Chemical Engineering Education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical Engineering Education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
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LISA G. BULLARD North Carolina State University Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChE TIPS ON EFFICIENT EFFECTIVE, STUDENT -CENTERED TEACHING S [14] Class Notes: Using notes with gaps provides the instructor instructor can use these materials across a wide spectrum of to active participants who actually have time to think and Lecture Materials: If you are asked to teach a course for the share their course materials and use those materials as your [5] Common Communications: Instructors typically send a future offerings and helps ensure that you include everything Student Names: Early Chats: individual interviews with each student early in the semester interests and career goals can help you later connect with Common Questions: policies on late homework and missed tests can minimize At-Risk Students: Intervene early in cases of students with low test scores or poor attendance to catch students who out to struggling students early sends a clear message that Team Assignment and Evaluation: If students complete as use the same program to collect and analyze peer evalua REFERENCES and Service 43


ChE book review tour de force Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field Reviewed by Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010


245OUTREACH 280 Engaging K Students in the Engineering Classroom: A Creative Use of Undergraduate Self-Directed Projects Omolola Eniola-Adefeso CLASSROOM 246 Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: Anne-Marie Billet, Sverine Camy, and Carole Coufort-Saudejaud 274 Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer Adrienne R. Minerick 289 Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences Qingxing Xu, Youyun Liang, Yen Wah Tong, and Chi-Hwa Wang RANDOM THOUGHTS 287 Meet Your Students 3. Michelle, Rob, and Art Richard Felder SURVEY 306 Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 2 (Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum) Jason M. Keith, David L. Silverstein, Donald P. Visco, Jr., and Lisa G. Bullard CURRICULUM 253 William M. Clark, Ryan C. Shevlin, and Tanya S. Soffen 262 Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers Laurent Simon, Kumud Kanneganti, and Kwang Seok Kim 267 Introducing Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design Georgia Kosmopoulou, Chintamani Jog, Margaret Freeman, and Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou 299 Undergrad. Course in Modeling and Simulation of Multiphysics Systems Estanislao Ortiz-Rodriguez, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas, and Luis A. Ricardez-Sandoval 318 Bryan Sawyer, Michelle Ji, Michael J. Gordon, and Galen J. SuppesTEACHING TIP Lisa G. BullardBOOK REVIEW inside back cover Educating Engineers. Designing for the Future of the Field by Sheppard, S.D., K. Macatangay, A. Colby, and W.M. Sullivan Reviewed by Phillip C. WankatChemical Engineering Education Volume 44 Number 4 Fall 2010 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engi neering Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Cor respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2010 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily 120 days of pub lication. W rite for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMAS TER: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida, PUBLICATIONS BOARDEDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861 EDITOR Tim Anderson ASSOCIATE EDITOR Phillip C. W ankat L ynn Heasley PROBLEM EDITOR Daina Briedis, Michigan State W illiam J. Koros, Georgia Institute of Technology John OConnell University of VirginiaC. Stewart Slater Rowan UniversityPedro Arce Tennessee Tech University Lisa Bullard North Carolina State Jennifer Curtis University of Florida Stephanie Farrell Rowan University Jim Henry University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Jason Keith Michigan Technological University Milo Koretsky Oregon State University Suzanne Kresta University of Alberta Steve LeBlanc University of Toledo Lorenzo Saliceti University of Puerto Rico David Silverstein University of Kentucky Margot Vigeant Bucknell University


246Laboratories are considered a fundamental part of the students educational experience in engineering. In the case of chemical engineering, students implement theories and concepts that are related to mass, heat, and momentum transfer. From an educational point of view, Feisel and Rosa[1] have listed the main 13 objectives of engineer ing instructional laboratories: 1) instrumentation practice, data analysis, 5) design application, 6) learning from failure, 7) use of creativity, 8) improvement of psychomotricity, 9) teamwork experience, 12) consideration of ethics (for lab), and 13) sensory awareness. During the lab session, students are usually divided into small groups, and perform laboratory or pilot-scale unit operations experiments under the direction of professors or associate teachers. Students sometimes content themselves with following the steps that are described in the protocol they have been given and do not try to deeply understand the underlying phenomena. This kind of behavior is often said to be a cookbook or follow the recipe approach, as pointed out by McCreary, et al.[2] and Young, et al.[3] As a consequence, students lack motivation for practical work and this leads to poor output, i.e. dents are not eager to take on responsibilities) and rather poor analysis of the experimental results, among other undesirable outcomes. Assuming such behavior, the objectives suggested by Feisel and Rosa[1] of knowledge, and improve integration of concepts, different types of laboratory instruction have been suggested. In his review, Domin distinguishes four different styles of teaching Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for ChE: THE SPECIFIC CASE OF THE PILOT-UNIT LEADING GROUP ANNE-MARIE BILLET, SVERINE CAMY, CAROLE COUFORT-SA UDEJ A UD (expository, inquiry, discovery, and problem-based) that can be differentiated according to three distinct descriptors (outcome, approach, and procedure). He concludes that the differences ChEclassroom Anne-Marie Billet completed her engineer ing degree and her Ph.D. thesis in process engineering at Institut National Polytechnique in Toulouse (France) in 1992. She is now an associate professor in the Engineering school (French grande ecole) INPT-ENSIACET (Toulouse, France), in the Chemical Engineer ing Department. She carries out research activities at the Laboratoire de Gnie Chimique (Toulouse, France) in the field of hy drodynamics and mass transfer in bubble reactors. Sverine Camy obtained her undergraduate degree and M.S. in chemical engineering in 1997 and her Ph.D. in chemical and process engineering in 2000, from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT). She joined ENSIACET at the University of Toulouse as an associate professor in 2006. She carries out her research at the Laboratoire de Gnie Chimique in Toulouse on the topic of supercritical CO2 separation and reaction processes. Carole Coufort-Saudejaud completed her engineering degree in 2001 and her Ph.D. in chemical engineering at the Institut National des Sciences Appliques (INSA Toulouse, France) in 2004. Since 2006, she is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Ecole Nationale des Ingnieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques (Toulouse, France). Her research interests are the analysis and the optimization of uidized bed chemical vapor deposition processes at the Laboratoire de Gnie Chimique (Toulouse, France). Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010


247between styles lead to different learning outcomes. In a more [5] suggest that crosscourse projects can be followed; Jimenez, et al.,[6] propose to focus on open-ended problems within a stop and go course organizationa method that requires students to search for information, to plan experiments, to interpret data, and to derive conclusions. Doskocil[7] recommends combining the design of experiment techniques with a current experiment to present a more real world situation to the student. Felder and [8] game show Survivor, Newel[9] also recommends a method for active learning that addresses students involvement. From the literature on chemical engineering laboratory education, one can see that most of studies are devoted to points 1 to 9 in Feisel and Rosas list while the four last pointswhich are related to communication and managementare scarcely tackled. As pointed out by Jones,[10] Smith,[11] and Johnson and Johnson,[12] however, generic skills such as team management and time management should not be taught only during keyLab work dedicated to chemical engineering practice at platform that gathers various chemical engineering pilot-scale rigs () such as: batch and continuous distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, batch reactor, stirred tank with gas-liquid mass transfer, multiple effect evaporator, gas absorption columns, and heat exchanger. The objective of this lab experience is to have students discover and operate the instrumentation and equipment related to the main chemical engineering operations. Traditional lab practice, however, has shown some weaknesses when derived through the traditional laboratory instruction and this has prompted some instructors to propose an innovative process for managing laboratory instruction. As a result, the idea of a pilot-unit leading group for the chemical engineering pilot-scale laboratory instruction was introduced. The aim of this paper is thus to present the pilot-unit leading group approach that teachers of INP-ENSIACET have put into practice for chemical engineering laboratory instruction. PRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT AND PRACTICE OF PILOT -UNIT LEADING GROUPThe students involved are in the second year of INP-ENSIACET engineering formation (Chemical Engineering DepartStudents spend six full days in the pilot equipment platform. technical and pedagogical booklets are given to them a few days before the beginning of the lab session. Students are have been taught on the subjects, and to bring with them any documents that may be helpful during the lab session. Pedagogic Objectives The pilot-unit leading group approach has a dual pur pose: concepts learned in the classroom into a coherent learning activity, 2. The second aims at adding some communication and dual approach is integrating the second objective without [13] shift in the control and responsibility of learning from teacher to student, and to promote active participation by the learner. To create such a dynamic learning environment, the educational team at INP-ENSIACET decided to transfer or partially delegate the responsibility of instruction for the pilot-units to the students and let them manage their classmates. At the end of the laboratory session, the assessment must show that students: ing theory to the apparatus, have conducted an extensive and detailed investigation of the pilot plant operation, have gathered, carefully examined, and interpreted the data, have drawn consistent conclusions, have made recommendations based on technical and have developed skills in writing technical reports, oral and written communication, management of groups, and teamwork. Practical Organization The class is divided into six groups of three or four students who work on six pilot-scale operations: liquid-liquid extrac tion, continuous distillation, batch distillation, absorption, stirred tank, and multiple effects evaporator. Each student group uses each pilot during one day. The pilot-unit leading group concept refers to the fact that the students become the managers for the pilot they have been working on during must decide which kind of experiments have to be done by the other students during the lab session, manage the other technical questions of their classmates. To illustrate this concept we chose to focus on the example of a liquid-liquid extraction pilot-scale laboratory that uses water as a solvent to extract acetone from an acetone-cyclo hexane mixture. The process is quite simple and consists of the solvent and the acetone-cyclohexane mixture, a pump to


248 ensure pulsation inside the column, and several tanks for the Schedule of the Formation Day 1 pilot-scale installation that the students have to operate. The main possible experiments that can be performed on the installation are explained. During this day, the students become familiar with the pilot plant. They analyze the apparatus and environment (instrumentation, process control, devices, analytical techniques, etc); then they perform experiments, interpret the experimental results, and put into practice both design models and tools of simulation to better understand the physical and chemical phenomena. In addition to learning the pilot operation, students spend the day in coordination with the teacher answering the different questions that arise such as: At the end of the day, the students have to give the teacher a planning sheet compiling the details (operating conditions) of the experiments they want their classmates (of the other groups) to perform. Special attention must be paid to the coherence of the operating conditions so that each group one operational parameter. In particular, each group must collect a set of experiments that can be interpreted and that also contain at least one or two experiments dedicated to the repeatability and redundancy of measurements. For example, concerning the liquid-liquid extraction laborapulsing frequency and amplitude, can be varied. For each set of operational conditions, students have to determine, at least, the composition of the currents (using chromatography the number of theoretical stages using a triangular diagram. At the end of the day, the planning sheet established by the leading group must gather the operating conditions that will be tested by the other groups. This sheet must be presented using a clear and precise table that can be easily understood by the teachers and the other students. Day 2 During the second day, students discover a new pilot-unit and have three main tasks: 1) Perform the experiments requested by the leading group of the unit on which they are working. 2) Write a report (called a basic report) concerning the results of the experiments and the analysis of the data. This report is given at the end of the day to the pilot-unit leading group of this unit. 3) Manage the group of students working on the apparatus they are in charge of. This last task includes the presentation of the apparatus, the explanation of the experimental schedule, and the management of their classmates all day long. Note that depending on the results obtained by each group, the planning sheet which gathers the operating conditionscan be updated by the leading group at the end of each day, according to the notion of continuous quality improvement (for the so-called Kaizen attitude, described by Ima and Kaizen). End of the session One week after the last day of laboratory class, each group has to give a comprehensive report (called a pilot-unit lead ing group report) concerning the pilot apparatus they had to manage. This work is also evaluated by means of an oral presentation (about 20 minutes). This presentation must recall the principal parts of the report. The assessment tools will be Observed Evolution of Students Behavior The detailed objective of the pilot-unit leading group technique is to lead to the improvement of: the students are expected to : conduct a literature search to collect information con cerning the unit operation design appropriate experiment schedules, design and conduct analytical, modeling, and experi mental investigations interpret their own data and the data of other groups, and then draw conclusions skills. Indeed, all along the laboratory course, students experiment on how to manage a project, which makes them sensitive to their future professional experience. This is an active learning process and a real-time life experience: They have to act as an individual and as a member of a team structure; they have to share responsibilities, assign


249 monitor progress, and integrate the individual contribuand oral presentation). In addition, the pilot-unit leading group experience also delivers a strong message on aspects related to health, safety, security, and professional ethics, thus providing learning portant skills. The feedback of teachers who have experienced this approach, which has been applied at INPT-ENSIACET for several During the laboratory class, students seem to be more concerned by the experiments they have to perform because their results have to be used by their class mates. For example, when there is a doubt concerning the protocol they directly refer to the pilot-unit leading group. They do not hesitate to repeat an experiment that was not reliable enough. If they deviate from the given protocol, they derive in their report a discussion about the observed discrepancies. The involvement of the leading group is excellent. They really take care of their apparatus and seriously consider the management of the other groups. Students learn how to design and to estimate the quan tity of work that can be done by their colleagues in a one-day period. Students also experience how to delegate work to their classmates and how to manage technical staff (manage TEACHING-STAFF INVOL VEMENT/ COMMITMENT The implementation of the pilot-unit leading group concept in the chemical engineering syllabus at INP-ENSIACET has The teaching staff still has the responsibility of: safety and security aspects evaluation of the relevance of operating conditions proposed by the pilot-unit leading group, evaluation of the relevance of methodologies available to address the objectives, evaluation of the assimilation of concepts learned in class.Some new aspects have to be taken into account, however. As pointed out by Lickl,[15] the teachers role is not to be the sage on the stage but the guide on the side. On day one of the pilot-unit leading group laboratory, the teachers role is somewhat traditional: he/she gives explanations of the apparatus, of the relevant parameters to study, of how to run the analyses, etc. During the following days, the teachers major role is to observe (especially concerning the security and safe ty aspects). The teacher must accept that the knowledge has to be delivered to a student by another student, rather than by himself/herself). The teacher must still make sure, however, that all technical aspects and fundamental theories are well transmitted, understood, and applied. As a result, the teacher is involved in discussions with the groups all day long. A real effort has to be made by the teacher concerning possible misconceptions, which have to be checked more or less in real time. For instance, as mentioned before, the leading group can modify, at the end of each day, the planning sheet of the operating conditions in relation to the results obtained by the working group. This can only be done after a discussion with the teacher and under the teachers agreement. Thus, this kind of pedagogy needs a high reactivity from the teacher, but the high motivation of the students is worth it! ASSESSMENT TOOLS Assessment of competencies acquired by the students As previously mentioned, assessment of students perfor mances during pilot-scale laboratories covers several levels of skills and know-how, since the students have to produce differ ent types of reporting during the entire laboratory instruction. Students have to produce a basic report after each pilot-scale for this document are supplied to the students through a lab protocol, in which practical investigations and confrontation of their results with theoretical phenomena are demanded. The students are asked to give this report back to the teaching staff and to give a copy to the group of students (pilot-unit leading group) that is managing the apparatus they worked on. From an evaluation point of view, the objective of this basic report is to check that students have been able to perform the experiments, to observe the main physical phenomena involved, and to make a proper use of their results. As said in the second part of this paper, at the end of the laboratories each student group also has to produce a typewritten report (referred to as the pilot-unit leading report), that contains a broad and complete analysis of the pilot-scale experiments for which they are the leading group. This report must contain several parts: a list of the industrial applications of the considered unit operation and the associated research experimental results of all groups, a critical and detailed analysis of the experimental results, a modeling study concerning at least one phenomenon that takes place within the pilot, and a discussion of the possible improvements that could be made to the apparatus. For this report, supplementary time (one week) is given to the students so that they can compile and analyze all data. Mainly evaluated through this work are the students management capacity and their ability to analyze the experimental results. The students are also expected to


250develop critical evaluation skills on what and why; they Finally, at the end of the laboratory session, the students are required to give an oral presentation (20 minutes) of their pilot-unit leading group experience. This presentation is done in front of the whole class so that every student hears a complete overview of each pilot-scale lab, even those that they have not managed. This oral presentation aims to check the students clarity of expression and understanding, ability of technical awarded is a weighted average of the three assessments. Details of the assessment tools are listed below: Basic report: The evaluation of the basic report is based As an example, the evaluation of students performance for the liquid-liquid extraction laboratory is carried out using the criteria in Table 1, which has been established in connection with the guidelines supplied by the protocol. The last topic of the assessment for the basic report leads to individual marks for the same experiment within a student group. This individual assessment can be a way of rewarding the conscientious students and of penalizing those who are less active. Pilot-unit leading report: The assessment of the pilotunit leading report is built on a different basis than the basic report. For the pilot-unit leading report, the degree of freedom left to the students is more important, since they have to prove their ability to gather, select, analyze, and synthesize experimental data, and this is largely dependant on their capacity to manage other groups on the pilot-scale unit they are leading. As said before, they are also encour the pilot or the pedagogical method. The criteria assessed in the pilot unit leading report are presented in Table 2. The evaluation of this report leads to a global mark for the whole group. Oral presentation: An individual mark for each student is given from the oral presentation. During the oral presentation, students are evaluated on the criteria listed in Table 3 rather than on their technical skills and theoretical know-how that has been attained through the basic and the pilot-unit leading reports. Through the global assessment of each student during T ABLE 1 Evaluation Criteria for Basic Reports Details Marks Analysis of experimental results Steady-state achievement /2 /2 Solute mass balance /2 Saturation curve plotting /1 /2 /2 Number of theoretical plates /2 ProSim Plus Software use Simulation of extraction column /5 Comparison experiments/simulation Uncertainties analysis Measurements uncertainties /2 Flow rates consistency /2 /2 Theoretical evaluation /3 /3 Conclusions Over-design /2 Improvement proposals /2 Practical assessment Structure /3 Visual presentation /3 Respect of safety instructions Motivation/Involvement Total /60


251to improve instructional and/or practical aspects. In the special case of these pilot-scale laboratories, the students were asked to The six pilot-scale operations chosen for this new kind of teaching had been carefully selected for their ability to be of the type of unit operation that had to be lead during the session had been highlighted on the survey results. As can be seen in the survey report, the application of the pilot-unit leading group approach has met rather enthusiastic reactions from students. CONCLUSION The development and assessment of competencies in engineering education require some innovative approaches to teaching. Through the implementation of the pilot-unit leading group approach, the chemical engineering students at INPENSIACET are provided with active learning activities and opportunities. It is through these activities and opportunities that several of the expected outcomes and transferable skills of the EUR-ACE[16] Framework Standardse.g., Knowledge and Understanding, Engineering Analysis, Engineering T ABLE 2Evaluation Criteria for the Pilot-Unit Leading Report Details Marks Structure /5 Clarity Language/spelling mistakes Introduction/ Position of the problem Presentation of the experiment /5 Literature study (industrial applications, technological improvements, safety recommendations, ...) Management of experimental investigations /10 Distribution of experimental tasks to other group of students Number of gathered experiments Processing of gathered experimental results Analysis of experimental results Repeatability of results /10 Uncertainties of measurements Phenomenological analysis Critical analysis Comparison with theoretical calculations Critical evaluation Pilot-scale performances evaluation (if possible) /5 Operability limits Simulation (if possible) Safety analysis (APR, HAZOP, if possible) Technical problems encountered /5 Suggested improvements Total T ABLE 3 Evaluation Criteria for the Oral Presentation Marks Dynamism/personal implication Clarity of expression Precision of information Proper use of visual tools Ability to answer questions Total /20 previous section and listed by Feisel and Rosa[1] intended to be explored. Assessment of the instructional laboratories as seen by the students At INP-ENSIACET, every teaching course is subjected to a to respond to the survey or not; the response rate is generally greater than 90%. The objective is to obtain the students per ception of the course, to highlight any shortcomings, and thus


252Design, Investigations, Engineering Practice, Transferable Skillsare developed, demonstrated, and assessed. In addition, the 13 objectives for laboratory work as listed by Feisel and Rosa[1] are entirely accomplished within the learning environment. ACKNOWLEDGMENT platform for their valuable help during the laboratories.REFERENCES 1. Feisel, L.D., and A.J. Rosa, The Role of the Laboratory in Undergraduate Engineering Education, J. Eng. Educ. 121 (2005) J. Chem. Educ., 83 Experimental Design Approach to Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratories, Education for Chemical Engineers, Transactions of the IChemE Part D (2006) J. Chem. Eng., 74 and Process Modeling, Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 128 (2001) Engineer Through the Holistic Unit Operations Laboratory, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36, 150 (2002) 7. Doskocil, E.J., Incorporation of Experimental Design in the Unit Operations Laboratory, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36, 196 (2003) Chem. Eng. Ed., 37, 282 (2003) 9. Newell, J.A., Survivor: A Method for Active Learning in the Classroom that Addresses Student Motivation, Chem. Eng. Ed., 39, 228 (2005) 10. Jones, D., Team Learning Approach in Education, J. Quality and Participation 19(1), 80 (1996) Active Learning, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 67, 71 (1996) 12. Johnson, D., and R. Johnson, Learning Together and Alone, Allyn and R.A.J. Ford, Increasing Student Involvement in Materials Engineering Service Subjects for Mechanical Engineers, Int. J. Eng. Educ., 17, 529 (2001) Editions JV&DS (1997) 15. Lickl, L., Work in ProgressPutting Engineering Pedagogy in Europe and Asia on an International Level, Education Conference Milwaukee, WI (2007) 16. EUR-ACE Framework Standards for the Accreditation of Engineering Programmes (2005), T ABLE 4 Survey Results Disagree (%) Somewhat Disagree (%) Agree (%) Strongly agree (%) 0 18.2 78.8 3.0 0 3 66.7 30.3 6.1 21.2 0 2.9 3.2 12.9 67.7 16.1 0 0 58.8 0 0 0 6.1 60.6 33.3 0 6.1 57.6 0 75.0 15.6 0 0 35.3 5.7 17.1 25.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 58.8 23.5 3.0 15.2 78.8 3.0 0 21.2 69.7 9.1


253I packaging its Iron City Lager in bottles made of aluminum rather than glass. Advertisements stated that the contents of an aluminum bottle not only got colder faster, but stayed colder longer than the contents of a traditional glass bottle.[1] Despite the fact that the thermal conductivity of aluminum is much higher than that of glass, it was claimed that an aluminum bottle would keep the contents cold for up to 50 minutes longer than a glass bottle would.[2] This claim appears an un-named independent laboratory for Danzka, a Danish vodka producer that began using aluminum bottles at that time.[3] Aluminum bottles are now used by several beverage companies who maintain the gets colder faster claim but have dropped the illogical stays colder longer claim.The myth of the insulating ability of aluminum beverage bottles persists, however, on the Web and elsewhere. Part of the motivation for substituting aluminum for glass appears to be less product loss due to bottle breakage and lower shipping cost due to lower weight.[6] Some beverage companies have also begun using plastic bottles for these reasons as well as for safety at beaches and public events.[7] The claim has been made that plastic bottles stay cold as long as glass and longer than aluminum.[8] University reported at the 2005 Annual AIChE meeting that the contents of aluminum bottles cooled down much faster but also heated up slightly faster than those in glass bottles.[9] Conversely, researchers at Loyolla College found that on heat ing in air, an aluminum bottle kept it contents colder slightly William Clark is an associate professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He holds a B.S. from Clemson University and a Ph.D. from Rice University, both in chemical engineering. He has taught thermodynamics, separation processes, and unit operations laboratory for more than 20 years. His current research focuses on using nite element analysis for teaching chemical engineer ing principles and for analyzing separation processes. Ryan Shevlin and Tanya Soffen contributed to this study as seniors in chemical engineering at WPI. This work is based in part on their Major Qualifying Project (senior thesis) completed in May 2009. Although they have now graduated and begun their professional careers, they are continuing their bottle studies with a focus on taste and enjoyment. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 HEAT TRANSFER IN GLASS, ALUMINUM, AND PLASTIC BEVERAGE BOTTLES WILLIAM M. CLARK, RY AN C. SHEVLIN, AND TANY A S. SOFFEN ChEcurriculum


254longer than a glass bottle but explained that the two bottles behaved essentially identically because the heat transfer is controlled by natural convection and radiation at the outer surface rather than conduction through the bottle wall in this situation.[10] Calculations they made indicated that thermal conductivity of the bottle material should have little effect cooling in ice water or heating while hand-held. In this paper we report experiments and calculations that quantify the thermal performance of glass, aluminum, and plastic bottles under various conditions and provide an interesting way to teach heat transfer principles. We measured the temperature of water in 16 oz bottles upon cooling in a refrigerator, cooling in ice water, heating in air, and heating while hand-held, and used COMSOL Multiphysics software to illustrate the appropriate heat transfer mechanisms and calculations. Although we undertook this investigation as a senior project we believe our methods and results can be readily applied to teaching heat transfer fundamentals via a course project, a laboratory exercise, or a class demonstration. While this problem has particular appeal to some students, it should be noted that students should be at least 21 years of age to appreciate it fully. EXPERIMENTAL minum and glass; Miller Lite, plastic) were drained, rinsed with water, and air dried. Number 3 rubber stoppers were sliced longitudinally halfway through to accommodate ther mocouple wires that were extended into the bottles to a height were used with National Instruments interfaces connected to Labview software for continuously monitoring and recording the temperature of each bottle. The thermocouples were the bottles contained the same amount. T ABLE 1Properties of Materials Used Inside Diameter d (m) Effective Height z (m) Thickness t (m) Density (kg/m3) Heat Capacity Cp(J/kg K) Thermal Conductivity k (W/m K) k / t (W/m2K) aluminum 0.059 2700 900 160 glass 0.060 0.168 2.03e-3 2203 703 1.38 680 plastic 0.062 0.157 1350 1300 0.2 560 water 1000 0.6 air 1.205 1006 0.025 Figure 1. 2-D axially symmetric geometry of glass bottle modeled as (a) equivalent cylinder lled with water, and (b) more realistic bottle shape with air between water and rubber stopper. Boundary conditions are indicated on the equivalent cylinder model.


255A small (2 cubic ft) refrigerator that was otherwise empty plastic rack and were not touching the walls or each other to minimize conduction. Duplicate measurements were made with bottles in different positions within the refrigerator to determine if bottle placement affected the results. Measurements were also made with two of the same type of bottle in the refrigerator and with two thermocouples in the same bottle. Heating in air was studied by removing the bottles from the refrigerator and placing them on a plastic rack in the room. Cooling in ice water experiments were conducted by simply submerging each bottle up to the neck in an ice water bath. Heating while hand-held experiments were conducted with one person holding one bottle in each hand after the bottles were removed from the ice water bath. Over the course of the experiment, the subject placed the bottles on a shelf intermit tently, rubbed the hands together to warm them, and alternated which hand held which bottle, but care was taken to ensure that each bottle was held for the same length of time. ANALYSIS We assume that the bottles can be considered as cylinders of the appropriate diameters with the heights adjusted to yield effective heights of the bottles are shown in Table 1. Heat transfer through the bottle material can be described by with boundary conditions at the inside and outside walls given by: i, accounts o, accounts for convection in an air (or water) layer surrounding the bottle and for heat transfer via radiation. We have simpli direction only, assuming insulation boundary conditions at the top and bottom of our cylinders as shown in Figure 1a. This assumption renders our 2-D axially symmetric model to be equivalent to a 1-D model since the temperature will be uniform in the axial direction. We prefer the visual representation of the 2-D model, however, and believe it provides a better physical feel for the problem. For example, it is easier to visualize the area available for heat transfer in 2-D axial symmetry than in 1-D. While not technically precise, with simple analysis explains the observed trends in our data sufbottles that include an equivalent stagnant air or water layer at the outside surface of the bottle. Physical properties used for this layer, the water in the bottles and the ice water bath, and the bottle materials are included in Table 1. solve Eq. (1) and give a visual representation of the calculated temperature in the bottles as a function of time and position. We also drew the glass and aluminum bottles more accurately as shown in Figure 1b and considered heat transfer through the rubber stoppers and the air above the water in the bottles. We found that modeling results were substantially the same with those geometries as with the equivalent cylinder models. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Cooling a glass bottle in a refrigerator. The solid line in Figure 2 shows the measured temperature as a function of time inside the glass bottle upon cooling in the refrigerator. It took about 8 hours for the beverage to reach the control temperature experimental results was always present and appears to be To understand the heat transfer process, we began by attempting to model it with conduction-only, with the tem refrigerator (imagining that there is enough cold air and cooling power c b a T ( o C) Time (s) Figure 2. Experimental results and model predictions for temperature at the center of a glass bottle upon cooling in a refrigerator. Solid curve, experimental results, Dashed curves: (a) conduction only model with To = 1 C; (b) outside heat transfer coefcient, ho = 9 W/m2 K, to account for radiation and natural convection in an air layer sur rounding the bottle, conduction through stagnant water inside; (c) ho = 9 W/m2 K and hi = 400 W/m2 K to account for natural convection inside the bottle.


256within the refrigerator that the temperature at the bottle surface is constant). That is, we used a constant temperature boundary condition of T = Trefrigerator instead of Eq. (3) and considered conduction through water inside the bottle with a continuity boundary condition at the inside wall instead of the boundary condition of Eq. (2). This is clearly incorrect, but some students think this way initially and it is instructive to illustrate the fallacy and correct it incrementally. As shown in curve a of Figure 2, this severely under predicted the time required to come to thermal equilibrium with the refrigerator temperature. incorrect because the air around the bottle heats up when the warm bottle is placed in the refrigerator. The air some distance away from the bottle will be at Trefrigerator, but not the air at the bottle surface. It should be clear that introducing a stagnant air layer around the bottle, where T decreases from Tsurface to Trefrigerator differences brought about by temperature differences in the air near the bottle will result in natural convection-circulation result in improved heat transfer over that of a truly stagnant air layer. Complicating matters even further is the fact that tribution for objects being cooled in a refrigerator.[11] Rather than deal with all the complexities of this process in detail, Eq. (3) is used as a boundary condition at the bottle surface o, accounting for contributions from resistance to heat transfer across an outer air layer, natural convection in the air layer, and thermal radiao to be about 9 W/m2 K. Using this in the boundary condition of Eq. (3) instead of a constant temperature boundary condition, but still assuming conduction only inside the bottle resulted in curve b of Figure 2. Natural convection also occurs inside the bottle and is better modeled using the boundary condition of Eq. (2) than by conduction-only with a continuity boundary condition. As explained in the Appendix we estimated the inside heat transi 2 K and including that along with ho, as described above, we obtained curve c in good agreement with the experimental data. In this case, the thermal conductivity of the water in the bottle was increased 1000 fold in the model ensuring that all the resistance to heat transfer on the inside of the bottle was lumped into hi. Analysis of the results from Figure 2 indicates that the largest resistance to heat transfer is from the gives a measure of the relative importance of convective and conductive heat transfer. A common rule of thumb is that a due to convection dominates the heat transfer process to the extent that resistance to heat transfer due to conduction is negligible. When applied to the bottle wall, as shown in Table 2, small enough that the bottle wall should not affect the process and the wall temperature will be essentially uniform. This point can be illustrated clearly by modifying our model to include conduction through an equivalent stagnant air layer appended to the outer edge of the bottle wall. Note that air outside the bottle will be in motion due to natural convection, but there will always be a boundary layer near the bottle surface where the dominant heat transfer mechanism is conduction. e, of the equivalent stagnant layer (effective thermal resistance layer) that we envision is not necessarily a physically measurable length out from the bottle surface to a point where T = Trefrigerator, but instead is given as the length Rearranging this equation as ho e provides a physical thermal conductivity, k, of air as 0.025 W / m K, an effective air thickness of 0.00278 m is required to match our ho value of 9 W / m2 K. Including an air layer of this thickness in an refrigerator boundary condition at the outer edge of the air layer reproduced curve b in Figure 2. To obtain curve c in Figure 2 using our equivalent conduction-only model, we used Eq. (5) to determine that conduction through a thermally resistant water layer with thermal conductivity of 0.6 W / m and thickness of 0.0015 m is equivalent to using hi 2 K. It appears that convective mixing inside the bottle results in an effective thermal resistance layer only 1/20th as thick as the bottle inside radius. The rest of the water in the bottle is considered to have a very high thermal conductivity so that it will have T ABLE 2 Cooling in Refrigerator and Ice Water Cooling in refrigerator Cooling in ice water ho(W/m2K) ho(W/m2K) aluminum 10 200 glass 9 0.013 200 plastic 9 0.016 200 0.356


257uniform temperature and pose no further resistance to heat transfer in this model. An alternative approach that perhaps gives a better feel for the convective mixing going on inside the bottle and provides the same temperature vs. time result (curve c) is to use a moderately high thermal conductivity for all the water in the bottle. An effective thermal conductivity of 12 W/m K (increasing the water thermal conductivity 20 fold) was required for this approach. The heat transfer rate by conduction through a composite material is given by Figure 3. Predicted temperature proles in the radial direction for our conduction-only model with effective outside ther mal resistance layer of 0.00278 m and effective inside thermal resistance layer of 0.0015 m at three times (60, 600, and 6000 s) for cooling with outside T = 0 C and initial inside T = 25 C for four cases: (a) glass bottle, air outside; (b) glass bottle, water outside; (c) aluminum bottle, air outside; (d) aluminum bottle, water outside. Note that the r-axis begins at r = 0.025 m in these gures.where the resistance to heat transfer due to each material j is given by and Aj is the area available for heat transfer into material j. Our equivalent conduction-only model provides a visual representation of the resistance to heat transfer given by the effective outside air layer (representing the outside heat transfer coefas shown in Figure 3a where the predicted temperature is plotted as a function of position in the radial direction for three different times: 60, 600, and 6000 s. It can be seen that the


258effective outside air layer gives the largest resistance (largest temperature drop) and that conduction through the bottle wall has little effect. Note that combining Eqs. (5) and (7) indicates that the resistance outside the bottle equals 1 / (hoAo). We can also use the built-in post-processing features of COMSOL and use Newtons law of cooling, to evaluate the value of ho represented by the air layer. For account the bottle outside surface area of 0.03381 m2 yields a value of ho near 9 as expected. Cooling a glass bottle in ice water. matic difference between cooling methods for a glass bottle. since it takes less than 1.5 hours to make the contents ice cold. from the higher thermal conductivity of water compared to air. Our equivalent conduction-only model was used to illustrate this point by assuming, as an approximation, that a 0.00278 m layer of water rather than air was controlling the heat transfer at the outside of the bottle. Simply using the properties of water instead of those of air in the outer layer of our previous model yielded the predictions shown in Figure experimental data exactly, it does show that the difference in thermal conductivity of water and air accounts for most of the difference between the two cooling processes. Comparing Figures 3a and 3b we can see that the resistance to heat transfer offered by the ice water layer is much less than that of the air layer. We can also see that the resistance in the bottle wall is ice water is no longer less than 0.1 as shown in Table 2. An experienced heat transfer teacher might argue that knowing the uninitiated. 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 T o C Time (s) refrigerator ice water Figure 4. Comparison of cooling rates for glass bottle in refrigerator or ice water. Solid lines, experimental data. Dashed lines, equivalent stagnant layer conduction models. Figure 5. Comparison of aluminum, glass, and plastic bottles upon cooling in a refrigerator and heating in air. (a) experimental results; (b) predicted results with hi = 400 W/m2K, ho = 9 W/m2K (10 W/m2K for aluminum) on cooling and ho = 10 W/m2K (11 W/m2K for aluminum) on heating. Note that experimental results for plastic bottles were nearly identical to those of glass bottles in both situations.


259 Figure 6. Comparison of aluminum, glass, and plastic bottles upon cooling in ice water. (a) experimental results; (b) predicted results with ho = 200 W/m2K, hi = 400 W/m2K.Comparison of various bottle materials. At this point some ing in a refrigerator and heating in air are shown in Figure 5. Comparing Figure 3a for glass and Figure 3c for aluminum indicates that the resistance to heat transfer in the air outside of the bottles represented by ho dominates the process in both cases. Therefore, it is no surprise that Figure 5b shows the same values of hi and ho for all bottles. Our experimental results, in Figure 5a, show that the aluminum bottle always cooled and heated slightly faster than the other two, however. It appears that other factors, like differences in condensation on the bottles and differences in emissivity, that we have not taken into account are needed to explain why the aluminum bottle cools and heats slightly faster. Increasing the values for ho for the aluminum bottle allowed us to more closely model cooling in the refrigerator (and similar results that would be obtained for heating in air) indicate that wall material should have minimal effect on these heat transfer processes. Experimental and calculated results for cooling the three bottles in ice water are shown in Figure 6. The ice water cool theless, our simple model results, shown in Figure 6b, indicate that the difference in bottle materials does account for some of the observed difference in cooling rates. The resistance to heat in Table 2 help explain why the bottle material has a more in air. Figures 3c and 3d show our equivalent resistance-layer conduction-only model results for the aluminum bottle in air and water, respectively. The small thickness and high thermal conductivity of the aluminum bottle yield little resistance to with the relatively small resistance offered by the water layer in Figure 3d. The thermal conductivity of plastic is less than that of glass, but the wall thickness of the plastic bottle is also for the plastic and glass bottles. For glass and plastic, but not for aluminum, the resistance due to the wall does slow down the cooling process in the ice water case. The fact that the aluminum cools faster will only have pracis reached. The temperature when the mountains turn blue is [12] In ice water, the aluminum bottle will reach that temperature faster than the glass bottle will; how much faster will depend on the starting temperature. in Figure 6, it was about 5 minutes faster, but for a starting 8 minutes faster. This advantage for the aluminum bottle is counteracted by the disadvantage that the aluminum bottle as shown in Figure 7, on the next page (plastic results were similar to those for glass). To give students a physical feel for the heat transfer process, bottle with ice water and have them hold each one. The aluminum bottle feels colder because it conducts heat away from the hand more readily. This explains why aluminum cools faster in ice water and heats faster when hand-held. It might also explain why the myth persists that aluminum keeps beverages colder longer since aluminum feels colder even when the


260contents are the same temperature. Having students place their hands next to the two bottles without touching them allows the students to note that the air gap between the hand and the bottle prevents the faster heat transfer to the aluminum that was observed when the hands touched the bottles. Students will also recognize that room-temperature water feels colder than room-temperature air because the water conducts heat away from the body faster. CONCLUSIONS The experiments and calculations presented here were both fun and informative. They were an excellent way to reinforce our understanding of heat transfer processes. When cooled in a refrigerator, bottle material has little effect on the cooling rate and about 8 hours is required to cool a 16 oz bottled beverage. We recommend an ice water bath for 1 to 1.5 hours (depending on the starting temperature) if rapid cooling is desired. In this case, plastic and glass bottles behave similarly because the lower thermal conductivity of plastic is offset by a thinner wall. If time is of the essence, an aluminum bottle in an ice water bath will reach a satisfying temperature several minutes faster than the other bottles due to the high thermal conductivity and thin wall of the aluminum bottle. The aluminum bottle will warm faster than the others when pend on how rapidly the beverage is consumed. We suspect that the thermal performance of the bottle will not have a major effect on beverage enjoyment, but our studies on this aspect are ongoing. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is based upon work supported by the National expertise and help of Jack Ferraro in completing the experi mental measurements is also gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES news-002311.php> 3. New DANZKA Vodka Made to Chill, Packaging Digest (11/1/2008) Massachusetts Beverage Business (2/2006) com/news/articles/news-000738.php> cinnati, OH, poster 93af, (2005) Heat Transfer Eng., 29 11. Laguerre, O., and D. Flick, Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Domestic Refrigerators, J. Food Eng. 62 12. Coors Light Loves... Ice Cold Activated,

261APPENDIX: JUSTIFICATION FOR HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS USED That is, they are the values that gave the best calculated results when inserted into COMSOL Multiphysics as con(3). In this appendix, standard methods for estimating heat are reasonable and consistent with known correlations. As are temperature-dependent and will therefore vary with time. Calculations below show the initial values for a glass bottle. similar to those evaluated for glass. Although COMSOL Multiphysics can easily incorporate (and even estimate for capability has not been used. refrigerator. convection at the outer surface of a vertical cylinder can be estimated by[13] where bers, respectively. Using the height, H, and outside diameter, do, of the glass bottle given in Table 1, properties for air at T temperature, Ts o given by Eq. (A1) 2 K. tor. by Using an emissivity, constant, of 5.67 10-8 W / (m2 K) yields a value of hr 2 K. refrigerator. Since we have included thermal radiation in estimate of its initial value is ho m2 K. Since this value will decrease with time an average value of 9 W / m2 K seems reasonable. ice water. Eq. (A1) of h O 2 K. The presence of crushed ice in the water near the bottle and the fact that the volume expansivity, goes from negative to positive and equals zero situation. With that in mind and realizing that ho will decrease as Ts decreases indicates that our average value of 200 W / m2 K is not unreasonable. on the inside of a vertical cylinder can be estimated by[15] T s i 2 K 2 K that we used. T ABLE A1kinematic viscosity 106 m2/s thermal diffusivity 106 m2/s volume expansivity 103 1/K thermal conductivity k W / (mK) 13.357 18.682 3.717 0.023 1.795 0.132 0.068 0.558 0.912 0.255 0.606


262The design and synthesis of a pharmaceutical agent that is able to induce the desired biological effect is a research area that requires expertise outside a regular undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum (i.e., structures and functions of cells, protein, and receptors). Although concepts such as intermolecular forces would sound familiar to a chemical engineering student, a lack of basic understand ing of signal transduction pathways would render the task of identifying suitable drug targets insurmountable. Drug delivery using compartmental models, however, is a more accessible option for ChE students with ample training in transport phenomena and especially in solving material balance problems involving singleand multiple-process units. Such perspective is indispensable for a sound understanding of pharmacokinetics, which focuses on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). In addition to binding properly to receptors and provoking a response, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) must be able to [1] Knowledge of pharmacokinetics is therefore critical in drug discovery and the bioavailability and clearance in humans and preclinical species.[2] This information, combined with the recognition of is paramount at a very early stage in the discovery process. The present work describes a series of laboratory experiments, based on principles of chemical processes, to address questions of clinical relevance. Projects that draw analogies between the approach taken to understand the fate of drugs in the body and the methodology adopted to track materials through an entire chemical plant may offer new insights and opportunities to ChE students. Engineering educators have already stressed the need to prepare a workforce with knowledge in drug delivery. Several experiments are made available to help students effectively apply principles of chemical engineering fundamentals (e.g., encing drug release from several delivery devices.[3] Cavanagh DRUG TRANSPORT AND PHARMACOKINETICS For Chemical Engineers LA URENT SIMON, KUMUD KANNEGANTI, AND KWANG SEOK KIM Laurent Simon is an associate professor of chemical engineering and the associate director of the Pharmaceutical Engineering Program at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Colorado State University in 2001. His research and teaching interests involve modeling, analysis, and control of drug-delivery systems. He is the author of Laboratory Online, available at , a series of educational and interactive modules to enhance engineering knowledge in drugdelivery technologies and underlying engineering principles. Kumud Kanneganti is pursuing a Masters degree in the Otto H. York Department of Chemical, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. He received a B. Tech. degree in chemical engineering from Nirma University of Science and Technology (NU), India. His research focus is in the design of drug delivery strategies using well-stirred vessel experiments. Kwang Seok Kim is a Ph.D. student in the Otto H. York Department of Chemical, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. He received his B.S. (2004) and M.S. (2006) degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Seoul, Korea. His research interests include the design and control of drug delivery systems. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEcurriculum


263and Wagner introduced to engineering students hands-on an experimental model of the circulatory system and the concept of drug dissolution. The learning objectives of this contribution are to assist students in i) applying knowledge of mass balances to the design of experiments focusing on the transport of medicaments in the body (learning objective 1), and ii) developing a knowledge of multiple IV doses and continuous IV infusion through well-stirred vessel experi ments (learning objective 2 ). The integration of laboratory activities into the study of drug in chemical engineering as well as for biomedical engineering nology. This three-credit class is mandatory for biomedical engineering students pursuing tracks in biomaterials and tissue engineering or biomechanics and is an elective for chemical engineering students. Concepts of transport phenomena, as applied to biological systems, are presented. Examples of basics of vectors and tensors, conservation relations, and momentum balances. During the semester, students are expected to develop and present simulation-based projects ranging from pharmacokinetic analysis to hemodialysis. Discussions of grasp of real-life implications of several design alternatives and treatment regimens. LABORATORY DESCRIPTION One-Compartment Model and Multiple IV Dosing Regimens The one-compartment model offers the simplest way to describe the kinetics of drug absorption and elimination in a well-stirred vessel (Figure 1). ceutic distributes to rapidly perfused tissues[5] and reaches the systemic circulation instantaneously. In addition, clearance commences immediately after the injection. A mass balance around the process in Figure 1 yields the following differential equation ( learning objective 1 ):[5] or where D is the loading dose, V is the distribution volume, kel is p is the plasma drug concentration at time t, and t is the Dirac delta function. The integration Eq. (2) gives: The elimination rate constant can be computed by measur ing the slope of the straight line: It can be shown that the time required for the plasma drug to drop to one-half of its initial value is: After a single-dose administration, the plasma drug level immediately rises above a minimum effective concentration. concentration drops well below the therapeutic level. Such a situation can be circumvented by prescribing a multiple-dos ing regimen to the patient. This method of administration is not without its own challenge because the impact of each dose on Cp has to be known a priori to achieve optimal clinical effectiveness and to minimize deleterious effects. Experi ments were conducted to help chemical engineering students of the dose, the administration time, and the elimination time constant on the plasma drug concentration. Eq. (3) is used to calculate the plasma concentration at the : Figure 1. Representation of a one-compartment model.


