1 Chemical Engineering Education Volume 45 Number 1 Winter 2011 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engi neering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Cor respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2011 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pub lication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. Wankat Lynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR Daina Briedis, Michigan State William J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology C. Stewart Slater Rowan University Jennifer Curtis University of Florida John OConnell University of Virginia Pedro Arce Tennessee Tech University Lisa Bullard North Carolina State Stephanie Farrell Rowan University Jim Henry University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Jason Keith Michigan Technological University Milo Koretsky Oregon State University Suzanne Kresta University of Alberta Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo David Silverstein University of Kentucky Margot Vigeant Bucknell University DEPARTMENT Chemical Engineering at The University of Arizona Paul Blowers, Jim A. Field, Kimberly Ogden, A. Eduardo Sez, and Reyes Sierra EDUCATOR 8 Purdues Doraiswami (Ramki) Ramkrishna: A Population of One Phil Wankat and Arvind Varma CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details Peter W. Hart and Alan W. Rudie RANDOM THOUGHTS How to Stop Cheating (Or At Least Slow It Down) Richard Felder LABORATORY Project-Based Learning in Education Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise Donald D. Joye, Adam Hoffman, Jacqueline Christie, Mayo Brown, and Jennifer Niemczyk CLASSROOM Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Greg Foley CURRICULUM Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project Allen H.J. Yang, Kathryn Dimiduk, and Susan Daniel CFD Modeling of Water Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion in a Horizontal Pipe V.V.R. Kaushik, S. Ghosh, G. Das, and P.K. Das Integration of Biological Applications Into the Core Undergraduate Curriculum: A Practical Strategy Claire Komives, Michael Prince, Erik Fernandez, and Robert Balcarcel Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals Mark R. Prausnitz and Andreas S. Bommarius Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors Sergio Pons and Antoni Snchez Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature Adrienne R. Minerick OTHER CONTENTS Book Review, Lisa Bullard inside front cover Teaching Tip, Matthew W. Liberatore
2 T he University of Ar izona was founded under the Morrill Act as a land grant uni versity in 1885, 27 years before the state of Arizona entered the union. Classes began in 1891 with 32 stu dents, and due to the lack of high schools in the territo ry, the university performed outreach by maintaining a separate set of preparatory courses to allow students to enter the university. Since those early years, the uni versity has grown to offer degrees in more than 300 a total student population of more than 29,000 undergraduate and almost 7,000 graduate students. Chemical engineering at the University of Arizona was founded in 1957 as part of the School of Mines by Don H. when Joseph Gross became head for six years. Gary Patterson led the department from 1985 until 1990 when Thomas W. Peterson took over the reins for seven years before becoming dean of the College of Engineering. During Tom Petersons tenure, he and Ray Sierka led the efforts to merge the chemi cal engineering faculty with the environmental engineering faculty, and those efforts were successful on July 1, 1993. Jost Wendt was head from 1998-2005 before Glenn Schrader, recruited from the National Science Foundation, led from of James A. Field, who began his term as department chair, a new leadership format. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS The department currently has 15 full-time faculty members who contribute to the academic and research vitality of the campus. This past year, research expenditures for the depart lists the faculty, their Ph.D.-granting institution, and their current research areas. As one can see in Table 1, many faculty emphasize research at the interface of chemical and environmental engineering, which was the primary driver of merging the faculty of the ChE at The University of Arizona ChE department University of Arizona faculty member Armin Sorooshian lectures on heat exchangers in uid ow and heat transfer. PAUL BLOWERS, JIM A. FIELD, KIMBERLY OGDEN, A. EDUARDO SEZ, AND REYES SIERRA Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011
3 Our mission is to: provide excellence in university-level teaching of chemical and environmental engineering to a broad diversity of students prepare students to be competitive in the global job marketplace through mentoring, research, and internship opportunities pioneer quality research that advances engineering fundamentals and promotes innovations in technology development in areas of: o energy o environmental technology o biotechnology o nano-scale device manufacturing Old Main: The rst building constructed on the campus and still in use. two departments, and the origin of much of the attraction of interest to the department. The focus on these synergies has also led to the strong presence of environmental topics in the undergraduate curricula as discussed in the next section. The department has strong involve ment or leadership positions in two prominent research centers. The Semi conductor Research Center (SRC)/ SEMATECH Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing is led by Farhang Shadman, who originally founded the center with collaborators at Stanford and MIT through the NSF Engineering Research Center initia tives. This center has remained ac tive as a vibrant research catalyst and continues to focus on semiconductor manufacturing while diversifying into broader nanotechnol the NSF support was sunset. The U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Science and Toxicology is codirected by Jim Field, chair of the department. The mission of the Binational Center is to provide and support environmental science and toxicology training, research, and policy develop ment as well as facilitate a dialogue between investigators and stakeholders on risk assessment and remediation of hazardous environmental contaminants prevalent in the Border region. In addition to these centers, faculty members collaborate with researchers in public health, environmental sciences, atmo spheric sciences, optical science, material science, chemistry, physiology, toxicology, and pharmacy. THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM The undergraduate program had a total of 177 registered majors at the start of Fall 2010, with the recent graduating class having 38 under graduate students. En rollment at the sopho more level has risen from 55 students three years ago to 92 students in the most recent fall semes ter. The student body in chemical engineering continues to be diverse with the recent graduat ing class having 35% fe male, 13% Hispanic, 2% Native American, and students. While students predominantly come from Arizona, there are many students from California due to the relatively low tuition of our university. International students make up less than 5% of each class at this time, although a new China 2+2 program with Fudan University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University was initiated in 2009 that allows students to obtain degrees from their home institution and the U of A in four years. It is anticipated that approximately eight students per year will enter this program within the next three years. The B.S. degree program is accred ited by ABET and is undergoing the normal review process. While much of the curriculum is traditional, there are several unique aspects. Students take two units worth of computer programming in Visual Basic after completing a three-unit freshman programming course with C+. A subsequent core course introduces Matlab applica tions in the context of numerical methods. A three-unit up per-division core course is dedicated to introducing students to biotechnology as well. Instead of having a senior-level three-credit Unit Operations Laboratory course, the depart ment moved to a distributed three-semester series of one-unit of the senior year. This change allowed for faculty to now also introduce ChemCAD in the junior year and strengthen Matlab training. This change also moved many of the experiments into the same semester the theory was being taught, which makes pedagogical sense. The transport phenomena course sequence consists of two traditional courses that cover the in the second semester of the junior year by a comprehensive transport phenomena course based on Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoots classic textbook. The strong chemical engi neering core is supported by many electives, with offer ings in rheology, surface sci ence, atmospheric science, semiconductor manufactur ing, and bioreactor design. On the environmental side, classes are offered in wa ter chemistry, wastewater treatment, hazardous waste management, and pollution control. Many students use these opportunities to pre pare for graduate work in environmental engineering or for environmental con sulting jobs.
4 Advising and instructional efforts are strong across the department. Students are directly advised by faculty, which allows for close mentoring of each student and the ability nication with students inside and outside the class, through research and departmental picnics and coffee hours, has led to one professor being selected for the Excellence in Academic Advising Faculty Advisor Award in 2007, which is given to one faculty member at the University of Arizona each year. That faculty member then went on to be named one of the best four Outstanding Faculty Advisors in the United States as selected by the National Academic Advising Association. Faculty teaching evaluations are consistently very high within the department. Figure 1a shows faculty teachingmaximum scale) for all core courses required in the depart ment. Teaching course-evaluation scores are similarly high in the elective courses, as seen in Figure 1b. As a point of comparison, many departmental averages on these scores are ing, performing research with undergraduatesas discussed nextand advising undergraduates has led to two faculty members receiving the single university-wide Outstanding Faculty Award as selected by the entire student body, one receiving it in 2009 and the other in 2010. Additionally, the student body also selected the department to receive the Department of the Year Award in 2010. In addition to these student-selected awards, one faculty member was selected by honors students as the Five Star Faculty Award winner, which is only given to one faculty member each year. That faculty member also received the Sherrill Creative Teaching Award from the University of Arizona Foundation for demonstrat ing a long-standing commitment to excellence in educating undergraduate students. In addition to teaching well, the departments faculty mem bers have consistently made a strong commitment to engag Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty Faculty Ph.D. Institution Research Areas Bob Arnold Cal. Tech. bioremediation, microbial catalysis Jim Baygents (Interim Assoc. Dean for Academic Affairs, Engineering) Princeton transport and interfacial phenomena Paul Blowers Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign sustainability analyses, kinetic and molecular predictions Wendell Ela Stanford particle-particle interactions, remediation of contaminated water Jim Farrell Stanford adsorption in mesoporous materials, electrochemistry Jim Field Wageningen University (The Netherlands) anaerobic bioconversion of pollutants Don Gervasio Case Western Reserve University electrochemistry, solar power Roberto Guzman North Carolina State University protein and metal ion separation, polymer and surface chemistry for environmental/biotech. applications Anthony Muscat Stanford atomic scale engineering of surfaces, semiconductor chem istries Kim Ogden University of Colorado bioremediation and biotechnology Ara Philipossian Tufts University chemical mechanical planarization, electroplating chemicals, dielectrics Eduardo Sez University of California at Davis transport phenomena, emerging contaminants Glenn Schrader (Associate Dean of Research, Engineering) University of Wisconsin Farhang Shadman (Director of SRC/SEMATECH Engi neering Research Center for Env. Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing) UC Berkeley semiconductor manufacturing, environmental contamination control Reyes Sierra Wageningen University (The Netherlands) biological wastewater treatment, bioremediation, nanotoxicity Shane Snyder Michigan State University emerging water contamination and remediation Armin Sorooshian Cal Tech atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate change, aerosols
5 ing undergraduate students in research. Students do research either as volunteers, for independent study that can be applied to their degree, or for pay, often through additional funds provided by the Undergraduate Biology Research Program or the NASA Space Grant Program on our campus. In addition to performing research within the de partment, students also routinely work in systems and industrial engineering, electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, optical sciences, chem istry, or medical research laboratories outside the department due to the campuss support for under graduate involvement in research. Undergraduate researchers are often included as co-authors on years, 31 peer-reviewed publications from faculty members have been published with undergraduate students as co-authorsdemonstrating a high level of engagement of undergraduate students in the research enterprise. Students are encouraged to not only develop their professional resumes through research, but to also pursue internships with companies. While intern Figure 1. A verage faculty teaching course evaluation scores on a ve-point scale as reported by students at the end of each semester. Mosaic of mentors: The many faces of the University of Arizonas chemical and environ mental engineering faculty: Top row: Bob Arnold, Kim Ogden, Jim Farrell, Eduardo Sez, Farhang Shadman. Second row: Armin Sorooshian, Reyes Sierra, Wendell Ela, Jim Baygents, Ara Philipossian. Third row: Paul Blowers, Greg Ogden, Jim Field, Roberto Guzman, Anthony Muscat. Bottom row: Glenn Schrader, Shane Snyder, Don Gervasio.
6 ships are not required, a large number of students have been able to secure paid work. The third leg of student success is built on service and leadership activities. In the recent past, chemical engineer Beta Pi Honor Society, the Engineering Student Council, the Society of Women Engineers, and Engineers Without Bor ders. In addition to these clubs that are closely related to the discipline, students from the department have also founded the American Tae Kwon Do, Arizona Marathon Runners, Arizona Boxing, and Arizona Jugglers clubs. Students remain engaged in a wide variety of activities, even on top of their student was ranked number one in the world in hand-to-hand table tennis championships. Students from the department win many awards at both the local and national levels. Each year, the College of Engineer ing recognizes one senior as the Most Outstanding College Senior and each of the 18 degree programs can nominate one engineering student was chosen three times for this honor. The university gives three awards each year for outstand ing service leadership to all graduating seniors, and two students from chemical engineering were selected in the last nine years. The University Honors College names between 10 and 12 Pillars of Excellence each year; of the 32 named engineering graduating seniors. At the national level, from AIChE, two students have won National Minority scholarships, three have been selected for the Donald Othmer Award, and one received the John McKetta Award. Two students were selected as Tau Beta Pi scholars and one was named Tau Beta Pi Laureate as the best engineering student in the country. The Udall Scholar ship is a national award given to approximately 80 students nation wide each year, and students must be engaged in environmental or tribal issues to be selected. Two of our students have been selected those students went on to have a Fulbright Fellowship and is now an NSF fellow in graduate school. In the most recent graduating class, one student earned second place from the National Society of Black Engineers at an open oral competition, while another student was selected by the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers as the Most Valuable Player for Design. Not surprisingly, with the strong support from the depart ment and college to become involved in research, and the encouragement to obtain internships and to develop leader ship and engagement activities, placement of graduates has been strong each year. In almost every year, only two or three students have not signed a commitment by the day of graduation. Companies that routinely recruit multiple graduates from our program include ExxonMobil, Intel, Proctor & Gamble, Raytheon Missile Systems, Freeport MacMoRan (a mining company), Gore (a biotechnology company), and Valero Oil. Environmental consulting companies take advantage of the strong environmental presence and hire students as well, with students going to Malcolm Pirnie, Brown and Caldwell, and CH2M Hill in recent years. Due to the broad emphasis on fundamentals and applicability to any industry, our students are able to work for a broad spectrum of companies, allowing their demand for new B.S. graduates. Approximately 30-35% of each graduating class goes to graduate school. Currently, students are in graduate school in (three), Cal Tech (three), University of Illinois at UrbanaStudents participate in a classroom activity. Interactions with students foster engagement in learning.
7 to chemical engineering programs. Four students have suc cessfully been admitted to medical school programs, with one of them earning a position in an M.D./ChE Ph.D. program. One student has gone on to receive a Ph.D. in pharmacy, while another received a law degree from Duke University. Several students have gone on to biomedical graduate-degree programs, while one has gone on to a Ph.D. program in dairy science at the University of Wisconsin and another entered Oxford University for an M.S. in archeology. THE GRADUATE PROGRAMS The department maintains two separate graduate-degree programs, one in chemical engineering and one in environ mental engineering, with both programs offering both M.S. and Ph.D. research-centered programs. Both programs also graduate students in residence at any given time, supported by their research advisors. Masters degree candidates from environmental engineer and utility companies across the United States. There are relatively few M.S. chemical engineering graduate students, and those that pass through the program often go on to graduate school at other institutions; one was at the Univer sity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and just completed a Ph.D., and the other is in the fourth year of an M.D./Ph.D. program at the University of Boston. Ph.D. students from both programs primarily go to industrial positions or posi tions at utility companies after graduation, although several alumni are faculty members at other institutions, including North Dakota State University, Stanford University, The University of Utah, and San Francisco de Quito University in Ecuador. Graduate students are encouraged to not only do well academically and in their research areas, but to also develop themselves. Departmental seminar series generate research ideas from graduate students during coffee-hour presentations on their research. In addition, many students participate in intramural and recreational activities within the department and across the campus. A large number of students also start families while in the program and balance work with their outside lives. This may be encouraged by the holistic approach of the faculty in maintaining similar balances in their personal lives, as discussed later. Strong connections are maintained with alumni from all undergraduate and graduate programs. This has facilitated the sharing of job openings with alumni and graduating seniors as they search for jobs. These connections and communica tion efforts have also enhanced recruiting of interns from the program as employers observe the developmental efforts the faculty make to get students involved and engaged in becoming strong professionals through research, leadership, and internships. Research areas in the graduate programs include, but are not limited to, chemical engineering solutions to environ mental problems, including water and wastewater treatment, (bio)remediation, and environmental aspects of semiconductor manufacturing. Other areas of emphasis are nanofabrication, biotechnology, biofuels, molecular-scale simulation of chemi cal interactions, rheology, electrochemistry, and catalysis. LIFE BALANCE AND HOLISTIC APPROACHES FOR SUCCESS Faculty are also leaders in and around the local community and the country. One faculty member is currently secretary of the National AIChE organization. Several faculty members have served on editorial boards for top journals or served on national oversight committees for technology development. At the local level, two different faculty members have participated in an event that brings together faculty from campus, employees at middle-school-aged children at the Tucson Convention Center to do hands-on science and engineering events over a three-day period. At the university and college level, at least seven faculty at any given time are in visible leadership positions. For over a decade, faculty members have demonstrated the ability to balance their professional demands in teaching, research, and service, with their personal livesproviding a strong model to students at all levels. Many faculty children are often present in the building during working hours, often with a gate at the door to keep toddlers in. Some faculty lecture with their children unobtrusively present in the class roomone did so while wearing a baby carrier for a toddler, and others while having their children draw quietly or work on their own tasks. Being engaged as a faculty member does The clear engagement of faculty in many activities at high levels encourages undergraduate and graduate students to chal lenge themselves while maintaining good life balances. With the addition of two new faculty members in 2010 in research areas that complement existing departmental strengths, while also maintaining a balance between professional and per sonal lives, the future promises to hold continued strengthening of the department and larger successes. Founding father: Don White, the founder and rst head of the department.
8 ChE educator Ramki in his ofce. I n the sports world if you say Michael or Tiger everyone knows who you mean. In the world of chemical engineering if you say Ramki everyone knows you mean Doraiswami Ram krishna. Ramki has earned this name recognition by introducing elegant and powerful mathemati cal techniques, particularly population balances, into chemical engineering. Yet, if you try to apply population balances to Ramki himself, you will fail because Ramki is unique. EARLY DAYS Ramki was born in Trichur, India, but grew up in Bombay (now Mumbai) where he had all his elementary and high schooling. During his early Purdues Doraiswami (Ramki) Ramkrishna A Population of One PHIL WANKAT AND ARVIND VARMA Purdue University school days, his mother was his tutor. She would make sure that he was totally prepared for his exams. One time in fourth grade he returned home after an exam with some of his answer sheets he had neglected to turn in under some blank papers on the clipboard. His mother (now 88) rushed to the school and successfully convinced the teacher of the innocence of what happened! His father, who recently passed away at the age of 100, was a relentless cheerleader throughout his life. ics) junior college (Ramnarain Ruia) teachers. He graduated from the Department of Chemical Technology at Bombay Bombay University, who not only taught mathematics but also taught students to love it. If Ramki is a typical example, Dr. Sen was indeed a magician! Young Manmohan Sharma, also from Bombay University, was no less inspiring and set new highs in commitment to teaching. While Ramki can recall standing attributes to the undergraduate program at Bombay University. In addition to mathematics, the organic chemistry and surface and colloid chemistry courses as well as the Unit Operations laboratory were outstanding examples. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Left, Ramki at age 6 with his parents and sister Leela.
9 Ramki left for the Uni versity of Minnesota in mission there occurred through the recommenda tion of his uncle, Venki, who was a post-doc in the chemistry department at Minnesota. MINNESOTA DAYS How many Ph.D.s re gard their graduate educa tion as a euphoric stretch of inspiration that they would love to live over again? Ramki regards his Minnesota days this way! He had as his contempo raries some of the most distinguished colleagues in the chemical engineering profession today: Roger Schmitz, George Gavalas, Morton Denn, Dan Luss, Harmon Ray, Lee Ray mond, and Ken Valentas, to name just a few, and he vividly recalls the exciting and lively competition that prevailed. As if the excitement that came from ChE Professors Neal Amundson, Rutherford Aris, Skip Scriven, Arnie Fredrickson, Bill Ranz, and John Dahler were not enough, the mathematics depart ment at Minnesota was his second home with Professors Hans Weinberger, Walt Littman, George Sell, Willard Miller, and James Serrin adding substantially to the quality of students lives. Ramki fondly remembers the several seminar series of unusual kinds (thanks to Rutherford Aris), and the special group seminar series on Fun in Hilbert Space, which Ted Davis, Ramki, and Theofanis Theofanous put together. Graduate research with Arnie Fredrickson and Henry Tsuchiya was an adventure. Ramki reports We were friends ing in new ways. Neal Amundson offered Ramki an instruc torshipa position offered only to a privileged few among graduate studentswhich postponed his plans to return to India and teach. Since Ramki was concerned that his parents would become upset, Henry Tsuchiya wrote a personal letter to Ramkis father to make him understand the opportunity it meant to his son. Becoming an instructor and a part of the undergraduate teaching team was academic training at its best. He savored the faculty lunch discussions at the Campus Club with more appetite than the food. On one occasion, Ramki fondly recalls, Amundson said at the Campus Club, You know I have been eating at the Campus Club since 1939! when Ramki responded by saying, Gee that was about when I was born! he provoked Neals snappy reaction, So who asked you, you idiot! Sub sequently, Ramki served on the faculty at Min nesota as a temporary as sistant professor, again at Amundsons request. Other than choosing par ents with good genes, the most important decision a person makes is marrying the right spouse. Ramki made excellent decisions in both cases. In September were married. It was an unusual arranged mar riage in that he virtually engineered it himself. She was known to him from childhood, and since marrying has been his constant companion even during his professional involvements, vigorously entertaining professional colleagues with home-cooked food and attending conferences with him around the globe. IIT-KANPUR DAYS resumed his academic career as an assistant professor at IIT-Kanpur. This was an extraordinary institution, distinctly apart from others in India because of the academic freedom Ramki at graduation with a Ph.D. degree from the University of Minnesota in 1965 with his advisors Arnie Fredrickson (right) and Henry Tsuchiya (left). Right, the traditional Indian-style wedding of Ramki and Geetha on a swing with garlands in 1966.
10 it offered young faculty. Consequently, even by international could imagine. Ramki recalls his early academic mentors such as his friend and colleague C.V. Seshadri and his depart ment head, M. Gopala Rao, who put together an outstanding chemical engineering faculty. Teaching was held in the highest esteem and recitation lectures were held to the same quality and standards as those at Minnesota. Ramki did some of his early work on linear operators, population balances, and stochastic differential equations at this institute. Colleagues K.S. Gandhi, Arvind Kudchadker, C.N.R. Rao, V.K. Stokes, and Kamalesh Sirkar added substantially to the stimulation. He sentimentally recalls his distinguished friend and col league Professor Jay Borwanker who taught him stochastic processes privately and collaborated with him on chemical engineering research. Together they published some funda mental papers on the implications of stochastic processes to chemical engineering. Towards the end of 1973, however, Ramki became unhappy at IIT-Kanpur because of complex political changes that resulted in an extraordinary degree of polarization among the faculty. Many faculty colleagues left and Ramki sought a two-year leave to return to the United States. While at IIT-Kanpur, he had been involved with teaching many dis tinguished undergraduate students (to mention only a few: Rakesh Agrawal, Santosh Gupta, Rakesh Jain, Anil Kumar, and Amar Shah). was from electrical engineering and was jointly advised by a colleague from EE and another from mathematics. This for solving nonlinear stochastic differential equations and investigated the behavior of chemical reactors subjected to random environmental effects. The work resulted in publica tions in SIAM Journal on Control and in Chemical Engineer ing Science Dr. Rao subsequently joined the faculty of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, where he eventually rose to become head of the School of Automation. Before leaving IIT-Kanpur, Ramki had guided four other students to their doctoral degrees, three of whom subsequently joined academia. Of these, Rakesh Bajpai, is a Distinguished Pro fessor at Louisiana at Lafayette; P.N. Singh retired as the dean of an Engineering College in Karnataka, India; and Ganesan Narsimhan is currently a professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. He also had numerous Masters degree students. RETURN TO THE UNITED STATES Ramki and Geetha arrived in Madison, Wisc., in August sity of Wisconsin. In many ways, this was an extraordinary year for him. While he did undergraduate teaching at Wis consin, he also taught a course on linear operator theory for only two faculty members and two students! The course led to some collaborative research with Ed Lightfoot, and many interesting discussions with Warren Stewart. Ramki recalls with great fondness his friendship with Ed Crosby, with whom his co-teaching was a truly rewarding experience. Crosbys special effort to integrate transport analysis with real life ex amples has few parallels in the published literature. Another memory that he carries from Wisconsin was the summer lab in which he participated most enthusiastically. Students were given crash projects to design experiments and produce results in a short time! Ramki returned to Minnesota as a visiting professor in the fall of 1975. At Minnesota, he had the pleasure of teaching the second course of Neal Amundsons triple sequence. He taught linear operator theory to a class that was to produce some truly outstanding academics. With Manfred Morari as his teaching assistant, the class comprised Brian Higgins, Doug Lauffenburger, Gregory and Miretta Stephanopoulos, Ishi Talmon, Kyriakos Zygourakis, and many others. PURDUE UNIVERSITY DAYS In the middle of the 1970s, Lowell Koppel as ChE Head embarked on a vigorous and impressive process of building a strong new faculty at Purdue. One key element was hiring University as professor. For Ramki, it was a fresh academic beginning and, unbeknownst to him, the new start of his career at a permanent home. Although he started with an undergraduate transport course, he soon became almost exclusively involved with graduate teaching at Purdue. In addition to linear operator theory, he taught Transport Phenomena I and II, Chemical Reaction Engineering, and a course on Probabilistic Methods in Chemi cal Engineering. While developing extensive notes teaching Ramki pictured with his colleagues Henry Lim and George Tsao in 1987 at a departmental celebration of their awards. Ramki won the Alpha Chi Sigma, Henry the Food Pharmaceutical and Bioengineering Award, and George the Marvin Johnson Award.
11 linear operators at IIT-Kanpur, Ramki had discussed the topic with Neal Amundson during one of his short visits to Min nesota. They published numerous papers on application of linear operators to solve problems in transport and chemical reaction engineering that became very popular. The stabil ity of a permanent home at Purdue, Amundsons continued encouragement to Ramki, and the continued opportunity to teach graduate students led to their book, Linear Operator Methods in Chemical Engineering, published by Prentice Hall in 1985. Ramki attributes his long and continuing association with Purdue to the quality of many of his colleagues. With Jim Caruthers, Nicholas Peppas, and Nick Delgass his early days were especially exciting. The opportunity to collaborate with George Tsao, hired by Purdue at about the same time, helped Ramki to return to research in the biological area on which he had gotten his Ph.D. at Minnesota. With an outstanding group of students, he developed the cybernetic approach to modeling biological systems. Another exceptional group worked in the area of applied mathematics and chemical reaction engineering. profound in both research and teaching. Jim Caruthers and Nicholas Peppas in the seventies, Frank Doyle in the nineties, and John Morgan (since 2000) are outstanding examples of his mentees. When he was an assistant professor, Caruthers religiously attended courses taught by Ramki. Ramki was the publications with all of the foregoing mentees. In teaching, he was involved in shaping undergraduate courses in transport phenomena. As an example, the then newly instituted heat and mass transfer course was team taught by Ramki and Linda the course contents. Over the years, many of Ramkrishnas students have sought Purdue but on an international scale through research col laborations in India, Belgium, Germany, and China. Ramkis a Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Delaware, while the second, Kendree Sampson, University where he is currently associate dean. Three others in the early eighties joined academia: Prasad Dhurjati to the U. Delaware, Dhinakar Kompala to the U. Colorado-Boulder, and Satish Parulekar to Illinois Institute of Technology. In the nineties Pedro Arce, now head at Tennessee Technological University, and A. Narang, now Associate Professor, I.I.T. Delhi, became professors. This trend continues in the current decade: Jeff Varner (Associate Professor at Cornell), Tanmay Lele (Assistant Professor at U. Florida), and Jamey Young (Assistant Professor at Vanderbilt). The preference that Professor Ramkrishnas students have shown for academia comes more from merely interacting with him than through explicit persuasion. It also does not imply that those that went to work in industry did not succeed. Shiv Baloos performance at Amoco was so spectacular that he was specially chosen to negotiate with EPA in behalf of Amoco (this was reported not by the former student but by Atul Narang who also went to Amoco performed very well there until his eventual decision to enter academia. Harold Wright rose quickly through the ranks at Conoco to be a senior manager. Ted Pirog has similarly performed outstandingly at ExxonMobil. Ramachandran Muralidhar turned down an academic offer from the Indian Institute of Science to join ExxonMobil to work with Fred Krambeck who reported back to Ramki that Murali was a genius. In the hope that India would grant a dual citizenship (which citizen. This led to an unusual situation when Gary Tatterson invited him to present a talk at Savannah River Company unaware that Ramki was not a U.S. citizen. When he arrived at the company, the strict security requirements forbid him from entering the facility so that his audience had to be sum moned to a cafeteria outside the facility to listen to the talk! Ramkis desire to be involved in India found expression in his association with the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, which he visited for 15 consecutive years (1982-1997) and Jim Caruthers, Ramki, and Nick Delgass, in 1995.
