in relation to their effects on process performance; many of the participants with engineer of their molecular complexity. Covering this material, albeit in a necessarily succinct way, brings the heterogeneous set of participants to common ground. The second lecture unit introduces key concepts that form the basis for understand ing how chromatographic columns work and how they can be scaled-up. Rather than dealing with each type of chro matography separately, we emphasize their common basis, treating chromatography as a unit operation. The empirical plate model is introduced at this stage as a simple tool for design and scale-up. We note that while effective when used in combination with experiments, this simple model does not permit a physically realistic assessment of the effects of mass transfer resistances, which tend to be dominant in these applications. and process columns and equipment and stationary phases. After a general introduction of the desirable characteristics of these essential hardware components, we provide many practical examples of equipment and materials available on the market. Chromatography media have often been chosen either based on what worked before or on manufacturers recommendation. We emphasize that while these approaches are valuable, a better choice can often be made with a funda mental understanding of chemical and physical characteristics in relation to the particular separation task at hand. The range of materials and column technologies available is expanding rapidly. Thus, the importance of understanding the basics is growing in order to be able to navigate an increasingly Figure 3 (facing page). Course content and organiza tion: unshaded boxes show lectures while shaded boxes indicate laboratories and team activities.

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mass transfer and its effects on chromatographic column performance. Because of the large molecular size and the often high solution viscosity and low operating temperature, diffusional mass transfer in the stationary phase is often the controlling band-broadening factor in protein chromatogra phy. We describe different possible mass transfer mechanisms both theoretically and using images of proteins diffusing in chromatography particles obtained by confocal laser scan ning microscopy (CLSM) and other microscopic techniques. We then illustrate how mass transfer resistances accelerate breakthrough, reduce the attainable binding capacity, and broaden chromatographic peaks leading to lower resolu concept introduced at this stage is that for the mass transfer controlled conditions encountered in these systems, the critical where is the column extraparticle porosity, D e the effective pore diffusivity, L the column length, p the particle diameter. We show that since column pressure depends on the column aspect ratio (L/d column ) can be changed while keeping n constant to allow the design of columns that retain the same dynamic binding capacity and ability to resolve mixtures, while meet stage is what pore size should be chosen to handle the capture of a large biomolecule or its separation from related impuri ties. To answer this question we discuss hindered diffusion theory and show that, as a general rule, the pore size needs extreme diffusional hindrance and exceedingly slow transport. For a monoclonal antibody, whose diameter is on the order which are in fact used in practice. tive adsorbents and separation of product-related impurities. The main example of selective capture is Protein A-based adsorbents, which selectively bind immunoglobulin and are used extensively in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes. Special attention is devoted to gradient elution as a tool for the separation of closely related impurities. Protein binding is generally very sensitive to the exact composition of to implement at the industrial scale because of limited robust ness. Gradient elution, where the mobile phase composition is gradually ramped from conditions leading to strong retention to conditions where binding is weak, provides a more robust and controllable process, although some complications are introduced. In this context we explain how protein retention and resolution vary with gradient slope and how the gradient slope affects the mobile phase composition at which elution of the separated products occurs. We introduce the method of transport parameters from gradient elution experiments as a practical tool useful to generate useful scale-up parameters. Lecture unit IX refocuses the groups attention on bio molecular properties. Now that the participants are familiar with how chromatography is implemented at the process scale and what parameters affect its performance, we address various factors that contribute to deviations from the theoreti cal behavior, including protein-protein and protein-surface interactions that can lead to aggregation and/or unfolding. Several examples are discussed primarily in the context of hydrophobic chromatography including a discussion of modern techniques such as hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry to detect unfolding on column and in solution. together by illustrating how to design maximum-productivity columns for capture and for resolution. We provide an over view of technical and economic constraints, but we emphasize designs that maximize productivity since the cost of the sta tionary phase and column hardware are often dominant. Thus, maximizing productivity often yields designs that are close to the true economic optimum. Column pressure is frequently the chief constraint, sometimes limited to just a few bars for large-scale bio-process columns. We thus show how to design columns that meet these low-pressure constraints for both rigid stationary phases and for compressible media. The lecture material, developed over several years, is now available in our recently published book. Other references are used extensively in our course. The lectures are pre sented in PowerPoint format and include a substantial number of spreadsheet-based tools, which implement quantitative relationships introduced in the lectures, and provide valuable demonstrations. For example, one of the spreadsheet tools provides a live simulation of protein diffusion and adsorption in a spherical particle allowing the user to experiment with the effects of particle size, protein concentration, diffusivity, and isotherm shape. Another spreadsheet tool allows visualization of the adsorption front propagating through a column during a capture step. Simulations are presented for conditions where the adsorption isotherm is non-linear, since these conditions are more frequently encountered in process scale applica tion of chromatography at high protein loads. An example is shown in Figure 4. The spreadsheet simulates the propaga tion of an adsorption front through a column and is used to illustrate the rapid approach to a constant pattern when the adsorption isotherm is non-linear and favorable. For short Graduate Education

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Graduate Education S-shape, which is retained unchanged as the front continues to propagate toward the column exit and breakthrough occurs. The spreadsheet is also used to simulate various effects such as that of residence time (L/u), feed and initial concentrations, particle size, and effective diffusivity. The last two parameters, of course, are affected by the choice of the stationary phase, so that basic mass transfer theory can be put in a practical context recognizable by both life scientists and engineers. Since instantaneous graphical displays are included, these tools provide a familiar environment to explain key relation ships in a manner accessible even by those who lack indepth mathematical knowledge. The course participants are provided with printed notes in binders as well as electronic versions. Model simulation spreadsheets used in the course are available from the authors upon request. The laboratories are based on experiments with actual C o l u m n A d s o r p t i o n S i m u l a t i o n Column data Langmuir isotherm parameters Porosity, => 0.4 Monolayer capacity, q m => 10 Length, L => 3.0 Equilibrium constant, K => 2 Velocity, u ==> 0.2 Rate parameters Feed concentration, C F => 2.0 Particle radius, r p => 0.0045 Initial concentration, C 0 => 0 Effective diffusivity, D e => 1.00E-07Delta t ==> 0.1 N ==> 50 DZ= R= 0.200 qF= 8.00 0.6 CFC0 q0 qF 2 ###### ### 8 Time = 1 0.9 k = 15qFDe/CF r p 2 = 2.96E-01 z Cj qj Cj+1 qj+1 q* dq/dt 0 2 1.9 2 2.05E+00 8 1.815533842 0.06 1.6686 1.7 1.68E+00 1.87E+00 7.69435123 1.776224618 0.12 1.3329 1.4 1.35E+00 1.61E+00 7.27206792 1.728481222 0.18 1.0009 1.2 1.03E+00 1.33E+00 6.66862293 1.629294118 0.24 0.6877 0.9 7.26E-01 1.00E+00 5.79027754 1.462302965 0.3 0.4222 0.6 4.62E-01 6.76E-01 4.57813811 1.191932881 0.36 0.2302 0.3 2.62E-01 4.01E-01 3.15222245 0.841084495 0.42 0.1135 0.2 1.35E-01 2.08E-01 1.84950153 0.502121655 0.48 0.0522 0.1 6.44E-02 9.72E-02 0.94456481 0.259497781 0.54 0.0227 0 2.92E-02 4.21E-02 0.43478574 0.120380993 0.6 0.0099 0 1.29E-02 1.73E-02 0.19344984 0.05399877 0.66 0.0037 0 5.37E-03 6.96E-03 0.07301288 0.020331286 0.72 0.002 0 2.50E-03 2.64E-03 0.04077159 0.011636135 0.78 1E-04 0 6.62E-04 1.10E-03 0.00196044 0.000367274 0.84 0.0008 0 7.29E-04 2.99E-04 0.01665408 0.004913455 0.9 -0.0005 0 -2.36E-04 2.34E-04 -0.0095598 -0.002893132 0.96 0.0005 -0 4.49E-04 -3.94E-05 0.01082696 0.003233721 1.02 -0.0004 0 -3.35E-04 9.84E-05 -0.0078174 -0.002344181 1.08 0.0003 -0 3.10E-04 -5.94E-05 0.00597259 0.001786718 1.14 -0.0002 0 -2.29E-04 5.10E-05 -0.003853 -0.001153202 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3D i s t a n c e f r o m e n t r a n c e z C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o l u m n p r o l e s a t t = 1, 5, 10, 20, 3 0 Initialize Run Reset feed S T O P Figure 4. Screenshot of sample spreadsheet used to simulate the propagation of an adsorption front in a cap ture column. The simulated proles, obtained with a favorable Langmuir-type binding isotherm, demonstrate the rapid approach to a constant pattern that retains its shape as breakthrough occurs. Conditions simulated are typical for protein chromatography. Dispersion is controlled by intraparticle diffusion.

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workstations from GE Healthcare (Piscataway, NJ, USA). These units integrate sophisticated pumps, sample injectors, column switching valves, and multiple detectors with power ful control and data acquisition software (UNICORN). The are shown in Figure 5. The four laboratory units shown in Figure 3 are intercalated with the lecture units so that the various concepts introduced in the lectures are tested in the laboratory immediately after they are presented. The course is conducted over a six-day period. On participants to assess their level of experience with protein chromatography, engineering vs. life science backgrounds, laboratory vs. manufacturing job func tion, and nationality. This information is used to cre ate six-person teams where each member can contribute different skills. Since the biotechnology industry is highly multidisciplinary, the participants have come from an extremely broad range of educational background and experience, which provides an excellent environment for shared learning oppor tunities. Thus, each team typically comprises chemical engineers, life scientists, expe encounter with protein chromatography, and even product managers and marketing specialists. Each team is assigned a graduate student from our groups as a tutor and assistant. For each lab, the tutors go over the key concepts covered in Graduate Education Figure 5. Flow diagram (top) and photograph (bot tom) of AKTA Explorer 10 unit from GE Healthcare used in the experimental part of the course. A unit is assigned to each team of six participants.

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Graduate Education from the four laboratories, the participants make predictions of the separation performance of a third hypothetical stationary phase that combines the smaller pore size and larger porosity of SP-Sepharose-FF with the smaller particle size of Source from those studied experimentally. In our experience, at the end the course, the participants get it right! The design exercise held on the last day of the course pro vides a further opportunity to strengthen conceptual and prac tical understanding of the factors that need to be considered This is done again in a team setting with assistance from the tutors. An example problem is as follows: You are assigned the task of scaling-up a cation-exchange capture step with SP-Sepharose-FF for the capture of the protein you tested in the laboratory. The feed will be in protein plus several minor impurities including proteins that are expected to have a pI around 5, endotoxin, DNA, carbohydrates, amino acids, and other trace components. The feed viscosity is 1.5 mPas. The proposed capture step will serve mainly to capture and concentrate the protein, although separation from the impurities is desirable. A cm) and a pressure rating of 3 bar is available. Your job is to determine if the available hardware is suitable and the processing time based on your lab-scale experiments. Since the design is constrained by available column hard ware and maximum protein concentration, the teams have to be creative and discover that greater productivity can be obtained by running a single shorter column for several cycles rather than a single cycle in a larger one. Among other things, the example demonstrates how optimized designs can help remove the downstream processing bottleneck created by the high fermentation titers and greater product demands that have arisen in recent years. ASSESSMENT and principal lecturers in both venues although a few other faculty members have also participated. We have strictly an important part of the experience since it also provides a view of the different industrial environments and regulatory structures in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Distribution of Course Participants Participants Number Participants from industry Participants from universities and public research institutions Categories Number Companies Biotech & pharma 35 Design & contract manufacturing 5 Media & equipment suppliers Universities and public research institutions Nationalities the lectures that are relevant to the lab at hand, explain the goals of the experiments, and guide each team through the setup of experimental runs. Some runs are executed quickly and the results are subjected to a preliminary analysis. The scouting feature of UNICORN is then used to explore a broad range of conditions overnight, generating a substantial number of runs. The next day each team analyzes the data in detail. We emphasize manual, hand calculations (that en hance understanding) as well as spreadsheet tools (that allow the analysis of large amounts of data). Each team is given different proteins with varying molecular properties and the two different stationary phases SP-Sepharose-FF and Source mechanical strengths (soft and rigid, respectively), packed properties (porosities, hydraulic permeability, binding con stants and capacities, effective diffusivities) that are needed and for the design and scale-up of production scale columns. After each lab analysis period, each team presents the results to the entire group, which is followed by group discussion of what worked according to theory and what did not. We then continue with the next lecture in preparation for the subsequent lab. Throughout the week, the participants are asked in turn experiments, the main features of the different stationary phases, how the protein molecular properties affect the results, and the lessons learned about the effects of critical operating parameters. At the end, based on the information compiled

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This is also true for the tutors, since each year we exchange The course is assessed through written course evaluations dicated on the evaluation form that they would recommend the course to a colleague or associate. Indeed, the course has fering we have had a long waiting list. For the industrial participants: underpinnings of protein chroma tography and to advanced labora tory equipment and techniques for process development and scale-up; troubleshoot actual bio-manufac turing processes; scientists who have experience with small molecules but who are now challenged by large biomol ecules; ment Quality-by-Design (QbD), which is a critical component of the FDAs efforts to improve the drug approval process, reduce costs, and improve quality; other companies; and studies by being immersed in thriving academic environments. For the academic participants: tory and manufacturing aspects of the biopharmaceutical industry; tory, economic, technological, and operational constraints affecting downstream process design and operation; ing practical design problems; highly multidisciplinary setting not commonly found in purely academic courses; to a broad audience; industry; and Finally, for the graduate students involved as tutors: team; Figure 6. Evaluation form used to assess the course. Lectures Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Technical content Clarity of presentations Clarity of notes Knowledge of instructors Response to inclass questions Overall lectures rating Laboratory sessions Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Technical content Equipment Clarity of lab objectives and plans Clarity of data analysis tools Quality of tutor support Overall laboratories rating Organization Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Program schedule Accommodations Meals Contact with organizer Overall organization rating Overall evaluation Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Overall rating o f the course Would you recommend this course to a colleague? Yes No Comments What was the best feature? What changes would you make? What will be the most helpful in your current/future job? Other Graduate Education

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Graduate Education standing of its relevance to industrial practice; Finally, the course has also been useful as a vehicle to encourage undergraduate students from underrepresented minority groups to pursue graduate education and careers in biotech. In fact, for the last few years, our course has hosted a number of scholarship undergraduate minority students academic scientists and engineers. CONCLUSIONS The course provides a unique and innovative way of com bining graduate and continuing education in an area of critical importance to the biopharmaceutical industry. The integration of laboratories and lectures provides the participants with im relations and their relevance to industrial applications. It also provides opportunities to ask questions and to be challenged to provide answers to bioprocess problems in the informal set ting of small teams. The highly multidisciplinary environment provides a great opportunity to understand the multifaceted nature of downstream processing. Finally, the teamwork setting of the laboratories and design exercise provides a unique opportunity for shared learning. We believe the general structure of our course can be successfully adapted to other ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to GE Healthcare for its equipment sponsor ship. GC is grateful to the U.S. National Science Foundation for research and graduate student support through NSF grants to Professors Erik Fernandez and Jorgen Mollerup for their instructional contributions to the course. REFERENCES Animal Cell and Bacterial Fermentations: A Case Study Analysis of Tis sue Plasminogen Activator, Nature Biotechnol. stream Processing of Monoclonal AntibodiesApplication of Platform Approaches, J. Chromatogr. B. 848 Biotechnol. Bioeng. 99 4. Shukla, A.A., and J. Thommes, Recent Advances in Large-Scale Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and Related Proteins, Trends Biotechnol. 28 5. Ruthven, D.M., Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption Processes Adsorption Engineering Preparative Chromatography of Fine Chemi cals and Pharmaceutical Agents Fundamentals of Preparative and Non-Linear Chromatography Chemical Engineers Handbook Separations, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 tography With Colorful Proteins, Chem. Eng. Ed. to Applied Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Protein ChromatographyProcess de velopment and Scale-up Ion Exchange Chromatography of Proteins Marcel High-Resolution, and Applications Bioseparations Engineering: Principles, Practice and Economics

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G raduate chemical engineering programs typically contain several-to-many elective courses. These electives typically offer advanced theoretical cover they take the standard concepts that are developed in core courses (transport, kinetics/reactor design, thermodynamics) ics, nanotechnology, bioengineering). Textbooks for many of these areas have now become available, to the extent that it is possible to teach some of these advanced electives from a textbook-driven approach vs. a literature-driven approach. At the University of South Alabama, we offer several of these courses in our Masters program, in the form of Spe cial Topics graduate electives. These courses are usually well-received, and students often show increased interest in the course material, as it is perceived as more relevant. Examining both our core and elective courses, however, we have found that formal instruction on the practical elements of experimental design, literature review, and research is often not addressed, but instead left up to student-faculty interactions on a case-by-base basis. This strictly theoretical paradigm could be satisfactory for a program that only offers a thesis-track option, with the assumption that a competency of research and laboratory instruction is given by the thesis men tor. For a program such as ourswhich allows for multiple graduate-study options: thesis, project, and courseworkwe propose that basic training in laboratory and research methods is both helpful and an effective use of resources. For students who will go on to perform thesis research, this course gives an introduction to research and laboratory methods that they will need during that thesis research. Likewise, for nonthesis Masters students, this course provides a necessary practical component that would otherwise be lacking in their curricu lum. By introducing graduate students to practical research concepts in a formal classroom/lab environment, we believe that common issues encountered in graduate researchlit erature surveys, laboratory practice, report writingare addressed effectively, together, and early in the graduate curriculum. Approaches to Research Methods Education There are now several chemical engineering, graduate research methods courses that have been documented in the literature, and are summarized below. It is interesting to note that while the need for graduate research methods edu cation and evaluation is agreed upon by all of the authors (including ourselves), the approach and implementation vary considerably. A GRADUATE LABORATORY COURSE ON BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills Graduate Education SILAS J LEA VESLEY AND KEVIN N WEST Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Kevin West is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of South Alabama. He graduated with high distinction from the University of Virginia with a B.S. in chemi cal engineering and received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Kevins research interests include the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel, task-specic ionic liquids, functionalized aerogel synthesis, and biofuel development. His teaching re sponsibilities include both undergraduate and graduate thermodynam ics, freshman engineering seminar, and special topics courses. Silas Leavesley is an assistant professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of South Alabama. Silas holds a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Purdue University and a B.S. in chemical engineering from Florida State University. His research focuses on the application of spectral imaging techniques to ex vivo and in vivo biological samples and the develop ment of novel optical diagnostic tools.

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cessful graduate research, and the apparent failure of written, course-based qualifying exams to provide this evaluation. The resulting one-semester Research Proposition course developed at North Carolina State University employed an applied approach, requiring students to complete a research proposal independent of their thesis adviser. This required students to perform the key steps of graduate research, with the exception of laboratory experimentation (an anticipated results section is used). The proposal is evaluated by a faculty committee in both oral and written formats, with advancement in the Ph.D. program dependent on a successful evaluation. Burrows and Beaudoin later described a graduate research methods course at Arizona State University. While many instructional elements of their course are similar to those described by Ollis, the student assignments and evaluation ments, each focused on a main topic of graduate research methods, instead of completing a single research proposal (as described by Ollis). In addition, the culmination of Burrows and Beaudoins course was a research presentation given by faculty members, in which students were able to critique a well-developed research presentation. In summary, Burrows and Beaudoins course seems to focus more on instructing students in the individual tasks of conducting research, while partly due to a departmental need to decide whether students should advance in the Ph.D. program. Holles reports on a 3-credit hour Theory and Methods of Research course that emphasizes graduate student presenta tions and skills in reading and writing peer-reviewed journal articles. As in the two previous articles, Holless course is for all graduate students. As mentioned, Holless course em the semester devoted to presentation instruction and student presentations. Holless course also includes two weeks of ethics instruction. Similar to Burrows and Beaudoin, Holless course uses different assignments on various aspects of con ducting graduate research, rather than the single, culminating research proposal used by Ollis. laboratory elective course offered at cole Polytechnique de Montral that focuses on teaching graduate students research This course requires stu dents to step through most of the stages in graduate research, from conducting literature surveys, to performing research, to in content and in style to a manuscript for publication. In-fact, Aucoin and Jolicoeur mention that students continued to be involved with course instructors, even after completion of the course, in order to develop a publishable manuscript. While this course does not require students to develop an in-depth proposal (as Ollis does), and possibly does not cover the breadth of research methodology instruction (as Burrows and Beaudoin or Holles do) it does introduce an important aspect of graduate research: laboratory experimentation. Our Approach for Providing Graduate Research Methods and Laboratory Training At the University of South Alabama, we have taken an ap proach that combines many of these elements. While this course was developed prior to publication of Aucoin and Jolicoeurs course, we agree with their assessment that undergraduate education generally does not prepare students for the type of hands-on self-discovery or experimental research that must be conducted at the graduate level. To address these concerns over practical research training of graduate students we have implemented a semester-long graduate elective that requires students to step through all of the basic aspects of a research project, including experimental laboratory work. This elective rent hot topic of chemical engineering research: production of offering focused on production of biodiesel from algae. While similar to Aucoin and Jolicoeurs course in some regards, this course differs in implementation (where students design both the equipment and experimental procedures for the course), in the use of a plant cell line as a biofeedstock, and in the incorporation of subsequent downstream processing steps. Suc cessful completion of the course required graduate students to conduct a literature survey, design laboratory equipment, plan a set of laboratory experiments, keep laboratory notebooks, trouble-shoot experimental protocol, prepare research reports, and iteratively present results before guest faculty. A unique aspect of this approach is that student teams were required to work together to design a series of unit operations to achieve an entire process: from algae growth to lipid extraction to In this paper we present the structure and outcomes of this course, which can easily be applied to alternative research top ics. We also describe the equipment and experimental methods laboratory-scale algae bioreactor, methods for lipid extraction, these practical skills, from learning to use a citation-database to developing calibration protocols for measuring algae cell density, are valuable preparation for thesis research and gradu ate research careers, whether industrial or academic. Graduate Education

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250 MATERIALS AND METHODS Course Description The algae biodiesel course was a three-credit-hour elective offered to students in the Chemical Engineering Masters of Sci three elective courses, in addition to thesis research. Graduate electives are typically offered only once per year, or every other year, allowing some rotation of the electives available to the graduate students. There were no prerequisites for this course, other than graduate standing in the Chemical Engineering department, as this course was intended to be an introductory course for incoming graduate students. The purpose of this course was to satisfy one of the required electives by focusing on a high-interest topic while simultaneously providing a re search and practical laboratory background that would prepare students for their M.S. thesis. This course combined regularly scheduled classroom time mester was mainly in the classroom, with a focus on technical writing (literature survey, research proposal) and presentation skills. As the semester progressed, students spent more of their time in the laboratory and meeting as a team with the instruc tor, and classroom hours were decreased to compensate. This course was co-taught by the authors of the paper, with additional expertise in algae growth provided by Dr. Timothy D. Sherman (Biological Sciences). Classroom instruction was di vided relatively equally between both instructors. Oversight of equipment development and laboratory exercises was divided between algae growth (bioreactor design) and lipid extraction Dr. West the latter. There was no teaching assistant assigned to this course, although in the future, a teaching assistant with Funding for this course was provided by the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department. While most of the equipment needed to perform the lipid extraction and departmental laboratories, equipment for the bioreactor had to be designed and purchased. The total equipment costs for Student Cohort Six graduate students were enrolled in this course, all of class size for chemical engineering graduate courses at the enrollment of six students in this course represented most of These students had yet to begin their thesis research, and one of the primary goals of this course was to provide them with initial training in research and laboratory methods. Course Structure The algae biodiesel course contained several key components: and protocols, 4) technical writing, and 5) presentation skills. Each of these is a necessary skill in graduate research. Students were split into three teams of two students each, researching the following areas: algae growth (bioreactor), lipid extraction, Formal assessments were made during research presenta tions and in each stage of writing the research report (Table nent as they progressed through the course. In essence, the typical Masters thesis in our department, although on a scaled-down level. Literature Survey A literature review was required from each team before teams were allowed to progress to equipment design and experimental planning. Students were initially supplied with several key review papers and instruction was supplied on The grading scale for this class places a high emphasis and developing presentation skills. Weekly Presentations Research Plan Midcourse Report Final Report Final Presentation TABLE 2 The timeline for this graduate laboratory class allows students to walk through the typical steps that are required for performing graduate research. Assignment Weeks (Semester Basis) Literature Survey Equipment/Apparatus Design 3-4 Research Plan 5 Equipment/Apparatus Construction Experiment Execution Midcourse Report Revised Experiment Execution Final Report Final Presentation Graduate Education

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251 appropriate methods to evaluate peer-reviewed literature. Using these as a basis, students conducted a formal literature review, with an emphasis placed on quality, peer-reviewed sources. A standardized textbook was not used for this course, as we wanted to place the emphasis of the literature survey on peer-reviewed publications and recent literature (requiring students to gather information from many sources). To give students a more formalized introduction to plant cell culture, however, supplemental instruction on algae growth was given by a guest lecturer from the Biological Sciences department. Instruction was also given in the use of SciFinder and Google Scholar in conducting a literature review, and in the use of a reference management system. Research Plan Each team of students was required to submit a research plan. This preliminary proposal consisted of the literature survey, a description of experiments to be conducted, the design of any new equipment needed for these experiments, the experimental and safety protocols that would be followed, the independent and dependent parameters of the experiments, and a timeline for completing experiments. An initial proposal team meetings with the course instructors. For example, the initial proposals contained general informationa sketch of the equipment needed, a conceptual overview of how the equipment should operate, major safety concernsbut lacked detailed laboratory procedures, as discussed below. team, teams were required to coordinate amongst each other, as the processes in this course are inter-dependent. This is a common situation in practical research environments. For example, when algae grown by one team was needed for extraction experiments conducted by a different team, the teams were required to submit a plan for how these experi ments would be coordinated. The algae bioreactor took several weeks to design and set up. To allow independent testing of intermediates were provided to these teams. Several types of nuts (cashews, peanuts) with known fat content were used as a substitute for testing the lipid extraction process, while canola oil was used as a substitute for extracted lipids in the set-up and test equipment independently, while coordinating product, biodiesel from algae. Laboratory Procedure and Protocol s While designing equipment and conducting experiments, students followed the experimental procedure and protocols outlined in their research proposal. As discussed above, the initial procedures proposed were very general and often lacked cols were updated and detail was added during meetings with the course instructors. Teams were also given tours of labora tory space and introduced to operating procedures and safety e.g. handling of compressed gasses, use of a heating mantle). While laboratory safety was not an independent objective of this course, it was a required component for every teams procedure, and teams were not allowed to proceed on to experimentation without Once the laboratory procedure was approved, teams were allowed to begin setting up equipment and conducting experi ments. Students were required to keep notes on their experimen tation, although the laboratory notebook was not a graded item for this course. Teams were also required to present updates on their equipment and experimentation during scheduled course meetings, as described in the Presentation Skills section. The goal of this step was that, by the end of the course, each team had compiled a set of experimental protocols that could be followed to repeat the experiments. This was a valuable learning experience for students, as it emphasized the need to keep a detailed laboratory notebook as well as to develop accurate standard operating procedures (SOPs). Both laboratory notebooks and SOPs are important aspects of good laboratory practice (GLP), a critical component of mentioned) in graduate courses. Technical Writing Students were required to submit written reports in three stages: a research plan (including literature survey), a midcourse ing each of these assignments as a manuscript that one could submit for peer review. During the early portion of the semester, in-class instruction was given on key aspects of developing a manuscript, including how to structure the manuscript, how to properly cite other publications (discussed above), and how to met several times with the course instructors to discuss their progress. Each stage of writing was built upon the previous stage. Hence, the mid-course report included the literature survey and proposed equipment design that was presented in the research plan. Teams were assessed and received written feedback for each of the three stages of the written report. The goal of this process was that, by the completion of the course, each team had developed a manuscript in a style and format consistent with a peer-reviewed journal. Presentation Skills Five times during the semester, teams presented their progress to the class. Presentations followed the format of a Graduate Education