264where is the loading dose. It can be shown that the concentration within the nth interval is:[1] At steady-state (i.e., n ), the minimum and maximum Cp values are: and respectively. The principle of superposition assumes that early ics of the subsequent doses. Materials and Experimental Procedure 10-mL graduate cylinders, pipettes, rubber tubes, magnetic stirrer, magnetic bars, potassium permanganate, spectrophotometer, cuvettes, laboratory stands, and clamps. The apparatus is shown in Figure 2. The beaker with the KMnO solution was placed on a magnetic stirrer. A pump was used to mimic drug clearance from the body (i.e., waste pump). Water was introduced at a rate similar to that of the waste pump in order to maintain a constant volume of liquid in the with clamps (Figure 2). Two main parameters were adjusted in developing a dosage regime: the size of the dose and the administration frequency. The study demonstrated why the drug strength and dosing interval are important for treatment. After initially adding 10 ml of KMnO to the beaker, a new dose was added every 30 intervals and analyzed with the spectrophotometer. The dose the ease with which samples are collected and the objective of a particular study determine the sampling interval. In this investigation, it was necessary to collect samples at a rela tively fast rate to obtain a full picture of the system dynamics because of the short duration of each experiment. For the seconds. As a result, a sampling period of 15 seconds would allow a student to record the concentration before and after the addition of a new dose. A sample size of 1.3 mL was selected so that a constant volume was maintained in a 200/250 mL beaker. A larger dose would violate the constant volume assumption made in deriving the equations and, therefore, to allow mixing to occur and low enough so that the formainaccurate results. Results and Discussions In practice, each drug has a therapeutic range in the human body. A medicament administered should not exceed the minimum toxic concentration (MTC) or fall below the minimum effective concentration (MEC). The maximum and minimum plasma concentrations should be kept within this window. Figure 3 shows that the dose strengths have a strong impact on Cp min ss and Cp max ss (learning objective 2). As a laboratory project, students can be asked to design drugdosage regimens based on information regarding Cp min ss and Cp max ss. Other hands-on activities may focus on investigating whether the number of doses required to reach a steady state is a function the dose size. Other worthwhile pursuits are to use Figure 3. Concentration of KMnO4 in the central compartment using nine IV boluses and two separate drug sizes: kel = 0.028 sec-1, and = 45 sec, = 0.366 g/L (regimen 1) and = 0.547 g/L (regimen 2). Figure 2. The experimental setup.


265 or to comment on the effect of drug clearance on the fate of the drug in the body. Bolus Doses Followed By a Constant-Rate Infusion Drugs are administered intravenously in the form of a bolus dose or infused relatively slowly through a vein into the plasma at a constant or zero-order rate. One of the main advantages of an IV infusion is that an effective constant plasma drug concentration can be achieved, thereby eliminatthe injected bolus dose takes 5 to 15 minutes to be completely diluted in the bloodstream,[1] a slow infusion is preferred, in some cases, to prevent an adverse effect caused by a high plasma drug concentration. sion (k0 in unit of mass/time) ( learning objective 1 ): For a constant volume and Cp(0)=0, the solution is: The steady-state concentration: is essentially achieved when t=5 t1/2. One of the consequences of this relationship is that medicaments with long half-lives take a long time to reach a desired steady-state level (or to be within a known therapeutic range). As a result, one of the the drug level is in a prescribed range. A continuous infusion ensues immediately to maintain an effective constant plasma concentration ( learning objective 2 ). during the multiple-dosing phase. Note that the value at the end of the last period N is given by: where is the dosing interval. The solution to Eq. (10) with for the constant-infusion period: Materials and Experimental Procedure The volume of liquid in the central compartment was kept at 200 mL. In one set of experiments, four boluses of KMnO were administered at one-hour intervals followed by a constant-rate infusion. Operating conditions and kinetics obtained in a constant-rate infusion study were applicable in this case ( i.e., kel -1,Cpss=2.0 g/mL, k0=5.6 g/min). Samples of KMnO solution were collected from the central compartment every 15 minutes until the concentration reached the steadystate value. Results of this investigation were compared to a different dosage regimen where two boluses were used prior to the continuous infusion. Results and Discussions of the multiple doses plus the infusion is a distribution of the total amount of injected medicament during the therapy.[6] The increase in the dimension of the input space, however, makes Several researchers have worked on such problems and proposed several algorithms to address the issue. Students should be given the opportunity to estimate the best injection times, drug dose sizes, and infusion rates. The sum of squared errors for the two and four boluses plus infusion are 0.306 and 0.576, respectively. SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCES or programs, that provide an introduction to pharmacokinet ics and drug transport. For example, in the case of IV bolus injections, not only do students need to understand that the blood concentration decreases faster for drugs with a shorter half-life but also why this process is important to patient demonstrated to foster a better understanding of graduate courses in pharmaceutical engineering and some aspects of Figure 4. Concentration of KMnO4 in the central compartment for two and four IV boluses followed by a constantrate infusion of k0 = 5.6 k g/min.


266current drug-delivery practices. In Spring 2009, three out of mens. One group of students investigated the effects of drug half-life and multiple-dosing regimens on the maximum and minimum plasma drug concentrations. Another assignment focused on the impact of pharmacokinetic parameters on drug concentrations in the central and peripheral compartments of a two-compartment model. Simulations were also conducted to address several aspects of a continuous drug infusion (e.g., time to achieve steady-state). The students from this group welcomed the idea of incorporating laboratory data from the of time constraints and the fact that some of the laboratory materials/experiments were not available at the time, students requests for conducting multiple-dosing experiments were not met. Nevertheless, the entire class attended a demonstration in the laboratory on IV bolus experiments using well-stirred vessels. Initial responses indicated that the transition from simulation-based to experimental projects (learning objective 2) would be well-received. CONCLUSIONS Several experiments were proposed to help chemical engineering students understand pharmacokinetic processes using familiar continuous-stirred vessels. In line with the educational objective of applying knowledge of fundamental physical principles (learning objective 1), these activities made extensive use of curriculum topics, such as mass balance equations and process dynamics, in an attempt to build on existing knowledge and to reinforce concepts taught in manganate were monitored in a one-compartment stirred-tank dose strengths and administration periods were investigated. The constant-rate infusion, although preferable to bolus injec tions for some medicaments, presents its own challenges, e.g., the plasma drug concentration takes a long time to reach a steady-state. Experiments were designed to enable students to use their knowledge of process dynamics in developing drugdosage regimens that meet certain criteria. Combined with multiple boluses, a continuous infusion may be appropriate for a series of drugs and treatments (learning objective 2). Designed laboratory activities would allow students to appreprotocol. After participating in a demonstration of IV bolus injections, students, who worked on simulation-based projects in drug transport, were very supportive of the addition of a REFERENCES 1. Schoenwald, R.D., Pharmacokinetic Principles of Dosing Adjustments, M etabolism and P harmacokinetics in D rug Discovery: A Primer for ioanalytical Chemists, Part I, Curr. Sep., 19(1), 17 (2000) 3. Farrell, S., and R.P. Hesketh, An Introduction to Drug Delivery for Chemical Engineers, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(3), 198 (2002) Three-W eek Hands-On Introduction to iotransport and D rug D elivery for F irst-Y ear E ngineering Students, Proceedings Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, 2nd Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2009) 6. Kim, K.S., and L. Simon, Optimal Intravenous olus-Infusion Drug D osage R egimen ased on T wo-C ompartment P harmacokinetic M odels, Comput. Chem. Eng., 33(6), 1212 (2009)


267The material that is commonly taught in chemical engineering design for engineering economics could be described as risk free, in the sense that the economic uncertainty. The teaching of concepts in economics is usually focused on the treatment of the time value of money (i.e., e.g., return on investment, net present worth), and the calculation of equipment cost and plant cost. Uncertainty is usually associated with limitations of the engineering models used to estimate the cost of the major pieces of equipment in the plant. For example, the students are taught that the models used to calculate the heat transfer area for a heat exchanger are based on semi-empirical correlations and, thus, the estimated cost of a heat exchanger might be inaccurate. The uncertainty about raw material and product prices, about the cost of energy and about labor cost, and the fact that the actual values might depend on factors that are outside of an engineers control (e.g. landscape) is not usually emphasized. In fact, not only most textbooks in chemical engineering design but also most textbooks on engineering economics used within other engineering disciplines offer the same risk free are, of course, quite important for quantifying the economic feasibility of an engineering project, but the availability of sion making calls for an update of the instruction material. Recently, some effort has been placed on the introduction of risk analysis in chemical engineering design.[1] Uncertainty as well as other important concepts such as decision tree analysis and utility functions, however, have not been part of a typical undergraduate curriculum. Lately, through collaboration between the University of Oklahoma Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Economics, we have developed classroom games that demonstrate concepts such as strategic decision making, the winners curse, and the utility function in Design Ia course that introduces engineering economics to chemical engineers who lack an extensive economics background. In this paper, we discuss the development of these games (or class experiments, as they would be called in the economics literature) and the educational objectives of each game. We also demonstrate the basic components of these games and we discuss the mechanics of carrying out experiments in the classroom. The concepts that are visited with the games can be used to quantify risk and facilitate decision making under uncertainty. TAKING FINANCIAL UNCERTAINTY INTO ACCOUNTUncertainty and change are pervasive in the careers of new engineers, and mastering appropriate analysis techniques and cept for the students to grasp is the incorporation of uncertainty the drilling of an oil well (this is an example offered in detail [2]) or the rolling INTRODUCING DECISION MAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY AND STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN GEORGIA KOSMOPOULOU, CHINT AMANI JOG, MARGARET FREEMAN, AND DIMITRIOS V PAP A V ASSILIOU Georgia Kosmopoulou is the Edith Kinney Gaylord Presidential Professor at the Department of Economics at the University of Oklahoma. She received a B.S. from the University of Piraeus and her M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests are in industrial organization, auction theory, and mechanism design. Chintamani Jog is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Economics at the University of Oklahoma. He received his B.A. degree in economics from the University of Mumbai and M.A. in economics from Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune. Margaret Freeman is a junior in chemical engineering at the University of Oklahoma. She is also pursuing a minor in entrepreneurship for engineer ing majors and is the recipient of an NSF-REU fellowship at Oklahoma. Dimitrios Papavassiliou is a Presidential Professor at the School of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. He received a Diploma from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests are in turbulent transport, transport in porous media, microuidics, and computational transport. He has been teaching Design I during the past 10 years. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEcurriculum


268 out of a new product line. A company cannot be sure in advance whether it should be done and what the costs are going a probability density function can be obtained with discrete is then given as where N is the number of possible outcomes, Pi is the probi outcome i. In the examples that follow, the choice of the values of the discrete probability function was made arbitrarily. In practice, however, one cannot generate the probability density function in a rigorous statistical manner, since one cannot be placed in the same business conditions and be faced with the same decision possibilities repeatedly. A particular business situation usually occurs once, thus, one cannot generate a sample of outcomes given the decisions made. The probability density function is usually generated after brainstorming and after consulting with experts having prior experience in similar situations. In the case of rolling out a new product one needs to use market analysis and surveys, in the case of pricing raw materials and products one needs to use forecasting techniques, and in the case of drilling a well one needs to rely on the opinion of geologists and geophysicists who are experienced in the interpretation of geological data (such as data obtained through seismic analysis or core analysis). Example 1: Assume that if a new product (say raspberrythat it will not catch up in the market, 25% probability that it will get 1% of the competitors market share, 20% probability that it will get 2% of that market, and 15% probability of a 3% additional market share. If the product is not rolled out, the payoffs arising from choices made by the decision maker introduction of a new product is then one should clearly decide to produce the new product, An example like this introduces students to a methodol ogy for taking uncertainty into account, and provides the opportunity to discuss decision tree analysis (see Reference 2, or any other managerial economics textbook, for more on also leads to the opportunity to discuss the utility functions as a way to quantify uncertainty and a way to incorporate the attitude of the decision maker towards risk. This discussion can start in the classroom by considering a case where the the two is much more risky. Example 2: A company can invest in a process that can yield a net present worth (NPW) of $1,000,000 with no risk, and a process that can have either a NPW of $2,150,000 with probability of 50% or a negative NPW of -$50,000 with a 50% probability. The expected NPW for the risky option is In this example, the criterion of maximizing expected NPW sense. The students can see that there might be a company that cannot afford a 50% probability of losing $50,000, especially if this is a small company that could go out of business! The utility function can be used to quantify the attitude towards risk and to justify a decision that is clearly not based on exis It is a function that places a numerical value on happiness, or take different actions for companies and consumers! On Sept. 6, 2007, the student newspaper at the University of Oklahoma campus (The Oklahoma Daily) ran a half-page article entitled Happiness Has a Personal Side with pictures of 10 students and their responses to the question What makes were among the responsesanswers that make good sense to students in the Design class. This article illustrated very nicely that happiness (and the utility function that attempts to quantify it) is subjective, and it was quite effective as a handout for relating the concept of the utility function to each to quantify differences in happiness from different decisions and actions. The ordinal character of a utility allows people $00.20 $100,000 0.25 $50,000 New product No change 1% market share 0% market s h a r e 2% market share 3% market share -$20,000 0.15 $150,000 Figure 1. Decision tree that graphically depicts the probable outcomes of rolling out a new product. The probability of each outcome is shown on the decision tree, as well as the prot or loss if the outcome occurs. The dollar value that appears on each branch is the expected prot that corresponds to the branch.


269 to express their preferences between the no-risk option and the risky option in Example 2 and be consistent in choosing different courses of action. [2] For example, using the numbers offered in Example 1, we can say that the utility function has a value of zero for a loss two arbitrarily chosen numbers would work, so long as the min max is found by determining the probability P for which the decision maker is indifferent between a risky option that includes the extremes and a safe In other words, the person whose utility function is generated in this exercise is equally happy to take a safe bet with a return min and max. In this respect, the decision be based on maximizing the expected utility calculated as ii. To demonstrate to the students the utility function concept and to illustrate how a utility function can be generated, we have prepared a game that can be played by the students in class. The game presents students with a series of two options, one of which is a gamble and the other a safe choice. In Figure 2, we are trying to determine the utility of You need to make a series of choices between Options 1 and 2 and record your choices in the spreadsheet before rolling a fair 10-sided die. Consider your payoffs as the sum of the payoffs from each choice. Option 1: If the die comes up 1, you win $150,000, but if it comes up 2,3,..., 10 you lose 20,000. Option 2: You win $0 no matter what the dice-rolling outcome is. Make your choice between these two options and record your choice by typing 1 or 2 in the appropriate cell in the column titled Record choice (1 or 2) (column D in your Excel Sheet). Option 1: If the die comes up 1, 2, you win $150,000, but if it comes up 3,..., 10 you lose 20,000. Option 2: You win $0 no matter what the dice-rolling outcome is. Again make your choice between these two options and record it by typing 1 or 2 in the appropriate cell in the column titled Record choice (1 or 2). Continue up to the tenth choice having in mind that as you go down the list the probability of a favorable outcome in Option 1 increases by 1/10. roll (1-10). Figure 2. Example of the game that students play in order to determine the value of the utility function of a prot equal to zero (Option 2). Option 1 is a gamble between the two extreme values of the prot, taken from Example 2, with different probability of winning or losing, and thus differ ent expected utility. The expected utility at which the player switches from the safe option to the gamble is the point of indifference and indicates the value of U(0).


270 gamble between U(150,000) and U(-20,000). The players are asked to select their options and to input their selection in the spreadsheet. The game is constructed using Microsoft Excel, which allows the instructor to lock certain cells of the spreadsheet parts of the spreadsheet. Student players cannot input numbers in places that can alter the structure of the game. The students When the game ends, each students utility function for this example has been constructed, and some of the students can e-mail their spreadsheets to the instructor or place their utility function on a memory stick and show it to the rest of the class. At that point a discussion in class can be initiated on whether the person whose utility function is shown is a risk-loving or a risk-averse person. In addition, another discussion can be initiated based on the question of what the games might be. Figure 3 is a typical outcome for the utility function from this game. Having created the utility function, the students can return to Example 1 and apply the maximization of expected utility as a decision criterion. They can calculate the expected utility of rolling out a new product, compare it with that of not changing the production line, and make a choice. This will give students an immediate application of the concepts learned. More impor tantly, it becomes evident that this approach is bound to give different answers for different people, since it is the utility and are taken into account when expected utility is maximized.ATTITUDE TOW ARDS RISK tended to be an application of the risk preferences seen earlier, introducing the ideas of actual and expected values. The game presents students with a series of two opof risk. This game is also constructed using Microsoft Excel so of the excel spreadsheet at the beginning of the game. The expected return for each of the options in the game is Due to the EPAs concern over rising levels of greenhouse gasses, all chemical companies are required to reduce CO2 emission by 15%. For the past few years, Independent Chemical, Inc., has subcontracted another company to process CO2. The cost keeps rising, however, and Independent Chemical, Inc., is considering handling the CO2 capturing in-house. Your consulting company is hired by Independent Chemicals, Inc. They want you to suggest which of the following technology options for CO2 sequestration they should use: Option 1: to their existing facility to capture and store CO2. Option 2: Use gas hydrate technology to transport CO2 and store it in ocean. and record your choice in the spreadsheet before rolling a fair 10-sided die that determines the outcome. Option 1: If the die comes up 1, you win $2,000,000, but if it comes up 2,3,..., 10 you win $1,000,000. Option 2: If the die comes up 1, you win $3,850,000, but if it comes up 2,3,..., 10 you lose $500,000. Make your choice between these two options and record your choice by typing 1 or 2 in the appropriate cell in the column titled Record choice (1 or 2) (column D in your Excel Sheet). having in mind that as you go down the list the probability of the most favorable outcome in both options increases by 1/10. Figure 3. Typical utility function resulting from Game 1. This is the utility function of a risk-averse person, since the value of the utility increases at decreasing rate as the expected return increases.


271the game options. One can clearly see that the expected return for Option 2 becomes higher than that for Option 1 after the fourth choice. As one can see in Figure 5b, however, the risk is higher for Option 2 every single time, until the tenth choice. Figure 5b is a plot of the variation (i.e., the standard deviation normalized by the expected value). If one were taking into account only expected returns, third, and fourth choices, and then switch to Option 2. If one is risk-averse, they would stay with Option 1 even after the fourth choice, preferring to have a lower expected value but assuming a lower risk. The spreadsheet decision, where they can see a plot of the expected value of the return for their choices and of the actual return as a result of the dice rolls. The thick solid line traces the choices made, and can indicate whether the player is risk-loving, risk-averse, or risk-neutral.Figure 6. Typical outcome of Game 3. The thick solid line indicates the expected prot based on the options chosen by this player. This is a risk-averse person, who chooses a lower expected prot with smaller risk. The triangles indicate the actual return based on the outcome of the particular dice roll. Figure 4. Example of the game that students play in order to determine their attitude towards risk. Option 1 is a gamble that has a smaller risk, but it also has a smaller expected prot beyond the fth row. Figures 5. (a, left) Expected prot for options in Game 3; (b, right) corresponding estimate of risk for options in Game 3. The risk is always higher for Option 2, while the expected prot of Option 1 is higher for Option 1 until the fourth choice.


272 At the conclusion of the game, some of the students e-mail the rest of the class (as in Figure 6, previous page). A discussion about whether this would be a curve characteristic of a risk-loving or a risk-averse person can be initiated. A riskneutral person would try to maximize expected payoff as their only objective. Hence, the switch from Option 1 to Option for a potential risk averter, same should be true beyond the can see it for themselves merely by observing each others diagrams and the decisions made. DECISION MAKING IN COMPETITIVE In business, a strategic decision-making process is char payoffs that vary with the outcome of the interaction process. there is also uncertainty about how the competitors will belead to changes in the production level that affect the technical and economic functions of a company. A simple game that can illustrate this concept, and is quite easy to do in class, is the following: The students are asked to write on a piece of paper a number between 0 and 100. The winner is the person who writes down the number that is going to be closer to 2/3 of the average of the number that everyone in class writes. To win in this game one must consider what the rest of the class is going to do and act accordingly. The game is rather easily handled in a classroom situation. Three or four students in the class collect the papers from the students sitting close to them, and they add the numbers on the papers they collect in order to expedite the procedure of calculating the class average. We have played this game with the seniors for several years, and almost every time the winner is a person who writes a number close to 23. The winner is asked to explain their way of thinking, as are other students in the class. Everybody who pays attention in the class understands that if the numbers were written randomly, the average would have been 50. The winner usually thinks that 2/3 of 50 is 33, and thus, since almost everybody, the thinking continues, will write down a number close to 33, one needs to pick 2/3 of 33. That would be a number close to 22 or maybe a little higher than 22, in order to account for those who randomly write numbers without thinking through the problem. It is interesting, and contrary to economic theory, that the winner does not continue the thought process to assume that the rest of the class will reach the same conclusion. If that were the case, one would win if he or she would write down a number that is close to 2/3 of 22. If everybody thought this way, then one needs to pick 2/3 of that number, and after several iterations of this type of thinking, the equilibrium point according to economic theory is to pick the value of zero! The goal of this experiment is to use a game theoretical approach to demonstrate to students how to better understand strategic decisions. A major point that can be made by the outcome of this game is that the decision should be made after considering what the other players are going to do and that the winner is the one who guesses how many iteration levels the competitors will consider. This game serves as a good introduction to the problem of the winners curse arising in common value auctions, which is relevant to engineers when, for example, they compete for design projects or for raw materials. In such cases, the value of the items is common but unknown during the bidding process (e.g., bidding for exploration and production rights in a plot that one does not exactly know the quantity of oil Capen, et al.,[3] a group of petroleum geologists who described the bidding outcome in offshore oil lease sales for the period participating in the auctions during this period, they observed that, in a competitive oil and gas lease sale, or indeed in any bidding situation in which the ultimate value of the object to be won is subject to uncertainty, the highest bidder is the one who has overvalued the prize. In that sense, the winner is the most optimistic bidder, who is systematically overbidding (and losing money on average). This phenomenon was termed the winners curse. It was caused by the failure of the bidders to use the optimal bidding strategy. The optimal bidding strategy should have taken into account what winphenomenon nested within many other applications (engineering contracts, etc.). More importantly, it is a wonderful way to explore with engineering students a very practical case where strategic decision making is crucial, and where under uncertainty. PRACTICAL ISSUES AND STUDENT FEEDBACKThe games presented here can be played either during a 1in a workshop for Experimental Economics held at the University of William and Mary in May 2009, in a Masters-level graduate class of Managerial Economics in August 2009, and in a class of chemical engineering seniors in October 2009. In all cases, the spreadsheets were not available to the students long before the game, in order to avoid biased behavior. For


273The dice rolls can be done by digital means, either generating random numbers in Excel or using a dice-rolling website (e.g., ). In fact, the chemical engineer ing seniors were so anxious to get to the dice rolls that they were using their own dice-rolling software on their laptops. The feedback from the players included some ideas to make the games more fun or more relevant. Instead of making all the choices and then dice rolling 10 times, they suggested that dice rolling should follow after each one choice was made. In to go though this process. It was also suggested to adjust the relevant to the average students income, instead of having Another suggestion was to reward the students according to their winnings, either with class credit or with monetary awards. One would expect that such a change in the format of the game, where the players would have a personal stake in the outcome, would lead to risk-averse behavior, which is consistent with economic theory. The goal of the games, however, is not to explore how the players react to different situations, but to illustrate to the players the concepts of risk and decision making under risk. The response to an anonymous survey of whether participation in the games improved understanding of the utility function and of what is meant by attitude towards risk was that the games were helpful and that they should be incorporated in the class material for Design I. The spreadsheets, as well as the directions for conducting the games, are available to interested colleagues who might want to use them in their classes. The values of the options in the games can be changed according to the goals of each instructor. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION The advantage of running experiments in class, in addition to engaging students in active learning, is the ability to control external factors that may be affecting decision making as they change (e.g., risk, uncertainty). Resources for designing other economics experiments are available on the web, for example through the Veconlab software developed by C. Holt at the University of Virginia or through the EconPort portal [5] Modern developments in economics and management include tools and techniques that address uncertainty, risk, strategic thinking, and decision making in a systematic and quantitative way. Deterministic models for the calculation of net present worth, for example, should be used to introduce uncertainty should be offered. The value of risk can be estimated with techniques like those presented by ODonnell, et al.[1] The calculated risk can be used in conjunction with utility functions, such as those presented in the present work, to adjust the calculated NPW according to the methodology [2] by their certainty equivalent values. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The support of the National Science Foundation through a Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement grant (NSF-0737182) is gratefully acknowledged. An earlier ver sion of this work has been presented at the AIChE meeting in Nashville in November 2009. REFERENCES Analysis, Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36 Managerial Economics pany Inc., New York (1999) in High-Risk Situations, J. Petrol. Tech., 23 Learning, 2002, also: page,


274T in conduction in 1-D and 2-D systems (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates); conduction through composite walls; evaluation of resistances; heat changer design. The current text for this course is Incropera and DeWitts Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer.[1] It lished in the 2009 ASEE conference proceedings as paper # AC 2009-1609.[2]The main course objective is to provide junior-level under graduate students with fundamental knowledge of heat trans fer in chemical engineering processes and process equipment. Special emphasis is given to the economics of heat exchanger design and heat recovery. in: and cylindrical geometries, and ordinary differential equations. Throughout the course, students learn and demonstrate the tools, skills, and knowledge to: system geometry, medium, and direction of temperature gradients. in common heat exchangers. Desktop Experiment Modules (DEMos) can augment understanding at multiple points in the Heat Transfer course. They are versatile, inexpensive, and portable experiments positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. They are superior to instructor-led demonstrations because: apparatus, at their own learning pace, and standing of important fundamental concepts. The DEMo approach has been successfully implemented with two previous DEMo experiments in an Introduction to Chemical Engineering course. The experiments were Charged were disseminated via ASEE Proceedings publications and a website resource.[3-5] Other chemical engineering programs have adopted these experiments.[6] Since these hands-on ex-VERSATILE DESKTOP EXPERIMENT MODULE (DEMo) ON HEAT TRANSFER ADRIENNE R. MINERICK Work conducted at: Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762Adrienne Minerick is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Michigan Technological University, having recently moved from Mississippi State University where she was a tenured associate professor. She received her Ph.D. and M.S. from the University of Notre Dame and B.S. from Michigan Tech. At MTU, Adrienne has taught graduate kinetics. At MSU, she taught the graduate Chemical Engineering Math, Process Controls, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Freshman Seminar, Heat Transfer, and Analytical Microdevice Technology courses. Her research is in medical microdevice diagnostics and dielectrophoresis. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEclassroom


275periences do not require dedicated lab space, students have a simple yet unique experience to link into their evolving understanding of chemical engineering principles. As a result, these learning tools also serve as vibrant, hands-on experi ments with high school students. This latest Desktop Experiment Module focuses on demonstrating heat transfer concepts. The DEMo is versatile so that it can be incorporated into any existing chemical engineering Heat Transfer course as either a quick, illustrative example during a traditional lecture or as a mini experiment to demonstrate conduction through various materials or convection. While there is latitude in the equipment purchased for these DEMos, if an IR surface thermometer is purchased, it serves as an illustrative example of radiative heat transfer as well. Advantages of this hands-on experience include that it is not dependent on the availability of lab space and that students have a unique experience to link into their evolving under standing of chemical engineering heat transfer concepts. An instructor can chose to focus on one or more of the following topics when they adapt this experiment: 1-D steady-state conduction, composite systems, contact resistance, thermal energy generation, heat diffusion equation and boundary contions. Coupling the demonstrations with exercise problems in which students must look up properties, assess thicknesses of materials, etc., also adds practical grounding to homework assignments. Course materials including a supply list, example exercises, and experimental procedures are discussed and are available for instructor use via a website.[5] DESKTOP EXPERIMENT MODULE enced below are familiar to the reader. Supplies and Setting Up These supplies will need to be ordered some time in advance. Total cost for 10 stations is about $650. For each team of students (~2 students per team): edges around the hot plate. Mr. Coffee brand is ~$10] take P4 Spark II CPU Cooler for Socket 478 (Item #: or Dow sometimes offers samples, ~$3] cut to 1 inch sections, Example is Speedy Metals Online, ] same size, 3 square, can obtain from hardware store] For the classroom (or laboratory): 1-Dimensional Conduction: Heat transfer is illustrated through use of a coffee cup warmer as a heat source on a wall of a material, 1-D conduction can be quickly illustrated on each students desk. Thermal conductivity of different materials can be demonstrated as well. Problems can be set up in which the students have to back calculate to determine the thermal conductivity of the material from the two surface temperatures and distance information. Further, composite systems can be examined via wood, Styrofoam, and drywall sandwich blocks. The choice of materials is such that it spans a wide range of thermal conductivities as demonstrated in Table 1.[1, 7]Experimental Procedure:1. Turn on mug warmer with the block of material posi tioned on top and allow the system to heat up for 15 minutes. 2. Check the temperature at the top surface of the material three times at 30-second intervals to ensure the system has reached steady-state. 3. Check the temperature at the surface of the mug warmer once the system has reached steady-state. Note that this may be greater than the steady-state temperature of the mug warmer when exposed only to convection in the air. 4. Replace with new blocks of material allowing it to equilibrate between temperature readings. T ABLE 1 Suggested Materials and Their Thermal Conductivities Material Thermal Conductivity Polystyrene (R-12) 0.027 Softwood (Fir) 0.12 Plaster board 0.17 Polycarbonate 0.21 Firebrick 1.0 High Density Carbon Steel 60.5 177 Copper


276 Analysis: The heat diffusion equation for 1-D, steady-state conduction with constant thermal conductivity is as follows: The general solution is as follows: experiment. The following example uses data for a polycar bonate block 1 cm thick. Polycarbonate was chosen because it wont soften or melt on the mug warmer surface. The particular solution is in symbolic and numeric form: r f nt each material they study and can then use Fouriers Law to it is possible to calculate the other parameter. Alternatively, generation experiment outlined below. 1-Dimensional Conduction Through Composite Systems Steady-state heat conduction through layers of materials can be accomplished as well by stacking the materials provided in Table 1. The analysis is similar to that outlined above. 1-Dimensional Conduction with Contact Resistance Contact resistance can be demonstrated by using a high the material block from Table 1. A silicone-base heat sink compound is easy to obtain and, when used, it can be assumed to represent perfect contact between the warmer surface and the material block. Comparison with the system outlined above (which has air in the gap between the warmer and the material block) enables the student to back out the resistance due to thermal contact resistance. With access to wood or the metals with a rough edge from cutting vs. a smooth edge after cutting, this can also be illustrated. rf n nt b Obtaining the total thermal contact resistance for the case with and the case without heat sink compound is: r f frn rf nfr t b rfn rt f f t b t b t As demonstrated, in this case of a smooth polymer surface, thermal contact resistance can be neglected as it is a couple of order of magnitudes smaller than the thermal resistance associated with the material. Rough metal blocks are good illustrators of how poor physical contact between two materiHeat Generation Analysis Heat generation can be considered by expanding the system boundaries to include the electrical resistance heating in the plate warmer. Solution of the heat diffusion equation with contransient heat generation or steady-state heat generation. Transient Heat Generation The transient nature of electrical resistance heat generation can be illustrated by simply having the students measure the temperature of the plate warmer with the IR thermometer from when it is turned on until it reaches steady-state. A sample experimental procedure is given and data is provided in Figure 1 for two experiments. If students are too hasty in ending the experiment, they may miss reaching the true steady-state Experimental Procedure: 1. Take initial temperature reading of plate warmer before turned on and record its initial temperature at time 0. 2. Turn on the plate warmer and begin stopwatch at the same time. 3. At 15-second intervals, take a temperature reading of the plate warmer using the infrared thermometer. Make sure to measure at the same location for each reading.


277 4. Continue to take readings until the mug warmer temperature is constant for 45 seconds and reaches steady-state.Analysis: The spatial variations in temperature are not considered in this case, so the heat diffusion equation is just: Assuming that heat generation, q is constant, the solution to this differential equation is: Using the initial condition that the temperature of the mug constant of integration. Therefore the particular temperature distribution expreswarmer temperature. tained that the plate is primarily aluminum, which has a density of and a heat capacity of Heat generation can then be obtained: It can be valuable to discuss with students the case in which, when constant power is supplied to the mug warmer and this translates into constant heat generation from the mug warmer, why the data is curved. Most students will deduce that convection from the surface is being neglected and that this contribution only gets greater as the temperature increases. Steady-State Heat Generation It is possible to determine the steady-state heat generation by performing an energy balance at the surface of the mug warmer. The students will need to consider that all heat generated by the plate is being convected away from the mug warmer and will also need to obtain a valid convective heat mug warmer. Since heat generation is usually expressed as a volumetric generation rate it is important to pay attention to units. Further, electrical heat generation can be estimated via Joule heating in the mug warmers heating coil, which has an electrical resistance, Re, and a current, I. So Energy generated in the plate = energy convected away from plate The thickness of the mug warmers heating coil has to be assumed from the thickness of the unit in use, but L=0.01m is realistic. The students can easily measure the ambient air temperature, and the surface temperature of the mug warmer at steady-state was already obtained. Therefore: r f nn nn tt n ft ttt b Using the well-known electrical relation for Power, P: rf The current can be calculated from the information typically provided on the mug warmer unit. Figure 1. Transient heating of the mug warmer demonstrating transient heat generation.


278 And the electrical resistance can then be obtained through the volume, v, of the warmer plate: r Thermal Contact Resistance Thermal contact resistance can also be illustrated using a room temperature to the fully heated plate warmer, the students can observe the transient heating of the cup. If transient heating has already been covered, however, it is possible to have the student set up the experiment and then conduct lecture or other class activities until the system reaches steadystate. This typically takes about 15 minutes. Experimental Procedure: 1. Allow the plate warmer to heat up and reach steadystate (about 15 minutes to Tss 2. Measure initial temperature of the empty mug inside the cup pointing the IR thermometer at the bottom center surface. 3. Place the coffee cup on the mug warmer and start the stopwatch. 4. At 15-second intervals, record the temperature of the bottom inside surface of the mug. 5. Continue to take readings until the mug warmer temperature is constant for 45 seconds and reaches steady-state. Analysis: Since two thermal resistances exist between the surface of the mug warmer and the bottom surface of the coffee cup, it is not possible to isolate the thermal contact resistance from the ceramic mugs resistance. It can be a valuable exercise, however, to ask students to determine from tables the thermal conductivity (and thus calculate thermal resistance) of the is chosen, the thermal conductivity is usually between 1.3 and 2.15 .[1] Estimating the thickness of the bottom of the cup to be 0.5 cm, the thermal resistance of the cup can be determined to be (per unit area): Using the heat transfer rate obtained from the steady-state heat generation example, one can then solve for the thermal contact resistance: rr f n nrtr b nn n n rr rThis thermal contact resistance is substantial and is the reason that the mug warmer is not able to heat coffee or any liquids to boiling despite its high surface temperature of steady-state. As demonstrated in Figure 2, the inside surface reinforce to the students that reducing thermal contact resistance can be accomplished using contact grease or increasing surface contact between the mug and the warming plate. Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces (Fins) CPU passive heat sinks are excellent small examples of have copper bases for increased conduction away from the processor. The text by Incropera and DeWitt has a number of example problems using passive heat sinks that help reinforce what the students observe.[1] Experimental Procedure: 1. Allow the plate warmer to heat up and reach steadystate (about 15 minutes to reach Tss this as time 0. 3. Place the CPU passive heat sink on the mug warmer and start the stopwatch. 4. At 15-second intervals, record the temperatures of the 5. Continue to take readings until the mug warmer temperature is constant for 45 seconds and reaches steady-state. Analysis: cally a part of undergraduate Heat Transfer courses. Therefore a rigorous analysis of the data in Figure 3 is not included here. It would be ideal to be able to determine temperature as a funcFigure 2. Transient heating of a standard coffee mug on a preheated mug warmer.


279tion of position, but this is not possible with the IR thermometers used in this experiment. This system can, however, still be used as an illustrative visual aid cross-sectional area and the following equations are valid for this geometry. The tip is assumed to experience convective heat transfer and so the steady-state, position-dependent temperature distribution with this boundary condition is: r f where and while Ac Convection Convection can be included by using a CPU fan on top of a passive CPU heat sink. Most fans are 3 Pin, 9V, or 12V, which can be connected directly to a 9V battery adapter (can be purchased from RadioShack) by splicing together the red wires and the black wires and ignoring the yellow (control) wire. A 12V fan will simply run at a lower speed on a 9V battery. Videos from YouTube are [8] This section covered demonstrations and student experiments for steady-state, 1-D conduction in both a composite system and considering contact resistance, heat generation from both a transient and steady-state perspective, and heat relatively quick (5 to 8 minutes) while others involving transient temperature changes can take 15 to 20 minutes to complete. Since the same basic materials are used throughout the course to illustrate the different concepts, student faexperiments increases through the semester. The advantage of repeatedly using the same system to illustrate different aspects integrating concepts into a coherent framework.[9] CONCLUSIONSA versatile hotplate conduction and convection system is outlined as a Desktop Experiment Module. These DEMos can be useful tools to introduce students to heat transfer concepts in a complementary fashion to the traditional Heat course structure and content as well as the straightforward desktop experiments, which utilized inexpensive supplies to convective heat transfer from solid surfaces, and radiation. Advantages of this hands-on experience include that it is not dependent on the availability of lab space and students have a unique experience to link into their evolving understanding of chemical engineering concepts. A supply list, instructional procefull versions are available for instructor use upon request. REFERENCES A.S. Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 2. Minerick, A.R., Desktop Experiment Module: Heat Transfer, Chemical Engineering Division American Society of Engineering Education Proceedings 3. Minerick, A.R., and K.H. Schulz, Freshman Chemical Engineering Experiments: Charged tors, Chemical Engineering Division American Society of Engineering Education Proceedings June 2005 Chemical Engineering Experiment: Charged up on Electrophoresis, American Society of Engineering Education Southeast Regional Confer ence Proceedings April 2005 5. Desktop Experiment Modules (DEMos), M.D.ERL, , accessed Feb. 6, 2009 6. Hestekin, C., and J. Hestekin, Dept. of Chemi cal Engineering, University of Arkansas, Spring 2008-present 7. Polycarbonate, Wikipedia, , accessed March 18, 2009 8. YouTube (online video sharing site) , accessed Feb. 5, 2009 Making the Connections: Facilitating Student Integration of Chemical Engineering Concepts into a Coherent Framework, 2008 ASEE Confer ence Proceedings Figure 3. Transient heating of a heat sink n with time. The variability in temperature at steady-state is likely due to the difculty reading temperatures at the same n location.


280Engineering, along with science, has been the engine that drives innovation and will continue to be important in tackling the new and unique transporta tion, environmental, and health problems that we face as a global society. For the United States to stay relevant in the new global economy we must position ourselves to take a lead in tackling these problems and the key is to maintain strength in our human capital.[1] Yet, the United States continues to lag behind other developed nations in the quality students in the United States currently receive their degrees in engineering compared to ~50% in some other countries.[1] Furthermore, nearly 62% of all Ph.D. degrees in engineering granted in the United States in 2007 were to foreign students United States.[2] Continuing on this course will lead to fewer engineers with high-quality skills available to lead innovation in the United States.[1]One major contributing factor to the low number of students receiving degrees in engineering is the two decades of decline in student enrollment in engineering. While there has been some recent improvement in enrollment due to the current global recession highlighting the apparent stability of engineering jobs,[3] the United States is still projected to face a shortage of up to 70,000 engineers in this decade. Recent surveys by the American Society for Quality (ASQ) and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) suggest that this shortage and decline in engineering enrollment is linked to K students having little knowledge of engineering careers in addition to perceiving engineering as boring.[5] The NAE study further concluded that the money and effort put forth by engineering organizations to combat this problem have had little impact. Overall, what is clear from the literature is that boosting undergraduate enrollment and increasing the number of graduates in engineering are two key parameters in keeping the United States competitive in the global economy of the 21st century and beyond. Thus, additional effort needs to be placed on making the new generation of K students aware of the engineering profession and its versatile contributions to solving many critical global issues. ENGAGING K STUDENTS IN THE ENGINEERING CLASSROOM:A Creative Use of Undergraduate Self-Directed Projects OMOLOLA ENIOLA-ADEFESO Omolola Eniola-Adefeso is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of Michigan. She received a B.S.E. from University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania with graduate research support from NASA GRSP. Her research interests include shear-dependent adhesion and migration of leukocytes and design of cell mimetics for vascular-targeted drug delivery. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEoutreach


281The two most common outreach tools used in presenting engineering to the public are 1) professional engineers or engineering faculty spending time in the K classroom to talk about their profession and 2) informal educational programs ( e.g., tutoring) focused on improving students understanding of math and science.[5] Visits from engineering professionals, however, often leave students unable to see a path for themselves to achieve the level of success perceived in their corporate/university visitors. Likewise, tutoring/mentoring outreach efforts often fail to connect K students back to the engineering i.e., heavy focus on math and science. Presented herein is a different approach to introducing K students to and exciting them about chemical engineering, where a required undergraduate chemical engineering (ChE) course project is coupled with a science fair style presentation the University of Michigan (U of M) in groups of four were asked to design and present one original experiment suitable for a high school teacher to use in introducing a basic heat or mass transfer concept to his/her high school science class. Each student group was provided a $25 budget to build their experiment, and local high school students from the Ypsilanti school district were invited into the classroom to experience and judge ChE students design outcome on its ability to engage their interest in engineering as a career choice. This for replication of this unique approach to K outreach. METHODS Project Description. For their course project, students enasked to design an original experiment that would be suitable for a high school teacher to use in introducing a mass or heat transfer principle/concept to students in her/his class. Students were assigned to groups semi-randomly where self-selected were asked to design their experiment such that it can serve to attract high school students to ChE. Experimental design was subject to the following constraints: i) experiment must be feasible; ii) materials/setup cost for the experiment must not exceed $25; and iii) designed experiment must be easily set up in a high school classroom. Each group was required to present an in-class demonstration (demo) of their experiment at the end of the semester to a diverse audience composed of local high school students and teachers and chemical engineer their design. For the written project description, groups were required to include a rationale for the design, a detailed list of required materials, and a description of the experimental setup. In addition, groups were asked to include any experimental measurements taken during the design process, describe all relevant mass/heat transfer equations, and include their expected experimental outcome(s) and conclusions. The in-class demo format was less stringent; groups could have one demo that is reused for multiple sets of judges or multiple disposable (inexpensive) setups. Furthermore, in-class demos could not include the use of any hazardous materials (e.g., organic solvents) or high budget of $25 (see project description) to obtain materials for their in-class demos and given access to a senior engineer within the department to provide guidance on setups and choice of materials. Projects were graded on originality, feasibility for reproduction in a high school classroom, and the quality of the in-class demo. The written report counted for 75% of the total project grade and the in-class demo for 25%. Total project grade was given on a 100-point scale and represented were derived from surveys (Figure 1) administered to guest participants that included high school students (HSS), their teachers, and ChE graduate students and faculty. The survey Figure 1. (A) High school student survey and (B) faculty, teacher, and graduate student survey.


