Chemical Engineering Education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical Engineering Education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00194


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229 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 45 Number 4 Fall 2011 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engi neering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Cor respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2011 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pub lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS TER: Send address changes to business address: Chemical Engineering Education, PO Box 142097, Gainesville, FL 32614-2097. PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education c/o Department of Chemical Engineering 723 Museum Road PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR Daina Briedis, Michigan State William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Jennifer Sinclair Curtis University of Florida John OConnell University of Virginia Pedro Arce Tennessee Tech University Lisa Bullard North Carolina State David DiBiasio Worcester Polytechnic Institute Stephanie Farrell Rowan University Richard Felder North Carolina State Jim Henry University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Jason Keith Mississippi State University Milo Koretsky Oregon State University Suzanne Kresta University of Alberta Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Marcel Liauw Aachen Technical University David Silverstein University of Kentucky Margot Vigeant Bucknell University GRADUATE EDUCATION Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations Sundararajan V. Madihally 238 Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatogra phy for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up Giorgio Carta and Alois Jungbauer 248 A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills Silas J. Leavesley and Kevin N. West RANDOM THOUGHTS 257 How Learning Works Rebecca Brent and Richard M. Felder CURRICULUM Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course Kai Liang Zheng, Doyle P. Bean Jr., Helen H. Lou, Thomas C. Ho, and Yinlun Huang LABORATORY 285 Shivaun D. Archer Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion James J. Norman, Samantha N. Andrews, and Mark R. Prausnitz LEARNING IN INDUSTRY 259 From Learning to Earning: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide Keith Marchildon BOOK REVIEWS 283 An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience by John C. Berg Richard L. Zollars 284 A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice by Sullivan, W.M., and M.S. Rosin Lisa Bullard OTHER CONTENTS 230 Guest Editorial: Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D Phil Wankat 290 inside front cover Teaching Tip: The Importance of Saying Thank You Lisa Bullard

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230 Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D Phil Wankat, Purdue University O ne possible contributor to the slow rate of dis semination of proven engineering education inno vations is that engineering educators in different engineering disciplines seldom communicate with each the nine U.S. engineering education journals/proceedings CEE authors are most likely to cite papers in CEE and rarely cite other engineering edu cation journals/proceedings. The converse of this is also true: CEE is rarely cited in the other engineering education journals/proceedings. Results for other engineering educa ) show that there is very little cross-citing of journals/proceedings. This data is consistent with the hypothesis that there are individual silos in each engineering education discipline that seldom communicate with each other. The following recommendations are made for CEE to help reduce the silo effect and increase the dissemination CEE papers should be strongly encouraged by reviewers and editors to read and cite appropriate papers from other en Citation Summary. The 43 papers in 2009 issues of CEE Journal cited # citations in CEE of journal/ proceedings studied % of all citations in CEE # citations of CEE in jour nal/proceedings studied % all citations in journal/proceedings ASEE Proc. 35 J. Engr. Ed. (JEE) FIE Proc. 5 IEEE Trans. Ed. CEE PRISM J. Prof. Iss. 3 J. STEM Ed. Advances Engr. Ed. Total CEE were in one paper. Results ignoring this paper are in shown in parenthesis. gineering education journals (e.g., JEE ) and proceedings. ing professors to take a how-to-teach course or workshop ) to improve teaching, make them more aware of innovations, increase their understanding of the engineering education research, and help them write the education section in NSF Career proposals. 3. ChE professors who are familiar with advanced pedagogical methods should volunteer to teach how-to-teach courses. 4. Minimize jargon, and if jargon is necessary, clearly de is an example of demystifying jargon. 5. After a oneor two-year lag, CEE should make all papers available free on the Internet. REFERENCES IEEE Trans. Educ., J. STEM Educ. and J. Prof. Issues Engr. Ed. Practice J. Eng. Educ. acknowledged. The authors opinions do not represent CEE or NSF. GUEST EDITORIAL Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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231 G raduate programs in various institutions are developed to advance the technical competency of the students. As a degree requirement, graduate students enroll in some mandatory classes dealing with advanced chemical engineering topics such as thermodynamics, transport phe nomena, reaction engineering, and experimental design. In addition, a common course that most graduate programs have is a seminar series. Some programs offer the seminar series as a mandatory course for all the graduate students with or with out earning credit hours towards their graduation. Seminars are primarily used as a method to introduce i) contemporary research topics, ii) applications of fundamental concepts in diverse areas, and iii) networking. The presentations also help reinforce technical concepts, and provide alternative research strategies or methods of analyzing experimental results. Many colleagues would agree that as a graduate student, the impression of a seminar series is that it is less important than technical courses, adds little value, and is a waste of time. Multiple factors contribute to this impression. Since the chemical engineering discipline has a broad range of re search topics, some presentations could address only a select population of graduate students. For example, a presentation on tissue regeneration may not be interesting to students re searching thermodynamic modeling of fossil fuels. Similarly, a presentation on nanotechnology may seem irrelevant to students working on optimization of control systems. This problem may be compounded by two additional attributes of the presenter: i) poor presentation skills and ii) lack of cognizance about the audience background in a chosen topic. Lack of interest in the presentation could be evidenced during the Question and Answer (Q&A) session, which may or may not have many questions from the students. This suggests a need to revive the seminar series by incorporating concepts that are not addressed in core courses, but are important to the success of graduate students. Recognizing the importance of soft skills for the success cies by developing courses or workshops. Research design methods courses have been developed in different programs to introduce literature review, hypothesis testing, peer-review process, grant writing, and grant submission process ; OSU also offers a Research Methods course to teach skills related to hypothesis testing, experimental design, grant writing, and research ethics. Workshop format has been reported in the literature. Some have addressed teaching skills issues by i) pairing a graduate student with a mentor or ii) develop Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 REVIVING GRADUATE SEMINAR SERIES THROUGH NON-TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS SUNDARARAJAN V. MADIHALLY Sundararajan V. Madihally is an associate professor and the graduate program director in the School of Chemical Engineering at Oklahoma State University. He received his Ph.D. from Wayne State University in chemical engineering. He held a research fellow position at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School/Shriners Hospital for Children. His research interests include stem cell based tissue regeneration, development of therapies for traumatic condi tions, and engineering education. He served as the chair of the Chemical Engineering Division 2009 ASEE Annual Conference. He is the author of the textbook Principles of Biomedical Engineering published by Artech House (2010). Graduate Education

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232 ing coursework. Apart from research topics and teaching methods, there are a number of topics and issues one has to address to train graduate students in soft skills, an area that has been predominantly ignored with the expectation of acquiring those skills on the job, or the hard way. Further, these approaches address only a few students in the program, depending on their interest level and when they started graduate school. This study describes using the graduate seminar series as an alternative approach to integrate soft skills into the gradu ate program. Diverse topics could be incorporated in every seminar series avoiding repetition in different semesters, while adding value to the seminar series. The advantage of using the graduate seminar series instead of another course is that every graduate student about recent developments rather than creating additional courses. Some of the topics, the approach adapted, and the feedback from the students are discussed. INCORPORATION OF SOFT SKILLS. While adding soft-skill seminars, the number of invited technical presentations was kept constant from the previous semesters. In our program, the seminar series used to have six to eight invited speakers in a semester with the total of were a few weeks that were not utilized in a semester, which could be used to introduce soft skills by inviting non-technical presenters. The available resources on campus were assessed by interacting with faculty members within the department. Some individuals were requested to present in the seminar 1. Technical Writing. Personnel from the Writing Center, Library Sciences, and Research Administration were invited to provide information regarding technical writing in differ ent semesters. Some of the seminar topics addressed by the Writing Center faculty members included i) communicating technical information to others, ii) elements of research ar ticles, iii) approaches to improving writing habits, iv) audience considerations in writing, and v) the most frequent grammar mistakes. A workshop format can also be adapted in which students are required to write some technical paragraphs as a in a subsequent seminar. Students need training in different styles of referencing using software packages such as Endnote and Reference Manager. Library personnel explained how to build a search library and how to cite articles in a document. In a subsequent search engines, and in creating alert systems with the release of new publications. Personnel from the college of Engineer ing Research Administration, who deal with proposals, were invited to introduce students to grant writing and the role of research administration. They introduced topics such as in a grant, grant submission process through web portals such as , and management of a grant post-award. 2. Safety Demonstrations. One topic commonly addressed in most graduate programs is laboratory safety, where the laboratory manager or instructor responsible for undergradu ate teaching laboratories performs the safety instructions. Graduate students are reminded about the importance of the material safety data sheet, safe experimental practice, and waste disposal constraints within the organization. Repeat ing the same content every semester may not be an effective methodology, however, particularly for Ph.D. students who may be in the program for many semesters. Since one semi some programs have a course on chemical safety in which all graduate students must enroll. There are also a number of general safety topics one has to consider, however, with ever-changing global issues. For example, educating students Tech incident. Example of a Class Schedule Week Topic Introduction and Review of Departmental Safety 3 Workplace 4 5 Soft Skill 3: Intellectual Property of Research Research Presentation 3: Thermodynamics of Protein Folding Research Presentation 4: Carbon Sequestration Soft Skill 4: Using Endnote and Referencing Research Presentation 5: Drug Delivery tion in Medicine tion Graduate Education

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233 Graduate Education One strategy we adapted was to introduce a short reminder semester. Students took an online quiz to retrain on the day-today laboratory safety issues on a regular basis. Incoming new graduate students were told to meet the laboratory manager separately to learn about the procedural issues. This helped reduce the redundancy for returning graduate students in ad dition to saving a day of the seminar for other safety topics. Personnel from the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) department were invited. This was coordinated by the labora tory manager who regularly interacts with safety-related is sues. Each presentation addresses a different safety topic. For example, one seminar dealt with providing a hands-on training equipment and organized the session in an open area. After a few minutes of initial discussion, students had an opportunity Other topics discussed in the seminar include workplace safety and industrial safety (a video presentation entitled Shots Fired ), good day-to-day laboratory practices, and First Aid (a video presentation ). 3. Cultural presentation. With increased globalization of business, it is recognized that understanding other cultures is important for student success. At the undergraduate level, study-abroad programs have gained traction in many universi ties with the development of departments to carry out these functions. Graduate students, however, do not have simi lar opportunities except through a few attempts in achieving this possibility by institutional collaborations. Although these approaches provide an opportunity for cross-cultural the programs and students. Thus, long-term sustainability is contingent upon budgetary issues. An alternative approach, which is less expensive, is to utilize the resources present in the program. Most graduate programs contain a wealth of diverse cultures due to the pres ence of international students in addition to domestic students. This provides a plethora of opportunity to understand other cultures from students with similar technical background. To take advantage of this opportunity, a seminar is dedicated to a cultural presentation every semester. This seminar is scheduled a week before the Finals week to provide a relaxing social environment for the graduate students. In the beginning of the semester, student volunteers from different cultures are sought. During these presentations, students are encouraged to obtain the help of staff members within the department, and their expenses are also reimbursed. One presentation dealing with the Native American culture was done by a graduate student who grew up in that envi ronment. The presenter also invited other tribal members to discuss various cultural aspects during this seminar. There was a demonstration of clothing and other paraphernalia used on various occasions and a discussion about the Native American involvement with the Federal government. Other presenta tions were from graduate students from Nigeria, India, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand. Nigerian students came dressed in their snacks from the region for all the students. They presented the history of Nigeria, their cultures and school system, and job opportunities for chemical engineering graduates. 4. Other soft skills. There are a number of other soft-skill topics such as ethics, legal studies, management skills, in tellectual property protection, contractual agreements, and teaching methodology that could be considered as seminar topics. We had seminars on i) intellectual property (such as the importance of maintaining a laboratory notebook, and Figure 1. Fire extinguisher demonstration. (a) Photograph of the setup to demonstrate usage of re extinguishers. (b) Hands-on experience of pulling the pin on the re extinguisher, aiming the nozzle at the base of the re, and then sweeping from side to side (P.A.S.S.) to extinguish the re.

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how to apply for a patent), ii) contractual agreements, iii) ethics, and iv) engineering attributes. Within the department, we have a faculty member who has a degree in patent law in addition to a degree in chemi cal engineering. This individual discusses topics related to intel lectual property. Faculty members from the psychology department whose research is on ethics were also invited to present. Another faculty member who worked in industry prior to his/her academic career discussed differences be tween academic environment and industrial practice. topics (in different categories ex cluding cultural presentations) of soft skills that can be incorporated into the seminar. Based on the re sources available in each graduate program and by surveying student interests, additional topics could be incorporated. These topics are rotated between semesters based on the convenience of the faculty members. This also reduces the burden on the speakers who are willing to present in addition to en riching the seminar series. Hence, unique topics can be incorporated for six to seven semesters based on (excluding cultural presentations) per semester. Using the average graduation time of Ph.D. students some topics are repeated for a few students depending on when they joined the program. IMPROVING STUDENT INTEREST DURING PRESENTATIONS Typically, seminar ends with a Q&A session where the audience is allowed to ask questions of the speaker. Based on the presentation topic and the presenter, there may be few questions. Faculty members or some graduate students working in that research area might ask more questions. The majority of the students do not ask questions due to multiple in asking a question, and 3) no requirement to do anything else after the presentation, i.e. there is no homework or exam on that topic. To encourage participation in each seminar, students were required to submit homework for every seminar electronically through the web portal Desire to Learn, set up for the course. Since all graduate students have to enroll in this one-credit course, the homework was applied towards their grades. They were also given instructions about the required homework content to submit: a) presentation title; b) what they liked in the seminar; c) what they disliked about the seminar; and d) other useful comments to the speaker. Students were told that the primary alternative option to get an exemption from the home work is participating in the discus sion (such as asking a question) at the end of that seminar. The instructor kept track of who asked questions, or a student could send alternative is a graduate student presenting a seminar in the series, which requires consultation with the research advisor and the in structor. When a graduate student is the presenter, the comments from the peers are summarized and given as a feedback to the pre senter. During these presentations, students who do not ask questions in external speaker presentations are thus encouraged to ask questions. This is done to encour age public speaking. STUDENT FEEDBACK their experience in the seminar series. The response has been very positive and helpful in deciding the contents for the subsequent seminar series. When asked about what they have liked in the seminar series, some comments are as follows: The seminars have become more useful and well planned. I enjoy most of them and learn from them. The cultural pre sentations are great and I like the safety seminars; more non-technical presentations would make the seminar series Figure 2. Cultural presentation. (a) Photograph of a graduate student presenter dressed in traditional clothing. (b) Photograph displaying some of the paraphernalia used during various occasions. Graduate Education

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235 Graduate Education more interesting; I have liked most of the non-technical seminars. When asked about what they have disliked, some comments are as follows: homework submission; asking questions should not be made a substitute for homework. I have heard a few dumb questions as a result. When asked about the type of presentations in which they are interested (Figure 3a), many students selected presenta tions on management skills as a topic of interest. Interest presentation. In a subsequent survey, students were asked to hear. Many of the topics were related to the industrial prac tice of chemical engineering such as i) best practices used in chemical engineering, ii) the role of chemical engineers in industry, iii) preparing for industrial jobs, and iv) experience of new graduates in the industrial environment. A few topics relevant to the research interest of some students were also that can be integrated into the graduate seminar. Students also expressed more interest in topics related to writing skills. To better understand what category of writing skills students were interested in, they were asked to rank four major categories (Figure 3b). The majority of the students expressed a high level of interest in writing a technical paper in a peer-reviewed journal. Addressing the technical paper writing in a peer-reviewed journal in research methods is an option, similar to other reports. Less interest in grant writ ing could be attributed to prior exposure to the concept in the Research Methods course taught in the program. A subsequent question in the survey asked the students to describe a course they took that dealt with technical writing, engineering ethics, and safety. Students who indicated grant writing as a choice were either concurrently enrolled in the Research Methods course or soon to be enrolled in a different semester. Interestingly, only few students ranked the topic on teaching skills as interesting and many suggested that it is not as im portant as management skills. This opinion could be a reason why a course to introduce teaching may not be successful for a longer period of time. Multiple factors could be attributing to this opinion, however, including: a) interest in pursuing an industrial job opportunity rather than an academic job, and b) lack of awareness in pedagogical research/require ment. Introducing the importance of teaching skills through the training of teaching assistants is an option that is under consideration. When asked about the appropriate ratio of technical and non-technical presentations in a seminar series (Figure 4), Figure 3. Students preference on type of presentation. (a) Number of students preferring a topic as the rst choice. (b) Number of students preferring a specic tech nical writing skill as the rst choice. Figure 4. Preference to number of technical and nontechnical presentations. Box plot showing the distribution of number of presentations in a seminar series that stu dents would prefer with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles and the mean value (thick line within each box). Values that were outside 95th and 5th percentiles were treated as outliers.

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236 a broad distribution was obtained. The average response, in a series. This outcome could be somewhat skewed as the number is similar to the current schedule. EVIDENCE OF LEARNING tions to the seminar series. With the altered method of safety training, an immediate effect that the laboratory manager has response from the graduate students towards safety require ments. Increased awareness of safety has helped decrease the number of unlabeled containers and improper usage of personnel protection equipment. Those students who have graduated and work in industry have also given encouraging feedback on the seminar series while helping identify other safety topics to consider. Further, some of the students have asked for other types of safety training such as CPR. An encouraging observation is that more students have started using the Writing Center after faculty members from that area presented in the seminar series. This suggests that skills. Obtaining help on grammar and formatting corrections from the Writing Center helps the faculty advisor to focus on technical content. In addition, a few students have taken courses on legal studies and technical writing upon receiving relevant information in the seminar. tions. Providing an exact increase in number of questions is hindered by time constraints, i.e. there are many occasions where the instructor has cut short the Q&A session due to shortage of time. Unsolicited comments from a few technical presenters have been positive on the number and quality of questions they received. One of the external technical present ers wrote in an e-mail to the instructor, I like the seminar format, there were some good questions after. The increase in the number of questions suggests that students are attentive during the presentation. REFLECTIONS OF THE INSTRUCTOR AND COURSE REVISIONS To accommodate all the presentations, developing the entire schedule very early (preferably a semester before) is impor tant. One has to identify the resources available on campus and coordinate the schedule. Based on the feedback from stu dents, some of the research topics have been incorporated into subsequent seminars. For example, recent graduates from the program who have been working in the industry were invited. They are advised a priori that the purpose of the presentation is providing their transitional experience rather than technical content related to their work. Also, a faculty member in the department who is an editor of a journal was invited to address the peer-review process. In addition, plagiarism in the modern digital world was also discussed using a case study. Incorporating a cross-disciplinary conversation has some For example, while presentations from the library personnel are useful, they have to be informed about the student background and niche areas to discuss. In terms of the safety presentations, two seminars per semester were dedicated for four semesters. Student feedback suggested that one seminar per semester may be optimum to address many topics, however. Subsequent seminars had one seminar per semester (or two seminars per year), which also saved a seminar day for incorporating other soft skills. Feedback from students also suggested that tions were repeated in the sixth semester. Graduate students enjoy the cultural presentations and there has been a positive response to these presentations. Similar presentations from various cultures can be integrated and the topics could vary as well. If the graduate program has little diversity in the the university, which typically advises international student organizations, is recommended. These students could be invited to give presentations. The instructor also plays an active role during the Q&A session to improve the interactions. One approach adapted to improve the quality of questions is for the instructor to identify students who ask irrelevant questions (which some students perceive as dumb) and advise them about relevancy. Further, submitting homework electronically has helped this process SUMMARY Graduate seminar series provides a unique opportunity to incorporate soft skills into the graduate program every semes ter. Adapting this approach has three primary advantages: i) Making the seminar series more effective by eliminating redundancies in the schedule while utilizing the entire available time ii) Enriching their learning experience by incorporating soft skills, and iii) Decreasing the monetary burden on the department to invite external speakers for every seminar in the semester. Coordinating the seminar series to incorporate soft skills member. Although a seminar in many of these topics may Graduate Education

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Graduate Education skill, they are intended to provide an opportunity to recognize whether each student has the skill set to perform these func tions. In other words, the intention is similar to a technical seminar. The non-technical seminars provide an opportunity to see whether students are interested in enhancing a particular skill set. REFERENCES Methods, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Articles in Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 3. Holles, J.H., A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 4. Aucoin, M.G., and M. Jolicoeur, Is There Room in the Graduate Cur riculum To Learn How To Be a Graduate Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Tool for Teaching Research Ethics in Science and Engineering for Graduate Students, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper Training Programs at Michigan State UniversityA Doctoral Students Perspective, Chem. Eng. Ed. 38 Graduate Students at North Carolina State University, Proceedings Graduate Students, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper Int. J. Electrical Eng. Ed. 40 Planting a Seed of Leadership in Engineering Classes, Leadership and Management in Engineering 7 Making the Writing Process Work: Strate gies for Composition and Self-regulation, Shots Fired on Campus (Student Edition): Guidance for Surviving an Active Shooter Situation Produced by The Center for Personal Protec tion and Safety First Aid on the Job: Initial Response Produced by Coastal Training. gram in Engineering, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper lenges, Best Practices, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference, Paper tion of ChE Education and Research: An NUS-UIUC Mode, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Workshop in Chemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Education, Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 Challenge and Reality, Educational Psychology Review

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C hromatography has become an essential unit operation in the production of biopharmaceuticals. This method facilitates the processing of the complex mixtures encountered in this industry using readily available stationary phases and equipment suitable for large-scale sanitary opera recognized by regulatory agencies so that chromatography is an integral part of essentially all licensed biopharmaceutical bacterial systems ( e.g., E. coli ) and for monoclonal antibodies expressed in mammalian cells. In both cases, chromatography plays a dominant role in the three major tasks of: (a) Capture devoted primarily to concentrating and separating the protein product from water and productunrelated impurities; (b) focused on the separation of major forms; and (c) Polishing focused on the removal of trace contami nants and adventitious agents. Since the process characteristics, the optimum stationary phase properties, and the design requirements are very dif ferent for each of these operations, an in-depth understanding reliability is desirable and is increasingly being sought by regulatory agencies. As a result, chemists, engineers, and life the theory and practice of process chromatography. Process scale economics also plays a major role. Figure stream processing material costs for recombinant proteins produced in bacterial systems and for monoclonal antibod ies produced by mammalian cell culture. Increasing product titers obtained from improved genetic engineering and cell g/L levels, create new technological challenges and capacity bottlenecksincreasingly shifting the costs from upstream to downstream. The evolving regulatory environment for INTEGRATED GRADUATE AND CONTINUING EDUCATION IN PROTEIN CHROMATOGRAPHY for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up GIORGIO CARTA ALOIS JUNGBAUER Alois Jungbauer is the head of protein tech nology and downstream processing at the Department of Biotechnology of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (Austria). For more than 20 years, Pro fessor Jungbauer has worked in biochemical engineering, with a focus on biosparation, where he has published widely and holds 15 patents. For more than 10 years, he has orga nized a biennial professional course in protein chromatography focused on mass transfer, dispersion, and scale-up. Giorgio Carta received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Delaware in 1984. Since then he has been a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Uni versity of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA), where his research focuses on transport phenomena and bioseparations. He regularly organizes professional courses on various aspects of bioseparations, including a course together with Alois Jungbauer on protein chromatography development and scale-up. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Graduate Education

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239 Graduate Education biopharmaceuticals and the introduction of so-called biosimilars will also offer new opportunities for improving production and reducing costs. Unlike many small molecule drugs, protein-based therapeutics are characterized by ex treme molecular complexity. As a result, current U.S. FDA biological drugs by the process used to produce them. As a consequence, process changes after product licensing have quality by design (QbD), however, is gradually moving the regulatory framework toward a more rational approach. QbD refers to the achievement of certain predictable quality with subsequent versions of approved biological drugs produced by a follow-on manufacturer generally through a different process, also create opportunities for process engineering since they tend to separate product qualities from the exact process used to produce them. While, in general, the theory and practice of liquid chro matography is well established for small molecule separa tions ( e.g. remain largely empirical. Thus, optimum designs often remain elusive. On one hand, engineers, while possessing a strong foundation in transport phenomena and unit operations, often have a limited understanding of biomolecular properties. On the other, biochemists and biologists often have limited understanding of the key scale-up relationships and models needed for optimum design. aim of merging the theory and practice of biochromatography Mammalian cell culture Harvest (centrifugation) Clarification (depth filtration) Capture (Protein A affinity or cation exchange) Low pH viral inactivation Polishing (CEX, HIC, hydroxyapatite) Final Ultrafiltration Purification (anion exchange) Viral filtration Fermentation Harvest (centrifugation) Primary recovery (homogenization, osmotic shock, chemical extraction) Flocculation, enzyme treatment Clarification (centrifugation, filtration) Capture (ion exchange IEX) Purification (HIC, RPC, IEX, etc.) Polishing (HIC, RPC, IEX, etc.) Final Ultrafiltration (a) Soluble recombinant bacterial protein (b) Monoclonal antibody (mAb) Figure 1 (left). Downstream processing schemes for a soluble protein expressed in a bacterial fermentation (a) and for a monoclonal antibody expressed in mam malian cells (b). Chroma tography steps are shown in gray-shaded boxes. Courtesy of Alan Hunter, MedImmune. 1990 2010 E. Coli process CHO cells process Figure 2 (below). Typical distribution of production costs for biopharmecauticals produced in E. coli and Chi nese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in the nineties according to Datar, et. al., [1] (top), and in 2010 (bottom); upstream (fermentation) is in white and downstream is in gray. Note that increasing monoclonal antibody titers obtained from mammalian cell cultivation, now easily approaching 5 to 10 g/L, and tightening purity requirements increasingly shift the costs from upstream to down stream pro cessing. The total areas of the pie charts indicate the relative mag nitude of the total process ing cost.

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Graduate Education I Biophysical properties of proteins Size; Folding; Adiabatic compressibility; Charge; Hydrophobicity; Solution viscosity; Diffusivity; Properties of contaminants and adventitious agents II Chromatography principles Column characteristics; Porosities and flow; Adsorption isotherms; Retention and chromatographic velocity; Plate model; Measurement and estimation of HETP; Heuristics for scale-up and design III Laboratory and process equipment Columns and column packing; Chromatographic workstations; Pumps, detectors and auxiliaries; extracolumn factors IV Stationary phases Chemistry; Pore size, porosity, and surface area; Particle size and morphology; Mechanical/flow properties; Experimental characterization V Protein mass transfer fundamentals Diffusivity; Boundary layer mass transfer; Hindered diffusion in macropores; Diffusion in the adsorbed phase; Kinetic resistance to binding VI Effect of mass transfer on performance Rate models to describe adsorption kinetics; Relationship between equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity; Prediction of column efficiency VII Capture with selective adsorbents Protein A based adsorbents; Equilibrium isotherms and mass transfer limitations in affinity-based adsorption; Effects of residence time VIII Chromatographic purification Principles of preparative isocratic and gradient elution chromatography; Flow and gradient slope effects; Applications in IEX, HIC and RPC; pH gradients IX Biomolecular perspectives Protein-surface and protein-protein interactions; Effects of aggregation and unfolding; Thermodynamic and molecular modeling approaches X Chromatographic process design Technical and regulatory constraints; Purity and robustness requirements; Optimization of column design for capture and for purification Laboratory II Column properties Extraparticle and intraparticle porosities; Hydraulic permeability; Protein retention and band broadening in linear chromatography; Calculation and significance of HETP for proteins Laboratory III Adsorption and mass transfer effects Equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity; Effective diffusivity and film mass transfer; Modeling and prediction of breakthrough curve Laboratory IV Gradient elution chromatography Determination of retention and mass transfer properties from gradient elution; Resolution as a function of flow and gradient slope; Predictions with Yamamotos model Laboratory I Column packing and equipment Flow and pressure packing; Validation of packing quality; AKTA workstations; UNICORN software for equipment control and data analysis Design Exercise Column design and productivity optimization using data from Laboratories 2-4 subject to equipment and operational constraints

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Graduate Education to achieve optimum design and scale-up of process units. Our goal was to help educate engineers who understand the bio physical properties of proteins and other bio-macromolecules and can implement this understanding in the bioprocess set ting; and life scientists who understand transport phenomena and engineering models and who can apply these tools to the design of process units. The course has been held annually hands-on components. In the lectures, the participants learn the fundamentals of protein productionthe structural and biophysical properties of proteins and the varied nature of their contaminants; the theory of chromatography; the properties of stationary phases; how to describe the equilibrium and kinetic factors that govern process performance; and how to achieve the laboratory, they learn to pack columns that are useful as scale-down models; to plan experiments to identify critical parameters; and to use advanced chromatography worksta tions to measure the critical physiochemical properties needed to model retention and band broadening in different types of chromatographic operations. Ultimately, the participants complete a design exercise, in which they are asked to design an optimized column on the basis of the laboratory measure ments and theories learned during the course. It should be noted that the main value of this course is not in de novo process developmentrather, it mainly focuses on the optimal design and scale-up of columns for a process we consider the case of a monoclonal antibody process produced by mammalian cell culture for which a platform with many applications in the treatment of serious diseases and with market volume in the tens of billions of dollars per year. The bottleneck in their manufacture is often the capture step, which requires large columns (because of the limited binding capacity) and long times (because of severe mass transfer limitation). Our course offers the tools for optimally designing columns that can perform this task at maximum productivity with available stationary phases. Nevertheless, understanding these design concepts also aids the scientist who is involved in early process development to identify from the laboratory to the manufacturing suite. COURSE CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION Several approaches to teaching bioseparations, including computer simulations of adsorption and chromatography, illustrating chromatography with colorful model proteins, and chemical engineering laboratory courses covering mul tiple bioseparation operations, have been presented. Our approach is substantially different both in scope and delivery, however. It consists of an intensive short course comprising that integrates academic and industrial participants. The course program has evolved over the years, but the typical unit covers the biophysical properties of proteins and related cations, charge, and hydrophobicity as well as solution proper ties including solubility, viscosity, and diffusivity. While life scientists are generally familiar with these concepts, they have typically not thought about them in relation to their effects on process performance; many of the participants with engineer of their molecular complexity. Covering this material, albeit in a necessarily succinct way, brings the heterogeneous set of participants to common ground. The second lecture unit introduces key concepts that form the basis for understand ing how chromatographic columns work and how they can be scaled-up. Rather than dealing with each type of chro matography separately, we emphasize their common basis, treating chromatography as a unit operation. The empirical plate model is introduced at this stage as a simple tool for design and scale-up. We note that while effective when used in combination with experiments, this simple model does not permit a physically realistic assessment of the effects of mass transfer resistances, which tend to be dominant in these applications. and process columns and equipment and stationary phases. After a general introduction of the desirable characteristics of these essential hardware components, we provide many practical examples of equipment and materials available on the market. Chromatography media have often been chosen either based on what worked before or on manufacturers recommendation. We emphasize that while these approaches are valuable, a better choice can often be made with a funda mental understanding of chemical and physical characteristics in relation to the particular separation task at hand. The range of materials and column technologies available is expanding rapidly. Thus, the importance of understanding the basics is growing in order to be able to navigate an increasingly Figure 3 (facing page). Course content and organiza tion: unshaded boxes show lectures while shaded boxes indicate laboratories and team activities.

