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 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Pedagogy and Some Factors that...
 Integrating Modern Biology into...
 A Nanotechnology Processes Option...
 In Search of the Active Site of...
 Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory:...
 Separations: A Short History and...
 Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary...
 Using Screencasts in ChE Cours...
 Is There Room in the Graduate Curriculum...
 A Teacher's Teacher
 From Numerical Problem Solving...
 Development of Contemporary Problem-Based...
 Graduate Education Advertiseme...






























Chemical engineering education
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date: Fall 2009
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
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This item has the following downloads:

Pedagogy and Some Factors That Influence How We Facilitate Student Learning, Donald R. Woods ( PDF )

Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program, Susan Carson, John R. Chisnell, and Robert M. Kelly ( PDF )

A Nanotechnology Processes Option in Chemical Engineering, Milo D. Koretsky, Alexandre Yokochi, and Sho Kimura ( PDF )

In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership Between a K-12 Teacher, a Graduate K-12 Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor, Katherine K. bearden, Daniela S. Mainardi, and Tanya Culligan ( PDF )

Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research, Daniel Forciniti ( PDF )

Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball, Phillip C. Wankat ( PDF )

Enganging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program, Jia-chi Liang, Shieh-Shiuh Kung, and Yi-ming Sun ( PDF )

Using Screencasts in ChE Courses, John L. Falconer, Janet deGrazia, J. Will Medlin, and Michael P. Holmberg ( PDF )

Is There Room In the Graduate Curriculum To Learn How To Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course, Marc G. Aucoin and Mario Jolicoeur ( PDF )

A Teacher's Teacher, Richard M. Felder ( PDF )

From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales Into the ChE Curriculum, Mordechai Shacham, Michael B. Cutlip, and Neima Brauner ( PDF )

Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects In Particle Technology, Andrew T. Harris ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page 249
    Pedagogy and Some Factors that Influence How We Facilitate Student Learning
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Integrating Modern Biology into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    A Nanotechnology Processes Option in Chemical Engineering
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership between a K-12 Teacher, a Graduate K-12 Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
    Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
    Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Using Screencasts in ChE Courses
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
    Is There Room in the Graduate Curriculum to Learn How to Be a Grad Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
    A Teacher's Teacher
        Page 313
        Page 314
    From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
    Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
    Graduate Education Advertisements
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
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Full Text









chemical engineering education




VOLUME 43 * NUMBER 4 FALL 2009



SPECIAL ISSUE:
V AICHE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION
In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership Between
a K-12Teacher, a Graduate K-12Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor (p. 273)
Bearden, Mainardi, Culligan
c Pedagogy and Some Factors That Influence How We Facilitate Student Learning (p. 250)
- Woods
Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration
,u Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education Program (p. 257)
Carson, Chisnell, Kelly
Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied Research (p. 279)
Forciniti
A Nanotechnology Processes Option in Chemical Engineering (p. 265)
Koretsky, Yokochi, Kimura
>, Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball (p. 286)
� U Wankat
o

F a GRADUATE EDUCATION
E ( Featured article on graduate courses ...
� Is There Room In the Graduate Curriculum To Learn HowTo Be a Grad Student?
.0 An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering Course (p. 306)
_F0 Aucoin, Jolicoeur
0 E ... and articles of general interest
0)
V u Using Screencasts in ChE Courses (p. 302)
.c o Falconer, deGrazia, Medlin, Holmberg
- c 4 Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects In ParticleTechnology (p. 322)
- 4.; Harris
-c _Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a BiomaterialTechnology
E c
a) 0 Program (p. 296)
U Liang, Kung, Sun
E From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation: Incorporating
Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales Into the ChE Curriculum (p. 315)
Shacham, Cutlip, Brauner
Random Thoughts: A Teacher's Teacher (p. 313)
Felder













EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida * Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu

EDITOR
TimAnderson

ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Phillip C. Wankat

MANAGING EDITOR
Lynn Heasley

PROBLEM EDITOR
Daina Britdi,. I1,. ...... - .,.

LEARNING IN INDUSTRY EDITOR
William J. Koros, Georgia Institute - i, . ib....'..- .

- PUBLICATIONS BOARD -

* CHAIRMAN *
John P. O'Connell
University of Virginia
* VICE CHAIRMAN *
C. Stewart Slater
Rowan University
* MEMBERS *
Lisa Bullard
North Carolina State
Jennifer Curtis
University of Florida
Rob Davis
University of Colorado
Pablo Debenedetti
Princeton University
Dianne Dorland
Rowan
Stephanie Farrell
Rowan University
Jim Henry
University of Tennessee, ( i ... * ,
Jason Keith
Michigan Technological University
Suzanne Kresta
University of Alberta
Steve LeBlanc
University of Toledo
Ron Miller
Colorado School of Mines
Lorenzo Saliceti
University of Puerto Rico
Stan Sandler
University of Delaware
Margot Vigeant
Bucknell University


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


Chemical Engineering Education
Volume 43 Number 4 Fall 2009


> GRADUATE EDUCATION
306 Is There Room In the Graduate Curriculum To Learn How To Be a Grad
Student? An Approach Using a Graduate-Level Biochemical Engineering
Course
Marc G. Aucoin and Mario Jolicoeur

> CLASSROOM
302 Using Screencasts in ChE Courses
John L. Falconer, Janet deGrazia, J. Will Medlin, and
Michael P. Holmberg
322 Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects In
Particle Technology
Andrew T. Harris

> RANDOM THOUGHTS
313 A Teacher's Teacher
Richard M. Felder

> SPECIAL SECTION: AICHE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION
250 Pedagogy and Some Factors That Influence How We Facilitate Student
Learning
Donald R. Woods
257 Integrating Modern Biology Into the ChE Biomolecular Engineering
Concentration Through a Campuswide Core Laboratory Education
Program
Susan Carson, John R. Chisnell, and Robert M. Kelly
265 A Nanotechnology Processes Option in Chemical Engineering
Milo D. Koretsky, Alexandre Yokochi, and Sho Kimura
273 In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership Between a
K-12 Teacher, a Graduate K-12 Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor
Katherine K. Bearden, Daniela S. Mainardi, and Tanya (C , i, ,
279 Teaching a Bioseparations Laboratory: From Training to Applied
Research
Daniel Forciniti
286 Separations: A Short History and a Cloudy Crystal Ball
Phillip C. Wankat

> CURRICULUM
296 Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a
Biomaterial Technology Program
Jia-chi Liang, Shieh-shiuh Kung, and Yi-ming Sun
315 From Numerical Problem Solving to Model-Based Experimentation
Incorporating Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales Into the
ChE Curriculum
Mordechai Shacham, Michael B. Cutlip, and Neima Brauner


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division,American Society for EngineeringEducation, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence regarding
editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright � 2008 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for
Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily
those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and availability. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to Chemical Engineering Education, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida, and additional post offices (USPS 101900).

249











r.1I.1 AIChE special section


PEDAGOGY AND SOME FACTORS

THAT INFLUENCE HOW WE FACILITATE

STUDENT LEARNING


DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University * Hamilton Ontario Canada
How might we facilitate student learning? In the 1960s
when I joined academia, I thought I taught students
via lectures with 50 minutes of teach talk. Yes, I tried
to make the lectures interesting, entertaining, and motivating.
Then I joined ASEE and began to realize that many new ap-
proaches were being developed to improve student learning.
In this paper I'll note the publications and major events that
influenced me in my journey to improve student learning.
Then I'll shift gears and give an overview of idealized career
paths of persons who took different approaches to the teaching
dimension of academia. Finally, I'll offer suggestions about
personal actions one might take based on these two perspec-
tives of an overview of pedagogy and options people take in
their career paths.

PEDAGOGY FROM A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE
The documentation of this journey is personal. I may have
missed major pedagogical events and I may highlight ones
that others might find trivial. Some of these may no longer
have an impact but were pedagogy that provided, for me,
important ideas at that time. An asterisk indicates what I
consider to be a resource that should be read today or be on
your bookshelf.
1. The publication of Bloom's Taxonomy.Ell This taxonomy
is a structured list representing increasing level of difficulty
in learning in the cognitive domain. This has been revised by
Anderson, et al.I21 Such a classification is extremely helpful
in analyzing the degree of difficulty expected in a task. For
example, on an exam students should be given a chance to
demonstrate an ability to do tasks of varying levels, rather than
assigning only tasks at Bloom's level 6. Similarly, students can
use such a taxonomy to monitor their growth. For the affective
domain, a similar taxonomy has been developed.[3]*


2. McKeachie's book on Teaching Tips..[] McKeachie pro-
vided the basics for all new teachers (and continues to provide
ideas for experienced teachers). The current edition continues
to provide great insight on just about any topic.*
3. Annual workshops on pedagogy at ASEE meetings
by such people as Lois Greenfield, Gus Root, Helen Plants,
and Jim Stice. In the 1960s, only a few sessions related to
pedagogy were offered by theAIChE. Now, that has changed.
Indeed, if we want to interest those faculty whose major
concern is research in chemical engineering, then having ses-
sions at the AIChE conference is the way to introduce them to
ideas about how to improve teaching. These research-oriented
individuals are unlikely to attend ASEE. For those interested
in improving student learning we can be inspired by the pre-
sentations at ASEE and AERA conferences.
4. In the late 1960s the major event was Ray Fahien's
leadership with Chemical Engineering Education. Ray turned
this journal into a major resource for those of us concerned
about scholarship in teaching. Keep up-to-date by reading
this important publication.*


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Chemical Engineering Education


Donald R. Woods is professor emeritus of
chemical engineering at McMaster University.
He received his B.Sc. from Queen's Univer-
sity, his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University
of Wisconsin, and worked for seven different
industries before joining McMaster University
in 1964. His research interests are in process
design, cost estimation, surface phenomena,
problem-based learning, assessment, improv-
ing student learning, and developing skill in
problem solving, troubleshooting, group and
team work, self assessment, change manage-
ment, and lifetime learning.










In the '70s...
5. The McMaster Medical School's introduction of small-
group, self-directed, self-assessed, interdependent PBL
started in the late 1960s, with their first class of graduates
in 1972. They created their own Center for Teaching (called
the Program for Educational Development) that ran frequent
"Education Rounds," published in-house reports, and gave in-
house workshops. I was lucky that this occurred on campus,
and I could learn details about their approach. But, it wasn't
until 1980 when Howard Barrows and Robyn Tamblyn pub-
lished Problem-Based Learning: An Approach to Medical
Education[15 that others had better access to this approach.
The cognitive and psychological basis is summarized by
Henk Schmidt and by Norman and Schmidt.J61 This was still
limited, however, because for McMaster's Medical School: a)
one admission criteria included performance in a PBL session
(whereas students in most programs were admitted based pri-
marily on marks); b) students admitted to the medical school
were usually graduates of other undergraduate programs
(and were therefore three to four years more mature than our
engineering students); c) the whole program was PBL so that
one faculty tutor could be assigned to a group of five students
(whereas in engineering one faculty member would have a
class of about 30 to 100 students); and d) most of the mate-
rial was developed in the context of health sciences. Hence,
attractive as this pedagogical approach might be, major modi-
fications were needed to make it effective in our engineering
classrooms. Today, there are many resources to help guide its
implementation into different environments.7- 9]
6. In the late '60s and early '70s William Perry published his
ground-breaking analysis of Forms of Intellectual and Ethical
Development in the College Years.11I It took about 10 years,
however, for the impact of this research to take effect. First,
the initial approach to helping students understand their "Perry
level" required trained professional analysis of essays. It wasn' t
until the '80s when people like Bill Moore established the
Perry Network, Dick Culver gave workshops, and Bill Moore,
Peggy Fitch, and Joanne Gainen created easy-to-use diagnostic
tests81 that the classroom use of the Perry inventory became
more extensive. This inventory helps students (and faculty)
identify the attitudes the students hold related to the teaching
and learning process. For example, students with a Perry level
of 2, when placed in a PBL environment, react by saying "the
professor isn't doing his/her job; they are not teaching', me." An
inventory more related to developing reflective judgment and
critical thinking has been developed by King and Kitchener.11]
Rich Felder's article "Meet Your Students: 7. Dave, Martha,
and Roberto," Chem. Eng. Education, 31(2), 106-107 (Spring
1997), describes three students at different levels of Perry's
Model of Intellectual Development. This can be downloaded
from Rich's Web site.I381
7. The Ontario University Program for Instructional Devel-
opment in the 1970s provided financial support for peda-


gogical projects; they had annual retreats and had external
evaluation. In Canada at that time this was a very rare event.
The OUPID program was described by Elrick.J121 At that time,
we were interested in developing process skills (sometimes
called soft, generic, procedural, or higher-order thinking
skills) and our research was to learn how best to teach such
skills as communication, problem solving, and teamwork.
The results from our research were published.[131 In terms of
process skills, one of the most challenging pedagogical issues
is how best to develop confidence and skill (because lectur-
ing was ineffective) in this domain. Conger's publications in
the late '60s and early '70s for the Saskatchewan Newstart
Program were an excellent resource.[141
8. A major key for learning is to have well-written, pub-
lished learning goals. N l.ig i 1' Kibler, et al.,[161 and Johnson
and Johnson[171 provided excellent guidelines as to how to
write learning objectives. These guidelines were the basis
for developing the Keller plan for Personalized System of
Instruction (PSI), or "Individualized Instructional Material."
As an aside, we used their ideas in creating our workshop to
develop students' skill in creating learning objectives as part of
self-assessment. This is part of the McMaster Problem Solving
program.[13] Well-written learning objectives are still a critical
part of any learning activity. Johnson and Johnson,[171 Kibler,
et al.,[161 or A laigi ' ' remain my best resources.*
9. Alverno College's program for the eight abilities. 18l In
the mid 1970s Alverno College, Milwaukee, WI, published a
list of the eight abilities as outcomes for all their programs.
These abilities were effective communication, analytical
capability, problem-solving ability, facility in forming value
judgments, effective social interaction, understanding of
individual/environmental relationships, understanding the
contemporary world, and educated responsiveness to the arts
and humanities. For each ability they published six goals/
learning objectives. They trained students in self-assessment
and created a separate assessment office where students could
demonstrate their abilities. This revolutionary approach was,
and remains, unique. I was lucky enough to be hosted by
Dean Austin Doherty who graciously shared materials and
helped me see how I could apply some of their approaches
at McMaster. Alverno created a separate program-evaluation
unit to evaluate the effectiveness of their approach.[191 I would
encourage everyone to learn as much about their program
as they can by attending their workshops and reading their
publications. Their work on self-assessment is superb.*
10. In the 1970s, Keller's personalized system of instruc-
tion/self-directed learning was anew approach. This prompted
workshops, such as Lee Harrisberger's workshops on Indi-
vidualized Learning Management or Self-Paced Instruction
(e.g., in Ontario such a workshop was held at the University
of Guelph in 1974).[201 Background about this approach, and
variations on it, continue to be used, and the principles can
assist the development of distance-learning modules.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










11. A variation of the Personalized System of Instruction
was Charlie Wales and Bob Stager's publications and work-
shops on Guided Design.[21] They produced a facilitated form
of problem-based learning for large groups where autonomous
groups of students are given written/guided tasks to do. They
have created several great resources: two books for freshman
engineering courses (including an instructor's guide) and a
guide for new faculty on how to facilitate student learning
via guided design. The book is written as a guided-design
format. They build their learning process around an 11-step
decision-making process. I was fortunate enough to participate
in several of Charlie's workshops, and the published material
can be used to help craft PBL activities.
12. Craig Hogan introduced me to his research on Jungian
Typology.["22 This inventory provided students with a rich
understanding of individual uniqueness and their particular
style in learning, deciding, and interacting. This inventory is
similar to the Myers Briggs Typological Inventory (MBTI)
and the Kearsey Bates inventory. [231 We included this as part
of the MPS units on Personal Uniqueness and on Learning
Skills.[13 I recommend that this be included in all programs as
the first step, following Bandura's model for self-efficacy,[241
in helping students develop self confidence.*
13. Robert Karplus 251 created workshops including activi-
ties to develop reasoning. The activities available are in the
subject domains of general science, physics, biology, and
chemistry. Again the pedagogical underpinnings illustrate
the use of active learning.
14. Jack Lochhead conferences. 261 In the mid 1970s Jack
organized a conference on teaching reasoning, problem
solving and critical thinking. He brought together key psy-
chologists and researchers in the area of cognitive thinking
(including Dorothea Simon, Jill Larkin, Alan Schoenfeld, Fred
Reif, Art Whimbey, John Clement, and Moshe Rubinstein).
Fortunately, I was included. This was a very steep learning
curve for me because these researchers were using terminol-
ogy and concepts that were new. It also was a great networking
opportunity. I came away with reprints and ideas that provided
a strong pedagogical basis for developing problem-solving
skills. Additional conferences were held. A recommendation
is to interact with colleagues in the cognitive and behavioral
sciences and base your in-class interventions on pedagogically
sound principles (and not gut feelings).
15. The creation of Centers for Teaching and the gradual
introduction of internal grants to support this activity at
various universities. Some, like the one at the University of
Michigan, were established very early. At McMaster Uni-
versity Drs. Alan Blizzard and Dale Roy, of the Instructional
Development Centre, helped me immensely by TV-taping
my class and providing ;..-. wk. feedback, bringing excellent
workshop leaders to campus and alerting me to new develop-
ments. Frequent your Center for Teaching.*


16. Various newsletters were published on developing
problem-solving skills and teaching (the Franklin Institute
Press Problem Solving newsletter; McMaster University's
PS News, and the HERDSA newsletter).
17. The Pfeiffer collection of practical workshops to
develop soft skills.J271 This is an excellent guide for ac-
tive workshops on a wide variety of topics. I consult this
resource often.
18. The publications of and workshops given by David
Boud, Graham Gibbs, and Alan Jenkins that brought a
European and Australian perspective. In Canada with
the Commonwealth connection, we were fortunate to have
visiting educators from the U.K. and Australia who presented
workshops.[28]
19. Engineering Practice Introductory Course Sequence,
EPICS, program at Colorado School of Mines.
20. AIChE's subcommittee on Education Projects and the
increasing number of sessions from Group 4a at the annual
meetings. Jud King's leadership; Ed Eisen's annual surveys
of "how to teach (subject)," the practice schools. These activi-
ties may not have had much emphasis on pedagogy but they
provided very useful resources.
21. The creation of the Annals in Engineering Educa-
tion as a split off from Engineering Education to focus on
scholarship.

For the 1980s
22. The Jossey-Bass series New Directions for Teaching
and Learning.[291 This excellent series is in most Centers for
Teaching and provides easy access to the fundamental research
in cognition and behavior upon which to base our efforts.*
23. The creation of the Canadian 3M teaching fellowship
program (1984 onwards) had an immense impact in Canada.
Ten awards are given annually from among 33,000 faculty
across Canada in all disciplines. The criteria are effective
in-class teaching and scholarship in teaching.
24. Marshall Lih and the NSF programs to financially
support educational activities. Again, regrettably Canada does
not have such a program.
25. Edward deBono's book on the Mechanism of the Mind
provided good background material for the MPS creativity
workshop.[131 His Thinking Course and his workshops were
a great resource on how to teach thinking.o30]
26. Chickering and Gamson 311 summarized cognitive
research and suggested that we can improve student learning
by applying seven basics: use cooperation not competition,
expect student success, have clear time on task, account for
your students' different learning styles, provide prompt feed-
back, use active instead of passive environments, and have
extensive teacher-student interaction.*


Chemical Engineering Education










27. Felder and Silverman's learning-style inventory.[321
Rich's articles "Meet Your Students..." illustrate the impli-
cations.[38]*
28. The ASEE Summer Schools initially had negligible
contributions to pedagogy but recently have included more,
for example Rich Felder's contributions to the Denver Sum-
mer School. Throughout the years they have been an excellent
source of how to teach different topics.
29. Noel Entwistle and Paul Ramsden's work on deep,
surface, and strategic learning[331 and their develop-
ment of the Course Perceptions Questionnaire and the
Approaches to Studying Questionnaire.* Dr. Chris
Knapper, of Instructional Development at the University
of Waterloo and later at Queen's University, alerted me to
this research and revised the inventories to North American
terminology.[34] Rich Felder's article "Meet Your Students: 3.
Michelle, Rob, and Art," Chem. Eng. Education, 24(3), 130-
131 (Summer 1990) describes three different approaches to
learning (deep, surface, and strategic), and the conditions
that induce students to take a deep approach. This can be
downloaded from Rich's Web site.[381 A new version of the
Course Experience Questionnaire has been developed to
include process skills.[33]*

In the 1990s
30. Karl Smith's workshops and publications provide
the basics for the use of various types of cooperative
groups.[35]*
31. Wankat and Oreovicz published the excellent text
Teaching Engineering. This text can be downloaded free.
Consult it often. [361*
32. Davidson and Ambrose's book in 1994 for young
f.at uli -1
33. John Prados and Stan Proctor's initiative with ABET
2000 criteria. Sadly, the Canadian Accreditation is still bean
counting.
34. Web sites: Rich Felder has an excellent Web site from
which you can download a rich set of resources.[38]* Another
excellent Web source is the Society for Teaching and Learn-
ing in Higher Education (Canada) STLHE electronic mail
forum. Use this forum to pose questions, follow discussions
and keep up-to-date.[391*
35. In physics, Hestenes, Wells, and S.ti khiani.i''"1 de-
veloped an inventory to test a student's understanding of the
concept of "force." Steif and Dantzler[411 created a concept in-
ventory for statics. Ron Miller, of Colorado School of Mines,
has developed three excellent concept inventories related
to thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics.[421*
Such inventories can be used to evaluate the effectiveness
of various learning environments as done, for example, by
Hake. [431


36. At McMaster University several methods are used to
recognize an emphasis on improving student learning.
These include The McMaster Student Union annual awards
for teaching and for lifetime achievement; the President's
Awards for educational leadership, for resource preparation
and for in-class teaching; and the Teaching Wall of Fame
display. The University of Guelph took the initiative in 2000
to give an honorary D.Sc. for scholarly contributions in teach-
ing and learning. They also have a Visiting Teaching Fellow
program. What options does your university offer to celebrate
excellence in teaching?*
37. John Heywood's book is a monumental summary of
Research and Development in Curriculum and Instruction in
Engineering Education.441 * Heywood surveys and critiques
papers that have been published in engineering education.
Keep this reference book handy for good ideas.*
38. The series of five papers on "The Future of Chemical
Engineering Education" published in Chemical Engineering
Education.[45]* Papers 2 and 3 in this series are a convenient
summary of ways to improve student learning.
39. The National Survey of Student Engagement, NSSE.[461
This North American survey provides data about: a) the level
of academic challenge (based on mainly Bloom's Taxonomy
plus length of assignment); b) active and collaborative learn-
ing; c) student-faculty interaction (includes elements of talk-
ing to faculty outside of class, receiving prompt feedback, and
working on committees with faculty); d) enriching educational
experience; and e) supportive educational experiences. Data
are given for freshman and for seniors. The 95th and 5th
median data are published on the Web for DRU research-
intensive universities at three different categories (very high
activity, high, and doctoral). Data are also given directly to the
participating institutions. The questions can be downloaded
so that you could use the same questions to gather data at the
course, department, and faculty levels. Extensive norm data
are available.*

SO WHAT?
1. Your pedagological journey will be different from mine.
However, some common elements will probably include: #1
Bloom's Taxonomy; #6 Perry's inventory; #8 how to create
learning objectives or goals; #12 and #27, learning-style
inventories; #15 draw on the expertise of the professionals
in your Center for Teaching; #26 Chickering and Gamson's
seven principles; and #38 the "Future of Engineering Educa-
tion" series of papers.
2. Base what you do on the cognitive fundamentals. I was
lucky to have been invited to Lochhead's conferences. Oth-
erwise it would have been very difficult for me. Not all of us
may be this lucky. So, ideally, attend the AERA conference.
Second best is to borrow the Jossey-Bass series from your
Center for Teaching. Next, at theAIChE conference we might


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










annually sponsor a session on "State of the Art for Learning"
to which we would invite three noted researchers from cogni-
tive or behavioral sciences to present one-hour overviews.
3. I've noted some resources that you might want to add
to your bookshelf. I also think the dual perspective of U.S.-
based innovations and Canadian-based innovations is useful.
Some are similar but some are not. For example, the 3M and
the hon. D.Sc. are, I think, mainly Canadian stuff (that would
be nice to see in the United States), and we also have a rich
set of workshops (either at our universities or our national
STLHE conferences) that draw from the U.K. and Australian
connections. On the other hand ABET, NSF funding, AIChE,
and ASEE are really strong U.S. elements that I wish we had
in Canada.
Consider now some possible career paths.

POSSIBLE CAREERS PATHS
From my experience as a consultant, as a member of the
Promotions and Tenure Committee, as departmental and
program chair, as expert witness in a law case, and as refer-
ence for candidates seeking promotion at a wide variety of
universities, I offer five imaginary career paths of individuals.
These faculty place different emphasis on pedagogy. Although
these are imaginary, they are a relatively realistic snapshot of
life for research-intensive universities around 2008. Michelle,
Hector, Janice, David, and Frances are from different chemical
engineering departments.
Michelle
Michelle focused on chemical engineering research. She
tried to be a good supervisor and teacher but her emphasis
was on her research. She published about 10 papers/annum
and received the most external grants of any of her colleagues.
Her research papers won awards. For in-class teaching, her
student course ratings were below the average but not disas-
trous. She never attended any workshops to improve teaching.
She was described as "a good solid lecturer." She had trouble
writing a Teaching Dossier but, with the help of her mentor,
her dossier was satisfactory.
Michelle was promoted to Full Professor two years in
advance.
Hector
Hector's research in reaction kinetics was going well. He
received good grants and some industrial sponsorship. He
produced about two refereed publications per year. Hector
likes to teach and is rated as one of his department's bet-
ter teachers. Active learning is something he uses in all his
classes and the students respond very positively. He attends
most student events throughout the year. Occasionally visiting
faculty from other universities come to talk to Hector about
his teaching. Hector attends many of the seminars given by
the Center for Teaching.
Hector was promoted to Full Professor on time.
254


Janice
Janice loved to teach; she really wants her students to learn.
As soon as she was granted tenure, she ceased applying for
research grants in her specialty of process control and phased
out her graduate students. Yes, she continued to be a member
of supervisory committees and tried to keep up-to-date with
developments in process control. But her focus was on being
an outstanding teacher, and outstanding she was. Her students
raved about her courses, visitors came to sit in on her classes,
she won numerous student teaching awards for her in-class
teaching. Her skill seemed to come naturally; she rarely con-
sulted with colleagues in the Center for Teaching nor did she
attend conferences or read educational journals.
Janice remained an Associate Professor for all her career.
Indeed, she was encouraged to assume a heavy teaching load
because "the students love her."
David
David was a terrific performer in class. "Spellbinding,"
"fun," "tops in entertainment and you learned too"-these
are some of the student accolades. He annually won the top
awards from the students. David frequents the Center for
Teaching and gives many popular workshops. He publishes
papers describing teaching tips, approaches he uses in the
classroom, and how to interest students in any topic. The
paper are published in refereed journals.
In addition, David has a research group in nanotechnology.
He receives good funding and usually has one master's and
one Ph.D. student.
When David was considered, "on time," for promotion
to Full Professor the committee turned down his promotion
because "we normally expect 10 refereed publications. David
has five refereed in nanotechnology. He also has five papers
in education, but in neither field-nano or education-does
David have a full 10.
Frances
Francis loves to teach and wants to measure the effective-
ness of her classroom interventions. She also is a skilled
researcher and decided to apply her research skills to teaching.
She selected cooperative learning and self-assessment as her
two areas of specialization.
After she attended Karl Smith's workshops at an ASEE
meeting, she returned to campus and immediately introduced
cooperative learning into both her undergraduate and graduate
courses. Her student evaluations plummeted. In consultation
with the Center for Teaching she realized that, when introduc-
ing new approaches, she needed to rationalize the choice to the
students, and use class ombudspersons to continually monitor
the quality of the teaching-learning team. Subsequently her
student ratings increased dramatically. Frances is rated one
of the better teachers in the department. To evaluate the ef-
fectiveness of her methods she gathered pre- and post-data
using Miller's concept inventories and compared her results
Chemical Engineering Education











with the performance of students in conventional lecture
classes. She also gathered data from the Course Perceptions
Questionnaire and from NSSE. Frances publishes about three
refereed papers/annum about her research-in-teaching. She
receives grants from NSF to support her educational research.
Her scholarly papers have won awards, and she is frequently
asked to give seminars about cooperative learning or about
self-assessment.

Frances's case for promotion to Full Professorship has
been delayed for two years. In discussing this with the provost
the provost admitted that the P&T committee has difficulty
assessing the quality of the refereeing system used by the
educational journals in which she published. "We know about
Chemical Engineering Science and about the AIChE Journal
but how rigorous are journals like Assessment and Evaluation
in Higher Education? The committee will reconsider your
case next year."


SO WHAT?
In summary from these cases, most institutions are re-
search-oriented and know how to measure effectiveness
in chemical engineering research. P&T committees, and
administrators tend to be learning about, but remain un-
convinced and uncertain about, research-in-teaching. We
need to demonstrate that refereed journals, such as Assess-
ment and Evaluation in Higher Education, are equivalent
in reviewing standards to Chemical Engineering Science,
for example. More details on how faculty and adminis-
trators might address the issues raised in these cases are
available.[34]
Faculty are learning that research-in-teaching requires well-
designed evaluation of pedagogical interventions. In the past
we have incorrectly tended to use "they liked it" and "I liked
it" evaluation. We tended to "diddle around" trying different
things in the classroom without evaluating their effectiveness.
We published refereed papers describing what we did in the
classroom, as David did, instead of measuring the effective-
ness. We should apply our well-developed research skills to
evaluate our approaches to teaching.

SUMMARY
From this view of activities in different countries, the evolu-
tion of a rich set of pedagogical ideas and a brief look at career
paths of persons placing different emphasis on pedagogy, here
are my top three recommendations.
1. Personal, starts with you. You can have a major impact.
2. Look beyond the United States, beyond AIChE and
ASEE, and learn from what others have done. Arrange a
three-day visit with educators in your area of specialization.
Visit your Center for Teaching often.
3. Have a realistic understanding of your local P&T system;
if you don't get tenure you can't teach.
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


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2. Anderson, L.W, D.R. Krathwohl, P.W Airasian, K.A. Cruikshank,
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4. McKeachie, W.J., Teaching Tips: A Guidebookfor the Beginning Col-
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8. Woods, D.R., Problem-Based Learning: How to Gain the Most From
PBL, Woods, Waterdown, Canada (1995). This book is written for
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you can download three books Preparing for PBL, Problem-Based
Learning: Resources to Gain the Most From PBL, and Problem-Based
Learning: Helping Your Students Gain the Most From PBL.
9. De Graff, E., and A. Kolmos, Management of ( o .. Implementa-
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10. Perry, WVG., Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the
College Years, a Scheme, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston (1970)
11. King, PM., and K.S. Kitchener, The Development of Reflective Judg-
ment in Adolescence and Adulthood, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. And
"Reflective Judgment Scoring Manual" from Reflective Judgment
Associates (1994)
12. The Ontario Universities Program for Instructional Development,
Elrick, M., "Improving Instruction in Universities: A Case Study
of the Ontario Universities Program for Instructional Development
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(1990)
13. Woods, D.R., etal., "Developing Problem-Solving Skills: the McMaster
Problem-Solving Program, "J. of Engineering Education, 86(2)75-91
(1997). For faculty, see htm> and visit the MPS site where we are gradually posting details
about the MPS units.
14. Conger, S., Life Skills Coaching Manual, Department of Manpower and
Immigration, Prince Albert, Sask (1969 to 1973); S. Conger, Readings
in Life Skills, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Prince Albert,
Sask (1973); J. Hearn, More Life Skills, Employment and Immigration
Commission, Ottawa (1981)
15. Mager R., Preparing Educational Objectives, Fearon Publishers, San
Francisco (1962); 3rd Ed., (1997)
16. Kibler, R.J., et al., Objectives for Instruction and Evaluation, Allyn
and Bacon (1974)
17. Johnson, S.R., and R.B. Johnson, Developing Individualized Instruc-
tional Material: A Self-Instructional Material in Itself, Westinghouse
Learning Corporation, New York (1970)
18. Alverno College's program for the eight abilities. Alverno College
Faculty, "Liberal Learning atAlverno"(1976); Doherty, A., T. Riordan,
and J. Roth, (1976). Student Learning: A Central Focus for Institutions
of Higher Education, Alverno College Institute, Wisconsin (2002)

255












19. Mentkowski, M., etal., "Learning that Lasts, "Jossey-Bass, SanFran-
cisco (2000)
20. Grayson, L.P, and J.M. Biedenbach, Individualized Instruction in
Engineering Education, ASEE, Washington DC (1974); "Keller Plan,"
see Billy V. Koen, Chpt. 4 in Grayson and Biedenbach; Harrisberger,
Lee, "The Management of Individualized Instruction Program, "Chpt.
8 in Grayson and Biedenbach.
21. Wales, C.E., R.A. Stager, and T.R. Long, "Guided Engineering Design:
Project Book," West Publishing Co. (1974); ibid, "Guided Engineer-
ing Calculations" (1974); C.E. Wales, R.A. Stager, "Guided Design"
(1977); "Educational Systems Design"(1973); C.E. Wales, "The Sys-
tems Approach: an introduction" Chpt. 2 in Grayson and Biedenbach
(1974)
22. Hogan,R.C., andD.W Champagne, i........ I- IcInventory,"(1979);
personal communication, 1979. This is based on Carl Jung's typology.
A popular commercial version of this inventory is called the Myers
Briggs Typology Inventory, MBTI. Another version is published in
Keirsey and Bates' book "Please Understand Me" (23).
23. Keirsey, D., and M. Bates, Please Understand Me: Character and
Temperament Types, Prometheus Nemesis Books, Del Mar, CA(1984)
and 2008. The on-line version uses the same
70 questions as are given in the book pages 5 to 10. Your responses
are scored and you may download free your "major type" from among
Guardians, Idealists, Rationals, and Artisans. Keirsey includes four
Jungian types in each of his four categories. These differ in name
between the Web results and the book. For example, the "Guardian"
includes ESTJ, ISFJ, ISTJ, and ESFJ. To obtain more details about the
type from the Web version requires payment. Comment: the 70 ques-
tions offer either yes or no answers whereas Hogan's version allows
you to distribute a numeral from 0 and 5 between the two options (as
long as the total is 5). Thus, in question 1 from Keirsey, "at a party do
you (a) interact with many, including strangers or (b) interact with a
few, known to you. "Keirsey expects an either-or answer. I might prefer
(a) 3 and (b) 2, meaning that I usually prefer meeting new people but
I certainly enjoy visiting with known friends. Furthermore, Hogan's
version provides a numerical value between 0 and 40. Thus a score of
20 on the NS scale would suggest that I am either N or S; whereas a
30 N, 10 S would suggest I am rather strongly N. I prefer the Hogan
version.
24. Bandura, A., "Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency," The
American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147 (1982). Bandura, A., Social
Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1986)
25. Karplus, R., "Science Teaching and the Development of Reasoning:
General Science" a workshop, Lawrence Hall of Science, University
of California, Berkeley, CA (1977)
26. Lochhead, J. and J. Clement "Cognitive Process Instruction: Research
on Teaching Thinking Skills, "The Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia
(1979); D. Tuma and E Reif, Problem Solving and Education: issues
in teaching and research, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale
(1980)
27. Pfeiffer, J.W., and J.E. Jones, A Handbook of Structured Experiences
for Human Relations Training, vols I to VII and reference guide to
handbooks and annuals, 3rd Ed., University Associates, La Jolla, CA
(1979)
28. Example publications from these authorities include Gibbs, Graham
(1992) "Teaching More Students: volumes 1 to 5", Oxford Brookes
University, Oxford UK; Boud, David (1995) "Enhancing Learning
through Self Assessment", Kogan Page, London
29. Jossey-Bass series (1980 onwards) the series New Directions for
Teaching and Learning, about 4 new volumes per year. Jossey-Bass,
San Francisco, CA
30. deBono, E., Mechanism of the Mind, Pelican Books, Harmondsworth,
Middlesex, England (1971) and "deBono's Thinking Course" BBC,
UK (1982)
31. Chickering, A.W., and Z.E Gamson, "Seven Principles for Good Prac-
tice in Undergraduate Education, "AAHE Bulletin, Mar. 3-7 (1987)


32. Felder, R.M., and L.K. Silverman, "Learning and Teaching Styles in
Engineering Education, "Engineering Education, 78, 674-681 (1988)
and subsequent articles by Rich Felder about the implications.
Stan and Nathan." Chem. Engr. Education, 23(2), 68-69 (Spring
1989)
Susan and Glenda."( I ..... i , ,,........ 24(1), 7-8 (Winter 1990).
The sequential learner and the global learner on the Felder/Silverman
learning styles model.
Jill and Perry. "Chem. Engr. Education, 25(4), 196-197 (Fall 1991).
The judger and the perceiver on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Edward and Irving. "Chem. Engr. Education, 28(1), 36-37 (Winter
1994). The extravert and the introvert on the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator
Tony and Frank."( I..... i ,i.. ..... 29(4), 244-245(Fall 1995).
The thinker and the feeler on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
These articles and the inventory can be downloaded from Felder's Web
site (38).
33. Entwistle, N., and P Ramsden, Understanding Student Learning, Lon-
don: Groom Helm (1983). A new version of the Course Experience
Questionnaire has been developed to include process/generic skills.

34. Woods, D.R., (i ..,il. ......... I "Motivating and Rewarding University
Faculty to Improve Student Learning: A Guide for Faculty and Ad-
ministrators, "The North American versions of Approaches to Studying
Questionnaire and the Course Perceptions Questionnaire are given in
the Appendix of this book.
35. Johnson, D.W, R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith, Active Learning: Coopera-
tion in the College Classroom, Interaction Book Co., Edina, MN (1991)
36. Wankat, PC., and ES. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
NY, (1993). Available free as pdf files edu/ChE/AboutUs/Publications/TeachingEng/index.html>
37. Davidson, C.I., and S.A. Ambrose, "The New Professor's Handbook"
Anker Publishing, Boston, MA (1994)
38. Felder, R.H., Web site felder/public/> Sept. 2008
39. Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (Canada)
STLHE; for the forum contact
40. Hestenes, D., M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, "Force Concept Inven-
tory", The Physics Teacher, 30(3) p 141 -158 (1992)
41. Steif, PS., and J.A. Dantzler, "A Statics Concept Inventory: De-
velopment and Psychometric Analysis," J. Eng. Ed., 94(4) 363-371
(2005)
42. Miller, R., Chemical Engineering Department, Colorado School of
Mines, personal communication, 2007
43. Hake, R.R., "Interactive-engagement vs. Traditional Methods: a six
thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory Physics
courses, "American J. of Physics, 66, 64-74 (1998)
44. Heywood, J., Engineering Education: Research and Development in
Curriculum and Instruction, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2005)
45. Series of five papers coauthored by R. Felder, A. Rugarcia, J. Stice
and D. Woods that appeared in Chemical Engineering Education,
2000. These can be accessed via Rich Felder's Web site(38). A. Ru-
garcia, R.M. Felder, J.E. Stice, and D.R. Woods, (2000) "The Future
of Engineering Education," I A Vision for a New Century," Chemical
Engineering Education, 34(1) 16-25; R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, J.E.
Stice and A. Rugarcia (2000) "The Future of Engineering Education,"
II Teaching Methods that work," Chemical Engineering Education,
34(1) 26-36; D.R. Woods R.M. Felder, J.E. Stice andA. Rugarcia Torres
(2000) "The Future of Engineering Education, "III Developing Critical
Skills," Chemical Engineering Education, 34(2) 108-117; J.E. Stice,
R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and A. Rugarcia Torres (2000) "The Future
of Engineering Education," IV Learning How to Teach," Chemical
Engineering Education, 34(2) 118-127; R.M Felder, A. Rugarcia and
J. Stice (2000) "The Future of Engineering Education," V Assessing
Teaching Effectiveness and Educational Scholarship," Chem. Engr.
Education, 34(3), 198-207
46. National Survey of Student Experience 1


Chemical Engineering Education











r.1.1 AIChE special section


Integrating Modern Biology Into the

ChE Biomolecular Engineering Concentration Through a

CAMPUSWIDE CORE LABORATORY

EDUCATION PROGRAM







SUSAN CARSON, JOHN R. CHISNELL, AND ROBERT M. KELLY


North Carolina State University * Raleigh, NC 27695-796
E efforts to infuse modem life sciences concepts into
the traditional chemical engineering curriculum have
accelerated in recent years, giving rise to a "new"
sub-discipline, often referred to as biomolecular engineering.
Chemical engineering programs worldwide have embraced
biomolecular engineering to the point that many departmental
names now include this (or a similar) moniker, reflecting a
commitment to a permanent evolution of the discipline in this
direction. One might argue that we have been here before (i.e.,
biochemical engineering), but the professional and techno-
logical driving forces to embrace biology within engineering
have never been stronger. Our students are very interested in
how biology fits into the chemical engineering "genotype"
and how to prepare themselves for professional opportunities
in the biotechnology arena. As a result, the task before us is
to train students to function at the interface between chemical
engineering and modem biology so that they can contribute to
new emerging technologies ranging from biopharmaceuticals
to biomaterials to bioenergy.
Truth be told, emphasis on the molecular life sciences (and
other molecular sciences as well) has revitalized chemical
engineering and should ultimately reinvent the discipline in
many ways.J1 With all this excitement, however, comes a
significant challenge-how to modify chemical engineering
education so that its critical underpinnings are not slighted
while, at the same time, going beyond a superficial treatment
of the molecular life sciences. In other words: Can a ChE
"educational genotype" be developed that intrinsically and
seamlessly integrates the life sciences? This experiment is
being currently being run at many institutions and requires
rethinking of how chemical engineers are trained. To this end,
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


many creative modifications of the undergraduate curriculum
have been proposed and implemented to include elements
of biology. A major shortcoming typically arises, however:
Given the strong emphasis on sophisticated laboratory skills
associated with the molecular biosciences and the lack of
suitable lab courses and facilities on most campuses to deliver


Susan Carson (center) is the academic coordinator for the North Caro-
lina State University Biotechnology Program, and is a teaching assistant
professor in the Department of Plant Biology. She received her B.S. in
biotechnology from Rutgers University and her Ph.D. in microbiology
and immunology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
She is interested in the scholarship of teaching and learning, as well
as curriculum development.
John R. Chisnell (right) is the assistant director of the North Carolina
State University Biotechnology Program. He received his B.A. in biol-
ogy from the College of Wooster and his Ph.D. in botany from Michigan
State University.
Robert M. Kelly (left) is Alcoa Professor of Chemical and Biomolecu-
lar Engineering at North Carolina State University and director of the
Biotechnology Program. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from
the University of Virginia and Ph.D. from N.C. State, all in chemical
engineering.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009











such training, how can an effective laboratory component
be included? This is actually an issue not only for chemical
engineering departments, but also for life sciences disciplines
that need to provide up-to-date, laboratory-based training in
modem biology for their students.