282to HSS focused on evaluating the ability of ChE student-de signed experiments/demos to excite and engage HSS about chemical engineering, and the survey to the faculty team (including HS teachers and ChE graduate students) focused ensure that each student group gets an adequate number of HSS viewing their demo during the presentation window (2 group numbers, and each HSS was required to visit at least High school participants were recruited from the Ypsilanti local Outreach and Engagement (OE).[2] The group consisted of 15 10th1th graders enrolled in the general chemistry class and their teachers (2). Participating HSS were only required to ment of Chemical Engineering via e-mail solicitation. The University of Michigan Internal Review of the course project. Numerical values from surveys were converted to a 100-point scale and averaged over all surveys assessed via a students t-test with p value < 0.05 considered RESULTS There were 115 students and the project description were available to students by the mass or heat transfer principle as a basis for their design and were encouraged to consult with the course instructor on the scope, scale, and feasibility of their projects. About a third of the groups based their experiments on mass transfer principles, and two teams attempted experiments involving both mass and heat transfer. Ten teams consulted with the instructor on various aspects of their designs prior to the inclass presentation. The average written report score for teams that consulted with the course instructor (78.6%) was not presentation scores (average of all surveys) between mass or heat transfer based experiments. Overall, many student groups offered a unique and fun take on several mass and heat transfer principles. For example, the team with the highest project score designed a simple, yet effective, experiment to illustrate the basic principles a station for HSS to cut through ice using body heat that varying the type of material used (graphite, aluminum, and plastic) and contact area between the body and the material law for heat conduction to 10th-11th graders. For instance, a deeper cut into the ice by a particular material would suggest to the HSS that the material has a higher heat conductivity compared to other materials. The fact that many of the HSS (and at least one ChE faculty) expressed their surprise that graphite conducted heat much faster than aluminum highlighted the success of this particular demo in achieving the project goal. Table 1 lists titles and topics of other noteworthy student-designed experiments. Details of these and other successful projects with instructions for replication in the high school classroom can be found at . There were two major drawbacks to the science fair style to set up demo stations in a way that allowed easy access for judging and 2) the large number of demos requiring access to electricity. These two issues led to brief periods of chaos during project presentation. ASSESSMENT Fifteen HSS from the YPSD school district participated in the project presentation. Of these, 10 were female and eight were Africanimmediately after each demo viewed to ensure an accurate representation of their opinions. Four key questions were used on the HSS survey (Q3 Q6 in Figure 1A) to gauge how successful a groups demo was at introducing and engaging T ABLE 1 Presented The Reindeer Effect The experiment demonstrates the ability of a microwave to provide heat to a system through electromagnetic radiation Molecular Diffusion Through a Porous Medium Dependence of mass diffusivity on temperature Once You POP, You Cant STOP temperature and convection via carbon dioxide in liquid soda pop (visual dem onstration of transfer using balloons)


283HSS interest in chemical engineering. Figure 2 summarizes the level of excitement and engagement reported by the HSS. About two-thirds of the HSS encounters with demos resulted in the HSS feeling fairly to highly excited about or engaged with the viewed presentation. More importantly, 83% of encounters resulted in the HSS feeling they learned something new. Overall, nearly 70% of encounters left HSS feeling fairly to highly interested in engineering. Questions 1 and 7 on the HSS survey were used to gauge how well ChE student designs adhered to the project problem statement and imposed constraints (see the section on Methods). Figure 3 shows that 88% of HSS encounters resulted in a fairly to highly original rating of the viewed likely rating on HSS perceived ability to repeat the viewed demonstration in their high school classroom. school teachers, and ChE faculty members were invited to evaluate the technical aspect of designed experiments and project presentation survey. The responses to Q1-3focused Figure 2. Summary of high school student survey on excitement and engagement rated on a scale of 1 Highly (Yes) = 9 10; Fairly (A bit) = 7 8; Neutral = 5 6; Not (No) = 3 4; Not at all = 1 2. Figure 3. Summary of HSS survey gauging how well ChE designs adhered to the project statement. Highly = 9 10; Fairly = 7 8; Neutral = 5 6; Not = 3 4; Not at all = 1 2. Figure 4. Summary of ChE student end-of-course (A-C) and post-semester (D-F) surveys scale.


284thought, and thoroughnessare summarized in Table 2. Overall, faculty responses to Q1 3 were mostly good to excellent (79 95% of the time). About 82% of the faculty teams encounters with demos resulted in a fairly to highly over 90% of the time, the faculty team responded to Q5 through Q7 with a fairly to highly likely rating, suggesting a general feeling that most student teams were successful in designing an economical experiment that is safe and can be easily reproduced in a high school classroom (not shown). The two HS teachers that participated in the project presentation were also asked to respond to Q7 on the HSS survey. Of the six demos they viewed, the two teachers felt that they could fairly to highly likely repeat three in their classroom, they were neutral on two, and felt they were not likely to be able to repeat one in their classroom. Interestingly, the experiment rated low on adaptability to their high school classroom was also rated neutral on originality and not at all on whether they learned something new or its ability to engage their interest in engineering. Thus, it is possible that their perceived inability to repeat this particular experiment in the classroom is linked to their lack of excitement for the demo. Since the class project/outreach event described herein is new to students enrolled in the format be collected. To this end, the ChE students were sur exam and a second time at end of the Winter 2009 semester (~ untary with responses collected anonymously. A total of 100 students participated in the end-of-term survey and 50 in the T ABLE 2Faculty Team Survey Result for Q1 Q3 Excellent Partial Attempt made Absent Creativity Does the group project or display demonstrate 16.3% 0.0% 0.0% Have the students shown creativity in the 37.2% 18.6% 2.3% 0.0% Thought Is the experiment appropriate for the study of 62.8% 32.6% 0.0% 0.0% 65.1% 27.9% 7.0% 0.0% 0.0% 18.6% 0.0% 0.0% Were the observations and information gained 32.6% 18.6% 0.0% 0.0% Does the data collected justify the conclusion 30.2% 20.9% 2.3% 0.0% Thoroughness 37.2% 11.6% 0.0% Does the project indicate a thorough under 53.5% 25.6% 20.9% 0.0% 0.0% 20.9% 0.0% 0.0%post-fall semester survey (post survey). Three key questions were repeated in both surveys to evaluate potential change in charts comparing the outcome of questions between the two surveys. When asked if their project experience helped their understanding of their project subject matter, 72% of the post survey respondents were highly positive compared to 20% of the end-of-term survey respondents. Similarly, respondents on the post survey showed a greater enthusiasm for HSS par ticipation in their project presentation (80% post-semester vs. 27% at the end of term). Students feeling about having this type of project format in other ChE courses at Michigan like wise shifted in the positive direction with only 20% of responend-of-term survey. The overwhelming improvement in ChE students attitude towards the class project in the post survey may not be representative of the entire class, however, since the 87% participation for the end-of-term survey. Thus, it is plausible that students who previously had a positive view of the class project were disproportionately represented on the post survey. Even if this were the case, however, the views of these students appear to be more positive on the post survey as compared to the end-of-term survey, e.g., only 20 students on the end-of-term survey thought the project helped their understanding of their course material vs. 36 students that felt the same way on the post survey. A set of questions was asked only on the post survey to on the outcome of their winter semester courses. Of the 50 students taking the post-semester survey, 38 indicated they


285were currently enrolled in the junior ChE lab course, and 32% was highly valuable to their winter lab course (Figure 5). that their ChE project experience was highly valuable to other courses in which they were currently enrolled. When asked how likely they were to consider participating in other K outreach programs if their class project presentation were categorized as outreach, 60% of post-survey respondents indicated they were highly likely to do so compared to only 8% indicating they were not likely to participate. Overall, students who had a positive feeling about the course project on the post survey did so regardless of their course grade outcome, e.g., worse than expected compared to 20% saying they do not want to see this sort of project in other engineering courses. Finally, some ChE students offered positive opinions about the class project outside of the survey questions. For example, one student wrote the class project showed us how diverse the things are that we chemical engineers can actually do and another said I got the opportunity to talk about the class project at an interview so I was glad that we did the project. Comparison to other science fair style outreach proMany universities (and companies) also have on-site outreach programs that allow K interaction with college students and professionals. Two prominent examples of this are: 1) the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigns College of Engineering annual science fair style open house aimed at showcasing the talent and ingenuity of their engineering students to the public,[6] and 2) the engineering expo at Kansas University. Students, student groups, and faculty across the engineering college participate in these outreach events by way of presenting demos, hosting engineering-themed competitions, tours of facilities, and informational sessions. Although the in-classroom outreach program presented herein is not meant to replace or compete with such elaborate events, it can offer unique advantages to K outreach. For one, the presented in-classroom event may be a great way for a department to incorporate outreach into their program in the absence of a college-wide event similar to the ones mentioned above. Secondly, while the in-classroom event cannot reach as large an audience as a college-wide (or campus-wide) event, it can offer an opportunity for a more intimate interaction between lege-wide event can run the risk of being viewed similar to a spectator sport where the visiting K students are exposed credibly bright engineering students, but are not able to see themselves with the capacity to perform at such level. In a classroom setting, the K visitors are exposed to 1) all types of students and their vulnerabilities, 2) simple projects focused on showcasing engineering aspects of day-to-day life as opposed to the cool and fancy things engineering can make, and 3) a better sense of the engineering classroom. Moreover, the design criteria imposed on the presented in-classroom outreach (see Methods) ensures that K visitors are active participants in the experiments as a way to learn key engineering principles, i.e., a successful ChE design is one that can be carried out by K students in their own classroom. Thirdly, the present in-classroom project-outreach event offers the possibility of tracking impact on participating K students and their eventual college enrollment since recruitment for engineering colleges that do have an on-campus outreach event, the presented outreach approach may serve as a way for departments to involve more of their undergraduatesnot just the high achieverssuch that they have more demos to showcase and can foster a more intimate interaction between the K audience and engineering students. CONCLUSIONS Visual/hands-on demonstrations have long been an effective [7, 8] and the each-one-teach-one approach to knowledge transfer has been proven to enhance students learning experience. Here, we show that these two approaches can be combined to create a unique course project within the chemical engineering cur riculum that allows ChE undergraduate students to enhance their understanding of key course concepts while simultane -Figure 5. Summary of ChE students response to questions unique to the post-semester survey.


286ously exposing HSS to basic concepts of chemical engineering. unique project presentation/outreach format indicated a better understanding of the demonstrated engineering principles. More importantly, the HS audience (including teachers) indicated an overwhelming interest in chemical engineering as a result of their participation in the ChE course project. Overall, the incorporation of K activities into the chemical engineering course curriculum overcomes the time commitment barrier that often prevents college students and faculty from participating in outreach to K12. Furthermore, this project-out reach class presentation format likely presents engineering to high school students in a less intimidating manner where these students themselves can get involved with demonstrations of engineering principles. This conclusion is evident in the highly positive response of HSS to the survey question focused on their perceived ability to repeat ChE demonstrations in their can serve to demystify the college experience for these visitors. Lastly, while this type of class project-presentation easily lends itself to mass and heat transfer, it can readily be adapted to other chemical engineering courses, including material balance, the hands-on experiment for freshmen in chemical engineer ing developed by Prof. Hohn at Kansas State University[8] can Practical tips for replication are listed in Table 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENT to Omolola Eniola-Adefeso. The author thanks Dr. Cynthia Finelli, Dr. Camelia Owens, and Prof. Julia Ross for their insight and useful conversations in the development and assessment of the presented class project. REFERENCES Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, National Academies Press (2007) Science and Engineering Indicators: 2010, National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Arlington, VA (2010) 3. Merterns, R., Engineering Suddenly Hot At Universities, The Christian Science Monitor The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century 5. Committee on Public Understanding of Engineering Messages, and National Academy of Engineering, Changing the Conversation: Messages for Improving Public Understanding of Engineering National Academies Press (2008) 6. Engineering At Illinois 7. Farrell, S., R.P. Hesketh, and M.J. Savelski, A R espiration E xperiment to Introduce ChE Principles, Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 8. Hohn, K.L., The Chemical Engineering ehind How Pop oes Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41 (2007) T ABLE 3 Practical Tips for Project Replication 1. Project format works best for small to medium class size (although a positive outcome is achievable with a fairly large class as reported herein). 2. Student should have access to the project description early in the semester to allow ample time for project development. 3. Instructor may stimulate idea formulation among students via her/his own sample in-class experimental demonstration of course concepts. Instructor should take care to invite K students at the appropriate level, e.g., middle to high school students are likely appropriate for participation in mass and heat transfer projects while elementary to middle school age students maybe more suitable for any project/out reach associated with an introductory chemical engineering course. Overall, desired K grades can be targeted via the project description and imposed constraints.


287 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010Random Thoughts has been running for so long now that many current CEE readers were in elementary school when some of the early columns appeared (which is a pretty reach back in the archives and reprint one I think still has relevance. This column is a slightly updated version of one from the summer of 1990. The scene is the student lounge at a large university. Three juniorsMichelle, Rob, and Artare studying Michelle was close behind him, and Rob got 15 points below class average. Theyve been at it for over an hour. Michelle: dont think I really get it. Art: I think we can forget itIve got copies of Snavelys M: Maybe, but its the real want to analyze blood A: worry about is ours on this test if we dont stick to the stuff Snavely is going to ask. M: Yeah, but if we dont... Hey Art, is there going to be any of that Navier-Stokes A: Yeah, there usually is, but no derivationsyou just have to know how to simplify the equation. R: RatsI hate that garbage. M: Ive been looking through the text...there are all sorts of Navier-Stokes problems in therewe could try to set some of them up. R: Nah, too much grindI just need to do enough to get my out those old tests and lets just memorize the solutions. A: Okay, but that may not...hey, look at this questionhes used it for three years in a row...Parts (a) and (b) are just plugand-chug, but he throws a real curve ball here in Part (c)I dont know how to do it. R: M: Never mind thatlet me see it...okay, hes asking about relation for entrance length. A: What are you talking aboutI never heard of that stuff. M: He never talked about it in class but its in the readingyou need to calculate the Reynolds number and then substitute it in this dimensionless correlation, and that gives you... R: Im gonna grab a Coke from the machine, guyswhen you get it all straight just tell me what formula I plug into, A: Yeah, sure. So its just this correlation, huh Michelledo MEET YOUR STUDENTS 3. MICHELLE, ROB, AND ART RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State UniversityRichard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University. He is coauthor of Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous articles on chemical process engineering and engineering and science education, and regularly presents workshops on effective college teaching at campuses and conferences around the world. Many of his publications can be seen at . Random Thoughts


288M: Probably not for the test, but I was trying to think why you would want to know the entrance length, and it seems to me that if youre designing a piping system that has a lot of short pipe segments it would be important to know how well capillaries, or maybe lubricating oil in a car engine, or... A: Forget itthat stuffs not going to be on this test...even Snavely wouldnt be that look at this problem here... These three students illustrate three different approaches to learning .1 deep approach, meaning that she tries not just to learn facts but to under stand what they mean, how they are related, and what they have to do with her experience. surface approach, following routine solution procedures but not trying to understand where they come from, memoriz body of knowledge. the class, whatever it takes. He takes a strategic approach instructor wants and delivering itdigging deep get away with it. Engineering faculty members often complain that most of their students are Robs and pitifully few are Michelles. Unfortunately, few of us do anything in class to stimulate our students to take a deep approach: we just give them tricky tests to see if they can do more than plug in, and then gripe that theyre apathetic and incompetent when they cant. For tunately, theres something more productive we can do. The following conditions increase the likelihood that students will adopt a deep approach to learning.1Student-perceived relevance of the subject mat ter. Students will not struggle to achieve a deep understanding of material that seems pointless to them, any more than we would. To motivate them to do it, let them know up front what the mate rial has to do with their everyday lives ( e.g. and mass transfer and reaction in the atmosphere and their homes and respiratory and digestive eventually be called on to solve ( e.g., fabricating improved semiconductors, developing alternative energy sources, avoiding future environmental catastrophes). Clearly stated instructional objectives, practice, and feedback. Students are not born knowing how to analyze deeply, and little in their precollege ex perience is likely to have fostered that ability. To get them to pull meaning out of lecture material and solve problems that go beyond those in the text, spell these objectives out and give concrete examples of the kind of reasoning desired. Then explicitly ask the students to carry out deep anal ysis in class activities and on homework and give them constructive feedback on their attempts. Appropriate tests. Provided the preceding condi tions have been met, include questions that call for deep analysis on all tests. If the students know they will only get surface questions (closed-ended exercises that require only standard solution pro cedures), most will likely take a surface approach to learning the material. If they expect some deep questions (more open-ended questions that require greater understanding), most Michelles and Arts and perhaps even some Robs will be motivated to take a deep approach. Choice over learning tasks. Provide bonus problems and/or optional projects and/or alternatives to quizzes and/or optional self-paced study and/or choices between group and individual efforts. Reasonable workload. If students have to spend all their time and energy just keeping up, theyll fall back on a surface approach. The research indicates that by establishing these conditions we may substantially increase the number of our students who think critically about the material we are presenting, try to discover its meaning and its relationship with other mate rial they have previously learned, and routinely question the inferences and conclusions that we present in class. Whether or not well know what to do with these people once we have them is a question for another occasion. All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at


289Over the years, the engineering application of transport phenomena has contributed to research advances in various biomedical and pharmaceutical technologies. Transport processes are important factors in the design and operation of biomedical devices used for sensing, diagnosing, or imaging purposes, as well as applications including drug and gene delivery, biological signal transduction, and tissue chemical engineers have had a major impact, particularly for sites. It has been projected that the demand for drug delivery systems in the United States will expand more than 10% annually to $132 billion in 2012.[1] drug delivery systems extend into all therapeutic classes of pharmaceuticals and encompass a wide range of compounds and formulations. Considerable attention has been devoted to the design and development of drug delivery systems as evidenced by the exponential increase in the number of books, review articles, and research papers published. These drug delivery devices which include: i) reduce systematic toxicity by providing localized delivery; ii) provide precise timing in delivery; iii) protect drugs from in vivo metabolism, thus achieving higher drug stability, longer therapeutic effect, and lower dosing frequency; iv) enhance delivery of poorly soluble drugs; and v) increase in cost-effectiveness. In the development of these drug delivery devices, mathematical modeling of the release process is important since it establishes the mechanism(s) of drug release and provides more general guidelines for the development of other systems.[2] Undeniably, many successful controlled-release drug delivery devices have been developed as a result of an almost arbitrary selection of components, [2] Design Project onCONTROLLED-RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY DEVICES: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences QINGXING XU, YOUYUN LIANG, YEN WAH TONG, AND CHI-HWA WANG Qingxing Xu is a Ph.D. student in a joint degree program between the National University of Singapore and the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. He received his B.Eng. (2008) in chemical engineering from the National University of Singapore. His research interests include electrohydrodynamic ow systems, polymeric particles for drug delivery, and mathematical modeling of drug delivery systems. Youyun Liang is a Ph.D. student in a joint degree program between the National University of Singapore and the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. She received her B.Eng. (2008) in chemical engineering from the National University of Singapore. Her research interests include liver tissue engineering with microspheres and hydrogels. Yen Wah Tong is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and the Division of Bioengineering at the National University of Singapore. He received his Ph.D. (2000) in chemical engineering from University of Toronto and his B.A.Sc. (1995) in engineering chemistry from Queens University (Canada). His research interests include polymeric particles for tissue engineering and drug delivery, bioseparation, and membranes. Chi-Hwa Wang is an associate professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the National University of Singapore. He received his Ph.D. (1996) and M.A. (1993) in chemical engineering from Princeton University, his M.Sc. (1991) in biomedical engineering from Johns Hopkins University, and his B.Sc. (1987) in chemical engineering from National Taiwan University. His research interests include solid/liquid separation, drug delivery systems, and ow and dynamics of granular materials. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEclassroom


290This paper describes the introduction of a drug delivery project in a mass transfer course. Farrell and Hesketh[3] have riculum and in a senior-level elective. The authors reported an experiment that involved drug release from a lozenge formulation, and the students were required to determine the drug concentration as a function of time, evaluate the drug dissolution rate, and compare between experimental interesting daily-life examples that have been reported by various authors to illustrate the concepts of heat and mass transfer, which include i) processing of ice cream, ii) cooling of a cup of coffee,[5] iii) cooking of potatoes,[6, 7] iv) drying of a bath towel,[8] and v) microwave drying.[9] Mass transfer phenomenon may also be illustrated via simple experiments to determine liquid[10] or vapor[11-13] or via complex equipment to evaluate oxygen transfer in a bioreactor or diffusion across a membrane.[15, 16] The main objective of this drug delivery project is to show how the principles of mass transfer are employed in pharma students to various fabrication techniques of drug delivery devices, before they proceed with vigorous mathematical modeling of these devices of various geometries. Mathematical modeling of drug release provides insights concerning device shape and size on the effect of the release of drug. interest on controlled release in the open-ended component of the project. PROJECT DESCRIPTION The aim of the project is to introduce students to the most important, cutting-edge technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical exercise in the software. The project was initiated as a compulsory component of the undergraduate course CN2125 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Spring semester 2009 at the Department of Chemical and teams, six students per team) and the project constituted a weighting factor of 20% in the course grading. section, the teams are required to conduct a review of the research literature on the subject of polymeric microand nano-particle fabrication and summarize recent developments on a particular chosen technique. Table 1 shows a description of the various particle fabrication techniques.[17-22] For the second section, the teams are required to perform vigorous mass transfer calculations for the design of con. Each for the various teams. In this section, the teams will have to model and simulate for an idealized delivery device with the following assumptions: 3. T ABLE 1 Microand Nano-Particles Description Reference Emulsion-based methods the polymer. continuous phase (usually an aqueous phase). [17] Nanoprecipitation semi-polar solvent miscible with water from a lipophilic solution. [18] Spray-freezing into liquid microparticles. results in rapid freezing of the atomized droplets and formation of microparticles. [19] Spray drying [20] Electro-hydrodynamic atomiza tion (EHDA) [21] Supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) carbon dioxide. in precipitating the microparticles. [22]


291 human body, it begins to release the drug by a diffusionthe liquid boundary layer surrounding the delivery it reaches the bulk solution so that in essence the sur during the drug-release process.The project statement requires the delivery device to have at least 20% of the drug being released to the body within one week. Four geometries of the delivery device made of polymer A have been proposed, which include: i) a sphere with a radius of 3 m, ii) a cylindrical tablet with a radius of 3 m and a height of 6 radius of 3 m, and iv) a rectangular cuboid with a length, width, and height of 6, 6, and 7 m, respectively. The following tasks are assigned: for the different geometries. b. Determine the geometries appropriate for this particu lar application. different geometries.Next, it is proposed that the drug is to be encapsulated in a cylindrical tablet of radius 1 m and height 2 m made determined by the individual project teams). It has the same initial concentration as the previous part, 30 mg/cm3. From released to the body within one week. The following questions are asked: mer B. b. What is the drug concentration at the center of the The third section forms the open-ended component of the tively or quantitatively discuss related controlled-release of the project. In particular, they can deal in-depth with to: i) the discussion of the limitations of the developed model and its practicability under nonidealized conditions drug-release data of the assigned drug obtained from the literature using nonlinear regression, followed by the comparison between model and experimental results. These are some of the suggested topics the teams can undertake. The last section is meant to provide a linkage or coupling of the knowledge gained from the earlier two sections of the project.SOLUTIONThe solution presented here is for the second section of the write Ficks second law of diffusion with the associated initial and boundary conditions for a symmetrical drug delivery device as follows: Initial condition: C=C0=30 mg/cm3s=0 (at the surface of the device) (at the centerline symmetry of the device) where C is the drug concentration, t is the time, D is the 0 is the initial drug concentration, and Cs is the surface drug concentration. The analytical solutions for Ficks second law of diffusion with the described boundary conditions for various simple geometries are readily available in the literature and can or error functions. nite summation series needed for the calculation of drug are summarized in Table 3. 10-15 cm2/s will be used expressions presented in Table 3, it is possible to obtain the T ABLE 2Different Types of Drugs Assigned to the Teams Drug 1 Mitomycin C 2 5-Fluorouracil 3 5-Fluorouridine 5 Leuprolide acetate 6 Adriamycin 7 Dopamine 8 Dexamethasone 9 Nerve growth factor 10


292 T ABLE 3 01 nt M Drug Concentration Drug Release Sphere (radius = R) Cylindrical Tablet height = 2Z) r Cylindrical Fiber (radius = R) Cuboid (length = 2a, height = 2c) r f f


293as shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. for the four geometries after four weeks will be presented. From Figure 2, it becomes clear that to satisfy the therapeutic requirement of at least 20% of the drug being released to the body within one week, all four geometries can be used. The geometry that has the closest percentage release of 20% tablet have the highest specific surface area, followed by the cuboid and then the surface area, thus resulting in almost the same percentage of drug being released to the body during the initial release stage. In the next part of the question, given the released to the body within one week, we to rewrite the expression for the drug release equation explicitly to solve for the diffusion used to determine the unknown. It is found 3.11 10-16 cm2/s. The drug concentration at the center of the device is close to the initial drug concentration of 30 mg/cm3.PROJECT PHASESFor the heat and mass transfer course, a total of three hours of formal lecture and one hour of tutorial class had been allocated per week over 13 teaching weeks (with a recess break during week 7). For the project component, four contact sessions of one hour each were scheduled regularly during the entire phase of the project (12 weeks). The students were organized into teams of six, with two students in each team appointed as the chairperson and vice-chairperson, respectively. The following paragraphs contain more details about the activities planned for the students. The project can be roughly divided into two main phases. It should be noted that some of the tasks had to be carried out simultaneously in order to achieve proper progress. Figure 1. Drug-concentration proles based on diffusion coefcient of 2.50 10-15 cm2/s for various geometries after 4 weeks. The concentration prole for the cuboid is plotted along the x direction (by setting y = z = 0). The concentration proles for the sphere and the innite cylinder are plotted along the radial direction. The concentration prole for the nite cylinder (Z) is plotted along the z direction (by setting r = 0). The concentration prole for the nite cylinder (R) is plotted along the radial direction (by setting z = 0). Figure 2. Drug-release proles based on a diffusion coefcient of 2.50 10-15 cm2/s for various geometries for 1 week. Based on dimensions of the geometries described in problem statement, the specic surface areas for the sphere, cylindrical tablet, cuboid, and cylindrical ber are 1, 1, 0.952, and 0.667 m-1, respectively. The corresponding percentages of drug released after 1 week are 38.8, 38.1, 36.2, and 27.5%, respectively.


294Phase One (Week 1 Through Week 9) during week 1 was to provide an interesting, enjoyable, and challenging overview of the numerous techniques for the fabrication of microand nano-particles to the students. In addition, the students were advised to view a laboratory-made video that was readily available for download from the course website. The video showcased actual experimental setups and explained principles of some of the fabrication techniques techniques for the large body of students, it was hoped that the video would help them understand how the particles were fabricated in the laboratory. The teams then spent the remaining seven weeks conducting a detailed literature review on a particular fabrication of the project. In the sessions, the teams shared their literature the grading of the mid-term reports. Phase Two (Week 5 Through Week 12) For the second phase, attention was focused on the second and third sections of the project. Due to the curriculum structure of the course, the topic of mass transfer was covered only during the later part of the semester. Thus, an introduction of the topic to the students was essential for their project work. The second contact session scheduled during week 5 was to introduce the concept of mass transfer and focus on the physics of diffusion. graduate course. The third contact session scheduled during commands and syntaxes that would be used frequently in their projects. Much of the time was focused on the introcylindrical geometries. of week 5, mainly to provide technical assistance for the conducted on week 5 and from week 8 through week 12. Apart further meetings or follow-up meetings with the student facilitators whenever necessary. When the project phase reached week 12, there had been troubleshooting. These questions scheduled during week 12. This was done so that the rest of the ROLES OF MANAGERS AND STUDENT FACILITATORSThe project was administered by two managers and two student facilitators. The managers were the course lectur ers and their main roles were to oversee the overall project management, supervise the teams, and advise the student and introduced various techniques for the fabrication of microand nano-particles. They were also in charge of maintaining the course website. In particular, the website was updated regularly with important project announcements, essential contact session materials, relevant project references, and most importantly an up-to-date compilation of frequently asked questions based on the e-mail enquiries sent by various teams. The compilation of the frequently asked questions which include: i) to ensure the information was available and communicated to every team, ii) to allow the teams to learn based on the problems or questions raised by others, and iii) to lighten the e-mail load of the management team by minimizing the need to answer similar questions raised by different teams. Small sharing sessions were also led by the managers, together with the student facilitators, after the teams had submitted their mid-term reports. Those teams that focused on the same area of fabrication technique were grouped in the same sharing session. In each session, the teams shared fabrication techniques. In addition, the student facilitators provided feedback on the grading of the mid-term reports. In doing so, a two-way exchange of knowledge between the students and the management team was possible. The main role of the student facilitators was to conduct the remaining three contact sessions with the relevant teaching materials needed for the project. Moreover, they had expertise programming and were able to provide technical were also handled by the student facilitators. At the end of the the managers and student facilitators participated in grading the PROJECT ASSESSMENTThe project constituted 20% of the overall assessment of the course, with the rest composed of assignments, quizzes, and literature, reports were graded based on the comprehensiveness of the review, the ability to integrate information from multiple sources, and the validity of the various points raised.


295For the second section, the reports were graded based on the ability to explain the methodology and justify the assumptions and the choice of equations, the accuracy of the solutions, and the discussion of the simulation results. A good discussion should include explanations for the differences in drug graded based on the innovative linkage or coupling of the earlier two sections of the project and the ability to justify those claims. In one particular report, the team recommended a particular fabrication technique for the encapsulation of the assigned drug, with the consideration of factors such as: i) the operating conditions of the fabrication process (e.g., temperature and pH); ii) the properties of the drug (e.g., solubility, hydrophobicity, and stability); and iii) the typical drug-release rates and thus, the therapeutic window of the target drug. The selection of an appropriate fabrication technique was important since some of the conditions would sometimes result in the loss of biological activity of the drug being encapsulated. In another report, the team used the skills gained from the second section of the project to model several experimental results based on the assigned drug and the selected fabrication technique from the the encapsulated drug. The two projects listed here are some of the best reports and serve as outstanding examples.OUTCOMES/RESULTSMost of the teams were capable of providing detailed discussions and integrating information from multiple sources for their literature reviews. It was commendable as the students were only in their second undergraduate year and did not have prior experience in the research area. For the design calcula tions, many teams found them to be particularly challenging codes. Although the students had prior experience in MAT programming, the translation of a descriptive problem code was not a skill in of the common errors made included the use of wrong equaseries to reach convergence. In addition, a few teams could for the cylindrical geometries. component, correct trends in the drug concentrathat, a handful of teams had written codes that were capable of generating the required This certainly indicates that the conconsultations, and the compilation of frequently asked questions have proven to be effective in guiding the teams in their project work. The third section of the project turned out to be the weakest component among the teams. As it was an open-ended component, the qualamong the various teams. There were some outstanding teams that were able to model experimental data by using published diffusion in Figure 3. While many of the teams provided innovative linkage or coupling of the knowledge gained from Figure 3. Comparison between experimental and theoretical release proles of dexamethasone from nanoparticles.[25] The proles are obtained based on a diffusion coefcient of 22.6, 4.8, 12.7, and 4.8 10-18 cm2/s for PTMC salting out, mPEG-PTMC salting out, PTMC single emulsion and mPEG-PTMC single emulsion, respectively. The corresponding average sizes of the nanoparticles used are 186, 95, 261, and 103 nm, respectively. The experimental drug release data for week 1, 2, 3, and 4 are estimated based on the published gure in the reference.


296the earlier two sections of the project, a handful of teams had simply discussed the fabrication techniques without consider ing the drugs they had been assigned. An online survey was conducted at the end of the course to gather project feedback and suggestions. Out of a in this voluntary survey and the results Most of the students perceived the design the project description. Upon completion of the project, more students felt that the ponents required in this project, more than 50% of the students found those that programming to be the most challenging (Figure 5). Not surprisingly, they also found contact sesprogramming was illustrated, to be the most useful resource (Figure 6).CHALLENGES/LESSONS LEARNEDThe main challenge of the project is that the students do not have prior knowledge about drug decomprising a wide range of literature. Thus, it is essential to draw a proper framework for the scope of the project, simulate interest among students, and illustrate the importance of mass transfer in these drug delivery devices. Additionally, it is important for students to understand the various fabrication techniques of drug delivery devices before they embark on reviewing related literature materials. Due to the limitation of time and resources in the course, however, students are not able to get hands-on experiences with various fabrication techniques. One possible area for improvement is to conduct a laboratory tour where various fabrication techniques will be demonstrated on the spot. This will be complementary to the existing laboratory courses since these fabrication techniques are not currently covered. Many of the students lacked the skills in translating a code. Deciding on the amount of help to render the teams be provided so that the teams would be able to start working on the project. On the other hand, too much guidance would be tantamount to spoon-feeding and would deprive the teams of a chance to learn from their mistakes. To overcome this situation, simple examples can be used as teaching materials Figure 4. Percentage of the total respondents selecting the perceived level of difculty of the design project i) when the project description is rst read, and ii) when the project is completed, based on a ve-point Likert scale. The numbers displayed on top of the individual columns indicated the percentage of the total respondents selecting the particular option. to illustrate the problem and the solution, after which there should be time given for team trial and error before being advised by the student facilitators through consultations. The open-ended component of the project was intended to allow room for creativity in responses from the various teams. about what type of areas to focus on were asked by many teams. In addition, the teams did not know the percentage of credit for the three sections of the project and thus, they were unsure of the amount of effort required for individual sections. The problem can be circumvented by informing teams upfront of the weightage of the individual components.CONCLUSIONIn the course of this project, the students have been assessed on the current techniques for the fabrication of drug delivery devices and the design of these delivery devices using MAT being implemented, there are many areas that can be further improved. This particular project can potentially serve as an interesting model for other mass transfer courses.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


297 Figure 5. Percentage of the total respondents selecting the perceived level of difculty of the various components of the design project, namely i) literature review on fabrication techniques, ii) identication of different analytical equations for drug concentration and release proles, iii) using MATLAB to determine drug concentration and release proles, iv) using MATLAB to determine Bessel roots, and v) open-ended component, based on a vepoint Likert scale. The numbers displayed on top of the individual columns indicate the percentage of the total respondents selecting the particular option. Figure 6. Percentage of the total respondents selecting the usefulness level of the various resources available for the design project, namely i) video on fabrication techniques, ii) four contact sessions, iii) ofce consultations, and iv) e-mail consultations, based on a three-point Likert scale. The numbers displayed on top of the individual columns indicate the percentage of the total respondents selecting the particular option.


298National University of Singapore, under the grant number C-279-000-002-001. We also thank the technical support by Hao Qin, Chenlu Lei, Sudhir Hulikal Ranganath, Jian Qiao, Hemin Nie, Alireza Rezvanpour, and Dr. Wee Chuan Lim on various phases of this teaching project.REFERENCES tems, in D.L. Wise (Ed.), Handbook of Pharmaceutical Controlled Release Technology Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2000) 3. Farrell, S., and R.P. Hesketh, An Introduction to Drug Delivery for Chemical Engineers, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(3), 198 (2002) Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 131 (2007) 5. Condoret, J.S., Teaching Transport Phenomena Around a Cup of Coffee, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(2), 137 (2007) Modeling, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(1), 26 (2002) 7. Smart, J.L., Optimum Cooking of French Fry-Shaped Potatoes: A Classroom Study of Heat and Mass Transfer, Chem. Eng. Ed., 37(2), 8. Nollert, M.U., An Easy Heat and Mass Transfer Experiment for Transport Phenomena, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(1), 56 (2002) 9. Steidle, C.C., and K.J. Myers, Demonstrating Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer with Microwave Drying, Chem. Eng. Ed., 33 Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(2), 156 (2002) Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(2), 158 (2000) 12. Kwon, K.C., T.H. Ibrahim, Y.K. Park, and C.M. Simmons, Inexpensive Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(1), 68 (2002) sion Experiment, Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 Chem. Eng. Ed., 36(3), 216 (2002) 15. Magalhaes, F.D., and A. Mendes, Single-Component Mass Transfer Across a Porous Membrane, Chem. Eng. Ed., 32 16. Mohammad, A.W., Simple Mass Transfer Experiment Using NanoChem. Eng. Ed., 34 Extraction/Evaporation: Reviewing the State of the Art of Microsphere Preparation Process Technology, J. Control. Release, 102(2), 313 (2005) and Release Studies of a Water Soluble Drug, J. Control. Release 57(2), 171 (1999) 19. Yu, Z., T.L. Rogers, J. Hu, K.P. Johnston, and R.O. Williams III, Preparation and Characterization of Microparticles Containing Peptide Produced by a Novel Process: Spray Freezing into Liquid, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 54(2), 221 (2002) 20. Wang, F.J., and C.H. Wang, Effects of Fabrication Conditions on the Characteristics of Etanidazole Spray-Dried Microspheres, J. Microencapsul., 19 oped by Electrohydrodynamic Atomization for the Local Delivery of Biomaterials 27(17), 3321 (2006) 22. Lee, L.Y., C.H. Wang, and K.A. Smith, Supercritical Antisolvent Delivery of Paclitaxel, J. Control. Release 125(2), 96 (2008) 23. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1975) Solute Release I. Fickian and Non-Fickian Release from Non-Swellable Devices in the Form of Slabs, Spheres, Cylinders or Discs, J. Control. Release 5(1), 23 (1987) Carbonate) Nanoparticles for the Controlled Release of Dexametha sone, J. Control. Release 111 (3), 263 (2006) 135. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Ethical Decision Making, Santa Clara University, , accessed April 2010 136. Pritchard, M., Center for the Study of Ethics in Society. Teaching Engineering Ethics: A Case Study Approach. , accessed April 2010 137. Environmental Protection Agency. Exposure Assessment Tools and Models. , accessed April 2010 138. Miller, R., Estimating Capital Costs. , accessed April 2010 139. Milligan, D.A., Process Equipment Cost Estimates. , accessed April 2010 , accessed April 2010 rate/university/products.cfm>, accessed April 2010>, accessed April 2010 lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html>, accessed April 2010 Approach, Proceedings of Student Participation in Team Activities, Proceedings of 2007>, accessed April 2010 Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness: A New Peer Evaluation Instrument, Proceedings tion, ASEE (2006)>, accessed April 2010 dergraduate Students Design Skills Using On-Line Video Modules and Active-Learning Exercises, Proceedings of the 2009 Annual>, accessed April 2010 accessed April 2010 Delivery of Chemical Engineering Design Projects, Chem. Eng. Ed., 39Ideas to Consider, continued from page 317


299A mathematical model is an abstraction of a physical system, i.e., a mathematical image of the reality. These models are of great importance in engineering because they can provide relevant information about the system being modeled which may not be available from experiments, e.g., a model can explain variations in the measurable macroscopic properties of a physical system using accurate information from the microscopic level, which cannot usually be measured in a laboratory. Also, mathematical models help engineers to make decisions and to improve the quality of a process. On the other hand, mathematical models can lead to wrong deci sions or conclusions about the system under study if they are not validated with experimental work. Therefore, a complete study of a physical system should integrate modeling, simulation, and experimental work. The process modeling fundamentals are usually introduced to engineering students in one or two courses on transport of transport phenomena,[1-5] most of them present the momentum, energy, and mass transport phenomena as independent subjects. This limits the application of the concepts learned in transport phenomena courses to practical systems where different laws of physics may occur simultaneously, e.g., the an asymmetric geometry. It has been widely recognized that framework constitutes one of the keystones in fundamental engineering sciences and contributes to the development of ogy.[1,6] Therefore, it is important to expose undergraduate engineering students to the modeling and simulation of physical processes that involve the study of two or more laws of physics; this has been referred to as multiphysics modeling. AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE IN MODELING AND SIMULATION OF MULTIPHYSICS SYSTEMS ChEcurriculum EST ANISLAO ORTIZ-RODRIGUEZ, JORGE VAZQUEZ-ARENAS, AND LUIS A. RICARDEZ-SANDOV AL Estanislao Ortiz-Rodriguez holds B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in chemical engineering from the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP), in Mexico. He has worked in the chemical industry sector in Mexico, where he has gained experience in processing operations such as crystallization and drying of inorganic compounds. Recently, he was awarded a Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Waterloo, in Canada. Through his graduate programs, the author has specialized in polymer characterization and polymer processing. In this latter topic, he has implemented numerical simulations to address conventional and reactive extrusion operations in twin screw extruders. Luis A. Ricardez-Sandoval received his B.Sc. degree from the Instituto Tecnologico de Orizaba in Orizaba, Mexico. He obtained his M.Sc. degree from the Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya in Celaya, Mexico. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Canada. Prior to joining the graduate program at UW, Luis worked in the manufacturing and oil and gas industry for several years. He is currently an assistant professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Waterloo. His current research interests include multiscale modeling of chemical processes, design and control of dynamic systems, systems identication, and robust control. Jorge Vazquez-Arenas received his B.Sc. in chemical engineering from the Minatitlan Institute of Technology (ITM Mexico, 2003), his M.Eng. in Minerals Engineering from the Autonomous University of San Luis (UASLP Mexico, 2005), and he is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Waterloo. He was a two-year (UAM Mexico, 2007) research fellow in the department of Chemistry in the Metropolitan Autonomous University. His research and educational interests focus in the modeling of electrochemical systems, electrodeposition of single metals and alloys, hydrometallurgy, corrosion, passivation, and EIS methods. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010


300The multiphysics modeling of a physical process may involve not only the simultaneous solution of different laws of physics occurring at the same time but also the coupling of two or more phenomena occurring at different length or time scales. The latter class of systems, also referred to as multiscale systems, are of increasing interest in engineering since they can be used to describe the macroscopic properties of a physical system by modeling and simulating the microscopic behavior of the physical process.[7,8] Although a sound background in numerical techniques may be desirable for simulating the type of processes previously described, the use of commercial software may prove very valuable for accomplishing this task, especially for those who are just becoming familiar with the subject of modeling and simulation. In the Fall of 2008, the Micro and Nano Systems Computer-Aided Design (CAD) course, NE-336, was offered for undergraduate program at the University of Waterloo. The goal of this course is to study the process modeling fundamentals and to train students in the modeling and simulation technology. Also, the students are exposed to conventional numerical techniques available for solving both ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs and PDEs, respectively). Since the course deals with the modeling and simulation of micro and nano systems, one of the most important goals of the course is to train students in the implementation of multiphysics models. For this purpose, they have to perform different computational laboratories that provide them with practical hands-on experience in the simulation of micro systems. These laboratories are intended to provide a clear physical understanding of the systems being simulated. Since the course is mainly focused on the modeling and numerical simulation of multiphysics systems, only introductions to the electronic and atomistic simulations required to model nano systems are discussed by the instructor in the last section of the course (see course structure in section 2.1). The goal of this paper is to give a general overview of the NE-336 course and to present one of the computational laboratories covered in the course. The laboratory presented in this work corresponds to a drug delivery system where the macroscopic properties of the system depend upon the variations at the microscopic system level. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: in section 2, an overview of the NE-336 course is presented. Section 3 presents a computational laboratory that addresses the release of a drug in a storage tank. The mathematical model used to describe the behavior of this system, the challenges posed by this problem, and the laboratory tasks performed by the presents the evaluation made by the students regarding the learning experience in this course. Concluding remarks are presented in section 5. 2. COURSE DESCRIPTION Micro and Nano Systems Computer-Aided Design is one of the core courses in the Nanotechnology Engineering cur riculum at the University of Waterloo. This course, NE336, is composed of three weekly hours of lecture, one weekly hour of tutorial, and three biweekly hours of computational laboratory. Lectures are used by the course instructor to provide the essential course material. Tutorial sessions are used to reinforce the concepts presented in the lectures, to solve sample problems, and as a pre-laboratory session. Laboratory sessions are used to help students to gain practical experi ence in the implementation of multiphysics models in an application software, on its simulation, and on the analysis of the simulation results. The course grading is based upon a midterm exam, laboratory reports and assignments, handcovers the complete course content. The course is suitable for those students who are already familiar with classical thermodynamics and the traditional analytical methods for solving ODEs and PDEs. The course objectives can be summarized as follows: mass transfer. solve ODEs and PDEs. used commercial software based in Finite Element light the complexity of the solutions of multiphysics tween different mathematical models is implemented. 2.1 Course Structure course content has been divided as follows: principle modeling and empirical modeling. Here, the basic concepts used to model physical systems that follow the laws of classical mechanics (i.e., conservasimple physical systems. The basic steps in the modeling process, the different approaches used to obtain a to perform empirical modeling are discussed. Each of the above topics is supported with practical examples, e.g. circular tube. The books by Bird, et al., and Tosun are the basic sources for this section of the course. This section presents the traditional numerical


301methods available to solve initial value problems, such as Euler and Runge-Kutta methods, boundary value problems, the shooting method, and eigen-value problems for solving ODEs. Similarly, methods used in element method, are discussed. In this section of the course, a detailed discussion on truncation and discretization errors in numerical analysis is presented. For example, students are made aware of the errors gener ated by the use of approximate functions in the different terms of the PDEs containing the variable to be solved. Here, it is also shown that the errors depend on several factors, such as the truncation of Taylor series to form e.g. second order, the order of a Lagrange polynomial to size of the mesh elements. Also, comparisons between ence methods, i.e., forward, backward, and centered methods for regular and irregular geometries are also discussed on this part of the course. Furthermore, a grid convergence analysis is evalu ated by solving a particular system using different grid sizes. From this analysis, the students realize that meshing the domain of the physical system is a key step in the numerical set-up of the problem that has a direct effect on the numerical solution. A formal grid convergence analysis that involves the use of relatively complex and time-consuming algorithms to deal with stiff multiphysics systems is beyond the scope of this undergraduate course. The basic references for this part of the course are Chapra and Canale and Chadrupatla and Belegundu. The goal of this section is to expose students to physical sys tems that can be modeled using two or more laws of in the implementation of such models in the appli cation package used in the course, i.e., COMSOL. The examples provided in this section span from the modeling of the Joule heating effect in a section of a pipeline to the modeling of the mass transport of an inillustrative examples are used by the course instruc tor to show the importance of sensitivity analysis and the effect of parameter uncertainty on the simulation results. Most of the topics presented in this section are taken from Zimmerman, Bird, et al., Tosun, and the COMSOL library. The last part of the course is used to model physical systems where the coupling between the different mathemati cal equations appears at one boundary condition, i.e., extended multiphysics systems. Also, the implementa tion of multiphysics models with periodic boundary conditions is discussed. Likewise, this last section of the course is used to introduce the students to the traditional methods used in the modeling of systems at the atomistic, molecular, and coarse-grained level. This section of the course is supported with the COM SOL library, Zimmerman, and Hung, et al.2.2 Computational Laboratories The computational laboratories are a key component of the NE-336 course. In the laboratory sessions, the students are packages is primarily used to solve those systems that can be modeled using ODEs, whereas the second one is used to model physical systems that involve PDEs or a combination or PDEs with ODEs (see case study in Section 3). students with an overview of the laboratories to be performed throughout the course. During this session, the course instruc tor implements, simulates, and analyzes two simple models on each application package. The model implemented in tank process modeled using two ODEs, whereas the model implemented in COMSOL describes the unsteady Joule heating effect of a micro-resistor beam. The learning goals of the to both of the application packages used in the course. In the ratory they learn the basic steps in the modeling process in COMSOL. For these laboratories, the physics of the models implemented on each application package are relatively simple. The third laboratory addresses the implementation of a drug delivery model in COMSOL, which is presented in electro-migration model and a micro cantilever beam model, respectively. These models require the application of differ ent laws of physics that make the problem challenging to the students. The last laboratory session of the term, a laboratory quiz, is used to evaluate the students in their ability to imple ment models in both application packages. This quiz is of great skills learned by the students in the laboratory sessions. Each of the laboratory manuals is divided in three sections: Section 1 contains a brief introduction of the physical system implementation in the corresponding application package. Section 2 covers basic questions regarding the implementation of the model. Section 3 lists questions that require additional simulations of the model, model analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis. The students must submit at the end of the laboratory session their responses to Section 2. This portion of the laboratory is used to evaluate the students performance on the laboratory. Section 3 of the laboratory manual is sub-


302mitted by the students a week after the laboratory session is completed. This is because the questions posed on this section require an in-depth analysis of the model and additional computational simulations. This portion of the laboratory (Section 3) is considered as an assignment for the course. 3. CASE STUDY: DRUG RELEASE IN A BATCH PROCESS This computational laboratory deals with the transient release of a drug in a mixing storage tank. The learning objective of this computational experiment is to show the students the modeling and simulation of a system described by an ODE coupled with a PDE at one of the boundary conditions. This kind of mathematical modeling, also referred to as extended multiphysics problems, is very common in chemical processes where the multiple scale modeling of the physical phenomena occurs.[6] The physical description of the process is shown in to study the drug release kinetics in biological systems (Tan, et al.[12,13]). The drug is placed into a drug reservoir, assumed to be a solid sphere of radius which is encapsulated by a polymer substance, e.g., a nano-gel. The encapsulating layer is used to control the drug delivery rate. As shown in Figure 1, the nano-particle, i.e., the nano-gel and the drug reservoir, are assumed to form a solid sphere of radius R. A mixing nano-particles, Np. The tank is used to mimic the drug cone.g., a human body. The system is assumed to be isothermal and well stirred. Also, the i.e. considered to be constant. Due to the educational nature of the present laboratory, severations that can be involved when dealing with the modeling of a drug delivery system. The drug particles are considered to be appropriately described by an average particle behavior regarding their mass transport properties. That is, classical continuum transport equations are assumed to apply to the presented drug delivery system, which is composed of both atomistic dynamic simulations may be required to model the dynamic behavior of each particle in the system. These simulations, however, may be lengthy and may increase the complexity of the present educational laboratory. Since the objective of this computational laboratory is to present the modeling and simulation of an extended multiphysics system such as the drug release problem, molecular simulations of the drug particles are outside the scope of the present laboratory. Moreover, in a more realistic scenario the drug reservoir may consist of a polymeric matrix that can experience swelling and erosion. Further, a constant drug release rate may be sought if the solution inside the drug reservoir is oversaturated (since the maximum concentration of drug should be constant and correspond to the saturation concentration). The transport of the drug through the drug reservoir and the polymeric material is controlled by the unsteady diffusion within the sphere. This diffusion process is mathematically described as follows (microscopic model): where CA is the drug concentration in the nano-particle (mol/m3); r, the radius of the solid sphere (m); and D is the diffusion 2/s) in either layer one (Dr) or layer two (Dp). assumed for this microscopic process are as follows: Ai.e., A = CA0where the term kc is the drug concentration on the surface of the sphere on the Figure 1. Physical system. Figure 2. Coupling of the macro and the nano systems.