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mass transfer and its effects on chromatographic column performance. Because of the large molecular size and the often high solution viscosity and low operating temperature, diffusional mass transfer in the stationary phase is often the controlling band-broadening factor in protein chromatogra phy. We describe different possible mass transfer mechanisms both theoretically and using images of proteins diffusing in chromatography particles obtained by confocal laser scan ning microscopy (CLSM) and other microscopic techniques. We then illustrate how mass transfer resistances accelerate breakthrough, reduce the attainable binding capacity, and broaden chromatographic peaks leading to lower resolu concept introduced at this stage is that for the mass transfer controlled conditions encountered in these systems, the critical where is the column extraparticle porosity, D e the effective pore diffusivity, L the column length, p the particle diameter. We show that since column pressure depends on the column aspect ratio (L/d column ) can be changed while keeping n constant to allow the design of columns that retain the same dynamic binding capacity and ability to resolve mixtures, while meet stage is what pore size should be chosen to handle the capture of a large biomolecule or its separation from related impuri ties. To answer this question we discuss hindered diffusion theory and show that, as a general rule, the pore size needs extreme diffusional hindrance and exceedingly slow transport. For a monoclonal antibody, whose diameter is on the order which are in fact used in practice. tive adsorbents and separation of product-related impurities. The main example of selective capture is Protein A-based adsorbents, which selectively bind immunoglobulin and are used extensively in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes. Special attention is devoted to gradient elution as a tool for the separation of closely related impurities. Protein binding is generally very sensitive to the exact composition of to implement at the industrial scale because of limited robust ness. Gradient elution, where the mobile phase composition is gradually ramped from conditions leading to strong retention to conditions where binding is weak, provides a more robust and controllable process, although some complications are introduced. In this context we explain how protein retention and resolution vary with gradient slope and how the gradient slope affects the mobile phase composition at which elution of the separated products occurs. We introduce the method of transport parameters from gradient elution experiments as a practical tool useful to generate useful scale-up parameters. Lecture unit IX refocuses the groups attention on bio molecular properties. Now that the participants are familiar with how chromatography is implemented at the process scale and what parameters affect its performance, we address various factors that contribute to deviations from the theoreti cal behavior, including protein-protein and protein-surface interactions that can lead to aggregation and/or unfolding. Several examples are discussed primarily in the context of hydrophobic chromatography including a discussion of modern techniques such as hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry to detect unfolding on column and in solution. together by illustrating how to design maximum-productivity columns for capture and for resolution. We provide an over view of technical and economic constraints, but we emphasize designs that maximize productivity since the cost of the sta tionary phase and column hardware are often dominant. Thus, maximizing productivity often yields designs that are close to the true economic optimum. Column pressure is frequently the chief constraint, sometimes limited to just a few bars for large-scale bio-process columns. We thus show how to design columns that meet these low-pressure constraints for both rigid stationary phases and for compressible media. The lecture material, developed over several years, is now available in our recently published book. Other references are used extensively in our course. The lectures are pre sented in PowerPoint format and include a substantial number of spreadsheet-based tools, which implement quantitative relationships introduced in the lectures, and provide valuable demonstrations. For example, one of the spreadsheet tools provides a live simulation of protein diffusion and adsorption in a spherical particle allowing the user to experiment with the effects of particle size, protein concentration, diffusivity, and isotherm shape. Another spreadsheet tool allows visualization of the adsorption front propagating through a column during a capture step. Simulations are presented for conditions where the adsorption isotherm is non-linear, since these conditions are more frequently encountered in process scale applica tion of chromatography at high protein loads. An example is shown in Figure 4. The spreadsheet simulates the propaga tion of an adsorption front through a column and is used to illustrate the rapid approach to a constant pattern when the adsorption isotherm is non-linear and favorable. For short Graduate Education

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Graduate Education S-shape, which is retained unchanged as the front continues to propagate toward the column exit and breakthrough occurs. The spreadsheet is also used to simulate various effects such as that of residence time (L/u), feed and initial concentrations, particle size, and effective diffusivity. The last two parameters, of course, are affected by the choice of the stationary phase, so that basic mass transfer theory can be put in a practical context recognizable by both life scientists and engineers. Since instantaneous graphical displays are included, these tools provide a familiar environment to explain key relation ships in a manner accessible even by those who lack indepth mathematical knowledge. The course participants are provided with printed notes in binders as well as electronic versions. Model simulation spreadsheets used in the course are available from the authors upon request. The laboratories are based on experiments with actual C o l u m n A d s o r p t i o n S i m u l a t i o n Column data Langmuir isotherm parameters Porosity, => 0.4 Monolayer capacity, q m => 10 Length, L => 3.0 Equilibrium constant, K => 2 Velocity, u ==> 0.2 Rate parameters Feed concentration, C F => 2.0 Particle radius, r p => 0.0045 Initial concentration, C 0 => 0 Effective diffusivity, D e => 1.00E-07Delta t ==> 0.1 N ==> 50 DZ= R= 0.200 qF= 8.00 0.6 CFC0 q0 qF 2 ###### ### 8 Time = 1 0.9 k = 15qFDe/CF r p 2 = 2.96E-01 z Cj qj Cj+1 qj+1 q* dq/dt 0 2 1.9 2 2.05E+00 8 1.815533842 0.06 1.6686 1.7 1.68E+00 1.87E+00 7.69435123 1.776224618 0.12 1.3329 1.4 1.35E+00 1.61E+00 7.27206792 1.728481222 0.18 1.0009 1.2 1.03E+00 1.33E+00 6.66862293 1.629294118 0.24 0.6877 0.9 7.26E-01 1.00E+00 5.79027754 1.462302965 0.3 0.4222 0.6 4.62E-01 6.76E-01 4.57813811 1.191932881 0.36 0.2302 0.3 2.62E-01 4.01E-01 3.15222245 0.841084495 0.42 0.1135 0.2 1.35E-01 2.08E-01 1.84950153 0.502121655 0.48 0.0522 0.1 6.44E-02 9.72E-02 0.94456481 0.259497781 0.54 0.0227 0 2.92E-02 4.21E-02 0.43478574 0.120380993 0.6 0.0099 0 1.29E-02 1.73E-02 0.19344984 0.05399877 0.66 0.0037 0 5.37E-03 6.96E-03 0.07301288 0.020331286 0.72 0.002 0 2.50E-03 2.64E-03 0.04077159 0.011636135 0.78 1E-04 0 6.62E-04 1.10E-03 0.00196044 0.000367274 0.84 0.0008 0 7.29E-04 2.99E-04 0.01665408 0.004913455 0.9 -0.0005 0 -2.36E-04 2.34E-04 -0.0095598 -0.002893132 0.96 0.0005 -0 4.49E-04 -3.94E-05 0.01082696 0.003233721 1.02 -0.0004 0 -3.35E-04 9.84E-05 -0.0078174 -0.002344181 1.08 0.0003 -0 3.10E-04 -5.94E-05 0.00597259 0.001786718 1.14 -0.0002 0 -2.29E-04 5.10E-05 -0.003853 -0.001153202 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3D i s t a n c e f r o m e n t r a n c e z C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o l u m n p r o l e s a t t = 1, 5, 10, 20, 3 0 Initialize Run Reset feed S T O P Figure 4. Screenshot of sample spreadsheet used to simulate the propagation of an adsorption front in a cap ture column. The simulated proles, obtained with a favorable Langmuir-type binding isotherm, demonstrate the rapid approach to a constant pattern that retains its shape as breakthrough occurs. Conditions simulated are typical for protein chromatography. Dispersion is controlled by intraparticle diffusion.

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workstations from GE Healthcare (Piscataway, NJ, USA). These units integrate sophisticated pumps, sample injectors, column switching valves, and multiple detectors with power ful control and data acquisition software (UNICORN). The are shown in Figure 5. The four laboratory units shown in Figure 3 are intercalated with the lecture units so that the various concepts introduced in the lectures are tested in the laboratory immediately after they are presented. The course is conducted over a six-day period. On participants to assess their level of experience with protein chromatography, engineering vs. life science backgrounds, laboratory vs. manufacturing job func tion, and nationality. This information is used to cre ate six-person teams where each member can contribute different skills. Since the biotechnology industry is highly multidisciplinary, the participants have come from an extremely broad range of educational background and experience, which provides an excellent environment for shared learning oppor tunities. Thus, each team typically comprises chemical engineers, life scientists, expe encounter with protein chromatography, and even product managers and marketing specialists. Each team is assigned a graduate student from our groups as a tutor and assistant. For each lab, the tutors go over the key concepts covered in Graduate Education Figure 5. Flow diagram (top) and photograph (bot tom) of AKTA Explorer 10 unit from GE Healthcare used in the experimental part of the course. A unit is assigned to each team of six participants.

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Graduate Education from the four laboratories, the participants make predictions of the separation performance of a third hypothetical stationary phase that combines the smaller pore size and larger porosity of SP-Sepharose-FF with the smaller particle size of Source from those studied experimentally. In our experience, at the end the course, the participants get it right! The design exercise held on the last day of the course pro vides a further opportunity to strengthen conceptual and prac tical understanding of the factors that need to be considered This is done again in a team setting with assistance from the tutors. An example problem is as follows: You are assigned the task of scaling-up a cation-exchange capture step with SP-Sepharose-FF for the capture of the protein you tested in the laboratory. The feed will be in protein plus several minor impurities including proteins that are expected to have a pI around 5, endotoxin, DNA, carbohydrates, amino acids, and other trace components. The feed viscosity is 1.5 mPas. The proposed capture step will serve mainly to capture and concentrate the protein, although separation from the impurities is desirable. A cm) and a pressure rating of 3 bar is available. Your job is to determine if the available hardware is suitable and the processing time based on your lab-scale experiments. Since the design is constrained by available column hard ware and maximum protein concentration, the teams have to be creative and discover that greater productivity can be obtained by running a single shorter column for several cycles rather than a single cycle in a larger one. Among other things, the example demonstrates how optimized designs can help remove the downstream processing bottleneck created by the high fermentation titers and greater product demands that have arisen in recent years. ASSESSMENT and principal lecturers in both venues although a few other faculty members have also participated. We have strictly an important part of the experience since it also provides a view of the different industrial environments and regulatory structures in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Distribution of Course Participants Participants Number Participants from industry Participants from universities and public research institutions Categories Number Companies Biotech & pharma 35 Design & contract manufacturing 5 Media & equipment suppliers Universities and public research institutions Nationalities the lectures that are relevant to the lab at hand, explain the goals of the experiments, and guide each team through the setup of experimental runs. Some runs are executed quickly and the results are subjected to a preliminary analysis. The scouting feature of UNICORN is then used to explore a broad range of conditions overnight, generating a substantial number of runs. The next day each team analyzes the data in detail. We emphasize manual, hand calculations (that en hance understanding) as well as spreadsheet tools (that allow the analysis of large amounts of data). Each team is given different proteins with varying molecular properties and the two different stationary phases SP-Sepharose-FF and Source mechanical strengths (soft and rigid, respectively), packed properties (porosities, hydraulic permeability, binding con stants and capacities, effective diffusivities) that are needed and for the design and scale-up of production scale columns. After each lab analysis period, each team presents the results to the entire group, which is followed by group discussion of what worked according to theory and what did not. We then continue with the next lecture in preparation for the subsequent lab. Throughout the week, the participants are asked in turn experiments, the main features of the different stationary phases, how the protein molecular properties affect the results, and the lessons learned about the effects of critical operating parameters. At the end, based on the information compiled

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This is also true for the tutors, since each year we exchange The course is assessed through written course evaluations dicated on the evaluation form that they would recommend the course to a colleague or associate. Indeed, the course has fering we have had a long waiting list. For the industrial participants: underpinnings of protein chroma tography and to advanced labora tory equipment and techniques for process development and scale-up; troubleshoot actual bio-manufac turing processes; scientists who have experience with small molecules but who are now challenged by large biomol ecules; ment Quality-by-Design (QbD), which is a critical component of the FDAs efforts to improve the drug approval process, reduce costs, and improve quality; other companies; and studies by being immersed in thriving academic environments. For the academic participants: tory and manufacturing aspects of the biopharmaceutical industry; tory, economic, technological, and operational constraints affecting downstream process design and operation; ing practical design problems; highly multidisciplinary setting not commonly found in purely academic courses; to a broad audience; industry; and Finally, for the graduate students involved as tutors: team; Figure 6. Evaluation form used to assess the course. Lectures Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Technical content Clarity of presentations Clarity of notes Knowledge of instructors Response to inclass questions Overall lectures rating Laboratory sessions Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Technical content Equipment Clarity of lab objectives and plans Clarity of data analysis tools Quality of tutor support Overall laboratories rating Organization Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Program schedule Accommodations Meals Contact with organizer Overall organization rating Overall evaluation Excellent Good Fair Poor N/A Overall rating o f the course Would you recommend this course to a colleague? Yes No Comments What was the best feature? What changes would you make? What will be the most helpful in your current/future job? Other Graduate Education

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Graduate Education standing of its relevance to industrial practice; Finally, the course has also been useful as a vehicle to encourage undergraduate students from underrepresented minority groups to pursue graduate education and careers in biotech. In fact, for the last few years, our course has hosted a number of scholarship undergraduate minority students academic scientists and engineers. CONCLUSIONS The course provides a unique and innovative way of com bining graduate and continuing education in an area of critical importance to the biopharmaceutical industry. The integration of laboratories and lectures provides the participants with im relations and their relevance to industrial applications. It also provides opportunities to ask questions and to be challenged to provide answers to bioprocess problems in the informal set ting of small teams. The highly multidisciplinary environment provides a great opportunity to understand the multifaceted nature of downstream processing. Finally, the teamwork setting of the laboratories and design exercise provides a unique opportunity for shared learning. We believe the general structure of our course can be successfully adapted to other ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to GE Healthcare for its equipment sponsor ship. GC is grateful to the U.S. National Science Foundation for research and graduate student support through NSF grants to Professors Erik Fernandez and Jorgen Mollerup for their instructional contributions to the course. REFERENCES Animal Cell and Bacterial Fermentations: A Case Study Analysis of Tis sue Plasminogen Activator, Nature Biotechnol. stream Processing of Monoclonal AntibodiesApplication of Platform Approaches, J. Chromatogr. B. 848 Biotechnol. Bioeng. 99 4. Shukla, A.A., and J. Thommes, Recent Advances in Large-Scale Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and Related Proteins, Trends Biotechnol. 28 5. Ruthven, D.M., Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption Processes Adsorption Engineering Preparative Chromatography of Fine Chemi cals and Pharmaceutical Agents Fundamentals of Preparative and Non-Linear Chromatography Chemical Engineers Handbook Separations, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 tography With Colorful Proteins, Chem. Eng. Ed. to Applied Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Protein ChromatographyProcess de velopment and Scale-up Ion Exchange Chromatography of Proteins Marcel High-Resolution, and Applications Bioseparations Engineering: Principles, Practice and Economics

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G raduate chemical engineering programs typically contain several-to-many elective courses. These electives typically offer advanced theoretical cover they take the standard concepts that are developed in core courses (transport, kinetics/reactor design, thermodynamics) ics, nanotechnology, bioengineering). Textbooks for many of these areas have now become available, to the extent that it is possible to teach some of these advanced electives from a textbook-driven approach vs. a literature-driven approach. At the University of South Alabama, we offer several of these courses in our Masters program, in the form of Spe cial Topics graduate electives. These courses are usually well-received, and students often show increased interest in the course material, as it is perceived as more relevant. Examining both our core and elective courses, however, we have found that formal instruction on the practical elements of experimental design, literature review, and research is often not addressed, but instead left up to student-faculty interactions on a case-by-base basis. This strictly theoretical paradigm could be satisfactory for a program that only offers a thesis-track option, with the assumption that a competency of research and laboratory instruction is given by the thesis men tor. For a program such as ourswhich allows for multiple graduate-study options: thesis, project, and courseworkwe propose that basic training in laboratory and research methods is both helpful and an effective use of resources. For students who will go on to perform thesis research, this course gives an introduction to research and laboratory methods that they will need during that thesis research. Likewise, for nonthesis Masters students, this course provides a necessary practical component that would otherwise be lacking in their curricu lum. By introducing graduate students to practical research concepts in a formal classroom/lab environment, we believe that common issues encountered in graduate researchlit erature surveys, laboratory practice, report writingare addressed effectively, together, and early in the graduate curriculum. Approaches to Research Methods Education There are now several chemical engineering, graduate research methods courses that have been documented in the literature, and are summarized below. It is interesting to note that while the need for graduate research methods edu cation and evaluation is agreed upon by all of the authors (including ourselves), the approach and implementation vary considerably. A GRADUATE LABORATORY COURSE ON BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills Graduate Education SILAS J LEA VESLEY AND KEVIN N WEST Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Kevin West is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of South Alabama. He graduated with high distinction from the University of Virginia with a B.S. in chemi cal engineering and received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Kevins research interests include the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel, task-specic ionic liquids, functionalized aerogel synthesis, and biofuel development. His teaching re sponsibilities include both undergraduate and graduate thermodynam ics, freshman engineering seminar, and special topics courses. Silas Leavesley is an assistant professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of South Alabama. Silas holds a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Purdue University and a B.S. in chemical engineering from Florida State University. His research focuses on the application of spectral imaging techniques to ex vivo and in vivo biological samples and the develop ment of novel optical diagnostic tools.

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cessful graduate research, and the apparent failure of written, course-based qualifying exams to provide this evaluation. The resulting one-semester Research Proposition course developed at North Carolina State University employed an applied approach, requiring students to complete a research proposal independent of their thesis adviser. This required students to perform the key steps of graduate research, with the exception of laboratory experimentation (an anticipated results section is used). The proposal is evaluated by a faculty committee in both oral and written formats, with advancement in the Ph.D. program dependent on a successful evaluation. Burrows and Beaudoin later described a graduate research methods course at Arizona State University. While many instructional elements of their course are similar to those described by Ollis, the student assignments and evaluation ments, each focused on a main topic of graduate research methods, instead of completing a single research proposal (as described by Ollis). In addition, the culmination of Burrows and Beaudoins course was a research presentation given by faculty members, in which students were able to critique a well-developed research presentation. In summary, Burrows and Beaudoins course seems to focus more on instructing students in the individual tasks of conducting research, while partly due to a departmental need to decide whether students should advance in the Ph.D. program. Holles reports on a 3-credit hour Theory and Methods of Research course that emphasizes graduate student presenta tions and skills in reading and writing peer-reviewed journal articles. As in the two previous articles, Holless course is for all graduate students. As mentioned, Holless course em the semester devoted to presentation instruction and student presentations. Holless course also includes two weeks of ethics instruction. Similar to Burrows and Beaudoin, Holless course uses different assignments on various aspects of con ducting graduate research, rather than the single, culminating research proposal used by Ollis. laboratory elective course offered at cole Polytechnique de Montral that focuses on teaching graduate students research This course requires stu dents to step through most of the stages in graduate research, from conducting literature surveys, to performing research, to in content and in style to a manuscript for publication. In-fact, Aucoin and Jolicoeur mention that students continued to be involved with course instructors, even after completion of the course, in order to develop a publishable manuscript. While this course does not require students to develop an in-depth proposal (as Ollis does), and possibly does not cover the breadth of research methodology instruction (as Burrows and Beaudoin or Holles do) it does introduce an important aspect of graduate research: laboratory experimentation. Our Approach for Providing Graduate Research Methods and Laboratory Training At the University of South Alabama, we have taken an ap proach that combines many of these elements. While this course was developed prior to publication of Aucoin and Jolicoeurs course, we agree with their assessment that undergraduate education generally does not prepare students for the type of hands-on self-discovery or experimental research that must be conducted at the graduate level. To address these concerns over practical research training of graduate students we have implemented a semester-long graduate elective that requires students to step through all of the basic aspects of a research project, including experimental laboratory work. This elective rent hot topic of chemical engineering research: production of offering focused on production of biodiesel from algae. While similar to Aucoin and Jolicoeurs course in some regards, this course differs in implementation (where students design both the equipment and experimental procedures for the course), in the use of a plant cell line as a biofeedstock, and in the incorporation of subsequent downstream processing steps. Suc cessful completion of the course required graduate students to conduct a literature survey, design laboratory equipment, plan a set of laboratory experiments, keep laboratory notebooks, trouble-shoot experimental protocol, prepare research reports, and iteratively present results before guest faculty. A unique aspect of this approach is that student teams were required to work together to design a series of unit operations to achieve an entire process: from algae growth to lipid extraction to In this paper we present the structure and outcomes of this course, which can easily be applied to alternative research top ics. We also describe the equipment and experimental methods laboratory-scale algae bioreactor, methods for lipid extraction, these practical skills, from learning to use a citation-database to developing calibration protocols for measuring algae cell density, are valuable preparation for thesis research and gradu ate research careers, whether industrial or academic. Graduate Education

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250 MATERIALS AND METHODS Course Description The algae biodiesel course was a three-credit-hour elective offered to students in the Chemical Engineering Masters of Sci three elective courses, in addition to thesis research. Graduate electives are typically offered only once per year, or every other year, allowing some rotation of the electives available to the graduate students. There were no prerequisites for this course, other than graduate standing in the Chemical Engineering department, as this course was intended to be an introductory course for incoming graduate students. The purpose of this course was to satisfy one of the required electives by focusing on a high-interest topic while simultaneously providing a re search and practical laboratory background that would prepare students for their M.S. thesis. This course combined regularly scheduled classroom time mester was mainly in the classroom, with a focus on technical writing (literature survey, research proposal) and presentation skills. As the semester progressed, students spent more of their time in the laboratory and meeting as a team with the instruc tor, and classroom hours were decreased to compensate. This course was co-taught by the authors of the paper, with additional expertise in algae growth provided by Dr. Timothy D. Sherman (Biological Sciences). Classroom instruction was di vided relatively equally between both instructors. Oversight of equipment development and laboratory exercises was divided between algae growth (bioreactor design) and lipid extraction Dr. West the latter. There was no teaching assistant assigned to this course, although in the future, a teaching assistant with Funding for this course was provided by the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department. While most of the equipment needed to perform the lipid extraction and departmental laboratories, equipment for the bioreactor had to be designed and purchased. The total equipment costs for Student Cohort Six graduate students were enrolled in this course, all of class size for chemical engineering graduate courses at the enrollment of six students in this course represented most of These students had yet to begin their thesis research, and one of the primary goals of this course was to provide them with initial training in research and laboratory methods. Course Structure The algae biodiesel course contained several key components: and protocols, 4) technical writing, and 5) presentation skills. Each of these is a necessary skill in graduate research. Students were split into three teams of two students each, researching the following areas: algae growth (bioreactor), lipid extraction, Formal assessments were made during research presenta tions and in each stage of writing the research report (Table nent as they progressed through the course. In essence, the typical Masters thesis in our department, although on a scaled-down level. Literature Survey A literature review was required from each team before teams were allowed to progress to equipment design and experimental planning. Students were initially supplied with several key review papers and instruction was supplied on The grading scale for this class places a high emphasis and developing presentation skills. Weekly Presentations Research Plan Midcourse Report Final Report Final Presentation TABLE 2 The timeline for this graduate laboratory class allows students to walk through the typical steps that are required for performing graduate research. Assignment Weeks (Semester Basis) Literature Survey Equipment/Apparatus Design 3-4 Research Plan 5 Equipment/Apparatus Construction Experiment Execution Midcourse Report Revised Experiment Execution Final Report Final Presentation Graduate Education

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251 appropriate methods to evaluate peer-reviewed literature. Using these as a basis, students conducted a formal literature review, with an emphasis placed on quality, peer-reviewed sources. A standardized textbook was not used for this course, as we wanted to place the emphasis of the literature survey on peer-reviewed publications and recent literature (requiring students to gather information from many sources). To give students a more formalized introduction to plant cell culture, however, supplemental instruction on algae growth was given by a guest lecturer from the Biological Sciences department. Instruction was also given in the use of SciFinder and Google Scholar in conducting a literature review, and in the use of a reference management system. Research Plan Each team of students was required to submit a research plan. This preliminary proposal consisted of the literature survey, a description of experiments to be conducted, the design of any new equipment needed for these experiments, the experimental and safety protocols that would be followed, the independent and dependent parameters of the experiments, and a timeline for completing experiments. An initial proposal team meetings with the course instructors. For example, the initial proposals contained general informationa sketch of the equipment needed, a conceptual overview of how the equipment should operate, major safety concernsbut lacked detailed laboratory procedures, as discussed below. team, teams were required to coordinate amongst each other, as the processes in this course are inter-dependent. This is a common situation in practical research environments. For example, when algae grown by one team was needed for extraction experiments conducted by a different team, the teams were required to submit a plan for how these experi ments would be coordinated. The algae bioreactor took several weeks to design and set up. To allow independent testing of intermediates were provided to these teams. Several types of nuts (cashews, peanuts) with known fat content were used as a substitute for testing the lipid extraction process, while canola oil was used as a substitute for extracted lipids in the set-up and test equipment independently, while coordinating product, biodiesel from algae. Laboratory Procedure and Protocol s While designing equipment and conducting experiments, students followed the experimental procedure and protocols outlined in their research proposal. As discussed above, the initial procedures proposed were very general and often lacked cols were updated and detail was added during meetings with the course instructors. Teams were also given tours of labora tory space and introduced to operating procedures and safety e.g. handling of compressed gasses, use of a heating mantle). While laboratory safety was not an independent objective of this course, it was a required component for every teams procedure, and teams were not allowed to proceed on to experimentation without Once the laboratory procedure was approved, teams were allowed to begin setting up equipment and conducting experi ments. Students were required to keep notes on their experimen tation, although the laboratory notebook was not a graded item for this course. Teams were also required to present updates on their equipment and experimentation during scheduled course meetings, as described in the Presentation Skills section. The goal of this step was that, by the end of the course, each team had compiled a set of experimental protocols that could be followed to repeat the experiments. This was a valuable learning experience for students, as it emphasized the need to keep a detailed laboratory notebook as well as to develop accurate standard operating procedures (SOPs). Both laboratory notebooks and SOPs are important aspects of good laboratory practice (GLP), a critical component of mentioned) in graduate courses. Technical Writing Students were required to submit written reports in three stages: a research plan (including literature survey), a midcourse ing each of these assignments as a manuscript that one could submit for peer review. During the early portion of the semester, in-class instruction was given on key aspects of developing a manuscript, including how to structure the manuscript, how to properly cite other publications (discussed above), and how to met several times with the course instructors to discuss their progress. Each stage of writing was built upon the previous stage. Hence, the mid-course report included the literature survey and proposed equipment design that was presented in the research plan. Teams were assessed and received written feedback for each of the three stages of the written report. The goal of this process was that, by the completion of the course, each team had developed a manuscript in a style and format consistent with a peer-reviewed journal. Presentation Skills Five times during the semester, teams presented their progress to the class. Presentations followed the format of a Graduate Education

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252 each presentation. During the initial portion of the semester teams were given tips on how to develop a technical presenta tion. At several of the presentations, external evaluators were also asked to provide feedback to students. A standard oral evaluation form was used to provide feedback to each student (supplemental material). Laboratory Equipment and Experiments Algae Bioreactor ing algae growth kinetics, and using this data to perform a theoretical reactor scale-up. Students proposed a design ing heat-exchange coil and an external chiller-circulator from Chlamydomonas Resource (Department of Biology, Duke University), was used for these experiments, as it has a weaker cell wall, facilitating lipid extraction. Selection of and of itself and for the purposes of this course was a Tris-acetate phosphate (TAP) nutrient solution and bubbled with a 5% by volume mixture of CO and cycle), temperature, seeding concentration, CO variables, and algae concentration and lipid content as dependent variables. Of these, students selected several independent parameters (light, temperature, CO growth. Algae concentration was measured using count using a hemacytometer (Figure 3). Lipid Extraction Lipid extraction is a key step in the algae biodiesel process. A second student group was assigned the task of comparing multiple methods for lipid extrac tion. Students compared different sample preparation mechanisms (crushing, chopping, freezing) to assess was used with hexane as a positive control (actual lipid content). Lipid content was calculated by a mass Figure 1. Student sketch of the initial algae bioreactor system. Figure 2. Top-view of the nal student-designed algae bioreactor. Algae were grown in two 500 mL gas washing bottles supplied with 5% CO 2 in dry air mixture. A 5-gallon glass tank, partially lled with H 2 O, was used as a constant-temperature bath, with temperature maintained by a chiller-circulator and 3/8 coiled copper tubing used as a heat-exchanger. Light was provided by three full-spectrum, 16 diameter circline uorescent lamps. attributed to loss on the surfaces of preparation containers, as well as possible solvent retention. Due to the lag-time associated with growing an appropriate mass of algae, students initially used other oil-rich biomaterial sources such as cashews and citrus peel to test extraction methods. This provided the students Graduate Education Gas Washing Bottles Outer Tank Circline Fluorescent Lamps Heat Exchange Coil To Heat Exchanger To Circulator 5% CO2in Dry Air Heater Optional) Pump TE Lighting Source Water Basin with Algae Seedlings Carbon Dioxide Nutrients (Fertilizer)

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253 Figure 4. The extraction apparatus consists of a Soxhlet extractor tted with a 500 ml round bottom ask and a Graham condenser. The sample cylinder was placed into the extractor and n-hexane was reuxed in the apparatus to extract the triacylglycerols from the biological matrix. with an experimental means to examine the practical differ ences between processes that are rate-limited vs. those that are equilibrium-limited, a concept that is prevalent in the chemical non-trivial manner. was carried out by a third student group. An acid-catalyzed (H SO 4 denser to prevent methanol vaporization. The thermometer for temperature measurements, and with a septum for withdrawing liquid samples via syringe. Upon sampling, the reac tion was quenched by contacting the sample with a saturated solution of aqueous sodium bicarbonate. After separation of the aqueous and organic layers, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess reac tor products and reaction yield through com parison of the relative amounts of methyl esters and acylglycerols. Independent parameters investigated by the students included heating duty, ratio of lipid to methanol (prior to initiat ing the reaction), and reaction time. As with the lipid extraction team, due to the lag-time associated with growing an appropriate mass of algae, students initially used an alternative lipid source (canola oil) to test different reaction parameters. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this course students carried out all of the major research tasks that are found in a graduate thesis, from literature surveys to experimental planning and execution to report writing and presentation. We believe that requiring students Graduate Education Figure 3. The calibration curve of millions of algae cells as a function of absorbance at 680 nm reveals a non-linear absorbance prole. Figure 5. Transesterication apparatus. The reaction takes place in a 500 ml 3-neck round bottom ask with Teon boiling chips to promote even boiling. The reaction vessel is tted with a Graham condenser to prevent loss of metha nol. Rubber septa allow for the measurement of reaction temperature and for sample collection via syringe. AbsorbanceCells X 106 / mL

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to walk through these steps, during their initial semester(s) in graduate school, has given them a jump start in understanding the research process and being prepared to con duct graduate thesis research. Although the literature review, report writing, and presen tation skills can be covered in core graduate courses, the integration of these skills with experimental planning and laboratory practice is not typically presented in these core classes. Hence, this course provided an opportunity to present an integrated overview of graduate research. The study of biodiesel production from algae is a current hot topic in chemical engi neering research. This topic provided a means to stress the interdisciplinary nature of many chemical engineering research positions. In addition to preparing students for graduate thesis research, we believe that this is a topic that will be of interest to related industries when students begin to seek job opportunities. It should be noted that while this course fo cuses largely on bioreactors and bioproducts, the six students in this program all had a traditional chemical engineering undergraduate background. Of the six students, one continued to pursue a thesis in the biomedical device area. The student workload and tasks varied throughout this course. Early in the semester, students spent most of their time developing the research plan. During this period, we believe that teams devoted an average of three to six hours per week for this course, outside of classroom time. Later in the semester there was a much higher need for laboratory time. Classroom time was also required during this period for teams to write their research reports, making the workload during the latter half of the semester substantial. We believe this workload was a reasonable expectation, however, as most students were en rolled in only one or two other graduate courses at the time and had not begun their thesis research. Of the six students who were enrolled in this class, two eral, there were wide variations in the quality of presentation skills, possibly due to English being a second language for reports. While team scores were assigned for the three written reports, individual scores were assigned for the weekly and in the class was assigned equally for the team, but enough of an individual score was also assigned to allow differentiation between students within a team. Hence, a student could fail a course such as this, but to do so would require a combination of poor individual and team performance (which could eas ily occur if, for example, a student had poor attendance and participation in team experiments and meetings). Similarly, for a student to receive a high score in this class requires a combination of excellent team and individual performance. It should be noted that there was a fair amount of variation in the team dedication to achieving quality, and reproducible, results. Some teams were very concerned with achieving reproducible results and performed many runs of experiments, while others felt that this was less important. countered numerous obstacles that are representative of real graduate research. For example, discovering that autoclaving (sterilizing) algae cell culture medium and growth vessels will prevent mold growth was a valuable lesson and served as an introduction in good laboratory practice (GLP), a necessary training component in pharmaceutical and biomedical product industries. A second example came as students encountered the need to quantify the ratio of live-to-dead algae cells, which required them to research and develop a protocol for live-dead staining. In retrospect, this type of interdisciplinary research course will proceed much more smoothly if carried out in the prox imity of quality cell biology and analytical chemistry labora tories. Many specialized pieces of equipment were required Graduate Education Figure 6. Algae growth curves (batch 6, bottles A and B) display charac teristic lag, exponential growth, and decay regions. A 4th-order sigmoidal curve is t for demonstration purposes only. 020406080100120140160180 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 6A 6B

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255 Figure 7. The research hot topic for this course may easily be altered by following these steps. for this course, and these are not always found in the same location (autoclave, biological safety cabinet, chemical fume hood, phase-contrast microscope, absorbance spectrometer, NMR). We suggest coordinating development of a course of this nature with lab managers of respective cell biology and analytical laboratories to ensure that all of the necessary equipment is available. algae, combined with the inherent error in mass measurements and mass losses during processing, leads to a large uncertainty in closing the mass balance. Hence, in future course offer ings, we recommend increasing the volume of algae grown algae for use in the extraction process. Whether this volume increase is achieved by multiple parallel reactors, or through one large-volume bioreactor, will be left up to future students to determine. The design and execution of the algae bioreactor was highly successful, both for the growth of algae and as a learning tool. The student team proposed a bioreactor design after studying pertinent literature and previous bioreactor de eral revisions of this design (with instructor feedback), before they were approved to construct the bioreactor using a hemacytometer and subsequently established an absorbance method to relate cell concentration to seen to follow the lag, exponential growth, and decay Objective assessment of laboratory courses is a grow ing concern for many engineering programs, especially at the graduate level, where assessment is often based on general perceptions of student competency, com to quantify. Hence, we plan to develop and implement course offerings. Feisel and Rosa provide an in-depth discussion of engineering laboratory assessment and graduate engineering laboratory courses. We plan to incorporate evaluation of some of these objectives into ment, data analysis, design, and learning from failure) cised in several areas, along with aspects of design, as students were asked to propose and design portions of the equipment needed in this course. Finally, Objective and execution of experiments and through written and oral direct method for team assessment, as teamwork can be a criti cal component of graduate research. We also plan to develop learning objectives that can be used to effectively assess the taxonomical skills required of graduate engineering students (analysis, synthesis, evaluation). In general, we believe that students found this course useful for providing an overview of the graduate research process. The instructors for this course served as thesis advisors for three of the six students enrolled in providing an overview of the research process, and addi to students prior to beginning their thesis research (methods for performing the literature search, citation databases, how to write a standard operating procedure, etc.). Finally, we believe that this course offers a framework that outlines the steps involved in selecting an appropriate topic, Graduate Education