12 collaborated with Professors K.S. Gandhi and R. Kumar. During this period he participated actively in the doctoral dissertations of P. Das, S. Manjunath, S.K. Gupta, and R. Bandyopadhyaya, among which two are currently active in academia. Since then, Ramkrishna has had a continuing col laboration with Professors Joshi and Yadav of the Institute of Chemical Technology Mumbai (his own alma mater, now renamed, and the top-ranked ChE program in India), with trips often funded by NSF International Programs. This interaction enabled his vigorous participation in the doctoral theses of students Amol Kulkarni, Manish Bhole, P.R. Sowbna, and Chinmay Rane. From Belgium, he had Ingmar Nopens and Jo Maartens as visiting scholars to interact with his research group. From Germany, C. Borchert, A. Franz, and Ansgar Bohmann visited Ramkrishnas group for several months. In the United States, interactions with Professor Wei-Shou Hus research group at the University of Minnesota have led to Hus students Sarika Mehra and Anushree Chatterjee visit ing Purdue. Two of Ramkis long-term postdoctoral students, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta and Jayanta Chakraborty, now teach at IISc Bangalore and IIT Kharagpur, respectively. All of the foregoing interactions have led to several publications in the chemical engineering literature. RESEARCH Professor Ramkrishna has a long and distinguished record of original and outstanding contributions through publica tions, conference presentations, and books, which have had enormous impact on many areas of chemical engineering. His contributions have been mainly on the development of novel mathematical frameworks to solve basic chemical engineering problems displaying deterministic and stochastic behaviors. The novelty is displayed in the use of analysis to (i) establish phenomenology, and (iii) found an entirely new framework for the modeling of biological systems. He is widely regarded as a world leader in the application of mathematics to chemical engineering. Ramki fondly recalls research collaboration with Neal Amundson and his long association with Rutherford Aris, his idol in mathematics and a major source of inspira tion. More recently his contributions have focused on new developments in population balance modeling of particulate systems, cybernetic modeling of biological systems, and, most recently, on modeling of chemotherapy with special empha sis on acute lymphoblastic leukemia. His book Population Balances. Theory and Applications to Particulate Systems citations, and continues to amass more. In 2003 the AIChE Journal invited Professors Ramkrishna and Amundson to write a review of Mathematics in Chemical Engineering over the last 50 years. This article, published in articles of the journal for that year. In 2009, a special issue of Chemical Engineering Science was dedicated to Professor Ramkrishna for his leadership in the area of population balances. The guest editors wrote . we would like to take the opportunity to dedicate this issue to Professor Doraiswami Ramkrishna. Eight years after the publication of his milestone book, he has reached another milestone as he celebrated his 70th birthday in 2008. His ef forts during the last four decades, be it almost half a century, have been crucial for the development of the Population current state of knowledge. The development of the so-called cybernetic framework by Ramki and his research group is regarded as a major contribution to biochemical engineering. Jay Bailey stated, This is a personal commentary on the history and future prospects of mathematical modeling and analysis in bio driven by the appearance of the Aiba, Humphrey, and Millis text, Fredricksons guidance on conceptualizing mathemati cal representations of cell populations, and Ramkrishnas development of the cybernetic modeling approach. In this regard, although the publications of Kompala, Ramkrishna, have had their impact, the full and even greater impact of this methodology will be realized in the near future as recent developments on cybernetic modeling have found ways to address large metabolic systems to describe their dynamics in ways that no other framework is equipped to do. Their ap plications to the development of biofuels by the fermentation route, a problem of enormous importance today, is already under way in Ramkis group. Ramki is currently writing a monograph on this topic, to be published by the Cambridge University Press. In collaboration with Purdue Professors Hannemann (ChE/ BME), Rundell (BME), Leary (BME) and the Indianapolis Riley Childrens Hospital, Ramki has recently launched an Ramki at his 60th birthday celebration in 1999 with felicitator Rutherford Aris.
13 active new project for using his modeling talents to design Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. AWARDS Ramki received AIChEs Alpha Chi Sigma Award in 1987 for his seminal contributions in mathematics to chemical engineering. Mumbai University awarded him the UDCT of Ruia Award, along with an outstanding surgeon, as the University. In 2009, he received the Platinum Award among other dis tinguished alumni of Mumbai University from the Institute of Chemical Technology. In 1998, the AIChE granted him the Wilhelm Award for Chemical Reaction Engineering, for his outstanding contributions to chemical and biochemical reac for his contributions and investigations of particulate systems from the Particle Technology Forum of AIChE. He won the Senior Humboldt Award in 2001 to visit the Max ceived the Honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Minnesota. He was then only the sixth chemical engineer to be so honored by the University of Minnesota in the previous 50 years. His innovative contributions led to his election to the National Academy of Engineering in 2009, with a citation that reads: For creation of new model concepts and solutions that improved the engineering of biological and particulate processes. In addition to becoming the H.C. Peffer Distinguished Pro Ramki has won his share of awards from Purdue. Nicholas Peppas organized a surprise get-together in the School in 2001 to celebrate Ramkis 25th year at Purdue. In 2005, Ramki received the Purdue Research Excellence Award from the College of Engineering and in 2010 he received the College Mentoring Excellence Award for his mentoring of graduate students and junior faculty. FAMILY Geetha accompanies Ramki to every professional meet ing he attends. They are proud of their two sons, Sriram (a computer scientist), living in Portland, Ore., and Arvind (a design engineer), living in Novi, Mich. They are equally proud of their daughters-in-law Banu (married to Sriram and a practicing dentist) and Usha (married to Arvind, with a Masters degree in biomedical engineering). Arvind com mented, Dad was a lot of fun when I was a kid. However, he was extremely competitive. Particularly in video games! He wasnt the type that would say oh Ill let him win a game or two. It was more like Im going to crush him! always challenge me to a game of Nintendo Golf. I had beaten Ramkis family has been a constant source of strength. His three siblings have spoiled him with their adulation, while his parents and uncle have been a constant source of Mich., to visit Rohan. The weather had turned nasty and by the time he arrived in Michigan, it was pitch dark and foggy with virtually zero visibility. He had gone astray and found himself in Ypsilanti with no available sense of direction (this happens frequently!). After what seemed like a long time, he found the City Hall with lights inside and people apparently in a meeting. He let himself in, announcing that he was hope lessly lost. A young lady among them said, Why, arent you Professor Ramkrishna from Purdue? I am Christie and got my Ph.D. at Purdue some years ago with Professor Peppas! Ramki excitedly responded by saying, Of course I remem ber you, Christie, you were in my transport course! What followed was a hug, fond recall of some memories, and very clear directions for the right path to the hospital! Because his brothers and sister are so much a part of his life, they are known to most of Ramkis colleagues and friends. They have even attended many AIChE meetings to Ramki and Geetha with their sons and daughters (-in-law).
14 be with him. His younger brother Jaichandra writes, Ramki has been the life and breath of our family and has given the immediate and extended families great memories, many of which we continue to reminisce. One of my early boyhood memories about my brother, then a high school kid himself, is his uncanny ability to narrate stories to children and humor them. He would do it in such gripping details, often with the wayward among us! Kids often clung to him for more and Ramki would oblige and occasionally twisted the lines to scare the more mischievous ones into behaving! Communication between Ramki and his father was unique since his early college-student days and it was always in English, which was very much the medium for serious com munication at home. Ramki would discuss his academic courses, the faculty, and his classmates with great excitement each day to a very receptive, encouraging, and proud father. This continued throughout his academic career to the point that most of his family knew almost every colleague and his and accomplishments! QUIRKS Ramki takes full advantage of the license given to profes sors to be slightly eccentric. Nick Delgass relates an incident where Ramki stopped him in the hallway and showed him an article that had just appeared in the AIChE Journal The problem solved happened to be one of three Ramki had as signed to his class for homework that week. Ramki has an obsession for chalk and chalkboards. He loves to lecture from the chalkboard. By the end of the lecture ev ery inch of the board is covered with complex equations and derivations written in beautiful, neat handwriting. Typically, Ramki teaches without referring to any notes or book, without pausing once or making a small mistake. He will only look at his notes as a last resort when he senses something is not right. When he realizes the mistake and goes back over the entire board revising each equation, the class moans loudly because they have to go back through their notes and edit chalk, everyones notes are a mess. Ramki has a chalkboard often uses it to work out ideas or to practice his lectures. After every lecture, Ramki absentmindedly puts the piece of chalk that he had been using into his pocket. He has a desk drawer Ramki is also an excellent and competitive carom (an In dian game that is a combination of pool and checkers) player. Unfortunately, the competitiveness, but not the excellence, ex tends to his driving. He is forgetful and does not always notice small details such as stop signs. Ramki is also a tremendous fan of cricket, which is quirky in the United States. Our hero is forgetful. He once told a forgetful student By the time you are my age, you wont even remember your name. Another story: a student was at oral exam, frantically waiting for all the committee members to show up. Everybody else did show up on time, and then Professor Peppas told the student: You might want to check with Ramki, as I tried to a journal article. When told that he was late for the oral exam he retorted: You should have reminded me! SUMMARY Ramki has pioneered novel mathematical techniques to solve complex and important problems in chemical and biochemical engineering. His contributions have resulted books. He has impeccably high standards, which are a model for his colleagues and students. He has served as mentor par excellence to numerous graduate students and junior faculty, service to the School, having served as chair of many impor tant committees (Graduate, Awards, and Global Programs to takes pride in the accomplishments of his family and takes time to attend important events of his extended family. With all these characteristics, kind personality, and a great sense of humor, Ramki is indeed a population of one! ACKNOWLEDGMENT The assistance of Mrs. Cristina Farmus was invaluable in preparing this paper. Population growth: Ramki with Rohan, his rst grandchild.
15 T he Chemical Safety and Hazards Investigation Board has recently encouraged chemical engineering faculty to address student knowledge about reactive hazards in their curricula. This paper presents a simple approach that may be used to illustrate the importance of these types of safety considerations. The use of hydrogen peroxide in pulp bleaching has in creased considerably over the past decade. It has been pro moted as an environmentally friendly chemical because the is easy to use and has found industrial applications ranging from nuclear plant decontamination  to waste-water treat ment.  Hydrogen peroxide is not even covered by Process Safety Management (PSM) regulations in concentrations kg).  As such, many people assume that hydrogen peroxide is inherently safe. Quite the contrary, at the higher concentra tions used in industry, hydrogen peroxide can be extremely dangerous. The sinking of the Russian submarine Kursk was attributed to an explosion caused by high-concentration peroxide leaking from a damaged torpedo. Explosions in receiving tanks [2, 5] and paper industry bleach plants are evidence to the potential energy and hazards incumbent in using 50% hydrogen peroxide. The major safety problems related to hydrogen peroxide are skin burns and eye injuries from direct contact, the potential formed in decomposition, and peroxide-organic vapor phase explosions. Over the past 15 years, at least three bleach plants in North America experienced catastrophic events involv ing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Pumps exploded in two of these events, each resulting in serious injuries. Both mills were using 50 wt% peroxide and had been using it without incident for several years. Both bleach plants experienced a peroxide-induced pressure burst when MODELING AN EXPLOSION: THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS PETER W HART ALAN W RUDIE Peter W. Hart received a B.S. and M.S. in chem ical engineering from the University of Maine and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology. He has been employed by Westvaco Corporation (now MeadWestvaco) since 1992, where he has served in various research and mill technical positions throughout the 18 years. He currently serves as technical innovation lead for the Mill Operations Product Development Group. He is an adjunct associate professor to the Paper Science Department at North Carolina State University. Alan W. Rudie received a B.A. from Wartburg College in chemistry and Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He took a position in the Process Research Group at International Paper Com pany in 1978, leaving in 1989 for an associate professor appointment at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology. Dr. Rudie took his current position as project leader of the Fiber and Chemical Sciences Work Unit at the Forest Products Laboratory in 2003. The object of this column is to enhance our readers collections of interesting and novel prob lems in chemical engineering. We request problems that can be used to motivate student learning by presenting a particular principle in a new light, can be assigned as novel home problems, are suited for a collaborative learning environment, or demonstrate a cutting-edge application or firstname.lastname@example.org), Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan ChE class and home problems
16 peroxide and caustic were added to a medium-consistency pump, and pulp problems. The third incident was a contamination case that occurred at the Unifort mill in Port Cartier, Quebec, in 1993.  Of very recent importance to chemi cal engineers is the explosion at the T2 Laboratories in Jacksonville, Fla. On Dec.19, 2007, the T2 Laboratories lost cooling control of a reaction between sodium metal and cyclopentadiene, resulting in a massive explosion and four fatalities. In their report on the explosion, the Chemical Safety and Hazards Investigation Board recom mended that the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) work with ABET, Inc., to establish additional curriculum requirements for the study of reactive chemical haz ards.  explosion was the failure on the part of the company engineers and chem ists to consider a higher-temperature reaction between the molten sodium metal and the 1,2dimethoxy ethane used as the solvent. It is evident that students should become aware of reactive hazards in classroom prob lems and discussions. That is the goal of this paper. We present an Eulers method kinetic model developed to improve the understand ing of a decomposition reaction involving hydrogen peroxide that has resulted in two explosions in paper-mill bleach plants. As in the T2 incident, the engineers designing the peroxide bleach stage knew they were work ing with energetic chemicals and had a track record of safe use. As in the T2 incident, the design engineers had failed to consider all reaction scenario resulting in a runaway reac tion. The model presented here is critical to discovering the sequence of events that led to these explosions, and may be used as an example problem to help students learn about reactive hazards. PEROXIDE DECOMPOSITION Peroxide is usually quite stable, decomposing very slowly at a rate less than 1% per year.  Under certain conditions, peroxide can decompose rapidly enough to cause process Figure 1. Temperature and adiabatic volume of oxygen and steam resulting from decomposition of a single volume of hydrogen peroxide solution. Volumetric ex pansion is liters of gas produced per liter of peroxide solution. y = -6604.1x + 15.974 R = 0.9973 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -10.0028 0.0029 0.003 0.0031 0.0032ln(k)1/T Figure 2. Using the Arrhenius method to estimate the effect of temperature on kinetic rate constant. Data from Makkonen.  Temperature range of the data is 25 C to 75 C (298 K). problems. The most serious peroxide accidents usually in volve one of three types of decomposition processes: organic contamination; inorganic contamination; and alkali-induced decomposition. The normal (slow rate) decomposition, inor
17 ganic contamination, and alkali-induced decomposition are a disproportionation reaction producing oxygen and water according to the equation. [11,12] This reaction is highly exothermic, and the resulting temper ature rise increases the rate of decompositionkey conditions for a runaway reaction. The organic contamination reaction is an oxidation (combustion) process and is beyond the scope of this paper but certainly cannot be ignored. This type of reac tion releases even more energy than the disproportionation reaction and was involved in both the sinking of the Kursk and the Unifort mill transfer tank explosion.  Using the ideal gas law and thermodynamic properties of hydrogen peroxide and water, the adiabatic volumetric expan sion can be calculated for various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (Figure 1). Gas volume is calculated by assuming complete decomposition into 1 mole of water and 0.5 mole of oxygen. Total heat is determined from the heat of reaction (98,073 J/mol H 2 O 2 with product water in the liquid state). Thermal mass is determined by multiplying the oxygen gas produced times heat capacity (21.9 J/mol) and summing the water in the solution plus the water from decomposition and a simple calculation, heat generated divided by thermal mass gives the estimated temperature rise. Once the temperature evaporated. Once the excess heat from decomposition is suf and evaporate all the water in the solution, the excess heat is Between the 0.5 moles of oxygen evolved and the water vaporized by the heat of decomposition, extremely large gas volumes can be produced. At about 10% peroxide concentra tion, the heat of decomposition raises the solution temperature causing thermal expansion of the gas. ALKALI-CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION Typical pulp-mill peroxide bleaching stages add peroxide and caustic into wood pulp suspended in water at 10% to bleaching tower. As long as the peroxide is diluted by pulp, the peroxide stage safely bleaches the pulp and the majority of the oxidizing potential of the peroxide is consumed in occurred when peroxide and caustic are added to a pump or To verify that the bleach plant explosions could have been caused by alkali-induced hydrogen peroxide decomposition, a kinetic model was developed to determine the rate of gas for mation and likely pressure build-up in the peroxide reaction. The kinetic expression was integrated in an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, Wash.) using Eulers method. The time step was varied depending on the rate of the reaction; 0.01 s per step was typical for faster reactions. To calculate the pressure produced by peroxide decomposi tion, it is necessary to estimate the effect of temperature on reaction rate and the effect of pressure on boiling point of water. The second-order decomposition of peroxide depends on the concentrations of both the acid (HOOH) and base (HOO) forms of peroxide. The rate equation as presented by Makkonen  is where P is total peroxide concentration and t is time. The apparent rate constant k is about 8 10 reported is an apparent rate because it is condition-depen dent. Considerable variability in rates has been reported, and Makkonen reports slower decomposition for reactions stabilized with magnesium or silicate and faster rates for experiments with added transition metals.  Rate data from Makkonen  were plotted to determine the parameters in an Arrhenius rate expression (Figure 2). This method of estimat ing reaction rate incorporates obvious risks, but attempting to directly measure reaction rates of potentially explosive reactants under high-temperature pressurized conditions is challenging. Equation for the Rate Constant (Figure 2) Water boiling point and temperature data are readily avail able from a number of sources. Plotting the log of pressure against the inverse of absolute temperature provides a straight To verify that the bleach plant explosions could have been caused by alkali-induced hydrogen peroxide decomposition, a kinetic model was developed to determine the rate of gas formation and likely pressure build-up in the peroxide reaction.
18 line relationship suitable for estimating the boiling point rise Because the rest of the kinetics is based on temperature in degrees Kelvin, this choice eliminates a unit conversion and provides a convenient estimate. Modied Antoine Equation Estimating Maximum Temperature at Pressure (Figure 3) Steam and Oxygen Escape The venting of steam and oxygen is estimated using the  : where V l g c 2 ); h is the density h and P l are the pressures on the highand low-pressure sides of the pressure, P l h 3 cross-sectional area is 0.0081 m 2 volume loss is V l (m 3 /s), and steam losses (in mol/s) are P h r the net equation is where M is mass. There are a number of approximations in is typically around 0.85. This constant is considered a good during the pressure spike approach sonic velocity, and with the pump rotor turning, the direction of flow in the pump casing should be tangentialthat is, per pendicular to the suction opening. The 0.85 value is used as a conservative estimate. The base case model assumed peroxide and 25 wt% caustic were entering a pump with an internal volume of 99 L (3.5 ft 3 ). Heat loss was ignored. The L/min of 50% by weight molal), and the caustic of 25% by weight sodium These values represented operating conditions ob tained from distributed control system (DCS) data recorded at the time of one of the explosions. Various options were evaluated, including adia Figure 3. Determination of the coefcients for the Antoine equation to estimate the relationship between the boiling point of water and pressure. Data from the CRC handbook of Chemistry and Physics 76th Ed., Linde, D.R., ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 6-15-16 (1995).
19 batic conditions and gasvented conditions. For was estimated using Eq. (7).  The model assumes eration from pump sur faces or contaminants. Some scenarios required extrapolating the reac tion rate to temperatures well beyond the tempera ture range evaluated by Makkonen  or found in the steam tables used to does not correct for activ ity or change in pK a with temperature. Errors intro duced by these assump tions can be substantial. The value of the model is in demonstrating features of the decomposition pro cess that can predispose the process to catastrophic decompositions, but not in identifying conditions that the models did indicate the likelihood of a rapid increase in casing pressure when gas escape was not allowed, but when vent ing was included in the model, the predicted pres sure build-up was minimal most conditions evaluated, the model predicted that the use of 50 wt% peroxide was safe. Reviewing the DCS data and plant layouts, peroxide appeared to have been flowing into the pump casing for several minutes before the caustic entered the pump. When this sce nario is tested (Figure 5) the pressure remains at atmospheric for the first 101 102 103 104 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Pressure (kPa) Time( s) Figure 4. Pressure vs. time for the steady-state ow case with 14.7 molal peroxide and 6.25 molal sodium hydroxide. The model assumes a 10-cm-diameter vent. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Pressure (kPa) Time (s) Figure 5. Estimated pressure when the pump casing contained 25 L of 14.7 molal peroxide prior to the start of sodium hydroxide addition. The model assumes a 10-cm-diameter vent.
20 continues to boil water and maintain pressure after much of the peroxide has decomposed. The molar concentrations of [H 2 O 2 ] and [HO 2 scenario shows a very rapid loss of peroxide, also at about 70 s. Because the reaction does not consume the alkali, the acid form decreases preferentially. In this case, the [H 2 O 2 ] concen tration drops three orders of magnitude in less than a second. The critical contribution of peroxide in the pump is that the kinetic rate rises as caustic is added, and the HOO concentra tion increases. This sets up a condition in which kinetic rate is accelerating due to both the increase in temperature and the rapid approach to optimum reactant ratio. This type of rapid pressure buildup within the partially failure. In one of the reported incidents, the explosion was so violent that pieces of debris were found up to a half-mile away from the original pump location. Shrapnel damaged the nearby bleach towers and surrounding equipment and instrumentation. Both pump explosions breached the adjacent incident took less than 2 min after sodium hydroxide began the casing, the decomposition reaction quickly consumes the peroxide in the acid form and the reaction rate slows dramatically. This results in substantially smaller predicted pressure increases. CONCLUSION The bleaching processes that resulted in two peroxide explo sions had been used safely by pulp mill bleach plants for years. When kinetic equations describing peroxide decomposition are used with typical steady-state operating conditions, no the caustic, a catastrophic pressure rise is predicted. Examina tion of startup and shutdown conditions and order of chemical addition, including potential system accumulation, is neces sary to fully determine risks. Effectively, when using kinetic models to evaluate industrial operations, transient operational details are extremely important and can transform systems that had been operating safely into bombs. Truly, with peroxide bleach plants, the devil is in the details. REFERENCES 1. Gates, W.J., The Decommissioning of the Haddam Neck Nuclear Plant, Nuclear Plant Journal editorial available at the Nuclear Plant Journal website with no page number.) tion in a Wastewater Treatment Tank, Process Safety Progress 3. H. Shoup & Associates, Inc, The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard, 1999 The Washington Post July 2, 2002, p. A11 at Peracetic Acid Manufacturing Plant, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Failure Knowledge Database, Yamakita, Kanagawa, Japan, Sept. 12, 1988 Two Workers Injured by Blast, Prince George Citizen Feb. 8, 2007 7. Ruptured Pump May Figure into Evadale Mill Explosion, Beaumont Enterprise Beaumont, Texas, Aug. 18, 2001 8. U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazards Investigation Board Investigation Re port, T2 Laboratories, Inc., Runaway Reaction, Report Number 2008-3-I-Fl September 2009 9. Dubreuil, M., Personal communication, May 18, 2007 R.L. Wentworth, Hydrogen Peroxide Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York (1955) 11. Raines, J.C., J.P. Schmidt, J.P. Bu relach, and H.K. Fauske, Assessing Contaminated Hydrogen Peroxide for Safe Storage and Transportation Using the FTAI, J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12. Makkonen, H.P., Decomposition of Hydrogen-Peroxide in Dilute Alkaline Aqueous Solutions Ph.D. Thesis, Uni versity of Washington, (1971) 13. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0 30 60 90 120 Concentration (molarity) Time (s) HOO HOOH Figure 6. Concentration of H 2 O 2 and HO 2 as estimated by the kinetic model.
21 C hemical engineers are important players in meeting the growing challenges of the 21st century, particularly in the areas of biotechnology and sustainable devel opment. Most chemical engineering curriculums (including ours), however, still generally consist of a single path, through a set of fundamental courses, which teaches a necessary set of standard skills. [1-3] The challenge for chemical engineering is refocusing some topics to create a program of study that has an overall modern feel, integrated with the strong tradition in the core values and fundamental skills that allow chemical engi  In our Mass and Energy Balances course, we felt it was critically important to provide our sophomores with a clear understanding of the unique role of chemical engineering in the biotechnology health. This goal was reinforced by a survey of career interests had career interests in biotechnology. Another common theme in our survey data was the desire to positively impact society. Research shows that students learn better if they are actively engaged in the material and if Research also shows that tying problems back to the human element engages student interest and enhances learning.  Thus the logical choice for us was to add a group project to the course that reinforced fundamental skills and addressed an emerging area of biotechnology, since cooperative learning projects are an effective strategy in engineering education. [8,9] There are examples in the literature for adding biotechnology material to labs,  including it in the curriculum as a new course or as an added elective, [11,12] incorporating it in other courses at later stages in the curriculum in a more applied A SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF HUMAN ALCOHOL METABOLISM That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass Balance Team Project ALLEN H.J. YANG 1 KATHRYN DIMIDUK 2 SUSAN DANIEL 1 ChE curriculum Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Allen H.J. Yang is a Ph.D. candidate in chemi cal and biomolecular engineering at Cornell University. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. His research interests lie in biophotonics, mi crouidic systems, and interfacial science. Kathryn Dimiduk is the director of the Teach ing Excellence Institute in the College of En gineering at Cornell University. She received her B.A. in physics from Cornell Univer sity and her Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. Her current research interests are in engineering education and collaborating with engineering faculty in developing teaching innovation in the classroom and building networks to leverage those advances. Susan Daniel is an assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Cornell University. She received her B.S. and Ph.D. from Lehigh University, both in chemi cal engineering. Her research interests are biological interfaces, membrane biophysics, and interfacial science. way  ( i.e. unit operations laboratories), or as an addition to freshman engineering exploration classes, but there is a paucity of educationally rich biotechnology projects for a sophomore-year, required, core chemical engineering curriculum with biotechnology topics that also reinforce the fundamental skills students will need in later classes i.e. mass balances and multiple reaction processesas part of cohesively strengthening and modernizing the overall under graduate chemical engineering program of study.