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252 each presentation. During the initial portion of the semester teams were given tips on how to develop a technical presenta tion. At several of the presentations, external evaluators were also asked to provide feedback to students. A standard oral evaluation form was used to provide feedback to each student (supplemental material). Laboratory Equipment and Experiments Algae Bioreactor ing algae growth kinetics, and using this data to perform a theoretical reactor scale-up. Students proposed a design ing heat-exchange coil and an external chiller-circulator from Chlamydomonas Resource (Department of Biology, Duke University), was used for these experiments, as it has a weaker cell wall, facilitating lipid extraction. Selection of and of itself and for the purposes of this course was a Tris-acetate phosphate (TAP) nutrient solution and bubbled with a 5% by volume mixture of CO and cycle), temperature, seeding concentration, CO variables, and algae concentration and lipid content as dependent variables. Of these, students selected several independent parameters (light, temperature, CO growth. Algae concentration was measured using count using a hemacytometer (Figure 3). Lipid Extraction Lipid extraction is a key step in the algae biodiesel process. A second student group was assigned the task of comparing multiple methods for lipid extrac tion. Students compared different sample preparation mechanisms (crushing, chopping, freezing) to assess was used with hexane as a positive control (actual lipid content). Lipid content was calculated by a mass Figure 1. Student sketch of the initial algae bioreactor system. Figure 2. Top-view of the nal student-designed algae bioreactor. Algae were grown in two 500 mL gas washing bottles supplied with 5% CO 2 in dry air mixture. A 5-gallon glass tank, partially lled with H 2 O, was used as a constant-temperature bath, with temperature maintained by a chiller-circulator and 3/8 coiled copper tubing used as a heat-exchanger. Light was provided by three full-spectrum, 16 diameter circline uorescent lamps. attributed to loss on the surfaces of preparation containers, as well as possible solvent retention. Due to the lag-time associated with growing an appropriate mass of algae, students initially used other oil-rich biomaterial sources such as cashews and citrus peel to test extraction methods. This provided the students Graduate Education Gas Washing Bottles Outer Tank Circline Fluorescent Lamps Heat Exchange Coil To Heat Exchanger To Circulator 5% CO2in Dry Air Heater Optional) Pump TE Lighting Source Water Basin with Algae Seedlings Carbon Dioxide Nutrients (Fertilizer)

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253 Figure 4. The extraction apparatus consists of a Soxhlet extractor tted with a 500 ml round bottom ask and a Graham condenser. The sample cylinder was placed into the extractor and n-hexane was reuxed in the apparatus to extract the triacylglycerols from the biological matrix. with an experimental means to examine the practical differ ences between processes that are rate-limited vs. those that are equilibrium-limited, a concept that is prevalent in the chemical non-trivial manner. was carried out by a third student group. An acid-catalyzed (H SO 4 denser to prevent methanol vaporization. The thermometer for temperature measurements, and with a septum for withdrawing liquid samples via syringe. Upon sampling, the reac tion was quenched by contacting the sample with a saturated solution of aqueous sodium bicarbonate. After separation of the aqueous and organic layers, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess reac tor products and reaction yield through com parison of the relative amounts of methyl esters and acylglycerols. Independent parameters investigated by the students included heating duty, ratio of lipid to methanol (prior to initiat ing the reaction), and reaction time. As with the lipid extraction team, due to the lag-time associated with growing an appropriate mass of algae, students initially used an alternative lipid source (canola oil) to test different reaction parameters. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this course students carried out all of the major research tasks that are found in a graduate thesis, from literature surveys to experimental planning and execution to report writing and presentation. We believe that requiring students Graduate Education Figure 3. The calibration curve of millions of algae cells as a function of absorbance at 680 nm reveals a non-linear absorbance prole. Figure 5. Transesterication apparatus. The reaction takes place in a 500 ml 3-neck round bottom ask with Teon boiling chips to promote even boiling. The reaction vessel is tted with a Graham condenser to prevent loss of metha nol. Rubber septa allow for the measurement of reaction temperature and for sample collection via syringe. AbsorbanceCells X 106 / mL

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to walk through these steps, during their initial semester(s) in graduate school, has given them a jump start in understanding the research process and being prepared to con duct graduate thesis research. Although the literature review, report writing, and presen tation skills can be covered in core graduate courses, the integration of these skills with experimental planning and laboratory practice is not typically presented in these core classes. Hence, this course provided an opportunity to present an integrated overview of graduate research. The study of biodiesel production from algae is a current hot topic in chemical engi neering research. This topic provided a means to stress the interdisciplinary nature of many chemical engineering research positions. In addition to preparing students for graduate thesis research, we believe that this is a topic that will be of interest to related industries when students begin to seek job opportunities. It should be noted that while this course fo cuses largely on bioreactors and bioproducts, the six students in this program all had a traditional chemical engineering undergraduate background. Of the six students, one continued to pursue a thesis in the biomedical device area. The student workload and tasks varied throughout this course. Early in the semester, students spent most of their time developing the research plan. During this period, we believe that teams devoted an average of three to six hours per week for this course, outside of classroom time. Later in the semester there was a much higher need for laboratory time. Classroom time was also required during this period for teams to write their research reports, making the workload during the latter half of the semester substantial. We believe this workload was a reasonable expectation, however, as most students were en rolled in only one or two other graduate courses at the time and had not begun their thesis research. Of the six students who were enrolled in this class, two eral, there were wide variations in the quality of presentation skills, possibly due to English being a second language for reports. While team scores were assigned for the three written reports, individual scores were assigned for the weekly and in the class was assigned equally for the team, but enough of an individual score was also assigned to allow differentiation between students within a team. Hence, a student could fail a course such as this, but to do so would require a combination of poor individual and team performance (which could eas ily occur if, for example, a student had poor attendance and participation in team experiments and meetings). Similarly, for a student to receive a high score in this class requires a combination of excellent team and individual performance. It should be noted that there was a fair amount of variation in the team dedication to achieving quality, and reproducible, results. Some teams were very concerned with achieving reproducible results and performed many runs of experiments, while others felt that this was less important. countered numerous obstacles that are representative of real graduate research. For example, discovering that autoclaving (sterilizing) algae cell culture medium and growth vessels will prevent mold growth was a valuable lesson and served as an introduction in good laboratory practice (GLP), a necessary training component in pharmaceutical and biomedical product industries. A second example came as students encountered the need to quantify the ratio of live-to-dead algae cells, which required them to research and develop a protocol for live-dead staining. In retrospect, this type of interdisciplinary research course will proceed much more smoothly if carried out in the prox imity of quality cell biology and analytical chemistry labora tories. Many specialized pieces of equipment were required Graduate Education Figure 6. Algae growth curves (batch 6, bottles A and B) display charac teristic lag, exponential growth, and decay regions. A 4th-order sigmoidal curve is t for demonstration purposes only. 020406080100120140160180 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 6A 6B

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255 Figure 7. The research hot topic for this course may easily be altered by following these steps. for this course, and these are not always found in the same location (autoclave, biological safety cabinet, chemical fume hood, phase-contrast microscope, absorbance spectrometer, NMR). We suggest coordinating development of a course of this nature with lab managers of respective cell biology and analytical laboratories to ensure that all of the necessary equipment is available. algae, combined with the inherent error in mass measurements and mass losses during processing, leads to a large uncertainty in closing the mass balance. Hence, in future course offer ings, we recommend increasing the volume of algae grown algae for use in the extraction process. Whether this volume increase is achieved by multiple parallel reactors, or through one large-volume bioreactor, will be left up to future students to determine. The design and execution of the algae bioreactor was highly successful, both for the growth of algae and as a learning tool. The student team proposed a bioreactor design after studying pertinent literature and previous bioreactor de eral revisions of this design (with instructor feedback), before they were approved to construct the bioreactor using a hemacytometer and subsequently established an absorbance method to relate cell concentration to seen to follow the lag, exponential growth, and decay Objective assessment of laboratory courses is a grow ing concern for many engineering programs, especially at the graduate level, where assessment is often based on general perceptions of student competency, com to quantify. Hence, we plan to develop and implement course offerings. Feisel and Rosa provide an in-depth discussion of engineering laboratory assessment and graduate engineering laboratory courses. We plan to incorporate evaluation of some of these objectives into ment, data analysis, design, and learning from failure) cised in several areas, along with aspects of design, as students were asked to propose and design portions of the equipment needed in this course. Finally, Objective and execution of experiments and through written and oral direct method for team assessment, as teamwork can be a criti cal component of graduate research. We also plan to develop learning objectives that can be used to effectively assess the taxonomical skills required of graduate engineering students (analysis, synthesis, evaluation). In general, we believe that students found this course useful for providing an overview of the graduate research process. The instructors for this course served as thesis advisors for three of the six students enrolled in providing an overview of the research process, and addi to students prior to beginning their thesis research (methods for performing the literature search, citation databases, how to write a standard operating procedure, etc.). Finally, we believe that this course offers a framework that outlines the steps involved in selecting an appropriate topic, Graduate Education

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256 working through some of the logistics of determining the complexity of a potential topic, identifying appropriate faculty expertise, and identifying the equipment needed to teach the course. The course could focus on experimental design, using of equipment design as well, as this course did in the design of the algae bioreactor. While course expenses are a concern for many programs, it should be remembered that the funda mental steps of many potential processes require relatively basic equipment to perform at a laboratory scale. CONCLUSIONS We have developed a graduate elective emphasizing re search methodology and laboratory practice, centered on the theme of producing biodiesel from algae. Six M.S. chemical engineering students were enrolled in this course, split into course has been highly successful, providing the opportunity for students to perform each of the steps contained in a tradi tional thesis research topic. Student teams successfully devel oped equipment and experimental methods for algae growth, dents received feedback on numerous aspects of this course, research: literature review, experimental planning, laboratory protocols, technical writing, and oral presentations. Students were enthusiastic about this work, and achieved a high level of progress within the limited timeframe of a single semester. Biodiesel production proved to be an excellent research area for this course, although this course structure could easily be adapted to alternative research areas as well. FUTURE WORK We plan to offer graduate electives with similar course may change, we hope to improve on several areas of the course in future offerings. First, this course could be improved with additional course advisors in areas of specialization relating to the research topic. In planning this algae biodiesel course, Dr. Timothy D. Sherman (Biological Sciences, University of South Alabama) offered invaluable advice as to the growth of algae and design of algae bioreactors. A method to more formally (administratively) incorporate and compensate future courses. Second, as mentioned above, courses of this service laboratories, in this case cell biology and analytical chemistry. If available, interaction of core managers with graduate students will be an additional aspect of graduate research training. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Dr. Timothy D. Sherman for his contribution to the technical content of this course, for his help in identifying algal strains and algae bioreactors appropriate for these experiments, and for serving as an external evaluator in portions of this course. We would also like to thank Drs. lar Engineering, University of South Alabama), for serving as external evaluators for oral presentations. Finally, we would like to thank all of the graduate students who participated in REFERENCES Chem. Eng. Ed. riculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 3. Ollis, D., The Research Proposition, Chem. Eng. Ed., 29 ods, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 5. Chisti, Y., Biodiesel from Microalgae, Biotechnology Advances 25 Biore source Technology 70 Energy Policy 35 () The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook: Introduction to Chlamydomonas and its Laboratory Use Their Sequence in the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain of Chlamydomonas Reinhardi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 54 Fuel ate Engineering Education, J. Eng. Ed. 94 Graduate Education

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I n the last few decades, cognitive scientists have made significant progress toward understanding how and under what conditions the brain takes in and stores in formationor in other words, what facilitates and hinders learning. Few university instructors are taught any cognitive science before or after they join a faculty, however, and they consequently default to teaching the way they were taught, regularly doing things that interfere with learning and failing to do things that promote it. Fortunately, a growing number of books now exist that translate the often dense jargon of understand, and apply. A particularly good recent translation is How Learning Works instructional principles that come directly from cognitive research and their implications for teaching practice. Here are some highlights. Students prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. Most information taken in through the senses either lost, with only a relatively small percentage being retained in long-term memory. The odds that students will retain new information increase if the information is explicitly linked to their previous knowledge. Also, students often come to our courses with misconceptions about what we are teaching. If we fail to convince them otherwise, they may learn to parrot our statements of the concepts on exams but their faith in the misconceptions will remain unshaken. Principle P2: how they learn and apply what they know. A big difference between experts and novices is that experts have organized their knowledge into patterns and novices have not. When experts encounter a new problem, their mental organization enables them to quickly adopt an effective strategy for prob through randomly selected strategies. Principle P3: Students motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. Motivation to learn in a course increases if students believe the course is about things they care about and skills they will need, and if they think they have a good chance to succeed. Principle P4: To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned. Principle P5: Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students learning. Stu dents learn problem-solving strategies and improve skills by initially attempting small tasks that require the strategies and Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University. He is coauthor of Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous articles on chemical process engineering and engineering and science education, and regularly presents workshops on ef fective college teaching at campuses and conferences around the world. Many of his publications can be seen at
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skills, getting feedback on their attempts, trying again with better results, and gradually moving to increasingly complex problems. Their improvement is accelerated if they fully understand the instructors learning goals and the feedback they get is clearly related to the targeted skills. Students current level of development in teracts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning. Good courses challenge students to question and revise their conceptual understanding and beliefs on the basis of the best available evidence. Their ability to rise to that challenge depends heavily on whether the class climate is supportive (the students feel accepted and safe, even when their ideas are being challenged), chilly (they feel they are anonymous and their ideas are irrelevant or unacceptable), or hostile (they feel marginalized because of their race, gender, or beliefs, or they perceive the instructor as an adversary rather than a source of support). Students in a supportive climate are much more likely than students in chilly and hostile climates to achieve the instructors learn personal and professional identity. Principle P7: To become self-directed learners, students must learn to assess the demands of the task, evaluate their own knowledge and skills, plan their approach, monitor their progress, and adjust their strategies as needed. Metacogni shown to promote cognitive skill development. The following instructional strategies collectively address Gather information about their prior knowledge, skill levels, interests, and goals. Link mate rial you are teaching to something they already know from previous courses or personal experience, and when possible, to something they care about. Connect abstract theories and concepts in the course to familiar real-world problems and applications. Run or simulate experiments that address com mon misconceptions, ask the students to predict the outcomes, they were wrong. Make your learn ing goals challenging but attainable by most of the students in your class. Write detailed learning objectives that spell calculate, model, critique, design,) if they have acquired the knowledge and skills you are trying to help them develop, and share your objectives with the students. (Putting them in study guides for exams is an effective way to get the students to pay attention to them.) Make sure your exams are clearly tied to your learning objectives, lessons, and assignments. Teach and test at a level that is challenging but not too far above the students current knowledge and skill levels. Identify tasks that students assignments to provide practice and feedback in the required skills, and then move to problems that require combining the skills and broadening their range of applicability. Show themor better, get them to create graphic organizers and concept maps for subjects you are teaching them. Have them formulate solution strategies before beginning to work on new problems, and when they complete several good and bad examples of both processes. Learn and use students names and encourage them to inter act with you in and out of class. Make clear that alternative viewpoints and approaches may be challenged in your class but not disrespected. Avoid using language that could be viewed as stereotyping or disrespecting students and challenge any stereotyping or disrespectful or discriminatory language directed by any students toward classmates. Make your tests challenging but fair, test only on what you have taught, and allow enough time for most students to complete the tests and check their solutions. Collect anonymous student feedback in mid-term evaluations and investigate and respond to any complaints related to class climate. If you are a good teacher you may be scratching your head now, wondering why were bothering to suggest these things you already know and may have been doing for years. Its true that theres nothing novel about the recommended strategies; what is new is that besides having extensive empirical and theoretical support for them, we now know that they have solid foundations in brain science. Our hope is that the brief sampling of ideas in this column will induce you to get a copy of How Learning Works in the brain that makes the strategies work as well as they do, and use that knowledge to sharpen your implementation of the strategies and make them even more effective at promoting your students learning and intellectual development. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at

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259 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Keith Marchildon is a retired DuPont Fel low and recipient of DuPonts Pedersen Medal. He assists at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, with nal-year TEAM (Technology, Engineering, and Man agement) student projects and with a gradu ate-level mathematical modeling course. His survey of the Polyamides is a feature article in the 2011 January issue of Macromolecular Reaction Engineering He is a graduate of McGill University. He may be reached at keith.marchildon@sympatico.ca. FROM LEARNING TO EARNING: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer internships and co-op assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome. Description of the analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should be emphasized. These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real-world tools and experiences back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please ChE learning in industry F out around the chemical engineering department at Chemical En gineering Education magazine have resulted in a few thoughts about the formation and training of chemical engineers. Any engineering curriculum deals with a remarkable challenge: to take a high-school student, usually after one year of general engineering, and, in three years, turn that individual into a functioning professional. Given that professional licensure usually requires a few years of practice, the typically narrow scope of such experience means that systematic education has had to have been done back in engineering school. Few if any other professions attempt to do so much in so short a time. In chemical, as in all the engineerings, the challenge is met by a carefully designed curriculum, which is different from school to school but which generally adheres to a standard pattern of courses, content, and sequence. This curriculum is widely accepted by the major stake-holders: the students, their employers, the educators, and society at large. Examples of chemical engineering undergraduate curricula at four universi ties have been presented in the last few years. Change is proposed from time to time by the various groups but it is often in divergent directions. The educators, who are the people who would have to make the changes, point to the already crowded curriculum and to the fact that they themselves have only limited time to make improvements to something that they consider to be already working quite well or at least well enough. With that background in mind, here are three suggestions for the chemical engineering curriculum, followed by some ideas for implementation. The suggestions are aimed at preparation for the chemical and related process industries: while students may have management as a goal they realize that success in the technical work for which they were hired is the likeliest route to wider responsibilities. KEITH MARCHILDON

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260 INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEXITY book Transport Phenomena, they crystallized the centrality of these phenomena as the underlying basis of all chemical engineering. The three balance equationsfor momentum, for heat, and for mass (incorporating reaction as a source term)are, to chemical engineering, the equivalent of Max wells equations to electrical engineering and Newtons three laws of motion to mechanical engineering. When we train our graduates to think like chemical engineers, we mean that they are to view the processes of industry and nature in terms of these three phenomena. We believe that this fundamental approach is the path to understanding, improvement, and invention in chemical operations. The problem arises when the graduate is confronted with the actual operations of industry, where there is complex interac tion and where the complexity is hidden behind a mass of steel and insulation. The clean individuated concepts of academia seem impossible to apply and this impression is abetted by old hands telling the young engineer that this is the real world and that we dont use much theory around here. One way to prepare the graduate for this upcoming shock is to introduce analyses of complexity into the instruction, either as participatory classroom exercises or as assignments. Cast them into the form of what happens when two or more transport phenomena act at the same time, either in the form of a design study or as a trouble-shooting inquiry. Make the course is Heat Transfer, present a situation where both heat see, say, four such analyses over the course of study it would strengthen their resolve to carry the fundamental approach over into the bear-pit of industrial practice. Examples are not hard to come by. They may be imaginatively constructed or they may come from the experience of academic and industrial colleagues. Several books on process analysis and trouble-shooting have case studiessee for example the texts by Saletan, Woods, and Lieberman. Course time may be harder to come by, but it can be argued that it is better to of the graduate actually using what has been taught. There is a related but separate benefit. Custodians of curricula are always conscious of the high desirability of incorporating a Design or Synthesis component, in which students have the opportunity to use their received knowledge. But this exercise in Process Synthesis is time-consuming contrast, exercises in Process Analysis, as described above, and at more points in the course of study. There could be an optimal combination of the two approaches. One of the hurdles with actual industrial processes is that, with the best will in the world, the engineer lacks the data to create a quantitative fundamental description of what is going on. Consequently, the acquisition of data by both standard and specialized methods is an accompanying skill of great value, to be taught probably in a course on process monitoring and control. Finally, on the subject of analyzing complex processes, recourse is often had to the use of statistical correlations, e.g. of process outputs with process inputs. These methods can provide a lot of insight into the overall operation and they can guide optimization and process changes. They can also be a sign-post to the internal workings of the operation. They are not, however, a substitute for the fundamental understanding, in terms of transport phenomena, which alone can produce major improvements and inventions in processes. FRONT-LINE & SUPPORTING KNOWLEDGE: A NEW COURSE INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE When employers of chemical engineers put communica tion and teamwork at the top of the list of desirable skills and put technical knowledge further down the list, then we know that there is a disconnect between the employer and the university. It sometimes appears that graduates are valued more for having passed their courses than for what they have learned from the courses. We may conclude that one or both of two conditions apply 1) the employer does not understand (perhaps has never understood) the value that the graduates fundamental know-how can bring to the enterprise, and 2) the university has overlooked or under-taught some skills and knowledge that would help the new graduate be more effective in the employers service. who needs to make a case for applying fundamentals, with successful results that open the eyes of the employer. Hope fully the above described training in analyzing complexity will be of some help in making this happen. People entrusted with the formation of chemical engineers understanding of momentum, heat, and mass transfer. Ability to communicate and to work as part of a team are important skills and generally are addressed in the curriculum. There are several others, as are listed below. Sometimes they get taught as part of a process design course, but this unfortunately takes time away from the actual design experience. There are others that are not taught at all because they are part of some other discipline. If a group of students, industrialists, and academics were asked to suggest useful skills and know-how, they would come up with a formidable list. Some are already covered ( e.g. teamwork as part of group assignments); a

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261 lot of others could constitute a new course, perhaps called Industrial Practice. This is a course that would precede the project of the Process Design course, with the latter drawing on many of the elements of the new course. Here are some possible topics. Communications: often taught as a course in its own right. Desired outcomes are ability to write a letter or other docu ment that is clear and gets to the point, ability to speak up and deliver a message verbally, and ability to think on ones feet, answer questions, and defend ones position. Graphical are a considerable asset. Teamwork: best taught by practice. A lecture would be help ful on group dynamics and on the planning and scheduling of a group effort. A good outcome is the ability to be a productive member of a team and also an idea of how to lead a team. Economics: capital cost and operating cost, understanding of the expendi ture approval procedure, and knowledge of how to calculate indicators such as net present value, return on investment, Documentation: knowing the purpose of and knowing how to prepare the standard engineering transmittal documents are the desired outcomes. These documents consist of process tions for monitoring and control systems, initial piping and draft of applications for environmental permits. Instruction might start with learning to read existing such documents. Sources of information: ance on accessing the vast amount of literature on technical, economic, and relevant social topics. The outcome is ability general appreciation of the books and journals that support lifelong learning and personal professional development. Common process equipment: some things are ubiquitous across almost all processes and are encountered early in a chemical engineers career. These items include pumps, vessels and mixers, process measuring devices, simple process controllers, and simple heat exchangers. An outcome would be to develop a level of familiarity with these devices beyond and process control. Process simulators: the student may have the opportunity to use a commercial general-purpose process simulator in the Process Design course and, later, may have (or press to have) the use of a simulator with an employer. The outcome is to learn the capabilities and limitations of the current programs on the market. Safety and health: outcomes are knowledge of the major consequences of mishaps. Environmental considerations: one outcome is knowing the applications of chemical engineering to remediation. An other is knowing how various types of waste are dealt with regardless of method, and knowing the legal consequences of non-sanctioned releases to earth, water, or atmosphere. Plant services: as an outcome, understanding something about the provision of such auxiliaries as air, water, steam, electricity, etc. Other engineerings: outcomes are introductory know-how in such areas as Electrical motors, sub-stations, in-plant power distribu tion, control cabinets, data transmission Mechanical drive trains, vessels, steam plants, piping stress Civil hydraulics of environmental and other systems Metallurgical materials of construction, corrosion Operation of plants: the outcome is an understanding of how plants and their people work. The engineer acquires a picture of who does what. He or she learns that there are typi cally people engaged in supervision, operation, maintenance, technical support, accounting, etc., and learns what to expect from them and how to interface with them. or plant. There are undoubtedly many more items that an employer or a new employee would like to see. Most of these topics can be covered in a lecture or two because the intended graduate more useful and impressive to the employer, and serves as an ongoing source of information during a whole technical career. An extensive set of online supplementary Who will teach such an eclectic mixture of topics? Al though the ideal would be one person, help from other de partments or from outside the university may be necessary. But the overall content needs to be controlled and, most importantly, everything has to be potential material for the examination. One notable omission from the topic list is the subject of Ethics and Integrity, an issue that stands above any of the ones listed. Because of its over-riding status it needs to be treated not only separately but also continuously over the course of the engineering program. A good and immediately applicable starting point is consideration of academic honesty on the part of students and teachers.

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262 TASK-DRIVEN TECHNOLOGIES Schools teach technologies but companies have tasks. The company is interested in a technology only insofar as it performs a task. Thus, the school teaches distillation but the company has a liquid mixture to separate and it cares for distillation only if it turns out to be the best way to carry ment course, my colleague David Mody and I attempted to organize the technology-vs.-task matrix by tabulating the needs that arise in chemical processes and then surveying the technologies available to meet them. With the help of several Tasks in Chemical Process Design Liquid-solids mixture (slurries) Gas-liquid mixture Solidsrobust/friable/dusty Gases Gas with solid Gas with liquid Gas with aerosols 4. Solids Processing Size reduction Size enlargement Solids formation Coating 5. Heating, Cooling, and Phase Change Condensation (single/miscible/immiscible component) Miscible liquids Solids in liquid Immiscible liquids Solid particles with each other Gas and liquid Solid particles and gas Liquid and liquid Gas and solid Solid and liquid Liquid and solid Gas and liquid Permanent gases Solid-in-liquid solution Fluid-in-solid solution Solid solution Liquid mixture Gas phase Fluid-solid (non-catalytic) Liquid phase Solid-catalyzed (in gas, liquid, or gas-liquid medium) Gas-liquid Biochemical Immiscible liquids Solid phase

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263 Some instructors will be unhappy that there is time for only qualitative presentation of some of these technologies but could note that in many other disciplines in the university this is always the case and it still gets dealt with at examina tion time. IMPLEMENTATION: TOWARDS A (SOMEWHAT) REARRANGED CURRICULUM One or another of the above proposals may catch the eye of a curriculum-minded individual or perhaps a university department in the midst of curriculum review. Here are a few suggestions on implementation, which may actually lead to action. of complexity, is weakened if the treatments of the individual transport phenomena and of reaction are fully compartmental ized. The idea is to examine systems where two or more of these actions are occurring and interacting. The instructors in the individual subjects need to cooperate. For instance, if mass transfer is taught after momentum and heat transfer, then, to achieve the result, the mass transfer instructor has to be will ing to devote some course time to a joint example/exercise involving the other two transfers. Practice, comprising industry-oriented supporting topics, is TABLE 3 Task: Molecular Separation Technologies Permanent Gases Cryogenic distillation Adsorption Membrane permeation Gas-vapor Mixture Condensation Absorption Adsorption Distillation Absorption Adsorption Membrane permeation Liquid Mixture Distillation Stripping Extraction Adsorption Membrane permeation Melt crystallization Liquid Solution (contain ing a dissolved solid) Solution crystallization Ion exchange Reverse osmosis Dialysis Solid Solution (all solid or containing a dissolved Drying Leaching Melt crystallization TABLE 2 Task: Mechanical Separation Technologies Liquid and Liquid Decantation or Settling Coalescence Centrifugation Solid and Solid Screening Magnetic attraction Electrostatic precipitation Gas and Liquid Gravity settling Inertial precipitation (de-misting, scrubbing) Gas and Solid Gravity settling Scrubbing Filtration Electrostatic precipitation Liquid and Solid Sedimentation centrifugation Filtration Settling Flotation Expression Wicking available for these tasks and situations. By way of example, technologies. For the general task of Molecular Separation, Table 3 shows available technologies or methods. What is immediately obvious is that, while some of these methods ( e.g. distillation, absorption) are generally taught in some detail, others are completely ignored, even to the point that teacher and student may not know what they are. Subjects like Solids Processing, Mixing and Agitation, and Mechanical Separation are often not taught at all. And yet the his or her way may well be in these areas. What is also obvious is that there is not enough time or space in the curriculum to thoroughly explore all of these technologies. A more realistic objective is simply to introduce them to the student, explaining 1) what they are and how they work 2) under what conditions they are appropriate 3) what the key questions or calculations are. that are traditionally taught can be given more attention. The new graduate is in the position of a general practitio ner in medicine, the front line person who needs to know enough of the whole range of conditions and treatments to be able to deal directly or to hand off to the correct specialist.