303 is the concentration of the drug in the tank, i.e. a point in the tank that is assumed to be far away from the surface of the particle; and CA0 is the initial drug concentration in the drug reservoir. Figure 2 shows the interface between the surface of the lationship must be given to relate the interfacial compositions and One alternative is to assume equilibrium across the interface, that is, where K represents an equilibrium constant. The unsteady (macroscopic model): where V is the tanks volume (m3) and Ap is surface area of the particles (m2). The initial concentration of the drug in the tank is assumed to be zero. The present educational laboratory presents the students with the challenge of coupling the drug transport in the nano-particle and its distribution in the storage tank. This is because the drug concentration in the bulk depends on the drugs concentration at the surface of the nano-particle. Thus, the students must solve a PDE [Eq. (1)] and an ODE [Eq. (3)] simultaneously. Since the coupling between the drug transport in the nano-particle and the concentration of the drug in the study is considered to be an extended multiphysics problem.[16] The solution of this system of equations [Eqs. (1) and (3)] requires the implementation of numerical techniques. Thus, this type of problem is suitable to exemplify the capabilities of COMSOL in solving practical engineering problems. The proposed model is built-up in COMSOL in two sequential steps. First, only the drugs transport in the nano-particle is modeled according to Eq. (1) without considering the coupling of this equation with Eq. (3), i.e., is assumed to be negligible [ =0 in Eq. (3)]. For this laboratory, the students use the 2-D unsteady mass transport by diffusion module in COMSOL[11] to account for the transient behavior of the drug concentration throughout the nano-particle, described by Eq. (1). It is important to mention that Eq. (1) can also be implemented using a 1-D model given the symmetry of the sphere. In this laboratory, however, the choice of using a 2-D model is made because the step-up of this type of model is simpler than the one corresponding to a 1-D model, especially given the two different materials of which the nano-particle is composed. Also, when implementing a 2-D model, the varia tion of the drug concentration can be obtained for a complete cross section of the sphere, giving a clear physical meaning of the variation of the drug concentration in the sphere at of the radius of the nano-particle for different times ranging drug inside the drugs reservoir and the other corresponds to the diffusion of the drug through the nano-gel. From this plot, the students can observe that different nano-gel and drugs reservoir materials will have an effect on the drugs diffusion rate. Thus, in the actual computational laboratory, the students are requested to test this model using different drugs reservoirs and nano-gel materials. Once the nano-particle model has been implemented, the second step in the modeling process consists of coupling the diffusion model with the variations of the drug in the storage tank described by Eq. (3) (macroscopic model). The 1-D [11] was used to represent the macroscopic ODE model. Thus, a single line of arbitrary length is used to represent the variation of the drug concentration in the storage tank [Eq. (3)]. Since the Figure 3. Concentration prole in the nano-particle, CA, for different times from 600 1000 s.


304coupling between the microscopic model [Eq. (1)] and the macroscopic model [Eq. (3)] occurs at one boundary condition intersect with the external surface of the nano-particle, i.e., at r=R. Then, the variable that represents the drug concentration at the surface on the nano-particle side is made available in the 1-D macroscopic model using the variable extrusion option in COMSOL.[11] This is the most challenging part in the implementation of this model in COMSOL. The laboratory manual includes hints in this section to assist the students with the coupling of the microscopic and the macroscopic model. Also, the students can seek help from the laboratory assistants. Once the drug-release model has been completely implemented, the students are requested to simulate this process under different scenarios. The base case scenario assumes that the concentration of the drug at the radius of particle sides, i.e. evolution of the drug concentration in the storage tank for this scenario. At the end of the laboratory session the students scenarios considered in the laboratory were designed to provide an in-depth knowledge of the drug delivery process. This includes a parametric analysis on the effect of using different materials for the encapsulating layer and a study on the effect of the thickness of the nano-gel layer on the drugs delivery rate. Since these tasks require an in-depth analysis, they are submitted one week after the laboratory was performed and are considered as assignments in the course. 4. ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK At the end of the term, a survey designed by the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Waterloo was conducted with students who were enrolled in the NE-336 course. The objective of the survey is to provide instructors with feedback as to how the teaching methods and skills were received by the students. From the responses of the survey, there was a clear consensus that the new skills learned in this course will be relevant to the future careers of the students and that the course introduced them to a new aspect of engineering: modeling and simulation. Also, the students could immedi ately realize how the recently acquired knowledge could be applied to their careers as engineers. A follow-up on a few of the students who were enrolled in this course indicated that some of them are currently applying the skills and subjects learned in this course to perform their fourth-year projects and in their co-operative terms (work internships). Although students expressed appreciation of the hands-on experience provided by the computational laboratories, some of them also considered that the laboratory tasks were lengthy. This aspect coincides with the evaluation of the course where the required course workload was unfavorably evaluated by the students, in contrast with a very positive evaluation of the assignment contribution. Some students also expressed that more time could be spent in class explaining the systems to be simulated in the computational laboratories. These valuable comments from the students have been taken into consider ation to improve the design and the learning experience for nanotechnology students who will take this course in the future. Some relevant comments expressed by the students in the survey are the following: Student 1: I think the best aspect of the course content was the numerical the mathematical foundation for doing any computational mathematics. Student 2: I think this was a vital course to have in undergraduate education, especially in engineering or applied science. Most of the mathematics tackled by us are not analytical, but numerical. This course provides the toolkit to approach such applied math problems.5. CONCLUDING REMARKS A general overview on the modeling and simulation course offered in the nanotechnology engineering undergraduate program at the University of Waterloo was presented. The aim of this course is to make nanotechnology engineering Figure 4. Time-dependent prole of the drug concentration in the tank,


305students familiar with the modeling and simulation of physical systems that involve the multiphysics nature of most of the processes relevant in engineering. To achieve this task, students must complete a series of computational laboratories that cover the implementation of multiphysics models in a suitable educational software package such as COMSOL. A computational laboratory that addresses the implementation of a relatively simple drug-release model was presented. The goal of this laboratory is to train the students in the implementation of extended multiphysics systems and to show that the microscopic behavior of a process has a direct effect on the macroscopic measurable properties of the system. Many of the students who took this course in Fall 2008 are currently applying the tools learned in the course in their fourth-year plished and that the modeling and simulation of multiphysics systems is an essential component in the curriculum of the nanotechnology engineering students. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Waterloo, NSERC, REFERENCES Transport Phenomena, 2nd Ed., Wiley (2007) Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th Ed., Wiley (2008) 3. Tosun, I., Modeling in Transport Phenomena A Conceptual Approach, 2nd Ed., Elsevier (2007) Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Krieger Pub. Co. (1992) 5. Slattery, J.C., Advanced Transport Phenomena, Cambridge University Press (1999) Multiphysics Modeling with Finite Element Methods Multi-Scale Modelling of Soft Matter, Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 standing Multiscale Analysis via Volume Averaging, Chem. Eng. Ed., 43, 29 (2009) 9. Chapra, S.C., and R.P. Canale, Numerical Methods for Engineers, 5th Introduction to Finite Ele ments Methods in Engineering 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall (2002) 11. COMSOL Multiphysics, Version 3.5a, documentation manuals (2008) Studies of Two Cationic Drugs From pH-Responsive Nanogels, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 32 13. Tan, J.P.K., A.Q.F. Zeng, C.C. Chang, and K.C. Tam, Release Kinetics of Procaine Hydrochloride (PrHy) from pH-Responsive Nanogels: Theory and Experiments, Int. J. Pharm., 357, 305 (2008) Delivery, Int. J. Pharm., 364, 328 (2008) Polymeric Systems, Mechanistic Res. Comm. 35 Extended Multiphysics in Multiphysics Modeling with Finite Element Methods


306Although teaching is a critical mission of any college or university, the heightened research aspirations of many institutions necessitate that faculty members spend less time on instructional activities, at least if that new professor wants to exceed the research standards set for tenure and promotion. Thus, when a faculty member is tasked with teaching a new course, developing a good set of instructional materials can be a challenging, time-consuming task. In this paper we review some of what we consider the best practices in engineering education applied to the following courses: solution thermodynamics; heat and mass transfer; kinetics and reactor design; process control; and senior design. Summer School[1] and published in the 2009 ASEE conference proceedings as paper #AC 2009-29,[2] although updated here to that covers those chemical engineering classes that normally occur earlier in the curriculum (freshmen chemical engineering; thermodynamics; and separations) was presented at the 2007 ASEE Summer School[3] and is published in the 2008 ASEE the 2008 AIChE conference proceedings,[5] and within the Summer 2009 issue of Chemical Engineering Education.[6] Furthermore, the reader may be interested in viewing recorded oral presentations from the 2008 AIChE Centennial Topical Conference on Education for these and other core chemical engineering subjects at the AIChE Education Division website.[7] The format used for each course is: including best practices and new ideas IDEAS TO CONSIDER FOR NEW CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATORS: P ART 2 (Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum) JASON M. KEITH DA VID L. SILVERSTEIN DONALD P VISCO, JR. LISA G BULLARD Jason Keith is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Michigan Technological University. He received his B.S.Ch.E. from the University of Akron in 1995, and his Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame in 2001. His current research interests include reactor stability, alternative energy, and engineering education. He was named the 2008 recipient of the Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship, and in 2010 he was inducted into the Michigan Technological University Academy of Teaching Excellence and was also awarded with the Fredrick D. Williams Instructional Innovation Award at Michigan Technological University. David L. Silverstein is currently the PJC Engineering Professor and an associate professor of chemical and materials engineering at the Univer sity of Kentucky, College of Engineering Extended Campus Programs in Paducah. He received his B.S.Ch.E. from the University of Alabama and his M.S. and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tenn.; and has been a registered P.E. since 2002. Silverstein is the 2004 recipient of the William H. Corcoran Award for the most outstanding paper published in Chemical Engineering Education during 2003, and the 2007 recipient of the Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship. Don Visco is a professor of chemical engineering at Tennessee Tech nological University, where he has been employed since 1999. Prior to that, he graduated with his Ph.D. from the University at Buffalo, SUNY. His current research interests include experimental and computational thermodynamics as well as bioinformatics/drug design. He is the 2006 recipient of the Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship as well as the 2009 recipient of the National Outstanding Teaching Award from ASEE. Lisa G. Bullard is a teaching associate professor and director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at North Carolina State University. She received her B.S. in chemical engineering from NC State and her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. She served in engineering and management positions within Eastman Chemical Co. from 1991-2000. A faculty member at NCSU since 2000, she was named the 2010 recipient of the Raymond W. Fahien Award for Outstanding Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEsurvey course


307 SOLUTION THERMODYNAMICS This course, also commonly called Thermodynamics 2, focuses on mixtures and mixture phase equilibrium as well as this course normally consists of exclusively chemical engineering students. Note that since this is typically the second part of a two-part Thermodynamics sequence, some of the course in our previous work[3-6] are applicable to the Solution Thermodynamics course. Best Practices / New Ideas There are certain phenomena within this course that, although working against intuition, can be visualized through experimentation (both desktop and simulation). For example, consider the following straightforward demonstrations that can be performed to show mixture effects: Heat of solution thermocouple placed in the solution, have the students attempt to estimate the heat of solution. Excess volume ml of ethanol with 500 ml of water. The resulting solution is ~970 ml, which demonstrates that liquid volumes are not additive. Miscibility Additionally, since changes in molecular-level interactions can manifest themselves in complicated phase behavior, simulation can be utilized to demonstrate these effects in a powerful way. One source for this information is the website for the Etomica environment created by Kofke, which houses many applets, some of which focus on fundamental behavior germane to an undergraduate solution thermodynamics course.[9]Other recent ideas used to best teach the concepts of this course include: liers Principle. emphasizes uncommon intuition and focuses on the Mathcad. classroom response systems to allow immediate feedback from students for formal or informal assessment. ing liquid-liquid phase equilibrium and the potential for false solutions; for example, when the initial guess for the iterative method is too far from the actual solution, it is possible to converge to a local and not a global mini mum. thermodynamic properties using both equations of state and Gibbs excess energy models. state in calculating mixture phase diagrams and chemical modeling approaches to introduce gas-liquid solubility. non-ideality, including hydrogen bonding, to solubility and volatility in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. It is also noted that thermodynamics is a subject area not just encountered in chemical engineering, but in mechani cal engineering, chemistry, physics, and other disciplines. Accordingly, educational ideas from those disciplines exist related to thermodynamics, and the interested reader might well want to consider insights and ideas from faculty outside of chemical engineering. For example, the Journal of Chemical Education (published by the American Chemical Society) contains many educational articles related to thermodynamics, such as recent contributions on an experimental technique [19] and a laboratory procedure for gas clathrate hydrates.[20] The Physics Teacher discusses various fundamental thermodynamics concepts as well as some interesting analyses, such as the thermodynamics of a thermos.[21] Articles on the design of a bench-top, portable refrigeration apparatus for use in a classroom setting can be found in the International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education.[22] Also, Computer Applications in Engineering Education publishes articles related to thermodynamics education, such as a recent contribution on the creation of residue and Mathematica.[23] Finally, one can utilize this class (or the previous Ther modynamics class) to provide an opportunity for students to design, estimate costs, build, and implement a project related to course concepts. In such an exercise, students are expected to keep track of their budget, set milestones, take notes to record their successes and failures, and prepare a detailed report. Industrial visitors may be interested in attending and projects in the following year can be used to improve upon the existing design. Some example projects have demonstrated ethanol distillation through building a still and the appearance propylene glycol n-propyl ether system. Trouble Spots Trouble spots for this course include: and lose the big picture. Phase equilibrium calculations plicated, and there is a tendency to work towards arriving at an answer with little appreciation or interpretation of the result. Depending on the situation, the use of an Excel add-in such as XSEOS or a web applet to determine phase equilibrium from an equation of state may be more appropriate.


308students. By utilizing the Journal of Chemical and Engi neering Data diagrams that can be used to spark discussions on the Gibbs Phase Rule, Raoults Law, miscibility gaps, etc. if there are discrepancies between the Thermodynamics course and the students previous chemistry or physics bols have subscripts, hats, carats, superscripts, overbars, to a symbol, posted in the classroom (or prepared for the Author Experiences At Tennessee Technological University, the Solution Thermodynamics course and the Separations course have been merged into a single course with an integrated labora theories and models prevalent in solution thermodynamics more transparently applied in a separations process, be it binary distillation, crystallization, or liquid-liquid extraction. Additionally, the author readily incorporates the following in the Solution Thermodynamics course: to levels so that the instructor is reminded to strive towards evaluation skills that allows the user to change the cross-interaction parameter and cause a very visual phase splitting; used in conjunction with a desktop demonstration of liquid-liquid phase splitting, provides a powerful microand macro-level examination of this phenomenon systems that need non-ideal approaches to motivate the use of such techniques; revisiting those same systems and ted with the experimental data, serves as a good reminder and contrast for the need for non-ideal approachesHEAT AND MASS TRANSFER of the text Transport Phenomena.[28] Currently, heat and mass transfer remains a popular subject in the research literature. Best Practices / New Ideas Recent advances in simulation and modeling allow for a marked change in how heat and mass transfer can be taught in the classroom. There are several examples published in the [29-31] numeri cal solutions,[32, 33] similarity solutions, molecular simula tions,[9,35, 36] and desktop modules.[37] describes the use of Fluent software in the dynamics, the teaching principles illustrated in this paper can be extrapolated to heat and mass transfer courses. utilizes the PDE toolbox feature in Matlab transfer, and solid mechanics. employ COMSOL Multiphysics to illus and mass transfer, and reaction kinetics can be extended to fuel cell applications. solves free convection problems using similarity variables and a numerical simulation of an initial value problem. uses Mathematica to solve membrane permeation problems using the complete mixing model (alge applies similarity methods to three clasrectangular channel with isothermal walls. illustrate the use of molecular-level simulations to predict gas diffusivities. demonstrates ways to use desktop-sized modules to reinforce fundamental heat transfer concepts, including 1-dimensional heat conduction, the effect of contact resistance, steady-state and transient heat gen eration, and convection. There are many good websites with simulations appropriate for undergraduate students in heat and mass transfer courses. The following is a partial listing of those highlighted recently in the literature or at conferences: provides relevant Java-based molecular simulations on its website. describe simulation of gas separation using polymer membranes. describe the use of Java applets to help students visualize heat and mass transfer. Two papers by Flynn, et al., focus on integrating green per describes several traditional heat transfer problems that are uniquely coupled with green engineering principles. Example problems include: conduction shape factors and cient lighting, natural convection through windows, life-cycle studies, and radiation heat transfer for comfort and energy describes assessment of the teaching tools. Some novel experiments in heat and mass transfer include: groundwater using dissolved pollutants and colloids late drug delivery processes in the human body


309 cooking of French fries exchangers tainer nine to enhance bioengineering experiences in the chemi cal engineering curriculum Trouble Spots Trouble spots for this course include: Reference 53 contains an example. Instructors could also have students practice using in-class problems and homework assignments before testing them. cal content to real industrial applicationsif there is an internet-connected computer and projector in the class onstrations to make a strong connection. This connection can also help students with their follow-on classes. sionless groups, etc. The instructor can provide them with general values on a handout they can paste in the front of their textbook. For an example, see Reference 54 or the books by Woods or Fogler. in the governing equations. If they are provided with the aforementioned handouts, they will be prepared for more advanced homework and exam questions. Author Experiences At Michigan Technological University, efforts have been made to bring computer technology and hands-on problems into the Transport / Unit Operations 2 course. As such, the students have been introduced to simulations and modeling in various forms. cooking turkeys following the Java applet of Zheng and Keith. asked to create their own steady-state and unsteady-state solution for a steadyor unsteady-state diffusion problem with that from COMSOL Multiphysics. The students then have to solve a harder problem with the software (for is used to calculate transport properties. course and are asked to use it to predict transport properties. either meant to aid them in solving problems in transport class problem (following the principles of problem-based they just learned. KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Kinetics, catalysis, and reactor design distinguish chemical enBest Practices / New Ideas Like other subject areas, simulation and modeling are used in kinetics and reactor design. There are several examples published in the recent educational literature that will now be summarized. : Martinez-Urreaga, et al., use MATLAB to simulate the reversible reaction A B, while Fan, et al., simulate the thermal death kinetics of a cell population. : Lawrence, et al., use CFX commercial software to incorporate non-ideal reactors into the curriculum. They develop residence time distributions in tubular reactors and use them to determine conversion for a reaction using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Madiera, et al., simulate a complex two-dimensional reservoir, determine the residence time distribution and predict the conversion during steady-state operation. Bakker, et al., illustrate non-ideal effects in various reactor types with color images of CFD simulations. uses Mathcad to perform numerical simulations of several fundamental kinetics and reactor design problems, including estimation of kinetic parameters, autocatalytic reaction and space times for operation dioxide reaction to sulfur trioxide, predicting equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture, steady-state multiplic ity in continuous reactors, membrane reactors, seriesparallel reactions, and consecutive reactions. modeling software such as ChemCAD, Aspen, Hysis, and UniSim for various reactor types. describes the utility of computational quantum chemistry for solving advanced problems such as the development of rate expressions from transition state theory. A paper by Muske and Myers[65] integrates principles of statistics and experimental design into a project to determine the forward and reverse reaction kinetic rate constants for ethylene hydrolysis into ethanol. Complicating the problem is that students need to determine the Arrhenius parameters for these reactions. Students are given a budget and request experimental runs from which they are supplied data by e-mail one day after their request. A process simulation with statistiexperimental study. They must decide when they have enough data (or when they run out of money), and possibly adjust their experimental plan in order to perform the analysis.


310The Safety and Chemical Engineering Education (SACHE) program is a joint effort between the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Center for Chemical Process Safety and academic institutions. Founded in 1992, the committee typically organizes a yearly workshop to educate chemical engineering faculty on the importance of safety education. Their website[66] features problem sets and web modules that can be used in the classroom. It is noted that some features of the site require a password for access. An example module is the Chemical Reactivity Hazards Instructional Module[67] developed by Robert Johnson of Unwin Co. The module can be used to motivate the importance of safety in kinetics and reaction engineering. It highlights several major incidents where uncontrolled chemical reactions can result in devastating consequences. Additional safety material is available in Crowl and Louvars textbook.[68] Other resources that could be used in a kinetics course include: table that contains puzzles, quizzes, and a molar mass calculator. The same group has a JAVA kinetics plotter ics to supplied experimental data. to simulate molecular motion, collision, and reaction. The user enters initial concentration of red, yellow, green, and blue molecules. Upon the interaction of a red and yellow molecule, green and blue molecules are formed. The reaction is reversible, and the user can enter the forward and reverse reaction rate constants. Laboratory experiments in kinetics and reactor design include: describe an experiment to explore the heterogeneous reaction of propane in an automobile catalytic converter. The students measure the compounds exiting the converter using Fourier transform infrared experimental data to determine reaction rate parameters. present a batch fermentation experi ment to produce l-lysine in the senior laboratory. The students in the lab each perform an experiment that is part of a larger factorial design matrix. The students then share data and analyze all of the results. formulate an experiment to study the growth of yeast in a small-scale bioreactor. Students measure the concentration of yeast cells and glucose, and after learn ing about biological reaction kinetics, they estimate the doubling time for the yeast. outline a set of micromixing experiments to use in the undergraduate reaction engineering course. In a lecture on micromixing, the students are taught about the perfectly mixed and totally segregated reactor models. Experiments are performed on a system with parallel a mixer, and also in a 600 mL beaker with a magnetic stir bar. Results show that the selectivity is higher in the describe an experiment for propane hydrogenolysis on an alumina-supported platinum catalyst. Students run the reactor to obtain power law kinetic parameters (to determine reaction order in propane and Trouble Spots Trouble spots for this course include: typically not as math-intensive as, say, transport phenomena, weak math skills may prevent students from carrying out solutions to determine concentration as a function of time for complex kinetics, analysis of axial dispersion in reactors, etc. Repetition through homework assignments prior to exams. vious courses that may be considered prerequisites for the kinetics and reaction engineering course. Recalling fundamental chemistry, especially organic chemistry, tor can summarize some of the important reactions to aid students in feeling comfortable in an upper-level course. for reactor volumes or pressure drops. The instructor can provide them with general values on a handout they can paste in the front of their textbook. For an example see Reference 54 or the books by Woods or Fogler. sic reactor models (batch, continuous stirred tank reactor, industrial applications. The instructor can demonstrate or assign problems utilizing CFD CSTR reactors with dead zones, bypassing, poor mixing, reactors with axial dispersion, poor packing, etc. Author Experiences At Michigan Technological University, efforts have been made to bring computer technology and hands-on problems into the Kinetics and Reactor Design course. solve problems involving diffusion and reaction in catalyst pellets. to simulate temporal evolutions in species concentration reactor safety. course and are asked to use it to predict reaction rates and rate constants. continuously emphasized. Efforts are also made to introduce non-ideal reactor models, and the advantages and disadvantages of using these models are also stressed.


311PROCESS CONTROL This course tends to stand alone in the chemical engineer ing curriculum, seeming to students (and some instructors) somehow disconnected from other upper-level chemical engineering courses. Coverage normally includes mathematical modeling and dynamic simulation, Laplace transforms and transfer functions, linear dynamic responses for various inputs, controllers, instrumentation and valves, closed-loop analysis, stability analysis, controller tuning, frequency response, and advanced control strategies. Best Practices / New Ideas Of all the courses in the chemical engineering curriculum, this one may have the most variability in how it is taught. Prior to discussing teaching methods, various approaches to course content will be discussed. A recent article published by the International Society of Automation magazine InTech reported on the views of prominent chemical engineers regarding the role of process control instruction.[77] tion, and provide a practical skill set... including enough theory to excite those destined for graduate study. states, We teach fundamental principles, but include only theory relevant to engineering practice, and Focus on basic regulatory control, and do it well. Leave optimization, model predictive control, etc., to subsequent courses and advanced-degree programs. Process Control of theory vs. practice in engineering education. The key to this problem is to provide control courses that provide basic industrially relevant skills while also providing a fundamental understanding of process control and process dynamics. Riggs also states[77] that the course should teach students to: gral, and derivative control action; the concept of stability; and the difference between linear and nonlinear systems. basic control design decisions. There is continuing debate over whether or not to use the La place domain, or to remain in the time domain. Furthermore, the utility of frequency response methods often results in similar debates among members of academia and industry. Tom Edgar (University of Texas at Austin and co-author of the textbook Process Dynamics and Control) suggests[81]: transforms. ler tuning. real engineering problems. A thorough discussion by authors of several process control textbooks about what to teach in process control was recently published.[82] Once the decision of what to teach has been made by your program, preferably in conjunction with feedback from the employers of your graduates, the task of choosing how to teach the course begins. There seems to be general agreement that a combination of experiment and simulation will help students move from theory to application. In some cases, it may make more sense to move from application to general theory. If this inductive approach is taken, some suggestions can be found in the literature: describe the use of small modular kits and Control Station. uses unit operations laboratory-scale apdemonstrates simulation and remote experi ments on batch distillation. Additional laboratory ideas include: describe a nonlinear, MIMO salt-mixing process control laboratory experiment. demonstrate the use of multivariable control for a quadruple-tank process control experiment. suggest experiments on air-pressure tank systems. uses a simple tank in a process control laboratory. Web resources include: hosts a web page including numerous resources for teaching controls. has a number of remote laboratories available online. Software resources include: a modeling interface that uses the same block notation used in most texts Trouble Spots Trouble spots for this course can include: may not have been covered much in prior courses, so a detailed review of a relevant problem like a step response for heated tanks in series may be appropriate. variable s. Despite faculty efforts, this concept will likely remain a mystery to most students. Instead, focus on how conservation laws in the Laplace domain can be arranged to yield key information about process behaviors through parameters such as gains and time constants.


312 must understand the how and why before actively developing models with software like Simulink. The appropriate time to introduce them will depend on your curriculum, but probably should be after students have mastered modeling fundamentals and can at least handle simple Laplace domain solutions for openand closed-loop systems by hand. Some simulation tools, like Loop-Pro, can be used for inductive instruction on principles of control without ways be obtainedat a cost. Students must continually be reminded that there is always an optimal level of control, dependent on the cost to implement control vs. marginal and environmental protection should also be considered. Author Experiences At the University of Kentucky, the emphasis of recent changes in the course has been to bring inductive laboratory and simulation experiences into the course. brings students down to the lab to observe principles of process that serves as a foundation for discussions of principles of process control. Other approaches adopted include: ule on modeling and Laplace transformation. Using simulators from the start of the course had discouraged students from developing an understanding of what the simulators were doing, treating them as a black box. Loop-Pro students to explore control concepts. The simulators are counterparts. module, with particular focus on the economic con straints on control. Students are frequently asked to consider what investment in hardware and what recur ring maintenance costs would be required to implement a control scheme, and then consider whether the marginal the project. costs in a process at a local specialty chemical plant. Students work across multiple courses (including teams at another institution to perform a detailed design of a control system. SENIOR DESIGN The senior or capstone design course can be intimidating to some faculty. In many departments the course was tradi tionally taught by a retired industrial practitioner who had a good idea of the types of deliverables that were representative of what students would encounter in the workplace, but this may not be the case today. In addition, the advent of process simulators in the 1970s and 1980s has had a huge impact on the way that senior design is taught. The senior design course typically includes both traditional lecture content as well as a sheet synthesis and development, process simulation, process economics, and equipment design/heuristics. Depending on the background of the instructor and whether the course is one or two semesters, a laundry list of additional topics might include sustainability and green design concepts,[99] process safety,[100] [101] optimization,[102] selecting materials of construction, readsynthesis, environmental regulations, engineering ethics, batch scheduling, and product design.[103] Senior design is also the last opportunity to reinforce soft skills such as teamwork and communication.[106, 107] Furthermore, the AIChE Centennial Conference has a session on design featuring many of the design textbook authors. Videos of these talks are available online.[7] Best Practices/New Ideas impact how the course is organized, the content that can be covered, and the scope of the design project. According to a recent survey conducted by John Wiley based on a response from 50 departments, U.S. chemical engineering departments are split down the middlehalf teach one design course, and half teach a two-semester design sequence.[108]Instructors have several challenges related to the structure and organization of the course: selective and choose which content is most important for their graduates. Design projects for a one-semester offer ing might be best structured as multiple smaller problems that reinforce the course content being covered. Departto cover additional specialized content, present information on product design as well as process design, invite guest speakers, and pose design projects that stretch over an entire year. lenge for instructors. Starting early is important since mentors. In addition to gleaning ideas from the literature of the spring semester or in the summer to generate some ideas. Contact enrolled students early in the summer and constraints on what the project should include. If your campus has an Engineering Entrepreneurship class, 110] partner with them to include your students. near industry or research organizations, can serve as sources of design projects and mentors. The local AIChE section could be a good resource for local practitioners who would be willing to participate. Industrial alumni


313who have been through the course can be excellent mentors because they are familiar with the deliverables required. In addition, industrial advisory boards may be helpful in identifying key skills expected for new employ on the class size and the instructors background. Some departments enlist all faculty to propose and sponsor one design project each year. Other sources of mentors include faculty in other related departments ( e.g., Materials Science, Food Science, Environmental Engineering, students are double majors in that department. tal work or small-scale construction, funding can be an issue. Most departments have funds available for laboratory equipment and supplies, but funding levels for design of projects. Some departments ask companies to sponsor e.g. may be additional sources for senior design funds. and the number of mentors involved, assessment can be a challenge. Approaches to this issue are discussed by Baker, et al., Rogge, et al., and Davis, et al. is solids processing, which is common in chemical engi neering practice, but is not usually covered extensively in the curriculum. Good references are available from Davey and Garside, Rhodes, Wibowo and Ng, and Hill and Ng. Examples of design projects: contains six complete senior design projects in addition to the extensive list of projects on their website. Shaeiwitz and Turton describe two examples of novel capstone design projects: an ice cream manufacturing process and the design of a transdermal drug delivery patch. In addition, they have developed additional product design projects. includes problem descripand seven practice-session problems. design project that integrates laboratory experiments and computer simulation. outlines a project involving vinyl chloride 2000 criteria. present a biodiesel design project that highlights the potential contributions of chemical engineering to areas such as new energy sources, global warming, and environmental sustainability. AIChE National Student Design Competition problems are also available each year in the fall to department chairs and student chapter advisors. They may be completed by students over the course of 30 days any time during the year (if they choose to enter their report into the competition). An archive of past problems and solutions is available from AIChE. Examples of additional ideas for course content and structure: the World Congress of Chemical Engineering, and NASA sponsor annual design competitions. Kundu and Fowler discuss the use of engineering design competitions to engage students. Often these involve the use of multidisciplinary teams, which is discussed by Redekopp. and Hadley describe the use of wikis in senior design as a project-management tool. Web resources: feature a series of short online videos on Topics in Engineering Design that include com munication in design, design considerations, the design process, and patents and literature. of Engineering, the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, and the Center for the Study of Ethics in Society have websites with case studies and other materials for teaching engineering ethics. through the Safety and Chemical Engineering Education models. has posted a set of slides on cost estimation. ment costs estimates. lists helpful reference books, periodicals, and trade journals as resources for chemical pricing. Software resources: Aspen Dynamics, Aspen HYSYS, Aspen Plus, Aspen Batch pen Process Economic Analyzer (formerly Icarus Process as well as estimation of purchase costs and total invest ment. The package now includes modules for adsorption and batch distillation. include selfstudy examples and multimedia instruction, focusing on Aspen Plus and HYSYS. Trouble Spots Trouble spots for this course can include: groups during unit operations lab or in homework groups, senior design is by far the biggest group project that many of them have tackled. Instructors should require design bilities early in the semester. Providing instruction or resources on the phases of team performance, personality types, and learning styles can alleviate potential


314problems. An additional suggestion of Sauer and Arce an Agreement of Cooperation. This agreement will serve as the bylaws of the team and can only be changed with a majority vote of the team members. Administering a peer evaluation tool is essential since much of the course grade will depend on the group project. Instructors might also for example, students could be required to keep a design notebook or submit their individual written contributions. This can be helpful if there is dissent within the team about an individuals contribution. report is likely the most formal and the longest document that students will produce. Even if students have taken a technical writing course, many are overwhelmed and do details. Some campuses have Writing and Speaking Cen ters on campus or in-house technical writing consultants who can assist by providing resources, giving a class lecture, or even reviewing student work. Allowing groups to submit a draft to the instructor a week in advance for a review can identify major problems while still allowing time for correction. want to use software such as (or suggest and procrastination can result in students trying to cram in months of works into weeks or days. Instructors can help students pace themselves by structuring the project into deliverables that are spread over the one or two semesters. For example, in a two-semester sequence in which the projects are assigned in October, students could vember, a status report in February, an oral presentation teams should submit a project schedule and work plan early on as one of the deliverables. Some instructors require students to produce progress reports in memo form periodically during the duration of the project. Finally, depending on the size of the class, the instructor could meet with each team or each project manager regularly throughout the semester to hold them accountable. Author Experiences At North Carolina State University senior design is taught ditional lecture-style class with instructional design content, with students being assigned to teams early in the fall semester and beginning work on their design project, which carries into the spring semester. The spring is focused primarily on the project, with classroom time being devoted to guest lectures that address topics relevant to professional development. Additionally, the author has incorporated the following in the Senior Design course: dress professional development topics, career paths, and non-traditional careers such as medicine, law, pharmacy, business, teaching, or entrepreneurship. Financial plan ning, business and electronic etiquette, and professional dress are issues that students will soon face. Alumni panels on Making the Transition from Student to Em ployee, Changing Jobs, and Graduate School can be a very effective way to address these issues. semester as a status update; this enables advisors to provide feedback that can be incorporated prior to the session and invites students parents, the Industrial Advisory Board members, and current junior students. Starting off with a 2-minute summary of each project and then adjourning to a 60or 90-minute poster session can be an effective way of having students present their work and creates a celebratory environment instead of the high stakes formal presentation. Parent response to this type they have been invited to participate in an event at the university involving their student. This also gives rising seniors an opportunity to see what is required for a senior capstone project. Giving awards for best in show recognizes those students who make exceptional effort and helps rising seniors see where the bar is set. is an easy-to-use online tool that collects and analyzes self and peer evaluations of team members contributions. The peer-evaluation instrument is admin istered with each major deliverable, and team members receive feedback on their individual performance com pared to the group average after each submission. Any and the team meets with the instructor to discuss the issue so that it can be addressed early. Final peer evaluations are submitted one week before the end of the semester to allow time for rebuttal if necessary. In addition, students are provided with exemplary documents from a previous year that demonstrate expectations. contains a CD-ROM with abilitynow expanded with cost data for conveyors, tors, and screens. It also contains the HENSAD tool for constructing temperature-interval, cascade, and tempera ture-enthalpy diagrams; estimating optimal approach temperatures; and designing heat exchanger networks. is a useful database for equip ment vendors. provide three web-based case studies in the area of biomanufacturing for the production of co-protein, citric acid, and ammonia. Supporting materi als have been developed for each case study, including a problem statement, an exemplary solution, and a sum encountered.


315CONCLUSIONS This paper has described some of the best practices for use in the following chemical engineering courses that tradition ally occur later in the curriculum: solution thermodynamics; heat and mass transfer; kinetics and reactor design; process control; and senior design. A common thread is in the deviation from the traditional lecture format. When this is done, the students are given the opportunity to take ownership of their own learning. Popular methods include the use of in-class demonstrations, hands-on activities, tours of the unit operations lab, and seeing a movie or simulation of a concept. Additionally, the softer skills of engineering are ones being an increased emphasis on communication and teamwork skills. It has been our collective experience that incorporating novel methods into the classroom can increase learning as students in the latter part of the curriculum transition from the classroom to the workplace or graduate school. Interestingly enough, the addition of many of these novel methods does It can be overwhelming to consider substantial changes to an established course, but an approach that has worked for the authors is to start with a course that we have taught before. We for the next time we teach the course. As we implement them, we will ask for informal feedback from students. This will often be reinforced through the formal course evaluations. totally different from the original course offering. For copies of the presentation slides from the Summer School, contact one of the authors. REFERENCES 1. Silverstein, D. L., D.P. Visco, and J.M. Keith, New Ideas for Old Courses: Upper Division, presented at 2007 ASEE-AIChE Summer School, Pullman, WA 2. Keith, J.M, D.L. Silverstein, and D.P. Visco, Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 2 (Courses Offered Later in the Curriculum), Proceedings of the 2009 ASEE Annual Conference 3. Silverstein, D.L., D.P. Visco, and J.M. Keith, New Ideas for Old Courses: Lower Division, presented at 2007 ASEE-AIChE Summer School, Pullman, WA Chemical Engineering Educators Teaching a New Old Course: Freshman and Sophomore Level Courses, Proceedings of the 2008 ASEE 5. Keith, J.M, D.L. Silverstein, and D.P. Visco, Ideas to Consider for Chemical Engineering Educators Teaching a New Old Course: Freshman and Sophomore Level Courses, Proceedings of the 2008 AIChE Annual Meeting, (2008) 6. Keith, J.M, D.L. Silverstein, and D.P. Visco, Ideas to Consider for Chemical Engineering Educators Teaching a New Old Course: Freshman and Sophomore Level Courses, Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(3), 209 (2009) 7. Directions to Education Topical Conference video presentation archive available at AIChE Education Division website, , accessed April 2010 8. Toghiani, R.K. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: Transforming Thermo Lectures into a Dynamic Experience, Proceedings of 9. Kofke, D. etomica Molecular Simulations API, , accessed April 2010. 10. Corti, D.S., and E.I. Frances., Exceptions to the Le Chatelier Principle, Chem. Eng. Ed., 37 11. Misovich, M.J. Making Phase Equilibrium More User-Friendly, Chem. Eng. Ed., 36 12. Dickson, J.L, J.A. Hart and W-Y. Chen, Construction and Visualization of VLE Envelopes in Mathcad, Chem. Eng. Ed., 37(1), 20 (2003) 13. Falconer, J.L. Use of ConcepTests and instant Feedback in Thermodynamics, Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 Marcilla, Computing Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria, Chem. Eng. Ed., 41(3), 218 (2007) Thermodynamics, Chem. Eng. Ed., 42 Chem. Eng. Ed., 42 (2008) Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(2), 115 (2009) 18. Elliott, J.R., A Simple Explanation of Complexation, Chem. Eng. Ed., 44(1), 13 (2010) ate Laboratory Experiment, J. Chem. Ed., 83, 1233 (2006) Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School and Undergraduate Laboratories, J. Chem. Ed., 84, 1790 (2007) The Physics Teacher, 45, 270 (2007) 22. Abu-Mulaweh, H., Portable Experimental Apparatus for Demonstrating Thermodynamics Principles, Int. J. Mech. Eng. Ed., 32, 223 (2005) Mixtures, Computer Applications in Eng. Ed. 15, 73 (2007) Course to Improve Critical Thinking/Real World Problem Solving, Presented at the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Meeting, 2008 ties Using Cubic Equations of State, J. Chem. Ed., 82, 958 (2005) , Accessed April 2010 27. Schick, T., and L. Vaughn, How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking For a New Age, 3rd Ed. (2001) Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960 (1st Ed.) 29. Sinclair, J.L., CFD Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow, Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(2) 108 (1998) Chem. Eng. Ed., 34 31. Keith, J.M., F.A. Morrison, and J.A. King, Finite Element Modules for Enhancing Undergraduate Transport Courses: Applications to Fuel Cell Fundamentals, Proceedings of the 2007 ASEE Annual Confer tion, Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 Chem.