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256 working through some of the logistics of determining the complexity of a potential topic, identifying appropriate faculty expertise, and identifying the equipment needed to teach the course. The course could focus on experimental design, using of equipment design as well, as this course did in the design of the algae bioreactor. While course expenses are a concern for many programs, it should be remembered that the funda mental steps of many potential processes require relatively basic equipment to perform at a laboratory scale. CONCLUSIONS We have developed a graduate elective emphasizing re search methodology and laboratory practice, centered on the theme of producing biodiesel from algae. Six M.S. chemical engineering students were enrolled in this course, split into course has been highly successful, providing the opportunity for students to perform each of the steps contained in a tradi tional thesis research topic. Student teams successfully devel oped equipment and experimental methods for algae growth, dents received feedback on numerous aspects of this course, research: literature review, experimental planning, laboratory protocols, technical writing, and oral presentations. Students were enthusiastic about this work, and achieved a high level of progress within the limited timeframe of a single semester. Biodiesel production proved to be an excellent research area for this course, although this course structure could easily be adapted to alternative research areas as well. FUTURE WORK We plan to offer graduate electives with similar course may change, we hope to improve on several areas of the course in future offerings. First, this course could be improved with additional course advisors in areas of specialization relating to the research topic. In planning this algae biodiesel course, Dr. Timothy D. Sherman (Biological Sciences, University of South Alabama) offered invaluable advice as to the growth of algae and design of algae bioreactors. A method to more formally (administratively) incorporate and compensate future courses. Second, as mentioned above, courses of this service laboratories, in this case cell biology and analytical chemistry. If available, interaction of core managers with graduate students will be an additional aspect of graduate research training. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Dr. Timothy D. Sherman for his contribution to the technical content of this course, for his help in identifying algal strains and algae bioreactors appropriate for these experiments, and for serving as an external evaluator in portions of this course. We would also like to thank Drs. lar Engineering, University of South Alabama), for serving as external evaluators for oral presentations. Finally, we would like to thank all of the graduate students who participated in REFERENCES Chem. Eng. Ed. riculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 3. Ollis, D., The Research Proposition, Chem. Eng. Ed., 29 ods, Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 5. Chisti, Y., Biodiesel from Microalgae, Biotechnology Advances 25 Biore source Technology 70 Energy Policy 35 () The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook: Introduction to Chlamydomonas and its Laboratory Use Their Sequence in the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain of Chlamydomonas Reinhardi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 54 Fuel ate Engineering Education, J. Eng. Ed. 94 Graduate Education

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I n the last few decades, cognitive scientists have made significant progress toward understanding how and under what conditions the brain takes in and stores in formationor in other words, what facilitates and hinders learning. Few university instructors are taught any cognitive science before or after they join a faculty, however, and they consequently default to teaching the way they were taught, regularly doing things that interfere with learning and failing to do things that promote it. Fortunately, a growing number of books now exist that translate the often dense jargon of understand, and apply. A particularly good recent translation is How Learning Works instructional principles that come directly from cognitive research and their implications for teaching practice. Here are some highlights. Students prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. Most information taken in through the senses either lost, with only a relatively small percentage being retained in long-term memory. The odds that students will retain new information increase if the information is explicitly linked to their previous knowledge. Also, students often come to our courses with misconceptions about what we are teaching. If we fail to convince them otherwise, they may learn to parrot our statements of the concepts on exams but their faith in the misconceptions will remain unshaken. Principle P2: how they learn and apply what they know. A big difference between experts and novices is that experts have organized their knowledge into patterns and novices have not. When experts encounter a new problem, their mental organization enables them to quickly adopt an effective strategy for prob through randomly selected strategies. Principle P3: Students motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. Motivation to learn in a course increases if students believe the course is about things they care about and skills they will need, and if they think they have a good chance to succeed. Principle P4: To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned. Principle P5: Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students learning. Stu dents learn problem-solving strategies and improve skills by initially attempting small tasks that require the strategies and Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University. He is coauthor of Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous articles on chemical process engineering and engineering and science education, and regularly presents workshops on ef fective college teaching at campuses and conferences around the world. Many of his publications can be seen at
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skills, getting feedback on their attempts, trying again with better results, and gradually moving to increasingly complex problems. Their improvement is accelerated if they fully understand the instructors learning goals and the feedback they get is clearly related to the targeted skills. Students current level of development in teracts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning. Good courses challenge students to question and revise their conceptual understanding and beliefs on the basis of the best available evidence. Their ability to rise to that challenge depends heavily on whether the class climate is supportive (the students feel accepted and safe, even when their ideas are being challenged), chilly (they feel they are anonymous and their ideas are irrelevant or unacceptable), or hostile (they feel marginalized because of their race, gender, or beliefs, or they perceive the instructor as an adversary rather than a source of support). Students in a supportive climate are much more likely than students in chilly and hostile climates to achieve the instructors learn personal and professional identity. Principle P7: To become self-directed learners, students must learn to assess the demands of the task, evaluate their own knowledge and skills, plan their approach, monitor their progress, and adjust their strategies as needed. Metacogni shown to promote cognitive skill development. The following instructional strategies collectively address Gather information about their prior knowledge, skill levels, interests, and goals. Link mate rial you are teaching to something they already know from previous courses or personal experience, and when possible, to something they care about. Connect abstract theories and concepts in the course to familiar real-world problems and applications. Run or simulate experiments that address com mon misconceptions, ask the students to predict the outcomes, they were wrong. Make your learn ing goals challenging but attainable by most of the students in your class. Write detailed learning objectives that spell calculate, model, critique, design,) if they have acquired the knowledge and skills you are trying to help them develop, and share your objectives with the students. (Putting them in study guides for exams is an effective way to get the students to pay attention to them.) Make sure your exams are clearly tied to your learning objectives, lessons, and assignments. Teach and test at a level that is challenging but not too far above the students current knowledge and skill levels. Identify tasks that students assignments to provide practice and feedback in the required skills, and then move to problems that require combining the skills and broadening their range of applicability. Show themor better, get them to create graphic organizers and concept maps for subjects you are teaching them. Have them formulate solution strategies before beginning to work on new problems, and when they complete several good and bad examples of both processes. Learn and use students names and encourage them to inter act with you in and out of class. Make clear that alternative viewpoints and approaches may be challenged in your class but not disrespected. Avoid using language that could be viewed as stereotyping or disrespecting students and challenge any stereotyping or disrespectful or discriminatory language directed by any students toward classmates. Make your tests challenging but fair, test only on what you have taught, and allow enough time for most students to complete the tests and check their solutions. Collect anonymous student feedback in mid-term evaluations and investigate and respond to any complaints related to class climate. If you are a good teacher you may be scratching your head now, wondering why were bothering to suggest these things you already know and may have been doing for years. Its true that theres nothing novel about the recommended strategies; what is new is that besides having extensive empirical and theoretical support for them, we now know that they have solid foundations in brain science. Our hope is that the brief sampling of ideas in this column will induce you to get a copy of How Learning Works in the brain that makes the strategies work as well as they do, and use that knowledge to sharpen your implementation of the strategies and make them even more effective at promoting your students learning and intellectual development. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at

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259 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Keith Marchildon is a retired DuPont Fel low and recipient of DuPonts Pedersen Medal. He assists at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, with nal-year TEAM (Technology, Engineering, and Man agement) student projects and with a gradu ate-level mathematical modeling course. His survey of the Polyamides is a feature article in the 2011 January issue of Macromolecular Reaction Engineering He is a graduate of McGill University. He may be reached at keith.marchildon@sympatico.ca. FROM LEARNING TO EARNING: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide This column provides examples of cases in which students have gained knowledge, insight, and experience in the practice of chemical engineering while in an industrial setting. Summer internships and co-op assignments typify such experiences; however, reports of more unusual cases are also welcome. Description of the analytical tools used and the skills developed during the project should be emphasized. These examples should stimulate innovative approaches to bring real-world tools and experiences back to campus for integration into the curriculum. Please ChE learning in industry F out around the chemical engineering department at Chemical En gineering Education magazine have resulted in a few thoughts about the formation and training of chemical engineers. Any engineering curriculum deals with a remarkable challenge: to take a high-school student, usually after one year of general engineering, and, in three years, turn that individual into a functioning professional. Given that professional licensure usually requires a few years of practice, the typically narrow scope of such experience means that systematic education has had to have been done back in engineering school. Few if any other professions attempt to do so much in so short a time. In chemical, as in all the engineerings, the challenge is met by a carefully designed curriculum, which is different from school to school but which generally adheres to a standard pattern of courses, content, and sequence. This curriculum is widely accepted by the major stake-holders: the students, their employers, the educators, and society at large. Examples of chemical engineering undergraduate curricula at four universi ties have been presented in the last few years. Change is proposed from time to time by the various groups but it is often in divergent directions. The educators, who are the people who would have to make the changes, point to the already crowded curriculum and to the fact that they themselves have only limited time to make improvements to something that they consider to be already working quite well or at least well enough. With that background in mind, here are three suggestions for the chemical engineering curriculum, followed by some ideas for implementation. The suggestions are aimed at preparation for the chemical and related process industries: while students may have management as a goal they realize that success in the technical work for which they were hired is the likeliest route to wider responsibilities. KEITH MARCHILDON

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260 INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEXITY book Transport Phenomena, they crystallized the centrality of these phenomena as the underlying basis of all chemical engineering. The three balance equationsfor momentum, for heat, and for mass (incorporating reaction as a source term)are, to chemical engineering, the equivalent of Max wells equations to electrical engineering and Newtons three laws of motion to mechanical engineering. When we train our graduates to think like chemical engineers, we mean that they are to view the processes of industry and nature in terms of these three phenomena. We believe that this fundamental approach is the path to understanding, improvement, and invention in chemical operations. The problem arises when the graduate is confronted with the actual operations of industry, where there is complex interac tion and where the complexity is hidden behind a mass of steel and insulation. The clean individuated concepts of academia seem impossible to apply and this impression is abetted by old hands telling the young engineer that this is the real world and that we dont use much theory around here. One way to prepare the graduate for this upcoming shock is to introduce analyses of complexity into the instruction, either as participatory classroom exercises or as assignments. Cast them into the form of what happens when two or more transport phenomena act at the same time, either in the form of a design study or as a trouble-shooting inquiry. Make the course is Heat Transfer, present a situation where both heat see, say, four such analyses over the course of study it would strengthen their resolve to carry the fundamental approach over into the bear-pit of industrial practice. Examples are not hard to come by. They may be imaginatively constructed or they may come from the experience of academic and industrial colleagues. Several books on process analysis and trouble-shooting have case studiessee for example the texts by Saletan, Woods, and Lieberman. Course time may be harder to come by, but it can be argued that it is better to of the graduate actually using what has been taught. There is a related but separate benefit. Custodians of curricula are always conscious of the high desirability of incorporating a Design or Synthesis component, in which students have the opportunity to use their received knowledge. But this exercise in Process Synthesis is time-consuming contrast, exercises in Process Analysis, as described above, and at more points in the course of study. There could be an optimal combination of the two approaches. One of the hurdles with actual industrial processes is that, with the best will in the world, the engineer lacks the data to create a quantitative fundamental description of what is going on. Consequently, the acquisition of data by both standard and specialized methods is an accompanying skill of great value, to be taught probably in a course on process monitoring and control. Finally, on the subject of analyzing complex processes, recourse is often had to the use of statistical correlations, e.g. of process outputs with process inputs. These methods can provide a lot of insight into the overall operation and they can guide optimization and process changes. They can also be a sign-post to the internal workings of the operation. They are not, however, a substitute for the fundamental understanding, in terms of transport phenomena, which alone can produce major improvements and inventions in processes. FRONT-LINE & SUPPORTING KNOWLEDGE: A NEW COURSE INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE When employers of chemical engineers put communica tion and teamwork at the top of the list of desirable skills and put technical knowledge further down the list, then we know that there is a disconnect between the employer and the university. It sometimes appears that graduates are valued more for having passed their courses than for what they have learned from the courses. We may conclude that one or both of two conditions apply 1) the employer does not understand (perhaps has never understood) the value that the graduates fundamental know-how can bring to the enterprise, and 2) the university has overlooked or under-taught some skills and knowledge that would help the new graduate be more effective in the employers service. who needs to make a case for applying fundamentals, with successful results that open the eyes of the employer. Hope fully the above described training in analyzing complexity will be of some help in making this happen. People entrusted with the formation of chemical engineers understanding of momentum, heat, and mass transfer. Ability to communicate and to work as part of a team are important skills and generally are addressed in the curriculum. There are several others, as are listed below. Sometimes they get taught as part of a process design course, but this unfortunately takes time away from the actual design experience. There are others that are not taught at all because they are part of some other discipline. If a group of students, industrialists, and academics were asked to suggest useful skills and know-how, they would come up with a formidable list. Some are already covered ( e.g. teamwork as part of group assignments); a

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261 lot of others could constitute a new course, perhaps called Industrial Practice. This is a course that would precede the project of the Process Design course, with the latter drawing on many of the elements of the new course. Here are some possible topics. Communications: often taught as a course in its own right. Desired outcomes are ability to write a letter or other docu ment that is clear and gets to the point, ability to speak up and deliver a message verbally, and ability to think on ones feet, answer questions, and defend ones position. Graphical are a considerable asset. Teamwork: best taught by practice. A lecture would be help ful on group dynamics and on the planning and scheduling of a group effort. A good outcome is the ability to be a productive member of a team and also an idea of how to lead a team. Economics: capital cost and operating cost, understanding of the expendi ture approval procedure, and knowledge of how to calculate indicators such as net present value, return on investment, Documentation: knowing the purpose of and knowing how to prepare the standard engineering transmittal documents are the desired outcomes. These documents consist of process tions for monitoring and control systems, initial piping and draft of applications for environmental permits. Instruction might start with learning to read existing such documents. Sources of information: ance on accessing the vast amount of literature on technical, economic, and relevant social topics. The outcome is ability general appreciation of the books and journals that support lifelong learning and personal professional development. Common process equipment: some things are ubiquitous across almost all processes and are encountered early in a chemical engineers career. These items include pumps, vessels and mixers, process measuring devices, simple process controllers, and simple heat exchangers. An outcome would be to develop a level of familiarity with these devices beyond and process control. Process simulators: the student may have the opportunity to use a commercial general-purpose process simulator in the Process Design course and, later, may have (or press to have) the use of a simulator with an employer. The outcome is to learn the capabilities and limitations of the current programs on the market. Safety and health: outcomes are knowledge of the major consequences of mishaps. Environmental considerations: one outcome is knowing the applications of chemical engineering to remediation. An other is knowing how various types of waste are dealt with regardless of method, and knowing the legal consequences of non-sanctioned releases to earth, water, or atmosphere. Plant services: as an outcome, understanding something about the provision of such auxiliaries as air, water, steam, electricity, etc. Other engineerings: outcomes are introductory know-how in such areas as Electrical motors, sub-stations, in-plant power distribu tion, control cabinets, data transmission Mechanical drive trains, vessels, steam plants, piping stress Civil hydraulics of environmental and other systems Metallurgical materials of construction, corrosion Operation of plants: the outcome is an understanding of how plants and their people work. The engineer acquires a picture of who does what. He or she learns that there are typi cally people engaged in supervision, operation, maintenance, technical support, accounting, etc., and learns what to expect from them and how to interface with them. or plant. There are undoubtedly many more items that an employer or a new employee would like to see. Most of these topics can be covered in a lecture or two because the intended graduate more useful and impressive to the employer, and serves as an ongoing source of information during a whole technical career. An extensive set of online supplementary Who will teach such an eclectic mixture of topics? Al though the ideal would be one person, help from other de partments or from outside the university may be necessary. But the overall content needs to be controlled and, most importantly, everything has to be potential material for the examination. One notable omission from the topic list is the subject of Ethics and Integrity, an issue that stands above any of the ones listed. Because of its over-riding status it needs to be treated not only separately but also continuously over the course of the engineering program. A good and immediately applicable starting point is consideration of academic honesty on the part of students and teachers.

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262 TASK-DRIVEN TECHNOLOGIES Schools teach technologies but companies have tasks. The company is interested in a technology only insofar as it performs a task. Thus, the school teaches distillation but the company has a liquid mixture to separate and it cares for distillation only if it turns out to be the best way to carry ment course, my colleague David Mody and I attempted to organize the technology-vs.-task matrix by tabulating the needs that arise in chemical processes and then surveying the technologies available to meet them. With the help of several Tasks in Chemical Process Design Liquid-solids mixture (slurries) Gas-liquid mixture Solidsrobust/friable/dusty Gases Gas with solid Gas with liquid Gas with aerosols 4. Solids Processing Size reduction Size enlargement Solids formation Coating 5. Heating, Cooling, and Phase Change Condensation (single/miscible/immiscible component) Miscible liquids Solids in liquid Immiscible liquids Solid particles with each other Gas and liquid Solid particles and gas Liquid and liquid Gas and solid Solid and liquid Liquid and solid Gas and liquid Permanent gases Solid-in-liquid solution Fluid-in-solid solution Solid solution Liquid mixture Gas phase Fluid-solid (non-catalytic) Liquid phase Solid-catalyzed (in gas, liquid, or gas-liquid medium) Gas-liquid Biochemical Immiscible liquids Solid phase

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263 Some instructors will be unhappy that there is time for only qualitative presentation of some of these technologies but could note that in many other disciplines in the university this is always the case and it still gets dealt with at examina tion time. IMPLEMENTATION: TOWARDS A (SOMEWHAT) REARRANGED CURRICULUM One or another of the above proposals may catch the eye of a curriculum-minded individual or perhaps a university department in the midst of curriculum review. Here are a few suggestions on implementation, which may actually lead to action. of complexity, is weakened if the treatments of the individual transport phenomena and of reaction are fully compartmental ized. The idea is to examine systems where two or more of these actions are occurring and interacting. The instructors in the individual subjects need to cooperate. For instance, if mass transfer is taught after momentum and heat transfer, then, to achieve the result, the mass transfer instructor has to be will ing to devote some course time to a joint example/exercise involving the other two transfers. Practice, comprising industry-oriented supporting topics, is TABLE 3 Task: Molecular Separation Technologies Permanent Gases Cryogenic distillation Adsorption Membrane permeation Gas-vapor Mixture Condensation Absorption Adsorption Distillation Absorption Adsorption Membrane permeation Liquid Mixture Distillation Stripping Extraction Adsorption Membrane permeation Melt crystallization Liquid Solution (contain ing a dissolved solid) Solution crystallization Ion exchange Reverse osmosis Dialysis Solid Solution (all solid or containing a dissolved Drying Leaching Melt crystallization TABLE 2 Task: Mechanical Separation Technologies Liquid and Liquid Decantation or Settling Coalescence Centrifugation Solid and Solid Screening Magnetic attraction Electrostatic precipitation Gas and Liquid Gravity settling Inertial precipitation (de-misting, scrubbing) Gas and Solid Gravity settling Scrubbing Filtration Electrostatic precipitation Liquid and Solid Sedimentation centrifugation Filtration Settling Flotation Expression Wicking available for these tasks and situations. By way of example, technologies. For the general task of Molecular Separation, Table 3 shows available technologies or methods. What is immediately obvious is that, while some of these methods ( e.g. distillation, absorption) are generally taught in some detail, others are completely ignored, even to the point that teacher and student may not know what they are. Subjects like Solids Processing, Mixing and Agitation, and Mechanical Separation are often not taught at all. And yet the his or her way may well be in these areas. What is also obvious is that there is not enough time or space in the curriculum to thoroughly explore all of these technologies. A more realistic objective is simply to introduce them to the student, explaining 1) what they are and how they work 2) under what conditions they are appropriate 3) what the key questions or calculations are. that are traditionally taught can be given more attention. The new graduate is in the position of a general practitio ner in medicine, the front line person who needs to know enough of the whole range of conditions and treatments to be able to deal directly or to hand off to the correct specialist.

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This is a course that will be popular with students, who can see sors and they may be willing to assist. Professors, themselves, may take pleasure in developing new expertise to teach some of the material: good references are Lieberman and Lieber man and Ludwig. Timing of the course is ideally in the term immediately preceding the Process Design course. Proposal #3, the survey of Task-Driven Technologies, calls for a great widening of the subject material being taught, raising the controversial issue of depth vs. breadth. The issue ration: Wankat presented a list of such methods similar to proposition is made that it is more important to understand the capability and behavior of a technology than to be able to design a unit to carry out the technology. If that premise is accepted, then the learning experience can be greatly widened and accelerated by student experimentation with dedicated mathematical models, of which there must be many suitable candidates in the great treasury of simple simulators developed by academics over the years. Another aid is a good suite of online supporting notes. Laboratory experiments can also help. The material could be taught during years one and Phenomena. Prior to dealing with individual technologies certain underlying concepts would have to be taught, such as and operating lines, and equilibrium-vs.-rate. But some of the current more mathematical aspects would be deferred. presenting the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings, i.e. very simply, the proposal reverses the traditional sequence Table 4 summarizes the way in which these curriculum CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions sum up what is being sug gested. 1. The chemical engineering undergradu ate curriculum should be viewed as a work in progress, capable of and meriting continuous improvement. 2. Process analysis, as a complement to pro cess synthesis, should be considered as a teaching tool. 3. Composite, multi-topic courses, such as the proposed Industrial Practice course, have a place: not every topic requires a full or half course of its own. be a better sequence, particularly as a preparation for the process design course. 5. The balance between breadth and depth needs serious thought. 6. Persons outside the university can supplement the efforts of faculty. content, not just in the sequencing of courses and the assignment of instructors. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Friends on the staff of the chemical engineering department at Queens University have been patient with my curriculum musings. Barrie Jackson and Don Robinson, two helpers like myself, have sharpened my thinking. An article by Professor Felder reinforced some thoughts about the issue of depth vs. breadth. REFERENCES University of Sherbrooke, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 University, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3. Sung, N., and D. Ryder, ChE at Tufts University, Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 4. Faculty and staff, Chemical Engineering at The University of North Dakota, Chem. Eng. Ed. 44 5. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena Creative Troubleshooting in the Chemical Process In dustries Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers: A Complete Course in Case Studies Trouble Shooting Process Operations professional development course, EPIC Educational Program Innova Working Guide to Process Equip ment Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Chem. Eng. Ed. 35 Chem. Eng. Ed. 42 TABLE 4 New and Re-arranged Material for the Curriculum Fall Term Winter Term One Task-driven technologies Two Task-driven technologies Task-driven technologies, INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE course Three PROCESS DESIGN course, Chemical engineering science: Transport phenomena and other fundamentals Chemical engineering science

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265 S ustainability is a vital issue for the long-term, healthy development of human society. As the United Na tions pointed out, We cannot carry on depleting natural resources and polluting the earth. The principal aim of sustainable development is to achieve progress on all frontseconomy, environment, and society. The chemical industry, like other manufacturing industries, has been fac ing tremendous challenges due to economic globalization, environmental pressure, natural resource depletion, etc. The industry fully recognizes its commitment to product steward ship and sustainable development. Echoing the industrial need and societys expectation, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology for program accreditation states: Engineering programs must demonstrate that their students attain an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability. ronmental management to systems designcoming up with solutions that integrate environmental, social, and economic factors to radically reduce the use of resources while increas ing health, equity, and quality of life for all stakeholders. SUSTAINABILITY EDUCATION CHALLENGES material and energy processes in various systems of interest to minimize the need to extract materials and energy from the earth and to reduce any impact to the environment and society. Sustainability is a concept, a process, and a practice very dif ferent from traditional chemical process engineering in terms EDUCATION MODULES FOR TEACHING SUSTAINABILITY in a Mass and Energy Balance Course KAI LIANG ZHENG 1 DOYLE P. BEAN JR. 1 HELEN H. LOU 1 THOMAS C. HO 1 AND YINLUN HUANG 2 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Helen H. Lou received a B.S. degree from Zhejiang University in 1993, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Wayne State University in 1998 and 2001, respectively, all in chemical engineering, and a M.A. degree in computer science from Wayne State University in 2001. She is currently an associate professor in the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical En gineering, Lamar University. Her research has been mainly focused on sustainable engineering, process systems engineering, process safety, and combustion. Kai Liang Zheng received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 2006 and a dual degree of Bachelor minor in English in 2007 from Dalian University of Technology, China. He is currently a graduate student under the guidance of Professo r Helen H. Lou in the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University. D.J. Bean obtained his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from La mar University in May 2010, and began pursuing his Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Yale University in September 2010. His research areas as an undergraduate student focused on sustainability, environmental engineering, and green chemistry. Thomas Ho received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from National Taiwan University in 1973, his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in chemical engineering, from Kansas State University in 1978 and 1982, respectively. He is currently a Regents Professor and the Chair of the Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering at Lamar University. His research has been mainly on uidization, combustion/incineration, metal emissions control, and air quality modeling. Yinlun Huang is a professor of chemical engineering and materials science and the Charles H. Gershenson Distinguished Faculty Fellow at Wayne State University. His main research areas include multiscale complex systems science and engineering, engineering sustainability, and integrated material, product, and process systems engineering. He obtained his B.S. degree from Zhejiang University, China, in 1982, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Kansas State University, in 1988 and 1992, respectively. He joined Wayne State University in 1993, after his postdoctoral research at the University of Texas at Austin. ChE curriculum of scope, content, and spatial/temporal aspects. Four types of sustainability systems have been recognized, which range : Type I systems address global concerns or problems, such as global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion; Type II systems are characterized by geographical boundaries, such Type III systems are

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266 businesses that strive to be sustainable; and systems, the smallest in the hierarchy, refer to sustainable technologies that are designed to provide economic value through clean It is worth pointing out that the course of material and en ergy balances in most chemical engineering programs today focuses on balance calculations associated with a process of singleor multiple-process units, such as distillation columns and heat transfer units, systems in the sustainability hierarchy. Clearly, more complete education addressing sustainability should be incorporated into mass and energy balance coursework. It is thus essential to develop the corresponding educational materials and peda gogical methods for this purpose. In this paper, we introduce several educational modules for addressing the sustainability issues, focusing on mass and energy balance calculations in systems ranging from global to geographical scales. As part of this effort, life cycle aspects of products and renewable en provided as follows. This work can be incorporated in a mass and energy balance course, which is usually taken by sopho more students. The modules consist of a set of lecture notes The instructor can either assign the problems as homework to the students, or use them as illustrative examples during the lecture. Depending on the length of the lecture, the instructors the problems. The problems in each module are presented in the following sections. Module 1: Global Carbon and Sulfur Cycles (Type I System Earth) Natural cycles of important elements, including the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, are critical to envi ronmental sustainability. In this module, students learn how to perform material balance calculations to realize the global impacts of human activities on nature. A. Carbon cycle The U.S. Climate Change Science Program reports that the increase in atmospheric CO emissions from human ac tivities is the largest factor contributing to climate change. gigatons of carbon per year are emitted due to misuse of lands through activities such as deforestation. According to the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the mass of the gigatons) air. Assume that an average global increase in atmospheric carbon in the atmosphere is contained in carbon dioxide. Much of the various sinks on the earth, i.e. on the land and in the water. is absorbed by trees for photosynthesis, 34 wt% of this carbon is either consumed by non-tree vegetation or accumulated in the soil, and the rest of the carbon is deposited into oceans, lakes, and rivers. With this information, we are able to develop the following challenging problems for students. Questions: sphere into oceans, lakes, and rivers? (b) If human society could reduce the amount of carbon emitted annually by fossil fuel combustion by 30%, would be the global change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration annually? Solution: (a) To have a better understanding of the problem, de Question (a) asks for calculation of m (gigatons of carbon per year, or Gt C/yr). Problem solving i.e. to derive the value of m 4 through a mass balance calculation, the wateroceans, lakes, and rivers). More detailed calculations are as follows. A basic carbon mass balance in the atmo sphere is C acc = C in out The carbon generation and consumption terms are destroyed. The carbon accumulation (C acc ), input (C in ), and output (C out ) terms are to be determined using the information given in the problem statement. C in = m 3 C acc = m air x [kg CO 4 ( i.e. C out ) can be evaluated as: m 4 = C out = C in C acc (4)

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sphere to the earth has the following basic mass balance: C in = C out (5) i.e. m 4 = m 5 to the wateroceans, lakes, and riverscan be readily obtained as follows. m = m 4 5 (b) The annual global change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration can be evaluated through another atmospheric carbon mass balance calculation. Note that the amount of car bon emitted due to misuse of lands ( e.g. deforestation) ( i.e. variable m 3 out of the atmosphere ( i.e. m 4 ) has been derived in part (a). It is assumed that the amount of carbon emitted annually by fossil fuel combustion ( i.e. m information, the atmospheric accumulation of carbon can be re-calculated, with the stated assumption that all atmospheric carbon is in carbon dioxide. Thus, we can convert the carbon accumulation directly to carbon dioxide accumulation and C acc = (m 3 4 44 [g CO CO 44 [g CO Since the mass of the atmosphere is given, i.e. M air if the emissions by human activities are reduced CO ) Note that a similar problem was developed by Allen and Shonnard in the textbook Green Engineering Chapter B. Sulfur Cycle The modern global sulfur cycle differs quite dra matically from the pre-industrial sulfur cycle due to the large portion of anthropogenic sulfur added to the (next page) illustrates The illustration shows three distinct control volumes: atmosphere, land, and water. Human mining and extrac tion, as well as industrial emissions, are the main sources of man-made sulfur emissions to the atmosphere. Sulfur gas emissions from plants, volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide, biogenic sulfur gas emissions, and sea salt from wind and wave action contribute as the main sources of natural atmospheric sulfur compounds. The atmospheric sulfur compounds can deposit over land and water, and those sulfur compounds in the ocean can form solid that follow. Figure 1. Mass balance owchart derived from the Carbon Cycle.