22 We therefore created a project on the mass balance of alco hol in the human body that has students posing as engineers at a pharmaceutical company that is developing a drug to dis suade alcoholism. The project structure includes engineering design, testing, evaluation, and exploration. We chose human alcohol metabolism for several reasons: 1) while many col lege students are aware of alcoholism, they are not likely to fully understand the underlying chemistry and causes of the resulting negative physiological effects; 2) modeling the human body as a chemical plant gives students a chance to apply and practice their mass balance skills on an analogous but different system, beyond the more traditional chemical processes in the curriculum; 3) scaling down the human model to microscale to simulate a body-on-a-chip illustrates a hallmark skill of chemical engineers while incorporating the effects of a genetic mutation that alters alcohol metabo lism with a hypothetical drug designed to thwart alcoholism (based loosely on a commercially available drug, Antabuse)  engages students in evaluation and exploration. Student feed back on the course evaluation (90% response rate) indicated that the students perceived that the course projects helped them apply the course skills and concepts to more complex problems (95% of respondents) and increased their awareness of the range of topics and scales in the chemical engineering discipline (92% of respondents). (See Table 1). PROJECT FRAMEWORK Student teams create a mass balance model of ethanol me tabolism in the human body using computer spreadsheets to requires only knowledge of multi-unit mass balances and chemical reactions in the steady state; parameters are designed to create reasonable physiological results in this model. The project is divided into four parts (engineering design, testing, evaluation, and exploration) that chemical engineers would perform in a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company. In the design phase, students model the organs handling oxygen and liquid intake, chemical breakdown, and waste re moval as simple black-box process units. Students then test their model using an established basis and monitor variables such as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and blood acetaldehyde concentration. An additional test considers changes due to a syndrome resulting from different enzymatic degradation of ethanol in some Asian populations compared to those of Eu ropean descent. For the evaluation phase, student groups are assigned various hypothetical drug formulations, each altering different parameters in their mass balance model, and are asked students to develop analytical skills and engineering judgment as they assess the drug performance and describe their analysis. Finally, to expose students to current research in biotechnology, we ask students to scale their model from human proportions down to a microscale lab-on-a-chip device, a so-called bodyon-a-chip, used for in vitro drug testing as an alternative for human and animal testing. [17-19] CONCEPTUAL MODELDESIGN PHASE: Turning Organs Into Chemical Process Units Alcohol metabolism and clearance in the human body occurs by the combined action of multiple organ systems. Alcohol enters the digestive system and passes to the circula tory system. The bloodstream carries the ethanol to the liver where a fraction is chemically degraded into acetic acid. Eventually, a portion of the unreacted alcohol exits the body Student Feedback on Effectiveness of Project in Connecting to Real-World Engineering and Reinforcing Course Skills Data source (response rate) Question Response scale Response grouping Percent responses Course evaluation (90%) Did the projects help you relate the course mate rial to real engineering applications and facilitate applying the course concepts and skills to a more complex problem? 3 and above 95% Course evaluation (90%) Did the group project topics give you a sense of the variety of topics and range of scale of problems addressed by the chemical engineering discipline? 3 and above 92% 85% Independent evaluators survey (39%) I understand how the skills and concepts I am learning might be applied to real-world engineer ing challenges. Strongly agree to strongly disagree Agree or strongly agree Independent evaluators survey (39%) I can think of more career opportunities for started this course. Strongly agree to strongly disagree Agree or strongly agree 81% Independent evaluators survey (39%) I can understand how the course projects relate to real-world engineering issues. Strongly agree to strongly disagree Agree or strongly agree 78%
23 through the urine and in exhaled breath. Mathematical models to determine the blood concentration of ethanol and metabolic byproducts such as acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Research studies have shown good correlation between transient mass balance models and observed blood alcohol responses in human subjects. [20,21] Lungs Lungs Digestive Tract Metabolic Processes Liver Kidney Air (breath in) Alcohol Bloodstream Air + alcohol (breath out) Urine Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the simplied human alcohol me tabolism model used in the project. The diagram illustrates the ow of alcohol and air through the body into the liver (where reactions take place), with the resulting products and remaining reactants owing to the kidneys and lungs, and getting removed in the urine and breath. The metabolic processes box lumps the other metabolic processes occurring in the human body. *Summarized from references (16,20,21,23,26,27) See Glossary for definitions of these terms. CH3CHO + H2O + NAD+ CH3COOH + NADH + H+(3) Box 1. Metabolic reactions used in the degradation of ethanol in the human body* The main reaction that oxidizes ethanol (C2H5OH) into acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) is catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) and uses nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide(NAD) : C2H5OH + NAD+ CH3CHO + NADH + H+(1) There is a second parallel reaction for converting ethanol to acetaldehyde known as the microsomalethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), involving nicotinamideadenine dinucleotidephosphate (NADP) : C2H5OH + NADP+ CH3CHO + NADPH + H+ (2) The MEOS process represents the main non-ADH pathway for ethanol degradation catalyze d by cytochromeP450 oxygenaseenzymes. In the final step, the acetaldehyde reacts to form acetic acid (CH3COOH)in a reaction catalyzed by acetal dehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH): Figure 1 maps the organs for material intake, chemical assumed steady state, with a constant input rate of air, ethanol, and water. Stomach and intestine functions are integrated into a single process box (digestive tract) to model absorp tion of ethanol and water from the input. We reduce the bulk human metabolic and cellular respiration functions into two black-box unit operations, the metabolic processes box and the liver box. Lungs and kidney boxes serve as absorbers/exchangers and separators, respectively. The average human male inhales 0.5 L of air the lungs can absorb ~20 mol% of inhaled oxygen into the bloodstream, primarily carried as dissolved oxygen or attached to the protein hemoglobin. Any excess oxygen and nitrogen not absorbed into the blood is exhaled along with some waste ethanol. For simplicity, students model the lungs as two process units (one for breathing in and one for breathing out) with a bypass stream for the excess air. Some ethanol is degraded and absorbed in the stomach along with water, but most liquid passes into the small intestines. We assume that 90 mol% of the ethanol and water passing through the diges tive system is absorbed into the bloodstream. Throughout the body, cells metabolize chemi cals and create biomolecules in biochemical reactions. We approximate reactions as a single black-box process that will consume and produce the necessary metabolites as described in Box 1. Reaction parameters were chosen to make this process consume 30% of the oxygen fed into the metabolic process box (from lungs and recycled cleaned blood) and to generate 10 mol of NAD+ and 1 mol of NADP+ per mol of oxygen con sumed. In addition, to make the mass balances from the cleaned bloodstream entering the pro cess were consumed. In the liver, ethanol is metabolized to acetic acid through a sequence of enzymatic redox reactions (Box 1). The single pass conversion in the liver of ethanol into acetaldehyde via the ADH and MEOS BAC to realistic values. Ethanol consumed in the two competing reactions (the ADH and MEOS re actions) has an 87.5% selectivity for the ADH cata between the extent of reaction of the ADH process to the overall conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde; 99% of the acetaldehyde created by both reactions is then further degraded into acetic acid accord
24 ing to this expression: ALDH ALDH ADH + MEOS extents of reaction for each reaction (Box ALDH is the ef reaction. The speci the simplified mass balances follow a rea sonable physiological response. This level captures the basic physiological results for our sophomorelevel class; however, more complex models could be used for ad vanced students. The kidneys and urinary tract are the bodys primary waste removal organs for water-soluble metabolic wastes. We as sume 90 mol% of the water and acetic acid and 97 mol% of the acetaldehyde output from the liver is removed by the kidneys. Ethanol is also removed via the kidneys: 1.3 gm ethanol/mL urine for every gm ethanol/mL blood. 20 mol% of the total oxygen present in the blood (after going through the liver and kidneys) is exhaled in the lungs. One gram of ethanol is exhaled in 2.1 L of air for each gram of ethanol per milliliter of blood.  dents will need to reference the current blood alcohol concentra tion (BAC). It is important to clarify for students that ethanol is distributed in the total body water (TBW) volume within the  not just in the blood.  The common notation used by law enforcement agencies, e.g. 0.08%, is that of a percent gm/mL. Similarly, acetaldehyde is distributed amongst the TBW volume, and is  Using the above data, students develop mass balance equa tions in an Excel spreadsheet, capitalizing on the iterative ability to quickly determine steady state values of BAC and blood acetaldehyde concentration and to see the impact of changing various parameters and conditions. ESTABLISHING CONTROLS AND BENCHMARKSTESTING PHASE spreadsheets is determining the response of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after consumption of a single beer. All student teams run this study and corroborate the results with each other and the teaching assistants to verify their models. Then, each student team determines the changes in these concentrations as a result of consuming various levels of a unique alcoholic drink assigned to each group and plots their results. Next, students establish a benchmark against which to compare and assess drug performance. They are introduced this syndrome. This will allow them to compare and contrast A B A C Figure 2. Blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration as a function of number of drinks con sumed. (A) Increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) vs. number of beers consumed. A beer is dened here as a 355 mL drink with a 5% v/v concentration of ethanol. Squares represent results from the model using the default parameters, and circles represent data from the Virginia Institute of Technology police department for an average male weighing 140 lbs.  Both the model and data end at 10 drinks for reasons described in the text. (B) Plot of blood acetaldehyde steady state concentration as a function of number of beers consumed for an average male weighing 140 lbs. and (C) for a male weighing 140 lbs. with alcohol ush syndrome ( ). Notice that the vertical scale has changed signicantly between the two plots on the right. Figure 3. Vaxachug effectiveness results. The bar chart illustrates the effects of each Vaxachug formulation on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. The effects of the control case (one beer consumed per hour) and the alcohol ush reaction scenario are shown for comparison.
25 the response of a patient taking a drug for alcoholism against the response of a person possessing the genetic mutation for Physiology of Alcohol Flush Reaction and Treatment for Alcoholism While ethanol creates a number of effects on the central nervous system and is a known teratogen, the short-term effects of consuming alcoholic beverages are closely tied to the primary metabolic product of ethanol degradation, acet aldehyde. Chronic exposure to high levels of acetaldehyde causes irreparable liver damage. Acetaldehyde buildup is also partly responsible for the short-term physiological response to alcohol consumption typically referred to as hangovers. Studies of alcohol metabolism in some Asian populations revealed a missense polymorphism in the alcohol dehydroge nase (ALDH) enzyme which inhibits the rate of acetaldehyde The common physiological response to raised acetaldehyde levels is erythema of the face and neck, a noticeable reddening of the skin. Severe responses can result in drowsiness, headaches, the activity of the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) en the alcohol sensitivity of a patient as a negative reinforcement treatment for alcoholism. Model Output for Benchmarks Cases Figure 2 shows results from the two control scenarios, each conducted using a basis of a pint of beer (a 355 mL beverage containing 5% v/v ethanol). Figure 2(a) compares the models predicted steady state BAC vs. beers consumed (using the default model parameters) with actual BAC data for an aver response to alcohol consumption up to an input of 10 alcoholic beers. At 11 beers, the model breaks down, due to complete consumption of the limited supply of oxygen and metabolites, dents should be made aware of this limit in the model, we note such a high consumption rate would almost certainly result in severe health repercussions and would be beyond the scope of any comparable clinical study in humans. which can be modeled as a decrease in the ALDH reaction matched to concentrations found in previous clinical studies of this condition.  HYPOTHETICAL DRUG FORMULATION SCENARIOSEVALUATION PHASE In this portion of the project, the student teams evaluate the effectiveness of a hypothetical drug, referred to here as Vaxa working as engineers for a hypothetical drug company, stu formulation. Students are instructed that a particular dosage of the drug will change how the body metabolizes alcohol, implemented in their models as changes to certain parameters. To increase the challenge, student teams were assigned dif ferent drug formulations, some of which achieve the desired effects, some of which create alternate side effects, while others drug formulations spanning functional, placebo, overactive, and side-effect prone. The drugs target and alter the function of several organs within the metabolic model resulting in changes to the BAC and acetaldehyde concentrations. Table 2 lists the necessary changes to the model parameters to simulate the effect of each drug. At this point in the project, students example that the goal of Vaxachug is to raise acetaldehyde the system ( e.g. BAC, metabolite concentration, intake, and waste function). Figure 3 illustrates the effect of each Vaxachug formula tion, compared to the control case, using the default model Drug Formulation Scenarios: Changes to Model Parameters to Simulate Each Drug Vaxachug-1 (ineffective) Lung (exhale): breath alcohol content is 1 gm ethanol per 2.7 L of air for every 1 gm/mL in blood Diges tive: 85% of ethanol and water is absorbed into bloodstream Liver: ADH and MEOS reaction selectivity is 85% Meta Vaxachug-2 (functional) cy is 95% Liver: ADH and MEOS reaction selectivity is 85% Kidney: 85% of acetaldehyde from the liver is excreted Vaxachug-3 (overactive) excreted, Kidney: urine content is 0.9 gm ethanol per mL urine for every 1 gm/mL in blood effects) Metabolic: 50% of metabolites consumed, Liver: ADH and MEOS reaction selectivity is 80%, Liver: ethanol singlepass conversion is 30%, Lung: breath alcohol content is 1 gm ethanol per 5 L of air for every 1 gm/mL in blood Vaxachug-5 (ineffective due to competing effects) water is absorbed into the bloodstream, Metabolic: 50% of metabolites consumed
26 or ALDH recycle rates in the kidney. The Vaxachug-2 for mulation increases the blood acetaldehyde concentration to but by altering the acetaldehyde recycle rates rather than acetaldehyde metabolism rates. Vaxachug-3 is considered an overactive formulation, because the combined effect of altering two critical acetaldehyde parameters spikes the blood acetaldehyde concentration to 0.1 mM, four times that of the cause is different for each formulation. The Vaxachug-1 acetaldehyde metabolism. Vaxachug-5, however, does alter two parameters that affect the metabolism of acetaldehyde, but by decreasing the rate of acetaldehyde conversion to acetic acid and increasing its rate of removal from the system, the two effects nearly negate each other resulting in a small net change in blood acetaldehyde concentration. Depending on the severity of the response elicited by the particular drug formulation assigned to a team, students must judge its ef fectiveness for accomplishing its intended use and discuss relevant observations. TEACHING POINTS multiple levels of analysis. They are designed to challenge students to go beyond simply solving an equation and col lecting data and lead them to performing a more extensive analysis and drawing more thorough conclusions from the results. We observed that the challenge and mystery of the their formulations attributes. The project structure guided the their results from the drug formulations to the response of the reports showed this level of analysis and understanding. tion activity. To accomplish this, students use their model to analysis would conclude that any increase in blood acetal dehyde would constitute an effective drug. Students should a performance benchmark for their drug formulation. Using this benchmark, students can then differentiate between the different drug scenarios, identifying Vaxachug-2 and Vaxa chug-3 as active formulations, while identifying Vaxachug-1, project, an instructor could reinforce the importance of control A higher level of student analysis is determining how the changes in their model affect drug performance and explain ing how this creates the results that are observed. Students in our class accomplished this in several ways. Some groups chose to model and analyze each parameter independently and others chose to model combinations of parameter changes to determine which combination best matches the behavior of the entire formulation. Students who modeled parameters separately were able to differentiate between Vaxachug-1 and Vaxachug-5, which are both ineffective drugs, but because of different underlying mechanisms, illustrating that results that appear very similar could arise for different reasons and that thoroughly understanding how a system works is important in drawing the correct conclusion. This teaching point should be discussed following the project. Although the primary focus is on how the drug affects acetaldehyde levels, there is room for creativity in designing promote student exploration and analysis. We have created several of these formulations. One example, Vaxachug-3, Several groups assigned Vaxachug-3 recognized that there could be potential health safety issues with the formulation, particularly because of the induced physiological symptoms resulting from high blood acetaldehyde levels. Another exam the amount of ethanol that leaves in the breath. Students in our class recognized that such a combination of effects could have a potentially lethal impact on drunk driving by increasing driver intoxication while also making detection by where acetaldehyde production is reduced and more ethanol described here set the stage for multiple levels of analysis. They are designed to challenge students to go beyond simply solving an equation and collecting data and lead them to performing a more extensive analy sis and drawing more thorough conclusions from the results.
27 passes out in the urine. Here, some teams reported that the drug could potentially be marketed for an alternate purpose instead of its initially intended purpose; this drug could enable people to drink socially without feeling negative health effects associated with intoxication and thus they might be able to drive safely without any alcohol-induced impairment. MICROSCALE ENGINEERING Exploration of Current Biotechnology Research Including research topics in the curriculum can effectively expose students to academic research and connect research to high-impact applications. Making connections to modern chemical engineering research and societal issues within the context of this project was achieved with a complementary exercise on drug testing platforms. We set the stage by ex plaining to the students that the most accurate way to assess the metabolism of an experimental compound in a human is to test its effect on human subjects. This assessment cannot be made until after the experimental compound is deemed safe, however. Therefore, animal testing models are often used as a substitute until safety is assured. This solution is not ideal for two reasons: 1) animal models are not exactly the equivalent of humans and 2) animal testing is unpopular. An alternative platform that circumvents these issues would be a welcomed advance that students can easily appreciate. In this exercise, we introduce the concept of process scale down which opens a discussion on how microscale engineer pushing drug discovery research forward. [17-19] A body-onbioreactors infused with living cell tissue used to mimic in vivo pharmacokinetics in humans experimentally. During explained the connection between an experimental model of a biochemical process and the in silico model developed by a human and a microscale body-on-a-chip. being: Q blood polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on glass body-on-a-chip device can withstand ~15 psi/cm of pressure drop without delaminating ( i.e. when the PDMS and glass layers no longer 20 where Q chip channel, D is the width of the channel, dP/dx is the pressure water at 0.001 Pa-s. Once the students have calculated Q chip they can determine a scaling ratio between the human and blood /Q chip where R is a dimensionless scaling number. Using this scaling ratio, required to achieve the same effect as a single pint of beer in the human-sized alcohol metabolism model. These concepts preview of future topics in upcoming classes and spotlight unique aspects/skills of the chemical engineering discipline. We encourage instructors to use this starting point to develop more extensive analysis or concepts that could be included in advanced classes. Figure 4. Scaling down the essential features of the human body to create an in vitro model for drug testing that accurately mimics the metabolism of chemicals in gested in the body. The small chip on the right contains chambers that mimic the or gans in the body. Microuidic channels containing a nutri ent serum connect the cham bers on the chip like blood ow connects organs in the body. Image credit: Michael Shuler, Cornell University, used with permission, also see Reference 2.
28 ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE AND CONCLUSIONS Here, we described a biotechnology project developed for a sophomore-level mass balance class. All student groups successfully created the required spreadsheet, calculated the correct values for consumption of a beer and their assigned drink. Most groups correctly determined if their Vaxachug formulation was effective or not. Many groups went on to give very nice discussions of further implications. In an indepen dent evaluation of the course, more than three quarters of the student respondents recognized connections to real world engineering and broadened their view of chemical engineering (Table 1). Generally, students rated their own and their team age, and used various models for sharing the workload with varying degrees of success, as summarized in Table 3. The project was well received by our students in its inaugural year. Student comments in course evaluations indicated that the integration of basic course skills, modern topics, and human health motivated them to explore various aspects of the project and this consequently enhanced their learning of core concepts while also stretching their analysis skills. This student quote echoes what we heard from many students: I especially like the fact that the alcohol project integrated some bio aspects of chemical engineering because thats what I believe I would like to go into (this project strengthened that notion). for a detailed spreadsheet of the mass balances and a copy of the project statement used in class. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to Dr. Aaron Sin for advice during project develop ment and consultation on the body-on-a-chip aspects. This project was funded, in part, by the Faculty Innovation in (to SD). Thanks to Theresa Craighead and Joan Getman, in dependent evaluators for the Faculty Innovation in Teaching Program, for assistance in measuring student response. GLOSSARY OF TERMS ADH: alcohol dehydrogenase; an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde in reaction 1 in box 1. ALDH: acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; an enzyme that cata lyzes the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid in reaction 3 in Box 1. BAC: Blood alcohol concentration. Cytochrome oxygenase enzymes: A family of enzymes involved in the oxidation of organic molecules, including foreign organic molecules ingested by the organism. Enzyme: A biological molecule that catalyzes biological reac tions to increase the rate of reaction by reducing activation energy barriers or alternate reaction pathways. Extent of reaction: The ratio of the molar reaction rate of a MEOS: Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system; ethanol metabolism pathway that relies on cytochrome oxygenase enzymes to break down ethanol. Data source Question/theme discussed Response scale Response grouping Response average Student peer evaluations for project groups Evaluate team members contribution Excellent 7 Satisfactory 5 Marginal 3 Unsatisfactory 2 No show 0 self group members Focus groups by independent evaluator Reported theme that emerged from focus group discussions Many students also had positive group experiences, working smoothly with peers, dividing work according to the strengths of the group members, etc. They understood the value of group projects as a harbinger of the way things work in professional set tings they will eventually be part of. Some expressed a sense of satisfaction at having Focus groups by independent evaluator Reported theme that emerged from focus group discussions Students generally described their group project experience in either glowing or grueling terms two models for group work seemed to emerge generallydoing all the project tasks together or doing project tasks independently and bringing the parts together at the end. Their contentment with group projects was largely associated with whether or not they were comfortable with the model used in their groups and whether or not everyone in the group bought into the model. Course evaluation Student quote ... I especially like the fact that the alcohol project integrated some bio aspects of chemical engineering because thats what I believe I would like to go into (this project strengthened that notion).
29 Metabolism: The summation of all reactions that take place inside an organism or cell. Metabolite: A product or intermediate of a metabolic reaction. Missense polymorphism: A single point mutation in the ge netic code that results in the production of an enzyme mutant in the code that results in a change in a single amino acid in the enzyme and impacts proper function. NAD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; an oxidizing agent that participates in the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde in reaction 1 in box 1. NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NADP differs from NAD by an additional phosphate group in the molecule. NADP participates in converting ethanol to acet aldehyde by reaction 2 in box 1. Pharmacokinetics: A branch of pharmacology that studies the adsorption, degradation, and elimination of substances in the body. Selectivity  : The ratio of moles of desired product formed to moles of undesired product formed. In this case, the selectivity of reaction 1 over reaction 2 is the ratio between the extent of reaction of the ADH process to the overall conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Single pass conversion  : The ratio of the net amount of the reactant leaving the reactor unit (in out) to the amount of reactant sent into the reactor unit. TBW: Total body water. REFERENCES 1. Armstrong, R.C., A Vision of the Curriculum of the Future, Chem. Eng. Ed. 2. Westmoreland, P.R., Chemistry and Life Science in a New Vision of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng. Ed. 3. Rugarcia, A., R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and J.E. Stice, The Future of Engineering Education I. A Vision for a New Century, Chem. Eng. Ed. J. Eng. Ed. 5. Hake, R.R., Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Courses, Am. J. Phys. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. (2007) 7. Giddens, D.P., Changing the Conversation: Messages for Improving Public Understanding of Engineering The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. (2008) 8. Haller, C.R., V.J. Gallagher, T.L. Weldon, and R.M. Felder, Dynamics of Peer Education in Cooperative Learning Workgroups, J. Eng. Ed. (3), 285 (2000) Chem. Eng. Ed. (2), 92 (2001) 10. Farrell, S., and R. Hesketh, An Introduction to Drug Delivery for Chemical Engineers, Chem. Eng. Ed. (3), 198 (2002) 11. OConnor, K.C., An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores, Chem. Eng. Ed. 12. Lee-Parsons, C.W.T., Biochemical Engineering Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing, Chem. Eng. Ed. (3), 208 (2005) 13. Birol, G., I. Birol, and A. Cinar, Student-Performance Enhancement by Cross-Course Project Assignments: A Case Study in Bioengineering and Process Modeling, Chem. Eng. Ed. (2), 128 (2001) Human Body: A Hands-on Exploration of Heat, Work, and Power, Chem. Eng. Ed. (1), 30 (2005) 15. Chick, J., K. Gough, P. Falkowski, B. Hore, B. Mehta, B.R. Ritson, British J. of Psychiatry Human-Populations With a Physiological Pharmacokinetic Model, J. Pharmaceutical Sciences 17. Sin, A., M.F. Chin, M.F. Jamil, Y. Kostov, G. Rao, and M.L. Shuler, The Design and Fabrication of Three-Chamber Microscale Cell Culture Analog Devices With Integrated Dissolved Oxygen Sensors, Biotechnol. Prog. 18. Sung, J.H., and M.L. Shuler, A Micro Cell Culture Analog (microCCA) With 3-D Hydrogel Culture of Multiple Cell Lines to Assess Metabo lism-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Anti-Cancer Drugs, Lab Chip (10), 1385 (2009) 19. Tatosian, D.A., and M.L. Shuler, A Novel System for Evaluation of Cancers, Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1), 187 (2009) 20. Lands, W.E.M., A Review of Alcohol Clearance in Humans, Alcohol 21. Umulis, D.M., and N.M. Gurmen, A Physiologically Based Model for Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Metabolism in Human Beings, Alcohol (1), 3 (2005) 22. The term BAC arose from the correlation of breathalyzer and urine concentration to alcohol in drawn blood; however, the rapid diffusion of ethanol and acetaldehyde throughout the water-containing cells of the body makes the phrase blood alcohol concentration a misnomer. 23. Agarwal, D.P., and H.W. Goedde, Alcohol Metabolism, Alcohol Intoler ance, and Alcoholism: Biochemical and Pharmacogenetic Approaches Springer-Verlag, New York (1990) prove Undergraduate Teaching? An Analysis of Existing and Potential Synergies, J. Eng. Ed. 25. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ (2005) Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Ethanol in the Mouse, Alcohol and Alcoholism 27. Pirola, R.C., Drug Metabolism and Alcohol: A Survey of Alcohol-Drug Reactions, Mechanisms, Clinical Aspects, Experimental Studies Uni versity Park Press, Baltimore, MD (1978) 28.