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318T changes with goals of introducing design earlier in the curriculum and increasing use of experiential learning throughout the curriculum.[1] A modular battery experiment has been developed and used in a sophomore-level mass and energy balance course and a junior-level measurements lab, toward these goals. These experiments assess the students ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice, and also allow them to demonstrate their ability to design and conduct experiments, and to analyze and interpret data.[2] An additional goal of this module is to introduce chemical engineering students to battery technology since batteries will play the pivotal role in energy security of modern societies. As an alternative to petroleum, batteries can be used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs to displace petroresources are consumed. Alkaline manganesezinc batteries are the most convenient primary batteries as the source of power for portable electronic and electric appliances.[3] For advanced devices, alkaline MnO2Zn batteries are preferred, which use electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) and an alkaline electrolyte (KOH). When used with the electric grid, batteries are able to enhance technologies related to wind power, solar power, and peak load shifting.[5] These topics provide students with exceptional platforms to which they can relate their investigations to contemporary issues. The battery-resistor circuit module allows heat transfer, mass transfer, reactions, circuit theory, heat/mass balances, and product design to be studied in a single module. The module also provides a good preparation for the study of sensors, biosensors, and instrumentation because of its integrated apand virtual instrumentswhich incorporates different aspects of the engineering curriculum. Once the standardized work-Evaluating the Performance of a Battery USING TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE PROFILES AND A BATTERY-RESISTOR CIRCUIT MODULE BRY AN SAWYER, MICHELLE JI, MICHAEL J GORDON, AND GALEN J SUPPES Bryan Sawyer is a Ph.D. candidate in chemical engineering at the University of Missouri (MU) with anticipated graduation in 2010. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering at MU in 2006. Michelle Ji is an M.S. candidate in chemical engineering at MU with anticipated graduation in 2011. She received her B.S. in biological engineering at MU in 2009. Michael J. Gordon is a Ph.D. candidate in chemical engineering at MU with anticipated graduation in 2011. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering at MU in 2009. Galen Suppes is a professor of chemical engineering at the MU and has participated in several capacities in the AIChE Student Chapters committees that organizes the AIChE Design Contest Subcommittee. Professor Suppes received the 2006 Green Chemistry Challenge Award for academia. He received his B.S. from Kansas State University and his Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University. Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2010 ChEcurriculum


319Figure 1. Photograph showing the Energy Balance for BatteryResistor Circuit Module (left) connected to the data acquisition system cable and module storage cabinet (right) that is used to store 16 modules and mounting bases. Figure 2. Close-up images of module, including, from left to right: AA battery holder; expanded image of 1-ohm resistor with thermocouple attached with shrink wrap; circuit board with 1-ohm resistor, two resistor banks, and knobs for selecting resistance from two resistor banks; and switches used to select locations for voltage measurements.stations, stands, and storage are in place, individual modules can be produced for a few hundred dollars with four modules occupying about two square feet of space when stored in the storage cabinet. APPARATUS Figure 1 shows the experimental module composed of cir cuitry mounted on a 1 cm thick Lexan panel. The panel and reinforcing bases are mounted on an oak base. A cabinet allows compact storage of 16 modules and mounting bases. Each module connects to a computer workstation equipped with a National Instruments data acquisition card (NI PCI-6259), ferent experiments to use the same connector interface and respective workstation. Figure 2 provides close-up images of the AA battery connector, resistor bank, and voltages switches. A small ther mocouple embedded in the AA battery holder monitors the battery temperature, which is used for the energy balance. A second thermocouple is attached to the 1-ohm resismeasurement for the energy balance studies. The 1-ohm resistor is connected in series with two other resistors from two resistor banks as selected by the selector switches. Each to be measured. These resistor banks allow variations in an assignment to be made so no two groups or individuals have the same exact experiment. This allows the students to compare their data with other individuals or groups to relate the effect of the changes in resistor load, promoting a more interactive learning environment.[6]


320A series of three switches allows students to measure voltages at different locations in the circuit. Figure 3 provides a schematic of the battery (represented as a voltage source and internal resistance), the two resistor banks with the two associated selector-switches, and the three switches that allow voltages to be measured over the different loads. Operating the module consists of the following steps: 1. Insert and fasten the module on a base at a workstation and connect the 24-pin connector that links the module to the National Instruments based data acquisition system. 2. Place AA battery in the battery holder or connect ancil lary battery to system. position and S3 in the up position to measure voltage across entire load. 5. Hit the start button on LabVIEW VI followed by switch and then click on the LabVIEW VI STOP button. 7. Return module switch to the off position and either repeat or disassemble the experiment. MS Excel and include columns of time, resistor temperature, battery temperature, and voltage (as selected by the switch set about 25 minutes. Subsequent runs take about 10-15 minutes. Typical errors of experiments include use of depleted batteries or operating experiments with switches in the wrong positions. The modules are available in an open-format laboratory for computer workstation lab than a chemical engineering lab. Students are performing experiments (experiential learning) side-by-side with students performing homework and writing reports.[7] This paper explains three different experiment-based projects that can be performed using this module. PROJECT 1: BATTERY-RESISTOR ENERGY BALANCE the 1-ohm resistor that is connected in series with two resistor banks and an AA battery. The students are given minimal guidof the brand name and type (zinc-alkaline) of battery. The students are responsible for the derivation of governing differential equations such as the equation for change in resistor temperature as a function of time, which can be derived from the change in internal energy over time; .[8] The students are to identify how voltage drop and amperage are to estimate parameters such as heat capacity and mass. They are encouraged to use MatLab to solve the differential equations that govern the system. The following are pertinent governing equations: rf During initial predictions the students will typically neglect the convective cooling of the resistor by ambient air or they will struggle to identify how to model the heat transfer. Most students have not had a course in heat transfer, and when they identify the need to apply an engineering science that they have not yet covered they are directed to research the use of [9] The need to take into account the the resistor will become evident when they obtain experimental indicates the need to modify the model battery. The modeling process provides a conceptual learning element because the students can visually relate how changing the heat transfer [2] Figure 3. Schematic of the experimental system that shows the different resistors in series and switch settings for voltage measurements. Measure T A A Battery5 Ohm 30 OhmS 13 Ohm S 2 20 Ohm2 Ohm 10 OhmMeasure T1 Ohm 5 Ohm 0 Ohm 0 Ohm S 3S 4 S 51 Ohm VI


321 with a 3-ohm total resistance load. model the resistor temperature as a function of time by temperature is a manifestation of decreasing voltage power output from the AA battery, which is under a heavy load.[10] This aspect of the project introduces the challenge of how to handle the modeling of the resistor temperature for a non-constant voltage termthis introduces the utility for numerical solution of ordinary differential equations when analytical solutions may not be an option.[11] Another aspect of this lab can be used to measure battery delivered by the battery divided by the ideal voltage. The battery and visually understand and verify what happens to the lost energy.[12] For semester-long projects, the students are able to sequentially perform the following: e.g., 30 use these data to prepare a battery performance curve 3. Fully deplete a battery to obtain the amp-hours of energy the battery is able to deliver and compare this to the mass of the battery components (as estimated based membrane surface area (membrane that separates cathode different application (e.g., powering a 20 W light bulb for A project based on these steps provides a valuable experi ential learning process involving: energy balances, transient energy balances, basic circuit theory, modeling vs. predictive simulation, convective heat transfer, analytical vs. numerical solution methods, mass balances, transient mass balances, battery performance curves, and product design.[13] PROJECT 2: EV ALUATING THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A BATTERY A common representation of a battery in circuit theory is as a resistor in series with a voltage source (see Figure 5). The goal of this project is to identify the utility and accuracy of this commonly used model for a battery in a circuit. In AA battery identifying the voltage at 10 seconds for each of several module-set resistances (from high to low). Analysis of the data for this project can be obtained by linear regression of an equation derived as follows. Where: same equation evaluated over the circuit load rather than the theoretical voltage of the battery: or where linear regression can be used to identify VO (constant) and R (slope). Figure 4. A plot of the resistor temperature with superimposition of modeling results (left) and voltage prole of the battery operating with a 3-ohm total resistor (right). For voltage prole plot the experiment was initiated at t=100 s. A A Battery Figure 5. Schematic of a battery as a voltage source in series with an internal resistance.


322Figure 6 illustrates experimental data plotted according to Eq. (6) with an excellent correlation and little scatter. The students are expected to analyze their data and understand why the internal resistance of the battery stays constant, using equations to justify their results. The internal resistance of the battery is relatively constant for data taken at a constant time of exposure to a load. For low resistances, the resistance of the battery will decrease with time due to increased diffusion over-potential as the substrates closest to the membrane are consumed.[15] This trend is seen for the right-most data point, and for this reason, the linear regression was performed without including that data point. Extensions of this project could include evaluating the internal battery resistance at different times the battery is under load.[16] Detailed discussions related to transient diffusions in packed-bed anodes could be used to explain the dependence of the internal battery resistance on time. If the students are able to do the sophisticated modeling, the diffusion in the packed bed could be modeled, converted to diffusion over-potential, and interpreted in terms of a resistor model. PROJECT 3: DIFFUSION AND PERMEABILITY IN MANGANESE DIOXIDEZINC BATTERY The objective of this project is to evaluate batteries that the students assemble. The students are also to relate fundamental differences of the battery performances to properties of the materials and the cell geometry, and to quantitatively cor relate the performance to diffusivity resulting from varying the separator material. The use of a zinc electrode anode is important because of its high open-circuit voltage in the KOH electrolyte, a low corrosion rate, and a low material cost.[17] A schematic of the battery assembly is provided by Figure 7. Prepared anode packing, cathode packing, separator materi als, and premixed electrolyte are provided to the students for assembling the batteries. The electrode packings are volumetrically dispensed into the cell being separated by the separator materials. Alligator clips are used to connect the current collectors of the battery assembly to the AA battery holder points of contact on the experimental module. The experimental procedures include assembling several Zn-MnO2 batteries with different separator materials and evaluate the performance in a 33-ohm circuit. Zinc powder is used as the anode packing in preference to zinc foil or plates because of its large surface area to distribute solid and liquid phases more homogeneously.[18] A high zinc surface-area-tovolume ratio is needed for high-rate capability and since zinc oxide will form on the surface of the zinc as summarized by the following half reactions:[19] Figure 6. Example results from PROJECT 2 and Eq. (6) for evaluating the internal resistance of a battery. The data are for different circuit resistances evaluated with the experimental module. Figure 7. Pictorial representation of a compression cell used for the assembly of MnO2 Zn batteries (left) with picture of assembled cell (middle) and an assembled cell with weight to provide compression (right).


323 Manganese oxide powder mixed with a carbon black is used as the cathode. The carbon is used to increase conductivity of the positive active mass to reduce the internal resistance of the cell.[20] This material may require mechanical processing to maximize reactivity.[21] Potassium hydroxide (1M or 2M) in distilled water works well as the electrolyte because of its high conductivity, and results in a low internal resistance.[22] In the presence of KOH, the discharge behavior of MnO2 occurs in a heterogeneous phase reaction.[23] The separator materials provide the best opportunity to systematically vary a parameter that impacts battery perfor mance. Sheets of permeable material can be punched to sizes that match the inner diameter of the batterys polyethylene sleeve. When preparing the battery, care must be taken to assure that the permeable separator totally separates the anode from the cathode or the battery will short circuit. Filter paper works well as a separator with the experimental parameter to diffusion and greater over-potential losses.[15] It is also a diffusive path between the anode and cathode, the battery voltage will immediately go to zero. The test cell (Figure 7) is basically a compression cell composed of two pistons inside a nonconductive sleeve. The battery is assembled by inserting the base of the compression 1. Place a volumetrically dispersed amount of the cathode material (MnO2 create an even distribution. Potassium Hydroxide is used as an electrolyte in Manganese Diox ide-Zinc batteries because of its strong conductivity. compression cell with the longer piston. 5. Bring the assembled battery back to the module and obtain a pair of wires. Remove the original AA battery, snap off the battery power adapters and connect them to the wires. 6. Attach the alligator clips to the assembled battery and put the two plastic pieces on the top and bottom of the assembled battery, aligning them with the notches. 7. Place a 6 kg weight on the assembled battery and run the program. The weight on the battery compresses the anode and cathode material together, making the age. Figure 8 summarizes representative data for a study of 2, polypropylene as a nonpermeable membrane separating the anode material from the cathode material, keeping the time of the experimental runs constant. The polypropylene mem branes used in this experiment were obtained using the same steep drop in voltage initially and then a steady decline. At a paper) results in a lower voltage delivered to the resistor.[15] Ideally, the voltage for the nonpermeable membrane should involved in constructing a perfect separation seal, there may be some voltage detected due to the seepage and mixing of the anodic and cathodic material around the outer perimeter of the polypropylene membrane. The students should be able to qualitatively understand how increased diffusion distances through permeable materials translate to increased voltage over-potentials.[15] In more advanced applications, the permeability can be related to voltage. Other variations from this experiment include use of battery assemblies with different inner diameters and use of non-permeable separators cut into washer-shapes that vary the cross-sectional area available for diffusion. STUDENT FEEDBACK For Project 1, the students recognized and appreciated how energy is converted from chemical to thermal forms and how transient differential models can relate underlying engineering science (Ohms law, convective heat transfer) to observed phenomena. The most frequent problem encoun-Figure 8. Graph of results showing proposed trend of decreasing voltage with increasing resistance of separator between electrodes. The numbers indicate the number of layers of lter paper between the electrodes.


324tered was a lack of attention by the students to which voltages were actually being measured during the experiment. Project 2 was a simple and straightforward experiment that validates a commonly used model for batteries. Students who expected the need for a detailed analysis based on differential equations were disappointed. Project 3 was effective in getting students to contemplate some more complicated aspects of mass transfer and how mass transfer limits the performance of a battery. The primary concern with Project 3 was that sloppy preparation of the assembled battery could result in inconsistent data. SUMMARY The battery provides an excellent basis for student projects in chemical engineering. The module described in this paper provides a way to deliver experiential learning with batteries in open formats that can be used with a variety of lecture-based courses. The students are able to directly connect with what they observe in the experiential learning because they encounter and frequently use batteries in their day-to-day routines. Different variations of battery-based projects allow students to use energy balances, transient energy balances, basic circuit theory, modeling vs. predictive simulation, convective heat transfer, analytical vs. numerical solution methods, mass bal ances, transient mass balances, battery performance curves, and product design. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors appreciate the support of the Chemical Engineer ing Department and the College of Engineering at the Univer sity of Missouri for making this work possible. The contributions of Dr. Mike Klote of MU Engineering Technical Services and kind contributions of MU alumnus Dr. Robert Healy from REFERENCES 1. Rugarcia, A., R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and J.E. Stice, Future of Engineering Education. I. A Vision for a New Century, Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(1) 16 (2000) J. Eng. Ed. 92(1), 18 (2003) ganeseZinc, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Elsevier (2009) and Electrochemical Applications: Manganese, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Elsevier (2009) Handbook of Batteries Hill, New York (2002) Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom (1991) 7. Woods, D.R., R.M. Felder, and A. Rugarcia, Developing Critical Skills, The Future of Eng. Ed. 2000 1(3), 20 (2000) 8. Knight, R.D., Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach Course for SeniorLevel Chemical Engineering Students, Chem. Eng. Ed., 43 Thermodynamicsan Engineering Approach 11. Felder, R.M., D.R. Woods, J.E. Stice, and A. Rugarcia, Future of Engineering Education II. Teaching Methods that Work, Chem. Eng. Ed., 34(1) 26 (2000) J. Eng. Ed. 93 (9), 9 13. Spencer, J.L., A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(1), 5 (2009) and Applications Academic Press (2000) Electrochimica Acta, 45(19) 3171 (2009) Chem. Eng. Ed., 43(3), 5 (2009) 17. Yang, C.-C., and S.-J. Lin, Improvement of High-Rate Capability of Alkaline Zn-MnO2J. Power Sources, 112 Waste Management, 26 ganese Dioxide, in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Y ears of Materials Development, Solid State Ionics, 134(12), 139 (2000) 21. Walker, A., and T.F. Reise, Process for Producing Beta Manganese Dioxide, 22. Manickama, M., Examining Manganese Dioxide Electrode in KOH Electrolyte Using TEM Technique, J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 616, 99-106 (2008) Lithium Insertion Into Manganese Dioxide Electrode in MnO2/Zn aqueous battery: Part I. A preliminary study, J. Power Sources, 130, General Chemistry: Principles and Structure,


325 An Open Letter to SENIORS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Should you go to graduate school? We invite you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. Graduate work can be exciting and intellectually satisfying, and at the same time can provide you with insurance against the ever-increasing danger of technical obsolescence in our fast-paced society. An advanced degree is certainly helpful if you want to include a research component in your career and a Ph.D. is normally a prerequisite for an academic position. Although graduate school includes an in-depth research experience, it is also an integrative period. Graduate research work under the guidance of a knowledgeable faculty member can be an important What is taught in graduate school? of graduate school will often focus on the study of advanced-core chemical engineering science subjects ( e.g. transport phenomena, phase equilibria, reaction engineering). These courses build on the material learned as an undergraduate, using more sophisticated mathematics and often including a molecular perspective. Early in the graduate program, you will select a research topic and a research adviser and begin to establish a knowledge base in the research subject through both coursework and independent study. Graduate education thus begins with an emphasis on structured learning in courses and moves on to the creative, exciting, and open-ended process of research. In addition, graduate school is a time to expand your intellectual and social horizons through participa tion in the activities provided by the campus community. We suggest that you pick up one of the fall issues of Chemical Engineering Education (CEE), whether it be the current issue or one of our prior fall issues, and read some of the articles written by scholars at various universities on a wide variety of subjects pertinent to graduate education. The chemical engineering professors or the library at your university are both good sources for borrowing current and back issues of CEE Perusing the graduate-school advertisements in this special compilation can also be a valuable resource, not only for determining what is taught in graduate school, but also where it is taught and by whom it is taught. We encourage you to carefully read the information in the ads and to contact any of the departments that interest you. What is the nature of graduate research? Graduate research can open the door to a lifelong inquiry that may well lead you in a number of directions dur of a university. Learning how to do research is of primary importance, and the training you receive as a graduate As a senior, you probably have some questions about graduate school. The following paragraphs may assist you


326 student will give you the discipline, the independence, and (hopefully) the intellectual curiosity that will stand you in good stead throughout your career. The increasingly competitive arena of high technology and societys discovery. Where should you go to graduate school? that there are schools that specialize in preparing students for academic careers just as there are those that prepare school or a certain professor with great strength or reputation in that particular area would be desirable. If you are more to your liking; or you might choose a school with a climate conducive to sports or leisure activities in which you are interested. Many factors may eventually feed into your decision of where to go to graduate school. Study the ads in this special printing and write to or view the Web pages of departments that interest you; ask for pertinent information not only about areas of study but also about fellowships that may be available, about the number of students in graduate school, about any special programs. Ask your undergraduate professors about their experiences in graduate school, and dont be shy about asking them to recommend schools to you. They should know your strengths and weaknesses by this stage in your collegiate career, and through using that knowledge they should be a valuable source of information and encouragement for you. Financial Aid living needs. This support is provided through research assistantships, teaching assistantships, or fellowships. If you are interested in graduate school next fall, you should begin the application process early this fall since admission decisions are often made at the beginning of the new calendar year. This process includes requesting application materials, seeking sources of fellowships, taking national entrance exams ( i.e. the Graduate Record Exam, GRE, is required by many institutions), and visiting the school. A resolution by the Council of Graduate Schoolsin which most schools are membersoutlines accepted deadlines for acceptance violate the intent of the resolution). Furthermore, an acceptance given or left in force after the commitment has been made. Historically, most students have entered graduate school in the fall term, but many schools do admit students for other starting dates. We hope that this special collection of chemical engineering graduate-school information proves to be helpful to you in making your decision about the merits of attending graduate school and assists you in selecting an institution that meets your needs.


Akron, University of .......................................................... 328 Alabama, University of ..................................................... 329 Alabama, Huntsville; University of ................................... 330 Alberta, University of ........................................................ Arizona, University of ........................................................ 332 Arizona State University .................................................... 333 Arkansas, University of ...................................................... 334 Auburn University .............................................................. ................................................. 434 British Columbia, University of ......................................... 336 Brown University ............................................................... 444 Bucknell University ............................................................ 434 Calgary, University of ........................................................ 337 California, Berkeley; University of .................................... 338 California, Los Angeles; University of ............................... 339 California, Riverside; University of ................................... 340 California, Santa Barbara; University of ............................ California Institute of Technology ...................................... 342 Carnegie Mellon University ............................................... 343 Case Western Reserve University ...................................... 344 Cincinnati, University of .................................................... .................................................. 346 Clarkson University ............................................................ Clemson University ............................................................ 347 Cleveland State University ................................................. 444 Colorado, University of ...................................................... 348 Colorado School of Mines .................................................. 349 Colorado State University .................................................. Columbia University .......................................................... Connecticut, University of ................................................. Dayton, University of ......................................................... 444 Delaware, University of ..................................................... Denmark, Technical University of .................................... Drexel University ............................................................... Florida, University of ......................................................... Florida A&M/Florida State College of Engineering ................ Florida Institute of Technology .......................................... Georgia Institute of Technology ......................................... Houston, University of ....................................................... Howard University ............................................................. 436 Idaho, University of ............................................................ 436 Illinois, Chicago; University of .......................................... 360 Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; University of ........................ Illinois Institute of Technology .......................................... 362 Iowa, University of ............................................................. 363 Iowa State University ........................................................ 364 Kansas, University of ......................................................... Kansas State University ...................................................... 366 Kentucky, University of ..................................................... 367 Lamar University ................................................................ 437 Laval University ................................................................. 437 Lehigh University ............................................................... 368 Louisiana State University ................................................ 369 Maine, University of ........................................................... 370 Manhattan College ............................................................. Maryland, Baltimore County; University of ...................... 372 Maryland, College Park; University of .............................. 373 Massachusetts, Amherst; University of .............................. 374 Massachusetts, Lowell; University of ................................ Massachusetts Institute of Technology ............................... 376 McGill University ............................................................... 377 McMaster University .......................................................... 378 Michigan, University of ..................................................... 379 Michigan State University .................................................. 380 Michigan Technological University ................................... 438 Minnesota, Minneapolis; University of ............................. Missouri, Columbia; University of .................................... 382 Missouri S&T .................................................................... 383 Montana State University .................................................. 438 ..................................................... 384 .......................................... 444 ............................................. 439 .................................. ............................................... 386 ........................................... 387 ........................................ 388 ................................................... 389 ................................................ 390 ........................................................ ................................................... 392 .............................................. 393 .................................................... 439 ........................................................ 394 Pennsylvania, University of .............................................. Pennsylvania State University ........................................... 396 Petroleum Institute, The .................................................... 397 Polytechnic University ...................................................... 398 Princeton University .......................................................... 399 Purdue University .............................................................. 400 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ........................................ Rhode Island, University of ............................................... 440 Rice University .................................................................. 402 Rochester, Chemical Program; University of .................... 403 Rochester, Energy Program; University of ........................ 404 Rose-Hulman ..................................................................... 440 Rowan University .............................................................. Sherbrooke, University of ................................................. 406 ..................................... 407 South Carolina, University of ............................................ 408 South Dakota School of Mines .......................................... South Florida, University of .............................................. 409 Southern California, University of .................................... ............................................ Stevens Institute of Technology ........................................ Syracuse University ........................................................... Tennessee, Knoxville; University of ................................. Tennessee, Chattanooga; University of ............................. 442 Tennessee Technological University ................................. Texas, Austin; University of .............................................. 415 Texas A&M University, College Station ........................... Texas A&M University, Kingsville ................................... 442 Texas Tech University ....................................................... Toledo, University of ......................................................... Toronto, University of ....................................................... 443 Tufts University ................................................................. Tulane University .............................................................. 420 Tulsa, University of ........................................................... Vanderbilt University ........................................................ 422 Villanova University .......................................................... 443 Virginia, University of ....................................................... 423 Virginia Tech University ................................................... 424 Washington, University of ................................................. Washington State University ............................................. 426 Washington University ...................................................... 427 Waterloo, University of ..................................................... 428 Wayne State University ..................................................... 429 West Virginia University ................................................... 430 Wisconsin, University of ................................................... Worchester Polytechnic University ................................... 432 .................................................................. 433 INDEX Graduate Education Advertisements


328 Graduate Education in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Teaching and research assistantships as well as industrially sponsored fellowships available. In addition to stipends, tuition and fees are waived. PhD students may get some incentive scholarships. Chai rman, Gra duate Committee Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3906 Fax (330) G. G. CHASE Multiphase Processes, Coalescence G. CHENG Biomateri als, Protein Engineering, Drug Delivery and e H. M. CHEUNG Materials, Sonochemical Processing, tured Fluids, Supercriti cal Fluid Processing C. MONTY Reaction Engineering, Bio mimicry, Microsensors B. Z. NEWBY tive Patterning, AntiFouling Coatings, Gradient Surfaces J. H. PAYER Corrosion & Electrochemistry, Systems Health Monitoring and Reliability, Materials Performance and Failure Analysis H. C. QAMMAR Chaotic Processes, Engineering Education X. SHAN Corrosion & Electrochemistry, Hydrogen Effects on Materials, Materials Performance and Life Prediction J. ZHENG Computational Biophysics, Biomolecular Interfaces, Biomaterials L.-K. JU Renewable Bioenergy, Environmental Bioengineering Department Chair S. S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction En gineering, Environmen tally Benign Synthesis, Fuel Cell J. R. ELLIOTT Molecular Simulation, Phase Behavior, Physi cal Properties, Process Modeling, Supercritical Fluids E. A. EVANS Materials Processing and CVD Modeling Plasma Enhanced Deposition and Crystal Growth Modeling N. D. LEIPZIG Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology, Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering L. LIU Biointerfaces, Biomaterials, Biosen sors, Tissue Engineering


329 A dedicated faculty w ith state of the art facilities, offering research programs leading to Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees. In 2009, the department moved into its new home, the $70 million Science and Engineering Complex.Research Areas: Biological Applications of Nanomaterials, Biomaterials, Catalysis and Reactor Design, Drug Delivery, Electronic Materials, Energy and CO2 Separation and Se questration, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Transport, Magnetic Materials, Membrane Separations and Reactors, Pharmaceutic al Synthesis and Microchemical Systems, Polymer Rheology, Simulations and Modeling Faculty: Viola Acoff (UAB) David Arnold (Purdue) Yuping Bao (Washington) Jason Bara (Colorado) Christopher Brazel (Purdue) Eric Carlson (Wyoming) Peter Clark (Oklahoma State) Nagy El-Kaddah (Imperial College) Arun Gupta (Stanford) Ryan Hartman (Michigan) Tonya Klein (NC State) Alan Lane (Massachusetts) Stephen Ritchie (Kentucky) C. Heath Turner (NC State) Mark Weaver (Florida) John Wiest (Wisconsin) For Information Contact: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical & Biological Engineering The University of Alabama Box 870203 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203 (205) 348-6450 An equal employment/equal educat ional opportunity institution




331 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMIC AL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA The City of Edmonton A. Ben-Zvi PhD (Queens University) S. Bradford PhD (Iowa State University) Emeritus R.E. Burrell PhD (University of Waterloo) K. Cadien PhD (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana) W. Chen PhD (University of Manitoba) P. Choi PhD (University of Waterloo) K.T. Chuang PhD (University of Alberta) Emeritus I. Dalla Lana PhD (University of Minnesota) Emeritus A. de Klerk, PhD (University of Pretoria) G. Dechaine PhD (University of Alberta) J. Derksen PhD (Eindhoven University of Technology) S. Dubljevic PhD (University of California, Los Angeles) R.L. Eadie PhD (University of Toronto) A. Elias, PhD ( University of Alberta) J.A.W. Elliott PhD (University of Toronto) T.H. Etsell PhD (University of Toronto) G. Fisher PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus J.F. Forbes PhD (McMaster University) Chair A. Gerlich PhD (University of Toronto) M.R. Gray PhD (California Institute of Technology) R. Gupta R.E. Hayes PhD (University of Bath) H. Henein PhD (University of British Columbia) B. Huang PhD (University of Alberta) D.G. Ivey PhD (University of Windsor) S.M Kresta PhD (McMaster University) S.M. Kuznicki PhD (University of Utah) D. Li PhD (McGill University) Q. Liu PhD (University of British Columbia) Q. Liu PhD (China University of Mining & Technology) J. Luo PhD (McMaster University) D.T. Lynch PhD (University of Alberta) Dean of Engineering J.H. Masliyah PhD (University of British Columbia) University Professor Emeritus A.E. Mather PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus W.C. McCaffrey PhD (McGill University) P.F. Mendez PhD (MIT) D. Mitlin PhD (University of California, Berkeley) K. Nandakumar PhD (Princeton University) Emeritus R. Narain, PhD (University of Mauritius) J. Nychka PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara) F. Otto PhD (University of Michigan) Emeritus B. Patchett PhD (University of Birmingham) Emeritus V. Prasad PhD (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) J. Ryan PhD (University of Missouri) Emeritus S. Sanders PhD (University of Alberta) N. Semagina PhD (Tver State Technical Univ.) S.L. Shah PhD (University of Alberta) J.M. Shaw PhD (University of British Columbia) H. Uludag PhD (University of Toronto) L. Unsworth PhD (McMaster University) S.E. Wanke PhD (University of California, Davis) Emeritus M. Wayman PhD (University of Cambridge) Emeritus M.C. Williams PhD (University of Wisconsin) Emeritus R. Wood Emeritus Z. Xu PhD (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) T. Yeung PhD (University of British Columbia) H. Zeng PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara) H. Zhang PhD (Princeton University) the opportunity to study and conduct leading research with worldclass academics in the top program in Canada, and one of the very diverse, academically strong, innovative, creative, and is drawn to our challenging and supportive environment from all areas of the world. Degrees are offered at the MSc and PhD levels in chemical engi neering materials engineering and process control All full-time graduate students in research programs receive a stipend to cover living expenses and tuition. leaders of tomorrows chemical and materials engineering advances. Research topics include: biomaterials, biotechnology, coal combustion, colloids and interfacial computer process control, corrosion and wear engineering, drug deliv control, heavy oil processing and upgrading, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen storage materials, materials processing, microalloy steels, micromechanics, mineral processing, molecular sieves, multiphase mixing, nanostructured biomaterials, oil sands, petroleum thermody namics, pollution control, polymers, powder metallurgy, process and tion, thermodynamics, and transport phenomena. The Faculty of Engineering has added more than one million square feet of outstanding teaching research and personnel space in the past six years. We offer outstanding and unique experimental and computational facilities including access to one of the most technologically advanced nanotechnology facilities in the world the National Institute for Nanotechnology connected by pedway to the Chemical and Materials Engineering Building. Annual research funding for our Department is over $14 million Externally sponsored funding to support engineering research in the entire Faculty of Engineering has increased to over $50 million each yearthe largest amount of any Faculty of Engineering in Canada. For further information, contact: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6


332 FACULTY / RESEARCH INTERESTS ROBERT G. ARNOLD, Professor (CalTech) Microbiological Hazardous Waste Treatment, Metals Speciation and Toxicity JAMES C. BAYGENTS, Associate Professor and Associate Dean of Engineering (Princeton) Fluid Mechanics, Transport and Colloidal Phenomena, Bioseparations PAUL BLOWERS, Associate Professor (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Environmental Foresight, Green Design WENDELL ELA, Professor (Stanford) Particle-Particle Interactions, Environmental Chemistry JAMES FARRELL, Professor (Stanford) Sorption/desorption of Organics in Soils JAMES A. FIELD, Professor and Chair (Wageningen University) Bioremediation, Environmental Microbiology, Hazardous Waste Treatment ROBERTO GUZMAN, ANTHONY MUSCAT Professor (Stanford) Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Surface Engineering, Semiconductor Processing, Microcontamination KIMBERLY OGDEN, Professor (Colorado) Bioreactors, Bioremediation, Organics Removal from Soils ARA PHILIPOSSIAN, Professor (Tufts) Chemical/Mechanical Polishing, Semiconductor Processing EDUARDO SEZ Professor (UC, Davis) Polymer Flows, Multiphase Reactors, Colloids GLENN L. SCHRADER, Professor and Associate Dean of Engineering (Wisconsin) Catalysis, Environmental Sustainability, Thin Films, Kinetics, Solar Energy FARHANG SHADMAN, Regents Professor (Berkeley) Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactive Membranes, Microcontamination, Semiconductor Manufacturing REYES SIERRA, Professor (Wageningen University) Environmental Biotechnology, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Wastewater Treatment SHANE A. SNYDER, Professor (Michigan State University) Endocrine Disruptor and Emerging Contaminant Detection and Treatment, Water Reuse Technologies and Applications ARMIN SOROOSHIAN, Assistant Professor (CalTech) Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity, Climate Change Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. The Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the University of Arizona offers a wide range of research opportunities in all major areas of chemical engineering department offers a comprehensive approach to sustainability which is grounded on the principles of conserva tion and responsible management of water, energy, and material resources. Research initiatives in solar and other renewable energy, desalinization, climate modeling, and sustainable nano technology are providing innovative solutions to the challenges effort is devoted to areas at the boundary between chemical and environmental engineering, including environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing, environmental remediation, environmental biotechnology, and novel water treatment tech nologies.The department offers a fully accredited undergraduate degree in chemical engineering, as well as MS and PhD degrees in both chemical and environmental engineering. Financial support is available through fellowships, govern ment and industrial grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships. For further information Chairman, Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering P.O. BOX 210011 The University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 Chemical and Environmental Engineering at A The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.


333 Chemical EngineeringLearn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environm ent with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric chemistry, bioenergy, biotechnol ogy, cancer therapeutics, elect rochemistry and energy storage, electronic materials processing, engineering education, fl exible displays, nanofluidics, process control, separation and purification technology, and soft mater ials. Program Faculty Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech. Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms, heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control James R. Beckman Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona. Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation Veronica A. Burrows Ph.D., Princeton. Engineering education, surfa ce science, semiconductor processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for sensors Lenore Dai, Ph.D., Illinois. Jerry Y.S. Lin Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and reaction processes Mary Laura Lind Ph.D., Caltech. Advanced membrane materials fo r water purification, energy generation, and energy storage David Nielsen Ph.D., Queens University at Kingston. Biochemical engineering, metabo lic engineering, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering, product recovery Robert Pfeffer, Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce engineered particulates with ta ilored properties, fluidization, mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured particulates, filtration of sub-mi cron particulates; agglomeration, sintering and granulation of fine particles Jonathan D. Posner, Ph.D., California-Irvine. Micro/nanofluidics, fuel cells, precision biology Gregory B. Raupp Ph.D., Wisconsin. Gas-solid surface reactions semiconductor materials processing, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), flexible electronics Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer therapeutics and diagnostics, ce llular interactions in cancer metastasis Daniel E. Rivera Ph.D., Caltech. Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system identification, optimized interventions for behavioral health, supply chain management Michael R. Sierks Ph.D., Iowa State. Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics, antibody engineering Cesar Torres Ph.D., Arizona State. Bioenergy, microbial electrochemical cells, microbial and biofilm kinetics, microscopic techni ques to image biofilms Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts. storage, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for material s processing, porous coatings for tissue engineering, nanomec hanics of soft matter Affiliate Faculty Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton. Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water resources management Bruce E. Rittmann, Environmental biotechnology, micr obial ecology, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering For additional details see or contact Sharon Yee at (480) 965-8986 or


334 M.D. Ackerson R.E. Babcock R.R. Beitle E.C. Clausen W.R. Penney D.K. Roper S.L. Servoss R.K. Ulrich Biochemical engineering Biological and food systems Biomaterials Biomolecular nanophonics Electronic materials processing Fate of pollutants in the environment Hazardous chemical release consequence analysis Integrated passive electronic components Membrane separations Micro channel electrophoresis Phase equilibria and process design University of Arkansas The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees. Ph.D. stipends provide $20,000, Doctoral Academy Fellowships provide up to $30,000, and Distinguished Doctoral Fellowships provide $40,000. For stipend and fellowship recipients, all tuition is waived. Applications Areas of Research Faculty For more information contact Chemical Engineering Graduate Program Information: Graduate Program in the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering


335 FacultyW. Robert Ashurst Mark E. Byrne Robert P. Chambers Harry T. Cullinan Virginia Davis Steve R. Duke Mario R. Eden Ram B. Gupta Thomas R. Hanley Yoon Y. Lee Elizabeth A. Lipke Glennon Maples Ronald D. Neuman Timothy D. Placek Christopher B. Roberts Bruce J. Tatarchuk Jin Wang ChemicalEngineering A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T YAuburn University is an equal opportunity educational institution/employer. For more information:Director of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn, AL 36849-5127 Phone 334.844.4827 Fax chemical@eng.auburn.eduFinancial assistance is available to qualied applicants.Research AreasAlternative Energy and FuelsBiochemical Engineering Biomaterials Biomedical Engineering Bioprocessing and BioenergyCatalysis and Reaction Engineering Computer-Aided EngineeringDrug DeliveryEnergy Conversion and StorageEnvironmental BiotechnologyFuel Cells Green Chemistry Materials MEMS and NEMSMicrobrous Materials NanotechnologyPolymers Process ControlPulp and Paper Supercritical FluidsSurface and Interfacial ScienceSustainable EngineeringMolecular Thermodynamics




337 FACULTY U. Sundararaj Head ( Minnesota ) J. Abedi ( Toronto ) R. Aguilera ( Colorado School ) J. Azaiez ( Stanford) L. A. Behie ( Western Ontario ) C. Bellehumeur ( McMaster ) J. Bergerson ( Carnegie-Mellon ) Z. Chen ( Purdue ) M. Clarke ( Calgary ) A. De Visscher ( Ghent, Belgium ) M. Dong ( Waterloo ) M. W. Foley ( Queens ) I. D. Gates ( Minnesota ) T. G. Harding ( Alberta) G. Hareland ( Oklahoma State ) H. Hassanzadeh ( Calgary ) J. M. Hill ( Wisconsin ) M. Husein ( McGill ) L. James (Waterloo) A. A. Jeje ( MIT ) J. Jensen ( Texas, Austin ) M. S. Kallos ( Calgary ) A. Kantzas ( Waterloo ) D. Keith ( MIT ) R. Krenz ( Calgary ) N. Mahinpey ( Toronto ) B. B. Maini ( Univ. Washington ) A. K. Mehrotra ( Calgary ) S. A. Mehta ( Calgary ) R. G. Moore ( Alberta ) P. Pereira ( France ) M. Pooladi-Darvish ( Alberta ) K. D. Rinker ( North Carolina ) M. Satyro ( Calgary ) A. Sen ( Calgary ) A. Settari ( Calgary ) H. W. Yarranton ( Alberta ) L. Zanzotto ( Czechoslovakia )DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGThe Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc., M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees with Specializations in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Energy & Environmental Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering. Financial assistance is available to all qualified applicants. The areas of research include: catalysis; modeling, simulation & optimization; process control & dynamics; reaction engineering & chemical kinetics; rheology (polymers, suspensions & emulsions); separation operations; thermodynamics & phase equilibria; transport phenomena (deposition in pipelines, diffusion, dispersion, flow in porous media, heat transfer), nanotechnology, nanoparticle research, polymer nanocomposites; production engineering; reservoir characterization; reservoir engineering & modeling; reservoir geomechanics & simulation; 2sequestration; life cycle assessment; petroleum waste management & site remediation; solid waste management; water & wastewater treatment bacterial infection; biopolymers; bioproduct development; blood filtration; microvascular systems; stem cell bioprocess engineering (media & reagent development, bioreactor protocols) For Additional Information, Contact: e Head, Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering ; www. The University is located in Calgary, which is the Oil and Engineering Capital of Canada, and the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. With a population of over one million, the City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City. The ski resorts and numerous hiking trails in Banff, Lake Louise, and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo of the University Campus, the Engineering Complex is located in the top left.