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Questions: process using blocks and arrows. Use three blocks to represent the control volumes: one for atmosphere, one for land, and one for bodies of water. Use arrows to repre volumes, labeling each stream with its stream name and the variables for streams with (b) Calculate the annual accumu atmosphere. (c) Calculate the annual accu bodies of water. Solution: authors and shown in Figure 3. c) Sulfur balance on water Industrial Ecological System (Type II System) Using AIChE Sustainability Metrics The second module is the mass and entities in an industrial ecosystem. in a larger scope (Type II regional level). AIChE Sustainability Met rics is a method widely adopted in the chemical industries in the United States. It consists of: (i) Mass Intensity Metrics (including Total Mass Used/$ Used/Mass of Product Sold); (ii) En ergy Intensity Metrics (including Total of Product Sold, and Total BTUs Conversion Energy Consumed/Mass of Product Sold); (iii) Pollutant Met rics (including Greenhouse Gas Metric, Photochemical and Eutrophication Metric); (iv) Human Health Metric; and (v) Ecotoxicity Metric. This problem utilizes the AIChE mass intensity product sold, as a method for environmental sustain Figure 2. Illustration of the Sulfur Cycle. [10] Material Flow Information Base Case Base Case 3.5 f33 f44 f53 f35 f54 f45

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269 Figure 3. Mass balance owchart derived from the Sulfur Cycle. the material intensity metric the better, since the material where the larger the better. Figure 4 displays the variables used in the component-based whereas the initial electroplating network consists of two chemical suppliers shops (H3 and H4), and two end users (in this case, two original equipment manufacturers (OEM) for the automo situation within the given industrial network using the mass intensity metric: Questions: (a) What is the mass intensity for each of the individual (b) What is the mass intensity for the overall system as a whole? (c) If chemical supplier 2 (H2) improves process ef enhance their in-plant zinc recycling technologies, thereby improving their internal recycle capabilities and thus reducing their waste generation, how will the mass intensity for each of the entities and the overall system change? Calculate and compare with the base given in Table 1. Solution:

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Similarly, we can calculate the mass intensity for other individual entities. For H3, For H4, lbs/yr) For H5, HZnz Znz (Chemical Supplier H(Chemical Supplier H5(Automotive OEM H(Automotive OEM Zn py Zn py Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy H3(Plating Shop H4(Plating Shop Product Zn wy Zn wy Waste Suppliers (Chemicals) Tier I Manufacturing (Metal Plating) OEM Manufacturing (Automotive Assembly)Znf Znf33 Znf53 Znf35 Znf Znf44 Znf Znf Znf45 Znf54 ZnfHZnz Znz (Chemical Supplier H(Chemical Supplier H5(Automotive OEM H(Automotive OEM Zn py Zn py Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy Zn wy H3(Plating Shop H4(Plating Shop Product Zn wy Zn wy Waste Suppliers (Chemicals) Tier I Manufacturing (Metal Plating) OEM Manufacturing (Automotive Assembly)Znf Znf33 Znf53 Znf35 Znf Znf44 Znf Znf Znf45 Znf54 Znf Figure 4. Schematic diagram of the variables used in the component-based electroplating supply network. [12]

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(c) Similar to the above two questions, substituting the flow rates for the modified case into the equations for mass in tensity produces the mass intensity values as shown Module 3: Mass Balance Throughout a Sustainability is critical to understanding the mass and industrial entities throughout the life cycle of product(s). A schematic of mass and energy of a product (adopted from Graedel and Allenbys book ) is presented in Figure 5. In this module, stu indicator, to quantify the sustainability of each step in the products life cycle. The formula is this: = Mass of the Product/ Total Mass of the Input Assignment: (a) Calculate the mass ef the products life cycle shown in Figure 5a. Note that this case study and Figure 5a were devel oped based on Ginleys work of the numerical values. Material Extraction and Production Manufacture and Assembly Use & Service End of life Management Resource Resource Resource Resource Waste Waste Waste Reuse Remanufacture Recycle Waste Recycle for Other Industry Material Extraction and Production Manufacture and Assembly Use & Service End of life Management Resource Resource Resource Resource Waste Waste Waste Reuse Remanufacture Recycle Waste Recycle for Other Industry Figure 5. Schematic of mass and energy ow throughout the life cycle of a product. [13] TABLE 2 Comparison of Two Cases Mass intensity System type Base case overall system Figure 5(a). Material ow diagram for Base case. (b) For the overall system,

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(b) If there is no recycle from Prod uct Use to Material Process ing, to provide 909 unit of feed to Product Fabrication, how many tons of feed will be needed by Material Processing and how many tons of virgin raw materials will be needed by Material Collection? Please draw the changed material remains the same). (c) If there is no recycle from Product Use to Material Processing and no recycle from Product Use to Product Fabrication, while the customer still needs 921 tons of product, how many tons of feed will be needed by Material Processing and Product Fabrication, and how many tons of virgin raw materials will be needed by Material Collection? Is there any change in the Solution: provided in Table 3. (b) By holding all the s of each step constant, a reverse to Material Processing is depicted in Figure 5(b). By comparing Figure 5(a) to Figure 5(b), it is clear that without utilizing the 44 units of recycle stream from Product Use to Material Processing, the demand on the raw material by Material Collection is increased clearly demonstrates that the 44 tons of recycle stream from Product Use to Material Processing brings in material consumption in Material Processing. (c) The changed mass flow from Material Collec tion to Product Use is depicted in Figure 5(c). By comparing Figure 5(a) to Figure 5(c), it is found that the consumption of raw material by Material Collection This set of exercises clearly illustrates the following concepts and principles in sustainability: in the plant, but also occurs throughout the entire life TABLE 3 Material Collection Material Processing Product Fabrication Product Use Product Disposal Symbol ME MP PF PU PD Figure 5(b), above. Material ow diagram for Case B. Figure 5(c), right. Material ow diagram for Case C.

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cycle of the product from a temporal point of view. traction to product fabrication) or the product use will become waste or loss. Waste or loss can be recovered with appropriate technologies, however. 3. To recover the values hidden in the waste, the waste can be recycled or reused in various stages through the products life cycle. Module 4: Mass and Energy Balance of Biodiesel Production From Soybean (Type IV System) This module was developed from literature using the biodiesel production from soybean oil. The paper was contributed by Dr. Tad W. Patzek at the University of California Berkeley. Soybean biodiesel is formed from glycerides that comprise soybean oil. As shown in Figure to separate the soybean oils. The separated soybean oil oil is then reacted with excess methanol. Distillation is used to separate unreacted oils and excess methanol, and biodiesel production can be calculated by counting the mass however, the biodiesel production process is only one step the upstream process, i.e. the soybean farming (Figure module is presented below: (a) Calculate the mass of soybeans required to produce 1 m for the biodiesel production process? m (b) The heating value of a substance refers to the amount of energy released upon combustion. The higher heating values (HHV) of the components in soybeans are 16.5 have zero heating value). Using the compositions shown for stream 1 in Figure 6(b), calculate the overall HHV (c) Use an energy balance to calculate the energy losses from the system per kilogram of biodiesel produced. The total energy of fossil fuels entering the process (including the fossil fuels needed for methanol feed production) is e of biodiesel produc tion: e e 3 ). In 2005, more than 210 billion kilograms of soybean was produced worldwide. If the entire world crop of soybean were converted to biodiesel, would it be enough to meet U.S. diesel fuel demand? Figure 6(a). Flowchart of biodiesel pro duction from soybeans. Figure 6(b). Soybean ow through over all biodiesel production process.

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Solution: (a) Use a basis of m 5 m 3 = m 5 m 3 Solving for m gives, m = m 5 grams of biodiesel are produced. biodiesel): Input = Output rfntn b e = (Output Biodiesel Energy)/(Energy of Soybeans e farming biodiesel (34) e (f) The key here is to understand that the demand for diesel is actually an energy demand. The energy of petroleum diesel consumed each year would need to be replaced by an equivalent supply of biodiesel energy. If enough farmland exists to produce the soybeans necessary to meet the energy demand, then soybeans could replace petroleum as a diesel feedstock. First, determine the current energy demand. This is done by the following unit conversion: 3 ) (m 3 (45 gal fuel) MJ (35) Second, use the heating value and density of biodiesel to determine the mass of biodiesel needed to meet this energy demand: MJ) kg biodiesel Finally, determine the amount of soybean needed to produce this quantity of biodiesel: biodiesel / kg soybean) This quantity of soybeans required to meeting U.S. en kg soybean). Therefore, soybean biodiesel alone cannot replace petroleum diesel in the United States. CONCLUSION This paper reports several educational modules for teach ing sustainability in a mass and energy balance course. The systems in these modules range from global scale to industrial ecosystems. The life cycle of product and renewable energy are addressed. These modules will help awaken students eco-consciousness and establish the students conceptual understanding of the systems concept in sustainability. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is supported, in part, by the National Science and Innovators Alliance (NCIIA) and Entergy. REFERENCES AIChE J. 49 C&EN 79

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4. Tanzil, D., and E. Beaver, Designing for Sustainability: Overview, in Transforming Sustainability Strategy into Action: The Chemical Industry B. Beloff, et al. (ed.), Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, NJ 5. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes SCOPE 21 -The Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions (J. M. Melillo and J. R. Gosz), straint on Global Analyses, National Center for Atmospheric Research Green Engineering Prentice Hall PTR, Col laborative ProjectsFocus Area: Sustainable Development AIChE, Analysis-Based Sustainability Analysis of Industrial Systems, Ind. & Eng. Chem. Research 47 Industrial Ecology and the Automobile Resources Policy 20 Production from Soybean, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 29

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B iological sciences play an increasingly important role in chemical engineering education. At Georgia the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and a biotechnology track was added to the undergraduate cur undergraduates receive B.S. degrees via the biotechnology play a role in developing biopharmaceuticals, biomateri als, biofuels, green chemistry, and, as discussed in this article, novel drug delivery systems. Chemical engineers also model biological processes from the molecular level to the systems level. Hands-on laboratory education related to the biological sciences can help prepare students for engineering careers in biotechnology or medicine. We have developed a skin diffusion laboratory module for the unit operations labora tory class that aims to teach students about biological tissue and the importance of the skin barrier to health. Until now, been available to students: fermentation, protein separation, protein growth, glucose isomerization, and enzyme kinetics. UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY MODULE ON SKIN DIFFUSION ChE laboratory JAMES J NORMAN, SAMANTHA N ANDREWS, AND MARK R. PRAUSNITZ James J. Norman is a Ph.D. candidate in chemical and biomolecular engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He re ceived his B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. His current research focuses on hollow microneedles and self-administered vaccines. Samantha N. Andrews com pleted her Ph.D. in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Georgia In stitute of Technology. She graduated from the University of Florida with a B.S. in materials science and engineering. Her thesis addressed microdermabrasion as a method to enhance transcutaneous drug delivery. Mark R. Prausnitz is professor of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and the Cherry L. Emerson Faculty Fellow at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He was educated at Stanford University (BS, ) and M.I.T. (Ph.D., ). Prof. Prausnitz currently teaches classes on pharmaceuticals, mass and energy balances, and technical communication. His research addresses novel biophysical mechanisms to improve drug, gene, and vaccine delivery using engineering technologies. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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Although these labs exposed students to a number of critical topics in biotechnology, none of them are directly related to medicine or involve the handling of biological tissue. For students interested in medical applications of chemical en gineering, there was a need to expand the scope of bio-unit operations lab options. To address this need, we developed and implemented a new laboratory module focused on diffusion of molecules across skin. This lab was designed to introduce students to trans dermal diffusion by having them assess the permeability and objectives for this lab were to (i) expand students knowledge students hands-on, applicable experience handling biological tissue; (iii) teach students about the physics and applications of the skin barrier to health and safety. Diffusion of compounds across skin is an important topic in health science and chemical engineering. Most notably, pharmaceuticals can be delivered to the skin for a local derma tological effect using topical creams and ointments ( e.g. local anesthetics, anti-fungal creams) or for a systemic response us ing transdermal patches ( e.g. nicotine for smoking cessation, hormones for birth control). It is estimated that more than one billion transdermal patches are manufactured each year. In addition to drug delivery, diffusion across skin is an important topic in toxicology and occupational safety. The CDC estimates chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Contact der matitis is the most common skin-related occupational illness, Transdermal hazards in other occupations can lead to cancer, hepatotoxicity, neuro toxicity, reproductive disorders, and death. The skin is not only an important organ in health-related contexts, but it also has interesting properties as a diffusion barrier. The outermost layer of skin is called stratum cor stratum corneum is the rate-limiting barrier to entry of most compounds into the body. This tissue is organized in a brickand-mortar structure, in which the bricks are cell remnants composed largely of cross-linked keratin and the extracellular mortar consists of lipids organized in multilamellar bilayers. Below stratum corneum is the viable epidermis, which mea nocytes and other cells in a conventional aqueous extracellular thick dermis, which contains blood vessels for systemic drug absorption, as well as hair follicles and sweat glands. Despite the complex organization of skin, skin permeability is often modeled by assuming that the stratum corneum is the only as one-dimensional diffusion through a uniform slab. LABORATORY DESCRIPTION Design of the Laboratory Module This lab enables students to study the permeability and lag conjugated to dextran (FITC-dextran, molecular weight: permeants were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO). The mouse skin was purchased from Pel-Freez (Rogers, AR). Two skin conditions were tested: full-thickness mouse skin or mouse skin that had been tape stripped to remove the stratum corneum. There was also a negative control that had full-thickness skin but no model permeants in order to compounds extracted from the skin. These two model compounds were chosen because of their differing permeabilities in skin. A model-based estimate of the permeability of sulforhodamine B in human epidermis is ). The ex pected permeability of FITC-dextran in full-thickness human or mouse skin is vanishingly small because skin permeability decreases as a very strong, nonlinear function of increasing molecular weight. After removing the stratum corneum barrier, both com pounds are expected to permeate through tape-stripped skin at measurable levels. Although absolute skin permeability will depend on experimental conditions, the ratio of skin perme ability values for sulforhodamine and FITC-dextran collected at the same experimental conditions should be less variable. Based on Stokes-Einstein theory, the ratio of the permeability the inverse ratio of the hydrodynamic radii of the molecules in water, assuming no steric hindrance to diffusion in the viable instead of the Lydersen method to determine hydrodynamic radius to account for sulfur-based functional groups) and dextran (see Appendix (see Appendix). The skin samples were placed in a diffusion cell in contact with a donor solution containing both model compounds on In addition to drug delivery, diffusion across skin is an important topic in toxicology and occupational safety.

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the outer surface of the skin and a receiving solution contain ing phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, Sigma Aldrich) on the simultaneously in each skin chamber to reduce the number of skin samples needed for the lab. Control samples had PBS donor solutions. Students, working in groups of two or three, hours after to collect samples of the receiving solution. These Waltham, MA), a digital balance with milligram resolution troscopy, or other means. For biological experiments where molecules extracted from skin increase noise, however, alter native detection methods have poor detection limits or larger are dominated by the mouse skin costs. Obtaining nine skin Laboratory Procedure pound solutions to be used as the donor solutions and create calibration curves for the two model permeants. The students also created a calibration curve for sulforhodamine B at FITCdextrans excitation wavelength and used it to correct the FITC-dextran calibration curve, because sulforhodamine B is weakly excited at FITC-dextrans excitation wavelength. The students also prepared mouse skin samples for the experiment. The skin samples were thawed, cut and made planar, and shaved using a hair clipper. To obtain tape-stripped skin samples after shaving, students repeatedly applied Scotch tape (3M, St. Paul, MN) to the skin and peeled the tape off rapidly using forceps until the skin appeared shiny, which indicated complete stratum corneum removal. Onesquare-inch sections of full-thickness or tape-stripped skin were then cut out. Each skin sample was clamped between two identical glass donor and receiving chambers with volumes of 3.4 mL each stirbar wells that contain custom stirbars (Permegear, Heller town, PA). The chamber in contact with the outer surface of the skin was considered the donor chamber, and the opposite chamber was the receiving chamber. The study was designed for the students to set up three cells containing control skin, three cells containing full-thickness skin samples, and three cells containing tape-stripped skin samples. The negative control samples used full-thickness skin and had PBS in both the donor and receiving chamber. The other two groups had PBS in the receiving chamber and -4 model compounds in the donor chamber. Diffusion cells were covered with aluminum foil to protect them from light. Four hours after the diffusion cells were set up, liquid samples of the full chamber volume were drawn from each receiving chamber and transferred to plastic cuvettes, and the receiving chambers were quickly replenished with saline. The DATA ANALYSIS Although skin is anisotropic, diffusion across skin is some times modeled as diffusion across an isotropic membrane : h ), k p d is the permeant Figure 1. Diffusion cell set-up. A skin sample is placed between two identical glass chambers. A pinch clamp holds the chambers together and keeps the skin in place. The donor chamber contains the model permeant solu tion. The receiving chamber contains phosphate-buffered saline as well as any permeant molecules that cross the skin. The receiving chamber is emptied for analysis and replaced with fresh solution periodically.

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Representative Permeability and Lag-Time Data Model Permeant Skin Permeability Sulforhodamine-B Full-thickness -4 FITC-dextran Full-thickness -5 Sulforhodamine-B Tape-stripped FITC-dextran Tape-stripped -3 concentration gradient across the skin (mol cm -3 ), and C d is the permeant concentration in the donor solution (mol cm -3 ). The concentration at the underside of the skin is usually as sumed to be zero, because the permeant is diluted in a large d d At the end of the experiment, the diffusion data can be plot ted as cumulative amount transported vs. time, as shown in the drug across skin, which allows calculation of the perme estimated as the imaginary x-intercept of the linear portion of the plot. Representative permeability and lag time data are shown in from the same skin samples were analyzed using ratio paired t-tests because the results were not to sulforhodamine B was signifi cantly larger than FITC-dextran in both full-thickness and tape-stripped skin, which is expected given the much smaller molecular weight of sulforhodamine B. Skin permeability in tape-stripped skin was two orders of magnitude larger than full-thickness skin for both sul forhodamine B and FITC-dextran, which is expected given that tape stripping removes the stratum corneum, which is comparison of the two dyes in tape-stripped skin, although result of the paired statistical analysis. The similarity of lag times for sulforhodamine B and FITC-dextran, despite large binding of sulforhodamine B to tissue. We can also compare these data to literature. For example, the ratio of the FITC-dextran permeability and the sulforho above. The permeability value in full-thickness mouse skin Figure 2. Representative plots of cumulative transport of sulforhodamine B and FITC-dextran across mouse cadaver skin vs. time. (A) Cumulative transdermal transport across full-thickness skin. (B) Cumulative transdermal transport across tape-stripped skin with stratum corneum removed. Data points are the mean standard deviation of n = 3 separate skin samples. The lines shown on the graph are best ts through the data from hours 5 through 7 ( i.e. at steady state). The permeability coefcient can be determined from the slope of these lines using Equation 1. The lag time can be determined as the x-intercept. These data were taken during laboratory development and therefore have data points every hour. Guided by the kinetics determined from these graphs, student time was used more efciently by requiring them to take data only at 0, 4, 5, 6, and 7 h into the experiment in order to capture the steady state region of the graph.

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for sulforhodamine B is six times greater than the modelbased estimate for human epidermis. This can be explained has greater permeability. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES AND DISCUSSION completing the lab, the students were surveyed about their satisfaction with the lab and their opinion about whether the measured on a 5-point Likert scale with possible responses ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree, and two items about overall satisfaction and recommending the lab All of the students would recommend the lab to other students in the biotechnology track in chemical and biomolecular engineering. With respect to the main goals of the lab, the students agreed preciated having a lab where they handled animal tissues (4.4 of the mouse skin, time required for the lab, requiring assis variability of the data, which is common to experiments us ing biological tissue with variable properties. One way the variability concern was ameliorated was combining dyes for each skin condition and using paired statistical analyses. This improves statistical power in situations where one dye has a sample variability, as expected in our experiment. It appears the educational goals for the lab were well met, but based on the students comments, we learned that we could improve upon the actual laboratory experience. In the future, TABLE 2 Student Survey Results Statement Response The instructions for the lab were clearly written. My group was able to obtain good calibration curves. My group required minimal assistance from the TA 4 The variability of the results was low enough to allow my group to see clear distinctions between experimental groups. My group was able to complete the calculations required for the reports. Overall the lab was designed well. I learned about the skin barrier and its importance to health. I knew how to apply the appropriate statistical tests to analyze my results. I appreciated having a lab where I handled animal tissue. I can use what I learned in this lab if I need to handle biological specimens again. Would you recommend this lab to future students on the biotech track in ChBE5? (Yes or No) a 5-point Likert scale. 4 Teaching assistant. 5 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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we plan to use chemical depilatory creams ( e.g. Nair ) or use hairless rodent skin instead of using shaved skin. Also, to see larger differences in the lag times between compounds, we could replace sulforhodamine B with a small, non-green Some students felt the basic premise of the lab design was too elementary. To make the conclusions less obvious, we could ask students to investigate the effect of treating the ers, such as ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Additionally, we could provide an unknown molecule and ask students to estimate its molecular weight based on its permeability and the Stokes-Einstein equation. Concepts related to the lipid bilayer-based anisotropic diffusivity in skin and the role of phase partitioning and binding could also be introduced. CONCLUSIONS We developed and implemented a unit operations labo ratory module to educate students about transport across skin. The experiment was designed to teach students about in health. To meet the needs of Georgia Tech and possible implementation at other universities, the equipment and typical chemical engineering laboratory class. Student feed positive and indicated that the laboratory objectives were largely met. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Donna Bondy and Traci Sherrell for administrative assistance, Majid Abazeri for assistance with setting up the lab, Jacqueline Mohalley Snedecker for help with lab reports, Jonathan Rubin for suggesting improve ments to the lab design, and Peter Ludovice for helping solicit participation in the student survey. Funding was provided by the Georgia Institute of Technologys Technology Fee. REFERENCES Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Chem. Eng. Ed. Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3. Shaeiwitz, J.A., and R. Turton, Design Projects of the Future, Chem. Eng. Ed. 40 4. Aronson, M.T, R.W. Deitcher, Y. Xi, and R.J. Davis, New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 5. Forciniti, D., Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research, Chem Eng. Ed. 43 chemical Engineering: Ethanol Fermentation, Chem. Eng. Ed. 33 Engineering: Engaging the Imagination of Students Using Experiences Outside the Classroom, Chem. Eng. Ed. 37 ogy into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Chem. Eng. Ed. 43 Nature Biotechnology Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery: From Theory to Practice Pharm. Res. 9 sis of Enhanced Transdermal Transport by Skin Electroporation, J. Control. Release 34 ties from Group-Contributions, Chem. Eng. Commun. 57 Determination of Glomerular Size-Selectivity in the Normal Rat with Ficoll, J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 3 A Critical Comparison of Methods to Quantify Stratum Corneum Removed by Tape Stripping, Skin Pharmacol. 9 Bunge, S.E. Burgess, S. Cross, C.H. Dalton, M. Dias, A. Farinha, B.C. Finnin, S.J. Gallagher, D.M. Green, H. Gunt, R.L. Gwyther, Lim, G.S. McNaughton, A. Morris, M.H. Nazemi, M.A. Pellett, J. Du Plessis, Y.S. Quan, S.L. Raghavan, M. Roberts, W. Romonchuk, C.S. Roper, D. Schenk, L. Simonsen, A. Simpson, B.D. Traversa, L. Trottet, A. Watkinson, S.C. Wilkinson, F.M. Williams, A. Yamamoto, In Vitro Dif fusion Cell Measurements: An International Multicenter Study Using Quasi-standardized Methods and Materials, J. Pharm. Sci. 94 Intuitive Biostatistics surement and Prediction of Lateral Diffusion Within Human Sclera, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 branes With Binding and Reaction, J. Membrane Sci ., APPENDIX: CALCULATING HYDRODYNAMIC RADII To calculate the hydrodynamic radius of sulforhodamine B, we used the following equation : c is critical volume in units of cm 3 /mol. We applied the Joback method c approxi mating the functional groups of the sulfonic acids with the

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where G i is the contribution of each functional group (see 3 /mol, To calculate the hydrodynamic radius of dextran, we used the following equation : where MW is the molecular weight of the dextran, i.e. used in this study. Functional Molecular Weight Contribution (cm 3 Sulforhodamine B Total Molecular Weight Contribution Contribution -Oring -OH non-phenol 34 =O other 4 CH3 4 4 >N-Snon-ring 54 =CHring =C< ring

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ChE book review An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience by John C. Berg Reviewed by Washington State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 T he title of this book indicates that it is an introduc tion to colloids and interfaces, but it is so much more than an introduction. The author also states that This textbook seeks to bring readers with no prior knowledge or experience in interfacial phenomena, colloid science, or nanoscience to the point where they can comfortably enter book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in science and engineering as well as to practitioners, although even high school students should enjoy parts of it. Trying, in a single book, to provide coverage from high school through science/engineering graduate students as well as practitioners is a daunting endeavor but one that the author has more than accomplished. phenomena (capillarity, thermodynamics of interfaces, and solid-liquid interfaces). Within these chapters such traditional Gibbs adsorption, the Langmuir isotherm, and Youngs equa tion are covered. Less commonly covered topics are also included such as dynamic surface tension, liquid bridges/ shared menisci, Janus particles, scanning probe microscopy, and inverse gas chromatography. Each chapter also contains for interfacial tension, three for contact angle measurement, and seven for surface characterization). The next four chapters deal with colloidal phenomena. The topical coverage includes colloidal characterization, electrical properties, colloidal interactions, and rheology. Again, usual topics such as characterization, sedimentation/Brownian mo tion, light scattering, double layer models (Helmholtz, Gouyand Einsteins theory of viscosity are covered. Also included are discussions of electro-acoustics, dielectrophoresis, optical trapping, and electro-steric stabilization. Again a large number of measurement techniques are included such as classical light scattering, Fraunhofer diffraction, Raman scattering, and DLS (including scattering from more concentrated dispersion). The last two chapters cover emulsions and foams (including microemulsions) and interfacial hydrodynamics (including the Marangoni effect). As with all of the previous chapters the initial material is, as advertised, at a level appropriate authors clear style and explanations quickly lead the reader to more advanced material, which a current practitioner may of the chapters could well be condensed into a state-of-theart description of that topic. All of this may well be beyond the grasp of high school and undergraduate students. What makes this book suitable for these students are the Fun Things To Do sections at the end of each chapter. These simple, hands-on experiments concentration, streaming potential) are the types of activities that are of interest for these students, yet do lead to a more in-depth knowledge when explaining the phenomena. In using this text in a graduate-level colloids and interface course, I found that there is no way to cover all of the mate rial in the text in one semester; it would be hard to give the material the attention it deserves in a year-long course. In student more than enough support to understand the concepts while simultaneously providing more advanced material to encourage them to delve further. As outstanding as this text by referring back to the appropriate chapter. Perhaps this is because the coverage is comprehensive but, as an instructor, I would like to have seen some more complex problems. My students and I also had a disagreement with the authors listing of The Top Ten equations in the book (although there are actually eleven). How can the Poisson-Boltzmann equation not be among the Top Ten? If nothing else this does provide a teachable moment as the students can construct their own Top Ten then debate the merits of including certain equations while deleting others. this book such as: I have reviewed many books in the area of nanoscience and colloids, this is by far the best, it has no peer, or Buy it and tell others. I heartily concur. Anyone working in the area of colloids/interfaces should have a copy of this book. It makes an excellent reference book if you are an advanced practitioner and an excellent text if you are just getting started.

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ChE book review A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice by Sullivan, W.M., and M.S. Rosin The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, JosseyReviewed by Lisa Bullard North Carolina State University M ost engineering faculty have pondered if their stu dents graduate with practical reasoning, or the ability to blend knowledge, skill, and appropriate attitude in response to unique situations that require expert judgment. To explore this question, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching convened an interdisciplin ary seminar, A Life of the Mind for Practice, to inquire into higher educations responsibility to prepare students for lives of engagement and responsibility. The seminar was framed using a series of fundamental questions: across the professions and the liberal arts and sciences? and sciences employ one anothers insights in order to achieve this goal? judgment prove a unifying calling for contemporary higher education? Fourteen faculty from the areas of teacher education, law, clergy, medicine, the liberal arts, and the sciences collaborated in a Life of the Mind for Practice seminar over the course tors included Gary Downey and Robert McGinn, engineering respectively. by teachers in medicine, teacher education, engineering, law, and religious studies. (The syllabi for these courses as well engagement, and writing to connect course content with general principles for decision making. Chapter 3 discusses the faculty partners experience during the seminar series and describes the challenges encountered when a diverse group of faculty tries to enter into meaningful the seminar assignments for the faculty partners. While the group initially struggled with moving beyond the academic tradition of argument, over the course of the seminar they were able to distill the key concepts and the common language that emerged to propose a new agenda for contemporary higher education, which they term practical reasoning as an educational agenda. The authors describe the rationale behind this agenda in Chapter 4, which is the most theoreti the widely discussed critical thinking to a framework of identity community responsibility and bodies of knowledge Academic departments are mainly concerned with bodies of knowledge, but the additional three topics direct and guide sponse to a practical situation. The Conclusion distills practical lessons from the seminar experience and suggests what would be required for institu tions, departments, or campus centers of teaching and learning to offer local faculty this kind of formative experience. I found this book to be a challenging read even as a mo tivated reader who was seeking practical suggestions on how to put these principles into practice. Faculty who teach easier to fully implement the authors suggestions. By think ing slightly outside the box, however, even those faculty who ing teaching of technical knowledge with periodic discussions or assignments that engage students to consider the intersec tions between science, morality, and public policy. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011

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M cal, chemical, and biological applications. These include molecular separation and sensors, DNA and protein patterning, analysis and sorting of cells, and high throughput screening. to: reduce sample volume and waste; increase speed of analy sis; achieve high performance, integration, and versatility; and make miniaturization, automation, modularization, and parallelization easier. One of the great strengths of micro chip; this offers new capabilities to control molecules in time and space. ents special challenges. The effects that become dominant in Micromixing is an important process on each other do not mix except by diffusion or using non-passive mechanisms such as acoustics or electrokinetics. The selection of material and fabrication methods used in silicon and glass micromachining have been the choice of the microelectronics industry, and are well suited for microelec tromechanical systems (MEMS). The intrinsic stiffness of MICROFLUIDICS AND MICROFABRICATION in a Chemical Engineering Lab ChE laboratory SHIV AUN D ARCHER these materials poses a challenge to biological applications, pumps. Soft lithography shows great promise in versatility for microfabrication with elastomeric materials. Soft elastomeric polymers such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are opti cally transparent and allow micro features to be replicated at low temperatures, seals easily, and releases from delicate features of a mold). In addition PDMS is non-toxic to cells and can undergo surface chemistry changes if needed. Because of its relative simplicity, it is an ideal model system to intro duce undergraduate students to microfabrication. Jablonski, et al., demonstrated simple device fabrication in PDMS in an undergraduate lab to study the break-up of air bubbles in for intravascular embolism. Students had the opportunity to Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Shivaun D. Archer is a senior lecturer in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Cornell University. She received her B.A. and M. Eng. in chemical engineering from the Uni versity of Cambridge, England, and her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California, Davis. She teaches lab courses covering nanobiotechnology, molecular and tissue engineering, and physiology.

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fabricate microdevices in PDMS much like as described in this micromixer paper; however, the design problem, area of an approach where each group created its own unique design of the design. PDMS devices are now not only in research but in undergraduate education; they can be used to study a applications in heat transfer, separations, and biochemical and biomedical analysis. We have developed a lab to train students in a new tech nology that allows the manipulation of small volumes and exploits phenomena at the microscale level. Students in the cal Engineering were asked to design, fabricate, and test a and water. They assessed the degree of mixing at different micromixer design. This experiment was conducted over three weeks. In Week using AutoCAD. This was given as an assignment after a students tested the micromixer with a dye solution and water using a microscope, computer, and image analysis software LABORATORY DESCRIPTION Theory mixing relies solely on molecular interdiffusion. The dif i.e. diffusion coef D) times the gradient of species concentration In order to characterize conv dimen sionless numbers are commonly usedthe Reynolds number (Re = Ud/v), the Peclt number (Pe=Ud/D), and the Fourier number (Fo=T r /T m ). Here U, d, and v denote the average velocity, the diameter or the transverse diffusion distance, and the kinematic viscosity, respectively. T r and T m denote the average residence time and the diffusive mixing r =L/U and T m =d /D, where L denotes the longitudinal length. By equating T r and T m and can design a micromixer with appropriate length and width to mix dye and water. Materials and Methods Design straints to design a micromixer using AutoCAD (AutoDesk) with two inlets and one outlet that can mix a dye solution was obtained from the local grocery store and had a diffu /s (based on similarly sized molecules). The constraints were that the micromixer had to be passive (have no moving parts and rely on shapes and submit four copies of their AutoCAD design arranged so channel width and spacing and corners were given to ensure high success in soft lithography microfabrication by novice diffusive mixing and residence time equations above, students calculate what the minimum theoretical length for mixing should be. This minimum theoretical length guides students experimental results. The AutoCAD design was made into a photolithography Works, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. The resulting photolithogra phy mask was on emulsion-based transparency paper. Master and Device Fabrication (5 in. 5 in.) of the contact aligner mask holder (HTG, System 3HR). In a fume hood, a 4-inch silicon wafer (Type Chem, Inc.), a negative tone, photosensitive epoxy resist Figure 1. Design area for the micromixer.

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the student groups design using a contact aligner (HTG, System 3HR). The unexposed resist was (Master) was then used as a mold to form the students design of base to hardener. The aerated mixture was degassed in the cup using a vacuum dessicator by pressuring and de-pressur bubbles were removed. Once fully degassed it was poured The device was made by cutting a rectangular piece of PDMS around the design and punching holes for the inlet and device was sealed to a glass slide using a plasma sterilizer Testing wall) was inserted in the inlet and outlet holes and the inlet food dye, respectively. Water and dye were run through the microdevice using a syringe pump (Harvard Instruments, tive was to mix the dye and water. Mixing was visualized using ImageJ (public domain Java based program from NIH). Given a gray-scale image, ImageJ can calculate the average gray value along a line or of an area as well as generate histo grams and surface plots of gray values. Using these functions, the amount of mixing on the chip can be accurately judged. A well-mixed region would contain a uniform amount of gray value. The amount of gray value was measured across each channel and converted to a data table by ImageJ and then graphed and the slope attained linearly using Excel. The plots represent the average color gradient of the original im ages. Less mixing was represented by a steeper slope in the mixing by diffusion; complete mixing was represented by a uniformly zero slope. rf n t b n TYPICAL RESULTS Students proposed and tested a variety of designs from a series of straight channels to a combination of channels with mixing features such as diamonds, bricklike structures, or Most students were able to mix the dye and water with constraints given. Figure 3 shows a successful micro-mixer. device consisted of a series of straight channels where the length was long enough to allow the diffusion time to be less than or equal to the residence time. Some features that were Figure 2. Examples of four microde vices: A straight channels, B bricklike structure, C diamonds, D series of diamonds. Figure 3. Successful mixer showing a fully mixed exit stream.