30 O ver the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in addition to experimental and analytical methods, commercial CFD software packages (Fluent, Star-CD, and CFX) are used in industry to design and analyze different in engineering education. Traditionally in academia, CFD methods have been taught at the graduate level. There are two different approaches to teaching CFD in current engineering sizes the numerical methods with little or no attention given to the use of commercial software. The second approach is to introduce a CFD software in the class without any emphasis being given to learning the software.  Such software prod ucts allow students to get started immediately without proper knowledge of geometry and mesh-creation skills. Students can generate the results just by the click of a button after setting the problem parameters. The traditional CFD education has been aimed at rigorous numerical training with the major emphasis on algorithms and code development. In this type of teaching, students require a strong mathematical background as well as visualization power to appreciate the class. Lack of imagination may cause of teaching CFD at the graduate level. In the second type, students have an exposure to teaching software in addition to the theoretical concepts of CFD. [3-7] In this approach, however, since students can get the results mechanically by the click of a button after setting the problem parameters, they often treat the software as a black box, just to produce colorful results. It is more desirable that gradu ate students, with their understanding of the basic concepts, be able to validate the results and test the accuracy of any simulation. It is also important for the students to understand the limitations of these software products in solving different problems. Otherwise the colorful results of CFD can lead students to draw wrong or unrealistic predictions. The other major concern of this type of approach is that teaching soft CFD software used in industry. Therefore, students will need further training to use commercial software products after this type of course. Recently some courses on CFD were also developed that use commercial software products in the curriculum. [8-12] This type of course prepares students who have both theoretical concepts of CFD as well as a working knowledge of commercial software. The objective of the current course is to teach students as to enable them to handle commercial software indepen CFD MODELING OF WATER FLOW THROUGH SUDDEN CONTRACTION AND EXPANSION IN A HORIZONTAL PIPE V .V .R. KAUSHIK, S GHOSH, G DAS, AND P.K. DAS V.V.R. Kaushik obtained his Bachelor of Technology degree in chemi cal engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. At present he is working as graduate engineering trainee in an oil company. S. Ghosh received her Masters of Technology degree from the De partment of Cryogenic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, in 2006 and is continuing there as a doctoral student. Her research interests are experimental and numerical techniques of multiphase ow. She has published three articles in well-recognized international journals to date. G. Das is a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Her research interests include multiphase ow, two-phase instrumentation, and computational uid dynamics. She has published more than 60 articles in reputed journals and conference proceedings. She has several patents from her research work. She is involved with a number of research projects and provided consultancy to various public and private industries. P.K. Das is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. His research activities cover various topics of thermo uids engineering, such as multiphase ow; extended surface heat transfer; analysis, optimization, and dynamic simulation of heat exchangers; thermal hydraulics of natural circulation loops; rewetting of hot solids; heat transfer in nano uids; and hydraulic jump. He has published several book chapters and around 100 refer eed international journal papers. He also has several patents. He has executed a number of projects funded by different funding agencies and provided consultancy to various public and private industries. He is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 ChE curriculum
31 situation and also to interpret the data, analyze the data, and contribute to the design of the system. Incorporation of com mercial software into the curriculum can expose students to the same or similar software they may be expected to use as professionals in industry. To prevent students from treating the software as a black box, the supplemented projects/as meaningful learning experience that can be applied to real-life engineering situations. This paper describes two such assign COURSE DESCRIPTION This course, entitled CFD Application in Chemical Engi neering, was introduced in the autumn semester of 2008 in the Department of Chemical Engineering at IIT Kharagpur. It ate students. As noted earlier, the objective of the course is to as well as have an exposure to commercial CFD software (FLUENT). Because it is an elective course, the number students/semester. The course comprises four hours of lecture class (three theories and one tutorial) per week. Thus, in one semester, syllabus includes detailed discussion on governing equations, discretization schemes, staggered grid and pressure velocity coupling, turbulence modeling, and introduction to multiphase modeling. Apart from class lectures, the following assign ments are given in the class. water (Re=5,000 to 20,000) through a straight horizon tal. The simulation results are validated against textbook information. of water through an annulus. The simulation results are validated against Bird, et al.  ter through sudden contraction with diameter ratio (ratio from 0.3 to 0.9 for the same range of Reynolds (5,000 to 20,000) number and develop empirical correlation to Reynolds number as in the previous case and develop through return bends and develop empirical correlation pipe diameter. Hence, to keep the same range of Reynolds number in assignments c and d, the inlet velocity of water is adjusted accordingly. students. The last three are treated as class projects. Students are required to execute the assignments in the departments centralized computer laboratory, in which FLUENT is in stalled in several PCs. The students are used to handling this software under the supervision of the course instructor during the tutorial session. Initially, emphasis is given on proper understanding of the design software GAMBIT. After that, (assignments a and b), the results of which can be checked and validated against available analytical solutions. After this, students are divided into groups and assigned different projects. They solve the problems using FLUENT and also critically examine the data or analyze the data to generate some fruitful results. These exercises allow students to visualize and apply many of the concepts they have learned in the traditional CFD as well as Fluid Mechanics classes. These projects constitute 30% of the total grade. The gradation is based on the level of execution of the project by the group. Each project is divided project marks. The students who can complete the project, validate the results, and develop the required correlations are awarded an excellent grade (above 90% mark). Course objectives The course has the following objectives a) To understand the basic concepts of CFD b) To familiarize students with CFD software FLUENT c) To verify theoretical concept by numerical simulation d) To develop an insight to the design of some complex e) To critically examine the results and data STEP-BY-STEP IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ASSIGNMENTS This section describes step-by-step implementation of two projects (assignments c and d). Initially the students are introduced to grid-generation software GAMBIT. Mesh models are explained and demonstrated using tutorials and are asked to go through the user guide and solve the tutorial problems to get accustomed to the software. Next they are given a demonstration, using one of the tutorial problems of FLUENT, to show how to handle the software. The working of the software and several concepts such as continuum, op erating, and boundary are explained. Students are asked to go through the user guide for understanding the different models, how to choose the appropriate one, and general problems associated with operating the software. section. They are instructed to check the grid independency
32 of the results. With this exercise they get familiar with the post-processing tools ( e.g. velocity contours, x-y plots, path analytical results. They usually get excited upon noting the good agreement with text for both the cases. To complete these initial assignments a total time of three weeks has been allot a) b) c) d) Figure 1. Schematic of the geometry considered for modeling sudden contraction. Figure 2. Velocity contours of sudden contraction at Re=10,000 with a) =0.3, b) =0.5, c) =0.7, d) =0.9. ted. For completion of course projects six to seven weeks have been allotted. Execution of these course projects is carried out and generate the meshes. Next, they need to select the model, sure, and pathlines as well as perform the trend matching of
33 Figure 3. Pressure prole of sudden contraction at Re=10,000 and =0.5. its project is discussed during tutorial sessions, and after the group members successfully match the velocity and pressure and encouraged to develop correlation to predict it. Two such course projects are discussed in this section. a) Assignment: Model development and analysis of data for sudden contraction: One of the course projects is to develop 3-D models to of each section is 0.3 m. The smaller tube diameter is kept constant at 0.012 m and the larger pipe diameters are varied method is used for discretization of momentum equation. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate equations are also discretized by this method. For pressure velocity coupling, SIMPLE no-slip boundary condition is imposed on the wall of the pipe. Pressure outlet boundary is used at the outlet. After developing This analysis enables students to have a clear understanding of the effect of sudden contraction on these two variables. Further, they also visualize boundary-layer separation during taught earlier. b) Assignment: Model development and analysis of data for sudden In this assignment students develop through sudden expansion for the same range of the Reynolds number. A schematic of the flow geometry is shown in Figure 5. The diameter ratio and length of the sections as mentioned in Figure 5 are the same sion for the diameter ratio of 0.3 to 0.9 and Reynolds number of 10,000. expansion. Its trend is matching well with the textbooks. The students also generate the path lines to visualize the circulating zone near the plane of area change (Figure 8). c) Theoretical analysis: Finally, after successful completion of model development and trend matching, students are asked to generate additional tems. This is done to encourage students to handle and analyze the information available from a model. Flows through such energy at the plane of area change due to boundary-layer separation. Proper knowledge of contraction and expansion frictional energy loss is important in design as well as control and where U is the velocity in the smaller pipe, h f is the frictional c and k e are the [15-18] as a function of diameter ratio and estimated k c using the empirical formula based on area ratio given in White  viz.: Similarly, in case of expansion the Borda-Carnot equation as described by Massey  is widely used to predict the expan
34 drop data obtained from the simulation at the contractionexpansion plane. Next, the effects of inlet Reynolds number (based on the inlet pipe diameter) and smaller-to-larger pipe 9a shows the variation of k c with diameter ratio for different Reynolds numbers and compares it with the available literature data. Figure 9b represents the same for expansion. A good agree ment is observed for Idelchik in case of contraction. A devia tion is noted for the larger-diameter ratio in case of expansion. Finally, students have developed two empirical correlations CONCLUSION dynamic course in the Department of Chemical Engineer ing at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. With the combination of classroom teaching, tutorial sessions, and course projects, we have introduced CFD as a design tool to students. We observed that students could quickly obtain enough under the supervision of the instructor. They could gener ate geometry and appropriate meshes in GAMBIT, chose physical models, solve numerical problems, and visualize able in FLUENT. It has been noted that similar types of course structures are proposed by many researchers. [3, 5-7] Most of these courses use various teaching software with little or no emphasis given on geometry-creation and mesh-generation steps. As a result, students get the results me chanically by the click of a button after setting the problem parameters. In the present course, students are first exposed to drawing software GAMBIT. They learn to create geometry and mesh it. They are even encouraged to perform gridindependent tests so that they are accustomed to all aspects of CFD after the course. It may be noted that assignments of the present course can also be demon strated by using teaching software like Flow Lab. Thus, the present course provides an opportunity for students to apply their fundamental knowl edge and contribute to the design issues of such systems apart from just visual ob servation of velocity and pressure distri bution. Assessment of students is done on the basis of level of completion of each step of the tutorial Figure 4. Contours of path lines of sudden contraction at Re=10,000 and =0.5. Figure 5. Schematic of the geometry considered for modeling sudden expansion.
35 a) b) c) d) class as well as on the full comple tion of the course project. Student improvement is documented by conducting a test at the end of the semester. Frequent discussions are undertaken with students on the ef fectiveness of the course contents and assignments. The course is up graded by regu lar feedback from students. From the feedback, it is observed that the purposes of this course are ful help students gain understanding of CFD application in industry design and the internal structure and op eration of CFD solvers, build up their knowledge of fluid mechan ics, and interpret and validate CFD results as well as understand some advanced concepts. Students also preferred FLUENT as a teaching tool used in the class because FLUENT is a commercial package used in industry. Hence an exposure to FLUENT may help them in securing a good job. REFERENCES 2. Hu, J., L. Zhang, and X. Xiong, Teaching Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to Design Engineers, ASEE Pro ceedings (2008) 3. La Roche, R.D., B.J. Hutchings, and R. Muralikrishnan, Figure 6. Velocity contours of sudden expansion at Re=10,000 with a) =0.3, b) =0.5, c) =0.7, and d) =0.9. Figure 7. Pressure prole of sudden expansion at Re=10,000 and =0.5.
36 Flow Lab: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Framework for Undergraduate Educa tion ASEE/SEFI/TUB Colloquium (2002) Computational Fluid Dynamics Presented in the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum, Computers Eng. J. 2-8 (2001) 5. Blekhman, D., Lessons Learned in Adopting a CFD Package, ASEE Proceedings (2007) tional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in Teaching Fluid Mechanics, ASEE Proceedings (2007) 7. Stern, F., T. Xing, D. Yarbrough, A. Rothmayer, G. Rajagopalan, S.G. Otta, D. Caughey, R. Bhaskaran, S. Smith, B. Hutchings, and S. Moeykens, Development of Hands-On CFD Educational Interface for Undergraduate Engi neering Courses and Laboratories, Proceedings ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, June, 8. Navaz, H.K, B.S. Henderson, and G. Mukkilma rudhur, Bring Research and New Technology Into the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Course in Computational Fluid Dynamics, ASEE Proceedings June, Seattle (1998) 9. Guessous, L., R. Bozinoski, R. Kouba, and D. Woodward, Combining Experiments With Numerical Simulations in the Teaching of Computational Fluid Dynamics, ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings June, Nashville, TN (2003) 10. Aung, K., Design and Implementation of an Undergraduate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Course, ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings June, Nashville, TN (2003) 11. Pines, D., Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Excite Undergraduate Students about Fluid Mechanics, ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings June, Lake City, Utah 12. Bhaskaran, R., and L. Collins, Integration of Simulation into the Undergraduate Fluid Mechanics Curriculum using FLUENT, ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings June, Nashville, TN (2003) 13. Bird, R.B., W. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenom ena 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York (2001) for Heat, Mass, and Momentum Transfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 1787 (1972) 15. Benedict, R.P., N.A. Carlucci, and S.D. Swetz, Flow Losses in Abrupt Enlargements and Contractions, Trans. ASME, J. Eng for Power 88 Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance U.S. Atomic 17. White, F.M., Fluid Mechanics McGraw-Hill, New York (1987) 18. Massey, B., Mechanics of Fluids Nelson Thrones Ltd., U.K. (2001) a) b) Figure 9. Comparison of numerically predicted loss coefcients with literature, (a) Contraction and (b) Expansion. Figure 8. Path lines sudden expansion at Re=10,000 and =0.5.
37 A: Will there be cheating in the course Im about to teach? B: class? A: Yes. B: Then, yes. A: I dont believe itnot my students! How much would you care to bet? B: How much do you have? While B could conceivably lose that bet, I wouldnt bet on it. Cheating has existed on campuses since there were campuses, but its now as much a part of student culture as sleeping through 8 a.m. classes. In recent surveys of over a thousand undergraduates, 80% of the respondents at 23 institutions% of those in engineeringreported that they cheated at least once in college, and in just the previ ous term most of the engineers cheated more than once on 1 In other studies, in unauthorized collaboration on assignments (up from 11% 30 years earlier) and 75% copied homework solutions from bootlegged instructors manuals. 2 HOW TO STOP CHEATING (OR AT LEAST SLOW IT DOWN) RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Why is cheating so common? Because grades do matter, and everyone knows it. You cant tell students otherwise when they know many companies interviewing on campus wont even look at them if their GPA is less than 3.5, and if its below 3.8 they can pretty much kiss their chances of going to a top graduate school goodbye. However compelling the pressures to do it may be, cheating is clearly a bad thing. Cheaters get grades they dont earn and entry-level professionals. Also, there is no reason to expect students who take unethical shortcuts in school to stop taking them later in life, such as when they run plant safety inspec tions and design toxic-waste treatment facilities. In fact, they dont stop: cheaters in college are relatively likely to continue cheating in the workplace. 1 In recent years, researchers have begun to study cheating and the effectiveness of deterrents to it. Carpenter, et al., 1 sum marize results from a decade of such studies, and Bullard and Melvin 2 describe a program that has substantially decreased cheating in a course where it has been chronic. The rest of this column presents a few highlights of these papers. Carpenter, et al., 1 listed a number of questionable actions and asked students which ones they would regard as cheating. The results include copying from another student on an intest (92%), copying another students homework (73%), and Random Thoughts Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University. He is coauthor of Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous articles on chemical process engineering and engineering and science education, and regularly presents workshops on ef fective college teaching at campuses and conferences around the world. Many of his publications can be seen at Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 1 Carpenter, D.D., Harding, T.S., and Finelli, C.J. (2010). Using re search to identify academic dishonesty deterrents among engineering undergraduates. Intl. J. Engineering Education 26 (5), 1156165. See also Carpenter, et al. (2006). Engineering students perceptions of and attitudes toward cheating. J. Engr. Education 23 (4), 181. 2 Bullard, L.G., and Melvin, A.T. Using a role-play video to convey expectations about academic integrity. Advances in Eng. Education in press.
38 take-home exams (39%). Most survey respondents felt that instructors (79%) and the institution (73%) are responsible for preventing cheating, but only 22% thought students had any obligation to challenge or report it if they saw it. At N.C. State University, the introductory chemical engi neering course (CHE 205Chemical Process Principles) has historically been a prime target for cheating attempts. Lisa Bullard, a faculty member who frequently teaches CHE 205, and Adam Melvin, a graduate student who has taught it several times, have developed an effective system for reducing cheat ing in the course. 2 The syllabus provides detailed descriptions of the activities that count as cheating and the procedure followed when students are caught at them. To reinforce the message, Bullard and Melvin and an instructor in the NCSU Communications Department produced a 15-minute video of student actors engaged in activities that might or might not count as cheating. The students watch the video on-line as cheating, citing the rule in the syllabus or the NCSU Code of Student Conduct that supports their conclusion. When a CHE 205 student is suspected of cheating, the course instructor has a conversation with him or her, decides tion and the proposed penalty. If the student signs the form, thereby admitting guilt and accepting the penalty, it goes on violations occur prior to graduation, nothing goes on the students permanent record, but if there is one, the automatic penalty is suspension for at least one semester. The student may instead decline to sign the form, contest the charge, and have a hearing before either a student-faculty judicial board or an OSC administrator. The outcome of the hearing may be to dismiss the charge, uphold the proposed penalty, or impose a more stringent penalty. At hearings, the course students claims that they didnt know their infractions would be considered cheating. 3 To evaluate the effectiveness of this approach, Bullard and Melvin tabulated the frequency of cheating incidents and contested charges in the two years before the video was fall of 2009 when the authors devised a way to catch stu dents copying problem solutions from unauthorized solution keys.) The percentages of accused students who contested the department faculty members have begun to use the institu tional process for dealing with academic dishonesty instead of handling it on their own or simply ignoring it. Students who cheat in a course and are reported are now much less likely to try it again, knowing they are likely to be suspended and get a permanent stain on their transcript if they are caught. There are several morals to be drawn from these two excel lent studies. kinds of collaboration are acceptable. As the statistics in Reference 1 suggest, your students ideas about it are almost certain to be different from yours. If you dont to theirs. In addition, consider giving the students a voice in formulating cheating policies Students are more likely to follow rules they help establish than rules they have no say about. Follow your institutions procedures for dealing with sus pected cheating. When you yield to the strong temptation to handle it entirely by yourself, students you catch may not cheat again in your course, but since no one will be keeping track of their violations they will be almost certain to cheat in other courses. Plus, if there is an institutional honor code, support and enforce it Strictly enforced honor codes reduce cheating. 1 Be fair to your students and they will be more likely to be honest with you. When instructors give assignments and exams that are much too long or make any of the other top four worst teaching mistakes, students feel they are being cheated and many have no reservations about returning the favor. These recommendations wont eliminate academic dis honesty, but if you and most of your colleagues follow them, you might succeed in moving the frequency of cheating from out-of-control to tolerable. Like getting old, its not ideal but it beats the alternative. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at 3 contains assignment. 4
39 O ur era has seen a shift in how educators and research ers approach biological sciences from surveillance to unraveling a deeper, mechanistic understand ing.  What was once purely empirical is now modeled and controlled. Chemical engineers have kept pace with and con tributed to the advances in technology that have enabled this in the 1970s s, areas such as pharmacokinetics, tissue engineering, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and more recently, biological systems engineering emerged within on a variety of industries. At the top of the list of technology markets was medical technology, due to opportunities with we have seen a radical transformation even in the bulk chemi cal industry. [2,3] The motivation to develop bio-based products includes lower cost, reduced dependency on petroleum re that the market for bio-based chemicals is approximately 10% of the total chemicals market. At the same time that chemical engineers were playing a leadership role in biotechnology research, the undergraduate curriculum for ChE students remained essentially stagnant. Applications in petroleum processing have dominated the core curriculum, as presented in the enduring textbooks Integration of BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS INTO THE CORE UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM: A Practical Strategy ChE curriculum CLAIRE KOMIVES MICHAEL PRINCE ERIK FERNANDEZ ROBERT BALCARCEL Claire Komives is a professor in the Chemical and Materials Department at San Jose State University. She obtained a B.S. degree from Tufts University and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Pittsburgh, both in chemical engineering. She teaches thermodynamics, material and energy balances, process safety and ethics, and biochemical engineering elec tive courses. Her research involves process development studies with whole cell biocatalysts. Michael Prince is a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineer ing at Bucknell University, where he has been since receiving his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1989. He is the author of several education-related papers for engineering faculty and gives faculty development workshops on active learning. He is currently continuing the work of Project Catalyst, an NSF-funded initiative to help faculty re-envision their role in the learning process, and researching the use of inquiry-based teaching methods to correct common student misconcep tions in engineering. Erik Fernandez is a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Virginia. He obtained a B.S. from the California Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. from UC Berkeley. He has taught transport, material and energy balances, and applied math, as well as biochemical engineering and biotechnology courses. His respect for the design of biomolecules drives his research interests in biomolecular engineering applied to protein pharmaceutical formulation and purication as well as protein self-association issues in human disease. Robert Balcarcel is a Scientist II in the Process Development group at Genencor, A Danisco Division, in Palo Alto, CA. He obtained his B.S. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He conducts process development for industrial enzyme manufacturing, taking enzyme produc tion from the bench-scale to manufacturing. Areas of expertise include fermentation, recovery, statistics, and assay development. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011
40 riculum would require updated or altogether new textbooks with the same ability to apply the fundamental principles to current application ar eas. These changes have been occurring at a slow pace. [5-8] A number of textbooks on biochemical engineering were developed that served as excel lent resources for elective courses. [9-15] These texts present essential biology and biochemistry as well as applications of chemical engineering principles in bioprocessing, which was typically the target employment opportunity of graduates at the bachelor level. Elective courses on biochemical engineering have generally been taught by faculty appropriately trained at the Ph.D. level. Both ChE faculty and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have recognized the need to address bioX, namely, the broad range of bio engineering topical areas, including biochemical, biomolecular, biomedical, and all engineering life science subject matter, in the undergraduate curricula. Many grass-roots efforts have begun and are under way across the applications, many academic departments have changed their names to Chemical and Biological Engineering, or Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, or similar, resulting in enroll ment stabilization or gains. Some ChE programs now require biochemistry and/or biology courses, at times instead of some traditional chemistry courses.  The NSF recently supported a grant though the Division of Engineering Education to Tufts University for the Integration of Chemical and Biological Engineering in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Seamless Approach.  Three workshops were held to facilitate the incorporation of biological engineering into the entire [ChE] curriculum. NSF also sponsored workshops to discuss the modernization of ChE education  with a particular emphasis on the integration of biology, molecular transformation, and outcome of such projects has been an increased awareness among ChE faculty of the need to enrich and revitalize ChE education to address the needs of industry and the interests of students. interdisciplinary content into the undergraduate curriculum, as urged by the National Academy of Engineering,  is that faculty without formal training in bioX need preparation in order to effectively incorporate biological applications into their curricula. In many cases, undergraduate chemical en gineers have more, or at least more recent, biology training than their professors. Faculty developing relevant problems for new science applications, such as biotechnology or nano technology, must have some appropriate expertise. Many such educational problems have been created, but have remained BIOENGINEERING EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS BANK WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT To address the need for an organized, accessible educational resource for faculty interested in integrating bioX concepts into the core ChE curriculum,  a web-based repository of solved bioX problems relevant to the undergraduate core courses has been created.  The website, Bioengineering Educational Materials Bank or BioEMB, is a MySQL 1 secure 1 MySQL is open source database software that is now owned by Oracle. Figure 1a (top right). Number of faculty downloading problems during the grant period, as well as the total number of prob lems downloaded. Light gray = # of faculty; dark gray = # of problems. Figure 1b (lower right). Number of students downloading problems during the grant period, as well as the total number of prob lems downloaded. Light gray = # of students; dark gray = # of problems.