339 Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department CONTACT CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING AT U C L A FOCUS AREAS Biomolecular and Cellular Engineering Process Systems Engi neering (Simulation, Dynamics, and Control) Semiconductor Manufacturing and Electronic Materials GENERAL THEMES Energy and the Environment PROGRAMS FACULTY J. P. Chang (William F. Seyer Chair in Materials Electrochemistry) Y. Cohen J. Davis (Vice Provost Information Technology) R.F. Hicks L. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate) J. C. Liao (Chancellors Professor) Y. Lu V.I. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette (Dept. Chair) G. Orkoulas T. Segura S.M. Senkan Y. Tang UCLAs Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial practice. Our Department has strong graduate research programs in Biomolecular Engineering, Energy and Environment, Semiconductor Manufacturing, Engineering of Materials, and Process and Control Systems Engineering. Fellowships are available for outstanding applicants interested in Ph.D. degree programs. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. wood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded engineering and science programs and to a variety of



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341 Award-winning facultyBradley F. Chmelka Patrick S. Daugherty Michael F. Doherty Francis J. Doyle III Glenn H. Fredrickson, NAE Michael J. Gordon Song-I Han Jacob Israelachvili, NAE, NAS, FRS Edward J. Kramer, NAE L. Gary Leal, NAE Glenn E. Lucas Eric McFarland Samir Mitragotri Baron G. Peters Susannah L. Scott M. Scott Shell Todd M. Squires Theofanis G. Theofanous, NAE Joseph A. Zasadzinski Doctoral students in good academic standing receive financial support via teaching and research assistantships. For additional information and to complete an application, visit or contact Interdisciplinary researchCalifornia Nanosystems Institute Center for Control Engineering and Computation Center for Polymers and Organic Solids Center for Risk Studies and Safety Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies Institute for Energy Efficiency Institute for Quantum Engineering, Science & Technology International Center for Materials Research Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics Materials Research Laboratory Research strengthsBiomaterials Bioengineering Catalysis Renewable energy Complex fluids Polymers Electronic and optical materials Fluids and transport Process systems engineering Surfaces and thin films

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342 CALTECHCHEMICAL ENGINEERINGAt the Leading EdgeThe Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering opened in March 2010CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYContact information: Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering 210-41 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125http://www.che.caltech.eduFrances H. Arnold: Protein Engineering and Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis, Synthetic Biology, Biofuels John F. Brady: Complex Fluids and Suspensions, Rheology, Transport Processes Mark E. Davis: Biomedical Engineering, Catalysis, Advanced Materials Richard C. Flagan: Aerosol Science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation George R. Gavalas (emeritus) Konstantinos P. Giapis: Plasma Processing, Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology Sossina M. Haile: Advanced Materials, Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry, Catalysis and Electrocatalysis Julia A. Kornfield: Polymer Dynamics, Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects of the Design of Biomedical Polymers John H. Seinfeld: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Global Climate David A. Tirrell: Macromolecular Chemistry, Biomaterials, Protein Engineering, Chemical Biology Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus) Zhen-Gang Wang: Statistical Mechanics, Polymer Science, Biophysics

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343 Unlock the next stage of your career. The graduate students and faculty at Carnegie Mellon are taking the eld of Chemical Engineering to a new level. Power up with research in alternative energy, systems engineering, nanotechnology, bioengineering, and environmental engineering. The game is just beginning. Take control of your future.CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING A T CARNE GIE M E LLON Contact Information 412.268.2230 Graduate Degree Programs > Doctorate > Course Option Master > Thesis Option Master Department Home Page Online Graduate Application Department of Chemical Engineering Pittsburgh, P A 15213-3890 Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon PLA YER 1 SELECT > Bioengineering > Complex Fluids Engineering > Energy Science and Engineering > Envirochemical Engineering > Process Systems Engineering

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344 Advanced Research in Energy, Materials, and Bio related applications The graduate programs in Chemical Engineering at Case Western Reserve University prepare students for an independent, creative career in chemical engineering research in industry or academia. Research opportunities, especially in our core strengths of energy, advanced materials, and biological applications of chemical engineering, are many. You will find CWRU to be an exciting environment in which to carry out your graduate studies. Come help us invent the future. John C. Angus Harihara Baskaran Liming Dai Donald L. Feke Daniel J. Lacks Uziel Landau Chung Chiun Liu J. Adin Mann, Jr. Heidi B. Martin Syed Qutubuddin R. Mohan Sankaran Robert F. Savinell Jesse Wainright Energy and Electrochemical Systems Fuel Cells and Batteries Electrochemical Engineering Energy Storage Membrane Transport, Fabrication Advanced Materials and Devices Synthetic Diamond Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces Microsensors Polymer Nanocomposites Nanomaterials and Nanosynthesis Particle Science and Processing Molecular Simulations Microplasmas and Microreactors Biological Applications Biomedical Sensors and Actuators Neural Prosthetic Devices Cell and Tissue Engineering Transport in Biological Systems Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106 7217

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345 Opportunities for Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Engineering Research Center that houses most chemical engineering research. Emerging Energy Systems Catalytic conversion of fossil and renewable resources into alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, alcohols and liquid alkanes; solar energy conversion; inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation; fuel cells, hydrogen storage nanomaterials Environmental Research Mercury and carbon dioxide capture from power plant waste streams, air separation for oxycombustion; wastewa ter treatment, removal of volatile organic vapors Molecular Engineering Application of quantum chemistry and molecular simulation tools to problems in heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)molecular separations and transport of biological and drug molecules Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Selective catalytic oxidation, environmental catalysis, zeolite catalysis, novel chemical reactors, modeling and design of chemical reactors, polymerization processes in interfaces, membrane reactors Membrane and Separation Technologies tion; biomedical, food and environmental applications of membranes; high-temperature membrane technology, natural gas processing by membranes; adsorption, chromatography, separation system synthesis, chemical reac tion-based separation processes Biotechnology Polymers Thermodynamics, polymer blends and composites, high-temperature polymers, hydrogels, polymer rheology, computational polymer science, molecular engineering and synthesis of surfactants, surfactants and interfacial phenomena Bio-Applications of Membrane Science and Technology This IGERT program provides a unique educational opportunity for U.S. Ph.D. students in areas of engineering, the National Science Foundation. The IGERT fellowship consists of an annual stipend of $30,000 for up to three years. Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INST) INST brings together three centers of excellencethe Center for Nanoscale Materials Science, the Center for BioMEMS and Nanobiosystems, and the Center for Nanophotonicscomposed of faculty from the Colleges of En gineering, Arts and Sciences, and Medicine. The goals of the institute are to develop a world-class infrastructure of enabling technologies, to support advanced collaborative research on nanoscale phenomena. For Admission Information Contact Barbara Carter College of Engineering and Applied Science Cincinnati, OH 45221-0077 513-556-5157 or Professor Vadim Guliants The Chemical Engineering Program The School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 The University of Cincinnati is committed to a policy of non-discrimination in awarding Financial Aid Available A.P. Angelopoulos Carlos Co Junhang Dong Joel Fried Rakesh Govind Vadim Guliants Chia-chi Ho Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Joo-Youp Lee Paul Phillips Neville Pinto Vesselin Shanov Peter Smirniotis Stephen W. Thiel Faculty

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346 Biomaterials and Biotransport atherogenesis, bio-uid ow, self-assembled biomaterials Colloid Science and Engineering directed assembly, novel particle technology Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow boiling heat transfer, emulsions, rheology, suspensions Energy Generation and Storage batteries, gas hydrates, thermal energy storage Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter device design, dynamic interfacial processes Nanomaterials and Self Assembly catalysts, patchy particles, sensors Polymer Science and Engineering polymer processing, rheology Powder Science and Technology pharmaceutical formulations, powder ow Process Design and Optimization environmental plant design, process intensication Levich Institute for Physicochemical Hydrodynamics directed by Morton M. Denn Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Engineering Energy Institute directed by Sanjoy Banerjee Distinguished Professor of Chemical EngineeringRESEARCH AREAS FACULTYSanjoy Banerjee Alexander Couzis Morton M. Denn M. Lane Gilchrist Ilona Kretzschmar Jae W. Lee Charles Maldarelli Jeffrey F. Morris Irven H. Rinard David S. Rumschitzki Carol A. Steiner Daniel A. Steingart Gabriel I. Tardos Raymond S. TuINSTITUTES gradinfo@che.ccny.cuny.edu212 650 6671GROVE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING MS & PhD Programs in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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347 For More Information, Contact: Graduate Coordinator 864 656 3055 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clemson University, Box 340909 Clemson, South Carolina 29634 Clemson University boasts a 1,400 acre campuson the shores of Lake Hartwell atthe foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The warm campus environment, great weather, and recreationalactivitiesmake Clemson University an ideal place tolive and learn.ChBE GRADUATE PROGRAM The Departmentof Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers strongresearch programs in biotechnology, advanced materials, energy andchemical processing. Biotechnology: bioelectronics, biosensors and biochips, biopolymers, drug delivery, bone andtissue regeneration, bioseparations Advancedmaterials: polymer fibers,films and composites, nanoscale design of catalysts, biomaterials, nanomaterials, membranes, directed assembly, interfacialengineering, molecular modeling andsimulationEnergy: hydrogen production and storage, biofuels synthesis, sustainable engineering, quantum and molecular modeling, nanotechnology andreaction engineering Chemical processing: separations, kinetics andcatalysis, processdesign andanalysis and product design. Learn more at Clemson ChBE Faculty David A. Bruce, Professor Charles H. Gooding, Professor JamesG. Goodwin, Professor Anthony Guiseppi Elie, Prof. &C3BDir. Esin Gulari, Professor &Dean Graham M. Harrison, Assoc. Professor Douglas E. Hirt, Professor &Chair Scott M. Husson,Prof. &Grad. Coord. Christopher L. Kitchens, Assist. Professor Amod A. Ogale, Professor&CAEFF Dir. Mar k E. Roberts, Assist. Professor Mark C. Thies, Professor

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348 Biomaterials : ssue engineering, biocompa ble coa ngs, biosensors K.S. Anseth; C.N. Bowman; S.J. Bryant; J.L. Kaar; M.J. Mahoney; T.W. Randolph; D.K. Schwartz; J.W. Stansbury Biopharmaceu cals : delivery technologies and stable formula ons for new drugs, metabolic engineering, drug delivery R.T. Gill; J.L. Kaar; D.S. Kompala; M.J. Mahoney; T.W. Randolph; D.K. Schwartz; J.W. Stansbury Catalysis, Surface Science, and Thin Film Materials : heterogeneous catalysis, catalysis for biomass conversion, zeolites, atomic and molecular layer deposi on J.L. Falconer; S.M. George; J.W. Medlin; D.K. Schwartz; A.W. Weimer Par cle Technology and Complex Fluids: uid mechanics of suspensions, gas par cle uidiza on, granular ow mechanics R.H. Davis; C.M. Hrenya; A. Jayaraman; A.W. Weimer Computa onal Science : classical and quantum simula ons, sta s cal mechanics, con nuum modeling C.M. Hrenya; A. Jayaraman; J.W. Medlin; C.B. Musgrave Renewable Energy and Clean Energy Applicaons : biofuels, solar energy, carbon capture, high e ciency synthesis J.L. Falconer; S.M. George; R.T. Gill; C.M. Hrenya; A. Jayaraman; J.W. Medlin; C.B. Musgrave; R.D. Noble; A.W. Weimer Membranes and Separa ons: inorganic membranes, polymer membranes, ionic liquids R.H. Davis; J.L. Falconer; D.L. Gin; J.W. Medlin; R.D. Noble; D.K. SchwartzNanotechnology : engineering materials at the nanoscale C.N. Bowman; S.M. George; D.L. Gin; A. Jayaraman; J.W. Medlin; D.K. Schwartz; M.P. Stoykovich; A.W. Weimer Polymer Chemistry and Engineering: chemical synthesis, applica ons of polymers and macromolecules K.S. Anseth; C.N. Bowman; S.J. Bryant; D.L. Gin; A. Jayaraman; J.W. Stansbury; M.P. Stoykovich Engineering Center, ECCH 111 University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309 0424 Tel 303.492.7471 Fax 303.492.4341 www. Diverse research thrusts and exper se Na onally recognized faculty in research and teaching Collegiality between faculty, sta and students Professor Kris Anseth, member of the Na onal Academy of Engineering and Na onal Ins tute of Medicine

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350 ResearchThe graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts in their respective elds. Opportunities for collaboration with many other department across the University are abundant, including departments in the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Financial SupportResearch Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on assistantships also receive tuition support. The department has a number of research assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of interest from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional University fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.Fort CollinsLocated in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as a gateway to the Rocky Mountains. With its superb climate (over 300 days of sunshine per year), there are exceptional opportunities for outdoor pursuits including hiking, biking, skiing, and rafting. For additional information or to schedule a visit of campus: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370 Phone: (970) 491-5253 Fax: (970) 491-7369 E-mail: Research AreasBioanalytical Chemistry Biofuels and Biore ning Biomaterials Cell and Tissue Engineering Magnetic Resonance Imaging Membrane Science Micro uidics Polymer Science Synthetic and Systems BiologyFacultyTravis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota Laurence A. Bel ore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U. James C. Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State U. Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U. Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U. Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U. Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D., U. Minnesota View faculty and student research videos, nd application information, and get other information at C h e m i c a l & B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g

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352 Chemical Engineering Graduate ProgramThe Chemical Engineering Graduate Program within the Chemical, Materials & Biomolecular Engineering Department, at the University of Connecticut, offers many exciting research opportunities. Our faculty members are superb on multiple levels and strive to provide students with world-renowned researchers and award-winning instructors. Alexander Agrios Northwestern University Applications of Nanoparticulate Semiconductors to Solar Energy Conversion George Bollas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Simulation of Energy Processes, Property Models Development C. Barry Carter Oxford University Interfaces & Defects, Ceramics Materials, TEM, AFM, Energy Douglas Cooper, University of Colorado Process Modeling & Control Chris Cornelius, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Structure, Property and Function of Polymers, Ionomers, Glasses and Composite Materials Russell Kunz, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Fuel Cell Technology & Electrochemistry Cato Laurencin, MIT M.D., Harvard Medical School Advanced Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Biodegradable Polymers, Nanotechnology Yu Lei, University of CaliforniaRiverside Bionanotechnology, Bio/nanosensor, Bio/nanomaterials, Remediation Radenka Maric, Kyoto University Nanostructure Materials, Polymers and Ceramic Processing Jeffrey McCutcheon, Yale University Membrane Separations, Polymer Electrospinning, Forward Osmosis/Osmotic Power Ashish Mhadeshwar, University of Delaware Modeling of Catalytic Fuel Processing, Deactivation & Emissions Reduction Trent Molter, University of Connecticut Regenerative Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Production, Electrochemical Compressors, Fuel Cell Materials and Hydrogen Electrolyzers William Mustain Illinois Institute of Technology Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Aerobic Biocathodes for ORR, Electrochemical Kinetics and Ionic Transport Mu-Ping Nieh, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Self-assembly of Soft Materials & Structural Characterization of Polymer Thin Films and Polymer Hydrogels Richard Parnas, UCLA Biodiesel Power Generation, PEM Fuel Cell, Polymer Gels & Filled Polymers Leslie Shor, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Micro-scale Structures, Contaminant Fate & Transport in the Environment Prabhakar Singh University of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ranjan Srivastava, University of Maryland, College Park Systems Biology & Metabolic Engineering Steven Suib University of Illinois Inorganic Chemistry & Environmental Chemistry Yong Wang Duke University Nanomedicine & Drug Delivery Brian Willis, MIT Nanotechnology, Molecular Electronics, Semiconductor Devices and Fuel Cells University of Connecticut Chemical Engineering Program 191 Auditorium Road, Unit 3222 Storrs, CT 06269-3222 Phone: (860) 486-4020 Fax: (860) 486-2959 Research Centers Booth Engineering Center for Advanced Technologies Center for Clean Energy Engineering Center for Environmental Sciences Institute of Materials Science

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353 Apply on-line at View our website: UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE ChE Faculty Including 11 Named Professors Maciek Antoniewicz Mark A. Barteau Antony Beris Douglas Buttrey Jingguang Chen David Colby Pam Cook Prasad Dhurjati Thomas Epps, III Eric Furst Feng Jiao Kelvin Lee Abraham Lenhoff Raul Lobo Tunde Ogunnaike Terry Papoutsakis Christopher Roberts Anne Robinson T.W. Frasier Russell Stanley Sandler Millicent Sullivan Dion Vlachos Norman Wagner Richard Wool RESEARCH AREAS: Biomolecular, Cellular, and Protein Engineering Catalysis and Energy Metabolic Engineering Systems Biology Soft Materials, Colloids and Polymers Surface Science Nanotechnology Process Systems Engineering Green Engineering Phone: 302.831.4061 Fax: 302.831.3009 150 Academy Street Colburn Laboratory, Newark, DE 19716 Phone: 302.831.4061 Fax: 302.831.3009 The University of De lawares central location on the eastern seaboard to New York, Washington, Philadelphia and Baltimore is convenient both culturally and to the greatest concentration of industrial & government research laboratories in the U.S. Chemical Engineering at Delaware is ranked, by all metrics, in the top 10 programs in the U.S. with world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and active leader in chemical engineering research and teaching. Our graduate students work with a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware. Centers and Programs provide unique environments & experiences for graduate students. These include: Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI) Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST) Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodyna mics (CMET) Center for Neutron Science (CNS) Center for Composite Material (CCM) Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) Solar Hydrogen IGERT

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354 T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n m a r k D e p t C h e m i c a l a n d B i o c h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D o y o u r g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n E u r o p e The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a modern, internationally oriented technological university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon Valley one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It was founded in 1829 by H. C. rsted. The University has 6000 students preparing for their B Sc or M Sc d egree s 600 PhD students and takes 400 foreign students a year on English taught courses. The DTU campus is located close to the city of Copenhagen, the capital of De nmark C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h a n d t h e r e s e a r c h g r o u p s a r e : Applied Thermo dynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering Catalysis, Combustion Processes Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology Polymer Chemis try & Technology Process Control Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering Transport Phenomena B i o E n g P R O C E S S C A P E C C H E C D P C C E R E The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The re search results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations & materials. The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well equipped workshop and well trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory is open for students independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory and pilot plant s for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used for both education and research. Visit us at G r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s a t D e p a r t m e n t o f C h e m i c a l a n d B i o c h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g : The starting point for gen eral information about MSc studies at DTU is: C h e m i c a l a n d B i o c h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Stig Wedel E l i t e t r a c k i n C h e m i c a l a n d B i o c h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g John Woodley P e t r o l e u m E n g i n e e r i n g Alexander Shapiro A d v a n c e d a n d A p p l i e d C h e m i s t r y Georgios Kontogeorgis Visit the Universi t y at http://ww w .aspx

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356 FacultyTim Anderson Jason E. Butler Anuj Chauhan Oscar D. Crisalle Jennifer Sinclair Curtis Richard B. Dickinson Helena Hagelin-Weaver Gar Hoflund Peng Jiang Lewis E. Johns Dmitry Kopelevich Anthony J. Ladd Tanmay Lele Ranga Narayanan Mark E. Orazem Chang-Won Park Fan Ren Dinesh O. Shah Spyros Svoronos Yiider Tseng Sergey Vasenkov Jason F. Weaver Kirk Ziegler Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies at theUniversity of FloridaAward-winning faculty Cutting-edge facilities Extensive engineering resources An hour from the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico Third in US in ChE PhD graduates (C&E News, December 15, 2008)

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357 Join a small, vibrant campus on Floridas Space Coast to reach your full academic and professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientic and technological university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing. Graduate studies in Chemical EngineeringFor more information, contact College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 (321) 674-8068 FacultyP.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D. M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D. M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D. J.R. Brenner, Ph.D. J. Thomas, Ph.D. R.G. Basile, Ph.D.Research InterestsSpacecraft Technology In-Situ Resource Utilization Alternative Energy Sources Materials Science Membrane TechnologyResearch PartnersNASA Department of Energy Department of Defense Florida Solar Energy Center* Florida Department of Agriculture Graduate Student Assistantships, Scholarships and Tuition Remission AvailableGA-504-710 *Doctoral fellowship sponsor

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359 Affiliated Research Centers:Alliance for NanoHealth Western Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases National Large Scale Wind Turbine Testing Facility Texas Diesel Testing and Research Center GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERINGHouston Dynamic Hub of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringHouston is at the center of the U.S. energy and chemical industries and is the home of NASAs Johnson Space Center and the world-renowned T exas Medical Center. The University of Houston Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers excellent facilities, competitive conducive to personal and professional growth. H ouston offers an abundance of educational, cultural, business and entertainment opportunities. For a large and diverse city, Houstons cost of living is much lower than average. Research Areas:Advanced Materials Alternative Energy Biomolecular Engineering Catalysis Multi-Phase Flows Nanotechnology Plasma Processing Reaction Engineering For more information: Visit: Write: University of Houston Email: Chemical and Biomolecular E ngineering Graduate Admission S222 Engineering Building 1 Houston, TX 77204-404

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360 MS and PhD Graduate Program The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering UIC For more information, write to Department of Chemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Transport Phenomena: Thermodynamics: extraction/retrograde condensation, Asphaltene characterization, Membrane-based separations. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, Energy transfer processes, Laser diagnostics, and Combustion chemistry. Environmental technology, Surface chemistry, and optimization. Catalyst preparation and characterization, Supported metals, Chemical kinetics in automotive engine emis sions. Density fuctional theory calculations of reaction mechanisms. Biochemical Engineering: Materials: Microelectronic materials and processing, Heteroepitaxy in group IV materials, and in situ Magnetic resonance. Product and Process: Development and design, Computer-aided modeling and simulation, Pollution prevention, Clean energy and clean water technologies with focus on Li-ion batteries, fuel cells, hydrogen, solar BIPV and water desalination. Biomedical Engineering: Hydrodynamics of the human brain, Microvasculation, Fluid structure inter action in biological tissues, Targeted drug delivery and Medical imaging. Nanoscience and Engineering: Self-assembly and Positional assembly. Properties of size-selected clusters. Sohail Murad Professor and Head Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 E-Mail: Belinda S. Akpa, Assistant Professor Ph. D., University of Cambridge, 2007 E-Mail: John H. Kiefer Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 E-Mail: Andreas A. Linninger Associate Professor Ph.D., Vienna University of Technology, 1992 E-Mail: Ying Liu, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Princeton University, 2007 E-mail: G. Ali Mansoori Professor Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 E-Mail: Randall Meyer Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2001 E-Mail: Ludwig C. Nitsche Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989 E-Mail: John Regalbuto, Professor Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 E-Mail: Christos Takoudis Professor Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982 E-Mail: Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 E-Mail: Lewis E. Wedgewood Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988 E-Mail: Said Al-Hallaj Adjunct Professor Ph.D., IIllinois Institute of Technology, 2000 Email: Cynthia J. Jameson Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago-Urbana/Champagne, 1963 Email:

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361 r fr r nn rff n tb nn t nfb nn n n f t r r nb n r nn fr nn b b nn t b r r b f r r f r nn n n n nn f n n r nn r t n fn t r fr t n nn n f r f rf nfn b n r n r n bn nn n n n t n f f tfb b rf fb b nn bn n b r br rfrntbfrfffrfbff

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362 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Illinois Institute of TechnologyThe Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (ChBE) at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) oers everything a student could want in a graduate program: internationally respected faculty, cuttingedge research centers, and collaborations with national laboratories, global companies, and other leading universities. Located just minutes from downtown Chicago, IIT gives students the best of both worldsa thriving city known for its culture and social activities, and a prominent research university dedicated to solving the most complex challenges facing society. In addition to the Ph.D. in chemical engineering, IITs ChBE Department oers both thesis and non-thesis masters degrees in chemical, biological, and food process engineering. Within each degree program, students have the ability to concentrate their studies and research into a variety of disciplines, ranging from polymer engineering, fuel cell technology, and drug delivery to biosensors, renewable energy, and particle processing. The department is actively and continuously committed to making positive and important contributions to society by providing the best possible education to all its students, and by oering the highest quality of scholarship through research activities at the forefront of scientic and technological knowledge. IIT is devoted to fostering the next generation of chemical and biological engineers, instilling in them a quest for innovation and a thirst for problem solving. FacultyJavad Abbasian John L. Anderson Hamid Arastoopour Barry Bernstein Donald J. Chmielewski Ali Cinar Dimitri Gidaspow Nancy W. Karuri Alex D. Nikolov Satish J. Parulekar Victor Perez-Luna Jai Prakash Vijay Ramani Jay D. Schieber J. Robert Selman Fouad Teymour David C. Venerus Darsh T. WasanResearch Areas ChBE at a Glance IIT consistently ranks among the top 40 U.S. universities awarding engineering graduate degrees 14 full-time faculty members, two of whom are National Academy of Engineering members and ve of whom are AIChE fellows More than 150 graduate students enrolled in various programs Nearly $4.5 million in research funding per yearCompetitive stipends and fellowships available for highly motivated, wellqualied 10 W. 33rd Street, Room 127 Perlstein Hall Chicago, IL 60616 312.567.3040 (p) 312.567.8874 (f)

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363 Graduate program for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringFACULTYFor information and application: Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biochemical Engineering 4133 Seamans Center Iowa City IA 52242-1527Gary A. AurandNorth Carolina State U. 1996 Supercritical uids/ High pressure biochem ical reactorsAlec B. ScrantonPurdue U. 1990 Photopolymerization/ Reversible emulsiers/ Polymerization kineticsGreg CarmichaelU. of Kentucky 1979 Global change/ Supercomputing/ Air pollution modelingDavid MurhammerU. of Houston 1989 Insect cell culture/ Oxidative Stress/Baculo virus biopesticidesTonya L. PeeplesJohns Hopkins 1994 Extremophile biocataly sis/Sustainable energy/ Green chemistry/ BioremediationDavid RethwischU. of Wisconsin 1985 Membrane science/ Polymer science/ Catalysis Jennifer FiegelJohns Hopkins 2004 Drug delivery/ Nano and microtechnology/ AerosolsJulie L.P. JessopMichigan State U. 1999 Polymers/ Microlithography/ SpectroscopyC. Allan GuymonU. of Colorado 1997 Polymer reaction engineering/UV curable coatings/Polymer liquid crystal composites Charles O. StanierCarnegie Mellon University 2003 Air pollution chemistry, measurement, and modeling/Aerosols Aliasger K. SalemU. of Nottingham 2002 Tissue engineering/ Drug delivery/Polymeric biomaterials/Immunocancer therapy/Nano and microtechnology Venkiteswaran SubramanianIndian Institute of Science 1978Biocatalysis/Metabolism/ Gene expression/ Fermentation/Protein purication/Biotechnology Eric E. NuxollU. of Minnesota 2003 Controlled release/ microfabrication/ drug delivery1-800-553-IOWA (1-800-553-4692) H. GrassianU. of Calif.-Berkeley 1987Surface science of envi ronmental interfaces/ Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry/Applications and implications of nanosci ence and nanotechnology in environmental processes and human health

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364 Faculty Iowa State Universitys Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering offers excellent programs for graduate research and education. Our cutting-edge research crosses traditional disciplinary lines and provides exceptional opportunities for graduate students. Our and have won national and international recognition for both research and education, our facilities (laboratories, instrumentation, and computing) are state graduate students the support they need not just to succeed, but to excel. Our campus houses several interdisciplinary research centers, including the Ames Laboratory (a USDOE laboratory focused on materials research), an NSF Engineering Research Center on chemicals from biorenewables, the Plant Biotechnology, and the Bioeconomy Institute. The department offers ME, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. Students with undergraduate degrees in be admitted to the program. We offer full competitive stipends to all our MS and PhD students. In addition, we offer several competitive fellowships.Robert C. BrownPhD, Michigan State UniversityBiorenewable resources for energyAaron R. ClappPhD, University of FloridaColloidal and interfacial phenomena Eric W. Cochran PhD, University of MinnesotaSelf-assembled polymersRodney O. FoxPhD, Kansas State University engineeringCharles E. Glatz PhD, University of WisconsinBioprocessing and bioseparationsKurt R. HebertPhD, University of IllinoisCorrosion and electrochemical engineeringJames C. HillPhD, University of WashingtonAndrew C. Hillier PhD, University of MinnesotaInterfacial engineering and electrochemistryLaura JarboePhD, University of California-LABiorenewables production by metabolic engineeringKenneth R. Jolls PhD, University of Illinois Chemical thermodynamics and separationsMonica H. Lamm PhD, North Carolina State UniversityMolecular simulations of advanced materialsSurya K. Mallapragada PhD, Purdue UniversityTissue engineering and drug deliveryBalaji Narasimhan PhD, Purdue UniversityBiomaterials and drug deliveryJennifer O'DonnellPhD, University of DelawareAmphiphile self-assembly and controlled polymerizationsMichael G. OlsenPhD, University of IllinoisPeter J. Reilly PhD, University of PennsylvaniaEnzyme engineering and bioinformaticsDerrick K. Rollins PhD, Ohio State UniversityStatistical process controlIan SchneiderPhD, North Carolina State UniversityCell migration and mechanotransductionBrent H. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyHeterogeneous catalysis and biorenewablesJacqueline V. Shanks PhD, California Institute of TechnologyMetabolic engineering and plant biotechnologyR. Dennis Vigil PhD, University of MichiganTransport phenomena and reaction engineering in multiphase systems FOR MORE INFORMATIONGraduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 515 294-7643 Fax: 515 294-2689 www.cbe.iastate.eduIowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons having inquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515 294-7612. ECM 09546

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365 The University of Kansas is the largest and most comprehensive university in Kansas. It has an enrollment of more than 28,000 and almost 2,000 faculty mem bers. KU offers more than 100 bachelors, nearly 90 masters, and more than 50 doctoral programs. The main campus is in Lawrence, Kansas, with other campuses in Kansas City, Wichita, Topeka, and Overland Park, Kansas. Faculty Cory Berkland (Ph.D., Illinois) Kyle V. Camarda (Ph.D., Illinois) R.V. Chaudhari (Ph.D., Bombay University) Michael Detamore (Ph.D., Rice) Prajna Dhar (Ph.D., Florida State) Stevin H. Gehrke (Ph.D., Minnesota) Don W. Green, (Ph.D., Oklahoma) (Ph.D., Texas) (Ph.D., Texas A&M) (Ph.D., Illinois) (Ph.D., Kansas) Aaron Scurto (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Marylee Z. Southard (Ph.D., Kansas) Susan M. Williams (Ph.D., Oklahoma) Bala Subramaniam (Ph.D., Notre Dame) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) Laurence Weatherley, Chair (Ph.D., Cambridge) G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D., Northwestern) Research Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Catalytic Materials and Membrane Processing Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion, Fuel Cells, Batteries Electrochemical Reactors and Processes Electronic Materials Processing Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Liquid/Liquid Systems Molecular Product Design Protein and Tissue Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Waste Water Treatment Graduate Programs M.S. degree with a thesis requirement in both chemical and petroleum engineering KANSAS Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the Financial Aid Financial aid is available in the form of research and teaching assistantships and fellowships/scholarships. A special program is described below. Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship For additional information and application: Research Centers 30 years of excellence in enhanced oil recovery research (CEBC) Transportation Research Institute (TRI) Contacts Website for information and application: Graduate Program Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of KansasLearned Hall th UNIVERSITY OF e-mail:

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366 Kansas State University is indexed in the Carnegie Foundations list of top 96 U.S. universities with very high research activity. Graduate students perform research in areas like bio/nanotechnology, reaction engineering, materials science and transport phenomena. K-State offers modern, well-equipped laboratories and expert faculty on a campus nationally recog nized for its great community relationship. The department of chemical engineering offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering and the interdisciplinary areas of bio-based materials science and engineering, food science, environmental air quality is also available. Laser-Doppler velocimetry Polymer characterization equipment Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry Chemical vapor deposition reactors Electrodialysis Fermentors Tubular gas reactors Gas and liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry High-speed videography Gas adsorption analysis Catalyst preparation equipment Membrane permeation systems Ultra-high temperature furnaces More Faculty, Research Areas Jennifer L. Anthony, advanced materials, molecular sieves, environmental applications, ionic liquids Vikas Berry, graphene technologies, bionanotechnol ogy, nanoelectronics and sensors James H. Edgar (head), crystal growth, semiconductor processing and materials characterization Larry E. Erickson, environmental engineering, biochemical engineering, biological waste treatment process design and synthesis L.T. Fan, process systems engineering including process synthesis and control, chemical reaction engineering, particle technology Larry A. Glasgow, transport phenomena, bubbles, Keith L. Hohn, catalysis and reaction engineering, nanoparticle catalysts and biomass conversion Peter Pfromm, polymers in membrane separations and surface science Mary E. Rezac, polymer science, membrane separa tion processes and their applications to biological systems, environmental control and novel materials John R.Schlup, biobased industrial products, applied spectroscopy, thermal analysis and intel ligent processing of materials Our instrumental capabilities include:Graduate studies in chemical engineering at Kansas State University

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367 Key Research Areas: Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Chemical Engineering Faculty University of California, Berkeley Carnegie-Mellon University University of Kentucky Illinois Institute of Technology Drexel University Ohio State University University of Texas Texas Tech University Northwestern University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Minnesota Clarkson University Auburn University Vanderbilt University University of Texas University of Texas Materials Engineering Faculty Johns Hopkins University Northwestern University California Institute of Technology Pennsylvania State University Northwestern University University of Rochester University of OxfordThe CME Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in both chemical and materials engineering. The combination of these disciplines in a single department fosters collaboration among faculty and a strong interdisciplinary environment. Our faculty and graduate students pursue research projects that encompass a broad range of chemical engineering endeavor, and that include strong interactions with researchers in Agriculture, Chemistry, Medicine and Pharmacy.

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368 OUR FACULTY An application and additionalinformation may be obtained by writing to: Dr. James T. Hsu, Chair Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University 111Research Drive, Iacocca Hall Bethlehem, PA 18015 Fax: (610) 7585057 Email: Web: Bryan W. Berger, membrane biophysics protein engineering surfactant science signal transduction Philip A. Blythe fluid mechanics heat transfer applied mathematics Hugo S. Caram hightemperature processes and materials environmental processes reaction engineering Manoj K. Chaudhury adhesion thin films surface chemistry Mohamed S. El Aasser polymer colloids and films emulsion copolymerization polymer synthesis and characterization Alice P. Gast complex fluids colloids proteins interfaces James F. Gilchrist particle self organization mixing microfluidics Vincent G. Grassi II, process systems engineering Lori Herz, cell culture and fermentation pharmaceutical process development and manufacturing James T. Hsu bioseparation applied recombinant DNA technology Anand Jagota biomimetics mechanics adhesion biomolecule materials interactions Andrew Klein emulsion polymerization colloidal and surface effects in polymerization Mayuresh V. Kothare model predictive control constrained control microchemical systems Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in Biochemical Engineering Catalytic Science & Reaction Engineering Environmental Engineering Interfacial Transport Materials Synthesis Characterization & Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science & Engineering Process Modeling & Control Two-Phase Flow & Heat Transfer Leading to M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering Ian J. Laurenzi, chemical kinetics in small systems biochemical informatics aggregation phenomena William L. Luyben process design and control distillation Anthony J. McHugh polymer rheology and rheo optics polymer processing and modeling membrane formation drug delivery Jeetain Mittal, protein folding macromolecular crowding hydrophobic effects nanoscale transport Susan F. Perry, cell adhesion and migration cellular biomechanics Arup K. Sengupta use of adsorbents ion exchange reactive polymers membranesin environmental pollution Cesar A. Silebi separation of colloidal particles electrophoresis mass transfer Shivaji Sircar, adsorption gas and liquid separation Mark A. Snyder inorganicnanoparticles and porous thin films membrane separations multiscale modeling Kemal Tuzla heat transfer two phase flows fluidization thermal energy storage Israel E. Wachs materials characterization surface chemistry heterogeneous catalysis environmental catalysis

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370 For information about the graduate program: Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering or The department has a long history of interactions with industry. Research projects often come from actual industrial situations. Various research programs, such as the Paper Surface Science Program, have industrial advisory boards that give students key contacts with industry. We have formed an alliance with the Insti tute of Molecular Biophysics (IMB) that brings to us Maine Medical Center Research Institute (MMCRI). biosensors, and molecular biophysics give students opportunities to do research at the interface between engineering and the biological sciences. DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD PhD (UC Berkeley) Fluid mechanics, printing, coating processes, micro-scale modeling ALBERT CO PhD (Wisconsin) merical methods WILLIAM DESISTO PhD (Brown) chem./bio sensors DARRELL DONAHUE Biosensors in food and medical applications, risk assessment modeling, statistical process control JOSEPH GENCO JOHN HWALEK PhD (Illinois) Process information systems, heat transfer MICHAEL MASON PhD (UC Santa Barbara) Laser scanning confocal microscopy, time-resolved imaging of molecular nanoprobes for biological systems PAUL MILLARD PhD (Maryland) technology DAVID NEIVANDT PhD (Melbourne) Conformation of interfacial species, surface spectroscopies/mi croscopies HEMANT PENDSE PhD (Syracuse) Chair Sensor development, colloid systems, particulate and multiphase processes DOUGLAS RUTHVEN PhD ScD (Cambridge) Fundamentals of adsorption and processes ADRIAAN VAN HEININGEN PhD (McGill) Pulp and paper manufacture and production of biomaterials and biofuels G. PETER VAN WALSUM PhD (Dartmouth) Renewable energy, fuels and chemicals, bioprocessing, process engineering M. CLAYTON WHEELER PhD (Texas-Austin) Chemical sensors, fundamental catalysis, surface science University of Maine The University is large enough to offer various activities and events and yet is small enough to allow for one-on-one learning with faculty. the Allagash Water Wilderness area. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

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371 MANHATTAN COLLEGE Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. This well-establishe d graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of modern engineering problems, with new features in engineering management, sustainable and alternative energy, safety, and bioch emical engineering. Financial aid in the form of graduate fellowships is available. For information and application form, write to Graduate Program Director Chemical Engineering Department Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 Offering a Practice-Oriented Masters Degree Program in Chemical Engineering

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372 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Students pursuing advanced studies in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at UMBC explore fundamental concepts in biochemical, biomedical and bioprocess engineering, with faculty at the leading-edge of engineering research. The department offers graduate programs leading to B.S./ M.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. These graduate programs provide students with the opportunity to play an active role in breakthrough research and of areas including: fermentation, cell culture, downstream processing, cellular and tissue engineering as well as mathematical modeling. DEGREES OFFERED M.S. (thesis and non-thesis), Ph.D. Accelerated Bachelors/Masters Biochemical Regulatory Engineering FACILITIES AND SPECIAL RESOURCES The programs research facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories in the Engineering Building and at the Technology Research Center. These facilities are extensively equipped with modern fermentation, cell culture, separations, protein structure and materials characterization, biomaterials synthesis and other analytical equipment. In addition, campus core facilities in areas such as microscopy and mass spectrometry provide students opportunities for hands-on exposure to cutting edge analytical techniques and equipment. LOCATION UMBC is a suburban campus, located in the Baltimore-Washington corridor, with easy access to both metropolitan areas. A number of government research facilities such as NIH, FDA, USDA, NSA, and a large number of biotechnology companies are located nearby and provide excellent opportunities for research interactions. FACULTY BAYLES, TARYN, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Engineering education and outreach, transport phenomena CASTELLANOS, MARIAJOSE, Ph.D., Cornell University; Biocomplexity, modeling of biological systems FREY, DOUGLAS, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Chromatographic separations, electrophoresis GOOD, THERESA, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison; Cellular engineering, protein aggregation and disease, biomedical engineering LEACH, JENNIE, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin; Biomaterials, tissue engineering MARTEN, MARK, Ph.D., Purdue University; Systems biology, proteomics and genomics, bioprocessing MOREIRA, ANTONIO R., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Regulatory/GMP issues, scale up, downstream processing, product comparability RAO, GOVIND, Ph.D., Drexel University; Fluorescence-based sensors and instrumentation, fermentation, cell culture ROSS, JULIA, Ph.D., CHAIR; Rice University; Cell and tissue engineering, cell adhesion in microbial infection, thrombosis Research Associate ProfessorsKOSTOV, YORDAN, Ph.D., Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Low-cost optical sensors, instrumentation development, biomaterials TOLOSA, LEAH, Ph.D., University of Connecticut, Storrs; Fluorescence based sensors, protein engineering, biomedical diagnostics, molecular switchesResearch Assistant ProfessorGE, XUDONG, Ph.D., UMBC; Sensor matrix development, dialysis based sensor FOR MORE INFORMATION Department Web Site: CONTACT: Graduate Program Director UMBC, Chemical & Biochemical Engineering 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 410-455-3400 cbegrad@umbc.eduFACULTY RESEARCH AREAS: Biomaterials Engineering Bioprocess Engineering Cellular Engineering Engineering Education & Outreach Sensor Technology Systems Biology & Functional GenomicsCHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING APPLY FOR FREE!The Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at UMBC is pleased to offer citizens and permanent residents of the United States and Canada, and students receiving degrees from U.S. and Canadian institutions, the opportunity to apply for admission to the Ph.D. program in Chemical & Biochemical Engineering without admission fees. Details are available on our Web site (

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373 Located in a vibrant international community just outside of Washington, D.C. and close to major national laboratories including the NIH, the FDA, the Army Research Laboratory, and NIST, the University of Marylands Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, part of the A. James Clark School of Engineering, oers educational opportunities leading to a Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. To learn more, e-mail, call (301) 405-1935, or visit:

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374 University of Massachusetts Amherst Surita R. Bhatia ( Princeton ) W. Curtis Conner, Jr. ( Johns Hopkins ) Paul J. Dauenhauer ( University of Minnesota ) Jeffrey M. Davis ( Princeton ) Wei Fan (University of Tokyo) Neil S. Forbes ( University of California, Berkeley ) David M. Ford ( University of Pennsylvania ) Michael A. Henson ( Univ. of California, Santa Barbara ) George W. Huber ( University of Wisconsin, Madison ) Michael F. Malone ( University of Massachusetts, Amherst ) Dimitrios Maroudas ( MIT ) Peter A. Monson ( University of London ) T. J. (Lakis) Mountziaris, Department Head ( Princeton ) Shelly R. Peyton (University of California, Irvine) Constantine Pozrikidis ( University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign ) Susan C. Roberts ( Cornell ) Lianhong Sun ( Caltech ) H. Henning Winter ( University of Stuttgart ) FACULTY: Current areas of Ph.D. research in the Department of Chemical Engineering receive support at a level of over $4 million per year through external research grants. Examples of research areas include, but are not limited to, the following. cellular engineering; metabolic engineering ; targeted bacteriolytic cancer therapy; assembly of biochemical pathways for synthesis of small molecules; systems biology; genetic circuit design... catalysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis of biobiofluid dynamics and blood flow; hydrodynamics of microencapsulation; mechanics of cells, capsules, and suspensions; modeling microscale flows and transport phenomena; hydrodynamic stability and pattern formation; interfacial flows; gas -particle design and characterization of new catalytic materials; thin film and nanostructured materials for microelectronics and photonics; colloids and biomaterials; rheology and phase behavior of associative polymer solutions; polymeric materials processing... computational quantum chemistry and kinetics; molecular modeling for nanotechnology; molecular -level behavior of fluids confined in porous materials; molecular to -reactor scale modeling of transport and reaction processes in materials synthesis; atomistic -to -continuum scale modeling of thin films and nanostructured materials; systems level analysis using deterministic and stochastic atomic scale simulators; modeling and control of biochemical reactors; nonlinear process control theory ... EXPERIENCE OUR PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For application forms and further information on fellowships and assistantships, academic and research programs, and student housing, see: or contact: Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering 159 Goessmann Lab., 686 N. Pleasant St. University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 9303 Email: The University of Massachusetts Amherst prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual or ien tation, age, marital status, national origin, disability or handicap, or veteran status, in any aspect of the admission or treatment of students or in emp loy ment. Instructional, research, and administrative facilities are housed in close proximity to each other. In addition to space in Goessmann Lab., including the ChE Alumni Classroom used for teaching and research seminars, we have laboratories in the Conte National Center for Polymer Research. In 2004 we dedicated the $25 million facilities of Engineering Lab II (ELab II), which includes 57,000 sq. ft of state of the art laboratory facilities and office space. Amherst is a beautiful New England college town in Western Massachusetts. Set amid farmland and rolling hills, the area offers pleasant living conditions and extensive recreational facilities, and urban pleasures are easily accessible.

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375 BioProcessingand Biotechnology Process Simulation and Control Nuclear and alternative energy Eng. Advanced Engineered materials Colloidal, nanoand surface science and Eng. Paper engineering Polymer Engineering *(978) 934-3150 UMASS Lowell Department of Chemical Engineering One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854

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376 Materials Polymers Biotechnology Energy Engineering Catalysis and Chemical Kinetics Colloid Science and Separations Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Process Systems Engineering Environmental Engineering Transport Processes Thermodynamics Nanotechnology Chemical EngineeringWith the largest research faculty in the country, the Department of Chemical Engineering at MIT offers programs of research and teaching which span the breadth of chemical engineering with unprecedented depth in fundamentals and applications. The Department offers graduate programs leading to the masters and doctors degrees. Graduate students may also earn a pro fessional masters degree through the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice, a unique internship program ing chemical engineering fundamentals. In collaboration with the Sloan School of Management, the Department also offers a doc toral program in Chemical Engineering Practice, which integrates chemical engineering, research and management. D. G. Anderson R. C. Armstrong P. I. Barton M. Z. Bazant D. Blankschtein R. D. Braatz F. R. Brushett A. K. Chakraborty R. E. Cohen C. K. Colton C. L. Cooney W. M. Deen B. D. Olsen K. J. Prather Y. Romn-Leshkov G. Rutledge H. D. Sikes George Stephanopoulos Greg Stephanopoulos M.S. Strano B. L. Trout P. S. Virk D. I. C. Wang K. D. Wittrup P. S. Doyle K. K. Gleason W. H. Green P. T. Hammond T. A. Hatton K. F. Jensen, Head J. H. Kroll R. S. Langer D. A. Lauffenburger J. C. Love N. Maheshri A. S. Myerson MIT is located in Cambridge, just across the Charles River from Boston, a few minutes by subway from down town Boston and Harvard Square. The area is world-renowned for its colleges, hospitals, research facilites, and high technology industries, and offers an unending variety of theaters, concerts, restaurants, museums, sporting events, libraries, and recreational facilites. For more information, contact Research in MITChemEng MITChemEFind us online at

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377 McGill Chemical Engineering D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) Biological and chemical treatment of wastes, crystallization of fine powders, reaction engineering [] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & bi opharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [] S. COULOMBE, Canada Research Chair (McGill) Plasma processing, nanofluids, transport phenomena, optical diagnostic and process control [] J. M. DEALY Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [] E. A. V. JONES, (CalTech) Biofluid dynamics, biomechanics, tissue engineering, developmental biology & microscopy [] M. R. KAMAL, Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recy cling [] R. LEASK, William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) Biomedical engineering, fluid dynamics, cardiovascular mechanics, pathobiology [] C. A. LECLERC (Minnesota) Biorefineries, hydrogen generation, fuel processing, ethylene prod., catalysis, reaction engine ering [] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymersfor nano-porous media, organic electronics, J.L. MEUNIER Plasma science & technology, de position techniques for surface modifications, nanomaterials [] R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors, (bio)electrochemistry [] T. M. QUINN (MIT) Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering, adherent cell culture technologies [] A. D. REY Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and complex fluids, interfacial sci. and eng. [] P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [] N. TUFENKJI Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of contaminants in wate r, biohydrogen [vivia] For more information and graduate program applications: Visit : Write : Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University 3610 University St Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 CANADA Phone : (514) 398-4494 Fax : (514) 398-6678 E -mai l : in q uire.che g rad @ mc g D owntown Montreal Canada McGills Ar t s Buildin g Montreal is a multilingual metropolis with a population over three million. Often called the world's second-largest Frenchspeaking city, Montreal also boasts an English-speaking population of over 400,000. McGill itself is an English-language university, though it offers you countless opportunities to explore the French language. The department offers M. Eng. and PhD degrees with funding available and top-ups for th ose who already have funding. D. BERK Department Chair (Calgary) powders, reaction engineering [] D. G. COOPER (Toronto) Prod. of bacteriophages & biopharmaceuticals, self-cycling ferment., bioconversion of xenobiotics [] S. COULOMBE Canada Research Chair (McGill) diagnostic and process control [] J. M. DEALY, Emeritus Professor (Michigan) Polymer rheology, plastics processing [] J.T. GOSTICK (Waterloo) Electrochemical energy storage and conversion, porous materials characterization, multiphase transport phenomena [] R. J. HILL Canada Research Chair (Cornell) Fuzzy colloids, biomimetic interfaces, hydrogels, and nanocomposite membranes [] E. A. V. JONES (CalTech) Canada Research Chair developmental biology & microscopy [] M. R. KAMAL Emeritus Professor (Carnegie-Mellon) Polymer proc., charac., and recycling [] A.-M. KIETZIG (British Columbia) Functional surface engineering, material processing with lasers, interfacial phenomena [] R. LEASK William Dawson Scholar (Toronto) mechanics, pathobiology [] M. MARIC (Minnesota) Block copolymers for nano-porous media, organic electronics, J.L. MEUNIER Plasma science & technology, deposition techniques for surface R. J. MUNZ (McGill) Thermal plasma tech, torch and reactor design, nanostructured material synthesis, environmental apps [] S. OMANOVIC (Zagreb) Biomaterials, protein/material interactions, bio/immunosensors, (bio)electrochemistry [] T. M. QUINN (MIT) Canada Research Chair Soft tissue biophysics, mechanobiology, biomedical engineering, adherent cell culture technologies [] A. D. REY Computational material sci., thermodynamics of soft matter and P. SERVIO Canada Research Chair (British Columbia) High-pressure phase equilibrium, crystallization, polymer coatings [] N. TUFENKJI Environmental and biomedical eng., bioadhesion and biosensors, bioand nanotechnologies [] V. YARGEAU (Sherbrooke) Environmental control of pharmaceuticals, biodegradation of contaminants in water, biohydrogen []

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378 W h y c h o o s e M c M a s t e r ? Hamilton is a city of over 500,000 situat ed in Southern Ontario. We are located about 100 km from both Niagara Falls and Toronto. McMaster University is one of Canadas top 8 research intens ive universities. An important aspect of our research effort is the extent of the interaction between faculty members both within the department itself an d with other departments at McMaster. Faculty are engaged in leading edge research and we have concentrated research groups that collaborate with international industrial sponsors: Centre for Pulp and Paper Research Centre for Advanced Polymer Processing & Design (CAPPA-D) McMaster Institute of Polymer Production Technology (MIPPT) McMaster Advanced Control Consortium (MACC) Graduate Secretary Department of Chemical Engineering McMaster University Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7 CANADA Phone: 905-525-9140 X 24292 Fax: 905-521-1350 Email: F O R O N L I N E A P P L I C A T I O N F O R M S A N D I N F O R M A T I O N P L E A S E C O N T A C T We offer a Ph. D. program and three Masters options (Thesis, Project, Internship) in the following research areas: Tissue engineering, biomedical engi neering, blood-material interactions J L B r a s h K J o n e s H S h e a r d o w n Bioseparation, enviro nmental engineering, C F i l i p e T H o a r e R G h o s h Fabrication, characterizati on, and transport phenomena J D i c k s o n C F i l i p e R G h o s h Interfacial engineering, polymerization, polymer characterization, synthesis T H o a r e R H P e l t o n S Z h u K K o s t a n s k i ( A d j u n c t ) Polymer processing, rheology, computer modelling, extrusion A N H r y m a k M T h o m p s o n J V l a c h o p o u l o s S Z h u Multivariate statistical methods, computer process control, optimization B C h a c h u a t J F M a c G r e g o r V M a h a l e c T E M a r l i n P M h a s k a r C L E S w a r t z We will provide financial support to any successful applicant wh o does not already have external support. In addition we have a limited number of teaching and research assistantships.