CORE LABORATORY TRAINING
IN MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY
The expensive and sophisticated nature of laboratory tech-
niques used in molecular biotechnology presents a challenge
to those charged with developing pertinent instructional pro-
grams. In most cases, training along these lines on university
and college campuses happens in a highly decentralized
way: college-by-college, department-by-department, or-for
graduate students-research-lab-by-research-lab. These ap-
proaches seem to work at some level, but they suffer from
several potential problems:
* The required effort and expense to carry out such train-
ing for particular programs can be prohibitive and, in
the end, the results may be ineffective.
* In research labs, student-to-student "instruction" can
propagate incorrect mU, o i. J.i ..,/ , in addition to the
fact that equipment, materials, and supplies intended for
research can be wasted as a consequence of the "learn-
ing curve."
* In isolated > i,,,, . interdisciplinary communication
about new developments and advances in biotechnology
techniques may not happen. Given the expanding array
of disciplines, including biomolecular engineering, that
can benefit from molecular biotechnology skills, decen-
tralized training efforts will fail to capture this potential.

In any case, more effective strategies are needed to offset


inadequate training in
with molecular bio-
technology.
At North Caro-
lina State University
(NCSU), a core labora-
tory facility has been
established and operates
through its Biotechnol-
ogy (BIT) Program
( technology>) to teach
molecular biotechnol-
ogy skills to students
campuswide. This core
facility was originally
made possible by a
unique funding ar-
rangement between
the colleges whose stu-
dents benefited from


the range of lab skills associated


the courses offered. Staffing was funded through a codicil
between five colleges: Agriculture and Life Sciences, En-
gineering, Veterinary Medicine, Natural Resources, and
Physical and Mathematical Sciences. The laboratory in-
strumentation and expendable supplies are covered through
an allocation from a campuswide educational technology
fee, which allows the core facility to provide instruction in
a modem laboratory setting with provision for continuous
updating of instrumentation. The overarching philosophy
of the NCSU BIT Program is that molecular biotechnology
encompasses a spectrum of theoretical knowledge, skills,
and lab techniques needed for advances in modem life sci-
ence research and technology. Molecular biotechnology is
not an end in itself but rather a means of solving problems,
unraveling mechanisms, and developing new technologies
with societal benefit. The NCSU BIT Program is committed
to enriching the base of scientific knowledge and laboratory
skills necessary for genetic manipulation of living things at the
molecular level. It also requires students to address the ethi-
cal issues surrounding biotechnology so that they can decide
for themselves whether the merits of these new capabilities
outweigh the associated risks.

CAMPUSWIDE PARTICIPATION IN THE NCSU
BIT PROGRAM
The NCSU BIT Program currently trains approximately 300
graduate and undergraduate students (as well as some post-
docs, technicians, and faculty) annually, coming from over 35
departments and programs campuswide. The BIT courses are
very popular, and most sections fill each semester. From Fall
2001 through Spring 2008, there have been more than 2,300
enrollments in BIT courses, representing students in most of
the colleges at NCSU (see Table 1). Nomnatriculated students


TABLE 1
Participation by College in NCSU BIT Program (2001-2008)
COLLEGE Lab Course Enrollments' TOTAL %
Graduate Undergrad.
Agriculture and Life Sciences 637 540 1177 54.3
Engineering2 142 454 596 27.5
Lifelong Learning 142 16 158 7.3
Veterinary Medicine 127 0 127 5.9
Physical & Mathematical Sciences 23 36 59 2.7
Natural Resources 24 3 27 1.2
Textiles 7 6 13 0.6
Humanities & Social Sciences 0 5 5 0.2
Management 0 3 3 0.1
Graduate School 3 0 3 0.1
TOTAL 1,105 1,063 2,1683 100.0
1 Does not include 176 enrollments in lecture courses
2 76% of graduate and 93% of undergraduate from ChE
3 Represents 1,239 different students from 39 departments in 10 colleges


Chemical Engineering Education











may take courses through Lifelong Education (LLE); in fact,
part-time students currently employed in North Carolina's
Research Triangle Park (a high-technology research and
development center housing more than 170 companies) are a
growing component through a certificate program. For gradu-
ate students, not surprisingly, 55% of enrollments have been
from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS),
but approximately 17% came from the College of Engineer-
ing (COE). Among undergraduates, approximately 50% of
enrollments were from CALS and 43% were from COE. The
overwhelming majority of students from COE were from the
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, at
both the graduate (76%) and undergraduate (93%) levels.

ACADEMIC FRAMEWORK FOR MOLECULAR
BIOTECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
While students can enroll in specific BIT courses to meet
educational or research objectives, training in molecular
biotechnology is officially recognized through campuswide
academic minors and a certificate program. These are de-
scribed below in brief:
Undergraduate biotechnology minor: Open to all NCSU
undergraduates, across all colleges, and all majors (see
Table 2). The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular


Engineering has developed a biomolecular engineering
concentration, which embeds this biotechnology minor into
the B.S. degree. In addition to the normal ChE classes and
BIT minor, students also take an introductory biology course
(which replaces a chemistry elective), Biochemistry (which
replaces quantitative chemistry), and a course in capstone
biochemical/biomolecular engineering to complete the
concentration. To make space for the concentration in the
curriculum, two elective BIT modules taken for the minor
can be substituted for the second semester of unit operations
lab, and a semester-long, undergraduate research experience
is counted as a technical elective.

Graduate biotechnology minor: Open to all NCSU master's
and doctoral degree candidates that have taken appropriate
prerequisite courses and whose thesis research is in an area
of molecular biotechnology (see Table 2). In addition to
learning molecular biology techniques through lab courses,
students have a unique opportunity to interact with peers in
various disciplines. This has led to interdisciplinary research
collaborations between groups on campus that may not have
otherwise occurred. The interesting thing is that these have
been student-driven. For example, food scientists working
with veterinary medicine students to develop novel drug deliv-
ery methods and chemical biology and chemical engineering


TABLE 2
Requirements for NCSU Biotechnology Minors and Certificate
Requirement Description Undergrad. Graduate Graduate
Minor Minor Certificate
General Biology Introductory biology course that includes coverage of gene X X X
(or equivalent) regulation (i.e., lac operon).
Organic Chemistry Two semesters of organic chemistry X
Manipulation of Intensive molecular cloning laboratory course X
Recombinant DNA (undergraduate level)
(Core Coure)
Core Technologies in Intensive molecular cloning laboratory course X X
Molecular and (graduate level)
Cellular Biology
(core)
Advanced Students choose from courses described below X (2) X (1) X (2)
biotechnology
laboratory modules
Research experience 150 hours of biotechnology research on campus or other molec- X
ular biology-related research
(academic, government, or industrial)
Thesis or dissertation Thesis or dissertation research must utilize molecular biotech- X
nology skills
Faculty representative At least one member of the student's thesis/dissertation com- X
mittee must be a member of the Biotechnology faculty
Lecture electives Upper-level lecture course covering molecular biology topics; X
Examples: Prokaryotic Molecular Genetics, Plant Molecular Bi-
ology, Biochemistry of Gene Expression, Genetic Data Analysis,
Functional Genomics, and Biochemical Engineering
Ethical Issues in Ethics and real-world issues in biotechnology and professional X X
Biotechnology ethics

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 25










students developing novel ways to do microwave-driven bio-
catalysis. 21 Such interactions would likely not have occurred
without the BIT program.
Graduate certificate program in molecular biotechnology:
Instituted in 2005 to provide post-baccalaureate students
with the opportunity to obtain university-recognized creden-
tials in molecular biotechnology, this certificate program is
primarily geared toward nontraditional students who have
already entered the workforce or are seeking to re-enter the
workforce. For example, it provides an excellent opportunity
for traditionally trained, practicing chemical engineers to gain
expertise in molecular biology lab skills. NCSU graduate
students who are not eligible for the graduate minor because
their thesis/dissertation work is not in an area of biotechnol-
ogy are also eligible for the certificate program. Participating
students must have completed all prerequisites (or equivalent)
to a "Core Course" (described below) before acceptance to
the certificate program. The minimum requirements for the
Core Course are a general biology course that covers gene
regulation and DNA replication, and two semesters of Organic
Chemistry. A general microbiology course is recommended
but not required. Prerequisites for the coursework electives
vary, and those prerequisites may be taken after admission
to the certificate program, if necessary. Requirements for
completion of the graduate certificate program are detailed
in Table 2.

WHAT COURSES ARE
OFFERED?
All students begin the pro-
gram by taking a course entitled: --
Core Technologies in Molecular
and Cellular Biology. This Core
Course is a four-credit course
offered annually in both Fall
and Spring semesters, cov-
ers the basics of methods in
recombinant DNA and protein
expression, and serves as the
prerequisite for all of our other
courses.31 It is a semester-long
class that meets each week for
a two-hour lecture and a five-
hour lab. Students completing
this course are awarded our an-
nual BIT Program T-shirt. These
usually are designed around one
of our new modules and have Figure 1. Biotechnology
slogans, such as "BIT happens" Core Course earn the c
or "get bit" (see Figure 1). Fol- left to right: Dr. Scott Wi
lowing completion of the Core biomolecular engineer
Course (or demonstrating prior Professor and Acaden
equivalent training), students can biomolecular engine
Bio


take advanced laboratory courses, referred to as "modules,"
which have the same weekly two-hour lecture, five-hour
lab periods, but are only two credits and last only one-half
semester. Students are able to mix and match modules ac-
cording to their interests. Most of these have only the Core
Course as a prerequisite-this structure creates sufficient
flexibility for students campuswide to pursue the graduate
and undergraduate minors. Most of the courses are offered at
both graduate and undergraduate levels. In general, students
who take courses for undergraduate credit are expected to
master techniques and concepts covered in the course, and
to be able to analyze data and troubleshoot experiments gone
awry. Students taking the courses for graduate credit have
the additional expectation of being able to develop their own
experiments and protocols in the area covered in the course.
Advanced undergraduates are able to take graduate-level
courses by special permission. Brief descriptions of course
content are provided in Table 3.

WHO TEACHES THE LAB COURSES?
Since we are a program, and not a department, one of the
most common questions asked of us is: "Who teaches these
courses?" The answer is that instructors are recruited from
across campus and are at different career stages, but they
have certain things in common: 1) they are volunteers and


(BIT) Program T-Shirts: Students successfully completing the
current year's version of the NCSU BIT Program T-shirt. From
itherow, teaching postdoc; Rosemary Le, current chemical and
ng undergraduate; Biotechnology Program Teaching Assistant
iic Coordinator Dr. Sue Carson; Diana Bisbee, chemical and
ring graduate (now employed at Biogen Idec); Melissa Cox,
technology Program laboratory manager.
Chemical Engineering Education












not required to teach our classes; 2) they have expertise in
the area of instruction, both conceptual and at the bench; and,
3) they have a strong desire and ability to teach sophisticated
modem biology lab techniques effectively. The majority of


our instructors are tenured or tenure-track faculty from a
variety of departments and colleges. Their home departments
receive "credit hours tamglu" for the classes they offer, thus
the instructors' department heads are typically supportive of


TABLE 3
Course Offerings in NCSU Biotechnology Program
Core Technologies of Sub-cloning a gene into an expression vector; screening for positive transformants by a variety of methods includ-
Molecular and Cellular ing DNA preparation, ligation and transformation, PCR, restriction mapping, colony hybridizations with DNA
Biology* and monoclonal antibody prob,es, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting; and purification of recombinant protein by
affinity chromatography.
RNA Interference and History and application of RNAi technology; design of experiments to silence gene expression in various organ-
Model Organisms isms; assessing extent of silencing; use of online tools for design of RNA silencing constructs to knockdown
mammalian protein expression; advantages and disadvantages of model organisms; proficiency using Nicotiana
benthamiana tobacco plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammalian cell culture.
Phenotypic Analysis of Phenotypic parameters that can be measured to characterize a mutant or transgenic plant line; methods and tech-
Transgenic Plants nologies that can be used for these characterizations.
Genetic Engineering of Importance of filamentous fungi and yeast in biotechnology and as research tools; manipulation and growth of
Eukaryotic Microbes these eukaryotic organisms "in vitro"; genetic transformations of fungi; creation and analysis of mutant strains;
expression of heterologous proteins in yeast.
Fermentation of Recombi- Small-scale fermentations of recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisae; factors affecting gene
nant Microorganisms expression and protein production.
Protein Purification Chromatography techniques for protein purification, including ion exchange, hydroxyapatite, hydrophobic inter-
action, gel flitration, affinity; purification tables constructed based on SDS-PAGE analysis, enzyme assays, and
protein concentration.
Protein-Protein Interac- Basic concepts and techniques involved in the study of protein-protein interactions, including the yeast-2-hybrid
tions system, pull-down assays, and immunoprecipitation.
Proteomics Introduction to the theory and practice of proteomics, analysis of microbial proteomes, statistical data analysis,
MS fundamentals.
Mutagenesis Site-directed mutagenesis by a variety of methods in multiple organisms.
Plant Tissue Culture and Basic techniques in plant tissue culture and transformation in model plant species and agriculturally important
Transformation plants.
Animal Cell Culture Culture of embryonic stem cells; establishment and maintenance of large-scale eukaryotic cell culture for protein
Techniques production.
Advanced Animal Cell Culture of embryonic stem cells; establishment and maintenance of large-scale eukaryotic cell culture for protein
Culture production.
Genome Mapping Basic techniques in genetic and physical mapping; principles of DNA marker development, marker detection,
genetic and physical mapping; DNA sequencing.
DNA Microarrays Array design and printing; principles of data analysis and data mining using data acquired from actual experi-
ments; importance of controls and statistical significance; global controls of gene expression.
RNA Purification and Isolation of RNA and quantification by spectrophotometry, and analysis by gel electrophoresis; northern blotting
Analysis and non-radioactive labeling and detection by chemiluminescence.
Real Time PCR Real-time PCR theory, techniques, machinery, troubleshooting, tools, and advanced protocols, such as multiplex-
ing and SNP analysis.
Ethical issues in Biotech- Discuss and debate controversial topics in biotechnology.
nology **
Computer Analysis of DNA Databases (particularly NCBI/GenBank) for finding homologs of genes and proteins of interest; tools commonly
Sequences ** used in DNA analysis software packages.
Research Ethics ** Seminar/discussion of research ethics topics including authorship, animal/human subjects, bioethics, intellectual
property, and research fraud.
Capstone Biotechnology ** Molecular biotechnology-related research seminars by academic/industrial speakers; stock market competition;
interdisciplinary group design project.
Professional Seminar/discussion of topics related to career development, including public speaking, grant writing, CVs, post-
Development ** doc opportunities, attending scientific meetings, interviewing skills.
* Manipulation and Expression ofRecombinant DNA: A Laboratory Manual, 2E, was developed for this course (1)
** Lecture format only


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










the arrangement. Some of our instructors are research faculty
members or research associates. These are individuals with
doctoral degrees whose appointment at the university is
primarily research but who have interest in developing their
teaching skills to prepare them for academic appointments.
They teach courses on a semester-by-semester basis and we
"buy" some of their time to be dedicated to instruction. We
also have one teaching assistant professor whose appointment
is to teach for the Biotechnology Program and to serve as
academic coordinator. Finally, we employ one to two teaching
postdoctoral fellows (see below).
This instructional model has allowed us to maintain instruc-
tors with a high level of energy, expertise, and enthusiasm.
One of the benefits to teaching in our program is that all of the
students are there because they want to be, thus creating a very
stimulating educational environment. Graduate teaching as-
sistants are typically recruited from the labs of the instructors
-these are the people who use the techniques and technology
on a daily basis and bring a very positive and essential element
to the courses. Course evaluations are routinely very positive
-no doubt the product of interested instructors and teaching
assistants teaching interested students.

CHALLENGES FACING CAMPUSWIDE
LABORATORY INSTRUCTION
Campuswide programs focusing on life sciences face some
unique challenges due to their interdisciplinary nature. Dis-
cussed below are some that we have faced.
Prerequisites: In a given class in the NCSU BIT Program,
we have students from majors ranging from chemical engineer-
ing to plant biology to textiles to microbiology to veterinary
medicine. Because we are a campuswide core laboratory edu-
cation facility and our mission is to train students from diverse
disciplines, it is critical that the prerequisites for our courses
be sufficient but not restrictive. The only prerequisites to our
Core Course are a freshman-level Biology course that covers
DNA replication, transcription, and translation at a very basic
level, and a chemistry course through the second semester of
organic chemistry (two semesters of General Chemistry and
two of Organic). While almost all of our students ultimately
take Biochemistry, this may not occur before they take our
lab courses. For this reason, background knowledge varies
considerably from student to student. Despite this potential
problem, the courses have gone surprisingly well. Learning
to appreciate how other disciplines approach technical issues
can be an education in itself.
Clicker technology: Students with engineering back-
grounds tend to have an easier time with quantitative aspects,
while students from life sciences majors, such as microbiology
and genetics, typically have a better background in biological
concepts. We have worked to overcome these differences in a
variety of ways. One method we have used in the classroom
is the implementation of clicker technology. Interspersing


"clicker questions," which the students answer by hand-held
devices, throughout each lecture in our Core Course allows
students to work through questions on their own, without
the risk of one student calling out the answer before each
student has a chance to think it through. It also helps students
not understanding a concept to weigh in on the pace of the
instruction without fear of being embarrassed by asking a
"simplistic" question.
Aseptic technique: In a given semester, perhaps half of
the students in the Core Course have already had Microbi-
ology Lab (or Cellular Biology Lab), and thus only about
half have developed skills in aseptic technique. Time is
limited in our core course so that proper coverage of aseptic
technique at the level that it is covered in Microbiology or
Cell Biology labs is not possible. We overcome this limita-
tion by assigning students to lab groups of two, each with
a different major; students without previous experience in
aseptic methods often learn this from their lab partner. By
limiting lab groups to two students, significant participation
is expected from everyone.
Graduate/undergraduate mix: Almost all of our courses
are dual-level courses, with undergraduate and graduate
students in the same classroom and lab. Because many of
our courses are resource-intensive "boutique" courses, and
because undergraduates and graduate students are seeking to
acquire the same set of skills, it makes sense from a budgetary
standpoint to combine the levels to reap the greatest benefit
from the equipment available. Generally, the students in the
graduate- and undergraduate-level courses have the same
lectures and the same laboratory exercises. As mentioned
previously, however, the graduate students are expected to per-
form at a higher level of understanding and proficiency than
the undergraduates, as assessed by special assignments given
to the graduate students. For example, all students would be
expected to apply concepts to solve problems, troubleshoot
experimental problems, and analyze data, but graduate stu-
dents might be expected to write a mini-research proposal,
design experiments from start to finish, or critically evaluate
a journal article for its scientific merit. Although we had
initial concerns about grouping graduate and undergraduate
students, we have not experienced any significant problems
in delivering our courses-not surprising since the lab skills
being taught are typically new to everyone.

NEW AND CONTINUING INITIATIVES
The core laboratory education model has also served as a
nucleation point for many campuswide efforts that go beyond
our instructional program and as a test bed to try new things
that would not be possible in a typical departmental setting.
Some examples of such activities are discussed below.
Undergraduate research: There is little doubt that direct
involvement in research greatly enhances the undergraduate
educational experience.[4] The process of researching a topic


Chemical Engineering Education










in the primary literature, designing experiments, implement-
ing those experiments, and analyzing the results is critical for
developing the analytical skills necessary to function in the
biotechnology sector. To earn the undergraduate biotechnol-
ogy minor, students must participate for at least one semester
of research on a molecular biotechnology-based project or
work for a period of time with a biotechnology company.
With respect to the latter, NCSU's proximity to Research
Triangle Park allows ample opportunity for such experience.
We also have two new initiatives directed an enhancing the
undergraduate research experience.
First, partnering with the Department of Plant Biology at
NCSU, we operated an NSF Research Experience for Under-
graduates (REU) grant in the area of synthetic biology in plant
systems. The program, which commenced in Summer 2009,
allowed students from universities outside of NCSU to pursue
summer research experiences on our campus. All students in
the summer program first completed "biotech boot camp,"
an accelerated, intensive version of our Core Course, so that
they gained the proper skills to work effectively in the labs
they chose to join on campus for the summer. We think that
this preparation will make the REU experience better for both
students and mentors since some preparation in molecular
biology skills preceded their laboratory experience.
Second, we are working with the Howard Hughes Medi-
cal Institute Science Education Alliance (HHMI SEA) to
develop and implement a first-year inquiry-guided course. In
the proposed course, students will isolate naturally occurring
bacteriophage (viruses that infect bacteria, but not humans)
from the environment. They will culture, isolate, and titer the
bacteriophage (phage), then visualize the phage by transmis-
sion electron microscopy, and purify its genome. One of the
phage isolates will be sequenced, and in the second semester
of the course, the first-year students will assemble and an-
notate the genome. The culmination of this project will be to
submit novel sequence to Genbank and prepare and present a
poster for our annual campus Undergraduate Research Sym-
posium. Our goal is to have students experience the scientific
process firsthand early in their college education. This course
would be open to students in all majors, with no college-level
prerequisite. For non-science/engineering majors, the under-
standing of the scientific method may be more valuable than
the facts they could learn in a traditional lecture course. For
science or engineering majors, we anticipate that involvement
in research projects will enhance their performance in science
curricula, and will give them confidence to pursue more inde-
pendent research earlier in their academic careers.
Teaching postdocs: We also have implemented a Teaching
Postdoctoral Fellow Program. This is a "win-win" program
that gives recent Ph.D. graduates, preferably with a con-
ventional postdoc experience already completed and with a
strong interest in an academic career, the opportunity to gain
significant mentored teaching experience. Since the fellows


One of the benefits to teaching in our

program is that all of the students are there

because they want to be, thus creating a

very stimulating educational environment.


come "fresh off the bench" with experience in the most cut-
ting-edge technologies, they add an innovative dimension to
our program. This fellowship allows for the postdoc to teach
a section of the Core Course under the mentorship of an ex-
perienced instructor, and then develop and implement his or
her own specialized half-semester course. We have "gradu-
ated" two teaching postdocs to date, and are working with
our third. The two postdocs who completed the program have
successfully acquired faculty positions at primarily under-
graduate institutions. The new courses that have been added
to our curriculum through this program are Mutagenesis,
RNA Interference and Model Organisms, and a new course
in Protein-Protein Interactions. Graduate and Undergradu-
ate Training: The Biotechnology Program also oversees two
externally funded training programs at NCSU and contributes
to several others. At NCSU, we have an NIH T32 Biotech-
nology Training Grant as well as a Department of Education
Graduate Assistance in Areas of National Need (GAANN)
Fellowship Program in Molecular Biotechnology. Graduate
students supported by these awards complete the graduate
Biotechnology minor as well as benefit from other courses
that we offer. A new NIH Training Program in Translational
Medicine in the Veterinary College will also use elements of
our courses for their students. The Microbial Biotechnology
Master's program in the Department of Microbiology, which
has a strong business focus, incorporates our molecular biol-
ogy lab courses into their programs. Undergraduate students
receiving biomanufacturing training at NCSU through the new
Golden LEAF Biotechnology Training and Education Center
(BTEC) and the Bioprocessing Science (BBS) major in the
Department of Food, Bioprocessing, and Nutrition Sciences
integrate offerings from the BIT Program into their curricula.
Other programs and departments on campus are encouraged
to use our coursework to leverage the campuswide investment
at NCSU in molecular biotechnology training.

LESSONS LEARNED
Because our program has significantly expanded since
2001, we have learned several important lessons about de-
livering interdisciplinary courses to multidisciplinary groups
of students.
Faculty have a much bigger problem with interdisci-
plinary learning in a multidisciplinary setting than do
students. It has been clear that the students in our program
have adapted well to the unique educational environment.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










Since they spend five hours per week in a lab setting, there
is ample opportunity for them to interact with their lab mates
(as mentioned above, we try to pair students from different
majors in lab groups) and to appreciate elements of other
disciplines. This results in some creative approaches to ex-
periments and data analysis. They are more open to new ideas
and new approaches.
Well-taught lab courses in modern biology can have an
important positive impact on campus research productiv-
ity. Graduate students in our program can take lab classes that
help them to quickly get up to speed in new methods and tech-
niques that can have a significant impact in their research labs.
For one thing, the barrier to "pioneering" new directions can
be minimized. Faculty can incorporate the latest approaches
into their projects and proposals since their students have easy
access to advances in molecular biotechnology through lab
courses taught by experts.
It is important to minimize prerequisites so that stu-
dents can fit extra classes into already busy curricula.
The broader the reach across campus, the more complex it
becomes to accommodate the range of curricula impacted by
interdisciplinary courses. If the prerequisite threshold can be
kept low, more students can fit new programs/courses into
their plans. This is no doubt a challenge but one that has not
been as daunting as first expected.
When delivering optional educational programs, re-
member that students will vote with their feet. Interdisci-
plinary courses are often "extra" to students' home department
curricula. If not taught well, students will not be interested in
taking them. It is important to keep in mind that the classes
are not being taught to "captive" audiences, as is the case for
required courses.
The only constant in modern biology laboratory edu-
cation is constant change. In modem biology, lab methods
and techniques evolve rapidly, as does instrumentation. Be
prepared to continuously update courses to keep abreast of the
field. This requires financial commitment as well as commit-
ment from instructors to incorporate new developments.
ChE can take a campuswide leadership role in molecular
biotechnology. Molecular biotechnology can be viewed as a
bridge between the fundamental life sciences and biomanu-
facturing. Chemical engineers can play an important role in
linking these two elements, given their focus on molecular
sciences and technology. Given this broad perspective, ChEs
can catalyze efforts to bring molecular biotechnology skills
to campus science and engineering communities.


SUMMARY
Thinking "outside the box" can sometimes lead to interest-
ing educational outcomes. Though not without unique chal-
lenges, a campuswide core educational program at NCSU
has proven to be an efficient and effective way to deliver
cutting-edge molecular biotechnology laboratory courses to
students from a wide range of disciplines, including chemical
and biomolecular engineering. Housing expensive equipment
in a single facility where it can be taken full advantage of,
rather than duplicating equipment for teaching purposes in
multiple departments, has been a clear advantage in the cur-
rent budget climate. Furthermore, unforeseen opportunities,
such as student-driven interdisciplinary collaborations, have
arisen. We encourage other institutions to investigate whether
this model will work for them and are happy to discuss our
experiences with anyone who is interested.
With respect to integrating molecular biosciences into
chemical engineering (the new "ChE genotype," if you
will), laboratory training at sufficiently sophisticated levels
that reflect state-of-the-art techniques and skills is crucial.
While it may be infeasible for chemical engineering depart-
ments to provide this training on their own, partnerships
campuswide can not only provide such opportunities but
also create a new paradigm for training our students in the
molecular sciences. As we re-think ChE curricular design
with biology in mind, it must be done with an eye towards
the world of science and technology that our students will
be entering: one that is interdisciplinary and dynamic, and
one that will care not only about what they know but also
what they can do.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support for the BIT Program is provided by the
NCSU Provost's Office. We also thank Dr. Ken Esbenshade
in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences for admin-
istrative support.

REFERENCES
1. Westmoreland, P.R., "Chemistry and Life Sciences in a New Vision of
Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 35, 248 (2001)
2. Young, D.D., J. Nichols, R.M. Kelly, and A. Deiters, "Microwave
Activation of Enzymatic Catalysis," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130, 7482
(2008)
3. Carson, S., and D. Robertson, Manipulation and Expression ofRecom-
binant DNA: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Ed., Academic Press (2005)
4. Seymour, E., A.B. Hunter, S.L. Laursen, and T. DeAntoni, "Establish-
ing the Benefits of Research Experiences for Undergraduates in the
Sciences: First Findings from a Three-Year Study, "Science Education,
88, 493 (2004) [


Chemical Engineering Education











I]*=l AlChE special section )











A NANOTECHNOLOGY PROCESSES

OPTION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING









MILO D. KORETSKY, ALEXANDRE YOKOCHI, AND SHO KIMURA
Oregon State University * Corvallis, OR 97331-2702
With the substantial investment into the develop- Milo Koretsky is an associate professor
ment of nanotechnology infrastructure for the in the School of Chemical, Biological, and
W 21 st century and beyond, there is a need to adapt Environmental Engineering at Oregon State
University. He received his B.S. and M.S.
engineering and science curricula to equip students with the degrees from UC San Diego and his Ph.D.
skills and attributes needed to contribute effectively in manu- from UC Berkeley, all in chemical engineer-
ing. He currently has research activity in ar-
facturing-based processes that rely on nanotechnology.[13] eas related to thin film materials processing
The incorporation of nanotechnology into the undergraduate and engineering education and is interested
curriculum represents both an opportunity and in integrating technology into effective edu-
engineenng curriculum represents both an opportunity and national practices and in promoting the use
a challenge.[4] On the one hand, nanotechnology can revi- of higher-level cognitive skills in engineering
talize undergraduate programs by engaging students with problem solving.
interesting nanotechnology-related concepts, examples, and Alex Yokochi is an assistant professor in
the School of Chemical, Biological, and
experiments. On the other hand, due to its inherent interdis- Environmental Engineering at Oregon
ciplinary nature, programs will need to accommodate greater State University. He received a B.S. and
M.S. from Southern Illinois University at
degrees of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Chemical Carbondale and Ph.D. from Texas A&M
and biological processes will play a significant role in the University, all in chemistry. His research and
. teaching interests include the development
manufacturing operations. Chemical and biological engineers of methodology to produce large volumes
have the advantage of a solid background in chemical kinet- of engineered nanoparticles with well de-
ics, reactor design, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, fined size andor composition for various
and process control to undertake the challenges in the high- Sho Kimura is a professor in the School of
volume manufacturing of nanotechnology-based products. Chemical, Biological, and Environmental
Thus, these processes fall well within the purview of chemical Engineering at at Oregon State University.
He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees
and biological engineering undergraduate programs. At the from Osaka University, Japan, and M.S.
same time, however, the products rely on principles based on degree from Oregon State University, all in
chemical engineering. He teaches Material
other disciplines such as physics, mechanical engineering, Balances and Stoichiometry, Material and
and electrical engineering. Thus research and development Energy Balances in Nanotechnology, and
of new processes based on new products is inherently inter- Chemical Plant Design I & II. His research
interests include synthesis of carbon and
disciplinary in nature. Chemical and biological engineers silicon carbide nanotubes.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 26.











will also play a vital role in this development as nanosystems
evolve to include active nanostructures, 3-D nanosystems
and systems of nanosystems, and heterogeneous molecular
nanosystems.E21 The curricular challenge that needs to be ad-
dressed is how to design a program that reinforces the ChE
undergraduate's core skills (depth) in a way that can be applied
toward manufacturing nanotechnology-based products while
simultaneously providing the breadth to interact effectively
on the multidisciplinary teams that span the wide range of
opportunities enabled by this emerging area.
It has been proposed that as the chemical engineering
profession takes its next evolutionary step toward applying
molecular scale engineering to a set of new and emerging
technologies, the core undergraduate curriculum needs associ-
ated reform.[5 As topics from these emerging molecular-based
technologies are incorporated, however, there is a legitimate
concern of dilution of the core content due to staffing issues.[61
At Oregon State University (OSU), the Chemical, Biologi-
cal, and Environmental Engineering programs have recently
joined into a single administrative structure. This structure
alleviates the staffing issue in two ways. First, a significant
portion of the courses for all three programs is jointly taught.
This set of 11 core courses covers fundamentals germane to all
three disciplines (e.g., material and energy balances, transport
processes, thermodynamics, and process data analysis) while
reducing the number of instructors needed. Second, the Op-
tion areas in chemical engineering are taken from topics that
have core research faculty. In two of the Options, biological
processes and environmental processes, chemical engineer-
ing students take elective classes from among those offered
by the other programs. In this way, some of the key elements
identified in the "New Frontiers in Chemical Engineering
Education" workshops are integrated into the undergraduate
curriculum while, simultaneously, holding students account-
able for the same depth of learning that has served OSU
ChE graduates for many years. Moreover, this integration is
accomplished in a reasonable scope commensurate with the
resources of the program.
This paper presents the curriculum developed to incorporate
nanotechnology education in the chemical engineering program
at Oregon State University. The approach is twofold: 1) to
develop a Nanotechnology Processes Option in the Chemical
Engineering Program and 2) to develop two new sophomore-
level courses: a survey course that is broadly available to all
engineering undergraduates and a discipline-specific laboratory
course that allows students to synthesize the engineering sci-
ence content toward the application of nanotechnology. The
curricular development fits in well with the growing research
and commercialization activity of the Oregon Nanoscience and
Microtechnologies Institute (ONAMI), and is consistent with
the evolutionary vision developed by leading chemical engi-
neering educators in the three-workshop series "New Frontiers
in Chemical Engineering Education.'"I5


NANOTECHNOLOGY PROCESSES OPTION
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
To meet all the ABET engineering topics and advanced
science requirements, ChE students are required to take five
to six technical elective classes outside the ChE core. These
courses may be taken in any area as long as they have the
appropriate engineering or science content as prescribed by
ABET and AIChE. When taking the courses in an ad hoc
manner, however, students have indicated that they get little
satisfaction or career enhancement. The ChE Department
has established Options to aid students in selection of elec-
tive courses. Options also help to broaden and strengthen
the undergraduate ChE curriculum, potentially attracting
more students to the department. To be eligible for an Op-
tion, the student must fill out and present a Student Petition
for Option Program in Chemical Engineering to the faculty
"champion" for the desired area. The champion is a faculty
member with expertise in the area of the Option. Addition-
ally an Option must contain at least 21 credits. Three Options


TABLE 1
Nanotechnology Processes Option
Class # Credits Title
ENGR 221 3 The Science, Engineering and So-
cial Impact of Nanotechnology (a)
ChE 214 4 Material and Energy Balances in
Nanotechnology (a/b)
ChE 416 3 Chemical Engineering Lab III (b*)
ChE 417 4 Analytical Instrumentation in
Chemical, Environmental and
Biological Engineering (a/b)
ChE 444 4 Thin Film Materials Processing
(a/b)
3 Elective
Lecture course
Laboratory course
The capstone laboratory project will be in the area of nanotechnology


35% -

30% -
.2
* 25% -

a 20% -
00
8 15%

S10%

* 5%
.- 0%
Nanotechnology
Processes


I --
Biological Environmental Microelectronics
Processes Processes and Matils


Figure 1. Percentage of 2008-2009 graduating seniors
enrolled in each of the four ChE Options at OSU.


Chemical Engineering Education










have been available at OSU: 1) Biochemical Processes; 2)
Environmental Processes; and 3) Microelectronics Processes
and Materials Science. These areas correspond to strengths in
the OSU ChE program. A fourth Option, the Nanotechnology
Processes Option, has recently been developed. An outline
of the curricular requirements is listed in Table 1. It contains
six courses-five required courses and an elective-and
includes two sophomore-level courses. Four of the five re-
quired classes are laboratory-based and emphasize hands-on
experiential learning.
The Science, Engineering, and Social Impact of Nanotech-
nology (ENGR 221) is a general engineering survey course
that provides students from Chemical, Biological, Electrical,
Environmental, Industrial, Manufacturing, and Mechanical
Engineering exposure to the field of nanotechnology; there-
fore, there is inherently a multidisciplinary approach. On the
other hand, Material and Energy Balances in Nanotechnology
(ChE 214) is a ChE-specific laboratory-based course, em-
phasizing how the fundamental skills students have learned
in material and energy balances couple to nanotechnology.
For ChE students, the approach is to provide students both
a breadth of multidisciplinary experiences and a depth of
specific technical applications within the discipline. Thus,
they are exposed to these complementary experiences early
in their undergraduate studies. These sophomore-level courses
lead into three upper-division courses already in place. This
duality (Breadth plus Depth Pedagogy) is reinforced in senior
laboratory (ChE 416), through which students synthesize both
aspects in their capstone project, and potentially through their
Honors College thesis.
The Nanotechnology Processes Option was approved at the
university level in Fall 2006. Since two of the required courses
are at the sophomore level, the first graduates became avail-
able three years later, at the end of the 2008-09 academic year.


Figure 1 shows the distribution of senior students enrolled in
the four Options available in the ChE Program for 2008-09.
Of the 55 seniors in Chemical Engineering, 34 have chosen
to pursue an Option. The Nanotechnology Processes Option
has the most students subscribed, representing 16 students or
29% of the total ChE seniors.

ENGR 221 -THE SCIENCE, ENGINEERING,
AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
The Science, Engineering, and Social Impact of Nanotech-
nology, ENGR 221, is a general engineering survey course with
the objective of ensuring all engineering students have access
to a course offering basic understanding of the engineering
field of nanotechnology. The course learning objectives are
presented in Figure 2. The concepts of nanotechnology have
been divided into one- to two-week sections, and include
applications, properties on the nanoscale, processing, charac-
terization, ethics, and health and safety. The course includes
several features intended to promote active learning, including
hands-on activities and demonstrations and a final ethics project
where students complete a risk assessment of the impact of
nanotechnology on society. In addition to introducing techni-
cal knowledge surrounding the field of nanotechnology, a goal
of this course is to prompt students to synthesize some of the
fundamental concepts in science and engineering that they have
been taught within the context of nanotechnology.
In the two-hour recitation each week, hands-on activities are
completed. Two such hands-on activities are described below.
For the section on nanoscale characterization, a scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) activity was developed. During
this activity, students use a FEI Phenom SEM simulator soft-
ware program in a virtual laboratory to view a variety of SEM
samples, from mosquitoes to a crystal of salt. A screenshot
of this simulation and a picture of students performing this


After successful completion of this course, students become able to:

1. Define nanotechnology.
2. Discuss how nanotechnology may impact society.
3. Identify products based on nanostructured materials.
4. Explain how the properties of nanostructured materials differ from their non-nanostructured
(conventional) material counterparts.
5. Explain how these unique properties may adversely impact human health and the environment;
define the concerns with nanotoxicity research and summarize the status in this area.
6. Explain the difference in approach of top-down and bottom-up manufacturing methods.
7. Describe major manufacturing methods used to produce nanostructured materials and devices
and discuss issues in this area.
8. Identify some common methods used for nanomaterials characterization; describe the principles
by which each method works and the type of information obtained.
9. Compare two prevalent ethical theories, utilitarianism and absolutism.
10. Perform a risk assessment to determine the best direction for nanotechnology development.