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not as successful were the split and recombine technique us ing brick and diamond structures as shown in Figures 4 and each individual stream into two streams, effectively halving the velocity and increasing residence time, and to decrease the diffusive length d to a number less than the channel diameter. it can also separate the two streams, thus preventing contact and hence diffusion. DISCUSSION All groups came up with thoughtful ideas and designs for dye and water, which for some students was counterintuitive to their way of thinking since they are more familiar with time and allowed enough time for diffusion. Generally, to design the appropriate overall length (L) of channels within the microdevice, the residence time T r was equated with the mixing time T m As part of their lab report students were asked to propose other methods of mixing that did not rely on diffusion alone. bulence with rotation axes aligned with the axis of the channel. Strook, et al., uses herringbone-shaped grooves or chevrons on chaotic swirling when the two streams pass over the chev rons. Another method that does not rely solely on molecular diffusion for mixing solutions at this scale is bubble-induced acoustic actuation. Air bubbles in a liquid medium can act as an actuator and vibrate when a sound wave is applied. As and drastically reduces the length of mixing. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES ence with design, microfabrication, and soft lithography. They their knowledge of diffusion, came up with a design that they tested. This gave students ownership of their work and many students took their devices home. Students were required to section for Recommendations for Improvement. This section allowed students to analyze their design ideas after having tested them and many came up with new ideas based on their results as well as other groups results. For example, the idea of splitting and offsetting proposed by some groups did not work well as allowing air bubbles to become entrapped that were posed straight channels or angled splitting and recombining channels to ensure both streams were split, not separated. A survey of this lab was given for three years, assess Most students found that the lab had a medium amount design a micromixer to mix an enzyme and substrate (a relevant biochemical micromixing scenario). Some comments were lab was unique and interesting, my favorite lab, enjoyed designing and analyzing micro chip from beginning to end, and learned CAD, image processing, and photolithography!. While the lab described does use some fairly expensive equipment (contact aligner) and a clean room, a very similar lab with high school students and less-strict mixing criteria (wider channels, slower addition, Jablonksi, et al., used inexpensive materials and simple procedures to produce masters and make a Figure 4. Diamond structure causes streams to split and not mix. Figure 5. Bricklike structure can cause inefcient mixing.

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room is not necessary. CONCLUSIONS This paper describes laboratory experiments and a design challenge that can be performed in three weeks with junior/ senior chemical engineers. Students are given a problem to use computer aided design (AutoCAD) software to design a microscale mixer. They then fabricate their device using polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). Their devices are tested with microscopes and image analysis software to assess the success of their mixing device in terms of the resulting colorimetric hand experience of challenges of mixing and diffusion at a small scale and they will gain skills in microfabrication and image analysis as well as the ability to troubleshoot a design after testing and come up with recommendations. SUPPORTING MATERIAL All class protocols for design, fabrication, and testing are available from the author by request at e-mail: sda4@ cornell.edu. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DeLisa, Moonsoo Jin, and Abraham Stroock (Cornell Uni versity) for their help in developing the protocols as well Principles of Biomedical Engineering for making sure the Figure 6. Chart of student responses to the lab. labs ran smoothly. Funding for the laboratory equipment and some of the supplies was provided by Intel Corporation and Merck, Inc. REFERENCES Nature 442 Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4 tions, Microelectronic Engineering and Detection, Science 283 idic Mixer Based on Acoustically Driven Side-Wall Trapped Micro bubbles, l7 trokinetic Micromixing Through Symmetric Sequential Injection and Expansion, Lab on a Chip in Poly(dimethylsiloxane), Electrophoresis Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism, Chem. Eng. Ed. 44 tocols (available on request sda4@cornell.edu), Cornell University With Convection and Diffusion Mixing a Wide Reynolds Number Range, 5 G.M. Whitesides, Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels, Science 295 Micromixing, Lab on a Chip 2

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290 and Engineering Education ..................................... 43 Nanotechnology Processes Option in ChE ................ 43 Student Learning ..................................................... 43 Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball .......................................................................... 43 Simple Explanation of Complexation, A ..................... 44 Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A .................................................. 44 Synchronous Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A ............... 44 Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research .................................................... 43 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course ......................................................... 43 Air Using Water and NAOH, Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from .............. 45 Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, ....................................... 45 Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous .......................... 45 Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, ............................................. 44 Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous Equations in the ........................................................... 45 Analysis Project, A Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical .............................................................. Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological ............... 45 Aris Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding ... 43 Arizona, University of ........................................................ 45 Armstrong, Robert C. of MIT ........................................... 44 Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications, Using ...................... 44 Assessment to Balance Student Workload, Coordinating Internal ................................................. 45 Attainable Region, Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the .................................................................... B Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Volumes 41 through 45 (Note: Author Index begins on page 306 ) TITLE INDEX Note: Titles in italics are book reviews. A Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH, Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas .......... 45 Academic Integrity: Confessions of a Reluctant Expert; Approaches to ..................................... 44 (3), inside front cover Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student .... 45 Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions .................................. 45 Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods .................... 42 Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State, Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based ..................................... 45 Activity Breaks to Teach History, .......................................... 43 Advisors Who Rock: An Approach to Academic Counseling ................................................................. 42 Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and ........................................... 43 AIChE Centennial Celebration Introduction ............................................................... 43 Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A ...................................................... 44 Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment .................................... 44 Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students 44 Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices 43 History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation ........................................................ 43 Offered Earlier in the Curriculum ........................... 43 Offered Later in the Curriculum ............................. 44 Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms .................... 43 In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership and a Research Mentor ........................................... 43 Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program ...................... 43 NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science

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Human Health Into a Mass ............................................. 45 Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes; Teaching Population ............. Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy .................................................. 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer .............. 44 Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and ........................................... 45 Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi................................................... 45 Circuit Module, Evaluating Performance of a ............. 44 Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized ........................... 45 Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic .................................................................. 44 Biochemical Engineering Course; Is There Room in the Graduate Curriculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level ...................... 43 Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in ................................... 44 Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on ............................. 45 Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An Introductory Course in ......................................... Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling ......................... 43 Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of ......... 45 Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern .................................... 43 Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating .......................................................... Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a .............. 43 Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary Students; ........ 42 Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE ................. 43 Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for ...................................... 45 Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic .................... 44 Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research; Teaching a ................................... 43 Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for ................................ 44 Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Metabolism That Integrates ............................................ 45 Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A ...................................................... 44 Book Reviews Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field ....................................... 44 (4), inside back cover Engineering and Sustainable Community Development ............................................................. 45 Introduction to Granular Flow, An ............................ 45 Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An ..................................................... 45 Good Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education ................................................... 45 Heat Transfer ....................................... 44 (3), inside back cover Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd Ed ..................... A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice .................................................... 45 Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the ...................................... 45 Bucknell University ............................................................ 44 C California, Santa Barbara ................................................ Design, Introducing Risk Analysis and ..................... 45 Capstone Design Course, Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a ....................................................... 43 Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and ............................................... 43 Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E.................. 43 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of ................................................................ 44 Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A ............................ 44 Catalytic Pellet: A Rich Prototype for Engineering Up-Scaling; The ............................................................................. Cell as an Education Tool, The Microbial Fuel .............. 44 Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver ............... CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe ............................ 45 a Danish Experience .............................................. 43 Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down); How to Stop ........ 45 Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven .................................. 43 Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The .............................. 43 Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student) ......... Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on .................................................... 43 Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of .................................................... 45 Chemistrya Danish Experience; Challenges in .................................. 43

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292 Chemistry Lab by Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in .......... 45 (3), inside front cover Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic .................. 42 Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a ......... 43 Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a.......... 42 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in .......................... 43 Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach ........................... 44 Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein .................................................. 45 Chromatography with Colorful Proteins, Illustrating ..... Class and Home Problems Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using Mathematica ................................................................ 42 Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using MATLAB ................................................................... 43 Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling ......................... 43 of Computational Results ............................................ 42 Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student) ......... Computing Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them ........................................................... Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems ............................ 44 First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car .................... 43 Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant ........................................................................... 42 Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit ......................... Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details ...... 45 Murder at MiskatonicPassion, Intrigue, and Material Balances: A Play in Two Acts ...................................... 42 Optimization Problems ................................................ 45 Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of .............. 45 Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice .......................................................................... 44 CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing .............................. 45 Coffee, Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of ........................................................ Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant; Geothermal ...................................................... 42 a Danish Experience; Challenges in Teaching ....... 43 Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An Introduction to Interfaces & ................................ 45 Colorful Proteins, Illustrating Chromatography with ..... Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH ................................ 45 Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available ......... 43 Using the Gibbs Energy and the ................................ 44 Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design ........................................ 43 Complexation, A Simple Explanation of .......................... 44 Curriculum; From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating .......... 43 Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: .................................................... 45 Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of ......... 45 Conceptests for a Thermodynamics Course .................... Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical ................. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in ChE Education .............................. 45 Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory, Testing a ................................................. 44 Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and ............................................. 45 Protocol for Scaling Concepts in ............................... 44 Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column ...................................................................... 45 Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of ........................................ 45 Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden ......... 45 Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process .................. 44 Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and ............................................. 43 Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process ..................................... 44 Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback ..... Control Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between Process ........................................................... 44 Controller Performance Assessment Through Stiction in .............. Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes, Forced ........ Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations, Explaining the .................... Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in

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Chemistry Lab by ............................... 45 (3), inside front cover Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment ....................................... 44 Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the ........... 45 Correlations, A Laboratory Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless ............................................ 44 Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An Introductory ...................... Course Delivery and Assessment; A Student-Centered Approach .......... Course on Energy Technology and Policy, A .................. Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate ............. 42 Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students ..................................................................... 44 Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering ... 42 Courses Offered Earlier in the ................................... 43 Courses Offered Later in the ...................................... 44 Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate ...... Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE .................................................... Curriculum; From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of ...................................... 43 Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit, Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE ........................... Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate .................. 45 D DAE Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing ...................................... 44 Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Governing Lactose Conversion of ............................... 42 Surface Chemistrya .............................................. 43 Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with DataFit, Incorporation of ................................... DataFit, Incorporation of Data Analysis Throughout the ChE Curriculum Made Easy with ........................ Dead GuysUsing Activity Breaks to Teach History; ............................................................................ 43 Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Princeton .................................... 45 Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design, Introducing ........................... 44 Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and ............................... 44 Delta, The Devils in the ................................................... on Heat Transfer ........................................................ 44 Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor ........................... 45 Denmark; Teaching ChE Thermodynamics at Three Levels Experience from the Technical University of .............. 43 Departmental Articles Arizona, University of ................................................... 45 Bucknell University ....................................................... 44 California, Santa Barbara .......................................... Houston, University of .............................................. 45 Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ................................... 43 North Carolina State University .................................. 44 North Dakota, University of ...................................... 44 Polytechnic University .................................................. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology ......... 43 Tennessee Technological University ......................... 42 Tufts University ........................................................... 42 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale .................................. 44 Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip ......... 42 Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering .................................................... 43 Design Course, Lehigh .................................................... 45 Design Course Using Lego NXT Robotics, A Freshman 45 Design Course for Micropower Generation Devices ...... 43 Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals; Drug ............................... 45 Design, Introducing Risk Analysis and Calculation of ......... 45 Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, .......................................... 45 Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer ....................... 42 Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative ......................................................... 42 Design Problem in a Particle Science and Technology Course, A Population Balance Based ........................................ Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning ............ 44 Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A Senior .................................................. 44 Design, to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor ......................... 42 Design and Statistical Analysis Project, a Realistic Experimental .............................................. Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course, Wiki Technology as a ................................................. 43 Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) ........................................ 44 Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State ........ 45 Laboratory, The .......................................................... Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing ................................................ 44 Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin .. 45

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Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a ....................... 45 Dimensionless Correlations, A Laboratory Experiment on How to Create ..................................................................... 44 Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding Taylor-Aris ................................................................... 43 Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A Synchronous ................ 44 Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and Batch ................................. 45 Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State ................................ 43 Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An Innovative Method for Integrating a ........................................................... 43 Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning, Design Project on Controlled-Release ...... 44 Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals .......................................... 45 Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for ChE .............. 44 Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady-State and .................... 43 Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process ......................... 43 E Editorials Are the Steam Tables Dead? ...................................... 43 Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education R&D ........ 45 Engineers Deserve a Liberal Education ........ 42 Tough Decisions in Tough Times ................. 44 Why I Teach (and Advise) ......................................... 45 Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field .......................................... 44 (4), inside back cover Educator Articles Armstrong, Robert C., of MIT ..................................... 44 Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair; Univ. of Florida ..................... 42 Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Princeton .............................. 45 Fraser, Duncan; Univ. of Cape Town, South Africa .... .......................................... Miller, Dennis J.; Michigan State ............................... 43 Peppas, Nicholas A.; Texas at Austin ....................... 43 Ramkrishna, Doraiswami (Ramki); Purdue ................... 45 Reynolds, Joseph; Manhattan College ......................... Slater, C. Stewart ........................................................... 43 Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course .............................................. 45 Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering ........................................... 43 Education Tool, The Microbial Fuel Cell as an .............. 44 ........... 45 Educational Research. Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education .............................................. 42 Ehrenfests LotteryTime and Entropy Maximization 44 Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired ...................................................... 44 of Biomaterials and Engineering for ......................... 42 Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas ......................................................... 44 Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; Metstoich Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and ..................... 44 Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and ...................................... 45 Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and ................... 45 Energy Technology and Policy, A Course on .................. Use of Undergraduate Self-Directed Projects ............ 44 Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week; YouTube Fridays: ........................................ 44 Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program ....... 43 Engineering and Sustainable Community Development ............................................................. 45 Entropy Maximization; Ehrenfests LotteryTime and 44 Environmental Management by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student Laboratory, Integrating .............................................. 42 Equation of State Using Mathematica, Applications of the Peng-Robinson ............................. 42 Equation of State Using MATLAB, Applications of the Peng-Robinson ........................... 43 Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Nonlinear Algebraic ..................................................... 45 Equations for Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate .................................................. 42 Equilibria Using the Gibbs Energy and the ...... 44 Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica ........................................................................ 42 Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: Example for .... 45 Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light; Newtons Laws, .. 43 Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in ........................................................... 45 Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in ............................................... 44 ......... 44 Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat .................................. 43 Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and ....................... 45 Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors ....................................................... 45

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Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple ...................... 42 Experiment, Gas Pressure-Drop ...................................... 44 Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless Correlations, A Laboratory ........................................ 44 Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility, A Lab .. 42 Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; Device Fabrication and an ........................................... 44 Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer; ...................................................... 44 Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response ...................................................... 42 Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction ....................... 44 Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control ................................ 43 Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor ............................................... 45 Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project, a Realistic .................................................................... Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based ........... 43 Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining ........... 45 Explaining the Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations ............................................. Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details; Modeling an ........ 45 F Faculty Members Into Quick Starters, Turning New ........ False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing Liquid-liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of ...................................... Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a ..................... and Engineering for Elementary Students ................. 42 First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car .................... 43 and Mentoring Support for Development of ............... 44 Florida, Univ. of; Jennifer Sinclair Curtis ........................... 42 Flow, An Introduction to Granular ................................. 45 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase .......................... 43 Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water ................... 45 Fluid Mechanics Computations ...................................................... With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian ........................................ Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions, Active Learning in ................................... 45 Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds; The Hydrodynamic Stability of a .............................. 42 Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon ............................................................ 44 Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent ............ 45 Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group ....................................................... Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes ......... Fraser, Duncan; Univ. of Cape Town, South Africa .......... Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How Pop Goes Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for .............. Freshman Design Course Using Lego NXT Robotics .... 45 Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a ....... 42 Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to Problem-Based Learning in the ................................... 44 Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week, YouTube ....................................................... 44 From Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of ................... 43 Fuel Cell as an Education Tool, The Microbial .............. 44 Fugacity of a Pure Substance, A Graphical Representation for the ......................................................................... 44 Fundamental Research in Engineering Education Introductory Remarks ................................................ 45 Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies ................................. 45 Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State ........ 45 Laboratories ............................................................ 45 Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum ........................................................... Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of ................. 45 Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular ................................................................ 44 Gas-Fluidized Beds; The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in ........................... 42 Gas/Liquid Solubility, A Lab Experiment to Introduce .. 42 Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment ....................................... 44 Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant ........................................................................... 42 Gibbs Energy and the Common Tangent Plane Criterion, ............................ 44 Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the ................................ 42 Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in ......................................................... 44 Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A ........................ 43 Global Environment; Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for

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296 Cooperative Learning in ChE in a ................................. 44 Good Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education ................................................... 45 Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE Models in Undergraduate and ....................................................... 44 Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated ............................................ 45 Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a .......... 43 Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a ............... 42 Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research .... 44 Graduate Curriculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course; Is There Room in the ............... 43 Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A ...... 45 Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations, Reviving ............................................. 45 Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and ................................... 44 Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage ................................................................ 45 Granular Flow, An Introduction to ................................. 45 Granular Mixing, Introduction to Studies in ................... 42 Granulation Processes; Teaching Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to ............................... Graphical Representation for the Fugacity of a Pure Substance, A ............................................................... 44 Group Projects in ChE Using a Wiki ................................ 42 Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How Pop Goes Flat: A ................ Hard Assessment of Soft Skills ......................................... 44 Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined Steady State and Dynamic ................................................................ 43 Heat Transfer ............................................ 44 (3), inside back cover Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes, Forced Convection ........ Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and ........................... 45 Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles ........................................................................ 44 Heat Transfer, and Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a .................... 42 on .............................................................................. 44 Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of .................................. High School Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into ............................... 43 History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The ................................................... 43 Teach .......................................................................... 43 Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online ................................................... 45 Development of First-Year ChE Students in ............... 44 Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a ...................... 45 Houston, University of .................................................... 45 How to Stop Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down) ......... 45 Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................. 45 Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds; The .................... 42 Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a ............................... 43 I Ice Cream Maker, Teaching Process Engineering Using an ..................................................................... Icelands Nesjavellir Power Plant; Geothermal Cogeneration: ............................. 42 Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum ................ 43 Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum .................. 44 Ideas for Creating and Overcoming Student Silences .... 43 Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ......................................... 43 Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory ........................................ Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances ..................................................................... 45 Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education ................................................ Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an ........................ 44 Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using ................................. 44 Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint ................................................. 42 Project ........................................................................ 44 Student Learning in ................................................... 45 Innovative Method for Integrating a Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An .................................................... 43 Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and ................... 45 Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up .............................................................. 45 Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for Development .................. 44 Integrating a Diversity Workshop in a ChE Course, An Innovative Method for ............... 43 Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy ........ 45

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Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals; Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An ..................... 45 Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation .............................................................. 42 Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging Undergraduates in an ................. 43 Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for ...................................... 43 Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience; An Introduction to ...................................................... 45 Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of ....................................... 45 Internet-Based Distributed Laboratory for Interactive ChE Education, An .............................................................. Intravascular Gas Embolism; Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic ........ 44 Introducing DAE Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum ........................................................... 44 Introducing Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design ..................... 44 Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum .......... Under Uncertainty in Engineering Design ................ 45 Introduction to Granular Flow, An ................................. 45 Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing .................... 42 Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE Sophomores, An ........................................... Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses, Polymerization Simulator for .................................... 44 Introductory Thermodynamics, Problem Solving ..................................... 45 Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature 45 K Development of Problem Sets for ............................... 44 Undergrad. Self-Directed Projects; Engaging ........... 44 Research Mentor; In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership Between a ................... 43 Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction .................................. 42 Revisited in a Simple Experiment; Chemical .............. 42 ............................................... L Letters to the Editor .................................................. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course ........ 42 into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase ............ 43 Lab by Cooperative Strategy, Spark ChE Students Interest in Chemistry ............................................. 45 (3), inside front cover Lab Course in ChE, Teaching Technical Writing in a ....... 44 Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using .......... 45 Lab Exercise, Project-Based Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate ......................................................... 45 Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility, A .. 42 Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis .................................................. 42 Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates; Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing ................................................ Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment .............. 42 Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate ................................................................. 45 Laboratory Course for Senior-Level ChE Students, New ............................................................................ 43 Laboratory, The Development and Deployment .................................................. Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; ............................. 44 Laboratory Education Program, Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core .................................... 43 Laboratory Experiment on How to Create Dimensionless Correlations, A ........................................................... 44 Laboratory: Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins ........................................................ Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations ........................................................... the Pilot-Unit Leading Group .................................... 44 Laboratory, Integrating Environmental Management by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the ......................................................................... 42 Laboratory for Interactive ChE Education, An Internet-Based Distributed ................... Engineering .............................................................. 45 Laboratory: Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-junction ................................................................... 42 Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate .. 45 Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations .......................................................... 45 Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate .............................. 43 Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate ............................ 45 Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control ........................ 44 Laboratory: From Training to

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Applied Research, Teaching a Bioseparations ........... 43 Laboratories, Student Learning in ....................................... 45 Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory ......................... 42 Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light; Newtons ... 43 Learner-Centered Teaching; Random Thoughts: Hang in There! Dealing with Student Resistance to .. 45 Learning in ChE in a Global Environment; Cooperative Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative ................................... 44 Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary .................................. 42 Learning; Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and ........... 44 Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise, Project-Based ........................................ 45 Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active ..................... Learning Experience, Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive ........................... 44 Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active ...................... 45 Learning in the Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to Problem-Based ............................................................. 44 Learning in Industry Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation .............................................................. 42 From Learning to Earning: Making the Lesson Plan Cross the Divide ..................................................... 45 Laboratories, Student .............................................. 45 Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive ................. 44 Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative ...................................................... 44 We Facilitate Student ................................................. 43 Lego NXT Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using 45 Lehigh Design Course ..................................................... 45 Liberal Education, Engineers Deserve a ............ 42 Life of the Mind for Practice; A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a ................................................ 45 Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of .......................................................... 45 Light; Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of ... 43 Liquid Equilibria Using the Gibbs Energy and the ................. 44 Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and ..................... Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing ....................................... Liquid Solubility; Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/ .... 42 The ........................................................................ 44 Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the ................................................................... 45 Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in ......................... LotteryTime and Entropy Maximization; Ehrenfests 44 Student Lab-on-a-Chip: Integrating ....................... 43 M Making a Chemical Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience ................................ 44 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a ....................................................... 45 Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a ....................................... 45 Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a ............................................................... 43 Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching .......... 45 Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase ..................... 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching ..................... A Student-Centered Approach to Teaching ............... Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in ........................................ 45 Material Balances: A Play in Two Acts; Murder at MiskatonicPassion, Intrigue, and ............ 42 Material Science Courses, Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and .......................................... 44 Mathematica, Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using ............................................... 42 Mathematica, Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and ........................................................................................ 42 Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With ...................................................... MATLAB, Applications of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using ............................................. 43 MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and ......................................... 42 Maximization; Ehrenfests LotteryTime and Entropy 44 Comparisons of Observation ....................................... 43 Mechanics: YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid ............................................ 45 Meet Your Students 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art ............... 44 Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education, Good ............................................ 45 Mentoring Support for Development of First-Year ChE Students ................... 44

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Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching Quantitative ...... 44 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, ......................... 45 Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical ............. 42 MetstoichTeaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering ...................................... 44 Microbial Fuel Cell as an Education Tool, The .............. 44 Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a .............................................................. 44 Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer ............................................. 45 Lab ............................................................................ 45 Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism .............................................................. 44 Student Lab-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost ...... 43 Micropower Generation Devices, Design Course for ..... 43 Miller, Dennis J.; Michigan State .................................... 43 Mind for Practice; A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the ............................... 45 Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student ............................. 45 MIT; Armstrong, Robert C. .............................................. 44 Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect ............................. 43 Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-junction ................................................................... 42 Mixing, Introduction to Studies in Granular ................... 42 Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid ............................................................. Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary ...................................................... 44 Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating Computer-Based Numerical Problem-Solving to .................................. 43 Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................................. 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer Ball ........ 44 Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate Process ........................................ 44 Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details ......... 45 Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic ....... 43 Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen-Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles ....................................... 43 Modeling and Simulation of Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in ........................................... 44 Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD ................... 45 Models for Chemical Engineers, Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic ......................... 45 Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based ...................... 43 Models in Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE ............................. 44 Module, Evaluating Performance of a Battery Using Temperature & ......... 44 Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A .................................................... 42 Module on Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory .. 45 Modules for Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education ........................... 45 Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; An Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer ............ 45 Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory ................................................................. 45 Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student); Chemical Engineers Go to the .................................................................... MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained ............................. 44 Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical Conferences to Build ................................................... Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study ..................... 43 Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of ..................................................... 44 Multiple Comparisons of Observation MeansAre the Means ............................................... 43 Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding .. 43 Multiscale Modeling; Biokinetic Modeling of Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat: an Example of .................................. 43 Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate Equations for .............................................................. 42 N NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education ........................................ 43 Nanoscience; An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to ............................................. 45 Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course, Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a 42 Nanotechnology Processes Option in ChE ..................... 43 Deposition: A Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon ................................................... 44 NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and ................... 45 Navier-Stokes Equations, Explaining the Convective Term in the ........................ Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week; YouTube Fridays: Engaging the .............................................................. 44

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300 Curriculum; Ideas to Consider for ............................. 43 Curriculum; Ideas to Consider for ............................. 44 New Faculty Members Into Quick Starters, Turning ........ New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level ChE Students ............................................................ 43 Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the Speed of Light .... 43 Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ........................................... 45 Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the Undergraduate Curriculum .......... Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A Synchronous Distance-Education Course for .............. 44 Non-Technical Presentations, Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through ........................................................... 45 North Carolina State University ........................................ 44 North Dakota, University of ........................................... 44 Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on ................ 42 Numerical Problem-Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to .......................................... 43 Numerical Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: the ChE Curriculum; From ........................................ 43 Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course ................................................ 43 NXT Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using Lego 45 O Observation MeansAre the Means ..... 43 Teach History ............................................................. 43 Oldershaw Tray Column, Continuous and Batch Distillation in an ........................................................ 45 Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized .............................. 45 Onsager Reciprocal Relations, An Introduction to the ... Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and .................................................................. 45 Optimization Problems ................................................... 45 Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from ............................... 42 Creative Use of Undergrad. Self-Directed Projects ... 44 Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary School Students ..................................................................... 42 P Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and Pedagogy: The ........................... 43 Particle Science and Technology Course, A Population Balance Based Design Problem in a ...... Particle Technology, Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in ......................... 43 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical ............................ 44 Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak ........................ 44 PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module ............................. 43 Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education .............................................. 42 Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and .................................................... 43 Student Learning ........................................................ 43 Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group, Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: .................................................. Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using Mathematica, Applications of the ....................................................... 42 Peng-Robinson Equation of State Using MATLAB, Applications of the ..................................................... 43 Peroxide-Driven Chem-E-Car, First Principles Modeling of the Performance of a Hydrogen............. 43 Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved Student Achievement Using ................................................... 45 Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of .................... 43 Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems, Development of Problem ............................... 44 Pharmaceuticals; Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on .................................... 45 Pharmacokinetics for ChE, Drug Transport and ............. 44 Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers, Two-Compartment ..................................................... 45 Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them; Computing Liquid-Liquid .......................................... Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial ............................................ 42 PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response Experiment ................................................................... 42 of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group ................................ 44 Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal ................. 45 Pipes, Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular ........ Plastic Beverage Bottles; Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and ............................................................................. 44 Policy, A Course on Energy Technology and .................. Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; An Undergraduate Lab to Determine .......................... 45 Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses .......................................... 44 Polytechnic University ........................................................ Pop Goes Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen; The Chemical Engineering Behind How ..................... Population Balance Based Design Problem in a Particle Science

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and Technology Course, A ........................................... Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes; Teaching ....... Power Plant; Geothermal Cogeneration: Icelands Nesjavellir .................................................. 42 In Search of the Active Site of ................................... 43 Practices; Student Ratings of Teaching: Myths, Facts, and Good ...................................................................... 42 Pressure-Drop Experiment, Gas ...................................... 44 Princeton, Pablo G. Debenedetti ..................................... 45 Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for .............................................................. 44 Problem-Based Learning in the Freshman Year, A Blended Approach to ................................................ 44 Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology, Development of Contemporary ................................. 43 Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control ............................. Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design ............................................. 42 Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active ........ 42 Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical ........................ 43 Problem-Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: the ChE Curriculum; From Numerical ...................... 43 Thermodynamics ............................ 45 Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course, Numerical ............................. 43 Process Control Course, Controller Performance Process Control Course an Inductive and Deductive Learning Experience, Making a Chemical ................................ 44 Process Control Laboratory, Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a .................................................. 44 Process Control Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between ......................................................................... 44 Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in ....................... 43 Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A ....................................... 43 Process Engineering Using an Ice Cream Maker, Teaching .................................. Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two Undergraduate ...... 44 Process Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for ............................................ 45 Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning By Research ....................................................................... 43 Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd Ed .......................... Introducing Risk Analysis and Calculation of ........... 45 Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA ............................ 45 Project-Based Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise ................................................................ 45 Project (Design) on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning ............ 44 Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A Senior Design ..................................... 44 Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation, Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic .......................................... 42 Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team ..................... 45 Projects in ChE Using a Wiki, Group ............................... 42 Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone ..................................... 43 Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in ............................................................... 45 Proteins, Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful ..... Prototype for Engineering Up-Scaling, The Catalytic Pellet: A Rich ........................................................................ Purdue; Doraiswami (Ramki) Ramkrishna ........................ 45 Pure Substance, A Graphical Representation for the Fugacity of a ................................................... 44 Q Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; MetstoichTeaching ........................... 44 Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions ................................................................... 42 R R&D, Cross-Fertilizing Engineering Education ............. 45 Ramkrishna, Doraiswami (Ramki); Purdue ........................ 45 Random Thoughts Does Your Department Culture Suit You? ................. 43 Hang in There! Dealing with Student Resistance to Learner-Centered Teaching ................................... 45 Hard Assessment of Soft Skills ................................... 44 How Learning Works ................................................. 45 Sanity .................................................................... How to Stop Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down) .... 45 How to Write Anything .............................................. 42 The ........................................................................ 44 Each Without Weakening the Other; The ............. 44 Meet Your Students 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art .......... 44 On-the-Job Training ..................................................... 42 Priorities in Hard Times ............................................ 43 Teachers Teacher, A ................................................... 43 ... 42 ...... 43 Turning New Faculty Members Into Quick Starters ... Sermons for Grumpy Campers .................................. ....................................... 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and ...................