41 database that enables students, faculty, and others access to problems in biological engineering (). The problem bank is organized by web pages for each core chemical engineering course. On each course page a set of commonly used textbooks is posted. Clicking on a book title will open a page with that books table of contents and links to problems that can be assigned according to the topics in those chapters. This organization allows faculty to easily select a problem that can be assigned with other problems from the textbook for a given chapter or section. Only the faculty are granted a level of access that displays the solutions to the problems. Some security features are built into the website to identify if hackers have been able to access the solutions. Each problem shows a title, keywords, an abstract that describes the context of the problem, the problem statement, and, in the case of faculty access, the problem solution. Some of the words in the problem state ment are highlighted and are linked to a popup dictionary to help readers who may be unfamiliar with the technical terms used. For the initial phase of the project, the table of contents of two of the most commonly used textbooks for the material and energy balance course [22, 23] were posted on the website listing appropriate BioEMB problems to be assigned with other problems from textbook. The website was launched in 2007 and usage statistics are shown in Figures 1a b. Figure 1a shows both the number of faculty downloading problems by month and the total number of problems downloaded each month. All problems posted were for material and energy balances. These data are not necessarily a direct measure of how many problems were assigned in courses. Figure 1b shows similar information for student downloads. The rise in student downloads towards site faculty for their students to register on the website and download their own problems. WORKSHOP FOR FACULTY In addition to the website development, a workshop was held to prepare faculty without formal training in bioX to utilize biological applications in their MEB courses. Faculty from 19 institutions participated. The workshop included two half-days of lectures that covered basic biology presented workshop, faculty were assigned to teams and challenged problem-solving session was to facilitate that the faculty re turn to their institutions completely prepared to incorporate the problems in their course once the semester began. MATERIALS AND METHODS Project Assessment Overview The goal of the project has been to enable faculty to in corporate biological applications in their core ChE courses, and through their exposure to these applications, to enable students to apply their ChE principles to these interdisciplin ary problems. Clearly, the overall goal of the project is the development of the resource for faculty and faculty training. exposure, the project faculty have a sense of what types of problems students need to be able to solve. Hence the ma jority of the project resources have been committed to the resource development, but assessment of student learning is nonetheless essential to show the effectiveness of the project. Consequently, the assessment of the project has included probing student performance on simple questions addressing bioX and non-bioX learning objectives. The testing presented in this paper is the second attempt at demonstrating student typical textbook material and energy balance problems. The students overall performed very poorly on the tests (average second round of beta testing was performed that included a set of simple concept and calculation questions and, in addition, two measures of familiarity were explored, namely student speed to answer the questions and student perception of their of this second testing is presented in this paper. Additional questions were included on a survey to see if any associa tions could be found relating student demographics to student performance. The survey also probed student satisfaction associated with the inclusion of bioX applications in their course. The following sections present the purpose and type of analysis performed. Demographics of Participating Students Three intervention and three non-intervention sites, for dents enrolled, respectively. With the exception of one nonintervention site (with 22 students; survey not completed) all of the universities participating were public (state) universi ties. Exemption status for carrying out a human subjects re search project was obtained from all participating institutions. Students were enrolled who were taking the material and en ergy balance course. No prior course in biology was required of the students. Of the students who completed the survey, year in school, 10% were Hispanic, and the average estimated (self-reported) GPA of participants was about 3.3. Instructional Objectives The ability of undergraduates to apply their ChE principles to biological applications was assessed relevant to learning ob jectives normally included in the material and energy balance course. An evaluation tool was developed that asked focused, multiple-choice questions to address relevant student-learning objectives. The questions included simple calculations and
42 probed are listed in Table 1. These questions attempted to make a head-to-head comparison of students abilities to answer bioX and non-bioX questions addressing analogous learning objectives. Description of Intervention To teach the bioX learning objectives, 11 problems were assigned at each of the intervention sites together with the traditional ChE problems. The intention of the project team was that the 11 problems should make up 15% to 20% of the total problems assigned in the course. Intervention-site faculty problems, homework, or exam problems. Intervention faculty were asked to have their students register on the website and download their own problems so that they would more readily in the problem statements. Evaluation of Outcomes Knowledge, Speed, and Condence The test consisted of the eight brief technical questions, each followed by one question assessing speed in answering the question and also one question asking the student to rate testing sites administered the tests between late November and December. Paper tests were given together with a survey (one non-intervention site did not administer the survey). The test questions were identical, but the follow-up ques tions were slightly different on the positive and negative site surveys as appropriate. To capture an estimation of how long each problem took for the students to complete, a multiple-choice question with dif ferent time-range options was used. Thus the students were not expected to time themselves for the solution of the problems very accurately. For the data analysis, the midpoint of the time range requested was assigned to the selected response. answering each question, again a multiple-choice approach fall under I dont know how to do this problem, Low level value to the scale, an average could be calculated. One prob lem (number 5) had a slightly different scale, which does not impair the effectiveness of comparing between intervention sites and comparison sites. This difference, however, should be taken into account when comparing the bioX vs. non-bioX questions for learning objective 3, as there is a slight differ DATA ANALYSIS The University of Virginia Center for Survey Research assessed overall frequencies on all survey and assessment variables and on the three created variables of SURVEY (eight different questions), UNIVERSITY (six different universities), and SITE (two: intervention and comparison). Questions 1 through 5 on the student survey were reversedcoded and overall means were provided for those variables. The percent correct for each assessment answer was calcu lated and broken down by each of the three created variables with t-tests to make comparisons across the intervention and comparison sites. The students self-reported times to complete each assess ment item were collected on the assessment form and the answers were recoded into numbers of minutes. The mean times were broken down with t-tests to make comparisons across the intervention and comparison sites (data not shown here because there were no statistical differences between times for intervention vs. comparison sites). analyzed by t-tests to make comparisons across the interven tion and comparison sites. To determine the effect of the inclusion of BioEMB prob lems in the course on student career interest, a three-way crosstabulation calculation was performed on the two ques tions at (1) intervention vs. (2) comparison sites: 1. Prior to taking this course, I was interested in a career in biotechnology (two answersinterested, not interested) 2. How did the course or biotech content change your interest in pursuing a biotech career, if at all? (three an swersincreased interest, made no difference, decreased interest) Learning Objectives (LO) Addressed in MEB Bio Test Test question number in parentheses LO# Bio learning objective Traditional ChE learning objective 1 Work with common biological units (1) Work with common units for achieving a desired expression (2) 2 Identify typical products of respiration and metabolism for a whole cell bioprocess (3) 3 Learn and use basic bioprocess terminology (5) Use chemical formulas to represent cellular composition and cellular transformations (7) Use chemical formulas to represent molecular composition and trans formations (8)
43 Pearson Chi-square tests were performed to determine the relationship between the two answers of question 1 and the three answers of question 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The averages for each of the eight problems addressing each of the eight learning objectives in Table 1 across intervention and comparison sites are shown in Figure 2. Asterisks on the level. Thus, it should be noted that the difference between bioX question of Learning Objective 3 and for both the bio Upon reviewing the data, some considerations can help explain results. The bioX concept tested by problem 1 (Bio1) is simply to convert g/l of fructose into mM. In principle this does not require any special training, and the question was asked to see if students who had more exposure to bioX problems during the course would be more comfortable with units associated with small volumes. Most of the problems in the material and energy balance course use mass fractions and mole fractions, so the use of moles or grams per volume may have been less familiar to the non-bio students. Based on the test results, however, it can be said that students who advantage in terms of solving that simple problem. As one results on the non-bio mass fraction calculation in problem in the students abilities to solve the problems for learn Problem 3 clearly requires more familiarity with biological systems, involving the gaseous and liquid-phase products of a bioreactor. While it would be reasonable to expect that students who have solved problems such as Calculation of oxygen uptake rate in a fermentor and Fermentor water balance would have had some exposure to fermentation processes, it apparently was not enough to enable them to answer the question correctly more frequently than at the comparison site. The results for the non-bio problem regarding the products of a combustion process are also comparison sites. Learning objective 3 addresses terminology. The bioX term probed was respiratory quotient [question 5 (Bio-3)] and bio-3)]. Familiarity with terminology would be an example of Blooms level one learning, or knowledge. Two of the comparison sites answered this question correctly with a much higher incidence than merely guessing, so it could be presumed that they had seen the term somewhere in a separate course. Even so, the intervention sites did perform terminology is not the most important tool that an engineer must learn, it could be inferred that knowledge of terminology is an important aspect of this project. For students to learn mastery of different terminology enables communication and recognition of concepts. balances for both the bio and non-bio question, including required product stream amounts. Overall the students per formed poorly on these two problems, however, the students the comparison sites on both the bio and non-bio problems. That the students at the intervention sites performed bet ter on both the bio and non-bio questions might suggest that the students at the intervention sites were somehow stronger students overall, but other data collected support that the students at all the sites had similar capabilities. For example, the self-reported GPAs of the students at both the comparison and intervention sites were similar. The average self-reported GPA at the intervention sites was 3.28 (100% reporting). With the exception of one of the smaller com parison sites, all schools are state universities and attract a broad range of students. Figure 2. Average student Performance Across Inter vention and Comparison Sites. Light gray = Inter vention Site; dark gray = Comparison Site; asterisks on the gure indicate that the difference between the intervention and compari son site performance is sta tistically higher at the 95% condence level.
44 Students self-reported times (Figure 3) to answer each of the questions were very similar at both the intervention and comparison sites. The similarity in timing could be ac counted for by comparable preparation to answer the ques without an extensive analysis. The higher amount of time Comparing the students self-evaluation of their level of familiarity with the bio and non-bio questions. The data are level to answer the bio questions between the intervention and comparison sites. Regarding the non-bio problems, there is question for learning objective 2. There is a clear trend that having had the bio problems in the answer bio questions. With the exception of question 3 (Biohigher performance on the bio problems. SURVEY RESULTS The survey addressed questions about student demograph ics, including gender, race, year in school, and overall esti mated GPA. The goal of these questions was to determine if the inclusion of BioEMB problems had an impact on a particular group of people. While there were some statistical differences between various groups, in all cases the numerical differences were too small to draw any relevant conclusions. There were a few notable conclusions when comparing the intervention and non-intervention sites as aggregates. For example, students agreed that their professor made an effort to bring biotechnology topics into their course at the interven tion sites whereas they disagreed with the statement at the non-intervention sites. Students were surveyed about their interest in the Bio EMB problems as well as their interest in biotechnology in general. Based on the data, student interest in the BioEMB problems varied from school to school. Of interest, within the intervention sites, those who were interested in a career in biotechnology before the BioEMB intervention were more interested afterwards, while those who were not interested in a biotech career before the course were less interested after 2 Figure 3. Student average self-reported times to answer questions at intervention and comparison sites. Light gray = Intervention Site; dark gray = Comparison Site; no asterisks on the diagram indicates that there were no statistical differences between the times to answer questions between the intervention and comparison sites. Figure 4. Student self-evalua tion of the level of condence in answering questions for each of the four learning objectives probed. Light gray = Interven tion Site; dark gray = Com parison Site; asterisks on the gure indicate the difference between the intervention and comparison site performance is statistically different at the 95% condence level.
45 2 the comparison sites did include some bioX problems, as described in the student surveys; however, the problems did not come from the BioEMB website. students also reported variable impressions. Again, these differences may depend on how the problems were included in the course. For one of the intervention sites, the problems even some of the students would have been happy to have more of them. At the other two institutions, the problems students would have been happy to have fewer of them. On the other hand, at the comparison sites, the response to the question regarding the number of problems in the course fell between too few and just about right. Thus, the students, on average, would have wanted more biological problems included in their course. FACULTY WORKSHOP The results of the survey evaluation at the end of the workshop suggested that the attendees viewed the workshop as helpful to them in adding problems addressing biological applications into their material and energy balance courses. and biological content. The problem-solving sessions facili tated the crafting of clearer problem statements, taking into account the needs of the non-bio users, and helped to identify aspects of the problems that were more challenging for those without bioX backgrounds. In the end-of-workshop survey, 85% of the faculty respond ing agreed that the bioX lectures addressed their concerns about lack of familiarity with bioX concepts, 100% agreed that the bio lectures were effectively presented, 90% agreed or strongly agreed that the BioEMB website appeared to be user friendly and effective, and 95% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the workshop to a colleague. 75% of the attendees agreed that the problem-solving session was useful. Finally, several faculty who participated in the workshop offered to beta test the problems in their material and energy balance courses. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK A website has been developed for hosting solved problems addressing biological applications for undergraduate chemical engineering curricula. The number of U.S. institutions that have downloaded problems as of December 2008 was 32 chemical engineering departments, representing more than 20% of the total number of departments. In addition, faculty from Turkey, Mexico, the UK, Spain, Brazil, Norway, and Colombia have also downloaded problems for their courses. two out of four bio-related learning outcomes and even one non-bio-related outcome. Students at the comparison sites did not perform statistically better on any of the non-bio ques tions, suggesting that the intervention did not detract from students abilities to apply chemical engineering principles to traditional problems. The intervention did not have an impact on the speed with which students answered the ques biological applications than at the comparison sites. Within the intervention sites, students who were interested in a career in biotechnology before the BioEMB intervention were more interested afterwards, while those who were not interested in a biotech career before the course were less interested after the course. At the comparison sites there was no statistically A Phase II project has been funded to include the addition of solved problems for ChE courses for the remainder of the core undergraduate curriculum beyond material and energy balances: Transport Phenomena (Fluids, Heat and Mass Transfer), Thermodynamics, Process Dynamics and Control, and Reactor Design and Kinetics. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Przybycien, Daniel I.C. Wang, Joseph Schaewitz, Robert Beitle, David Wood, Mark Marten, Brian Kelley. Manuscript review: Richard Felder. Advisory board: Anne S. Robinson, Carol Heath, Kent Goklen, Jon Coffman, Eliana de Bernar dez-Clark. Statistical Analysis: Jim Ellis, Abdoulaye Diop. Editorial board faculty: Mark Riley, Rachel Chen, David Shonnard. Website developers: Anthony Tang, Katie Nguyen, Tony Wu. Student contributors: Brian Wong, John Newman, Taran Mitchell. REFERENCES 1. Shuler, M.L., Biology in Chemical Engineering Education, in Bio chemical Engineering XVI Engineering Conferences, International: Burlington, VT (2009) 2. Villadsen, J., Innovative Technology to Meet the Demands of the White Biotechnology Revolution of Chemical Production, Chem. Eng. Science 3. Antoni, D., V.V. Zverlov, and W.H. Schwartz, Biofuels From Mi crobes, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 23-35 (2007) Renewable Resources, Chemical Week 5. Sandler, S.I., Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynam ics Introduction to Chemical Processes: Principles, Analy sis, Synthesis 7. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (2005) 8. Karim, M.N., and J.B. Riggs, Chemical and Bio-Process Control p. 578, Ferret Publishers (2007) 9. Aiba, S., A.E. Humphrey, and N.F. Millis, Biochemical Engineering,
46 10. Bailey, J.E, and D.F. Ollis., Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals p. 753, McGraw Hill, New York (1977) 11. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering p. 702, Marcel 12. Lee, J.M., Biochemical Engineering Prentice Hall, Inc. (1992) 13. Doran, P., Bioprocess Engineering Principles Academic Press, Ltd., London (1995) Bioseparations Science and Engineering Oxford University Press (2002) 15. Shuler, M.L., and F. Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (2000) Future Directions of Biochemical Engineering: Vision and Priorities p. 30, National Science Foundation, Bioengineering and Environmental Systems Division: Arlington, VA (2001) 17. Halford, B., Chemical Engineering Education in Flux, Chem. & Eng. News 19. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education (2003) [cited; Available from ] 20. Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century ed. N.A. Press (2005) 21. Arnaud, C.H., Modernizing Chem Engineering, Chem. & Eng. News, 22. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (2000) 23. Himmelblau, D.M., and J.B. Riggs, Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering 7th Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2003) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain
47 F cal and Biomolecular Engineering (ChBE) has offered an innovative interdisciplinary course in drug design, course was developed due to changes in chemical engineer ing education over recent years, as well as needs within the pharmaceutical industry for an interdisciplinary approach to the development of novel drugs and formulations. It is of fered as part of the biotechnology option track, an undeclared is required for all students in the biotech option, and this requirements in the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry; both principal course instructors serve as adjunct faculty in one of these additional schools. The course provides the additional advan tage of offering instruction in the important biotech area of pharmaceutical development. Aspects of this type of biotech development, such as drug manufacturing and drug delivery, are underserved in university curricula and consequently offer interesting opportunities for employment of graduates. [1, 2] the Georgia Tech Center for Drug Design, Development, and interests in the drug development process. The authors serve as its director and co-director. Ten to 15 doctoral students training grant from the Department of Education GAANN graduate students, ChBE undergraduates taking the biotech option, and undergraduates from other departments interested in pharmaceuticals. As discussed below, a balanced interdis ciplinary mixture of students is assured through admissions restrictions. structure, its contents, and the instructional philosophy behind it, with the hope that this framework may be directly useful to others or might be adapted to other courses geared towards the pharmaceutical and other industries. DRUG DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND DELIVERY: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals ChE curriculum MARK R. PRAUSNITZ AND ANDREAS S BOMMARIUS Mark Prausnitz is a professor of chemi cal and biomolecular engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He was educated at Stanford University (B.S., ) and M.I.T. (Ph.D., ). Prof. Prausnitz cur rently teaches classes on pharmaceuticals, mass and energy balances, and technical communication. His research addresses novel biophysical mechanisms to improve drug, gene, and vaccine delivery using engineering technologies. Andreas Bommarius is a professor in the Schools of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Chemistry/Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology. After his Ph.D. at MIT in 1989, he headed the Enzyme Catalysis lab and pilot plant of Degussa in Wolfgang, Germany, until 2000. He teaches classes in pharmaceuticals, heat and mass transfer, bioprocess engi neering, biocatalysis, and process design. His research interests focus on biocatalysis and bioprocessing, more specically on the development of novel biocatalysts, protein stability, and data-driven protein engineering. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011
48 GOALS OF THE COURSE insight into the drug development process in the pharmaceuti cal industry. obvious how to apply chemical engineering principles to this own unique culture based on the critical needs of providing drugs that are both safe and effective. For example, while the the drug product must be of extremely high purity. During the drug development process, activities must be documented much more extensively than in other industries. In addition to the detailed structure of the pharmaceutically active ingredient itself, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires its manufacturing process to be set even before the completion of clinical trials. Once the manufacturing process is set, it is expensive and time-consuming to make major changes, such as switching raw materials or adding or dropping steps for downstream processing. There are also the variables intro duced by having drug delivery in the hands of the consumer and the need to assure safe and reliable compliance. Due to these unique circumstances, there is a need for this course to address the application of biochemical and engineering principles to this industry. critical issues, perform analysis, and make quantitative cal culations related to drug design, drug development, and drug delivery; (ii) integrate concepts from drug design, develop ment, and delivery and appreciate their interdependence; (iii) understand the different phases of the pharmaceutical process; (iv) appreciate the role of alternative methods and broader im plications of the pharmaceutical process; and (v) communicate with professionals in the pharmaceutical community. The three parts of the pharmaceutical industry covered in the course are drug design, development, and delivery. Drug design, which is drawn largely from chemistry, involves syn thesis of the active ingredient beyond the discovery synthesis. Development involves manufacturing and formulation, which focuses on chemical engineering principles in both industrial chemistry and biotechnology. Multiple disciplines, including biomedical engineering, are often involved in drug delivery, the step in which both the route of administration and drug distribution within the body need to be determined and con trolled. One of the goals of the training within the course is to highlight the interdisciplinary connections involved in the pharmaceutical development process and thereby train stu dents to have an impact on the industry by taking an integrated approach that streamlines the drug development process. issues surrounding their delivery, whether successful or failed, including continual references to actual drug substances (the active ingredient alone) or drug products (active ingredient and delivery vehicle). The class also is kept interesting and relevant through occasional guest lectures by experts in the case studies to apply the general lessons covered in the medical practice. Each case study is analyzed for strengths and weaknesses of current and alternative approaches. This emphasis on real industry examples enables both students and instructors to consider the broader impact of the material and the educational philosophy within healthcare, economics,  The course instructors, and many of the TAs and guest experience. Both main instructors have worked for phar maceutical companies and so are able to bring real-world experience to the course material. TAs, often selected from among graduate students with prior experience in the phar maceutical industry, have to be more active, interested, and knowledgeable than in a typical survey course. They put in extended hours to explain material to students lacking detailed background in transport phenomena or bioorganic chemistry, and are confronted with group dynamics in connection with the project-team phase of the class. The lectures on drug design are given by a professor from Georgia Techs School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and the lectures on drug development and drug delivery are given by the instructors and clinical trials (by Emory University School of Medicine faculty) and on pharmaceutical marketing (by an industry colleague) are included to continually reinforce the broader relevance explains the success of the course with students who are mostly seniors and graduate students often about to enter industry positions. Existing courses on pharmaceuticals at other universities are typically more narrowly focused, for example, on medicinal chemistry aspects of drug design and discovery or on formu lation aspects of drug delivery systems. We are not aware of any other course that integrates drug design, development, and delivery in a single course, and explores their connections in the context of broader societal impacts. COURSE STRUCTURE AND SYLLABUS we have chosen to restrict enrollment to a limited number of students from each major department: approximately 10 students each from the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Biomedical Engineering. Around 10-15 seats are reserved for GAANN Fellows, as the class is a require ment of the fellowship program. The remaining 10 seats are
49 into 18 interdisciplinary teams of three students each for the case study projects. [7-9] This structure guarantees that the students will be working and communicating with colleagues of other disciplines, just as they would in industry. The class is highly interactive, with interaction and questions not only between students and instructors but, especially during the project-team phase, between the students themselves. As summarized in Table 1, the course begins with an overview of pharmaceutical development that features goals, timelines, and constraints that guide the industry. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the course, we also include optional refresher lectures on biochemistry for engineering students and diffusion for chemistry students. The only pre requisite for the course is one semester of biochemistry. Next, drug design, development, and delivery ( i.e. the three Ds) are covered for two to three weeks each. Finally, the student-led case studies are developed and presented. The Three Ds During the overview section of the course, the instructors describe the integrated process of drug development from discovering the active ingredient to its formulation into a dos age form, its manufacture using suitable reaction pathways, its assessment in clinical trials, the FDA approval process, and its introduction into the market. One lecture tells the Langer, David Edwards, and Alejandro Zafaroniand pres ents innovative drug delivery systems in the context of the ment and ultimate impact on medicine. Another lecture deals with the development process and business context of the pharmaceutical industry and portrays the risks in develop ing novel pharmaceuticals, as tight regulations by the FDA, rigorous testing of candidate compounds, and often long and high failure rate of candidates and thus very high expenses for every successful new drug. The drug design module presents key ideas behind the search for a compound testable in the clinic and thus able to be manufactured on large scale. Concepts such as binding of a small-molecule inhibitor to an enzyme or to a receptor are covered, as well as varying the structure of a lead compound to improve characteristics such as inhibition constant, sta bility, or bioavailability. Rules for the molecular properties of successful drug candidates are discussed, most notably Lipinskis Rule of Five.  drug development module lays out the challenges of drug manufacturing and formulation, one of which is the preeminence of purity over yield, which requires catalysts with ex quisite selectivity. After the initial lecture, one lecture each is spent on manufac turing of small molecules, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. Foci for each, respectively, are the design of environmentally benign processes to decrease both costs and ecological foot print for small molecules; the complex downstream processing to a pure, virusfree, therapeutic protein; and the comparison of eggs and cell culture for the manufacture of drug substance for vaccines. Another challenge is the necessity of formulation to preserve the structural and functional integrity of the drug product for at least D4 Course Syllabus CLASS SECTION SELECTED TOPICS Introduction Challenges and current methods of drug design, development, and delivery; successful examples; tutorials; homework 1 Classes 5 8 Drug Design Overview of protein-ligand interactions and enzyme catalysis; enzyme inhibition and drug design; quiz; homework 2 Classes 9 13 Drug Development Manufacturing & process development; small molecule manufacturing; development of protein therapeutics and vaccines; quiz; homework 3 Drug Delivery Pharmacokinetic modeling; methods of delivery; drug delivery device commercialization case Classes 19 20 Pharmacology and Clinical Trials Guest lecturers; quiz Spring Break Plant Trip to Puerto Rico (optional) Class 21 Pharmaceutical Marketing Guest lecturer Classes 22 23 Case Study I: Ocular Dorzolamide Synthesis by conventional and novel chemoenzy matic routes; topical delivery; molecular design Case Study II: Contraceptive Hormone Patch Chemical and microbial synthesis; transdermal and other delivery methods Case Study III: Leuprolide Implant Solid-state and enzymatic synthesis; polymeric controlled release; broader impacts Classes 28 30 Case Study IV: Insulin Delivery and production methods; stability issues Final Exam Week Final Exam Derived largely from case studies
50 two years in the container identi cal to the one for selling the drug, so one lecture deals with issues of formulation. The drug delivery module starts with a lecture on methods used to design, formulate, and manufac ture conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms, with special empha sis on oral tablets and capsules, and also presents mathematical analysis of drug pharmacokinet ics. The subsequent lectures address controlled release, trans dermal, ocular, and other routes of drug delivery in detail. The of microneedle drug delivery systems at Georgia Tech and in industry, which emphasizes the challenges of bringing a product forward from the initial idea stage through clinical introduction. Products covered in case studies in the class have included drugs for a range of indications, such as cancer reproduc tion, ocular disease, heart disease, and diabetes. Each year the course includes four case studies, and every case study investigates at least two of the three Ds, most often develop ment and delivery (Table 2). Each case study is analyzed by a team typically of two undergraduates and one graduate student from at least two but typically three different disciplines. By the time the case study teams are formed, the students have already taken some quizzes and handed in homework, and the instructors can thereby balance teams according to known strengths and weaknesses of students. [11, 12] The scope of the case study assigned to each group is intentionally broad so that the students will do their own research, on the basis of a few lead publications provided by the instructors, and develop their own analysis. One week before the project is due, each team meets with one of the instructors to outline the presentation, make their case, and receive feedback. When the group presents its case study to minutes of presentation involving all three team members, followed by 20 minutes of Q&A primarily by the students, with supplemental questioning by the instructors. Case Study Example: Ortho-Evra patch (Johnson & Johnson) One of the case studies focuses on the Ortho-Evra con traceptive patch, which provides an opportunity to evaluate competing methods of drug synthesis during the design phase, development issues related to cost-effectiveness and safety, and challenges of transdermal delivery and resulting medi cal issues. Introduced in 2001, Ortho-Evra is a transdermal contraceptive patch manufactured and marketed by OrthoMcNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson.  It contains a progesterone analog, norelgestromin, and an estrogen analog, ethinyl estradiol, that are released continuously during each week that the patch is worn. Initially, Evra contraceptives market by providing simple and reliable birth control using a once-per-week patch. Post-marketing clinical studies, however, showed that the total estrogen dose from the Evra by conventional birth control pills, possibly posing increased cardiovascular risks. Because the patch and the pill pro duced similar estrogen levels in the clinical trials, a change in the manufacturing process during scale-up to commercial production is suspected. These issues led to lawsuits and a huge decline in Evra sales.  In response, J&J has changed product labeling and continues to market the patch. In the student presentations, one of the student teams is charged with evaluating the transdermal patch technology used to make Evra by considering the nature of the skin barrier, the medical suitability of controlled drug release across skin, and the advantages and disadvantages of different patch designs. Another team takes on alternative methods of contraceptive hormone delivery, including oral tablets, subcu taneous implants, intrauterine devices, and other approaches. Hormone synthesis is considered as well: for both ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin, the conventional methods are chemical synthesis starting from residual materials from plants, such as sitosterol, stigmasterol, and phytosterol from soybeans or tall oil, the latter itself a residue from pulping. The potentially disruptive technology is a biotechnological synthesis route combining fermentation and enzymatic steps, possibly combined with a few purely chemical steps. In addition to the many interesting technical issues as sociated with this case study, there is a rich set of business, medical, social, and political issues as well. For example, the business decision to continue marketing the product with updated labeling, rather than reformulating the patch to ad minister the intended estrogen dose, is addressed. The ethical implications of this decision are also discussed, along with the broader issue of access to contraception and associated disparities around the world. Attributes of Current and Past D4 Course Case Studies Product name (company) Active ingredients Delivery method Trusopt (Merck) Dorzolamide Eye drops Ortho Evra (Johnson & Johnson) Ethinyl estradiol, Norelgestromin Transdermal patch Lupron Depot (Abbott) Leuprolide acetate Injectable implant Insulin Inhalation Testoderm (Alza) Testosterone Transdermal patch Nifedipine Oral osmotic pump
51 Pharmaceutical Industry Plant Tour During spring break of the semester the course is offered, try plants in Puerto Rico, which is one of the largest worldwide sites for pharmaceutical manufacturing. During the trip, students tour manufacturing facilities and packaging plants to see at least 10 different pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing processes.  Groups have visited Amgen, Eli seen small-molecule drug synthesis, protein fermentation product packaging. The tour ends with a visit to Bacardi, which features a technical tour of the fermentation and distil lation processes at the worlds largest rum distillery. In their free time, students also kayak through a bioluminescent bay, become familiar with Old San Juan, and broadly experience a cultural environment different from the U.S. mainland. GRADING, ASSESSMENT, AND CHANGES IMPLEMENTED exam derived largely from the case studies. A series of homework assignments and quizzes during the initial phase of the course also contribute to the grade. At the end of the semester, students assess the course through anonymous surveys. As shown in Figure 1, numerical evaluations have been highly positive, indicating that students found the course to be well structured and implemented. Written comments, however, have also shown that strength and weakness of the course is that it requires interdisciplinary knowledge and instruction rooted in strong chemistry and engineering fundamentals. [7, 8] Often, criticism focuses on the perception that mate rial from the students own major got short shrift in comparison to materials from other majors. Student comments also reveal group dynamics during the team projects to be a weak point of the students skill set.  Changes implemented as a result of student assess ments include the addition of tutorials on biochemis try and diffusion basics early in the course to assure common ground among the students. Also, due to comments about sometimes uneven contributions to group work, each group member now submits to the instructors an anonymous e-mail about the per centage of work done by each member. Instructors check discrepancies, and the result has an impact on group cooperation has increased. SUMMARY The instructors developed a course on drug design, develop for a class on pharmaceuticals for advanced undergraduate industrys general need for scientists and engineers trained breadth with depth, we extensively use a case study format, which enables teaching the integrated process of pharmaceuti cal development in the context of real product examples with their associated technical details and broader societal impacts. This use of a subject overview coupled with focused case stud ies is common in law, medicine, and business education but is not often employed in engineering courses. It is believed that material relating to the pharmaceutical industry but could also be used for engineering courses related to other industries. When implementing such a course, the involvement of instructors and teaching assistants with industry experience is critical, as is the creation and use of relevant case studies Figure 1. Summary of end-of-semester student survey results from D4 course.