Figure 2. Course Learning Objectives for ENGR 221.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










activity are shown on the right side in Figure 3. The simula-
tion allows students to become familiar with the measurement
technique and the software. It is followed by a hands-on
activity, shown on the left in Figure 3, where students in the
class prepare actual SEM samples of their hair, examine these
samples using a FEI Phenom benchtop SEM, and analyze the
results. This analysis is related back to a "scale of things"
activity they completed earlier in the term.
A second laboratory, making ferrofluids,7]1 was delivered to
integrate two learning outcomes: properties of nanostructured
materials and nanomaterials processing. The context of this
laboratory follows. Midway through the class, the topic of
magnetic fluids is introduced. Two lecture hours are spent
discussing the properties of magnetic materials and, specifi-
cally, ferrofluids. Topics covered in lecture include: electron
configurations of iron and their magnetic effect, crystal struc-
ture of several iron oxides, forces on a particle in suspension,
reasons only particles on the nanoscale can be used to create
ferrofluids, and the relation of the lifetime of the magnetic
moment to temperature and volume of the particle. The week
after this lecture material is presented, students engage in a
hands-on laboratory in which a ferromagnetic fluid is used to
allow students to observe the unique properties that are found
at the nanoscale. The objective of the laboratory is to reinforce
learning on the subjects discussed in lecture the week before.
This activity involves the preparation of nanocrystalline-
mixed valence iron oxide followed by the addition of an ionic
surfactant to create a ferrofluid. Concepts reinforced by this
exercise include the importance of understanding the structure
of matter (the difference between Fe2O3 and Fe3 04) and the
importance of correct stoichiometry
in materials synthesis.
From physics81 to chemical engi-
neering,I91 active learning practices
in the classroom, such as the use of i
ConceptTests, have been proven to
effectively increase student learn-
ing. By having students vote by "a
show of hands," this method has been
reported to be effective in student
learning of nanotechnology.1101 In an
effort to promote such active learning
in students and to provide opportuni-
ties for formative assessment, we Hand
have employed a technology-enabled
learning tool. The Web-based Interac-
tive Science and Engineering (WISE)
learning tool was developed at OSU He air
to use the College of Engineering's


Figure 3. Laboratory-Simulation I
hybrid of scanning electron mi-
croscopy (SEM) activity.


Wireless Laptop Initiative, which requires all undergradu-
ate engineering students to own a wireless laptop. The WISE
learning tool allows an instructor to pose to the class questions
that probe for conceptual understanding and supports a variety
of student response types.11] After the students have submit-
ted their response, the instructor can review a summary of the
results with the class. This tool allows for peer instruction,121
classroom instruction,131 or a combination of such active learn-
ing practices. For example, a screenshot from WISE of a Con-
ceptTest is shown in Figure 4. This screenshot shows the results
that were displayed to the class after individual responses were
submitted. The question explores the relationship between a
materials property (temperature) of a solid and its surface-area-
to-volume ratio. The concept of the size-dependent properties
based on surface-to-volume ratios is central to the understand-
ing of nanotechnology, but difficult for many students.[141
Students were asked to select among four possible multiple
choices and explain their choice in a short-answer follow-up.
The instructor then selected sample responses and displayed
them to the class. The results to the multiple-choice questions
are shown by the bar graph in Figure 4 and the short answers
for three selected cases are displayed below. One of these
responses shows a sound understanding of surface-to-volume
ratio and its relationship to temperature change. Based on this
response, the students divided into peer groups and discussed
their answers. When the question was asked again, 21 students
answered correctly, although not always with an explanation
that clearly demonstrated understanding. The improvement of
this type of active learning exercise (32% to 75%) is consistent
with that reported in the physics literature.'81


Chemical Engineering Education











ENGR 221 was delivered for the first time in Winter 2007
with an enrollment of 31, and again in Winter 2008 with an
enrollment of 45. The course was assessed in terms of the
achievement of the learning objectives and the effectiveness
of the different modes of delivery used during the course.
Assessment methods for this course primarily relied on pre-
and post-assessments of one kind or another. Overall course
pre- and post-concept inventory assessments were adminis-
tered, in addition to pre- and post-worksheets for two class
activities. The other major methods of assessment of student
learning were an end-of-term survey and an analysis of criti-
cal thinking of the final ethics paper. One of the interesting
results is from analysis of an end-of-term survey that asked
students to discuss in more detail one concept from their
previous coursework that they applied, and how it related to
nanotechnology. These responses were then coded according
to Shavelson's cognitive model, which defines achievement in
science as consisting of four types of knowledge: declarative
knowledge ("knowing that"), procedural knowledge ("know-
ing how"), schematic knowledge ("knowing why"), and
strategic knowledge ("knowing when, where, and how our

E. D. ) s . . ... .... = .. . ,. W *e.


Web-based Interactive Science and Engineering Le
LearnWISE Tool
t Tool

Or .iir Si.n t --E-
As he volumef a phencal .naopade decreses. ts meg mnperate
CaUss Ahies Remains n-,rant
o F.,, c. s .,,-, i
hi Clan. .
Exercites
H -mewok N.t enough nrfonation to rondnde a d ed
Vrual Hand Detreaces
("ad, E-ck

,k-
Logged m as Remans constant The meltmg point of a maternal s a fundamental property of the maternal and does
Darnellr Qag.ut) dependonsize
[Decreases lpogi-partiles have a greater surface a mrea m ation to their total volume so the m
LC t hl �poinmt ofthe material will decrease
C .e p t Increes IMost atenal at the nao-scale is a solid; therefore meltinmgpomint of naio-matenal
Mt2 geaterthen the bulk ate-alpopeirt


Figure 4. Screenshot from the Web-based science and engineering (WISE)
learning tool.


knowledge applies").[15] Declarative knowledge includes facts
and definitions. Procedural knowledge refers to knowledge
of the sequences of steps that can be executed to complete a
task, whether in the laboratory or to solve a problem. Sche-
matic knowledge includes principles, schemas, and mental
models that explain the physical world. Of the 32 responses,
21 were classified as containing elements of schematic
knowledge. Students showed a conceptual understanding of
the material they discussed; they were able to take concepts
introduced in other classes, build on them in the context of
nanotechnology, and develop that knowledge into a strong,
conceptual understanding of both the basic material and its
relation to nanotechnology. Schematic learning is valuable
due to its transferability. The high percentage of students
displaying this type of learning indicates achievement to-
wards one of the course goals -having students synthesize
fundamental concepts in science and engineering within
the context of nanotechnology. The detailed assessment is
presented elsewhere.[16]
It is believed that the pedagogical features discussed above
play a significant role in the success at promoting the student's
use of schematic knowledge, even at the sopho-
. more level. This approach is consistent with the
C. 'a successes of scientific teaching in biology.[1]
These methods encourage students to construct
new knowledge and develop scientific ways
of thinking, and they provide students and
instructors feedback about learning. While the
discussion above illustrates these pedagogical
features in the context of nanotechnology, this
approach can be applied to any course in the
S chemical engineering curriculum.
6


CHE 214
BALANCE
Material
nology, Ch
laboratory
immediate
Material an,
technical ch


After successful completion of this course, students become able to:
1. Quantitatively describe the rate of reaction through real-time measurements of changes in
the mass of product carbon nanotubes.
2. Calculate molar and mass concentrations based on flow rates of mixture-gas components
and correlate them to GC based concentrations.
3. Calculate the fractional conversion of limiting reactant based on the reactant inlet and outlet
flow rates.
4. Calculate product yields based on the gas-flow rates and correlate them to mass-based
product yields.
5. Use temperature measurements at the reactor inlet and outlet to explain heats of reaction in
conjunction with endothermic and exothermic reaction concept.
6. Predict reactor outlet temperature and compare it to actual temperature measurements.

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


-MATERIAL AND ENERGY
ES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
and Energy Balances in Nanotech-
E 214, is a chemical engineering
course intended to give students an
way to apply what they learned in
d Energy Balances (the first strongly
Lemical engineering courses students
take) in the context of a hands-
on nanotechnology laboratory.
The course learning objectives
are presented in Figure 5.
Comparison of these learn-
ing objectives with those of
ENGR 221 (Figure 2) reveals
their complementary intent of
depth and breadth. For most


Figure 5. Course Learning
Objectives for ChE 214.


not
eltimg
s is










students, this course will directly follow ENGR 221, and they
will already have completed a survey course in nanotechnol-
ogy. ChE 214 is a laboratory course, consisting of a two-hour
lecture period and a four-hour laboratory period each week.
Each laboratory is not an isolated occurrence, but instead
builds on the previous laboratories. For example, the catalyst
the students prepare in the first laboratory is used throughout
the course to grow nanotubes. The lecture periods consist
of one hour of new material followed by an hour-long quiz.
Students are given weekly homework assignments intended
to prepare them for laboratory.
In this course students grow carbon nanotubes from ethyl-
ene in three different reactors: a thermo gravimetric analyzer
(TGA), a vertical packed-bed reactor, and a plasma reactor.
The TGA is used to make real-time measurements of the
growth rate of carbon nanotubes by measuring the change
in mass with time. Based on a group's choice, either the
temperature dependence or the concentration dependence of
the growth rate have been studied. The vertical packed-bed
reactor, shown in Figure 6, is used for batch-wise synthesis
of carbon nanotubes in large quantities using the reaction
conditions of the group's choice, as determined by the TGA
experiment. Figure 6 also shows a photograph of the nano-
tubes one of the groups grew, and an SEM that they took of
their product. In the two years that this course has been of-
fered, six student groups have each produced between 3 and
8 g of nanotubes in a single run using this reactor. Finally,
in one of the laboratory sessions, students use a plasma
reactor to grow carbon nanotubes. This experience allows
them to contrast a system for high-volume manufacture of
bulk nanotubes and a system for high-value manufacture for
nanoelectronics applications.
The students are required to predict the amounts of product
nanotubes based on the rate data obtained with the TGA as
well as the changes in the gas compositions and flow rates
between the reactor inlet and outlet streams. They should then
discuss any differences between the predictions and the actual
product mass. They are also required to predict increases
in temperature based on an adiabatic reaction assumption,
compare their predictions with the measured increases in tem-
perature between the inlet and outlet gas streams, and discuss
possible causes for the deviations between the theoretical
predictions and actual measurements. In these ways, they are
prompted to reconcile their experimental results with their
conceptual understanding of material and energy balances that
they have learned earlier in the year. The intent is to promote
an integrated construction of knowledge in students of both
chemical engineering fundamentals and nanotechnology.
As a course specific to chemical engineering, ChE 214 has been
exclusively taken by chemical engineering majors. There were
14 students who completed the course in Spring 2007 and 12 in
Spring 2008. The demographics changed considerably in the two
years the course was offered. In 2007, there were 13 sophomore


students and one senior while in 2008 there were six sophomore
students and six seniors. Again, the course was assessed in terms
of the achievement of the learning objectives.[16] Since the course
consisted primarily of laboratory sessions, observations and
survey of these sessions were the primary tools of assessment.
In addition, pre- and post-tests were administered, along with
an end-of-term survey and analysis of the final project reports
(which covered most material introduced in the course). The
survey was intended to reveal the students' perception of what
they were expected to learn and the concepts they employed in
each laboratory. Again, the responses to each question of each
survey were categorized in terms of declarative, procedural, or
schematic knowledge. The first conclusion from this analysis is
that seniors are better able to think about the laboratory mate-
rial schematically than sophomores. A second conclusion is that
students are more able to respond schematically when asked
directly about a concept than they are when asked about what
they were intended to learn in the laboratory. In fact, when asked
about what they learned in laboratory, students are much more
likely to demonstrate procedural knowledge and describe the
physical system and its operation rather than the concepts behind
why the system behaves as it does. This result is especially true
for sophomore students.

NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED CAPSTONE
LABORATORY PROJECTS
Students who select the Nanotechnology Processes Option
are required to do a nanotechnology-based capstone project
as the major project in Chemical Engineering Lab II and


Figure 6. Thermal chemical vapor deposition of carbon
nanotubes in ChE 214.
Chemical Engineering Education











III (ChE 415 and 416). The deliverables for the 15-week
capstone project include participation in a poster session
at OSU's "Engineering Week," where graduating seniors
from all departments in the College of Engineering display
their senior project work, an oral presentation at an internal
mini-symposium organized specifically for the purpose, and
a final technical written report. In addition to the projects,
the instructors offer a short subset of the lectures focused on
a very brief survey of nanotechnology at a level appropriate
for seniors, to ensure that those students that have not elected
to work on a nanotechnology-related project have a general
understanding of nanotechnology.

While the first batch of students in Nanotechnology
Processes Option did not reach the senior level until 2008-
2009, two laboratory projects were conducted by students in
2005-2006 and three projects were conducted by students in
2006-2007. Five student groups have completed nanotechnol-
ogy-based senior projects in 2008-2009. These projects have
been constructed to be of a broad enough scope so that those
students who were capable would be encouraged to apply
schematic and strategic knowledge of chemical engineering
science while others who engaged more consistently using
procedural knowledge could still complete a meaningful
project. The 10 projects that have been conducted to date are
listed in Table 2.


STUDENT SURVEY
After completing the sophomore-level nanotechnology course
or courses, students were given a survey with two parts. In the
first part, they were asked to rate the extent to which the courses
assisted them to make connections to content from other courses,
pursue a career in nanotechnology, and increase their interest in
nanotechnology. Students rated these aspects on a Likert scale
of 1-5, with 1 as a strongly disagree and 5 as a strongly agree.
The average results are shown in Table 3. The second part of the
survey asked students to rate the effectiveness of the courses in
improving their ability to perform several categories of tasks, on
a Likert scale of 1-5 (as in the previous question). The average
results for each task are shown in Table 4.
The students believed that the sophomore-level content was
useful toward pursuing a career (4.37), but did not believe the
courses increased their interest (3.03); perhaps because those
students who selected these courses already had an interest.
They moderately agreed that the content helped them make con-
nections to other courses (3.63); however, many more students
took only ENGR 221 than took both courses. The perception
of an increase in skills and abilities by the sophomore-level
courses) was rated high, with students feeling strongly that
they could work successfully on a team (4.68), demonstrate
understanding and application of principles in nanotechnology
(4.58), and identify the nature of a design problem (4.53).


TABLE 2
Nanotechnology-Based Senior Projects in Chemical Engineering
Project Title Description Year
Production of Aligned Carbon The assembly of a reactor for the production of aligned films of carbon nanotubes using 2005-2006
Nanotubes ethylene pyrolysis on iron catalysts and growth of carbon nanotubes by ethylene pyrolysis.
Nanocrystalline Photovoltaic Preparation of photovoltaic devices by spin coating nanocrystalline precursors onto poly- 2005-2006
Devices meric substrates.
Production of Aligned Carbon The assembly, testing, and operation of a system designed to produce films of aligned carbon- 2006-2007
Nanotubes nanotubes on a surface using pyrolysis of ethanol on molybdenum acetate I ... , based
catalysts.
Nanostructured Polymers The use of diatom skeletons as masks to plasma-etch nanostructured designs onto polymeric 2006-2007
surfaces.
Magnetic Nanocomposites The production of Fe/Fe203 magnetic nanocomposites by sol-gel processing of Fe/Fe(acac)3 2006-2007
precursors.
Exploration of Low-Cost Development of low-cost, inkjet-based contact lithography and wet etching of glass to 2008-2009
Implementation of Reactive produce a microchannel-based reactor and demonstration with alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl
Systems in Microreactors acetate solutions in water.
Microreactor-Enhanced Redox Construction of a redox flow cell zinc-bromine secondary battery suitable for energy storage 2008-2009
Flow Cell Battery research and demonstrations.
Sputtering Metal Films for Mi- Demonstration and characterization of self-formation barrier technology using sputtered 2008-2009
croelectronics: Forming Barrier CuMn blanket films followed by thermal anneal.
Layers Using CuX Targets
Nanobiosensors Protein-sensitive field effect transistors manufactured commercially available silicon-on-in- 2008-2009
sulator wafers. The final devices are high performance (specific detection below 100 fM) and
are commercially exciting.
Synthesis of Doped Titanium Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles that are doped with an indicator element that is detectable by 2008-2009
Dioxide Nanoparticles ICP-AES. The objective of this work is to demonstrate proof-of-concept for further work in-
volving use of more expensive lanthanides as dopants. Ultimately, the doped nanoparticles will
be used in experiments examining the fate and transport of nanomaterials in the environment.

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 27











CONCLUSION
The implementation and assessment of the Nanotechnol-
ogy Processes Option in Chemical Engineering at Oregon
State University has been described. Its foundation builds
upon two newly developed sophomore-level courses: a
general engineering survey course that exposes students
to the scientific basis, potential technological and societal
implications of nanotechnology, and a ChE-specific labora-
tory-based course that integrates the fundamental knowledge
students have learned in Material and Energy Balances with
Nanotechnology. The approach is to provide students with
both a breadth of multidisciplinary experiences and a depth
of specific technical applications within the discipline early
in their undergraduate studies. In addition, nanotechnology-
based capstone projects have been integrated into the senior
laboratory class, with 10 different student teams participating
to date. Nanotechnology-related content has also been added
to two senior-level courses that are part of the Option.
The Option described contains a coherent set of courses that
have been constructed to elicit high cognitive levels in stu-
dents beginning early in the curriculum. Initial assessment of
this approach is positive. Effort will be required, however, to
keep the content up-to-date as the technology rapidly evolves.
Additionally, the sophomore-based laboratory course has a
large overhead per student served, requiring both institutional
support and instructor dedication to continue.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful for support provided by the Intel Fac-
ulty Fellowship Program and the National Science Foundation's
Nanotechnology Undergraduate Education Program, under grant
NUE -0532584. We gratefully acknowledge the generous dona-
tion of a Phenom.ED benchtop scanning electron microscope by
the FEI corporation through their beta test program. Any opin-
ions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed
in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

REFERENCES
1. Fonash, S.J.,"Education and Training of the Nanotechnology Work-
force, "J. Nanoparticle Res., 3, 79 (2001)

TABLE 3
Ratings Represent Student Agreement With Each of the
Three Statements
Statement Average Rating
The content helped me make connections 3.61
to what I learned in other courses.
The content will help me in pursuing a 4.37
career in nanotechnology.
The courses have increased my interest in 3.03
nanotechnology.


2. Roco, M.C., "Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Unifying and
Transforming Tools, "AIChE Journal, 50, 890 (2004)
3. Roco, M.C., . ......l... - v Frontier for Engineerign Educa-
tion, "Int. J. Eng. Ed., 18, 488 (2002)
4. Schank, E, J. Krajcik, and M. Yunker, "Can Nanotechnology Education
be a Catalyst for Educational Reform, "in Nanoethics: The Ethical and
Social Implications of Nanotechnology, Wiley- Interscience, Hoboken,
NJ (2007)
5. "Frontiers in Chemical Engineering Education, "CCR/NSF Workshops,
Accessed 7/15/08
6. Shaeiwitz, J., and R. Turton, "The Changing ChE Curriculum-How
Much Change is Appropriate," Proceedings of the 2006 American
Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition
(2006)
7. Crone, W.C., A.B. Ellis, A.C. Payne, K.W Lux, A.K. Bentley, R.W.
Carpick, D. Stone, G.C. Lisensky, and S.M. Condren, "Incorporating
Concepts of Nanotechnology into the Materials Science and Engineer-
ing Classroom and Laboratory," Proceedings of the 2003 American
Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition
(2003)
8. Hake, R.R., "Interactive-Engagement vs. Traditional Methods: A
6,000-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics
Courses, "Am. J. Phys., 66, 64(1998)
9. Falconer, J.L., "Use of ConceptTests and Instant Feedback in Thermo-
dynamics," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 64 (2004)
10. Condren, S.M., J.G. Breitzer, A.C. Payne, A.B. Ellis, C.G. Widstrand,
T.E Kuech and G.C. Lisensky, "Student-Centered Nanotechnology-
Enriched Introductory College Chemistry Courses for Engineering
Students," Int. J. Eng. Ed., 18, 550 (2002)
11. Koretsky, M.D., and B.Brooks, "AWeb-Based Interactive Science and
Engineering Learning Tool that Promotes Concept-Based Instruction,"
Proceedings of the 2008 American Society for Engineering Education
Annual Conference & Exposition (2008)
12. Mazur, E., Peer Instruction: A User's Manual, Prentice-Hall, Upper
Saddle River, NJ (1997)
13. Dufresne, R.J., WJ. Gerace, WJ. Leonard, J.P Mestre, and L. Wenk,
"Classtalk: a Classroom Communication System for Active Learning,"
J. Computing in Higher Ed., 7, 3 (1996)
14. Light, G., S. Swarat, E.-J. Park, and D. Drane, "Student Understand-
ing of' Surface Area to Volume Ratio' and its Relationship to Property
Change in the Nano-science Engineering Context," Research in Engi-
neering Education Symposium (2008)
15. Shavelson, R.J., M.A. Ruiz-Primo, and E.W Wiley, "Windows of the
Mind," Higher Education, 49, 413 (2005)
16. Koretsky, M.D., A. Yokochi, S. Kimura, and S.Herzog, "Elements of
Student Learning in Nanotechnology," Int. J. Engng. Ed., in review.
17. Miller, S., C. Pfund, C. Maidl Pribbenow, and J. Handelsman, "The Pipe-
line: Scientific Teaching in Practice, "Science, 322, 1329 (2008) [

TABLE 4
Student Perception of Ability Increased By the
Sophomore Course(s)
Task Average Rating
Identify the nature of a design problem or 4.53
challenge related to nanotechnology
Demonstrate my understanding and appli- 4.58
cation of principles in nanotechnology
Communicate the principles of nanotech- 4.13
nology in speech and writing to a wide
audience of peers and experts
Work with a team to successfully complete 4.68
large scale projects


Chemical Engineering Education










I]*=l AlChE special section )








IN SEARCH OF THE ACTIVE SITE

OF pMMO ENZYME:

Partnership Between a K-12 Teacher, a Graduate K-12

Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor






KATHERINE K. BEARDEN, DANIELA S. MAINARDI
Louisiana Tech University * Ruston, LA
TANYA CULLIGAN
Caddo Parish Magnet High School * "Ii,.. ., '. t, LA
T here are many sources available for the implementa-
tion of outreach at Louisiana Tech University (LA Katherine K. Bearden received her B.S. in
Tech) and in the surrounding community. Within the chemical engineering from the University of
Louisiana at Lafayette in December 2005
College of Engineering and Science, Louisiana Tech has and her M.S. in biomedical engineering
two National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded programs: from Louisiana Tech University in 2008. She
is currently a Ph.D. student in engineering
the GK-12 Creating Connections (NSF grant 0638730) pro- at Louisiana Tech University working on
gram, and the Nanoscience Education and Research Outreach the modeling of enzymatic systems under
(NERO) program's Research Experience for Teachers (RET) the guidance of
(NSF grant 0602029). These programs create an environment Tanya Culligan
for graduate students, university faculty, and teachers in the is a tenth-grade
Si based science Biology I and twelfth-grade Biology II AP
surrounding community to 1) develop inquiry-based science teacher at Caddo Parish Magnet high school
laboratories for K- 12 grades; 2) expose K- 12 teachers to nano- in Shreveport, Louisiana. She participated in
technology principles, equipment, and research; and 3) engage the 2007 and 2008 Nanoscience Education
K-12 teachers in specific research experiences spanning six Research Experience for Teachers (RET) at
weeks in summer in which they are mentored by university Louisiana Tech
University.
faculty. Hence, in this paper we show how education programs Daniela S. Mainardi is a tenured associ-
at a university can integrate and use available resources to ate professor of chemical engineering and
improve established individual programs. nanosystems engineering at Louisiana Tech
University, currently holding the Thomas C. &
Through the implementation of the NERO RET program Nelda M. Jeffrey Professorship in Chemical
Engineering. She has received her NSF-
at LA Tech since 2007, 16 local teachers have participated Enareer Award in 2005 and her research
in a 6-week summer program; which contains professional work focus on the molecular modeling of
development and research components. The RET program nano and bio-systems for catalysts ap-
plications. She is also a Co-PI of the GK-12
provides the unique opportunity for collaboration between a Creating Connections (NSF grant 0638730)
K-12 teacher (NanoResearcher), a GK-12 graduate student program, and the Nanoscience Education and Research Outreach
(NERO) program's Research Experience for Teachers (RET) (NSF
(Teaching Fellow) and a Louisiana Tech faculty member grant 0602029) at Louisiana Tech University.
(Research Mentor) in science, technology, engineering, and
math disciplines (STEM). � Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 27.










There are many RET programs across the United States that
offer a variety of benefits.Ell Although each program is differ-
ent, teachers of the middle school, high school, and commu-
nity college levels have participated and paired with university
faculty to conduct a specific project. All RET programs allow
teachers to experience scientific research firsthand, but each
program is designed around the strengths of the participating
university and incorporates different professional develop-
ment tools. Possible topical areas of research include optics,
materials science, and nanotechnology.E2 4]
Tanya Culligan (NanoResearcher), a tenth-grade Biology I
and twelfth-grade Biology II AP teacher at Caddo Parish Mag-
net high school in Shreveport, Louisiana, has participated in
the 2007 and 2008 NERO RET programs at LA Tech. In both
opportunities, she paired with Daniela S. Mainardi (Research
Mentor), an assistant professor of chemical engineering and
nanosystems engineering at Louisiana Tech, and Katherine
K. Bearden (Teaching Fellow), a doctoral student in chemical
engineering under Mainardi's supervision.
Uniquely, the program at Louisiana Tech University has
been designed for the collaboration of the three participants,
offering an opportunity for K-12 pedagogy to be communi-
cated (to Bearden), reinforced (by Culligan), and enhanced
(by Mainardi). Bearden is first introduced to pedagogical
techniques through the GK-12 orientation. During this two-
week session the 5-E Learning Cycle, Bloom s Taxonomy, and
techniques to translate research into the classrooms are covered.
This cyclical expression of ideas and skills increases the knowl-
edge and implantation in the K-12 classrooms. 5, 6] Through
this design we demonstrate how programs at a university can
integrate and use available resources to improve established
individual programs. We believe that this is an important value
that can be beneficial for the educator audience.
The novelty of this particular RET program is that it is
directly linked to Louisiana Tech's GK-12 program. Bearden
is also a full-time participant in the NSF GK- 12 program. Her
position as a Teaching Fellow requires her to have 10 contact
hours with K-12 students each week. Bearden benefited by
having a teacher (Culligan) to serve as a reference and col-
laborator while creating research-based activities to dissemi-
nate to students participating in the K-12 program. Hence,
the unique grouping of Culligan, Bearden, and Mainardi for
research initiatives has been reached broadly across the K-12
community in Northern Louisiana.
Particularly, the objectives of the Louisiana Tech NERO
program are to: 1) engage middle and high school teachers
(NanoResearchers) and their students in bio/nanotechnology
research through summer research experiences; 2) guide
teachers as they develop materials to translate their under-
standing of the research process into classroom learning
experiences; 3) build lasting relationships among teachers,
researchers, K-12 students, and graduate students; 4) com-
municate the scientific research process to teachers, students,


and the community; and 5) increase interest of K-12 students
in pursuing STEM careers.

PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH SETTING
Throughout the program, RET participants are first intro-
duced to concepts of nano-scale science and engineering in the
course of a series of seminars focusing on scientific literacy.
Then they are engaged in hands-on experiences that aid them
in understanding protocols, running simple experiments, col-
lecting data, and analyzing the corresponding results.
Combined with professional development activities, RET
participants are exposed to independent research work under
a STEM faculty member with guidance from a Teaching
Fellow. Research projects available for the RET participants
focus on various branches of nano-scale science, such as the
fabrication of cellular capsules for regenerative medicine,
analysis of varying L-arginine concentrations on platelet
adhesion, and modeling of enzyme docking for environ-
mental applications.
At the end of the 6-week program, the RET participants
orally present their independent research work, as well as
education activities they have designed together with their
research mentors on how to take back to their classroom the
research concepts they have learned. Explaining nano-scale
research to students in the K-12 grade levels is truly chal-
lenging; however, exposure to concepts of nano-scale science
creates a foundation for student inquiry and provides students
with extensive applications of the abstract science concepts
they learn within their curriculum.
The research performed by the Mainardi research group
uses molecular modeling techniques to study chemical and
biological systems at the nanoscale. Computer simulations
allow researchers to view atomic interaction that may not be
visible (by microscopic techniques) during a reaction. The
same information-surround modeling techniques (such as
mathematical basis and appropriate usage) are incorporated
into a course, Nanosystems Modeling, created and taught by
Mainardi. The course is offered to undergraduates and gradu-
ate students in the College of Engineering at Louisiana Tech
University. The usage of modeling techniques can visually
demonstrate to students what is only covered conceptually in
many science classes. The pedagogical influence of Bearden
and other members of the Mainardi research group accelerated
Culligan's understanding and use of the program.

RESEARCH BACKGROUND, METHODS, AND
RESULTS
In 2008, Culligan worked during her RET summer experi-
ence in the Mainardi computer laboratory on the modeling
of enzymes docking with potential environmental technology
applications involving methane (natural gas; chemical formula
= CH4) bioremediation. Methane is well known to be a pol-
Chemical Engineering Education










lutant and about one-third of its atmospheric concentration
is produced by wetlands and lakes.[71
Methane conversion to methanol by Methanotrophic
bacteria, which are found in rice fields, is considered as an
important sink for CH4.[8, 9] Particularly, the role of metha-
notrophso101 in the reduction of global emissions of methane,
their potential commercial use for the biotransformation of
numerous organic chemicals into valuable products, and their
capacity for the bioremediation of toxic pollutants have been
well recognized E11 121
Particulate Methane Monooxygenase (pMMO) and
Methanol Dehydrogenase (MDH) enzymes are found in
Methanotrophic bacteria. While pMMO is known to ex-
hibit the unique catalytic capacity for converting methane to
methanolE18 under ambient conditions using dioxygen as the
oxidant,' ' \ 11 )H is well known to catalyze the oxidation of
methanol to formaldehyde, which is assimilated into biomass
or involved in some other processes (Figure 1).114 15] During
these processes, electrons are produced and can be further
collected as electricity.
Even though Lieberman, et al., suggested that the active
center (site) of pMMO may contain two copper ions and
several amino acids, this topic is still controversial.[161 More-
over, how methane is converted to methanol by pMMO is
completely uncertain. On the other hand, the crystal structure
of MDH has been unequivocally determined and its active
center fully characterized to contain a Ca2� ion, a pyrrolo-
quinoline quinine (PQQ) molecule, 17 201 13 amino acids, and
several water molecules. Thus, what is not understood is 1)
how the two enzymes (pMMO and MDH) work together in
the bacteria and 2) the specific location of the active site of
pMMO-and that was the topic explored by Culligan dur-
ing her 2008 summer experience in the Mainardi group at
Louisiana Tech.
Since MDH and pMMO are found together in the same
bacterium, Culligan (NanoResearcher) was assigned the in-
vestigation of different docking situations for these enzymes.
Hence, Culligan's overall goal was to determine the most
likely configuration of the two enzymes to gain insight into
the actual location of the pMMO enzyme's active site, based
on the hypothesis that the two enzymes' active centers are
closely located with respect to each other. To achieve her goal,
Culligan needed to 1) create appropriately sized models of
the MDH and pMMO enzymes for computation purposes, 2)
optimize the geometries of the enzymes individually, and 3)
explore different MDH/pMMO arrangements by performing
geometry optimizations to find the lowest energy configura-
tion leading to the most likely position for the interacting
enzymes (as they would within the Methanotrophic bacteria
were they are found).
A two-day mini-orientation was conducted first to familiar-
ize Culligan with the software used in the research. A series of
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


tutorials was guided by Mainardi, Bearden, and other mem-
bers of the Mainardi research group, and a short-cut reference
document was supplied to Culligan. The mathematical basis
of the research was explained and the implementation of the
project was completely defined right before Culligan started
her research work.
The computational modeling technique used to obtain re-
sults for Culligan's simulations is Molecular Mechanics. 211
The principle behind Molecular Mechanics is that it uses
an energy equation to describe bonded inter-atomic interac-
tions including bond lengths, angles, and torsion, and also
nonbonded interactions such as electrostatic or Coulomb
interactions. Such an equation is known as a Force Field, 211
and during the Molecular Mechanics simulation, this function
is minimized to find an equilibrium structure of the molecular
system, which represents a stable conformation. All of these
concepts are presented to Culligan using prepared PowerPoint
presentations and activities that were created by Mainardi
for the course Nanosystems Modeling, which is available
as an elective to undergraduate and graduate students in
engineering curriculums. Thus, by using the module Forcite
of the Materials Studio software by Accelrys, Inc., 221 for
those simulations, the lowest energy configurations for the
MDH/pMMO model system were found and fully structural
characterization performed.
Culligan first built a model for the MDH enzyme based on
the current state of knowledge on the location of its active
site. The MDH enzyme, entry 1H41 of the Protein Data Bank,
was imported and its active site was found and highlighted.
Then, Culligan added an amino acid shell surrounding the
entire MDH active site thus creating a 1,300 atom model
to represent MDH (Figure 2a). The MDH model was then
geometry minimized using Molecular Mechanics.
A second model, for the pMMO enzyme, was created based
on the current state of knowledge on its active site location
and contents using the entry 1YEW of the Protein Data Bank.


Figure 1. Methane conversion to methanol (by pMMO
enzyme) and to formaldehyde (by MDH enzyme) by the
same organism (Methanotrophic bacterium).


oxygen
Electricity
(electrons, e-)


methanol J


formaldehyde










The active site of pMMO is not fully understood and is still
being explored; however, current research seems to indicate
that it is part of a complex involving four ions and some amino
acids. The pMMO model was then geometry minimized using
Molecular Mechanics (Figure 2b).
Once the optimizations of the models were complete, they
were paired together in 10 different configurations to determine
a likely position for the interaction (docking) of these two
enzymes within the Methanotrophic bacteria. All cases were
geometry minimized using Molecular Mechanics simulations
and the most stable conformation was identified (Figure 2c).
After completing each simulation, Culligan recorded rel-
evant bond lengths and angles between atoms of particular
interest. The information gathered provides a baseline of
investigation and indicates a region of particular interest to
concentrate on in future simulations in the Mainardi research
group. Thus, this information aids the ongoing investiga-
tion by Bearden (Teaching Fellow) to determine if the two
enzymes can have close contact to facilitate the methane-to-
methanol oxidation reactions. In trying to orient MDH and
pMMO in search of the configuration most likely used in
nature, the complementary shapes of the enzymes suggest
that they do interact and their active sites are not too far apart
to make oxidation of methane to methanol in pMMO and
methanol to formaldehyde in MDH a concurrent and regula-
tory process. Further simulations are needed to establish a
trend in determining the most stable configuration of the
MDH/pMMO interaction.


CREATION OF TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
MODULES AND COLLABORATION BENEFITS
As part of the RET initiative, participants had education
goals along with their research goals. Culligan's education


goal was to design and prepare learning materials and "in
vivo" demonstrations of integrated research and educational
activities for the students in her class. Culligan also collabo-
rated with Bearden and Mainardi to create a learning module
to take back to her biology classes. This component of the
program, although simple in statement, proved challenging.
The important themes in the research were first identified
(i.e., molecular modeling, bioremediation, enzymes, catalysts,
enzymatic reactions, among others). Secondly, the themes'
concepts were explored and examined to find ideas that could
be applied to the specific courses taught by Culligan (i.e.,
hydrogen bonding within the DNA structure). This technique
was applied a second time when Bearden created two transla-
tional activities to present to middle school students as part of
her involvement in the GK-12 program at Louisiana Tech.
As a tenth-grade Biology I and twelfth-grade Biology II
teacher, Culligan recognized that students usually have dif-
ficulty visualizing matter due to its unobservable basis, and
discussed her concern with Bearden and Mainardi during
her RET experiences in summer 2007 and 2008. Mainardi
explained to Culligan that using molecular modeling in the
classroom would provide the basis for individual learning, and
the possibility to "visualize" abstract concepts through com-
puter simulations and graphics, permitting representations and
demonstrations of models of the micro and nano world.[23 25]
The effect of computer animations on college student mental
models of chemical phenomena has been extensively studied
and tested,[261 and results have shown that the animations
helped students understand the subject matter better while
improving their ability to construct dynamic mental models
of chemical processes.[26]
The choice of model type, which is a challenge for a teacher,
has an impact on the image students create concerning the
ways in which molecules are shaped and how they function
in the "real" world from a scientific viewpoint.
-- Computerized molecular modeling also has been
successfully used as a tool to improve chemistry
teaching classes of tenth graders ,[27] and this was
the motivation for Culligan, Bearden, and Mai-
nardi in Summer 2008 for creating an education
module to incorporate modeling and molecular
building in classroom activities to help students
understand concepts in molecular geometry and


Figure 2. (a) MDH model created by Culligan
consisting of the full enzyme active center
and an amino acid shell surrounding it. (b)
pMMO model created by Culligan based on
the current state of knowledge on its active
site location and contents. (c) Most stable
conformation of MDH and pMMO calculated
by Culligan using Molecular Dynamics.


Chemical Engineering Education










bonding while having an enjoyable learning process.
To communicate the fundamentals of molecular systems,
molecular simulations have been proven to be excellent
tools,E23 -27 and the possibility of using freely available software
to visualize molecular shapes and build simplified models of
molecular % vi. min motivated Culligan to promote interest
and guide inquiry among her students.
Hence, from her learning module, Culligan took molecular
modeling into her classroom and allowed her students to build
molecular groups (atom by atom) including amines, ester,
and hydroxyl groups using available software. She used the
visualization aspects of the modeling software to present
the concepts of condensation, hydrolysis, and nitrogen base
bonding. The students also used ball-and-stick components
from a purchased chemistry kit to physically build the purines
(adenine and thymine) and pyrimidines (cytosine and guanine)
structures found in DNA. This activity was constructed to
confirm that adenine and thymine have two hydrogen bonds
and cytosine and guanine have three hydrogen bonds, a
benchmark in the Louisiana biology curriculum.[29]
A second learning module Culligan created used molecular
modeling to depict the different processes involved in cellu-
lar respiration. Students were engaged in the building of the
molecular groups involved in the different steps of respira-
tion (i.e., glycolysis, pyruvic acid breakdown, citric acid-or
Krebs- cycle, and the electron transport chain). Students used
the visualization aspects of the modeling software to present
the concepts of hydrogen ions transporting and the use of
an electron transport chain. The students were assessed in a
carousel activity incorporating the information retrieved from
the molecular bonding interactions, through computation and
ball-and-stick models.
Informal student interviews were conducted and indicated
an increase in the student enthusiasm with marked statements
as "Can we use the computers again?" Many students even
purchased their own ball-and-stick kits to practice at home.
The incorporation of these visual and tactile components
increases the students' understanding of atomic-level interac-
tions. From the exposure to ball-and-stick kits and incorpo-
ration of the computer simulations, students' understanding
increased by a documented 10% improvement on content test
scores compared to the previous year. The same topics were
taught each year and the identical test from the previous year
was not released to students.
As part of her involvement in the GK- 12 program, Bearden
was requested to create two translational research presenta-
tions to convey 1) the importance of modeling and 2) the
topic of her research and the necessity of computers in her
research. She first gave these presentations as one unit to the
RET participants. Based on their feedback and through the
individual guidance of Culligan, these activities were devel-
oped into full lessons that were delivered at her K- 12 partner


schools and at two requested guest presentations. Links to the
presentations and pictures of the lesson delivery 1) "All Eyes
on Atoms" and 2) "What Makes a Beautiful Model?" can be
found at .
Although Bearden receives most of her research topic guid-
ance from Mainardi, she increased her understanding of the
research project by explaining it to Culligan and continuing
to serve as a mentor to Culligan during the summer months.
Culligan in turn aided Bearden in furthering her position as a
Teaching Fellow by helping Bearden develop pedagogy skills
and make the appropriate connections in translating the re-
search into modules and activities for Bearden's student base.
As a Teaching Fellow, Bearden's teamwork, communication,
and research skills were enhanced by the experience. This is
something often found when graduate students participate
in K-12 outreach that improves their future collegiate teach-
ing.[30] Each key participant came away from the program
with distinct benefits.
Benefits to Mainardi: 1) Culligan was an additional re-
searcher to her group; 2) Results obtained by Culligan fur-
thered the research of Bearden (and thus Mainardi); and 3)
Culligan and Culligan's classroom serve as a dissemination
outlet for Mainardi's research.
Benefits to Bearden: 1) increase in scientific communica-
tion skills and research skills through the practice of guiding
Culligan through research project and analyzing results; 2)
Culligan guided Bearden in translating research into learning
module for K-12 audience; and 3) increase in teamwork and
leadership skills through the unique grouping.
Benefits to Culligan: 1) the learning experience provided by
the NERO RET program expanded her knowledge of ongoing
research in the nanotechnology field, instilled professional
development tools, and created a module to implement in
her classroom to convey the concepts of molecular model-
ing; 2) the partnership gave Culligan better appreciation for
the opportunities for collaboration available at the university
and K-12 levels of education that provide direct channels for
research to be integrated into K-12; and 3) the development
of modules with the aid of Mainardi and Bearden enriched
her teaching by using computers to convey the concepts in-
volved in molecular modeling and to convey difficult topics
in the curriculum.

CONCLUSIONS
This unique grouping allowed for the collaboration to
benefit all parties involved. The program outline, research
background and results, and education-related products
were explained in this paper to describe to readers how a
RET project can be expanded to incorporate other parties to
increase learning of and exposure to chemical engineering
concepts, such as those explored through molecular model-
ing techniques. During the six weeks of work-a very short


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009












period in the academic research community -Culligan was
able to produce a sound baseline for further research. Her
results aided in directing Bearden (GK-12 Teaching Fellow)
to a region of particular interest in the goal of determining the
active site of the pMMO enzyme. As a Teaching Fellow, the
experience enhanced Bearden's teamwork, communication,
and research skills.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from
the National Science Foundation under the CAREER
CTS-0449046, RET-0602029, and GK-12-0638730 grants.
Support for computational resources for both software and
hardware through the Louisiana Board of Regents, contract
LEQSF(2007- 08)-ENH-TR-46 and the National Science
Foundation grant number NSF/IMR DMR-0414903 are also
thankfully acknowledged.