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This is a course that will be popular with students, who can see sors and they may be willing to assist. Professors, themselves, may take pleasure in developing new expertise to teach some of the material: good references are Lieberman and Lieber man and Ludwig. Timing of the course is ideally in the term immediately preceding the Process Design course. Proposal #3, the survey of Task-Driven Technologies, calls for a great widening of the subject material being taught, raising the controversial issue of depth vs. breadth. The issue ration: Wankat presented a list of such methods similar to proposition is made that it is more important to understand the capability and behavior of a technology than to be able to design a unit to carry out the technology. If that premise is accepted, then the learning experience can be greatly widened and accelerated by student experimentation with dedicated mathematical models, of which there must be many suitable candidates in the great treasury of simple simulators developed by academics over the years. Another aid is a good suite of online supporting notes. Laboratory experiments can also help. The material could be taught during years one and Phenomena. Prior to dealing with individual technologies certain underlying concepts would have to be taught, such as and operating lines, and equilibrium-vs.-rate. But some of the current more mathematical aspects would be deferred. presenting the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings, i.e. very simply, the proposal reverses the traditional sequence Table 4 summarizes the way in which these curriculum CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions sum up what is being sug gested. 1. The chemical engineering undergradu ate curriculum should be viewed as a work in progress, capable of and meriting continuous improvement. 2. Process analysis, as a complement to pro cess synthesis, should be considered as a teaching tool. 3. Composite, multi-topic courses, such as the proposed Industrial Practice course, have a place: not every topic requires a full or half course of its own. be a better sequence, particularly as a preparation for the process design course. 5. The balance between breadth and depth needs serious thought. 6. Persons outside the university can supplement the efforts of faculty. content, not just in the sequencing of courses and the assignment of instructors. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Friends on the staff of the chemical engineering department at Queens University have been patient with my curriculum musings. Barrie Jackson and Don Robinson, two helpers like myself, have sharpened my thinking. An article by Professor Felder reinforced some thoughts about the issue of depth vs. breadth. REFERENCES University of Sherbrooke, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 University, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3. Sung, N., and D. Ryder, ChE at Tufts University, Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 4. Faculty and staff, Chemical Engineering at The University of North Dakota, Chem. Eng. Ed. 44 5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena Creative Troubleshooting in the Chemical Process In dustries Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers: A Complete Course in Case Studies Trouble Shooting Process Operations professional development course, EPIC Educational Program Innova Working Guide to Process Equip ment Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 TABLE 4 New and Re-arranged Material for the Curriculum Fall Term Winter Term One Task-driven technologies Two Task-driven technologies Task-driven technologies, INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE course Three PROCESS DESIGN course, Chemical engineering science: Transport phenomena and other fundamentals Chemical engineering science

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265 S ustainability is a vital issue for the long-term, healthy development of human society. As the United Na tions pointed out, We cannot carry on depleting natural resources and polluting the earth. The principal aim of sustainable development is to achieve progress on all frontseconomy, environment, and society. The chemical industry, like other manufacturing industries, has been fac ing tremendous challenges due to economic globalization, environmental pressure, natural resource depletion, etc. The industry fully recognizes its commitment to product steward ship and sustainable development. Echoing the industrial need and societys expectation, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology for program accreditation states: Engineering programs must demonstrate that their students attain an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability. ronmental management to systems designcoming up with solutions that integrate environmental, social, and economic factors to radically reduce the use of resources while increas ing health, equity, and quality of life for all stakeholders. SUSTAINABILITY EDUCATION CHALLENGES material and energy processes in various systems of interest to minimize the need to extract materials and energy from the earth and to reduce any impact to the environment and society. Sustainability is a concept, a process, and a practice very dif ferent from traditional chemical process engineering in terms EDUCATION MODULES FOR TEACHING SUSTAINABILITY in a Mass and Energy Balance Course KAI LIANG ZHENG 1 DOYLE P. BEAN JR. 1 HELEN H. LOU 1 THOMAS C. HO 1 AND YINLUN HUANG 2 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Helen H. Lou received a B.S. degree from Zhejiang University in 1993, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Wayne State University in 1998 and 2001, respectively, all in chemical engineering, and a M.A. degree in computer science from Wayne State University in 2001. She is currently an associate professor in the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical En gineering, Lamar University. Her research has been mainly focused on sustainable engineering, process systems engineering, process safety, and combustion. Kai Liang Zheng received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 2006 and a dual degree of Bachelor minor in English in 2007 from Dalian University of Technology, China. He is currently a graduate student under the guidance of Professo r Helen H. Lou in the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University. D.J. Bean obtained his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from La mar University in May 2010, and began pursuing his Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Yale University in September 2010. His research areas as an undergraduate student focused on sustainability, environmental engineering, and green chemistry. Thomas Ho received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from National Taiwan University in 1973, his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in chemical engineering, from Kansas State University in 1978 and 1982, respectively. He is currently a Regents Professor and the Chair of the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering at Lamar University. His research has been mainly on uidization, combustion/incineration, metal emissions control, and air quality modeling. Yinlun Huang is a professor of chemical engineering and materials science and the Charles H. Gershenson Distinguished Faculty Fellow at Wayne State University. His main research areas include multiscale complex systems science and engineering, engineering sustainability, and integrated material, product, and process systems engineering. He obtained his B.S. degree from Zhejiang University, China, in 1982, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Kansas State University, in 1988 and 1992, respectively. He joined Wayne State University in 1993, after his postdoctoral research at the University of Texas at Austin. ChE curriculum of scope, content, and spatial/temporal aspects. Four types of sustainability systems have been recognized, which range : Type I systems address global concerns or problems, such as global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion; Type II systems are characterized by geographical boundaries, such Type III systems are

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266 businesses that strive to be sustainable; and systems, the smallest in the hierarchy, refer to sustainable technologies that are designed to provide economic value through clean It is worth pointing out that the course of material and en ergy balances in most chemical engineering programs today focuses on balance calculations associated with a process of singleor multiple-process units, such as distillation columns and heat transfer units, systems in the sustainability hierarchy. Clearly, more complete education addressing sustainability should be incorporated into mass and energy balance coursework. It is thus essential to develop the corresponding educational materials and peda gogical methods for this purpose. In this paper, we introduce several educational modules for addressing the sustainability issues, focusing on mass and energy balance calculations in systems ranging from global to geographical scales. As part of this effort, life cycle aspects of products and renewable en provided as follows. This work can be incorporated in a mass and energy balance course, which is usually taken by sopho more students. The modules consist of a set of lecture notes The instructor can either assign the problems as homework to the students, or use them as illustrative examples during the lecture. Depending on the length of the lecture, the instructors the problems. The problems in each module are presented in the following sections. Module 1: Global Carbon and Sulfur Cycles (Type I System Earth) Natural cycles of important elements, including the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, are critical to envi ronmental sustainability. In this module, students learn how to perform material balance calculations to realize the global impacts of human activities on nature. A. Carbon cycle The U.S. Climate Change Science Program reports that the increase in atmospheric CO emissions from human ac tivities is the largest factor contributing to climate change. gigatons of carbon per year are emitted due to misuse of lands through activities such as deforestation. According to the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the mass of the gigatons) air. Assume that an average global increase in atmospheric carbon in the atmosphere is contained in carbon dioxide. Much of the various sinks on the earth, i.e. on the land and in the water. is absorbed by trees for photosynthesis, 34 wt% of this carbon is either consumed by non-tree vegetation or accumulated in the soil, and the rest of the carbon is deposited into oceans, lakes, and rivers. With this information, we are able to develop the following challenging problems for students. Questions: sphere into oceans, lakes, and rivers? (b) If human society could reduce the amount of carbon emitted annually by fossil fuel combustion by 30%, would be the global change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration annually? Solution: (a) To have a better understanding of the problem, de Question (a) asks for calculation of m (gigatons of carbon per year, or Gt C/yr). Problem solving i.e. to derive the value of m 4 through a mass balance calculation, the wateroceans, lakes, and rivers). More detailed calculations are as follows. A basic carbon mass balance in the atmo sphere is C acc = C in out The carbon generation and consumption terms are destroyed. The carbon accumulation (C acc ), input (C in ), and output (C out ) terms are to be determined using the information given in the problem statement. C in = m 3 C acc = m air x [kg CO 4 ( i.e. C out ) can be evaluated as: m 4 = C out = C in C acc (4)

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sphere to the earth has the following basic mass balance: C in = C out (5) i.e. m 4 = m 5 to the wateroceans, lakes, and riverscan be readily obtained as follows. m = m 4 5 (b) The annual global change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration can be evaluated through another atmospheric carbon mass balance calculation. Note that the amount of car bon emitted due to misuse of lands ( e.g. deforestation) ( i.e. variable m 3 out of the atmosphere ( i.e. m 4 ) has been derived in part (a). It is assumed that the amount of carbon emitted annually by fossil fuel combustion ( i.e. m information, the atmospheric accumulation of carbon can be re-calculated, with the stated assumption that all atmospheric carbon is in carbon dioxide. Thus, we can convert the carbon accumulation directly to carbon dioxide accumulation and C acc = (m 3 4 44 [g CO CO 44 [g CO Since the mass of the atmosphere is given, i.e. M air if the emissions by human activities are reduced CO ) Note that a similar problem was developed by Allen and Shonnard in the textbook Green Engineering Chapter B. Sulfur Cycle The modern global sulfur cycle differs quite dra matically from the pre-industrial sulfur cycle due to the large portion of anthropogenic sulfur added to the (next page) illustrates The illustration shows three distinct control volumes: atmosphere, land, and water. Human mining and extrac tion, as well as industrial emissions, are the main sources of man-made sulfur emissions to the atmosphere. Sulfur gas emissions from plants, volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide, biogenic sulfur gas emissions, and sea salt from wind and wave action contribute as the main sources of natural atmospheric sulfur compounds. The atmospheric sulfur compounds can deposit over land and water, and those sulfur compounds in the ocean can form solid that follow. Figure 1. Mass balance owchart derived from the Carbon Cycle.

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Questions: process using blocks and arrows. Use three blocks to represent the control volumes: one for atmosphere, one for land, and one for bodies of water. Use arrows to repre volumes, labeling each stream with its stream name and the variables for streams with (b) Calculate the annual accumu atmosphere. (c) Calculate the annual accu bodies of water. Solution: authors and shown in Figure 3. c) Sulfur balance on water Industrial Ecological System (Type II System) Using AIChE Sustainability Metrics The second module is the mass and entities in an industrial ecosystem. in a larger scope (Type II regional level). AIChE Sustainability Met rics is a method widely adopted in the chemical industries in the United States. It consists of: (i) Mass Intensity Metrics (including Total Mass Used/$ Used/Mass of Product Sold); (ii) En ergy Intensity Metrics (including Total of Product Sold, and Total BTUs Conversion Energy Consumed/Mass of Product Sold); (iii) Pollutant Met rics (including Greenhouse Gas Metric, Photochemical and Eutrophication Metric); (iv) Human Health Metric; and (v) Ecotoxicity Metric. This problem utilizes the AIChE mass intensity product sold, as a method for environmental sustain Figure 2. Illustration of the Sulfur Cycle. [10] Material Flow Information Base Case Base Case 3.5 f33 f44 f53 f35 f54 f45

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269 Figure 3. Mass balance owchart derived from the Sulfur Cycle. the material intensity metric the better, since the material where the larger the better. Figure 4 displays the variables used in the component-based whereas the initial electroplating network consists of two chemical suppliers shops (H3 and H4), and two end users (in this case, two original equipment manufacturers (OEM) for the automo situation within the given industrial network using the mass intensity metric: Questions: (a) What is the mass intensity for each of the individual (b) What is the mass intensity for the overall system as a whole? (c) If chemical supplier 2 (H2) improves process ef enhance their in-plant zinc recycling technologies, thereby improving their internal recycle capabilities and thus reducing their waste generation, how will the mass intensity for each of the entities and the overall system change? Calculate and compare with the base given in Table 1. Solution:

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Similarly, we can calculate the mass intensity for other individual entities. For H3, For H4, lbs/yr) For H5, HZnz Znz (Chemical Supplier H(Chemical Supplier H5(Automotive OEM H(Automotive OEM Zn py Zn py Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy H3(Plating Shop H4(Plating Shop Product Zn wy Zn wy Waste Suppliers (Chemicals) Tier I Manufacturing (Metal Plating) OEM Manufacturing (Automotive Assembly)Znf Znf33 Znf53 Znf35 Znf Znf44 Znf Znf Znf45 Znf54 ZnfHZnz Znz (Chemical Supplier H(Chemical Supplier H5(Automotive OEM H(Automotive OEM Zn py Zn py Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy H3(Plating Shop H4(Plating Shop Product Zn wy Zn wy Waste Suppliers (Chemicals) Tier I Manufacturing (Metal Plating) OEM Manufacturing (Automotive Assembly)Znf Znf33 Znf53 Znf35 Znf Znf44 Znf Znf Znf45 Znf54 Znf Figure 4. Schematic diagram of the variables used in the component-based electroplating supply network. [12]

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(c) Similar to the above two questions, substituting the flow rates for the modified case into the equations for mass in tensity produces the mass intensity values as shown Module 3: Mass Balance Throughout a Sustainability is critical to understanding the mass and industrial entities throughout the life cycle of product(s). A schematic of mass and energy of a product (adopted from Graedel and Allenbys book ) is presented in Figure 5. In this module, stu indicator, to quantify the sustainability of each step in the products life cycle. The formula is this: = Mass of the Product/ Total Mass of the Input Assignment: (a) Calculate the mass ef the products life cycle shown in Figure 5a. Note that this case study and Figure 5a were devel oped based on Ginleys work of the numerical values. Material Extraction and Production Manufacture and Assembly Use & Service End of life Management Resource Resource Resource Resource Waste Waste Waste Reuse Remanufacture Recycle Waste Recycle for Other Industry Material Extraction and Production Manufacture and Assembly Use & Service End of life Management Resource Resource Resource Resource Waste Waste Waste Reuse Remanufacture Recycle Waste Recycle for Other Industry Figure 5. Schematic of mass and energy ow throughout the life cycle of a product. [13] TABLE 2 Comparison of Two Cases Mass intensity System type Base case overall system Figure 5(a). Material ow diagram for Base case. (b) For the overall system,

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(b) If there is no recycle from Prod uct Use to Material Process ing, to provide 909 unit of feed to Product Fabrication, how many tons of feed will be needed by Material Processing and how many tons of virgin raw materials will be needed by Material Collection? Please draw the changed material remains the same). (c) If there is no recycle from Product Use to Material Processing and no recycle from Product Use to Product Fabrication, while the customer still needs 921 tons of product, how many tons of feed will be needed by Material Processing and Product Fabrication, and how many tons of virgin raw materials will be needed by Material Collection? Is there any change in the Solution: provided in Table 3. (b) By holding all the s of each step constant, a reverse to Material Processing is depicted in Figure 5(b). By comparing Figure 5(a) to Figure 5(b), it is clear that without utilizing the 44 units of recycle stream from Product Use to Material Processing, the demand on the raw material by Material Collection is increased clearly demonstrates that the 44 tons of recycle stream from Product Use to Material Processing brings in material consumption in Material Processing. (c) The changed mass flow from Material Collec tion to Product Use is depicted in Figure 5(c). By comparing Figure 5(a) to Figure 5(c), it is found that the consumption of raw material by Material Collection This set of exercises clearly illustrates the following concepts and principles in sustainability: in the plant, but also occurs throughout the entire life TABLE 3 Material Collection Material Processing Product Fabrication Product Use Product Disposal Symbol ME MP PF PU PD Figure 5(b), above. Material ow diagram for Case B. Figure 5(c), right. Material ow diagram for Case C.

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cycle of the product from a temporal point of view. traction to product fabrication) or the product use will become waste or loss. Waste or loss can be recovered with appropriate technologies, however. 3. To recover the values hidden in the waste, the waste can be recycled or reused in various stages through the products life cycle. Module 4: Mass and Energy Balance of Biodiesel Production From Soybean (Type IV System) This module was developed from literature using the biodiesel production from soybean oil. The paper was contributed by Dr. Tad W. Patzek at the University of California Berkeley. Soybean biodiesel is formed from glycerides that comprise soybean oil. As shown in Figure to separate the soybean oils. The separated soybean oil oil is then reacted with excess methanol. Distillation is used to separate unreacted oils and excess methanol, and biodiesel production can be calculated by counting the mass however, the biodiesel production process is only one step the upstream process, i.e. the soybean farming (Figure module is presented below: (a) Calculate the mass of soybeans required to produce 1 m for the biodiesel production process? m (b) The heating value of a substance refers to the amount of energy released upon combustion. The higher heating values (HHV) of the components in soybeans are 16.5 have zero heating value). Using the compositions shown for stream 1 in Figure 6(b), calculate the overall HHV (c) Use an energy balance to calculate the energy losses from the system per kilogram of biodiesel produced. The total energy of fossil fuels entering the process (including the fossil fuels needed for methanol feed production) is e of biodiesel produc tion: e e 3 ). In 2005, more than 210 billion kilograms of soybean was produced worldwide. If the entire world crop of soybean were converted to biodiesel, would it be enough to meet U.S. diesel fuel demand? Figure 6(a). Flowchart of biodiesel pro duction from soybeans. Figure 6(b). Soybean ow through over all biodiesel production process.

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Solution: (a) Use a basis of m 5 m 3 = m 5 m 3 Solving for m gives, m = m 5 grams of biodiesel are produced. biodiesel): Input = Output rfntn b e = (Output Biodiesel Energy)/(Energy of Soybeans e farming biodiesel (34) e (f) The key here is to understand that the demand for diesel is actually an energy demand. The energy of petroleum diesel consumed each year would need to be replaced by an equivalent supply of biodiesel energy. If enough farmland exists to produce the soybeans necessary to meet the energy demand, then soybeans could replace petroleum as a diesel feedstock. First, determine the current energy demand. This is done by the following unit conversion: 3 ) (m 3 (45 gal fuel) MJ (35) Second, use the heating value and density of biodiesel to determine the mass of biodiesel needed to meet this energy demand: MJ) kg biodiesel Finally, determine the amount of soybean needed to produce this quantity of biodiesel: biodiesel / kg soybean) This quantity of soybeans required to meeting U.S. en kg soybean). Therefore, soybean biodiesel alone cannot replace petroleum diesel in the United States. CONCLUSION This paper reports several educational modules for teach ing sustainability in a mass and energy balance course. The systems in these modules range from global scale to industrial ecosystems. The life cycle of product and renewable energy are addressed. These modules will help awaken students eco-consciousness and establish the students conceptual understanding of the systems concept in sustainability. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is supported, in part, by the National Science and Innovators Alliance (NCIIA) and Entergy. REFERENCES AIChE J. 49 C&EN 79

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4. Tanzil, D., and E. Beaver, Designing for Sustainability: Overview, in Transforming Sustainability Strategy into Action: The Chemical Industry B. Beloff, et al. (ed.), Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, NJ 5. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes SCOPE 21 -The Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions (J. M. Melillo and J. R. Gosz), straint on Global Analyses, National Center for Atmospheric Research Green Engineering Prentice Hall PTR, Col laborative ProjectsFocus Area: Sustainable Development AIChE, Analysis-Based Sustainability Analysis of Industrial Systems, Ind. & Eng. Chem. Research 47 Industrial Ecology and the Automobile Resources Policy 20 Production from Soybean, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 29

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B iological sciences play an increasingly important role in chemical engineering education. At Georgia the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and a biotechnology track was added to the undergraduate cur undergraduates receive B.S. degrees via the biotechnology play a role in developing biopharmaceuticals, biomateri als, biofuels, green chemistry, and, as discussed in this article, novel drug delivery systems. Chemical engineers also model biological processes from the molecular level to the systems level. Hands-on laboratory education related to the biological sciences can help prepare students for engineering careers in biotechnology or medicine. We have developed a skin diffusion laboratory module for the unit operations labora tory class that aims to teach students about biological tissue and the importance of the skin barrier to health. Until now, been available to students: fermentation, protein separation, protein growth, glucose isomerization, and enzyme kinetics. UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY MODULE ON SKIN DIFFUSION ChE laboratory JAMES J NORMAN, SAMANTHA N ANDREWS, AND MARK R. PRAUSNITZ James J. Norman is a Ph.D. candidate in chemical and biomolecular engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He re ceived his B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. His current research focuses on hollow microneedles and self-administered vaccines. Samantha N. Andrews com pleted her Ph.D. in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Georgia In stitute of Technology. She graduated from the University of Florida with a B.S. in materials science and engineering. Her thesis addressed microdermabrasion as a method to enhance transcutaneous drug delivery. Mark R. Prausnitz is professor of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and the Cherry L. Emerson Faculty Fellow at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He was educated at Stanford University (BS, ) and M.I.T. (Ph.D., ). Prof. Prausnitz currently teaches classes on pharmaceuticals, mass and energy balances, and technical communication. His research addresses novel biophysical mechanisms to improve drug, gene, and vaccine delivery using engineering technologies. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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Although these labs exposed students to a number of critical topics in biotechnology, none of them are directly related to medicine or involve the handling of biological tissue. For students interested in medical applications of chemical en gineering, there was a need to expand the scope of bio-unit operations lab options. To address this need, we developed and implemented a new laboratory module focused on diffusion of molecules across skin. This lab was designed to introduce students to trans dermal diffusion by having them assess the permeability and objectives for this lab were to (i) expand students knowledge students hands-on, applicable experience handling biological tissue; (iii) teach students about the physics and applications of the skin barrier to health and safety. Diffusion of compounds across skin is an important topic in health science and chemical engineering. Most notably, pharmaceuticals can be delivered to the skin for a local derma tological effect using topical creams and ointments ( e.g. local anesthetics, anti-fungal creams) or for a systemic response us ing transdermal patches ( e.g. nicotine for smoking cessation, hormones for birth control). It is estimated that more than one billion transdermal patches are manufactured each year. In addition to drug delivery, diffusion across skin is an important topic in toxicology and occupational safety. The CDC estimates chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Contact der matitis is the most common skin-related occupational illness, Transdermal hazards in other occupations can lead to cancer, hepatotoxicity, neuro toxicity, reproductive disorders, and death. The skin is not only an important organ in health-related contexts, but it also has interesting properties as a diffusion barrier. The outermost layer of skin is called stratum cor stratum corneum is the rate-limiting barrier to entry of most compounds into the body. This tissue is organized in a brickand-mortar structure, in which the bricks are cell remnants composed largely of cross-linked keratin and the extracellular mortar consists of lipids organized in multilamellar bilayers. Below stratum corneum is the viable epidermis, which mea nocytes and other cells in a conventional aqueous extracellular thick dermis, which contains blood vessels for systemic drug absorption, as well as hair follicles and sweat glands. Despite the complex organization of skin, skin permeability is often modeled by assuming that the stratum corneum is the only as one-dimensional diffusion through a uniform slab. LABORATORY DESCRIPTION Design of the Laboratory Module This lab enables students to study the permeability and lag conjugated to dextran (FITC-dextran, molecular weight: permeants were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO). The mouse skin was purchased from Pel-Freez (Rogers, AR). Two skin conditions were tested: full-thickness mouse skin or mouse skin that had been tape stripped to remove the stratum corneum. There was also a negative control that had full-thickness skin but no model permeants in order to compounds extracted from the skin. These two model compounds were chosen because of their differing permeabilities in skin. A model-based estimate of the permeability of sulforhodamine B in human epidermis is ). The ex pected permeability of FITC-dextran in full-thickness human or mouse skin is vanishingly small because skin permeability decreases as a very strong, nonlinear function of increasing molecular weight. After removing the stratum corneum barrier, both com pounds are expected to permeate through tape-stripped skin at measurable levels. Although absolute skin permeability will depend on experimental conditions, the ratio of skin perme ability values for sulforhodamine and FITC-dextran collected at the same experimental conditions should be less variable. Based on Stokes-Einstein theory, the ratio of the permeability the inverse ratio of the hydrodynamic radii of the molecules in water, assuming no steric hindrance to diffusion in the viable instead of the Lydersen method to determine hydrodynamic radius to account for sulfur-based functional groups) and dextran (see Appendix (see Appendix). The skin samples were placed in a diffusion cell in contact with a donor solution containing both model compounds on In addition to drug delivery, diffusion across skin is an important topic in toxicology and occupational safety.

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the outer surface of the skin and a receiving solution contain ing phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, Sigma Aldrich) on the simultaneously in each skin chamber to reduce the number of skin samples needed for the lab. Control samples had PBS donor solutions. Students, working in groups of two or three, hours after to collect samples of the receiving solution. These Waltham, MA), a digital balance with milligram resolution troscopy, or other means. For biological experiments where molecules extracted from skin increase noise, however, alter native detection methods have poor detection limits or larger are dominated by the mouse skin costs. Obtaining nine skin Laboratory Procedure pound solutions to be used as the donor solutions and create calibration curves for the two model permeants. The students also created a calibration curve for sulforhodamine B at FITCdextrans excitation wavelength and used it to correct the FITC-dextran calibration curve, because sulforhodamine B is weakly excited at FITC-dextrans excitation wavelength. The students also prepared mouse skin samples for the experiment. The skin samples were thawed, cut and made planar, and shaved using a hair clipper. To obtain tape-stripped skin samples after shaving, students repeatedly applied Scotch tape (3M, St. Paul, MN) to the skin and peeled the tape off rapidly using forceps until the skin appeared shiny, which indicated complete stratum corneum removal. Onesquare-inch sections of full-thickness or tape-stripped skin were then cut out. Each skin sample was clamped between two identical glass donor and receiving chambers with volumes of 3.4 mL each stirbar wells that contain custom stirbars (Permegear, Heller town, PA). The chamber in contact with the outer surface of the skin was considered the donor chamber, and the opposite chamber was the receiving chamber. The study was designed for the students to set up three cells containing control skin, three cells containing full-thickness skin samples, and three cells containing tape-stripped skin samples. The negative control samples used full-thickness skin and had PBS in both the donor and receiving chamber. The other two groups had PBS in the receiving chamber and -4 model compounds in the donor chamber. Diffusion cells were covered with aluminum foil to protect them from light. Four hours after the diffusion cells were set up, liquid samples of the full chamber volume were drawn from each receiving chamber and transferred to plastic cuvettes, and the receiving chambers were quickly replenished with saline. The DATA ANALYSIS Although skin is anisotropic, diffusion across skin is some times modeled as diffusion across an isotropic membrane : h ), k p d is the permeant Figure 1. Diffusion cell set-up. A skin sample is placed between two identical glass chambers. A pinch clamp holds the chambers together and keeps the skin in place. The donor chamber contains the model permeant solu tion. The receiving chamber contains phosphate-buffered saline as well as any permeant molecules that cross the skin. The receiving chamber is emptied for analysis and replaced with fresh solution periodically.

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Representative Permeability and Lag-Time Data Model Permeant Skin Permeability Sulforhodamine-B Full-thickness -4 FITC-dextran Full-thickness -5 Sulforhodamine-B Tape-stripped FITC-dextran Tape-stripped -3 concentration gradient across the skin (mol cm -3 ), and C d is the permeant concentration in the donor solution (mol cm -3 ). The concentration at the underside of the skin is usually as sumed to be zero, because the permeant is diluted in a large d d At the end of the experiment, the diffusion data can be plot ted as cumulative amount transported vs. time, as shown in the drug across skin, which allows calculation of the perme estimated as the imaginary x-intercept of the linear portion of the plot. Representative permeability and lag time data are shown in from the same skin samples were analyzed using ratio paired t-tests because the results were not to sulforhodamine B was signifi cantly larger than FITC-dextran in both full-thickness and tape-stripped skin, which is expected given the much smaller molecular weight of sulforhodamine B. Skin permeability in tape-stripped skin was two orders of magnitude larger than full-thickness skin for both sul forhodamine B and FITC-dextran, which is expected given that tape stripping removes the stratum corneum, which is comparison of the two dyes in tape-stripped skin, although result of the paired statistical analysis. The similarity of lag times for sulforhodamine B and FITC-dextran, despite large binding of sulforhodamine B to tissue. We can also compare these data to literature. For example, the ratio of the FITC-dextran permeability and the sulforho above. The permeability value in full-thickness mouse skin Figure 2. Representative plots of cumulative transport of sulforhodamine B and FITC-dextran across mouse cadaver skin vs. time. (A) Cumulative transdermal transport across full-thickness skin. (B) Cumulative transdermal transport across tape-stripped skin with stratum corneum removed. Data points are the mean standard deviation of n = 3 separate skin samples. The lines shown on the graph are best ts through the data from hours 5 through 7 ( i.e. at steady state). The permeability coefcient can be determined from the slope of these lines using Equation 1. The lag time can be determined as the x-intercept. These data were taken during laboratory development and therefore have data points every hour. Guided by the kinetics determined from these graphs, student time was used more efciently by requiring them to take data only at 0, 4, 5, 6, and 7 h into the experiment in order to capture the steady state region of the graph.