52 with published literature, especially in a course for which there is no textbook. To provide real insight and understanding in course instruction and content must include the key disciplines related to the pharmaceutical development process. It is vital both for engineering education and industrial practice to focus on interdisciplinary knowledge and collaboration, which looks beyond typical classroom instruction and organization within to enter the pharmaceutical industry with the integrative interdisciplinary perspective that will likewise prepare them REFERENCES 1. Block, D.E., Teaching Biotech Manufacturing Facility Design and Regulatory Compliance: Better Equipping Students for a Maturing Industry, Chem. Eng. Educ. (3), 188 (2001) 2. Lee-Parsons, C.W.T., A Biochemical Engineering Course Taught in the Context of Drug Discovery to Manufacturing, Chem. Eng. Educ ., (3), 208 (2005) 3. Lipsky, M.S., and L.K. Sharp, From Idea to Market: The Drug Ap proval Process, J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. Are Safe and Effective, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD () 17. Pharmaceutical market report (Puerto Rico), Caribbean Update, Aug.1, 2007 Engineering: Engaging the Imagination of Students Using Experiences Outside the Classroom, Chem. Eng. Educ. (3), 180 (2003)
53 P roject-based learning, student-centered learning, and a host of other innovative teaching/learning styles have been promoted, discussed, dissected, and advocated in the pages of this journal and others. [1-3] Oftentimes innovative teaching experiences just happen, because the circumstances demand or suggest them. What we did, described herein, may coworkers, [1, 2] but it is certainly in the spirit of their advocacies experience that could never be replicated in typical lecturestyle methods or even undergraduate research activities. inroads into chemical engineering departments across the country, even to the extent that some have changed their names to include this new specialty area. Our department decided that creating a lab experiment required of all junior chemical engineers and focusing on one important biochemical appli cation would greatly increase the exposure of biotechnology at the undergraduate level. This would broaden students horizons and increase their value for potential employers. Other institutions have done similarly. PROJECT-BASED LEARNING IN EDUCATION Through an Undergraduate Lab Exercise ChE laboratory DONALD D JOYE, ADAM HOFFMAN, JACQUELINE CHRISTIE, MAYO BROWN, AND JENNIFER NIEMCZYK Donald D. Joye is a professor of chemical engineering at Villanova University, where he has spent 29 years, after three years experience at Lafayette College and two years at Lehigh University. His B.S.E. is from Princeton University, 1967; his M.S. and P.hD. are from Lehigh, 1969/. He has ve years full-time industrial experience with several different companies, including Sherwin-Williams, Engelhard, and Her cules, Inc. His major interests are in uid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer, polymer science, rheology, process engineering, and education. Adam Hoffman earned his B.S. ChE at Villanova University in 2009. Adam is from Lebanon, N.J. His major interests are in biofuels and alternative energy. He is presently in the M.S. graduate program at Vil lanova with a research project in biodiesel processing. He plans to go on for the Ph.D. and seek, ultimately, an academic position. Jacqueline Christie earned her B.S. ChE at Villanova University in 2009. Jackie is from Matawan, N.J. Her major interests are in biotechnology, and she is presently employed at Centocor, Inc. R&D, Malvern, PA. Mayo Brown earned his B.S. ChE at Villanova University in 2009. Mayo is from Milton, Mass. His major interests are material science, biotechnology, fuel cells, and engineering education. He is presently seeking employment and considering graduate school. Jennifer Niemczyk earned her B.S. ChE at Villanova University in 2009. Jen is from Seaford, N.Y. Her major interests are biotechnology and sustainability. She is presently doing environmental work with a company on Long Island and about to re-enter college for a degree in teaching. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011
54 The department had purchased the BE2 Chromatography ratory equipment [7, 8] that demonstrates the process of sizeexclusion chromatography, an industrially important biotech operation. The unit (Figure 1) was purchased over the summer and commissioned by Adam Hoffman, one of the authors, who was at that time a rising senior.  Once the unit was up and running, it was decided to integrate the experiment into a ju nior-level laboratory course in the spring semester. To prepare for this, further development of the experiment was offered as a senior project, generally two semesters long and three cred its each semester, that is a requirement for all undergraduate chemical engineering students to complete before graduating. Most seniors do technically related investigationsrunning equipment, building equipment, doing research, etc. By early fall, three studentsJacqueline Christie, Mayo Brown, and Jennifer Niemczyk, the other authorsexpressed an inter est in this opportunity for their senior project. One of them (JC) had actually done chromatography during her summer internship with a local biotech company. Because this was a new piece of equipment, the students used the fall semester to develop and test out various ways it could be used in the laboratory and develop the lab instructions. In the spring semester they functioned as teaching assistants on that unit for the junior lab class. All three seniors had voiced an interest in pursuing the education profession at some time in their future, and this lab exercise was used to give them an opportunity to function as educators. All of them had voiced a strong interest, and so motivation was not an issue. Motivation and competence would be critical to the success of any endeavor like this, however. Their undertaking included commissioning the equipment, developing an experimental protocol suitable for a junior-level lab course, directing the educational delivery of the experiment to students ( i.e. lecturing, assisting in the calculations, preparation of chemicals), and grading the reports. The reports were re-graded by the faculty member prior to entering the grades formally. The students worked primarily on their own with close communication with their advisor. During the running of the lab itself, they functioned as typical TAs, primarily responsible for oversight and instruction of the students. As advisor, I checked in on them frequently but tried not to interfere. Their experiences were archived in a senior project report,  in which they shared their individual experiences and impressions. The TAs were evaluated on the basis of what they achieved and the quality of their esting experience that combined real-world exposure, project-based learning, and peer interaction. Some of This lab exercise was one of six experiments for a typical, junior-level, chemical engineering lab course. Other experiments included a pumps lab, a heat ex lab, and a distillation lab used mostly for visuals. For us, it is the second lab course in a sequence of three. The biotech lab had to be at an introductory level, as it was intended to expose all chemical engineers, not just those with a biotech interest, to some practice-relevant activity in the biotech the principles were explained in more detail. BACKGROUND Chromatography is a very widely used separation technique It is a highly selective process capable of separating components of closely similar physical and chemical properties. It is important both at processing and process analysis scales. Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia, has a good, readable article written by a college professor on general principles that closely follows the unit described herein and could be used by the students as an extra reference. Sizechromatography and separates proteins and other biological compounds, and especially polymers, based upon the size of the molecule, or more precisely, the Stokes radius, which is the effective radius a molecule has as it moves in solution, assuming it occupies a spherical volume. This is equivalent to [15, A long, extended molecule has a larger Stokes radius than a compact molecule of the same molecular mass. For the purposes of this laboratory experiment, the Stokes radius is assumed proportional to the molecular weight. In size-exclusion chromatography a porous, cross-linked gel is used to separate compounds of different sizes that have Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the apparatus.
55 been dissolved in an aqueous solution. The gel sits in a tube, and liquid containing the dissolved compounds is passed through. Large compounds pass straight through the column, between the individual beads of gel, because they take longer to elute, because it diffuses into the pores of the gel and has higher retention time in the column. There is a direct correlation between the size of the molecule and the time it takes to elute through the column. Typical for chromatographic techniques, the sample containing the of aqueous solvent (the buffer solution), and their travel through the column is hindered by the relative size of the molecules. In this unit, the recommended species to be separated had red and blue colors, so the process was dramatically visual. One could see a bluish-grayish region and a reddish-yellowish region move through the column. The details of the experimentation were described in the manual that came with the unit, but references could be used to supplement and expand on that. The absorbance plot, which detects the species, can be used to calculate the eluted volume of a compound Ve by measuring the time corresponding to a peak height and knowing the pump delivery rate. Using these values and Vo and Vt av can be calculated for each compound in the sample. column in order to elute all the compounds. This could be taken as the end of the last peak. Vo is the volume of liquid and should be equivalent to the void volume in the column. There are somewhat different ways to represent the partition similar shape, a plot of K av vs. the logarithm of the molecular weight will give a linear relationship, or calibration curve, that can be used to estimate the molecular weight of an un known. Obtaining the calibration curve was the goal of the experimentation for the juniors doing the lab. buffer solution for the operation of the unit. Our samples consisted of a mixture of the following compounds: 0.2 mg of phenol red in 1 ml of buffer solution, 3.0 mg of blue dextran in 1 ml of buffer solution, and 2.0 mg of cytochrome c (col orless) in 1 ml of buffer solution. These samples were then mixed together in a weigh boat to a uniform green color. Then avoiding air bubbles. The pump is stopped for the injection procedure. The outlet valve of the column is closed, but the inlet is left open. The syringe is then inserted into the septum into the column. Then, simultaneously, the outlet valve of the column is opened, the pump is turned on, and the green GO button on the computer is struck to start the data recording. The absorbance is sampled at the time interval selected previ ously (20 sec). Visible separation should be observed as the compounds move through the column. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Regarding the lab results, Figure 2 shows the elution vs. time curve from which one can see three distinct peaks corre sponding to the three compounds to be separated. Peak heights also. This information is used along with the partition coef major results of the experiment. Students would then explain location of the peak and the calibration curve, or, given the molecular weight, estimate the elution time. The subsequent reports were a group effort, not individual. As with all experimental equipment, there were several dif Figure 2. Typical elution peaks from absorption data. Figure 3. Calibration curve for molecular weight using the partition coefcient, K av
56 operation. We had to try a number of different compounds for the separation, but eventually settled on the ones reported here, because the peak heights were distinct. The junior students who took the lab were not formally polled as to their experiences with their peer TA educators, but all of them got enough out of the experience to write an acceptably coherent short report, and ad-hoc conversations with some provided evidence they learned something valuable from the experience and enjoyed having seniors as their TAs. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES The major educational goal of this work was to give senior students, who voiced an interest in joining the education pro fession at some point in their careers, a chance to do some hands-on learning of what that might be like. All three wrote of unique take on their educational role, but they all agreed they wouldnt have traded their time on this project for anything else they did in college. Its a different view from the other side of the fence, and that was an eye-opening experience for them project-based learning, an exposure to real-world teaching, and peer-learning experiences (seniors/juniors). An educationbased senior project was a great way to realize this goal. The senior students had to develop and participate in the delivery of a new experiment for a course they had taken before. They equipment so that it gave clear, instructive results, develop the procedure of the experimentation, explain the process to their peers, and assist their peers with the analysis and calculations, then read and grade the reports. The students on the project speak for themselves in the fol insight into their reactions, frustrations, and joys, and to get an idea of what they took away from the experience. Mayo Brown: We, as a group, tried to keep the explanation of the unit the same to each group to prevent any inconsisten cies or unfair advantage. The explanation was made assum ing that students would read the lab experiment before their scheduled period and be somewhat familiar with the procedure to be performed that day. I found that many students failed to read the lab experiment handout before they came to lab. This hindered their understanding of the lab and resulted in them struggling while performing the lab. One aspect I enjoyed the most was the interaction I had with the students during both the experimental and calcula tion sessions. I personally got to know every junior chemical engineering student, which resulted in them feeling comfort able asking for help. My overall experience as a teaching assistant proved how been done before. The hardest part of the whole experience was becoming comfortable with using the unit, as it takes pa tience and time. It was always discouraging when a part of the provided that extra push to move forward. Overall, I really enjoyed this experience as it has motivated me to become an educator at some point in my life so that I may continue to inspire those younger than me to strive for their best. Jacqueline Christie: I enjoyed interacting with the stu dents throughout my experience. I got to know the junior class and made some good connections. I was surprised at the lack of interest in some of the groups, as this lab was out of the ordinary for chemical engineers. Grading the lab reports was an experience in itself. It was easy to tell which groups were attentive and which were not engaged at all. From my experience as a teaching assistant I have learned students. As I am very interested in the biochemistry aspect of chemical engineering, I liked sharing my knowledge of biochemistry techniques and chromatography with students who share my interest as well as those who may not have a great knowledge of biochemistry. Jen Niemczyk: Serving as a teaching assistant has been an interesting task. This was a great experience that has allowed me to learn things about myself, about my fellow classmates, and a little bit about being a teacher. Grading the lab came as a real surprise. I took this lab (course) two semesters ago and was lab reports that were submitted were awful ( to put this comment in perspective a bit, Jen graduated summa cum laude, and by the time these junior students are second-term seniors, their ). Through this lab experience I was able to see a little more clearly some of the experiences that a teacher can have from day to day. It is entirely paying attention. The groups that experienced the most success were the groups that asked questions and made an effort to understand what was going on. insight our educators got was that not all students paid at tention to their lectures (amazing!), and that not all students adapted well to the experiment. Some groups paid attention, and their work was very well done. Others barely lifted an eyebrow, showed no interest, did not pay attention, and their work was not well done (what a surprise!). The TAs actually failed one group. The TAs were also emotionally disappointed that some students seemed not to appreciate their efforts, but they were happy when groups showed interest in and grasp of the material, and they felt the fundamental reward of teaching, when they saw a clean transfer of knowledge from one mind to another. This was a big thrill for them, as it continues to be for us in the profession.
57 I (DDJ) was also happy to see that they used the full spectrum of letter grades, recognizing that the transfer of knowledge is rarely total, and that they could see the shades of gray for partial credit or items overlooked or incompletely described in the reports the student groups handed in. CONCLUSIONS A biotech lab experiment suitable for junior chemical engi neers was created and successfully performed in order to give all chemical engineering students in the class an introduction to a biotech process. The more important educational objec tiveto use a senior project with an educational twist for those interested in the professionwas even more success ful. This proved to be quite revelatory and an interesting and potent way to engage those who may be considering a career in academia at the college or high school level some time in their future. Others may consider doing something like this to encourage motivated people into the education profession. REFERENCES 1. Felder, R.M., and R. Brent, The Intellectual Development of Science and Engineering Students, 1. Models and Challenges, J. Eng. Ed. 2. Prince, M.J., and R.M. Felder, Inductive Teaching and Learning J. Eng. Ed. 3. Wankat, P.C., The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy, Chem. Eng. Ed. raphy with Colorful Proteins, Chem. Eng. Ed. 5. Wankat, P.C., Using a Commercial Simulator to Teach Sorption Separations, Chem. Eng. Ed. Chem. Eng. Ed. 9. Hoffman, A., Size Exclusion Chromatography Unit, report, Villanova University, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Summer 2008 10. Brown, M., J. Christie, and J. Niemczyk, Size Exclusion Chromatog raphy, Senior Project Report, Villanova University, Dept of Chemical Engineering (2009) 11. Ninfa, A.J., and D.P. Ballou, Fundamental Laboratory Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology J. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 12. Snyder, L.R., J. Dolan, and J.J. Kirkland, Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatography, 3rd Ed., Wiley Interscience, New York (2009) 13. Sewell, P.A., and B. Clarke, Chromatographic Separations J. Wiley & Sons, New York (1987) Separation Process Principles 2nd Ed., 15. Rosen, S.L., Fundamental Principles of Polymeric Materials 2nd Ed., Wiley Interscience, New York (1993) Essentials of Polymer Science and Engi neering DESTech Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 383-395 (2009)
58 ChE book review Engineering and Sustainable Community Development by Lucena, J., J. Schneider, and J.A. Leydens, Morgan & Claypool, 216 pages, 2010, ISBN 978-1608450701 Reviewed by Lisa Bullard North Carolina State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Many prospective students, in particular, female students and students from underrepresented groups, are attracted to engineering because they want to help people. Colleges of engineering have responded by developing programs and projects variously known as humanitarian engineering, engineering for developing communities, service learning, engineering for sustainability, design for the poorest 80%, design for extreme affordability, etc. Do these types of service projects genuinely help the communities being served? The authors, faculty members at the Colorado School of Mines, present an overview of engineering as it relates to sustainable community development (SCD) and raise challenging questions about the underlying assumptions behind many well-intended projects. This book is part of a series of Synthesis Lectures on Engineers, Technology, and Society, edited by Caroline Baillie of Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The authors frame the text around some entrenched myths: growth and progress. from culture, politics, or society. client or customer. easily transferred across cultural contexts. Chapter 1 highlights the tension when engineers, who see themselves as problem solvers tackling problems that have right or wrong answers, approach the more complex challenge of meeting a community need. The authors pose a series of guiding questions for both students and faculty. Chapter 2 provides a history of engineers involvement in development from the 18th century to the present. It traces the evolution of the engineers role, from that of transforming and controlling nature, mapping territory, building national infrastructure, acting as agents of economic competitiveness, to a growing awareness of sustainable development. In Chapter 3 the authors discuss why the assumptions, methods, concepts, and practices used in industry may not be appropriate for SCD projects. The basis for the discussion is a student project that won an Exceptional Student Hu manitarian Prize. By stepping through the project report, the authors highlight the hidden assumptions typically present in a traditional design project that may be inappropriate for a community-development project. (After reading this chapter, I became painfully aware of some of the shortcomings of several recent design projects in my own class). community should be at the center of engineering for SCD. The authors highlight typical engineering mindsetsoverreliance ment, industrial work contexts, and commitment to objectiv community. Practical, concrete suggestions are provided for students and faculty to avoid some of these problems. Chapter 5 motivates the need for listening to community members by describing projects in which ineffective listening occurred to the detriment or failure of the project. The authors suggest an alternative problem-solving, listening-centered ap proach well suited to SCD projects. This approach might also be useful in industry, depending on the context of the project. practical problems in implementing community-development her graduate students who partnered with a village in India to implement a windmill, and Chapter 7 describes a practic ing engineer who undertook a community mapping project in Honduras to inform the community on how to use water safely and effectively. In Chapter 8 the authors describe their course Engineering students transformation during the course. Chapter 9 offers recommendations to students who are interested in pursuing SCD and poses relevant research questions for faculty. The book is written with a student audience in mind; key terms and critical questions are highlighted throughout each chapter, and multiple exercises are included as possible writing and discussion prompts. The book also addresses faculty questions about how to best structure such courses and projects. In addition, administrators responsible for assessing the usefulness, effectiveness, and cost of these programs can While this book would most likely be used as a textbook in the context of a course on sustainable development or engi neering ethics, it would also be a useful resource for chemical engineering faculty who teach a design course, either at the capstone level or in a freshman engineering course. It chal lenges the traditional assumptions inherent in a design project and gives a practical example of how ABET criteria might be concretely addressed. In addition, students who are interested book valuable; in particular, the list of current engineering programs with this focus could direct students to graduate programs in a relevant area.
59 U macromolecular solutions is an increasingly impor tant unit operation especially in the bioprocessing industries.  While it has traditionally formed only a minor part of many chemical engineering undergraduate curricula, the growing importance of bioprocessing within the chemi cal engineering mainstream means that membranes and their applications are gaining increasing attention. Most unit operations textbooks used in chemical engineering tend to give relatively little coverage of membrane processes in com parison with the more traditional separation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, and distillation, [2, 3] although there are signs that this is changing somewhat. For now, however, detailed coverage of membrane topics tends be found in specialized books and monographs. While the growing number of textbooks devoted to biochemical or bioprocess engineering has begun to redress this balance somewhat, [7-9] it still has to be said that these textbooks tend to be less mathematical in their focus than traditional unit operations textbooks. The works by Ingham, et al.,  and Dunn, et al.,  represent a determination to extend math ematical modeling to all aspects of chemical and biochemical engineering but their focus is on dynamic problems where the mathematical problem is almost exclusively one of solving ordinary differential equations. The recent, excellent book by Cutlip and Shacham  gives hundreds of interesting and chal lenging computational problems for the chemical engineering student, presenting a wider range of mathematical challenges, including the solution of non-linear algebraic equations, but there are few problems on bioseparation processes such as ul challenging computational problems in the biologically based downstream processes. In this paper, we present a variety of problems in the analy sis, design, and optimization of the industrially important The unifying concept in these problems is the solution of non-linear algebraic equations. We solve these using a vari ety of methods employing easily accessible spreadsheet and graphical tools. The problems described would be suitable for inclusion in a junioror senior-level unit operations or separa tions module within a chemical engineering or similar degree program, as long as the students have some prior experience with numerical methods. A problem-based learning approach in which students solve these problems in class using a laptop computer is recommended. Greg Foley is a chemical engineer with B.E. and Ph.D. degrees from University College Dublin, Ireland, and an M.S. degree in chemi cal engineering from Cornell University. He has taught many aspects of chemical engineering to students of biotechnology at Dublin City University for more than 24 years. His main area of expertise and the focus of his re search is in membrane processing, especially crossow microltration of microbial cells and the modeling of ultraltration and dialtration processes. He also has an active interest in teaching innovation and has developed numerous initiatives in this area including the use of video podcasting and problem-based learning. He is particularly interested in the interface between teaching and research and the incorporation of research problems into the undergraduate cur riculum is one of his ongoing projects. SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous Ultraltration ChE classroom GREG FOLEY Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011
60 CONTINUOUS FEED AND BLEED ULTRAFILTRATION We consider the example of continuous concentration of a protein solution by the feed and bleed mode illustrated in of 1.0, i.e. no protein passes through the membrane. In the (retentate) is recycled back into the feed. This increases the 0 and thus the system can reasonably be assumed to be well mixed, i.e. the retentate concentration is taken to be the same as the mean concentration in the module itself.  This is in contrast to single-pass operation where there is no recycle and the varia tion of concentration with distance along the membrane must be accounted for in the analysis. In all our calculations, we assume that the gel polarization model applies, i.e. we assume that the membrane is operating  g is the limiting or gel concentration (constant), and c is the retentate concentration. The gel polarization model is a subset of concentration polarization theory in which the convective  The key result of the concentration polarization analysis is that the In general, this concentration is a function of transmembrane equal to its limiting value it can be assumed that the solute concentration at the membrane reaches a limiting value as well. This limiting concentration is denoted c g The solute balance for the system, assuming complete rejection, can be written where Q 0 0 is the feed con centration, c 1 is the retentate concentration, and Q 1 is the where A is the membrane area. Combining Eqs. (1), (2), and (3) and using the perfect mixing assumption gives the follow ing governing equation of a single stage system where x 1 0 /c 1 This equation and its extension to multi-stage systems are simple but do not have any analytical solution. Given the range of computational tools readily available to students, however, there is no need to adopt trial-and-error solutions to this equation, even when extended to multi-stage systems, as has been done in the past.  Instead, rapid, reliable, and easily implemented numerical methods can be used that will not only give accurate answers to engineering problems but also provide the students with excellent opportunities to practice and apply what they have learned in their numerical method courses. In the following sections we explore the solution of this equation for a variety of problem types and extend it to multistage systems. Numerical examples are provided for each type of problem. Microsoft Excel is used throughout but other packages such as Matlab, Polymath,  or Mathematica  could just as easily have been used. PROCESS ANALYSIS Analysis of a Single Stage System In this type of problem, it is assumed that the membrane is to calculate the exit concentration. A numerical example, illustrating semi-manual implementation within Excel of the Newton-Raphson algorithm, is shown in Example 1. We consider a 1L/min feed of a protein solution that enters system. The feed enters at 10g/L and c g can be taken to 10 m/s and the area is 2.7m 2 Use the Newton-Raphson method to compute the retentate concentration. Using the numbers provided (and ensuring SI units in all The Newton-Raphson algorithm for solution of this equa tion can be written Starting with an initial guess of x 1 verges (to three decimal places) after the third iteration to give x 1 1 easily implemented in Excel by inserting x 1 (0) in cell A1, the formula for x 1 (1) in cell B1, and copying this formula iterations as desired.
61 Analysis of a Multi-stage SystemNumerical Solution The extension of the previous analysis to multi-stage sys tems is simple and merely involves repeated application of the same basic technique. In a multi-stage system, the retentate from one stage forms the feed to the next. It is easy to show that the governing equation for stage i can be written For a system with any arbitrary number of stages, N, the simplest way to solve these equations is to do them sequen tially as shown for a three-stage system in Example 2. Q0 Q1 c0 c1 JA Figure 1. Continuous feed and bleed ultraltration. In this example, 1L/min of a protein solution is fed to system. The feed again enters at 10g/L and c g can be 10 m/s in each stage and the area of each stage is 0.9m 2 thus giving the same total area as Example 1. Use the Goalseek tool in Excel to compute the concentration leaving the third stage. stage: This equation can now be coded into any cell in Excel and the Goalseek tool employed. Putting a guess for x 1 into cell A1, the following formula is coded into Cell B1: The Goalseek tool is then accessed via the What If but ton in Excel 2007. To solve for x 1 one simply sets cell B1 to value zero by changing cell A1. Using a guess of x 1 1 for the second stage thus becomes Solving gives x 2 third stage becomes Solving as before gives x 3 single stage system of the same total area as found in the previous numerical example. Analysis of a Multi-Stage SystemGraphical Solution It is clear from Example 2 that the availability of packages tine and accessible to undergraduate students. The use of a purely numerical approach can leave the student somewhat disconnected from the physics of a problem, however. Graphi cal techniques have a long history in chemical engineering and while they are somewhat obsolete as purely computational devices, they retain considerable utility as pedagogical tools. In this section, we demonstrate a simple graphical technique for the solution of multi-stage problems that not only allows one to rapidly solve such problems without the aid of a com puter, but also helps to explain the operation of the system in a language familiar to chemical engineering students. To start, we let x represent c 0 /c where c is the exit concentration from can thus be written typically encountered in equilibrium stage operations such as distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and absorption. Eq. (7) represents a straight line and can thus be thought of as the op can actually be described with much of the same language, and using many of the same methods, as the more conventional unit operations well known to chemical engineers.