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302 Student Ratings of Teaching: Myths, Facts, and Good Practices ........................................................ 42 Why Me, Lord? .......................................................... Rate Equations for Multistep Reactions, Quick and Easy .......................................................... 42 Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region, Teaching ..................................... of Dairy Products Within the Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring ................ 42 Reactions, Quick and Easy Rate Equations for Multistep .................................................................... 42 Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed .................................. 45 Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to ....................................... 42 Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch ......................................... 45 Reactors; Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical .................................... 45 Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project, A .................................................................... Reciprocal Relations, An Introduction to the Onsager ... Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures, A Simple .......................................... 44 Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and ........................................................... 45 Research in Engineering Education, Pedagogical Training and .......................................... 42 Research, A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of 44 Research Group; Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a .... Research-Inspired Elective Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice .......... 44 Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods, Active Problem Solving and Applied .......... 42 Research; Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning By ................................................................................ 43 Research Project; A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative .. 42 Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and ......................................................... 45 Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate .. 45 Research; Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied .................................................................. 43 The Link Between ..................................................... 44 Weakening the Other; The Link Between .................. 44 Response Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient ............. 42 Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically ...................................................................... 45 Reviving Graduate Seminar Series Through Non-Technical Presentations .............................................................. 45 Reynolds, Joseph; Manhattan College .............................. in Engineering Design, Introducing ........................... 45 Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating ............ 42 Robotics, A Freshman Design Course Using Lego NXT 45 S Safer Design Practices into ChE Education, Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently ................................ 42 Safety in ChE Education, Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process .............................. 45 Industrial .................................................................... 44 Scale-up, Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and .................................... 45 Scaling Concepts in Continua; The Soccer Ball Model: A Useful .......................................... 44 Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and ............................................ 45 Science Classrooms, Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School .......... 43 Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate ................................ 43 Screencasts in ChE Courses, Using ................................ 43 Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, A ............................................................. 45 Senior Design Project; Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Deposition: A ............................................................. 44 Senior-Level ChE Students, New Laboratory Course for ....................................... 43 Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers; Skits, Stockings, and .................................................. 44 Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment; ........................ 42 Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to .................................................. 42 Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball 43 Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica, Equilibrium-Staged ............................................................. 42 Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing ........................ Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project, A ............................................................... 45 Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and .......................... 45 Simulation Module PCLAB for Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using ...... 43 Simulation of Multiphysics Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and .................... 44

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Simulation, Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process ....................................................... 43 Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses, Polymerization ................ 44 Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education, Incorporating ......................... Skin Diffusion, Undergraduate Laboratory Module on .. 45 Skits, Stockings, and Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers .............................................................. 44 Slater, C. Stewart ................................................................ 43 Scaling Concepts in Continua, The ........................... 44 Soft Skills, Hard Assessment of ........................................ 44 Software for ChE Thermodynamics; XSEOS: An Open .. 42 Computational Results; Can I Trust This .................... 42 Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduates .................................................. Solubility, A Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid .. 42 Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ............................................................... 45 Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; .......................................... 45 Song, Celebrating ChE in ................................................. 42 Sophomores, An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for ChE ............. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology ............... 43 ........... 45 Speed of Light; Newtons Laws, Eulers Laws, and the ... 43 Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation, Using Readily Available Commercial .... 43 Statistical Analysis Project, A Realistic Experimental Design and .................................................................. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and InquiryBased Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: Example for Equilibrium vs. .................................... 45 Steady State Disturbance Sensitivity in Process Control, Using Simulation Module PCLAB for ........................ 43 Steady State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment, Combined ................................................ 43 Steam Tables Dead?; Are the .......................................... 43 Controller Performance Assessment Through ........... Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Reactions Using the Gillespie Algorithm and MATLAB: Revisited and Augmented; Introducing ....................................... 42 Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances, Improved ................................ 45 Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and ....................... Student-Centered Approach to Teaching Material and Energy ..... Effective, ............................................. 44 (4), inside front cover into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase ............................ 43 Laboratories ............................................................ 45 Student Misconception in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing .......................................... 45 Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using .............................................. Student Silences, Ideas for Creating and Overcoming ... 43 Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through ...................... 45 Surface Chemistrya Danish Experience; Challenges in ................................................ 43 (Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum) ............... 44 Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A ..................................................... 44 Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for Teaching ................. 45 Synchronous Distance-Education Course for Nonscientists Coordinated Among Three Universities, A ................. 44 Project; Industrial Scale ............................................. 44 Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation, Interdisciplinary Learning for ChE Students from Organic Chemistry ................................................................... 42 Systems, Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of Multiphysics ............................................................. 44 T Using the Gibbs Energy and the Common ................ 44 Taylor-Aris Dispersion: An Explicit Example for Understanding ................ 43 Teaching Tips Approaches to Academic Integrity: Confessions of a Reluctant Expert ............................. 44 (3), inside front cover Celebrating ChE in Song ............................................. 42 Coordinating Internal Assessment to Balance Student Workload ........................... 45 Explaining the Convective Term in the Navier-Stokes Equations ........................................ Importance of Saying Thank You ........ 45 (4), inside front cover Thermodynamics ............................ 45 Skits, Stockings, and Senioritis Ale: Creative Chemical Engineers .............................................................. 44 Spark ChE Students Interest in Chemistry Lab by Cooperative Strategy ...................... 45 (3), inside front cover Teaching .......................................... 44 (4), inside front cover Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research ....................................................... 43 Teaching ChE Thermodynamics at Three LevelsExperience from the Technical University of Denmark ................. 43

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Experience; Challenges in ......................................... 43 The Link Between Research and ............................... 44 Other; The Link Between Research and .................... 44 Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small .............................. 43 Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for .......................... 45 and Assessment; A Student-Centered Approach to .... Teaching Population Balances for ChE Students: Application to Granulation Processes ........................ Teaching Process Engineering Using an Ice Cream Maker .................................................. Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering; Metstoich ................ 44 Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region ...................................................... Teaching Sustainability in a Mass and Energy Balance Course, Education Modules for ................................. 45 Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in ChE ........ 44 Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of Coffee ............................................................ Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance ............................... 45 Teamwork, and Research Skills; A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, ..... 45 Teamwork Skills, Using Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary ...................... Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills, Using Student ................................. Technical Writing in a Lab Course in ChE, Teaching ....... 44 Technology and Policy, A Course on Energy .................. Tennessee Technological University ............................... 42 Ternary Mixtures, A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in ............................ 44 Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory ................................................................. 44 Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of ................................................... 43 Texas at Austin; Nicholas A. Peppas ............................... 43 Theory and Practice, Closing the Gap Between Process Control .............................................. 44 Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in .......................................... 45 Thermodynamics Course, Conceptests for a .................. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in ................ 45 Introductory ........................................ 45 Thermodynamics at Three LevelsExperience from the Technical University of Denmark Teaching ChE .............................................................. 43 Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of ................................................... 44 Thermodynamics; XSEOS: An Open Software for ChE .. 42 T-junction, Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a ..... 42 Tool, The Microbial Fuel Cell as an Education .............. 44 Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving; The Chemical Engineers ............................ 43 Tough Decisions in Tough Times .............. 44 Tradition and Innovation; The History of ChE and Pedagogy: The Paradox of ......... 43 Training and Research in Engineering Education, Pedagogical ................................................................ 42 Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem, A Case Study Representing Signal ............. Transfer Course, Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass ..................................................... 43 Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady State; Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat ................... 45 Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass 45 Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass ........... 45 Transient Response Experiment, PID Controller Settings Based on a ............................. 42 Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor, Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a ................................ 45 Transport and Pharmacokinetics for ChE, Drug ............. 44 Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of Coffee, Teaching ............................................ Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the United States, A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and ............... 44 Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies; Identifying and Repairing Student Misconception in Thermal and .................................. 45 Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: YouTube ......... 45 Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers ................................................................... 45 Two Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods ........................................ 44 U in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous ................................................................... 45 Uncertainty in Engineering Design, Introducing Risk Analysis ...................... 45 Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Eng. Design, Introducing Decision Making Under ......................... 44 Undergraduate and Capstone Projects, Use of Engineering Design Competitions for ............................................ 43 Undergraduate ChE Curriculum; Future of ChE: Integrating Biology Into the ........................................................... Undergraduate Course in Modeling and Simulation of

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Multiphysics Systems ................................................ 44 Undergraduate Curriculum, Introducing Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Computations With Mathematica in the .... Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy; Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core ..................... 45 Undergraduate and Graduate ChE Curriculum, Introducing DAE Models in ............ 44 Undergraduate and Graduate Students, Creative Learning in a Microdevice Research-Inspired Elective Course for 44 Undergraduate Lab to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight ................................... 45 Undergraduate Lab Exercise, Project-Based Learning in Education Through an ................................................. 45 Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism; ...................................................... 44 Undergraduate Laboratory; Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Dairy Products Within the ........................................... 42 Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion ... 45 Undergraduate Laboratory, A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the ....................................................... 43 Undergraduate Laboratory, A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the ..................................................... 45 Undergraduate Process Modeling Courses Taught Using Inductive Learning Methods, Two ............................... 44 Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature; Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and ................................................................ 45 Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education; NANOLAB at The University of Texas at Austin: a Model for Interdisciplinary .......... 43 in the Engineering Classroom: A Creative Use of ..... 44 Undergraduate Student); Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary ........... Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow ................... 43 Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program; Engaging .......... 43 Undergraduates: Peer to Peer Interactions in a Research Group; Fostering an Active-Learning Environment for ......................................................... Undergraduates, Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for ChE .................................................... Unit Operations Laboratory; A Moveable FeastA Progressive Approach to the ...................................... 45 Unit Ops Laboratory, The Development and Deployment ................................................................. Unit Operations Laboratory, Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the ................................................ Up-Scaling; The Catalytic Pellet: A Rich Prototype for Engineering ................................................................ Use of Engineering Design Competitions for Undergraduate and Capstone Projects ................................................ 43 Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications .................................. 44 Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation ... 43 Using Student Technical Conferences to Build Multidisciplinary Teamwork Skills .......................................................... Software Package? An Exercise in .............................. 42 Assessment Through Stiction in Control ................... Fluidized Bed Chemical ............................................ 44 Common Tangent Plane Criterion ............................. 44 on Heat Transfer ........................................................ 44 Industrially Situated ................................................... 45 of a ............................................................................. Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer; ........................... 45 The Soccer Ball Model: A Useful .............................. 44 Performance of a Battery Using Temperature and ....... 44 Example for Understanding ............................................... 43 W Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe, CFD Modeling of ............................. 45 Water and NAOH; Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO from Air Using .................................... 45 Water Streams at a T-junction, Mixing Hot and Cold ..... 42 Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications; Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in .................................. 44 Weblab: A Tool for Cooperative Learning in ChE in a Global Environment; Cooperative ............... 44 Why I Teach (and Advise) .............................................. 45 Wiki, Group Projects in ChE Using a ............................... 42 Wiki Technology as a Design Tool for a Capstone Design Course ............................................................ 43 Write Anything, How to .................................................. 42 X XSEOS: An Open Software for ChE Thermodynamics ... 42 YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week ....................................................................... 44 YouTube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions; Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: ....................... 45 Z (none)

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306 A Abbas, A. ..................................... 43 Afacan, Artin .............................. 42 Ahlstrm, Peter ............................ 44 ................................... 44 Al-Dahhan, Muthanna .................. Alhammadi, H.Y. ........................ 43 Ali, Emad ..................................... 43 Allam, Yosef ............................... 42 Almeida, J.P.B. .......................... 42 Anderson, Brian J. ..................... 45 Andrews, Samantha N. ............. 45 Arce, Pedro .............. 44 Archer, Shivaun D. .................... 45 Argoti, A. ..................................... 42 Armstrong, Matt ......................... 42 Aronson, Mark T. ...................... 43 Ashbaugh, Henry S. .................. 44 Ashurst, W. Robert ....................... 42 Aucoin, Marc G. ........................ 43 Azadi, Pooya ................................ 43 B Baah, David .................................. 44 Bader, Paul ................................... 43 Badri, Solmaz ............................. 45 Baird, Malcolm .......................... Balcarcel, Robert .......................... 45 Barar Pour, Sanaz ....................... Barat, Robert .............................. 45 Barford. John P. ......................... 44 Bean, Doyle P., Jr. ..................... 45 ............... 43 ........................ 44 ................ 43 Benoit Norca, Gregory ............... Berg, John C. ............................. 45 Beyenal, Haluk ........................... 44 Biaglow, Andrew ........................ 42 Biernacki, Joseph J. ................... 42 Biggs, Catherine A. ..................... 44 Billet, Anne-Marie ..................... 44 Binous, Housam ......... 42 42 43 Blankenspoor, Wesley ............... 44 Blowers, Paul ................................. 45 Bommarius, Andreas S. ............... 45 Book, Neil .................................. 44 Bowman, Christopher N. .......... 43 Bradley, James ............................. 44 Brauner, Neima ........ 42 43 43 Brenner, James R. ...................... Brent, Rebecca ......... 42 42 42 43 44 45 Briedis, Daina M. ........................ 43 Brown, Mayo ............................... 45 ........................ Budman, Hector ......................... 44 Bullard, Lisa ............. 42 44 44 44 (3), inside front cover; 44 (4), inside front cover; 44 45 45 45 45 (4), inside cover Burr-Alexander, Levelle ............ 43 C Camy, Sverine .......................... 44 Canavan, Heather E. .................. 42 Cardona-Martnez, Nelson .......... 44 Carson, Susan ............................. 43 Carta, Giorgio ............................. 45 Case, Jennifer M. ........................ Castellanos, Patricia ..................... Castier, Marcelo ........................... 42 Castro, Alberto A. ........................ 42 Cavanaugh, Daniel P. .................. 44 Chau, Ying .................................. 44 Chirdon, William M. ................. 44 Chisnell, John R. ....................... 43 Chou, S.T. .................................... 42 Christie, Jacqueline ...................... 45 Clark, William .......... 44 45 Clarke, Matthew A. ................... 43 .................... 43 Comitz, Richard L. .................... 42 Condoret, Jean Stphane ............ Connor Jr., Wm. Curtis .............. 45 Coronell, Daniel G. ................... 43 Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole ........ 44 Coutinho, Cecil A. ...................... 44 Cramer, Steven M. ..................... 44 Cruz, A.J.G. ................................... 44 Cruz, J. ......................................... 42 Culligan, Tanya .......................... 43 Curtis, Christine ........................... 44 Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair ............. 43 Cutlip, Michael B. .... 42 43 43 D Da Silva, Francisco A. ................. 42 Dai, Lenore .................................. Daniel, Susan ................................ 45 Das, G. ........................................ 45 ...................................... 45 Daughtry, Terrell .......................... 44 Dave, Rajesh .............................. 43 Author Index Davis, Richard A. ...................... 45 Davis, Robert H. .. 44 Davis, Robert J. ......................... 43 .................. 43 DeGrazia, Janet .......................... 43 Deitcher, Robert W. ................... 43 De Jesus, C.D.F. ............................ 44 ......... 44 DePriest, Jane L. ......................... 43 Derevjanik, Mario ...................... 45 Dewan, Alim .............................. 44 Diemer, R. Bertrum ...................... ......................... 45 Dohrn, Ralf .................................. 44 Dominiak, Richard S. ................ ........................ ............................ E Economou, Ioannis G. ................. 44 Eden, Mario .............. 42 42 Edgar, Thomas F. ....................... ................... 44 Ehrman, Sheryl H. ....................... Ekerdt, John G. ......................... 43 Elliott, Richard ........... 44 44 Elmore, Bill B. ............................ 45 Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola ........... 44 Evans, Steven T. ......................... 44 F Fachada, H.C. ............................ 42 .................................. 43 Falconer, John L. .... 43 Fan, L.T. ....................................... 42 Farhadi, Maryam .......................... 43 Farrell, Stephanie ...... Fedkiw, Peter S. .......................... 44 Felder, Richard ........... 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 Fernandez, Erik ............................ 45 Ferraro, Giacomo P. ................... 45 Field, Jim A. .................................. 45 Floyd Smith, Tamara ................... 44 Foley, Greg ................................... 45 Fonseca, I.M.A. ......................... 42 Forbes, Neil S. .......................... 42 Forciniti, Daniel ........................ 43 Fowler, Michael W. ................... 43

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Jablonski, Erin L. ........................ 44 Jackson, George ........................... 44 .................. 45 Jaubert, Jean-Noel ........................ 44 Jayaraman, Arul ......................... Ji, Michelle ................................. 44 Johri, Jayati ................................ 42 Jog, Chintamani ......................... 44 Jolicoeur, Mario ......................... 43 Jordan, Patrick ...... 45 Joye, Donald D. ........................... 45 Jungbauer, Alois ......................... 45 K ......................... 44 45 ........................... 45 ............. 43 44 .......................... 45 ....................... 43 ......................... 43 ........................... ...................... 44 ........................ 43 ............................... 43 ............. 42 ......................... 45 ............................. 44 ........................... 45 ........ 43 43 ... 43 45 ........................ 43 ............. 44 45 ................... 44 ........... 45 ............................. 43 ..................... 43 L Lachance, Russ .......................... 42 Lane, Alan M. .............................. 42 Laurence, Robert L. .................. 45 Leal, L. Gary .............................. Leavesley, Silas J. ..................... 45 Lefebvre, Brian G. ..................... Legros, Robert ............................ Le Roux, G.A.C. ........................... 44 ............ 44 Lewis, Randy S. ........................... Liang, Jia-chi .............................. 43 Liang, Youyun ............................ 44 Liberatore, Matthew W. ........... 44 45 45 Lito, Patrcia F. ......... 42 45 Liu, Xue ..................................... 42 Llusa, Marcos ............................. 42 Lombardo, Stephen J. .................. 44 Long, Christopher ...................... .............................. 42 Lou, Helen H. ............................ 45 ................................ 44 Lu, Hang ...................................... 45 Luyben, William L. .... 43 44 45 M Maase, Eric L. .............................. 42 Macedo, Eugnia A. ..................... 44 Madihally, Sundararajan ............. 45 Mainardi, Daniela S. ................. 43 ................. 44 Mankidy, Bijith D. ..................... 44 ...................... 45 Marcilla, Antonio ....................... Matthews, Michael A. ................ Medlin, J.Will ............................ 43 Merrill, John ............................... 42 Metzger, Matthew J. .................. Meyyappan, M. ......................... 44 Michelson, Michael L. ................ 43 Mijovic, Jovan. ............................... Miletic, Marina ......................... 43 Miller, Ronald L. ....................... 45 Minerick, Adrienne R. ............... 44 44 45 Mitsos, Alexander ..................... 43 Monroe, Charles W. ................... Montas, Maria T. .................... 42 Moreira, Jr.; P.F. ............................ 44 Morin, Michael T. ...................... 45 Mosto, Patricia ............................. ........................ 43 Murthi, Manohar ........................ 43 ........................... Muzzio, Fernando ...................... 42 Myers, John A. ............................. N Nascimento, C.A.O. ...................... 44 ............................... 43 Neves, Patrcia S. ......................... 42 Newman, John ............................ Nicol, Willie .............................. 45 Niemczyk, Jennifer ...................... 45 Nijdam, Justin ...... 45 Norman, James J. ...................... 45 ......................... 45 O ..................... ODell, Francis P. ........................ 44 ............................ 45 Olaya, Mara del Mar ................ 44 Ortiz-Rodriguez, Estanislao ....... 44 Fradette, Louis ........................... Freeman, Margaret .. 44 45 Fuchs, Alan ................................ 44 Garetto, Teresita F. ...................... 42 Gecik, Christopher ..................... Ghosh, S. ..................................... 45 Giordano, R.C. .............................. 44 Giraldo, Carlos ........................... 43 Glasser, Benjamin J. 42 Glasser, David ............................ Gordon, Michael J. .................... 44 Graham, Daniel J. ...................... 42 ..................... 45 Gray, Tom ................................... Grubin, Catherine ....................... 42 Guo, Jing ...................................... Gummer, Edith ........................... 45 ......................... 44 ........................ 43 Hahn, Juergen ............................. Hall, Rosine ................................. 44 .................... 45 Hariri, M. Hossein ..................... 43 Harold, Michael P. ..................... 45 Harris, Andrew T. ...................... 43 Harris, Sandra ............................ Hart, Peter W. .............................. 45 Hausberger, Brendon .................. Hecht, Gregory B. ........................ Heitsch, Andrew T. .................... 43 ............. 45 Hesketh, Robert P. .......................... 43 Heys, Jeffrey J. ............................. 42 ............................. 42 Hildebrandt, Diane ..................... Hilliard, Marcus ......................... Hirsch, Linda S. ........................ 43 Hissam, Robin S. ....................... 45 Ho, Thomas C. .......................... 45 Hoffman, Adam ............................ 45 .................................. Hollein, Helen C. .......... 43 Holles, Joseph H. .... 43 45 Holmberg, Michael P. ................ 43 Howley, Maureen A. ................. 42 Hrenya, Christine M. ................. 45 Huang, Xinqun ............................ 44 Huang, Yinlun ........................... 45 I Ibarra, Isabel .............................. Idriss, Arimiyawo ......................... 43

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Osei-Prempeh, Gifty .................. 44 Oyanader, Mario ........................ P Palomares, Antonio E. ............... 42 ............... 45 Papavassiliou, Dimitrios ........... 44 45 Pascal, Jennifer ........................... 44 Paul, Donald R. ......................... Peppas, Nicholas ............................ 42 Petrulis, Robert ........................... 44 Pety, Stephen J. ........................... 45 Pia, Juliana ............................... Pokki, Juha-Pekka ........................ 44 Pons, Sergio ............................... 45 Prausnitz, Mark R. ... 45 45 Prince, Michael ......... 45 45 Q (none) R ................................. 44 Register, Richard A. .................. 45 Reis, G.B. ...................................... 44 Reklaitis, Gintaras .......................... 42 Rengaswamy, Raghunathan ...... 44 Reyes-Labarta, Juan A. ............. 44 Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis ........... 44 44 ................. Romagnoli, J.A. .......................... 43 Romn, Aidsa I. Santiago ........... 45 Rosen, Edward M. ..................... 42 Rosin,, M.S. .............................. 45 Rossiter, Diane ............................ 44 Rudie, Alan W. ............................ 45 Ryan, Jim ................................... 42 Ryder, Daniel ............................... 42 S Saayman, Jean ........................... 45 Sad, Mara E. ............................... 42 Sad, Mario R. .............................. 42 Sez, A. Eduardo ............................ 45 .. 45 (3), inside front cover Snchez, Antoni ........................... 45 Santiago, Ana S. ........................ 45 Saudejaud (Coufort-), Carole ..... 44 Savage, Phillip E. ...................... 42 Saveleski, Mariano ...... 44 Sawyer, Bryan ............................ 44 Schlosser, Phil ............................ 42 Seay, Jeffrey R. ........ 42 42 Seborg, Dale E. .......................... Seebauer, Edmund G. ................ 43 Serrano, Mara Dolores ............. 44 Shacham, Mordechai .................... 42 43 43 Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ................. 45 Sharp, David .............................. 42 Shea, Lonnie D. ......................... 43 Sheardown, Heather ................... 43 Shevlin, Ryan ............................. 44 Sidler, Michelle ............................ 44 Sierra, Reyes .................................. 45 Silebi, Cesar A. ......................... 45 Silva, Carlos M. ........ 42 45 Silverstein, David ..... 43 43 44 44 Simmons, Craig A. .................... 43 Simon, Laurent; ...... 43 44 45 Singh, Abhay .............................. Sitton, Oliver C. ......................... 44 Slater, C. Stewart ......................... 44 Sloop, Joseph ............................. 42 Smart, Jimmy ............. 42 Smith, Robert A. ......................... 44 Smith, Tamara Floyd .................... 44 Smith, York R. ........................... 44 Snurr, Randall Q. ...................... 43 Soffen, Tanya ............................. 44 Soroush, Masoud .......................... 44 Spencer, Jordan L. ....................... 43 Sridhar, L.N. ................................ 44 Srinivasan, Ranganathan ............ Stanton, Michael ........................ 42 Streveler, Ruth A. ...................... 45 Sullivan, W.M. .......................... 45 Sun, Nakho ................................... 42 Sun, Yi-ming .............................. 43 Suppes, Galen ............................ 44 T Tanguy, Philippe A. ................... Thio, Yonathan ............................. 45 Thompson, Nancy S. ................. Tom, Jean W. ............................. 45 Tomasko, David L. .................... 42 Tong, Yen Wah ........................... 44 Torres, Cynthia ............................ 44 Tosun, Ismail ................................ Tracey, James H. ............................ 43 Trot, Bruce ................................. 42 Turton, Richard .......................... 45 ............ 43 44 44 (3), inside back cover U (none) ....................... 44 .................. ............................... 45 ........................... 45 ............... 44 ........................ 44 ........................ 44 ................................... 42 .......................... 44 ......................... 45 44 43 ....................... 43 ...................... 44 W Wang, Chi-Hwa .......................... 44 Wankat, Phillip .... 44 (4), inside back cover; 42 43 43 43 45 45 45 Wanke, Sieghard ........................ 42 Weinberger, Charles B. ............... 44 .......................... 45 Whitaker, Stephen ..... 43 Wiesner, Theodore ..................... Williams, Jason .......................... Wilson, Sarah A. ......................... 44 Wilson, Tiffany M. ..................... 42 Winter, Robb M. .......................... 43 .................. 44 Wood, Brian D. ........................... 43 Woods, Donald R. .. 43 43 Wright, Sarah H. ......................... 44 X Xi, Yuanzhou ............................. 43 Xu, Qingzing .............................. 44 ............................... 42 Yang, Allen H.J. ........................... 45 Yang, Dazhi ............................... 45 Yang, Yong ................................. 42 Ydstie, Erik .................................... 42 Yokochi, Alexandre .................... 43 Yokoyama, Ayumu ....................... 43 ............... 43 Z ....................... 43 ........................ 42 .......................... 45 ........................ .................. 44 .................... 45

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PRESENTING: CEE S Annual Grad Guide for 2011-2012 The following pages feature schools that offer graduate education programs in chemical engineering annual graduate education issue, and on our web site at CEE CEE (Chemical Engineering Education ) is the premier

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An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integra What is taught in graduate school? e.g. transport phenomena, on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and mining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is What is the nature of graduate research? how Where should you go to graduate school? with great strength or reputation in that particular area would Financial Aid i.e.

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312 313 314 315 316 317 411 318 419 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 411 329 419 330 331 332 333 334 420 335 336 337 338 412 339 340 341 412 413 342 343 344 345 346 347 413 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 414 360 361 362 414 420 415 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 415 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 416 380 381 382 416 383 420 384 385 386 417 387 388 389 417 390 418 391 392 393 418 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 419 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 INDEX Graduate Education Advertisements

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312 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellow ships available. In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. Chai rman, Gra duate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 972-5856 G. G. CHASE G. CHENG H. M. CHEUNG S. S. C. CHUANG L.-K. JU, Chair N. D. LEIPZIG J. R. ELLIOTT E. A. EVANS H. CASTANEDA L. LIU C. MONTY B. Z. NEWBY J. E. PUSKAS J. H. PAYER H. C. QAMMAR J. ZHENG D.P. VISCO Electrochemistry & Corrosion, Corrosion evolution, Modeling, Coatings damage/performance, special alloys. Multiphase Processes, Nano bers, Filtration, Coalescence Biomaterials, Protein Engineer ing, Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine Nanocomposite Materials, So nochemical Processing, Polymerization in Nanostructured Fluids, Supercritical Fluid Processing Catalysis, Reaction Engineer ing, Environmentally Benign Systhesis, Fuel Cell Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physical Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical Fluids Materials Processing and CVD Modeling, Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling Renewable Bioenergy, Environmental Bioengineering Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology, Biomaterials, Tissue Engienering Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosen sors, Tissue Engineering Reaction Engineering, Biomim icry, Microsensors Surface Modication, Alternative Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient Surfaces Corrosion & Electrochemistry, Sys tems Health Monitoring and Reliability, Ma terials Performance and Failure Analysis Biomaterials, Green Polymer Chemistry and Engineering, Biomimetic Processes Nonlin ear Control, Chaotic Processes, Engineer ing Education Thermody namics, Computeraided molecular de sign Computa tional Biophysics, Bio molecular Interfaces, Biomatierials

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313 Chemical & Biological Engineering A dedicated faculty with state of the art facilities offer ing research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. In 2009, the department moved into its new home, the $70 million Scienc e and Engineering Complex. Research Areas: Biological Application s of Nanomaterials, Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery Electronic Materials, En ergy and CO2 Separation and Sequestration Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic M aterials, Membrane Separations and Reactors, Pharmaceutical Synthesis and Microchemical Systems, P olymer Rheology, Simulations and Modeling Faculty: David Arnold (Purdue) Yuping Bao (Washington) Jason Bara (Colorado) Christopher Brazel (Purdue) Eric Carlson (Wyoming) Peter Clark (Oklahoma State) Nagy El Kaddah (Imperial College ) Arun Gupta (Stanford) Ryan Hartman (Michigan) Tonya Klein (NC State) Alan Lane (Massachusetts) Stephen Ritchie (Kentucky) C. Heath Turner (NC State) Hung Ta Wang ( Florida) Mark Weaver (Florida) John Wiest (Wisconsin) For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical & Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 -0203 (205) 348-6450 alane @eng.ua.edu http://che.eng.ua.edu An eq ual employment/equal educational opportunity institution

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314 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMIC AL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING The City of Edmonton S. Bradford Emeritus R.E. Burrell K. Cadien W. Chen P. Choi K.T. Chuang Emeritus I. Dalla Lana Emeritus A. de Klerk, G. Dechaine J. Derksen S. Dubljevic R.L. Eadie A. Elias, J.A.W. Elliott T.H. Etsell G. Fisher Emeritus J.F. Forbes Chair A. Gerlich M.R. Gray R. Gupta R.E. Hayes H. Henein B. Huang D.G. Ivey S.M Kresta S.M. Kuznicki D. Li Q. Liu Q. Liu J. Luo D.T. Lynch Dean of Engineering J.H. Masliyah Distinguished University Professor Emeritus A.E. Mather Emeritus W.C. McCaffrey P.F. Mendez D. Mitlin K. Nandakumar Emeritus R. Narain N. Nazemifard J. Nychka F. Otto Emeritus B. Patchett Emeritus V. Prasad S. Sanders D. Sauvageau N. Semagina S.L. Shah J.M. Shaw H. Uludag L. Unsworth S.E. Wanke Emeritus M. Wayman Emeritus M.C. Williams Emeritus G. Winkel R. Wood Emeritus Z. Xu T. Yeung H. Zeng H. Zhang study and conduct leading research with worldclass academics in the top program chemical engi neering materials engineering and process control All full-time graduate students in research programs stipend one million square feet of outstanding teaching research and personnel space in outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities including access to one of the most National Institute for Nanotechnology $14 million over $50 million each largest amount For further information, contact: www.cme.engineering.ualberta.ca

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315 FACULTY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations PAUL BLOWERS, Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design WENDELL ELA, Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry JAMES FARRELL, Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils JAMES A. FIELD, Bioremediation, Environmental Microbiology, Hazardous Waste Treatment ROBERTO GUZMAN, ANTHONY MUSCAT Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, Microcontamination KIMBERLY OGDEN, Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing EDUARDO SEZ Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids GLENN L. SCHRADER, Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics, Solar Energy FARHANG SHADMAN, Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, Microcontamination, Semiconductor Manufacturing REYES SIERRA, Environmental Biotechnology, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Wastewater Treatment SHANE A. SNYDER, Endocrine Disruptor and Emerging Contaminant Detection and Treatment, Water Reuse Technologies and Applications ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate Change Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. range of research opportunities in all Financial support is available through fellowships, govern ment and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information http://www.chee.arizona.edu Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A

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316 Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis University of Arkansas Areas of Research Faculty For more information contact Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

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317 AUBURN U NIVERSITY offers a challenging graduate curriculum and research program that prepares its PhD and MS graduates for successful careers. Thanks to an exceptional team of educators and researchers, our department remains at the forefront of discovery and innovation. The size and strength of Auburns research program provides important advantages for graduate students. Auburn maintains a top ranking in research awards per faculty member, allowing the department to provide excellent fellowships and assistantships and offer cuttingedge research equipment in our laboratories. During the past decade, Auburn chemical engineering has continued to increase in size and strength, allowing the program to provide distinct opportunities and advantages to its students, and produce innovative research. FOR MORE INFORMATIONDirector of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn, AL 36849-5127 Phone 334.844.4827 Fax 334.844.2063 www.eng.auburn.edu/chen chemical@eng.auburn.edu Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.CHEMICA L E NGINEERINGAT AUBURN UNIVERSITYALTERNATIVE ENERGY & FUELS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMATERIALS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOPROCESSING & BIOENERGY CATALYSIS & REACTION ENGINEERING COMPUTERAIDED ENGINEERING DRUG DELIVERY ENERGY CONVERSION & STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY FUEL CELLS GREEN CHEMISTRY MATERIALS MEMS & NEMS MICROFIBROUS MATERIALS NANOTECHNOLOGY POLYMERS PROCESS CONTROL PULP & P APER SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS SURF ACE & INTERF ACIAL SCIENCE SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICSW. ROBERT ASHURST University of California, Berkeley MARK E. BYRNE Purdue University ROBERT P CHAMBERS University of California, Berkeley HARRY T CULLINAN Carnegie Institute of Technology VIRGINIA D AVIS Rice University STEVE R. DUKE University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARIO R. EDEN Technical University of Denmark RAM B. GUPTA University of Texas at Austin THOMAS R. HANLEY Virginia Tech Institute Y OON Y LEE Iowa State University ELIZABETH A. LIPKE Rice University GLENNON MAPLES Oklahoma State University RONALD D NEUMAN The Institute of Paper Chemistry TIMOTHY D PLACEK University of Kentucky CHRISTOPHER B. ROBERTS University of Notre Dame BRUCE J. T ATARCHUK University of Wisconsin JIN WANG University of Texas at Austin

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318 Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, ranked the 1st most livable place in the world*. Vancouvers natural surroundings offer limitless opportunities for outdoor pursuits throughout the year hiking, canoeing, mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the city hosted the Olympic and Paraolympic Winter Games.FacultySusan A. Baldwin (Toronto) Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia) Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley) Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill) Naoko Ellis (British Columbia) Peter Englezos (Calgary) James Feng (Minnesota) Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta) John R. Grace (Cambridge) Christina Gyenge (British Columbia) Elod Gyenge (British Columbia) Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill) Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley) Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa) Ezra Kwok (Alberta) Anthony Lau (British Columbia) C. Jim Lim (British Columbia) Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia) Madjid Mohseni (Toronto) Royann Petrell (Florida) James M. Piret (MIT) Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad) Kevin J. Smith (McMaster) Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto) David Wilkinson (Ottawa)Professors Emeriti Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia) Richard Branion (Saskatchewan) Norman Epstein (New York) Richard Kerekes (McGill) Colin Oloman (British Columbia) A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)Currently about 170 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The program dates back to the 1920s. The department has a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael Smith Laboratories, FPInnovations, Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public health, engineering and policy research.*2011 survey, The EconomistThe University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Biological Engineering Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Protein Engineering Blood research Stem Cells Energy Biomass and Biofuels Bio-oil and Bio-diesel Combustion, Electrochemical Engineering Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Hydrates Process Control Pulp and Paper Reaction Engineering Environmental and Green Financial AidStudents admitted to the graduate programs leading to the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees receive at least a support regardless of citizenship (approx. $17,500/year for M.A.Sc and M.Sc and $19,000/ year for Ph.D). Teaching assistantships are available (up to approx. $1,000 per year). All incoming students will be considered for several Graduate Students Initiative (GSI) Scholarships of $5,000/year and 4-year Doctoral Fellowships Scholarships of approx. $16,000/year. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGMASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.) MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.) MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.) DOCT OR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.). Faculty of Applied ScienceMailing address: 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 gradsec@chbe.ubc.ca tel. +1 (604) 822-3457 Environmental and Green Engineering Emissions Control Green Process Engineering Life Cycle Analysis Wastewater Treatment Waste Management Aquacultural Engineering Particle Technology Fluidization Multiphase Flow Fluid-Particle Systems Particle Processing Electrostatics Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer Rheology www.chbe.ubc.caMain Areas of Research

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321 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department CONTACT CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT U C L A FOCUS AREAS Manufacturing and GENERAL THEMES PROGRAMS FACULTY J. P. Chang (William F. Seyer Chair in Materials Electrochemistry) Y. Cohen J. Davis (Vice Provost Information Technology) R.F. Hicks L. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate) J. C. Liao (Chancellors Professor) Y. Lu V.I. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette (Dept. Chair) G. Orkoulas T. Segura S.M. Senkan Y. Tang UCLAs Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and Process and Control Systems Engineering. Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of