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for sulforhodamine B is six times greater than the modelbased estimate for human epidermis. This can be explained has greater permeability. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES AND DISCUSSION completing the lab, the students were surveyed about their satisfaction with the lab and their opinion about whether the measured on a 5-point Likert scale with possible responses ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree, and two items about overall satisfaction and recommending the lab All of the students would recommend the lab to other students in the biotechnology track in chemical and biomolecular engineering. With respect to the main goals of the lab, the students agreed preciated having a lab where they handled animal tissues (4.4 of the mouse skin, time required for the lab, requiring assis variability of the data, which is common to experiments us ing biological tissue with variable properties. One way the variability concern was ameliorated was combining dyes for each skin condition and using paired statistical analyses. This improves statistical power in situations where one dye has a sample variability, as expected in our experiment. It appears the educational goals for the lab were well met, but based on the students comments, we learned that we could improve upon the actual laboratory experience. In the future, TABLE 2 Student Survey Results Statement Response The instructions for the lab were clearly written. My group was able to obtain good calibration curves. My group required minimal assistance from the TA 4 The variability of the results was low enough to allow my group to see clear distinctions between experimental groups. My group was able to complete the calculations required for the reports. Overall the lab was designed well. I learned about the skin barrier and its importance to health. I knew how to apply the appropriate statistical tests to analyze my results. I appreciated having a lab where I handled animal tissue. I can use what I learned in this lab if I need to handle biological specimens again. Would you recommend this lab to future students on the biotech track in ChBE5? (Yes or No) a 5-point Likert scale. 4 Teaching assistant. 5 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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we plan to use chemical depilatory creams ( e.g. Nair ) or use hairless rodent skin instead of using shaved skin. Also, to see larger differences in the lag times between compounds, we could replace sulforhodamine B with a small, non-green Some students felt the basic premise of the lab design was too elementary. To make the conclusions less obvious, we could ask students to investigate the effect of treating the ers, such as ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Additionally, we could provide an unknown molecule and ask students to estimate its molecular weight based on its permeability and the Stokes-Einstein equation. Concepts related to the lipid bilayer-based anisotropic diffusivity in skin and the role of phase partitioning and binding could also be introduced. CONCLUSIONS We developed and implemented a unit operations labo ratory module to educate students about transport across skin. The experiment was designed to teach students about in health. To meet the needs of Georgia Tech and possible implementation at other universities, the equipment and typical chemical engineering laboratory class. Student feed positive and indicated that the laboratory objectives were largely met. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Donna Bondy and Traci Sherrell for administrative assistance, Majid Abazeri for assistance with setting up the lab, Jacqueline Mohalley Snedecker for help with lab reports, Jonathan Rubin for suggesting improve ments to the lab design, and Peter Ludovice for helping solicit participation in the student survey. Funding was provided by the Georgia Institute of Technologys Technology Fee. REFERENCES Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Chem. Eng. Ed. Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3. Shaeiwitz, J.A., and R. Turton, Design Projects of the Future, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 4. Aronson, M.T, R.W. Deitcher, Y. Xi, and R.J. Davis, New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 5. Forciniti, D., Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research, Chem Eng. Ed. 43 chemical Engineering: Ethanol Fermentation, Chem. Eng. Ed. 33 Engineering: Engaging the Imagination of Students Using Experiences Outside the Classroom, Chem. Eng. Ed. 37 ogy into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Nature Biotechnology Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery: From Theory to Practice Pharm. Res. 9 sis of Enhanced Transdermal Transport by Skin Electroporation, J. Control. Release 34 ties from Group-Contributions, Chem. Eng. Commun. 57 Determination of Glomerular Size-Selectivity in the Normal Rat with Ficoll, J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 3 A Critical Comparison of Methods to Quantify Stratum Corneum Removed by Tape Stripping, Skin Pharmacol. 9 Bunge, S.E. Burgess, S. Cross, C.H. Dalton, M. Dias, A. Farinha, B.C. Finnin, S.J. Gallagher, D.M. Green, H. Gunt, R.L. Gwyther, Lim, G.S. McNaughton, A. Morris, M.H. Nazemi, M.A. Pellett, J. Du Plessis, Y.S. Quan, S.L. Raghavan, M. Roberts, W. Romonchuk, C.S. Roper, D. Schenk, L. Simonsen, A. Simpson, B.D. Traversa, L. Trottet, A. Watkinson, S.C. Wilkinson, F.M. Williams, A. Yamamoto, In Vitro Dif fusion Cell Measurements: An International Multicenter Study Using Quasi-standardized Methods and Materials, J. Pharm. Sci. 94 Intuitive Biostatistics surement and Prediction of Lateral Diffusion Within Human Sclera, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 branes With Binding and Reaction, J. Membrane Sci ., APPENDIX: CALCULATING HYDRODYNAMIC RADII To calculate the hydrodynamic radius of sulforhodamine B, we used the following equation : c is critical volume in units of cm 3 /mol. We applied the Joback method c approxi mating the functional groups of the sulfonic acids with the

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where G i is the contribution of each functional group (see 3 /mol, To calculate the hydrodynamic radius of dextran, we used the following equation : where MW is the molecular weight of the dextran, i.e. used in this study. Functional Molecular Weight Contribution (cm 3 Sulforhodamine B Total Molecular Weight Contribution Contribution -Oring -OH non-phenol 34 =O other 4 CH3 4 4 >N-Snon-ring 54 =CHring =C< ring

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ChE book review An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience by John C. Berg Reviewed by Washington State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 T he title of this book indicates that it is an introduc tion to colloids and interfaces, but it is so much more than an introduction. The author also states that This textbook seeks to bring readers with no prior knowledge or experience in interfacial phenomena, colloid science, or nanoscience to the point where they can comfortably enter book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in science and engineering as well as to practitioners, although even high school students should enjoy parts of it. Trying, in a single book, to provide coverage from high school through science/engineering graduate students as well as practitioners is a daunting endeavor but one that the author has more than accomplished. phenomena (capillarity, thermodynamics of interfaces, and solid-liquid interfaces). Within these chapters such traditional Gibbs adsorption, the Langmuir isotherm, and Youngs equa tion are covered. Less commonly covered topics are also included such as dynamic surface tension, liquid bridges/ shared menisci, Janus particles, scanning probe microscopy, and inverse gas chromatography. Each chapter also contains for interfacial tension, three for contact angle measurement, and seven for surface characterization). The next four chapters deal with colloidal phenomena. The topical coverage includes colloidal characterization, electrical properties, colloidal interactions, and rheology. Again, usual topics such as characterization, sedimentation/Brownian mo tion, light scattering, double layer models (Helmholtz, Gouyand Einsteins theory of viscosity are covered. Also included are discussions of electro-acoustics, dielectrophoresis, optical trapping, and electro-steric stabilization. Again a large number of measurement techniques are included such as classical light scattering, Fraunhofer diffraction, Raman scattering, and DLS (including scattering from more concentrated dispersion). The last two chapters cover emulsions and foams (including microemulsions) and interfacial hydrodynamics (including the Marangoni effect). As with all of the previous chapters the initial material is, as advertised, at a level appropriate authors clear style and explanations quickly lead the reader to more advanced material, which a current practitioner may of the chapters could well be condensed into a state-of-theart description of that topic. All of this may well be beyond the grasp of high school and undergraduate students. What makes this book suitable for these students are the Fun Things To Do sections at the end of each chapter. These simple, hands-on experiments concentration, streaming potential) are the types of activities that are of interest for these students, yet do lead to a more in-depth knowledge when explaining the phenomena. In using this text in a graduate-level colloids and interface course, I found that there is no way to cover all of the mate rial in the text in one semester; it would be hard to give the material the attention it deserves in a year-long course. In student more than enough support to understand the concepts while simultaneously providing more advanced material to encourage them to delve further. As outstanding as this text by referring back to the appropriate chapter. Perhaps this is because the coverage is comprehensive but, as an instructor, I would like to have seen some more complex problems. My students and I also had a disagreement with the authors listing of The Top Ten equations in the book (although there are actually eleven). How can the Poisson-Boltzmann equation not be among the Top Ten? If nothing else this does provide a teachable moment as the students can construct their own Top Ten then debate the merits of including certain equations while deleting others. this book such as: I have reviewed many books in the area of nanoscience and colloids, this is by far the best, it has no peer, or Buy it and tell others. I heartily concur. Anyone working in the area of colloids/interfaces should have a copy of this book. It makes an excellent reference book if you are an advanced practitioner and an excellent text if you are just getting started.

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ChE book review A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice by Sullivan, W.M., and M.S. Rosin The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, JosseyReviewed by Lisa Bullard North Carolina State University M ost engineering faculty have pondered if their stu dents graduate with practical reasoning, or the ability to blend knowledge, skill, and appropriate attitude in response to unique situations that require expert judgment. To explore this question, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching convened an interdisciplin ary seminar, A Life of the Mind for Practice, to inquire into higher educations responsibility to prepare students for lives of engagement and responsibility. The seminar was framed using a series of fundamental questions: across the professions and the liberal arts and sciences? and sciences employ one anothers insights in order to achieve this goal? judgment prove a unifying calling for contemporary higher education? Fourteen faculty from the areas of teacher education, law, clergy, medicine, the liberal arts, and the sciences collaborated in a Life of the Mind for Practice seminar over the course tors included Gary Downey and Robert McGinn, engineering respectively. by teachers in medicine, teacher education, engineering, law, and religious studies. (The syllabi for these courses as well engagement, and writing to connect course content with general principles for decision making. Chapter 3 discusses the faculty partners experience during the seminar series and describes the challenges encountered when a diverse group of faculty tries to enter into meaningful the seminar assignments for the faculty partners. While the group initially struggled with moving beyond the academic tradition of argument, over the course of the seminar they were able to distill the key concepts and the common language that emerged to propose a new agenda for contemporary higher education, which they term practical reasoning as an educational agenda. The authors describe the rationale behind this agenda in Chapter 4, which is the most theoreti the widely discussed critical thinking to a framework of identity community responsibility and bodies of knowledge Academic departments are mainly concerned with bodies of knowledge, but the additional three topics direct and guide sponse to a practical situation. The Conclusion distills practical lessons from the seminar experience and suggests what would be required for institu tions, departments, or campus centers of teaching and learning to offer local faculty this kind of formative experience. I found this book to be a challenging read even as a mo tivated reader who was seeking practical suggestions on how to put these principles into practice. Faculty who teach easier to fully implement the authors suggestions. By think ing slightly outside the box, however, even those faculty who ing teaching of technical knowledge with periodic discussions or assignments that engage students to consider the intersec tions between science, morality, and public policy. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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M cal, chemical, and biological applications. These include molecular separation and sensors, DNA and protein patterning, analysis and sorting of cells, and high throughput screening. to: reduce sample volume and waste; increase speed of analy sis; achieve high performance, integration, and versatility; and make miniaturization, automation, modularization, and parallelization easier. One of the great strengths of micro chip; this offers new capabilities to control molecules in time and space. ents special challenges. The effects that become dominant in Micromixing is an important process on each other do not mix except by diffusion or using non-passive mechanisms such as acoustics or electrokinetics. The selection of material and fabrication methods used in silicon and glass micromachining have been the choice of the microelectronics industry, and are well suited for microelec tromechanical systems (MEMS). The intrinsic stiffness of MICROFLUIDICS AND MICROFABRICATION in a Chemical Engineering Lab ChE laboratory SHIV AUN D ARCHER these materials poses a challenge to biological applications, pumps. Soft lithography shows great promise in versatility for microfabrication with elastomeric materials. Soft elastomeric polymers such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are opti cally transparent and allow micro features to be replicated at low temperatures, seals easily, and releases from delicate features of a mold). In addition PDMS is non-toxic to cells and can undergo surface chemistry changes if needed. Because of its relative simplicity, it is an ideal model system to intro duce undergraduate students to microfabrication. Jablonski, et al., demonstrated simple device fabrication in PDMS in an undergraduate lab to study the break-up of air bubbles in for intravascular embolism. Students had the opportunity to Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Shivaun D. Archer is a senior lecturer in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Cornell University. She received her B.A. and M. Eng. in chemical engineering from the Uni versity of Cambridge, England, and her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California, Davis. She teaches lab courses covering nanobiotechnology, molecular and tissue engineering, and physiology.

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fabricate microdevices in PDMS much like as described in this micromixer paper; however, the design problem, area of an approach where each group created its own unique design of the design. PDMS devices are now not only in research but in undergraduate education; they can be used to study a applications in heat transfer, separations, and biochemical and biomedical analysis. We have developed a lab to train students in a new tech nology that allows the manipulation of small volumes and exploits phenomena at the microscale level. Students in the cal Engineering were asked to design, fabricate, and test a and water. They assessed the degree of mixing at different micromixer design. This experiment was conducted over three weeks. In Week using AutoCAD. This was given as an assignment after a students tested the micromixer with a dye solution and water using a microscope, computer, and image analysis software LABORATORY DESCRIPTION Theory mixing relies solely on molecular interdiffusion. The dif i.e. diffusion coef D) times the gradient of species concentration In order to characterize conv dimen sionless numbers are commonly usedthe Reynolds number (Re = Ud/v), the Peclt number (Pe=Ud/D), and the Fourier number (Fo=T r /T m ). Here U, d, and v denote the average velocity, the diameter or the transverse diffusion distance, and the kinematic viscosity, respectively. T r and T m denote the average residence time and the diffusive mixing r =L/U and T m =d /D, where L denotes the longitudinal length. By equating T r and T m and can design a micromixer with appropriate length and width to mix dye and water. Materials and Methods Design straints to design a micromixer using AutoCAD (AutoDesk) with two inlets and one outlet that can mix a dye solution was obtained from the local grocery store and had a diffu /s (based on similarly sized molecules). The constraints were that the micromixer had to be passive (have no moving parts and rely on shapes and submit four copies of their AutoCAD design arranged so channel width and spacing and corners were given to ensure high success in soft lithography microfabrication by novice diffusive mixing and residence time equations above, students calculate what the minimum theoretical length for mixing should be. This minimum theoretical length guides students experimental results. The AutoCAD design was made into a photolithography Works, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. The resulting photolithogra phy mask was on emulsion-based transparency paper. Master and Device Fabrication (5 in. 5 in.) of the contact aligner mask holder (HTG, System 3HR). In a fume hood, a 4-inch silicon wafer (Type Chem, Inc.), a negative tone, photosensitive epoxy resist Figure 1. Design area for the micromixer.

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the student groups design using a contact aligner (HTG, System 3HR). The unexposed resist was (Master) was then used as a mold to form the students design of base to hardener. The aerated mixture was degassed in the cup using a vacuum dessicator by pressuring and de-pressur bubbles were removed. Once fully degassed it was poured The device was made by cutting a rectangular piece of PDMS around the design and punching holes for the inlet and device was sealed to a glass slide using a plasma sterilizer Testing wall) was inserted in the inlet and outlet holes and the inlet food dye, respectively. Water and dye were run through the microdevice using a syringe pump (Harvard Instruments, tive was to mix the dye and water. Mixing was visualized using ImageJ (public domain Java based program from NIH). Given a gray-scale image, ImageJ can calculate the average gray value along a line or of an area as well as generate histo grams and surface plots of gray values. Using these functions, the amount of mixing on the chip can be accurately judged. A well-mixed region would contain a uniform amount of gray value. The amount of gray value was measured across each channel and converted to a data table by ImageJ and then graphed and the slope attained linearly using Excel. The plots represent the average color gradient of the original im ages. Less mixing was represented by a steeper slope in the mixing by diffusion; complete mixing was represented by a uniformly zero slope. rf n t b n TYPICAL RESULTS Students proposed and tested a variety of designs from a series of straight channels to a combination of channels with mixing features such as diamonds, bricklike structures, or Most students were able to mix the dye and water with constraints given. Figure 3 shows a successful micro-mixer. device consisted of a series of straight channels where the length was long enough to allow the diffusion time to be less than or equal to the residence time. Some features that were Figure 2. Examples of four microde vices: A straight channels, B bricklike structure, C diamonds, D series of diamonds. Figure 3. Successful mixer showing a fully mixed exit stream.

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not as successful were the split and recombine technique us ing brick and diamond structures as shown in Figures 4 and each individual stream into two streams, effectively halving the velocity and increasing residence time, and to decrease the diffusive length d to a number less than the channel diameter. it can also separate the two streams, thus preventing contact and hence diffusion. DISCUSSION All groups came up with thoughtful ideas and designs for dye and water, which for some students was counterintuitive to their way of thinking since they are more familiar with time and allowed enough time for diffusion. Generally, to design the appropriate overall length (L) of channels within the microdevice, the residence time T r was equated with the mixing time T m As part of their lab report students were asked to propose other methods of mixing that did not rely on diffusion alone. bulence with rotation axes aligned with the axis of the channel. Strook, et al., uses herringbone-shaped grooves or chevrons on chaotic swirling when the two streams pass over the chev rons. Another method that does not rely solely on molecular diffusion for mixing solutions at this scale is bubble-induced acoustic actuation. Air bubbles in a liquid medium can act as an actuator and vibrate when a sound wave is applied. As and drastically reduces the length of mixing. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES ence with design, microfabrication, and soft lithography. They their knowledge of diffusion, came up with a design that they tested. This gave students ownership of their work and many students took their devices home. Students were required to section for Recommendations for Improvement. This section allowed students to analyze their design ideas after having tested them and many came up with new ideas based on their results as well as other groups results. For example, the idea of splitting and offsetting proposed by some groups did not work well as allowing air bubbles to become entrapped that were posed straight channels or angled splitting and recombining channels to ensure both streams were split, not separated. A survey of this lab was given for three years, assess Most students found that the lab had a medium amount design a micromixer to mix an enzyme and substrate (a relevant biochemical micromixing scenario). Some comments were lab was unique and interesting, my favorite lab, enjoyed designing and analyzing micro chip from beginning to end, and learned CAD, image processing, and photolithography!. While the lab described does use some fairly expensive equipment (contact aligner) and a clean room, a very similar lab with high school students and less-strict mixing criteria (wider channels, slower addition, Jablonksi, et al., used inexpensive materials and simple procedures to produce masters and make a Figure 4. Diamond structure causes streams to split and not mix. Figure 5. Bricklike structure can cause inefcient mixing.

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room is not necessary. CONCLUSIONS This paper describes laboratory experiments and a design challenge that can be performed in three weeks with junior/ senior chemical engineers. Students are given a problem to use computer aided design (AutoCAD) software to design a microscale mixer. They then fabricate their device using polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). Their devices are tested with microscopes and image analysis software to assess the success of their mixing device in terms of the resulting colorimetric hand experience of challenges of mixing and diffusion at a small scale and they will gain skills in microfabrication and image analysis as well as the ability to troubleshoot a design after testing and come up with recommendations. SUPPORTING MATERIAL All class protocols for design, fabrication, and testing are available from the author by request at e-mail: sda4@ cornell.edu. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DeLisa, Moonsoo Jin, and Abraham Stroock (Cornell Uni versity) for their help in developing the protocols as well Principles of Biomedical Engineering for making sure the Figure 6. Chart of student responses to the lab. labs ran smoothly. Funding for the laboratory equipment and some of the supplies was provided by Intel Corporation and Merck, Inc. REFERENCES Nature 442 Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4 tions, Microelectronic Engineering and Detection, Science 283 idic Mixer Based on Acoustically Driven Side-Wall Trapped Micro bubbles, l7 trokinetic Micromixing Through Symmetric Sequential Injection and Expansion, Lab on a Chip in Poly(dimethylsiloxane), Electrophoresis Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism, Chem. Eng. Ed. 44 tocols (available on request sda4@cornell.edu), Cornell University With Convection and Diffusion Mixing a Wide Reynolds Number Range, 5 G.M. Whitesides, Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels, Science 295 Micromixing, Lab on a Chip 2

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290 and Engineering Education ..................................... 43 Nanotechnology Processes Option in ChE ................ 43 Student Learning ..................................................... 43 Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball .......................................................................... 43 Simple Explanation of Complexation, A ..................... 44 Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A .................................................. 44 Synchronous Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A ............... 44 Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research .................................................... 43 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course ......................................................... 43 Air Using Water and NAOH, Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from .............. 45 Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, ....................................... 45 Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous .......................... 45 Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, ............................................. 44 Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous Equations in the ........................................................... 45 Analysis Project, A Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical .............................................................. Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological ............... 45 Aris Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding ... 43 Arizona, University of ........................................................ 45 Armstrong, Robert C. of MIT ........................................... 44 Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications, Using ...................... 44 Assessment to Balance Student Workload, Coordinating Internal ................................................. 45 Attainable Region, Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the .................................................................... B Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Volumes 41 through 45 (Note: Author Index begins on page 306 ) TITLE INDEX Note: Titles in italics are book reviews. A Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH, Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas .......... 45 Academic Integrity: Confessions of a Reluctant Expert; Approaches to ..................................... 44 (3), inside front cover Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student .... 45 Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions .................................. 45 Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods .................... 42 Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State, Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based ..................................... 45 Activity Breaks to Teach History, .......................................... 43 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach to Academic Counseling ................................................................. 42 Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and ........................................... 43 AIChE Centennial Celebration Introduction ............................................................... 43 Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A ...................................................... 44 Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment .................................... 44 Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students 44 Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices 43 History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation ........................................................ 43 Offered Earlier in the Curriculum ........................... 43 Offered Later in the Curriculum ............................. 44 Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms .................... 43 In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership and a Research Mentor ........................................... 43 Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program ...................... 43 NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science

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Human Health Into a Mass ............................................. 45 Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes; Teaching Population ............. Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy .................................................. 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer .............. 44 Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and ........................................... 45 Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi................................................... 45 Circuit Module, Evaluating Performance of a ............. 44 Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized ........................... 45 Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic .................................................................. 44 Biochemical Engineering Course; Is There Room in the Graduate Curriculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level ...................... 43 Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in ................................... 44 Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on ............................. 45 Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An Introductory Course in ......................................... Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling ......................... 43 Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of ......... 45 Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern .................................... 43 Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating .......................................................... Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a .............. 43 Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary Students; ........ 42 Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE ................. 43 Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for ...................................... 45 Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic .................... 44 Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research; Teaching a ................................... 43 Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for ................................ 44 Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Metabolism That Integrates ............................................ 45 Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A ...................................................... 44 Book Reviews Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field ....................................... 44 (4), inside back cover Engineering and Sustainable Community Development ............................................................. 45 Introduction to Granular Flow, An ............................ 45 Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An ..................................................... 45 Good Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education ................................................... 45 Heat Transfer ....................................... 44 (3), inside back cover Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd Ed ..................... A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice .................................................... 45 Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the ...................................... 45 Bucknell University ............................................................ 44 C California, Santa Barbara ................................................ Design, Introducing Risk Analysis and ..................... 45 Capstone Design Course, Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a ....................................................... 43 Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and ............................................... 43 Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E.................. 43 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of ................................................................ 44 Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A ............................ 44 Catalytic Pellet: A Rich Prototype for Engineering Up-Scaling; The ............................................................................. Cell as an Education Tool, The Microbial Fuel .............. 44 Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver ............... CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe ............................ 45 a Danish Experience .............................................. 43 Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down); How to Stop ........ 45 Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven .................................. 43 Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The .............................. 43 Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student) ......... Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on .................................................... 43 Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of .................................................... 45 Chemistrya Danish Experience; Challenges in .................................. 43

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292 Chemistry Lab by Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in .......... 45 (3), inside front cover Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic .................. 42 Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a ......... 43 Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a.......... 42 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in .......................... 43 Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach ........................... 44 Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein .................................................. 45 Chromatography with Colorful Proteins, Illustrating ..... Class and Home Problems Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using Mathematica ................................................................ 42 Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using MATLAB ................................................................... 43 Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling ......................... 43 of Computational Results ............................................ 42 Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student) ......... Computing Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them ........................................................... Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems ............................ 44 First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car .................... 43 Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant ........................................................................... 42 Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit ......................... Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details ...... 45 Murder at MiskatonicPassion, Intrigue, and Material Balances: A Play in Two Acts ...................................... 42 Optimization Problems ................................................ 45 Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of .............. 45 Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice .......................................................................... 44 CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing .............................. 45 Coffee, Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of ........................................................ Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant; Geothermal ...................................................... 42 a Danish Experience; Challenges in Teaching ....... 43 Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An Introduction to Interfaces & ................................ 45 Colorful Proteins, Illustrating Chromatography with ..... Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH ................................ 45 Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available ......... 43 Using the Gibbs Energy and the ................................ 44 Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design ........................................ 43 Complexation, A Simple Explanation of .......................... 44 Curriculum; From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating .......... 43 Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: .................................................... 45 Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of ......... 45 Conceptests for a Thermodynamics Course .................... Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical ................. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in ChE Education .............................. 45 Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory, Testing a ................................................. 44 Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and ............................................. 45 Protocol for Scaling Concepts in ............................... 44 Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column ...................................................................... 45 Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of ........................................ 45 Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden ......... 45 Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process .................. 44 Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and ............................................. 43 Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process ..................................... 44 Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback ..... Control Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between Process ........................................................... 44 Controller Performance Assessment Through Stiction in .............. Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes, Forced ........ Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations, Explaining the .................... Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in

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Chemistry Lab by ............................... 45 (3), inside front cover Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment ....................................... 44 Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the ........... 45 Correlations, A Laboratory Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless ............................................ 44 Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An Introductory ...................... Course Delivery and Assessment; A Student-Centered Approach .......... Course on Energy Technology and Policy, A .................. Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate ............. 42 Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students ..................................................................... 44 Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering ... 42 Courses Offered Earlier in the ................................... 43 Courses Offered Later in the ...................................... 44 Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate ...... Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE .................................................... Curriculum; From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of ...................................... 43 Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit, Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE ........................... Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate .................. 45 D DAE Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing ...................................... 44 Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Governing Lactose Conversion of ............................... 42 Surface Chemistrya .............................................. 43 Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit, Incorporation of ................................... DataFit, Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with ........................ Dead GuysUsing Activity Breaks to Teach History; ............................................................................ 43 Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Princeton .................................... 45 Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design, Introducing ........................... 44 Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and ............................... 44 Delta, The Devils in the ................................................... on Heat Transfer ........................................................ 44 Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor ........................... 45 Denmark; Teaching ChE Thermodynamics at Three Levels Experience from the Technical University of .............. 43 Departmental Articles Arizona, University of ................................................... 45 Bucknell University ....................................................... 44 California, Santa Barbara .......................................... Houston, University of .............................................. 45 Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ................................... 43 North Carolina State University .................................. 44 North Dakota, University of ...................................... 44 Polytechnic University .................................................. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology ......... 43 Tennessee Technological University ......................... 42 Tufts University ........................................................... 42 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale .................................. 44 Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip ......... 42 Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering .................................................... 43 Design Course, Lehigh .................................................... 45 Design Course Using Lego NXT Robotics, A Freshman 45 Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices ...... 43 Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals; Drug ............................... 45 Design, Introducing Risk Analysis and Calculation of ......... 45 Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, .......................................... 45 Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer ....................... 42 Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative ......................................................... 42 Design Problem in a Particle Science and Technology Course, A Population Balance Based ........................................ Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning ............ 44 Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A Senior .................................................. 44 Design, to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor ......................... 42 Design and Statistical Analysis Project, a Realistic Experimental .............................................. Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course, Wiki Technology as a ................................................. 43 Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) ........................................ 44 Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State ........ 45 Laboratory, The .......................................................... Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing ................................................ 44 Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin .. 45

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Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a ....................... 45 Dimensionless Correlations, A Laboratory Experiment on How to Create ..................................................................... 44 Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding Taylor-Aris ................................................................... 43 Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A Synchronous ................ 44 Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and Batch ................................. 45 Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State ................................ 43 Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An Innovative Method for Integrating a ........................................................... 43 Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning, Design Project on Controlled-Release ...... 44 Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals .......................................... 45 Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for ChE .............. 44 Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady-State and .................... 43 Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process ......................... 43 E Editorials Are the Steam Tables Dead? ...................................... 43 Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D ........ 45 Engineers Deserve a Liberal Education ........ 42 Tough Decisions in Tough Times ................. 44 Why I Teach (and Advise) ......................................... 45 Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field .......................................... 44 (4), inside back cover Educator Articles Armstrong, Robert C., of MIT ..................................... 44 Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair; Univ. of Florida ..................... 42 Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Princeton .............................. 45 Fraser, Duncan; Univ. of Cape Town, South Africa .... .......................................... Miller, Dennis J.; Michigan State ............................... 43 Peppas, Nicholas A.; Texas at Austin ....................... 43 Ramkrishna, Doraiswami (Ramki); Purdue ................... 45 Reynolds, Joseph; Manhattan College ......................... Slater, C. Stewart ........................................................... 43 Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course .............................................. 45 Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering ........................................... 43 Education Tool, The Microbial Fuel Cell as an .............. 44 ........... 45 Educational Research. Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education .............................................. 42 Ehrenfests LotteryTime and Entropy Maximization 44 Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired ...................................................... 44 of Biomaterials and Engineering for ......................... 42 Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas ......................................................... 44 Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; Metstoich Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and ..................... 44 Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and ...................................... 45 Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and ................... 45 Energy Technology and Policy, A Course on .................. Use of Undergraduate Self-Directed Projects ............ 44 Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week; YouTube Fridays: ........................................ 44 Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program ....... 43 Engineering and Sustainable Community Development ............................................................. 45 Entropy Maximization; Ehrenfests LotteryTime and 44 Environmental Management by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student Laboratory, Integrating .............................................. 42 Equation of State Using Mathematica, Applications of the Peng-Robinson ............................. 42 Equation of State Using MATLAB, Applications of the Peng-Robinson ........................... 43 Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Nonlinear Algebraic ..................................................... 45 Equations for Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate .................................................. 42 Equilibria Using the Gibbs Energy and the ...... 44 Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica ........................................................................ 42 Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: Example for .... 45 Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light; Newtons Laws, .. 43 Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in ........................................................... 45 Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in ............................................... 44 ......... 44 Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat .................................. 43 Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and ....................... 45 Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors ....................................................... 45