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380 r fn tn bnnn nn n n n rnr n n n rfn tnb Chemical Engineering Kris Berglund Daina Br ie d is Scott Calabrese Barton Chris tina Chan Bruce Dale Lawrence Drzal Martin Hawley David Hodge Krishnamurthy Jayaraman Ilsoon Lee Carl Lira Dennis Miller R amani Narayan Robert Ofoli Charles Petty S. Patrick Walton R. Mark Worden Materials Science & Engineering Melissa Baumann Thomas Bieler Carl Boehlert Eldon Case Martin Crimp David Grummon Tim Hogan Wei Lai Andre Lee James Lucas Donald Morelli Jason Nicholas Jeffrey Sakam oto K.N. Subramanian Metabolic engineering Systems biology Genomics Proteomics RNA interference Bioceramics Tissue engineering Biosensors Bioelectronics Biomimetics

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381 The Crucible, outside of Amundson Hall Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Downtown Minneapolis as seen from campus Photo Credit; Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities has been renowned numerous legendary engineering scholars and current leaders in both academia and industry. With its pacesetting research and education program in chemical engineering encompassing reac a far-reaching marriage of the Chemical Engineering and Materials Science programs into an integrated department. For the past few decades, the chemical engineering program has been consistently ranked as the top graduate program in the country department has been thriving on its ability to foster interdisciplin ary efforts in research and education; most, if not all of our active faculty members are engaged in intraor interdepartmental research projects. The extensive collaboration among faculty members in research and education and the high level of co-advising of gradu ate students and research fellows serves to cross-fertilize new ideas also for their breadth and global perspectives. The widely ranging collection of high-impact research projects in these world-renowned laboratories provides students with a unique experience, preparing them for careers that are both exciting and rewarding. Research Areas Faculty : Eray Aydil Frank S. Bates Aditya Bhan Matteo Cococcioni Edward L. Cussler Prodromos Daoutidis Kevin Dorfman Lorraine F. Francis C. Daniel Frisbie William W. Gerberich Wei-Shou Hu Efrosini Kokkoli Satish Kumar Chris Leighton Timothy P. Lodge Christopher W. Macosko Alon V. McCormick K. Andre Mkhoyan David C. Morse Lanny D. Schmidt David A. Shores For more information contact: Julie Prince, Program Associate 612-625-0382 URL: William H. Smyrl Friedrich Srienc Robert T. Tranquillo Michael Tsapatsis Renata Wentzcovitch Kechun Zhang Downtown Saint Paul Photo Credit: Patrick OLeary Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.

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382 Matthew Bernards, PhD (WashingtonSeattle) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering Surface Science Paul C. H. Chan, PhD (CalTech) Reactor Analysis Fluid MechanicsWilliam A. Jacoby, PhD (Colorado)Photocatalysis Transport Stephen J. Lombardo, PhD (California Berkley) Ceramic & Electronic Materials Transport Kinetics Richard H. Luecke, PhD (Oklahoma) Process Control Modeling Thomas R. Marrero, PhD (Maryland) Past Vice President, IACChE Coal Log Transport Conducting Polymers Fuels Emissions Patrick Pinhero, PhD (Notre Dame) Nuclear Materials Science Surface Science Environmental DegradationDavid G. Retzloff, PhD (Pittsburgh) Reactor Analysis Materials Truman S. Storvick, PhD (Purdue) Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Thermodynamics Galen J. Suppes, PhD (Johns Hopkins) Biofuel Processing Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Hirotsugu K. Yasuda, PhD (SUNY, Syracuse) Polymers Surface Science For details contact: Coordinator, Academic Programs Department of Chemical Engineering W2030 Lafferre Hall Columbia, MO 65211 See our website for more information: Competitive scholarships are available in the form of teaching/research assistantships and fellowships. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

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383 M.H. AlDahhan A.I. Liapis Graduate Studiesat ChemicalandBiological Engineering Adsorbents Adsorption Phenomena Aerosols Alternative Fuels Amyloidosis Bacterial Respiration Bioengineering Biomaterials Biomimetics Bioseparations Brownian dynamics Chem/Bio Counterterrorism Chromatography Computational Fluid Dynamics Controlled release Drug delivery Electrocatalysis Electrochemical deposition Electro osmosis Engineering Design Enhanced oil recovery Environmental Engineering Fermentation Flow in micro channels Fractals Fuel cells Hydrodynamics Hydrogen technology Information Systems Interfacial phenomena Light scattering Lyophilization Membranes Mixing Molecular biology Molecular dynamics Molecular microbiology Nanomaterials Nanotubes Neutron reflectivity Neutron scattering Particle science and Technology Peptide synthesis Photochemical reactions Photochemical reactors Polymer Processing Polymerization Polymers Radiation tomography Reactions in supercritical systems Reactor analysis Reactor engineering Self Assembly Sensors Separations in a chip Sonochemistry Stability analysis Statistical mechanics Stepped Surfaces Supercritical fluids Surface analysis Thin liquid films Tribology Turbulence Wetting N.L. Book D.K. Ludlow D. Forciniti P. Neogi D.B. Henthorn O.C. Sitton K.H. Henthorn J. C. Wang MISSOURIUNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Graduate Studies 143 Schrenk Hall 400 W. 11th Street Rolla, MO 65409 1230 Web: Email: S. Lee Y. Xing

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384 e Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at the University of NebraskaLincoln ranks 14th among 158 chemical engineering graduate programs in the United States in research and development expenditures.* researching complex chemical and biomolecular engineering solutions for the future of health care UNL-CHEMB_CEE-Ad_2010.indd 1 7/29/2010 12:29:51 PM

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385 The Program The department offers graduate programs leading to both the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy Faculty conduct research in a number of areas including: engineering technology treatment engineering The Faculty: P. Armenante: University of Virginia B. Baltzis: University of Minnesota R. Barat: Massachusetts Institute of Technology E. Bilgili: Illinois Institute of Technology R. Dave: Utah State University E. Dreizin: Odessa University, Ukraine C. Gogos: Princeton University T. Greenstein: New York University D. Hanesian: Cornell University K. Hyun: University of Missouri-Columbia B. Khusid: Heat and Mass Transfer Inst., Minsk USSR H. Kimmel: City University of New York N. Loney: New Jersey Institute of Technology A. Perna: University of Connecticut R. Pfeffer: (Emeritus); New York University D. Sebastian: Stevens Institute of Technology L. Simon: Colorado State University K. Sirkar: University of Illinois-Urbana R. Tomkins: University of London (UK) X. Wang: Virginia Tech M. Xanthos: University of Toronto (Canada) M. Young: Stevens Institute of Technology For further information contact: Dr. Norman Loney / Dr. Reginald P.T. Tomkins, Department of Chemical, Biological & Pharmaceutical Engineering New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights Newark, NJ 07102-1982 Phone: (973) 596-5656 Fax: (973) 596-8436 E-mail:, ethnic origin or age in the administration of student programs. Campus facilities are accessible to the disabled. & Pharmaceutical Engineering rfn tbrf

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386 THEFACES OF THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERS IN THE 21STCENTURYThe University of New MexicoWe are the future of chemical engineering! Chemical engineers in the stcentury are challenged with rapidly developing technologies and exciting new opportunities. Purs stimulating, student centered, intellectual environment, brought together by forwardlooking research. We offer full tuition, health care and competitive stipends. The ChE faculty are leaders in exploring phenomena on t he meso micro and nanoscales. We offer graduate research projects in biotechnology, biomaterials and biomedical engineering, catalysis and interfacial phenomena; microengineered materials and self assembled nanostructures; plasma processing and semicon ductor fabrication; polymer theory and modeling. The department enjoys extensive interactions and collaborations with a s well as high technology industries both locally and nationally. Albuquerque is a unique combination of old and new, the natural world and the manmade environment, the frontier town and the cosmopolitan city, a harmonious blend of diverse cultures and pe oples.Faculty Research AreasPlamen Atanassov Gel Processing, Self Heather Canavan responsive materials, cell/surface interact ions, Biomedical Engineering Eva Chi Protein interfacial dynamics, protein aggregation, protein misfolding diseases eling Abhaya K. Datye Elizabeth L. Dirk Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering D Materials Characterization Steven Graves Flow Cytometry Sang M. Han Ronald E. Loehman Metal and CeramicMetal Bonding and Interfacial Reactions Dimiter Petsev Timothy L. Ward David G. Whitten interf acial assemblies, Multicomponent systems and their applicationsFor more information, contact: Sang Han Graduate Advisor

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387 NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY PhD & MS Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty and Research Areas Paul K. Andersen Associate Professor and Associate Department Head (University of California, Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Electrochemistry, Environmental Engineerin g Shuguang Deng, Professor (University of Cincinnati) Advanced Materials for Sustainable Energy and Clean Water, Adsorption, and Membrane Separation Processes Abbas Ghassemi, Professor and Director of the Institute for Energy and the Environment Risk-Based Decision Making, Environmental Studies Pollution Jessica Houston, Assistant Professor (Texas A&M University) Biomedical Engineering, Biophotonics, Flow Cytometry Charles L. Johnson, Professor (Washington University-St. Louis) High Temperature Polymers Richard L. Long Professor (Rice University) Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Separations, Kinetics, Process Design, Safety Hongmei Luo, Assistant Professor (Tulane University) Electrodeposition, Nanostructured Materials, Metal Oxide, Nitride, Composite Thin Films, Magnetism, Photocatalysts and Photovoltaics Martha C. Mitchell Professor and Head (University of Minnesota) Molecular Modeling of Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials, Thermodynamic Analysis of Aerospace Fuels, Statistical Mechanics Stuart H. Munson-McGee Professor (University of Delaware) Advanced Materials, Materials Processing David A. Rockstraw Kinetics and Reaction Engineering, Process Design LOCATION For Application and Additional Information

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388 2inresearchexpenditures among CBE departments in the US (2008, C&EN) 14inPhDgraduates(2008, ACS) 6inBSgraduates(2008, ASEE) Our Department is located in Engineering Building I a 161,217-square-foot teaching and research facility located on NC States Centennial Campus. The EBI classrooms, atrium, and student lounge are all wireless and all of the classrooms have built-in computer and projection systems.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringNC STATE Dr. Jason M. Haugh, Director of Graduate Recruiting Dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905, NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (email) The Department Research Areasand Engineeringand Kineticsand ReactionEngineering Nanoscienceand Studies/GreenEngineering and and Our

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389 Chemical and Biological EngineeringLuis A. N. Amaral, Ph.D., Boston University, 1996 Complex systems, computational physics, biological networksLinda J. Broadbelt, Ph.D., Delaware, 1994 Reaction engineering, kinetics modeling, polymer resource recoveryWesley R. Burghardt, Ph.D., Stanford, 1990 Polymer science, rheologyStephen H. Davis, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1964Kimberly A. Gray, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1988 Catalysis, treatment technologies, environmental chemistryBartosz A. Grzyowski, Ph.D., Harvard, 2000 Complex chemical systemsMichael C. Jewett, Ph.D., Stanford, 2005 Synthetic biology, systems biology, metabolic engineeringHarold H. Kung, Ph.D., Northwestern, 1974 Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysisJoshua N. Leonard, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Cellular & biomolecular engineering for medicine, systems biologyPhillip B. Messersmith, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Biominmetic/Bioinspired materialsWilliam M. Miller, Ph.D., Berkeley, 1987 Cell culture for biotechnology and medicineChad Mirkin, Ph.D., Penn State, 1986 Inorganic, materials, physcial/analyticalJustin M. Notestein, Ph.D., Berkeley, 2006 Materials design for adsorption and catalysisMonica Olvera de la Cruz, Ph.D., Cambridge, 1984 Statistical mechanics in polymer systemsJulio M. Ottino, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1979 Fluid mechanics, granular materials, chaos, mixing in materials processing Gregory Ryskin, Ph.D., Caltech, 1983 Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquidsGeorge C. Schatz, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology Research Materials, physical/analyticalLonnie D. Shea, Ph.D., Michigan, 1997 Tissue engineering, gene therapyRandall Q. Snurr, Ph.D., Berkeley 1994 Adsorption and diffusion in porous media, molecular modelingIgal Szleifer, Ph.D., Hebrew University, 1989 Molecular modeling of biointerphasesJohn M. Torkelson, Ph.D., Minnesota, 1983 Polymer science, membranesFor information and application to the graduate program, please contact:Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemcical and Biological Engineering Phone (847) 491-7398 or (800) 848-5135 (U.S. only)admissions-chem-biol-eng@northwestern.eduOr visit our website

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392 Faculty MembersMiguel J. Bagajewicz Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1987 Brian P. Grady Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994 Roger G. Harrison, Jr. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975 Jeffrey H. Harwell Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1983 Dr. Peter J. Heinzelman Ph.D. MIT, 2006Chairman, Graduate Program Committee, School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, T-335 Sarkeys Energy Center, 100 E. Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019-1004 USA E-mail:, Phone: (405)-325-5811, (800) 601-9360, Fax:(405) 325-5813Friederike C. Jentoft Ph.D. Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversitt Mnchen, Germany, 1994 Lance L. Lobban Ph.D. University of Houston, 1987 Richard G. Mallinson Ph.D. Purdue University, 1983 M. Ulli Nollert Ph.D. Cornell University, 1987 Edgar A. ORear, III Ph.D. Rice University, 1981 Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996For detailed information, visit our Web site at: University of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution .Daniel E. Resasco Ph.D. Yale University, 1983 David W. Schmidtke Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin, 1980 Robert L. Shambaugh Ph.D. Case Western Reserve University, 1976 Vassilios I. Sikavitsas Ph.D. University of Buffalo, 2000 Alberto Striolo Ph.D. University of Padova, Italy, 2002 The University ofFor more information, e-mail, call, write or fax:OklahomaResearch AreasBioengineering/Biomedical EngineeringGenetic engineering, protein production, bioseparations, metabolic engineering, biological transport, cancer treatment, cell adhesion, biosensors, orthopedic tissue engineering.Energy and ChemicalsBiofuels and catalytic biomass conversion, catalytic hydrocarbon processing, plasma processing, data reconciliation, process design retrot and optimization, molecular thermodynamics, computational modeling of turbulent transport and reactive ows, detergency, improved oil recovery.Materials Science and EngineeringSingle wall carbon nanotube production and functionalization, surface characterization, polymer melt blowing, polymer characterization and structure-property relationships, polymer nanolayer formation and use, biomaterials.Environmental ProcessesZero-discharge process engineering, soil and aquifer remediation, surfactant-based water decontamination, sustainable energy processes. esearch in the School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (CBME) is characterized by INNOVATION AND IMPACT, leading to patents, technology licenses, companies and sought-after graduates. R

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395 Tobias Baumgart Russell J. Composto Christopher S. Chen John C. Crocker Scott L. Diamond Dennis E. Discher Eduardo D. Glandt Raymond J. Gorte Daniel A. Hammer Matthew J. Lazzara Daeyeon Lee Ravi Radhakrishnan Robert A. Riggleman Casim A. Sarkar Warren D. Seider Wen K. Shieh Talid R. Sinno Kathleen J. Stebe John M. Vohs Karen I. Winey Shu Yang Director of Graduate Admissions Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Pennsylvania 220 South 33rd Street, Rm. 311A Philadelphia, PA Penns graduate program

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396 PENN STATES Chemical Engineering graduate degree program is located on a diverse, Big-Ten university campus in a vibrant college community. When you join our program, youll use state-of-the-art facilities such as the Materials Research Institute, the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, and one of the foremost nanofabrication facilities in the world. We provide fellowships and research assistantships, including tuition and fees. Research at Penn State spans the spectrum of chemical engineering with focus areas in biomolecular engineering, alternative energy, and nanotechnology.FACULTY ANTONIOS ARMAOU PH.D., UCLAProcess control and system dynamicsKYLE BISHOP PH.D., NORTHWESTERNComplex dissipative systems: ame plasmas, chemical reaction networks, reactiondiffusion systemsALI BORHAN PH.D., STANFORDFluid dynamics, transport phenomena, capillary and inferfacial phenomenaWAYNE CURTIS PH.D., PURDUEPlant cell tissue culture, secondary metabolism, bioreactor designRONALD DANNER PH.D., LEHIGHPhase equilibria and diffusion in polymer-solvent and gas solid systemsKRISTEN FICHTHORN PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Atomistic simulation, statistical mechanics, surface science, materialsHENRY FOLEY PH.D., PENN STATENanomaterials, reaction and separation, catalysisENRIQUE GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYOrganic photovoltaics, organicinorganic interfaces, nanostructured polymersESTHER GOMEZ PH.D., BERKELEYBioengineering, cell and tissue mechanics, biosensorsMICHAEL JANIK PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Fuel cells and electrochemical systems for renewable energy sourcesSEONG KIM PH.D., NORTHWESTERNSurface science, polymers, thin lms, nanotribology, nanomaterialsFOR MORE INFORMATIONJanna Maranas, Graduate Admissions Chair 158 Fenske Laboratory Department of Chemical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 814-863-6228 jmaranas@engr.psu.edufenske.che.psu.eduMANISH KUMAR PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOISBiomimetic membranes, membrane proteins, membrane technology, desalinationCOSTAS MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONComputational protein design; reconstruction, curation, and analysis of metabolic networks; microbial strain optimization; design of biological circuits and synthetic biology; signaling networks and multiscale modeling in cancer biology, network science, optimization theory, and algorithmsJANNA MARANAS PH.D., PRINCETONNano-scale structure and mobility in soft materials, with applications in alternative energy, biology, and polymer physicsTHEMIS MATSOUKAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Aerosol engineering, colloids, plasma processingSCOTT MILNER PH.D., HARVARDGlass transitions in dense uids and polymer lms, ow behavior of entangled polymers, polymer crystallizationJOSEPH PEREZ PH.D., PENN STATETribology, lubrication, biodieselROBERT RIOUX PH.D., BERKELEYHeterogeneous catalysis, nanostructure synthesis, renewable energy, atomic-level characterization, single molecule chemistryHOWARD SALIS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTASynthetic biology, metabolic engineering, design of genetic systemsDARRELL VELEGOL PH.D., CARNEGIE MELLON Colloidal and nanocolloidal devices and systemsJAMES VRENTAS PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Transport phenomena, applied mathematics, uid mechanics, diffusion, polymer scienceANDREW ZYDNEY PH.D., MITDevelopment of membrane systems for bioprocessing applications, mass transfer characteristics of articial organ systems

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397 The Petroleum Institute (PI) is devoted to engineering education and research in areas of importance to the energy sector. PIs sponsors and aliates include the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), BP, Shell, Jodco, and Total. The Institute has modern laboratories and facilities with the creation of additional research centers underway. PI is aliated with and has collaborative education and research programs with major research Universities in the USA, Europe and China. We are inviting applications for admission to the graduate program in chemical engineering in Spring 2011 or Fall 2011. If you are a recent graduate motivated to undertake a challenging and rigorous program of study and research in all areas of chemical engineering and would like to pursue a Master of Engineering degree, a Master of Science degree, or a PhD degree in collaboration with one of our partner Universities, you are encouraged to apply for admission. The current Graduate Program Catalogue is available at the following URL: / Benets: Exceptionally qualied students can apply for Graduate Fellowships. Stipend is competitive and commensurate with qualications and experience, with an excellent benets package, including a twelve-month base stipend, on-campus room and board, medical insurance, and travel funds to attend conferences and stays at PIs partner institutions. Applicant must be in excellent health and will be required to pass a pre-award physical examination. The UAE levies no income taxes. Interested candidates are requested to submit an online application at Application Deadlines: Fall Semester: 1 April Spring Semester: 1 October THE PETROLEUM INSTITUTE ABU DHABI

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398 Innovation begins at NYU-Poly: DEVISING THE FUTURE OF BIODETECTION DEVICESFacultyJ.R. Kim Protein engineering, folding, aggregation and stability R. Levicky Biosensors, nanobiotechnology J. Mijovic Relaxation dynamics in synthetic and biological macromolecules S. Sofou Heterogeneous lipid membranes, drug delivery L. Stiel Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids E. Ziegler Air pollution control engineering W. Zurawsky Plasma polymerization, polymer thin films A number of fellowships are available in our MS and PhD Chemical Engineering programs. For more information, contact: Professor Walter Zurawsky Head, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Six MetroTech Center Brooklyn, NY 11201 718.260.3725 Professor Rastislav Levicky is designing advanced technologies for applications in healthcare, drug development and pathogen detection. Working largely with biosensors made from synthetic DNA mimics, Levicky uses electrochemical detection techniques to improve the performance and economic accessibility of point-of-care medical diagnostics. This kind of thinking comes from the NYU-Poly culture of invention, innovation and entrepreneurship. We call it i2e. NYU-Poly and our i2e philosophy transform our faculty and students by arming them with the tools, resources and inspiration they need to turn their research into revolutionary applications, products and services.

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399 Princeton University Ph.D. and M.Eng Programs in Chemical and Biological EngineeringCBE Faculty Ilhan A. Aksay Jay B. Benziger Clifford P. Brangwynne Mark P. Brynildsen Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas Yannis G. Kevrekidis Morton D. Kostin A. James Link YuehLin (Lynn) Loo Celeste M. Nelson Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos Rodney D. Priestley Robert K. Prudhomme Richard A. Register (Chair) William B. Russel Stanislav Y. Shvartsman Sankaran Sundaresan Please visit our website: Write to:Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, NJ 085445263or call:1 8002386169or Applied and Computational MathematicsComputational Chemistry and Materials Systems Modeling and Optimization BiotechnologyBiomaterials Biopreservation Cell Mechanics Computational Biology Protein and Enzyme Engineering Tissue Engineering Environmental and Energy Science and TechnologyArt and Monument Conservation Fuel Cell Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Transport PhenomenaBiological Transport Electrohydrodynamics Flow in Porous Media Granular and Multiphase Flow Polymer and Suspension Rheology Materials: Synthesis, Processing, Structure, PropertiesAdhesion and Interfacial Phenomena Ceramics and Glasses Colloidal Dispersions Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Organic and Polymer Electronics Polymers Process Engineering and ScienceChemical Reactor Design, Stability, and Dynamics Heterogeneous Catalysis Process Control and Operations Process Synthesis and Design Thermodynamics and Statistical MechanicsComplex Fluids Glasses Kinetic and Nucleation Theory Liquid State Theory Molecular Simulation Affiliate Faculty Emily A. Carter (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering) George W. Scherer (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Howard A. Stone (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

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400 For more information, contact:Graduate Studies, Forney Hall of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University 480 Stadium Mall Drive Web: Preeminence in Discovery, Learning, and EngagementFaculty Research areasRakesh Agrawal Chelsey D. Baertsch Stephen P. Beaudoin Raj Chakrabarti David S. Corti Elias I. Franses Robert E. Hannemann Michael T. Harris Hugh W. Hillhouse Sangtae Kim R. Byron Pipes D. Ramkrishna G. V. Reklaitis Fabio H. Ribeiro Kendall T. Thomson Arvind Varma (Head) V. Venkatasubramanian Phillip C. Wankat Biochemical Engineering Biomaterials Biomolecular Engineering Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Clean & Renewable Energy Combustion Synthesis Electronic Materials Fluid Mechanics & Transport Phenomena Interfacial Engineering & Colloid Science uidics Molecular Modeling & Statistical Mechanics Pharmaceutical Engineering Polymer Materials & Composites Product & Process Systems Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science University have been under going exciting transformations befitting the dawn of a new In ChE, thirteen new faculty, a mix of freshly minted PhDs, senior academics, and renowned researchers, have joined our ranks since 2003. The current ChE faculty includes ve memresearch and teaching activities, a new building, the Forney Hall of Chemical Engineering,EA/EOU

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401 Chemical Engineering Education Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteThe Chemical and Biological Engin eering Department at Rensselaer has long been recognized for its excellence in teaching and research. Its graduate programs lead to research-based M.S. and PhD. degrees and to a course-based M.E. degree. Programs are also offered in cooperation with the School of Management and Technology which lead to an M.S. in Chemical Engineering and to an MB A or the M.S. in Management. Owing to funding, consulting, and previous faculty experience, the department maintains close ties with industry. Department web site: ment of some 6000 students. Situated on the Hudson River, just north of City, Boston, and Montreal. The Adir Green Mountains of Vermont, and the Berkshires of Massachusetts are readily accessible. Saratoga, with its battlefield, racetrack, and Performing festival) is nearby. Application materials and information from: Graduate Admissions Rensselaer Polytechnic lnstitute e-mail: Faculty and Research Interests Georges Belfort Membrane separations; adsorption; biocatalysis; MRl; interfacial phenomena B. Wayne Bequette, Process control; fuel cell systems; biomedical systems Cynthia H. Collins Systems biology; protein engineering; intercellular communication systems; synthetic microbial ecosystems Marc-Olivier Coppens modeling; statistical mechanics; nanoporous materials synthesis; reaction engineering Steven M. Cramer, Displacement, membrane and preparative chromatography; environmental research Jonathan S. Dordick Biochemical engineering; biocatalysis; polymer science; bioseparations Shekhar Garde Department Head Macromolecular self-assembly, computer simulations, statistical thermodynamics of liquids, hydration phenomena Ravi Kane Polymers; biosurfaces; biomaterials; nanomaterials, nanobiotechnology Pankaj Karande Drug delivery; combinatorial chemistry; molecular modeling; high throughput screening Lealon L. Martin Chemical and biological process modeling and design; optimization; systems engineering Joel L. Plawsky Electronic and photonic materials; interfacial phenomena; transport phenomena Peter M. Tessier Protein-protein interactions, protein self-assembly and aggregation Patrick T. Underhill Transport phenomena, multi-scale model development and applications to colloidal, polymer, and biological systems Emeritus Faculty Elmar R. Altwicker, Spouted-bed combustion; incineration; trace pollutant kinetics Henry R. Bungay III Wastewater treatment; biochemical engineering Arthur Fontijn, Combustion; high temperature kinetics; gas-phase reactions William N. Gill Microelectronics; reverse osmosis; crystal growth; ceramic composites Howard Littman Fluid/particle systems; fluidization; spouting bed; pneumatic transport Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Heat transfer; interfacial phenomena; porous materials

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402 FacultySibani Lisa Biswal (Stanford, 2004) Walter Chapman (Cornell, 1988) Kenneth Cox (Illinois, 1979) Ramon Gonzalez (Univ. of Chile, 2001) George Hirasaki (Rice, 1967) Deepak Nagrath (RPI, 2003) Matteo Pasquali (Minnesota, 2000) Marc Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst. Tech., 1980) Laura Segatori (UT Austin, 2005) Rafael Verduzco (Caltech, 2003) Michael Wong (MIT, 2000) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Joint AppointmentsPulickel Ajayan (Northwestern, 1989) Cecilia Clementi (Intl. Schl. Adv. Studies, 1998) Vicki Colvin (UC Berkeley, 1994) Anatoly Kolomeisky (Cornell, 1998) Antonios Mikos (Purdue, 1988) Ka-Yiu San (Caltech, 1984) Jennifer West (UT Austin, 1996)Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering @ RICETHE UNIVERSITY Rice is a leading research university small, private, and highly selective distinguished by a collaborative, highly interdisciplinary culture. State-of-the-art laboratories, internationally renowned research centers, and one of the countrys largest endowments support an ideal learning and living environment. Located only a few miles from downtown Houston, it occupies an architecturally distinctive, 300-acre campus shaded by nearly 4,000 trees.THE DEPARTMENT Offers Ph.D., M.S., and M.Ch.E. degrees. Provides 12-month stipends and tuition waivers to full-time Ph.D. students. Currently has 74 graduate students (69 Ph.D. and 5 M.Ch.E.). Emphasizes interdisciplinary studies and collaborations with researchers from Rice and other institutions, national labs, the Texas Medical Center, NASAs Johnson Space Center, and R&D centers of petrochemical companies.FACULTY RESEARCH AREASAdvanced Materials and Complex Fluids Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials, catalysis, nanoand microfluidics, selfassembling systems, hybrid biomaterials, rheology of nanostructured liquids, polymers, carbon nanotubes, interfacial phenomena, emulsions, and colloids. Biosystems Engineering Metabolic engineering, systems biology, nutritional systems biology, protein engineering, cellular and tissue engineering, microbial fermentations, analysis and design of gene networks, cellular reprogramming, and cell population heterogeneity. Energy and Sustainability Transport and thermodynamic properties of fluids, biofuels, CO2 sequestration, biochar, gas hydrates, enhanced oil recovery, reservoir characterization, and pollution control. For more information Chair, Graduate Admissions Committee and graduate program Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, MS-362 applications, write to: Rice University, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 Or visit our web site at

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403 Faculty The University of Rochester is located in scenic upstate New York in an ideal setting to study, work, and grow intellectually. Through our M.S. and Ph.D. programs, students learn to apply key principles from chemistry, physics, and biology to address grand challenges facing society. We have outstanding laboratory research facilities, well supported infrastructure, and we offer competitive fellowship packages. Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Graduate Studies & Research Programs Fuel Cells Solar Cells BiofuelsGreen Engineering Clean Energy M. ANTHAMATTEN Ph.D., MIT, 2001macromolecular self-assembly, shape memory polymers, vapor deposition, fuel cellsD. BENOITT Ph.D., Colorado, 2006 rational design, synthesis, characterization, and employment of materials to treat diseases or control cell behavior S. H. CHEN Ph.D., Minnesota, 1981polymer science, organic materials for photonics and electronics, liquid crystal and electroluminescent displays E. H. CHIMOWITZ Ph.D., Connecticut, 1982supercritical fluid adsorption, molecular simulation of transport in disordered media, statistical mechanics D. R. HARDING Ph.D., Cambridge, 1986chemical vapor deposition, mechanical and transport properties, advanced aerospace materialsS. D. JACOBS Ph.D., Rochester, 1975optics, photonics, and optoelectronics, liquid crystals, magnetorheology J. JORNE Ph.D., California (Berkeley), 1972electrochemical engineering, fuel cells, microelectronics processing, electrodepositionL. J. ROTHBERG Ph.D., Harvard, 1984organic device science, light-emitting diodes, display technology, biological sensorsA. SHESTOPALOV Ph.D., Duke, 2009 Development of new unconventional fabrication and patterning techniques and their use in preparation of functional micro and nanostructured devices Y. SHAPIRPh.D., Tel Aviv (Israel), 1981 critical phenomena, transport in disordered media, scaling behavior of growing surfacesC. W. TANG Ph.D., Cornell, 1975organic electronic devices, flat-panel display technology J. H. DAVID WU Ph.D., MIT, 1987bone marrow tissue engineering, stem cell and lymphocyte cultures, enzymology of biomass energy process H. YANG Ph.D., Toronto, 1998nanostructured materials, magnetic nanocomposites, fuel cell electrocatalysts, ionic liquids, and bionanotechnologyM. Z. YATES Ph.D., Texas, 1999colloids and interfaces, supercritical fluids, microemulsions, molecular sieves, fuel cells Biomass Conversion Stem Cell Engineering Drug Delivery BiosensingBiotechnology Liquid Crystals Colloids & Surfactants Functional Polymers Inorganic/Organic Hybrids Advanced Materials Thin Film Devices Photonics & Optoelectronics NanofabricationDisplay Technologies Nanotechnology Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester 206 Gavett Hall Rochester, NY 14627 (585) 275-4913 Chemical Engineering at The University of Rochester

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404 Alternative Energy University of Rochester 206 Gavett Hall Rochester, NY 14627 (585) 275-4913 The faculty at the University of Rochester have established strong research programs in advanced materials, biotechnology, and nanotech nology the intellectual foundations for graduate education leading to Masters degrees. At the technological front, members of the Chemical Engineering faculty conduct research and teach courses highly relevant to alternative energy. Graduate-level courses and acti ve research programs are underway in fuel cells, solar cells, and biofuels. This program is designed for graduate students with a Bachelors degree in engineering or science, who are interested in pursuing a tec hnical career in altern ative energy. Courses and research projects will focus on the fund amentals and applications of the generation, storage, and utilization of various forms of al ternative energy as well as their impact on sustainability and energy conservation. M a s t e r s o f S c i e n c e A l t e r n a t i v e E n e r g y Fuel Cells and BatteryM. ANTHAMATTENPh.D., MIT, 2001 J. LI Ph.D., Washington, 1953 H. YANGPh.D., Toronto, 1998 M. Z. YATES Ph.D., Texas, 1999 J. JORNEPh.D., California (Berkeley), 1972 Solar CellsM. ANTHAMATTENPh.D., MIT, 2001 S. H. CHEN Ph.D., Minnesota, 1981T. D. KRAUSSPh.D., Cornell, 1998C. W. TANGPh.D., Cornell, 1975H. YANGPh.D., Toronto, 1998 FundamentalsM. ANTHAMATTENPh.D., MIT, 2001 S. H. CHEN Ph.D., Minnesota, 1981E. H. CHIMOWITZPh.D., Connecticut, 1982 D. FOSTERPh.D., Rochester, 1999 T. D. KRAUSS Ph.D., Cornell, 1998 Biofuels J. H. DAVID WU Ph.D., MIT., 1987Nuclear EnergyW-U. SCHRDER Ph.D., Darmstadt, 1971 FACULTY and RESEARCH PROGRAMS

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405 Faculty Robert P. Hesketh,Chair.University of Delaware Kevin Dahm.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stephanie Farrell.New Jersey Institute of Technology Zenaida Gephardt.University of Delaware Mariano J. Savelski.University of Oklahoma C. Stewart Slater.Rutgers University Jennifer Vernengo.Drexel University Mary Staehle.University of Delaware Dr. Mary Staehle.Graduate Program Coordinator .Department of Chemical Engineering .Rowan University .. Located in southern the nearby orchards and farms are a dailyreminderthat thisisthe GardenState.Cultural andrecreational opportunities are plentiful inthe area.Philadelphia and the Shore are onlyashortdrive, and majormetropolitan areasare within easyreach Research Areas For additional informationMembraneSeparations.Pharmaceuticaland Food Processing Technology.Biochemical Engineering.Systems Biology.Biomaterials.Green Engineering.Controlled Release.Kinetic and Mechanistic Modeling ofComplex Reaction Systems.Reaction Engineering. SeparationProcesses.ProcessDesignand .Particle Technology.Renewable Fuels. Lean ManufacturingSustainable DesignMaster of Science Chemical Engineering Project Management Experience.Individualized Mentoring.Collaboration with Industry.Multidisciplinary Research.Day and Evening Classes. Thesis andnonthesis options Part time and Fulltime Programs.Assistantships Available The Chemical Engineering Department at Rowan University is housed in Henry M. Rowan Hall, a state -of-the art, sq ft multidisciplinaryteaching andresearchspace. An emphasis on project managementand industrially relevantresearchprepares studentsfor successful careers in high techfields The new South Technology Center will provide further opportunities for student trainingin emerging technologies. Email: .

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406 Research is part of the programLocated 150 km east of Montreal, Sherbrooke is a university town of 150,000 inhabitants offering all the advantages of city life in a rural environment. With strong ties to industry, the Department of Chemical and Biotechnological Engineering offers graduate programs leading to a masters degree (thesis and non-thesis) and a PhD degree. Take advantage of our innovative teaching methods and close cooperation with industry! 819-821-7171 ABATZOGLOU Department Chair, Wyeth/UdeS Industrial Chair on PAT. Particulate systems, multiphase catalytic reactors, pharmaceutical engineering Nadi BRAIDY Material engineering, nanosciences and nanotechnologies, materials characterization Nathalie FAUCHEUX Canada Research Chair Cell-biomaterial biohybrid system, cancer and biomaterials, bone repair and substitute Franois GITZHOFER Thermal plasma materials synthesis, plasma spraying, materials characterization, SOFC Ryan GOSSELIN Pharmaceutical engineering (PAT), industrial process control, spectral imagery Michle HEITZ Air treatment, biofiltration, bioenergy, biodiesel, biovalorization of agro-food wastes Michel HUNEAULT Polymer alloys, melt state biopolymer processing, materials characterization J. Peter JONES Treatment of industrial wastewater, design of experiments, treatment of endocrine disruptors Jerzy JUREWICZ Nanometric powder synthesis, extractive metallurgy, DC and HF plasma generation Jean-Michel LAVOIE, Cellulosic Ethanol Industrial Chair, Biofuels industrial organic synthesis Bernard MARCOS Chemical and biotechnological processes modeling, energy systems modeling Joisane NIKIEMA Industrial wastewater treatment, biological processes optimization Pierre PROULX Modeling and numerical simulation, optimization of reactors, transport phenomena Jol SIROIS Suspension and cell metabolism, optimization of biosystems, bioactive principles production Gervais SOUCY Aluminum and thermal plasma technology, carbon nanostructures, materials characterization Patrick VERMETTE Tissue engineering and biomaterials, colloids and surface chemistry, drug delivery systems

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407 Departmentof Department of ChildBillEii Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering gg As part of a distinguished University that is ranked 3 rd in Asia ( Quacquarelli Symonds Asian University As part of a distinguished University that is ranked 3 in Asia ( Quacquarelli Symonds Asian University Rankings 2010 ) and 30 th in the world ( Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings 2009 ) we offer a Rankings 2010 ) and 30 th in the world ( Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings 2009 ) we offer a hi lti f d tiiti f dititi d ihi li i Y ill comprehensive selection of courses and activities for a distinctive and enriching learning experience You will benefit from the opportunity to work with our diverse faculty in a cosmopolitan environment Join us at NUS bee o e oppouy o o ou dese acuy a cosopoa eoe Jo us at US Singapores Global University and be a part of the future today Singapores Global University, and be a part of the future today ProgramFeatures Program Features Rhtiitiibdtffdtlliddithlil Research activities in a broad spectrum of fundamental, applied and emerging technological areas Active research collaboration with the industry, national research centers and institutes y, Top notchfacilitiesforcutting edgeresearch Top notch facilities for cutting edge research StronginternationalresearchcollaborationwithuniversitiesinAmericaEuropeandAsia Strong international research collaboration with universities in America, Europe and Asia Over200researchscholars(80%pursuingPhD)fromcountriessuchasUSAGermanyJapanChinaIndiaVietnam Over 200 research scholars (80% pursuing Ph.D.) from count ries such as USA, Germany, Japan, China, India, Vietnam dthtiithi and other countries in the region. Joint graduate programs with UIUC, MIT and IIT Bombay, IIT Madras gg y An array of financial assistance, scholarships and awards available y ,p StrategicResearch&EducationalThrusts Strategic Research & Educational Thrusts BiomolecularandBiomedicalEngineering Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering ChemicalEngineeringSciences Chemical Engineering Sciences ChemicalandBiologicalSystems Chemical and Biological Systems EdEitllStiblP Energy and Environmentally Sustainable Processes Nanostructured Materials & Devices OurGraduatePrograms Our Graduate Programs Rh bd Ck bd Research based Coursework based Ph.D. and M.Eng. M.Sc. (Chemical Engineering) NUS UIUC Joint Ph.D. M.Sc. (Safety, Health & Environmental Technology) Singapore MITAllianceDualMSc(MITNUS)&PhD (y, gy) Singapore MIT Alliance Dual M.Sc. (MIT, NUS) & Ph.D. Engineer Your Own Evolution! Reach us at : g NationalUniversityofSingapore National University of Singapore yg DepartmentofChemical&BiomolecularEngineering Department of Chemical & Bi omolecular Engineering 4EngineeringDrive4Singapore117576 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576 Eilhbd@d htt//hbd F656779 1936 Email: Fax: +65 6779 1936

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408 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING e Department of Chemical Engineering at USC has emerged as one of the top teaching and research programs in the Southeast. Our program ranks in the top 20 nationally in research expendi tures (>$6 million per year) and annual doctoral graduates. e Department oers ME, MS, and PhD degree programs in chemical engineering and biomedical engineering. PhD candidates receive tuition and fee waivers, a health insurance subsidy, and highly com petitive stipends starting at $25,000 per year. e University of South Carolina is located in Columbia, the state capital, which offers the benets of a big city with the charm and hospitality of a small town. Charlotte and Atlanta, cities that serve as Columbias inter national gateways, are nearby. e areas sunny and mild climate, combined with its lakes and wooded parks, provide plenty of opportunities for yearround outdoor recreation. In addition, Columbia is only hours away from the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Carolinas mascot, Cocky, shows o on one of our de partments hydrogen fuel cell Segways at university events.FA C ULTYM.D. Amiridis, Wisconsin Provost, Catalysis and KineticsJ.O. Blanchette, Texas Biomedical Engineering, drug deliveryC.W. Curtis, Florida State Vice provost for faculty developmentF.A. Gadala-Maria, Stanford Rheology of suspensionsE.P. Gatzke, Delaware Modeling Control, OptimizationA. Heyden, Hamburg Computational Nanoscience, CatalysisE. Jabbari, Purdue Biomedical and Tissue EngineeringE. Jabbarzadeh, Drexel Vascular and Cellular EngineeringJ.A. Lauterbach, Berlin Environmental CatalysisM.A. Matthews, Texas A&M Applied Thermodynamics, Supercritical FluidsM.A. Moss, Kentucky Protein Biophysics, Alzheimers DiseaseH.J. Ploehn, Princeton Interfacial Phenomena, NanotechnologyB.N. Popov, Illinois Electrochemical Power SourcesJ.A. Ritter, SUNY Bualo Separation and Energy Storage ProcessesT.G. Stanford, Michigan Chemical Process SystemsJ.W. Van Zee, Texas A&M Electrochemical Engineering, Fuel CellsJ.W. Weidner, NC State Electrochemical Engineering, ElectrocatalysisR.E. White, Cal-Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering, ModellingC.T. Williams, Purdue Catalysis, Surface SpectroscopyX.D. Zhou, Missouri Rolla Solid-State Ionics, Eltrodics Contact us: The Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Phone: 800.753.0527 or 803.777.1261. Fax: 803.777.0973. E-mail: us online at

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410 PhD Programs in Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, and Materials SciencePhD degrees offered: Chemical Engineering, Materials Science and Petroleum Engineering 100% of tuition and fees are covered for PhD students Over 30 tenured and tenure-track faculty Research is supported through federal grants and awards (NSF, NIH, DoD, DoE), industry partnerships (Chevron, Lockheed-Martin, Boeing), and foundations (Gates, Alfred Mann) Extensive core facilities, such as the Keck Photonics Facility (Class 100 cleanroom) and the Center for Electron Microscopy and Micro-Analysis. Active Research Areas: Sustainability and Energy Academic and Research Highlights:Biomolecular Engineering Composites and Biomaterials Advanced Computation Nanotechnology Mork FamilyDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science For more information:

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412 S T E V E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time Day and evening programs Stevens Institute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, marital status, handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran. For application, contact: Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5319 For additional information, contact: Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-216-5546 Faculty (PhD, University of Maryland, College Park) (PhD, Stanford University) (PhD, Penn State University) (PhD, Carnegie-Mellon University) (PhD, McGill University) (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) (PhD, McGill University) (PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology) (ScD, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology) (PhD, University of WisconsinMadison) (PhD, University of Birmingham) (PhD, Stevens Institute of Technology) Research in Micro-Chemical Systems Polymer Rheology, Processing, and Characterization Processing of Electronic and Photonic Materials Processing of Highly Filled Materials Chemical Reaction Engineering Biomaterials and Thin Films Polymer Characterization and Morphology High Temperature Gas-Solid and Solid-Solid Interactions Environmental and Thermal Barrier Coatings Biomaterials Design and Synthesis Nanobiotechnology Catalysis at Nanoscale and Reaction Kinetics Nanoparticle Self-Assembly, Self-Healing Polymers and Drug Delivery Multidisciplinary environment, consisting of chemical and polymer engineering, chemistry, and biology Site of two major engineering research centers; Highly Filled Materials Institute; Center for Micro chemical Systems Scenic campus overlooking the Hudson River and metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and cul ture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concen tration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies