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324 CALTECHCHEMICAL ENGINEERINGAt the Leading EdgeThe Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering opened in March 2010CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYContact information: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125http://www.che.caltech.eduFrances H. Arnold: Protein Engineering and Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology, Biofuels John F. Brady: Complex Fluids and Suspensions, Rheology, Transport Processes Mark E. Davis: Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Advanced Materials Richard C. Flagan: Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation George R. Gavalas (emeritus) Konstantinos P. Giapis: Plasma Processing, Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology Sossina M. Haile: Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis and Electrocatalysis Rustem F. Ismagilov: Microfluidics and Multiphase Flows; Global Health; Complex Networks of Reactions, Cells and Organisms Julia A. Kornfield: Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers John H. Seinfeld: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Global Climate David A. Tirrell: Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering, Chemical Biology Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus) Zhen-Gang Wang: Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics

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325 Unlock the next stage of your career. The graduate students and faculty at Carnegie Mellon are taking the eld of Chemical Engineering to a new level. Power up with research in alternative energy, systems engineering, nanotechnology, bioengineering, and environmental engineering. The game is just beginning. Take control of your future.CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING A T CARNE GIE M E LLON Contact Information chegrad@andrew.cmu.edu 412.268.2230 Graduate Degree Programs > Doctorate > Course Option Master > Thesis Option Master Department Home Page www.cheme.cmu.edu Online Graduate Application www.cheme.edu/admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Pittsburgh, P A 15213-3890 Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon PLA YER 1 SELECT > Bioengineering > Complex Fluids Engineering > Energy Science and Engineering > Envirochemical Engineering > Process Systems Engineering

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327 Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Engineering Research Center that houses most chemical engineering research. Emerging Energy Systems Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage nanomaterials Environmental Research Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors Molecular Engineering Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors Membrane and Separation Technologies tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac tion-based separation processes Biotechnology Polymers Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial phenomena Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering, the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years. Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST) INST brings together three centers of excellencethe Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonicscomposed of faculty from the Colleges of En gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena. For Admission Information Contact Barbara Carter College of Engineering and Applied Science Cincinnati, OH 45221-0077 513-556-5157 Barbara.carter@uc.edu or Professor Vadim Guliants The Chemical Engineering Program The School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 vadim.guliants@uc.edu The University of Cincinnati is committed to a policy of non-discrimination in awarding Financial Aid Available A.P. Angelopoulos Carlos Co Junhang Dong Joel Fried Rakesh Govind Vadim Guliants Chia-chi Ho Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Joo-Youp Lee Paul Phillips Neville Pinto Vesselin Shanov Peter Smirniotis Stephen W. Thiel Faculty

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328 Biomaterials and Biotransport atherogenesis, bio-uid ow, self-assembled biomaterials Colloid Science and Engineering directed assembly, novel particle technology Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow boiling heat transfer, emulsions, rheology, suspensions Energy Generation and Storage batteries, gas hydrates, thermal energy storage Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter device design, dynamic interfacial processes Nanomaterials and Self Assembly catalysts, patchy particles, sensors Polymer Science and Engineering polymer processing, rheology Powder Science and Technology pharmaceutical formulations, powder ow Process Design and Optimization environmental plant design, process intensication Levich Institute for Physicochemical Hydrodynamics directed by Morton M. Denn Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Engineering Energy Institute directed by Sanjoy Banerjee Distinguished Professor of Chemical EngineeringRESEARCH AREAS FACULTYSanjoy Banerjee Alexander Couzis Morton M. Denn M. Lane Gilchrist Ilona Kretzschmar Jae W. Lee Charles Maldarelli Jeffrey F. Morris Martin Moskovits David S. Rumschitzki Carol A. Steiner Daniel A. Steingart Gabriel I. Tardos Raymond S. TuINSTITUTES www-che.engr.ccny.cuny.edu gradinfo@che.ccny.cuny.edu212 650 6671GROVE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING MS & PhD Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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330 Wh y -Cut t -Inte r awa r Cut t Bio m coati for r e K.S. A. J a Ran d Bio p form u drug Cat a zeoli t D.K. Co m mec h Co m C.M. Ren e R.H. R.D. Uni v Pho y the Univ e t ing-edge res e r nationally re c r ds for their r e t ing-Edge m aterials an d ngs, biosens o e generating d Anseth, C.N. a yaraman, J. L d olph, S. Re d p harmaceuti c u lations for n e delivery / R. T a lysis, Surfa c t es, atomic a n Schwartz, A. m plex Fluids a h anics / R.H. m putational S Hrenya, A. J e wable Ener g Davis, J.L. F Noble, M.P. v ersity of C o ne: 303.49 2 e rsity of C o e arch in a va r c ognized fac u e search and t Research d Tissue En g o rs, develop m amaged or d Bowman, S. J L Kaar, M.J. M d dy, D.K. Sch w c als: delivery e w drugs, m e T Gill, J.L. K a c e Science a n d molecular W. Weimer a nd Microfl u Davis, C.M. H S cience: clas s J ayaraman, J gy and Clea n F alconer, S.M Stoykovich, A Memb r Davis, Protei n and us Nano s S.M. G M.P. S Polym macro m A. Jay a o lorado Bo 2 .7471 Fax: o lorado B o r iety of areas u lty with num e eaching g ineering: bi o m ent of new a iseased tissu J Bryant, M ahone y T. W w art z J.W. S technologie s e tabolic engin a ar, D.S. Ko m nd Thin Fil m layer deposi t u idic Device s H renya, A. J a s ical and qu a W. Medlin, C n Energy Ap George, R. T A .W. Weimer r anes and S e J.L. Falcone r n and Metab o ing metaboli c tructured Fi l G eorge, D.L. G toykovich, A. er Chemistr y m olecules / K a raman, T.W ulder, Engi 303.492.43 4 o ulder? e rous o compatible a pproaches es / W S tansbur y s and stable eering, m pala, T.W. R m Materials: h t ion / C .N. B o s : fluid mech a a yaraman, T. W a ntum simulat C .B. Musgrav e p lications: b T Gill, D.L. G i e parations: r D.L. Gin, D o lic Engine e c processes / l ms and De v G in, A. Jayar a W. Weimer y and Engin e K .S. Anseth, C Randolph, J neering Ce n 4 1 Web: w w R andolph, S. R h eterogeneo u o wman, J.L. F a nics of susp e W Randolph, ions, statistic e b iofuel, solar e i n, C.M. Hre n inorganic m e D .K. Schwart z e ring and Dir R.T. Gill, J.L v ices: engine e a man, J.W. M e ering: che m C .N. Bowma n J .W. Stansbu r n ter, ECCH w w.colorado The Jenni e the new h o Biological Spring 20 1 R eddy, D.K. S u s catalysis, c F alconer, S. M e nsions, gasD.K. Schwa r c al mechanic s e nergy, carb o n ya, A. Jayar a e mbranes, po l z M.P. Stoyk o r ected Evolu t Kaar, D.S. K e ring materia M edlin, C.B. M m ical synthesi s n S.J. Bryan t, r y, M.P. Stoy k 111, Boul d edu/che E m e Smoly Car u o me for the D Engineering w 1 2. S chwart z J. W c atalysis for b M George, J. W particle fluidi z r tz, M.P. Sto y s continuum m o n capture, hi g a man, J.W. M lymer memb r o vich, A.W. W t ion: a new a K ompala a ls at the nan o M usgrave, D. K s application t S.M. Georg k ovich d er, CO 803 0 m ail: chbeg r u thers Biotec h D epartment o f w hen constr u W Stansbur y iomass conv e W Medlin, C. B z ation, granu l y kovich, A.W. m odeling / R. gh-efficiency M edlin, C.B. M r anes, ionic li q W eimer a pproach to u o scale / C.N. K Schwartz, s of polymer s e, D.L. Gin, 0 9-0424 r ad@colora d h nology Build f Chemical a n u ction is com p e rsion, B Musgrave, l ar flow Weimer H. Davis, synthesis / M usgrave, q uids / R.H. nderstandin g Bowman, s and d o.edu ing will be n d p leted in

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332 Research Financial Support Fort Collins For additional information or to schedule a visit of campus: Research AreasBioanalytical Chemistry Biofuels and Biorening Biomaterials Cell and Tissue Engineering Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Science Microuidics Polymer Science Synthetic and Systems BiologyFacultyTravis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota Laurence A. Belore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U. Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U. Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U. Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U. Christopher D. Snow. Ph.D., Stanford U. Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech View faculty and student research videos, nd application information, and get other information at http://cbe.colostate.edu C h e m i c a l & B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g

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335 CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERINGResearch Centers & Training ProgramsCenters and programs provide unique environments & experiences for graduate students. These include: Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI) Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST) Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics (CMET) Center for Neutron Science (CNS) Center for Composite Material (CCM) Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) Solar Hydrogen IGERT Maciek R. Antoniewicz Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Douglas J. Buttrey Jingguang G. Chen Wilfred Chen David W. Colby Pamela L. Cook Prasad S. Dhurjati Thomas H. Epps, III Eric M. Furst Feng Jiao Michael T. Klein April Kloxin Kelvin H. Lee Abraham M. Lenho Raul F. Lobo Babtunde A. Ogunnaike E. Terry Papoutsakis Christopher J. Roberts Anne S. Robinson T.W. Frasier Russell Stanley I. Sandler Millicent O. Sullivan Dionisios G. Vlachos Norman J. Wagner Richard P. Wool Yushan Yan 28 ChE Faculty with14 Named ProfessorsGraduate Studies in150 Academy Street Colburn Laboratory, Newark, DE 19716 Phone: 302.831.4061 | Fax: 302.831.3009We are ranked, by all metrics, in the top 10 programs in the U.S. with world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and active leader in chemical engineering research and teaching. Our graduate students work with a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware. Visit our website to nd out more about Delaware:www.che.udel.edu The University of Delawares central location on the eastern seaboard to New York, Washington, Philadelphia and Baltimore is convenient both culturally and strategically to the greatest concentration of industrial & government research laboratories in the U.S. Biomolecular, Cellular, and Protein Engineering Catalysis and Energy Metabolic Engineering Systems Biology Soft Materials, Colloids and Polymers Surface Science Nanotechnology Process Systems Engineering Green Engineering Research Areaswww.udel.edu/gradoce/applicantsAPPLY NOW

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336 Technical University of Denmark Dept. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Do your graduate studies in Europe! The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a modern, internationally oriented technological university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon Valley one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It was founded in 1829 by H. C. rsted. The University has 6000 students preparing for their B Sc or M Sc d egree s 600 PhD students and takes 400 foreign students a year on English taught courses. The DTU campus is located close to the city of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark Chemical Engineering areas of research and the research groups are: Applied Thermo dynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering Catalysis, Combustion Processes Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemi stry & Technology Process Control Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena BioEng PROCESS CAPEC CHEC DPC CERE The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The r esearch results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations & materials. The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well equipped workshop and well trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory is open for students independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory and pilot plan ts for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used for both education and research. Vi sit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/us Graduate programs at Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering: The starting point for general information about MSc studies at DTU is: http://www.dtu.dk/msc Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Stig Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe Elite track in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering http://www.kt.dtu.dk/elite John Woodley jw @kt.dtu.dk Petroleum Engineering Alexander Shapiro ash@kt.dtu.dk http://www.cere.kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/ Advanced and Applied Chemistry Georgios Kontogeorgis gk@kt.dtu.dk http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry Visit the Universi t y at http://www dtu.dk/english .aspx

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338 FacultyTim Anderson Jason E. Butler Anuj Chauhan Oscar D. Crisalle Jennifer Sinclair Curtis Richard B. Dickinson Helena Hagelin-Weaver Gar Hoflund Peng Jiang Lewis E. Johns Dmitry Kopelevich Anthony J. Ladd Tanmay Lele Ranga Narayanan Mark E. Orazem Chang-Won Park Fan Ren Dinesh O. Shah Spyros Svoronos Yiider Tseng Sergey Vasenkov Jason F. Weaver Kirk Ziegler Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies at theUniversity of FloridaAward-winning faculty Cutting-edge facilities Extensive engineering resources An hour from the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico Third in US in ChE PhD graduates (C&E News, December 15, 2008)

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339 Join a small, vibrant campus on Floridas Space Coast to reach your full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientic and technological university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.Graduate studies in Chemical EngineeringFor more information, contact College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 (321) 674-8068 http://coe.t.edu/chemical FacultyM.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D., Dept. Head P.A. Jennings, Ph.D. J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D. M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D. J.R. Brenner, Ph.D. J. Thomas, Ph.D. R.G. Barile, Ph.D.Research InterestsSpacecraft Technology Biomedical Engineering Alternative Energy Sources Materials Science Membrane TechnologyResearch PartnersNASA Department of Energy Department of Defense Florida Solar Energy Center* Florida Department of Agriculture *Doctoral fellowship sponsor Graduate Student Assistantships, Scholarships and Tuition Remission AvailableEN-534-611 Florida Institute of Technology does not discriminate on the basis of race, gender, color, religion, creed, national origin, ancestry, marital status, age, disability, sexual orientation, Vietnam-era veterans status or any other discrimination prohibited by law in the admission of students, administration of its educational policies, scholarship and loan programs, employment policies, and athletic or other university sponsored programs or activities.

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341 HOUSTON Dynamic Hub of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringHouston is at the center of the U.S. energy and chemical industries and is the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned Texas Medical Center. The highly ranked University of Houston Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers industrial internships and an environment conducive to personal and professional growth. Houston offers an abundance of educational, cultural, business and entertainment opportunities. For a large and diverse city, Houstons cost of living is much lower than average. Research Areas:Advanced Materials Alternative Energy Biomolecular Engineering Catalysis Multi-Phase Flows Nanotechnology Plasma Processing Reaction Engineering For more information: University of Houston,University of HoustonGraduate Studies in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Alliance for NanoHealth www.nanohealthalliance.orgWestern Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases http://rce.swmed.eduTexas Diesel Testing and Research Center www.chee.uh.edu/dieselfacilityNational Large Scale Wind Turbine Testing Facility www.thewindalliance.com Department of Energy Plasma Science Center for Predictive Control of Plasma Kinetics http://doeplasma.eecs.umich.edu

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343 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringFACULTYFor information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527Gary A. AurandNorth Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical uids/ High pressure biochem ical reactorsAlec B. ScrantonPurdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsiers/ Polymerization kineticsGreg CarmichaelU. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modelingDavid MurhammerU. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Oxidative Stress/Baculo virus biopesticidesTonya L. PeeplesJohns Hopkins 1994 Extremophile biocataly sis/Sustainable energy/ Green chemistry/ BioremediationDavid RethwischU. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Jennifer FiegelJohns Hopkins 2004 Drug delivery/ Nano and microtechnology/ AerosolsJulie L.P. JessopMichigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ SpectroscopyC. Allan GuymonU. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Charles O. StanierCarnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. SalemU. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran SubramanianIndian Institute of Science 1978Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purication/Biotechnology Eric E. NuxollU. of Minnesota 2003 Controlled release/ microfabrication/ drug delivery1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692)chemeng@icaen.uiowa.edu www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~chemeng/Vicki H. GrassianU. of Calif.-Berkeley 1987Surface science of envi ronmental interfaces/ Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry/Applications and implications of nanosci ence and nanotechnology in environmental processes and human health

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344 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cutting-edge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our and have won national and international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state graduate students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), an NSF Engineering Research Center on chemicals from biorenewables, the Plant Biotechnology, and the Bioeconomy Institute. The department offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. Students with undergraduate degrees in be admitted to the program. We offer full competitive stipends to all our MS and PhD students. In addition, we offer several competitive fellowships.Robert C. BrownPhD, Michigan State UniversityBiorenewable resources for energyAaron R. ClappPhD, University of FloridaColloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of MinnesotaSelf-assembled polymersRodney O. FoxPhD, Kansas State University engineeringCharles E. Glatz PhD, University of WisconsinBioprocessing and bioseparationsKurt R. HebertPhD, University of IllinoisCorrosion and electrochemical engineeringJames C. HillPhD, University of WashingtonAndrew C. Hillier PhD, University of MinnesotaInterfacial engineering and electrochemistryLaura JarboePhD, University of California-LABiorenewables production by metabolic engineeringKenneth R. Jolls PhD, University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separationsMonica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State UniversityMolecular simulations of advanced materialsSurya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue UniversityTissue engineering and drug deliveryBalaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue UniversityBiomaterials and drug deliveryJennifer O'DonnellPhD, University of DelawareAmphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizationsMichael G. OlsenPhD, University of IllinoisPeter J. Reilly PhD, University of PennsylvaniaEnzyme engineering and bioinformaticsDerrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State UniversityStatistical process controlIan SchneiderPhD, North Carolina State UniversityCell migration and mechanotransductionBrent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyHeterogeneous catalysis and biorenewablesJacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyMetabolic engineering and plant biotechnologyR. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of MichiganTransport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATIONGraduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 chemengr@iastate.edu www.cbe.iastate.eduIowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 09546 Kaitlin Bratlie PhD, University of CaliforniaBerkeley Surface science and catalytic research Robert C. Brown PhD, Michigan State University Biorenewable resources for energy Aaron R. Clapp PhD, University of Florida Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of Minnesota Self-assembled polymers Rodney O. Fox PhD, Kansas State University Computational uid dynamics and reaction engineering Charles E. Glatz PhD, University of Wisconsin Bioprocessing and bioseparations Kurt R. Hebert PhD, University of Illinois Corrosion and electrochemical engineering James C. Hill PhD, University of Washington Turbulence and computational uid dynamics Andrew C. Hillier PhD, University of Minnesota Interfacial engineering and electrochemistry Laura Jarboe PhD, University of California-LA Biorenewables production by metabolic engineering Monica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State University Molecular simulations of advanced materials Surya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue University Tissue engineering and drug delivery Balaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue University Biomaterials and drug delivery Jennifer ODonnell PhD, University of Delaware Amphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizations Michael G. Olsen PhD, University of Illinois Experimental uid mechanics and turbulence Nicola Pohl PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison Organic synthesis, analytical techniques, and chemical biology Peter J. Reilly PhD, University of Pennsylvania Enzyme engineering and bioinformatics Derrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State University Statistical process control Ian Schneider PhD, North Carolina State University Cell migration and mechanotransduction Brent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Heterogeneous catalysis and biorenewables Jacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of Technology Metabolic engineering and plant biotechnology R. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of Michigan Transport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems

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345 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty members. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Bombay University) (Ph.D., Rice) (Ph.D., Florida State) (Ph.D., Minnesota) (Ph.D., Texas) (Ph.D., Texas A&M) (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Kansas) (Ph.D., Notre Dame) (Ph.D., Kansas) (Ph.D., Oklahoma) (Ph.D., Notre Dame) (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) (Ph.D., Cambridge) (Ph.D., Northwestern) Research Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship Research Centers Contacts http://www.cpe.engr.ku.edu/ th UNIVERSITY OF cpegrad@ku.edu

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346 Kansas State University is indexed in the Carnegie Foundations list of top 96 U.S. universities with very high research activity. Graduate students perform research in areas like bio/nanotechnology, reaction engineering, materials science and transport phenomena. K-State offers modern, well-equipped laboratories and expert faculty on a campus nationally recog nized for its great community relationship. The department of chemical engineering offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and the interdisciplinary areas of bio-based materials science and engineering, food science, environmental air quality is also available. Laser-Doppler velocimetry Polymer characterization equipment Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry Chemical vapor deposition reactors Electrodialysis Fermentors Tubular gas reactors Gas and liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry High-speed videography Gas adsorption analysis Catalyst preparation equipment Membrane permeation systems Ultra-high temperature furnaces More Faculty, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, advanced materials, molecular sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids Vikas Berry, graphene technologies, bionanotechnol ogy, nanoelectronics and sensors James H. Edgar (head), crystal growth, semiconductor processing and materials characterization Larry E. Erickson, environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, process systems engineering including process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, transport phenomena, bubbles, Keith L. Hohn, catalysis and reaction engineering, nanoparticle catalysts and biomass conversion Peter Pfromm, polymers in membrane separations and surface science Mary E. Rezac, polymer science, membrane separa tion processes and their applications to biological systems, environmental control and novel materials John R.Schlup, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis and intel ligent processing of materials Our instrumental capabilities include:Graduate studies in chemical engineering at Kansas State University www.che.ksu.edu

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347 Key Research Areas: Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Engineeringwww.engr.uky.edu/cme/ Chemical Engineering Faculty University of California, Berkeley Carnegie-Mellon University University of Kentucky Illinois Institute of Technology Vanderbilt University Drexel University Ohio State University University of Texas Texas Tech University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Minnesota Clarkson University Auburn University Vanderbilt University University of Texas University of Texas Materials Engineering Faculty Johns Hopkins University Northwestern University California Institute of Technology Pennsylvania State University Northwestern University University of Rochester University of OxfordThe CME Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in both chemical and materials engineering. The combination of these disciplines in a single department fosters collaboration among faculty and a strong interdisciplinary environment. Our faculty and graduate students pursue research projects that encompass a broad range of chemical engineering endeavor, and that include strong interactions with researchers in Agriculture, Chemistry, Medicine and Pharmacy.

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350 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-establishe d the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in Financial aid in the form of graduate fellowships is available. For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering BE SURE TO ASK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT OUR NEW COSMETIC ENGINEERING OPTION http://www.engineering.manhattan.edu/academics/ engineering/chemical/graduate/cosmetics

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351 Located in a vibrant international community just outside of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory, and NIST, the University of Marylands Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James Clark School of Engineering, oers educational opportunities leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. To learn more, e-mail chbegrad@umd.edu, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

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352 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia ( Princeton ) W. Curtis Conner, Jr. ( Johns Hopkins ) Paul J. Dauenhauer ( Minnesota ) Jeffrey M. Davis ( Princeton ) Wei Fan (Tokyo) Neil S. Forbes ( California, Berkeley ) David M. Ford ( Pennsylvania ) Michael A. Henson ( California, Santa Barbara ) George W. Huber ( Wisconsin) Michael F. Malone (Massachusetts, Amherst ) Dimitrios Maroudas (MIT ) Peter A. Monson ( London ) T. J. (Lakis) Mountziaris, Department Head ( Princeton ) Shelly R. Peyton (California, Irvine) Constantine Pozrikidis ( Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ) Susan C. Roberts ( Cornell ) Jessica D. Schiffman ( Drexel ) H. Henning Winter ( Stuttgart )FACULTY: Current areas of Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering receive support at a level of over $6 million per year through external research grants. Examples of research areas incl ude, but are not limited to, the following. Bioengineering: cellular engineering; metabolic engineering ; targeted bacteriolytic cancer therapy; synthesis of small molecules; systems biology; biopolymers; nanostructured materi als for clinical diagnostics... Biofuels and Sustainable Energy: conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals; catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass; microkinetics; microwave reaction engineering; biorefining; high-thr oughput testing; reactor design and optimization; fuel cells; energy engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena: biofluid dynamics and blood flow; hydrodynamics of microencapsula tion; mechanics of cells, capsules, and suspensions; modeling of microscale flows; hydrodynamic stability and pattern formation; interfacial flows; gas-particle flows Materials Science and Engineering: design and characterization of new catalytic materials; nanostructured materials for microelectronics and photonics; synthesis and characterization of microporous and mesoporous materials; colloids and biomaterials; membranes; biopolymers; rheology and phase behavior of associative pol ymer solutions; polymeri c materials processing... Molecular and Multi-scale Modeling & Simulation: computational quantum chemistry and kinetics; molecular modeling of nanostructured materials; molecular-level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular-toreactor scale modeling of transport and reaction processes in materials synthesis; atomistic-to-continuum scale mo deling of thin films and nanostructures; systems-level analysis using stoc hastic atomic-scale simulators; modeling and control of biochem ical reactors; nonlinear process control theory ... EXPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: http://che.umass.edu/ or contact: Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003-9303 Email: chegradprog@ecs.umass.edu The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orie ntation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emplo yment. Facilities:Instructional, research, and admi nistrative facilities are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space in Goessmann Laboratory, the Department occupies modern research space in Engineering Laboratory II and the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In 2012, several faculty with research interests in the life sciences will occupy modern research space in the New Laboratory Sciences Building that is currently under construction. A m h e r s t i s a b e a u t i f u l N e w E n g l a n d c o l l e g e t o w n i n W e s t e r n M a s s a c h u s e t t s S e t a m i d f a r m l a n d a n d r o l l i n g h i l l s t h e a r e a o f f e r s p l e a s a n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s U r b a n p l e a s u r e s a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e

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353 BioProcessingand Biotechnology Process Simulation and Control Nuclear and alternative energy Eng. Advanced Engineered materials Colloidal, nanoand surface science and Eng. Paper engineering Polymer Engineering *(978) 934-3150 UMASS Lowell Department of Chemical Engineering One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854

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355 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK D. G. COOPER S. COULOMBE J. M. DEALY R. J. HILL E. A. V. JONES, M. R. KAMAL R. LEASK C. A. LECLERC M. MARIC J.L. MEUNIER position techniques for surface R. J. MUNZ Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured S. OMANOVIC T. M. QUINN A. D. REY P. SERVIO High-pressure phase equilibrium, N. TUFENKJI V. YARGEAU contaminants in wate For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : www.mcgill.ca/chemeng/ Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g ill.ca D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding. D. BERK D. G. COOPER S. COULOMBE J. M. DEALY, J.T. GOSTICK R. J. HILL E. A. V. JONES M. R. KAMAL A.-M. KIETZIG R. LEASK M. MARIC J.L. MEUNIER R. J. MUNZ Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured S. OMANOVIC T. M. QUINN A. D. REY P. SERVIO N. TUFENKJI V. YARGEAU

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359 Energy & Sustainability Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Thermoelectrics Photoelectrics Batteries Fuel cells Hydrogen storage Biorenewable polymers and chemicals Biofuels Biocatalysis Composite Materials & Structures Center Smart materials Structured chemicals Nanoporous materials Grain boundary engineering Nanomaterials & Technology Biotechnology & Medicine Metabolic engineering Systems biology Genomics Proteomics RNA interference Bioceramics Tissue engineering Biosensors Bioelectronics Biomimetics Chemical Engineering Kris Berglund Daina Briedis Scott Calabrese Barton Chrisitina Chan Bruce Dale Lawrence Drzal Martin Hawley David Hodge Krishnamurthy Jayaraman Ilsoon Lee Carl Lira Richard Lunt Dennis Miller Ramani Narayan Robert Ofoli Charles Petty S. Patrick Walton Timothy Whitehead R. Mark Worden Materials Science & Engineering Melissa Baumann Thomas Bieler Carl Boehlert Eldon Case Martin Crimp David Grummon Tim Hogan Wei Lai Andre Lee James Lucas Donald Morelli Jason Nicholas Jeffrey Sakamoto K.N. Subramanian Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling of Heterogeneous Deformation in Metals Thomas R. Bieler, bieler@egr.msu.edu O rientation imaging microscopy (aka EBSP mapping) is used as a foundational tool to quantitatively examine the relations hips between microstructure and localized deformation that govern s damage nucleation, recovery and recrystallization mechanisms. Combined with other experimental and analytical tools, new insights on formability and damage nucleation processes are found This enables optim al material processing strategies to be developed to gain more predictable and reliable properties Three material systems are under investigation. Damage Nucleation in Titanium and Titanium Alloys NSF/DFG Materials World Network Gra nt and DOE/BES Grant, with Martin A. Crimp Carl J. Boehlert at MSU and Philip Eisenlohr at Max Planck Institut fr Eisenforschung, Dsseldorf, Germany Figure 1 shows a patch of equiaxed microstructure of a rolled and annealed plate of commercial purity The left side shows backscattered electron image of an initially polished surface that shows substantial slip traces. On the basis of orientation imaging microscopy data, the crystal orientations are all known, and hence, the slip plane and slip direct ions can be determined from geometry. The middle image shows experimentally measured amount of shear on each of the slip systems identified, using the detailed surface topography obtained from surface probe microscopy. When compared with a crystal plasti city finite element simulation of the same microstructure, the broad impression is that the simulation is effective, but upon closer inspection, the details differ substantially at grain boundaries. Continuing work seeks to identify appropriate ways to si mulate the effects of grain boundaries on slip and slip resistance, which depends on the geometrical details of the grain boundary. Figure 2 shows a mechanical twin that caused a microcrack to form at a grain boundary a fter a very small strain. This p articular type of mechanical twin (white region) is rare, and carries a large shear that causes strong Figure 1 Images showing heterogeneous slip in commercial purity titanium. Actual measured shear on different slip systems (traces in SEM image) are shown in the AFM image, and a simulation shows partial agreement with the measured data. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 2527 Engineering Building East Lansing, MI 48824 517 355 5135 fax 517 432 1105 grad_rec@egr.msu.edu www.chems.msu.edu

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360 Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Photo Credit; Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science education program in chemical engineering encompassing reac Research Areas Faculty For more information contact: Julie Prince, Program Associate 612-625-0382 princ004@umn.edu URL: http://www.cems.umn.edu Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Michael Tsapatsis

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361 FACULTY Sheila N. Baker, PhD (SUNY-Buffalo) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering Surface Science Matthew T. Bernards, PhD (WashingtonSeattle) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering Surface Science Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech) Reactor Analysis Fluid Mechanics Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emissions Patrick J. Pinhero, PhD (Notre Dame) Nuclear Materials Science Surface Science Environmental Degradation David G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins) Biofuel Processing Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Email: PreckshotR@missouri.edu Phone: (573) 882-3563 Competitive scholarships are available via teaching/research assistantships and fellowships. Visit us on the web: che.missouri.edu CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIPS ABOUT US CONTACT

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363 The Program The department offers graduate programs leading to both the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy Faculty conduct research in a number of areas including: engineering technology engineering P. Armenante: University of Virginia B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology E. Bilgili: Illinois Institute of Technology R. Dave: Utah State University E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine C. Gogos: Princeton University T. Greenstein: New York University D. Hanesian: Cornell University K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR H. Kimmel: City University of New York N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology A. Perna: University of Connecticut R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus); New York University D. Sebastian: Stevens Institute of Technology L. Simon: Colorado State University K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana R. Tomkins: University of London (UK) X. Wang: Virginia Tech M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada) M. Young: Stevens Institute of Technology For further information contact: & Pharmaceutical Engineering rfn tbrf

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364 THEFACES OF THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERS IN THE 21STCENTURYThe University of New Mexico 21st stimulating, student he meso micro microengineered materials and self assembled a Albuquerque is a unique combination of old and new, the natural Faculty Research Areas eling interf For more information, contact:

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365 NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY Faculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Shuguang Deng, Advanced Materials for Sustainable Energy and Clean Water, Adsorption, and Membrane Separation Processes Abbas Ghassemi, RiskBased Decision Making, Environmental Studies Pollution Prevention, Jessica Houston, Biomedical Engineering, Biophotonics, Flow Cytometry Charles L. Johnson, High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Transport Phe nomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations, Kinetics, Process Design, Safety Hongmei Luo, (Tulane University) Electrode position, Nanostructured Materials, Metal Oxide, Nitride, Composite Thin Films, Magnetism, Photocatalysts and Photovoltaics Martha C. Mitchell (University of Min nesota) Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics David A. Rockstraw (University of Oklahoma) Kinetics and Reaction Engineering, Process Design LOCATION For Application and Additional Information

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366 2inresearchexpenditures among CBE departments in the US (2010, C&EN) 11inPhDgraduates (2010, NRC) 8inBSgraduates (2009, ASEE) Our Department is located in Engineering Building I a modern, 161,000-square-foot research and teaching facility located on NC States Centennial Campus.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringNC STATE UNIVERSITYwww.che.ncsu.edu Dr. Jason M. Haugh, Director of Graduate Recruiting Dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905, NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (email) cbe@ncsu.edu The Department Research Areasand Engineeringand Kineticsand ReactionEngineering Nanoscienceand Studies/GreenEngineering and and Our

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367 Chemical and Biological EngineeringLuis A. N. Amaral, Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networksLinda J. Broadbelt, Ph.D., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recoveryWesley R. Burghardt, Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheologyStephen H. Davis, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1964Kimberly A. Gray, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistryBartosz A. Grzybowski, Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systemsMichael C. Jewett, Ph.D., Stanford, 2005 Synthetic biology, systems biology, metabolic engineeringHarold H. Kung, Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysisJoshua N. Leonard, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Cellular & biomolecular engineering for medicine, systems biologyPhillip B. Messersmith, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Biomimetic/Bioinspired materialsWilliam M. Miller, Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicineChad Mirkin, Ph.D., Penn State, 1986 Inorganic, materials, physical/analyticalJustin M. Notestein, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Materials design for adsorption and catalysisMonica Olvera de la Cruz, Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systemsJulio M. Ottino, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processingGregory Ryskin, Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquidsGeorge C. Schatz, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology Research Materials, physical/analyticalLonnie D. Shea, Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapyRandall Q. Snurr, Ph.D., Berkeley 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modelingIgal Szleifer, Ph.D., Hebrew University, 1989 Molecular modeling of biointerphasesJohn M. Torkelson, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1983 Polymer science, membranesKeith Tyo, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Process systems engineering, sustainable process design, synthesisFengqi You, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University Synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, global health delivery For information and application to the graduate program, please contact:Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Phone (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only) admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.edu Or visit our website at www.chem-biol-eng.northwestern.edu