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Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple ...................... 42 Experiment, Gas Pressure-Drop ...................................... 44 Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless Correlations, A Laboratory ........................................ 44 Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility, A Lab .. 42 Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; Device Fabrication and an ........................................... 44 Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer; ...................................................... 44 Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response ...................................................... 42 Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction ....................... 44 Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control ................................ 43 Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor ............................................... 45 Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project, a Realistic .................................................................... Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based ........... 43 Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining ........... 45 Explaining the Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations ............................................. Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details; Modeling an ........ 45 F Faculty Members Into Quick Starters, Turning New ........ False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing Liquid-liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of ...................................... Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a ..................... and Engineering for Elementary Students ................. 42 First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car .................... 43 and Mentoring Support for Development of ............... 44 Florida, Univ. of; Jennifer Sinclair Curtis ........................... 42 Flow, An Introduction to Granular ................................. 45 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase .......................... 43 Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water ................... 45 Fluid Mechanics Computations ...................................................... With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian ........................................ Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions, Active Learning in ................................... 45 Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds; The Hydrodynamic Stability of a .............................. 42 Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon ............................................................ 44 Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent ............ 45 Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group ....................................................... Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes ......... Fraser, Duncan; Univ. of Cape Town, South Africa .......... Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How Pop Goes Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for .............. Freshman Design Course Using Lego NXT Robotics .... 45 Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a ....... 42 Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the ................................... 44 Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week, YouTube ....................................................... 44 From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of ................... 43 Fuel Cell as an Education Tool, The Microbial .............. 44 Fugacity of a Pure Substance, A Graphical Representation for the ......................................................................... 44 Fundamental Research in Engineering Education Introductory Remarks ................................................ 45 Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies ................................. 45 Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State ........ 45 Laboratories ............................................................ 45 Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum ........................................................... Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of ................. 45 Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular ................................................................ 44 Gas-Fluidized Beds; The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in ........................... 42 Gas/Liquid Solubility, A Lab Experiment to Introduce .. 42 Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment ....................................... 44 Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant ........................................................................... 42 Gibbs Energy and the Common Tangent Plane Criterion, ............................ 44 Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the ................................ 42 Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in ......................................................... 44 Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A ........................ 43 Global Environment; Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for

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296 Cooperative Learning in ChE in a ................................. 44 Good Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education ................................................... 45 Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE Models in Undergraduate and ....................................................... 44 Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated ............................................ 45 Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a .......... 43 Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a ............... 42 Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research .... 44 Graduate Curriculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course; Is There Room in the ............... 43 Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A ...... 45 Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations, Reviving ............................................. 45 Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and ................................... 44 Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage ................................................................ 45 Granular Flow, An Introduction to ................................. 45 Granular Mixing, Introduction to Studies in ................... 42 Granulation Processes; Teaching Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to ............................... Graphical Representation for the Fugacity of a Pure Substance, A ............................................................... 44 Group Projects in ChE Using a Wiki ................................ 42 Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How Pop Goes Flat: A ................ Hard Assessment of Soft Skills ......................................... 44 Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady State and Dynamic ................................................................ 43 Heat Transfer ............................................ 44 (3), inside back cover Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes, Forced Convection ........ Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and ........................... 45 Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles ........................................................................ 44 Heat Transfer, and Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a .................... 42 on .............................................................................. 44 Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of .................................. High School Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into ............................... 43 History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The ................................................... 43 Teach .......................................................................... 43 Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online ................................................... 45 Development of First-Year ChE Students in ............... 44 Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a ...................... 45 Houston, University of .................................................... 45 How to Stop Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down) ......... 45 Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................. 45 Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds; The .................... 42 Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a ............................... 43 I Ice Cream Maker, Teaching Process Engineering Using an ..................................................................... Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant; Geothermal Cogeneration: ............................. 42 Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum ................ 43 Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum .................. 44 Ideas for Creating and Overcoming Student Silences .... 43 Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ......................................... 43 Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory ........................................ Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances ..................................................................... 45 Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education ................................................ Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an ........................ 44 Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using ................................. 44 Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint ................................................. 42 Project ........................................................................ 44 Student Learning in ................................................... 45 Innovative Method for Integrating a Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An .................................................... 43 Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and ................... 45 Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up .............................................................. 45 Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for Development .................. 44 Integrating a Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An Innovative Method for ............... 43 Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy ........ 45

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Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals; Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An ..................... 45 Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation .............................................................. 42 Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging Undergraduates in an ................. 43 Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for ...................................... 43 Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An Introduction to ...................................................... 45 Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of ....................................... 45 Internet-Based Distributed Laboratory for Interactive ChE Education, An .............................................................. Intravascular Gas Embolism; Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic ........ 44 Introducing DAE Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum ........................................................... 44 Introducing Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design ..................... 44 Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum .......... Under Uncertainty in Engineering Design ................ 45 Introduction to Granular Flow, An ................................. 45 Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing .................... 42 Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An ........................................... Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses, Polymerization Simulator for .................................... 44 Introductory Thermodynamics, Problem Solving ..................................... 45 Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature 45 K Development of Problem Sets for ............................... 44 Undergrad. Self-Directed Projects; Engaging ........... 44 Research Mentor; In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership Between a ................... 43 Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction .................................. 42 Revisited in a Simple Experiment; Chemical .............. 42 ............................................... L Letters to the Editor .................................................. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course ........ 42 into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase ............ 43 Lab by Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in Chemistry ............................................. 45 (3), inside front cover Lab Course in ChE, Teaching Technical Writing in a ....... 44 Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using .......... 45 Lab Exercise, Project-Based Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate ......................................................... 45 Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility, A .. 42 Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis .................................................. 42 Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates; Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing ................................................ Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment .............. 42 Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate ................................................................. 45 Laboratory Course for Senior-Level ChE Students, New ............................................................................ 43 Laboratory, The Development and Deployment .................................................. Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; ............................. 44 Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core .................................... 43 Laboratory Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless Correlations, A ........................................................... 44 Laboratory: Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins ........................................................ Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations ........................................................... the Pilot-Unit Leading Group .................................... 44 Laboratory, Integrating Environmental Management by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the ......................................................................... 42 Laboratory for Interactive ChE Education, An Internet-Based Distributed ................... Engineering .............................................................. 45 Laboratory: Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-junction ................................................................... 42 Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate .. 45 Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations .......................................................... 45 Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate .............................. 43 Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate ............................ 45 Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control ........................ 44 Laboratory: From Training to

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Applied Research, Teaching a Bioseparations ........... 43 Laboratories, Student Learning in ....................................... 45 Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory ......................... 42 Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light; Newtons ... 43 Learner-Centered Teaching; Random Thoughts: Hang in There! Dealing with Student Resistance to .. 45 Learning in ChE in a Global Environment; Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative ................................... 44 Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary .................................. 42 Learning; Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and ........... 44 Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise, Project-Based ........................................ 45 Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active ..................... Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive ........................... 44 Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active ...................... 45 Learning in the Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to Problem-Based ............................................................. 44 Learning in Industry Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation .............................................................. 42 From Learning to Earning: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide ..................................................... 45 Laboratories, Student .............................................. 45 Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive ................. 44 Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative ...................................................... 44 We Facilitate Student ................................................. 43 Lego NXT Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using 45 Lehigh Design Course ..................................................... 45 Liberal Education, Engineers Deserve a ............ 42 Life of the Mind for Practice; A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a ................................................ 45 Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of .......................................................... 45 Light; Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of ... 43 Liquid Equilibria Using the Gibbs Energy and the ................. 44 Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and ..................... Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing ....................................... Liquid Solubility; Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/ .... 42 The ........................................................................ 44 Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the ................................................................... 45 Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in ......................... LotteryTime and Entropy Maximization; Ehrenfests 44 Student Lab-on-a-Chip: Integrating ....................... 43 M Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience ................................ 44 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a ....................................................... 45 Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a ....................................... 45 Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a ............................................................... 43 Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching .......... 45 Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase ..................... 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching ..................... A Student-Centered Approach to Teaching ............... Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in ........................................ 45 Material Balances: A Play in Two Acts; Murder at MiskatonicPassion, Intrigue, and ............ 42 Material Science Courses, Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and .......................................... 44 Mathematica, Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using ............................................... 42 Mathematica, Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and ........................................................................................ 42 Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With ...................................................... MATLAB, Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using ............................................. 43 MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and ......................................... 42 Maximization; Ehrenfests LotteryTime and Entropy 44 Comparisons of Observation ....................................... 43 Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid ............................................ 45 Meet Your Students 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art ............... 44 Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education, Good ............................................ 45 Mentoring Support for Development of First-Year ChE Students ................... 44

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Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching Quantitative ...... 44 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, ......................... 45 Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical ............. 42 MetstoichTeaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering ...................................... 44 Microbial Fuel Cell as an Education Tool, The .............. 44 Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a .............................................................. 44 Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer ............................................. 45 Lab ............................................................................ 45 Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism .............................................................. 44 Student Lab-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost ...... 43 Micropower Generation Devices, Design Course for ..... 43 Miller, Dennis J.; Michigan State .................................... 43 Mind for Practice; A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the ............................... 45 Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student ............................. 45 MIT; Armstrong, Robert C. .............................................. 44 Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect ............................. 43 Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-junction ................................................................... 42 Mixing, Introduction to Studies in Granular ................... 42 Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid ............................................................. Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary ...................................................... 44 Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Numerical Problem-Solving to .................................. 43 Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................................. 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer Ball ........ 44 Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process ........................................ 44 Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details ......... 45 Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic ....... 43 Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles ....................................... 43 Modeling and Simulation of Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in ........................................... 44 Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD ................... 45 Models for Chemical Engineers, Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic ......................... 45 Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based ...................... 43 Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE ............................. 44 Module, Evaluating Performance of a Battery Using Temperature & ......... 44 Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A .................................................... 42 Module on Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory .. 45 Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education ........................... 45 Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; An Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer ............ 45 Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory ................................................................. 45 Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student); Chemical Engineers Go to the .................................................................... MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained ............................. 44 Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical Conferences to Build ................................................... Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study ..................... 43 Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of ..................................................... 44 Multiple Comparisons of Observation MeansAre the Means ............................................... 43 Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding .. 43 Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of .................................. 43 Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate Equations for .............................................................. 42 N NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education ........................................ 43 Nanoscience; An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to ............................................. 45 Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a 42 Nanotechnology Processes Option in ChE ..................... 43 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon ................................................... 44 NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and ................... 45 Navier-Stokes Equations, Explaining the Convective Term in the ........................ Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week; YouTube Fridays: Engaging the .............................................................. 44

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300 Curriculum; Ideas to Consider for ............................. 43 Curriculum; Ideas to Consider for ............................. 44 New Faculty Members Into Quick Starters, Turning ........ New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level ChE Students ............................................................ 43 Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light .... 43 Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ........................................... 45 Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum .......... Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A Synchronous Distance-Education Course for .............. 44 Non-Technical Presentations, Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through ........................................................... 45 North Carolina State University ........................................ 44 North Dakota, University of ........................................... 44 Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on ................ 42 Numerical Problem-Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to .......................................... 43 Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: the ChE Curriculum; From ........................................ 43 Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course ................................................ 43 NXT Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using Lego 45 O Observation MeansAre the Means ..... 43 Teach History ............................................................. 43 Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and Batch Distillation in an ........................................................ 45 Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized .............................. 45 Onsager Reciprocal Relations, An Introduction to the ... Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and .................................................................. 45 Optimization Problems ................................................... 45 Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from ............................... 42 Creative Use of Undergrad. Self-Directed Projects ... 44 Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary School Students ..................................................................... 42 P Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and Pedagogy: The ........................... 43 Particle Science and Technology Course, A Population Balance Based Design Problem in a ...... Particle Technology, Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in ......................... 43 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical ............................ 44 Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak ........................ 44 PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module ............................. 43 Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education .............................................. 42 Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and .................................................... 43 Student Learning ........................................................ 43 Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group, Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: .................................................. Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using Mathematica, Applications of the ....................................................... 42 Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using MATLAB, Applications of the ..................................................... 43 Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen............. 43 Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using ................................................... 45 Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of .................... 43 Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems, Development of Problem ............................... 44 Pharmaceuticals; Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on .................................... 45 Pharmacokinetics for ChE, Drug Transport and ............. 44 Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers, Two-Compartment ..................................................... 45 Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing Liquid-Liquid .......................................... Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial ............................................ 42 PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response Experiment ................................................................... 42 of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group ................................ 44 Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal ................. 45 Pipes, Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular ........ Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and ............................................................................. 44 Policy, A Course on Energy Technology and .................. Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; An Undergraduate Lab to Determine .......................... 45 Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses .......................................... 44 Polytechnic University ........................................................ Pop Goes Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How ..................... Population Balance Based Design Problem in a Particle Science

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and Technology Course, A ........................................... Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes; Teaching ....... Power Plant; Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir .................................................. 42 In Search of the Active Site of ................................... 43 Practices; Student Ratings of Teaching: Myths, Facts, and Good ...................................................................... 42 Pressure-Drop Experiment, Gas ...................................... 44 Princeton, Pablo G. Debenedetti ..................................... 45 Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for .............................................................. 44 Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to ................................................ 44 Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology, Development of Contemporary ................................. 43 Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control ............................. Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design ............................................. 42 Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active ........ 42 Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical ........................ 43 Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: the ChE Curriculum; From Numerical ...................... 43 Thermodynamics ............................ 45 Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical ............................. 43 Process Control Course, Controller Performance Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical ................................ 44 Process Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a .................................................. 44 Process Control Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between ......................................................................... 44 Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in ....................... 43 Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A ....................................... 43 Process Engineering Using an Ice Cream Maker, Teaching .................................. Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate ...... 44 Process Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for ............................................ 45 Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning By Research ....................................................................... 43 Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd Ed .......................... Introducing Risk Analysis and Calculation of ........... 45 Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA ............................ 45 Project-Based Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise ................................................................ 45 Project (Design) on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning ............ 44 Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A Senior Design ..................................... 44 Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic .......................................... 42 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team ..................... 45 Projects in ChE Using a Wiki, Group ............................... 42 Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone ..................................... 43 Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in ............................................................... 45 Proteins, Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful ..... Prototype for Engineering Up-Scaling, The Catalytic Pellet: A Rich ........................................................................ Purdue; Doraiswami (Ramki) Ramkrishna ........................ 45 Pure Substance, A Graphical Representation for the Fugacity of a ................................................... 44 Q Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching ........................... 44 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions ................................................................... 42 R R&D, Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education ............. 45 Ramkrishna, Doraiswami (Ramki); Purdue ........................ 45 Random Thoughts Does Your Department Culture Suit You? ................. 43 Hang in There! Dealing with Student Resistance to Learner-Centered Teaching ................................... 45 Hard Assessment of Soft Skills ................................... 44 How Learning Works ................................................. 45 Sanity .................................................................... How to Stop Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down) .... 45 How to Write Anything .............................................. 42 The ........................................................................ 44 Each Without Weakening the Other; The ............. 44 Meet Your Students 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art .......... 44 On-the-Job Training ..................................................... 42 Priorities in Hard Times ............................................ 43 Teachers Teacher, A ................................................... 43 ... 42 ...... 43 Turning New Faculty Members Into Quick Starters ... Sermons for Grumpy Campers .................................. ....................................... 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and ...................

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302 Student Ratings of Teaching: Myths, Facts, and Good Practices ........................................................ 42 Why Me, Lord? .......................................................... Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy .......................................................... 42 Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region, Teaching ..................................... of Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring ................ 42 Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep .................................................................... 42 Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed .................................. 45 Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to ....................................... 42 Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch ......................................... 45 Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical .................................... 45 Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project, A .................................................................... Reciprocal Relations, An Introduction to the Onsager ... Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple .......................................... 44 Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and ........................................................... 45 Research in Engineering Education, Pedagogical Training and .......................................... 42 Research, A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of 44 Research Group; Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a .... Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice .......... 44 Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied .......... 42 Research; Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning By ................................................................................ 43 Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative .. 42 Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and ......................................................... 45 Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate .. 45 Research; Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied .................................................................. 43 The Link Between ..................................................... 44 Weakening the Other; The Link Between .................. 44 Response Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient ............. 42 Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically ...................................................................... 45 Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations .............................................................. 45 Reynolds, Joseph; Manhattan College .............................. in Engineering Design, Introducing ........................... 45 Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating ............ 42 Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using Lego NXT 45 S Safer Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently ................................ 42 Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process .............................. 45 Industrial .................................................................... 44 Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and .................................... 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer Ball Model: A Useful .......................................... 44 Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and ............................................ 45 Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School .......... 43 Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate ................................ 43 Screencasts in ChE Courses, Using ................................ 43 Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A ............................................................. 45 Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A ............................................................. 44 Senior-Level ChE Students, New Laboratory Course for ....................................... 43 Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers; Skits, Stockings, and .................................................. 44 Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment; ........................ 42 Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to .................................................. 42 Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball 43 Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica, Equilibrium-Staged ............................................................. 42 Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing ........................ Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, A ............................................................... 45 Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and .......................... 45 Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using ...... 43 Simulation of Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and .................... 44

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Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process ....................................................... 43 Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses, Polymerization ................ 44 Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education, Incorporating ......................... Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory Module on .. 45 Skits, Stockings, and Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers .............................................................. 44 Slater, C. Stewart ................................................................ 43 Scaling Concepts in Continua, The ........................... 44 Soft Skills, Hard Assessment of ........................................ 44 Software for ChE Thermodynamics; XSEOS: An Open .. 42 Computational Results; Can I Trust This .................... 42 Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates .................................................. Solubility, A Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid .. 42 Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ............................................................... 45 Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; .......................................... 45 Song, Celebrating ChE in ................................................. 42 Sophomores, An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE ............. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology ............... 43 ........... 45 Speed of Light; Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the ... 43 Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using Readily Available Commercial .... 43 Statistical Analysis Project, A Realistic Experimental Design and .................................................................. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and InquiryBased Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: Example for Equilibrium vs. .................................... 45 Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for ........................ 43 Steady State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined ................................................ 43 Steam Tables Dead?; Are the .......................................... 43 Controller Performance Assessment Through ........... Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing ....................................... 42 Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved ................................ 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and ....................... Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and Energy ..... Effective, ............................................. 44 (4), inside front cover into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase ............................ 43 Laboratories ............................................................ 45 Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing .......................................... 45 Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using .............................................. Student Silences, Ideas for Creating and Overcoming ... 43 Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through ...................... 45 Surface Chemistrya Danish Experience; Challenges in ................................................ 43 (Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum) ............... 44 Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A ..................................................... 44 Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching ................. 45 Synchronous Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A ................. 44 Project; Industrial Scale ............................................. 44 Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry ................................................................... 42 Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of Multiphysics ............................................................. 44 T Using the Gibbs Energy and the Common ................ 44 Taylor-Aris Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding ................ 43 Teaching Tips Approaches to Academic Integrity: Confessions of a Reluctant Expert ............................. 44 (3), inside front cover Celebrating ChE in Song ............................................. 42 Coordinating Internal Assessment to Balance Student Workload ........................... 45 Explaining the Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations ........................................ Importance of Saying Thank You ........ 45 (4), inside front cover Thermodynamics ............................ 45 Skits, Stockings, and Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers .............................................................. 44 Spark ChE Students Interest in Chemistry Lab by Cooperative Strategy ...................... 45 (3), inside front cover Teaching .......................................... 44 (4), inside front cover Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research ....................................................... 43 Teaching ChE Thermodynamics at Three LevelsExperience from the Technical University of Denmark ................. 43

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Experience; Challenges in ......................................... 43 The Link Between Research and ............................... 44 Other; The Link Between Research and .................... 44 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small .............................. 43 Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for .......................... 45 and Assessment; A Student-Centered Approach to .... Teaching Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes ........................ Teaching Process Engineering Using an Ice Cream Maker .................................................. Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; Metstoich ................ 44 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region ...................................................... Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for ................................. 45 Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in ChE ........ 44 Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of Coffee ............................................................ Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................... 45 Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, ..... 45 Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary ...................... Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student ................................. Technical Writing in a Lab Course in ChE, Teaching ....... 44 Technology and Policy, A Course on Energy .................. Tennessee Technological University ............................... 42 Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in ............................ 44 Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory ................................................................. 44 Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of ................................................... 43 Texas at Austin; Nicholas A. Peppas ............................... 43 Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between Process Control .............................................. 44 Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in .......................................... 45 Thermodynamics Course, Conceptests for a .................. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in ................ 45 Introductory ........................................ 45 Thermodynamics at Three LevelsExperience from the Technical University of Denmark Teaching ChE .............................................................. 43 Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of ................................................... 44 Thermodynamics; XSEOS: An Open Software for ChE .. 42 T-junction, Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a ..... 42 Tool, The Microbial Fuel Cell as an Education .............. 44 Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers ............................ 43 Tough Decisions in Tough Times .............. 44 Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of ......... 43 Training and Research in Engineering Education, Pedagogical ................................................................ 42 Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal ............. Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass ..................................................... 43 Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat ................... 45 Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass 45 Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass ........... 45 Transient Response Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a ............................. 42 Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a ................................ 45 Transport and Pharmacokinetics for ChE, Drug ............. 44 Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of Coffee, Teaching ............................................ Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and ............... 44 Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and .................................. 45 Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube ......... 45 Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers ................................................................... 45 Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods ........................................ 44 U in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ................................................................... 45 Uncertainty in Engineering Design, Introducing Risk Analysis ...................... 45 Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Eng. Design, Introducing Decision Making Under ......................... 44 Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for ............................................ 43 Undergraduate ChE Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the ........................................................... Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of

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Multiphysics Systems ................................................ 44 Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the .... Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core ..................... 45 Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE Models in ............ 44 Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for 44 Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight ................................... 45 Undergraduate Lab Exercise, Project-Based Learning in Education Through an ................................................. 45 Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; ...................................................... 44 Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Dairy Products Within the ........................................... 42 Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion ... 45 Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the ....................................................... 43 Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the ..................................................... 45 Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two ............................... 44 Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and ................................................................ 45 Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary .......... 43 in the Engineering Classroom: A Creative Use of ..... 44 Undergraduate Student); Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary ........... Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow ................... 43 Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging .......... 43 Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active-Learning Environment for ......................................................... Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE .................................................... Unit Operations Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the ...................................... 45 Unit Ops Laboratory, The Development and Deployment ................................................................. Unit Operations Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the ................................................ Up-Scaling; The Catalytic Pellet: A Rich Prototype for Engineering ................................................................ Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects ................................................ 43 Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications .................................. 44 Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation ... 43 Using Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills .......................................................... Software Package? An Exercise in .............................. 42 Assessment Through Stiction in Control ................... Fluidized Bed Chemical ............................................ 44 Common Tangent Plane Criterion ............................. 44 on Heat Transfer ........................................................ 44 Industrially Situated ................................................... 45 of a ............................................................................. Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; ........................... 45 The Soccer Ball Model: A Useful .............................. 44 Performance of a Battery Using Temperature and ....... 44 Example for Understanding ............................................... 43 W Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of ............................. 45 Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using .................................... 45 Water Streams at a T-junction, Mixing Hot and Cold ..... 42 Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in .................................. 44 Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment; Cooperative ............... 44 Why I Teach (and Advise) .............................................. 45 Wiki, Group Projects in ChE Using a ............................... 42 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course ............................................................ 43 Write Anything, How to .................................................. 42 X XSEOS: An Open Software for ChE Thermodynamics ... 42 YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week ....................................................................... 44 YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: ....................... 45 Z (none)

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306 A Abbas, A. ..................................... 43 Afacan, Artin .............................. 42 Ahlstrm, Peter ............................ 44 ................................... 44 Al-Dahhan, Muthanna .................. Alhammadi, H.Y. ........................ 43 Ali, Emad ..................................... 43 Allam, Yosef ............................... 42 Almeida, J.P.B. .......................... 42 Anderson, Brian J. ..................... 45 Andrews, Samantha N. ............. 45 Arce, Pedro .............. 44 Archer, Shivaun D. .................... 45 Argoti, A. ..................................... 42 Armstrong, Matt ......................... 42 Aronson, Mark T. ...................... 43 Ashbaugh, Henry S. .................. 44 Ashurst, W. Robert ....................... 42 Aucoin, Marc G. ........................ 43 Azadi, Pooya ................................ 43 B Baah, David .................................. 44 Bader, Paul ................................... 43 Badri, Solmaz ............................. 45 Baird, Malcolm .......................... Balcarcel, Robert .......................... 45 Barar Pour, Sanaz ....................... Barat, Robert .............................. 45 Barford. John P. ......................... 44 Bean, Doyle P., Jr. ..................... 45 ............... 43 ........................ 44 ................ 43 Benoit Norca, Gregory ............... Berg, John C. ............................. 45 Beyenal, Haluk ........................... 44 Biaglow, Andrew ........................ 42 Biernacki, Joseph J. ................... 42 Biggs, Catherine A. ..................... 44 Billet, Anne-Marie ..................... 44 Binous, Housam ......... 42 42 43 Blankenspoor, Wesley ............... 44 Blowers, Paul ................................. 45 Bommarius, Andreas S. ............... 45 Book, Neil .................................. 44 Bowman, Christopher N. .......... 43 Bradley, James ............................. 44 Brauner, Neima ........ 42 43 43 Brenner, James R. ...................... Brent, Rebecca ......... 42 42 42 43 44 45 Briedis, Daina M. ........................ 43 Brown, Mayo ............................... 45 ........................ Budman, Hector ......................... 44 Bullard, Lisa ............. 42 44 44 44 (3), inside front cover; 44 (4), inside front cover; 44 45 45 45 45 (4), inside cover Burr-Alexander, Levelle ............ 43 C Camy, Sverine .......................... 44 Canavan, Heather E. .................. 42 Cardona-Martnez, Nelson .......... 44 Carson, Susan ............................. 43 Carta, Giorgio ............................. 45 Case, Jennifer M. ........................ Castellanos, Patricia ..................... Castier, Marcelo ........................... 42 Castro, Alberto A. ........................ 42 Cavanaugh, Daniel P. .................. 44 Chau, Ying .................................. 44 Chirdon, William M. ................. 44 Chisnell, John R. ....................... 43 Chou, S.T. .................................... 42 Christie, Jacqueline ...................... 45 Clark, William .......... 44 45 Clarke, Matthew A. ................... 43 .................... 43 Comitz, Richard L. .................... 42 Condoret, Jean Stphane ............ Connor Jr., Wm. Curtis .............. 45 Coronell, Daniel G. ................... 43 Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole ........ 44 Coutinho, Cecil A. ...................... 44 Cramer, Steven M. ..................... 44 Cruz, A.J.G. ................................... 44 Cruz, J. ......................................... 42 Culligan, Tanya .......................... 43 Curtis, Christine ........................... 44 Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair ............. 43 Cutlip, Michael B. .... 42 43 43 D Da Silva, Francisco A. ................. 42 Dai, Lenore .................................. Daniel, Susan ................................ 45 Das, G. ........................................ 45 ...................................... 45 Daughtry, Terrell .......................... 44 Dave, Rajesh .............................. 43 Author Index Davis, Richard A. ...................... 45 Davis, Robert H. .. 44 Davis, Robert J. ......................... 43 .................. 43 DeGrazia, Janet .......................... 43 Deitcher, Robert W. ................... 43 De Jesus, C.D.F. ............................ 44 ......... 44 DePriest, Jane L. ......................... 43 Derevjanik, Mario ...................... 45 Dewan, Alim .............................. 44 Diemer, R. Bertrum ...................... ......................... 45 Dohrn, Ralf .................................. 44 Dominiak, Richard S. ................ ........................ ............................ E Economou, Ioannis G. ................. 44 Eden, Mario .............. 42 42 Edgar, Thomas F. ....................... ................... 44 Ehrman, Sheryl H. ....................... Ekerdt, John G. ......................... 43 Elliott, Richard ........... 44 44 Elmore, Bill B. ............................ 45 Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola ........... 44 Evans, Steven T. ......................... 44 F Fachada, H.C. ............................ 42 .................................. 43 Falconer, John L. .... 43 Fan, L.T. ....................................... 42 Farhadi, Maryam .......................... 43 Farrell, Stephanie ...... Fedkiw, Peter S. .......................... 44 Felder, Richard ........... 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 Fernandez, Erik ............................ 45 Ferraro, Giacomo P. ................... 45 Field, Jim A. .................................. 45 Floyd Smith, Tamara ................... 44 Foley, Greg ................................... 45 Fonseca, I.M.A. ......................... 42 Forbes, Neil S. .......................... 42 Forciniti, Daniel ........................ 43 Fowler, Michael W. ................... 43