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413 University of TennesseeRecent advances in the life sciences and nanotechnology, as well as the looming energy crisis, have brought chemical engineering education to the threshold of signicant changes. The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (CBE) at the University of Tennessee has embraced these changes in order to meet global challenges in health care, the environment, renewable energy sources, national security and economic prosperity. Partnerships with other disciplines at UT, such as medical, life, and physical sciences, as well as the College of Business Administration and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), help to create exceptional research opportunities for graduate students in CBE and place our students in a position to develop leadership roles in the vital technologies of the future. The UTK campus is located in the heart of Knoxville in beautiful east Tennessee, minutes from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and surrounded by six lakes. Opportunities for outdoor recreation abound and are complemented by the diverse array of cultural activites aorded by our presence in the third largest city in Tennessee. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UT-Knoxville oers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with nancial assistance including full tuition and competitive stipends. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering 419 Dougherty Engineering Building Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 Phone: (865) 974-2421 Email: Paul Bienkowski (Purdue) -Thermodynamics, environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy Eric Boder (Illinois) -Protein engineering, immune engineering, molecular bioengineering and biotechnology Barry Bruce (Berkeley) -Molecular chaperones, protein transport, bioenergy production Chris Cox (Penn State) -Bioenergy production, systems biology and metabolic engineering, environmental biotechnology Wei-Ren Chen (MIT) -Neutron scattering, advanced materials Robert Counce (Tennessee) -Industrial separations, process design, green engineering Mark Dadmun (UMass) -Polymer engineering, advanced materials Brian Davison (CalTech) -Systems biology, bioenergy production Mitch Doktycz (Illinois-Chicago) -Synthetic biology, nanobiotechnology Paul Dalhaimer (Penn) -Cytoskeleton biophysics, drug delivery, statistical mechanics, biophysical engineering Brian Edwards (Delaware) -Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, complex uids, fuel cells Paul Frymier (Virginia) -Environmental biotechnology, sustainable energy production Douglas Hayes (Michigan) -Biocatalysis, bioseparations, colloids David Joy (Oxford) -Environmental microscopy, nanophase materials Michael Kilbey (Minnesota) -Interface engineering, soft materials Ramki Kalyanaraman (NC State) -Thin lms, functional nanomaterials, phase transformation, self-assembly & self-organization Bamin Khomami (Illinois) -Microand nanostructured materials, complex uids, multiscale modeling David Keer (Minnesota) -Molecular simulation, advanced materials, fuel cells Stephen Paddison (Calgary) -PEM fuel cells, statistical mechanics, multiscale modeling Cong Trinh (Minnesota) -Inverse metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, bioenergy production Tse-Wei Wang (MIT) -Process modeling/control, bioinformatics, data mining Thomas Zawodzinski (SUNY-Bualo) -Fuel cells, batteries, electrochemistry, transport phenomena Faculty and Research Interests THE IS NOW

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414 Pedro E. Arce, Professor and Chair Ph.D., Purdue University, 1990 Electrokinetics, Nano Structured Soft Materials for Electrophoresis, Tissue Scaffolds & Drug Delivery, Non thermal Plasma High Oxidation Processes Joseph J. Biernacki Professor Dr. Eng., Cleveland State University, 1988 Cementious Systems, Micro fluidics, Electronic and Structural Materials Ileana C. Carpen Assistant Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 2005 Microrheology of Materials, Flow Stability of Complex Fluids, Colloidal Dispersions, Transport in Biological Systems Vinten Diwakar Adjunct Professor Ph.D., Tennessee Tech University, 2009 Simulation of Electrochemical Systems, Electrolytes in Porous Media, Engineering Education. David Elizandro, Professor Ph.D., University of Arkansas, 1973 Engineering Optimization, Digital Signal Processing, Technology in Engineering Education. Mario Oyanader Instructor Ph.D., Florida State University, 2004 Electrokinetic Soil Cleaning, Chemical Environmental Processes, Water Resource Management Cynthia A. Rice York, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 2000 Fuel Cells, Electrocatalysis Holly A. Stretz, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Univ. of Texas at Austin, 2005 Nanocomposite Structure and Modeling, High Temperature Materials and Ablatives, Polymer Processing Donald P. Visco, Jr., Professor Ph.D., University at Buffalo, SUNY, 1999 Computer Aided Molecular Design, Experimental and Thermodynamic Modeling. Located in one of the most beautiful geographical regions in Tennessee, Cookeville is the home of Tennessee Tech University. A warm and welcoming community surrounded by parks, lakes and mountains, Cookeville is located a little more than an hour from three of Tennessees metro areas: Nashville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. FOR MORE INFORMATION, contact: 3297 Fax (931) 372 ship and research with advanced studies, offering excellent opportunities to graduate students. Our program offers an M.S. in Chemical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Engineering with a concentration in Chemical Engineering. The relatively small size of the program and friendly campus atmosphere promote close interaction among students and faculty. Research is sponsored by NSF, DOE, NASA, DOD, and state and private sources among others. Faculty members work closely with colleagues in Electrical Engineering, Environmental and Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biology, and Manufacturing and Industrial Technology at TTU, as well as maintain strong leading institutions and national laboratories to build a unique and effective environment for graduate research, learning, and well rounded training. TTU: A Constituent University of the Tennessee Board of Regents/R024 SEL 11/An EEO/AA/Title IX/Section 504/ADA University

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416 Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2007 Nanotechnology, surface and interface science, drug delivery Ph.D., GPSA Professor Molecular simulation and computational chemistry D.B. Bukur Reaction engineering, math methods Ph.D. Computational materials science and nanotechnology; functional materials for devices and sensors; surface and interface properties of materials Texas A&M University Large Graduate Program Approximately 130 Students Strong Ph.D. Program (90% Ph.D. students) Top 10 in Research Funding Financial Aid for All Doctoral Students For More Information Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering Dwight Look College of Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical and Biomolecular, Complex Fluids, Nanotechnology, Process Safety, Process Systems Engi neering, Reaction Engineering, Thermodynamics Z. Chen Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2006 Protein engineering and biomolecular engineering Ph.D., Nanotechnology M. El-Halwagi Ph.D McFerrin Professor Environmental remediation & benign processing, process design, integration and control G. Froment Kinetics, catalysis, and reaction engineering C.J. Glover, Materials chemistry, synthesis, and characterization, transport, and interfacial phenomena J. Hahn Systems biology, process systems engineering Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004 Vocal fold tissue engineering; cell-biomaterial interactions K.R. Hall Deputy Director TEES Process safety, thermodynamics J.C. Holste Thermodynamics M.T. Holtzapple Biochemical Ph.D. Biomedical/biochemical H.-K. Jeong Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 2004 Nanomaterials K. Kao Genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology Y. Kuo Dow Professor Microelectronics C. Laird Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University, 2006 Large-scale nonlinear optimization J. Lutkenhaus Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007 S. Mannan Ph.D. Director, Mary Kay OConnor Process Safety Center, Process safety M. Pishko Ph.D. C.D. Holland Professor & Head Biosensors, biomaterials, drug delivery Ph.D. Molecular simulation and computational chemistry Ph.D. University of Delaware, 2000 & Assoc. Head Director, Materials Characterization Facility Structure-property relationships of porous materials, synthesis of new porous solids Ph.D. K.R. Hall Professor Microfabricated Bioseparation Systems S. Vaddiraju Polymers Reaction engineering Ph.D.

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417 FACULTY FACULTY GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Dr. Ted Wiesner, PhD: Georgia Institute of Technology Associate Professor Research: Capturing the energy generated by the human body to power implanted medical devices; Robust control of rate-adaptive cardiac pacemakers; Wastewater treatment for long-duration manned spaceflight; Computer-based training for engineers. Dr. Brandon Weeks, PhD: Cambridge University, UK Assistant Professor Research: Nanoscale phenomena in energetic materials including crystal growth, nanolithography, thermodynamics and kinetics.; Atomic Force Microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering; Scanning probe instrument design and microscale sensors. Dr. Mark Vaughn, PhD: Texas A & M University Associate Professor Research: Nitric oxide in the microcirculation; Membrane transport of small molecules; Transport and reaction in concentrated disperse system. Dr. Siva Vanapalli, PhD: University of Michigan Assistant Professor Research: Mechanics of living cells; Biopolymer networks and single polymers; Integrated microsystems for cell and biomelocule analysis; Complex colloids for advanced materials; food emulsions. micro and submicro particles; Biodiesel. Dr. Sindee Simon, PhD: Princeton University Professor Research: The physics of the glass transition and structural recovery; Melting and Tg at the nanoscale; Cure and properties of thermosetting resins; Measurement of the viscoelastic bulk modulus; Dilatometry and calorimetry. Dr. Ranghunathan Rengasamy, PhD: Purdue University Professor Research: Fuel cell technology; Novel electrode and membrane fabrication for PEM fuel cells; Modeling, diagnostics and control of PEM and solid oxide fuel cells; Energy systems; Systems biology; Multi-Scale modeling and optimization; Controller performance assessment and process fault diagnosis. Dr. Greg McKenna, PhD: University of Utah Professor Research: Small molecule interactions with glassy polymers; Torsion and normal force measurements; Nanorheology and nanomechanics; Melt and solution rheometry; Residual stresses in composite materials. Dr. Uzi Mann, PhD: University of Wisconsin Professor Research: Particulate technology and processes; Chemical reaction engineering; Chemical process analysis modeling and design; Formulation and synthesis of hollow micro and submicro particles; Biodiesel. Dr. Rajesh Khare, PhD: University of Delaware Assistant Professor Research: Nanofluidic devices for DNA separation and sequencing; Lubrication in human joints; Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations; Multiscale modeling methods; Properties of supercooled liquids and glassy polymers; Dr. Naz Karim, PhD: University of Manchester, UK Chairman and Professor Research: Control and optimization of chemical and bio-processes; Bio-fuels production using recombinant microorganisms; Metabolic engineering; glyco-proteins in CHO cell culture; Diabetic and cardiovascular diseases; Vaccine production for flu viruses. Dr. Karlene Hoo, PhD: University of Notre Dame Professor Research: Integration of process design with operability; Hemodynamics of venous vein and valve; Embedded control; Intelligent control; Systems engineering. Dr. Ron Hedden, PhD: Cornell University Associate Professor Research: Synthesis and characterization of polymer networks and gels; development and characterization of polymers for microelectronics applications Dr. Harvinder Gill, PhD: Georgia Institute of Technology Assistant Professor Research: Micro and nanosystems for drug and vaccine delivery; bionanomaterials; mucosal vaccination; immunomodulation Dr. Micah Green, PhD: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Assistant Professor Research: Rheology, phase behavior, and applications of carbon nanotubes; multiscale modeling of complex fluids and biological materials. Texas Techs Chemical Engineering Graduate Program offers an outstanding balance between theory and experiment and between research and practice. The Faculty represents a broad range of backgrounds that bring industrial, national laboratory and academic experiences to the future graduate student. External funding supports a diverse research portfolio including Polymer Science, Rheology and Materials Science, Process Control and Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Molecular Modeling, Reaction Engineering, Bioengineering and Nano Biotechnology. Key Features: We have thirteen faculty members with significant industrial experience and national recognition within their fields of expertise. There is a Process Control and Optimization Consortium with participation from eight key chemical industries. In 2005 the Department spent over $2.127 million in research expenditure to support graduate research projects. Based on an NSF published report, the Department ranks 46th among all the chemical engineering departments in the country based on research expenditure. Department has an NSF-funded Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Research Team (NIRT) studying dynamic heterogeneity and the behavior of glass-forming materials at the nanoscale. More than 27,000 students attend classes in Lubbock on a 1,839 acre campus. Texas Tech University offers many cultural and entertainment programs, including nationally ranked football and basketball teams. Lubbock is a growing metropolitan city of more than 200,000 people and is located on top of the caprock on the South Plains of Texas. The city offers an upscale lifestyle that blends well with old fashioned Texas hospitality and Southwestern food and culture. Admissions: Prospective students should provide official transcripts, official GRE General Test (verbal, quantitative written) scores, and should have a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering or equivalent. Students are urged to apply by the end of January for enrollment in the coming fall semester. Prospective students should apply online by filling out the forms at the graduate school website. Contact Information Dr. Greg McKenna Professor and Graduate Advisor Texas Tech University Chemical Engineering Department P. O. Box: 43121 Lubbock, TX 79409-312 1 Texas Tech UniversityDepartment of Chemical Tel: (806) 742-3553 Fax: (806) 742-3552

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418 CHEMICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABDUL-MAJEED AZAD, PROFESSOR Nanomaterials & Ceramics Processing, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells MARIA R. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR Membrane Separations, Bioseparations JOHN P. DISMUKES, PROFESSOR Materials Processing, Managing Technological Innovation ISABEL C. ESCOBAR, PROFESSOR Membrane Fouling and Membrane Modications SALEH JABARIN, PROFESSOR Polymer Physical Properties, Orientation & Crystallization DONG-SHIK KIM, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Biomaterials, Metabolic Pathways, Biomass Energy YAKOV LAPITSKY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Colloid & Polymer Science, Drug Delivery STEVEN E. LEBLANC, PROFESSOR Process Control, Chemical Engineering Education G. GLENN LIPSCOMB, PROFESSOR AND CHAIR Membrane Separations, Alternative Energy, Education BRUCE E. POLING, PROFESSOR Thermodynamics and Physical Properties CONSTANCE A. SCHALL, PROFESSOR SASIDHAR VARANASI, PROFESSOR SRIDHAR VIAMAJALA, A SSISTANT P ROFESSOR FACULTY The Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at The University of Toledo offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. We are located in state of the art facilities in Nitschke Hall and our dynamic faculty offer a variety of research opportunities in contemporary areas of chemical engineering. SEND INQUIRIES TO: Graduate Studies Advisor Chemical & Environmental Engineering The University of Toledo College of Engineering 2801 W. Bancroft Street Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 EN 583 0410

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419 Linda Abriola, Dean of School of Engineering Nak-Ho Sung, Department Chair Gregory D. Botsaris Aurelie Edwards Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos Christos Georgakis David L. Kaplan Kyongbum Lee Steven Matson Jerry H. Meldon William Moomaw Matthew Panzer Blaine Pfeifer Daniel R. Ryder Howard Saltsburg Ken Van Wormer David Vinson Hyunmin Yi M. Eng. M. Sci. Ph.D. Chemical Engineering Ph.D. Biotechnology Engineering M. Eng. M. Sci. Bioengineering. Cell and Bioprocess Engineering For more information: Tufts University Chemical and Biological Engineering Science & Technology Center 4 Colby Street, Room 148 Medford, MA 02155 Phone: 617-627-3900; Fax: 617-627-3991 E-mail: Application materials and information about the graduate studies at Tufts University are available on the web at Research Areas: Batch Process Modeling, Optimi zation, Systems Engineering Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering Biomolecular Engineering, Cell Engineering, Natural Products Bionanotechnology, Biosensors, Smart Biopolymers Crystallization Energy, Environmental Engineering, Soft Electronics, Green Technologies, Fuel Processing, Fuel Cells Heterogeneous Catalysis, Nanocatalysis, Reaction Kinetics Mass Transfer with Chemical Reacti on, Separation Process Modeling Metabolic Engineering, Systems Biology

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420 Faculty and Research Areas Self-Assembly and Nanostructured Materials combinant Protein Expression Noshir S. Pesika Electrochemistry. Lawrence R. Pratt Science, Especially Molecular Simulation For Additional Information, Please Contact Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Tulane is located in a quiet, residential area from the world-famous French Quarter. The department currently enrolls approximately 40 full-time graduate students. Graduate fellowships include a tuition waiver plus stipend. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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421 Engineering the World The University of Tulsa disciplines. Tulsa, Oklahoma with four distinct seasons, is perfect for year-round outdoor activities. With a metropolitan popula tion of 888,000, the city of Tulsa affords opportunities for students to gain internship and work enjoy world-class ballet, symphony and theatre performances, and exhibits in the cultural communi Chemical Engineering at TU TU enjoys a solid international reputation for expertise in the energy industry, and offers materials, environmental and biochemical programs. The department places particular emphasis on experimen tal research, and is proud of its strong contact with industry. The department offers a traditional Ph.D. program and three masters programs: thesis) Financial aid is available, including fellowships and research assistantships. The Faculty Engineering complex systems, optimization under uncertainty Alternative energy, transport phenomena Kinetics of dry etching of metals, surface science Directed evolution, biocatalysis, biosynthesis, metabolic engineering Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum Thermodynamics, applied mathematics Zeolites, heterogeneous catalysis Bioremediation, biological waste treatment, ecological risk assessment Further Information

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422 Vanderbilt UniversityDEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING Graduate Study Leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Graduate work in chemical engineering provides an opportunity for study and research at the cutting edge to contribute to shaping a new model of what chemical engineering is and what chemical engineers do. At Vanderbilt University we offer a broad range of research opportunities in chemical and biomolecular engineering, with wide ranging opportunities for interdisciplinary work and professional development. Focus areas include: Adsorption and nanoporous materials Alternative energy and biofuels Biomaterials and tissue engineering Computational molecular engineering and nanoscience Metabolic engineering Microelectronic and ultra high temperature materials Nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery Surface modification and molecular self assembly To find out more visit: Vanderbilt, ranked in the top 20 nationally for its leadership in both research and teaching, is located on 330 park like acres just one and one half miles from down town Nashville, one of the most vibrant and cosmopolitan mid sized cities in the United States. Ten schools offer both an outstanding undergraduate and a full range of graduate and professional programs. With a prestigious faculty of more than 2,800 full time and 300 part time members, Vanderbilt attracts a diverse student body of approximately 6,500 undergraduates and 5,300 graduate and professional students from all 50 states and over 90 foreign countries. Peter T. Cummings (Ph.D., University of Melbour ne) Computational nanoscience and nanoengineering; molecular modeling of fluid and amorphous systems; parallel computing; cell based models of cancer tumor growth Kenneth A. Debelak (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) Catalytic reactions for renewable fuels; o scillations in bioreactors; Development of plant wide control algorithms; intelligent process control Scott A. Guelcher (Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University) Biomaterials; bone tissue engineering; polymer synthesis and characterization; drug and gene deli very G. Kane Jennings (Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Molecular and surface engineering; polymer thin films; solar energy conversion; tribology; fuel cells Paul E. Laibinis (Ph.D., Harvard University) Self assembly; surface engineering; inte rfaces; chemical sensor design; biosurfaces; nanotechnology Matthew J. Lang (Ph.D., University of Chicago) Molecular and cellular biophysics; functional measurement of biological motors and cell machinery; instrumentation: optical tweezers, microscopy and single molecule fluorescence M. Douglas LeVan (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) Novel adsorbent materials; adsorption equilibria; mass transfer in nanoporous materials; adsorption and membrane processes. Clare McCabe (Ph.D., University of Sheffi eld) Molecular modeling of complex fluids and materials; biological self assembly; molecular rheology and tribology; molecular theory and phase equilibria Peter N. Pintauro (Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles) Electrochemical engineering; membran e development for hydrogen, methanol, and alkaline fuel cells; ion uptake and transport models for ion exchange membranes; organic electrochemical synthesis Bridget R. Rogers (Ph.D., Arizona State University) Surfaces, interfaces, and films of microelectro nic and ultra high temperature materials; determination of process/property/ performance relationships Jamey D. Young (Ph.D., Purdue University) Metabolic engineering; systems biology; diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders; tumor metabolism; autotrophi c metabolism For more information: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Email:

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424 Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech Faculty Luke E.K. Achenie (Carnegie Mellon) Modeling of chemical and biological systems Y.A. Liu (Princeton) Pollution prevention and computer -aided design Donald G. Baird (Wisconsin) Polymer processing, non -Newtonian fluid mechanics Chang Lu (Illinois) Microfluidics for single cell analysis, gene delivery David F. Cox (Florida) Catalysis, ultrahigh vacuum surface science Eva Marand (Massachusetts) Transport through polymer membranes, adv anced materials for separations Christopher J. Cornelius (Virginia Tech) Hybrid organic inorganic materials, sol -gel chemistry, self -assembly Stephen M. Martin (Minnesota) Soft materials, self -assembly, interfaces Richey M. Davis (Princeton) Colloids and polymer chemistry, nanostructured materials Abby W. Morgan (Illinois) Tissue engineering, controlled release of proteins William A. Ducker (Australian Natl. Univ.) Colloidal forces, surfactant self -assembly, atomic force microscopy S. Ted Oyama (Stanford) Heterogeneous catalysis and new materials Aaron S. Goldstein (Carnegie Mellon) Tissue engineering, interfacial phenomena in bioengineering Padma Rajagopalan (Brown) Polymeric biomaterials, cell and tissue engineering Erdogan Kiran (Princet on) Supercritical fluids, polymer science, high pressure techniques John Y. Walz [Dept. Head] (Carnegie Mellon) Colloidal stability, interparticle forces For further information write or call the director of graduate studies or visit our webpage Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061 Telephone: 540-231-5771 Fax: 540231-5022 e-mail:

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425 Be part of a community of innovators. Rim PhD Discover. Its the Washington Way. Come to the UW to make your mark in molecular and nanoscale systems. Create the future. #1 UW (CNT)& (CMDITR) & (NNIN) University of WashingtonChemical EngineeringResearch ClustersMolecular Energy Processes Living Systems and Biomolecular Processes Molecular Aspects of Materials and Interfaces Molecular/Organic Electronics Core Faculty (UC (UC (UC Jim (UC (UC Graduate Admissions

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426 Developing clean, sustainable energy Hacettepe University Denny Davis, Wenji Dong, Princeton University Devising innovative solutions The Gene and Linda Voiland School of

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427 Washington University in St. Louis Masters and Ph.D Programs Dept. of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering The department has a focus on environmental engineering science, energy systems, and chemical engineering. The department provides integrated and multidisciplinary programs with application in an advanced focal area and areas and industrial partners instrumentation engineering. Graduate degrees (Master of Science and is offered to undergraduate students interested in engineering or science student. The program is also R. Axelbaum P. Biswas D. Chen Technology M. Dudukovic J. Fortner D. Giammar J. Gleaves tured Materials R. Husar Y.S. Jun C. Lo H. Pakrasi P. Ramachandran ment Methods V. Subramanian Y. Tang J. Turne B. Williams ences Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering Graduate Study in the Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering

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428 For further information, write or phone The Associate Chair (Graduate Studies), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo e-mail at or visit our website at UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering The Department of Chemical Engineering is one of the largest in Canada offering a wide range of graduate programs. Full-time and part-time M.A.Sc. programs are available. Full-time and part-time coursework M.Eng. programs are available. Ph.D. programs are available in all research areas. RESEARCH GROUPS AND PROFESSORS: 1. Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering: Bill Anderson, Marc Aucoin, Hector Budman, Pu Chen, Perry Chou, Frank Gu, Eric Jervis, Christine Moresoli, Raymond Legge, Michael Tam 2. Interfacial Phenomena, Colloids and Porous Media: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Michael Fowler, Dale Henneke, Mario Ioannidis, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Boxin Zhao 3. Green Reaction Engineering: Bill Anderson, Zhongwei Chen, Eric Croiset, Bill Epling, Michael Fowler, Flora Ng, Garry Rempel, Qinmin Pan, Mark Pritzker. 4. Nanotechnology: Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Frank Gu, Dale Henneke, Yuning Li, Leonardo Simon, Michael Tam, Ting Tsui, Boxin Zhao. 5. Process Control, Statistics and Optimization: Hector Budman, Peter Douglas, Tom Duever, Ali Elkamel, Alex Penlidis, Mark Pritzker. 6. Polymer Science and Engineering: Tom Duever, Xianshe Feng, Mike Fowler, Frank Gu, Neil McManus, Qinmin Pan, Alex Penlidis, Garry Rempel, Leonardo Simon, Joao Soares, Michael Tam, Costas Tzoganakis, Boxin Zhao. 7. Separation Processes: John Chatzis, Pu Chen, Zhongwei Chen, Xianshe Feng, Christine Moresoli, Flora Ng, Qinmin Pan, Rajinder Pal, Mark Pritzker, Michael Tam. Challenging Research in Novel Areas of Chemical Engineering: > Biomaterials with applications to drug delivery and tissue Engineering > Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering > Catalysis > Composite Materials > Fuel Cells > Green Reaction Engineering > Interfacial Phenomena/Membrane Technology > Polymer engineering > Process Control and Statistics > Separation Processes FINANCIAL SUPPORT for graduate students is available in the form of: Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Entrance Scholarships ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: ing or Science. additional courses are required from applicants with an undergraduate degree in Science.

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429 Faculty and their Research Sandro R. P. da Rocha, Ph.D., U of Texas at als for drug delivery; inhalation aerosols; colloids in conventional and Yinlun Huang Ph.D., Caltech rs for drug delivery. gene delivery. sensors, alternative energy technologies. Jeffrey Potoff Susil Putatunda Erhard Rothe features. Steven Salley technologies. Gina Shreve Dennis Corrigan s Science, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony

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430 F a cult yS ushant A g ar wal W est V irginia Univ ersit y Br ian J Anderson Massa c husetts Institute of T ec hnolog y Debangsu Bhattacharyya Clarkson University Eug ene V Cilento Dean Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Da dy B. Da dy burjor Univ ersit y of Delawar e Cerasela Z. Dinu Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and Dresden University Robin S. F ar mer Univ ersit y of Delawar e R akesh K. G upta, C hair Univ ersit y of Delawar e El liot B. Kennel O hio S tate Univ ersit y Edwin L. K ugler Jo hns Hop kins Univ ersit y R uif eng Liang Institute of Chemistr y C AS Josep h A. S ha eiwitz Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Alfr ed H. S t il ler Univ ersit y of Cincinatti Ric har d T ur ton O r egon S tate Univ ersit y R a y Y K. Y ang P r inceto n Univ ersit y Jo hn W Z ond lo Car negie Mel lo n Univ ersit y Resear c h Ar eas Inc lude: r ff n t b f n n f r r f f f b f ff n f f f f b f n b b f f f F inancial Aid F or Applic at ion Inf or mat ion, W r iteb t n nf r b f h tt p:/ /www .c he .cemr wvu .edu nf nf David J K linke I I N or thw ester n Univ ersit y C har ter D S t inespr ing W est V irginia Univ ersit y

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432 Worcester, New Englands third largest city, is an hour from Boston, Providence, and Hartford. It has an active arts and cultural community, great restaurants, entertainment venues, and shopping centers. The region is known for its high concentration of life sciencesbased companies and academic research centers. Bioengineering Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Nanomaterials Process Analysis, Control, and Safety Sustainable and Green EngineeringWORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Graduate Studies in CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGDepartment of Chemical Engineering R ESEARCH A REAS AND F ACUL T YBacterial Adhesion Biomaterials Nanobiotechnology Terri A. Camesano, PhD, Pennsylvania State University Separation Processes Engineering Education William M. Clark, PhD, Rice University Catalysis and Reaction Engineering as Applied to Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Ravindra Datta, PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara Catalysis and Surface Science Metal Oxide Materials Computational Chemistry N. Aaron Deskins, PhD, Purdue University Engineering Education Teaching and Learning Assessment David DiBiasio, PhD, Purdue University Transport in Chemical Reactors Application of CFD to Catalyst and Reactor Design Microreactors Anthony G. Dixon, PhD, University of Edinburgh Analysis, Control and Safety of Chemical Processes Environmental and Energy Systems Process Performance Monitoring Nikolaos K. Kazantzis, PhD, University of Michigan Syntheses, Characterization and Application of Inorganic Membranes with special emphasis on composite Pd and Pd alloy porous metal membranes for hydrogen separation and membrane reactors Yi Hua Ma, ScD, MIT Applied Kinetics and Reactor Analysis Particulate Synthesis Water Purication Engineering Robert W. Thompson, PhD, Iowa State University Bionanotechnology Bioseparations BioMEMS Microuidics Microelectronic and Photonic Packaging Susan Zhou, PhD, University of Califonia, Irvine Grad CE Ad.indd 1 4/23/10 1:29 PM

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433 Ph.D. Pennsylvania Ph.D. Johns Hopkins Ph.D. Northwestern Ph.D. Cal Tech Ph.D. University of California Ph.D. M.I.T. Ph.D. University of Colorado Ph.D. Pennsylvania Ph.D. Princeton Ph.D. University of Michigan Ph.D. University of Minnesota Ph.D. University of Minnesota Ph.D. Rice University Ph.D. University of Michigan Joint Appointments as Graedel ( School of Forestr y & Environmental Studies) ( Chemistry ) ( Biomedical Engineering ) Biomolecular Engineering Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Combustion Complex Fluids Energy Environmental Engineering Microbiology Environmental Physio-chemical Processes Interfacial and Colloidal Phenomena Membrane Separations Materials Synthesis and Processing Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials Multiphase Transport Phenomena Soft Nanomaterials Surface Science Sustainability Water Dep artment of Chemical & Environmental Engineering P. O. Box 208286 New Haven, CT 06520-8286

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434 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs For further information See our website at: Financial Support Available Study in an uplifting, intellectual, social, and spiritual environment Faculty and Research Interests Morris D. Argyle (Berkeley) heterogeneous catalysis Larry L. Baxter (BYU) Bradley C. Bundy (Stanford) protein production and engineering Thomas H. Fletcher (BYU) John H. Harb (Illinois) William C. Hecker (UC Berkeley) Thomas A. Knotts (University of Wisconsin) Randy S. Lewis ( MIT David O. Lignell (Utah) William G. Pitt (Wisconsin) Richard L. Rowley (Michigan State) Kenneth A. Solen (Wisconsin) Dean R. Wheeler (Berkeley) W. Vincent Wilding (Rice) BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Bucknell is a highly selective private insti tution that combines a nationally ranked un dergraduate engineering program with the rich learning environment of a small liberal arts college. For study at the Masters level, the department offers state-of-the-art facili ties for both experimental and computation al work, and faculty dedicated to providing individualized training and collaboration in a wide array of research areas. Nestled in the heart of the scenic Susque hanna Valley in central Pennsylvania, Lew isburg is located in an ideal environment for a variety of outdoor activities and is within a three-hour drive of several metropolitan centers, including New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. J. Csernica Chair (PhD, M.I.T.) M. D. Gross (PhD, Pennsylvania) Electrochemistry and fuel cell, catalysis E. L. Jablonski (PhD, Iowa Stte) W. E. King (PhD, Pennsylvania) Photodynamic therapy, hemodialysis J. E. Maneval (PhD, U.C. Davis) NMR methods, membrane and novel separations M. J. Prince (PhD, U.C. Berkeley) Environmental barriers, instructional design T. M. Raymond (PhD, Carnegie Mellon) Atmospheric science, organic aerosols, air pollution R. C. Snyder (PhD, U.C. Santa Barbara) Conceptual design, crystallization W. J. Snyder (PhD, Penn State) Polymer degradation, kinetics, drag reduction M. A. S. Vigeant (PhD, Virginia) Bacterial adhesions to surfaces B. M. Vogel (PhD, Iowa State) Biomaterials, polymer chemistry K. Wakabayashi (PhD, Princeton) Polymer hybrid materials, sustainable processing For further information, contact Professor Kat Wakabayashi Department of Chemical Engineering

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435 CLARKSON UNIVERSITYDepartment of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering (M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees)The department research areas include reactors; process design and control; plasma processing in condensed media; surface science, colloids, structured materials and self assembly; thin lm deposition and crystallization, membrane processes, chemical mechanical polishing; photovoltaic devices, materials and fabrication; fuel cell design and optimization; air pollutant sampling and analysis, particulate transport and deposition; receptor modeling; soft matter, polymers and biomaterials; separation processes; mass transfer and distillation; and electrochemical biosensors. Research collaboration is enhanced through the following University centers: Center for Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP) Center for Air Resources Engineering & Science (CARES) Center for Rehabilitation Engineering, Science and Technology (CREST) Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSES)For information and applications, apply to: Graduate Committee Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5705 315-268-6650 University does not discriminate on the basis of race, gender, color, creed, religion, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, veteran or marital status in provision of educational opportunity or employment opportunities and benets. Florida A&M University Florida State University COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGBiomass and Energy Processing Plasma Reaction Engineering Cellular and Tissue Engineering Biomedical Imaging Nanoscale Science and Engineering Polymers and Complex Fluids Multiscale Theory, Modeling, and Simulation Research Areas Faculty Biomedical Engineering

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436 PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara PhD, University of Colorado PhD, Wayne State University PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Robert J. Lutz, Visiting Professor PhD, Iowa State University, Ames PhD, University of California, San Diego Howard University, 2300 6 th A mo dern graduate program dedicated to fundamental education and cutting-edge interdisciplinary research on an eighty-nine acre campus in the heart of the Washingto n, DC. Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Program For further information, contact HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering at Wudneh Admassu Synthetic Membranes for Gas Separations, Biochemical Engineering with Environmental Applications Eric Aston Surface Science, Thermodynamics, Microelectronics David Drown Process Design, Computer Application Modeling, Process Economics and Optimization-Emphasis on Food Processing Dean Edwards Autonomous Vehicles, Battery research Lou Edwards Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization Jin Park Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Laboratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma Systems Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel Treatment (Idaho Falls campus) Aaron Thomas Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow, Separations Magnetohydrodynamics Vivek Utgikar Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Chem/Bio Remediation, Kinetics (Idaho Falls Campus) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs The Department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, whitewater rafting, skiing and camping. University of Idaho Graduate Advisor, ChE P.O. Box 441021 Moscow, ID 83844-1021 Or email: Phone: 208885-7572 Web:

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437 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For further information, contact (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University) (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Kansas State University) (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) (Ph.D., Mississippi State University) SIDNEY LIN (Ph.D., University of Houson) (Ph.D., Wayne State University) ( Ph.D., Texas A&M University) (Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science) (Ph.D., Tsinghua University) (Ph.D., University of Houston) Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Master of Environmental Engineering Doctor of Engineering Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Air Quality Modeling, Fluidization Engineering Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Computer-Aided Design, Henrys Law Constant Thermodynamic Properties, Water Solubility Air Pollution, Bioremediation, Waste Minimization Sustainability, Pollution Prevention Fuel Cell Applications Material Processing FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS LAMAR UNIVERSITY rfnt bt rffntf brff rrf bn frf frf btb n btGraduate StudiesM.Sc. and Ph.D. Chemical engeeringtrt tfrf bt ffffr fff rffr ffrf btb ff frff f frrf fffrf btb ffffff rfrf ffff ffrf btb f nffff rffff frf bt f ffrfr rttrf tfffrfbt rfnff f fttf ffrf bt ffr ffff ffrrf ffrf btb f fff tfffb fffrf bt f fbtfff frf btb ff fff fff tftr frf bt f f

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438 Michigan Technological University Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295 Phone: 906/487-3132 Fax: 906/487-3213 Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. Chemical process safety Physics of Chinese Academy of Science, 2004 surroundings of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Michigan Tech is a top-sixty public national university, according to U.S. News and World Report. MTUs enroll ment is approximately 6,300 with 640 graduate students. Amherst, 1988 Amherst, 1988 Technical Communications Biosensors

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439 Enjoying the clear skies and moderate climate of Northern Nevada, UNR is convenient to downtown and only 45 minutes from Lake Tahoe. Biomaterials Biomedical Simulation Process Safety Polymer Engineering Process Control Process Simulation Molecular Simulation Fluidization Faculty Alan Fuchs, Chair (Tufts) Hongfei Lin (Louisiana State University) For on-line application forms and information: Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO Process Design Separation Processes Pollution Prevention Polymers Phase Equilibria Reaction Engineering Renewable Energy Research Areas OSU Oregon State University School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Environmental Engineering For additional information, please visit or call (541) 737-2491 Department Research Areas Michelle Bothwell Biointerfacial Phenomena Bioengineering Ethics Chih-hung Chang Semiconductor Materials, Nanotechnology Integrated Chemical Systems Mark Dolan Biological Remediation of Groundwater Gregory Herman Microreactor Engineering, Solar P.V. Cells, Catalysis Adam Higgins Cell & Tissue Preservation Goran Jovanovic Microscale Chemical & Biosensor Devices Nanotechnology Christine Kelly Biotechnology Shoichi Kimura Reaction Engineering Bioceramics Milo Koretsky Electronic Materials Processing Nanotechnology Keith Levien Process Optimization & Control Supercritical Fluids Technology Joseph McGuire Biointerfacial Phenomena, Biomaterials Jeff Nason Physical/Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Skip Rochefort Polymer Processing, Education & Outreach Gregory Rorrer Biochemical Reaction, Engineering Lewis Semprini Biological Remediation of Groundwater Dorthe Wildenschild Transport Theory & Applications Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Kenneth Williamson Bioengineering, Environmental Systems Brian Wood Transport Theory & Application Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology Alexandre Yokochi Advanced Materials A diversity of faculty interests in the department, broadened and reinforced by cooperation with other engineering depart ments and research centers on campus such as ONAMI Research Center (Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute), Systems, Center for Subsurface Biosphere, and the Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology, makes tailored individual programs possible. Competitive research and teaching assistant ships are available. Oregon State University, located in Corvallis, the heart of the teaching and research. As Oregons Land, Sea, and Space Grant

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440 UNIVERSITY OFRhode IslandGraduate Study in Chemical Engineering (M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees) Current Areas of Interest: Biochemical Engineering (Barnett, Rivero) Bionanotechnology (Bothun) Colloidal Phenomena (Bose) Corrosion (Brown) Environmental Eng. ( Barnett, Gray) Fuel Cells (Knickle) Molecular Simulations (Greenfield) Pollution Prevention (Barnett) Process Simulation (Lucia) Sensors, Forensics, Thin Films (Gregory) For information and applications : See our Website a t : www.egr.uri.ed u/che/Graduate/gradsummary Email: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Department Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology M.R. Anklam, Ph.D., Princeton Interfacial Phenomena, Separations R.S. Artigue, D.E., Tulane Process Control, Micro/Ultrafiltration D.G. Coronell, Ph.D., MIT Reactor Engineering, Materials, Computation M.H. Hariri, Ph.D., Manchester, U.K. Energy, Environment and Safety K.H. Henthorn, Ph.D., Purdue Particle Technology, Microfluidics S.J. McClellan, Ph.D., Purdue Colloidal and Interf acial Phenomena, Drug Delivery A.J. Nolte, Ph.D., MIT Polymers, Surface Science, Materials S.G. Sauer, Ph.D., Rice Thermodynamics A. Serbezov, Ph.D., Rochester Adsorption, Process Control EMERITUS FACULTY C.F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State W.B. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T

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441 Graduate Studies in Chemical and Biological Engineering T he NSF I/UCRC Center for BioEnergy Research and Development, CBeRD ( ; the S.D. 2010 Center for Bioprocessing Resea rch and Development, CBRD, ( ; the Composites and Polymer Engineering Laboratory, CAPE, ( ; and the new $20MM Chemical and Biological Engineering and Chemistry building provide students and faculty state ofthe art rese arch and learning facilities to discover innovations The surrounding Black Hills provide students many opportunities to balance their academic activities with hiking, biking, skiing, snowboarding, camping, hunting, fishing, spelunking, and rock climbing. Faculty and Research Areas For more information, 394 Email: : http:// M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs Ph.D. s tipends up to $32 ,000 per year M i n e s a n d T e c h n o l o g y S o u t h D a k o t a S c h o o l o f Sookie S. Bang (PhD, University of California, Davis) Biocatalyst, b io materials, genomics microbiology Kenneth M. Benjamin (PhD, University of Michigan) Molecular modeling, bioenergy, supercritical/ionic fluids Lew P. Christopher (PhD, Bulgarian Ac. of Sci., Bulgaria) Center for Bioprocessing R&D: biomass to fuels/products David J. Dixon (PhD, University of Texas, Austin) Supercritical fluids, membranes, biomass pretreatment Patrick C. Gilcrease (PhD, Colorado State University ) Biomass conversion, fermentation, coal bed bio methane Jason C. Hower (PhD, University of Washington) Molecu lar modeling bio interfacial phenomena, biosensors Todd J. Menkhaus (PhD, Iowa State University ) Bioseparations, nanofelts, membr anes, biomass processing Jan A. Puszynski (PhD, Inst. of Chem. Tech., Czech. Rep ) Nanotechnology, combustion synthesis, energetic materials David R. Salem (PhD, University of Manchester, U.K.) Polymers, bio/nano composites, p -s-p relationships Rajesh K. S ani (PhD, Panjam Uni versity, India ) Bioremediation, metabolic engineering, biotechnology Rajesh V. Shende (PhD, University of Mumbai, India) Sustainable energy, nanomaterials, thin films, sensors Robb M. Winter (PhD, University of Utah) Polymer composites, nano mechanics surface engineering SYRACUSE UNIVERSITYBIOMEDICAL AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGDepartment of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering 121 Link Hall Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13244 315-443-1931 bmce.syr.eduFACULTY:Rebecca A. Bader Andrew Darling Jeremy L. Gilbert Julie M. Hasenwinkel James H. Henderson John C. Heydweiller George C. Martin Patrick T. Mather Dacheng Ren Ashok S. Sangani Radhakrishna Sureshkumar Lawrence L. Tavlarides RESEARCH AREAS:Biomaterials Biomechanics Complex Fluids Drug Delivery Multiscale Simulation Nanotechnology Polymers Process Analysis Renewable Energy Separations Super Critical Technology Surface Science Tissue Engineering

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442 Reservoir Engineering and Production Reservoir Engineering and Production Process Control and Thermodynamics Gas Hydrates and Thermodynamics Wayne H. King Dept. of Chemical and Natural Gas Engineering Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. Located in tropical South Texas, forty miles south of the urban center of Corpus Christi and thirty miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: JOHN L. CHISHOLM Texas A&M UniversityKingsville Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 Rheology, Oil and Gas Processing Thermodynamics, Physical Property, Measurements, Process Simulation Reaction Engineering and Process Science Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Research Areas Faculty Renewable Fuels Jim Henry, Ph.D., P.E.. 1970, Princeton Process Controls Frank Jones, Ph.D. P.E., 1991, Drexel BioEngineering Tricia Thomas, Ph.D., 1998, CMU Tuition Waivers and Assistantships available Masters: Chemical, Environmental or Computational Engineering Ph.D. in Computational Engineering

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443 Research Areas: Engineering Engineering Engineering Degrees Offered: (M.A.Sc.) Our City: of attractions dens For More Information: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto 200 College Street, Room WB212 Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 Canada Telephone: (416) 946-3987 Email: Research Areas: Chemical and Materials Process Engineering Biomolecular and Biomedical Engineering Bioprocess Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering Informatics Pulp and Paper Surface and Interface Engineering Sustainable Energy Degrees Offered: Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Ph.D. Our City: Vibrant lifestyle and home to a wealth of attractions Safe and clean, with many parks, gardens Culturally and ethnically diverse Excellent location for networking and filled with work opportunities For More Information: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto 200 College Street, Room WB212 Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 Canada Telephone: (416) 946-3987 Email: gradassist.c The Villanova University M.S.Ch.E. and Ph.D. program is designed to meet the needs of both full-time and part-time graduate students. Funding is available to support full-time M.S.Ch.E. students. The part-time program is designed to address the needs of both new graduates and experienced working professionals in the suburban Philadelphia region, which is rich in pharmaceutical and chemical industry. The full-time program is research-based with research projects currently available in the following areas: Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Designs Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering Supercritical Fluid Applications Model-Based Control Industrial Wastewater Treatment Processes Sustainability/Energy For more information, contact: Professor Vito L. Punzi, Graduate Program Director

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444 BROWN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEER ING Major Research Themes Biochemical engineering microfluidics, biodetection, biosensors, biotransport processes, bioseparation processes, disease diagnostics, rheology, physiological fluid mechanics Nanotechnology nanomaterials, nanotoxicology, biological, environmental, and energy applications Environmental and energy technology: electrochemical separations, fluid-particulate systems, heavy metals recovery/remediation, advanced adsorption/ adsorbents, VOCs, vapor infiltration, fuel cells A program of graduate study in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering for the M.Sc. or Ph.D. degree Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and University fellowships are available For further information, email: Professor R.H. Hurt, Graduate Representative Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Progr of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 P ease visit Cleveland State University M.S. Chemical Engineering M.S. Biomedical Engineering D.Eng. Chemical Engineering D.Eng. Applied Biom edical Engineering (in collaboration with The Cleveland Clinic, rated 4th best hospital in the U.S.A.) Research opportunities include: reaction engineering biomaterials process systems engineering orthopaedics thermodynamics BioMEMS materials processing biomechanics bioprocessing cardiovascular devices molecular simulations cardiovascular imaging metabolic modeling biofluids Research is conducted in state-of-the-art labs either at Cleveland State University or at The Cleveland Clinic. Assistantships are available for qualified applicants. For more information contact: Graduate Program Director, Chemi cal and Biomedical Engineering Department, Cleveland State Un website: University of Dayton MS in Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Materials Engineering PhD in Materials Engineering For additional information contact us: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0246 (937) 229-2627 chemical_and_materials/index.php Research areas Agitation Biomaterials; Bioprocess Engineering Biosystems Engineering Composite Materials; Surface Sciences Fuel Cells Multifunctional Materials Nano Materials Petroleum Flow Assurance Polymer Science Process Modeling Thermal Management We specialize in offering each student an individualized program of study and research with most projects involving pertinent interaction with industrial personnel