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370 Faculty MembersMiguel J. Bagajewicz Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1987 Steven P. Crossley Ph.D. University of Oklahoma, 2009 Brian P. Grady Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994 Roger G. Harrison, Jr. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975 Jeffrey H. Harwell Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1983Chairman, Graduate Program Committee, School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, T-335 Sarkeys Energy Center, 100 E. Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019-1004 USA E-mail: chegrad@ou.edu, Phone: (405)-325-5811, (800) 601-9360, Fax: (405) 325-5813Dr. Peter J. Heinzelman Ph.D. MIT, 2006 Friederike C. Jentoft Ph.D. Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversitt Mnchen, Germany, 1994 Lance L. Lobban Ph.D. University of Houston, 1987 Richard G. Mallinson Ph.D. Purdue University, 1983 M. Ulli Nollert Ph.D. Cornell University, 1987 Edgar A. ORear, III Ph.D. Rice University, 1981For detailed information, visit our Web site at: http://www.ou.edu/coe/cbme.htmlThe University of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution .Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996 Daniel E. Resasco Ph.D. Yale University, 1983 David W. Schmidtke Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1980 Robert L. Shambaugh Ph.D. Case Western Reserve University, 1976 Vassilios I. Sikavitsas Ph.D. University of Buffalo, 2000 Alberto Striolo Ph.D. University of Padova, Italy, 2002 The University ofFor more information, e-mail, call, write or fax:OklahomaResearch AreasBioengineering/Biomedical EngineeringGenetic engineering, protein production, bioseparations, metabolic engineering, biological transport, cancer treatment, cell adhesion, biosensors, orthopedic tissue engineering.Energy and ChemicalsBiofuels and catalytic biomass conversion, catalytic hydrocarbon processing, plasma processing, data reconciliation, process design retrot and optimization, molecular thermodynamics, computational modeling of turbulent transport and reactive ows, detergency, improved oil recovery.Materials Science and EngineeringSingle wall carbon nanotube production and functionalization, surface characterization, polymer melt blowing, polymer characterization and structure-property relationships, polymer nanolayer formation and use, biomaterials.Environmental ProcessesZero-discharge process engineering, soil and aquifer remediation, surfactant-based water decontamination, sustainable energy processes. esearch in the School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (CBME) is characterized by INNOVATION AND IMPACT, leading to patents, technology licenses, companies and sought-after graduates. R

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371 OSUs offers programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Qualied students receive nancial assistance at nationally competitive levels. (PH.D., OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY)rfn (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ROLLA)tb (PH.D., OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY)t (PH.D., PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY) (PH.D., PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY)f (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY)bb (PH.D., WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY)f (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., NORTH C ARO LINA STATE UNIVERS ITY) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS) (PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS) (PH.D., OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY) Dr. Khaled A.M. Gasem School of C hemical E ngineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-5021 T 405 744 5280 gasem@okstate.eduwww.cheng.okstate.eduADSOR P TIO N A RTIFICIAL I NTELLIG ENCE BIO CHEMICAL PRO CESSE S BIO F U ELS BIO MATERIALS COLLO I DS / C ERAMICS C O2 SEQU E S TRATIO N ION E XCHANG E MOLECU LAR DES I G N N ANO MATERIALS O P TIMIZATIO N PHAS E E Q U ILIB RIA P O LYMERS PRO CESS CONTRO L PRO CESS SIMU LATIO N PRODUCT MODELING S O LID F REEFO RM F A B RICATIO N T I SSUE E N G INEERING T RANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SCHOOL OFChemical Engineering C O LLEG E O F ENG INEERING, ARCHITECTU RE AND TECHNO L OGY cheng.okstate.edu

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373 Tobias Baumgart Russell J. Composto Christopher S. Chen John C. Crocker Scott L. Diamond Dennis E. Discher Eduardo D. Glandt Raymond J. Gorte Daniel A. Hammer Matthew J. Lazzara Daeyeon Lee Ravi Radhakrishnan Robert A. Riggleman Casim A. Sarkar Warren D. Seider Wen K. Shieh Talid R. Sinno Kathleen J. Stebe John M. Vohs Karen I. Winey Shu Yang Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393chegrad@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/cbe/ Penns graduate program

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374 PENN STATES Chemical Engineering graduate degree program is located on a diverse, Big-Ten university campus in a vibrant college community. When you join our program, youll use state-of-the-art facilities such as the Materials Research Institute, the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, and one of the foremost nanofabrication facilities in the world. We provide fellowships and research assistantships, including tuition and fees. Research at Penn State spans the spectrum of chemical engineering with focus areas in biomolecular engineering, alternative energy, and nanotechnology.FACULTY ANTONIOS ARMAOU PH.D., UCLAProcess control and system dynamicsKYLE BISHOP PH.D., NORTHWESTERNComplex dissipative systems: ame plasmas, chemical reaction networks, reactiondiffusion systemsALI BORHAN PH.D., STANFORDFluid dynamics, transport phenomena, capillary and inferfacial phenomenaWAYNE CURTIS PH.D., PURDUEPlant cell tissue culture, secondary metabolism, bioreactor designRONALD DANNER PH.D., LEHIGHPhase equilibria and diffusion in polymer-solvent and gas solid systemsKRISTEN FICHTHORN PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Atomistic simulation, statistical mechanics, surface science, materialsHENRY FOLEY PH.D., PENN STATENanomaterials, reaction and separation, catalysisENRIQUE GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYOrganic photovoltaics, organicinorganic interfaces, nanostructured polymersESTHER GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYBioengineering, cell and tissue mechanics, biosensorsMICHAEL JANIK PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Fuel cells and electrochemical systems for renewable energy sourcesSEONG KIM PH.D., NORTHWESTERNSurface science, polymers, thin lms, nanotribology, nanomaterialsFOR MORE INFORMATIONJanna Maranas, Graduate Admissions Chair 158 Fenske Laboratory Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 814-863-6228 jmaranas@engr.psu.edufenske.che.psu.eduMANISH KUMAR PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBiomimetic membranes, membrane proteins, membrane technology, desalinationCOSTAS MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONComputational protein design; reconstruction, curation, and analysis of metabolic networks; microbial strain optimization; design of biological circuits and synthetic biology; signaling networks and multiscale modeling in cancer biology, network science, optimization theory, and algorithmsJANNA MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONNano-scale structure and mobility in soft materials, with applications in alternative energy, biology, and polymer physicsTHEMIS MATSOUKAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Aerosol engineering, colloids, plasma processingSCOTT MILNER PH.D., HARVARDGlass transitions in dense uids and polymer lms, ow behavior of entangled polymers, polymer crystallizationJOSEPH PEREZ PH.D., PENN STATETribology, lubrication, biodieselROBERT RIOUX PH.D., BERKELEYHeterogeneous catalysis, nanostructure synthesis, renewable energy, atomic-level characterization, single molecule chemistryHOWARD SALIS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTASynthetic biology, metabolic engineering, design of genetic systemsDARRELL VELEGOL PH.D., CARNEGIE MELLON Colloidal and nanocolloidal devices and systemsJAMES VRENTAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Transport phenomena, applied mathematics, uid mechanics, diffusion, polymer scienceANDREW ZYDNEY PH.D., MITDevelopment of membrane systems for bioprocessing applications, mass transfer characteristics of articial organ systems

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376 Innovation begins at NYU-Poly: DEVISING THE FUTURE OF BIODETECTION DEVICESFacultyJ.R. Kim Protein engineering, folding, aggregation and stability R. Levicky Biosensors, nanobiotechnology J. Mijovic Relaxation dynamics in synthetic and biological macromolecules L. Stiel Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids E. Ziegler Air pollution control engineering W. Zurawsky Plasma polymerization, polymer thin films A number of fellowships are available in our MS and PhD Chemical Engineering programs. For more information, contact: Professor Walter Zurawsky Head, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Six MetroTech Center Brooklyn, NY 11201 718.260.3725 www.poly.edu/cbeNYU-Poly Professor Rastislav Levicky is designing advanced technologies for applications in healthcare, drug development and pathogen detection. Working largely with biosensors made from synthetic DNA mimics, Levicky uses electrochemical detection techniques to improve the performance and economic accessibility of point-of-care medical diagnostics. This kind of thinking comes from the NYU-Poly culture of invention, innovation and entrepreneurship. We call it i2e. NYU-Poly and our i2e philosophy transform our faculty and students by arming them with the tools, resources and inspiration they need to turn their research into revolutionary applications, products and services.

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377 Princeton UniversityCBE Faculty Ilhan A. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Clifford P. Brangwynne Mark P. Brynildsen Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas Yannis G. Kevrekidis Bruce E. Koel Morton D. Kostin A. James Link YuehLin (Lynn) Loo Celeste M. Nelson Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos Rodney D. Priestley Robert K. Prudhomme Richard A. Register (Chair) William B. Russel Stanislav Y. Shvartsman Sankaran Sundaresan Please visit our website: www.princeton.edu/cbe Write to:Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, NJ 085445263or call:6092584619or email:cbegrad@princeton.edu Applied and Computational MathematicsComputational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization BiotechnologyBiomaterials Biopreservation Cell Mechanics Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Tissue Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and TechnologyArt and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport PhenomenaBiological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, PropertiesAdhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Organic and Polymer Electronics Polymers Process Engineering and ScienceChemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical MechanicsComplex Fluids Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular SimulationAffiliate Faculty Emily A. Carter (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) George W. Scherer (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Howard A. Stone (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) Ph.D. and M.Eng Programs in Chemical and Biological Engineering

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384 Research is part of the programLocated 150 km east of Montreal, Sherbrooke is a university town of 150,000 inhabitants offering all the advantages of city life in a rural environment. With strong ties to industry, the Department of Chemical and Biotechnological Engineering offers graduate programs leading to a masters degree (thesis and non-thesis) and a PhD degree. Take advantage of our innovative teaching methods and close cooperation with industry!infogch@usherbrooke.ca 819-821-7171 www.USherbrooke.ca/gchimiquebiotechNicolas ABATZOGLOU Department Chair, Industrial Chair on PAT. Particulate systems, multiphase catalytic reactors, pharmaceutical engineering Nadi BRAIDY Material engineering, nanosciences and nanotechnologies, materials characterization Nathalie FAUCHEUX Canada Research Chair Cell-biomaterial biohybrid system, cancer and biomaterials, bone repair and substitute Franois GITZHOFER Thermal plasma materials synthesis, plasma spraying, materials characterization, SOFC Ryan GOSSELIN Pharmaceutical engineering (PAT), industrial process control, spectral imagery Michle HEITZ Air treatment, biofiltration, bioenergy, biodiesel, biovalorization of agro-food wastes Michel HUNEAULT Polymer alloys, melt state biopolymer processing, materials characterization J. Peter JONES Treatment of industrial wastewater, design of experiments, treatment of endocrine disruptors Jerzy JUREWICZ Nanometric powder synthesis, extractive metallurgy, DC and HF plasma generation Jean-Michel LAVOIE, Cellulosic Ethanol Industrial Chair, Biofuels industrial organic synthesis Bernard MARCOS Chemical and biotechnological processes modeling, energy systems modeling Joisane NIKIEMA Industrial wastewater treatment, biological processes optimization Pierre PROULX Modeling and numerical simulation, optimization of reactors, transport phenomena Jol SIROIS Suspension and cell metabolism, optimization of biosystems, bioactive principles production Gervais SOUCY Aluminum and thermal plasma technology, carbon nanostructures, materials characterization Patrick VERMETTE Tissue engineering and biomaterials, colloids and surface chemistry, drug delivery systems

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385 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering AsaDepartmentthatisranked10thintheworld,andaspartofadistinguishedUniversitythatisranked27thin theworldand3rdinAsia( QuacquarelliSymondsUniversityRankings2011) ,weofferacomprehensive selectionofcoursesandactivitiesforadistinctiveandenrichinglearningexperience.Youwillbenefitfromthe opportunitytoworkwithourdiversefacultyinacosmopolitanenvironment. JoinusatNUSSingapores GlobalUniversity,andbeapartofthefuturetoday! Program Features graduate programs with and Bombay Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts Our Graduate ProgramsResearch-based Coursework-based and Alli D ua l D Engineer Your Own Evolution! Reach us at :National University of Singapore

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387 PhD Programs in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, and Materials SciencePhD degrees offered: Chemical Engineering, Materials Science and Petroleum Engineering 100% of tuition and fees are covered for PhD students Over 30 tenured and tenure-track faculty Research is supported through federal grants and awards (NSF, NIH, DoD, DoE), industry partnerships (Chevron, Lockheed-Martin, Boeing), and foundations (Gates, Alfred Mann) Extensive core facilities, such as the Keck Photonics Facility (Class 100 cleanroom) and the Center for Electron Microscopy and Micro-Analysis. Active Research Areas: Sustainability and Energy Academic and Research Highlights:Biomolecular Engineering Composites and Biomaterials Advanced Computation Nanotechnology Mork FamilyDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science For more information: http://chems.usc.edu

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388 The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University at Bu alo features world-class research in materials, bio, and computa onal engineering and science. The core faculty, which includes three members of the NAE and two Na onal Medal winners, conducts research at various interdisciplinary centers, including The Center of Excellence in Bioinforma cs and Life Sciences, The Center for Computa onal Research, The Ins tute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, The Center for Spin E ects and Quantum Informa on in Nanostructures, The Center for Advanced Molecular Biology and Immunology, and The Center for Advanced Technology for Biomedical Devices. For more informa on about our program and how to apply, go to h p://www.cbe.bu alo.edu Paschalis Alexandridis self-assembly, directed assembly, complex uids, so materials, nanomaterials, amphiphilic polymers, biopolymers Stelios T. Andreadis stem cells, cardiovascular and skin ssue engineering, wound healing, controlled protein and gene delivery Chong Cheng polymer-drug conjugates, nanomaterials by mini/microemulsion, biodegradable polymers and nanostructures Je rey R. Errington molecular simula on, sta s cal thermodynamics, interfacial phenomena Edward Furlani computa onal physics, uid dynamics, microuidics, nanophotonics, bioand applied magne cs David A. Ko emolecular modeling and simula on Michael Locke mul phase ow and mass transfer in process equipment, dis lla on, air separaon Carl R. F. Lundheterogeneous catalysis, chemical kine cs, reac on engineering Sriram Neelamegham biomedical engineering, systems biology, cell and molecular biomechanics Johannes M. Nitsche transport phenomena, dermal absorp on, biological pore and membrane permeability Sheldon Park protein engineering, directed evoluon, structural bioinforma cs, and simula ons Blaine Pfeifermetabolic engineering, polyke de synthesis, synthe c an bio cs Eli Ruckenstein surface phenomena, thermodynamics of large molecule solu ons, protein folding and defolding, interac on forces in nanosystems, hydrophobic bonding Michael E. Ryan polymer and ceramics processing, rheology, non-Newtonian uid mechanics Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. environmental applicaons of catalysis, hydrogen produc on, fuel cells Mark T. Swihart nanopar cle synthesis and applica ons, chemical kine cs, modeling reac ng ows Esther S. Takeuchi energy storage, novel materials, reacvity at interfaces Marina Tsianou molecularly engineered materials, self-assembly, interfacial phenomena, controlled crystalliza on, biomime cs E. (Manolis) S. Tzanakakis stem cells, pancreac ssue and cardiac ssue engineering, biochemical engineering All Ph.D. students are fully supported through fellowships and assistantships. For inquiries, e-mail or write to Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Bu alo (SUNY), Bu alo, New York, 14260-4200

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389 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran. For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5319 For additional information, contact: Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 Faculty Research in

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390 University of TennesseeRecent advances in the life sciences and nanotechnology, as well as the looming energy crisis, have brought chemical engineering education to the threshold of signicant changes. The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (CBE) at the University of Tennessee has embraced these changes in order to meet global challenges in health care, the environment, renewable energy sources, national security and economic prosperity. Partnerships with other disciplines at UT, such as medical, life, and physical sciences, as well as the College of Business Administration and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), help to create exceptional research opportunities for graduate students in CBE and place our students in a position to develop leadership roles in the vital technologies of the future. The UTK campus is located in the heart of Knoxville in beautiful east Tennessee, minutes from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and surrounded by six lakes. Opportunities for outdoor recreation abound and are complemented by the diverse array of cultural activites aorded by our presence in the third largest city in Tennessee. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UT-Knoxville oers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with nancial assistance including full tuition and competitive stipends. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering 419 Dougherty Engineering Building Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 Phone: (865) 974-2421 Email: cheinfo@utk.edu Paul Bienkowski (Purdue) -Thermodynamics, environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy Eric Boder (Illinois) -Protein engineering, immune engineering, molecular bioengineering and biotechnology Barry Bruce (Berkeley) -Molecular chaperones, protein transport, bioenergy production Chris Cox (Penn State) -Bioenergy production, systems biology and metabolic engineering, environmental biotechnology Wei-Ren Chen (MIT) -Neutron scattering, advanced materials Robert Counce (Tennessee) -Industrial separations, process design, green engineering Mark Dadmun (UMass) -Polymer engineering, advanced materials Brian Davison (CalTech) -Systems biology, bioenergy production Mitch Doktycz (Illinois-Chicago) -Synthetic biology, nanobiotechnology Paul Dalhaimer (Penn) -Cytoskeleton biophysics, drug delivery, statistical mechanics, biophysical engineering Brian Edwards (Delaware) -Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, complex uids, fuel cells Paul Frymier (Virginia) -Environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy production Douglas Hayes (Michigan) -Biocatalysis, bioseparations, colloids David Joy (Oxford) -Environmental microscopy, nanophase materials Michael Kilbey (Minnesota) -Interface engineering, soft materials Ramki Kalyanaraman (NC State) -Thin lms, functional nanomaterials, phase transformation, self-assembly & self-organization Bamin Khomami (Illinois) -Microand nanostructured materials, complex uids, multiscale modeling David Keer (Minnesota) -Molecular simulation, advanced materials, fuel cells Stephen Paddison (Calgary) -PEM fuel cells, statistical mechanics, multiscale modeling Cong Trinh (Minnesota) -Inverse metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, bioenergy production Tse-Wei Wang (MIT) -Process modeling/control, bioinformatics, data mining Thomas Zawodzinski (SUNY-Bualo) -Fuel cells, batteries, electrochemistry, transport phenomena Faculty and Research Interests http://www.engr.utk.edu/cbe/ THE IS NOW

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393 Nanotechnology, surface and interface science, drug delivery Molecular simulation and computational chemistry D.B. Bukur Reaction engineering, math methods Computational materials science and nanotechnology; functional materials for devices and sensors; surface and interface properties of materials Z. Chen Protein engineering and biomolecular engineering Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Students Strong Ph.D. Program (90% Ph.D. students) Top 10 in Research Funding Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students Medical For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical and Biomolecular, Complex Fluids, Nanotechnology, Process Safety, Process Systems Engi neering, Reaction Engineering, Thermodynamics Nanotechnology M. El-Halwagi Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration and control G. Froment Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineering C.J. Glover, Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport, and interfacial phenomena J. Hahn Head Systems biology, process systems engineering Vocal fold tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions K.R. Hall Process safety, thermodynamics J.C. Holste Thermodynamics M.T. Holtzapple Biochemical Biomedical/biochemical H.-K. Jeong Nanomaterials K. Kao Genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology Y. Kuo Microelectronics C. Laird Large-scale nonlinear optimization J. Lutkenhaus S. Mannan Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center, Process safety M. Pishko Head Biosensors, biomaterials, drug delivery Molecular simulation and computational chemistry Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solids Microfabricated Bioseparation Systems S. Vaddiraju Polymers Reaction engineering

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395 CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABDUL-MAJEED AZAD, PROFESSOR Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR Membrane Separations, Bioseparations JOHN P. DISMUKES, PROFESSOR Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation ISABEL C. ESCOBAR, PROFESSOR Membrane Fouling and Membrane Modications SALEH JABARIN, PROFESSOR Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization DONG-SHIK KIM, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy YAKOV LAPITSKY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Colloid & Polymer Science, Drug Delivery STEVEN E. LEBLANC, PROFESSOR Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G. GLENN LIPSCOMB, PROFESSOR AND CHAIR Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education BRUCE E. POLING, PROFESSOR Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTANCE A. SCHALL, PROFESSOR SASIDHAR VARANASI, PROFESSOR SRIDHAR VIAMAJALA, A SSISTANT P ROFESSOR FACULTY The Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at The University of Toledo offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in Nitschke Hall and our dynamic faculty offer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. SEND INQUIRIES TO: Graduate Studies Advisor Chemical & Environmental Engineering The University of Toledo College of Engineering 2801 W. Bancroft Street Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 cheedept@eng.utoledo.edu EN 583 0410

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396 Re: searching for answers with the University of Toronto www.grad.chem-eng.utoronto.caWe have the City: Ranks second best in the world We have the Resources : We have the Faculty: We have the Research Fields: We have the Distinction: For more Information:

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398 Faculty and Research Areas Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials combinant Protein Expression Noshir S. Pesika Electrochemistry. Lawrence R. Pratt Science, Especially Molecular Simulation For Additional Information, Please Contact Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane is located in a quiet, residential Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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399 Engineering the World The University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma Chemical Engineering at TU a thesis) Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty

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403 Be part of a community of innovators. Rim PhD Discover. Its the Washington Way. Come to the UW to make your mark in molecular and nanoscale systems. Create the future. #1 UW (CNT)& (CMDITR) & (NNIN) University of WashingtonChemical EngineeringResearch ClustersMolecular Energy Processes Living Systems and Biomolecular Processes Molecular Aspects of Materials and Interfaces Molecular/Organic Electronics Core Faculty (UC (UC (UC Jim (UC (UC Graduate Admissions

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404 Developing clean, sustainable energy Devising innovative solutions The Gene and Linda Voiland School of

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405 For further information, write or phone UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. RESEARCH GROUPS AND PROFESSORS: 1. Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering: Bill Anderson, Marc Aucoin, Hector Budman, Pu Chen, Perry Chou, Frank Gu, Eric Jervis, Christine Moresoli, Raymond Legge, Michael Tam 2. Interfacial Phenomena, Colloids and Porous Media: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Michael Fowler, Dale Henneke, Mario Ioannidis, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Boxin Zhao 3. Green Reaction Engineering: Bill Anderson, Zhongwei Chen, Eric Croiset, Bill Epling, Michael Fowler, Flora Ng, Garry Rempel, Mark Pritzker. 4. Nanotechnology: Nasser Abukheir, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Frank Gu, Dale Henneke, Yuning Li, Leonardo Simon, Michael Tam, Ting Tsui, Aiping Yu, Boxin Zhao. 5. Process Control, Statistics and Optimization: Hector Budman, Peter Douglas, Tom Duever, Ali Elkamel, Alex Penlidis, Mark Pritzker, Luis Ricardez-Sandoval. 6. Polymer Science and Engineering: Tom Duever, Xianshe Feng, Mike Fowler, Frank Gu, Neil McManus, Alex Penlidis, Garry Rempel, Leonardo Simon, Joao Soares, Michael Tam, Costas Tzoganakis, Boxin Zhao. 7. Separation Processes: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Xianshe Feng, Christine Moresoli, Flora Ng, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Michael Tam. Challenging Research in Novel Areas of Chemical Engineering: FINANCIAL SUPPORT Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Entrance Scholarships ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: additional courses are required from applicants with an undergraduate

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407 F a cult yS ushant A g ar wal W est V irginia Univ ersit y Br ian J Anderson Massa c husetts Institute of T ec hnolog y Debangsu Bhattacharyya Clarkson University Eug ene V Cilento Dean Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Da dy B. Da dy burjor Univ ersit y of Delawar e Cerasela Z. Dinu Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and Dresden University Robin S. F ar mer Univ ersit y of Delawar e R akesh K. G upta, C hair Univ ersit y of Delawar e El liot B. Kennel O hio S tate Univ ersit y Edwin L. K ugler Jo hns Hop kins Univ ersit y R uif eng Liang Institute of Chemistr y C AS Josep h A. S ha eiwitz Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Alfr ed H. S t il ler Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Ric har d T ur ton O r egon S tate Univ ersit y R a y Y K. Y ang P r inceto n Univ ersit y Jo hn W Z ond lo Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Resear c h Ar eas Inc lude: r ff n t b f n n f r r f f f b f ff n f f f f b f n b b f f f F inancial Aid F or Applic at ion Inf or mat ion, W r iteb t n nf r b f h tt p:/ /www .c he .cemr wvu .edunf nf David J K linke I I N or thw ester n Univ ersit y C har ter D S t inespr ing W est V irginia Univ ersit y

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409 Worcester, New Englands third largest city, is an hour from Boston, Providence, and Hartford. It has an active arts and cultural community, great restaurants, entertainment venues, and shopping centers. The region is known for its high concentration of life sciencesbased companies and academic research centers. Bioengineering Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Nanomaterials Process Analysis, Control, and Safety Sustainable and Green EngineeringWORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Graduate Studies in CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGDepartment of Chemical Engineering R ESEARCH A REAS AND F ACUL T YBacterial Adhesion Biomaterials Nanobiotechnology Terri A. Camesano, PhD, Pennsylvania State University Separation Processes Engineering Education William M. Clark, PhD, Rice University Catalysis and Reaction Engineering as Applied to Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Ravindra Datta, PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara Catalysis and Surface Science Metal Oxide Materials Computational Chemistry N. Aaron Deskins, PhD, Purdue University Engineering Education Teaching and Learning Assessment David DiBiasio, PhD, Purdue University Transport in Chemical Reactors Application of CFD to Catalyst and Reactor Design Microreactors Anthony G. Dixon, PhD, University of Edinburgh Analysis, Control and Safety of Chemical Processes Environmental and Energy Systems Process Performance Monitoring Nikolaos K. Kazantzis, PhD, University of Michigan Syntheses, Characterization and Application of Inorganic Membranes with special emphasis on composite Pd and Pd alloy porous metal membranes for hydrogen separation and membrane reactors Yi Hua Ma, ScD, MIT Applied Kinetics and Reactor Analysis Particulate Synthesis Water Purication Engineering Robert W. Thompson, PhD, Iowa State University Bionanotechnology Bioseparations BioMEMS Microuidics Microelectronic and Photonic Packaging Susan Zhou, PhD, University of Califonia, Irvine Grad CE Ad.indd 1 4/23/10 1:29 PM

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410 Dep artment of Chemical & Environmental Engineering Joint Appointments Michelle Bell Gaboury Benoit Eric Dufresne as Graedel

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411 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering For further information See our website at: http://www.et.byu.edu/cheme/ Financial Support Available Study in an uplifting, intellectual, social, and spiritual environment Faculty and Research Interests Morris D. Argyle (Berkeley) Larry L. Baxter (BYU) Bradley C. Bundy (Stanford) protein production and engineering Thomas H. Fletcher (BYU) John H. Harb (Illinois) William C. Hecker (UC Berkeley) John Hedengren (UT Austin) Thomas A. Knotts (University of Wisconsin) Randy S. Lewis MIT David O. Lignell (Utah) William G. Pitt (Wisconsin) Kenneth A. Solen (Wisconsin) Dean R. Wheeler (Berkeley) W. Vincent Wilding (Rice) CLARKSON UNIVERSITYDepartment of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering (M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees)The department research areas include biosensors and bioelectronics, plasma processing in condensed media; surface science, colloids, structured materials and self assembly; thin lm deposition and crystallization, membrane processes, chemical mechanical polishing; photovoltaic devices, materials and fabrication; materials for fuel cells; air pollutant sampling and analysis, particulate transport and deposition; receptor modeling; soft matter, polymers and biomaterials; separation processes; and mass transfer and distillation. Research collaboration is enhanced through the following University centers: Center for Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP) Center for Rehabilitation Engineering, Science and Technology (CREST) Institute for a Sustainable Environment (ISE)For information and applications, apply to: Graduate Committee Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5705 315-268-6650 www.clarkson.edu/chemengClarkson University does not discriminate on the basis of race, gender, color, creed, religion, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, veteran or marital status in provision of educational opportunity or employment opportunities and benets.

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412 Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor th A mo dern graduate program dedicated to fundamental education and cutting-edge research on acre campus in the heart of the Washingto Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Program For further information, contact HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering at Florida A&M University Florida State University COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGBiomass and Energy Processing Plasma Reaction Engineering Cellular and Tissue Engineering Biomedical Imaging Nanoscale Science and Engineering Polymers and Complex Fluids Multiscale Theory, Modeling, and Simulation Research Areas Faculty Biomedical Engineering

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413 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, contact (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Kansas State University) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) (Ph.D., Wayne State University) ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) (Ph.D., Tsinghua University) (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY Wudneh Admassu Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations, Biochemical Engineering with Environmental Applications Eric Aston Surface Science, Thermodynamics, Microelectronics David Drown Process Design, Computer Application Modeling, Process Economics and Optimization-Emphasis on Food Processing Dean Edwards Autonomous Vehicles, Battery research Lou Edwards Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization Jin Park Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Laboratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma Systems Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel Treatment (Idaho Falls campus) Aaron Thomas Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow, Separations Magnetohydrodynamics Vivek Utgikar Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Chem/Bio Remediation, Kinetics (Idaho Falls Campus) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs The Department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, whitewater rafting, skiing and camping. University of Idaho Graduate Advisor, ChE P.O. Box 441021 Moscow, ID 83844-1021 Or email: gailb@uidaho.edu Phone: 208885-7572 Web: www.uidaho.edu/che

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414 Chemical process safety surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech is a top-sixty public national university, according to U.S. News and World Report. MTUs enroll ment is approximately 6,300 with 640 graduate students. Technical Communications Biosensors

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415 Enjoying the clear skies and moderate climate of Northern Nevada, UNR is convenient to downtown and only 45 minutes from Lake Tahoe. Faculty For on-line application forms and information: UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO Research Areas OSU Oregon State School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Environmental Engineering For additional information, please visit www.che.oregonstate.edu or call (541) 737-2491 Biointerfacial Phenomena, Bioengineering Ethics Semiconductor Materials, Nanotechnology Integrated Chemical Systems Mark Dolan Biological Remediation of Groundwater Biofuels & Technology Commercialization Nanomaterial-Biological Interactions, Nanotoxicology and Nanoin formatics Gregory Herman Solar Energy, Catalysis Adam Higgins Goran Jovanovic Microscale Chemical & Biosensor Devices, Nanotechnology Christine Kelly Biotechnology Milo Koretsky Engineering Education Research, Thin Film Materials Processing Keith Levien Process Optimization & Control Supercritical Fluids Technology Joseph McGuire Biointerfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials Jeff Nason Physical/Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Skip Rochefort Polymers, Biomaterials, K-12 Outreach Gregory Rorrer Biochemical Engineering Bioremediation Microbial Processes Dorthe Wildenschild Multi-phase Flow and Transport in Porous Media Imaging and Image Analysis Kenneth Williamson Bioengineering, Environmental Systems Transport Theory & Application, Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Process Chemistry and Microreactor Engineering for Energy and Advanced Materials Collaborative Research A diversity of faculty interests in the department, broadened and reinforced by cooperation with other engineering departments and research centers on campus such as ONAMI Research Center (Oregon Nanosci ence and Microtechnologies Institute), the Center for Center for Subsurface Biosphere, and the Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology, makes tailored individual programs possible. Competitive research and teaching assistantships are available. Oregon State University, located in Corvallis, the heart Land, Sea, and Space Grant institution, we offer gradu Exceptional Faculty

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416 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.R. Anklam, Ph.D., Princeton R.S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane D.G. Coronell, Ph.D., MIT M.H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester, U.K. K.H. Henthorn, Ph.D., Purdue S.J. McClellan, Ph.D., Purdue A.J. Nolte, Ph.D., MIT S.G. Sauer, Ph.D., Rice A. Serbezov, Ph.D., Rochester EMERITUS FACULTY

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418 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Research Areas Faculty Renewable Fuels Jim Henry, Ph.D., P.E.. 1970, Princeton Process Controls Frank Jones, Ph.D. P.E., 1991, Drexel BioEngineering Tricia Thomas, Ph.D., 1998, CMU Tuition Waivers and Assistantships available Masters: Chemical, Environmental or Computational Engineering Ph.D. in Computational Engineering http://www.utc.edu/EngineeringAndComputerScience/ms_che.php Reservoir Engineering and Production Process Control and Thermodynamics Gas Hydrates and Thermodynamics Rheology, Oil and Gas Processing Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the ur ban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. Thermodynamics, Physical Property, Measurements, Process Simulation Reaction Engineering and Process Science

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419 The Villanova University M.S.Ch.E. and Ph.D. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. Funding is available to support full-time M.S.Ch.E. students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both Applications For more information, contact:

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420 M.S. in Bioengineering M.S. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Materials Engineering Ph.D. in Materials Engineering Agitation g Membrane Transport Multifunctional Materials Thermal Management 0246 2627 your schools graduate program advertised in CEE ? Page space costs are Production charges vary depending on format. rates. your program to the