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Jablonski, Erin L. ........................ 44 Jackson, George ........................... 44 .................. 45 Jaubert, Jean-Noel ........................ 44 Jayaraman, Arul ......................... Ji, Michelle ................................. 44 Johri, Jayati ................................ 42 Jog, Chintamani ......................... 44 Jolicoeur, Mario ......................... 43 Jordan, Patrick ...... 45 Joye, Donald D. ........................... 45 Jungbauer, Alois ......................... 45 K ......................... 44 45 ........................... 45 ............. 43 44 .......................... 45 ....................... 43 ......................... 43 ........................... ...................... 44 ........................ 43 ............................... 43 ............. 42 ......................... 45 ............................. 44 ........................... 45 ........ 43 43 ... 43 45 ........................ 43 ............. 44 45 ................... 44 ........... 45 ............................. 43 ..................... 43 L Lachance, Russ .......................... 42 Lane, Alan M. .............................. 42 Laurence, Robert L. .................. 45 Leal, L. Gary .............................. Leavesley, Silas J. ..................... 45 Lefebvre, Brian G. ..................... Legros, Robert ............................ Le Roux, G.A.C. ........................... 44 ............ 44 Lewis, Randy S. ........................... Liang, Jia-chi .............................. 43 Liang, Youyun ............................ 44 Liberatore, Matthew W. ........... 44 45 45 Lito, Patrcia F. ......... 42 45 Liu, Xue ..................................... 42 Llusa, Marcos ............................. 42 Lombardo, Stephen J. .................. 44 Long, Christopher ...................... .............................. 42 Lou, Helen H. ............................ 45 ................................ 44 Lu, Hang ...................................... 45 Luyben, William L. .... 43 44 45 M Maase, Eric L. .............................. 42 Macedo, Eugnia A. ..................... 44 Madihally, Sundararajan ............. 45 Mainardi, Daniela S. ................. 43 ................. 44 Mankidy, Bijith D. ..................... 44 ...................... 45 Marcilla, Antonio ....................... Matthews, Michael A. ................ Medlin, J.Will ............................ 43 Merrill, John ............................... 42 Metzger, Matthew J. .................. Meyyappan, M. ......................... 44 Michelson, Michael L. ................ 43 Mijovic, Jovan. ............................... Miletic, Marina ......................... 43 Miller, Ronald L. ....................... 45 Minerick, Adrienne R. ............... 44 44 45 Mitsos, Alexander ..................... 43 Monroe, Charles W. ................... Montas, Maria T. .................... 42 Moreira, Jr.; P.F. ............................ 44 Morin, Michael T. ...................... 45 Mosto, Patricia ............................. ........................ 43 Murthi, Manohar ........................ 43 ........................... Muzzio, Fernando ...................... 42 Myers, John A. ............................. N Nascimento, C.A.O. ...................... 44 ............................... 43 Neves, Patrcia S. ......................... 42 Newman, John ............................ Nicol, Willie .............................. 45 Niemczyk, Jennifer ...................... 45 Nijdam, Justin ...... 45 Norman, James J. ...................... 45 ......................... 45 O ..................... ODell, Francis P. ........................ 44 ............................ 45 Olaya, Mara del Mar ................ 44 Ortiz-Rodriguez, Estanislao ....... 44 Fradette, Louis ........................... Freeman, Margaret .. 44 45 Fuchs, Alan ................................ 44 Garetto, Teresita F. ...................... 42 Gecik, Christopher ..................... Ghosh, S. ..................................... 45 Giordano, R.C. .............................. 44 Giraldo, Carlos ........................... 43 Glasser, Benjamin J. 42 Glasser, David ............................ Gordon, Michael J. .................... 44 Graham, Daniel J. ...................... 42 ..................... 45 Gray, Tom ................................... Grubin, Catherine ....................... 42 Guo, Jing ...................................... Gummer, Edith ........................... 45 ......................... 44 ........................ 43 Hahn, Juergen ............................. Hall, Rosine ................................. 44 .................... 45 Hariri, M. Hossein ..................... 43 Harold, Michael P. ..................... 45 Harris, Andrew T. ...................... 43 Harris, Sandra ............................ Hart, Peter W. .............................. 45 Hausberger, Brendon .................. Hecht, Gregory B. ........................ Heitsch, Andrew T. .................... 43 ............. 45 Hesketh, Robert P. .......................... 43 Heys, Jeffrey J. ............................. 42 ............................. 42 Hildebrandt, Diane ..................... Hilliard, Marcus ......................... Hirsch, Linda S. ........................ 43 Hissam, Robin S. ....................... 45 Ho, Thomas C. .......................... 45 Hoffman, Adam ............................ 45 .................................. Hollein, Helen C. .......... 43 Holles, Joseph H. .... 43 45 Holmberg, Michael P. ................ 43 Howley, Maureen A. ................. 42 Hrenya, Christine M. ................. 45 Huang, Xinqun ............................ 44 Huang, Yinlun ........................... 45 I Ibarra, Isabel .............................. Idriss, Arimiyawo ......................... 43

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Osei-Prempeh, Gifty .................. 44 Oyanader, Mario ........................ P Palomares, Antonio E. ............... 42 ............... 45 Papavassiliou, Dimitrios ........... 44 45 Pascal, Jennifer ........................... 44 Paul, Donald R. ......................... Peppas, Nicholas ............................ 42 Petrulis, Robert ........................... 44 Pety, Stephen J. ........................... 45 Pia, Juliana ............................... Pokki, Juha-Pekka ........................ 44 Pons, Sergio ............................... 45 Prausnitz, Mark R. ... 45 45 Prince, Michael ......... 45 45 Q (none) R ................................. 44 Register, Richard A. .................. 45 Reis, G.B. ...................................... 44 Reklaitis, Gintaras .......................... 42 Rengaswamy, Raghunathan ...... 44 Reyes-Labarta, Juan A. ............. 44 Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis ........... 44 44 ................. Romagnoli, J.A. .......................... 43 Romn, Aidsa I. Santiago ........... 45 Rosen, Edward M. ..................... 42 Rosin,, M.S. .............................. 45 Rossiter, Diane ............................ 44 Rudie, Alan W. ............................ 45 Ryan, Jim ................................... 42 Ryder, Daniel ............................... 42 S Saayman, Jean ........................... 45 Sad, Mara E. ............................... 42 Sad, Mario R. .............................. 42 Sez, A. Eduardo ............................ 45 .. 45 (3), inside front cover Snchez, Antoni ........................... 45 Santiago, Ana S. ........................ 45 Saudejaud (Coufort-), Carole ..... 44 Savage, Phillip E. ...................... 42 Saveleski, Mariano ...... 44 Sawyer, Bryan ............................ 44 Schlosser, Phil ............................ 42 Seay, Jeffrey R. ........ 42 42 Seborg, Dale E. .......................... Seebauer, Edmund G. ................ 43 Serrano, Mara Dolores ............. 44 Shacham, Mordechai .................... 42 43 43 Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ................. 45 Sharp, David .............................. 42 Shea, Lonnie D. ......................... 43 Sheardown, Heather ................... 43 Shevlin, Ryan ............................. 44 Sidler, Michelle ............................ 44 Sierra, Reyes .................................. 45 Silebi, Cesar A. ......................... 45 Silva, Carlos M. ........ 42 45 Silverstein, David ..... 43 43 44 44 Simmons, Craig A. .................... 43 Simon, Laurent; ...... 43 44 45 Singh, Abhay .............................. Sitton, Oliver C. ......................... 44 Slater, C. Stewart ......................... 44 Sloop, Joseph ............................. 42 Smart, Jimmy ............. 42 Smith, Robert A. ......................... 44 Smith, Tamara Floyd .................... 44 Smith, York R. ........................... 44 Snurr, Randall Q. ...................... 43 Soffen, Tanya ............................. 44 Soroush, Masoud .......................... 44 Spencer, Jordan L. ....................... 43 Sridhar, L.N. ................................ 44 Srinivasan, Ranganathan ............ Stanton, Michael ........................ 42 Streveler, Ruth A. ...................... 45 Sullivan, W.M. .......................... 45 Sun, Nakho ................................... 42 Sun, Yi-ming .............................. 43 Suppes, Galen ............................ 44 T Tanguy, Philippe A. ................... Thio, Yonathan ............................. 45 Thompson, Nancy S. ................. Tom, Jean W. ............................. 45 Tomasko, David L. .................... 42 Tong, Yen Wah ........................... 44 Torres, Cynthia ............................ 44 Tosun, Ismail ................................ Tracey, James H. ............................ 43 Trot, Bruce ................................. 42 Turton, Richard .......................... 45 ............ 43 44 44 (3), inside back cover U (none) ....................... 44 .................. ............................... 45 ........................... 45 ............... 44 ........................ 44 ........................ 44 ................................... 42 .......................... 44 ......................... 45 44 43 ....................... 43 ...................... 44 W Wang, Chi-Hwa .......................... 44 Wankat, Phillip .... 44 (4), inside back cover; 42 43 43 43 45 45 45 Wanke, Sieghard ........................ 42 Weinberger, Charles B. ............... 44 .......................... 45 Whitaker, Stephen ..... 43 Wiesner, Theodore ..................... Williams, Jason .......................... Wilson, Sarah A. ......................... 44 Wilson, Tiffany M. ..................... 42 Winter, Robb M. .......................... 43 .................. 44 Wood, Brian D. ........................... 43 Woods, Donald R. .. 43 43 Wright, Sarah H. ......................... 44 X Xi, Yuanzhou ............................. 43 Xu, Qingzing .............................. 44 ............................... 42 Yang, Allen H.J. ........................... 45 Yang, Dazhi ............................... 45 Yang, Yong ................................. 42 Ydstie, Erik .................................... 42 Yokochi, Alexandre .................... 43 Yokoyama, Ayumu ....................... 43 ............... 43 Z ....................... 43 ........................ 42 .......................... 45 ........................ .................. 44 .................... 45

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PRESENTING: CEE S Annual Grad Guide for 2011-2012 The following pages feature schools that offer graduate education programs in chemical engineering annual graduate education issue, and on our web site at CEE CEE (Chemical Engineering Education ) is the premier

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An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integra What is taught in graduate school? e.g. transport phenomena, on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and mining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is What is the nature of graduate research? how Where should you go to graduate school? with great strength or reputation in that particular area would Financial Aid i.e.

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312 313 314 315 316 317 411 318 419 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 411 329 419 330 331 332 333 334 420 335 336 337 338 412 339 340 341 412 413 342 343 344 345 346 347 413 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 414 360 361 362 414 420 415 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 415 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 416 380 381 382 416 383 420 384 385 386 417 387 388 389 417 390 418 391 392 393 418 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 419 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 INDEX Graduate Education Advertisements

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312 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellow ships available. In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. Chai rman, Gra duate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 972-5856 G. G. CHASE G. CHENG H. M. CHEUNG S. S. C. CHUANG L.-K. JU, Chair N. D. LEIPZIG J. R. ELLIOTT E. A. EVANS H. CASTANEDA L. LIU C. MONTY B. Z. NEWBY J. E. PUSKAS J. H. PAYER H. C. QAMMAR J. ZHENG D.P. VISCO Electrochemistry & Corrosion, Corrosion evolution, Modeling, Coatings damage/performance, special alloys. Multiphase Processes, Nano bers, Filtration, Coalescence Biomaterials, Protein Engineer ing, Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine Nanocomposite Materials, So nochemical Processing, Polymerization in Nanostructured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid Processing Catalysis, Reaction Engineer ing, Environmentally Benign Systhesis, Fuel Cell Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physical Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical Fluids Materials Processing and CVD Modeling, Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling Renewable Bioenergy, Environmental Bioengineering Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology, Biomaterials, Tissue Engienering Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosen sors, Tissue Engineering Reaction Engineering, Biomim icry, Microsensors Surface Modication, Alternative Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient Surfaces Corrosion & Electrochemistry, Sys tems Health Monitoring and Reliability, Ma terials Performance and Failure Analysis Biomaterials, Green Polymer Chemistry and Engineering, Biomimetic Processes Nonlin ear Control, Chaotic Processes, Engineer ing Education Thermody namics, Computeraided molecular de sign Computa tional Biophysics, Bio molecular Interfaces, Biomatierials

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313 Chemical & Biological Engineering A dedicated faculty with state of the art facilities offer ing research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. In 2009, the department moved into its new home, the $70 million Scienc e and Engineering Complex. Research Areas: Biological Application s of Nanomaterials, Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery Electronic Materials, En ergy and CO2 Separation and Sequestration Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic M aterials, Membrane Separations and Reactors, Pharmaceutical Synthesis and Microchemical Systems, P olymer Rheology, Simulations and Modeling Faculty: David Arnold (Purdue) Yuping Bao (Washington) Jason Bara (Colorado) Christopher Brazel (Purdue) Eric Carlson (Wyoming) Peter Clark (Oklahoma State) Nagy El Kaddah (Imperial College ) Arun Gupta (Stanford) Ryan Hartman (Michigan) Tonya Klein (NC State) Alan Lane (Massachusetts) Stephen Ritchie (Kentucky) C. Heath Turner (NC State) Hung Ta Wang ( Florida) Mark Weaver (Florida) John Wiest (Wisconsin) For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical & Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 -0203 (205) 348-6450 alane @eng.ua.edu http://che.eng.ua.edu An eq ual employment/equal educational opportunity institution

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314 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMIC AL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING The City of Edmonton S. Bradford Emeritus R.E. Burrell K. Cadien W. Chen P. Choi K.T. Chuang Emeritus I. Dalla Lana Emeritus A. de Klerk, G. Dechaine J. Derksen S. Dubljevic R.L. Eadie A. Elias, J.A.W. Elliott T.H. Etsell G. Fisher Emeritus J.F. Forbes Chair A. Gerlich M.R. Gray R. Gupta R.E. Hayes H. Henein B. Huang D.G. Ivey S.M Kresta S.M. Kuznicki D. Li Q. Liu Q. Liu J. Luo D.T. Lynch Dean of Engineering J.H. Masliyah Distinguished University Professor Emeritus A.E. Mather Emeritus W.C. McCaffrey P.F. Mendez D. Mitlin K. Nandakumar Emeritus R. Narain N. Nazemifard J. Nychka F. Otto Emeritus B. Patchett Emeritus V. Prasad S. Sanders D. Sauvageau N. Semagina S.L. Shah J.M. Shaw H. Uludag L. Unsworth S.E. Wanke Emeritus M. Wayman Emeritus M.C. Williams Emeritus G. Winkel R. Wood Emeritus Z. Xu T. Yeung H. Zeng H. Zhang study and conduct leading research with worldclass academics in the top program chemical engi neering materials engineering and process control All full-time graduate students in research programs stipend one million square feet of outstanding teaching research and personnel space in outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities including access to one of the most National Institute for Nanotechnology $14 million over $50 million each largest amount For further information, contact: www.cme.engineering.ualberta.ca

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315 FACULTY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations PAUL BLOWERS, Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design WENDELL ELA, Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry JAMES FARRELL, Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils JAMES A. FIELD, Bioremediation, Environmental Microbiology, Hazardous Waste Treatment ROBERTO GUZMAN, ANTHONY MUSCAT Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, Microcontamination KIMBERLY OGDEN, Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing EDUARDO SEZ Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids GLENN L. SCHRADER, Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics, Solar Energy FARHANG SHADMAN, Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, Microcontamination, Semiconductor Manufacturing REYES SIERRA, Environmental Biotechnology, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Wastewater Treatment SHANE A. SNYDER, Endocrine Disruptor and Emerging Contaminant Detection and Treatment, Water Reuse Technologies and Applications ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate Change Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. range of research opportunities in all Financial support is available through fellowships, govern ment and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information http://www.chee.arizona.edu Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A

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316 Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis University of Arkansas Areas of Research Faculty For more information contact Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

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317 AUBURN U NIVERSITY offers a challenging graduate curriculum and research program that prepares its PhD and MS graduates for successful careers. Thanks to an exceptional team of educators and researchers, our department remains at the forefront of discovery and innovation. The size and strength of Auburns research program provides important advantages for graduate students. Auburn maintains a top ranking in research awards per faculty member, allowing the department to provide excellent fellowships and assistantships and offer cuttingedge research equipment in our laboratories. During the past decade, Auburn chemical engineering has continued to increase in size and strength, allowing the program to provide distinct opportunities and advantages to its students, and produce innovative research. FOR MORE INFORMATIONDirector of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn, AL 36849-5127 Phone 334.844.4827 Fax 334.844.2063 www.eng.auburn.edu/chen chemical@eng.auburn.edu Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.CHEMICA L E NGINEERINGAT AUBURN UNIVERSITYALTERNATIVE ENERGY & FUELS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMATERIALS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOPROCESSING & BIOENERGY CATALYSIS & REACTION ENGINEERING COMPUTERAIDED ENGINEERING DRUG DELIVERY ENERGY CONVERSION & STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY FUEL CELLS GREEN CHEMISTRY MATERIALS MEMS & NEMS MICROFIBROUS MATERIALS NANOTECHNOLOGY POLYMERS PROCESS CONTROL PULP & P APER SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS SURF ACE & INTERF ACIAL SCIENCE SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICSW. ROBERT ASHURST University of California, Berkeley MARK E. BYRNE Purdue University ROBERT P CHAMBERS University of California, Berkeley HARRY T CULLINAN Carnegie Institute of Technology VIRGINIA D AVIS Rice University STEVE R. DUKE University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARIO R. EDEN Technical University of Denmark RAM B. GUPTA University of Texas at Austin THOMAS R. HANLEY Virginia Tech Institute Y OON Y LEE Iowa State University ELIZABETH A. LIPKE Rice University GLENNON MAPLES Oklahoma State University RONALD D NEUMAN The Institute of Paper Chemistry TIMOTHY D PLACEK University of Kentucky CHRISTOPHER B. ROBERTS University of Notre Dame BRUCE J. T ATARCHUK University of Wisconsin JIN WANG University of Texas at Austin

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318 Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked the 1st most livable place in the world*. Vancouvers natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for outdoor pursuits throughout the year hiking, canoeing, mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city hosted the Olympic and Paraolympic Winter Games.FacultySusan A. Baldwin (Toronto) Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia) Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley) Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill) Naoko Ellis (British Columbia) Peter Englezos (Calgary) James Feng (Minnesota) Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta) John R. Grace (Cambridge) Christina Gyenge (British Columbia) Elod Gyenge (British Columbia) Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill) Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley) Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa) Ezra Kwok (Alberta) Anthony Lau (British Columbia) C. Jim Lim (British Columbia) Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia) Madjid Mohseni (Toronto) Royann Petrell (Florida) James M. Piret (MIT) Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad) Kevin J. Smith (McMaster) Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto) David Wilkinson (Ottawa)Professors Emeriti Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia) Richard Branion (Saskatchewan) Norman Epstein (New York) Richard Kerekes (McGill) Colin Oloman (British Columbia) A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)Currently about 170 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The program dates back to the 1920s. The department has a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael Smith Laboratories, FPInnovations, Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy research.*2011 survey, The EconomistThe University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Biological Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Protein Engineering Blood research Stem Cells Energy Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil and Bio-diesel Combustion, Electrochemical Engineering Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Hydrates Process Control Pulp and Paper Reaction Engineering Environmental and Green Financial AidStudents admitted to the graduate programs leading to the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees receive at least a support regardless of citizenship (approx. $17,500/year for M.A.Sc and M.Sc and $19,000/ year for Ph.D). Teaching assistantships are available (up to approx. $1,000 per year). All incoming students will be considered for several Graduate Students Initiative (GSI) Scholarships of $5,000/year and 4-year Doctoral Fellowships Scholarships of approx. $16,000/year. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGMASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.) MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.) MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.) DOCT OR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.). Faculty of Applied ScienceMailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chbe.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457 Environmental and Green Engineering Emissions Control Green Process Engineering Life Cycle Analysis Wastewater Treatment Waste Management Aquacultural Engineering Particle Technology Fluidization Multiphase Flow Fluid-Particle Systems Particle Processing Electrostatics Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer Rheology www.chbe.ubc.caMain Areas of Research

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321 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department CONTACT CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT U C L A FOCUS AREAS Manufacturing and GENERAL THEMES PROGRAMS FACULTY J. P. Chang (William F. Seyer Chair in Materials Electrochemistry) Y. Cohen J. Davis (Vice Provost Information Technology) R.F. Hicks L. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate) J. C. Liao (Chancellors Professor) Y. Lu V.I. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette (Dept. Chair) G. Orkoulas T. Segura S.M. Senkan Y. Tang UCLAs Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and Process and Control Systems Engineering. Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of

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324 CALTECHCHEMICAL ENGINEERINGAt the Leading EdgeThe Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering opened in March 2010CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYContact information: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125http://www.che.caltech.eduFrances H. Arnold: Protein Engineering and Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology, Biofuels John F. Brady: Complex Fluids and Suspensions, Rheology, Transport Processes Mark E. Davis: Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Advanced Materials Richard C. Flagan: Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation George R. Gavalas (emeritus) Konstantinos P. Giapis: Plasma Processing, Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology Sossina M. Haile: Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis and Electrocatalysis Rustem F. Ismagilov: Microfluidics and Multiphase Flows; Global Health; Complex Networks of Reactions, Cells and Organisms Julia A. Kornfield: Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers John H. Seinfeld: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Global Climate David A. Tirrell: Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering, Chemical Biology Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus) Zhen-Gang Wang: Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics

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325 Unlock the next stage of your career. The graduate students and faculty at Carnegie Mellon are taking the eld of Chemical Engineering to a new level. Power up with research in alternative energy, systems engineering, nanotechnology, bioengineering, and environmental engineering. The game is just beginning. Take control of your future.CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING A T CARNE GIE M E LLON Contact Information chegrad@andrew.cmu.edu 412.268.2230 Graduate Degree Programs > Doctorate > Course Option Master > Thesis Option Master Department Home Page www.cheme.cmu.edu Online Graduate Application www.cheme.edu/admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Pittsburgh, P A 15213-3890 Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon PLA YER 1 SELECT > Bioengineering > Complex Fluids Engineering > Energy Science and Engineering > Envirochemical Engineering > Process Systems Engineering

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327 Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Engineering Research Center that houses most chemical engineering research. Emerging Energy Systems Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage nanomaterials Environmental Research Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors Molecular Engineering Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors Membrane and Separation Technologies tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac tion-based separation processes Biotechnology Polymers Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial phenomena Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering, the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years. Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST) INST brings together three centers of excellencethe Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonicscomposed of faculty from the Colleges of En gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena. For Admission Information Contact Barbara Carter College of Engineering and Applied Science Cincinnati, OH 45221-0077 513-556-5157 Barbara.carter@uc.edu or Professor Vadim Guliants The Chemical Engineering Program The School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 vadim.guliants@uc.edu The University of Cincinnati is committed to a policy of non-discrimination in awarding Financial Aid Available A.P. Angelopoulos Carlos Co Junhang Dong Joel Fried Rakesh Govind Vadim Guliants Chia-chi Ho Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Joo-Youp Lee Paul Phillips Neville Pinto Vesselin Shanov Peter Smirniotis Stephen W. Thiel Faculty

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328 Biomaterials and Biotransport atherogenesis, bio-uid ow, self-assembled biomaterials Colloid Science and Engineering directed assembly, novel particle technology Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow boiling heat transfer, emulsions, rheology, suspensions Energy Generation and Storage batteries, gas hydrates, thermal energy storage Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter device design, dynamic interfacial processes Nanomaterials and Self Assembly catalysts, patchy particles, sensors Polymer Science and Engineering polymer processing, rheology Powder Science and Technology pharmaceutical formulations, powder ow Process Design and Optimization environmental plant design, process intensication Levich Institute for Physicochemical Hydrodynamics directed by Morton M. Denn Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Engineering Energy Institute directed by Sanjoy Banerjee Distinguished Professor of Chemical EngineeringRESEARCH AREAS FACULTYSanjoy Banerjee Alexander Couzis Morton M. Denn M. Lane Gilchrist Ilona Kretzschmar Jae W. Lee Charles Maldarelli Jeffrey F. Morris Martin Moskovits David S. Rumschitzki Carol A. Steiner Daniel A. Steingart Gabriel I. Tardos Raymond S. TuINSTITUTES www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu gradinfo@che.ccny.cuny.edu212 650 6671GROVE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING MS & PhD Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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330 Wh y -Cut t -Inte r awa r Cut t Bio m coati for r e K.S. A. J a Ran d Bio p form u drug Cat a zeoli t D.K. Co m mec h Co m C.M. Ren e R.H. R.D. Uni v Pho y the Univ e t ing-edge res e r nationally re c r ds for their r e t ing-Edge m aterials an d ngs, biosens o e generating d Anseth, C.N. a yaraman, J. L d olph, S. Re d p harmaceuti c u lations for n e delivery / R. T a lysis, Surfa c t es, atomic a n Schwartz, A. m plex Fluids a h anics / R.H. m putational S Hrenya, A. J e wable Ener g Davis, J.L. F Noble, M.P. v ersity of C o ne: 303.49 2 e rsity of C o e arch in a va r c ognized fac u e search and t Research d Tissue En g o rs, develop m amaged or d Bowman, S. J L Kaar, M.J. M d dy, D.K. Sch w c als: delivery e w drugs, m e T Gill, J.L. K a c e Science a n d molecular W. Weimer a nd Microfl u Davis, C.M. H S cience: clas s J ayaraman, J gy and Clea n F alconer, S.M Stoykovich, A Memb r Davis, Protei n and us Nano s S.M. G M.P. S Polym macro m A. Jay a o lorado Bo 2 .7471 Fax: o lorado B o r iety of areas u lty with num e eaching g ineering: bi o m ent of new a iseased tissu J Bryant, M ahone y T. W w art z J.W. S technologie s e tabolic engin a ar, D.S. Ko m nd Thin Fil m layer deposi t u idic Device s H renya, A. J a s ical and qu a W. Medlin, C n Energy Ap George, R. T A .W. Weimer r anes and S e J.L. Falcone r n and Metab o ing metaboli c tructured Fi l G eorge, D.L. G toykovich, A. er Chemistr y m olecules / K a raman, T.W ulder, Engi 303.492.43 4 o ulder? e rous o compatible a pproaches es / W S tansbur y s and stable eering, m pala, T.W. R m Materials: h t ion / C .N. B o s : fluid mech a a yaraman, T. W a ntum simulat C .B. Musgrav e p lications: b T Gill, D.L. G i e parations: r D.L. Gin, D o lic Engine e c processes / l ms and De v G in, A. Jayar a W. Weimer y and Engin e K .S. Anseth, C Randolph, J neering Ce n 4 1 Web: w w R andolph, S. R h eterogeneo u o wman, J.L. F a nics of susp e W Randolph, ions, statistic e b iofuel, solar e i n, C.M. Hre n inorganic m e D .K. Schwart z e ring and Dir R.T. Gill, J.L v ices: engine e a man, J.W. M e ering: che m C .N. Bowma n J .W. Stansbu r n ter, ECCH w w.colorado The Jenni e the new h o Biological Spring 20 1 R eddy, D.K. S u s catalysis, c F alconer, S. M e nsions, gasD.K. Schwa r c al mechanic s e nergy, carb o n ya, A. Jayar a e mbranes, po l z M.P. Stoyk o r ected Evolu t Kaar, D.S. K e ring materia M edlin, C.B. M m ical synthesi s n S.J. Bryan t, r y, M.P. Stoy k 111, Boul d edu/che E m e Smoly Car u o me for the D Engineering w 1 2. S chwart z J. W c atalysis for b M George, J. W particle fluidi z r tz, M.P. Sto y s continuum m o n capture, hi g a man, J.W. M lymer memb r o vich, A.W. W t ion: a new a K ompala a ls at the nan o M usgrave, D. K s application t S.M. Georg k ovich d er, CO 803 0 m ail: chbeg r u thers Biotec h D epartment o f w hen constr u W Stansbur y iomass conv e W Medlin, C. B z ation, granu l y kovich, A.W. m odeling / R. gh-efficiency M edlin, C.B. M r anes, ionic li q W eimer a pproach to u o scale / C.N. K Schwartz, s of polymer s e, D.L. Gin, 0 9-0424 r ad@colora d h nology Build f Chemical a n u ction is com p e rsion, B Musgrave, l ar flow Weimer H. Davis, synthesis / M usgrave, q uids / R.H. nderstandin g Bowman, s and d o.edu ing will be n d p leted in

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332 Research Financial Support Fort Collins For additional information or to schedule a visit of campus: Research AreasBioanalytical Chemistry Biofuels and Biorening Biomaterials Cell and Tissue Engineering Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Science Microuidics Polymer Science Synthetic and Systems BiologyFacultyTravis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota Laurence A. Belore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U. Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U. Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U. Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U. Christopher D. Snow. Ph.D., Stanford U. Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech View faculty and student research videos, nd application information, and get other information at http://cbe.colostate.edu C h e m i c a l & B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g