62 Eq. (7), the operating line, has an x-axis intercept of 1.0 and a y-axis intercept of Q 0 /A. The concentration leaving this stage, i.e. x 1 can be found as the point of intersection equilibrium curve), i.e. the operating line. The value of this approach is the ease with which it can be extended to multi-stage sys tems. Carrying out a similar analysis for the second stage, we can write in the second stage where we have assumed equal areas. Assuming the mass transfer coef 1 0 x 1 /A. Clearly, therefore, Eqs. (7) and (8) represent parallel lines and the concentration from the second A numerical example for three stages of equal area is shown in Example 3. DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS UF SYSTEM In this case, calculation of the required area is trivial. As shown below, however, calculation of the required area for a multistage system is a bit more involved. Design of a Multi-Stage System With Equal Areas Using the same notation as in the section entitled Analysis of a Multi-Stage SystemNumerical Solution, we see that the problem now is to solve the N equations described by Eq. (5) but here the unknowns are the x i for 1 i N-1 and A, the area of each stage. Because the area can be eliminated by rearranging of any one of the equations, however, the system can be reduced to N-1 equations for the intermediate compo sitions. Nevertheless, unlike the analysis problem described earlier where the equations can be solved sequentially, the design problem requires simultaneous solution of the equa tions. A numerical example, employing the Solver tool in Optimization of Multi-Stage Systems In the last section, we showed how the use of a multi-stage system is superior to a single-stage system. There is no rea son, however, why the area in each stage should be the same, although in practice using equal areas is probably the most likely choice given the limited range of membrane modules produced by manufacturers. For a system with N stages, the i that minimize the total area, A t N where and x 0 conditions. Here we repeat Example 2 but use the graphical approach described above. is Plotting these two expressions leads directly to the con struction in Figure 2 and x 3 can be rapidly computed. From 3 0 with the numerical solution obtained previously. x 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 J (m/s) 0.0 5.0e-6 1.0e-5 1.5e-5 2.0e-5 12 3 Figure 2. Graphical construction for multi-stage system.
63 Rearranging in each case gives In principle, therefore, the values of the x i that lead to a minimum area are found by simultaneous solution of the N-1 equa tions represented by Eq. (12). It is worth noting, however, that in the limit where (1-x i ) somewhat. In that case, we can use appropriate Taylor series expansions (ln(x) x 1 and 1/x 2 x) and neglecting which implies which is the relation due to Rautenbach and Albrecht. In a three-stage system, compare it with the Rautenbach and Albrecht approximation, and with the result obtained previ ously for a three-stage, equal area system. CONCLUSIONS ally simple unit operation but the logarithmic dependence algebraic equations, even for the simplest process situations. With modern software and with simple graphical methods, however, these equations can be solved quite easily and there is no reason why they should not be covered as an integral part of an undergraduate module in bioseparation processes. Furthermore, there is plenty of scope here for even more challenging problems using more complex models for the In this example, 1L/min of a protein solution is fed to a three-stage, equal area, continuous feed and bleed ultra g can be 10 m/s in each stage and retentate concentration leaving the third stage is 100g/L. The objective is to use the Solver tool to compute the area of each stage. Applying Eq. (5) and using the relevant numbers (includ ing x 3 These equations were solved with initial estimates of x 1 0.5, x 2 2 The equations were coded into Excel as shown below in Table 1 and Solver was set the target of setting cell B1 to be zero by changing cells A1 to A3, subject to the constraints 2 x 1 2 2 It would be a useful student exercise to compare the area required if a single stage system had been used. Applying Eq. (9) should give an area of 3.902m 2 thus showing the advantage of the multi-stage system. As mentioned above, this system of three equations could have been reduced to two equations by eliminating A from any one of the equations, thus giving two equations that can also be solved with Solver. Again, this would be a useful student exercise. Column A Column B (Formula) 0.5 0.2 1
64 REFERENCES 1. Cheryan, M., book, 2nd Ed., CRC Press (1998) 2. McCabe, W., J. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 7th Ed., McGraw-Hill (2005) 3. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Prentice Hall (2003) Separation Process Engineering, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall (2007) 5. Rautenbach, R., and R. Albrecht, Membrane Process Wiley-Blackwell (1989) 7. Belter, P.A., E.L. Cussler, and W.-S. Hu, Bioseparations: Downstream Processing for Biotechnology, Academic Press (1988) 8. Harrison, R.G., P.W. Todd, S.R. Rudge, and D. Petrides, Bioseparations Science and Engineering, Oxford Uni versity Press (2003) 9. Ladisch, M.R., Bioseparations Engineering: Principles, Practice, and Economics Academic Press (2001) 10. Dunn, I.J., E. Heinzle, J. Ingham, and J.E. Prenosil, Biological Reaction Engineering: Dynamic Modelling Fundamentals with Simulation Examples Wiley-VCH (2003) 11. Ingham, J., I.J. Dunn, E. Heinzle, and J.E. Prenosil, Chemical Engineering Dynamics: Modelling with PC Simulation, 2nd Ed., Wiley-VCH (2000) 12. Cutlip, B., and M. Shacham, Problem Solving in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering with POLYMATH, Excel, and MATLAB, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall (2007) 13. Foley, H.C., Introduction to Chemical Engineering Analy sis Using Mathematica Academic Press (2002) Again we have 1 L/min of a protein solution fed to a three-stage continu c g 10 to achieve a concentration of 100g/L in the third stage. The unknowns in this problem are x 1 and x 2 (recall that x 3 Eq. (12) can be written after a little rearranging as the second equation was made a constraint. The initial guesses were x 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 respectively, giving a total area of 2.103m 2 This compares with 2.139m 2 in the previous example where equal areas were a more convenient equal area system are small indeed. It is a useful student exercise to compare the exact result found here with the Rautenbach andAlbrecht approximation, Eq. (13). Students should and both of which have values that are very close to the exact answer.
65 T he new European Framework on Higher Education proposed in the Bologna Process (a process with similarities to the Washington Accord on Engineering university studies but also in the teaching methodology. The Washington Accord, Sydney Accord, and Dublin Accord are three multilateral agreements between groups of jurisdictional agencies responsible for accreditation or recognition of tertia which have chosen to work collectively to assist the mobility The Bologna Process proposes to structure higher education in three cycles (Bachelor-Master-Ph.D.), converging the very diverse structures of higher education in Europe and bringing them into line with international standards. This implies a change from a staff-centered approach to a student-oriented approach. [1-3] Accordingly, current teaching methodology tion (2007). This involves not only encouraging the use of learning outcomes and being explicit about what graduates are expected to know and be able to do, but also encouraging critical thinking and the active engagement of students. The Bologna Process as well as the Education & Training 2010 Work Programme  establishes that general key compe tences are to become more prominent, more important, and more explicit in curricula. The European Framework for Key Competences for Lifelong Learning active citizenship, social inclusion, and employability in a knowledge-based society: 1) communication in the mother language; 2) communication in foreign languages; 3) math ematical competence and basic competences in science and entrepreneurship; and 8) cultural awareness and expression. According to the Bologna Process, the European Associa tion for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, by means of the publication of Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assur ance in the European Higher Education Area, determines the European standards and guidelines for internal quality assur ance within higher-education institutions. In these guidelines, the assessment and involvement of students is highlighted, since it is one of the most important elements in higher edu cation. It is evident that the outcomes of assessment have a profound effect on students future careers. It is therefore important that assessment is carried out professionally at all times and takes into account the extensive knowledge that exists about testing and examination processes. Experience Gained During the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: THE CASE OF CHEMICAL REACTORS SERGIO PONS AND ANTONI SNCHEZ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 Sergio Pons is an assistant professor at the Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona (Barce lona, Spain). His role in lecturing on chemical reactors has been developed for more than ve years in the elds of problem-solving and evaluation. Antoni Snchez is an associate professor at the Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain). He has been lecturing on chemical reactors for more than 10 years. He has participated in several educational programs and has obtained the Accreditation for Teaching Innova tion. ChE curriculum
66 Tuning Project is a university-driven project that aims to of fer a concrete approach to implementing the Bologna Process at the level of higher-education institutions and subject areas in all Europe. The Tuning Project makes the distinction be tween learning outcomes and competences to distinguish the different roles of the most relevant players: academic staff and students. Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand, and/or be able to demon strate after completion of learning. Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills, and abilities. Fostering competences is the object of actual educational programs.  Competences can be subdivided be emphasized, however, that time and attention should also be devoted to the development of generic competences or transferable skills. The Tuning Project distinguishes three types of generic competences: 1) instrumental competences: cognitive, methodological, technological, and linguistic abilities; 2) interpersonal competences: individual abilities, social interaction, and cooperation; 3) systemic competences: abilities and skills concerning whole systems, combining understanding, sensibility, and knowledge.  In the new EHEA, a continuous assessment for learners/ students is also proposed. This will imply the remodeling of and changing to a continuous assessment of knowledge, understanding, and competences. engineering professors lecture much of the time in class. [8-12] Nevertheless, the new European Framework on Higher Education requires a complete reconsideration of teaching methodology. The new Framework argues that learning would improve if professors lectured less and used various activeand inductive-learning methods. [8, 13] These methods include, among others, cooperative group learning, clickers (quick tests), guided design, problem-based learning, quizzes, laboratory improvements, and computer simulations to form part or all of the class periods. This methodology would be in accordance with the Bolo gna Process requirements, which would partially substitute the classic lectures/lessons and would reach all the goals proposed by EHEA. In our university department, the teaching methodology for two classical subjectsChemical Reactors (chemical engineer ing) and Chemical Reaction Engineering (technical industrial Process to provide the students/learners with the knowledge, understanding, and competences necessary as well as with after the implementation of the new methodology in both sub jects are shown, discussed, and evaluated in this document. PEDAGOGIC BACKGROUND This experience was gained in the Department of Chemical Engineering of Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona (UAB, Spain). Staff in this department provided instruction in diverse subjects such as Chemical Engineering, Technical Industrial Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Biotechnology, and Chemistry, among others. Engineering is a discipline that is essential to meet the needs of people, for economic development, and for the provision of services to society. Engineering involves the purposeful application of mathematical and natural sciences and a body It seeks to produce solutions whose effects are predicted to the maximum degree possible in often uncertain contexts. tially adverse consequences. Engineering, therefore, must be carried out responsibly and ethically, use available resources vironmentally sound and sustainable, and generally manage risks throughout the entire life cycle of a system. The two subjects in which the new methodology has been introduced and evaluated are Chemical Reactors, instructed in the fourth year of the chemical engineering degree course, and Chemical Reaction Engineering, instructed in the second year of the technical industrial engineering degree course. The main characteristics of both subjects are shown in Table 1. The contents of both subjects are similar, but they differ education, age, and future professional career. In addition, the Washington Accord (and the successive Sydney and Dublin Accords) between Professional Engineer (chemical engineer), Engineer ing Technologist, and Engineering Technician (both comparable to technical industrial engineer status in Spain). This document details the abilities and knowledge expected of engineers in the emphasis of each subject: Professional Engineer (chemical engineer) graduates must be able to comprehend and apply advanced knowledge of the widely applied principles and good practices, while Engineering Technologist (technical industrial engineer) graduates should be able to comprehend and apply widely accepted and applied procedures, processes, systems or methodologies, and standardized practices. In general, both subjects (Chemical Reaction Engineering and Chemical Reactors), are crucial to the overall degree content since they treat indispensable aspects in engineering education. They are subjects that require a deep knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering fundamentals. In short, the fundamental content of both subjects is the expla nation and development of all the phenomena and processes
67 concerning the design of chemical reactors, essentially based level of knowledge acquired in these subjects will be also course. In particular they will be re-evaluated when students carry out the Final Project, where they must design a complete industrial process. In terms of enrollment, both are medium-level subjects methodology that normally involves a high subject dropout rate, however, the percentage of class attendance is around 50%. Students have the perception that these subjects are im rate through the year, which is also increased by the fact that At present engineering is one of the areas in which fewer (especially the core or obligatory subjects), compared to other  The traditional methodology applied to the teaching of these subjects used lectures, either those corresponding to theoretical credits, or problem-solving lectures, in which the lecturer solved problems with little or no student-teacher interaction (see Table 1). Subject assessment consisted of a evaluated. Students perceived that this methodology is posi tive for them since they had been taught with similar method ologies in all degree subjects or courses. Moreover, these are considered as crucial and key subjects by the Department of Chemical Engineering staff and had been taught by the best LEARNING PHILOSOPHY According to the new procedures and methodologies es tablished in the EHEA by way of the Bologna Process, older programs, teaching methodologies, and practices must be To summarize, the new European Higher Edu cation Framework en forces the application of new methodologies to increase and improve students understanding and knowledge acquire ment and to better assess the complete learning process. At present, all Higher Education Pro ments of Bologna. Many made under teachers or country to another, although some general guidelines al ready exist (European Federation of Chemical Engineering, 2005). Thus, the present manuscript could also be used as an evaluated example of a subject program and transformed methodology. During recent years, it has been observed how the number of student drop-outs in the subjects evaluated in this document has increased. Furthermore and even more negative, is how many students who passed the subjects were not able to apply, in later courses or subjects, the knowledge and abilities that they were supposed to possess (this can be may indicate that some students are able to pass the subjects without learning, or in other words, they miss the chance to learn. This fact was also noticed in other subjects, and even in other degrees, and many times it was attributed to the poor knowledge and intelligence of the new student generations. At this point, the new proposed methodology may also be used for refuting this argument and to improve the learning of the students. The general objective of the experience presented here is to demonstrate that it is possible to modify the teach ing methodology in classical chemical engineering subjects while achieving the main goals determined in the EHEA. That would mean switching from an old methodology based on lecture lessons to active and inductive learning methods, making students participate and interact during lectures and and highlighted in the following points: suitable for these classical engineering subjects. methodologies in higher engineering studies. such as leadership, teamwork, and oral and written com munication skills. Main Features of Subjects Studied Subject Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Reactors Degree Technical Industrial Engineering Chemical Engineering Length 3 years 5 years Year of instruction 2nd Courses evaluated Type of subject Obligatory to study (core subject) Obligatory to study (core subject) Total credits 1 7.5 Theoretical and ProblemSolving credits 1 Students enrolled per year 50 Main contents Chemical Reactor Design Chemical Reactor Design 1 At present, in Spain, one credit corresponds to 10 hours of class participation for students.
68 NEW PROGRAMS: GOALS AND COMPETENCES TO BE ACQUIRED tion Systems, in which Engineering disciplines are included, is that the objectives of courses, subjects and grade or degree As established in Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assur ance in the European Higher Education Area, programs have the assessment strategy being used for the course or subject, which examinations or other assessment methods they will be subjected to and what will be expected of them.  old subject program that consisted of a brief list of topics, introducing new, extended, and detailed program where all information related to the objectives, evaluation, goals, topics, etc., were included. The EHEA, as established by The Bologna Process and supported by Tuning Project, intends to make plans of studies comparable, compatible, and transparent in all the European countries by developing reference points at any subject area level. The reference points are expressed in terms of learning outcomes (learning achievement goals) and competences. Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner is ex pected to know, understand and be able to demonstrate after completion of a learning experience. According to Tuning, learning outcomes are expressed in terms of the level of com petence to be obtained by the learner. Competences represent a dynamic combination of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and understanding, interpersonal, intellectual, and practical skills, and ethical values. Considering the guidelines proposed by Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the EHEA, Tuning Project, The Education & Training 2010 Work Programme and The European Framework for Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, as well as considering the suggestions of the European Federation of Chemical Engi subject: 1. To comprehend the stoichiometric, thermodynamic, and kinetic basis of the chemical reactions from an engineering point of view. 2. To describe the main characteristics of chemical reac tors and their different types. 3. To design chemical reactors. 1. To learn how to design real chemical reactors consid ering ideal reactors as the basis for design, differ entiating between isothermal, adiabatic, or neither isothermal nor adiabatic reactors. 2. To describe the main characteristics of chemical reac tors and their different types. 3. To design chemical reactors. 5. To discern between the theoretical concepts associated with chemical reactors and common practices in their design. students and instructors would be able to evaluate whether they had really achieved the main goals of the subject or not. The new evaluation system is designed for an objective evaluation of these goals and competences. degree course). As is mentioned in the Washington Accord and Tuning documents on Educational Structures in Europe subject programs adapted to Bologna Process. In this sense, (Chemical Engineering). tences: 1. To be able to apply knowledge of mathematics, sci ence, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems. dynamics, solid mechanics, and material processing technologies involved in industrial processes related to Chemical Engineering. a. To understand the main principles of Chemical En gineering: mass and energy balances and kinetics. b. To attain a profound knowledge of thermodynam ics, phaseand chemical equilibria. c. To possess extensive knowledge of the kinetics of physical processes such as transference of mass, energy, and movement as well as chemical reac tion kinetics. a. Ability to design chemical engineering processes, systems, and facilities. b. Ability to design solutions for complex engineer ing problems and design systems, components or priate consideration for public health and safety,
69 cultural, social, and environmental consider ations. 3. Competences appropriate to a Chemical Engineer profes sional: a. Being informed of the contextual knowledge, to assess social, health, safety, legal, and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities rel evant to professional engineering practice. b. To understand the impact of professional engi neering solutions in social and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development. c. To apply ethical principles and be committed to the professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice. 4. Research competences: a. To conduct investigations of complex problems using research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analy sis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of information to provide valid conclusions. 1. To work effectively as an individual, be dynamic and organized, and be capable of analyzing and synthe sizing. 2. To possess self-esteem and have a spirit of self-im provement. 3. To be able to solve problems and to obtain reason able results when no clue to the solution is given, with leadership and creativity, and capacity for mak ing decisions and managing information. 4. To communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documenta tion, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions. 5. To demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply these to ones own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments. 6. To work effectively as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multidisciplinary projects. 7. To create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and computer tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering activities, with an understanding of the limitations. worldwide communication and relationships as well as being able to speak correctly in other relevant worldwide languages. For Technical Industrial Engineering, almost all competenc es are similar to Chemical Engineers, but with less emphasis on knowledge, both theoretical and practical. NEW TEACHING/LEARNING METHODOLOGY To switch from the traditional teaching methodology to the main changes, as well as the methods and resources used, are indicated below. detailed explanation of how the continuous assessment tion of the assessed tasks, in terms of how task evaluation will be done, the contents and modus operandi of activities or tasks, and their anticipated time requirements. II. Continuous assessment: all activities proposed must be included in the subject evaluation. This is very important because it does not permit the student to discard activi or instructions for activities as well as for publishing the task marks and corrections. In this sense, the use of the internal University Network (Virtual Campus) was seminal for the success of the new methodology. III. Teamwork activities: Contrary to the previous problemlesson methodology, in these new activities, students must submit a complete and complex engineering problem, with correct data, correct problem description and considering all necessary points to deal with the problem, Later, each group has to solve another groups problem. In addition, apart from solving, they also have to correct the problem, give a critical opinion and propose improvements and better alternatives. The assessment of these activities should include consideration of the level of complexity, creativity and coherency of the problem proposed, and solving skills, as well as capacity for analyzing, providing argued conclusions, and suggesting improvements. IV. Oral presentations and public discussions: as it is fre quently a weak point among ongoing engineers, each student makes at least two presentations during the course in these subjects. Presentations have a stipulated length, normally short enough to encourage students to develop other skills or competences such as the ability to synthesize information and discern ideas or concepts. by a group. In the group presentation, students have to choose the groups leader who will then be in charge of executing the main points of the presentation. This permits the development of leadership skills. V. Using specialized software and computer solving prob lems: The use of specialized software is required when simulations or modeling is needed or when the problem
70 solving involves extensive numerical calculations. MAT LAB is the software chosen for problem simulation and modeling and for mathematical calculation solving, since it is one of the most generally used in the engineering engineering sphere in recent years and many references to the topic exist. [18-20] One group activity is designed to be carried out by using MATLAB. It consists of proposing and solving exceptionally complex problems in non-steady state and non-isothermal reactors. Computer modeling and simulation are required to determine the behavior each group and students have to develop all necessary soned discussions of them. The use of specialized software and computers for solving engineering problems is also appropriate considering the key competences determined in the European Framework for Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. [6, 7] VI. Quick tests: during the many lessons some quick tests are carried out with some different objectives.  is included to provide prompt feedback of the depth of students understanding. Secondly, it permits students to engage actively in learning. Finally, the marks obtained in these tests account for the continuous subject assessment VII. Final subject evaluation by students: Since these are the of students have never been taught using this new meth obtain reliable feedback about students perception of the subject. This inquiry is partially shown in Table 2. VIII. Final meeting students-teachers: At the end of the course, teachers have a meeting with some students to go through the main questions and problems and discuss the main students feelings after completing the course. RESULTS General Results In general, students and teachers are very positive about the almost all students favored the new methodology and all of them had the feeling that they have learned more than with a conventional teaching methodology. On the one hand, students assign high positive values to the new activities focused on developing transversal key com petences such as teamwork activities and oral presentations and discussions in public. It is surprising that most of students in the fourth course of a chemical engineering degree have never given an oral presentation in public and hence had little or no experience in making presentations using specialized software (for example, PowerPoint). On the other hand, students are not positive to the fact that the time invested in the subject has been at least doubled. It is seen as negative that quick tests force them to be con centrated and focused on the lecturers presentation during the entire class time leaving them without a single second of relaxation. It is just these points that the students value negatively, however, that are very highly valued by professors since they are exactly what the new methodology pursues as goal. Consequently these negative points are considered to be in the nature of the subject. It is important to note that students realize that they cannot allow themselves to get dis tracted or to relax during lectures, because in subjects such as these, with a high level of abstraction, distraction is the main obstacle to effective learning. When the new methodology was launched some students complained because some of them were professionally em ployed and could not attend class when activities had to be car ried out. Two different timetables for all programmed activities is the standard one and consists of carrying out the activity during the normal timetable of the subject for the majority of the students. The second one consists of carrying out the same activities but in an alternative timetable in the morning or the afternoon depending on the normal timetable of the subject. The passed the subject without any problems. The use of the internal University Network is one of the students. It was seen to be fundamental to the new methodol ogy, receiving more than 1,000 visits for each course. The time requirements on teachers that the new methodol ogy demands has been carefully assessed. The result is that teachers must increase the time dedicated to the subject by 50% (class times and double timetable for activities are not counted in this assessment). At present, a normal subject of preparation, but with the new methodology, the time dedicated to the preparation or the correction of activities increases to a minimum of 90 hours. It also has to be considered that the time dedicated to classes also increases due to the double timetable for activities. After implementation of the new methodology, most of the extra time is invested in the correction of clickers and activities. The continuous subject assessment implies that clickers and activities must be corrected as soon as possible (one week for activities and two days for clickers). This allows the student to continuously evaluate his/her learning. grees evaluated, the accomplishments of the new methodol ogy are very similar. The trends observed in both subjects are similar: low subject quitting rates, the high assimilation of all new transversal key competences included, and the pass percentages of both subjects.
71 In any case, it has been demonstrated that both subjects are suitable for the new methodology and, despite different Subject Evaluation Inquiries Results questionnaire to determine how they value the subjects and what they think about the new methodology. As the answers given by students are similar for both subjects they are com bined together in Table 2. knowledge and understanding acquired as well as with the new transversal key competences developed. The good communica tion and cooperation with teachers is also well appreciated by students. Oddly, almost all students think that their classmates do not like the new methodology, but at individual level, all of Assessment of the Learning Goals and Competences Achieved by the Students The methodologies used for the continuous assessment signed to assess the acquisition of the established learning goals and competences by the students. To deeply assess the knowledge and new competences acquired should be also Questions Answers Comments Compared to classic lecture teaching methodology, do you think that the new methodology is. Without exception, all students think that new is better Do you think that classes have been more interactive? All agree that classes have been much more interactive With the new methodology, do you have an up-to-date knowledge of the subject? All students answered that classes were more up-to-date Do you think that teamwork activities have been a good experience? All agree that teamwork activities have been positive Would you recommend new methodology for next course? All answer yes Give a mark to lessons The average is 8-9 Do you think that the use of InternalNet work (Campus Virtual) is positive? All think that it is a very useful tool Which activity did you like the most and the least? The most: teamwork activities; the least: Clickers What do you think about assessment system? All think that it is appropriate assessment feelings about new methodology? Almost all think that their classmates do not like the new methodology On the contrary, all of them assign positive values Do you think that you or your classmates would have dropped-out if classic meth odology had been applied? The majority answer no However, it has been demonstrated that the drop If the subject had been taught by using classic methodology, do you think that you would have learned more? The majority answer no Time commitment that new methodology demands compared with classic method ology is At least twice as much Some students answer that it is even three times as much Do you think that continuous assessment system allows you to pass the subject easily? Many answered yes, but a few answered Comments: How do you think that subject teaching methodology and assess ment could improve? To coordinate the subject continuous assess ment with other subjects, which also use the same system. Not to use the clickers for continuous assessment. To increase the hours dedicated to problem solving.