We also appreciate the direction and constant assistance
provided by Dr. David K. Mills and Linda Ramsey of Louisi-
ana Tech University, principal and co-principal investigators,
respectively, together with Mainardi of the NSF NERO-RET
and NSF-GK-12 programs, that financially supported Tanya
Culligan's summer experiences and Katherine K. Bearden's
doctoral work.

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16. Lieberman, R.L., and A.C. Rosenzweig, "Crystal Structure of a Mem-
brane-Bound Metalloenzyme That Catalyses the Biological Oxidation
of Methane, "Nature, 434. 177 (2005)
17. Ghosh, M., C. Anthony, K. Harlas, M.G. Goodwin, and C.C.F Blake,
"The Refined Structure of the Quinoprotein Methanol Dehydrogenase
from Methylobacterium Extorquens at 1.94 A," Structure (London),
3, 1771-1787 (1995)
18. White, S., G. Boyd, ES. Mathews, Z.X. Xia, W.W Dai, Y.S. Zhang,
and V.L. Davidson, "The Active Site Structure of Calcium Containing
Methanol Dehydrogenase, "Biochemistry, 32, 12955-12958 (1993)
19. Xia, Z.X., WW Dai, J.P. Xiong, Z.P Hao, V.L. Davidson, S. White,
and E S. Mathews, "The Three-Dimensional Structures of Methanol
Dehydrogenase From Two Methylotrophic Bacteria at 2.6-A Resolu-
tion*, "J. Biol. Chem., 267. 22289-2229 (1992)
20. Xia, Z.X., Y.N. He, W.W. Dai, S. White, G. Boyd, and ES. Mathews,
"Detailed Active Site Configuration of a New Crystal Form of Metha-
nol Dehydrogenase from Methylophilus W3A1 at 1.9 A Resolution,"
Biochem., 38, 1214-1220 (1999)
21. Leach, A.R., Molecular I .%.. /.i... Principles and Applications, Har-
low: Pearson Education Limited (1999)
22. Accelrys, Materials Studio (2006)
23. Gabel, D., and R. Sherwood, "The Effect of Student Manipulation of
Molecular Models on Chemistry Achievement According to Piagetian
Level, "J. Research in Science Teaching, 17, 75 (1980)
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Annual Conference & Exposition (2005) 1


Chemical Engineering Education










r.1.1 AIChE special section


TEACHING A BIOSEPARATIONS

LABORATORY

From Training to Applied Research


DANIEL FORCINITI
Missouri University of Science and Technology * Rolla, M
One problem when teaching many laboratories is the
lack of participation of students in the experiments
from beginning to end. Often teaching assistants
prepare the necessary solutions and they demonstrate the
use of very specialized equipment (or even, in some cases,
perform the experiment). This trend has become more acute
as the instrumentation used in laboratories has become
increasingly expensive. Students' limited participation in
the experiments has not precluded us from expecting them
to produce meaningful data in spite of their lack of experi-
ence. We overemphasize student performance during their
basic learning phase. This increases the level of tension in
the classroom and leaves little room for error. Both of these
problems limit student creativity and the development of
problem-solving skills. Approaches such as problem-based
learning�' and experimental daigii' have been explored to
alleviate the problem. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to
implement such approaches when the students lack basic
laboratory skills.


One approach in the teaching of laboratories is to provide
the students with a detailed laboratory guide. These guides
are often quite comprehensive and leave little room for im-
provisation. After completing their work, the students write
a report following a pre-established template. At the end of
the semester, the students move happily into the next set of
courses. After graduation, the students must adapt from a
highly structured environment to one in which they are not


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


Daniel Forciniti is a professor of chemical
engineering at Missouri S&T. He received
his B.S. from the University of Buenos
Aires (Argentina) and his Ph.D. from North
Carolina State University. He has taught
a bioseparations laboratory and lecture
sequence for the last 15 years. He recently
authored a book on the fundamentals and
applications of bioseparations.










spoon-fed anymore. I believe that this constitutes a weakness
that needs to be addressed. Poor communication between
the basic sciences and our discipline places that burden on
us. Moreover, recent trends (partly driven by budget cuts) of
replacing wet labs with dry ones or with a dry/wet combina-
tion[3] or of replacing entire unit operations labs by virtual
ones[41 may make matters worse.
Students in the Chemical Engineering Department at the
Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly
the University of Missouri-Rolla) take a series of laboratory
courses in the Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering
Departments. The Missouri S&T Chemical Engineering cur-
riculum has a Biochemical Engineering Emphasis program
in which the unit operations laboratories have been replaced
by Biochemical Separations and Bioreactors Laboratories. In
addition, the students take several biology courses, includ-
ing molecular genetics, general biology, and microbiology;
at least two of these classes have laboratory sessions. I have
been teaching the Bioseparations Laboratory for the last 15
years. It did not take me long to realize that the ability of the
average student coming into my class (normally first-semester
seniors) to function in a laboratory setting is questionable, to
say the least. Most importantly, I have found that most do not
know how to "move" in a laboratory.
There is no quantitative measure for use in characterizing
the difficulties that the students have functioning in a labora-
tory setting. Despite this, it is very easy to find a few examples
here and there of students unable to function properly in a
laboratory. Once, a young student came to see me in distress.
There was some fear in her eyes, so I sat down ready to hear
some disastrous news. "I needed to use the small centrifuge
but when I tried, it did not work properly. The centrifuge was
moving very fast along the bench; I was afraid it was going
to fall down so I stopped the experiment," she said. I sighed
in relief. Nothing was broken and the students were in one
piece. The case of the stubborn balance happened a few years
later. A student was weighing potassium phosphate on a top-
loading balance to prepare a buffer. I was in the vicinity when
I heard: "This balance is definitely not working!"
"Uh oh," I thought, "Here goes my budget for the semes-
ter." As I asked him what the problem was, he showed me
how he was adding a lot of material to the weighing dish but
the numbers in the digital display did not change. When I
noticed that he had not removed the balance cover, I could
not help but laugh. More tragic (and costly) are the stories of
the "constant pH meter," which was caused by the smashing
of the pH meter electrode against the bottom of a beaker, and
of the "broad range micro-pipette," which occurred when a
student tried to measure 1.1 mL with a 100-1000 pL adjust-
able micro-pipette. These stories are all from my Biosepara-
tions Lab, and they were partly caused by lack of training.
Somehow, I feel sympathetic to my chemistry and biology
colleagues who do not allow the students to use anything in


their laboratories. Of course, their approach does not teach
the students an lihing,. but at least their strategy is cheap.
Obviously, better approaches are necessary.

OUR APPROACH
We decided a few years back to attempt to alleviate the poor
laboratory training of the students by dividing our Biosepara-
tions Laboratory into two parts: Training and Project. During
the first weeks of the semester, the students learn the funda-
mentals of various separations techniques (mainly membrane
filtration and chromatography) as well as ancillary techniques
(for example, centrifugation, spectroscopy, use of pH and
conductivity meters, gel electrophoresis, etc.). This portion
of the semester consists of six to eight short experiments (one
to two weeks each) in which the students follow recipes and
write technical reports in scientific journal format. There is
no penalty for failure as long as they have been careful in
their work. This training section requires close monitoring
of the students. We have found that with the exceptions of
Ph.D. or M.S. candidates in the author's laboratory, teaching
assistants are not very useful in our Bioseparations Labora-
tory. New graduate students in chemical engineering can be
trained in a reasonable amount of time to assist the students
in a traditional unit operation laboratory. Unfortunately, the
same is not true for our Bioseparations class, where the instru-
ments, techniques, and the necessary theoretical background
are foreign to traditional chemical engineering graduates.
Therefore, many semesters I have taken sole responsibility of
teaching the class. The students then pursue a four-week-long
project in which they apply the techniques learned during
training. Although the number of contact hours is consider-
able during the training portion of the lab, that is somehow
compensated for during the project part in which the students
work mostly alone.

TRAINING
A few laboratories that we use for training purposes are
included in Table 1. Most of these experiments are described
in detail in the work by Forciniti.m51 This list is not exhaus-
tive, as the experiments included in the training section are
tailored to the type of projects planned for the second part
of the semester. The students need to be trained in general
laboratory practices, but at the same time they must prepare
themselves for the operations that they will use in a particular
project. The only recurrent themes in the laboratories included
in Table 1 are chromatography and ultrafiltration because
of the indisputable importance of these operations in the
bioprocessing sector. I have included in the table the main
tasks involved in each laboratory as well as the overall goals
of each training section.
A common goal of each training laboratory is to gain gen-
eral laboratory skills. Table 2 summarizes the basic skills that
the students learn in the training laboratories. Notice that we


Chemical Engineering Education










emphasize repetition of these basic skills. We have found that
repetitive direct instructions are necessary for the students
to perform properly. The training in the use of each piece of
equipment is quite intensive. For example, the students learn
the working principles of a pH electrode before they learn
how to calibrate and operate a pH meter.


To illustrate, the ultrafiltration experiment is described below.
Ultrafiltration is a means of concentrating dilute biological so-
lutions that are heat sensitive. The solution to be concentrated
is added to a cell that contains a membrane that prevents large
molecules from passing through. The membrane's pore sizes
range from 0.001 to 0.02 pm. Ultrafiltration can also be used


TABLE 1
Examples of Training Laboratories
Laboratory Tasks Goals
Gel Pennrmeation Buffer Preparation Learn how to pack a column.
Chromatography Swelling a Gel Learn how a low pressure
Packing a Low Pressure Column chromatography system
Running a Low Pressure System works.
Preparing a Calibration Curve General lab skills.
Ion Exchange Buffer Preparation Learn how to pack a colunm.
Chromatography Swelling a Gel Learn how a low pressure
Packing a Low Pressure Column chromatography system
Running a Low Pressure System works.
Learn how to make
gradients.
General lab skills.
Partitioning Preparation of Phase Systems Learn how to do a
Mixing Liquid/liquid extraction.
Centrifugation Lear enzyme kinetics.
Sampling the Phases Learn protein quantification
Protein Assay protocols.
Enzymatic Assay Learn statistical analysis of
Calculation of Partition data.
Coefficients General lab skills.
Statistical analysis of the Results_
Isoelectric Focusing Preparation of Gels General lab skills.
Running the Gels Photo-documentation.
Developing the Gels Electrophoresis.
Documenting the Gels
Cross-Flow Filtration Preparing buffers and solutions Learn about concentration
Running a Cross-Flow Filtration polarization.
Unit Applied mass transfer
Statistical analysis of results principles to filtration.
Calculation of Mass Transfer General lab skills.
Coce.
Dialysis Preparation of Dialysis bag Learn about diffusivity
Performance of Dialysis through porous media.
Calculation of Diffusion General lab skills.
Coefficients

TABLE 2
Mapping Between Basic Skills and Training Laboratories
Laboratory pH- Balance Conductivity Micro- Centrifuge Spectrophotometer
meter meter pipettes (Absorbance)
Gel
Permeation
Ion Exchange
Partitioning
Ultrafiltration
Isoelectric
focusing
Protein
Precipitation
Dialysis


to partially separate proteins whose
size difference is relatively large.
A common problem with ultrafil-
tration is contration polarization,
which is a build-up of the solute at
the surface of the membrane that
reduces the trans-membrane flux.
The learning objectives of this
laboratory are: 1) to understand
the functioning of a cross-flow
ultrafiltration device; 2) to under-
stand the concept of concentration
polarization; and 3) to determine
the mass transfer coefficient on the
retentate side of the membrane (in
the pressure-independent regime).
The students perform all the ex-
periments in duplicate. They are
asked first to collect the necessary
materials, which are dextran (MW
150,000 or higher) and NaC1, and
to prepare a saline solution (0.050
M NaC1) and dextran solutions at
various concentrations in 0.050
M NaC1. The students are then
introduced to the instrument. For
example, they may be asked to
use the Labscale TFF system by
Millipore equipped with a cross-
filtration membrane modulus
with a molecular weight cut off
of 100,000. The instructor de-
scribes the main components of
the instrument, briefly indicates
its capabilities, and
more importantly,
offers the students a
Spect. copy of the manual
(Kinetics) and points out the

homepage of the
manufacturer.


The students iden-
tify the pressure-in-
dependent regime by
doing experiments
at various dextran
concentrations. The


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










laboratory is very time intensive because washing be-
tween runs takes approximately 90 minutes. After the
students have collected enough data, they use the equa-
tion below to estimate the mass transfer coefficient (ko)
and the membrane concentration (CAW),

J = ko ln (1)
CAb

where J is the trans membrane flux in units of g/cm2 min.
and CAb is the concentration of the dextran solution in
units of g/cm3.

PROJECT
After they have completed the training part, the stu-
dents start a project that consists of the purification of a
biomacromolecule from some raw material. The genesis
of each laboratory project is a research project that has
been pursued in our own research group. Examples of
projects included in our laboratory are: 1) the isolation
of human antibodies from transgenic corn[61; 2) the
isolation of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeastf71; 3) the
isolation of coagulation factors from human plasma8'1;
and 4) the fractionation of proteins present in the lenses
of mammals.[91 flow sheets of these processes are shown
in Figures 1 to 4. During this portion of the semester the
participation of the instructor is minimal. The students
are responsible for the procurement of supplies, for the
disposal of waste, and for their own working hours. Their
objective is to finish their projects successfully. Because
they have been trained before they start their projects, it
is their responsibility to repeat unsuccessful experiments
on their own time. The projects are described to them,
but they are expected to explore different operating
conditions to determine the effect of those changes on
yield and purity. After the students have become familiar
with the project (by reading a couple of key articles in
the open literature), they discuss with the instructor the
kind of experiments they want to conduct and what kind
of conditions they would like to explore. A few projects
are described below.
A number of different separation techniques are used
to isolate y-crystallins from whole calf lenses. The
sequence of steps to purify the y-fraction that is used
routinely in our laboratory is the following[91: 1) cell
disruption; 2) centrifugation; 3) size exclusion chroma-
tography ; 4) dialysis; 5) ion exchange chromatography;
6) dialysis; and 7) freeze drying. The students character-
ize the preparation, explore new separation conditions
(for example, new salt gradients in the ion-exchange
step or different lengths of size exclusion columns), and
study the proteins using static and dynamic light scat-
tering. Good samples that are not used by the students
are recycled into our research group. This laboratory
282


A Figure 1. Flowsheet for the Dialysis/Ultrafiltration
isolation of the enzyme alco- (Buffer Exchange)
hol dehydrogenase from the
yeast Candida boidinii.
- Figure 2. Flowsheet for the
isolation of y-crystallins from Freeze Drying
calf lenses.

requires some specialized equipment such as a bench-top or floor
centrifuge able to accommodate 50 mL tubes, a low-pressure chro-
matography system, and a spectrophotometer. The freeze dryer is
optional. Because this specialized equipment comes at significant
cost, certain pieces can be replaced by cheaper alternatives. The
low-pressure chromatography system can be replaced by some of its
individual components, such as a flow-cell spectrophotometer and
a fraction collector. The pump of the chromatography system can
be replaced by flow under gravity using a two-compartment gradi-
ent former. To minimize the costs of the most expensive materials
in this experiment, the chromatography gels (Sephadex G-75 and
Sephadex C-50), we usually recycle gels from one year to the next
without major problems. The low-pressure columns are quite cheap
in the sizes that we use (either 1.4 or 2.5 cm in diameter columns).
All other expendables are cheap. The lenses may be bought from
specialized vendors or from the local slaughterhouse. The latter has
the benefit that the lenses can be obtained for free or relative low
cost, while the former allows one to buy lenses of various ages. This
could be beneficial as the students can then explore variations in the
composition of the lenses as a function of animal age.
Another project is comprised of the synthesis and purification of
Chemical Engineering Education










V Figure 3. Flowsheet for the isolation of Coagulation Factor XII
from human plasma.

___------------ __ V Figure 4. Flowsheet for the
purification of a transgenic anti-
Human Plasma body expressed in corn.


small peptides. The students learn how to synthesize a peptide using
a solid state synthesizer,10�1 how to isolate the peptide by precipitation,
and how to identify (and further purify) the product by reverse-phase
chromatography. The basic pieces of equipment are a solid-state
synthesizer, a high-speed centrifuge, a High Pressure Liquid Chro-
matography (HPLC) instrument, and a freeze dryer. The students are
asked to explore different separation protocols in the reverse-phase
chromatography isolation of the target peptide. In addition, the students
use a dynamic light-scattering instrument to determine the thickness of
the peptide-adsorbed layer on poly(styrene) latex with different surface
chemistries. This particular laboratory is relatively expensive because
high-pressure chromatography systems able to process hundreds of
milligrams of peptides and the solid-state peptide synthesizer are
normally not found in a regular unit operations laboratory. The study
of the behavior of these peptides at solid/liquid interfaces requires a
particle-sizing instrument. In our laboratory, we use a backscattering
dynamic light-scattering instrument from Brookhaven that has proven
to be quite rugged and very easy to use, and is reasonably cheap.
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


Afew years ago, we began exploring the isolation of
human antibodies expressed in corn. The main objec-
tive of our work was to find suitable alternatives to the
use of a protein A column, by far the most expensive
element in the purification of antibodies. We have
developed a new process by which human antibodies
expressed in corn are isolated to high purity and yield
using aqueous two-phase extraction.J6] We have found
that one or two extraction steps, where the target anti-
body concentrates in the bottom or top phase, followed
by a second extraction step, where the target antibody
precipitates at the interface, yield the best results. The
optimum purification protocol consists of the following
steps: 1) extraction of the antibody (and contaminat-
ing proteins) from cornmeal using a NaCl solution;
2) addition of PEG and a salt to a concentration high
enough to induce the formation of two liquid phases at
equilibrium; 3) removal and disposal of the upper phase
(PEG-rich); 4) addition of PEG to the bottom phase to
create a second ATPS; 5) recovering of the antibody
from the new liquid/liquid interface; 6) removal of
the excess salt by diafiltration; and 7) polishing of the
product by protein A chromatography.
The students in this laboratory extract the antibody
from cornmeal and then study its partitioning behavior
in a variety of aqueous two-phase systems. This par-
ticular project is well suited for the statistical design of
experiments. The equipment needed is quite standard.
In addition to basic laboratory equipment, the students
need a rotary mixer, a spectrophotometer, an HPLC
system, and a centrifuge. The raw material in our case
is cornmeal containing a particular human antibody. Of
course, most programs will not have access to that raw
material. One option is to use commercial cornmeal
spiked with a commercial IgG. Another option is to
spike the cornmeal with hemoglobin rather than an
antibody. Hemoglobin from pigs is quite cheap and its
presence may be detected by its absorbance at 450 nm.
Thus, it is possible to measure total protein content by
a colorimetric assay and hemoglobin concentrations by
UV spectroscopy. In addition, the students need PEG of
various molecular weights and various salts. The cost of
this laboratory varies depending on the approach. If the
experiments are done with antibody-spiked cornmeal,
the main cost is a protein A column and the correspond-
ing chromatography hardware. If the experiments are
done with hemoglobin-spiked cornmeal, the cost is very
low. The aqueous two-phase systems by themselves are
very cheap, particularly if dextran is replaced with a salt
like phosphate or citrate. Most labs have a centrifuge and
a spectrophotometer. Even in the absence of a centrifuge,
the systems can be allowed to separate under gravity.
Details of this project are described in the following
section as an example.


Dialysis/Ultrafiltration
(Buffer Exchange)











EXAMPLE: ISOLATION OF ANTIBODIES
FROM CORNMEAL
When macromolecules, such as proteins, are dissolved in
a two-phase system, they selectively distribute between the
phases. A partition or distribution coefficient is defined by

K = C (2)
Cb

where Ct and Cb are the concentrations of the protein in the
top and bottom phases, respectively. The partition coefficient
depends on the pH of the phases, temperature, type, and concen-
tration of salt added, and type and concentration of the polymers
used as the phase-forming species. The fact that the partition
coefficient is a function of so many variables makes this project
particularly suited for optimization studies. For example, the
students may choose three molecular weights of PEG, three
different salts (varying in their chaotropic properties), and three
values of pH (near, above, and below the isoelectric point of
the protein). A three-level full factorial experimental design
will consist then, of 27 experiments. Because duplication is a
necessity in this type of experiment, students need to prepare,
sample, and analyze 54 extraction experiments.
Materials
PEG of various molecular weights (for example, 3,500, 8,000,
and 20,000), dextran, acetate and phosphate buffers spanning
three values of pH, sodium chloride, lithium chloride, potassium
chloride, pig hemoglobin, and Bradford or BAC tests.
Equipment
Spectrophotometer or plate reader, centrifuge (optional),
magnetic stirrers, hot plates, balances, pH meter, micro-
pipettes, rotary shaker (optional), and ultrafiltration cell
(optional).
Methods
"Extraction" of antibody from cornmeal
1. Extract 1 g of cornmeal with 10 ml of 150 mM NaCl for
8 to 12 hrs at 4 �C with stirring.
2. Remove the solid particles by centrifugation at 9,600 g
for 1 hr at 4 �C.
3. Filter the supernatant through filter paper.
4. Filter again through a 0.45 Rm membrane.
5. Add 1 mg/mL pig hemoglobin to this extract.
6. Determine total protein using the Bradford or BAC tests.
Preparation of Stock Solutions
A) Dextran (30% w/w)
1. Weigh 30 g of dextran into a bottle.
2. Dissolve the dextran in 30 g of deionized water.
3. Mix the above, it will make a paste.
4. Add the remaining 40 g of deionized water.
5. Heat the solution up to 95 �C to facilitate dissolution
of the polymer.


B) PEG (50% w/w)
1. Weigh 25 g of PEG into a bottle.
2. Dissolve the PEG in 25 g of deionized water.

Preparing the Phase Systems
1. Shake the stock solutions.


2. Place a 15 mL centrifuge tube on a balance.
3. Weigh out the desired amounts of stock solutions into the
tube in the order of increasing densities.
4. Add enough buffer (blanks) or buffer plus 1 g of corn-
meal extract to complete 10 g.
5. Mix the contents of the test tube thoroughly, first by hand,
and then in a rotary shaker for 20 minutes.
6. Centrifuge the tubes for 15 minutes at 1500 x g to allow
the phases to separate.
7. Sample the phases as described below.
8. The pH in each phase is measured with a microelectrode
directly on the undiluted phases. Because of the high vis-
cosity of the phases, the pH measurements must be done
over a relatively long period of time.

Sampling and analyzing the phases
1. Carefully pipet 2 g of the top phase.
2. Carefully pipet 2 g of the bottom phase.
3. Leave the separated phases to rest and stir again. Inspect
the solution to detect density differences along the axial
direction of the test tube.
4. Read the absorbance of each phase sampled at 450 nm.
5. Perform the Bradford assay for each phase.
6. If readings are out of range then dilute the samples with buf-
fer. This step can be done by volume rather than weight.
7. Calculate the partition coefficient of pig hemoglobin and
the overall partition coefficient for each sample. Partition
coefficient is reported as


K = A )B - (3)
(AsT - )

where A, A, AT, AB are the absorbencies of the sample in
the top and bottom phases and the absorbencies of the blank
in the top and bottom phases respectively.
Results
The students process the raw adsorption data from the Brad-
ford test and from the absorbance data taken at 450 nm. The
students need to discount the proper blanks and must account
for dilution factors. The absorbance values are then converted
into concentrations using the appropriate calibration curves.
These values plus the values of the masses of each phase,
which can be calculated through the use of well-established
correlations for densities of PEG and dextran solutions,111 are


Chemical Engineering Education











used to calculate recovery. Concentration values from Brad-
ford (total protein) and absorbance at 450 nm (hemoglobin)
are used to calculate purity and purification fold. Finally, the
partition coefficients (total protein and target protein) are
calculated and reported.
The partition coefficient data may be regressed to find a
correlation between the partitioning coefficient with pH and
PEG molecular weight for all salt types. Calculated and ex-
perimental partition coefficients are plotted in Figure 5.

LABORATORY ORGANIZATION

The students in the class are divided into groups that pursue
different projects. This is necessary because of equipment
availability in our laboratory. The number of students in each
group varies from year to year depending on the number of
students in my course. During the training sessions, groups
are small, no larger than three students per group. During the
project portion, group size ranges from two (in years with few
students) to five (in years with a large student population).
One student in each group is chosen as the group leader who is
responsible for distributing work and reporting to the instruc-
tor. The expectations in each case also change. For example,
members of small groups (i.e., two students) are expected to
actively participate in each task of the project, but they are not
asked to explore a variety of operating conditions. Students
belonging to larger groups are normally divided into two or
three subgroups with very specific tasks. For example, in the
isolation of alcohol dehydrogenase project, a large group of
five students will be divided into three subgroups. A group of
two will be in charge of cell growth and disruption and will
explore how different metabolic stages of the yeast affect the
production of the enzyme. They may also explore different
milling conditions. The second group of two students will be
in charge of process-separation development and the remain-
ing student will be in charge of all the analytical work (i.e.,
determination of protein concentration and enzymatic activity
in each step of the process). The group organizes its own tasks
and the lab is run on an "open door" policy (including nights
and weekends). Graduate students working in the author's
laboratory help in keeping the lab open at unusual hours and
they provide the "adult" supervision that an undergraduate
student should have.

CONCLUSIONS
A unique approach to teaching an undergraduate laboratory
has been developed. The key feature of our approach is the
splitting of the semester into two sessions: Training and Proj-
ect. The training section builds the students' basic laboratory
skills. The project section incorporates research projects into
the undergraduate curriculum. The students benefit because
they are exposed to state-of-the-art techniques, using equip-
ment bought with research funds. In exchange, they contribute
to a project by, for example, optimizing a particular separation

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


or by producing materials that are fed into our research group.
The students' reactions may be mixed. Some of my students
have used the expression "research laboratory" in a positive
way while some others use it as a critique, mostly referring
to the number of hours that they are expected to spend in the
lab. The acceptance of our approach by the students changes
from year to year and depends heavily on their quality.

REFERENCES
1. Glatz, C., B. Narasimhan, J. Shanks, M. Huba, K. Saunders, P Reilly,
and S. Mallapragada, "Problem-Based Learning Laboratories Involving
Chemicals From Biorenewables. "Proceedings of the 2004 American
Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition
(2004)
2. Young, B.R., H.W. Yarranton, C.T. Bellehumeur, and WY. Syrcek, "An
Experimental Design Approach to Chemical Engineering Unit Opera-
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Engineers, 1, 16 (2006)
3. Baker, N., and J. Verran, The future of Microbiology Laboratory
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ogy, 2, 238 (2004)
4. Shin, D., E.S. Yoon, K.Y. Lee, and E.S. Lee, AWeb-Based, Interactive
Virtual Laboratory System for Unit Operations and Process Systems
Engineering Education: Issues, Design, and Implementation," Comput-
ers and Chemical Engineering, 26, 319 (2002)
5. Forciniti, D., Industrial Bioseparations: Principles and Practice,
Blackwell Publishing/Wiley Ames, Iowa (2007)
6. Lee J.-W., and D. Forciniti, "Purification of Human Antibodies By
Using Liquid/Liquid Extraction," 7thWorld Congress of Chemical
Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, 84799/1-84799/10 (2005)
7. Walsdorf, A., D. Forciniti, and M.-R. Kula, "Investigation of Affinity
Partition Chromatography Using Formate DehydrogenaseAs a Model,"
J. ( ......... ... -/.,, 523, 103 (1990)
8. Weerasinghe, K.M., M.E Scully and V.V. Kakkar, "A Rapid Method
For the Isolation of Coagulationfactor XII From Human Plasma,"
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 839, 57 (1985)
9. Petitt, P, M. Edwards, and D. Forciniti, "A Small Angle Neutron
Scattering Study of Proteins at Their Isoelectric Point," European J.
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10. Merrifield, R.B., "Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis. I. The Synthesis of
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0 2 4 6
Experimental K

Figure 5. Calculated vs. experimental partition coefficient.










r.1I.1 AIChE special section


SEPARATIONS: A SHORT HISTORY

AND A CLOUDY CRYSTAL BALL










PHIL WANKAT
Purdue University


Separations have always been and will continue to be
critically important in the processing of chemicals.
It is common to note that 40 to 70 % of both capital
and operating costs in industry are due to separations.1, p 1]
It has been estimated that 15 % of the world's energy use
is required by separations.[2] Because of their industrial
importance separations have always played an important
part in chemical engineering education and in the chemical
engineering literature.

HISTORY OF SEPARATIONS
The beginning of separations apparently occurred before
recorded history. Egyptians used filtration to filter grape
juice over 5,000 years ago.3, pp 89-90] Aristotle mentioned that
pure water can be obtained by evaporating sea " a.ik , 16] A
combination of coagulation of impurities, evaporation, and
crystallization used for salt manufacture were commonly in
use by the 16th century.[3, p 90, 4, pp 21, 5, pp 229-233] Similar practices
were still in use in India in 1980.[5, p 233] Pressing, evaporation,
and crystallization were commonly in use for sugar production
by the 16th century.[4, p 23]
Distillation, particularly batch distillation, has a long history.
Mesopotamian clay distillation vessels with lids shaped to col-
lect the condensed volatile distillate have been dated to ~3500
BCE.[6] Alchemists in the first century AD in Alexandria used
a variety of simple batch stills or retorts.[4 p 16] The alembic
286


still was invented by Jabir ibn Hayyan (aka Geber) in the late
8th or early 9th century. Similar stills are currently in use in
some whiskey distilleries and for distilling rose oil.[61 By the
14th century the production of strong alcoholic drinks had
become an industry.[4, p 18] The first book on distillation was
Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi published
in the early 1500s and translated into English in 1527.[71
Brunschwig's book (Figure 1) is an apothecary with distilla-
tion used to produce various medicines from plants. Petroleum
distillation was started in England in the 17th century and coal
tar distillation was first patented in 1746.4, p 35] Fractionation
of coal tar into naphtha, kerosene, lubricating oil, and paraffin
was patented in England in 1850.81] The first oil refinery con-
structed in 1860 in Pennsylvania used simple batch stills and
collected wide-boiling fractions as the distillation proceeded.

Phil Wankat has a joint appointment in
Chemical Engineering and in Engineering
Education at Purdue University. He has a
B.S. ChE from Purdue, a Ph.D. from Princ-
eton, and an M.S. Ed from Purdue. He is
the associate editor of CEE.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education







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Figure 1. Cover page to Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi. Courtesy of Donald F and
Mildred Topp Othmer Library of Chemical History, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, PA.
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










Horizontal stills with improved performance were used in the
early 19th century for alcohol purification. An improved still
was developed in 1818 by Cellier in France who developed
a vertical bubble plate still for alcohol purification.4, p 35]
In Victorian times large estates often had batch distillation
systems to prepare drugs and concentrated liquors. Popular
books on distillation were available for this market.[9] In his
Handbook of Chemical Engineering, published in 1901 and in
an enlarged edition in 1904, George Davis clearly developed
the unit operations idea (not by this name) for distillation.110,
pp 100-103, 11] Before this, the distillation of each chemical was
studied separately. It is notable that the 2nd edition of C.
S. Robinson's The Elements of Fractional D-,i, //. m. i, r1
has elements of both the unit operations generalization and
individual chapters for distillation of a number of chemicals
such as ethanol. By the fourth edition, extensively revised by
Ed Gilliland,[131 the unit operations approach dominated and
distillation of specific chemicals were relegated to examples.
The Elements of Fractional Distillation may have been the
first chemical engineering book to also become popular with a
nontechnical audience-it was very popular with bootleggers
in the 1920s and 1930s.J14 p 85] Batch distillation was important
enough to attract the attention of Lord Rayleigh who appar-
ently did the first theoretical analysis of the method.[15"

The first continuous distillation appears to have been de-
veloped by Aeneas Coffey in 1830. He developed a vertical
perforated plate column for alcohol purification (Figure 2). pp
3536 11] This still was equipped to preheat the feed by exchange
with the condensing distillate and the bottoms. Davis["1 shows
open-steam distillation systems and several examples of
methods to reduce energy. In 1900 vertical perforated plate
columns quite similar to modem equipment were introduced
for distillation of tar.[4, p 36 9a] Safety in tar stills is discussed by




Figure 2. "The Coffey still
of 1830 for distilling alco-
hol from fermented mash,
using perforated plates. 1.
Boiler. 3. Stripping col-
umn. 4. Rectifying column.
6. Feed. 8. Condenser,"
Reprinted with permission
from Davies, J.T., "Chemi-
cal Engineering: How Did
it Begin and Develop?" in
Furter, WF. (Ed.), History
of Chemical Engineering,
American Chemical Soci- \
ety, Washington, D.C., Ad- :-? -- '
vances in Chemistry Series, M, r.
190, 15-43 (1980).


Davis,[11 p, 257] who notes that safety valves are useful if they are
kept in working order. Packing was apparently first employed
in 1820 and was patented in 1847.1161 The problem of breaking
the ethanolwater azeotrope was solved by Young in 1902 with
a batch, azeotropic distillation process using benzene as the
entrainer to produce the first observed ternary azeotrope as
the distillate product. The batch process was converted to a
continuous azeotropic distillation by Keyes in 1928.[17]
In the early 1920s petroleum refineries had not adopted
more modem fractionation systems and were using horizon-
tal stills directly heated on the bottom in conjunction with
partial condensation to distil petroleum. These systems were
not very efficient and considerable redistilling was required.
Modernization of distillation in refineries occurred in the
1920s when W.K. Lewis was hired as a consultant by the
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and introduced vertical
fractionation systems.Es, pp 305-306] By the 1920s and 1930s the
schematics of continuous distillation columns in textbooks[12 18
191 and in Perry's Handbook[20, section 12] look fairly modern except
that valve trays and structured packing had not been invented
yet. Heat recovery in distillation was common by 1923.11 p 575]
The histories of distillation equipment, distillation control,
and azeotropic and extractive distillation were reviewed by
Fair,1161 BuI k kl :1 and Othmner,1171 respectively, for the 75th
anniversary of AIChE.
Theoretical analysis of continuous binary distillation was
first achieved by Sorel, who was interested in the distillation
of alcohol.[22] Sorel's method is accurate, but confusing and
laborious since a trial-and-error calculation was required on
every stage. Binary distillation was analyzed graphically with-
out trial-and-error by Ponchon 231 and Savarit241 independently.
Lewis[251 realized that in many cases the vapor and liquid molar
flow rates are approximately constant-if they are assumed to


Copyright 1980 American Chemical Society.
Chemical Engineering Education










be constant Sorel's trial-and-error procedure is not required.
The simplified Lewis method was converted to a graphical
method by McCabe and Thiele.[26] Because McCabe-Thiele
plots clarified the physical reasons why column distillation
works, the method was rapidly adopted. While no longer used
for design, McCabe-Thiele diagrams are commonly used to
teach distillation. Solutions for multicomponent distillation
are much more complicated, particularly if there are non-dis-
tributing light and heavy non-keys. Initially, stage-by-stage
methods were adapted to multicomponent distillation,27, 28]
but closure remained a problem. Numerous computer solution
methods were developed after Amundson and Pontinen[291
realized that distillation equations could be conveniently
solved after they were put into matrix form. One of the more
robust and common methods still used in commercial simula-
tors was Naphtali and Sandholm's[30] linearization of all the
equations. The history of distillation models was reviewed by
Holland[31] for AIChE's 75th anniversary.
Unlike distillation, which developed gradually over cen-
turies, practical application of absorption appears to have
been developed solely by a single person in 1836.[4, P 29 11, p 190]
William Gossage used an old windmill as a tower to absorb
HCI in a downward-flowing stream of water. The column
was packed with gorse and brushwood. This inspiration
soon led to towers packed with various materials such as
twigs, broken brick, coke, and stone to absorb HC1. A next
step was the development of high efficiency CO2 absorption
towers by Ernest Solvay for his Solvay process.[4, pp 29 30]
The need for good distribution of the gas in the tower was
known by 1902.[11, p 203] Theoretical analysis of absorption
was facilitated by Whitman's development of the two-film
theory of mass transfer.[321
Liquid-liquid extraction became an important laboratory
method in the mid 19th century, and the concept of partition
ratios was introduced by Berthelot and Jungfleisch in 1872.[331
Industrial applications started about this time. In 1883 Goering
patented a countercurrent extraction process for recovery of
acetic acid, and in 1898 Pfleiderer patented a stirred column
extractor.[33] With the development of chemical engineering
as a profession in the early 20th century, extraction benefited
from many of the improvements originally devised for distilla-
tion and absorption. Development of new aqueous two-phase
extraction systems has allowed purification of proteins that
are likely to be unstable in organic solvents.[34] Treybal135, p 475]
notes that extraction is "a relatively immature unit opera-
tion. It is characteristic of such operations that equipment
types change rapidly, new designs being proposed fre-
quently and lasting through a few applications only to be
replaced by others. Design principles for such equipment
are never fully developed . . . ."
Crystallization from solution was one of the key tools of
the alchemists,[36] was an important unit operation at the end
of the 19th century,11, p 266] but remains partly art. In 1878


Gibbs studied the thermodynamics of growing crystal surfaces
at equilibrium and realized that thermodynamics was often
not sufficient to explain the crystal growth.[361 McCabe[371
found that the deposition rate/unit area is often linear in
supersaturation and deposits grow at a uniform rate. Unfor-
tunately, McCabe's L law often does not hold.[361 Industrial
scale crystallizers in 19341381 do not look very different than
many modern crystallizers. The important theory of crystal
size distribution was developed by Randolph and Larson. 391
Hulbert[361 reviewed crystallization for the 75th anniversary
of AIChE, and more recent advances in crystal engineering
are reviewed by Doherty. 401 Precipitation is similar to crystal-
lization except the product is usually amorphous with a poorly
defined shape and structure. Precipitation is often used as a
first cut before crystallization. Early workers did not delineate
between precipitation and crystallization and many early
crystallizations would now be classified as precipitation.
Membrane filtration developed at least as early as 1600
BC when the Arawak people of the West Indies used porous
stone filters to purify drinking aL, i 'I" I With this exception,
the development of membrane separations is almost unique
since the science was developed before practical applica-
tions. The first studies of membrane phenomena were done
by Abb6 Nollet in 1748 who studied permeation through a
semipermeable membrane.[42, p 821 In 1855 Fick studied dif-
fusion and developed the laws of diffusion still used to study
membranes.[42, p 82] Thomas Graham studied dialysis in 18541431
and dialysis using parchment paper for the membrane was
practiced commercially for processing beet sugar at the end of
the 19th century.11, p 282] The major current application-the ar-
tificial kidney - was developed in 1944 by Kolff and Beck. [42,
pp 95 97] Graham studied gas separations in 1863141 but it was
not until 1954 that Kolff and Balzer developed a membrane
lung oxygenator that was improved by the work of Clowes
and coworkers.[42, pp 131133] Pauli developed electrodialysis in
1924[411 and the multicell electrodialyzer was developed in
1940, 42, pp 98 -9940] but electrodialysis did not become practical
until the 1950s with the development of synthetic ion-exchange
membranes.[42, p 100] Currently, industrial applications of elec-
trodialysis are uncommon, but there is interest in use of it as
part of a hybrid process.[451 The seminal development that led to
large-scale commercial applications of membranes for pressure-
driven systems was the Loeb-Sourirajan method of producing
asymmetric membranes with a defect-free thin skin. 42, pp 104-105,
461 This method rapidly led to commercial reverse osmosis
systems in the 1960s.[42, p 104, 47] Loeb-Sourirajan membranes
could also be used for ultrafiltration (UF) if the membranes
were not annealed. This led to commercial UF systems, but
they were severely hampered by concentration polarization.
The eventual understanding of concentration polarization led
to the development of flow regimes and membrane modules
that allowed for practical applications of UF in the mid to
late 1960s.[42, pp 117 -125] After Henis and Tripodi at Monsanto
developed the Prism membrane separator for hydrogen pu-


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










rification in 1979,[42, pp 129 -133, 48] several other commercial gas
permeation systems were developed.[42] Pervaporation can be
traced to the work of Graham, but the definitive studies were
done by Binning and his co-workers in the late 1950s and
early 1960s.[49] Pervaporation was first commercialized in the
1980s for breaking the ethanol-water azeotrope. 471

Adsorption, particularly the use of charcoal to purify water,
has been known since Biblical times,[50, Vol 1, p 82] was used
commercially in the late 18th century for the clarification of
raw sugar,51, p 1075] and was recommended for purifying water
in an 1859 Western US guide book.[52, p 49] Scheele studied the
adsorption of gases on charcoal in 1773,[53, p 548] and the ability
of charcoal to remove odors from air was extensively studied
by Hunter in the 1860s.51, p 1087] Clay was also extensively
used with an early use in "fulling" (the removal of grease
from wool-hence the name fuller's earth) and processing
vegetable oils, and later applications in petroleum processing
with percolation processes.[51, PP 1059-1061] Thermal desorption
including burning the adsorbates off of the adsorbent was the
common regeneration method if the adsorbent was regener-
ated. Solvent recovery with activated carbon followed by
steam desorption has been commercially practiced since the
1920s with little change in the basic equipment.50, Vol 1 p 73]
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) developed by Skarstrom[541
at Esso in the 1950s and 1960s allowed for much faster
cycles and thus higher productivity. PSA was rapidly com-
mercialized for air drying, hydrogen purification, and air
separation. Simulated moving beds (SMB) were developed
by Broughton and his coworkers at UOP during the same
time frame to solve the attrition and mixing problems that
occurred in moving beds.J55 56] This process is similar to the
Shanks process (1841) used to simulate counter-current flow
in leaching.[35, p 723 -724] Two major commercial applications of
the SMB have been purification of p-xylene and separation
of fructose and glucose.[50, Vol 2, chapt 6]

Ion exchange can also be traced to biblical times.[53, p 549]
Scientific studies were first done by Thompson in 1850 using
naturally occurring clays.[57, 58, p 163] The first major application
of ion exchange, water softening, occurred early in the 20th
century.[53, p 549] The major advance in ion exchange was the
development of synthetic polymeric ion exchange resins in
England in 1935.[591 Synthetic polymer resins were used by
Frank Spedding and his coworkers for large-scale chromato-
graphic separation of the rare earths in the Manhattan project
during and immediately following World War 1159, 60] and
are currently used for almost all ion exchange applications
including home water softening. Moving bed systems with
intermittent or pulsed solids movement have been used for
large-scale ion exchange systems, particularly for water
treatment, since the 1940s.[50, Vol 2, pp 68 76] Applications of
ion exchange for biochemical separations followed Moore
and Stein's demonstration of the power of ion exchange
chromatography. 61 58 p 163]
290


Liquid chromatography in the form of column elution
chromatography was first developed by Tswett in 1903. 62] He
called the method "chromatography" because he observed col-
ored bands moving down the column. Large scale applications
of very similar systems were commercialized in the late 1940s
for separation of carotene, xanthophyll, and chlorophyll on an
activated carbon column using gradient elution and backwash,
and in the 1950s the Arosorb process developed by Sun Oil
Co. was used to separate aromatics from alkyl hydrocarbons
using silica gel.50, Vol 2 p 1] Currently, commercial applications
of liquid chromatography are common for bioseparations. Liq-
uid-liquid chromatography (LLC) was developed by Martin
and S� ngi.' and gas-liquid chromatography was developed
by James and Martin. 64] Although very successful in analytical
applications these methods are less successful in large-scale
systems. LLC led to bonded phases that are used commercially
in large-scale systems, however. Scale-up of size exclusion
chromatography (SEC) was successful, and SEC was used
for large-scale separations shortly after it was invented.[651
Although affinity (or bioaffinity) chromatography, which
is used for purification of antibodies and proteins, has been
traced back to Starkenstein's isolation of a-amylase on starch
in 1910,]661 modem applications started in the 1950s with the
work of Lermann's group[66 67] and were popularized by a
series of papers by Cuatrecasas and Anfinsen. 671 Large-scale
applications (large-scale is a relative term and may refer to a
50 mL column processing 15 liters of fluid) were started in
the early 1980s.J681 Although many commercial units are not
large, the value of the purified product can be significant.
Electrophoresis, which is also extensively used for protein
purification on a small scale, has a long history, but modem
electrophoresis was initiated by the experimental work of Ame
Tiselius in 1937 and the development of a theory for electro-
lytes by Debye and Hiickel.[69, 70] Tiselius' original method,
moving boundary electrophoresis, is limited by being able to
collect pure samples of only the fastest positively and nega-
tively charged components and convection caused by elec-
troosmosis often reduces the separation. Gel, membrane, and
paper electrophoresis were developed to control convection.
If the electrophoresis is done in the presence of a pH gradi-
ent the result is isoelectric focusing, which has considerably
more separation power. Isoelectric focusing was developed
by Kolin in the mid-1950s and further developed by Svens-
son. 711 Preparative methods of electrophoresis and isoelectric
focusing often employ two-dimensional approaches,T70 711 but
applications remain small-scale although a few researchers
continue to work to scale-up the systems.
After reviewing the historical development of separation
techniques, I conclude that the two most important long-term
developments were distillation and membrane separators.
1. Distillation. Despite modest separation factors, dis-
tillation's ease of staging as a countercurrent process with
extensive reuse of energy separating agent plus use of reflux
Chemical Engineering Education










and boilup allow one to obtain high purity and high recovery
without the addition of a mass separating agent. The major
downside for distillation is high energy use. Azeotropes and
low relative volatility limit applications, although the addi-
tion of a mass separating agent often allows circumvention
of these limits.
2. Membrane separators. Asymmetric hollow-fiber
membranes with high selectivity have an extremely high
area to volume ratio, very low energy use, and can achieve
high purities. The downsides for membrane separators is the
difficulty of staging and the lack of reuse of energy separat-
ing agent make achieving both high recovery and high purity
expensive. Concentration polarization and fouling currently
limit applications for liquids.