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335 CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERINGResearch Centers & Training ProgramsCenters and programs provide unique environments & experiences for graduate students. These include: Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI) Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST) Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics (CMET) Center for Neutron Science (CNS) Center for Composite Material (CCM) Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) Solar Hydrogen IGERT Maciek R. Antoniewicz Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Douglas J. Buttrey Jingguang G. Chen Wilfred Chen David W. Colby Pamela L. Cook Prasad S. Dhurjati Thomas H. Epps, III Eric M. Furst Feng Jiao Michael T. Klein April Kloxin Kelvin H. Lee Abraham M. Lenho Raul F. Lobo Babtunde A. Ogunnaike E. Terry Papoutsakis Christopher J. Roberts Anne S. Robinson T.W. Frasier Russell Stanley I. Sandler Millicent O. Sullivan Dionisios G. Vlachos Norman J. Wagner Richard P. Wool Yushan Yan 28 ChE Faculty with14 Named ProfessorsGraduate Studies in150 Academy Street Colburn Laboratory, Newark, DE 19716 Phone: 302.831.4061 | Fax: 302.831.3009We are ranked, by all metrics, in the top 10 programs in the U.S. with world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and active leader in chemical engineering research and teaching. Our graduate students work with a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware. Visit our website to nd out more about Delaware:www.che.udel.edu The University of Delawares central location on the eastern seaboard to New York, Washington, Philadelphia and Baltimore is convenient both culturally and strategically to the greatest concentration of industrial & government research laboratories in the U.S. Biomolecular, Cellular, and Protein Engineering Catalysis and Energy Metabolic Engineering Systems Biology Soft Materials, Colloids and Polymers Surface Science Nanotechnology Process Systems Engineering Green Engineering Research Areaswww.udel.edu/gradoce/applicantsAPPLY NOW

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336 Technical University of Denmark Dept. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Do your graduate studies in Europe! The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a modern, internationally oriented technological university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon Valley one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It was founded in 1829 by H. C. rsted. The University has 6000 students preparing for their B Sc or M Sc d egree s 600 PhD students and takes 400 foreign students a year on English taught courses. The DTU campus is located close to the city of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark Chemical Engineering areas of research and the research groups are: Applied Thermo dynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering Catalysis, Combustion Processes Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemi stry & Technology Process Control Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena BioEng PROCESS CAPEC CHEC DPC CERE The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The r esearch results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations & materials. The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well equipped workshop and well trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory is open for students independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory and pilot plan ts for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used for both education and research. Vi sit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/us Graduate programs at Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering: The starting point for general information about MSc studies at DTU is: http://www.dtu.dk/msc Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Stig Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe Elite track in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering http://www.kt.dtu.dk/elite John Woodley jw @kt.dtu.dk Petroleum Engineering Alexander Shapiro ash@kt.dtu.dk http://www.cere.kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/ Advanced and Applied Chemistry Georgios Kontogeorgis gk@kt.dtu.dk http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry Visit the Universi t y at http://www dtu.dk/english .aspx

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338 FacultyTim Anderson Jason E. Butler Anuj Chauhan Oscar D. Crisalle Jennifer Sinclair Curtis Richard B. Dickinson Helena Hagelin-Weaver Gar Hoflund Peng Jiang Lewis E. Johns Dmitry Kopelevich Anthony J. Ladd Tanmay Lele Ranga Narayanan Mark E. Orazem Chang-Won Park Fan Ren Dinesh O. Shah Spyros Svoronos Yiider Tseng Sergey Vasenkov Jason F. Weaver Kirk Ziegler Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies at theUniversity of FloridaAward-winning faculty Cutting-edge facilities Extensive engineering resources An hour from the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico Third in US in ChE PhD graduates (C&E News, December 15, 2008)

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339 Join a small, vibrant campus on Floridas Space Coast to reach your full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientic and technological university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.Graduate studies in Chemical EngineeringFor more information, contact College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 (321) 674-8068 http://coe.t.edu/chemical FacultyM.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D., Dept. Head P.A. Jennings, Ph.D. J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D. M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D. J.R. Brenner, Ph.D. J. Thomas, Ph.D. R.G. Barile, Ph.D.Research InterestsSpacecraft Technology Biomedical Engineering Alternative Energy Sources Materials Science Membrane TechnologyResearch PartnersNASA Department of Energy Department of Defense Florida Solar Energy Center* Florida Department of Agriculture *Doctoral fellowship sponsor Graduate Student Assistantships, Scholarships and Tuition Remission AvailableEN-534-611 Florida Institute of Technology does not discriminate on the basis of race, gender, color, religion, creed, national origin, ancestry, marital status, age, disability, sexual orientation, Vietnam-era veterans status or any other discrimination prohibited by law in the admission of students, administration of its educational policies, scholarship and loan programs, employment policies, and athletic or other university sponsored programs or activities.

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341 HOUSTON Dynamic Hub of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringHouston is at the center of the U.S. energy and chemical industries and is the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. The highly ranked University of Houston Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers industrial internships and an environment conducive to personal and professional growth. Houston offers an abundance of educational, cultural, business and entertainment opportunities. For a large and diverse city, Houstons cost of living is much lower than average. Research Areas:Advanced Materials Alternative Energy Biomolecular Engineering Catalysis Multi-Phase Flows Nanotechnology Plasma Processing Reaction Engineering For more information: University of Houston,University of HoustonGraduate Studies in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Alliance for NanoHealth www.nanohealthalliance.orgWestern Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases http://rce.swmed.eduTexas Diesel Testing and Research Center www.chee.uh.edu/dieselfacilityNational Large Scale Wind Turbine Testing Facility www.thewindalliance.com Department of Energy Plasma Science Center for Predictive Control of Plasma Kinetics http://doeplasma.eecs.umich.edu

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343 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringFACULTYFor information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527Gary A. AurandNorth Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical uids/ High pressure biochem ical reactorsAlec B. ScrantonPurdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsiers/ Polymerization kineticsGreg CarmichaelU. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modelingDavid MurhammerU. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Oxidative Stress/Baculo virus biopesticidesTonya L. PeeplesJohns Hopkins 1994 Extremophile biocataly sis/Sustainable energy/ Green chemistry/ BioremediationDavid RethwischU. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Jennifer FiegelJohns Hopkins 2004 Drug delivery/ Nano and microtechnology/ AerosolsJulie L.P. JessopMichigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ SpectroscopyC. Allan GuymonU. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Charles O. StanierCarnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. SalemU. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran SubramanianIndian Institute of Science 1978Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purication/Biotechnology Eric E. NuxollU. of Minnesota 2003 Controlled release/ microfabrication/ drug delivery1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692)chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~chemeng/Vicki H. GrassianU. of Calif.-Berkeley 1987Surface science of envi ronmental interfaces/ Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry/Applications and implications of nanosci ence and nanotechnology in environmental processes and human health

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344 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cutting-edge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our and have won national and international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state graduate students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), an NSF Engineering Research Center on chemicals from biorenewables, the Plant Biotechnology, and the Bioeconomy Institute. The department offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. Students with undergraduate degrees in be admitted to the program. We offer full competitive stipends to all our MS and PhD students. In addition, we offer several competitive fellowships.Robert C. BrownPhD, Michigan State UniversityBiorenewable resources for energyAaron R. ClappPhD, University of FloridaColloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of MinnesotaSelf-assembled polymersRodney O. FoxPhD, Kansas State University engineeringCharles E. Glatz PhD, University of WisconsinBioprocessing and bioseparationsKurt R. HebertPhD, University of IllinoisCorrosion and electrochemical engineeringJames C. HillPhD, University of WashingtonAndrew C. Hillier PhD, University of MinnesotaInterfacial engineering and electrochemistryLaura JarboePhD, University of California-LABiorenewables production by metabolic engineeringKenneth R. Jolls PhD, University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separationsMonica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State UniversityMolecular simulations of advanced materialsSurya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue UniversityTissue engineering and drug deliveryBalaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue UniversityBiomaterials and drug deliveryJennifer O'DonnellPhD, University of DelawareAmphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizationsMichael G. OlsenPhD, University of IllinoisPeter J. Reilly PhD, University of PennsylvaniaEnzyme engineering and bioinformaticsDerrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State UniversityStatistical process controlIan SchneiderPhD, North Carolina State UniversityCell migration and mechanotransductionBrent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyHeterogeneous catalysis and biorenewablesJacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyMetabolic engineering and plant biotechnologyR. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of MichiganTransport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATIONGraduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 chemengr@iastate.edu www.cbe.iastate.eduIowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 09546 Kaitlin Bratlie PhD, University of CaliforniaBerkeley Surface science and catalytic research Robert C. Brown PhD, Michigan State University Biorenewable resources for energy Aaron R. Clapp PhD, University of Florida Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of Minnesota Self-assembled polymers Rodney O. Fox PhD, Kansas State University Computational uid dynamics and reaction engineering Charles E. Glatz PhD, University of Wisconsin Bioprocessing and bioseparations Kurt R. Hebert PhD, University of Illinois Corrosion and electrochemical engineering James C. Hill PhD, University of Washington Turbulence and computational uid dynamics Andrew C. Hillier PhD, University of Minnesota Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry Laura Jarboe PhD, University of California-LA Biorenewables production by metabolic engineering Monica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State University Molecular simulations of advanced materials Surya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue University Tissue engineering and drug delivery Balaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue University Biomaterials and drug delivery Jennifer ODonnell PhD, University of Delaware Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizations Michael G. Olsen PhD, University of Illinois Experimental uid mechanics and turbulence Nicola Pohl PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison Organic synthesis, analytical techniques, and chemical biology Peter J. Reilly PhD, University of Pennsylvania Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics Derrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State University Statistical process control Ian Schneider PhD, North Carolina State University Cell migration and mechanotransduction Brent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables Jacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology R. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of Michigan Transport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems

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345 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Bombay University) (Ph.D., Rice) (Ph.D., Florida State) (Ph.D., Minnesota) (Ph.D., Texas) (Ph.D., Texas A&M) (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Kansas) (Ph.D., Notre Dame) (Ph.D., Kansas) (Ph.D., Oklahoma) (Ph.D., Notre Dame) (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) (Ph.D., Cambridge) (Ph.D., Northwestern) Research Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship Research Centers Contacts http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/ th UNIVERSITY OF cpegrad@ku.edu

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346 Kansas State University is indexed in the Carnegie Foundations list of top 96 U.S. universities with very high research activity. Graduate students perform research in areas like bio/nanotechnology, reaction engineering, materials science and transport phenomena. K-State offers modern, well-equipped laboratories and expert faculty on a campus nationally recog nized for its great community relationship. The department of chemical engineering offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and the interdisciplinary areas of bio-based materials science and engineering, food science, environmental air quality is also available. Laser-Doppler velocimetry Polymer characterization equipment Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry Chemical vapor deposition reactors Electrodialysis Fermentors Tubular gas reactors Gas and liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry High-speed videography Gas adsorption analysis Catalyst preparation equipment Membrane permeation systems Ultra-high temperature furnaces More Faculty, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, advanced materials, molecular sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids Vikas Berry, graphene technologies, bionanotechnol ogy, nanoelectronics and sensors James H. Edgar (head), crystal growth, semiconductor processing and materials characterization Larry E. Erickson, environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, process systems engineering including process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, transport phenomena, bubbles, Keith L. Hohn, catalysis and reaction engineering, nanoparticle catalysts and biomass conversion Peter Pfromm, polymers in membrane separations and surface science Mary E. Rezac, polymer science, membrane separa tion processes and their applications to biological systems, environmental control and novel materials John R.Schlup, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis and intel ligent processing of materials Our instrumental capabilities include:Graduate studies in chemical engineering at Kansas State University www.che.ksu.edu

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347 Key Research Areas: Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Engineeringwww.engr.uky.edu/cme/ Chemical Engineering Faculty University of California, Berkeley Carnegie-Mellon University University of Kentucky Illinois Institute of Technology Vanderbilt University Drexel University Ohio State University University of Texas Texas Tech University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Minnesota Clarkson University Auburn University Vanderbilt University University of Texas University of Texas Materials Engineering Faculty Johns Hopkins University Northwestern University California Institute of Technology Pennsylvania State University Northwestern University University of Rochester University of OxfordThe CME Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in both chemical and materials engineering. The combination of these disciplines in a single department fosters collaboration among faculty and a strong interdisciplinary environment. Our faculty and graduate students pursue research projects that encompass a broad range of chemical engineering endeavor, and that include strong interactions with researchers in Agriculture, Chemistry, Medicine and Pharmacy.

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350 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-establishe d the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in Financial aid in the form of graduate fellowships is available. For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering BE SURE TO ASK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT OUR NEW COSMETIC ENGINEERING OPTION http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu/academics/ engineering/chemical/graduate/cosmetics

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351 Located in a vibrant international community just outside of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory, and NIST, the University of Marylands Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James Clark School of Engineering, oers educational opportunities leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

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352 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia ( Princeton ) W. Curtis Conner, Jr. ( Johns Hopkins ) Paul J. Dauenhauer ( Minnesota ) Jeffrey M. Davis ( Princeton ) Wei Fan (Tokyo) Neil S. Forbes ( California, Berkeley ) David M. Ford ( Pennsylvania ) Michael A. Henson ( California, Santa Barbara ) George W. Huber ( Wisconsin) Michael F. Malone (Massachusetts, Amherst ) Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT ) Peter A. Monson ( London ) T. J. (Lakis) Mountziaris, Department Head ( Princeton ) Shelly R. Peyton (California, Irvine) Constantine Pozrikidis ( Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ) Susan C. Roberts ( Cornell ) Jessica D. Schiffman ( Drexel ) H. Henning Winter ( Stuttgart )FACULTY: Current areas of Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering receive support at a level of over $6 million per year through external research grants. Examples of research areas incl ude, but are not limited to, the following. Bioengineering: cellular engineering; metabolic engineering ; targeted bacteriolytic cancer therapy; synthesis of small molecules; systems biology; biopolymers; nanostructured materi als for clinical diagnostics... Biofuels and Sustainable Energy: conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals; catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass; microkinetics; microwave reaction engineering; biorefining; high-thr oughput testing; reactor design and optimization; fuel cells; energy engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena: biofluid dynamics and blood flow; hydrodynamics of microencapsula tion; mechanics of cells, capsules, and suspensions; modeling of microscale flows; hydrodynamic stability and pattern formation; interfacial flows; gas-particle flows Materials Science and Engineering: design and characterization of new catalytic materials; nanostructured materials for microelectronics and photonics; synthesis and characterization of microporous and mesoporous materials; colloids and biomaterials; membranes; biopolymers; rheology and phase behavior of associative pol ymer solutions; polymeri c materials processing... Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation: computational quantum chemistry and kinetics; molecular modeling of nanostructured materials; molecular-level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-toreactor scale modeling of transport and reaction processes in materials synthesis; atomistic-to-continuum scale mo deling of thin films and nanostructures; systems-level analysis using stoc hastic atomic-scale simulators; modeling and control of biochem ical reactors; nonlinear process control theory ... EXPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: http://che.umass.edu/ or contact: Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003-9303 Email: chegradprog@ecs.umass.edu The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orie ntation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emplo yment. Facilities:Instructional, research, and admi nistrative facilities are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space in Goessmann Laboratory, the Department occupies modern research space in Engineering Laboratory II and the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In 2012, several faculty with research interests in the life sciences will occupy modern research space in the New Laboratory Sciences Building that is currently under construction. A m h e r s t i s a b e a u t i f u l N e w E n g l a n d c o l l e g e t o w n i n W e s t e r n M a s s a c h u s e t t s S e t a m i d f a r m l a n d a n d r o l l i n g h i l l s t h e a r e a o f f e r s p l e a s a n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s U r b a n p l e a s u r e s a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e

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353 BioProcessingand Biotechnology Process Simulation and Control Nuclear and alternative energy Eng. Advanced Engineered materials Colloidal, nanoand surface science and Eng. Paper engineering Polymer Engineering *(978) 934-3150 UMASS Lowell Department of Chemical Engineering One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854

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355 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK D. G. COOPER S. COULOMBE J. M. DEALY R. J. HILL E. A. V. JONES, M. R. KAMAL R. LEASK C. A. LECLERC M. MARIC J.L. MEUNIER position techniques for surface R. J. MUNZ Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured S. OMANOVIC T. M. QUINN A. D. REY P. SERVIO High-pressure phase equilibrium, N. TUFENKJI V. YARGEAU contaminants in wate For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/ Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g ill.ca D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding. D. BERK D. G. COOPER S. COULOMBE J. M. DEALY, J.T. GOSTICK R. J. HILL E. A. V. JONES M. R. KAMAL A.-M. KIETZIG R. LEASK M. MARIC J.L. MEUNIER R. J. MUNZ Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured S. OMANOVIC T. M. QUINN A. D. REY P. SERVIO N. TUFENKJI V. YARGEAU

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359 Energy & Sustainability Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Thermoelectrics Photoelectrics Batteries Fuel cells Hydrogen storage Biorenewable polymers and chemicals Biofuels Biocatalysis Composite Materials & Structures Center Smart materials Structured chemicals Nanoporous materials Grain boundary engineering Nanomaterials & Technology Biotechnology & Medicine Metabolic engineering Systems biology Genomics Proteomics RNA interference Bioceramics Tissue engineering Biosensors Bioelectronics Biomimetics Chemical Engineering Kris Berglund Daina Briedis Scott Calabrese Barton Chrisitina Chan Bruce Dale Lawrence Drzal Martin Hawley David Hodge Krishnamurthy Jayaraman Ilsoon Lee Carl Lira Richard Lunt Dennis Miller Ramani Narayan Robert Ofoli Charles Petty S. Patrick Walton Timothy Whitehead R. Mark Worden Materials Science & Engineering Melissa Baumann Thomas Bieler Carl Boehlert Eldon Case Martin Crimp David Grummon Tim Hogan Wei Lai Andre Lee James Lucas Donald Morelli Jason Nicholas Jeffrey Sakamoto K.N. Subramanian Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling of Heterogeneous Deformation in Metals Thomas R. Bieler, bieler@egr.msu.edu O rientation imaging microscopy (aka EBSP mapping) is used as a foundational tool to quantitatively examine the relations hips between microstructure and localized deformation that govern s damage nucleation, recovery and recrystallization mechanisms. Combined with other experimental and analytical tools, new insights on formability and damage nucleation processes are found This enables optim al material processing strategies to be developed to gain more predictable and reliable properties Three material systems are under investigation. Damage Nucleation in Titanium and Titanium Alloys NSF/DFG Materials World Network Gra nt and DOE/BES Grant, with Martin A. Crimp Carl J. Boehlert at MSU and Philip Eisenlohr at Max Planck Institut fr Eisenforschung, Dsseldorf, Germany Figure 1 shows a patch of equiaxed microstructure of a rolled and annealed plate of commercial purity The left side shows backscattered electron image of an initially polished surface that shows substantial slip traces. On the basis of orientation imaging microscopy data, the crystal orientations are all known, and hence, the slip plane and slip direct ions can be determined from geometry. The middle image shows experimentally measured amount of shear on each of the slip systems identified, using the detailed surface topography obtained from surface probe microscopy. When compared with a crystal plasti city finite element simulation of the same microstructure, the broad impression is that the simulation is effective, but upon closer inspection, the details differ substantially at grain boundaries. Continuing work seeks to identify appropriate ways to si mulate the effects of grain boundaries on slip and slip resistance, which depends on the geometrical details of the grain boundary. Figure 2 shows a mechanical twin that caused a microcrack to form at a grain boundary a fter a very small strain. This p articular type of mechanical twin (white region) is rare, and carries a large shear that causes strong Figure 1 Images showing heterogeneous slip in commercial purity titanium. Actual measured shear on different slip systems (traces in SEM image) are shown in the AFM image, and a simulation shows partial agreement with the measured data. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 2527 Engineering Building East Lansing, MI 48824 517 355 5135 fax 517 432 1105 grad_rec@egr.msu.edu www.chems.msu.edu

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360 Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Photo Credit; Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science education program in chemical engineering encompassing reac Research Areas Faculty For more information contact: Julie Prince, Program Associate 612-625-0382 princ004@umn.edu URL: http://www.cems.umn.edu Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Michael Tsapatsis

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361 FACULTY Sheila N. Baker, PhD (SUNY-Buffalo) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering Surface Science Matthew T. Bernards, PhD (WashingtonSeattle) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering Surface Science Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanics Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emissions Patrick J. Pinhero, PhD (Notre Dame) Nuclear Materials Science Surface Science Environmental Degradation David G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins) Biofuel Processing Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Email: PreckshotR@missouri.edu Phone: (573) 882-3563 Competitive scholarships are available via teaching/research assistantships and fellowships. Visit us on the web: che.missouri.edu CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIPS ABOUT US CONTACT

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363 The Program The department offers graduate programs leading to both the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy Faculty conduct research in a number of areas including: engineering technology engineering P. Armenante: University of Virginia B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology E. Bilgili: Illinois Institute of Technology R. Dave: Utah State University E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine C. Gogos: Princeton University T. Greenstein: New York University D. Hanesian: Cornell University K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR H. Kimmel: City University of New York N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology A. Perna: University of Connecticut R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus); New York University D. Sebastian: Stevens Institute of Technology L. Simon: Colorado State University K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana R. Tomkins: University of London (UK) X. Wang: Virginia Tech M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada) M. Young: Stevens Institute of Technology For further information contact: & Pharmaceutical Engineering rfn tbrf

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364 THEFACES OF THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERS IN THE 21STCENTURYThe University of New Mexico 21st stimulating, student he meso micro microengineered materials and self assembled a Albuquerque is a unique combination of old and new, the natural Faculty Research Areas eling interf For more information, contact:

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365 NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY Faculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Shuguang Deng, Advanced Materials for Sustainable Energy and Clean Water, Adsorption, and Membrane Separation Processes Abbas Ghassemi, RiskBased Decision Making, Environmental Studies Pollution Prevention, Jessica Houston, Biomedical Engineering, Biophotonics, Flow Cytometry Charles L. Johnson, High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Transport Phe nomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations, Kinetics, Process Design, Safety Hongmei Luo, (Tulane University) Electrode position, Nanostructured Materials, Metal Oxide, Nitride, Composite Thin Films, Magnetism, Photocatalysts and Photovoltaics Martha C. Mitchell (University of Min nesota) Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics David A. Rockstraw (University of Oklahoma) Kinetics and Reaction Engineering, Process Design LOCATION For Application and Additional Information

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366 2inresearchexpenditures among CBE departments in the US (2010, C&EN) 11inPhDgraduates (2010, NRC) 8inBSgraduates (2009, ASEE) Our Department is located in Engineering Building I a modern, 161,000-square-foot research and teaching facility located on NC States Centennial Campus.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringNC STATE UNIVERSITYwww.che.ncsu.edu Dr. Jason M. Haugh, Director of Graduate Recruiting Dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905, NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (email) cbe@ncsu.edu The Department Research Areasand Engineeringand Kineticsand ReactionEngineering Nanoscienceand Studies/GreenEngineering and and Our

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367 Chemical and Biological EngineeringLuis A. N. Amaral, Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networksLinda J. Broadbelt, Ph.D., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recoveryWesley R. Burghardt, Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheologyStephen H. Davis, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1964Kimberly A. Gray, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistryBartosz A. Grzybowski, Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systemsMichael C. Jewett, Ph.D., Stanford, 2005 Synthetic biology, systems biology, metabolic engineeringHarold H. Kung, Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysisJoshua N. Leonard, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Cellular & biomolecular engineering for medicine, systems biologyPhillip B. Messersmith, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Biomimetic/Bioinspired materialsWilliam M. Miller, Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicineChad Mirkin, Ph.D., Penn State, 1986 Inorganic, materials, physical/analyticalJustin M. Notestein, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Materials design for adsorption and catalysisMonica Olvera de la Cruz, Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systemsJulio M. Ottino, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processingGregory Ryskin, Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquidsGeorge C. Schatz, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology Research Materials, physical/analyticalLonnie D. Shea, Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapyRandall Q. Snurr, Ph.D., Berkeley 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modelingIgal Szleifer, Ph.D., Hebrew University, 1989 Molecular modeling of biointerphasesJohn M. Torkelson, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1983 Polymer science, membranesKeith Tyo, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Process systems engineering, sustainable process design, synthesisFengqi You, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University Synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, global health delivery For information and application to the graduate program, please contact:Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Phone (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only) admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.edu Or visit our website at www.chem-biol-eng.northwestern.edu

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370 Faculty MembersMiguel J. Bagajewicz Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1987 Steven P. Crossley Ph.D. University of Oklahoma, 2009 Brian P. Grady Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994 Roger G. Harrison, Jr. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975 Jeffrey H. Harwell Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1983Chairman, Graduate Program Committee, School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, T-335 Sarkeys Energy Center, 100 E. Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019-1004 USA E-mail: chegrad@ou.edu, Phone: (405)-325-5811, (800) 601-9360, Fax: (405) 325-5813Dr. Peter J. Heinzelman Ph.D. MIT, 2006 Friederike C. Jentoft Ph.D. Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversitt Mnchen, Germany, 1994 Lance L. Lobban Ph.D. University of Houston, 1987 Richard G. Mallinson Ph.D. Purdue University, 1983 M. Ulli Nollert Ph.D. Cornell University, 1987 Edgar A. ORear, III Ph.D. Rice University, 1981For detailed information, visit our Web site at: http://www.ou.edu/coe/cbme.htmlThe University of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution .Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996 Daniel E. Resasco Ph.D. Yale University, 1983 David W. Schmidtke Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1980 Robert L. Shambaugh Ph.D. Case Western Reserve University, 1976 Vassilios I. Sikavitsas Ph.D. University of Buffalo, 2000 Alberto Striolo Ph.D. University of Padova, Italy, 2002 The University ofFor more information, e-mail, call, write or fax:OklahomaResearch AreasBioengineering/Biomedical EngineeringGenetic engineering, protein production, bioseparations, metabolic engineering, biological transport, cancer treatment, cell adhesion, biosensors, orthopedic tissue engineering.Energy and ChemicalsBiofuels and catalytic biomass conversion, catalytic hydrocarbon processing, plasma processing, data reconciliation, process design retrot and optimization, molecular thermodynamics, computational modeling of turbulent transport and reactive ows, detergency, improved oil recovery.Materials Science and EngineeringSingle wall carbon nanotube production and functionalization, surface characterization, polymer melt blowing, polymer characterization and structure-property relationships, polymer nanolayer formation and use, biomaterials.Environmental ProcessesZero-discharge process engineering, soil and aquifer remediation, surfactant-based water decontamination, sustainable energy processes. esearch in the School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (CBME) is characterized by INNOVATION AND IMPACT, leading to patents, technology licenses, companies and sought-after graduates. R

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371 OSUs offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Qualied students receive nancial assistance at nationally competitive levels. (PH.D., OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY)rfn (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ROLLA)tb (PH.D., OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY)t (PH.D., PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY) (PH.D., PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY)f (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY)bb (PH.D., WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY)f (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., NORTH C ARO LINA STATE UNIVERS ITY) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS) (PH.D., OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY) Dr. Khaled A.M. Gasem School of C hemical E ngineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-5021 T 405 744 5280 gasem@okstate.eduwww.cheng.okstate.eduADSOR P TIO N A RTIFICIAL I NTELLIG ENCE BIO CHEMICAL PRO CESSE S BIO F U ELS BIO MATERIALS COLLO I DS / C ERAMICS C O2 SEQU E S TRATIO N ION E XCHANG E MOLECU LAR DES I G N N ANO MATERIALS O P TIMIZATIO N PHAS E E Q U ILIB RIA P O LYMERS PRO CESS CONTRO L PRO CESS SIMU LATIO N PRODUCT MODELING S O LID F REEFO RM F A B RICATIO N T I SSUE E N G INEERING T RANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SCHOOL OFChemical Engineering C O LLEG E O F ENG INEERING, ARCHITECTU RE AND TECHNO L OGY cheng.okstate.edu

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373 Tobias Baumgart Russell J. Composto Christopher S. Chen John C. Crocker Scott L. Diamond Dennis E. Discher Eduardo D. Glandt Raymond J. Gorte Daniel A. Hammer Matthew J. Lazzara Daeyeon Lee Ravi Radhakrishnan Robert A. Riggleman Casim A. Sarkar Warren D. Seider Wen K. Shieh Talid R. Sinno Kathleen J. Stebe John M. Vohs Karen I. Winey Shu Yang Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393chegrad@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/cbe/ Penns graduate program

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374 PENN STATES Chemical Engineering graduate degree program is located on a diverse, Big-Ten university campus in a vibrant college community. When you join our program, youll use state-of-the-art facilities such as the Materials Research Institute, the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, and one of the foremost nanofabrication facilities in the world. We provide fellowships and research assistantships, including tuition and fees. Research at Penn State spans the spectrum of chemical engineering with focus areas in biomolecular engineering, alternative energy, and nanotechnology.FACULTY ANTONIOS ARMAOU PH.D., UCLAProcess control and system dynamicsKYLE BISHOP PH.D., NORTHWESTERNComplex dissipative systems: ame plasmas, chemical reaction networks, reactiondiffusion systemsALI BORHAN PH.D., STANFORDFluid dynamics, transport phenomena, capillary and inferfacial phenomenaWAYNE CURTIS PH.D., PURDUEPlant cell tissue culture, secondary metabolism, bioreactor designRONALD DANNER PH.D., LEHIGHPhase equilibria and diffusion in polymer-solvent and gas solid systemsKRISTEN FICHTHORN PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Atomistic simulation, statistical mechanics, surface science, materialsHENRY FOLEY PH.D., PENN STATENanomaterials, reaction and separation, catalysisENRIQUE GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYOrganic photovoltaics, organicinorganic interfaces, nanostructured polymersESTHER GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYBioengineering, cell and tissue mechanics, biosensorsMICHAEL JANIK PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Fuel cells and electrochemical systems for renewable energy sourcesSEONG KIM PH.D., NORTHWESTERNSurface science, polymers, thin lms, nanotribology, nanomaterialsFOR MORE INFORMATIONJanna Maranas, Graduate Admissions Chair 158 Fenske Laboratory Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 814-863-6228 jmaranas@engr.psu.edufenske.che.psu.eduMANISH KUMAR PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBiomimetic membranes, membrane proteins, membrane technology, desalinationCOSTAS MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONComputational protein design; reconstruction, curation, and analysis of metabolic networks; microbial strain optimization; design of biological circuits and synthetic biology; signaling networks and multiscale modeling in cancer biology, network science, optimization theory, and algorithmsJANNA MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONNano-scale structure and mobility in soft materials, with applications in alternative energy, biology, and polymer physicsTHEMIS MATSOUKAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Aerosol engineering, colloids, plasma processingSCOTT MILNER PH.D., HARVARDGlass transitions in dense uids and polymer lms, ow behavior of entangled polymers, polymer crystallizationJOSEPH PEREZ PH.D., PENN STATETribology, lubrication, biodieselROBERT RIOUX PH.D., BERKELEYHeterogeneous catalysis, nanostructure synthesis, renewable energy, atomic-level characterization, single molecule chemistryHOWARD SALIS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTASynthetic biology, metabolic engineering, design of genetic systemsDARRELL VELEGOL PH.D., CARNEGIE MELLON Colloidal and nanocolloidal devices and systemsJAMES VRENTAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Transport phenomena, applied mathematics, uid mechanics, diffusion, polymer scienceANDREW ZYDNEY PH.D., MITDevelopment of membrane systems for bioprocessing applications, mass transfer characteristics of articial organ systems

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376 Innovation begins at NYU-Poly: DEVISING THE FUTURE OF BIODETECTION DEVICESFacultyJ.R. Kim Protein engineering, folding, aggregation and stability R. Levicky Biosensors, nanobiotechnology J. Mijovic Relaxation dynamics in synthetic and biological macromolecules L. Stiel Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids E. Ziegler Air pollution control engineering W. Zurawsky Plasma polymerization, polymer thin films A number of fellowships are available in our MS and PhD Chemical Engineering programs. For more information, contact: Professor Walter Zurawsky Head, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Six MetroTech Center Brooklyn, NY 11201 718.260.3725 www.poly.edu/cbeNYU-Poly Professor Rastislav Levicky is designing advanced technologies for applications in healthcare, drug development and pathogen detection. Working largely with biosensors made from synthetic DNA mimics, Levicky uses electrochemical detection techniques to improve the performance and economic accessibility of point-of-care medical diagnostics. This kind of thinking comes from the NYU-Poly culture of invention, innovation and entrepreneurship. We call it i2e. NYU-Poly and our i2e philosophy transform our faculty and students by arming them with the tools, resources and inspiration they need to turn their research into revolutionary applications, products and services.