72 than the Final Project. In this subject, the level of knowl demonstrated. During the last years, Prof. Sanchez has also participated as groups tutor of the Final Project. Therefore, as teamwork and leadership among the students has been possible. In addition, it has been determined that the number of topic-related questions regarding the design of reactors and learning outcomes that are supposed to be acquired in the particular subject of Chemical Reactors has decreased work and the deepness in detail knowledge regarding reac tor design has been considerably improved. Finally, the use of specialized software has been widely and successfully adapted by the students in simultaneous and subsequent subjects such as Separation Operations, Process and Prod uct Engineering, and Heat Transfer, among others, as well as in the Final Project, where students use MATLAB (or similar specialized software) as the main tool for designing, modeling, and simulating reactors, equipment, and even full plant operations. FUTURE PROPOSALS Given the present framework of changing teaching method ologies in Spain and, in general, in Europe, we consider that it is important to publish the experience gained. It is crucial to change the minds of professors who deny their usefulness. references of successful application of the methodology in subjects where previously none existed. In a second step, the communication with students to achieve a continuous improvement of the subject is very the students learning improvement. Some of them are very simple, such as having two timetables for activities or using problem to correct them. CONCLUSIONS document support the new methodology adopted according to the Bologna Process and to the EHEA. Our experience since it increases the depth of knowledge and understanding of chemical engineering and also develops substantial trans versal key competences. REFERENCES 1. Universities contribution to the Bologna Process. Tuning Education Structures in Europe. General Brochure. Tuning Project (2008) 2. Reichert, S., and C. Tauch, Trends IV: European Universities Imple menting Bologna European University Association, EUA Publications, (2005) 3. Sursock, A., and H. Smidt, Trends 2010: A Decade of Change in Eu ropean Higher Education, EUA Publications (2010) Lisbon Declaration 2007. Europes Universities Beyond 2010: Diversity with a common purpose EUA Publications (2007) 5. Joint Progress Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the Education & Training 2010 work programme. Council of the European Union. Education Committee. Brussels, 18 7. Key competences for a changing world. Draft 2010 joint progress report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the Education & Training 2010 work programme Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the 8. Wankat, P.C., and Service Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2002) 9. Wankat, P.C., The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy, the Paradox of Tradition and Innovation, Chem. Eng. Educ. (3), 10. Felder, R.M., D.R. Woods, J.E. Stice, and A. Rugarcia, The Future of Engineering Education. Part 2. Teaching Methods that Work, Chem. Eng. Educ. 11. Prince, M.J., Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research, J. Eng. Educ. 12. Prince, M.J., and R.M. Felder, Inductive Teaching and Learning Eng. Educ. 13. Bologna Work Plan 2009-2012. Bologna Secretariat Accord (2002). International Engineering Alliance 15. Standards for Accreditation. AQU Catalunya. 2005. New Grades Adaptation to EHEA. AQU Catalunya. 2005, Universitat de Lleida, Two-Cycle Degree System. European Federation of Chemical Engi neering, 2005 17. Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Helsinki, Finland (2005) 18. Bungay, H., and E. Kuchinski, The World Wide Web for Teaching Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng. Educ ., 19. Davis, J.F., G.E. Blau, and G.V. Reklaitis, Computers in Undergradu ate ChE Education. A perspective on training and application, Chem. Eng. Educ. (1), 50 (1995) 20. Mah, R.S.H., and D.M. Himmelblau, Role and Impact of Computers in Engineering Education, Chem. Eng. Educ. 21. Woods, D.R., and H. Sheardown, Ideas for Creating and Overcoming Student Silences, Chem. Eng. Educ. (2), 125 (2009)
73 N ew faculty encounter challenges as they strive to set up their research lab and start a research group. Familiarity with current literature is crucial to con ducting sound research, and including a formal education in students and concurrently guide the research groups publish ing goals. The involvement of undergraduates has the added studies in engineering. It should be noted that a previous version of this manuscript without the assessment component  The training of students in advanced research is by nature mostly experiential; the inclusion of strategic instruction var ies considerably. Most advisors train their students with the cations and adaptations. Experiential training in the laboratory can include demonstration strategies such as having students cedures three times under supervision before conducting the procedure independently. Mentoring has received attention recently including publications from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute  and the National Academy of Science.  Some aspects of the training of students in research are not typically done in a strategic fashion, however. Reading, understanding, critiquing, and assimilating facts, suggestive data, and theories from the literature is a skill that students traditionally have had to pick up along the way during their research experience. Few have studied the process for how students approach literature reviews; those that have done so discovered it is an involved and iterative process. This manuscript asserts that strategic instruction in this area leads to more productive research students sooner by counteracting literature lethargy, strengthening technical backgrounds, and bolstering the quality of research conducted in a lab group. A model of instruction is described and then assessed. JOURNAL CLUB: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature ADRIENNE R. MINERICK Work conducted at: 323 Presidents Circle, Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Author can be contacted at: 1400 Townsend Drive, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Hough ton, MI 49931; Phone: 906-487-2796, Email: email@example.com Adrienne Minerick is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Michigan Tech having recently moved from Mississippi State University, where she was a tenured associ ate professor. She received her Ph.D. and M.S. from the University of Notre Dame and B.S. from Michigan Technological University. At Tech, she teaches graduate Kinetics and Analytical Microdevice Technology courses. At MSU, Dr. Minerick taught the graduate Chemical Engineering Math, Process Con trols, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Freshman Seminar, Heat Transfer, and Analytical Microdevice Technol ogy courses. Her research is in medical microdevice diagnostics and dielectrophoresis. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2011 ChE curriculum
74 While involving students in structured literature critiques is not widely practiced, it is not a new concept and has [1, 5] Such structured guidance has been implemented for undergraduates in life sciences subjects, hospital physicians and graduate students of ing students.  Courses focused on research methods are  Courses focused on written / oral communication skills include formal / informal seminars and written critiques by other students,  implementation of annual progress reports for graduate students,  research project driven writing for non-native writers,  mentoring relationships to improve students,  and studio writing courses for undergraduate researchers.  Advice on conducting graduate seminars is available in The New Professors Handbook where the authors assert, a seminar program can go a long way in helping graduate students acquire the knowledge and skills to become independent researchers.  Academic research is a publish or perish type of environ ment. Limited advice exists in the literature to help new faculty publish, and this manuscript asserts that making manuscript writing and literature review an area of strategic instruction will increase the publishing productivity of a new faculty members research group. Some articles provide stra tegic instruction for newer faculty on writing grant proposals and scholarly papers to persuasively communicate concepts and ideas in science and engineering. on why they were so productive.  These individuals identi ity, research skills, and time management. Collaboration was who collectively broke this into mentoring received, mentor ing given, collaboration with colleagues, and collaboration as feedback in the writing process. The passion / curiosity writers. In the research skills category, four subareas were research management via thinking of new avenues of the eliminate distractions so they could write, scheduled regular writing instead of sporadic writing, and forced deadlines to get the paper submitted.  The literature-review course described here is structured to directly teach a) collaboration between students in a research group as well as between the professor and students, b) increasing knowledge of the literature, c) writing skills, and d) deadlines. This Journal Club indirectly contributes to a) curiosity and enthusiasm in the research directions of research. The Journal Club activities described have been run con secutively each semester for six years in one professors research group comprised of graduate students on research assistantships, undergraduate students paid hourly, as well as a limited number of prospective students interested in the one-credit-hour class with a department-approved syllabus, learning objectives, and formalized reports. Assessment of literature prowess was conducted at the very beginning of Fall 2008 (to catch Spring 2008 participants), as well as at the end of the Fall 2008, Spring 2009, and Fall 2009 semesters. Journal Club utilizes a discussion format, which is particu and promotes practice of logic skills, critical thinking, and verbalization of ideas.  This literature seminar provides a forum within which to a) mentor students to read, discuss, and understand papers in their scholarly writing and publications. Two years of assessment data show that this structured approach decreases students apprehensions and intimidation of technical literature and im proves their ability to write and publish technical papers. STARTING UP THE WEEKLY LITERATURE REVIEW MEETINGS The experiential advice provided has been developed during the authors six years as a tenure-track assistant professor and group (and thus class participants) has been comprised of Ph.D. students, M.S. students, and part-time Research Ex perience for Undergraduates (REU) students on NSFand DOE-funded research projects. The group has earned 18 awards at regional / national conferences, published 35 pro ceedings articles, one book chapter, and 11 archival journal articles in the last six years. The suggestions included herein are a culmination of strategies that have been most successful in mentoring neophyte researchers to obtain a satisfactory familiarity with the literature and in maintaining knowledge of more senior group members on the current literature. When starting a formalized literature review session, it helps to clearly convey the purpose and importance of the activity. The following is an excerpt from the class syllabus: The purpose of Journal Club is to encourage everyone in the group to remain abreast of the literature. The discussion you by increasing the breadth of your knowledge. Your depth of understanding and retention of articles in your own research area will increase as you practice and prepare for leading discussions. The discussion questions will increase the depth of your knowledge. In addition, your involvement in discussions will teach you to think critically and will aid in developing your own experiments and skills. More spe
75 microdevices. into your own lab work. literature. on-campus and off-campus. group. it for oral presentations, and semester. Secondly, it is important to remain organized and to com municate well in advance the students assigned article and presentation date. The author tried a number of approaches including a) student selection of articles, b) article selection throughout the semester, and c) professor-assigned articles. Article selection during a semester either by the professor or the student is not recommended because of high logisti been to ask the students to conduct a literature search on a and quickly summarizes the merits of the articles (based on reading the abstracts) for the group. The professor and students select the two or three that the student will present during the semester. By the following Journal Club meeting, each student e-mails the entire group an electronic copy of the article. The professor prepares and distributes a schedule summarizing presenter dates and article citations. This ap proach facilitates a paperless Journal Club and promotes examination of supplemental electronic documentation that journals publish online. One recommended approach is to develop a syllabus for each semester outlining objectives of the Journal Club, the schedule, and expected performance; this can be published on the labs website and updated throughout the semester.  Formalizing Journal Club into a one-credit-hour directed grading scale helped students prioritize reading the articles. In some departments, REU students can use the credits to by documenting the course in annual faculty evaluations as student credit hours taught. An example grading rubric is: Grades Letter grade scale: Daily Grades assigned articles and integral involvement in discus sions. follows: ing read it prior to the meeting) tions, assessment of content, interpretations, etc. Presenters Grade prepare a written article summary (two to three para graphs), article review (see example), and an outline of discussion items. The grading rubric is: article review swering and asking questions, assessment of content, interpretations, etc. Remember, you do not have to be an expert on the article, just a guide. The biggest return from a literature review effort will likely be in the form of student productivity in research writing. The frequent interactions incrementally guide students to laboratory / simulation methodologies, and stronger written manuscripts. Each semester, students complete individual in archival journal article format; both must include welldeveloped literature-review sections. One useful resource for students that provides guidance is an article on Attributes of Exemplary Research Manuscripts Employing Quantitative Analysis.  An excerpt from the syllabus on expectations Oral Presentation: Research Progress and Relation to the Literature One oral presentation will be scheduled at the end of the semester. Graduate Students: This presentation of ~10 minutes is to include a motivation, background and literature review, premise of your research project, experimental description, results including plots of data, and inter Undergraduate Students: This presentation of ~6 minutes is to include a literature review and overview of your research project and results.
76 Final Report: Compiled Survey of the Literature double-spaced), formatted and written in the same tone and polished state as an archival journal article, will be due at the end of the semester. A minimum of 15 references must be discussed at the level commiserate with published journal articles. spaced) will be due at the end of the semester and will include the same sections as a traditional archival journal article. Your assigned article and >4 oth ers pertinent to your own research project should be included. Once a formalized Journal Club activity is in place in a faculty members lab group, it can be adapted and expanded to include non-REU undergraduates not already conducting research. The format is also conducive to students at vary the students are at approximately the same skill level. Once established, the more senior members voluntarily engage in peer-to-peer mentoring. For example, graduate students will base search to locate relevant articles (A document guiding students on a literature search is provided on the authors webpage.  ) With regard to scheduling, the newest students are added to the end of the rotation of presenters so that they have time to observe how more advanced students structure an article summary and article review, as well as lead discussions. The climate is such that when a student doesnt understand an article, they can freely admit this and the group discusses individual understandings until a consensus is reached. GUIDING THE QUALITY OF PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS Students do not possess an innate ability to glean informa tion from dense technical articles. It is necessary to strategi cally demonstrate and teach how to read an article and lead a discussion on the topic. The entire course is a learning experience for the students, even taking it semester after perfect time to provide an example summary and review, and demonstrate guiding a discussion. The author advises her students to begin studying a technical article by reading the abstract, introduction, and conclusions advised to start back at the beginning and read through the article, taking notes or underlining as is comfortable. Re-read paragraphs or sections as necessary, then leave the article overnight and read it again the following day to prepare the article summary, discussion notes, and article critique for Journal Club. The students are advised to proofread their notes and to practice their summary and discussion questions before the class. After the meeting, the article summary and discussion notes are posted on the research groups website as well as in the lab groups EndNote and Dossier databases for easy reference. [21, 22] A Journal Club session starts with the students article summary, which acts as a brief overview of the introduction / purpose of the article and its applicability to his / her research project. The format that has been most educational for the students is to have them critique the article as if they have been solicited as a journal reviewer to assess the quality of the manuscript and make a recommendation for publishing concurrent with suggested edits / feedback to the authors. Students are provided examples of recent reviews that the professor has conducted and guided to provide at least the following: A. A summary of the entire article and its context in the B. An assessment of the content organized by section. C. An assessment of language and miscellaneous. E. An overall assessment and recommendation to the editor (accept, accept with revisions, resubmit for rereview after major revisions, do not accept). This written critique is provided either in hardcopy or elec tronic form at the beginning of the session. The facilitating student then begins an interactive discussion of the article structured by the written critique, the article sections, or open format with predetermined questions. The professor provides an tude to conduct their article discussion in their desired format. research methods, fundamental equations and assumptions in any theory sections, trends and comparisons between experi mental / theoretical results, and a critique of conclusions based on the data. These are further enumerated below: 1. The research methods a. What was novel about the techniques? b. Was there anything that could have been done better? c. Were all variables properly controlled? d. Can we adapt anything in our own lab? 2. Theory (if included in the article) a. What fundamental equations did the authors start with? b. Did the assumptions they made make physical sense within their system? 3. Experimental / theoretical results provided in the paper b. What questions are left unanswered? c. Were the authors conclusions consistent with the data?
77 a. What is the next logical step for this research to take? b. How would you conduct research to answer any unan swered questions? 5. Overall a. What was well written, well explained, well communi cated in the paper? effective? discuss dense technical articles is a skill that develops with practice. Leading a discussion is a skill that is developed via practice and perceptive efforts. The art of leading a discussion sometimes requires strategic guidance, however. As a supple ment, students are provided with four resources: Tips for Leading Discussions,  Giving Presentations and Leading Discussions, Chapter 3: Conducting Discussions from The New Professors Handbook  ing Effective Discussions.  These sources all agree that the foremost goal is to establish a nonthreatening climate that is inviting to open discussion. Very frequently, the students are concerned that they will ap pear dumb and so they rush through their prepared notes so quickly that other students do not have the time to comprehend the information and are relegated to observers of a monologue. As a secondary facilitator, it is necessary for the ad visor / instructor to slow or stop the presenter and ask questions for under standing. The discussion resources suggest that a facilitator can de-empha size their role in the dis cussion by asking openended questions.  This invites involvement by the group and enriches the depth of discussion of the article. Journal Club sessions usually end with a dis cussion on how to apply the findings for future to conduct Journal Clubs in a room with a round table for discussions and a whiteboard where brainstorms can be graphically demon strated. The author has found that discussions sometimes migrate to topics that more trained individuals take for granted, such as order of authorship, or that the research appears perfectly conducted in a preplanned linear fashion. Senior research students who have had the experience of their own work did not progress in a clean, linear fashion. It is good to discuss that when writing an article, the authors have the advantage of hindsight; they can describe what of the research story. These discussions add another dimen sion of unplanned mentoring that occurs within a successful research group. THE MERITS OF THIS STRATEGY As a portion of the course grade, students are asked to write Non-REU students are asked to conduct a literature search and write a review article. For both, contextualization of the Jour nal Club articles is emphasized. As M.S. or Ph.D. students into manuscripts for submission to journals. The publication trends for the authors research group while utilizing this ap proach are included in Figure 1. Increases were seen over time Figure 1. Total peer-reviewed journal articles (black, rst bar), peer-reviewed proceedings ar ticles (dark gray, second bar), other non-peer-reviewed technical articles (light gray, third bar) and presentations (textured, fourth bar) for the research group from 2003 to mid-2010.
78 in all categories, most notably in the peer-reviewed articles and proceedings categories. Due to time for peer-review, a total of eight manuscripts are in press or under review for this research group at the time of this article submission. In addition to the merits of an organized and sustained dis cussion of current literature, a Journal Club activity can also add dimension to a new faculty members growing credentials. The author advises developing this activity into a course not only because it will help sustain participant motivation, but it can also be included in a tenure and promotion packet as a new course developed. A Journal Club course can also be included in your student-contact hours calculation on an nual review forms. Additionally, if the class is opened to all interested undergraduate and graduate students ( i.e. non-lab group members), it can lead to increased enthusiasm for your research area within the student population and potentially encourage an undergraduate student to pursue an advanced degree in your area. When considering adopting a new activity, new faculty should critically assess whether the activity supports their efforts for tenure and to what extent it adds to their existing ing graduate students to read the literature via traditional mentoring techniques, the author has felt that Journal Club streamlined these efforts considerably. This structured forum to multiple students at one time while simultaneously follow ing up on their progress. The administrative details relating to grading added a small amount of time, but this was offset information from the articles. In addition, the structured forum promoted documenting the important concepts (via Dossier and EndNote) [21, 22] and stimulated creative ideas. ASSESSMENT A survey was designed and conducted of the stu dents enrolled in the Journal Club class from Fall 2008 through Fall 2009. The 13-question survey was approved by MSUs Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the protection of human subjects.  Stu dents all signed consent forms giving permission for their data to be included. The survey was designed to test the hypothesis that the students would gain the Journal Club class. The full survey is included in Appendix A. It should be noted that student perceptions are valuable factors to consider, as student performance can be negatively affected by negative perceptions. Students enrolled in the class were asked to com plete the survey at four points in time: 1. Beginning of the Fall 2008 semester, 2. End of the Fall 2008 the Fall 2009 semester. Journal Club was not conducted during the summer months due to conference and travel schedules of the professor and students. Course enrollments from Spring 2008 through Fall 2009 are included in Table 1. Tracking of individual graduate students was straightforward due to reten tion of those students. Undergraduates involvement in Journal Club and research varied each semester due to graduations, course loads, and progress in the lab. dents self-rated their backgrounds. The topics included Q1) ex Q3) experience reading and understanding archival journal in this research group), and Q5) familiarity with microdevices (a foundational knowledge utilized in this research group). The remaining eight questions asked the students to self-rate their through content and keeping them participating in content discussions, Q8) experience adapting techniques described in articles in own research, Q9) experience critiquing techniques and conclusions asserted in the literature, Q10) experience compiling a survey of the literature, organizing it logically, and presenting it to others to show progression of knowledge and missing information, Q11) experience analyzing raw data to determine trends and dependencies, Q12) experience writing research articles. Lastly, the students were given the opportunity to openly comment on any of the survey questions or to provide general feedback (Q13). The data obtained from these surveys are outlined below. To judge growth over time, the three graduate students who participated continuously in Journal Club from Spring 2008 to present were tracked. Their average responses for of Post M.S. and Direct-Admit Ph.D. These students are concur Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Spring 2009 Fall 2009 3 Post M.S. 2 2 2 2 Direct-Admit Ph.D. 1 2 2 2 New 1 Continuing 3 3 Undergraduate Students 3 2 2 New 2 1 3 Continuing 1 1 2 1
79 each question are shown in Figure 2. In the survey conducted just prior to Fall 2008, these students rated themselves around 3.5 overall on end of Fall 2008, then dropped to Fall 2009. What is interesting about dependent. One student steadily in creased in self-rated experience and in Spring 2009, and the third student self-rated themselves substantially lower in Spring 2009. As shown in Figure 2, however, an increase over time occurs for almost all questions. In general, the self-rated background questions showed greater increases than the skills questions. A similar analysis was conducted for two undergraduates who were enrolled in Journal Club during Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 (Figure 3). Both completed the survey prior to Fall 2008, although only one had been enrolled in Journal Club in Spring 2008. Substantial increases are noted (changes from 1 to over undergraduates engaging in research students self-rated background and skills increased over the two semes experience reading journal articles and familiarity with electrokinetics and both of these saw a half-point decline in undergraduates, but the same trend was not observed with the graduate students. Interestingly, while question 7 on guiding partici pants through discussions on content showed stagnation with graduate inversion was seen in the under to Spring 2009. The students lead a discussion twice during a semester and if that student led The changes over time for the types of graduate students survey completed by the student to their survey in Fall 2009. Figure 2. Tabulated responses at four points in time for graduate students (Prior to Fall 2008 = black diamonds, End Fall 2008 = dark gray squares, End Spring 2009 = light gray triangles, End Fall 2009 = open circles). Average responses for each question are determined from the same three graduate students who were enrolled continuously in Journal Club from Spring 2008. Figure 3. Tabulated responses at three points in time for undergraduates enrolled in Journal Club (Prior to Fall 2008 = black diamonds, End Fall 2008 = dark gray squares, End Spring 2009 = light gray triangles). Average responses for each ques tion are determined from the same two undergraduate students.
80 tions. All changes are positive ( i.e. greater in Fall 2009 than prior survey) showing the impact that an activity such as Journal Club has on the growth and maturation of research students. It is interesting that regardless of the background and research experience of the students, a positive impact and growth was observed. CONCLUSIONS This manuscript outlines a strategy to keep all members of a research group abreast of the technical literature in their lethargy and to train student researchers (M.S., Ph.D., and REU) how to effectively learn from and critique articles. The purpose and importance of the peer-review process all participants. Portions of an example class syllabus are provided and resources on leading discussions are given. Learning objectives are enumerated and included such skills as learning to critically review the literature and to write archival journal articles. Rubrics are described that could be used for grading purposes or as guidelines from which to provide feedback to the student after facilitating a discussion. and effective learning experience for the students and the reviews the technical and cre dential-building merits of de veloping a literature review course, which include increased publishing productivity, ac crued teaching credentials, and in his / her research area and in research skills. Assessment of the students enrolled in the course over a two-year period shows this increase in self-rated technical background, discus sion facilitation, and literature suavity. In conclusion, student in volvement in literature discus sions teaches critical thinking, increases technical vocabulary, guides poster / presentation quality, increases technical knowledge, bolsters confi dence, and aids in optimiz ing research experiments. Additional benefits include peer-to-peer mentoring and streamlined professor-to-re search student mentoring. Outcomes of the Journal Club activity have also included increased student knowledge of the literature, decreased apprehension in younger students toward understanding technical publications, and increases in publications within the research group. REFERENCES 1. Minerick, A.R. Journal Club: A Forum to Encourage Graduate and Undergraduate Research Students to Critically Review the Literature, New Engineering Educators Division American Society of Engineer 2. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Making The Right Moves: A Practi Burroughs Wellcome Fund and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, , Ac cessed Jan. 15, 2010 3. National Academy of Science, National Academy of Engineers, and Institute of Medicine. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering, National Academy Press, Wash Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 Doctoral Undertaking of Humanities and Social Sciences: Implications for Literature Reviewing, (2008) 5. Hill, P.J., Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research, Chem. Eng. Ed. for Graduate Research, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educa Figure 4. Average changes over the time period the graduate students were enrolled in the course. The changes are grouped by student experience. The rst bar (black) shows the average change over all students. The second bar (dark gray) shows the increase for a 2nd year (as of Fall 2009) direct-admit Ph.D. student, the third bar (light gray) shows the increase for a 3rd year direct-admit Ph.D. student, while the fourth and last bar (textured) shows the increase for two post-M.S. Ph.D. students.
81 tion 7. Matarese, V., Introductory Course on Getting to Know Journals and Communication, Croatian Medical Journal 8. Kemoni, H.N., Theoretical Framework and Literature Review in Graduate Records Management Research, African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science (2), 103 (2008) 9. Surratt, C.K., Creation of a Graduate Oral/Written Communication Skills Course, American J. Pharmaceutical Ed. 10. Pierson, M.M., Annual Progress Reports: An Effective Way to Im prove Graduate Student Communication Skills, J. Eng. Ed. 11. Levis, J.M., and G.M. Levis, A Project-Based Approach to Teaching Research Writing to Nonnative Writers, IEEE Trans. on Professional Communication (3), 210 (2003) International Graduate Students in Elective, Mentoring Environments, J. Eng. Ed. 13. Thompson, N.S., et al., Integrating Undergraduate Research Into Engineering: A Communications Approach to Holistic Education, J. Eng. Ed. (3), 297 (2005) J. Eng. Ed. 15. Davidson, C.I., and S.A. Ambrose, The New Professors Handbook Chptr 3: Conducting Discussions, Anker Publishing Company, Inc. Survival Skills for a Publish or Perish Environment, J. Eng. Ed. (1), 133 (2002) 17. Mayrath, M.C., Attributes of Productive Authors in Educational Psychology Journals, Educational Psychology Reviews (2008) 18. Smart, J.C., Perspectives of the Editor: Attributes of Exemplary Research Manuscripts Employing Quantitative Analysis, Research in Higher Education 19. McKeachie, W.J., Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher 8th Ed., D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA, 20. Medical Micro-Device Engineering Research Laboratory (M.D. ERL) website, , Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 21. EndNote: Software for managing bibliographies, , Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 22. Vortimac Software, Informational Management Program called Dossier, available at , Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 23. Tibbitts, Felisa, Tips for Leading Discussions Human Rights Educa tion Association, , Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 College. , Accessed Jan. 15, 2010 25. Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects at Mississippi State University, , Ac cessed Jan. 15, 2010 of the Effect of Students Perceptions on Academic Performance, Accounting and Finance 48 (2), 209 (2008) APPENDIX A: COURSE SKILLS AND ATTITUDE ASSESSMENT This survey is to assess your current familiarity and skilllevel with regards to a) searching the literature for relevant published work related to your research project as well as b) reading articles and extracting important information to understand the work that was done and how to apply it to your own research. Background 1. I have experience conducting literature searches. a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Neutral d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Neutral d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree 3. Please rate your experience at reading archival journal articles. stand all) closely) closely) reading) 4. Please rate your familiarity with electrokinetics. a. Expert b. Master c. Apprentice d. Novice e. Completely unfamiliar 5. Please rate your familiarity with microdevices. a. Expert b. Master c. Apprentice d. Novice e. Completely unfamiliar Skills 6. I have experience facilitating a discussion in a group. a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Neutral d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree tively participating in content discussions. a. Strongly agree (all participants provide full sentence statements about concepts)
82 b. Agree (most participants contribute statements about content) c. Neutral (most participants will provide short feed back) d. Disagree (some participants provide some feedback) e. Strongly disagree (participants say little, nod or agree when appropriate) 8. I have experience adapting techniques described in articles in my own research. a. Strongly agree (I do this regularly without guidance from anyone) b. Agree (I recognize opportunities for this and need to discuss with others) c. Neutral (I recognize relations when others point them out to me) d. Disagree (I rarely see how literature is related to my project) e. Strongly disagree (articles are from a different planet than my project) 9. I have experience critiquing techniques and conclusions asserted in the literature. a. Strongly agree (regularly recognize trends and limita tions, others rarely recognize things I didnt already see) b. Agree (regularly recognize trends & limitations, learn from others insights) c. Neutral (sometimes recognize limitations, learn from others insights) d. Disagree (Rarely recognize trends & limitations, rarely follow others insights) e. Strongly disagree (I feel lost) 10. I have experience compiling a survey of the literature on a subject, organizing it logically, and presenting it to others in a manner that shows progression of knowledge and sug gests what information is missing. a. Strongly agree (I can do this independent of guidance) b. Agree (Can do some independent, need some guid ance) c. Neutral (Need guidance, can follow instructions) d. Disagree (Need guidance, sometimes need repeat to follow instructions) e. Strongly disagree (please dont make me do this!) 11. I have experience analyzing raw data (list of numbers) to determine trends and dependencies. a. Strongly agree (I can do this independent of guidance) b. Agree (Can do some independent, need some guidance) c. Neutral (Need guidance, can follow instructions) d. Disagree (Need guidance, sometimes repeat guidance to follow instructions) e. Strongly disagree (please dont make me do this!) 12. I have experience writing research articles that combine the skills from 7 through 11. a. Strongly agree (I can do this independent of guidance) d. Disagree (Need guidance on some sections and guid e. Strongly disagree (Need guidance on each section and step by step approach) swers to 1 through 12 here: (i.e., for #1, have you previously learned to read experience?)