TEACHING SEPARATION PROCESSES
The key questions remain, What to teach? and, How to
teach it?722 731 If we had as much time as was needed, we
could teach all the separations in a separations-oriented ChE
curriculum 731 that includes core courses in phase equilibrium,
equilibrium-based separations, solids/mechanical separa-
tions, and rate-based separations; and electives in advanced
equilibrium-based separations and in novel/unusual separa-
tions. This process-oriented curriculum uses separations as
the unifying theme, but it does not fit into current trends in
curriculum development.[74 751
With an overcrowded curriculum separation methods are not
going to receive significantly more time; thus, we must choose
which separations to include. At Purdue we currently have one
core course in separations. In this junior-level course I cover
flash distillation, normal and complex continuous distillation
(binary, multicomponent, extractive, and azeotropic), batch
distillation, absorption and stripping, liquid-liquid extraction,
and membrane separations. The course has two lectures and
a two-hour, AspenPlus computer laboratory every week. To
cover this significant amount of material, extraction is taught
at a purely equilibrium level with no design, and membranes
are usually limited to gas permeation (but including all flow
patterns). I use my own textbook,[76] although there are other
good textbooks available., [..s53 77, 78] [The outline of this
course is available from the author at wankat@purdue.edu.]
Obviously, this choice of material leaves out many important
separation processes. Some of these are included in senior
laboratory (e.g., drying and chromatography) or senior
design courses, but the students rarely have the same level
of understanding of theory. It is also important, if possible,
to have dual-level (graduate and undergraduate) electives
available on topics such as particulates,[791 rate separations,[80]
bioseparations,1811 or advanced distillation. [82
For distillation and the other equilibrium-staged separations,
process simulators are used for design and simulation in indus-
try and thus should be used in undergraduate courses.[83 84] The
particular process simulator used is not critical. Spreadsheets
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


can be used for membrane systems. 16 85] Spreadsheets,[861
MATLAB, and Mathematica[871 are useful for solving prob-
lems and helping students understand the equilibrium-staged
separation methods. If students have not been trained in these
tools, class time must be set aside to teach students how to
use the tools -preferably in a computer laboratory. Use of
these tools also helps graduates satisfy ABET's criterion 3k,
"an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modem engineer-
ing tools necessary for engineering practice."'881 Simulators
should also be used in dual level electives.180 82] The "lecture"
portion of the courses should use well known active learning
u th iI' h 84 89] in addition to mini lectures.

PREDICTIONS
Where are industrial use, education, and research funding
for separations headed? My crystal ball is cloudy, but I will
hazard predictions. These predictions assume that the one
great "killer" application that makes a host of existing separa-
tion processes obsolete will not appear and that funding for
academic research on separations will remain tight despite
the identification of a number of high-priority research areas
in separations.[90"
First prediction: Distillation will remain the major industrial
workhorse and a major, although probably slowly declining,
part of education in separations. Education in distillation
(including absorption and stripping) will increasingly focus
on the use of process simulators. Unfortunately, funding for
academic research on distillation will remain anemic in the
United States.
Rationale - Industrial Use: Distillation will continue to be
the industrial workhorse because: 1. Distillation is trusted. 2.
It is understood well enough that existing computer models
will produce designs that work in about 80 % of cases. [90 p 25]
3. Except for extractive and azeotropic distillation, mass
separating agents are not required and thus do not need to
be recovered. 4. A complete binary separation is possible,
which means a component can be recovered with high
purity and high recovery. 5. In many cases distillation is the
most economical separation process. 6. C, .. iid . 90-95%
of all separations in the chemical process industry are done
by distillation. [1, 11]
Rationale - Education: Because of the broadening of posi-
tions that graduates accept, most schools want to prepare
students for jobs outside the traditional chemical and
petroleum industries. Thus, there is considerable pressure
to teach other separations, but additional time is rarely al-
located to separation processes. Process simulators will be
used because they prepare students for industrial practice,
they are now readily available at most schools, they are sup-
ported by textbooks, ABET encourages the use of modern
tools, and they help students learn.
Rationale - Research Funding: The U. S. funding agencies
have to a considerable extent apparently decided that distil-
lation is a known art and that companies or Fractionation
Research Inc. (FRI) should conduct any research needed.











This reasoning ignores that even small advances in distil-
lation can be economically important, and that a paradigm
shift, although perhaps unlikely, would have enormous
economic impact.

Second prediction: Mechanical separations such as flota-
tion, filtration, centrifugation and settling will continue to be
ignored in the ChE core at most schools although they will
remain critically important in industry. Funding for research
in particulates will remain reasonably secure.
Rationale - Industrial Use: Because unwanted solids must
be removed and many products are sold as solids, particu-
late separations will remain industrially important.

Rationale - Education: Unfortunately, at the time that the
engineering science revolution changed chemical engineer-
ing education, many steps in handling and processing solids
were art not science. These unit operations were often
dropped from the curriculum since they were not considered
to be scientific. Many schools have added these processes
back into the curriculum, but in an elective course on par-
ticulates instead of in the core. Because of time pressures on
the core, mechanical separations are unlikely to be added to
the core in a meaningful way.

Rationale - Research Funding: The mechanical separa-
tions have found a home in the general area of funding for
particulates. Although not overly generous, this funding is
probably secure.

Third prediction: Membrane separation processes will con-
tinue to find industrial applications, but at a slower rate than
predicted by researchers. Membrane research will continue to
benefit from support that is modest, but robust compared to
that received by other areas of separation. Membrane separa-
tions will become an increasingly common part of separation
courses in the ChE core.
Rationale - Industrial Use: In applications where they work
well (high selectivity and high flux, commercially available,
high purity or high recovery is required, minimal foul-
ing occurs, and the membrane has a long life) membranes
are often the most energy efficient and least expensive
separation method by far. Unfortunately, these limitations
currently limit use of membranes, but additional research is
likely to slowly broaden the range of applications.

Rationale - Education: Since industry is using membrane
separations more and since many academics are doing
membrane research, there is a desire to cover this material.
Membrane separators are now included in many textbooks,
and the level of presentation is accessible to undergraduate
chemical engineering students.

Rationale - Research Funding: Funding agencies appear
to believe that the major membrane successes in water
treatment and medical applications can be repeated
even though the context may be different. So far,
the tendency of membrane researchers to be overly
optimistic about the rate of commercialization of new
membrane applications has not cut into support, and


membrane separators remain the only separation sys-
tems that are funded at close to a reasonable level.

Fourth prediction: Adsorption, ion exchange, and chromato-
graphic separation processes will slowly become more impor-
tant in industry and will continue to receive modest research
support, particularly for biological applications. These pro-
cesses will be taught mainly at the graduate level. Their lack
of coverage at the undergraduate level will continue to serve
as a barrier to their wider application in industry. Research
funding will remain tight although it will be somewhat more
available for biological applications.
Rationale - Industrial Use: Adsorption, ion exchange, and
chromatographic separation processes can often accomplish
separations more economically than other methods. This is
particularly true in biological applications where distilla-
tion is not applicable. Because most engineers with a B.S.
degree are unfamiliar with these processes, however, they
will be unlikely to consider sorption separations for new
applications.90,P 16]
Rationale - Education: Since the sorption separations are
batch processes that require mass transfer calculations, they
are inherently more difficult to understand than steady-
state, equilibrium processes. Because many undergraduate
chemical engineers have considerable difficulty understand-
ing them, these processes will be taught mainly to graduate
students.
Rationale - Research Funding: Money will be available for
materials applications to make new sorbents, particularly
if the research can be tied to nanotechnology. Biological
applications have more sources of funding available than
nonbiological applications such as gas processing.

Fifth prediction: Crystallization (and precipitation) will
continue to be used in many industries where it is critically
important. Crystallization will remain an orphan without a
home, however, in the core of most undergraduate curricula.
Crystallization research is currently underfunded and is un-
likely to receive large increases.
Rationale - Industrial Use: Since many products are sold
in a solid form, the final processing step is often crystal-
lization. In addition, many products such as salts and other
nonvolatile materials use very large-scale crystallization.
These processes are not going to disappear.

Rationale - Education: Crystallization can be analyzed
as an equilibrium staged separation, but the equilibrium
is not the VLE that undergraduates and professors are
familiar with. A complete analysis that predicts the crystal
size distribution requires a mass transfer analysis coupled
with population balances. This material is accessible to
undergraduates, but because population balances are usually
not covered elsewhere in the undergraduate curriculum,
considerable time needs to be devoted to the topic. Even
complete coverage of population balances only begins to
cover the idiosyncratic nature of crystallization. Because of
competing pressures to cover other material, most schools
will not carve out the time required in the undergraduate

Chemical Engineering Education









core despite a call to make crystalline solids one of the core themes in the curriculum.[40] Thus, at
most schools thorough analysis of crystallization will only be done in elective courses when there
is a professor interested in teaching this material. Most ChE graduates have a weak background in
crystallization and solids handling in general,E90, 19] and this unfortunate condition is predicted to
continue.
Rational - Research Funding: Much of the funding for crystallization was based on the promise of
applications in space. This source appears to have largely dried up and no large-scale replacement
sources have materialized.
Sixth prediction: Extraction will continue to be important in industry and to be covered in un-
dergraduate courses, but not enough time and energy will be focused on the unique extraction
design issues in education. No prediction will be made on research funding.
Rationale - Industrial Use: Extraction is very useful for cases where distillation does not work.
Many of these applications of extraction such as separation of nonvolatile compounds are industri-
ally important.
Rationale - Education: Although crystallization is probably the most idiosyncratic equilibrium-
staged separation process, extraction is a close second. Important content such as third-phase (or
rag) formation and design of different types of extractors receives minimal or no coverage in most
undergraduate programs. Complete coverage of the methods used industrially would require a
separate course. Because of time pressures on the curriculum, this will not happen in the required
core. In addition, most current textbooks do not cover, and most professors teaching separations
are not familiar with, these details.

IS THERE A BETTER WAY TO ALLOCATE RESEARCH FUNDING?
A rational way to allocate funding for separations research could be based on the potential for
impact. Impact can certainly come from major advances such as the Loeb-Sourirajan method of
producing asymmetric membranes, but it can also come from relatively small advances that are
very widely applied. Hypothesize that impact potential can be approximated as,

Impact Potential a (potential research advances) x (market for separation method) (1)
The market is the current use of the separation method measured in value of products or
in cost of the separation units. In either case market can be estimated reasonably accurately
for separation methods currently in use. [Other evaluation methods would have to be used
to analyze rare proposals for separation methods that are totally novel where there is no cur-
rent use.] Potential for research advances is much more difficult to estimate. Perhaps a start
can be obtained by using an updated version of George Keller's plot of use maturity versus
technological maturity.[911 If technological maturity is normalized to scale from 0 to 1, then
we can hypothesize that

Potential for research advances a (1 - Technological Maturity) (2)
Then,

Impact Potential a (1 - Technological Maturity) x (market for separation method) (3)
This model is a guide for setting funding levels but still leaves significant room for individual
judgments and modifications such as the use of weighting factors for potential and market.
Let's qualitatively consider how three industrial separation methods would fare with this
approach. According to Keller,[911 distillation is technologically mature and is close to the
technology asymptote; thus, the potential for research advances is low. Since the market is
huge, however, Eq. (3) shows that the impact potential of additional research is relatively
large. Thus, funding should be increased from its current very low level. Membrane systems
have a lower technological maturity (higher potential) than distillation[911 and a significant
market; thus, funding for membrane research will remain high. Solvent extraction has a
somewhat lower technological maturity than distillation,[911 which implies a somewhat


First prediction:

Distillation will

remain the major

industrial work-

horse and a major,

although probably

slowly declining,

part of education

in separations.

Education in

distillation

(including absorp-

tion and stripping)

will increasingly

focus on the use of

process simulators.

Unfortunately,

funding for

academic research

on distillation will

remain anemic in

the United States.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009












higher potential, but the market is about 1/20th as large in
the process indutiiiL. "' '-; thus, funding would be lower
than for distillation.

CLOSURE

Since reactors and separators are the core of chemical
engineering, these aspects are important in the history, the
current practice, and the future of chemical engineering. The
history of separations helps explain how the current practice
of chemical engineering separations and of separations in
chemical engineering education evolved, and the history
provides a useful, but probably limited, crystal ball to predict
the future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

A shorter version of this paper was presented at the AIChE
100th Anniversary Meeting in November 2008.

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Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











[r,] 1 curriculum
-- U s__________________


Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program:


DEVELOPING A BIOMATERIAL


TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM




JIA-CHI LIANG, SHIEH-SHIUH KUNG, AND YI-MING SUN


Yuan Ze University * ( liii, -Li, Taiwan
With the recent popularization of interdisciplinary
studies, higher education has faced the challenge
of engaging students in interdisciplinary learning
and of requiring college teachers to cooperate to reach the goal
of interdisciplinary teaching. "Interdisciplinary" means the
mingling of several traditionally distinct disciplines to create
a unified product, such as a course, a paper, or even a curricu-
lum.ElJ According to the report, "Engineering Education for a
Changing World (A National Action Agenda for Engineering
Education)," a successful college student should have the
abilities of group cooperation, communicative competence,
and an understanding of the economic, social, environmental,
and international context of their professional activities.[2]
To meet the demand for innovative engineering education,
many schools now offer novel interdisciplinary curriculum
programs. For instance, Texas A & M University and Arizona
State University combined English with the freshman-engi-
neering curriculum to improve students' reading, writing, and
communication abilities while they are studying engineer-
ing.[3] Drexel University similarly merged humanities with the
curriculum of the college of engineering, leading to student
assignments such as using a poem to illustrate how to operate
an experimental facility in an engineering laboratory.
While Biology previously was regarded as an independent
subject, in recent years Life Science and Biotechnology have
become increasingly interconnected with other subjects. Many
of the breakthroughs in the field of Life Science and Biotech-
nology are actually the result of injecting technology research
from other fields into these programs. And so for chemical
engineering, a goal is to develop students' ability to apply
engineering principles to biological systems.[4 5] Integrating
chemical engineering and biological discoveries, however,
has not been discussed extensively. For instance, the role
of chemical engineering technology in the development of
Biotechnology products typically occurs middle- and down-
stream of product development. Without a well-developed
chemical engineering technology (separation, purification,
and recovery), it is difficult to scale-up biotechnology prod-
ucts from the experimental level to the commercial level.
296


Consequently, only if chemical engineering technology is
integrated with biotechnology can commercialized biotech-
nology products be practical.
Because of the lack of professionals with interdisciplinary
knowledge in engineering and biotechnology at present in
Taiwan, Yuan Ze University has developed a Biomaterial
Technology curriculum. The main goal of this program is to
help engineering students to better understand the concepts
of biotechnology, and to teach them the essential skills of
interdisciplinary studies. Generally speaking, the conven-
tional approach is to add a standard biology course, and many
schools do offer biology courses at different levels.[6 8] Train-
ing in bioengineering can extend outside of the classroom


Jia-chi Liang is an assistant professor of
the Center for Teacher Education at Yuan
Ze University in Taiwan. She received
her B.S. and M.S. degrees from National
Taiwan University and her Ph.D. from
the University of Texas in Austin. Her
research interests include curriculum
development, science education, and
teacher education.


I -_


Shieh-shiuh Kung is an ass
sor of the Graduate Schoo
nology and Bioengineering
University in Taiwan. He
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees fror
ing Hua University. His rese
include microbiology, bioc
genetic engineering.


istant profes-
ol of Biotech-
g at Yuan Ze
received his
m National Ts-
arch interests


chemistry, and- L

Yi-ming Sun is a professor in the De-
partment of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science at Yuan Ze University
in Taiwan. He received his B.S. from Na-
tional Taiwan University and his Ph.D. from
the University of Cincinnati. His research
interests include membrane separation,
controlled drug delivery, diffusion in poly-
mers, and biopolymers.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education











setting through undergraduate research and internships.[9,
10] Through the evaluation and integration of the school's
resources, Yuan Ze University established and developed a
Biomaterial Technology Curriculum. In addition to including
basic biology courses, this program offers advanced courses
and integrated and consecutive laboratory courses. The
program has developed a collaborative approach between
industry and university integrating the resources and teachers
of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science with those of the Graduate School of Biotechnology
and Bioengineering. The result is a curriculum relevant to
Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering, and Biomaterials
for engineering students to cultivate talents and vision for
both engineering and biotechnology. This paper will describe
the process of designing the program, and will discuss the
implementation, impact, and benefits of an integrated and
collaborative approach.

DEVELOPING A SPECIFIC CURRICULUM
PROGRAM
Background and Framework of the Program
Foreseeing the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge
and training in engineering and biotechnology, we identified
two choke points to developing the curriculum. The first is
that the engineering and biotechnology
departments have their own teachers that
are difficult to integrate, due to their dif-


ferences in background and professional
knowledge. The second is that engineer-
ing students have deficient knowledge of
biology because they often have had little
or no formal study of life science since
junior high. To boost the Biomaterial
Technology program and solve these two
issues, we made two adjustments. First, to
aid the integration of teachers, the school
cooperated with the Far Eastern Group's
Industry-University Cooperative Devel-
oping Project: The Development and
Application of Microorganism Composite
High polymer PHAs (Microbial synthetic
polymers). This project happens to be a
program that incorporates biology, chemi-
cal engineering, and materials science.
The main purpose of establishing this
relationship was to turn the university's
research energy and educational achieve-
ment into the motivating force for rapid
industry upgrading. As a result, industry
knowledge and techniques were intro-
duced and implemented in all core courses
and laboratory courses. Through the guid-
ance of the Industry-University Coopera-
tive project, the teaching resources of the
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


engineering and biotechnology departments came together
with professors' research to help the program integrate theory
and practical experiences.
Concerning the students, the program developed an appro-
priate curriculum plan to resolve their deficient knowledge of
the life sciences. The plan included two major points. First, the
curriculum was divided into basic and advanced courses, and
an emphasis was placed on laboratory courses to improve stu-
dents' learning and experimentation skills. Second, a teaching
assistance Web site became available to advance the breadth
and depth of the students' learning. The Web site encourages
students of different backgrounds to exchange and integrate the
knowledge they have learned. The aim is to prepare students
to undertake their special topic studies (the third step in their
curriculum plan), and to be able to participate in the Industry-
University Cooperative project. Having such interactive and
practical experience teaches students the analytical and applica-
tion skills needed to resolve the problems that actually occur in
the developing process of the biotechnology industry. Courses
of the Biomaterial Technology program link the core biotechnol-
ogy courses with engineering materials and process unit courses
to bring the characteristics of engineering material production
and its usage into full play in the field of biotechnology. The
framework of the program is shown as Figure 1.

Review and Revision of the Curriculum
S------- - ---- 1


Department of Chemical
Engineering & Materials Science


Graduate School of
Biotechnology & Bloenginee


Integration of
B i r, :

Resources for Teachers

I__


Core Courses


Laboratory Courses


* F-, ,,- 1 T,, Ii - ,


Special Topic Studies




Report of Special Topic Studies
* - ,

* i .. . .


Teaching Assistance Website
* F : ,,,-,i -, L



* - , 1 I ,, ,,


4-


ring I







I






IjL


Evaluation &
Track System


Figure 1. Framework of the Biomaterial Engineering program.










Designing Curriculum
Since 2004, this program has gradually introduced and now
offers courses for engineering students who are not freshmen.
These additions are outlined in Table 1.
In addition, special topic studies and practice in treating
a bioengineering technical problem are required. Figure 2
shows the framework of curriculum and learning goals for
each phase. Once students have taken the basic courses, they
may take advanced courses and laboratory courses. Labora-
tory courses are offered during summer and winter breaks
to maximize the time students have to learn. There is a great

TABLE 1
Curriculum Requirements in a Biomaterial Technology
Program
Stage Course
Materials Science (required)
Basic courses Applied Biochemistry (required)
(9 credits at
least) Industrial Microbiology (elective)
Basic Biotechnology (elective)
Laboratory Basic Biotechnology Laboratory (required)
courses Biochemical Engineering Laboratory (elec-
(6 credits at tive)
least)
Biomaterials Laboratory (elective)
Biomaterials (elective)
Advanced
Advanced Biochemical Engineering (elective)
courses
(6 credits at Genes and Protein Engineering (elective)
least) Biomedical Materials (elective)




Develop

Special Topic Studies Abilitie
Integra
t Applica



Advanced Laboratory Profes
Courses Courses and S
(6 credits) (6 credits)

t t --
t Acqu
Basic
Basic Courses
(9 credits) - -


Figure 2. Framework of the curriculum.


difference between the laboratory courses of this program
and those offered at other universities. Traditionally, every
laboratory course is independent, as is every experiment in a
single course. So while students learn the needed techniques,
they often find it difficult to understand complete concepts.
Yuan Ze University designed the three laboratory courses
with an integrative and consecutive approach. For instance,
in the basic biotechnology laboratory course, students learn to
use strain screening and purification to identify the strain that
can produce PHA (p, 1 h % di \ \ ,dk.ni nall)i In their biochemi-
cal engineering laboratory course, they also learn that this
strain can further produce more PHA by the process unit of
fermentation. In the biomaterials laboratory course, students
learn the characterization of the material's physical proper-
ties and the preparation of the thermal-pressed PHA films.
These sequential laboratory courses not only train students
to develop experimental skills, but also build an integrative
concept of the origin, production, and application of PHA
materials, and help them to apply these concepts in the design
of actual experiments.
The college of engineering confers the diploma of the cur-
riculum to the students after they have completed 22 credit
hours of courses, including 1 credit hour of special topic
studies. After they finish the program, students are expected
to have a complete understanding of biotechnology, and be
able to combine the present courses of the college of engineer-
ing, like unit operation, reactor engineering, process control,
materials science, and polymer science. Their understanding
of the concepts to apply materials science and engineering
into the biotechnology industry is enhanced.

EVALUATING THE EFFECT
OF THE CURRICULUM
pment of the At the start of development of this
s for Analysis, program, all lecture teachers dis-
cussed the goals for the curriculum,
nation, and
the available resources of schools,
nation students' interests and qualities, and
the results of the curriculum, such as
the changes in students' cognition,
ssional Knowledge skills, and attitudes after the cur-
riculum. Evaluation tools in the form
kill Development of questionnaires were developed to
acquire feedback from advisors of
- - - - students doing special topic studies,
and semi-structured interviews were
irement of the implemented to acquire feedback
Knowledge from students about the laboratory
curriculum and industry visits.
- - - - - Laboratory Courses

From laboratory courses, most
students report that they learned
much and acquired detailed experi-


Chemical Engineering Education










mental skills, knowledge of facility operations, and research
methodology. Some students valued certain elements, such as
flexible time arrangement of courses, the modem experimental
devices and equipment, and the practical content of courses.
Furthermore, students mentioned that a series of coherent
experiments helped them to gain a clearer idea of how to
synthesize concepts. The following are excerpts from student
feedback concerning the laboratory courses.
* "To analyze life is very marvelous. After appropriate
connection, fatty acid, proteins, acid, alkali, and other in-
animate chemical substances can become alive. I've been
attracted by those .1,,,, for a long time. How should we
think about our lives, and what could biotechnology do?
What should we do, and what should we not? These are
what the teachers make us think about in these courses."
* "These experiments are pretty different from organic
chemistry experiments. The chemicals used in organic
chemistry experiments are more abundant than in biology
experiments. Furthermore, while organic chemistry exper-
iments theoretically could all be successful, it is uncertain
for biology experiments. Because there are many elements
off,. ,, the results, such as pollutions, concentrations,
temperatures, and time controls, we should do every
single step carefully."

Students paid attention to the process and the function of
chemicals they use in experiments, as opposed to simply fol-
lowing the handbook like before. In traditional engineering
experiments, students have little chance to face and resolve
unpredictable results. Most students think the biology and en-
gineering models are different. More specifically, the program
makes students think of the possibilities and the difficulties
of interdisciplinary co-operation.
* "I learned many concepts and skills about ', m,,
biology experiments from the courses. These experiments
are continuous and. ,a, ,, im, in spite of my insufficient
experience, which caused some abortive data and the
Si..,,1,-1... of time, the teachers and tutors helped to
correct me as soon as possible. From in,.. ii. 11,, these
experiments, I have found improvements in my concen-
tration, observations, discussions, and interpretations
about the data."
* "In the two weeks, except for sleeping, we have been
working on the experiments almost the time. I dare not
to say that I could absorb .. , i ,, , this course tries to
teach us, but after sequential learning, I acquired a more
complete conception. I've set up the foundation, and now
the only .1, ,,, to do is to build it up. I believe all the hard
work would never go down the drain, for we all have
learned ...... d,,,,, indeed."
* "This is a very .1,1 , i,,, laboratory course because
we can see different .1,,,,, when applying biotechnology
into the field of engineering. Ail,..,,, i, it is , li. 1,, 1 1,,,
we could really learn a lot more new knowledge. Thanks
to the teachers, I hope there is another chance to take
relevant laboratory courses."


Courses of the Biomaterial Technology

program link the core biotechnology

courses with engineering materials and

process unit courses to bring the

characteristics of engineering material

production and its usage into full play

in the field of biotechnology.


The students' positive feedback encourages the teachers to
run the program more energetically. Students commenting
about the experimental courses mentioned that the arrange-
ment of time was too compact; that they could not understand
some terminology; that there were too many groups, or
devices were insufficient; and that the contents of handouts
were oversimplified. Based on these suggestions the program
will be adjusted, so teaching materials and the pace of classes
will be modified to focus more on quality than quantity. Other
adjustments include collecting and annotating common ter-
minology from all courses; making references available to
students in both Chinese and English; providing more equip-
ment and tutors; and sizing-down student work groups.
Special Topic Studies
This program also created a questionnaire evaluating stu-
dent performance on special topic studies.
The dimensions of the questionnaire refer to the accredited
standard of the Institute of Engineering Education in Taiwan.
The evaluation mainly concerns the students' ability to apply
knowledge, formulate and execute experiments, use experi-
mental skills and tools, design the process of the experiment,
communicate and cooperate within a group, and analyze and
solve problems. Aside from the six accredited standards of the
department, the program further assesses students' learning
attitude and other abilities, such as reading, writing, interpret-
ing data, and logical thinking. The following are the analyses
of the advising professors.

1. Essential knowledge: Most of the students doing special
topic studies have a clear concept of chemistry, while
half have a clear understanding of chemical engineer-
ing. Most students also have some understanding of
biotechnology and life science, but it is clear that it is
difficult for them to build up this knowledge in a short
period of time.
2. Ability to formulate experiments: Most students can
systematically formulate experiments, and are able to
correct mistakes they made during the process of the
experiment
3. Experimental skills and ability to use tools: On the
whole, professors are satisfied with the students' experi-


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











mental skills and operation of valuable devices. In most
experiments, students are able to choose the proper
devices to complete the tasks, and consult the usage
manual in advance so that they can operate the devices
quickly and with confidence. Regarding chemicals,
however, only some students check the information
about the correct usage.

4. Ability to design the process of the experiment: Most
students need some assistance from graduate students
and teachers to design an experiment. The reason is that
college courses alone are not sufficient to train them to
do so. Consequently the program requires students to do
the special projects where they can apply their knowl-
edge and skills, and learn the logic of the process.

5. Group cooperation: By and large, professors approve of
the students' gregariousness, and are content with the
students' cooperative ability.

6. Ability to find out and solve problems: When stu-
dents encounter problems, some of them voluntarily
research the information and seek the method, while
others discuss it with teachers, senior students, or their
classmates. Generally, professors are not very satisfied
with the student ability to research information from
databases.

7. Learning attitude: Students spend much time in the
laboratory working on their projects earnestly and with
good attitudes. They do experiments, read and write
research reports, review homework, and prepare for
exams. The professors also indicate that instruction
from senior students positively impacts the attitude of
the students.

8. Improvement of ability: Professors determined that after
working in the laboratory for one year, students show
an obvious progress in reading, data interpretation, oral
communication, experimental skill, and logical thinking
abilities. Furthermore, there is a distinct improvement in
their self-confidence and patience while doing experi-
ments. Most professors, however, still think their writing
ability is below average. There is no current training of
this kind in the university's curriculum.

Visiting Activities

Visiting industries provide assistance to the program, guide
arrangements for a follow-up curriculum, and enhance the
students' interest in learning. Industry visits also acquaint
students with the application of engineering knowledge
to the biotechnology industry. The following are arranged
visiting activities and speeches related to biotechnology and
materials science.
1. Visiting Food Industry Research Institute: The focal
point is to introduce the foundation of a strains bank and
to teach students the importance of a strains bank to the
microbiology industry. Students also see the fermentation
pilot plant to see engineering technology applied in the
biotechnology industry. The last point is to introduce a
range of developing research programs in the institute.


2. Visiting the Industrial Technology Research Institute:
The goal is for students to understand the developing
programs of the Biomedical Materials of the Biomedi-
cal Laboratory and the herbal experimental pilot plant.
Students learn how the biotechnology industry develops
with consideration to engineering and social demands.
3. Visiting the preparation room of the National Museum
of Natural Science and the excavation site of the Hue
Lai monument: This visit acquainted students with
the approaches and concept of basic Life Science and
Anthropology. The researchers of the National Museum
of Natural Science also show materials for repairing the
preparations of paleontology and excavations and make
a description of the merits and flaws of the materials.

4. Speeches: Every year there are a few speeches held
by the Graduate School of Biotechnology & Bioen-
gineering; most of them focus on biomaterials, thesis
writing, genetic therapy, and the biotechnology indus-
try. These events allow an open discussion between
teachers, students, and the speakers, and all speeches
are incorporated into the teaching assistance Web site,
so teachers can have more detailed discussions with
students afterward.

The following feedback from students concerns visiting
activities.
* " hope to visit some industries that connect to the
.iI,,,, students will do after ,, i,,.li .i. i In addition to
understanding the industry, we should also understand
what areas we can specialize in so that we can make up
or take the relevant courses. For example, the AU Op-
tronics Corp., which we visited for the course of chemi-
cal engineering, gave me a in -11, emotion because we
got in touch with the real industry where maybe we'll
work after college. After having discussions with the
company, I realized what kinds of talents they really
need, and, if I want to work there, what abilities I still
lack. I think it is more important that the discussions
with industry professionals will help us students plan
our futures."

According to these student interviews, students are very
interested in visiting different industries because they can
further understand how the knowledge they acquired from
books can be put in use. Many students also mention which
industries they would want to visit, including TaiYen Biotech-
nology, pharmaceutical plants, or industries that ameliorate
agricultural products. Arrangements for such visiting indus-
tries are made each semester with consideration of students'
suggestions.

CONCLUSION
Yuan Ze University's interdisciplinary program delivers
courses of materials science, applied biochemistry, basic
biotechnology, industrial microbiology, basic biotechnology
laboratory, biochemical engineering, biochemical engineer-
ing laboratory, biomaterials, and biomaterials laboratory, and
Chemical Engineering Education











has succeeded in graduating 24 students from the college of
engineering since the first year of the program. Because of
the teachers' diligence in recruiting students, the number of
students has increased from 24 to 40. Student evaluations
of the program were obtained in 2005 and 2006. More than
90 percent of the students strongly agreed or agreed that the
program objectives were satisfied. Also, 66% of the first-year
graduates chose to pursue a higher degree or to work in the
biotechnology field. These achievements indicate that the
goal of this program has been reached. There are four chief
reasons compelling students to participate in this program.
First, the laboratory courses provide a different experience
from other universities. Second, the threshold of the field of
biotechnology is not as high as they imagine. Third, many
aficionados of this field are able to discuss and do activities
together. And finally, the program enables students to rethink
the compact relationship between biotechnology, chemical
engineering, and materials. The Biomaterial Technology
program makes the field of biotechnology more accessible
and exciting to students because they are given more oppor-
tunities to engage with it.
The first-year graduates all encouraged junior students in-
terested in this field to join the program. They recommended
the program firstly because they think that the three sequential
laboratory course are practical, in that they provide the oppor-
tunities to prove the theories found in books. The program's
curriculum is adjusted slightly every year, especially in the
laboratory classes. Based on the responses from student inter-
views, improvements to teaching methods, teaching materials,
and equipment for laboratory courses are made for the next
time they are offered; other changes include the adjustment
of time and the number of students. Secondly, according to
the students' suggestions, seminar courses will be introduced
and required of all students to address their deficiencies,
particularly writing. The contents of the seminar courses will
include disquisitions from professionals, presentation of stu-
dents' reading documents, consulting documents, and writing
workshops. Finally, graduates emphasized that joining this
program acquainted them with the biotechnology industry,
and allowed them to assess whether or not they want to pursue
more in relevant fields. Therefore, this kind of program offers
engineering students more career options, and also extends
their vision about technology integration.
The evaluation of the program indicated that what was most
attractive to the professors was the students' studious attitudes
and the retention rate in biotechnology and related fields. In the
laboratory for special topic studies, advisors are most satisfied
with the students' proactive attitudes toward research; while
most students are already overloaded with more than 22 credits,
they are still able to demonstrate high motivation and keen


interest. Advisors are satisfied with the students' experimental
skills and the operation of valuable devices. Regarding their
cognition performance, most but not all students have a clear
conception about Biotechnology and Life Science, which in-
dicates that it is not a simple task to build up this knowledge
system in such a short period of time.
On the whole, professors and students recognize the value
of the program and the importance of coherent training.
Through the interdisciplinary program, students have many
opportunities to learn about biotechnology directly, which
engineering students in a traditional program do not have.
More specifically, the program allows the students to rethink
biotechnology from different fields, and encourages them to
apply what they have learned in engineering to extend their
vision. This interdisciplinary cooperation among faculty and
institutions has affirmed that having an environment where
students and faculty value each other's contribution is crucial
to a holistic education. Through the guidance of the Industry-
University Cooperative project, the university's engineering
and biotechnology research and teaching resources are inte-
grated to form a program that combines theory with practical
application. This kind of executive approach offers a mutually
beneficial model that other universities could imitate.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This study was funded by the National Science Council
(NSC 93-2522-S-155-004 and NSC 94-2522-S-155-004).

REFERENCES
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2. Engineering Education for a ( o...... World 1994: A National Action
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3. Arms, V.M., S. Duerden, M. Green, M.J. Killingsworth, and P. Taylor,
"English Teachers and Engineers: A New Learning Community, "Int.
J. Eng. Ed., 14(1) (1998)
4. Baum, R.M., "The Engineering Approach to Molecular Biology,"
Chem. and Eng. News, 76(13) (1998)
5. Rawls, R.L., "Biochem Meets Engineering," Chem. and Eng. News,
77(35) (1999)
6. Lauffenburger, D.A. "A Course in Cellular Bioengineering," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 23(4) (1989)
7. Oerther, D.B., "Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental
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8. Mosto, P., M. Savelski, S.H. Farrell, and G.B. Hecht, "Future of
Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate
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9. Varma, A., "Future Directions in ChE Education: A New Path to Glory,"
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Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Ed., 35(4) (2001) 7


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











MR! t classroom
USING SCREENCASTS_


USING SCREENCASTS


IN ChE COURSES











JOHN L. FALCONER, JANET DEGRAZIA, J. WILL MEDLIN, AND MICHAEL P. HOLMBERG


University of Colorado * Boulder, CO 80309-0424
The expansion of distance learning has created new
technologies that distribute educational content, and
many online classes are taught using video technology.
As schools began using video lectures, however, universi-
ties discovered distance learners rated teacher quality lower
than traditional students who took the course by sitting in
the classroom.J11 Toto[2-3] studied the use of screencasts, to
supplement a first-semester, general chemistry class for
distance learners. He identified topics from homework as-
signments on which students did poorly the year before and
then created 60 screencasts that specifically addressed the
difficult concepts. When he compared performance between
the classes with and without the screencasts, he found that
students with access to the screencasts scored 11% better in
the course overall and 22% better on the concepts on which
prior students scored poorly. Additionally, the students liked
the screencasts. For one chapter of the text, Toto did not
provide screencasts, and when he later polled students who
had used screencasts, 90% said they would have liked to have
had them for that chapter.
Screencasts of example problems can be superior to written
solutions because students can listen to the instructors explain
the problem-solving strategies that they use. Research has


shown that when given just the final written solution to a
problem, good students use the solutions differently than poor
students.[4] The good students use the solutions to justify the
individual steps in the solution to gain a deeper understanding,
whereas the poor students tend to just follow the steps without


John L. Falconer is the Mel and Virginia Clark Professor of Chemical
and Biological Engineering and a President's Teaching Scholar at the
University of Colorado. He teaches thermodynamics and kinetics courses
and incorporates active learning techniques such as ConcepTests and
clickers. His current research is in the areas of zeolite membranes and
heterogeneous catalysis.
Janet deGrazia is a senior instructor in the Chemical and Biological
Engineering Department at the University of Colorado. She teaches a
number of the courses in the department including a course on tech-
nology for non-engineers. As chair of the Undergraduate Committee,
her interests lie in curricular innovations and the use of technology in
education. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Colorado in
chemical engineering.
Will Medlin is the Patten Assistant Professor of Chemical and Biological
Engineering and the ConocoPhillips Faculty Fellow at the University of
Colorado. He teaches courses in kinetics, thermodynamics, and material
and energy balances. His research interests are in the area of surface
science and heterogeneous catalysis.
Michael Holmberg is a program assistant at the University of Colorado.
He received a B.S. in chemical engineering in 2008 from the University
of Colorado and now works to improve the undergraduate chemical
engineering curriculum.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Chemical Engineering Education










connecting the solution to the concepts. With screencasts,
all of the students are able to hear an expert's explanation
and understand how each step in the solution relates to the
underlying principles.
Research into science education has shown that the use of
active learning and peer instruction improves student under-
standing.[6,7] One effective way to make lecture more interac-
tive is to ask students multiple-choice conceptual questions
called ConcepTests during class, have students first answer
the questions on their own, and then have them discuss their
answer with a group of students. The use of ConcepTests is
effective because they allow students to formulate their own
ideas, explain their thoughts to their classmates, and get im-
mediate feedback from the instructor on difficult concepts
or misconceptions they have during lecture. This method of
teaching increases student understanding, but it reduces the
amount of lecture time,t111 and students must learn material
through reading assignments and problem sets. Students like
this interactive approach,[7 9] but feedback on end-of-course
assessments indicates that some students would still like to
see the presentation of examples problems "worked all the
way to the end." Screencasts are easily developed and inte-
grated into a course to meet the different learning styles of
students. Screencasts also create a different, more individual-
ized, type of active learning experience: A student can work
through an example problem at his/her own pace with the
screencast paused, and then refer to the explanation when
he/she becomes "stuck."