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377 Princeton UniversityCBE Faculty Ilhan A. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Clifford P. Brangwynne Mark P. Brynildsen Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas Yannis G. Kevrekidis Bruce E. Koel Morton D. Kostin A. James Link YuehLin (Lynn) Loo Celeste M. Nelson Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos Rodney D. Priestley Robert K. Prudhomme Richard A. Register (Chair) William B. Russel Stanislav Y. Shvartsman Sankaran Sundaresan Please visit our website: www.princeton.edu/cbe Write to:Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, NJ 085445263or call:6092584619or email:cbegrad@princeton.edu Applied and Computational MathematicsComputational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization BiotechnologyBiomaterials Biopreservation Cell Mechanics Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Tissue Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and TechnologyArt and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport PhenomenaBiological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, PropertiesAdhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Organic and Polymer Electronics Polymers Process Engineering and ScienceChemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical MechanicsComplex Fluids Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular SimulationAffiliate Faculty Emily A. Carter (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) George W. Scherer (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Howard A. Stone (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) Ph.D. and M.Eng Programs in Chemical and Biological Engineering

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384 Research is part of the programLocated 150 km east of Montreal, Sherbrooke is a university town of 150,000 inhabitants offering all the advantages of city life in a rural environment. With strong ties to industry, the Department of Chemical and Biotechnological Engineering offers graduate programs leading to a masters degree (thesis and non-thesis) and a PhD degree. Take advantage of our innovative teaching methods and close cooperation with industry!infogch@usherbrooke.ca 819-821-7171 www.USherbrooke.ca/gchimiquebiotechNicolas ABATZOGLOU Department Chair, Industrial Chair on PAT. Particulate systems, multiphase catalytic reactors, pharmaceutical engineering Nadi BRAIDY Material engineering, nanosciences and nanotechnologies, materials characterization Nathalie FAUCHEUX Canada Research Chair Cell-biomaterial biohybrid system, cancer and biomaterials, bone repair and substitute Franois GITZHOFER Thermal plasma materials synthesis, plasma spraying, materials characterization, SOFC Ryan GOSSELIN Pharmaceutical engineering (PAT), industrial process control, spectral imagery Michle HEITZ Air treatment, biofiltration, bioenergy, biodiesel, biovalorization of agro-food wastes Michel HUNEAULT Polymer alloys, melt state biopolymer processing, materials characterization J. Peter JONES Treatment of industrial wastewater, design of experiments, treatment of endocrine disruptors Jerzy JUREWICZ Nanometric powder synthesis, extractive metallurgy, DC and HF plasma generation Jean-Michel LAVOIE, Cellulosic Ethanol Industrial Chair, Biofuels industrial organic synthesis Bernard MARCOS Chemical and biotechnological processes modeling, energy systems modeling Joisane NIKIEMA Industrial wastewater treatment, biological processes optimization Pierre PROULX Modeling and numerical simulation, optimization of reactors, transport phenomena Jol SIROIS Suspension and cell metabolism, optimization of biosystems, bioactive principles production Gervais SOUCY Aluminum and thermal plasma technology, carbon nanostructures, materials characterization Patrick VERMETTE Tissue engineering and biomaterials, colloids and surface chemistry, drug delivery systems

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385 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering AsaDepartmentthatisranked10thintheworld,andaspartofadistinguishedUniversitythatisranked27thin theworldand3rdinAsia( QuacquarelliSymondsUniversityRankings2011) ,weofferacomprehensive selectionofcoursesandactivitiesforadistinctiveandenrichinglearningexperience.Youwillbenefitfromthe opportunitytoworkwithourdiversefacultyinacosmopolitanenvironment. JoinusatNUSSingapores GlobalUniversity,andbeapartofthefuturetoday! Program Features graduate programs with and Bombay Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts Our Graduate ProgramsResearch-based Coursework-based and Alli D ua l D Engineer Your Own Evolution! Reach us at :National University of Singapore

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387 PhD Programs in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, and Materials SciencePhD degrees offered: Chemical Engineering, Materials Science and Petroleum Engineering 100% of tuition and fees are covered for PhD students Over 30 tenured and tenure-track faculty Research is supported through federal grants and awards (NSF, NIH, DoD, DoE), industry partnerships (Chevron, Lockheed-Martin, Boeing), and foundations (Gates, Alfred Mann) Extensive core facilities, such as the Keck Photonics Facility (Class 100 cleanroom) and the Center for Electron Microscopy and Micro-Analysis. Active Research Areas: Sustainability and Energy Academic and Research Highlights:Biomolecular Engineering Composites and Biomaterials Advanced Computation Nanotechnology Mork FamilyDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science For more information: http://chems.usc.edu

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388 The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University at Bu alo features world-class research in materials, bio, and computa onal engineering and science. The core faculty, which includes three members of the NAE and two Na onal Medal winners, conducts research at various interdisciplinary centers, including The Center of Excellence in Bioinforma cs and Life Sciences, The Center for Computa onal Research, The Ins tute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, The Center for Spin E ects and Quantum Informa on in Nanostructures, The Center for Advanced Molecular Biology and Immunology, and The Center for Advanced Technology for Biomedical Devices. For more informa on about our program and how to apply, go to h p://www.cbe.bu alo.edu Paschalis Alexandridis self-assembly, directed assembly, complex uids, so materials, nanomaterials, amphiphilic polymers, biopolymers Stelios T. Andreadis stem cells, cardiovascular and skin ssue engineering, wound healing, controlled protein and gene delivery Chong Cheng polymer-drug conjugates, nanomaterials by mini/microemulsion, biodegradable polymers and nanostructures Je rey R. Errington molecular simula on, sta s cal thermodynamics, interfacial phenomena Edward Furlani computa onal physics, uid dynamics, microuidics, nanophotonics, bioand applied magne cs David A. Ko emolecular modeling and simula on Michael Locke mul phase ow and mass transfer in process equipment, dis lla on, air separaon Carl R. F. Lundheterogeneous catalysis, chemical kine cs, reac on engineering Sriram Neelamegham biomedical engineering, systems biology, cell and molecular biomechanics Johannes M. Nitsche transport phenomena, dermal absorp on, biological pore and membrane permeability Sheldon Park protein engineering, directed evoluon, structural bioinforma cs, and simula ons Blaine Pfeifermetabolic engineering, polyke de synthesis, synthe c an bio cs Eli Ruckenstein surface phenomena, thermodynamics of large molecule solu ons, protein folding and defolding, interac on forces in nanosystems, hydrophobic bonding Michael E. Ryan polymer and ceramics processing, rheology, non-Newtonian uid mechanics Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. environmental applicaons of catalysis, hydrogen produc on, fuel cells Mark T. Swihart nanopar cle synthesis and applica ons, chemical kine cs, modeling reac ng ows Esther S. Takeuchi energy storage, novel materials, reacvity at interfaces Marina Tsianou molecularly engineered materials, self-assembly, interfacial phenomena, controlled crystalliza on, biomime cs E. (Manolis) S. Tzanakakis stem cells, pancreac ssue and cardiac ssue engineering, biochemical engineering All Ph.D. students are fully supported through fellowships and assistantships. For inquiries, e-mail or write to Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Bu alo (SUNY), Bu alo, New York, 14260-4200

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389 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran. For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5319 For additional information, contact: Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 Faculty Research in

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390 University of TennesseeRecent advances in the life sciences and nanotechnology, as well as the looming energy crisis, have brought chemical engineering education to the threshold of signicant changes. The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (CBE) at the University of Tennessee has embraced these changes in order to meet global challenges in health care, the environment, renewable energy sources, national security and economic prosperity. Partnerships with other disciplines at UT, such as medical, life, and physical sciences, as well as the College of Business Administration and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), help to create exceptional research opportunities for graduate students in CBE and place our students in a position to develop leadership roles in the vital technologies of the future. The UTK campus is located in the heart of Knoxville in beautiful east Tennessee, minutes from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and surrounded by six lakes. Opportunities for outdoor recreation abound and are complemented by the diverse array of cultural activites aorded by our presence in the third largest city in Tennessee. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UT-Knoxville oers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with nancial assistance including full tuition and competitive stipends. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering 419 Dougherty Engineering Building Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 Phone: (865) 974-2421 Email: cheinfo@utk.edu Paul Bienkowski (Purdue) -Thermodynamics, environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy Eric Boder (Illinois) -Protein engineering, immune engineering, molecular bioengineering and biotechnology Barry Bruce (Berkeley) -Molecular chaperones, protein transport, bioenergy production Chris Cox (Penn State) -Bioenergy production, systems biology and metabolic engineering, environmental biotechnology Wei-Ren Chen (MIT) -Neutron scattering, advanced materials Robert Counce (Tennessee) -Industrial separations, process design, green engineering Mark Dadmun (UMass) -Polymer engineering, advanced materials Brian Davison (CalTech) -Systems biology, bioenergy production Mitch Doktycz (Illinois-Chicago) -Synthetic biology, nanobiotechnology Paul Dalhaimer (Penn) -Cytoskeleton biophysics, drug delivery, statistical mechanics, biophysical engineering Brian Edwards (Delaware) -Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, complex uids, fuel cells Paul Frymier (Virginia) -Environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy production Douglas Hayes (Michigan) -Biocatalysis, bioseparations, colloids David Joy (Oxford) -Environmental microscopy, nanophase materials Michael Kilbey (Minnesota) -Interface engineering, soft materials Ramki Kalyanaraman (NC State) -Thin lms, functional nanomaterials, phase transformation, self-assembly & self-organization Bamin Khomami (Illinois) -Microand nanostructured materials, complex uids, multiscale modeling David Keer (Minnesota) -Molecular simulation, advanced materials, fuel cells Stephen Paddison (Calgary) -PEM fuel cells, statistical mechanics, multiscale modeling Cong Trinh (Minnesota) -Inverse metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, bioenergy production Tse-Wei Wang (MIT) -Process modeling/control, bioinformatics, data mining Thomas Zawodzinski (SUNY-Bualo) -Fuel cells, batteries, electrochemistry, transport phenomena Faculty and Research Interests http://www.engr.utk.edu/cbe/ THE IS NOW

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393 Nanotechnology, surface and interface science, drug delivery Molecular simulation and computational chemistry D.B. Bukur Reaction engineering, math methods Computational materials science and nanotechnology; functional materials for devices and sensors; surface and interface properties of materials Z. Chen Protein engineering and biomolecular engineering Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Students Strong Ph.D. Program (90% Ph.D. students) Top 10 in Research Funding Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students Medical For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical and Biomolecular, Complex Fluids, Nanotechnology, Process Safety, Process Systems Engi neering, Reaction Engineering, Thermodynamics Nanotechnology M. El-Halwagi Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration and control G. Froment Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineering C.J. Glover, Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport, and interfacial phenomena J. Hahn Head Systems biology, process systems engineering Vocal fold tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions K.R. Hall Process safety, thermodynamics J.C. Holste Thermodynamics M.T. Holtzapple Biochemical Biomedical/biochemical H.-K. Jeong Nanomaterials K. Kao Genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology Y. Kuo Microelectronics C. Laird Large-scale nonlinear optimization J. Lutkenhaus S. Mannan Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center, Process safety M. Pishko Head Biosensors, biomaterials, drug delivery Molecular simulation and computational chemistry Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solids Microfabricated Bioseparation Systems S. Vaddiraju Polymers Reaction engineering

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395 CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABDUL-MAJEED AZAD, PROFESSOR Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR Membrane Separations, Bioseparations JOHN P. DISMUKES, PROFESSOR Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation ISABEL C. ESCOBAR, PROFESSOR Membrane Fouling and Membrane Modications SALEH JABARIN, PROFESSOR Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization DONG-SHIK KIM, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy YAKOV LAPITSKY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Colloid & Polymer Science, Drug Delivery STEVEN E. LEBLANC, PROFESSOR Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G. GLENN LIPSCOMB, PROFESSOR AND CHAIR Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education BRUCE E. POLING, PROFESSOR Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTANCE A. SCHALL, PROFESSOR SASIDHAR VARANASI, PROFESSOR SRIDHAR VIAMAJALA, A SSISTANT P ROFESSOR FACULTY The Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at The University of Toledo offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in Nitschke Hall and our dynamic faculty offer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. SEND INQUIRIES TO: Graduate Studies Advisor Chemical & Environmental Engineering The University of Toledo College of Engineering 2801 W. Bancroft Street Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 cheedept@eng.utoledo.edu EN 583 0410

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396 Re: searching for answers with the University of Toronto www.grad.chem-eng.utoronto.caWe have the City: Ranks second best in the world We have the Resources : We have the Faculty: We have the Research Fields: We have the Distinction: For more Information:

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398 Faculty and Research Areas Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials combinant Protein Expression Noshir S. Pesika Electrochemistry. Lawrence R. Pratt Science, Especially Molecular Simulation For Additional Information, Please Contact Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane is located in a quiet, residential Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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399 Engineering the World The University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma Chemical Engineering at TU a thesis) Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty

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403 Be part of a community of innovators. Rim PhD Discover. Its the Washington Way. Come to the UW to make your mark in molecular and nanoscale systems. Create the future. #1 UW (CNT)& (CMDITR) & (NNIN) University of WashingtonChemical EngineeringResearch ClustersMolecular Energy Processes Living Systems and Biomolecular Processes Molecular Aspects of Materials and Interfaces Molecular/Organic Electronics Core Faculty (UC (UC (UC Jim (UC (UC Graduate Admissions

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404 Developing clean, sustainable energy Devising innovative solutions The Gene and Linda Voiland School of

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405 For further information, write or phone UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. RESEARCH GROUPS AND PROFESSORS: 1. Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering: Bill Anderson, Marc Aucoin, Hector Budman, Pu Chen, Perry Chou, Frank Gu, Eric Jervis, Christine Moresoli, Raymond Legge, Michael Tam 2. Interfacial Phenomena, Colloids and Porous Media: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Michael Fowler, Dale Henneke, Mario Ioannidis, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Boxin Zhao 3. Green Reaction Engineering: Bill Anderson, Zhongwei Chen, Eric Croiset, Bill Epling, Michael Fowler, Flora Ng, Garry Rempel, Mark Pritzker. 4. Nanotechnology: Nasser Abukheir, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Frank Gu, Dale Henneke, Yuning Li, Leonardo Simon, Michael Tam, Ting Tsui, Aiping Yu, Boxin Zhao. 5. Process Control, Statistics and Optimization: Hector Budman, Peter Douglas, Tom Duever, Ali Elkamel, Alex Penlidis, Mark Pritzker, Luis Ricardez-Sandoval. 6. Polymer Science and Engineering: Tom Duever, Xianshe Feng, Mike Fowler, Frank Gu, Neil McManus, Alex Penlidis, Garry Rempel, Leonardo Simon, Joao Soares, Michael Tam, Costas Tzoganakis, Boxin Zhao. 7. Separation Processes: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Xianshe Feng, Christine Moresoli, Flora Ng, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Michael Tam. Challenging Research in Novel Areas of Chemical Engineering: FINANCIAL SUPPORT Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Entrance Scholarships ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: additional courses are required from applicants with an undergraduate

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407 F a cult yS ushant A g ar wal W est V irginia Univ ersit y Br ian J Anderson Massa c husetts Institute of T ec hnolog y Debangsu Bhattacharyya Clarkson University Eug ene V Cilento Dean Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Da dy B. Da dy burjor Univ ersit y of Delawar e Cerasela Z. Dinu Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and Dresden University Robin S. F ar mer Univ ersit y of Delawar e R akesh K. G upta, C hair Univ ersit y of Delawar e El liot B. Kennel O hio S tate Univ ersit y Edwin L. K ugler Jo hns Hop kins Univ ersit y R uif eng Liang Institute of Chemistr y C AS Josep h A. S ha eiwitz Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Alfr ed H. S t il ler Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Ric har d T ur ton O r egon S tate Univ ersit y R a y Y K. Y ang P r inceto n Univ ersit y Jo hn W Z ond lo Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Resear c h Ar eas Inc lude: r ff n t b f n n f r r f f f b f ff n f f f f b f n b b f f f F inancial Aid F or Applic at ion Inf or mat ion, W r iteb t n nf r b f h tt p:/ /www .c he .cemr wvu .edunf nf David J K linke I I N or thw ester n Univ ersit y C har ter D S t inespr ing W est V irginia Univ ersit y

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409 Worcester, New Englands third largest city, is an hour from Boston, Providence, and Hartford. It has an active arts and cultural community, great restaurants, entertainment venues, and shopping centers. The region is known for its high concentration of life sciencesbased companies and academic research centers. Bioengineering Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Nanomaterials Process Analysis, Control, and Safety Sustainable and Green EngineeringWORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Graduate Studies in CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGDepartment of Chemical Engineering R ESEARCH A REAS AND F ACUL T YBacterial Adhesion Biomaterials Nanobiotechnology Terri A. Camesano, PhD, Pennsylvania State University Separation Processes Engineering Education William M. Clark, PhD, Rice University Catalysis and Reaction Engineering as Applied to Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Ravindra Datta, PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara Catalysis and Surface Science Metal Oxide Materials Computational Chemistry N. Aaron Deskins, PhD, Purdue University Engineering Education Teaching and Learning Assessment David DiBiasio, PhD, Purdue University Transport in Chemical Reactors Application of CFD to Catalyst and Reactor Design Microreactors Anthony G. Dixon, PhD, University of Edinburgh Analysis, Control and Safety of Chemical Processes Environmental and Energy Systems Process Performance Monitoring Nikolaos K. Kazantzis, PhD, University of Michigan Syntheses, Characterization and Application of Inorganic Membranes with special emphasis on composite Pd and Pd alloy porous metal membranes for hydrogen separation and membrane reactors Yi Hua Ma, ScD, MIT Applied Kinetics and Reactor Analysis Particulate Synthesis Water Purication Engineering Robert W. Thompson, PhD, Iowa State University Bionanotechnology Bioseparations BioMEMS Microuidics Microelectronic and Photonic Packaging Susan Zhou, PhD, University of Califonia, Irvine Grad CE Ad.indd 1 4/23/10 1:29 PM

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410 Dep artment of Chemical & Environmental Engineering Joint Appointments Michelle Bell Gaboury Benoit Eric Dufresne as Graedel

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411 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering For further information See our website at: http://www.et.byu.edu/cheme/ Financial Support Available Study in an uplifting, intellectual, social, and spiritual environment Faculty and Research Interests Morris D. Argyle (Berkeley) Larry L. Baxter (BYU) Bradley C. Bundy (Stanford) protein production and engineering Thomas H. Fletcher (BYU) John H. Harb (Illinois) William C. Hecker (UC Berkeley) John Hedengren (UT Austin) Thomas A. Knotts (University of Wisconsin) Randy S. Lewis MIT David O. Lignell (Utah) William G. Pitt (Wisconsin) Kenneth A. Solen (Wisconsin) Dean R. Wheeler (Berkeley) W. Vincent Wilding (Rice) CLARKSON UNIVERSITYDepartment of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering (M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees)The department research areas include biosensors and bioelectronics, plasma processing in condensed media; surface science, colloids, structured materials and self assembly; thin lm deposition and crystallization, membrane processes, chemical mechanical polishing; photovoltaic devices, materials and fabrication; materials for fuel cells; air pollutant sampling and analysis, particulate transport and deposition; receptor modeling; soft matter, polymers and biomaterials; separation processes; and mass transfer and distillation. Research collaboration is enhanced through the following University centers: Center for Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP) Center for Rehabilitation Engineering, Science and Technology (CREST) Institute for a Sustainable Environment (ISE)For information and applications, apply to: Graduate Committee Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5705 315-268-6650 www.clarkson.edu/chemengClarkson University does not discriminate on the basis of race, gender, color, creed, religion, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, veteran or marital status in provision of educational opportunity or employment opportunities and benets.

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412 Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor th A mo dern graduate program dedicated to fundamental education and cutting-edge research on acre campus in the heart of the Washingto Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Program For further information, contact HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering at Florida A&M University Florida State University COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGBiomass and Energy Processing Plasma Reaction Engineering Cellular and Tissue Engineering Biomedical Imaging Nanoscale Science and Engineering Polymers and Complex Fluids Multiscale Theory, Modeling, and Simulation Research Areas Faculty Biomedical Engineering

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413 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, contact (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Kansas State University) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) (Ph.D., Wayne State University) ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) (Ph.D., Tsinghua University) (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY Wudneh Admassu Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations, Biochemical Engineering with Environmental Applications Eric Aston Surface Science, Thermodynamics, Microelectronics David Drown Process Design, Computer Application Modeling, Process Economics and Optimization-Emphasis on Food Processing Dean Edwards Autonomous Vehicles, Battery research Lou Edwards Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization Jin Park Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Laboratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma Systems Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel Treatment (Idaho Falls campus) Aaron Thomas Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow, Separations Magnetohydrodynamics Vivek Utgikar Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Chem/Bio Remediation, Kinetics (Idaho Falls Campus) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs The Department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, whitewater rafting, skiing and camping. University of Idaho Graduate Advisor, ChE P.O. Box 441021 Moscow, ID 83844-1021 Or email: gailb@uidaho.edu Phone: 208885-7572 Web: www.uidaho.edu/che

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414 Chemical process safety surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech is a top-sixty public national university, according to U.S. News and World Report. MTUs enroll ment is approximately 6,300 with 640 graduate students. Technical Communications Biosensors

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415 Enjoying the clear skies and moderate climate of Northern Nevada, UNR is convenient to downtown and only 45 minutes from Lake Tahoe. Faculty For on-line application forms and information: UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO Research Areas OSU Oregon State School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Environmental Engineering For additional information, please visit www.che.oregonstate.edu or call (541) 737-2491 Biointerfacial Phenomena, Bioengineering Ethics Semiconductor Materials, Nanotechnology Integrated Chemical Systems Mark Dolan Biological Remediation of Groundwater Biofuels & Technology Commercialization Nanomaterial-Biological Interactions, Nanotoxicology and Nanoin formatics Gregory Herman Solar Energy, Catalysis Adam Higgins Goran Jovanovic Microscale Chemical & Biosensor Devices, Nanotechnology Christine Kelly Biotechnology Milo Koretsky Engineering Education Research, Thin Film Materials Processing Keith Levien Process Optimization & Control Supercritical Fluids Technology Joseph McGuire Biointerfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials Jeff Nason Physical/Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Skip Rochefort Polymers, Biomaterials, K-12 Outreach Gregory Rorrer Biochemical Engineering Bioremediation Microbial Processes Dorthe Wildenschild Multi-phase Flow and Transport in Porous Media Imaging and Image Analysis Kenneth Williamson Bioengineering, Environmental Systems Transport Theory & Application, Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Process Chemistry and Microreactor Engineering for Energy and Advanced Materials Collaborative Research A diversity of faculty interests in the department, broadened and reinforced by cooperation with other engineering departments and research centers on campus such as ONAMI Research Center (Oregon Nanosci ence and Microtechnologies Institute), the Center for Center for Subsurface Biosphere, and the Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology, makes tailored individual programs possible. Competitive research and teaching assistantships are available. Oregon State University, located in Corvallis, the heart Land, Sea, and Space Grant institution, we offer gradu Exceptional Faculty

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416 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.R. Anklam, Ph.D., Princeton R.S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane D.G. Coronell, Ph.D., MIT M.H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester, U.K. K.H. Henthorn, Ph.D., Purdue S.J. McClellan, Ph.D., Purdue A.J. Nolte, Ph.D., MIT S.G. Sauer, Ph.D., Rice A. Serbezov, Ph.D., Rochester EMERITUS FACULTY

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418 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Research Areas Faculty Renewable Fuels Jim Henry, Ph.D., P.E.. 1970, Princeton Process Controls Frank Jones, Ph.D. P.E., 1991, Drexel BioEngineering Tricia Thomas, Ph.D., 1998, CMU Tuition Waivers and Assistantships available Masters: Chemical, Environmental or Computational Engineering Ph.D. in Computational Engineering http://www.utc.edu/EngineeringAndComputerScience/ms_che.php Reservoir Engineering and Production Process Control and Thermodynamics Gas Hydrates and Thermodynamics Rheology, Oil and Gas Processing Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the ur ban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. Thermodynamics, Physical Property, Measurements, Process Simulation Reaction Engineering and Process Science

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419 The Villanova University M.S.Ch.E. and Ph.D. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. Funding is available to support full-time M.S.Ch.E. students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both Applications For more information, contact:

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420 M.S. in Bioengineering M.S. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Materials Engineering Ph.D. in Materials Engineering Agitation g Membrane Transport Multifunctional Materials Thermal Management 0246 2627 your schools graduate program advertised in CEE ? Page space costs are Production charges vary depending on format. rates. your program to the


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