TYPES OF SCREENCASTS
Short screencasts were used in Fall 2008 and Spring 2009
to supplement five courses: graduate reaction engineering,
junior-level thermodynamics, freshmen general chemistry
for engineers, the sophomore-level material and energy bal-
ances, and creative technology (a freshman-level course for
nonengineers). Screencasts were produced using a tablet PC,
Microsoft PowerPoint or Windows Journal (software that is
included with the tablet PC), and Camtasia Studio screencast-
ing software. The screencasts were typically 5-15 minutes
long, and included the following types of presentations:
* Example problems worked out in detail: these are similar
to example problems that might be worked .-. h, ,i dur-
ing class.
* Mini-lectures: explanations of important topics, similar
to what could be presented in class.
* Clarification of ConcepTests from class: more-detailed
explanations of conceptual problems posed during class
or solutions to additional ConcepTests.
* Clarifications on homework problems: multiple students
often come to office hours with the same question about
a problem, and a screencast can be used to explain the
issue instead of explaining it multiple times during of-
fice hours.


* Explanations on how to use new software: step-by-step
use of menus, how to do certain types of calculations,
and what o *i, are needed.

Screencasts cannot be represented well on a printed page;
they are a much more dynamic and visual way to present
material than just text. To get a better idea of what screencasts
for chemical engineering courses are like, links to some of
our screencasts are available at che/undergrad/innovative_teaching.html>.

PREPARING AND USING SCREENCASTS
Screencasts have a number of potential advantages.
Going through the details of a problem solution is prob-
ably not the most effective use of class time; more-active
learning approaches better engage students in the material.
The screencasts are often quite similar to what could be
presented in class, but students can go through them at their
own pace. This means that they can pause the video to work
through calculations on their own, replay sections that were
difficult to understand, or watch the video weeks later to
review the material. The time it takes to create a screencast
is short; producing an example problem essentially takes
the same amount of time that it would to work through the
solution. Additionally, screencasts of example problems
or derivations have advantages over in-class presentations
because a Tablet PC screen has much higher contrast than a
blackboard, and students do not have to try to quickly copy
down all the steps. Instead, they can focus on understanding
the underlying concepts.
Screencasts can be integrated into class in several ways.
Faculty can refer students to specific screencasts that explain,
perhaps in a different way, the same concept discussed in
class. Screencasts made by someone other than the instructor
can be useful for demonstrating how other experts approach
the same problem. The setup of example problems or deriva-
tions can be discussed in class, and screencasts can show the
complete solutions.
Screencast use can be monitored on a classroom manage-
ment system like Blackboard. This system records the total
number of views, the number of different students who have
viewed a file, and the amount of time students spent watching
a screencast. Additionally, verbal feedback solicited at the
beginning of class or feedback collected via Blackboard can
provide feedback on the value of a specific screencast, and can
also motivate other students to watch the screencasts.
The investment in money and time to purchase and learn
to use the equipment and software is modest: $1,500 or less
for a Tablet PC, ~$300 for Camtasia Studio, less than $50
for a microphone, and perhaps an hour to learn the software.
TechSmith's Camtasia Studio was the best of several types of
screen capture programs that we evaluated. Editing is straight-
forward and the screencasts created by Camtasia can be stored


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











It is important to note that the screen-

casts do not have to be professional

quality; they can be the same quality

as an in-class presentation of

the same material.


in a number of formats. We created screencasts in the Shock-
wave flash format (.swf suffix) for use on screencast.com or on
the University of Colorado's version of Blackboard because
these files seem to work the best with Internet Explorer. We
also created files in the Quicktime format (.mp4) so that the
videos can eventually be integrated into Apple's iTunesU. The
files are not too large (less than 9 Mb for 10 minutes) and can
be played from a Web browser. A PDF version of the file cre-
ated by Windows Journal software or PowerPoint can also be
created and posted along with the screencast so that students
can have a printout of what appears on the screen.
It is important to note that the screencasts do not have to
be professional quality; they can be the same quality as an
in-class presentation of the same material. They can also be
generated by graduate students or senior undergraduates. To
keep screencasts to a reasonable length, the screen capture
program can be paused as information is written on the Tablet
screen and then started again to explain what was written.
Videos between 5 and 15 minutes seem to be a good length.

STUDENT FEEDBACK
The screencasts in Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 were initial
efforts to determine whether students would use them or
like them and to establish how to make them. Anonymous
feedback and data on screencast use were collected at the end
of the semester from the students in these classes. Table 1 sum-
marizes data on the use of screencasts In the graduate kinetics
course, screencasts mainly covered material in the first half of
the class, and in the thermodynamics class screencasts were
only used in the last third of the class.


In anonymous, open-ended feedback about the course
collected at the end of the semester, many students freely
mentioned how helpful the videos were. Some student com-
ments about the screencasts follow.
* "Screencasts are fantastic. I watched some of them
twice."
* "I learned a lot from the videos. It's hard learning at
such a rapid pace in class, so it's really nice to be able to
rewind and replay the videos as many times as needed."
* "I liked how the lectures were loaded full of clicker ques-
tions. That is really the best way for me to study .... The
other .-1,,,, that I really learn best from is videos. I wish
you would have made a video for the harder clicker
questions for each week."
* "I like the screencasts; it helps to have the solutions
walked .1 ,..- .,, step-by-step with explanation. They are
also a great study tool in my opinion."
* "I love screencasts! I am able to work out the problem at
my own pace, and watch the screencast whenever I get
stuck."
* "I didn't learn as much when we stopped using screen-
casts."
* "It would have been valuable to have more example
problems worked out."

SUMMARY
Screencasts are easy to prepare on a Tablet PC and are
valuable additions to graduate courses, core undergraduate
courses, and a general science course. They are effective
supplements to in-class active learning techniques such as
ConcepTests. They are relatively inexpensive to create, and
production time is minimal. They can be used in various ways,
including example problems worked out in detail, mini-lec-
tures, clarification of ConcepTests from class, clarifications of
homework problems, and instructions on how to use new soft-
ware. The feedback from students in the five courses where
the screencasts were piloted was overwhelmingly positive,
with a significant number of the students freely mentioning
how valuable they were to their learning process.


TABLE 1
Student Feedback On Usefulness Of Screencasts In Five Courses
Number of students
Course Useful/ Not Did Not
Enrollment Very Useful Useful Use
Graduate Reaction Kinetics 47 43 2 2
Junior Thermodynamics 73 29 1 43
General Chemistry 390 369 2 19
Sophomore Material and 52 43 0 9
Energy Balances
Creative Technology 360 331 16 13


Chemical Engineering Education












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We gratefully acknowledge assistance by Kimberly Ed-
wards at the University of Colorado.


REFERENCES

1. Webster, J., and P. Hackley, "Teaching Effectiveness in Technology-
mediated Distance Learning," Academy of Management Journal, 40,
1282-1309 (1997)
2. Toto, J., The Mini-lecture Movie Effect on Learning in an Online
General ( ....".. , Class (2007)
3. Toto, J., and K. Booth, "Effects and Implications of Mini-Lectures
on Learning in First-Semester General Chemistry, " Chem. Educ. Res.
Pract., 9, 259 (2008)


4. Chi, M.T.H., M. Bassok, M.W Lewis, P Reimann, and R. Glaser, "Self-
Explanations: How Students Study and Use Examples in Learning to
Solve Problems," Cognitive Science, 13, 145 (1989)
5. Duncan, D., Clickers in the Classroom, Addison Wesley, San Francisco
(2005).
6. Mazur, E., Peer Instruction: A User's Manual, Prentice Hall, Upper
Saddle River, NJ (1997)
7. Smith, M.K., W.B. Wood, W.K. Adams, C. Wieman, J.K. Knight, N.
Guild, and T.T. Su, "' I. Peer Discussion Improves Student Perfor-
mance on In-Class Concept Questions," Science, 323, 122 (2009)
8. Falconer, J.L., "Use of ConcepTests and Instant Feedback in Thermo-
dynamics," Chem. Eng. Ed., 38, 64(2004)
9. Falconer, J.L., "ConcepTests for a Chemical Engineering Thermody-
namics Course," Chem. Eng. Ed., 41, 107 (2007)
10. Crouch, C.H., and E. Mazur, "Peer Instruction: Ten Years Experience
and Results, "Am. J. Phys., 69, 970 (2001) 1


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











Graduate Education


Is There Room in the Graduate Curriculum to Learn


HOW TO BE A GRAD STUDENT?

An Approach Using a Graduate-Level

Biochemical Engineering Course




MARC G. AucOIN
University of Waterloo * Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
MARIO JOLICOEUR
Ecole Polytechnique de Montrial * Montrial, Qudbec, Canada


How different is graduate education from undergradu-
ate education? At the course level, the topics become
more interesting and focused, and the problems
become more challenging and time consuming. These differ-
ences aside, however, most graduate courses are very similar
to those taken at the undergraduate level. For thesis-driven
graduate programs, course work represents only a small
portion of the degree sought, especially if one considers that
courses are not compulsory in many institutions. Undergradu-
ates may not always understand this aspect of graduate stud-
ies and therefore, the fact that the majority of learning at the
graduate level must be achieved through self-discovery may
be somewhat foreign to most students starting their graduate
degrees. Furthermore, graduate training should prepare stu-
dents to spearhead and carry out a research project, a skill that
may or may not be developed at the undergraduate level.
To facilitate this goal, a number of institutions, including the
IEcole Polytechnique de Montr6al (herein referred to as EPM),
have added a mandatory research methodologies course in the
graduate curriculum.11 At EPM this is offered as a general
engineering course to all graduate students, regardless of the
discipline of study (ING6900 - M6thodes de recherche). At
the University of Waterloo (herein referred to as UW), such
a formal course is still lacking and it remains up to the thesis
advisor to provide this training to his or her students. Although
such a course (ING6900) adds to the overall development of
the graduate student, the methodology course focuses only
on how to perform an efficient literature review and assists
the student in writing a condensed research proposal. It thus
lacks the applied nature of experimental research and, be-


cause of the general nature of the course, does not guide the
student on how to go from identifying research hypotheses
and objectives based on the state of the art to developing a
proper research plan.
It has long been recognized that didactic aspects of courses
have a positive effect on student comprehension.[2 3] Despite
this, there are few, if any, graduate lab courses at EPM and
none at UW. It almost seems obvious that laboratory-based
courses would be extremely valuable to graduate students

Marc G. Aucoin is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at the University of Wa-
terloo with a current interest in viral vector and
virus-like particle engineering. He received his
B.A.Sc. and M.A.Sc. in chemical engineering
from the University of Waterloo. He received his
Ph.D. from the Ecole Polytechnique de Mon-
trealin chemical engineering while conducting
his research at the Biotechnology Research
Institute of the National Research Council of
Canada. During his doctoral studies, Prof.
Aucoin was involved with GCH6301/02 as a
student in the vintage class of 2004, and then as a teaching assistant
and lecturer in 2006.

Mario Jolicoeur is a professor of chemical
engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique de
Montreal and holds a Canada Research Chair
on the Development of Metabolic Engineer-
ing Tools. He obtained his B.A.Sc., M.A.Sc.,
and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the
Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. Prof. Joli-
coeur initiated GCH6301/02 in 2000 and has
successfully trained 45 of students with this
approach to date.

SCopyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Chemical Engineering Education










because of the importance of validating hypotheses experi-
mentally at the graduate level. When preparing a graduate
course, it is often desirable to design it in such a way as to
tailor it to the specific size and ability of the class so that at
least a minimum set of requirements are met by the end of
the session. Graduate courses are special in that as little as
one person or as many as a couple of dozen students may be
taking the course at a given time; therefore it is possible to
narrow the scope of material taught, and to explore these more
thoroughly. An open-ended laboratory course is well suited
for obtaining this flexibility.
The following describes a course that addresses many of
the aforementioned issues while maintaining its identity as
a graduate course on cell culture and modeling. Chemical
engineering has seen an increasing presence of biology in
the curricula,[4 8] especially at the undergraduate level, a trend
that is also being observed at EPM and UW. A course such
as this, therefore, serves multiple purposes: to deepen and
continue education in bioprocess engineering while providing
a means for students to transition from an undergraduate to
a graduate mindset. The course in its present form has been
offered in the department of chemical engineering at EPM
since 2004 and has integrated a number of concepts aimed at
enabling students to first understand their role in research and
then become better researchers. To achieve this, the course
has amalgamated concepts also described by others1, 9-13] with
a focus on the implementation of experiments proposed in a
research plan.

OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE
The course is listed in the EPM graduate calendar as
GCH6301/02 - Biosystems Engineering/Cell Culture - Cell
Culture and modeling (Ing6nierie des biosystemes/Culture
des cellules - Culture cellulaire et mod6lisation). It is meant
to be a hands-on course working with a bioreactor and the
cultivation of a microorganism, often E. coli, which is an
obvious choice as a model system given the shortened study
period and the costs associated with the implementation
of experiments. This course poses an open-ended question
without a defined problem. The students are asked to identify
the current limitations that exist in a particular field, such as
the production of protein in E. coli, evaluate the needs of the
state of the art, and decide a course of action that is plausible
given the somewhat limited resources available in a course
setting. The choice of microorganism is dependent on the
availability; in the past, students have benefitted from the
close ties between EPM and the Biotechnology Research In-
stitute of the National Research Council of Canada (Montreal,
Qu6bec, Canada), which has supplied various recombinant
microorganisms for study.
This course satisfies one of the five courses required for
thesis-based master's and Ph.D. degrees at the EPM; however,
this course is not mandatory. It is operated as a scaled-down


research project run intensively for 5-6 weeks. Students
are expected to dedicate all the time defined by the credits
awarded for this course: 3 credits = 135 hrs or up to 27 hrs
per week. The course, therefore, requires that the students
be dedicated only to this course while it is being given. The
students gain insight, however, into the type of research
that can be conducted at the graduate level and gain a better
understanding of the processes involved in a research-based
graduate degree. This course also illustrates how training
for a research-based graduate degree can be completed in
a little over a month: from problem synthesis, statement of
hypothesis and objectives, implementation and analysis of
experiments, as well as defense of their work.
This course can be done with as little as three students;
however, we feel that this is not an optimal size given the
resources required in terms of teaching assistants discussed
further on. Optimally, this course would be given to a group
of between eight and 16 students, allowing the instructor to
create groups of three to four students initially, with the pos-
sibility of combining groups as the course progresses.
Currently this course is given in the Spring term (May-
June). Certain graduate students-especially those exiting
their bachelor's degree from EPM and UW-start at this
time, which makes the placement of this course ideal, since it
can then be taken in the first term of study. Students starting
in the Fall or Winter terms would only get the opportunity
to take this course in their second or third term, which is
still early enough to benefit the student. Although it may be
theoretically feasible to place this course in another term,
there are a number of practical reasons that do not allow
this course to be shifted to another semester, including the
use of this laboratory for undergraduate teaching in Fall
and Winter terms.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The general objective of this course is to transform the
student from having an undergraduate mindset, which looks
to textbooks for solutions, to a graduate mindset, which under-
stands that textbook information is meant as a comprehensive
review of the literature at an earlier point in time. Students are
taught to understand that specifics and the state of the art are
found in scientific peer-reviewed journal articles. This change
in mindset aims to drive the students to question results or
approaches that have led to earlier conclusions, and gain an
appreciation for the overall scientific method.
A second aspect that is highlighted in this course is the
difference between report writing and scientific communica-
tion. Not all schools permit ih , '" by scientific publication;
however a number of schools do. The benefit of such a format
is that it maximizes the potential for good scientific work to
reach the masses, with the drawback being that these types of
theses do not necessarily read as well as conventional theses.
With traditional theses, however, professors may lack detail or


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










complete understanding of the student's work described in the
thesis if the original author/student is incommunicado, which
may happen more often than not, if the author has moved on
and is working in industry and becomes overwhelmed with
commitments that were not necessarily pre-existent while in
academia. The ability to write a scientific publication is also
of high importance. This is why the course emphasizes the
preparation of a scientific manuscript at the end. It is often
surprising that even though a student normally reads hundreds
of papers and book chapters during their graduate degree,
students often have difficulty writing a manuscript that has
coherent structure and argumentation, a skill often lacking of
engineering undergraduate students.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
To achieve the global objective of the course, students are
required to assimilate the accumulated literature in a specific
field; develop, based on a scientific approach, a strategy to
produce protein in a bioreactor; carry out the strategy in
the lab; and validate the results. This approach results in
general theoretical and practical knowledge that will permit
the student to understand, prepare, operate, and optimize a
bioprocess. More precisely, the student that takes this course
develops an ability to: 1) understand the notion of aseptic
techniques and learn how to apply them; 2) apply a scientific
methodology to the study of cell culture/fermentation; 3)
describe, explain, and model cellular phenomena; 4) operate
a pilot-scale bioreactor; 5) learn how to determine bioprocess
parameters that can be optimized; and 6) learn how to write
and defend a scientific manuscript.

PREREQUISITES
This course involves intensive cell culture in a laboratory
setting. A good foundation in biochemical engineering is
needed and knowledge of biochemistry and cellular biology
are assets, but are not necessary. General chemical engineer-
ing skills such as the ability to develop mass balances around
a system, in this case around a bioreactor, are essential.
Working knowledge of a computer coding language such as
MATLAB, that will allow the simulation of the process, is
also required.
Most chemical engineering undergraduates that have at-
tempted this course have the pre-requisite skills upon entry
into the graduate program; however, it becomes fairly obvious
within the first couple of lectures whether or not a student
has the required skills to take on this course and it becomes
the responsibility of the instructor to discuss the situation
with the student. In the past, we have had to ask students to
withdraw from the class. Although we believe that this course
has many general lessons that are important for graduate
students, it is meant to be a graduate-level course in biochemi-
cal engineering. As such, although the lessons to be learned
about graduate studies may be lessened if the student takes


this course beyond their first year as a graduate student, the
student will still benefit from taking an advanced biochemical
engineering course.

COURSE SYNOPSIS
Using a heuristic approach, the principal problems en-
countered with in vitro cell culture are studied. The students
are called upon to work together in teams to develop their
knowledge in this field. Students survey the literature in a short
period of time, present a summary of the literature highlight-
ing what has been accomplished and at the same time identify
areas that could benefit from further exploration. In consulta-
tion with the professor and the teaching assistant, the students
assess what type of experimentation is feasible in light of the
available resources; plan a course of action; perform a pre-
determined number of experiments that build upon previous
work; analyze the data; choose a scientific journal appropriate
for the work done; and write a scientific publication for that
journal. Once the article is written, the project needs to be
defended in front of a panel consisting of the professor and
the teaching assistantss. Figure 1 describes in more detail the
general operation of the course since 2004.

REFERENCE MATERIAL AND AIDS
Several textbooks are recommended as complementary to the
course[1418] and can span different levels of experience depend-
ing on the strength of the class. All of the documents and class
notes of an undergraduate course on Biochemical Engineering
(GCH4650) are also made available to the students.

Lectures
During the first week, a seminar/lecture component is given
to provide insight on the system to be studied. This includes
major elements of biochemical/bioprocess engineering and
relevant background information, for example characteristics
of the microbial strain to be used. Practical and theoretical
information is given based on need, which allows the course
to be tailored to the directions the students want to take,
while at the same time meeting the learning objectives set
for the course.
Meetings/Discussion Groups
Frequent meetings are scheduled between the students and
the teaching group. During these meetings, students are evalu-
ated individually and in a group depending on their progress.
Two formal presentations are required by the students to assess
progress achieved in the course. Other meetings are scheduled
on a daily basis to assist students in their reflections.
Teaching Assistants
Given that the maximum class size is approximately 15,
justifying more than one teaching assistant is quite hard; yet,
this course is highly dependent on the teaching assistantss.
Teaching assistants are a major resource for the students taking


Chemical Engineering Education











* Presentation of objectives and
organization of the course.
* Introduction to equipment used in cell
culture:
* Cell needs vs. what a bioreactor
can offer
* Distribution of the case study.
* Distribution of previous year's final
report.
* The students present a critique of last
year's final report.
* The teaching group presents last year's
corrected report.


* Students present a literature review
* The bioreactor is characterized
experimentally in terms of:
* Sterility
* Hydrodynamics and mixing
* Mass transfer
* Shear stress
* Students define their experimental
strategy in order to ensure that the
cell needs are met by the bioreactor
and culture strategy.


Acquired knowledge
* Understanding of cell needs when cultured
in vitro.
* Overview and selection of bioreactor
configuration.
Acquired skills
* Identification of appropriate bioreactor
given cell type.
* Critical evaluation of literature.





Acquired knowledge
* Understanding of how to characterize
bioreactor behavior experimentally.
* Understanding of how probes can be used to
assess bioreactor operation.
Acquired skills
* Development of experiments required to
identify an appropriate bioreactor for a
specific organism.
* Competency in detecting whether a bioreactor
or probe is performing adequately.


S. The teaching group remains available
to the students.
* Students may perform a second series
of cultures to confirm specific findings.
* Students analyze the data collected
and write a final report.
Week 4 * Students defend orally their report on
to 6 the last Thursday of the course.
* The final report is submitted to the
teaching group, with revisions from the
oral defense, on the last Friday of the
course.


Acquired knowledge
* Behavior of cells in a bioreactor.
* Behavior of bioreactor during a culture.
* Basic analytical techniques.
* Development of appropriate experimental
design.
Acquired skills
* Preparation, operation and sampling of a
bioreactor culture.
* Critical assessment of experimental data.




Acquired knowledge
* Techniques for modelling cell culture.

Acquired skills
* Analysis of culture and process data.
* Situation of experimental data with respect
to published literature.
* Drafting a manuscript.


Figure 1. General operation of GCH6301/02 since 2004.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


* The teaching group remains
available to the students.
* Students present data and their
analysis from bioreactor
characterization studies.
* Students define their culture strategy.
* Students perform bioreactor cultures,
sample and data analysis.










the course. Although they may not be present at all times dur-
ing the periods of experimentation, the teaching assistants)
are essentially "on-call" for the students. If the teaching
assistant does not have an existing relationship with the in-
structor, whether this is an advisor-student or mentor-prot6g6
relationship, the assistantship task may be viewed as being
overly demanding. In the past, however, the assistantship
position has also served as a learning experience and in a way
follows a recent Teaching Tip,[9] which describes the benefits
of informally sharing a course with a graduate student.
Over the years this course has been taught, several students
who have taken this course have also moved on to become TAs
and lecturers for the course. The importance of this circle should
not be lost, as it fulfills many aspects of graduate education
and is at the heart of the success of this course. Although this
relationship has remained informal, this aspect of the course is
similar to the mentorship programs suggested by others.E10]
Not all students that have taken the course have the aptitude
to take on such a teaching task, however. This assistantship
requires a person that is flexible, approachable, resourceful,
and able to think quickly.

STUDENT EVALUATION
Every student starts out with a grade of A or excellent. After
each meeting, the students' grade is subject to change to A
(excellent), B (satisfactory), or F (fail). The grades can be
individualized by attributing the grade based on the level of
progress on the sub-objectives they have set for themselves
or that were set for them in previous meetings. For example,
if a student within a group has agreed to prepare a statisti-
cal design of experiments, to assess certain conditions with
the least number of experimental runs then at the following
meeting, this student would be individually assessed against
this sub-objective. Furthermore, this student would also be
graded within the context of the group for cohesion of that
sub-objective with the ones set by the other members of the
group. The evaluation process, therefore, assesses their prog-
ress within the group and allows for the individualization of
grades. This evaluation is done by both the instructor and the
teaching assistants individually, and following a discussion
between the teaching staff, a final mark is given. The mark-
ing scheme of A/B/F was chosen because at EPM, the Ph.D.
program requires students to maintain a minimum of a "B"
in each course to stay in the program, and an overall average
of "B" in the master's program.
The second portion of the student's mark is based on a final
report in the form of a scientific manuscript. The group marks
and the individual marks are combined to yield the student's
final mark. Fifty percent of the grade is awarded for the term
performance (25% for their individual contribution and 25%
for the advancement of the group) and 50% for the final
manuscript (which is a group mark). As can be seen, there is
a significant weight associated to group work in this course.
310


This course, from an evaluation perspective, is also of
benefit to professors who are looking to assess a student's
potential as a graduate student; it allows the professor to
evaluate the student's abilities: from their thought process
to their critical thinking and reasoning skills. Given that this
course is generally taken before the fourth semester, which
is also the deadline for a student to defend their research
proposal for their doctoral degree, this may also serve in the
future as part of the qualifying exam. In the past, EPM has
had topical qualifying exams in Reactor Engineering, Polymer
Engineering, or Biochemical Engineering, which have been
recently disbanded. This is in line with many other chemical
engineering departments that seem to be moving away from
course-based qualification processes that emphasize course-
work rather than research potential. The course described
here could therefore be used as a topical qualification exam
to assess research potential.

THE CASE OF GCH6301/02 SUMMER 2004
The pedagogical approach described here was first experi-
mented with in 2004 and resulted in an unexpected level of
success that encouraged us to continue in this direction in
subsequent years. Summer 2004 brought together six moti-
vated graduate students: four registered in the thesis-based
graduate program, (two Ph.D. and two M.A.Sc. candidates),
and two registered in the course-based master's program. Two
students were in their first semester, two were in their second,
while the others were in their third and fourth terms.
Students were introduced to the production of GFP in E.
coli under a temperature-sensitive promoter. The course fol-
lowed closely the path described in Figure 1. Although the
class was first split into two groups of three to assess the state
of the art, the six students were combined into a single group
for the development of research objectives and experimenta-
tion. This was also useful to follow and sample the bioreactor
cultures, which were followed for more than 12 consecutive
hours (a real industrial context). Teamwork in industry re-
quires that all involved contribute and that a certain amount
of confidence between team members exists. Similarly, this
relationship must be understood by the graduate students. The
Summer 2004 students obviously showed different scientific
and technical skill levels, but what made this group stand
out was the "chemistry" within the team allowing for very
good interaction and communication. As a result, the project
report/manuscript was also of high quality. It was also highly
interesting to note at the "defense" that every team member
was able to answer the questions adequately; showing that
every student actively participated in the various aspects
of the course including classroom concepts, the laboratory,
and writing up the project. Moreover, due to the concepts
and methodologies explored by the students, the manuscript
submitted for the course was submitted, with a few modifica-
tions, to a scientific peer-reviewed journal. It should be noted
that alterations to the manuscript did occur after the course
Chemical Engineering Education










was actually completed-driven by the students and not the
TA or instructor. The instructor, however, remained available
to the students for valuable feedback. Communication after
completion of the course was done mostly through e-mail.
Although initially rejected for publication, the manuscript was
revised based on the reviewers' comments, again driven by
motivated students, re-submitted to another journal having a
higher impact factor, and was accepted and published.[191
The manuscripts at these various steps, as well as the review-
ers' comments, have also found their way into later offerings of
the course. In Summer 2006, students were also introduced to
the production of GFPin E. coli under a temperature-sensitive
promoter, still following the chronology described in Figure
1; however, this time the introduction was through the previ-
ous year's report and manuscripts. This allowed the students
to become familiar with the system very rapidly, question
previous approaches, and situate themselves in the literature
by using the reference list in the report. To really make the
students gain an appreciation of the work conducted previously,
they were asked to review and critique the article produced by
the previous year's class, identify strengths and weaknesses,
and highlight ways to push the study further. This served as
the first assignment upon which they could be evaluated. To
further the students' experience, the professor and teaching
assistant went through these documents, helping the students
highlight the strengths and weaknesses in both the scientific
and editorial aspects associated with the manuscripts, as geared
for a scientific journal. From this process, students were asked
to propose what research they would like to perform in order
to answer questions that may have arisen from the analysis of
the manuscript, so as to better understand the bioprocess and
maximize productivity of the system. These activities occurred
in the span of two weeks. To further develop their understanding
of the system, the students created simulations of the process
using MATLAB. Here they were able to modify process pa-
rameters and see the effects of various changes. Following this,
the students were brought to the laboratory setting and were
asked to use pilot-scale equipment to test their hypothesis and
determine the predictive capabilities of their kinetic model.
Various strategies were used to sustain the production of GFP,
under the control of a temperature-sensitive promoter, in batch
and fed-batch modes of culture.
The final outcome of this course obviously varies each
year because of the composition of the group, as well as the
"chemistry" between the members. The 2004 group revealed
to be a "Grande cuvte" (an appropriate reference to a good
year for wine, considering this is a biochemical engineering
course). In any case, this approach has been highly stimulating
for both the professor and for students taking this graduate
course, who now strive to come up with similar advances
through this course. Another exciting outcome of this course
came from students who decided to switch from the course-
based program to the thesis-based program, because of the
hands-on aspects of the course.
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


COURSE CRITIQUE AND STUDENT FEEDBACK
Although the course (in name only) has existed since 2000,
the approach taken today started in 2004. The course has
therefore gone through many changes over the years, evolving
as a result of student comments and course evaluations. Every
time the course is offered, the students have the opportunity
to submit a critique. The marking is on a scale of 0-100%,
100% being complete approval of the course, the content, and
how it was taught. On average, the course evaluations have
increased significantly -especially when examined against
the first offering in the summer of 2000 when it was given
as a fully theoretical course, built on the same framework
as classical undergraduate courses. In the last few times this
course has been offered, it was given the highest rating in
all categories assessed in the course critique, a positive sign
that this is a valuable learning experience even though it can
be quite demanding. The most recent class to take the course
unanimously gave it a 100% rating.
The most frequent student comments for pre-2004 offerings
pointed to the lack of experimental work. Retrospectively,
those that have taken the course more recently regard the
high work load as extremely beneficial, concluding that they
"have learned a lot in a very short time." It can be said that
this is mostly due to the many resources made available to
the students, including the teaching staff.
It has been hard to truly quantify the mid- and long-term
effect of the course. All graduate students who had taken
the course in 2004 have graduated, except for one student
still pursuing a Ph.D. degree (year 4). This 100% (expected)
graduation level is very high compared to what is usually seen,
however, given the limited number of students, the results
may not be statistically significant. Furthermore, given that
the instructor assesses the capabilities of the students in the
first few classes, we cannot discount that selection may have
played a role on the success of the students.
Following the completion of the course, those who continued
in a thesis-driven program (M.A.Sc. or Ph.D.) did seem to
show a better understanding of research project management,
as well as the importance of the existing literature and of criti-
cal thinking. These students, we believe, also showed a greater
maturity toward research. Unfortunately, these assessments are
all subjective. Our one true measure of success has been the
continued student involvement after the course was finished,
either by future involvement as teaching assistants or by con-
tinued efforts on drafting a publishable piece of work.

CONSTRAINTS, LIMITATIONS, AND
FUTURE POTENTIAL
Timing and budget comprise the major constraints at
EPM. This course was developed around infrastructure that
was either kindly donated to the department of chemical
engineering by the National Research Council of Canada,
such as the 20L bioreactor, or that was available from Prof.
311











Jolicoeur's laboratory. Much of the department's equipment
is also used for undergraduate training in the Fall and Winter
semesters; therefore, the only time this course can be given
currently is in the Summer term. Given the time of year that
this course is given, it is expected that all students should
have the opportunity to take this course before their 5th term,
which is approximately the same timing given to complete
the requirements of their comprehensive examination. It
can therefore provide an additional indicator of the quality
of the student, and be used as a practical component of the
qualifying exam.
The major expenses for this course remain the cost of hiring
teaching assistants. We have been fortunate to have had the
constant support of the chair of the department, Prof. Robert
Legros. In terms of material, cost is kept at a minimum by
culturing bacteria, such as E. coli. As such, the major expenses
for running these labs have been the cost associated with
purchasing glucose and lactate assay kits.
As we start increasing the complexity of the course, given
that we can use what previous classes have done in earlier
offerings of the course as a new starting point each time, we
may be faced with increasing expenses if we expect to explore
novel aspects of the system. Another option may be to widen
the focus of the course, for example including control theory
to optimize the operation of a reactor. It is our intent to set
up a series of variations, bringing in concepts like metabolic
engineering, on-line and at-line monitoring and process con-
trol, and perhaps develop an advanced course in bio-process
control within the control unit at the EPM.
Although this course is currently not a required course
for all graduate students, we believe that it can be used in
the training of students focused in other areas of chemical
engineering. For example, students specializing in mass
transfer, heat transfer, or rheology may benefit from taking
this course, without having to actually change the content of
the course. Extension to these adjoining fields may require
additional expertise and buy-in from other faculty members
in the department. Widening the focus, however, could pose
fresh problems especially in trying to integrate students with
varying backgrounds.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
We believe that this type of course is of crucial importance
for three reasons: 1) it allows the incorporation of different
concepts that should be assimilated by new graduate students
and considered as key success factors for their own research
project; 2) it allows the development of a productive graduate
student, which is why we believe that room should be made in
the graduate curriculum to ensure that there is an opportunity,
early on, to experience being a graduate student; and lastly
3) this course can serve as an evaluation tool for graduate
school potential.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The success of this teaching approach was in part because
of the invaluable contribution of Mathieu Cloutier, a Ph.D.
candidate supervised by Prof. M. Jolicoeur and co-supervised
by Prof. M. Perrier. The authors thank the anonymous review-
ers who provided invaluable insight that improved the overall
manuscript and Steve George for his editorial comments.


REFERENCES

1. Holles, J.H., "A Graduate Course in Theory and Methods of Research,"
Chemical Eng. Ed., 41, 226 (2007)
2. Badino, A.C., Jr., and C.O. Hokka, "Laboratory Experiment in Bio-
chemical Engineering: Ethanol Fermentation, "Chemical Eng. Ed., 33,
54(1999)
3. Bentley, WE., and D.S. Kompala, "Plasmid Instability in Batch Cul-
tures of Recombinant Bacteria. A Laboratory Experiment, " Chemical
Eng. Ed., 24, 168 (1990)
4. Peeples, T.L., "Introduction to Biochemical Engineering: Synthesis,
Resourcefulness, and Effective Communication in Group Learning,"
Chemical Eng. Ed., 37, 174 (2003)
5. Ostafin, A.E., D. LaClair, and H.T. Schmidt, "A Course in Bioprocess
Engineering: Engaging the Imagination of Students Using Experiences
Outside the Classroom," Chemical Eng. Ed., 37, 180 (2003)
6. Hollar, K.A., S.H. Farrell, G.B. Hecht, and P. Mosto, "Integrating
Biology and ChE at the Lower Levels," Chemical Eng. Ed., 38, 108
(2004)
7. Mosto, P., M. Salveski, S.H. Farrell, and G.B. Hecht, "Future of
Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate
Curriculum, "Chemical Eng. Ed., 41, 43 (2007)
8. O'Connor, K.C., "An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and
Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores," Chemical
Eng. Ed., 41, 247 (2007)
9. Baburao, B., S. Swaminathan, and D.P. Visco, Jr., "Make Your Teaching
Assistant a Co-instructor," Chemical Eng. Ed., 40, 327 (2006)
10. Baber, T.M., D. Briedis, and R.M. Worden, "Teaching and Mentoring
Training Programs at Michigan State University: A Doctoral Student's
Perspective," Chemical Eng. Ed., 38, 250 (2004)
11. Hill, PJ., "Teaching Entering Graduate Students: The Role of Journal
Articles in Research," Chemical Eng. Ed., 40, 246 (2006)
12. Birol, G., I. Birol, and A. Cinar, "Student Performance Enhancement
by Cross-Course Project Assignments: A Case Study in Bioengineering
and Process Modeling," Chemical Eng. Ed., 35, 128 (2001)
13. Harrison, R.G., M.U. Nollert, D.W. Schmidtke, and V.I. Sikavitsas,
"The Research Proposal: in Biochemical and Biological Engineering
Courses," Chemical Eng. Ed., 40, 323 (2006)
14. Blanch, H.W., and D.S. Clark, Biochemical Engineering, Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York. (1997)
15. Bailey, J.E., and D.E Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals,
McGraw-Hill, Inc., Montreal (1986)
16. Shuler, M.L., and E Kargi, Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts,
Prentice Hall PTR (2001)
17. Nielsen, J., and J. Villadsen, Bioreaction Engineering Principles,
Kluwer Academic Publishers (1994)
18. Cinar, A., S.J. Parulekar, C. Undey, and G. Birol, Batch Fermentation.
Modeling, Monitoring, and Control, Marcel Dekker, Inc. (2003)
19. Aucoin, M.G., V. McMurray-Beaulieu, E Poulin, E.B. Boivin, J. Chen,
E Ardelean, M. Cloutier, Y.J. Choi, C.B. Miguez, and M. Jolicoeur
Identifying Conditions for Inducible Protein Production in E. coli:
Combining a Fed-Batch and Multiple Induction Approach, "Microbial
Cell Factory Journal, 27-39 (2006) 1


Chemical Engineering Education











Random Thoughts ...




A TEACHER'S TEACHER


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
One of the giants of engineering education hit a couple
of milestones recently. Jim Stice, the Bob R. Dorsey
Professor Emeritus in Engineering at the University
of Texas at Austin, celebrated his 80th birthday last year,
and last June he retired from the ASEE National Effective
Teaching Institute, which he co-founded two decades ago.
To old-timers in the world of engineering education Jim is
legendary, but many youngsters of, say, 60 and below, don't
know who he is or how much he's done for our profession.
I'd like to remedy that deficiency.
A little personal history first. When I was a fresh young as-
sistant professor, like virtually all of my faculty colleagues I
had never been taught a thing about teaching before I walked
into my first class. Not knowing any better, I did unto my
students as my professors had done unto me, mechanically
transcribing my lecture notes onto the chalkboard so my stu-
dents could mechanically transcribe them into their notebooks.
(At least they had to stay awake to do that-luckily for them,
PowerPoint hadn't been invented yet.) I went on like that for
years, assuming that the glazed eyes and low attendance and
abysmal test grades I kept seeing were unavoidable facts of
life in engineering.
Then one day I stumbled into a Jim Stice talk at anAIChE
conference. In his uniquely droll style, he told us that there
were more effective ways to teach than nonstop board ste-
nography, most of which involved engaging students actively
and getting them to take more responsibility for their own
learning. He also made me aware for the first time that an
engineering professor could make teaching and learning
the focus of his faculty career at a research university and
the sky wouldn't fall. Those two radical notions became
the foundation of the last 25 years of my 40-year academic
career. I have had several defining experiences in my life, but
none of them had a greater catalytic effect on me than that
20-minute conference presentation.
In the years since then I' ve been lucky enough to collaborate
and hang out with Jim and find out how truly remarkable he
is. Since most of you who are reading this haven't had that
privilege, let me introduce him to you.


Jim Stice holding forth at the
2009 National Effective Teaching Institute.


James Edward Stice was born and raised in the Arkansas
Ozarks. He got his B.S.Ch.E. from the University of Arkansas
in 1949 and his M.S. in chemical engineering from the Illinois
Institute of Technology in 1952, spent afew years in industry
finding out what engineers actually do, joined the Arkansas
faculty as an assistant professor in 1954, went back to IIT
in 1957 to get a Ph.D., and returned to Arkansas once more
in 1962 as an associate professor. In 1968 he moved into a
faculty position at the University of Texas, and he's been in
Austin ever since. He retired from the UT faculty in 1996,
but fortunately for the profession he continued sharing his
wisdom and humor in teaching seminars and workshops at
Texas and elsewhere.

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese
Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering
at North Carolina State University. He is co-
author of Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 2005) and numerous
articles on chemical process engineering
and engineering and science education,
and regularly presents workshops on ef-
fective college teaching at campuses and v ;
conferences around the world. Many of his :
publications can be seen at edu/felder-public>.

� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










Jim's teaching throughout his 43-year active faculty ca-
reer was exemplary. He always set high standards for his
students, routinely posing problems that involved high-level
analysis and critical and creative thinking, and challenging
his students to do more than they ever imagined they could.
Students often rebel against that sort of challenge, but thanks
to the clarity of Jim's explanations and his unique Ozarkian
humor, most of the students lucky enough to be in his classes
met or exceeded his expectations and loved him. He won a
teaching award in his first term at the University of Arkansas
and at Texas he won nine more-including one for being the
best teacher on the entire campus-along with two awards
for excellence in advising.
So far that's a fairly conventional story, but if there is one
thing James E. Stice is not, it is conventional. On his journey
from bright young assistant professor to venerable sage, Jim
did some groundbreaking things. Here are some of them.
When Jim went to Texas in 1968 at the invitation of Dean
John McKetta, it was to create and direct the Bureau of En-
gineering Teaching, the first center for engineering teaching
and learning in the United States and probably the world. It
was an idea ahead of its time-so far ahead, in fact, that 40
years later most engineering schools still haven't figured out
that a pedagogically savvy engineering professor is much
more likely than a social scientist to persuade engineering
professors to change how they teach. One of his landmark
contributions as Bureau director was to create the first-ever
course on College Teaching for engineering graduate students,
a course he taught from 1972 through 1997. Jim had so much
success helping his engineering faculty colleagues improve
their teaching that UT made him the director of the nation's
first campus-wide Center for Teaching Effectiveness, a posi-
tion he held for 16 years.
Jim's list of publications includes 55 articles and two
books, but the numbers don't tell the real story. Several of
the articles deal with now-familiar concepts that were virtu-
ally unknown in engineering education when Jim introduced
them to the rest of us. They include learning objectives
and Bloom's Taxonomy, engineering-specific instructional
development, and diverse student learning styles and "teach-
ing around the cycle." He also wrote landmark papers on
computer-based instruction (written years before large-
scale implementation of instructional technology became
feasible), the lack of correlation between grades in college
and professional success, and teaching problem-solving


skills. Few engineering professors can match the number of
Jim's education-related publications, and none can match
the impact of those publications on the discipline. If he had
chosen a different career, engineering education would not
be what it is today.
As important as Jim's publications are, however, his
professional development activities arguably constitute his
greatest legacy to the profession. He has given hundreds
of invited seminars and teaching workshops at conferences
and on campuses all over the country, and he co-developed
the ASEE National Effective Teaching Institute and co-fa-
cilitated it every year from its first offering in 1991 through
2009. Thousands of engineering faculty are better teachers
today because of their participation in Jim's programs, and
hundreds of thousands of students have benefited from the
improved instruction they received from those participants.
Jim's contributions to education have been honored with
a number of national awards, including the ASEE Chester
E Carlson Award for Innovation in Engineering Education
and the first ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lifetime
Achievement Award for Pedagogical Scholarship.
Last June at the 2009 Annual ASEE Conference on his home
turf in Austin, Jim announced that he would be stepping down
as NETI co-director, which is sad news for future participants.
They will not have the unique privilege of hearing about the
strange and colorful characters who inhabit Jim's past, like
his former roommate who was so thin he could take a shower
in a rifle barrel, or the fellow who was so bow-legged he
couldn't trap a hog in a ditch, or his frustrated student who
in a particularly bad moment screamed like a mashed owl. I
know and love and could recite his words at future NETI's,
but they'd just sound silly with a New York accent.
And so I celebrate Jim Stice-my mentor, role model,
and dear friend. Jim, Rebecca and I will sorely miss visiting
with you and Betty every June, enjoying our ceremonial pre-
workshop martinis (yours with Tanqueray and three olives),
sitting in the back of the room during your presentations and
watching a true master engaged in his craft, having our cel-
ebratory post-workshop blowout dinner, and doing a whole
lot of laughing for four days. Thanks for all you've done for
an uncountable number of engineering teachers and students.
Thanks for showing me that if your passion is teaching and
learning you can also make it your profession. Thanks for
all the wisdom, and all the friendship, and all the laughter.
Here's to you! 7


Chemical Engineering Education


All of the Random Thoughts columns are now available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.ncsu.edu/effective_teaching and at http://che.ufl.edu/~cee/











MR1,curriculum
-0


From Numerical Problem Solving

to Model-Based Experimentation -

INCORPORATING COMPUTER-BASED

TOOLS OF VARIOUS SCALES

Into the ChE Curriculum


MORDECHAI SHACHAM
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev * Beer- I/,.. i 84105, Israel
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
University of Connecticut * Storrs, CT 06269
NEIMA BRAUNER


Tel-Aviv University * Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
1. INTRODUCTION
Many of the challenges facing chemical engineering
departments regarding the use of computers in
undergraduate education were recently reviewed by
Edgar.J11 These challenges come about because of the substan-
tial growth in the number of multiple-purpose and dedicated
software packages used in the chemical industry, education,
and research. At the same time, there remain substantial
practical and educational benefits to teaching computer
programming using languages such as FORTRAN, Visual
Basic, C, or C++. There is obviously not enough room in the
undergraduate curriculum to include all the courses required
to teach computer programming and all the state-of-the-art
software packages currently used in chemical engineering.
Thus, it is desirable to construct a general framework that
enables sufficient coverage of computer programming as
well as the use of multiple purpose and dedicated software
packages.
This paper is organized as follows. In sections 2 and 3,
the current computing needs in academia and the chemical
industry are reviewed. In section 4, the content of a sug-
gested introductory course for modeling and computation for
chemical engineers is outlined. It is demonstrated that with
a proper choice of software packages several computing-
related subjects can be combined in a time-efficient manner,
enabling the study of the most important skills in a single
course. Section 5 discusses a suggested numerical methods
course. Finally, section 6 presents a proposed framework for
incorporating computational tools of various scales into the
ChE curriculum.


2. COMPUTING IN ACADEMIA
Seaderm21 reviewed the education and training needs of
chemical engineers related to the use of computers almost 30


Michael B. Cutlip is professor emeritus of
the Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular
Engineering Department at the University of
Connecticut and has served as department
head and director of the university's Honors
Program. He has B.Ch.E. and M.S. degrees
from Ohio State and a Ph.D. from the Univer-
sity of Colorado. His current interests include
the development of general software for
numerical problem solving and application to
chemical and biochemical engineering.
Neima Brauner is a professor in the School
of Mechanical Engineering and Heat Transfer
at the Tel-Aviv University, TelAviv, Israel. She
received her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in chemical
engineering from the Technion Institute of
Technology, Haifa, Israel, and her Ph.D. in me-
chanical engineering from Tel-Aviv University.
Her research interests include hydrodynamics
and transport phenomena in two-phase flow
systems, and development of interactive
statistical and numerical methods for data
analysis in process analysis and design.
Mordechai Shacham is the Benjamin H.
Swig professor and Head of the Department "" .,
of Chemical Engineering at the Ben-Gurion . . '.
University of the Negev in Israel. He also
serves as the chairman of the Israeli Inter- . .
University Center for e-Learning (IUCEL). He
received his B.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees from the
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. His
research interest includes analysis, modeling
and regression of data, applied numerical
methods and prediction and consistency
analysis of physical properties.


� Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2009


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009










The study of computer languages such

as Fortran has been included in the

ChE curriculum since the 1960s.


years ago. Since then, this field has expanded considerably.
Now it includes the study of computer languages, problem
solving using numerical and statistical methods, process
simulators, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), virtual
laboratory experiments, process and product design, and
molecular modeling.E11 A more detailed description of some
of these issues follows.
2.1 Study of Computer Programming Languages
The study of computer languages such as Fortran has
been included in the ChE curriculum since the 1960s. This
was enabled by the publication of the book by LapidusE31 on
"Digital Computation for Chemical Engineers," and textbooks
containing Fortran programs, such as Material and Energy
Balances by Henley and Rosen[41 and Applied Numerical
Methods by Carnahan, et al.E51 Programming languages have
been studied in "Computer Science" courses. These have var-
ied over the years and have included Fortran, PL/1, Pascal, C,
C++, MATLAB (a registered trademark of The Math Works,
Inc., ), and Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA, a registered trademark of Microsoft Cor-
poration, ). In the early days of
computing, the study of computer languages was essential to
enable numerical solution of engineering problems. Upon the
introduction of the mathematical software packages, however,
(e.g., spreadsheets, Mathcad, a registered trademark of Math-
soft, Inc., , and POLYMATH,
a trademark of Polymath Software software.com > in the mid '80s, the practical importance of
computer languages has somewhat diminished. This trend is
also reflected in the small percentage of practicing engineers
who use programming languages and numerical libraries in
their work as was found in a recent ,l m , "'I Consequently,
there is an ongoing debate whether it is still justified to teach
programming languages and how many student credit hours
should be allocated to this subject area.
Programming languages are often taught by computer
scientists not engineers, and this is usually before the stu-
dents encounter any engineering problems that are complex
enough to require programming. This may lead to low mo-
tivation among engineering students to study programming.
As "programming is unforgiving for ambiguities and errors"
(EdgarWll), many students may forgo their capability to master
programming, and some may rely on cheating to get their
homework assignments and projects done.J61 Whatever the
reasons, there is a very low level of source code programming
conducted by practicing engineers.


2.2 Numerical Problem Solving and Visualization
With the introduction of user-friendly mathematical soft-
ware packages, numerical solution techniques have gradu-
ally replaced analytical and graphical solution techniques in
engineering education and practice. Fogler�71 in the second
edition of his widely used textbook The Elements of Chemi-
cal Reaction Engineering, replaced many of the analytical
and graphical solutions that were included in the first edi-
tion'81 by numerical solution obtained via the POLYMATH
software package. In 1998 a group of educators presented a
set of 10 representative chemical engineering problems[91 and
demonstrated that all the problems could be solved by various
software packages, including Excel (a registered trademark of
Microsoft Corporation, ), Maple
(a trademark of Waterloo Maple, Inc., com>), MathCAD, MATLAB, Mathematica (a registered
trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc., com>) and POLYMATH. A comparison of the performance
of the various packages in solving the set of 10 problems was
reported by Shacham and Cutlip.10I A textbook demonstrating
the use of POLYMATH for numerical solution of problems in
various required chemical engineering courses was published
by Cutlip and Shacham.J111 Currently there are many textbooks
that rely on one or more mathematical software packages to
numerically solve the presented problems. (See Edgar1'1 for
a list of such textbooks).
Most of the problems that are included in the textbooks and
the publications mentioned in the previous section can be char-
acterized as Single-Model, Single-Algorithm (SMSA). Typical
examples of SMSA type problems include the following:
1. Steady state operation of a tubular reactor, where the
model consists of a system of ordinary differential equa-
tions and explicit algebraic equations. One numerical
,, 11 ,, ... . o ,. .,I i,,,, ,,. i, as the 4th order Runge-
Kutta) can be used to solve this model.
2. Calculation of the 3-phase bubble-point temperature
for a nonideal liquid mixture, where the model includes
a system of implicit and explicit algebraic equations.
A nonlinear equation solver oi,. -- it..., ,. i, as the
Newton-Raphson technique) can be used to solve this
problem.
3. F, i,,, the Wagner equation to vapor pressure data using
a linear regrt .. . , . i., ,i.
These types of problems can be solved efficiently by several
software packages, as was shown by Cutlip, et al.[9] Even in
undergraduate education, however, there is often a need to
solve more complex problems that can be characterized as:
Multiple-Model, Single-Algorithm (MMSA), Single-Model,
Multiple-Algorithm (SMMA), and Multiple-Model, Multiple
Algorithm (MMMA) problems.
A typical example of a MMSA problem is the cyclic op-
eration of a semi-batch bioreactor. 121 The three modes of
operation of the bioreactor initializationn, processing, and


Chemical Engineering Education










harvesting) are represented by different models comprised of
simultaneous ordinary differential equations and explicit al-
gebraic equations. All models can be solved by one numerical
integration algorithm (such as the 4th order Runge-Kutta).
An example of an SMMA problem is the problem of pa-
rameter estimation in dynamic systems. In this case there is
a model comprised of ordinary differential equations and
explicit algebraic equations, with parameters that can be fitted
to experimental data using nonlinear regression techniques.
One solution option is to solve this system by integrating the
differential equations with specified parameter values in an
internal loop, and then minimizing the sum of squares of the
difference between the calculated and the experimental values
using an optimization algorithm in an outer loop. Additional
examples for SMMA problems include a) the solution of
two-point boundary value problems, where the integration
of the model is carried out in the inside loop and a nonlinear
equation solver algorithm adjusts the boundary values in an
outer loop, and b) the solution of differential-algebraic sys-
tems of equations where the same algorithms are used, but
in an opposite hierarchy.
A typical example of an MMMA problem is the optimi-
zation of the semi-batch bioreactor, described earlier, with
respect to some of its operational parameters. Another ex-
ample is the modeling of an exothermic batch reactor, where
the two stages of operation (heating and cooling) require
different models and different integration algorithms (stiff
and non-stiff).
The use of visualization, based on graphical solution tech-
niques (such as the McCabe-Thiele diagram) for pedagogical
purposes, has seen renewed application recently.13, 14] The
creation of the diagrams needed for visualization can also
be characterized as a complex problem that cannot be easily
solved with many of the mathematical software packages.
2.3 Large-Scale Simulation
The most commonly used large-scale simulation software
packages in undergraduate education include process simu-
lators,j15 171 computational fluid dynamic (CFD) packages,
virtual laboratory experiments,[181 and molecular modeling
related programs. [1]
When the large-scale simulation tools are employed,
the student is usually not required to model the physical
phenomena. Therefore, pedagogical drawbacks are often
associated with their use in the undergraduate curriculum.
Typical claims for large-scale simulators include "they en-
able black-box modeling" and "it is possible for the students
to successfully construct and use models without really un-
derstanding the physical phenomena," as noted by Dahm, et
al.i151 Those drawbacks are only relevant, however, when the
use of large-scale simulation programs completely replaces
numerical problem solving in the curriculum. There are many
potential applications for large-scale simulation programs that


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


cannot be carried out by the general-purpose mathematical
software packages. Such applications include visualization of
flow fields using CFD software, investigation of cause-effect
relationships among operational parameters of a particular
process, and the simulation of virtual laboratory experiments.
Thus large-scale simulation tools enable students to experi-
ence complex systems that may be difficult to attain through
direct contact with the equipment itself. 171

3. COMPUTING IN INDUSTRY
Surveys concerning the use of computer-based tools in the
industry were carried out recently by the CACHE Corpora-
tion (Edgar�1l) and by Cameron and Ingramin.19 These surveys
suggest that engineers and scientists in industry can be sepa-
rated into two groups: those whose main task is modeling
(modelers) and those whose tasks do not include modeling.
In the CACHE survey, there was no differentiation between
the two groups, while the second ,nii I% ' " included only the
modelers group. The CACHE survey found that practically all
the engineers and scientist in the industry (98%) use spread-
sheet programs (the most popular being Excel). Spreadsheet
programs are used mainly for data analysis (88%), numeri-
cal analysis (47%), material balances (25%), and economic
studies (24%). The survey indicated a considerable level of
use of database management systems (65%). The level of
use of other software tools among the general population of
industrial practitioners is much lower, and most of it probably
represents their use by the modelers group.
Cameron and Ingrainm191 list the tools used by the modelers
group according to the extent of their use, as follows: Excel,
flow sheeting packages, MATLAB, direct coding, CFD, hy-
brid modeling, and simulation with optimization programs.
Additional tools such as molecular simulation, expert systems,
and programs for risk analysis are used to a lesser extent.

4. AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR
MODELING AND COMPUTATION FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
A review of the state of the art of computing in academia and
in industry has demonstrated that incorporation of the most
necessary computing tools into the undergraduate curriculum
represents a major challenge. To meet this challenge, it is
necessary to provide the students the ability to solve problems
of various levels of complexity in a single course.
One possible approach uses the software packages
POLYMATH, Excel, and MATLAB in such a course.120, 21]
POLYMATH is an easy-to-learn and user-friendly problem-
solving tool, which can be employed in most undergraduate
and graduate courses for solving SMSA problems and carrying
out various types of regressions with statistical analysis. Excel
is included in the introductory computing course because of
its widespread use in the industry, suitability for carrying
out parametric studies, and connection with programming

317










through VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). MATLAB can
be used as a means to learn and apply programming, carry
out symbolic manipulations, solve various types of MMMA
problems, and provide 2D and 3D visualizations. MATLAB
should be recognized as a programming language in terms of
the logic skills it requires. There is little difference between
MATLAB and the older programming languages, such as
FORTRAN, in this respect, as demonstrated for example by
Shacham, et al. 221
A convenient new feature included in the POLYMATH
package enables the automated export of POLYMATH mod-
els to Excel and MATLAB. This capability can significantly
shorten the learning curve for these programs. After defining
and checking a particular model with POLYMATH, it can be
exported to Excel as a complete worksheet, or to MATLAB as
a function m-file. The exported models facilitate the introduc-
tion and use of the other software tools and help to remove the
unforgivenesss" barrier, which prevents many students from
attaining programming proficiency. Advanced programming
capabilities are provided with MATLAB.
A new introductory computing course replaced the FOR-
TRAN programming course at the Ben-Gurion University
in 2003.[20] The course is either given to freshman chemical
engineering students who have already taken an introductory
Material and Energy Balance course, or the two courses are
given concurrently. Realistic problems, which are simple
enough to be understood at the early stage of the ChE studies,
are extensively used. A typical first problem, for example,
involves the solution of the Redlich-Kwong equation of state
for the compressibility factor that requires determination of
all the real roots of a quadratic equation (see problems 4.1
and 5.1, in Cutlip and Shacham211). The model of the prob-
lem is prepared using POLYMATH and solved for a few
temperature values. The results are compared with calculated
values obtained from other sources to verify the correctness
of the model. The model is then exported to Excel, where the
"two input data table" is used for calculating and plotting the
compressibility factor and molar volume for a large number
of pressure and temperature combinations. The same assign-
ment is carried out using MATLAB, starting by export of the
model from POLYMATH to MATLAB. The parametric study
and tabular and graphical display of the results require deriva-
tion of the algorithm needed for carrying out the parametric
study and learning the MATLAB commands associated with
the definition of scalars and arrays, flow control, command
window control, and math, logical, and graphic functions.
Additional examples that have been used in the introductory
course are presented in Chapters 2, 4, and 5 of the Cutlip and
Shacham[211 textbook.
Further enhancement of the knowledge and capabilities
acquired in the introductory course can be achieved through
the use of computational tools of various scales in more
advanced courses. A framework to achieve this objective is
described in section 6.
318


5. A NUMERICAL METHODS COURSE FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

A numerical methods course, which is taught in most, but
not all, chemical engineering departments, can considerably
enhance the programming and the numerical problem-solving
capabilities of the students. The effectiveness of the course
can be increased by introducing a set of interesting problems
that keep the students engaged. In this section a brief review
is presented of the sources of problems and case studies,
applicable to chemical, biochemical, and environmental en-
gineering as well as to process safety analysis, which require
numerical solution.
A library of SMSA problems involving solution of non-
linear algebraic equation of various levels of difficulty was
presented by Shacham, et al. 231 References 9, 12, and 24
through 32 present examples where the mathematical model
includes ordinary differential equations (ODE). Most of the
problems are of SMSA type, however References 12 and 31
present MMMA examples and Reference 32 presents a two-
point boundary value problem, which can be categorized
as an SMMA problem. Inadequate error tolerances, use of
inappropriate integration algorithms, and careless rounding
of model parameter values can lead to erroneous solutions.
Examples regarding such situations are presented in Refer-
ences 26 and 30. References 12 and 31 present examples ap-
plicable to the biochemical engineering field. Process safety
related examples are presented in References 27 and 29. An
environmental engineering related example is presented in
Reference 28.
An example associated with solution of differential-alge-
braic equations (DAE) is presented in Reference 33. Various
aspects associated with data analysis and regression are
demonstrated in References 32 and 34-36. The particular prob-
lems demonstrated include examples of collinearity between
independent variable, use of inappropriate statistics and plots
to assess the quality of the regression model, and the use of
insufficient number or redundant regression parameters.
Determination of the number of significant digits used in
computations, when rounding the model parameters or in pre-
senting the results, represents a special challenge. Examples
associated with these issues are presented in References 23,
26, 30, and 36.
Shacham3r71 presents a typical midterm exam that was re-
cently given at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in a
Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Methods course that
involves MATLAB programming. This course is given to
third-year ChE students and the duration of the midterm exam
is two hours. The exam questions are based on problem 12.3
in the book of Cutlip and Shacham 211 and can be characterized
as an SMSA problem. There are two questions in the exam.
The first one involves the calculation of the Wilson equation
coefficients for a binary system, which includes ethyl alcohol
Chemical Engineering Education











and another randomly assigned organic compound. The Wilson
equation represents activity coefficients for nonideal systems
and in this question the students should use azeotropic point
data to calculate the coefficients. This requires the solution of
a system of two nonlinear algebraic equations. The students
should specify the mathematical model of the problem, use
MATLAB's symbolic manipulation capabilities to derive the
partial derivatives of the functions, and solve the problem itera-
tively using the Newton-Raphson method. All the steps of the
solution are implemented in MATLAB programs. The second
question involves the calculation of the dew point temperature
for the same nonideal binary system that was used in question
1. The method of solution is similar to the solution of question
1, except that in this case there are three simultaneous nonlinear
algebraic equations and the partial derivatives (for the Jacobian
matrix) are calculated using finite differences.
After finishing the exam the students turn in the exam form,
where their individual data are specified, and all the MATLAB
files that were used for the solution. The MATLAB programs


provide clear and precise documentation of all the solution
steps. Thus, the programs are the best means to assess the
knowledge level of the student and to grade the exam.
Problems, such as this exam problem, were assigned to
students in the past as homework assignments for solution
with programming languages such as FORTRAN or PASCAL.
Typically two or three weeks were allocated to complete the
assignment. The same problems can be solved today in two
hours in the tense atmosphere of an exam. This demonstrates
the advantages of the new software tools and programming
languages and the new approaches presented here for numeri-
cal problem solving.


6. A FRAMEWORK FOR INCORPORATING
COMPUTATION TOOLS OF VARIOUS SCALES
IN THE UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM

A proposed framework for integrating computation tools of
various scales into the curriculum is shown in Table 1. The


TABLE 1
A Framework for Incorporating Computation Tools of Various Scales in the Undergraduate Curriculum
No. Course Name Recommended software Purpose References
and/or database
1 Introduction to Modeling and POLYMATH Solution of SMSA problems, Re- Shacham,[201
Computation gression and statistical analysis Cutlip and ShachamE211
Excel Parametric studies, Tabular and
graphical presentation of results
MATLAB Study of programming, Paramet-
ric studies, Tabular and graphical
presentation of results
2 Material and Energy Balances Process Simulator Simple design project Dahm, et al. 151
DIPPR and NIST Reliable physical property data,
Units and experimental errors
3 Thermodynamics Process Simulator Selecting the right thermody- Dahm, et al. 151
namic package for the system,
Multiphase equilibrium
4 Equilibrium Stage operations Instructor-prepared Visualization of graphical solu- Joo and Choundary[131
MATLAB and Mathematica tion techniques for pedagogical Rasteiro, et al.E141
programs purposes
5 Fluid Dynamics & Heat CFD software Numerical experimentation, Edgar01
transfer Visualization of the flow
phenomena
6 Unit Operations Laboratory Pre-prepared simulation Virtual laboratory experiments Wiesner and LanE181
programs complementing "hands on"
experiments
7 Process control, and process MATLAB toolbox & Control theory related exercises. Edgar01
control laboratory SIMULINK, Dynamic simu- Virtual laboratory experiments
lation programs complementing "hands on"
experiments.
8 Molecular Modelling Molecular simulation Virtual experiments Edgar01
programs
9 Process and Product Design Commercial simulation, Interactive process and product Seider, et al.J381
design, and optimization design and optimization, Rockstraw161
programs Validation of the design through
the simulation program

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 31











main feature of the new framework is a basic computational
course that replaces the traditional computer programming
course. This course has been described in section 4.
Further enhancement of the knowledge acquired in the
introductory course can be achieved by using the packages
in other modeling and computation-oriented courses. These
include courses in numerical methods, optimization, process
simulation, dynamics and control, and advanced math. The
software packages POLYMATH, Excel, and MATLAB can
be used throughout the curriculum for solving problems of
various complexities (SMSA, MMSA, etc) and for correla-
tion of data via multiple linear, polynomial, and nonlinear
regressions. A detailed demonstration is available of the use
of various software packages for multi-scale modeling in a
problem involving a biokinetic modeling of imperfect mixing
in a Chemostat and the optimization of its operation.E311
In the first chemical engineering course (Material and En-
ergy Balances), it is desirable to introduce physical property
databases (such as NIST and DIPPR) to encourage the use of
reliable data sources, considerations of the units associated
with the various properties, and awareness of the experimental
errors associated with their values. Process simulation pro-
grams (such as HYSIS or Aspen) can be used for mini-projects
as recommended by Dahm, et al.151
Additional software packages (such as commercial dynamic
and steady-state process simulation, optimization, design,
CFD, and molecular simulation), as well as instructor-pre-
pared demonstration programs, can be introduced into the
various courses of the ChE curriculum as shown in Table
1. In these courses, the objectives are to use the programs
for numerical, model-based, and virtual experimentation,
analysis of cause-effect relationships in complex systems,
and visualization of challenging concepts. The packages can
be introduced to the students in a time-efficient and effective
way while simultaneously enabling a better understanding of
the specific course material.

6. CONCLUSIONS
A review of the state of the art of chemical engineering
computing in academia and in industry has demonstrated
that incorporating efficient and widely used computing tools
into the undergraduate curriculum remains a continuing
major challenge to educators. We suggest that a combina-
tion of three popular packages can be integrated into a basic
computational course that enables the solution of problems
of increasing complexity in the educational setting. These
same software packages are also widely used by chemical
engineering professionals.
The suggested approach is valid for simple SMSA problems
to rather complicated MMMA problems. Shacham"201 has
shown that the same three software packages can be used for
instruction in programming including modeling and paramet-


ric studies as well as regression and statistical data analysis.
The described combination of these packages also fulfills most
of the basic computational needs in the undergraduate chemi-
cal engineering curriculum and in engineering practice.
The presented framework also enables and encourages the
inclusion of additional software tools and databases within
the undergraduate curriculum as part of the regular courses.
The proposed framework represents a proper balance between
the educational computing necessary for the chemical engi-
neering curriculum and the requisite professional computing
capabilities expected of current graduates.

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Used Effectively in ChE Courses?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 36, 192 (2002)
16. Rockstraw, D.A., "ASPEN Plus in the ChE Curriculum. Suitable Course
Content and Teaching Methodology," Chem. Eng. Ed., 39, 68 (2005)
17. Streicher, S.J., K. West, D.M. Fraser, J.M. Case, and C. Linder, "Learn-
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288 (2005)
18. Wiesner, T.E, and W Lan, "Comparison of Student Learning in Physical
and Simulated Unit Operations Experiments, "J. Eng. Ed., 93, 195 (2004)
19. Cameron, I.T., and G.D. Ingham, "A Survey of Industrial Process
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20. Shacham, M., "An Introductory Course of Modeling and Computation
for Chemical Engineers," Comp. Appl. Eng. Ed., 13, 137 (2005)
21. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, Problem Solving in Chemical and
Biochemical Engineering With POLYMATH, Excel, and MATLAB,
2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. (2008)
22. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M.B. Cutlip, "An Exercise for Practicing
Programming in the ChE Curriculum--Calculation of Thermodynamic
Properties Using the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 27(2), 148 (2003)
23. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M.B. Cutlip, "A Web-Based Library
for Testing Performance of Numerical Software for Solving Nonlinear
Algebraic Equations," Comp. & Chem. Eng., 26(4-5), 547 (2002)
24. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M.B. Cutlip, "Exothermic CSTRs-Just
How Stable Are the Multiple Steady States?", Chem. Eng. Ed., 28(1),
30(1994)
25. Brauner, N., M. Shacham, and M.B. Cutlip, "Application of an Interac-
tive ODE Simulation Program in Process Control Education," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 28(2), 130 (1994)
26. Brauner, N., M. Shacham, and M.B. Cutlip, "Computational Results:
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27. Shacham, M., N. Brauner, and M.B. Cutlip, "Prediction and Prevention
of Chemical Reaction Hazards - Learning by Simulation,"( I...... i .
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ematical Software Packages for Modeling and Simulations in Environ-
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with Dynamic Simulation-Applications for Safety Education," J.


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This Software Package?-An Exercise in Validation of Computational
Results," Chem. Eng. Ed., 42(1), 53-59 (2008)
31. Cutlip, M.B., N. Brauner, and M. Shacham, "Biokinetic Modeling of
Imperfect Mixing in a Chemostat-an Example of Multiscale Model-
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Computer in the Classroom to Avoid 'Death by PowerPoint,' "Com-
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Principles, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, (2004) [


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009











MR! t classroom
---- --- s_____________________________________


DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING PROJECTS

In Particle Technology


ANDREW T. HARRIS
University of Sydney * NSW, 2006, Australia
R recently, there have been attempts by several prominent
engineers to raise awareness of the need for cur-
riculum renewal in chemical engineering.1, 2] In this
context, the University of Sydney redesigned its undergradu-
ate curriculum in 2004 to be more relevant to the educational
needs of tomorrow's engineers.[3] This process involved an
examination of what was taught, how it was delivered, and
how students learned this material. As a result, a significant
proportion of the revised curriculum was based upon the prin-
ciples of Problem-Based Learning (PBL), i.e., learning driven
by the solution of open-ended problems. The new curriculum
was rolled out from the beginning of 2005 and has been well
received by students, academics, and industry alike.
In chemical engineering, the application of PBL is neither
novel nor particularly controversial.[4, 5] To our knowledge,
however, there are no published examples of the application
of PBL in particle science and technology. We estimate that
>75% of all industrial processes involve the processing of
particles of some description, e.g., powders, solid particles in
fluids, polymers (emulsions), and biological systems (cells),
and therefore consider this a worrying deficiency.
The core concepts and applications of particle science and
technology were historically taught in the second semester
of the penultimate (i.e., third) year at Sydney using a tradi-
tional teaching and learning approach, i.e., lectures and as-
sociated short tutorials, with small assignments throughout
the semester and a final, graded examination. This course
made use of several excellent textbooks,16 8] however there


was little integration, either with other subjects in the same
semester, or material taught in other years. While the timing
has remained the same, the new structure developed at Sydney
now has strong integration within and across the four years
of the curriculum.
Particle science and technology is now taught in the same
semester as chemical product design, process design, process
economics, project management, risk assessment, decision
making, and entrepreneurship. This material is delivered in
three administratively separate, but practically linked courses,
which cover the basic fundamentals, enabling technologies,
and engineering practice,31] in accordance with the design of
Sydney's new curriculum. These courses are compulsory for
all undergraduate chemical engineers and have a value of 6
credit points; the standard across the University of Sydney.
The typical enrolment is around 50 students and the course
was run for the first time in 2005. The structure and content
for second-semester, third-year is summarized in Table 1.


� Copyright ChE Division ofASEE 2009
Chemical Engineering Education


Andrew Harris is an associate professor
at the University of Sydney and director of
the Laboratory for Sustainable Technology,
a multidisciplinary research group with in-
terests in sustainable process development
and nanomaterials. At Sydney, he lectures
in product design, particle technology, and
"green" engineering and makes extensive
use of problem-based learning in all of these
areas.











This papers concerns the chemical engineering practice course
(CHNG3807 in Table 1), in which the goal is to integrate the
concepts and enabling techniques learned in the other courses
through a series of projects. In this paper we discuss some of the
background leading to the development of this course, describe
the teaching, learning, and assessment rationale, and then briefly
present the two major projects offered to students in 2005 and
2006. Finally, we conclude with an assessment of student reaction
to the course, in terms of content and delivery.

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGY
Harris and Briscoe-Andrews[9] have previously reported
on the development of an advanced (postgraduate) course
in chemical engineering delivered using the PBL method-
ology. The application of PBL in the chemical engineering
undergraduate syllabus has also received attention. 4,5] PBL
is a generic, student-centered, contextualized approach to
learning,i10] whose forms may include research, case stud-
ies, guided design, engineering design projects, and small
self-directed learning groups.[4 5] Woods has reported that in
PBL the majority of time is spent learning-by identifying
what you need to know, finding out, teaching each other,
and then applying your new knowledge.[41 Thus, the primary
aim of the exercise is the learning, not the completion of
the project. The project is simply the means to this end.[41 In
our work, the PBL methodology was developed in conjunc-
tion with medical education specialists at the University of


Nottingham in the United Kingdom111; PBL has previously
been reported to enhance teaching and learning outcomes
in medicine.J101 This approach emphasizes: i) independent
student learning (both individually and in small groups);
ii) rigorous project formulation, problem definition, and
project work plans; iii) discursive sessions; and iv) regular
submissions with timely feedback.
In CHNG3807 our aim was to introduce students to the
types of problems the modern chemical engineer is asked to
solve, and to use these to drive student learning in product
design, particle science, and technology. The subject mat-
ter is contemporary and the projects integrate key concepts
across the curriculum, in particular linking with CHNG3805
and CHNG3806 (Table 1), while drawing heavily on mate-
rial learned in earlier years (particularly mass and energy
balances, thermodynamics, physical chemistry, physics and
mechanics, mathematics and numerical methods, and an
ability to write coherent reports based on qualitative and
quantitative information).
Typically three projects are used; the first on product de-
sign (usually a four-week study on the development of water
treatment technologies for remote communities), the second
a short (one-week) project on innovation and entrepreneur-
ship and then finally a major (eight-week) project focusing
on particle science and technology. Over the past four years
we have developed two major projects that are offered in
alternating years: i) the design of a zero-emission coal power


TABLE 1
Overview of the 2nd-Semester, 3rd-Year Syllabus in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Sydney
Course code and title Syllabus Summary of teaching and learning approach
CHNG3805, Chemical Chemical product design Lectures and tutorials, assignments and a midsemes-
Product Design Innovation and entrepreneurship ter examination. Course is competency based (i.e.,
Particle science (properties and characterization of pass/fail) with a final barrier examination at the end
particles, sampling and measuring particles, single par- of semester.
tiles falling in fluids, 1.. I.l. ..tI *.illi... measuring and
analyzing particle size distributions, drag coefficients
and terminal velocity, particles in fluids calculations)
Particle technology (cyclone design, particulate
transport, pneumatic conveying, packed beds, fluidized
beds, storage and flow of powders, hopper design,
size change, i.e. reduction and enlargement, filtration,
surface activity).
CHNG3806, Management Process engineering economics (Economies of scale, Lectures and tutorials, assignments and a mid
of Industrial Systems Cost estimation methods, Economic forecasting, semester examination. Course is competency based
Economic evaluation of projects, plans and processes, (i.e. pass/fail) with a final barrier examination at the
Business risk and uncertainty, Depreciation and tax end of semester.
provision)
Risk assessment (Loss and waste prevention, Occupa-
tional health and safety, Concepts of hazard analysis).
Project management (PM approaches and tools, Multi-
objective optimization and trade-off analysis, Supply
chain and value chain management, Life cycle manage-
ment).
CHNG3807, Chemical Incorporates aspects of all of the material from Graded, project based assessment, involving a
Engineering Practice CHNG3805 and CHNG3806 (above) with material mixture of individual and group work. No final
II (Products and Value from the first and second years of the curriculum into examination.
Chains) open ended projects.

Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009 32.










station, and ii) the design of a large-scale carbon nanotube
synthesis facility. These offerings were designed to address
"issues of scale" in chemical engineering, from molecular to
macro-systems levels.
Both major projects draw heavily on our research interests
and expertise. This is advantageous for several reasons -e.g.,
we can present cutting-edge material to students to keep them
interested throughout their studies-but mainly because we
have available to us a bank of skilled and knowledgeable
tutors, who are intimately familiar with the material being
studied through their own Ph.D. research. We have previ-
ously reported that this is also advantageous for monitoring
instances where students, either advertently or inadvertently,
are guilty of plagiarism. Because the course material (and
underlying published reference material) is very well known
to the teaching and learning staff, it is comparatively simple
to identify cases where plagiarism has occurred.[9]

ASSESSMENT
In our experience, most students only learn when they have
to. The structure of the revised curriculum at Sydney (where
there are major projects every semester) helps students to
put into practice the concepts they have learned and is, in
our opinion, an effective extension of learning from theory
and tutorials. Not only does it provide students with an op-
portunity to understand how these concepts are used but also
broadly identifies for them how this knowledge relates to
other parts of their degree, well before they undertake their
capstone design course.
For each case, students were presented with a technological-
ly complex, real-life situation with no single correct answer.
Their challenge was to develop a solution that was technologi-
cally sound and cost-effective. Students were assessed on the
quality of a series of written reports and presentations. There
was no midsemester or final exam. Students were expected
to work in teams to explore the underlying issues, but the
reports contained both group and individual components for
assessment (such that the total assessment for the course was
60% individual, 40% group). In addition, with each assess-
ment item, students were required to complete a peer and self
assessment, during which they quantitatively and qualitatively
rated their own contribution and the contributions of their
peers. We have previously reported that a satisfactory peer
and self assessment includes the following sections[9]:
i) a short paragraph,i.. -. o,,, what contributions)
the student has made to the project,
ii) a mark (out of 100) for the students' technical achieve-
ments.
iii) a mark (out of 100) for each of the other students',
non-technical contributions (e.g., attendance at group
m.. i -,,, . overall preparedness, initiative, team spirit).
iv) short paragraphs 1i. .. ........ i,,, the contributions of the
other group members to the project.


v) a mark (out of 100) for the technical achievements of
every other member of the group.
vi) a mark (out of 100) for the other, nontechnical contribu-
tions of every other member of the group.
vii) the students' signature and date at the bottom of the
document.

The numerical scores from these assessments were then
factored into the final project mark awarded to each student
by adjusting their mark either up or down, according to their
deviation from the mean group mark determined from the peer
and self assessments. Historically, the maximum deviation in
marks across a group has been 20%.

MAJOR PROJECTS IN PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY
To give an idea of the working process for each project, we
present the two major case studies used in 2005 and 2006, on
zero-emission coal electricity and the large-scale production
of carbon nanotubes, respectively. Both cases were the major
assessment item in their respective years, valued at 70% of
the course mark.
Each project began with a (very broad) statement of the
problem and was typically supported by a keynote lecture,
learning topics, lists of keywords and references, lecture and
workshop materials, experimental data, and Web sites of
interest-although this material was not all made available
initially; students had to specifically request it. The cases
were real-world problems, i.e., they were complex and open-
ended, with incomplete data, and required rapid generation
and rejection of solution alternatives. They were also framed
within a real-world context, i.e., they incorporated aspects of
safety, economics, ethics, regulation, intellectual property,
and market and social needs. Furthermore, both technical and
nontechnical attributes were emphasized during the projects.
This required students to develop and demonstrate technical
knowledge as well as generic skills in research and enquiry,
information literacy, personal and intellectual autonomy,
communication, and ethical, social, and professional under-
standing, consistent with the teaching and learning aims of
the University of Sydney.
Zero-Emission Coal
This project began with an introductory lecture on energy
supply and demand and the available technologies to meet
this demand into the future. Australia has a cheap, plentiful
supply of coal sufficient to last hundreds of years, even con-
sidering future demand. Thus, the coal industry plays a major
role in Australia, both economically and as an employer of
engineers. Coal is an unsustainable resource, however, which
when burned, contributes to the problem of global warming
through enhanced emissions of CO2. One of the options
being examined, in Australia and elsewhere, is to develop
"zero-emission" coal processes. In essence this involves the
capture and sequestration of the CO2 emissions. Following


Chemical Engineering Education










this lecture and background information students were given
the following brief:

"You are a A,. i. it engineer .. -,It . as part of the
lead design team for a firm of consulting engi-
neers. Your client, a large Australian mining and
energy company, has commissioned your firm to
A,. ,,.i a 'next generation'coal-fired power plant.
Your task is to prepare a preliminary d,. ,. it report
for this process. The report should outline the
new technology, compare it with other suitable
approaches, and give supporting design calcula-
tions, where appropriate."

For this project students were allowed to choose their own
groups. We have used other strategies to form groups, in-
cluding random assignment and seeding according to ability
(so each group has a range of abilities). We have found no
appreciable differences in performance across groups using
any of these techniques, however-i.e., individual students
tend to achieve a mark consistent with their historical perfor-
mance irrespective of the other group members -and so we
have tended to use the simplest approach to forming groups.
Once students had received the brief and formed into groups,
the class ended for the day. In most years the teaching and


learning staff are asked for the design basis (i.e., how big is
the plant) before this happens, but not always.
The next class, held two days later, was a three-hour work-
shop (as were all the remaining student-staff contact sessions
for the project-there are two of these sessions timetabled
each week) where students could begin to formulate the ex-
act problem they had to solve. This process typically takes
one week and involves extensive examination of the issues,
suggestions and rejection of ideas, and discussion with the
teaching and learning staff. Following this process, which
occurs with individual groups, not the class as a whole, we
agreed on a set of objectives for the project, as follows:
Prepare a preliminary design report for a zero-emission
coal technology giving supporting design calculations for
the i) fluidized bed gasifier, ii) feed storage and iii) handling
system, iv) calcination reactor, v) gas clean-up, and vi) carbon
sequestration reactor. Another company will design the fuel
cell. The design basis is 500,000 tpa (dry basis, coal feed). A
block diagram of the system is given in Figure 1. The prelimi-
nary design report should include: i) a description of the basic
technology, how it works, the underpinning chemistry, and a
literature review of possible alternate designs; ii) a process
flow diagram (PFD) incorporating mass and energy balances


Figure 1. Sketch of the zero-emission coal reactor and ancillaries.


Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


Steam


Coal Storage
Hopper


CO2 to Sequestration










(but not a process and instrumentation diagram, P&ID); iii)
order of magnitude (� 25%) sizing and performance calcu-
lations for each of the unit operations in Figure 1, i.e., coal
and calcium oxide storage and feed systems, hopper, rotary
valve and pneumatic conveying system, pneumatic convey-
ing system between the gasifier and the calcination reactor,
fluidized bed gasification reactor, gas cleaning cyclones and
electrostatic precipitator, carbon sequestration reactor (a high
pressure slurry reactor); and iv) preliminary (�25%) capital
and operating cost estimates for the plant.
Students were then also given the usual guidelines about
the length of the report, its structure, appropriate referencing,
and warnings about the consequences of plagiarism.
The design reports and accompanying presentations were
generally of a high standard, reflecting the effort put into them.

Large-scale Carbon Nanotube Synthesis
Carbon nanotubes are a form of crystalline carbon with
unique properties, which make them potentially valuable in
a wide range of end-use applications. Currently, research into
nanotubes and their applications is hampered by the lack of a
suitable technique for manufacturing them in large quantities,
which we have defined previously as being of the order of


10 000 tons per plant per year.[121 There are three established
methods for CNT synthesis: (i) arc discharge, (ii) laser abla-
tion, and (iii) chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Of these,
CVD techniques show the greatest promise for economically
viable, large-scale synthesis, based on yields reported in the
literature and the inherent scalability of similar technologies,
e.g., fluidized catalytic cracking. In particular, the fluidized-
bed CVD technique (where the CVD reaction occurs within a
fluidized bed of catalyst particles) has the potential to produce
high-quality CNTs, inexpensively, in large quantities.[121
The structure and working process for this project was
identical to that for the zero-emission coal study described
above. To begin, students were given an introductory lecture
on nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, and then were is-
sued with the following brief:
"You are a design engineer i. . i,, for a start-up
'nanotech'company. Your company has acquired the IP
(patents and other information)for a laboratory-scale
(1 kg/day) fluidized-bed carbon nanotube synthesis
process. Your first job for the company is to assist with
the preliminary design for a commercial-scale (5000
kg/day) nanotube synthesis process using this technol-
ogy. A sketch of our technology is attached (Figure 2)."


Figure 2. Sketch of the carbon nanotube synthesis facility.


Chemical Engineering Education


Active metal Alumina


Active metal
storage hopper


Exhaust


CNT products


Fluidising gases


Alumina
storage hopper










After the usual process of rapid idea generation, rejection,
and adaptation, the teaching and learning staff and students
arrived at a mutually agreed project brief, as follows:
Prepare a preliminary design report for a carbon nanotube
manufacturing facility that: i) outlines the technology, how
it works, the underpinning chemistry, and possible alternate
designs; ii) assesses its performance (including the production
of a PFD with mass and energy balances), and gives sup-
porting information (order of magnitude, � 25% sizing and
performance calculations) for the fluidized bed CVD reactor,
catalyst preparation system (slurry reactor, drier ,and furnace),
catalyst storage, handling and feed system (hoppers, rotary
valve, and pneumatic conveying system), product purification
system (slurry reactor and nano-filtration) and gas clean-up
system (cyclones, electrostatic precipitator, and wet scrubber).
Capital and operating costs (�25%) were also required.
Again, the design reports and presentations were of a com-
paratively high standard.

STUDENT FEEDBACK
Student feedback via the formal course evaluation (a confi-
dential paper-based survey containing 12 questions, managed
by the University's Teaching and Learning center) showed
that in 2005 (the first time the course was run), overall student
satisfaction with the course was below average, with only 21 %
of students agreeing or strongly agreeing with the statement
"Overall I was satisfied with the quality of this unit of study,"
although this increased to 43% in 2006 (no data are available
for 2007). This compares with 39% who disagreed or strongly
disagreed with this statement (31% in 2006). These scores are
partly attributable to several factors: i) a perceived high work-
load relative to their other classes (69% agreed or strongly
agreed with the statement "The workload in this unit of study
was too high" in 2005; 71% in 2006); ii) the fact this was the
first time students had been substantially exposed to the PBL
methodology in their studies (many students made individual
comments that they would have preferred more lectures and
tutorials and fewer project workshops); and iii) a perception
that their prior learning had not adequately prepared them for
this type of course (41% agreed or strongly agreed with this
statement in 2005; 50% in 2006).
Students did report, however, that they were very satisfied
with the way the course helped them develop valuable generic
attributes, e.g., research inquiry skills, communication skills,
and intellectual autonomy (76% agreed or strongly agreed
with the statement "This unit of study helped me develop
valuable generic attributes" in 2005; 83% in 2006). They
also indicated they could see the relevance of the course to
their broader education (66% in 2005; 91% in 2006). We
take this as an indication that students knew the course was
good for them, they just didn't like it very much because it
was difficult. We have continued to streamline and improve
the course, in particular including an experimental compo-
Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 2009


nent where students can gather yield and kinetic data for the
production of carbon nanotubes, which they then use in their
design calculations.
Our goal for students at the end of the course was that they
should be proficient at:
i) developing a strategy for taking a product develop-
ment idea from concept to commercial artifact, with a
comprehensive appreciation of economic arguments,
underlying uncertainties (and ,ii,,,."" . is of these), and
consideration of trade-offs inherent in this development
- and ,i ,,...,, i i.,,, this in project mode;
ii) applying design and analysis tools for the synthesis
of particulate products leading to manufacture of a
preferred product at pilot scale - and ,i ... , 1,,1,
this in project mode;
iii) developing a strategy for design and analysis of ex-
tended business enterprises, with a focus on value chain
optimization - o,,ii .i.. ,. u, ,, this in project mode;

And should have developed:
iv) improved research skills and an ability to cope with
ambiguity;
v) an ability to select appropriate engineering principles
to solve open-ended problems;
vi) engineering practice skills.

We do not have an opportunity to include an assessment
of these in the formal course evaluation, but operate our own
(non-confidential) questionnaire with students at the comple-
tion of the course to help assess this. This survey contains most
of the same questions as the formal evaluation (we use this as
a sort of internal benchmark) and uses the same response for-
mat, but also includes questions on the specific teaching and
learning objectives (iv, v and vi above). During this survey,
a majority of students in both 2005 and 2006 indicated that
they had improved their abilities in these areas. In 2005, 71%
of students agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "The
problem-based learning style helped me develop important
skills and cope with ambiguity." In 2006 the number was 75%.
In both years no student disagreed with this statement.

CONCLUSIONS
Knowledge of the processing behavior of particles is impor-
tant for most practicing chemical engineers. To this end, the
University of Sydney has developed an undergraduate course
in particle science and technology using a problem-based
learning methodology. Students found the course challeng-
ing, but rated highly the generic attributes the teaching and
learning style helped them develop.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are particularly grateful for the assistance of N. Rosa-
guti, M. Coates, R. Kempener, K. Kola, C. See, K. MacKen-
zie, 0. Dunens, M. Zhou, and J. Liu for their work as course
tutors over the past four years.












REFERENCES

1. Armstrong, R.C.,, "A Vision of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum
of the Future," Chem. Eng. Educ., 40(2) 104 (2006)
2. Savage, D.W., E.L. Cussler, A. Middelberg, and M. Kind, "Refocusing
Chemical Engineering," Chem. Eng. Progress, 98(1), 26S (2002)
3. Gomes, V.G., G.W. Barton, J. Petrie, J. Romagnoli, , 2, P Holt, A. Ab-
bas, B. Cohen, A.T. Harris, B.S. Haynes, T.A.G. Langrish, J. Orellana,
H. See, M. Valix, and D. White, "Chemical Engineering Curriculum
Renewal, "Ed. for Chem. Engineers, 1, 116 (2006)
4. Woods, D., "How To Get the Most Out of PBL," mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm>, accessed Oct. 23, 2004 (1996)
5. Fink, EK., "Innovations in Engineering Education-The Aalborg
Model," Proceedings of the Ibero-American Summit on Engineering
Education (2003)


6. Rhodes, M.J., Introduction to Particle Technology, Jacaranda Wiley
Ltd., Australia (1998)
7. Clift, R., J.R. Grace, and M.E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles,
Academic Press, New York (1978)
8. Randolph, A.D., and M.A. Larson, Theory of Particulate Processes,
2nd Ed., Academic Press, San Diego (1988)
9. Harris, A.T., and S. Briscoe-Andrews, "Development of a Problem-
Based Learning Elective in Green Engineering, "Ed. for Chem. Engi-
neers, 3, el5-e21 (2008)
10. Barrows, H.S. How to Design a Problem-Based Curriculum for the
Pre-Clinical Years, Springer, New York (1985)
11. Seigel, J., personal communication (2004)
12. See, C.H. and A.T. Harris, "A Review of Carbon Nanotube Synthesis
via Fluidized-Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,
46, 997 (2007) [


Chemical Engineering Education









Chemical ,


and Materials "


Engineering !


Graduate Program i
j�_---------------------


Tacuty and Research

R. Michael Banish; Ph.D., University of Utah
Associate Professor
Crystal growth mass and thermal diffusivity
measurements.
Ram6n L. Cerro; Ph.D., UC Davis
Professor and Chair
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics and
physicochemical hydrodynamics.
Chien P. Chen; Ph.D., Michigan State
Professor
Lab-on-chip microfluidics, multiphase transport,
spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics,
and turbulence modeling of chemically reacting
flows.
Krishnan K. Chittur; Ph.D., Rice
Professor
Biomaterials, bioprocess monitoring, gene
expression bioinformatics, and FTIR/ATR.
James E. Smith Jr; Ph.D., South Carolina
Professor
Ceramic and metallic composites, catalysis and
reaction engineering, fiber optic chemical sensing,
combustion diagnostic of hypergolic fuels, and
hydrogen storage.
Katherine Taconi; Ph.D., Mississippi State
Assistant Professor
Biological production of alternative energy from
renewable resources.
Jeffrey J. Weimer; Ph.D., MIT
Associate Professor
Adhesions, biomaterials surface properties, thin film
growth, and surface spectroscopies.
David B. Williams; Sc.D., Cambridge
Professor and University President
Analytical, transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, applications to interfacial segregation and
bonding changes, texture and phase diagram
determination in metals and alloys.

http://www.uah.edu
http://www.che.uah.edu


The Department of Chemical and Materials
Engineering offers coursework and research leading
to the Master of Science in Engineering degree. The
Doctor of Philosophy degree is available through
the Materials Science Ph.D.
program, the
Biotechnology Science and
Engineering Program, or
the option in Chemical
Engineering of the
Mechanical Engineering
Ph.D. program.
The range of research
interests in the chemical
engineering faculty is broad.
It affords graduate students
opportunities for advanced
work in processes, reaction
engineering, electrochemical
systems, material processing
and biotechnology.
The proximity of the UAH
S campus to the 200+ high
technology and aerospace
industries of Huntsville and
NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center provide exciting opportunities for
our students.




UAH
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
An Affirmative Action / Equal Opportumty Institution
Office of Chemical and Materials Engineering
130 Engineering Building
Huntsville, Alabama 35899
Ph: 256-824-6810 Fax: 256-824-6839









fW Ira A. Fulton
School of Engineering

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Chemical Engineering
Learn and discover in a multi-disciplinary research environment with opportunities in advanced materials, atmospheric
chemistry, biotechnology, electrochemistry and sensors, electronic materials processing, engineering education, process control,
separation and purification technology, thin films and flexible displays.


Program Faculty
Jean M. Andino, Ph.D., P.E., Caltech.
Atmospheric chemistry, gas-phase kinetics and mechanisms,
heterogeneous chemistry, air pollution control
James R. Beckman, Emeritus, Ph.D., Arizona.
Unit operations, applied mathematics, energy-efficient water
purification, fractionation, CMP reclamation
Veronica A. Burrows, Ph.D., Princeton.
Engineering education, surface science, semiconductor
processing, interfacial chemical and physical processes for
sensors
Lenore Dai, Ph.D., Illinois
Surface, interfacial, and colloidal science, nanorheology and
microrheology, materials at the nanoscale, synthesis of novel
polymer composites, thermal and mechanical analyses of soft
materials
Thomas Dory, Ph.D., Oklahoma University.
Semiconductor focused electroplating, plasma deposition
reactions, and synthesis of novel organometallic compounds
Jerry Y.S. Lin, Ph.D., Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Advanced materials (inorganic membranes, adsorbents and
catalysts) for applications in novel chemical separation and
reaction processes
David Nielsen, Ph.D., Queen's University at Kingston.
Metabolic engineering of novel biofuel pathways in bacteria;
in situ recovery techniques for biofuels and value-added
compounds
Robert Pfeffer, Ph.D., New York University.
Dry particle coating and supercritical fluid processing to produce
engineered particulates with tailored properties; fluidization,
mixing, coating and processing of ultra-fine and nano-structured
particulates; filtration of sub-micron particulates; agglomeration,
sintering and granulation of fine particles
Gregory B. Raupp, Ph.D., Wisconsin.
Gas-solid surface reactions, interactions between surface
reactions and transport processes, semiconductor materials
processing, thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (CVD), flexible displays

For additional details see
http://che.fulton.asu.edu/ or call 480-965-3313


Kaushal Rege, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Molecular and cellular engineering, engineered cancer
therapeutics and diagnostics, cellular interactions in cancer
metastasis
Daniel E. Rivera, Ph.D., Caltech.
Control systems engineering, dynamic modeling via system
identification, robust control, computer-aided control system
design, supply chain management
Michael R. Sierks, Ph.D., Iowa State.
Protein engineering, biomedical engineering, enzyme kinetics,
antibody engineering
Bryan Vogt, Ph.D., Massachusetts
Nanostructured materials, organic electronics, supercritical fluids for
materials processing, moisture barrier technologies


Affiliate/Research Faculty
Paul Johnson, Ph.D., Princeton.
Chemical migration and fate in the environment as applied to
environmental risk assessment and the development, monitoring and
optimization of technologies for aquifer restoration and water
resources management
Bruce E. Rittmann, Ph.D., N.A.E., P.E., Stanford.
Environmental biotechnology, microbial ecology, environmental
chemistry, environmental engineering
Jonathan D. Posner, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine
Micro/nanofluidics, fuel cells, precision biology







AUBURN UNIVERSITY




Engineering





Alternative Energy and Fuels
Biochemical Engineering
Biomaterials
Biomedical Engineering
Bioprocessing and Bioenergy
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
K Computer-Aided Engineering
Drug Delivery
Energy Conversion and Storage
Environmental Biotechnology
Fuel Cells
Green Chemistry
Materials
MEMS and NEMS
Microfibrous Materials
Nanotechnology
Polymers
Process Control
Pulp and Paper
Supercritical Fluids
Surface and Interfacial Science
Sustainable Engineering
Molecular Thermodynamics



Director of Graduate Recruiting
Department of Chemical Engineering
Auburn, AL 36849-5127
Phone 334.844.4827
Fax 334.844.2063
www.eng.auburn.edulche
chemical@eng.auburn.edu
Au n U y is an e l o y e a Financial assistance is available to qualified applicants.


ChemEAd09 indd 1 4/24/09 20249 PM


















Vancouver is the largest city in Western Canada, The University of British Columbia is the largest public university in Western Canada
ranked the 1st most liveable place in the world* and is ranked among the top 40 institutes in the world by Newsweek magazine, the
Vancouver's natural surroundings offer limitless Times Higher Education Supplement and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
o ortunities foroutdoor pursuits throu hout the ear


hiking, canoeing, mountain biking, skiing... In 2010, the
city will host the Olympic and Paraolympic Winter Games.


Chemical and Biological Engineenng Building, officially opened in 2006

Faculty


Susan A. Baldwin (Toronto)
Chad P.J. Bennington (British Columbia)
Xiaotao T. Bi (British Columbia)
Bruce D. Bowen (British Columbia)
Richard Branion (Saskatchewan)
Louise Creagh (California, Berkeley)
Sheldon J.B. Duff (McGill)
Naoko Ellis (British Columbia)
Peter Englezos (Calgary)
Norman Epstein (New York)
James Feng (Minnesota)
Bhushan Gopaluni (Alberta)
John R. Grace (Cambridge)
Elod Gyenge (British Columbia)
Savvas Hatzikiriakos (McGill)
Charles Haynes (California, Berkeley)
Dhanesh Kannangara (Ottawa)
Richard Kerekes (McGill)
Ezra Kwok (Alberta)
Eric Lagally (California, Santa Barbara)
Anthony Lau (British Columbia)
C. Jim Lim (British Columbia)
Mark D. Martinez (British Columbia)
Madjid Mohseni (Toronto)
Colin Oloman (British Columbia)
Royann Petrell (Florida)
Kenneth Pinder (Birmingham)
James M. Piret (MIT)
Dusko Posarac (Novi Sad)
Kevin J. Smith (McMaster)
Fariborz Taghipour (Toronto)
A. Paul Watkinson (British Columbia)
David Wilkinson (Ottawa)


Faculty of Applied Science

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


www.chbe.ubc.ca/prospective_students/graduate/index.php


MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE (M.A.SC.)
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (M.ENG.)
MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC.)
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D.).

Currently about 170 students are enrolled in graduate studies. The program
dates back to the 1920s. Nowadays the department has a strong emphasis
on interdisciplinary and joint programs, in particular with the Michael Smith
Laboratories (MSL), FPInnovations (Paprican), Clean Energy Research
Centre (CERC) and the BRIDGE program which links public health,
engineering and policy research.


Main Areas of Research


Biological Engineering
Biochemical Engineering *
Biomedical Engineering *
Protein Engineering * Blood
research * Stem Cells
Energy.
Biomass and Biofuels * Bio-oil
and Bio-diesel * Combustion,
Gasification and Pyrolysis *
Electrochemical Engineering *
Fuel Cells * Hydrogen
Production * Natural Gas
Hydrate
Process Control
Pulp and Paper
Reaction Engineering


Environmental and Green
Engineering
Emissions Control * Green
Process Engineering * Life
Cycle Analysis * Wastewater
Treatment * Waste
Management *Aquacultural
Engineering
Particle Technoloqy
Fluidization * Multiphase Flow *
Fluid-Particle Systems *
Particle Processing *
Electrostatics
Kinetics and Catalysis
Polymer Rheoloqyv


Financial Aid

Students admitted to the
graduate programs leading to
the M.A.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D.
degrees receive at least a
minimum level of financial
support regardless of
citizenship (approximately
$17,500/year for M.A.Sc and
M.Sc and $19,000/year for
Ph.D). Teaching assistantships
are available (up to
approximately $1,000 per
year). All student are eligible
for several merit based
entrance scholarships of
$5,000/year and University
Graduate Scholarships of
approximately $16,000/year.


Mailing address 2360 East Mall, Vancouver B C, Canada V6T 1Z3 * gradsec@chbe ubc ca * tel +1 (604)822-3457


*June 2009 survey, TheEconomist










FACULTY
U. Sundararaj, Head (Minnesota)
J. Abedi (Toronto)
R. Aguilera (Colorado School)
J. Azaiez (Stanford)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
C. Bellehumeur (McMaster)
J. Bergerson (Carnegie-Mellon)
Z. Chen (Purdue)
M. Clarke (Calgary)
A. De Visscher (Ghent, Belgium)
M. Dong (Waterloo)
M. W. Foley (Queens)
I. D. Gates (Minnesota)
T. G. Harding (Alberta)
G. Hareland (Oklahoma State)
H. Hassanzadeh (Calgary)
J. M. Hill (Wisconsin)
M. Husein (McGill)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
J. Jensen (Texas, Austin)
M. S. Kallos (Calgary)
A. Kantzas (Waterloo)
D. Keith (AMIT)
R. Krenz (Calgary)
N. Mahinpey (Toronto)
B. B. Maini (Univ. Washington)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
S. A. Mehta (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. Pereira (France)
M. Pooladi-Darvish (Alberta)
K. D. Rinker (North Carolina)
M. Satyro (Calgary)
A. Sen (Calgary)
A. Settari (Calgary)
H. W. Yarranton (Alberta)
L. Zanzotto (Czechoslovakia)


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc.,
M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees with Specializations in Chemical
Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Energy & Environmental
Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering. Financial assistance is
available to all qualified applicants.
The areas of research include:
* catalysis, reaction engineering & chemical kinetics; mathematical modeling,
computer simulation & optimization; fluid mechanics and rheology
(pol\ inciS. suspensions & emulsions); separation process cascades;
thermodynamics & phase equilibria ; transport phenomena (phase change,
molecular diffusion & dispersion, heat & mass transfer)
* reservoir engineering & modeling; geomechanics and reservoir simulation;
reservoir characterization; improved gas recovery (coal bed methane, gas
hydrates, tight gas); improved oil recovery (SAGD, VAPEX, EOR, in-situ
combustion); drilling, completion and well testing
* air pollution control; alternate energy sources; greenhouse gas control & CO2
sequestration; life cycle assessment; petroleum waste management & site
remediation; solid waste management; water & wastewater treatment
* biomedical engineering; cell & tissue engineering (cardiovascular systems,
bone & joint repair); bacterial infection; biopolymers; bioproduct
development; blood filtration; microvascular systems; stem cell bioprocess
engineering (media & reagent development, bioreactor protocols)

[For Additional Information, Contact:
Dr. J. Azaiez, Associate Head, Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
gradstud(aucalgary.ca; www.schulich.ucalgary.ca/ench/


SCHULICH
School of Enrnseering


The University is located in Calgary, which is the Oil and Engineering Capital of Canada, and the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. With a population of over one million, the City combines
the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful 1:,,ii . ,I . i,/ Park is 110
km west of the City. The ski resorts and numerous hiking trails in Buntt Lake Louise, and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible. In the above photo of the University Campus, the Engineering Complex is located in the top left.




* + final 2008 outlines.pdf 6/18/2008 5:53:41 PM


Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Electrochemical Engineering
Polymers and Complex Fluids
Microsystems Technology and Microelectronics
Molecular Simulations and Theory
Interfacial Engineering I
Product Development Masters Program W
Biochemical and Bioprocess Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Synthetic Biology









study Chemical


Engineering


at the University of California, Berkeley




he Chemical Engineering Department at
he University of California, Berkeley, one For more information visit our website at:


of the preeminent departments in the
field, offers graduate programs leading to
the Doctor of Philosophy or a Master of
Science in Product Development.


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of Engineering Phne 95.8725
Fax: 951.827.5696^H^^SEK^^S^^i^S^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^











CALTECH


CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING



"At the Leading Edge"


The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory
for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is scheduled to
open January, 2010.


CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE
OF TECHNOLOGY


Contact information:
Director of Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering 210-41
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125


http://www.che.caltech.edu


Frances H. Arnold: Protein Engineering
and Directed Evolution, Biocatalysis,
Synthetic Biology, Biofuels

Anand R. Asthagiri: Biomolecular Cell
Engineering, Tissue Engineering and
Development, Systems Biology, Cancer
and Cell Biology

John F. Brady: Complex Fluids and
Suspensions, Rheology, Transport Processes

Mark E. Davis: Biomedical Engineering,
Catalysis, Advanced Materials

Richard C. Flagan: Aerosol Science,
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,
Bioaerosols, Nanotechnology, Nucleation

George R. Gavalas (emeritus)

Konstantinos P. Giapis: Plasma Processing,
Ion-Surface Interactions, Nanotechnology

Sossina M. Haile: Advanced Materials,
Fuel Cells, Energy, Electrochemistry,
Catalysis and Electrocatalysis

Julia A. Kornfield: Polymer Dynamics,
Crystallization of Polymers, Physical Aspects
of the Design of Biomedical Polymers

John H. Seinfeld: Atmospheric Chemistry
and Physics, Global Climate

David A. Tirrell: Macromolecular Chemistry,
Biomaterials, Protein Engineering

Nicholas W. Tschoegl (emeritus)

Zhen-Gang Wang: Statistical Mechanics,
Polymer Science, Biophysics


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For more information on research
opportunities, admission, and
financial support:

Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44106-7217
chemeng@case.edu
http://www.case.edu/cse/eche


Research Opportunities


Energy Systems
Fuel Cells and Batteries
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Storage
Micro and Bio Fuel Cells
Membrane Transport, Fabrication


Advanced Materials and Devices
Synthetic Diamond
Coatings, Thin Films and Surfaces
Microsensors
Polymer Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials and Nanosynthesis
Particle Science and Processing
S Molecular Simulations
Microplasmas and Microreactors


Biological Applications
IBiomedical Sensors and Actuators
Neural Prosthetic Devices
Cell and Tissue Engineering
Transport in Biological Systems


* CASEWESTERN RESERVE
UNIVERSITY 1,1826


Case Western Reserve University


Advne Reeac in Enegy, Maeias and .66r e apliatos


The graduate programs in Chemical Engineering at
Case Western Reserve University prepare students
for an independent, creative career in chemical
engineering research in industry or academia.
Research opportunities, especially in our core
strengths of energy, advanced materials, and
biological applications of chemical engineering, are
many. You will find CWRU to be an exciting
environment in which to carry out your graduate
studies. Come help us invent the future.


Faculty
John C. Angus
Harihara Baskaran
Liming Dai
Donald L. Feke
Daniel J. Lacks
Uziel Landau
Chung-Chiun Liu
J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Heidi B. Martin
Syed Qutubuddin
R. Mohan Sankaran
Robert F. Savinell
Thomas A. Zawodzinski












Chemical Engineering (MS & PhD)

THE CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK/CUNY


GROVE SCHOOL
OFENGINEERING


RESEARCH AREAS


* II II[
Moto M.Dn






Jae W. Lee






Cao.. Steine


Biomaterials and Biotransport
self-assembled biomaterials, bio-fluid flow,
atherogenesis

Colloid Science and Engineering
novel particle technology, directed assembly

Complex Fluids and Multiphase Flow
rheology, suspensions, emulsions, boiling
heat transfer

Energy Generation and Storage
thermal energy storage, gas hydrates,
batteries


Interfacial Phenomena and Soft Matter
dynamic interfacial processes, device design

Nanomaterials and Self Assembly
patchy particles, sensors, catalysts

Polymer Science and Engineering
polymer processing, rheology

Powder Science and Technology
powder flow, pharmaceutical formulations

Process Design and Optimization
process intensification, environmental plant
design


INSTITUTES


Levich Institute for Physicochemical
Hydrodynamics
directed by Morton M. Denn
Albert Einstein Professor of Science and
Engineering, NAE, AAAS


Energy Institute
directed by Sanjoy Banerjee
Distinguished Professor of Chemical
Engineering


www-che.engrr.ccny.cuny.edu


212 - 650 - 5748 ncromie@che.ccny.cuny.edu


7/27/09 9:00:49 AM


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S.. Evolving from its origins as a
S school of mining founded in
1873, CSM is a unique, highly-
focused University dedicated to
scholarship and research in
materials, energy, and the envi-
ronment.

The Chemical Engineering
Department at CSM maintains a high-quality, active, and well-funded
graduate research program. Funding sources include federal agencies such
as the NSF, DOE, DARPA, ONR, NREL, NIST, NIH as well as multiple
industries. Research areas within the department include:
Material Science and Engineering
Organic and inorganic membranes (Way, Herring)
Polymeric materials (Dorgan, Wu, Liberatore)
Colloids and complex fluids (Marr, Wu, Liberatore)
Electronic materials (Wolden, Agarwal)
Molecular simulation and modeling (Ely, Wu, Sum)


Biomedical and Biophysics Research
Microfluidics (Marr, Neeves)
Biological membranes (Sum)

Energy Research
Fuel cell catalysts and kinetics (Dean,
Herring)
H2 separation and fuel cell membranes
(Way, Herring)
Natural gas hydrates (Sloan, Koh, Sum)
Biofuels: Biochemical and
thermochemical routes (Liberatore,
Herring, Dean)


Finally, located at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains and only 15 miles from
downtown Denver, Golden, Colorado
enjoys over 300 days of sunshine per
year. These factors combine to
provide year-round cultural,
recreational, and entertainment
opportunities virtually; unmatched
anywhere in the United States.


http://chemeng.mines.edu


Faculty
* S. Agarwal (UCSB 2003)

* A.M. Dean (Harvard 1971)
* J.R. Dorgan (Berkeley 1991)

* J.F. Ely (Indiana 1971)
* A. Herring (Leeds 1989)

* C.A. Koh (Brunel 1990)
* M.W. Liberatore (Illinois 2003)

* D.W.M. Marr (Stanford 1993)
* R.L. Miller (CSM 1982)

* K.R. Neeves (Cornell 2006)
* E.D. Sloan (Clemson 1974)

* A.K. Sum (Delaware 2001)
* J.D. Way (Colorado 1986)

* C.A. Wolden (MIT 1995)
* D.T. Wu (Berkeley 1991)



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Research Areas
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Biofuels and Biorefining
Biomaterials
Cell and Tissue Engineering
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Membrane Science
Microfluidics
Polymer Science
Synthetic and Systems Biology

Faculty
Travis S. Bailey, Ph.D., U. Minnesota
Laurence A. Belfiore, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
David S. Dandy, Ph.D., Caltech
J.D. (Nick) Fisk, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
Matt J. Kipper, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
James C. Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State U.
Christie Peebles, Ph.D., Rice U.
Ashok Prasad, Ph.D., Brandeis U.
Kenneth F. Reardon, Ph.D., Caltech
Brad Reisfeld, Ph.D., Northwestern U.
Qiang (David) Wang, Ph.D., U. Wisconsin
A. Ted Watson, Ph.D., Caltech
Ranil Wickramasinghe, Ph.D.,
U. Minnesota

View faculty and student research
videos, find application information,
and get other information at
http://cbe.colostate.edu


Research
The graduate program in the Department of Chemical and Biological
Engineering at Colorado State University offers students a broad range of
cutting-edge research areas led by faculty who are world renowned experts
in their respective fields. Opportunities for collaboration with many other
department across the University are abundant, including departments in
the Colleges of Engineering, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and
Biomedical Sciences.

Financial Support
Research Assistantships pay a competitive stipend. Students on
assistantships also receive tuition support. The department has a number
of research assistantships. Students select research projects in their area of
interest from which a thesis or dissertation may be developed. Additional
University fellowship awards are available to outstanding applicants.

Fort Collins
Located in Fort Collins, Colorado State University is perfectly positioned as
a gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
With its superb climate (over 300
days of sunshine per year), there
are exceptional opportunities for
outdoor pursuits including hiking,
biking, skiing, and rafting.


For additional information or
to schedule a visit of campus:
Department of Chemical and
Biological Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1370
Phone: (970) 491-5253
Fax: (970) 491-7369
E-mail: cbe_grad@colostate.edu











1i.N I .. E c. i T , : F DEL L E Chemical Engineering at Delaware is ranked, by
, E ( \ all metrics, in the top 10 programs in the US with
j jI... C jle j j En jijr world-wide reputation and reach. Built on a long
and distinguished history, we are a vigorous and
active leader in chemical engineering research
Tra o of Ee and teaching. Our graduate students work with
a talented and diverse faculty, and there is a
correspondingly rich range of research and educational opportunities that are distinctive to Delaware.
We currently have 24 full time faculty, over 100 graduate students, nearly $12M in annual research
expenditures, and publish well over 100 scientific manuscripts and patents per year. The range of
research varies tremendously-from biomolecular and metabolic engineering to catalysis, energy, green
engineering, nanostructured materials, complex fluids engineering and polymers-advances are being
made in each area at Delaware. Finally, Delaware is one of the top chemical engineering departments
in the US in terms of faculty diversity, and is among the largest producers of Chemical Engineering PhD
students in the US.


GRADUATE EDUCATION at Delaware
offers unique opportunities for
professional development, including

>> The Teaching Fellows program
> Participation in national and
international conferences and
workshops
>> Two annual student-run Departmental
symposia
The Teaching Fellows program promotes
the development of the next generation
of academic educators and scholars by
enabling graduate students to co-teach
Chemical Engineering courses with a
faculty mentor.

The graduate symposia are run by our
graduate student organization, the
Colburn Club, which also organizes social
activities and recruiting events within the
Department.

All graduate students are supported as
research assistants, and are provided a
comfortable stipend for living expenses.
Special competitive fellowships are
available to the best qualified applicants.

INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATIONS are
a hallmark of our Department. Many
research groups collaborate with local
and national industrial laboratories.


This blend of academic and applied
engineering research gives our students
a unique perspective that is useful
in academic or industrial careers.
We are close to major chemical and
pharmaceutical industry leaders.

CENTERS AND PROGRAMS provide
unique environments and experiences for
graduate students. These include:

>> Delaware Biotechnology Institute (DBI)
>> Center for Catalytic Science and
Technology (CCST)
> Center for Molecular and Engineering
Thermodynamics (CMET)
> Center for Neutron Science (CNS)
>> Center for Composite Materials (CCM)
>> Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI)
> Institute for Multi-Scale Modeling of
Biological Interactions (IMMBI)
>> Solar Hydrogen IGE-PT

INTERDISCIPLINARY orl ,: done at the
interfaces between major research field:.
often through close collaboraton: among
the faculty and othe- department:

AFTER GRADUATION our graduate:
find fulfilling careers in academia and.
industrial research, as well as in la ,
medicine, and business.


Academia-Our graduates hold positions at
top-ten research institutions, as well as
in many other programs world-wide.

Industry- Delaware students are sought
after by local, regional, national and
international corporations.

DEPARTMENT RECOGNITION

>> #9 (2009 U.S. News E World Report)
> #3 (National Research Council, 1994)
D 14 NSF CAREER and Presidential Young
Investigator Award Winners
> 3 National Academy of Engineering
(NAE) Members
> 11 Named Professors

LOCATION The University of Delaware has
a college-town atmosphere, yet we are
centrally located between New York City
an. ..'.a:hington, D.C., at the heart of the
ea:t c:oa:t's chemical and pharmaceutical
in.Ju:lre .

APPLICATION to the graduate program
,: coordinated through the University's
C office of Graduate Stud e:
The 3pplic3ton ca3n be found. 3a
u.u el e.ju era..:.fih.:e .c� l..: nt:.
-dmr :::on: are rolling, an.d he
application deadline is March 15 (earlier
applications are strongly encouraged.)


Browse our site www.che.udel.edu for updated news and information on our graduate program,
faculty research and alumni achievements!


APPLY ON-LINE:
i ,w '.udel.edu/gradoffice/applicants



T E.AWLRE

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WW.CHE.UDEL.EDU


I DELAWARE Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineerin


RESEARCH AREAS

" Iliomotecoalar, Cellular, and Protein Enigineerling
" Catalysis and Energy
" Metabolic Engineering
" systernis, siately
" Soft Materials, Colloids and Polymers
" Surface Science
" Nanotechiniology
" Process Systerns Engineering
" Green, Englineering









DTU


Technical University of Denmark

Do your graduate studies in Europe!


The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is a
modern, internationally oriented technological
university placed centrally in Scandinavia's Medicon
Valley - one of the worlds leading biotech clusters. It
was founded in 1829 by H. C. Orsted. The University
has 6000 students preparing for their BSc or MSc
degrees, 600 PhD students and takes 400 foreign
students a year on English-taught courses. The DTU
campus is located close to the city of Copenhagen,
the capital of Denmark.


Chemical Engineering focus areas of research and the research groups are:

Applied Thermodynamics, Aerosol Technology, Bio Process Engineering, Catalysis, Combustion Processes
Emission Control, Enzyme technology, Membrane Technology, Polymer Chemistry & Technology
Process Control, Product Engineering, Oil and Gas Production, Systems Engineering, Transport Phenomena


BioEng


CAPEC


CHEC


DPC


IVC-SEP


The Department of Chemical Engineering (KT) is a leading research institution. The
research results find application in biochemical processes, computer aided product
and process engineering, energy, enhanced oil recovery, environment protection
and pollution abatement, information technology, and products, formulations &
materials.

The department has excellent experimental facilities serviced by a well-equipped
workshop and well-trained technicians. The Hempel Student Innovation Laboratory -
is open for students' independent experimental work. The unit operations laboratory The starting point for
and pilot plants for distillation, reaction, evaporation, crystallization, etc. are used general information
for both education and research. Visit us at http://www.kt.dtu.dk/English.aspx. about MSc studies at
DTU is:
Graduate programs at Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering: http://www.dtu.dk/msc

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Stig Wedel sw@kt.dtu.dk
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/cbe
Elite track in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/elite


Petroleum Engineering
http://www.ivc-sep.kt.dtu.dk/petroleum/
Advanced and Applied Chemistry
http://www.kt.dtu.dk/aachemistry


Erling H. Stenby ehs@kt.dtu.dk

Georgios Kontogeorgis gk@kt.dtu.dk


Visit the University at http://www.dtu.dk/english.aspx

Dept. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering









Drexel University
Department of Chemical
and Biological Engineering


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University is conveniently located in downtown
dphia with easy access to numerous cultural
, transportation, and major pharmaceutical,
al, and petroleum companies.


ir more information aboul applying lo
ie of our programs, please conlad
spsor Jason Baxter at 215-895-2240
rex~el.edu


UnV 1 V n i










Graduate studies in Chemical Engineering
Join a small, vibrant campus on Florida's Space Coast to reach your full academic and
professional potential. Florida Tech, the only independent, scientific and technological
university in the Southeast, has grown to become a university of international standing.

Faculty T
P.A. Jennings, Ph.D., Department Head
J.E. Whitlow, Ph.D.
M.M. Tomadakis, Ph.D.
M.E. Pozo de Fernandez, Ph.D.
J.R. Brenner, Ph.D.
S. Dutta, Ph.D.

Research Interests
Spacecraft Technology
In-Situ Resource Utilization
Alternative Energy Sources
Materials Science
Membrane Technology

Research Partners
NASA
Department of Energy
Department of Defense
Florida Solar Energy Center* AI i
Florida Department of Agriculture

*Doctoral fellowship sponsor


For more information, contact
Florida Institute of Technology
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
150 W. University Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901-6975 1t
(321) 674-8068 * http://che.fit.edu














ChBE
FACULTY:

40+ Faculty

11 NSF CAREER
Award Winners

6 Members of the
National Academy
of Engineering

Recipients of More
than 70 National
and International
Awards

DEGREES:

Chemical
Engineering

Bioengineering

Paper Science
and Engineering

Polymers (MS only)


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GeorgiaD I-nostD ao



CONTACT INFORMATION:
Dr. Amyn Teja, Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100
grad.info@chbe.gatech.edu
404.894.1838 * 404.894.2866 fax


I F


KEY RESEARCH
AREAS:


Biotechnology * Energy * Systems * Materials * Nanotechnology
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Complex Fluids, Microelectronics, Polymers, Microfluidics, Pulp & Paper,
Separations, Thermodynamics, MEMS, Environmental Science, CO2 Capture, Biomedicine, Solar Energy,
Cancer Diagnostics & Therapeutics, Biofuels, Air Quality, Modeling, Process Synthesis and Control,
Optimization, Bioinformatics




















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The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action institution Minorities, women, veterans and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply






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The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (ChBE) at
Illinois Institute of Technology (lIT) offers everything a student could
want in a graduate program: internationally respected faculty, cutting-
edge research centers, and joint collaborations with major laboratories,
global companies, and other leading universities. Located just minutes
from downtown Chicago, IIT gives ChBE students the best of both
worlds, with a thriving city known for its culture and social activities,
and a prominent research university dedicated to solving the most .
complex challenges facing society.
ChBE offers graduate certificate, master of science, professional master,
and Ph.D. programs in chemical engineering, biological engineering, i cI
energy, pharmaceutical engineering and food process engineering.
Within each degree program, students have the ability to concentrate
their studies and research into a variety of disciplines, ranging from
polymer engineering, fuel cell technology, and drug delivery to
biosensors, renewable energy, and particle processing.
The department is actively and continuously committed to making
positive and important contributions to society by providing the best 10.
possible education to all its students, and by offering the highest I
quality of scholarship through research activities at the forefront of
scientific and technological knowledge. ChBE is devoted to fostering
the next generation of chemical and biological engineers, instilling in
them a quest for innovation and a thirst for problem solving.


ChBE at a Glance
Javad Abbasian Victor Perez-tuna
John L Anderson Ja' Prakash, 4, r , _h,ir U IIT consistently ranks among the
SA, top 40 U.S. universities awarding
Ham.d Arasrc..pc.ur Via3y hamani engineering graduate degrees
Dc-nail J C mlirn -ie,:.k Jay Schi.eber
Ali Cinar Fouad Teymour H 15 full-time faculty members, three
Dimitri Gidaspow David C. Venerus of whom are National Academy of
Allan S. Myerson Darsh T. Wasan Engineering members and five of
whom are AIChE fellows
U More than 150 graduate students
enrolled in various programs
ii E en E a . S s More than $2 million in research
ii . . . B e . F funding per year
Sss Competitive stipends and fellowships
SS available for highly motivated, well-
qualified applicants




www.chbe.iit.edu
10 W. 33rd Street, Room 127 Perlstein Hall * Chicago, IL 60616
chbe@iit.edu * 312.567.3040 (p) * 312.567.8874 (f) T




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